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Sample records for rapeseed brassica campestris

  1. Morphological characterization of local landraces of rapeseed (Brassica campestris L. var toria of Nepal

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    Salik Ram Gupta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Rapeseed (Brassica campestris L. var toria is the main source of edible oil for Nepalese people. 54 rapeseed lines were collected from different hilly district of Nepal ranging from 987 m to 2550 m altitude. These lines were planted in augmented design for its traits characterization in Khumaltar 2013. Different traits of local rapeseed were characterized, and evaluated. NGRC 02778 performed better followed by SR-02 than local checks Morang-2, Chitwan Local and Unnati in terms of yield, days to maturity and pest infestation. Similarly, genotype SR-18 was late and SR-16 was earlier in terms of days to maturity. In conclusion, SR-02 was found better genotype based on different characteristics measured among all local rapeseeds planted in Khumaltar 2013. Thus SR-2 can be used as parents in crossing material for further breeding purposes and it can also be tested in further trial.

  2. Genetic diversity analysis for agro-morphological and seed quality traits in rapeseed (brassica campestris l.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousuf, M.; Ajmal, S.U.; Munir, M.; Ghafoor, A.

    2011-01-01

    One hundred fourteen accessions of rapeseed (Brassica campestris L.) were evaluated at National Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad, Pakistan using cluster and principal component analyses during 2005 and 2006. Cluster analysis based on fifteen agro-morphological and six seed quality traits, divided 114 accessions into six and five clusters during 2005 and 2006, respectively. The first seven and five PCs with eigenvalues > 1 contributed 74.09% and 66.08% of the variability amongst accessions during 2005 and 2006, respectively. Nine important characters contributed positively to first two PCs during both the years 2005 and 2006. (author)

  3. Interaction effects on uptake and toxicity of perfluoroalkyl substances and cadmium in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and rapeseed (Brassica campestris L.) from co-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shuyan; Fan, Ziyan; Sun, Lihui; Zhou, Tao; Xing, Yuliang; Liu, Lifen

    2017-03-01

    A vegetation study was conducted to investigate the interactive effects of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), including perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), and Cadmium (Cd) on soil enzyme activities, phytotoxicity and bioaccumulation of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and rapeseed (Brassica campestris L.) from co-contaminated soil. Soil urease activities were inhibited significantly but catalase activities were promoted significantly by interaction of PFASs and Cd which had few effects on sucrase activities. Joint stress with PFASs and Cd decreased the biomass of plants and chlorophyll (Chl) content in both wheat and rapeseed, and malondialdehyde (MDA) content, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) activities were increased in wheat but inhibited in rapeseed compared with single treatments. The bioconcentration abilities of PFASs in wheat and rapeseed were decreased, and the translocation factor of PFASs was decreased in wheat but increased in rapeseed with Cd addition. The bioaccumulation and translocation abilities of Cd were increased significantly in both wheat and rapeseed with PFASs addition. These findings suggested important evidence that the co-existence of PFASs and Cd reduced the bioavailability of PFASs while enhanced the bioavailability of Cd in soil, which increased the associated environmental risk for Cd but decreased for PFASs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Identification of Dietetically Absorbed Rapeseed (Brassica campestris L. Bee Pollen MicroRNAs in Serum of Mice

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    Xuan Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are a class of small noncoding RNA that, through mediating posttranscriptional gene regulation, play a critical role in nearly all biological processes. Over the last decade it has become apparent that plant miRNAs may serve as a novel functional component of food with therapeutic effects including anti-influenza and antitumor. Rapeseed bee pollen has good properties in enhancing immune function as well as preventing and treating disease. In this study, we identified the exogenous miRNAs from rapeseed bee pollen in mice blood using RNA-seq technology. We found that miR-166a was the most highly enriched exogenous plant miRNAs in the blood of mice fed with rapeseed bee pollen, followed by miR-159. Subsequently, RT-qPCR results confirmed that these two miRNAs also can be detected in rapeseed bee pollen. Our results suggested that food-derived exogenous miRNAs from rapeseed bee pollen could be absorbed in mice and the abundance of exogenous miRNAs in mouse blood is dependent on their original levels in the rapeseed bee pollen.

  5. Induced polyploidization in Brassica campestris L. (Brassicaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, G; Dwivedi, K

    2014-01-01

    Present experimental design has been made up to obtain crop with higher ploidy level via synthetic polyploidization. Since ploidy manipulation is generally associated with the obtainment of some increased enviable traits of the crop and also provides them greater adaptability to unfavorable or harsh circumstances as compared to its diploids counterparts. Thus, herein present research autotetraploids of Brassica campestris L. have been lucratively achieved by the application of colchicine. Two methods of treatment were utilized i.e. seed treatment and seedling treatment. No polyploidy could be obtained through seed treatment while seedling treatment responded well towards polyploidy. However, the status of autotetraploidy has been confirmed by cytomorphological investigations of treated plants as against its diploids counterparts. For the purpose, morphological parameters such as increased stomata size, pollen diameter, flower size, reproductive organs whereas reduction in plant height, leaf length, leaf breadth, stomata frequency, number of flowers/inflorescence etc. were appraised. Further, cytological observations were made that had clearly revealed the doubling of genome in the autotetraploids as compared to diploids. Meanwhile, pollen fertility and size of pollen grains were evaluated as well.

  6. Occurrence of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Pammel, 1895 Dowson 1939, on Brassicas in Montenegro

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    Dragana Radunović

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Brassicas form the most important group of vegetable crops in Montenegro. The cabbage(Brassica oleracea var. capitata is most commonly grown, although other brassicas,particularly kale, Brussels sprout, cauliflower and broccoli, have been increasingly producedsince recently. One of the specialties of vegetable production in Montenegro is growing ofcollard (Brassica oleracea var. acephala, which is the simplest variety of the Brassica oleraceaspecies and in the nearest relation with their wild ancestor – the sylvestris variety.Diseases are the main restrictive factors for successful production of these vegetables.Susceptibility of the cultivars and inadequate control often result in more or less damagedcrops in some plots.Causal agents of brassica diseases, especially bacterial, have not been investigated inMontenegro until 2009. Since the symptoms observed in 2009 were „V” shaped leaf edgenecrosis and black rot of vascular tissue, it was assumed that they were caused by plantpathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris.Samples of the infected plants were collected from different localities in Montenegro.Isolation and identification of the bacterium were performed using laboratory methodsaccording to Schaad (1980, Lelliott and Stead (1987 and Arsenijević (1997. Examinationof chosen bacterial isolates was conducted using both, classical bacteriological methods(examination of their pathogenic, morphological, cultivation and biochemical and physiologicalcharacteristics, and ELISA test.The obtained results confirmed the presence of X.campestris pv. campestris (Pammel,1895 Dowson 1939, on cabbage, kale, broccoli and collard in Montenegro. This is the firstexperimental evidence that collard is the host of X. campestris pv. campestris in Montenegro.

  7. Flower infection of Brassica oleracea with Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris results in high levels of seed infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, van der J.M.; Zouwen, van der P.S.; Heijden, van der L.

    2013-01-01

    During seed production, Brassica seed may become infected with Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris after systemic colonization of plants upon leaf infection, or alternatively, after flower infection. Polytunnel experiments were conducted in 2007 and 2008 to study the relative importance of these

  8. Inheritance of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) RAPD markers in a backcross progeny with Brassica campestris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, T.R.; Jensen, J.; Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke

    1996-01-01

    Different cultivars/transgenic lines of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) were crossed (as females) with different cultivars/populations of Brassica campestris. All cross combinations produced seed, with an average seed set per pollination of 9.8. Backcrossing of selected interspecific hybrids (as...... females) to B. campestris resulted in a much lower seed set, average 0.7 seed per pollination. In the single backcross progeny where a large enough population (92 plants) was obtained for analysis, 33 B. napus specific RAPD markers were investigated to determine the extent of transfer of oilseed rape...

  9. A proteomic analysis of seed development in Brassica campestri L.

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    Wenlan Li

    Full Text Available To gain insights into the protein dynamics during seed development, a proteomic study on the developing Brassica campestri L. seeds with embryos in different embryogenesis stages was carried out. The seed proteins at 10, 16, 20, 25 and 35 DAP (days after pollination, respectively, were separated using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and identities of 209 spots with altered abundance were determined by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. These proteins were classified into 16 groups according to their functions. The most abundant proteins were related to primary metabolism, indicating the heavy demand of materials for rapid embryo growth. Besides, the high amount of proteins involved in protein processing and destination indicated importance of protein renewal during seed development. The remaining were those participated in oxidation/detoxification, energy, defense, transcription, protein synthesis, transporter, cell structure, signal transduction, secondary metabolism, transposition, DNA repair, storage and so on. Protein abundance profiles of each functional class were generated and hierarchical cluster analysis established 8 groups of dynamic patterns. Our results revealed novel characters of protein dynamics in seed development in Brassica campestri L. and provided valuable information about the complex process of seed development in plants.

  10. Production and cytogenetics of Brassica campestris-alboglabra chromosome addition lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, B.Y.; Cheng, B.F.; Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke

    1997-01-01

    Four different Brassica campestris-alboglabra monosomic addition lines (AA + 1 chromosome from C, 2n = 21) were obtained after consecutive backcrosses between resynthesized B. napus (AACC, 2n = 38) and the parental B. campestris (AA, 2n = 20) accession. The alien chromosomes of B. alboglabra (CC, 2...

  11. Effect of seed-irradiation on morphological characters yield components of brassica campestris var. sarson

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bokhari, F.S.; Ahmad, S.

    1996-01-01

    Seed of Brassica campestris (var. Sarson) were used to study the effect of radiation of different morphological and yield parameters. Survival percentage showed drastic decrease at higher doses (75 Kr and 100 Kr). Similarly all characters showed a trend of decrease with increasing dose. LD50 for Brassica was about 50 Kr. (author)

  12. Cluster Analysis in Rapeseed (Brassica Napus L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahasi, J.M

    2002-01-01

    With widening edible deficit, Kenya has become increasingly dependent on imported edible oils. Many oilseed crops (e.g. sunflower, soya beans, rapeseed/mustard, sesame, groundnuts etc) can be grown in Kenya. But oilseed rape is preferred because it very high yielding (1.5 tons-4.0 tons/ha) with oil content of 42-46%. Other uses include fitting in various cropping systems as; relay/inter crops, rotational crops, trap crops and fodder. It is soft seeded hence oil extraction is relatively easy. The meal is high in protein and very useful in livestock supplementation. Rapeseed can be straight combined using adjusted wheat combines. The priority is to expand domestic oilseed production, hence the need to introduce improved rapeseed germplasm from other countries. The success of any crop improvement programme depends on the extent of genetic diversity in the material. Hence, it is essential to understand the adaptation of introduced genotypes and the similarities if any among them. Evaluation trials were carried out on 17 rapeseed genotypes (nine Canadian origin and eight of European origin) grown at 4 locations namely Endebess, Njoro, Timau and Mau Narok in three years (1992, 1993 and 1994). Results for 1993 were discarded due to severe drought. An analysis of variance was carried out only on seed yields and the treatments were found to be significantly different. Cluster analysis was then carried out on mean seed yields and based on this analysis; only one major group exists within the material. In 1992, varieties 2,3,8 and 9 didn't fall in the same cluster as the rest. Variety 8 was the only one not classified with the rest of the Canadian varieties. Three European varieties (2,3 and 9) were however not classified with the others. In 1994, varieties 10 and 6 didn't fall in the major cluster. Of these two, variety 10 is of Canadian origin. Varieties were more similar in 1994 than 1992 due to favorable weather. It is evident that, genotypes from different geographical

  13. Xerophilic mycopopulations isolated from rapeseeds (Brassica napus

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    Škrinjar Marija M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of an investigation related to mycological populations of rapeseed samples produced in the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops in Novi Sad (location: Rimski Šančevi, Novi Sad, with a special emphasis on the potentially toxigenic mycopopulations. Mycological investigations were performed on the samples that were treated with 4% solution of Na-hypochlorite, and on the ones that were not submitted to this treatment. Isolation and determination of total mould count was carried out using Dichloran Glycerol Agar (DG18. The identification of isolated moulds was done according to modern keys for fungal determination. From 20 untreated tested samples, 17 were contaminated with moulds (10.0 to 4.7x102 cfu/g. When the samples were treated with 4% solution of Na-hypochlorite, moulds were isolated only form 4 samples, and the total mould count ranged from 10.0 to 60.0 cfu/g. In the isolated mycopopulations, xerophilic moulds dominated, especially those from the genera Aspergillus, Eurotium and Penicillium. In the isolated mycopopulations, high degree of isolated species belonged to toxigenic species from the genera Alternaria, Aspergillus, Fusarium, Eurotium and Penicillium. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III46009 i br.TR31025

  14. Occurrence of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Pammel, 1895) Dowson 1939, on brassicas in Montenegro

    OpenAIRE

    Radunović Dragana; Balaž Jelica

    2012-01-01

    Brassicas form the most important group of vegetable crops in Montenegro. The cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) is most commonly grown, although other brassicas, particularly kale, Brussels sprout, cauliflower and broccoli, have been increasingly produced since recently. One of the specialties of vegetable production in Montenegro is growing of collard (Brassica oleracea var. acephala), which is the simplest variety of the Brassica oleracea species ...

  15. Over-expression of miR158 causes pollen abortion in Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis.

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    Ma, Zhiming; Jiang, Jianxia; Hu, Ziwei; Lyu, Tianqi; Yang, Yang; Jiang, Jingjing; Cao, Jiashu

    2017-02-01

    We identified and cloned the two precursors of miR158 and its target gene in Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis, which both had high relative expression in the inflorescences. Further study revealed that over-expression of miR158 caused reduced pollen varbility, which was caused by the degradation of pollen contents from the binucleate microspore stage. These results first suggest the role of miR158 in pollen development of Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play crucial roles in many important growth and development processes both in plants and animals by regulating the expression of their target genes via mRNA cleavage or translational repression. In this study, miR158, a Brassicaceae specific miRNA, was functionally characterized with regard to its role in pollen development of non-heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis). Two family members of miR158 in B. campestris, namely bra-miR158a1 and bra-miR158a2, and their target gene bra027656, which encodes a pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) containing protein, were identified. Then, qRT-PCR analysis and GUS-reporter system revealed that both bra-miR158 and its target gene had relatively high expression levels in the inflorescences. Further study revealed that over-expression of miR158 caused reduced pollen varbility and pollen germination ratio, and the degradation of pollen contents from the binucleate microspore stage was also found in those deformed pollen grains, which led to pollen shrinking and collapse in later pollen development stage. These results first shed light on the importance of miR158 in pollen development of Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis.

  16. Franjas marginales de Brassica campestris L. (nabo) en cultivo de repollo. Efecto sobre pulgones y sus parasitoides: Título abreviado: Franjas marginales de Brassica campestris L. ....

    OpenAIRE

    Curis, M. C; Saravia Steudtner, F; Favaro, J. C; Sánchez, D; Bertolaccini, I

    2014-01-01

    La diversidad vegetal en los agroecosistemas afecta la dinámica poblacional de las plagas y de sus enemigos naturales, siendo una alternativa de control el uso de franjas trampa en algunos cultivos. El objetivo del trabajo fue determinar como una franja marginal de Brassicas campestris L. (Brassicales, Brassicaceae), afecta a la población de los pulgones de B. oleracea var. capitata y de sus parasitoides. El estudio se llevó a cabo en Santa Fe, a partir de febrero de 2012. Se estableció en un...

  17. Cultivar Variation in Hormonal Balance Is a Significant Determinant of Disease Susceptibility to Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris in Brassica napus

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    Md. Tabibul Islam

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to directly elucidate cultivar variation in disease susceptibility and disease responses in relation to hormonal status in the interaction of Brassica napus cultivars and Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc, the causal agent of black rot disease. Fully expanded leaves of six B. napus cultivars (cvs. Capitol, Youngsan, Saturnin, Colosse, Tamra, and Mosa were inoculated with Xcc. At 14 days post-inoculation with Xcc, cultivar variation in susceptibility or resistance was interpreted with defense responses as estimated by redox status, defensive metabolites, and expression of phenylpropanoid synthesis-related genes in relation to endogenous hormonal status. Disease susceptibility of six cultivars was distinguished by necrotic lesions in the Xcc-inoculated leaves and characterized concurrently based on the higher increase in reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation. Among these cultivars, as the susceptibility was higher, the ratios of abscisic acid (ABA/jasmonic acid (JA and salicylic acid (SA/JA tended to increase with enhanced expression of SA signaling regulatory gene NPR1 and transcriptional factor TGA1 and antagonistic suppression of JA-regulated gene PDF 1.2. In the resistant cultivar (cv. Capitol, accumulation of defensive metabolites with enhanced expression of genes involved in flavonoids (chalcone synthase, proanthocyanidins (anthocyanidin reductase, and hydroxycinnamic acids (ferulate-5-hydroxylase biosynthesis and higher redox status were observed, whereas the opposite results were obtained for susceptible cultivars (cvs. Mosa and Tamra. These results clearly indicate that cultivar variation in susceptibility to infection by Xcc was determined by enhanced alteration of the SA/JA ratio, as a negative regulator of redox status and phenylpropanoid synthesis in the Brasica napus–Xcc pathosystem.

  18. New high yielding mutant varieties of mustard (Brassica campestris L. var. yellow sarson)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, A.; Das, M.L.; Pathan, A.J.

    1992-01-01

    Mutation breeding work at the Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture has been successful with the development of a number of promising mutants and with the release of two mutant varieties of mustard (Brassica campestris L. var. Yellow Sarson), Agrani and Safal, for commercial cultivation in Bangladesh. The mutant varieties have higher seed and oil yield with higher biomass production, tolerance to Alternaria blight and aphid under field conditions. The average seed yield of the varieties is 1726 and 1754 kg/ha as compared to 1447 kg/ha of the best check Sonali. These varieties have 42-43 per cent oil in the seed. (author). 7 refs., 3 tabs

  19. Development of high yielding mutants of Brassica campestris L. cv. Toria selection through gamma rays irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javed, M.A.; Siddiqui, M.A.; Khan, M.K.R.; Khatri, A.; Khan, I.A.; Dahar, N.A.; Khanzada, M.H.; Khan, R.

    2003-01-01

    Homogeneous seeds of Brassica campestris L. cv. Toria selection were treated with different doses of gamma rays (750, 1000 and 1250 Gy) to induce genetic variability for the selection of new genotypes with improved agronomic traits. After passing through different stages of selection, two promising mutants were selected for further studies. Two selected mutants along with 5 other entries including parent variety were evaluated for yield and yield components in yield trials for two consecutive years. The mutant TS96-752 was significantly (P less than or equal to 0.05) superior to all other entries in grain yield but at par with FSD 86028-3

  20. Alternaria resistance of Brassicae campestris L. improved by induced mutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, M.L.; Rahman, A.

    1989-01-01

    Full text: Seeds of 'YS 52', a cultivar susceptible to Alternaria brassicae (Berk.) Sacc., were exposed to gamma rays (30-90 kR). Eight more resistant mutants were selected in M3 and subjected to further field evaluation. The best mutant '17-5-83' appeared resistant and gave 44% higher yield than the parent, mutant '70-7-82' was found to be moderately resistant and gave a yield 21% higher than the parent. The yield increases seem to be connected with plant architecture changes. (author)

  1. Applying Mendelian rules in rapeseed (Brassica napus breeding

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    Marjanović-Jeromela Ana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapeseed is one of the most important sources of edible oil, raw material for industry, as well as feed. The yield and quality of rapeseed have significantly been improved in recent decades as a result of intensive breeding and optimized production technology. The application of Mendel's rules in introducing monogenic traits has also contributed to success in rapeseed breeding. Rule 1, which refers to the uniformity of F1 generation, is now the basis of widespread development of rapeseed hybrids. Rule 2, dealing with genetic segregation in the F2 generation, is the basis for understanding the process of breeding lines. Rule 3, regarding the independent segregation of genes and traits, while exempting linked traits, is the basis of combining different desirable properties by selection. In the last few decades, the systematic use of Mendel's rules has contributed to the improvement of many properties of rapeseed, including tolerance to biotic and abiotic stress, yield and seed quality. Particular progress has been made in breeding for resistance to diseases, including the identification of molecular markers for marker-assisted selection. The next objective of rapeseed breeding is to create varieties with improved tolerance to environmental stress (e.g. frost, heat, and drought. Based on Mendel's rules, classical breeding methods and the latest developments in the field of molecular genetics and breeding, future progress is expected in the field of rapeseed breeding with an emphasis on polygenic, quantitative traits such as biomass, seed, and oil yield.

  2. Random amplified polymorphic DNA markers of the Brassica alboglabra chromosome of a B. campestris-alboglabra addition line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke; Chen, B.Y.; Cheng, B.F.

    1996-01-01

    The alien C-genome chromosome in a Brassica campestris-alboglabra monosomic addition line was characterized by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. The alien chromosome carried three loci, E(c), W-c and Lap-1C, controlling synthesis of erucic acid, white flower colour and a fast...

  3. Tissue-specific distribution of secondary metabolites in rapeseed (Brassica napus L..

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    Jingjing Fang

    Full Text Available Four different parts, hypocotyl and radicle (HR, inner cotyledon (IC, outer cotyledon (OC, seed coat and endosperm (SE, were sampled from mature rapeseed (Brassica napus L. by laser microdissection. Subsequently, major secondary metabolites, glucosinolates and sinapine, as well as three minor ones, a cyclic spermidine conjugate and two flavonoids, representing different compound categories, were qualified and quantified in dissected samples by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection and mass spectrometry. No qualitative and quantitative difference of glucosinolates and sinapine was detected in embryo tissues (HR, IC and OC. On the other hand, the three minor compounds were observed to be distributed unevenly in different rapeseed tissues. The hypothetic biological functions of the distribution patterns of different secondary metabolites in rapeseed are discussed.

  4. PECTATE LYASE-LIKE 9 from Brassica campestris is associated with intine formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jingjing; Yao, Lina; Yu, Youjian; Liang, Ying; Jiang, Jianxia; Ye, Nenghui; Miao, Ying; Cao, Jiashu

    2014-12-01

    Brassica campestris pectate lyase-like 9 (BcPLL9) was previously identified as a differentially expressed gene both in buds during late pollen developmental stage and in pistils during fertilization in Chinese cabbage. To characterize the gene's function, antisense-RNA lines of BcPLL9 (bcpll9) were constructed in Chinese cabbage. Self- and cross-fertilization experiments harvested half seed yields when bcpll9 lines were used as pollen donors. In vivo and in vitro pollen germination assays showed that nearly half of the pollen tubes in bcpll9 were irregular with shorter length and uneven surface. Aniline blue staining identified abnormal accumulation of a specific bright blue unknown material in the bcpll9 pollen portion. Scanning electron microscopy observation verified the abnormal outthrust material to be near the pollen germinal furrows. Transmission electron microscopy observation revealed the internal endintine layer was overdeveloped and predominantly occupied the intine. This abnormally formed intine likely induced the wavy structure and growth arrest of the pollen tube in half of the bcpll9 pollen grains, which resulted in less seed yields. Collectively, this study presented a novel PLL gene that has an important function in B. campestris intine formation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. PECTATE LYASE-LIKE10 is associated with pollen wall development in Brassica campestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jingjing; Yao, Lina; Yu, Youjian; Lv, Meiling; Miao, Ying; Cao, Jiashu

    2014-11-01

    PECTATE LYASE-LIKE10 (PLL10) was previously identified as one of the differentially expressed genes both in microspores during the late pollen developmental stages and in pistils during the fertilization process in Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis). Here, antisense-RNA was used to study the functions of BcPLL10 in Chinese cabbage. Abnormal pollen was identified in the transgenic lines (bcpll10-4, -5, and -6). In fertilization experiments, fewer seeds were harvested when the antisense-RNA lines were used as pollen donor. In vivo and in vitro pollen germination assays less germinated pollen tubes were observed in bcpll10 lines. Scanning electron microscopy observation verified that the tryphine materials were over accumulated around the pollen surface and sticked them together in bcpll10. Moreover, transmission electron microscopy observation revealed that the internal endintine was overdeveloped and predominantly occupied the intine, and disturbed the normal proportional distribution of the two layers in the non-germinal furrow region; and no obvious demarcation existed between them in the germinal furrow region in the bcpll10 pollen. Collectively, this study presented a novel PLL gene that played an important role during the pollen wall development in B. campestris, which may also possess potential importance for male sterility usage in agriculture. © 2014 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  6. Genome-Wide Identification, Molecular Evolution, and Expression Profiling Analysis of Pectin Methylesterase Inhibitor Genes in Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis

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    Tingting Liu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Pectin methylesterase inhibitor genes (PMEIs are a large multigene family and play crucial roles in cell wall modifications in plant growth and development. Here, a comprehensive analysis of the PMEI gene family in Brassica campestris, an important leaf vegetable, was performed. We identified 100 Brassica campestris PMEI genes (BcPMEIs, among which 96 BcPMEIs were unevenly distributed on 10 chromosomes and nine tandem arrays containing 20 BcPMEIs were found. We also detected 80 pairs of syntenic PMEI orthologs. These findings indicated that whole-genome triplication (WGT and tandem duplication (TD were the main mechanisms accounting for the current number of BcPMEIs. In evolution, BcPMEIs were retained preferentially and biasedly, consistent with the gene balance hypothesis and two-step theory, respectively. The molecular evolution analysis of BcPMEIs manifested that they evolved through purifying selection and the divergence time is in accordance with the WGT data of B. campestris. To obtain the functional information of BcPMEIs, the expression patterns in five tissues and the cis-elements distributed in promoter regions were investigated. This work can provide a better understanding of the molecular evolution and biological function of PMEIs in B. campestris.

  7. Photosynthetic carbon fixation characteristics of fruiting structures of Brassica campestris L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singal, H.R.; Sheoran, I.S.; Singh, R.

    1987-01-01

    Activities of key enzymes of the Calvin cycle and C 4 metabolism, rates of CO 2 fixation, and the initial products of photosynthetic 14 CO 2 fixation were determined in the podwall, seed coat (fruiting structures), and the subtending leaf (leaf below a receme) of Brassica campestris L. cv Toria. Compared to activities of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase and other Calvin cycle enzymes, e.g. NADP-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase and ribulose-5-phosphate kinase, the activities of phosphoenol pyruvate carboxylase and other enzymes of C 4 metabolism, viz. NADP-malate dehydrogenase, NADP-malic enzyme, glutamate pyruvate transaminase, and glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, were generally much higher in seed than in podwall and leaf. Podwall and leaf were comparable to each other. Pulse-chase experiments showed that in seed the major product of 14 CO 2 assimilation was malate (in short time), whereas in podwall and leaf, the label initially appeared in 3-PGA. With time, the label moved to sucrose. In contrast to legumes, Brassica pods were able to fix net CO 2 during light. However, respiratory losses were very high during the dark period

  8. Cadmium-Induced Hydrogen Accumulation Is Involved in Cadmium Tolerance in Brassica campestris by Reestablishment of Reduced Glutathione Homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qi; Su, Nana; Chen, Qin; Shen, Wenbiao; Shen, Zhenguo; Xia, Yan; Cui, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen gas (H2) was recently proposed as a therapeutic antioxidant and signaling molecule in clinical trials. However, the underlying physiological roles of H2 in plants remain unclear. In the present study, hydrogen-rich water (HRW) was used to characterize the physiological roles of H2 in enhancing the tolerance of Brassica campestris against cadmium (Cd). The results showed that both 50 μM CdCl2 and 50%-saturated HRW induced an increase of endogenous H2 in Brassica campestris seedlings, and HRW alleviated Cd toxicity related to growth inhibition and oxidative damage. Seedlings supplied with HRW exhibited increased root length and reduced lipid peroxidation, similar to plants receiving GSH post-treatment. Additionally, seedlings post-treated with HRW accumulated higher levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) and ascorbic acid (AsA) and showed increased GST and GPX activities in roots. Molecular evidence illustrated that the expression of genes such as GS, GR1 and GR2, which were down-regulated following the addition of Cd, GSH or BSO, could be reversed to varying degrees by the addition of HRW. Based on these results, it could be proposed that H2 might be an important regulator for enhancing the tolerance of Brassica campestris seedlings against Cd, mainly by governing reduced glutathione homeostasis.

  9. Reliefs the Exposure Stress of Soils Arsenic on Brassica campestris L. Growth and Its Possible Mechanisms by Inoculation of Trichoderma asperellum SM-12F1

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    ZHANG Hong-xiang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The over-accumulation of arsenic(Asin agricultural soils affects crop growth. Subsequently, the accumulated As can pose risk to human health via food-chain. It is urgent to develop technologies to relief the As exposure stress on crop growth and lower the As uptake by crop. In this study, Trichoderma asperellum SM -12F1, capable of As resistance and speciation transformation was used as experimental material. Pot experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of inoculation on the growth of Brassica campestris L. in As-contaminated soils. The possible mechanisms of inoculation relieving As exposure stress and lowering As uptake were revealed. The results indicated that the growth of Brassica campestris L. was significantly inhibited in soils spiked with As of 120 mg· kg-1. Inoculation could significantly improve the growth of Brassica campestris L. and significantly decreased the As uptake and bioconcentration factor(BCFof Brassica campestris L. Compared with As-contaminated soils without inoculation, the As contents in the over-and under-ground part of Brassica campestris L. declined by 12.4% and 20.2%, respectively, and the BCF declined by 7.8%. Soil available As contents decreased by 15.7% after inoculation. Methylarsonic acid(MMAand dimethylarsinic acid(DMAwere detected in water extraction of soil and the shoot of Brassica campestris L. tissues, which indicated that inoculation could trigger soil As methylation and decrease soil As availability and toxicity. Furthermore, inoculation could effectively relief the As exposure stress on Brassica campestris L. growth by the response of antioxidant enzymes. The enzymes in Brassica campestris L. such as superoxide dismutase(SODand catalase(CAT, and the contents of glutathione(GSH, ascorbic acid(AsAand malondialdehyde(MDA, capable of reactive oxygen elimination, significantly enhanced during soil As exposure. However, inoculation lessened the activities or contents of SOD, CAT, GSH, and MDA

  10. Refined global methyl halide budgets with respect to rapeseed (Brassica napus) by life-cycle measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Y.; Acdan, J.; Xu, R.; Deventer, M. J.; Rhew, R. C.

    2017-12-01

    A precise quantification of global methyl halide budgets is needed to evaluate the ozone depletion potential of these compounds and to predict future changes of stratospheric ozone. However, the global budgets of methyl halides are not balanced between currently identified and quantified sources and sinks. Our study re-evaluated the methyl bromide budget from global cultivated rapeseed (Brassica napus) through life-cycle flux measurements both in the greenhouse and in the field, yielding a methyl bromide emission rate that scales globally to 1.0 - 1.2 Gg yr-1. While this indicates a globally significant source, it is much smaller than the previously widely cited value of 5 - 6 Gg yr-1(Mead et al., 2008), even taking into account the near tripling of annual global yield of rapeseed since the previous evaluation was conducted. Our study also evaluated the methyl chloride and methyl iodide emission levels from rapeseed, yielding emission rates that scale to 5.4 Gg yr-1 for methyl chloride and 1.8 Gg yr-1 of methyl iodide. The concentrations of the methyl donor SAM (S-adenosyl methionine) and the resultant product SAH (S-Adenosyl-L-homocysteine) were also analyzed to explore their role in biogenic methyl halide formation. Halide gradient incubations showed that the magnitude of methyl halide emissions from rapeseed is highly correlated to soil halide levels, thus raising the concern that the heterogeneity of soil halide contents geographically should be considered when extrapolating to global budget.

  11. NAPUS 2000 Rapeseed (Brassica napus breeding for improved human nutrition

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    Friedt Wolfgang

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Following a competition announcement of the Federal Ministry of Research and Education (BMBF a project dealing with the improvement of the nutritional value of oilseed rape (Brassica napus for food applications and human nutrition was worked out and started in autumn 1999. A number of partners (Figure 2 are carrying out a complex project reaching from the discovery, characterisation, isolation and transfer of genes of interest up to breeding of well performing varieties combined with important agronomic traits. Economic studies and processing trials as well as nutritional investigations of the new qualities are undertaken. B. napus seed quality aspects with respect to seed coat colour, oil composition, lecithin and protein fractions and antioxidants like tocopherols and resveratrol will be improved.

  12. Rapeseed (Brassica napus L. as a protein plant species

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    Marinković Radovan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Proteins of plant origin have a profound impact on human and animal lives. It is impossible to solve worldwide nutrition problem without taking into concern needs for proteins. Inadequate nutrition can only be improved by providing adequate proteins. Humans need c. 120g proteins daily, a third of which should come from meat and milk. Certain population categories, such as the sick, children, pregnant women and sportspeople are more sensitive to lack of protein. Oil crops synthesise oil, which is the basic reserve material in seed, but they also synthesise high levels of protein and can serve as protein source for human and animal nutrition. Generally speaking, protein content in seed of rapeseed at site R. Šančevi was from 19.60% (NS-L-74 to 25.93% JR-NS-36, and at site Sombor from 19.26% (NS-L-74 to 24.06% and 24.09% (NS-L-46 and cultivar Mira. Genotype NS-L-74 had the lowest protein content at both testing sites. Higher protein content was evident with spring genotypes than with winter gentypes. .

  13. Unraveling the genetic basis of seed tocopherol content and composition in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xingxing; Zhang, Chunyu; Li, Lingjuan; Fritsche, Steffi; Endrigkeit, Jessica; Zhang, Wenying; Long, Yan; Jung, Christian; Meng, Jinling

    2012-01-01

    Tocopherols are important antioxidants in vegetable oils; when present as vitamin E, tocopherols are an essential nutrient for humans and livestock. Rapeseed (Brassica napus L, AACC, 2 n = 38) is one of the most important oil crops and a major source of tocopherols. Although the tocopherol biosynthetic pathway has been well elucidated in the model photosynthetic organisms Arabidopsis thaliana and Synechocystis sp. PCC6803, knowledge about the genetic basis of tocopherol biosynthesis in seeds of rapeseed is scant. This project was carried out to dissect the genetic basis of seed tocopherol content and composition in rapeseed through quantitative trait loci (QTL) detection, genome-wide association analysis, and homologous gene mapping. We used a segregating Tapidor × Ningyou7 doubled haploid (TNDH) population, its reconstructed F(2) (RC-F(2)) population, and a panel of 142 rapeseed accessions (association panel). Genetic effects mainly contributed to phenotypic variations in tocopherol content and composition; environmental effects were also identified. Thirty-three unique QTL were detected for tocopherol content and composition in TNDH and RC-F(2) populations. Of these, seven QTL co-localized with candidate sequences associated with tocopherol biosynthesis through in silico and linkage mapping. Several near-isogenic lines carrying introgressions from the parent with higher tocopherol content showed highly increased tocopherol content compared with the recurrent parent. Genome-wide association analysis was performed with 142 B. napus accessions. Sixty-one loci were significantly associated with tocopherol content and composition, 11 of which were localized within the confidence intervals of tocopherol QTL. This joint QTL, candidate gene, and association mapping study sheds light on the genetic basis of seed tocopherol biosynthesis in rapeseed. The sequences presented here may be used for marker-assisted selection of oilseed rape lines with superior tocopherol

  14. Unraveling the genetic basis of seed tocopherol content and composition in rapeseed (Brassica napus L..

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    Xingxing Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tocopherols are important antioxidants in vegetable oils; when present as vitamin E, tocopherols are an essential nutrient for humans and livestock. Rapeseed (Brassica napus L, AACC, 2 n = 38 is one of the most important oil crops and a major source of tocopherols. Although the tocopherol biosynthetic pathway has been well elucidated in the model photosynthetic organisms Arabidopsis thaliana and Synechocystis sp. PCC6803, knowledge about the genetic basis of tocopherol biosynthesis in seeds of rapeseed is scant. This project was carried out to dissect the genetic basis of seed tocopherol content and composition in rapeseed through quantitative trait loci (QTL detection, genome-wide association analysis, and homologous gene mapping. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used a segregating Tapidor × Ningyou7 doubled haploid (TNDH population, its reconstructed F(2 (RC-F(2 population, and a panel of 142 rapeseed accessions (association panel. Genetic effects mainly contributed to phenotypic variations in tocopherol content and composition; environmental effects were also identified. Thirty-three unique QTL were detected for tocopherol content and composition in TNDH and RC-F(2 populations. Of these, seven QTL co-localized with candidate sequences associated with tocopherol biosynthesis through in silico and linkage mapping. Several near-isogenic lines carrying introgressions from the parent with higher tocopherol content showed highly increased tocopherol content compared with the recurrent parent. Genome-wide association analysis was performed with 142 B. napus accessions. Sixty-one loci were significantly associated with tocopherol content and composition, 11 of which were localized within the confidence intervals of tocopherol QTL. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This joint QTL, candidate gene, and association mapping study sheds light on the genetic basis of seed tocopherol biosynthesis in rapeseed. The sequences presented here may be used

  15. Nutritive values of brassica campestris L. oil as affected by growth regulator treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bano, A.; Khan, N.

    2009-01-01

    The effects of plant growth regulators, viz. Indole acetic acid (IAA), Gibberellic acid (GA) and Abscisic acid (ABA) were studied on fatty acid compositions, glucosinolate content and protein content of Brassica campestris L subsp. Oleifera (common name yellow sarson). Growth regulators were applied in seed soaking solution as well as foliar spray during vegetative phase and at flowering stage. There were reductions in the amount of long chain fatty acids viz erucic acid, eicosenoic acid and increase in the amount of unsaturated fatty acid viz. linoleic acid by lAA applications. The stimulating effect of lAA which reduced amount of unsaturated fatty acid was more pronounced when applied as foliar spray at vegetative stage. But, foliar spray of ABA during flowering increased the concentration of linoleic acid and reduced the eicosenoic acid and erucic acid. The glucosinolate content was greater in seeds soaked in 10/sup -5/ M lAA than that of control but less in 10/sup -5/ M GA treated seeds than that of control. The ABA treatment (10/sup -5/M) increased the concentration of glucosinolates in the seeds IAA treatments (10/sup -5/M) increased the protein percentage in the seeds. Foliar application of GA (10/sup -5/M) during vegetative growth and ABA (10/sup -5/M) as seed soaking prior to sowing as well as foliar spry during flowering decreased the protein content of seeds. (author)

  16. Alleviation of Drought Stress by Nitrogen Application in Brassica campestris ssp. Chinensis L.

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    Xin Xiong

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available To assess the influence of drought stress on the growth and nitrogen nutrition status of pakchoi (Brassica campestris ssp. Chinensis L. at different nitrogen (N levels, the changes in N accumulation and enzyme activities involved in N assimilation were investigated. The drought was induced by adding polyethylene glycol (PEG under hydroponic culture conditions. Pakchoi seedlings were exposed to a modified nutrient solution with different nitrogen concentration (N1, N2, and N3 represent 2, 9 and 18 mM NaNO3, respectively and osmotic potential (W1, W2 and W3 represent 0, 60 and 120 g·L−1 PEG 6000 in a full factorial, replicated randomized block design. A short time (seven days of drought stress caused a significant decline in plant water content, transpiration rate, shoot biomass and shoot nitrogen concentration. Increasing N availability considerably alleviate drought stress by increasing the content of total free amino acids in the roots, promoting the acceleration of root biomass accumulation, and improving the activities of nitrate reductase (NR; EC 1.7.1.1 and glutamine synthetase (GS; EC 6.3.1.2 which would reduce moisture limitations. The results suggested that pakchoi supplied with relative higher N had better growth performance under drought stress.

  17. Selenium alleviates chromium toxicity by preventing oxidative stress in cabbage (Brassica campestris L. ssp. Pekinensis) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing, Xuejiao; Zhao, Xiaohu; Hu, Chengxiao; Wang, Peng; Zhang, Ying; Zhang, Xuan; Wang, Pengcheng; Shi, Hanzhi; Jia, Fen; Qu, Chanjuan

    2015-04-01

    The beneficial role of selenium (Se) in alleviation of chromium (Cr)-induced oxidative stress is well established. However, little is known about the underlying mechanism. The impacts of exogenous Se (0.1mg/L) on Cr(1mg/L)-induced oxidative stress and antioxidant systems in leaves of cabbage (Brassica campestris L. ssp. Pekinensis) were investigated by using cellular and biochemical approaches. The results showed that supplementation of the medium with Se was effective in reducing Cr-induced increased levels of lipid peroxides and superoxide free radicals (O(-)2(·)), as well as increasing activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD). Meanwhile, 1mg/L Cr induced loss of plasma membrane integrity, growth inhibition, as well as ultrastructural changes of leaves were significantly reversed due to Se supplementation in the medium. In addition, Se application significantly altered the subcellular distribution of Cr which transported from mitochondria, nucleus and the cell-wall material to the soluble fraction and chloroplasts. However, Se application did no significant alteration of Cr effects on osmotic adjustment accumulating products. The study suggested that Se is able to protect leaves of cabbage against Cr toxicity by alleviation of Cr induced oxidative stress, and re-distribution of Cr in the subcellular of the leaf. Furthermore, free radicals, lipid peroxides, activity of SOD and POD, and subcellular distribution of Cr can be considered the efficient biomarkers to indicate the efficiency of Se to detoxification Cr. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Genetic diversity analysis of brassica napus/brassica campestris progenies using microsatellite markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fayyaz, L.; Farhatullah, A.; Iqbal, S.; Kanwal, M.; Nawaz, I.

    2014-01-01

    Genetic diversity and relationship of F2 segregating progenies of interspecific crosses between B. napus N-501/B. campestris C-118 were studied. A set of 90 genotypes (2 parental lines and their 88 F2 progenies) was characterized separately using 24 microsatellite or SSR markers to cover the diversity as broadly as possibly present in them. In initial screening only 12 out of 24 SSR primers combination amplified DNA fragments, while the remaining 12 SSR primers did not amplify DNA fragment therefore those 12 SSR molecular markers were not used for further analysis. The 12 SSR primer combinations generated a total of 33 alleles, of that 32 were polymorphic loci, whereas only one was monomorphic locus. Primers BRMS-19 and BRMS-40 were highly polymorphic producing 4 bands each. Primer Ra2-D04 was less polymorphic and it produced only one band. The proportion of polymorphic loci was 95.83% which indicates high genetic diversity among the progenies. The average number of polymorphic alleles per locus was 2.66. The PIC values ranged from 0.395 for primer Ra2-E03 to 0.726 for primer BRMS-019 with an average genetic diversity (PIC value) of 0.584 per locus. Seven primers showed PIC values above 0.5 (50%) indicating high genetic diversity in the studied plant materials. Pair-wise similarity indices among 90 genotypes ranged from 0.3 to 0.95. Dendrogram obtained through UPGMA clustering of F2 progenies depicted eight main groups using similarity coefficient of 0.70. The progenies could be similar to their parents if they have the same banding patterns as that of the parents and could be distinguished from each other by the combination of fragments which are repeatedly present in one progeny and absent in the other. Considerable genetic diversity has been found among the F2 segregating progenies and their parents using SSR markers thus, SSR analysis proved to be a useful tool. (author)

  19. Properties of a membrane-bound triglyceride lipase of rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) cotyledons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosnitschek, I; Theimer, R R

    1980-04-01

    The properties of the alkaline lipase activity (EC 3.1.1.3) that was recovered almost completely from a microsomal membrane fraction of 4-d-old rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) cotyledons were studied employing a titrimetric test procedure. The apparent KM was 6.5 mmol l(-1), with emulgated sunflower oil as the substrate. The products of triglyceride hydrolysis in vitro were glycerol, free fatty acids, and minor amounts of mono- and diglycerides. Maximum lipase activity depended on the preincubation of the lipolytic membrane fraction in 0.15 mol l(-1) NaCl and on the presence of at least 0.1 mol l(-1) NaCl in the test mixture. Desoxycholate and up to 0.1 mol l(-1) CaCl2 also activated the enzyme while EDTA and detergents such as trito x-100, digitonin, tween 85, and sodium dodecylsulfate were inhibitory. The rapeseed lipase displayed a conspicuous substrate selectivity among different plant triglycerides; the activity was inversely correlated with the oleic acid content of the oils. Water-soluble triacetin and the phospholipid lecithin were not hydrolyzed. Increasing amounts of free fatty acids reduced lipase activity; erucic acid, a major component of rapeseed oil, exhibited the strongest effect, suggesting a possible role in the regulation of lipase activity in vivo. The data demonstrate that the lipolytic membrane fraction houses a triglyceride lipase with properties similar to other plant and animal lipases. It can both qualitatively and quantitatively account for the fat degradation in rapeseed cotyledons. The evidence that provides further reason to acknowledge the membranous appendices of the spherosomes as the intracellular site of lipolysis is discussed.

  20. Foliar K application delays leaf senescence of winter rape-seed (Brassica napus L.) under waterlogging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Wan; Chao Hu; Chang Chen; Liyan Zhang; Ni Ma; Chunlei Zhang

    2017-01-01

    To better understand waterlogging effect on leaf senescence in winter rapseed (Brassica napus L.) during flowering stage, experiments were designed to explore foliar K application influences on adverse effects of waterlogging stress. Winter rapeseed was sprayed with K after waterlogging at initial flowering stage. Results indicated that waterlog-ging significantly decreased leaf net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (Gs), intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) and transpiration rate (Tr). It also declined maximum quantum yield of PS II (Fv/Fm), quantum yield of electron transport (ΦPS II) and pho-tochemical quenching (qP), but increased leaf non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) and minimal fluorescence (Fo). Interestingly, exogenous application of K significantly alleviated waterlogging-induced photosynthesis inhibition. Foliar K application increased RuBisCO activation, chlorophyll and soluble protein contents, while significantly decreased MDA con-tent under waterlogging stress. Moreover, K supplementation improved accumulation of K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, N, Zn2+, Mn2+, Fe2+ in leaves. In general, foliar K application is effective in alleviating deleterious effects of waterlogging stress and delays leaf senescence of winter rapeseed.

  1. A candidate gene-based association study of tocopherol content and composition in rapeseed (Brassica napus

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    Steffi eFritsche

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Rapeseed (Brassica napus L. is the most important oil crop of temperate climates. Rapeseed oil contains tocopherols, also known as vitamin E, which is an indispensable nutrient for humans and animals due to its antioxidant and radical scavenging abilities. Moreover, tocopherols are also important for the oxidative stability of vegetable oils. Therefore, seed oil with increased tocopherol content or altered tocopherol composition is a target for breeding. We investigated the role of nucleotide variations within candidate genes from the tocopherol biosynthesis pathway. Field trials were carried out with 229 accessions from a worldwide B. napus collection which was divided into two panels of 96 and 133 accessions. Seed tocopherol content and composition were measured by HPLC. High heritabilities were found for both traits, ranging from 0.62 to 0.94. We identified polymorphisms by sequencing selected regions of the tocopherol genes from the 96 accession panel. Subsequently, we determined the population structure (Q and relative kinship (K as detected by genotyping with genome-wide distributed SSR markers. Association studies were performed using two models, the structure-based GLM+Q and the PK mixed model. Between 26 and 12 polymorphisms within two genes (BnaX.VTE3.a, BnaA.PDS1.c were significantly associated with tocopherol traits. The SNPs explained up to 16.93 % of the genetic variance for tocopherol composition and up to 10.48 % for total tocopherol content. Based on the sequence information we designed CAPS markers for genotyping the 133 accessions from the 2nd panel. Significant associations with various tocopherol traits confirmed the results from the first experiment. We demonstrate that the polymorphisms within the tocopherol genes clearly impact tocopherol content and composition in B. napus seeds. We suggest that these nucleotide variations may be used as selectable markers for breeding rapeseed with enhanced tocopherol quality.

  2. Identification of Isolates that Cause a Leaf Spot Disease of Brassicas as Xanthomonas campestris pv. raphani and Pathogenic and Genetic Comparison with Related Pathovars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, J G; Everett, B; Roberts, S J

    2006-07-01

    ABSTRACT Twenty-five Xanthomonas isolates, including some isolates received as either X. campestris pv. armoraciae or pv. raphani, caused discrete leaf spot symptoms when spray-inoculated onto at least one Brassica oleracea cultivar. Twelve of these isolates and four other Xanthomonas isolates were spray- and pin-inoculated onto 21 different plant species/cultivars including horseradish (Armoracia rusticana), radish (Raphanus sativus), and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). The remaining 13 leaf spot isolates were spray-inoculated onto a subset of 10 plant species/cultivars. The leaf spot isolates were very aggressive on several Brassica spp., radish, and tomato causing leaf spots and dark sunken lesions on the middle vein, petiole, and stem. Based on the differential reactions of several Brassica spp. and radish cultivars, the leaf spot isolates were divided into three races, with races 1 and 3 predominating. A differential series was established to determine the race-type of isolates and a gene-for-gene model based on the interaction of two avirulence genes in the pathogen races and two matching resistance genes in the differential hosts is proposed. Repetitive-DNA polymerase chain reaction-based fingerprinting was used to assess the genetic diversity of the leaf spot isolates and isolates of closely related Xanthomonas pathovars. Although there was variability within each race, the leaf spot isolates were clustered separately from the X. campestris pv. campestris isolates. We propose that X. campestris isolates that cause a nonvascular leaf spot disease on Brassica spp. should be identified as pv. raphani and not pv. armoraciae. Race-type strains and a neopathotype strain for X. campestris pv. raphani are proposed.

  3. Effects of foliar dressing of selenite and silicate alone or combined with different soil ameliorants on the accumulation of As and Cd and antioxidant system in Brassica campestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yongzhen; Wang, Yongjiu; Zheng, Xiangqun; Cheng, Weimin; Shi, Rongguang; Feng, Renwei

    2017-08-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the possibility of using a combined technology to synchronously reduce As and Cd accumulation in the edible parts of Brassica campestris. The results showed that a foliar application of selenite (Se) and silicon (Si) combined with soil ameliorants (including Ca-Mg-P fertilizer, sodium silicate and red mud) showed limited effects on the growth of B. campestris. The As concentration in the leaves of B. campestris in all treatments was below the Chinese safety standard. When sodium silicate and Ca-Mg-P fertilizer were added to the soil, the additional foliar application of Se and Si could in some cases help further reduce the concentrations of As and Cd in the leaves of B. campestris. However, when red mud was applied to the soil, the foliar application of Se and Si enhanced the Cd concentration in the leaves of B. campestris. In most cases, high levels of soil ameliorants plus foliar application of Se and Si significantly enhanced the As concentrations in both the soil solution and the roots of B. campestris but reduced the soil solution Cd concentration and the leaf As concentration. Most of the treatments reduced the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) concentration in the leaves of B. campestris, and the foliar application of Se and Si helped the soil ameliorants alleviate the oxidative stress resulting from As and Cd exposure. In this study, several treatments significantly increased the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX). However, the enzymes peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) were not induced by most treatments. In summary, the combined treatment of 1gkg -1 Ca-Mg-P fertilizer plus foliar spraying 2mmolL -1 sodium selenite was most effective in reducing the Cd concentration and a rather strong ability to reduce the As concentration and trigger the activities of SOD and APX in the leaves of B. campestris. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Metal accumulation in a potential winter vegetable mustard (Brassica campestris L.) irrigated with different types of waters in Punjab, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Z. I.; Ahmad, K.; Yasmeen, S.; Ashfaq, A.

    2016-01-01

    Considering the harmful effects of metal-enriched vegetables a comprehensive study was conducted to appraise the extent of accumulation of different metals in mustard (Brassica campestris L.). The vegetable was treated with ground water, sewage water and canal water irrigation in areas of Punjab, Pakistan. Metals and metalloids observed in all three sites treated with sewage, canal and ground water were As, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Mo, Se and Zn were observed in the sites treated with ground, sewage and canal waters as well as the vegetable grown therein. The metal concentration observed in water samples was: Fe>Zn >Pb> Ni> Mo> Cu> As> Se, the order in the soil was: As >Pb> Fe > Ni > Mo > Cu > Zn > Se, while the order in the vegetable was: Zn > Fe> Cu> Ni> Mo>Pb> As> Se. The values of bio-concentration factor varied from 0.09-15.47 mg kg-1. Correlation was positively significant for Brassica campestris and soil except Ni and Se which showed positive non significant correlation. Pollution load index was observed to be in the following order: As >Pb> Ni > Mo >Fe > Cu > Se > Zn in the sites GWI, CWI and CWI. Fe and Zn (0.169) showed highest value of daily intake of metal (DIM), while Se (0.003) showed lowest value in crop of all three sites GWI, CWI and CWI. The health risk index and EF ranged from 0.24-69.86 mg day/sup -1/and 0.134-14.12 mg day/sup -1/, respectively. Overall, the vegetable treated with sewage water may have considerable impact on food quality and in turn on the health of people consuming it. (author)

  5. Overcoming interspecific incompatibility in the cross Brassica campestris ssp. japonica x Brassica oleracea var. botrytis using irradiated mentor pollen page

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarla, N.

    1988-01-01

    The cross B. campestris ssp. japonica x B. oleracea var. botrytis fails due to incompatibility barrier at the stigma. To realize this cross, irradiated compatible pollen (mentor pollen) was used before the incompatible pollination. The presence of mentor pollen stimulated the incompatible pollen to germinate and effect fertilization and seed set. One hybrid was thus obtained. Most of the seeds were inviable. Of the 5 plants raised one was a hybrid and 4 resembled the female parent. 1 tab., 7 refs

  6. Relative degree of susceptibility and resistance of different brassica campestris l. genotypes against aphid myzus persicae- a field investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarwar, M.

    2013-01-01

    Field evaluation of twenty three Brassica campestris L. genotypes was conducted for aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae) resistance during 2008 crop season. The parameters used to assess tolerance of germplasm lines included pest population during growth season and grain yield at crop maturity. Aphids showed obvious preferences for all of the germplasm investigated; however, the evaluation for resistance to pest identified several genotypes with variable potential for tolerance and sensitivity. Estimated grain yield also varied significantly due to variable pest intensity noted, and seemed to be more appropriately dependent on the pest population conditions at the experimental site. Among the germplasm, the estimation obtained regarding both the parameters sorted out MM-II/02-3 and MM-I285 genotypes as most tolerant due to less pest infestation and damage. Peak infestations by aphid caused severe crop fatalities on S-9-S-97-0.75+75/55 and S-9-1006/95 genotypes, affecting the seed weight and resulting an immense reduction in grain Brassica genotypes appeared to be governed by means of varietals characteristics of diverse germplasms. The result of resistance test conducted under field environment is an effective and consistent approach in the practical selection of crop lines resistant or partially resistant to pests for use in future breeding programs. (author)

  7. Genetic Diversity in Commercial Rapeseed (Brassica napus L. Varieties from Turkey as Revealed by RAPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem ÖZBEK

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In cultivated commercial crop species, genetic diversity tends to decrease because of the extensive breeding processes. Therefore, germplasm of commercial crop species, such as Brassica napus L. should be evaluated and the genotypes, which have higher genetic diversity index, should be addressed as potential parental cross materials in breeding programs. In this study, the genetic diversity was analysed by using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analysis (RAPD technique in nine Turkish commercial rapeseed varieties. The RAPD primers (10-mer oligonucleotides produced 51 scorable loci, 31 loci of which were polymorphic (60.78% and 20 loci (39.22% were monomorphic The RAPD bands were scored as binary matrix data and were analysed using POPGENE version 1.32. At locus level, the values of genetic diversity within population (Hs and total (HT were 0.15 and 0.19 respectively. The genetic differentiation (GST and the gene flow (Nm values between the populations were 0.20 and 2.05 respectively. The mean number of alleles (na, the mean number of effective alleles (nae, and the mean value of genetic diversity (He were 2.00, 1.26, and 0.19 respectively. According to Pearson’s correlation, multiple regression and principal component analyses, eco-geographical conditions in combination had significant effect on genetic indices of commercial B. napus L. varieties were discussed.

  8. Overexpression of a eukaryotic glutathione reductase gene from Brassica campestris improved resistance to oxidative stress in Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Ho-Sung; Lee, In-Ae; Lee, Hyoshin; Lee, Byung-Hyun; Jo, Jinki

    2005-01-01

    Glutathione reductase (GR) plays an essential role in a cell's defense against reactive oxygen metabolites by sustaining the reduced status of an important antioxidant glutathione. We constructed a recombinant plasmid based on the expression vector pET-18a that overexpresses a eukaryotic GR from Brassica campestris (BcGR) in Escherichia coli. For comparative analyses, E. coli GR (EcGR) was also subcloned in the same manner. The transformed E. coli with the recombinant constructs accumulated a high level of GR transcripts upon IPTG induction. Also, Western blot analysis showed overproduction of the BcGR protein in a soluble fraction of the transformed E. coli extract. When treated with oxidative stress generating reagents such as paraquat, salicylic acid, and cadmium, the BcGR overproducing E. coli exhibited a higher level of growth and survival rate than the control E. coli strain, but it was not as high as the E. coli strain transformed with the inducible EcGR. The translated amino acid sequences of BcGR and EcGR share 37.3% identity but all the functionally known important residues are conserved. It appears that eukaryotic BcGR functions in a prokaryotic system by providing protection against oxidative damages in E. coli

  9. Antioxidant Enzyme Activities and Lipid Oxidation in Rape (Brassica campestris L. Bee Pollen Added to Salami during Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yawei Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The present research investigated the antioxidant effect of rape (Brassica campestris L. bee pollen (RBP on salami during processing. Eight flavonoids in RBP ethanol extract were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS analysis, and quercetin, rutin, and kaempferol were the major bioactive compounds. The RBP ethanol extract exhibited higher total antioxidant capacity than 6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tertramethylchromancarboxylic acid (trolox at the same concentration. The salami with 0.05% RBP extract had higher catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD, and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px activities than that of the control throughout the processing time (p < 0.05. Significant decreases in peroxide value (POV and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS were obtained in the final salami product with 0.05% RBP ethanol extract or 1% RBP (p < 0.05. These results suggested that RBP could improve oxidative stability and had a good potential as a natural antioxidant for retarding lipid oxidation.

  10. Analysis of Hydroxy Fatty Acids from the Pollen of Brassica campestris L. var. oleifera DC. by UPLC-MS/MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nian-Yun Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled with negative electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-MS/MS was used to determine 7 hydroxy fatty acids in the pollen of Brassica campestris L. var. oleifera DC. All the investigated hydroxy fatty acids showed strong deprotonated molecular ions [M–H]−, which underwent two major fragment pathways of the allyl scission and the β-fission of the alcoholic hydroxyl group. By comparison of their molecular ions and abundant fragment ions with those of reference compounds, they were tentatively assigned as 15,16-dihydroxy-9Z,12Z-octadecadienoic acid (1, 10,11,12-trihydroxy-(7Z,14Z-heptadecadienoic acid (2, 7,15,16-trihydroxy-9Z,12Z-octadecadienoic acid (3, 15,16-dihydroxy-9Z,12Z-octadecadienoic acid (4, 15-hydroxy-6Z,9Z,12Z-octadecatrienoic acid (5, 15-hydroxy-9Z,12Z- octadecadienoic acid (6, and 15-hydroxy-12Z-octadecaenoic acid (7, respectively. Compounds 3, 5, and 7 are reported for the first time.

  11. Genetic damage induced by a food coloring dye (sunset yellow) on meristematic cells of Brassica campestris L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Kshama; Kumar, Girjesh

    2015-01-01

    We have performed the present piece of work to evaluate the effect of synthetic food coloring azo dye (sunset yellow) on actively dividing root tip cells of Brassica campestris L. Three doses of azo dye were administered for the treatment of actively dividing root tip cells, namely, 1%, 3%, and 5%, for 6-hour duration along with control. Mitotic analysis clearly revealed the azo dye induced endpoint deviation like reduction in the frequency of normal divisions in a dose dependent manner. Mitotic divisions in the control sets were found to be perfectly normal while dose based reduction in MI was registered in the treated sets. Azo dye has induced several chromosomal aberrations (genotoxic effect) at various stages of cell cycle such as stickiness of chromosomes, micronuclei formation, precocious migration of chromosome, unorientation, forward movement of chromosome, laggards, and chromatin bridge. Among all, stickiness of chromosomes was present in the highest frequency followed by partial genome elimination as micronuclei. The present study suggests that extensive use of synthetic dye should be forbidden due to genotoxic and cytotoxic impacts on living cells. Thus, there is an urgent need to assess potential hazardous effects of these dyes on other test systems like human and nonhuman biota for better scrutiny.

  12. Varietals resistance and susceptibility in mustard (brassica campestris l.) genotypes against aphid myzus persicae (sulzer) (homoptera: aphididae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarwar, M.; Ahmad, N.; Khan, G.Z.; Tofique, M.

    2009-01-01

    The exploitation of resistant cultivars is an imperative, simple, practical and flexible way to cope with insect pests incidence. Thirty genotypes of mustard (Brassica campestris L.) were tested for their resistance and susceptibility to aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer) exposed under natural field conditions. Data on pest tolerance of genotypes were judged by quantitative traits such as number of aphids on each infested plant and mean dry weight of seeds per genotype. Studies observed the discrepancy in overall rates of pest invasion and seed yield contained by trailed mustard genotypes. Agati sarson (P), S-9-S-97-100/45 and S-9-S-97-100/45 were the least damaged genotypes showing their moderate resistance. Amongst other genotypes, MM-I/01-5, MM-I285 and MM-I/01-6 were the most damaged showing oversensitive response. Although the majority of genotypes were found vulnerable to pest, Agati sarson (P) and S-9-S-97-100/45 due to their lowest hypersensitive response toward aphid contamination and increased pods yield could be used for the development of essential resistance in mustard plant. A marked mode of damage inflicted by aphid on the crop was noticed and the abiotic factors contributing variations in aphid infestation levels during both growing seasons were determined. Knowledge about the host plant resistance investigated can facilitate growers to choose the most appropriate cultivars as pest control strategy. (author)

  13. Development of manganese toxicity in pasture legumes under extreme climatic conditions. [Trifolium subterraneum; Medicago sativa; Brassica campestris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siman, A; Cradock, F W; Hudson, A W

    1974-08-01

    Manganese levels and pH in soil were measured on limed and unlimed plots at bi-monthly intervals for two years at five field sites with lucerne (Medicago sativa) and subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum) and related to rainfall and temperature. Pot experiments with lucerne, subterranean clover and rape (Brassica campestris) were used to confirm the results of the field experiments. Manganese toxicity developed in lucerne and subterranean clover under waterlogged conditions after heavy rain on the slightly acid soils (pH 4.7-5.5). Lucerne also showed manganese toxicity on the same soils in summer after extended hot, dry conditions. The maximum available manganese was 210 ..mu..g/g in the waterlogged soil (0-15 cm) the 128 ..mu..g/g in the heat affected soil. Lime treatment of 2240 kg/ha reduced the maximum available manganese to 148 ..mu..g/g in waterlogged plots and to 47 ..mu..g/g in the heat affected plots but failed to correct manganese toxicity. However, lime corrected toxicity symptoms under less severe conditions. In the pot experiments, available manganese reached 270 ..mu..g/g after 2 weeks artificial waterlogging and 68 ..mu..g/g after 2 weeks dry heat exposure. 12 references, 4 figures, 3 tables.

  14. Altered Fruit and Seed Development of Transgenic Rapeseed (Brassica napus Over-Expressing MicroRNA394.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Bo Song

    Full Text Available Fruit and seed development in plants is a complex biological process mainly involved in input and biosynthesis of many storage compounds such as proteins and oils. Although the basic biochemical pathways for production of the storage metabolites in plants are well characterized, their regulatory mechanisms are not fully understood. In this study, we functionally identified rapeseed (Brassica napus miR394 with its target gene Brassica napus leaf curling responsiveness (BnLCR to dissect a role of miR394 during the fruit and seed development. Transgenic rapeseed plants over-expressing miR394 under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter were generated. miR394 over-expression plants exhibited a delayed flowering time and enlarged size of plants, leaf blade, pods and seed body, but developed seeds with higher contents of protein and glucosinolates (GLS and lower levels of oil accumulation as compared to wild-type. Over-expression of miR394 altered the fatty acid (FA composition by increasing several FA species such as C16:0 and C18:0 and unsaturated species of C20:1 and C22:1 but lowering C18:3. This change was accompanied by induction of genes coding for transcription factors of FA synthesis including leafy cotyledon1 (BnLEC1, BnLEC2, and FUSCA3 (FUS3. Because the phytohormone auxin plays a crucial role in fruit development and seed patterning, the DR5-GUS reporter was used for monitoring the auxin response in Arabidopsis siliques and demonstrated that the DR5 gene was strongly expressed. These results suggest that BnmiR394 is involved in rapeseed fruit and seed development.

  15. High Quality Rapeseed Products as Feed for Sensitive Monogastrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Heidi Blok

    in plants of the order Brassicales (former known as Capparales), which include rapeseed, rype (Brassica campestris L.) Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.), broccoli (Brassica oleracea L.var. italica) and many other plants. Glucosinolates have been studied widely for their biologic effects ranging from...... by xenobiotica enzymes in the liver. The last study (manuscript IV) deals with the novel processing techniques, pulsed electric field (PEF) and high pressure treatment (HPT) and the processing effects on glucosinolates in broccoli. The largest effects were observed to be a result of the different handling...... of the plant materials prior to the process treatment. It was thus found that a great amount of the glucosinolate loss has occurred in the broccoli juice and purée prior to PEF processing. Only a minor loss was observed in broccoli flowers prior to processing, and HP treatment at 700 MPa for 10 min. was found...

  16. Genome-Wide Analysis of Seed Acid Detergent Lignin (ADL) and Hull Content in Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Lijuan; Qu, Cunmin; Xu, Xinfu; Lu, Kun; Qian, Wei; Li, Jiana; Li, Maoteng; Liu, Liezhao

    2015-01-01

    A stable yellow-seeded variety is the breeding goal for obtaining the ideal rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) plant, and the amount of acid detergent lignin (ADL) in the seeds and the hull content (HC) are often used as yellow-seeded rapeseed screening indices. In this study, a genome-wide association analysis of 520 accessions was performed using the Q + K model with a total of 31,839 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) sites. As a result, three significant associations on the B. napus chromosomes A05, A09, and C05 were detected for seed ADL content. The peak SNPs were within 9.27, 14.22, and 20.86 kb of the key genes BnaA.PAL4, BnaA.CAD2/BnaA.CAD3, and BnaC.CCR1, respectively. Further analyses were performed on the major locus of A05, which was also detected in the seed HC examination. A comparison of our genome-wide association study (GWAS) results and previous linkage mappings revealed a common chromosomal region on A09, which indicates that GWAS can be used as a powerful complementary strategy for dissecting complex traits in B. napus. Genomic selection (GS) utilizing the significant SNP markers based on the GWAS results exhibited increased predictive ability, indicating that the predictive ability of a given model can be substantially improved by using GWAS and GS. PMID:26673885

  17. Exploring genotypic variations for improved oil content and healthy fatty acids composition in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishaq, Muhammad; Razi, Raziuddin; Khan, Sabaz Ali

    2017-04-01

    Development of new genotypes having high oil content and desirable levels of fatty acid compositions is a major objective of rapeseed breeding programmes. In the current study combining ability was determined for oil, protein, glucosinolates and various fatty acids content using 8 × 8 full diallel in rapeseed (Brassica napus). Highly significant genotypic differences were observed for oil, protein, glucosinolates, oleic acid, linolenic acid and erucic acid content. Mean squares due to general combining ability (GCA), specific combining ability (SCA) and reciprocal combining ability (RCA) were highly significant (P ≤ 0.01) for biochemical traits. Parental line AUP-17 for high oil content and low glucosinolates, genotype AUP-2 for high protein and oleic acids, and AUP-18 for low lenolenic and erucic acid were best general combiners. Based on desirable SCA effects, F 1 hybrids AUP-17 × AUP-20; AUP-2 × AUP-8; AUP-7 × AUP-14; AUP-2 × AUP-9; AUP-7 × AUP-14 and AUP-2 × AUP-9 were found superior involving at least one best general combiner. F 1 hybrids AUP-17 × AUP-20 (for oil content); AUP-2 × AUP-8 (for protein content); AUP-7 × AUP-14 (for glucosinolates); AUP-2 × AUP-9 (for oleic acid); AUP-7 × AUP-14 (for linolenic acid) and AUP-2 × AUP-9 (for erucic acid) were found superior involving at least one best general combiner. As reciprocal crosses of AUP-14 with AUP-7 and AUP-8 were superior had low × low and low × high GCA effects for glucosinolates and oleic acid, respectively therefore, these could be exploited in future rapeseed breeding programmes to develop new lines with good quality. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Effect of ultraviolet radiation on growth and photosynthetic ability of turnip (Brassica campestris L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inagaki, N.; Maekawa, S.; Terabun, M.

    1986-07-01

    Two experimental plots were prepared to investigate the effect of near-ultraviolet (UV) radiation on the growth and photosynthesis of turnip (Brassica cam pestris L.). They were treated by covering with UV-transmitting vinyl film (UVT) or UV-eliminating vinyl film (UVE) (Fig.1). The results were summarized as follows. 1. UV energy in UVE plot was 3 to 4% of that in UVT plot (Table 1). The temperature of UVE plot was similar to that of UVT plot throughout the growth period (Fig.2). The daily mean temperature throughout the growth period was about 19°C. 2. UVE plot was superior to UVT plot in all the characters investigated on growth (Table 2). Particularly plant length and fresh weight were significant at 5% level throughout the growth period. The growth pattern of each character was almost common to each other between the two experimental plots, except that the relative growth rate during exponential growth period of UVE plot was higher than that of UVT plot (Fig.3-1-Fig.6). 3. Apparent photosynthesis rate per unit of leaf area in UVE plot was higher than that in UVT plot at 24 days after sowing, but at 42, 48 and 70 days of after sowing the result was reversed (Fig.8). From this experiment, the effect UV on photosynthesis was not clearly observed. (author)

  19. Effect of ultraviolet radiation on growth and photosynthetic ability of turnip (Brassica campestris L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inagaki, N.; Maekawa, S.; Terabun, M.

    1986-01-01

    Two experimental plots were prepared to investigate the effect of near-ultraviolet (UV) radiation on the growth and photosynthesis of turnip (Brassica cam pestris L.). They were treated by covering with UV-transmitting vinyl film (UVT) or UV-eliminating vinyl film (UVE) (Fig.1). The results were summarized as follows. 1. UV energy in UVE plot was 3 to 4% of that in UVT plot (Table 1). The temperature of UVE plot was similar to that of UVT plot throughout the growth period (Fig.2). The daily mean temperature throughout the growth period was about 19°C. 2. UVE plot was superior to UVT plot in all the characters investigated on growth (Table 2). Particularly plant length and fresh weight were significant at 5% level throughout the growth period. The growth pattern of each character was almost common to each other between the two experimental plots, except that the relative growth rate during exponential growth period of UVE plot was higher than that of UVT plot (Fig.3-1-Fig.6). 3. Apparent photosynthesis rate per unit of leaf area in UVE plot was higher than that in UVT plot at 24 days after sowing, but at 42, 48 and 70 days of after sowing the result was reversed (Fig.8). From this experiment, the effect UV on photosynthesis was not clearly observed. (author)

  20. A Tourist-like MITE insertion in the upstream region of the BnFLC.A10 gene is associated with vernalization requirement in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hou Jinna

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rapeseed (Brassica napus L. has spring and winter genotypes adapted to different growing seasons. Winter genotypes do not flower before the onset of winter, thus leading to a longer vegetative growth period that promotes the accumulation and allocation of more resources to seed production. The development of winter genotypes enabled the rapeseed to spread rapidly from southern to northern Europe and other temperate regions of the world. The molecular basis underlying the evolutionary transition from spring- to winter- type rapeseed is not known, however, and needs to be elucidated. Results We fine-mapped the spring environment specific quantitative trait locus (QTL for flowering time, qFT10-4,in a doubled haploid (DH mapping population of rapeseed derived from a cross between Tapidor (winter-type and Ningyou7 (semi-winter and delimited the qFT10-4 to an 80-kb region on chromosome A10 of B. napus. The BnFLC.A10 gene, an ortholog of FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC in Arabidopsis, was cloned from the QTL. We identified 12 polymorphic sites between BnFLC.A10 parental alleles of the TN-DH population in the upstream region and in intron 1. Expression of both BnFLC.A10 alleles decreased during vernalization, but decreased more slowly in the winter parent Tapidor. Haplotyping and association analysis showed that one of the polymorphic sites upstream of BnFLC.A10 is strongly associated with the vernalization requirement of rapeseed (r2 = 0.93, χ2 = 0.50. This polymorphic site is derived from a Tourist-like miniature inverted-repeat transposable element (MITE insertion/deletion in the upstream region of BnFLC.A10. The MITE sequence was not present in the BnFLC.A10 gene in spring-type rapeseed, nor in ancestral ‘A’ genome species B. rapa genotypes. Our results suggest that the insertion may have occurred in winter rapeseed after B. napus speciation. Conclusions Our findings strongly suggest that (i BnFLC.A10 is the gene underlying qFT10

  1. A Tourist-like MITE insertion in the upstream region of the BnFLC.A10 gene is associated with vernalization requirement in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jinna; Long, Yan; Raman, Harsh; Zou, Xiaoxiao; Wang, Jing; Dai, Shutao; Xiao, Qinqin; Li, Cong; Fan, Longjiang; Liu, Bin; Meng, Jinling

    2012-12-15

    Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) has spring and winter genotypes adapted to different growing seasons. Winter genotypes do not flower before the onset of winter, thus leading to a longer vegetative growth period that promotes the accumulation and allocation of more resources to seed production. The development of winter genotypes enabled the rapeseed to spread rapidly from southern to northern Europe and other temperate regions of the world. The molecular basis underlying the evolutionary transition from spring- to winter- type rapeseed is not known, however, and needs to be elucidated. We fine-mapped the spring environment specific quantitative trait locus (QTL) for flowering time, qFT10-4,in a doubled haploid (DH) mapping population of rapeseed derived from a cross between Tapidor (winter-type) and Ningyou7 (semi-winter) and delimited the qFT10-4 to an 80-kb region on chromosome A10 of B. napus. The BnFLC.A10 gene, an ortholog of FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) in Arabidopsis, was cloned from the QTL. We identified 12 polymorphic sites between BnFLC.A10 parental alleles of the TN-DH population in the upstream region and in intron 1. Expression of both BnFLC.A10 alleles decreased during vernalization, but decreased more slowly in the winter parent Tapidor. Haplotyping and association analysis showed that one of the polymorphic sites upstream of BnFLC.A10 is strongly associated with the vernalization requirement of rapeseed (r2 = 0.93, χ2 = 0.50). This polymorphic site is derived from a Tourist-like miniature inverted-repeat transposable element (MITE) insertion/deletion in the upstream region of BnFLC.A10. The MITE sequence was not present in the BnFLC.A10 gene in spring-type rapeseed, nor in ancestral 'A' genome species B. rapa genotypes. Our results suggest that the insertion may have occurred in winter rapeseed after B. napus speciation. Our findings strongly suggest that (i) BnFLC.A10 is the gene underlying qFT10-4, the QTL for phenotypic diversity of flowering time in

  2. Caracterização de isolados de Xanthomonas campestris pv campestris de sistemas de produção orgânico e reação de brássicas à podridão-negra Characterization of strains of Xanthomonas campestris pv campestris from organic farming systems and reaction of brassicas to black rot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Andréa dos Santos

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Noventa isolados de Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc de brássicas oriundas de sistemas de produção orgânico das Zonas da Mata e Agreste de Pernambuco foram caracterizados com base na sensibilidade a antibióticos e sulfato de cobre e atividade de esterase. A maioria apresentou alta sensibilidade à tetraciclina (76,6%, eritromicina (63,3% e estreptomicina (63,3%, resistência à amoxicilina (70%, gentamicina (40,0% e norfloxacin (45,5% e média sensibilidade (44,4% ou resistência (44,4% à neomicina. Cinqüenta e cinco isolados de Xcc foram resistentes ao sulfato de cobre na concentração de 50 mg/mL e todos foram sensíveis ao produto na concentração de 200 mg/mL. Atividade de esterase foi apresentada por 92,22% dos isolados. A análise Euclidiana por ligação simples evidenciou variabilidade entre os isolados separando-os em sete grupos de similaridade. Foi estudada também a reação de 14 cultivares de brássicas à podridão-negra, utilizando o isolado "B21" de Xcc. As cultivares diferiram significativamente entre si em relação ao período de incubação, incidência e severidade final da doença. Os maiores valores de severidade final da doença foram verificados em brócolos "Ramoso", couve-flor "Bola de Neve" e "Piracicaba de Verão", e repolho "Chato de Quintal". Os híbridos de couve-chinesa "AF 70", "AF 72", "AF 69" e "AF 66" mostraram-se altamente resistentes à doença, enquanto que brócolos "Ramoso" e "Precoce Piracicaba", couve-flor "Piracicaba de Verão" e "Híbrido Cindy" e repolho "60 Dias" foram medianamente resistentes.Ninety strains of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc from brassicas grown under organic farming systems in the "Mata" and "Agreste" regions of Pernambuco, Brazil, were characterized based upon sensitivity to antibiotics and copper sulfate, and esterase activity. Most of the strains showed high sensitivity to tetracycline (76.6%, erythromycin (63.3% and streptomycin (63

  3. Effect of 60Co γ irradiation with seed and shoot-tip of Brassica campestris L. var on its culture in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao Feixiong; Yu Rangcai; Pan Ruichi

    2003-01-01

    The survival rate in vitro of shoot-tips of Brassica campestris L. var from seeds irradiated by 60 Co γ-rays decreased with the increase of dose. Irradiation inhibited proliferation of shoot-tip, induction of callus from cotyledons and differentiation of the callus. The age of explant contributed to the effect of irradiation in the culture. Irradiation stimulated the proliferation of shoot-tip with dose less than 50 Gy. Based on the effect of irradiation in the tissue culture, the effective dose recommended was about 200 Gy for seeds, 50-100 Gy for pre-soaked germinating seeds and 40-70 Gy for shoot-tips in vitro, respectively

  4. Rhizosphere competent Mesorhizobiumloti MP6 induces root hair curling, inhibits Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and enhances growth of Indian mustard (Brassica campestris Mesorhizobium loti MP6 rizosférico competente induz encurvamento do pelo daraiz, inibe Sclerotinia sclerotiorum e estimula o crescimento de mostarda indiana (Brassica campestris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shikha Chandra

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The bacterial strain Mesorhizobium loti MP6, isolated from root nodules of Mimosa pudica induced growth and yield of Brassica campestris. The isolate MP6 secreted hydroxamate type siderophore in Chrom-Azurol Siderophore (CAS agar medium. Production of hydrocyanic acid (HCN, indole acetic acid (IAA and phosphate solubilizing ability was also recorded under normal growth conditions. Root hair curling was observed through simple glass-slide technique. In vitro study showed a significant increase in population of M. loti MP6 in rhizosphere due to root exudates of B. campestris. In dual culture technique the strain showed a strong antagonistic effect against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, a white rot pathogen of Brassica campestris. The growth of S. sclerotiorum was inhibited by 75% after prolonged incubation. Efficient root colonization of mustard seedlings was confirmed by using a streptomycin-resistant marker M. loti MP6strep+. The M. loti MP6 coated seeds proved enhanced seed germination, early vegetative growth and grain yield as compared to control. Also, a drastic decline (99% in the incidence of white rot was observed due to application of M. loti MP6.A cepa bacteriana Mesorhizobium loti MP6 isolada de nódulos de raiz de Mimosa pudica induziu o crescimento e o rendimento de Brassica campestris. A cepa MP6 secretou sideróforo do tipo hidroxamato em meio sólido Chrom-Azurol Siderophore (CAS. Em condições normais de crescimento, a cepa foi também capaz de produzir de ácido cianídrico (HCN e acido indolacético (AIA e solubilizar fosfato. O encurvamento do pelo da raiz foi observado usando a simples técnica de lâmina e lamínula. Estudos in vitro mostraram um aumento significativo na população de M. loti MP6 na rizosfera devido aos exsudatos de B. campestris. Empregando-se técnica de co-cultura, a cepa mostrou um grande efeito antagônico contra o fungo Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, o patógeno da podridão branca de Brassica campestris. Ap

  5. Genetic Diversity in Commercial Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) Varieties from Turkey as Revealed by RAPD

    OpenAIRE

    Özlem ÖZBEK; Betül Uçar GIDIK

    2013-01-01

    In cultivated commercial crop species, genetic diversity tends to decrease because of the extensive breeding processes. Therefore, germplasm of commercial crop species, such as Brassica napus L. should be evaluated and the genotypes, which have higher genetic diversity index, should be addressed as potential parental cross materials in breeding programs. In this study, the genetic diversity was analysed by using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analysis (RAPD) technique in nine Turkish com...

  6. Physiological Mechanisms behind Differences in Pod Shattering Resistance in Rapeseed (Brassica napus L. Varieties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Kuai

    Full Text Available Pod shattering resistance index (SRI is a key factor affecting the mechanical harvesting of rapeseed. Research on the differences in pod shattering resistance levels of various rapeseed varieties can provide a theoretical basis for varietal breeding and application in mechanical harvesting. The indicators on pod shattering resistance including pod morphology and wall components were evaluated on eight hybrids and open pollinators, respectively, during 2012-2014. The results showed the following: (1 From the current study, SRI varied greatly with variety, and conventional varieties had stronger resistance than hybrid according to the physiological indexes. and (2 Under the experimental conditions, the SRI was linearly related to pod wall weight and the water content in pod walls, and the goodness-of-fit measurements for the regression model of the SRI based on pod wall weight and water content were 0.584** and 0.377*, respectively, reaching the significant level. This illustrated that pod wall weight and the water content in pod walls determined the SRI. (3 Compared with the relative contents of biochemical components in pod walls, the contents of particular biochemical components in pod walls had closer correlations with SRI. Among the biochemical components, the hemicellulose content was the decisive factor for the SRI.

  7. High oleic acid content materials of rapeseed (Brassica napus) produced by radiation breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan Chunyun; Liu Chunlin; Chen Sheyuan

    2006-01-01

    High oleic acid content rapeseed breeding has great significance, because high oleic acid oil is a healthy and nutritious oil, which is of a long shelflife and also propitious to producing biodiesel fuel. The high oleic acid content breeding materials of rapeseed (B. napus) were obtained by 80-100 kR ~(60)Co gamma ray ionizing radiation treatment of dry seeds and continuous selection. The results showed that the oleic acid contents of M (2), M (3) and M (4) progenies increased by different grades. Moreover, the oleic acid content of M (5) progeny increased greatly. The oleic acid contents were higher than 70% in the most of the plants and the highest one reached 93.5 %. The base G was transited by base A in fad (2) gene at the 270 site of high oleic acid mutation (M(6) 04-855). The location is at the beta folding area and conservative area of this protein. Base mutation at sites 1 044 and 1 062 also led to produce a stop condon. These changes in structure led to loss the function of fad (2). According to molecular mechanism of gene mutation, no matter what transvertion or transition happens, several replications are needed. That is to say several generations are needed. That was also the reason why high oleic acid content mutation occurred in later generations

  8. Early interspecific interference in the wheat/faba bean (Triticum aestivum/ Vicia faba ssp. minor and rapeseed/squarrosum clover (Brassica napus var. oleifera/Trifolium squarrosum intercrops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Benincasa

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Most of research on intercrops evaluate performances and interference between species on the basis of final yield, while little knowledge is available on the interference in early stages and at the root level, at least for cultivated intercrops. In fact, in the few studies on this subject species are often combined minding at experimental needs (e.g. common substrate, temperature and water requirements, easy root separation more than at their actual use in the farm. The present work evaluates interspecific interference during early developmental stages for two intercrops of agricultural interest: soft wheat-faba bean and rapeseed-squarrosum clover. Improving this knowledge would help intercrop growth modelling and rational cultivation. The experiments were carried out on soft wheat (Triticum aestivum, faba bean (Vicia faba var. minor, rapeseed (Brassica napus var. oleifera and squarrosum clover (Trifolium squarrosum, germinated and grown until 32 days after sowing (DAS as one-species stands or as wheat/faba bean and rapeseed/squarrosum clover intercrops, with different densities and proportions for the two species in each couple. Germination was studied in controlled-temperature chamber, plantlet growth was studied on pots in the greenhouse. During germination no interspecific interference was observed for both wheat/faba bean and rapeseed/squarrosum clover intercrops. During plantlet growth, interspecific interference occurred in both intercrops causing variations in whole plant and root dry matter accumulation. In the wheat/faba bean intercrop each species suffered from the competitive effect of the companion species and faba bean was the dominant species when present in lower proportion than wheat. The unexpectedly high aggressivity of faba bean may be explained either with the greater seed size that could have represented an initial advantage within the short duration of the experiment or with the competition towards wheat for substrate N

  9. Preferential exclusion of hybrids in mixed pollinations between oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and weedy B. campestris (Brassicaceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauser, T.P.; Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke; Østergård, Hanne

    1997-01-01

    amplified polymorphic DNA analysis. Using data on the proportion of fully developed seeds and the proportion of these seeds that were hybrids, a statistical model was constructed to estimate the fitness of conspecific and heterospecific pollen and the survival of conspecific and heterospecific zygotes...... for competition between male gametophytes and/or seeds within pods. To test whether competition influences the success of hybridization, pollen from the two species was mixed in different proportions and applied to stigmas of both species. The resulting seeds were scored for paternity by isozyme and randomly...... to seeds. B. campestris pollen in B. napus styles had a significantly lower fitness than the conspecific pollen, whereas no difference between pollen types was found in B. campestris styles. Hybrid zygotes survived to significantly lower proportions than conspecific zygotes in both species, with the lowest...

  10. Studies on the cost-effective management of Alternaria blight of rapeseed-mustard (Brassica spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Khan

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Three systemic fungicides: Topsin-M (Thiophanate methyl, 70%WP, Ridomil MZ (Mancozeb, 64% + Metalaxyl, 8%WP, and Bavistin (Carbendazim, 50%WP alone and in combination with four non-systemic fungicides Captaf (Captan, 50%WP, Indofil M-45 (Mancozeb, 75%WP, Indofil Z-78 (Zineb, 75%WP, and Thiram (Thiram, 75%WP were evaluated both in vitro and in vivo for their effectiveness to manage Alternaria blight of rapeseedmustard caused by Alternaria brassicae. A pure culture of the pathogenic fungus was applied in the field at 2 g colonized sorghum seeds kg-1 soil. All the fungicides were evaluated for their efficacy at various concentrations, 50, 100, 150, 200 and 500 ppm, and were sprayed in the field at 0.2% a.i. l-1. All fungicides significantly reduced the severity of the disease but Ridomil MZ was most effective. Topsin-M at a concentration of 500 ppm was the most effective in reducing radial growth of the pathogenic fungi (74.2%. Ridomil MZ reduced disease severity by 32% and was followed in effectiveness by the combination Bavistin+Captaf (26.5%. Maximum yield was obtained in plots sprayed with Bavistin+Captaf (1198 kg ha-1 followed by Bavistin+Indofil Z-78 (1172 kg ha-1. It was worth noting that the highest net profit as well as the highest cost-benefit ratio was obtained with Bavistin+Indofil Z-78 (1:3.2, followed by Bavistin+Captaf (1:1.3.

  11. Evaluation of physiological, growth and yield responses of a tropical oil crop (Brassica campestris L. var. Kranti) under ambient ozone pollution at varying NPK levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Poonam [Laboratory of Air Pollution and Global Climate Change, Ecology Research Circle, Department of Botany, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India); Agrawal, Madhoolika [Laboratory of Air Pollution and Global Climate Change, Ecology Research Circle, Department of Botany, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India)], E-mail: madhoo58@yahoo.com; Agrawal, Shashi Bhushan [Laboratory of Air Pollution and Global Climate Change, Ecology Research Circle, Department of Botany, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India)

    2009-03-15

    A field study was conducted to evaluate the impact of ambient ozone on mustard (Brassica campestris L. var. Kranti) plants grown under recommended and 1.5 times recommended NPK doses at a rural site of India using filtered (FCs) and non-filtered open top chambers (NFCs). Ambient mean O{sub 3} concentration varied from 41.65 to 54.2 ppb during the experiment. Plants growing in FCs showed higher photosynthetic rate at both NPK levels, but higher stomatal conductance only at recommended NPK. There were improvements in growth parameters and biomass of plants in FCs as compared to NFCs at both NPK levels with higher increments at 1.5 times recommended. Seed yield and harvest index decreased significantly only at recommended NPK in NFCs. Seed quality in terms of nutrients, protein and oil contents reduced in NFCs at recommended NPK. The application of 1.5 times recommended NPK provided protection against yield loss due to ambient O{sub 3}. - NPK level above recommended alleviates the adverse effects of ambient ozone on a tropical mustard cultivar.

  12. Evaluation of physiological, growth and yield responses of a tropical oil crop (Brassica campestris L. var. Kranti) under ambient ozone pollution at varying NPK levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Poonam; Agrawal, Madhoolika; Agrawal, Shashi Bhushan

    2009-01-01

    A field study was conducted to evaluate the impact of ambient ozone on mustard (Brassica campestris L. var. Kranti) plants grown under recommended and 1.5 times recommended NPK doses at a rural site of India using filtered (FCs) and non-filtered open top chambers (NFCs). Ambient mean O 3 concentration varied from 41.65 to 54.2 ppb during the experiment. Plants growing in FCs showed higher photosynthetic rate at both NPK levels, but higher stomatal conductance only at recommended NPK. There were improvements in growth parameters and biomass of plants in FCs as compared to NFCs at both NPK levels with higher increments at 1.5 times recommended. Seed yield and harvest index decreased significantly only at recommended NPK in NFCs. Seed quality in terms of nutrients, protein and oil contents reduced in NFCs at recommended NPK. The application of 1.5 times recommended NPK provided protection against yield loss due to ambient O 3 . - NPK level above recommended alleviates the adverse effects of ambient ozone on a tropical mustard cultivar

  13. Effects of ambient and elevated level of ozone on Brassica campestris L. with special reference to yield and oil quality parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Ruchika; Agrawal, S B

    2012-11-01

    Tropospheric ozone (O(3)) has become a serious threat to growth and yield of important agricultural crops over Asian regions including India. Effect of elevated O(3) (ambient+10ppb) was studied on Brassica campestris L. (cv. Sanjukta and Vardan) in open top chambers under natural field conditions. Eight hourly mean ambient O(3) concentration varied from 26.3ppb to 69.5ppb during the growth period. Plants under O(3) exposure showed reductions in photosynthetic rate, reproductive parameters, yield as well as seed and oil quality. Cultivar Sanjukta showed more reduction in photosynthetic characteristics, reproductive structures and seed and oil quality. However, total yield was more affected in Vardan. Exposure of O(3) increased the degree of unsaturation and level of PUFA, ω-6fatty acid, linolenic acid and erucic acid in oil indicating the deterioration of its quality. The study further confirmed that there is a correspondence between O(3) induced change in photosynthetic processes, reproductive development and yield and did not find any compensatory response in the final yield. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Production of intergeneric allotetraploid between autotetraploid non-heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis Makino and autotetraploid radish (Raphanus sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Cheng-Zhen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Intergeneric hybrids between non-heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis Makino; 2n = 4x = 40 and radish (Raphanus sativus L.; 2n = 4x = 36 were obtained through ovary culture and embryo rescue. Some hybrid embryos (0.11 per ovary were produced, but only 4 of them germinated. As most hybrid embryos failed to develop into plantlets directly, plants were regenerated by inducing shoots on the cultured cotyledon and inducing roots on the root induction medium. All hybrid plants were morphologically uniform. They resembled the non-heading Chinese cabbage in the long-lived habit, the plant status, the vernalization requirement and the petiole color, while the petiole shape, leaf venation pattern and flowers were more similar to those of radish. Upon examination of the flowers, these were found to have normal pistil, but rudimentary anthers with non-functional pollen grains. The somatic chromosome number of F1 plants was 38. Analysis of SSR banding patterns provided additional confirmation of hybridity.

  15. Comparative transcript profiling of fertile and sterile flower buds from multiple-allele-inherited male sterility in Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris L. ssp. pekinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xue; Liu, Zhiyong; Ji, Ruiqin; Feng, Hui

    2017-10-01

    We studied the underlying causes of multiple-allele-inherited male sterility in Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris L. ssp. pekinensis) by identifying differentially expressed genes (DEGs) related to pollen sterility between fertile and sterile flower buds. In this work, we verified the stages of sterility microscopically and then performed transcriptome analysis of mRNA isolated from fertile and sterile buds using Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform sequencing. Approximately 80% of ~229 million high-quality paired-end reads were uniquely mapped to the reference genome. In sterile buds, 699 genes were significantly up-regulated and 4096 genes were down-regulated. Among the DEGs, 28 pollen cell wall-related genes, 54 transcription factor genes, 45 phytohormone-related genes, 20 anther and pollen-related genes, 212 specifically expressed transcripts, and 417 DEGs located on linkage group A07 were identified. Six transcription factor genes BrAMS, BrMS1, BrbHLH089, BrbHLH091, BrAtMYB103, and BrANAC025 were identified as putative sterility-related genes. The weak auxin signal that is regulated by BrABP1 may be one of the key factors causing pollen sterility observed here. Moreover, several significantly enriched GO terms such as "cell wall organization or biogenesis" (GO:0071554), "intrinsic to membrane" (GO:0031224), "integral to membrane" (GO:0016021), "hydrolase activity, acting on ester bonds" (GO:0016788), and one significantly enriched pathway "starch and sucrose metabolism" (ath00500) were identified in this work. qRT-PCR, PCR, and in situ hybridization experiments validated our RNA-seq transcriptome analysis as accurate and reliable. This study will lay the foundation for elucidating the molecular mechanism(s) that underly sterility and provide valuable information for studying multiple-allele-inherited male sterility in the Chinese cabbage line 'AB01'.

  16. The use of environmental metabolomics to determine glyphosate level of exposure in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, Iben Lykke; Tomasi, Giorgio; Sorensen, Hilmer; Boll, Esther S.; Hansen, Hans Christian Bruun; Christensen, Jan H.

    2011-01-01

    Metabolic profiling in plants can be used to differentiate between treatments and to search for biomarkers for exposure. A methodology for processing Ultra-High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Diode-Array-Detection data is devised. This methodology includes a scheme for selecting informative wavelengths, baseline removal, retention time alignment, selection of relevant retention times, and principal component analysis (PCA). Plant crude extracts from rapeseed seedling exposed to sublethal concentrations of glyphosate are used as a study case. Through this approach, plants exposed to concentrations down to 5 μM could be distinguished from the controls. The compounds responsible for this differentiation were partially identified and were different from those specific for high exposure samples, which suggests that two different responses to glyphosate are elicited in rapeseed depending on the level of exposure. The PCA loadings indicate that a combination of other metabolites could be more sensitive than the response of shikimate to detect glyphosate exposure. - Highlights: → A method for processing UHPLC-DAD data for plant metabolic profiling is devised. → The metabolic profiling approach is more sensitive to glyphosate exposure than shikimate. → Plants exposed to concentrations down to 5 μM can be distinguished from the controls. → Two different responses to glyphosate may be elicited in rapeseed depending on the level of exposure. - A novel untargeted environmental metabololomic approach is used to detect low-level glyphosate exposure of rapeseed seedlings.

  17. The use of environmental metabolomics to determine glyphosate level of exposure in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) seedlings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, Iben Lykke; Tomasi, Giorgio; Sorensen, Hilmer; Boll, Esther S.; Hansen, Hans Christian Bruun [Department of Basic Sciences and Environment, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Thorvaldsensvej 40, DK-1871 Frederiksberg C (Denmark); Christensen, Jan H., E-mail: jch@life.ku.dk [Department of Basic Sciences and Environment, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Thorvaldsensvej 40, DK-1871 Frederiksberg C (Denmark)

    2011-10-15

    Metabolic profiling in plants can be used to differentiate between treatments and to search for biomarkers for exposure. A methodology for processing Ultra-High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Diode-Array-Detection data is devised. This methodology includes a scheme for selecting informative wavelengths, baseline removal, retention time alignment, selection of relevant retention times, and principal component analysis (PCA). Plant crude extracts from rapeseed seedling exposed to sublethal concentrations of glyphosate are used as a study case. Through this approach, plants exposed to concentrations down to 5 {mu}M could be distinguished from the controls. The compounds responsible for this differentiation were partially identified and were different from those specific for high exposure samples, which suggests that two different responses to glyphosate are elicited in rapeseed depending on the level of exposure. The PCA loadings indicate that a combination of other metabolites could be more sensitive than the response of shikimate to detect glyphosate exposure. - Highlights: > A method for processing UHPLC-DAD data for plant metabolic profiling is devised. > The metabolic profiling approach is more sensitive to glyphosate exposure than shikimate. > Plants exposed to concentrations down to 5 {mu}M can be distinguished from the controls. > Two different responses to glyphosate may be elicited in rapeseed depending on the level of exposure. - A novel untargeted environmental metabololomic approach is used to detect low-level glyphosate exposure of rapeseed seedlings.

  18. Micro-pressing of rapeseed (Brassica napus L. and Arabidopsis thaliana seeds for evaluation of the oil extractability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savoire Raphaëlle

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Pressing is a crucial step in the crushing process of rapeseed seeds, regarding its major effect on the oil extraction yield, the energy consumption and the quality of the meal. In order to study and model in a rigorous way the behaviour of rapeseed seeds, and the oil extraction during pressing, the potential of a micro-pressing technique using a instrumented micro press adapted to quantities of seeds as low as 10 g for rapeseed and 3 g for Arabidopsis thaliana was examined and discussed. Using a phenomenological model, data from the pressing process and the material behaviour (compressibility modules were obtained with a good precision, highlighting small differences between samples. The well-known positive effect of the temperature on the oil extraction yield was confirmed with A. thaliana. Micro-pressing of ground and cooked rapeseed seeds did not lead to the results usually reported in the literature for continuous pressing. The results strongly suggest that the performance of the static micro-pressing is related to the macro-and micro-structure of seeds and is less sensitive to the moisture than continuous pressing. Further experiments are needed to confirm that the micro-pressing could be an effective tool for predicting the extractability of oil and therefore, contribute to plant breeding programmes in the future.

  19. Use of MSAP markers to analyse the effects of salt stress on DNA methylation in rapeseed (Brassica napus var. oleifera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianpiero Marconi

    Full Text Available Excessive soil salinity is a major ecological and agronomical problem, the adverse effects of which are becoming a serious issue in regions where saline water is used for irrigation. Plants can employ regulatory strategies, such as DNA methylation, to enable relatively rapid adaptation to new conditions. In this regard, cytosine methylation might play an integral role in the regulation of gene expression at both the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. Rapeseed, which is the most important oilseed crop in Europe, is classified as being tolerant of salinity, although cultivars can vary substantially in their levels of tolerance. In this study, the Methylation Sensitive Amplified Polymorphism (MSAP approach was used to assess the extent of cytosine methylation under salinity stress in salinity-tolerant (Exagone and salinity-sensitive (Toccata rapeseed cultivars. Our data show that salinity affected the level of DNA methylation. In particular methylation decreased in Exagone and increased in Toccata. Nineteen DNA fragments showing polymorphisms related to differences in methylation were sequenced. In particular, two of these were highly similar to genes involved in stress responses (Lacerata and trehalose-6-phosphatase synthase S4 and were chosen to further characterization. Bisulfite sequencing and quantitative RT-PCR analysis of selected MSAP loci showed that cytosine methylation changes under salinity as well as gene expression varied. In particular, our data show that salinity stress influences the expression of the two stress-related genes. Moreover, we quantified the level of trehalose in Exagone shoots and found that it was correlated to TPS4 expression and, therefore, to DNA methylation. In conclusion, we found that salinity could induce genome-wide changes in DNA methylation status, and that these changes, when averaged across different genotypes and developmental stages, accounted for 16.8% of the total site

  20. Genetic and Cytological Analyses of the Natural Variation of Seed Number per Pod in Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhua Yang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Seed number is one of the key traits related to plant evolution/domestication and crop improvement/breeding. In rapeseed germplasm, the seed number per pod (SNPP shows a very wide variation from several to nearly 30; however, the underlying causations/mechanisms for this variation are poorly known. In the current study, the genetic and cytological bases for the natural variation of SNPP in rapeseed was firstly and systematically investigated using the representative four high-SNPP and five low-SNPP lines. The results of self- or cross-pollination experiment between the high- and low-SNPP lines showed that the natural variation of SNPP was mainly controlled by maternal effect (mean = 0.79, followed by paternal effect (mean = 0.21. Analysis of the data using diploid seed embryo–cytoplasmic–maternal model further showed that the maternal genotype, embryo, and cytoplasm effects, respectively, explained 47.6, 35.2, and 7.5% of the genetic variance. In addition, the analysis of combining ability showed that for the SNPP of hybrid F1 was mainly determined by the general combining ability of parents (63.0%, followed by special combining ability of parental combination (37.0%. More importantly, the cytological observation showed that the SNPP difference between the high- and low-SNPP lines was attributable to the accumulative differences in its components. Of which, the number of ovules, the proportion of fertile ovules, the proportion of fertile ovules to be fertilized, and the proportion of fertilized ovules to develop into seeds accounted for 30.7, 18.2, 7.1, and 43.9%, respectively. The accordant results of both genetic and cytological analyses provide solid evidences and systematic insights to further understand the mechanisms underlying the natural variation of SNPP, which will facilitate the development of high-yield cultivars in rapeseed.

  1. Effects of Super-Absorbent Polymer Application on Yield and Yield Components of Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariborz SHEKARI

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Limitation of water resources and its great impact on agricultural and natural resources play a crucial role in the efficiency of water use. Applying super absorbent polymer to the soil may be one of the methods to minimize the stress of weather dryness in arid and semi-arid regions. In order to evaluate the effects of hydrophilic polymer application on yield and water use efficiency of rapeseed plants, an experiment was conducted under field condition in 2012 at the Research Farm of the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Maragheh. Treatments’ factors were: (i 3 super absorbent polymers (SAP (Taravat A200 levels of 0 (without application, 75 and 150 kg ha-1 A200 application, (ii three irrigation levels of 80, 120 and 180 mm evaporation from class A basin in main plots, (iii two cultivars ʻHyola 401ʼ and ʻRVSʼ in sub plots as factorial split plot combination based on completely randomized block design with three replications. The results showed that in all of the measured traits within the experiment there were significant differences between SAP levels. Furthermore, increasing irrigation interval led to an increase in a thousand seeds’ weight, but decreased seed yield. Increasing water stress raised seed oil percent and infertile silique and subsequently resulted in reduced oil yield. ʻHyola 401ʼ was more susceptible to embryo abortion compared with ʻRVSʼ. As a conclusion of the research, SAP (A200 application in quantities smaller than 75 kg ha-1 may be recommended for rapeseed production under field condition.

  2. Survival of pathogens of Brussels sprouts (Brassica oleracea Gemifera group) in crop residues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Köhl, J.; Vlaswinkel, M.E.T.; Groenenboom-de Haas, B.H.; Kastelein, P.; Hoof, van R.A.; Wolf, van der J.M.; Krijger, M.C.

    2011-01-01

    Mycosphaerella brassicicola (ringspot), Alternaria brassicicola and A. brassicae (dark leaf spot) and Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (black spot) can infect leaves of Brussels sprouts resulting in yield losses. Infections of outer leaves of sprouts cause severe losses in quality. Crop

  3. Evaluation of Yield Component Traits of Honeybee-Pollinated (Apis mellifera L.Rapeseed Canola (Brassica napus L. Evaluación de Parámetros de Rendimiento del Raps (Brassica napus L. Polinizado por Abejas (Apis mellifera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ximena Araneda Durán

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent introduction of hybrid varieties raises the question if bees (Apis mellifera L. contribute as pollinator agents in developing the full yield potential of rapeseed (Brassica napus L.. In order to evaluate the yield achieved by B. napus cv. Artus pollinated by A. mellifera testing was carried out in the district of Freire, La Araucanía Region, Chile. This consisted in isolating or excluding rapeseed plants from pollinators with exclusion cages. Treatments applied were total exclusion (T1, partial exclusion (T2 and free pollination (T0 with a density of 6.5 hives ha-1, in order to determine the following yield components traits: grains per silique, siliques per plant, 1000 grain weight and yield. The experimental design used was randomized complete blocks with three treatments and three replicates. Results obtained show that the parameter least affected by bee intervention was the grains per silique variable. In contrast, siliques per plant and 1000 grain weight parameters presented significant differences, contributing to a yield greater than 5 t ha-1; which represented a figure 50.34% higher than in the treatment without bees. It may be concluded that the inclusion of bees in crops is fully justified as a production tool.La reciente introducción de variedades híbridas plantea la interrogante de la contribución que pueda tener la presencia de abejas (Apis mellifera L. como agentes polinizadores para desarrollar en pleno el potencial productivo del raps (Brassica napus L.. Con el objetivo de evaluar el rendimiento alcanzado por B. napus cv. Artus polinizado por A. mellifera, se realizó un ensayo en la localidad de Freire, Región de La Araucanía, Chile. Éste consistió en aislar o excluir las plantas de raps de los polinizadores mediante el uso de jaulas excluidoras. Los tratamientos consistieron en la exclusión total (T1, exclusión parcial (T2 y libre polinización (T0 con una densidad de 6,5 colmenas ha-1, con el fin de determinar

  4. TGMS in Rapeseed (Brassica napus Resulted in Aberrant Transcriptional Regulation, Asynchronous Microsporocyte Meiosis, Defective Tapetum, and Fused Sexine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi-Qiong Liu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The thermo-sensitive genic male sterility (TGMS line SP2S is a spontaneous rapeseed mutation with several traits that are favorable for the production of two-line hybrids. To uncover the key cellular events and genetic regulation associated with TGMS expression, a combined study using cytological observation, transcriptome profiling, and gene expression analysis was conducted for SP2S and its near-isogenic line SP2F grown under warm conditions. Asynchronous microsporocyte meiosis and abnormal tapetal plastids and elaioplasts were demonstrated in the anther of SP2S. The tetrad microspore did not undergo mitosis before the cytoplasm degenerated. Delayed degradation of the tetrad wall, which led to tetrad microspore aggregation, resulted in postponement of sexine (outer layer of pollen exine formation and sexine fusion in the tetrad. The nexine (foot layer of exine was also absent. The delay of tetrad wall degradation and abnormality of the exine structure suggested that the defective tapetum lost important functions. Based on transcriptomic comparisons between young flower buds of SP2S and SP2F plants, a total of 465 differentially expressed transcripts (DETs were identified, including 303 up-regulated DETs and 162 down-regulated DETs in SP2S. Several genes encoding small RNA degrading nuclease 2, small RNA 2′-O-methyltransferase, thioredoxin reductase 2, regulatory subunit A alpha isoform of serine/threonine-protein phosphatase 2A, glycine rich protein 1A, transcription factor bHLH25, leucine-rich repeat receptor kinase At3g14840 like, and fasciclin-like arabinogalactan proteins FLA19 and FLA20 were greatly depressed in SP2S. Interestingly, a POLLENLESS3-LIKE 2 gene encoding the Arabidopsis MS5 homologous protein, which is necessary for microsporocyte meiosis, was down-regulated in SP2S. Other genes that were up-regulated in SP2S encoded glucanase A6, ethylene-responsive transcription factor 1A-like, pollen-specific SF3, stress

  5. Identification of flavonoids and hydroxycinnamic acids in pak choi varieties (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis var. communis) by HPLC-ESI-MSn and NMR and their quantification by HPLC-DAD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbaum, Britta; Hubbermann, Eva Maria; Wolff, Christian; Herges, Rainer; Zhu, Zhujun; Schwarz, Karin

    2007-10-03

    Twenty-eight polyphenols (11 flavonoid derivatives and 17 hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives) were detected in different cultivars of the Chinese cabbage pak choi ( Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis var. communis) by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS(n). Kaempferol was found to be the major flavonoid in pak choi, glycosylated and acylated with different compounds. Smaller amounts of isorhamnetin were also detected. A structural determination was carried out by (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy for the main compound, kaempferol-3-O-hydroxyferuloylsophoroside-7-O-glucoside, for the first time. Hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives were identified as different esters of quinic acid, glycosides, and malic acid. The latter ones are described for the first time in cabbages. The content of polyphenols was determined in 11 cultivars of pak choi, with higher concentrations present in the leaf blade than in the leaf stem. Hydroxycinnamic acid esters, particularly malic acid derivatives, are present in both the leaf blade and leaf stem, whereas flavonoid levels were determined only in the leaf blade.

  6. Rapeseed research and production in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiong Hu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Rapeseed (Brassica napus L. is the largest oilseed crop in China and accounts for about 20% of world production. For the last 10 years, the production, planting area, and yield of rapeseed have been stable, with improvement of seed quality and especially seed oil content. China is among the leading countries in rapeseed genomic research internationally, having jointly with other countries accomplished the whole genome sequencing of rapeseed and its two parental species, Brassica oleracea and Brassica rapa. Progress on functional genomics including the identification of QTL governing important agronomic traits such as yield, seed oil content, fertility regulation, disease and insect resistance, abiotic stress, nutrition use efficiency, and pod shattering resistance has been achieved. As a consequence, molecular markers have been developed and used in breeding programs. During 2005–2014, 215 rapeseed varieties were registered nationally, including 210 winter- and 5 spring-type varieties. Mechanization across the whole process of rapeseed production was investigated and operating instructions for all relevant techniques were published. Modern techniques for rapeseed field management such as high-density planting, controlled-release fertilizer, and biocontrol of disease and pests combined with precision tools such as drones have been developed and are being adopted in China. With the application of advanced breeding and production technologies, in the near future, the oil yield and quality of rapeseed varieties will be greatly increased, and more varieties with desirable traits, especially early maturation, high yield, high resistance to biotic and abiotic stress, and suitability for mechanized harvesting will be developed. Application of modern technologies on the mechanized management of rapeseed will greatly increase grower profit.

  7. Inheritance of rapeseed (Brassica napus)-specific RAPD markers and a transgene in the cross B.juncea x (B.juncea x B.napus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frello, S.; Hansen, K.R.; Jensen, J.

    1995-01-01

    , with B. juncea as the female parent, was successful both in controlled crosses and spontaneously in the field. The controlled backcrossing of selected hybrids to B. juncea, again with B. juncea as the female parent, also resulted in many seeds. The BC1 plants contained from 0 to 20 of the rapeseed RAPD...

  8. Tobacco Rotated with Rapeseed for Soil-Borne Phytophthora Pathogen Biocontrol: Mediated by Rapeseed Root Exudates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuting Fang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Black shank, caused by Phytophthora parasitica var. nicotianae, is a widespread and destructive disease of tobacco. Crop rotation is essential in controlling black shank. Here, we confirmed that rotating black shank-infested fields with rapeseed (Brassica napus suppressed the incidence this disease. Further study demonstrated that rapeseed roots have a strong ability to attract zoospores and subsequently stop the swimming of zoospores into cystospores. Then, rapeseed roots secrete a series of antimicrobial compounds, including 2-butenoic acid, benzothiazole, 2-(methylthiobenzothiazole, 1-(4-ethylphenyl-ethanone, and 4-methoxyindole, to inhibit the cystospore germination and mycelial growth of P. parasitica var. nicotianae. Thus, rapeseed rotated with tobacco suppresses tobacco black shank disease through the chemical weapons secreted by rapeseed roots.

  9. Symbiotic Effect of Trichoderma atroviride on Growth Characteristics and Yield of two Cultivars of Rapeseed (Brassica napus L. in a Contaminated Soil Treated with Copper Nitrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E TashakoriFard

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Accumulation of heavy metals in agricultural soils can be a threat to crop production due to plant toxicity. In the recent years, hyperaccumulator plants are cultivated to cleaning up the soils which contaminated with pollutants especially heavy metals. However, the biomass of these plants is low and metal specific. Many studies have shown that microorganisms can be used to significantly reduce the toxicity of heavy metals. Therefore, the present study aimed to determine the role of Trichoderma atroviride on the growth characteristics of tow cultivars of rapeseed in different levels on copper. Materials and Methods In this study, a pot experiment was conducted in factorial arrangement based completely randomized design with three replicates. Treatment were T. atroviride fungi at two levels of inoculated and non-inoculated plants, four levels of copper nitrate including 0, 50, 100 and 150 mg l-1 and two cultivars of rapeseed consist of Hayola 401 and Sarigol. Trichoderma atroviride was prepared from Mycology Lab of Sari Agricultural Science and Natural Resource University. PDA medium (potato extract, dextrose and agar was kept for a week at 25˚C to propagation of fungal strain. The used medium was previously sterilized in autoclave for 30 minutes. So, this fungus propagated in Wheat's bran for five days. Healthy and uniform seeds of rapeseeds were separated from rogues and infertile ones. Seeds disinfected in hypochlorite sodium 0.5% for five minute and then washed with distilled water three times. After preparing fungus spore suspension of 108 CFU per ml water, 50 g wheat' bran mixed to the soil of each pot. Twenty sterilized seeds sown in 2 cm of soil depth in 25×30 cm pot with 10 kg capacity. Copper nitrate was used to pollute treated soil. During this experiment did not used any pesticides and herbicides and all weed controlled manually. Some growth and yield related parameters such as plant height, number of secondary branches

  10. Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase (MAPKKK) 4 from rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) is a novel member inducing ROS accumulation and cell death

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Liang, E-mail: 18710470987@163.com; Ye, Chaofei, E-mail: yechaofei001@163.com; Zhao, Rui, E-mail: 571828628@qq.com; Li, Xin, E-mail: 1458272138@qq.com; Liu, Wu-zhen, E-mail: happywuzhenliu@163.com; Wu, Feifei, E-mail: 283915941@qq.com; Yan, Jingli, E-mail: yanjingli512@163.com; Jiang, Yuan-Qing, E-mail: jiangyq@nwafu.edu.cn; Yang, Bo, E-mail: yangwl@nwafu.edu.cn

    2015-11-27

    MAPKKK is the largest family of MAPK cascade, which is known to play important roles in plant growth, development and immune responses. So far, only a few have been functionally characterized even in the model plant, Arabidopsis due to the potential functional redundancy of MAPKKK. We previously identified and cloned a few MAPKKK family genes from rapeseed. In this study, BnaMAPKKK4 was characterized as a member in eliciting accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and hypersensitive response (HR)-like cell death. This is accompanied with accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA), anthocyanin as well as nuclear DNA fragmentation. The transcript abundance of a series of ROS accumulation, cell death, and defense response related genes were up-regulated by the expression of MAPKKK4. Further investigation identified BnaMAPKKK4 elicited ROS through the downstream MPK3. These results indicate that BnaMAPKKK4 and its downstream components function in the ROS-induced cell death. - Highlights: • Expression of rapeseed MAPKKK4 induced ROS accumulation and cell death in leaves. • Cell death induced by MAPKKK4 is associated with membrane lipid peroxidation and DNA fragmentation. • MAPKKK4 interacts with MKK5 and MPK3. • MAPKKK4-induced ROS accumulation and cell death require downstream WIPK and SIPK. • MAPKKK4 is a novel MAPKKK modulating ROS accumulation and cell death.

  11. Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase (MAPKKK) 4 from rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) is a novel member inducing ROS accumulation and cell death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Liang; Ye, Chaofei; Zhao, Rui; Li, Xin; Liu, Wu-zhen; Wu, Feifei; Yan, Jingli; Jiang, Yuan-Qing; Yang, Bo

    2015-01-01

    MAPKKK is the largest family of MAPK cascade, which is known to play important roles in plant growth, development and immune responses. So far, only a few have been functionally characterized even in the model plant, Arabidopsis due to the potential functional redundancy of MAPKKK. We previously identified and cloned a few MAPKKK family genes from rapeseed. In this study, BnaMAPKKK4 was characterized as a member in eliciting accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and hypersensitive response (HR)-like cell death. This is accompanied with accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA), anthocyanin as well as nuclear DNA fragmentation. The transcript abundance of a series of ROS accumulation, cell death, and defense response related genes were up-regulated by the expression of MAPKKK4. Further investigation identified BnaMAPKKK4 elicited ROS through the downstream MPK3. These results indicate that BnaMAPKKK4 and its downstream components function in the ROS-induced cell death. - Highlights: • Expression of rapeseed MAPKKK4 induced ROS accumulation and cell death in leaves. • Cell death induced by MAPKKK4 is associated with membrane lipid peroxidation and DNA fragmentation. • MAPKKK4 interacts with MKK5 and MPK3. • MAPKKK4-induced ROS accumulation and cell death require downstream WIPK and SIPK. • MAPKKK4 is a novel MAPKKK modulating ROS accumulation and cell death.

  12. Effects of Super-Absorbent Polymer Application on Yield and Yield Components of Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariborz SHEKARI

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Limitation of water resources and its great impact on agricultural and natural resources play a crucial role in the efficiency of water use. Applying super absorbent polymer to the soil may be one of the methods to minimize the stress of weather dryness in arid and semi-arid regions. In order to evaluate the effects of hydrophilic polymer application on yield and water use efficiency of rapeseed plants, an experiment was conducted under field condition in 2012 at the Research Farm of the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Maragheh. Treatments’ factors were: (i 3 super absorbent polymers (SAP (Taravat A200 levels of 0 (without application, 75 and 150 kg ha-1 A200 application, (ii three irrigation levels of 80, 120 and 180 mm evaporation from class A basin in main plots, (iii two cultivars ʻHyola 401ʼ and ʻRVSʼ in sub plots as factorial split plot combination based on completely randomized block design with three replications. The results showed that in all of the measured traits within the experiment there were significant differences between SAP levels. Furthermore, increasing irrigation interval led to an increase in a thousand seeds’ weight, but decreased seed yield. Increasing water stress raised seed oil percent and infertile silique and subsequently resulted in reduced oil yield. ʻHyola 401ʼ was more susceptible to embryo abortion compared with ʻRVSʼ. As a conclusion of the research, SAP (A200 application in quantities smaller than 75 kg ha-1 may be recommended for rapeseed production under field condition.

  13. USING Xanthomonas Campestris

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    Xanthan gum is a major biopolymer which finds a lot of applications industrially and domestically. ... gum was produced from pineapple peels using Xanthomonas campestris by ... producing microorganism is strongly influenced by the medium.

  14. Changes in Growth and Oil Yield Indices of Rapeseed (Brassica napus L., cv. Hyola 401 in Different Concentrations andTimes of Application of Supplementary Nitrogen Fertilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Tousi Kehal

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effect of concentration and time of supplementary nitrogen fertilizer spray on growth indices of rapeseed (cv. Hyola 401, a field experiment was conducted at Rice Research Institute of Iran as a randomized complete blocks design with 16 treatments and 3 replications in 2008-2009. The treatments included concentration of nitrogen fertilizer (urea at two levels (5 and 10 ppm in seven levels of application time:1 spraying at 6-8- leaf stage, 2 beginning of stem elongation, 3 prior to flowering, 4 at 6-8- leaf stage + beginning of stem elongation, 5 at 6-8- leaf + prior to flowering, 6 beginning of stem elongation+ prior to flowering, and 7 at 6-8- leaf + beginning of stem elongation+ prior to flowering, which were compared with two control treatments (no fertilizer nitrogen and conventional soil fertilization. Results showed that significant difference was observed between spray treatments including concentration and times of nitrogen application, between controls and between controls with spray treatments, of grain and oil yield, crop growth rate (CGR, leaf area index (LAI and leaf area duration (LAD. Application of nitrogen (10 ppm at the beginning of stem elongation+ prior to flowering stages produced maximum grain yield (4221.7 kg/ha and oil yield (1771.1 kg/ha. Spray treatments produced maximum oil yield index (15.3% compared to controls. Maximum LAI (6.9 and 5.6 respectively, CGR (15.2 and 14.3 g/m2.10 GDD, respectively and LAD (1204 and 1029 cm2/10 GDD, respectively were also obtained from spray application of nitrogen (10 ppm at the beginning of stem elongation+ prior to flowering stages and at 6-8-leaf stage + beginning of stem elongation + prior to flowering. According to the results of the present investigation, it seems that foliar application of supplementary nitrogen fertilizer at the end growth stages (beginning of stem elongation and prior to flowering of rapeseed plants may help to enhance growth indices

  15. Effect of salinity and priming on seedling growth in rapeseed (Brassica napus var oleifera Del. - doi: 10.4025/actasciagron.v35i4.17655

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Benincasa

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Experiments were performed to examine the effect of salt stress and GA3-priming on initial growth of two rapeseed cultivars, one tolerant and one sensitive to salt stress during germination. Seedlings from seeds germinated in salty (as NaCl and non salty substrate were grown in salty and non salty hydroponics. Salt stress reduced seedling growth of the two genotypes consistently with their degree of stress tolerance during germination. Seedlings from stress sensitive seeds germinated under high salinity showed a rapid recover of growth in non stressing conditions. The effect of salt stress on shoot/root ratio was controversial, increased for lab and decreased for greenhouse experiments, probably due to different timing of stress application and additional experimental conditions. Salt stress decreased leaf photosynthesis and increased thermal dissipation in sensitive seedlings (decrease of ΦPSII and qP, increase of NPQ. The GA3-priming did not affect seedling growth of the stress sensitive cultivar subjected to stress, while it greatly improved the performance of the stress tolerant cultivar.

  16. Distributions of imidacloprid, imidacloprid-olefin and imidacloprid-urea in green plant tissues and roots of rapeseed (Brassica napus) from artificially contaminated potting soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifrtova, Marcela; Halesova, Tatana; Sulcova, Klara; Riddellova, Katerina; Erban, Tomas

    2017-05-01

    Imidacloprid-urea is the primary imidacloprid soil metabolite, whereas imidacloprid-olefin is the main plant-relevant metabolite and is more toxic to insects than imidacloprid. We artificially contaminated potting soil and used quantitative UHPLC-QqQ-MS/MS to determine the imidacloprid, imidacloprid-olefin and imidacloprid-urea distributions in rapeseed green plant tissues and roots after 4 weeks of exposure. In soil, the imidacloprid/imidacloprid-urea molar ratios decreased similarly after the 250 and 2500 µg kg -1 imidacloprid treatments. The imidacloprid/imidacloprid-urea molar ratios in the root and soil were similar, whereas in the green plant tissue, imidacloprid-urea increased more than twofold compared with the root. Although imidacloprid-olefin was prevalent in the green plant tissues, with imidacloprid/imidacloprid-olefin molar ratios of 2.24 and 1.47 for the 250 and 2500 µg kg -1 treatments respectively, it was not detected in the root. However, imidacloprid-olefin was detected in the soil after the 2500 µg kg -1 imidacloprid treatment. Significant proportions of imidacloprid-olefin and imidacloprid-urea in green plant tissues were demonstrated. The greater imidacloprid supply increased the imidacloprid-olefin/imidacloprid molar ratio in the green plant tissues. The absence of imidacloprid-olefin in the root excluded its retransport from leaves. The similar imidacloprid/imidacloprid-urea ratios in the soil and root indicated that the root serves primarily for transporting these substances. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Effects of Source and Rate of Nitrogen Fertilizer on Yield, Yield Components and Quality of Winter Rapeseed (Brassica napus L. Efecto de la Fuente y Dosis de Fertilizantes Nitrogenados en el Rendimiento, Componentes de Rendimiento y Calidad de Semilla de Canola (Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özden Öztürk

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Winter rapeseed (Brassica napus L. has potential to become an alternate oilseed crop both for edible oil production and energy agriculture (biofuel production for Turkey. This study was conducted to determine the effect of year, N sources and doses on the yield and quality traits of winter rapeseed in a cereal system in calcareous soils over two seasons, 2000-2001 and 2001-2002, in Central Anatolia. Three N sources, ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate and urea, were applied as hand broadcast on the soil surface at five doses (0, 50, 100, 150, and 200 kg N ha-1. The traits investigated were plant height, number of branches and pods per plant, number of seed per pod, thousand seed weight, seed yield, oil and protein content. There were significantly effects on seed yield, oil and protein content, and other yield components due to N sources and rates. In general, ammonium sulfate and urea gave higher seed yield than ammonium nitrate. Mean values of both seasons indicated that 100 and 150 kg N ha-1 rate increased significantly yield and quality traits with regard to other N treatments. The present results highlight the practical importance of adequate N fertilization and true N source in seed yield in winter rapeseed and suggest that ammonium sulfate at 150 kg N ha-1 will be about adequate to meet crop N requirements.El raps (Brassica napus L. tiene potencial para convertirse en un cultivo oleaginoso alternativo para producción de aceite comestible y agricultura energética (producción de biodiesel en Turquía. Este estudio fue conducido para determinar el efecto del año, fuente y dosis de N en las características de rendimiento y calidad de raps en un sistema cerealero en suelos calcáreos en dos temporadas, 2000-2001 y 2001-2002, en Anatolia Central. Se aplicaron al voleo tres fuentes de N (sulfato de amonio, nitrato de amonio y urea en cinco dosis (0, 50, 100, 150 y 200 kg N ha-1. Las características investigadas fueron altura de planta, n

  18. Effect of Nitrogen and Zinc Sulphate Fertilizers and Azotobacter and Azospirillum Biofertilizer on Yield and Growth Traits of Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Jafari

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effects of simultaneous application of nitrogen (N and ZnSO4 fertilizers and biofertilizer (Azotobacter and Azospirillum on grain yield and growth traits of rapeseed, Hyola308 cultivar, a field experiment, with split plot factorial layout based on randomized complete blocks design with three replications, was conducted at Research Field of Faculty of Agriculture, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran, during 2007-2008 growing season. Nitrogen fertilizer at four levels (0, 50, 100 and 150 kg/ha were the main plot and ZnSO4 fertilizer at two levels (0 and 50 kg/ha and biofertilizer at two levels (with and without biofertilizer were arranged in sub-plots. Results showed that maximum and minimum leaf area indices at flowering stage (average of 1.29 and 0.95, respectively were obtained in 150 kg/ha N+ZnSO4+ biofertilizer and in 50 kg/ha N+ no ZnSO4+ no biofertilizer treatments. Maximum and minimum crop growth rates at flowering stage (average of 5.89 and 3.19 g/m2.GDD, respectively were obtained in 150 kg/ha N+ZnSO4+ biofertilizer and control treatments. Maximum and minimum grain yields (2568, 2468 and 543 kg/ha, respectively were obtained in 150 kg/ha N+ with/without ZnSO4+ biofertilizer and control (no fertilizer treatments. Maximum and minimum oil yields (42.8 and 37.3%, respectively were measured in 0 kg/ha N+ZnSO4+ biofertilizer and 150 kg/ha N+ no ZnSO4+ no biofertilizer treatments. Since there was no significant difference between 150 and 100 kg/ha N+ZnSO4+ biofertilizer treatments in terms of impact on canola grain yield and growth traits, it seems that application of biofertilizer (Azotobacter and Azospirillum, without any reduction in yield, increased grain production and oil content and saved 50 kg/ha of N fertilizer. Biofertilizer (Azotobacter and Azospirillum, along with zinc and sulfur, produced phytohormones, and N fertilizer increased dry matter accumulation and leaf area index (by increasing carbohydrate conversion

  19. Oilseed brassica improvement: through induced mutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, S.A.; Ali, I.; Rehman, K.

    1990-06-01

    The oilseed brassica improvement programme is discussed in this report. Some observations on different plant mutants were made throughout the growth period and results revealed that most of the selected mutants of both the varieties expressed better performance than the parent by showing superior plant traits. A new species named brassica carinata has tremendous untapped potential as an oilseed crop. Efforts for creating maximum variability in rapeseed mustard varieties by means other than gamma radiation continued. (A.B.)

  20. Immunity at Cauliflower Hydathodes Controls Systemic Infection by Xanthomonas campestris pv campestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerutti, Aude; Jauneau, Alain; Auriac, Marie-Christine; Lauber, Emmanuelle; Martinez, Yves; Chiarenza, Serge; Leonhardt, Nathalie; Berthomé, Richard; Noël, Laurent D

    2017-06-01

    Hydathodes are water pores found on leaves of a wide range of vascular plants and are the sites of guttation. We report here on the detailed anatomy of cauliflower ( Brassica oleracea ) and Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ) hydathodes. Hydathode surface presents pores resembling stomata giving access to large cavities. Beneath, the epithem is composed of a lacunar and highly vascularized parenchyma offering a direct connection between leaf surface and xylem vessels. Arabidopsis hydathode pores were responsive to ABA and light similar to stomata. The flg22 flagellin peptide, a well-characterized elicitor of plant basal immunity, did not induce closure of hydathode pores in contrast to stomata. Because hydathodes are natural infection routes for several pathogens, we investigated hydathode infection by the adapted vascular phytopathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv campestris ( Xcc ), the causal agent of black rot disease of Brassicaceae. Microscopic observations of hydathodes six days postinoculation indicated a digestion of the epithem cells and a high bacterial multiplication. Postinvasive immunity was shown to limit pathogen growth in the epithem and is actively suppressed by the type III secretion system and its effector proteins. Altogether, these results give a detailed anatomic description of Brassicaceae hydathodes and highlight the efficient use of this tissue as an initial niche for subsequent vascular systemic dissemination of Xcc in distant plant tissues. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  1. Immunity at Cauliflower Hydathodes Controls Systemic Infection by Xanthomonas campestris pv campestris1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerutti, Aude; Jauneau, Alain; Auriac, Marie-Christine; Lauber, Emmanuelle; Martinez, Yves; Chiarenza, Serge

    2017-01-01

    Hydathodes are water pores found on leaves of a wide range of vascular plants and are the sites of guttation. We report here on the detailed anatomy of cauliflower (Brassica oleracea) and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) hydathodes. Hydathode surface presents pores resembling stomata giving access to large cavities. Beneath, the epithem is composed of a lacunar and highly vascularized parenchyma offering a direct connection between leaf surface and xylem vessels. Arabidopsis hydathode pores were responsive to ABA and light similar to stomata. The flg22 flagellin peptide, a well-characterized elicitor of plant basal immunity, did not induce closure of hydathode pores in contrast to stomata. Because hydathodes are natural infection routes for several pathogens, we investigated hydathode infection by the adapted vascular phytopathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv campestris (Xcc), the causal agent of black rot disease of Brassicaceae. Microscopic observations of hydathodes six days postinoculation indicated a digestion of the epithem cells and a high bacterial multiplication. Postinvasive immunity was shown to limit pathogen growth in the epithem and is actively suppressed by the type III secretion system and its effector proteins. Altogether, these results give a detailed anatomic description of Brassicaceae hydathodes and highlight the efficient use of this tissue as an initial niche for subsequent vascular systemic dissemination of Xcc in distant plant tissues. PMID:28184011

  2. Achievements in NS rapeseed hybrids breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjanović-Jeromela Ana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The increased production of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. is evident on a global scale, but also in Serbia in the last decade. Rapeseed is used primarily for vegetable oil and processing industry, but also as a source of protein for animal feed and green manure. Following the cultivation of varieties, breeding and cultivation of hybrid rapeseed started in the 1990's, to take advantage of heterosis in F1 generation, while protecting the breeder's rights during seed commercialization. The breeding of hybrid oilseed rape requires high quality starting material (lines with good combining abilities for introduction of male sterility. Ogura sterility system is primarily used at the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops, Novi Sad, Serbia. To use this system, separate lines are modified with genes for cytoplasmic male sterility (cms female line - mother line and restoration of fertility (Rf male lines - father line. In order to maintain the sterility of the mother line it is necessary to produce a maintainer line of cytoplasmic male sterility. Creation of these lines and hybrids at the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops was successfully monitored with intense use of cytogenetic laboratory methods. The structure and vitality of pollen, including different phases during meiosis were checked so that cms stability was confirmed during the introduction of these genes into different lines. Rapeseed breeding program in Serbia resulted in numerous varieties through collaboration of researchers engaged in breeding and genetics of this plant species. So far, in addition to 12 varieties of winter rapeseed and two varieties of spring rapeseed, a new hybrid of winter rapeseed NS Ras was registered in Serbia. NS Ras is an early-maturing hybrid characterized by high seed yield and oil content. Average yield of NS Ras for two seasons and three sites was 4256 kg ha-1 of seed and 1704 kg ha-1 of oil. Three promising winter rapeseed hybrids are in the process of

  3. The phytotoxic effects and biodegradability of stored rapeseed oil and rapeseed oil methyl ester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. VAUHKONEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to determine the phytotoxicity of stored rapeseed (Brassica rapa oil (RSO and rapeseed oil methyl ester (RME after "spill like" contamination on the growth of barley (Hordeum vulgare and the biodegradability of these substances in OECD 301F test conditions and in ground water. Rapeseed oil and rapeseed oil methyl ester were both stored for a period of time and their fuel characteristics (e.g. acid number had changed from those set by the fuel standards and are considered to have an effect on its biodegradation. The phytotoxicity was tested using two different types of barley cultivars: ‘Saana’ and ‘Vilde’. The phytotoxic effect on the barley varieties was determined, after the growth season, by measuring the total biomass growth and the mass of 1000 kernels taken from the tests plots. Also visual inspection was used to determine what the effects on the barley growth were. These measurements suggest that both RSO and RME have a negative impact on barley sprouts and therefore the total growth of the barley. RSO and RME both decreased the total amount of harvested phytomass. The weight of 1000 kernels increased with low concentrations of these contaminants and high contamination levels reduced the mass of the kernels. The results of these experiments suggest that the stored rapeseed oil and rapeseed oil methyl ester are both phytotoxic materials and therefore will cause substantial loss of vegetation in the case of a fuel spill. The RSO and RME biodegraded effectively in the measurement period of 28 days under OECD test conditions: the degree of biodegradation being over 60%. The biodegradation in the ground water was much slower: the degree of biodegradation being about 10% after 28 days.;

  4. DNA polymorphism analysis of Xanthomonas campestris pv ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) techniques using M13 and 16S rRNA primers, respectively, for genotyping of the phytopathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris was studied. RAPD provided a simple, rapid, and ...

  5. Productivity and nutritive quality of three brassica varieties for use in pasture-based systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassicas are gaining popularity among pasture-based livestock producers to extend grazing during the ‘summer slump’ and throughout the fall. A 2-yr study was conducted to compare biomass production and nutrient composition of ‘Barisca’ rapeseed (RAP; Brassica napus L.), ‘Inspiration’ canola (CAN; B...

  6. Cardinal Temperatures of Brassica sp. and How to Determine It

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. K. SUANDA SUANDA

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Cardinal temperatures consist of minimum, optimum and maximum of plant growth, and might beable to be determined by assessing effect of temperature on seed germination. An experiment ofseed germination was conducted in laboratory, using thermal gradient plate for ten days. To test hypothesisthat rapeseed genotypes vary in their response to temperatures. The design of this experiment was asplit plot with four replications. The main-treatments were 14 different temperatures: 0.4°C, 3.3°C,7.8°C, 11.6°C, 13.3°C, 15.0°C, 16.8°C, 18.3°C, 20.9°C, 21.1°C, 25.6°C, 29.0°C, 33.0°C and36.3°C. Sub-treatments were 6 brassica genotypes: Brassica napus genotypes (Tatyoon and Marnoo;B. campestris (Jumbuck and Chinoli B; B. juncea (No. 81797 and Zero Erusic Mustard (ZEM 2.Each treatment was using 50 seeds. Germinations were observed daily for ten days and data wereanalyzed with regression and correlation. Genotypes responded differently to temperatures with Jumbuckthe most sensitive to low temperature with minimum temperature (7.90°C, then respectively followedby Chinoli B (6.36°C, ZEM 2 (4.77°C, Tatyoon (4.63°C, No. 81797 (2.59°C, and Marnoo(1.00°C. For high temperature the most sensitive was No. 81797 with maximum temperature 38.61°C.and then respectively followed by Marnoo (39.76°C, Chinoli B (42.93°C, Tatyoon (43.79°C,Jumbuck (44.58°C and ZEM 2 (45.88°C. Optimum temperatures were for Jumbuck was 24.56°C,ZEM 2 (26.95°C, Tatyoon (27.12°C, No. 81797 (28.12°C, Chinoli B (29.74°C and Marnoo(30.48°C.

  7. Varietal improvement of Brassica species through introduction, hybridization and mutation breeding techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhaman, A.

    1988-11-01

    Germplasm of Brassica campestris and Brassica juncea was collected from various parts of Bangladesh and evaluated for yield, oil content etc. prior to the breeding programme. Seeds of the B. campestris variety YS-52, possessing good agronomic characteristics, were treated with mutagens (gamma rays and sodium azide) to widen the genetic variation. Mutants were selected for higher yield and resistance against Alternaria brassicae. The two mutant lines BINA 1 and BINA 2 were selected exceeding the parent variety considerably in yield and disease resistance. They are candidates for recommended varieties. Brassica juncea variety RCM 625 was treated with gamma rays and EMS. Four higher yielding and earlier maturing mutants are being evaluated further. 6 tabs

  8. Molecular phylogenetic implications in Brassica napus based on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Brassica napus L. (canola, rapeseed) is one of the most important oil crops in many countries (Abdelmigid 2012;. Fayyaz et al. 2014), and thought to have originated from a cross where the maternal donor was closely related to two diploid species, B. oleracea (CC, 2n = 18) and B. rapa (AA, 2n = 20). Here, molecular ...

  9. Immunopurification and characterization of a rape ( Brassica napus L.)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lipase or triacylglycerol acylhydrolase (E.C.3.1.1.3) was purified to homogeneity from rapeseed-germinated cotyledons (Brassica napus L.). The purification scheme involved homogenization, centrifugation, ultracentrifugation and affinity chromatography using polyclonal antibodies raised against porcine pancreatic lipase.

  10. Xanthan gum production by Xanthomonas campestris pv ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cassava starch is a main renewable bio-resource with low price and mass production in Guangxi, China. It was used as carbon source in growing Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris 8004 (Xcc 8004) for xanthan gum production in this study. The xanthan gum yield of gelatinized cassava starch was higher than that of ...

  11. Expression analysis of four flower-specific promoters of Brassica spp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The 5'-flanking region of ca. 1200 bp upstream of the translation start site (TSS) of a putative cell wall protein gene was cloned from Brassica campestris, B. chinensis, B. napus and B. oleracea, and transferred to tobacco via Agrobacterium-mediation after fused to promoter-less beta-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene.

  12. Selection of pathogen-resistant mutants in rapeseed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spanier, A.; Roebbelen, G.

    1990-01-01

    Full text: Significant yield reductions are due to Phoma lingam and Alternaria brassicae. Toxin containing culture filtrates of the pathogens as well as concentrated toxins of Phoma (Sirodesmins) are used for resistance selections in in-vitro cultures of haploid rapeseed materials. A few days after transfer of the in-vitro materials to the selective media the inhibitory effect of both the culture filtrates as well as the Sirodesmins was apparent. Clones were obtained, surviving several transfers onto toxin containing media. Further experiments shall clarify whether the toxin tolerance, selected in vitro at the cell level, is expressed in the differentiated plant in the greenhouse and finally in the field. (author)

  13. Effects of rapeseed residue on lead and cadmium availability and uptake by rice plants in heavy metal contaminated paddy soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ok, Yong Sik; Usman, Adel R A; Lee, Sang Soo; Abd El-Azeem, Samy A M; Choi, Bongsu; Hashimoto, Yohey; Yang, Jae E

    2011-10-01

    Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) has been cultivated for biodiesel production worldwide. Winter rapeseed is commonly grown in the southern part of Korea under a rice-rapeseed double cropping system. In this study, a greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to assess the effects of rapeseed residue applied as a green manure alone or in combinations with mineral N fertilizer on Cd and Pb speciation in the contaminated paddy soil and their availability to rice plant (Oryza sativa L.). The changes in soil chemical and biological properties in response to the addition of rapeseed residue were also evaluated. Specifically, the following four treatments were evaluated: 100% mineral N fertilizer (N100) as a control, 70% mineral N fertilizer+rapeseed residue (N70+R), 30% mineral N fertilizer+rapeseed residue (N30+R) and rapeseed residue alone (R). The electrical conductivity and exchangeable cations of the rice paddy soil subjected to the R treatment or in combinations with mineral N fertilizer treatment, N70+R and N30+R, were higher than those in soils subjected to the N100 treatment. However, the soil pH value with the R treatment (pH 6.3) was lower than that with N100 treatment (pH 6.9). Use of rapeseed residue as a green manure led to an increase in soil organic matter (SOM) and enhanced the microbial populations in the soil. Sequential extraction also revealed that the addition of rapeseed residue decreased the easily accessible fraction of Cd by 5-14% and Pb by 30-39% through the transformation into less accessible fractions, thereby reducing metal availability to the rice plant. Overall, the incorporation of rapeseed residue into the metal contaminated rice paddy soils may sustain SOM, improve the soil chemical and biological properties, and decrease the heavy metal phytoavailability. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. 21 CFR 184.1555 - Rapeseed oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Rapeseed oil. 184.1555 Section 184.1555 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1555 Rapeseed oil. (a) Fully hydrogenated rapeseed oil. (1) Fully hydrogenated rapeseed oil is a mixture of triglycerides in which the fatty acid composition is a mixture of...

  15. INTERNATIONAL TRADE WHITH RAPESEED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Lucian PÂNZARU

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study takes into consideration the international trade situation of rapeseed worldwide. To highlight the situation are analyzed sequentially imports and exports in five units continents: Africa, America, Asia, Europe and Oceania. Applicability and interest increased for trade with this product is emphasized by references from Romania. The study takes into consideration 2008-2010. In terms of world imports and their structure is noted preponderance Europe and Asia in the quantities imported - 87.38% (both, the weights low enough for Oceania and Africa - 0.04 together. If we analyze the situation of exports is apparent fact that Europe remains, as in the case of imports, the main player on the market (48.11%, but not followed by Asia, but of America with a very close relative weight (44 , 45%. Oceania owns more than 5% of world quantitatively of exports, while Asia and Africa have shares almost insignificant - 0.36 and 0.05% respectively. Regarding the situation of global trade balance exchanges for rapeseed can be seen a globally deficient character.

  16. The effect of different physical forms of rapeseed as a fat supplement on the activity of some enzymes in the duodenal chyme of dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moharerry, A.; Brask, Maike; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2014-01-01

    Studies on nutritional regulation of digestive enzymes in ruminants are scarce. Fat supplementation of diets for dairy cows changes the supply of nutrients for absorption and transport. The aim of this experiment was to study the effect of the physical form of rapeseed (Brassica napus) fat......) and three fat-supplemented rations with either rapeseed cake (RSC), whole cracked rape seed (WCR), or rapeseed oil (RSO). The correlation coefficients among duodenal enzyme activities and the relationship between α-amylase and protease activities were examined. Diurnal samples were taken from the duodenum...

  17. Transmission of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris in seed production crops of cauliflower

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kastelein, P.; Krijger, M.C.; Zouwen, van der P.S.; Steen, van der J.J.M.; Stevens, L.H.; Wolf, van der J.M.; Fernandes Vieira, J.; Amaral Villela, F.

    2014-01-01

    n 2011, two polytunnel greenhouse experiments were conducted on seed production farms, one under conventional conditions in the South-West (Rilland) and the other under organic conditions in the East (Voorst) of the Netherlands, to study transmission routes of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris

  18. Effect of Application of Pseudomonas fluorescent Strains on Yield and Yield Components of Rapeseed Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Najafi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria has been identified as an alternative to chemical fertilizer to enhance plant growth and yield directly and indirectly. Use of rhizosphere free living bacteria is one of the methods for crop production and leads to improvement of resources absorption. In order to study of yield, yield components and radiation use efficiency, under application of PGPR condition, an experiment was carried out in 2008 growing season at Agriculture and natural resources research station of Mashhad. The cultivars selected from three rapeseed species belong to Brassica napus, Brassica rapa and Brassica juncea (landrace, BP.18، Goldrush، Parkland، Hyola330، Hyola401. Experimental factorial design was randomized in complete block with three replications. Treatments included six varieties of Rapeseed and inoculations were four levels as non–inoculation, inoculation with P. fluorescens169, P. putida108 and use then together. Results showed that strains of fluorescent pseudomonas bacteria had greatest effects on yield and yield components cultivars. A significant difference in the number of pods per plant and 1000 seed weight observed. The cultivars were different in all treats except 1000 seed weight. Overall results indicated that application of growth stimulating bacteria in combination with different cultivars, had a positive effect growth, yield characteristics of plant varieties of rapeseed plants.

  19. Interactive Role of Fungicides and Plant Growth Regulator (Trinexapac on Seed Yield and Oil Quality of Winter Rapeseed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ijaz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate the role of growth regulator trinexapac and fungicides on growth, yield, and quality of winter rapeseed (Brassica napus L.. The experiment was conducted simultaneously at different locations in Germany using two cultivars of rapeseed. Five different fungicides belonging to the triazole and strobilurin groups, as well as a growth regulator trinexapac, were tested in this study. A total of seven combinations of these fungicides and growth regulator trinexapac were applied at two growth stages of rapeseed. These two stages include green floral bud stage (BBCH 53 and the course of pod development stage (BBCH 65. The results showed that plant height and leaf area index were affected significantly by the application of fungicides. Treatments exhibited induced photosynthetic ability and delayed senescence, which improved the morphological characters and yield components of rape plants at both locations. Triazole, in combination with strobilurin, led to the highest seed yield over other treatments at both experimental locations. Significant effects of fungicides on unsaturated fatty acids of rapeseed oil were observed. Fungicides did not cause any apparent variation in the values of free fatty acids and peroxide of rapeseed oil. Results of our study demonstrate that judicious use of fungicides in rapeseed may help to achieve sustainable farming to obtain higher yield and better quality of rapeseed.

  20. In vitro activity of glucosinolates and their degradation products against brassica-pathogenic bacteria and fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotelo, T; Lema, M; Soengas, P; Cartea, M E; Velasco, P

    2015-01-01

    Glucosinolates (GSLs) are secondary metabolites found in Brassica vegetables that confer on them resistance against pests and diseases. Both GSLs and glucosinolate hydrolysis products (GHPs) have shown positive effects in reducing soil pathogens. Information about their in vitro biocide effects is scarce, but previous studies have shown sinigrin GSLs and their associated allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) to be soil biocides. The objective of this work was to evaluate the biocide effects of 17 GSLs and GHPs and of leaf methanolic extracts of different GSL-enriched Brassica crops on suppressing in vitro growth of two bacterial (Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris and Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola) and two fungal (Alternaria brassicae and Sclerotinia scletoriorum) Brassica pathogens. GSLs, GHPs, and methanolic leaf extracts inhibited the development of the pathogens tested compared to the control, and the effect was dose dependent. Furthermore, the biocide effects of the different compounds studied were dependent on the species and race of the pathogen. These results indicate that GSLs and their GHPs, as well as extracts of different Brassica species, have potential to inhibit pathogen growth and offer new opportunities to study the use of Brassica crops in biofumigation for the control of multiple diseases. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  1. Environmental effect of rapeseed oil ethyl ester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makareviciene, V.; Janulis, P.

    2003-01-01

    Exhaust emission tests were conducted on rapeseed oil methyl ester (RME), rapeseed oil ethyl ester (REE) and fossil diesel fuel as well as on their mixtures. Results showed that when considering emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO x ), carbon monoxide (CO) and smoke density, rapeseed oil ethyl ester had less negative effect on the environment in comparison with that of rapeseed oil methyl ester. When fuelled with rapeseed oil ethyl ester, the emissions of NO x showed an increase of 8.3% over those of fossil diesel fuel. When operated on 25-50% bio-ester mixed with fossil diesel fuel, NO x emissions marginally decreased. When fuelled with pure rapeseed oil ethyl ester, HC emissions decreased by 53%, CO emissions by 7.2% and smoke density 72.6% when compared with emissions when fossil diesel fuel was used. Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions, which cause greenhouse effect, decreased by 782.87 g/kWh when rapeseed oil ethyl ester was used and by 782.26 g/kWh when rapeseed oil methyl ester was used instead of fossil diesel fuel. Rapeseed oil ethyl ester was more rapidly biodegradable in aqua environment when compared with rapeseed oil methyl ester and especially with fossil diesel fuel. During a standard 21 day period, 97.7% of rapeseed oil methyl ester, 98% of rapeseed oil ethyl ester and only 61.3% of fossil diesel fuel were biologically decomposed. (author)

  2. Cloning and characterization of a pathogen-induced chitinase in Brassica napus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, U.; Bojsen, K.; Collinge, D.B.

    1992-01-01

    A chitinase cDNA clone from rapeseed (Brassica napus L. ssp. oleifera) was isolated. The cDNA clone, ChB4, represents a previously purified and characterized basic chitinase isozyme. The longest open reading frame in ChB4 encodes a polypeptide of 268 amino acids. This polypeptide consists of a 24...

  3. Enteric methane production and ruminal fermentation of forage brassica diets fed in continuous culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aim of the current study was to determine nutrient digestibility, VFA production, N metabolism, and CH4 production of canola (Brassica napus L.), rapeseed (B. napus L.), turnip (B. rapa L.), and annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) fed with orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) in continuous...

  4. Abnormal spindles in second meiosis in canola (Brassica napus and Brassica campestris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Maria de Souza

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies were carried out on the occurrence of abnormal spindles in the second meiotic division in some canola cultivars recently introduced in Brazil. Fusion of spindles was observed in metaphase II rejoining the two sets of chromosomes segregated in anaphase I and also sequential and tripolar spindles were discovered rejoining two sets of chromatids segregated in anaphase II. The frequency of cells with abnormal spindles ranged from 3.18 to 8.10%. The results suggested that this abnormality was caused by environmental stress that affected the plants during the blooming period.O presente estudo descreve a ocorrência de fusos anormais na segunda divisão meiótica em algumas cultivares da canola recentemente introduzidas no Brasil. Fusão de fusos foi observada em metáfase II reunindo os dois conjuntos cromossômicos segregados na anáfase I; fusos sequenciais e tripolares reunindo cromátides segregadas na anáfase II também foram observados. A frequência de células com fusos anormais variou de 3,18 a 8,10% entre as variedades. Os resultados sugerem que estas anormalidades foram causadas por condições climáticas adversas que afetaram as plantas no período de florescimento. As implicações genéticas destas anormalidades são descritas.

  5. and Saccostomus campestris (Cricetomyinae) in relation to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The gastric anatomy of two African cricetomyines is described and compared with that of the only African cricetine. The stomach of C. gambianus is more specialized than that of S. campestris and shows many parallels with that of M. albicaudatus. Both cricetomyines possess an oesophageal groove system which is absent ...

  6. Origin of the CMS gene locus in rapeseed cybrid mitochondria: active and inactive recombination produces the complex CMS gene region in the mitochondrial genomes of Brassicaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshima, Masao; Kikuchi, Rie; Imamura, Jun; Handa, Hirokazu

    2010-01-01

    CMS (cytoplasmic male sterile) rapeseed is produced by asymmetrical somatic cell fusion between the Brassica napus cv. Westar and the Raphanus sativus Kosena CMS line (Kosena radish). The CMS rapeseed contains a CMS gene, orf125, which is derived from Kosena radish. Our sequence analyses revealed that the orf125 region in CMS rapeseed originated from recombination between the orf125/orfB region and the nad1C/ccmFN1 region by way of a 63 bp repeat. A precise sequence comparison among the related sequences in CMS rapeseed, Kosena radish and normal rapeseed showed that the orf125 region in CMS rapeseed consisted of the Kosena orf125/orfB region and the rapeseed nad1C/ccmFN1 region, even though Kosena radish had both the orf125/orfB region and the nad1C/ccmFN1 region in its mitochondrial genome. We also identified three tandem repeat sequences in the regions surrounding orf125, including a 63 bp repeat, which were involved in several recombination events. Interestingly, differences in the recombination activity for each repeat sequence were observed, even though these sequences were located adjacent to each other in the mitochondrial genome. We report results indicating that recombination events within the mitochondrial genomes are regulated at the level of specific repeat sequences depending on the cellular environment.

  7. Enhanced phyto-extraction of cadmium and zinc using rapeseed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghani, M.; Slycken, S.V.; Meers, E.; Tack, F.M.G. [Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry and Applied Ecochemistry, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Naz, F. [National Insect Museum, National Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad (Pakistan); Ali, S. [Agriculture Department, University of Haripur, Haripur (Pakistan)

    2013-07-01

    In a green house pot experiment, the effects of three amendments, sulphur (S), ammonium sulphate ((NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4}) and ethylenediaminetetracetic acid (EDTA) were tested for phyto-extraction of Cd and Zn by rapeseed (Brassica napus L.). Elemental sulphur was applied as 20.00, 60.00, and 120.00 mg.kg{sup -1} soil. EDTA was tested at a dose of 585.00 mg.kg{sup -1} soil, and (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4}) at a rate of 0.23 mg.kg{sup -1} soil. All treatments received a base fertilization (Hogland) before sowing. Plants were harvested after 51 days of growth and shoot dry matter and soil samples were analysed for metal contents. All amendments caused a significant increase in Cd and Zn contents in plant shoots of all treatments than control treatment. Further, EDTA was most effective for extraction metals concentrations in shoot biomass but the plants showed significant signs of toxicity and yield were severely depressed. The addition of sulfur favorably influenced plant biomass production. The fertilized ammonium sulfate treatment resulted in the highest phyto-extraction of Cd and Zn and the amounts of these metals accumulated in plant shoot exceeded by a factor of 4 and 3 respectively. Finally, Brassica napus could be used for soil remediation keeping its other uses which will make the contaminated site income generating source for the farmers. (authors)

  8. Biochemical and histopathological profiling of Wistar rat treated with Brassica napus as a supplementary feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazi Md. Mahmudul Hasan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic changes together with cardiovascular and hepatic factors are related to the development of diseases like myocardial lipidosis, heart disease, and profound toxicity. The aim of this animal study is to determine the effects of high erucic acid containing rapeseed oil (Brassica napus L. varieties on liver, kidney and heart muscles in Wistar rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into three groups where each group containing four rats. Group A was considered as control diet group, while Group B rapeseed wild oil group and Group C rapeseed hybrid oil group were considered as experimental diet groups. The levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT,alkaline phosphatase(ALP, creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB and creatinine of two experimental groups were significantly elevated while compared to the control groups (p  0.05. Noticeable tissue injury observed in this study is a sign of the relative toxicity of erucic acid containing rapeseed oil to mammalian species. The use of Brassica napus as a supplementary feed ingredient should be, therefore, thoroughly considered Keywords: Rapeseed oil, Rattus norvegicus, Serum enzymes, Erucic acid, Tissue profiling

  9. Detecção, transmissão e efeito de Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris na qualidade fisiológica de sementes de brócolis Detection, transmission and effect of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris in the physiological quality of broccoli seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilvanira Donizeti Tebaldi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A detecção, a transmissão e o efeito de Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc na qualidade fisiológica de sementes de brócolis (Brassica oleracea var. italica foram avaliados, a partir de sementes obtidas de plantas ("Baron, Flórida, Hana Midori Sakata, Precoce Piracicaba de Verão, Ramoso Santana e Sabre" inoculadas com a bactéria, em condições de campo. Para a detecção do patógeno nas sementes foram utilizados os meios de cultura semi-seletivos: SX ágar, NSCAA e BSCAA; a taxa de transmissão da bactéria pelas sementes às plântulas foi avaliada usando semeadura em areia e meio de cultura contido em tubo de ensaio. Para a avaliação da qualidade fisiológica de sementes foram realizados o teste padrão de germinação e os testes de vigor: envelhecimento acelerado, índice de velocidade de emergência, crescimento de plântulas e massa seca. De acordo com os resultados, o meio de cultura semi-seletivo NSCAA foi mais eficaz para detectar Xcc em sementes de brócolis; não houve diferença significativa entre os genótipos na taxa de transmissão da bactéria pelas sementes e Xcc não afetou a germinação e o vigor das sementes.The detection, transmission and the effect of Xanthomomas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc in the physiological quality of broccoli seeds were evaluated. The seeds were obtained from inoculated field plants (`Baron', `Flórida', `Hana Midori Sakata', `Precoce Piracicaba de Verão', `Ramoso Santana' and `Sabre' genotypes with the bacterium. For the seed pathogen detection the semi-selective medium were used: starch for xanthomonads (SX agar, nutrient starch cycloheximide antibiotic agar (NSCAA and basal starch cycloheximide antibiotic agar (BSCAA; the bacteria seeds transmission percentage was evaluated using sand and test tube. The physiological seed quality was evaluated by the standard germination and vigor tests: the accelerated aging, speed of emergence, seedling growth and seedling dry weight. The

  10. Detecção, transmissão e efeito de Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris na qualidade fisiológica de sementes de brócolis Detection, transmission and effect of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris in the physiological quality of broccoli seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilvanira Donizete Tebaldi

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available A detecção, a transmissão e o efeito de Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc na qualidade fisiológica de sementes de brócolis (Brassica oleracea var. italica foram avaliadas, a partir de sementes obtidas de plantas ("Baron, Flórida, Hana Midori Sakata, Precoce Piracicaba de Verão, Ramoso Santana e Sabre" inoculadas com a bactéria, em condições de campo. Para a detecção do patógeno nas sementes foram utilizados os meios de cultura semi-seletivos: SX ágar, NSCAA e BSCAA; a taxa de transmissão da bactéria pelas sementes às plântulas foi avaliada usando semeadura em areia e meio de cultura contido em tubo de ensaio. Para a avaliação da qualidade fisiológica das sementes foram realizados o teste padrão de germinação e os testes de vigor: envelhecimento acelerado, índice de velocidade de emergência, crescimento das plântulas e massa seca. De acordo com os resultados, o meio de cultura semi-seletivo NSCAA foi mais eficaz para detectar Xcc em sementes de brócolis; não houve diferença significativa entre os genótipos na taxa de transmissão da bactéria pelas sementes e Xcc não afetou a germinação e o vigor das sementes.The detection, transmission and the effect of Xanthomomas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc in the physiological quality of broccoli seeds were evaluated. The seeds were obtained from inoculated field plants ('Baron', 'Flórida', 'Hana Midori Sakata', 'Precoce Piracicaba de Verão', 'Ramoso Santana' and 'Sabre' genotypes with the bacterium. For the seed pathogen detection the semi-selective medium were used: starch for xanthomonads (SX agar, nutrient starch cycloheximide antibiotic agar (NSCAA and basal starch cycloheximide antibiotic agar (BSCAA; the bacteria seeds transmission percentage was evaluated using sand and test tube. The physiological seed quality was evaluated by the standard germination and vigor tests: the accelerated aging, speed of emergence, seedling growth and seedling dry weight

  11. Integrated control of Rapeseed pests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khattak, S.U.; Hamed, M.

    1990-06-01

    Rapeseed crop is attacked by different insects amongst which cabbage butterfly in Pakistan. Integrated control was conducted and results are mentioned in this report. The mortality in the remaining insecticides varied from 55-83% which was significantly higher than control. The higher dosages of gamma radiation ranged between 60-225 krad and results revealed that the mortality response increased with the post-irradiation time. Mortality was also significantly higher at 80-120 krad as compared to control. These results concluded that mortality was dose dependent. (A.B.)

  12. Genetic Segregation Analysis of a Rapeseed Dwarf Mutant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiang, G.; Yu, S.; Zhang, T.; Zhao, J.; Lei, S.; Du, C.

    2016-01-01

    Dwarf resources in Brassica napus are very important for developing high-yield cultivars through dwarf-type and lodging-resistant breeding. However, few dwarf varieties have been available for this species. Here, we reported a new rapeseed dwarf mutant GRC1157, which exhibits obvious phenotypic variations on dwarf. Six generations (P /sub 1/, P/sub 1/, F/sub 1/, F/sub 1/, B/sub 1/, and B/sub 1/) were produced from a cross between dwarf mutant GRC1157 and an elite tall-type line XR16 to analyze genetic inheritances of plant height (PH), numbers of the 1st valid branch (VBN), main inflorescence length (MIL), pod numbers per main inflorescence (MPN), pod length (PL) and seed numbers per pod (PSN) using the mixed major gene plus polygene inheritance model. The genetic analysis shows different traits were controlled by different inheritance models: PH and PL by two pairs of additive-dominant-epistatic major genes plus additive-dominant-epistatic polygenes, MPN and PSN by two-pair additive-dominant-epistatic major genes plus additive-dominant polygenes, MIL by two-pair additive-dominant-epistatic major genes and VBN by one-pair additive-dominant major genes plus additive-dominant-epistatic polygenes. Furthermore, positive correlations between PH and some other traits were observed, suggesting that some traits may be co-regulated by several linkage or same loci/genes. In addition, high heritability (40.35-93.7 percent) were found for five traits (except VBN) in different segregating generations, indicating these traits were mainly affected by hereditary factors and suitable for early artificial selection. In sum, the dwarf mutant GRC1157 can serve as a valuable resource for rapeseed dwarf breeding and the genetic analysis in this study provided a foundation for further mapping and cloning dwarf genes in mutant GRC1157. (author)

  13. The compact genome of the plant pathogen Plasmodiophora brassicae is adapted to intracellular interactions with host Brassica spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolfe, Stephen A; Strelkov, Stephen E; Links, Matthew G; Clarke, Wayne E; Robinson, Stephen J; Djavaheri, Mohammad; Malinowski, Robert; Haddadi, Parham; Kagale, Sateesh; Parkin, Isobel A P; Taheri, Ali; Borhan, M Hossein

    2016-03-31

    The protist Plasmodiophora brassicae is a soil-borne pathogen of cruciferous species and the causal agent of clubroot disease of Brassicas including agriculturally important crops such as canola/rapeseed (Brassica napus). P. brassicae has remained an enigmatic plant pathogen and is a rare example of an obligate biotroph that resides entirely inside the host plant cell. The pathogen is the cause of severe yield losses and can render infested fields unsuitable for Brassica crop growth due to the persistence of resting spores in the soil for up to 20 years. To provide insight into the biology of the pathogen and its interaction with its primary host B. napus, we produced a draft genome of P. brassicae pathotypes 3 and 6 (Pb3 and Pb6) that differ in their host range. Pb3 is highly virulent on B. napus (but also infects other Brassica species) while Pb6 infects only vegetable Brassica crops. Both the Pb3 and Pb6 genomes are highly compact, each with a total size of 24.2 Mb, and contain less than 2 % repetitive DNA. Clustering of genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) of Pb3, Pb6 and three additional re-sequenced pathotypes (Pb2, Pb5 and Pb8) shows a high degree of correlation of cluster grouping with host range. The Pb3 genome features significant reduction of intergenic space with multiple examples of overlapping untranslated regions (UTRs). Dependency on the host for essential nutrients is evident from the loss of genes for the biosynthesis of thiamine and some amino acids and the presence of a wide range of transport proteins, including some unique to P. brassicae. The annotated genes of Pb3 include those with a potential role in the regulation of the plant growth hormones cytokinin and auxin. The expression profile of Pb3 genes, including putative effectors, during infection and their potential role in manipulation of host defence is discussed. The P. brassicae genome sequence reveals a compact genome, a dependency of the pathogen on its host for some

  14. Analysis of genetic diversity among rapeseed cultivars and breeding lines by srap and ssr molecular markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Channa, S.A.; Tian, H.

    2016-01-01

    The knowledge of genetic diversity is very important for developing new rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) cultivars. The genetic diversity among 77 rapeseed accessions, including 22 varieties and 55 advanced breeding lines were analyzed by 47 sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) and 56 simple sequence repeat (SSR) primers. A total of 270 SRAP and 194 SSR polymorphic fragments were detected with an average of 5.74 and 3.46 for SRAP and SSR primer, respectively. The cluster analysis grouped the 77 accessions into five major clusters. Cluster I contained spring and winter type varieties from Czech Republic and semi-winter varieties and their respective breeding lines from China. The 16 elite breeding lines discovered in Cluster II, III, IV and V indicated higher genetic distance than accessions in Cluster I. The principal component analysis and structure analysis exhibited similar results to the cluster analysis. Analysis of molecular variance revealed that genetic diversity of the selected breeding lines was comparable to the rapeseed varieties, and variation among varieties and lines was significant. The diverse and unique group of 16 elite breeding lines detected in this study can be utilized in the future breeding program as a source for development of commercial varieties with more desirable characters. (author)

  15. Evaluation of a model for predicting Avena fatua and Descurainia sophia seed emergence in winter rapeseed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aboutalebian, M.A.; Nazari, S.; Gonzalez-Andujar, J.L.

    2017-07-01

    Avena fatua and Descurainia sophia are two important annual weeds throughout winter rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) production systems in the semiarid region of Iran. Timely and more accurate control of both species may be developed if there is a better understanding of its emergence patterns. Non-linear regression techniques are usually unable to accurately predict field emergence under such environmental conditions. The objectives of this research were to evaluate the emergence patterns of A. fatua and D. sophia and determine if emergence could be predicted using cumulative soil thermal time in degree days (CTT). In the present work, cumulative seedling emergence from a winter rapeseed field during 3 years data set was fitted to cumulative soil CTT using Weibull and Gompertz functions. The Weibull model provided a better fit, based on coefficient of determination (R2sqr), root mean square of error (RMSE) and Akaike index (AICd), compared to the Gompertz model between 2013 and 2016 seasons for both species. Maximum emergence of A. fatua occured 70-119 days after sowing or after equals 329-426 °Cd, while in D. sophia it occurred 119-134 days after sowing rapeseed equals 373-470 °Cd. Both models can aid in the future study of A. fatua and D. sophia emergence and assist growers and agricultural professionals with planning timely and more accurate A. fatua and D. sophia control.

  16. [Flavonoids of Artemisia campestris, ssp. glutinosa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurabielle, M; Eberle, J; Paris, M

    1982-10-01

    Four flavanones (pinostrobin, pinocembrin, sakuranetin and naringenin), one dihydroflavonol (7-methyl aromadendrin) and one flavone (hispidulin) have been isolated from Artemisia campestris L. ssp. glutinosa Gay and identified by spectroscopic methods. Artemisia campestris L. sous-espèce glutinosa Gay est une Composée Anthémidée largement répandue sur les sables du littoral méditerranéean et abondante dans certaines régions d'Espagne et d'Italie. Dans le cadre d'une étude chimiotaxonomique du genre Artemisia Tourn., nous nous sommes intéressés à l'analyse des flavonoïdes, composés jamais décrits, à notre connaissance, dans cette espèce d' Artemisia. Les sommités fleuries d' Artemisia campestris sous-espèce glutinosa, séchées et pulvérisées, sont dégraissées à l'ether de pétrole et épuisées par le chloroforme. Le fractionnement de l'extrait chloroformique, par chromatographie sur colonne de silice, et la purification de certaines fractions conduisent à l'isolement de six génines flavoniques, à l'etat pur. L' étude des spectres UV, des spectres de masse et des spectres de RMN [1,2] et la comparaison avec des échantillons authentiques permettent de proposer, pour ces flavonoïdes, les structures de la pinostrobine [3], de la pinocembrine [4], de la sakuranétine, de la naringénine [5] (flavanones), de la méthyl-7-aromadendrine, [6, 7] (dihydroflavonol) et de l'hispiduline [8, 9] (flavone); quatre de ces génines sont méthylées. Parmi ces flavonoïdes, la pinostrobine n'a jamais été décrite, à notre connaissance, dans la famille des Composées; la pinocembrine, la sakuranétine et la naringénine ont déjà été signalées chez quelques Astéracées et Eupatoriées [10], et l'hispiduline dans la tribu des Anthémidées ( Santolina chamaecyparissus L.) [8]. Seule, la méthyl-7-aromadendrine semble décrite, à ce jour, dans le genre Artemisia Tourn. [7].

  17. In Vitro Digestibility of Rapeseed and Bovine Whey Protein Mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joehnke, Marcel Skejovic; Rehder, Alina; Sørensen, Susanne; Bjergegaard, Charlotte; Sørensen, Jens Christian; Markedal, Keld Ejdrup

    2018-01-24

    Partial replacement of animal protein sources with plant proteins is highly relevant for the food industry, but potential effects on protein digestibility need to be established. In this study, the in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD) of four protein sources and their mixtures (50:50 w/w ratio) was investigated using a transient pepsin hydrolysis (1 h) followed by pancreatin (1 h). The protein sources consisted of napin-rich rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) protein concentrates (RPCs; RP1, RP2) prepared in pilot scale and major bovine whey proteins (WPs; α-LA, alpha-lactalbumin; β-LG, beta-lactoglobulin). IVPD of individual protein sources was higher for WPs compared to RPCs. The RP2/β-LG mixture resulted in an unexpected high IVPD equivalent to β-LG protein alone. Protein mixtures containing RP1 showed a new IVPD response type due to the negative influence of a high trypsin inhibitor activity (TIA) level. Improved IVPD of RP1 alone and in protein mixtures was obtained by lowering the TIA level using dithiothreitol (DTT). These results showed that napin-rich protein products prepared by appropriate processing can be combined with specific WPs in mixtures to improve the IVPD.

  18. Relationship between transpiration and amino acid accumulation in Brassica leaf discs treated with cytokinins and fusicoccin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuraishi, Susumu; Ishikawa, Fumio

    1977-01-01

    Both cytokinins and fusicoccin (FC) stimulated the transpiration and the amino acid accumulation in leaf discs of Brassica campestris var. komatsuna. Enhancement effects were of the same magnitude. Both the accumulation and the transpiration were similarly inhibited when vaseline was smeared on the leaf surface. Abscisic acid (ABA) also inhibited those cytokinin-induced effects. The accumulation of amino acid- 14 C was at the cytokinin- or FC-treated site unless the leaf surface was smeared with vaseline. These facts suggest that cytokinin- or FC-induced amino acid accumulation in leaf is caused by the stimulation of transpiration. (auth.)

  19. Establishment of an inducing medium for type III effector secretion in Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Feng Jiang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the type III secretion system (T3SS and type III (T3 effectors are essential for the pathogenicity of most bacterial phytopathogens and that the expression of T3SS and T3 effectors is suppressed in rich media but induced in minimal media and plants. To facilitate in-depth studies on T3SS and T3 effectors, it is crucial to establish a medium for T3 effector expression and secretion. Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc is a model bacterium for studying plant-pathogen interactions. To date no medium for Xcc T3 effector secretion has been defined. Here, we compared four minimal media (MME, MMX, XVM2, and XOM2 which are reported for T3 expression induction in Xanthomonas spp. and found that MME is most efficient for expression and secretion of Xcc T3 effectors. By optimization of carbon and nitrogen sources and pH value based on MME, we established XCM1 medium, which is about 3 times stronger than MME for Xcc T3 effectors secretion. We further optimized the concentration of phosphate, calcium, and magnesium in XCM1 and found that XCM1 with a lower concentration of magnesium (renamed as XCM2 is about 10 times as efficient as XCM1 (meanwhile, about 30 times stronger than MME. Thus, we established an inducing medium XCM2 which is preferred for T3 effector secretion in Xcc.

  20. Economics of rapeseed production in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Rade

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapeseed production in Serbia is characterized by an increasing trend, as a result of positive price signals from international market. Since previous researches on economics of rapeseed production were aimed at non-family farms, focus in this paper is on the same aspects on family farms from lowland production region. Results are analyzed in view of micro and macro-economic trends. Increase of world demand for oil crops, as a result of increasing production of renewable fuels and food needs, causes a trend of higher prices, which will probably remain in the following period. Due to this, opportunities are made for Serbian farmers in lowland production region to increase agriculture area under rapeseed. .

  1. Introgression of Black Rot Resistance from Brassica carinata to Cauliflower (Brassica oleracea botrytis Group) through Embryo Rescue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Brij B.; Kalia, Pritam; Singh, Dinesh; Sharma, Tilak R.

    2017-01-01

    Black rot caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc) is a very important disease of cauliflower (Brassica oleracea botrytis group) resulting into 10–50% yield losses every year. Since there is a dearth of availability of resistance to black rot disease in B. oleracea (C genome), therefore exploration of A and B genomes was inevitable as they have been reported to be potential reservoirs of gene(s) for resistance to black rot. To utilize these sources, interspecific hybrid and backcross progeny (B1) were generated between cauliflower “Pusa Sharad” and Ethiopian mustard “NPC-9” employing in vitro embryo rescue technique. Direct ovule culture method was better than siliqua culture under different temperature regime periods. Hybridity testing of F1 inter-specific plants was carried out using co-dominant SSR marker and Brassica B and C genome-specific (DB and DC) primers. Meiosis in the di-genomic (BCC) interspecific hybrid of B. oleracea botrytis group (2n = 18, CC) × B. carinata (2n = 4x = 34, BBCC) was higly disorganized and cytological analysis of pollen mother cells revealed chromosomes 2n = 26 at metaphase-I. Fertile giant pollen grain formation was observed frequently in interspecific F1 hybrid and BC1 plants. The F1 inter-specific plants were found to be resistant to Xcc race 1. Segregation distortion was observed in BC1 generation for black rot resistance and different morphological traits. The At1g70610 marker analysis confirmed successful introgression of black rot resistance in interspecific BC1 population. This effort will go a long way in pyramiding gene(s) for resistance against black rot in Cole crops, especially cauliflower and cabbage for developing durable resistance, thus minimize dependency on bactericides. PMID:28769959

  2. Introgression of Black Rot Resistance from Brassica carinata to Cauliflower (Brassica oleracea botrytis Group through Embryo Rescue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brij B. Sharma

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Black rot caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc is a very important disease of cauliflower (Brassica oleracea botrytis group resulting into 10–50% yield losses every year. Since there is a dearth of availability of resistance to black rot disease in B. oleracea (C genome, therefore exploration of A and B genomes was inevitable as they have been reported to be potential reservoirs of gene(s for resistance to black rot. To utilize these sources, interspecific hybrid and backcross progeny (B1 were generated between cauliflower “Pusa Sharad” and Ethiopian mustard “NPC-9” employing in vitro embryo rescue technique. Direct ovule culture method was better than siliqua culture under different temperature regime periods. Hybridity testing of F1 inter-specific plants was carried out using co-dominant SSR marker and Brassica B and C genome-specific (DB and DC primers. Meiosis in the di-genomic (BCC interspecific hybrid of B. oleracea botrytis group (2n = 18, CC × B. carinata (2n = 4x = 34, BBCC was higly disorganized and cytological analysis of pollen mother cells revealed chromosomes 2n = 26 at metaphase-I. Fertile giant pollen grain formation was observed frequently in interspecific F1 hybrid and BC1 plants. The F1 inter-specific plants were found to be resistant to Xcc race 1. Segregation distortion was observed in BC1 generation for black rot resistance and different morphological traits. The At1g70610 marker analysis confirmed successful introgression of black rot resistance in interspecific BC1 population. This effort will go a long way in pyramiding gene(s for resistance against black rot in Cole crops, especially cauliflower and cabbage for developing durable resistance, thus minimize dependency on bactericides.

  3. Introgression of Black Rot Resistance from Brassica carinata to Cauliflower (Brassica oleracea botrytis Group) through Embryo Rescue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Brij B; Kalia, Pritam; Singh, Dinesh; Sharma, Tilak R

    2017-01-01

    Black rot caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris ( Xcc ) is a very important disease of cauliflower ( Brassica oleracea botrytis group) resulting into 10-50% yield losses every year. Since there is a dearth of availability of resistance to black rot disease in B. oleracea (C genome), therefore exploration of A and B genomes was inevitable as they have been reported to be potential reservoirs of gene(s) for resistance to black rot. To utilize these sources, interspecific hybrid and backcross progeny (B 1 ) were generated between cauliflower "Pusa Sharad" and Ethiopian mustard "NPC-9" employing in vitro embryo rescue technique. Direct ovule culture method was better than siliqua culture under different temperature regime periods. Hybridity testing of F 1 inter-specific plants was carried out using co-dominant SSR marker and Brassica B and C genome-specific (DB and DC) primers. Meiosis in the di-genomic (BCC) interspecific hybrid of B. oleracea botrytis group (2 n = 18, CC) × B. carinata (2 n = 4x = 34, BBCC) was higly disorganized and cytological analysis of pollen mother cells revealed chromosomes 2 n = 26 at metaphase-I. Fertile giant pollen grain formation was observed frequently in interspecific F 1 hybrid and BC 1 plants. The F 1 inter-specific plants were found to be resistant to Xcc race 1. Segregation distortion was observed in BC 1 generation for black rot resistance and different morphological traits. The At1g70610 marker analysis confirmed successful introgression of black rot resistance in interspecific BC 1 population. This effort will go a long way in pyramiding gene(s) for resistance against black rot in Cole crops, especially cauliflower and cabbage for developing durable resistance, thus minimize dependency on bactericides.

  4. Cogeneration of biodiesel and nontoxic rapeseed meal from rapeseed through in-situ alkaline transesterification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Junfeng; Yang, Qiuhui; Sun, Fuan; He, Mingyang; Chen, Qun; Yun, Zhi; Qin, Lizhen

    2013-01-01

    In-situ alkaline transesterification of rapeseed oil with methanol for the production of biodiesel and nontoxic rapeseed meal was carried out. Water removal from milled rapeseed by methanol washing was more effective than vacuum drying. The conversion rate of rapeseed oil into FAME was 92%, FAME mass was 8.81 g, glucosinolates content in remaining rapeseed meal was 0.12% by methanol washing, while by vacuum drying the values were 46%, 4.44 g, 0.58%, respectively. In the presence of 0.10 mol/L NaOH in methanol, with methanol/oil molar ratio of 180:1 and a 3h reaction at 40 °C, a conversion rate of 98% was achieved, and the glucosinolates content was reduce to 0.07%, a value which below the GB/T 22514-2008 standard in China. Thus the rapeseed meal can be used as a source of protein in animal feed. The FAME prepared through in-situ alkaline transesterification met the ASTM specifications for biodiesel. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The apo structure of sucrose hydrolase from Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris shows an open active-site groove

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Champion, Elise; Remaud-Simeon, Magali; Skov, Lars Kobberøe

    2009-01-01

    Glycoside hydrolase family 13 (GH-13) mainly contains starch-degrading or starch-modifying enzymes. Sucrose hydrolases utilize sucrose instead of amylose as the primary glucosyl donor. Here, the catalytic properties and X-ray structure of sucrose hydrolase from Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris...... of GH-13. Comparisons with structures of the highly similar sucrose hydrolase from X. axonopodis pv. glycines most notably showed that residues Arg516 and Asp138, which form a salt bridge in the X. axonopodis sucrose complex and define part of the subsite -1 glucosyl-binding determinants...

  6. Can rapeseed lower methane emission from heifers?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Sørensen, Martin Tang; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2013-01-01

    Twelve heifers were assigned to either a control diet (CON) with 26 g fat per kg dry matter (DM) or a supplemented diet (FAT) with crushed rapeseed with 53 g fat per kg DM. Methane (CH4) emission was measured by open-circuit indirect calorimetry for four days when the heifers weighed approximately...

  7. Quantitative proteomics of seed filling in castor: comparison with soybean and rapeseed reveals differences between photosynthetic and nonphotosynthetic seed metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Norma L; Hajduch, Martin; Thelen, Jay J

    2009-10-01

    Seed maturation or seed filling is a phase of development that plays a major role in the storage reserve composition of a seed. In many plant seeds photosynthesis plays a major role in this process, although oilseeds, such as castor (Ricinus communis), are capable of accumulating oil without the benefit of photophosphorylation to augment energy demands. To characterize seed filling in castor, a systematic quantitative proteomics study was performed. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was used to resolve and quantify Cy-dye-labeled proteins expressed at 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 weeks after flowering in biological triplicate. Expression profiles for 660 protein spot groups were established, and of these, 522 proteins were confidently identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry by mining against the castor genome. Identified proteins were classified according to function, and the most abundant groups of proteins were involved in protein destination and storage (34%), energy (19%), and metabolism (15%). Carbon assimilatory pathways in castor were compared with previous studies of photosynthetic oilseeds, soybean (Glycine max) and rapeseed (Brassica napus). These comparisons revealed differences in abundance and number of protein isoforms at numerous steps in glycolysis. One such difference was the number of enolase isoforms and their sum abundance; castor had approximately six times as many isoforms as soy and rapeseed. Furthermore, Rubisco was 11-fold less prominent in castor compared to rapeseed. These and other differences suggest some aspects of carbon flow, carbon recapture, as well as ATP and NADPH production in castor differs from photosynthetic oilseeds.

  8. Short communication: Evaluation of a model for predicting Avena fatua and Descurainia sophia seed emergence in winter rapeseed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad A. Aboutalebian

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Avena fatua and Descurainia sophia are two important annual weeds throughout winter rapeseed (Brassica napus L. production systems in the semiarid region of Iran. Timely and more accurate control of both species may be developed if there is a better understanding of its emergence patterns. Non-linear regression techniques are usually unable to accurately predict field emergence under such environmental conditions. The objectives of this research were to evaluate the emergence patterns of A. fatua and D. sophia and determine if emergence could be predicted using cumulative soil thermal time in degree days (CTT. In the present work, cumulative seedling emergence from a winter rapeseed field during 3 years data set was fitted to cumulative soil CTT using Weibull and Gompertz functions. The Weibull model provided a better fit, based on coefficient of determination (R2sqr, root mean square of error (RMSE and Akaike index (AICd, compared to the Gompertz model between 2013 and 2016 seasons for both species. Maximum emergence of A. fatua occured 70-119 days after sowing or after equals 329-426 °Cd, while in D. sophia it occurred 119-134 days after sowing rapeseed equals 373-470 °Cd. Both models can aid in the future study of A. fatua and D. sophia emergence and assist growers and agricultural professionals with planning timely and more accurate A. fatua and D. sophia control.

  9. Evaluation of the Use of Spring Rapeseed in Phytoremediation of Soils Contaminated with Trace Elements and Their Effect on Yield Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szulc Piotr Mirosław

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The experimental material was made up by the plant organs of Brassica napus L. from a pot experiment during one vegetation period. There was investigated the effect of relatively high concentration of zinc, copper, lead and cadmium in soil on the rapeseed yield, the content of protein and oil in seeds. The impact of metals was defined based on the content of selected fatty acids in oil extracted from seeds. The highest contents of zinc and copper were found in leaves, lead - in roots and cadmium - in stems. The biological concentration factor values were respectively calculated for all the rapeseed organs. For Cu and Pb the values of biological concentration factor were low and very low for all the plant organs. The doses of Zn (300 mg × kg-1, 600 mg × kg-1 and Cu (80 mg × kg-1, 160 mg × kg-1 applied in the pot experiment resulted in the translocation of metals from the roots to the leaves. The doses of lead (400 mg × kg-1, 1600 mg × kg-1 did not trigger any translocation of that metal from the roots to the above-ground rapeseed plant parts, however, after the application of the cadmium doses (2 mg × kg-1, 6 mg × kg-1, there was recorded a clear translocation of Cd to the rapeseed stems and the leaves. A relatively high content of zinc, copper, lead and cadmium in soil had a significant effect neither on the yield parameters and nor on the qualitative characters of the rapeseed seed. Neither did they affect the content of protein, fat and fatty acids in seed-extracted oil. The results of the pot experiment suggest that spring rapeseed is suitable for the phytoremediation of moderately heavy-metalcontaminated soils.

  10. Variations in fatty acid composition, glucosinolate profile and some phytochemical contents in selected oil seed rape (Brassica napus L.) cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Amin Mohamed, Amal; El-Din Saad El-Beltagi, Hossam

    2010-01-01

    Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) is now the third most important source of edible oil in the world after soybean and palm oil. In this study seeds of five different rapeseed cultivars namely; pactol, silvo, topas, serw 4 and serw 6 were evaluated for their fatty acid composition, glucosinolate profile, amino acids, total tocopherols and phenolic content. Among all cultivars significant variability in fatty acids were observed. The oleic acid (C18:1) ranged from 56.31% to 58.67%, linoleic acid (C1...

  11. Tolerance of Brassica nigra to Pieris brassicae herbivory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blatt, S.E.; Smallegange, R.C.; Hess, L.; Harvey, J.A.; Dicke, M.; Loon, van J.J.A.

    2008-01-01

    Black mustard, Brassica nigra (L.) Koch, is a wild annual species found throughout Europe and fed on by larvae of the large cabbage-white butterfly, Pieris brassicae L. We examined the impact of herbivory from P. brassicae, a gregarious herbivore, on B. nigra grown from wild seed collected locally.

  12. Management of textile wastewater for improving growth and yield of field mustard (Brassica campestris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaseen, Muhammad; Aziz, Muhammad Zahir; Komal, Aqleema; Naveed, Muhammad

    2017-09-02

    Disposal of industrial wastewater is a current issue of urbanization. However, this problem can be sorted out by using wastewater as an alternate source of irrigation after the addition of some amendment. In this way, the problem of disposal of wastewater not only will be resolved but also scarcity of irrigation water can be kept off in the future. The current research study was performed to evaluate the influence of different concentrations of wastewater along with canal water for enhancing growth and yield of field mustard. Plants were irrigated with different mixtures of canal water and wastewater (75:25, 50:50, 25:75, and 00:100) in addition to canal water as control. The results revealed that application of 50:50% waste and canal water improved plant height, the number of pods plant -1 , pod length, root length, root dry weight, shoot dry weight, 100 grain weight, grain and biomass yield plant -1 , and nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium concentration in grain and straw up to 16%, 15%, 17%, 29%, 15%, 56%, 25%, 41%, 35%, 20%, 52%, 45%, 20%, 44%, and 42%, respectively, over positive control treatment. While, nutrient uptakes and agronomic efficiency of fertilizers also improved by the application of 50:50% canal and wastewater compared to positive control treatment. Furthermore, the concentration of heavy metals, predominantly Cr, Cu, Cd, and Pb, was reduced in grains by application of 50% canal water and 50% wastewater. The outcomes suggest that wastewater utilization along with canal water mixing might be an effective approach for enhancing growth and yield of field mustard.

  13. The effect of Ni on concentration of the most abundant essential cations in several Brassica species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putnik-Delić Marina I.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Some plants from the genus Brassica have the ability to tolerate excessive concentrations of heavy metals, including Ni. Considering the fact that Ni is a very toxic element for living beings we wanted to examine its influence on some species from genus Brassicaceae. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Ni on distribution and accumulation of essential macronutrients from the standpoint of food quality and phytoremediation potential. Experiments were performed using winter (W and spring (S varieties of rapeseed (Brassica napus, L., white mustard (Brassica alba, L., black mustard (Brassica nigra, L. and turnip (Brassica rapa, L.. The seeds were exposed to 10 μM Ni from the beginning of germination. Plants were grown in water cultures, in semi-controlled conditions of a greenhouse, on ½ strength Hoagland solution to which was added Ni in the same concentration as during germination. Concentrations and distribution of Ca, Mg, K in leaf and stem were altered in the presence of increased concentration of Ni. Significant differences were found between the control and Ni-treated plants as well as among the genotypes. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31036 i br. TR 31016

  14. Effects of gamma irradiation on rapeseed meal with special reference to the quantitative changes in oxazolidinethione and other constituents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakaya, Tetsuro

    1978-01-01

    Experiments were carried out to confirm whether the irradiation treatment of rapeseed meal with gamma rays was effective in reducing the goitrogenic effect of meal, and to obtain the information on the reasonable dose level to reduce the above effect. The rapeseed meals from two ordinary and one non-commercial low glucosinolate (Brassica napus L. cv. Bronowski) seeds were exposed to gamma rays of 5, 10, 50 and 100 Mrad respectively. And the changes in oxazolidinethone (OZT) content of these meals by the irradiation were investigated compared with those by the autoclaving treatment under the reasonable condition. The influences of irradiation treatment on the content of the several constituents of meal were also examined. Furthermore, with chicks, the influences of irradiation treatment on the palatability of meal and on the apparent digestibility of its crude protein or crude fiber were investigated. When two ordinary meals were irradiated at the level of 50 Mrad or above, their OZT content reduced to the level of that in a low glucosinolate meal (Bronowski meal) and such irradiation dosages also resulted in a loss of the available lysine (AL) of meals. The extent of the above changes in the contents of OZT and AL was similar to that in rapeseed meal which was autoclaved under the reasonable condition. Treatment at irradiation dosage of either 50 or 100 Mrad resulted in lower crude fiber and higher reducing sugar content than those of non-irradiated meal respectively. Tests with chicks revealed that an irradiation treatment tended to improve the palatability and the crude fiber digestibility of meal but had no appreciable effect on the digestibility of its crude protein. In summary, these findings indicate that the gamma irradiation at dosage of 50 Mrad or above as well as the autoclaving treatment under the reasonable condition is effective in reducing the goitrogenic effect of rapeseed meal. (auth.)

  15. Investigation of rapeseed oil at Riga Technical University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gudriniece, E.; Strele, M.; Serzhane, R.

    2002-01-01

    Literature data on investigation of rapeseed oil have been summarized, particular attention paid to the investigations carried out at the Riga Technical University (RTU). The results obtained by scientists of the RTU have revealed following opportunities: to produce high-quality rapeseed oil in Latvia; to simplify the refinement procedure of rapeseed oil - to combine the process of hydration with neutralization using local materials, for example, Ca(OH) 2 ; to utilize the absorbents obtained from Latvian clay deposits for the bleaching of rapeseed oil; to organize the production of bio fuel at the experimental factory. (authors)

  16. Integration of linkage maps for the Amphidiploid Brassica napus and comparative mapping with Arabidopsis and Brassica rapa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delourme Régine

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The large number of genetic linkage maps representing Brassica chromosomes constitute a potential platform for studying crop traits and genome evolution within Brassicaceae. However, the alignment of existing maps remains a major challenge. The integration of these genetic maps will enhance genetic resolution, and provide a means to navigate between sequence-tagged loci, and with contiguous genome sequences as these become available. Results We report the first genome-wide integration of Brassica maps based on an automated pipeline which involved collation of genome-wide genotype data for sequence-tagged markers scored on three extensively used amphidiploid Brassica napus (2n = 38 populations. Representative markers were selected from consolidated maps for each population, and skeleton bin maps were generated. The skeleton maps for the three populations were then combined to generate an integrated map for each LG, comparing two different approaches, one encapsulated in JoinMap and the other in MergeMap. The BnaWAIT_01_2010a integrated genetic map was generated using JoinMap, and includes 5,162 genetic markers mapped onto 2,196 loci, with a total genetic length of 1,792 cM. The map density of one locus every 0.82 cM, corresponding to 515 Kbp, increases by at least three-fold the locus and marker density within the original maps. Within the B. napus integrated map we identified 103 conserved collinearity blocks relative to Arabidopsis, including five previously unreported blocks. The BnaWAIT_01_2010a map was used to investigate the integrity and conservation of order proposed for genome sequence scaffolds generated from the constituent A genome of Brassica rapa. Conclusions Our results provide a comprehensive genetic integration of the B. napus genome from a range of sources, which we anticipate will provide valuable information for rapeseed and Canola research.

  17. Comparative proteome analysis of drought-sensitive and drought-tolerant rapeseed roots and their hybrid F1 line under drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Payam Pour; Moieni, Ahmad; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2012-11-01

    Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.), which is the third leading source of vegetable oil, is sensitive to drought stress during the early vegetative growth stage. To investigate the initial response of rapeseed to drought stress, changes in the protein expression profiles of drought-sensitive (RGS-003) and drought-tolerant lines (SLM-003), and their F1 hybrid, were analyzed using a proteomics approach. Seven-day-old rapeseed seedlings were treated with drought stress by restricting water for 7 days, and proteins were extracted from roots and separated by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. In the sensitive rapeseed line, 35 protein spots were differentially expressed under drought stress, and proteins related to metabolism, energy, disease/defense, and transport were decreased. In the tolerant line, 32 protein spots were differentially expressed under drought stress, and proteins involved in metabolism, disease/defense, and transport were increased, while energy-related proteins were decreased. Six protein spots in F1 hybrid were common among expressed proteins in the drought-sensitive and -tolerant lines. Notably, tubulin beta-2 and heat shock protein 70 were decreased in the drought-sensitive line and hybrid F1 plants, while jasmonate-inducible protein and 20S proteasome subunit PAF1 were increased in the F1 hybrids and drought-tolerant line. These results indicate that (1) V-type H(+) ATPase, plasma-membrane associated cation-binding protein, HSP 90, and elongation factor EF-2 have a role in the drought tolerance of rapeseed; (2) The decreased levels of heat shock protein 70 and tubulin beta-2 in the drought-sensitive and hybrid F1 lines might explain the reduced growth of these lines in drought conditions.

  18. Rapeseed with tolerance to the non selective herbicide glufosinate ammonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasche, E. [Hoechst Schering AgrEvo GmbH, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    Weed control with herbicides is essential to grow rapeseed. Glufosinate Ammonium is used as a non selective herbicide successfully in many countries for over 10 years. It conforms well with ever increasing safety standards for human beings, animals and the environment. The tolerance of rapeseed and other crop plants was achieved by genetic modification. A resistance gene (PAT or BAR) was transfered into previously susceptible rapeseed plants. This new approach allowed the development of Glufosinate Ammonium as an almost ideal selective herbicide. In cooperation with major seed companies and by own breeding programmes new Glufosinate tolerant rapeseed varieties and hybrids are developed. Data on metabolism, toxicity, residues, efficacy etc. were generated to get registration for the selective herbicide use. In addition various studies were done for safety assessments of the PAT gene and the modified rapeseed. In spring 1995 Canadian authorities granted worldwide the first approvals for the selective use of Glufosinate Ammonium (trademark Liberty) and Glufosinate tolerant (trademark and logo Liberty Link) spring rapeseed (Canola). After a successful launch in 1995 about 150.000 ha of Liberty Link Canola were grown and treated with Liberty in 1996. The Liberty Link Canola growers were very well satisfied. In a grower survey 84% stated that they will definitely use the Liberty Link System again. In Europe registrations for Glufosinate Ammonium as a selective herbicide and for the first Glufosinate tolerant rapeseed varieties are expected in the course of 1997. The Liberty Link System will be launched in rapeseed most probably in 1998. (orig.)

  19. Improving rapeseed production practices in the southeastern United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, D.L.; Breve, M.A.; Raymer, P.L.; Minton, N.A.; Sumner, D.R. (Georgia Univ., Tifton, GA (USA). Georgia Coastal Plain Experiment Station)

    1990-04-01

    Oilseed rape or rapeseed is a crop which offers a potential for double-cropping in the southeastern United States. This final project report describes the results from a three year study aimed at evaluating the effect of different planting and harvesting practices on establishment and yield of three rape cultivars, and the double cropping potential of rapeseed in the southeastern United States. The project was conducted on two yield sites in Tifton, Georgia during 1986--87, 1987--88 and 1988--89. The general objective of this research is to improve the seed and biomass yield of winter rapeseed in the southeastern United States by developing appropriate agronomic practices for the region. The primary constraint is to grow rapeseed within the allowable period for double cropping with an economically desirable crop, such as peanut or soybean. Planting and harvesting are the most critical steps in this process. Therefore, the specific objectives of this research were: evaluate and improve the emergence of rapeseed by developing planting techniques that enhance the soil, water and seed regimes for winter rapeseed in the southeast, and evaluate and improve the yields of harvested rapeseed by developing techniques for determining the optimum timing of harvest and efficient methods for harvesting winter rapeseed in the southeast. 6 refs., 12 figs., 9 tabs.

  20. Light enables a very high efficiency of carbon storage in developing embryos of rapeseed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffman, Fernando D; Alonso, Ana P; Schwender, Jörg; Shachar-Hill, Yair; Ohlrogge, John B

    2005-08-01

    The conversion of photosynthate to seed storage reserves is crucial to plant fitness and agricultural production, yet quantitative information about the efficiency of this process is lacking. To measure metabolic efficiency in developing seeds, rapeseed (Brassica napus) embryos were cultured in media in which all carbon sources were [U-14C]-labeled and their conversion into CO2, oil, protein, and other biomass was determined. The conversion efficiency of the supplied carbon into seed storage reserves was very high. When provided with 0, 50, or 150 micromol m(-2) s(-1) light, the proportion of carbon taken up by embryos that was recovered in biomass was 60% to 64%, 77% to 86%, and 85% to 95%, respectively. Light not only improved the efficiency of carbon storage, but also increased the growth rate, the proportion of 14C recovered in oil relative to protein, and the fixation of external 14CO2 into biomass. Embryos grown at 50 micromol m(-2) s(-1) in the presence of 5 microM 1,1-dimethyl-3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl) urea (an inhibitor of photosystem II) were reduced in total biomass and oil synthesis by 3.2-fold and 2.8-fold, respectively, to the levels observed in the dark. To explore if the reduced growth and carbon conversion efficiency in dark were related to oxygen supplied by photosystem II, embryos and siliques were cultured with increased oxygen. The carbon conversion efficiency of embryos remained unchanged when oxygen levels were increased 3-fold. Increasing the O2 levels surrounding siliques from 21% to 60% did not increase oil synthesis rates either at 1,000 micromol m(-2) s(-1) or in the dark. We conclude that light increases the growth, efficiency of carbon storage, and oil synthesis in developing rapeseed embryos primarily by providing reductant and/or ATP.

  1. Light Enables a Very High Efficiency of Carbon Storage in Developing Embryos of Rapeseed1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffman, Fernando D.; Alonso, Ana P.; Schwender, Jörg; Shachar-Hill, Yair; Ohlrogge, John B.

    2005-01-01

    The conversion of photosynthate to seed storage reserves is crucial to plant fitness and agricultural production, yet quantitative information about the efficiency of this process is lacking. To measure metabolic efficiency in developing seeds, rapeseed (Brassica napus) embryos were cultured in media in which all carbon sources were [U-14C]-labeled and their conversion into CO2, oil, protein, and other biomass was determined. The conversion efficiency of the supplied carbon into seed storage reserves was very high. When provided with 0, 50, or 150 μmol m−2 s−1 light, the proportion of carbon taken up by embryos that was recovered in biomass was 60% to 64%, 77% to 86%, and 85% to 95%, respectively. Light not only improved the efficiency of carbon storage, but also increased the growth rate, the proportion of 14C recovered in oil relative to protein, and the fixation of external 14CO2 into biomass. Embryos grown at 50 μmol m−2 s−1 in the presence of 5 μm 1,1-dimethyl-3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl) urea (an inhibitor of photosystem II) were reduced in total biomass and oil synthesis by 3.2-fold and 2.8-fold, respectively, to the levels observed in the dark. To explore if the reduced growth and carbon conversion efficiency in dark were related to oxygen supplied by photosystem II, embryos and siliques were cultured with increased oxygen. The carbon conversion efficiency of embryos remained unchanged when oxygen levels were increased 3-fold. Increasing the O2 levels surrounding siliques from 21% to 60% did not increase oil synthesis rates either at 1,000 μmol m−2 s−1 or in the dark. We conclude that light increases the growth, efficiency of carbon storage, and oil synthesis in developing rapeseed embryos primarily by providing reductant and/or ATP. PMID:16024686

  2. Disruption of a CAROTENOID CLEAVAGE DIOXYGENASE 4 gene converts flower colour from white to yellow in Brassica species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bao; Liu, Chao; Wang, Yaqin; Yao, Xuan; Wang, Fang; Wu, Jiangsheng; King, Graham J; Liu, Kede

    2015-06-01

    In Brassica napus, yellow petals had a much higher content of carotenoids than white petals present in a small number of lines, with violaxanthin identified as the major carotenoid compound in yellow petals of rapeseed lines. Using positional cloning we identified a carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 4 gene, BnaC3.CCD4, responsible for the formation of flower colour, with preferential expression in petals of white-flowered B. napus lines. Insertion of a CACTA-like transposable element 1 (TE1) into the coding region of BnaC3.CCD4 had disrupted its expression in yellow-flowered rapeseed lines. α-Ionone was identified as the major volatile apocarotenoid released from white petals but not from yellow petals. We speculate that BnaC3.CCD4 may use δ- and/or α-carotene as substrates. Four variations, including two CACTA-like TEs (alleles M1 and M4) and two insertion/deletions (INDELs, alleles M2 and M3), were identified in yellow-flowered Brassica oleracea lines. The two CACTA-like TEs were also identified in the coding region of BcaC3.CCD4 in Brassica carinata. However, the two INDELs were not detected in B. napus and B. carinata. We demonstrate that the insertions of TEs in BolC3.CCD4 predated the formation of the two allotetraploids. © 2015 The Authors New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  3. LMI1-like genes involved in leaf margin development of Brassica napus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Xiyuan; Liu, Han; Huang, Jixiang; Zhao, Jianyi

    2017-06-01

    In rapeseed (Brassica napus L.), leaf margins are variable and can be entire, serrate, or lobed. In our previous study, the lobed-leaf gene (LOBED-LEAF 1, BnLL1) was mapped to a 32.1 kb section of B. napus A10. Two LMI1-like genes, BnaA10g26320D and BnaA10g26330D, were considered the potential genes that controlled the lobed-leaf trait in rapeseed. In the present study, these two genes and another homologous gene (BnaC04g00850D) were transformed into Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. plants to identify their functions. All three LMI1-like genes of B. napus produced serrate leaf margins. The expression analysis indicated that the expression level of BnaA10g26320D determined the difference between lobed- and entire-leaved lines in rapeseed. Therefore, it is likely that BnaA10g26320D corresponds to BnLL1.

  4. Temperature Effects on Cuscuta campestris Yunk. Seed Germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Sarić-Krsmanović

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies of biological characteristics of seeds and conditions for their germination havea major importance for planning and executing rational measures of weed control. Theaim of this study was to investigate the effect of different temperatures on germinationof C. campestris seeds. Three treatments (T1- storage at room temperature; T2 – exposureto 4°C for 30 days; T3 – scarification by concentrated sulphuric acid differing in manipulationwith seeds before germination were tested at different temperatures (5°C, 10°C, 15°C,20°C, 25°C, 30°C, 35°C, 40°C, 45°C. Germinated seeds were counted daily for ten days andthe length of seedlings was measured on the last day. The results showed that differencesin germination of C. campestris seeds were very prominent between temperatures, as wellas between treatments T1, T2 and T3. Seeds failed to germinate at 5°C and 45°C in all treatments(T1, T2, T3. Germination ranged from 6.25 at 10°C to 96.88%, the highest percentage,achieved at 30°C.

  5. Helping enhances productivity in campo flicker ( Colaptes campestris) cooperative groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Raphael Igor; Webster, Michael S.; Macedo, Regina H.

    2015-06-01

    Reproductive adults in many bird species are assisted by non-breeding auxiliary helpers at the nest, yet the impact of auxiliaries on reproduction is variable and not always obvious. In this study, we tested Hamilton's rule and evaluated the effect of auxiliaries on productivity in the facultative cooperative breeder campo flicker ( Colaptes campestris campestris). Campo flickers have a variable mating system, with some groups having auxiliaries and others lacking them (i.e., unassisted pairs). Most auxiliaries are closely related to the breeding pair (primary auxiliaries), but some auxiliaries (secondary auxiliaries) are unrelated females that joined established groups. We found no effect of breeder quality (body condition) or territory quality (food availability) on group productivity, but the presence of auxiliaries increased the number of fledglings produced relative to unassisted pairs. Nonetheless, the indirect benefit of helping was small and did not outweigh the costs of delayed breeding and so seemed insufficient to explain the evolution of cooperative breeding in campo flickers. We concluded that some ecological constraints must limit dispersal or independent breeding, making staying in the group a "best-of-a-bad-job" situation for auxiliaries.

  6. Functional characterization of Brassica napus DNA topoisomerase Iα-1 and its effect on flowering time when expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Chenhao; Qi, Shuanghui; Liu, Kaige; Li, Dong; Jin, Changyu; Duan, Shaowei; Zhang, Meng; Chen, Mingxun

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that DNA topoisomerase Iα (AtTOP1α) has specific developmental functions during growth and development in Arabidopsis thaliana. However, little is known about the roles of DNA topoisomerases in the closely related and commercially important plant, rapeseed (Brassica napus). Here, the full-length BnTOP1α-1 coding sequence was cloned from the A2 subgenome of the Brassica napus inbred line L111. We determine that all BnTOP1α paralogs showed differing patterns of expression in different organs of L111, and that when expressed in tobacco leaves as a fusion protein with green fluorescent protein, BnTOP1α-1 localized to the nucleus. We further showed that ectopic expression of BnTOP1α-1 in the A. thaliana top1α-7 mutant fully complemented the early flowering phenotype of the mutant. Moreover, altered expression levels in top1α-7 seedlings of several key genes controlling flowering time were restored to wild type levels by ectopic expression of BnTOP1α-1. These results provide valuable insights into the roles of rapeseed DNA topoisomerases in flowering time, and provide a promising target for genetic manipulation of this commercially significant process in rapeseed. - Highlights: • BnTOP1α-1 was cloned from the A2 subgenome of Brassica napus inbred line L111. • BnTOP1α-1 rescued the early flowering phenotype of the Attop1α-7 mutant. • BnTOP1α-1 rescued the altered expression of flowering time genes in the Attop1α-mutant. • The functions of BnTOP1α-1 and AtTOP1α are likely conserved.

  7. Survival of Alternaria brassicae in seeds and crop debris of rapeseed and mustard in Nepal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shrestha, S.K.; Munk, Lisa; Mathur, S.

    2003-01-01

    Contributions from The Danish Government Institute of Seed Pathology for Developing Countries - Copenhagen, Denmark, No. 166......Contributions from The Danish Government Institute of Seed Pathology for Developing Countries - Copenhagen, Denmark, No. 166...

  8. Heritability studies for seed quality traits in introgressed segregating populations of brassica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farhatullah, S.; Nasim, A.; Fayyaz, L.

    2014-01-01

    Estimation of genetic parameters in the context of trait characterization is an essential component of future targeted crop improvement programs. Collection of knowledge about genetic behavior such as genetic variability and heritability etc., of the germplasm is the basic step for initiation of any breeding program. Genetic variability and Broad sense heritability for various seed quality traits in 10 brassica genotypes and their 12 F2 progenies comprising of introgressed hybrids were studied. The genotypes had highly significant variation for oil content, protein, glucosinolates contents, oleic, linolenic and erucic acid contents. Glucosinolates content and erucic acid showed high heritability in all F2 populations, while rest of the traits showed variable trends. The cross combination 547 x 118 (B. napus x B. campestris) proved to be a good interspecific hybrid that had high proportion of introgression and has high heritability for beneficial traits. The individual plants having combination of desirable traits were also identified from the F2 populations. (author)

  9. Analysis of outer membrane vesicle associated proteins isolated from the plant pathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niehaus Karsten

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs are released from the outer membrane of many Gram-negative bacteria. These extracellular compartments are known to transport compounds involved in cell-cell signalling as well as virulence associated proteins, e.g. the cytolysine from enterotoxic E. coli. Results We have demonstrated that Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc releases OMVs into the culture supernatant during growth. A proteome study identified 31 different proteins that associate with the OMV fraction of which half are virulence-associated. A comparison with the most abundant outer membrane (OM proteins revealed that some proteins are enriched in the OMV fraction. This may be connected to differences in the LPS composition between the OMVs and the OM. Furthermore, a comparison of the OMV proteomes from two different culture media indicated that the culture conditions have an impact on the protein composition. Interestingly, the proteins that are common to both culture conditions are mainly involved in virulence. Conclusion Outer membrane vesicles released from the OM of Xcc contain membrane- and virulence-associated proteins. Future experiments will prove whether these structures can serve as "vehicles" for the transport of virulence factors into the host membrane.

  10. Diffusible signal factor family signals provide a fitness advantage to Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris in interspecies competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yinyue; Wu, Jien; Yin, Wenfang; Li, Peng; Zhou, Jianuan; Chen, Shaohua; He, Fei; Cai, Jun; Zhang, Lian-Hui

    2016-05-01

    Diffusible signal factor (DSF) represents a new class of widely conserved quorum sensing signals, which regulates various biological functions through intra- or interspecies signaling. The previous studies identified that there is an antagonistic interaction between Xanthomonas and Bacillus species bacteria in natural ecosystem, but the detailed molecular mechanism of interspecies competition is not clear. This study showed that Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc) interfered with morphological transition and sporulation of Bacillus thuringiensis in mixed cultures, whereas abrogation of the DSF synthase RpfF reduced the interference. DSF inhibited B. thuringiensis cell division and sporulation through modulation of ftsZ, which encodes an important cell division protein in bacterial cells. In addition, RpfF is essential for production of six DSF-family signals in Xcc, which employ the same signaling pathways to regulate biological functions in Xcc and play similar effects on reduction of cell division, sporulation and antibiotic resistance of B. thuringiensis. Furthermore, abrogation of RpfF decreased the competitive capability of Xcc against B. thuringiensis on the surface of Chinese cabbage leaves. Our findings provide new insights into the role of DSF-family signals in interspecies competition and depict molecular mechanisms with which Xcc competes with B. thuringiensis. © 2016 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Meio semi-seletivo para isolamento de Xanthomonas campestris pv. viticola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peixoto Ana Rosa

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O cancro bacteriano causado por Xanthomonas campestris pv. viticola é a fitobacteriose mais importante da videira no Submédio São Francisco. O isolamento de X. campestris pv. viticola de tecidos vegetais infectados é dificultado pela presença de contaminantes bacterianos, entre os quais Microbacterium barkeri. Objetivando-se a formulação de meio de cultura semi-seletivo, 22 isolados de X. campestris pv. viticola foram testados com relação a 30 antibióticos. O meio semi-seletivo NYDAM (extrato de carne 3, peptona 5, glicose 10, extrato de levedura 5, ágar 18 e ampicilina 0,1 em g L-1 inibiu M. barkeri e bactérias fitopatogênicas podendo ser utilizado para isolar X. campestris pv. viticola de hospedeiros com infecção natural em campo.

  12. Brassica ASTRA: an integrated database for Brassica genomic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Christopher G; Robinson, Andrew J; Lim, Geraldine A C; Hopkins, Clare J; Batley, Jacqueline; Barker, Gary; Spangenberg, German C; Edwards, David

    2005-01-01

    Brassica ASTRA is a public database for genomic information on Brassica species. The database incorporates expressed sequences with Swiss-Prot and GenBank comparative sequence annotation as well as secondary Gene Ontology (GO) annotation derived from the comparison with Arabidopsis TAIR GO annotations. Simple sequence repeat molecular markers are identified within resident sequences and mapped onto the closely related Arabidopsis genome sequence. Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) end sequences derived from the Multinational Brassica Genome Project are also mapped onto the Arabidopsis genome sequence enabling users to identify candidate Brassica BACs corresponding to syntenic regions of Arabidopsis. This information is maintained in a MySQL database with a web interface providing the primary means of interrogation. The database is accessible at http://hornbill.cspp.latrobe.edu.au.

  13. Quality evaluation of rapeseed oils used as engine fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Světlík

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Samples from six reference decentralised facilities and one industrial production unit of rapeseed oils were taken for the evaluation of the influence of production processes to the properties specified in the technical standard; in the laboratories, the properties limited by the standard for rapeseed oils were determined. In addition, long-term monitoring of changes in the oxidation stability in the storage test of rapeseed oils additived in the quantities of 200, 400 and 600 mg.kg−1 of the Baynox antioxidant was started. The results confirmed that the critical points in the rapeseed oil production process consist in the contamination with ash-forming elements, such as phosphorus, magnesium, calcium and overall impurities. Not only in the case of hot pressing, but also in two-step cold pressing of rapeseed it is necessary to reduce the content of ash-forming elements using additional processes, such as degumming, neutralisation and whitening. The safety step consisting of filtration down to maximum particle size of 1 μm must be always in place before the oil distribution. A positive effect of the Baynox antioxidant was clearly proved. As 200 mg.kg−1 of Baynox was added, the oxidation stability value increased from 8 to 9.05 hrs immediately after the pressing with a consequent decrease to 6 hrs after 270 days. With using of addition 400 ppm Baynox decreased oxidation stability under 6 hours not until after 390 days of storage. With addition 600 ppm Baynox the oxidation stability of rapeseed oil even after 510 days of storage makes 6.5 hours. The quality monitoring brought about necessary findings and knowledge for the optimisation of the rapeseed oil production and distribution as engine fuels. In addition, it serves as an initial supporting document for the creation of the necessary quality control system.

  14. MicroRNAs from the parasitic plant Cuscuta campestris target host messenger RNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, Saima; Kim, Gunjune; Johnson, Nathan R; Wafula, Eric; Wang, Feng; Coruh, Ceyda; Bernal-Galeano, Vivian; Phifer, Tamia; dePamphilis, Claude W; Westwood, James H; Axtell, Michael J

    2018-01-03

    Dodders (Cuscuta spp.) are obligate parasitic plants that obtain water and nutrients from the stems of host plants via specialized feeding structures called haustoria. Dodder haustoria facilitate bidirectional movement of viruses, proteins and mRNAs between host and parasite, but the functional effects of these movements are not known. Here we show that Cuscuta campestris haustoria accumulate high levels of many novel microRNAs (miRNAs) while parasitizing Arabidopsis thaliana. Many of these miRNAs are 22 nucleotides in length. Plant miRNAs of this length are uncommon, and are associated with amplification of target silencing through secondary short interfering RNA (siRNA) production. Several A. thaliana mRNAs are targeted by 22-nucleotide C. campestris miRNAs during parasitism, resulting in mRNA cleavage, secondary siRNA production, and decreased mRNA accumulation. Hosts with mutations in two of the loci that encode target mRNAs supported significantly higher growth of C. campestris. The same miRNAs that are expressed and active when C. campestris parasitizes A. thaliana are also expressed and active when it infects Nicotiana benthamiana. Homologues of target mRNAs from many other plant species also contain the predicted target sites for the induced C. campestris miRNAs. These data show that C. campestris miRNAs act as trans-species regulators of host-gene expression, and suggest that they may act as virulence factors during parasitism.

  15. High-throughput multiplex cpDNA resequencing clarifies the genetic diversity and genetic relationships among Brassica napus, Brassica rapa and Brassica oleracea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Jiangwei; Cai, Mengxian; Yan, Guixin; Wang, Nian; Li, Feng; Chen, Binyun; Gao, Guizhen; Xu, Kun; Li, Jun; Wu, Xiaoming

    2016-01-01

    Brassica napus (rapeseed) is a recent allotetraploid plant and the second most important oilseed crop worldwide. The origin of B. napus and the genetic relationships with its diploid ancestor species remain largely unresolved. Here, chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) from 488 B. napus accessions of global origin, 139 B. rapa accessions and 49 B. oleracea accessions were populationally resequenced using Illumina Solexa sequencing technologies. The intraspecific cpDNA variants and their allelic frequencies were called genomewide and further validated via EcoTILLING analyses of the rpo region. The cpDNA of the current global B. napus population comprises more than 400 variants (SNPs and short InDels) and maintains one predominant haplotype (Bncp1). Whole-genome resequencing of the cpDNA of Bncp1 haplotype eliminated its direct inheritance from any accession of the B. rapa or B. oleracea species. The distribution of the polymorphism information content (PIC) values for each variant demonstrated that B. napus has much lower cpDNA diversity than B. rapa; however, a vast majority of the wild and cultivated B. oleracea specimens appeared to share one same distinct cpDNA haplotype, in contrast to its wild C-genome relatives. This finding suggests that the cpDNA of the three Brassica species is well differentiated. The predominant B. napus cpDNA haplotype may have originated from uninvestigated relatives or from interactions between cpDNA mutations and natural/artificial selection during speciation and evolution. These exhaustive data on variation in cpDNA would provide fundamental data for research on cpDNA and chloroplasts. © 2015 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Antagonism of yeasts to Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris on cabbage phylloplane in field Antagonismo de leveduras a Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris no filoplano de repolho em condições de campo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayonara M.P. Assis

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Twenty yeast isolates, obtained from cabbage phylloplane, were evaluated for antagonistic activity against Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, in field. Plants of cabbage cv. Midori were pulverized simultaneously with suspensions of antagonists and pathogen. After 10 days, plants were evaluated through percentage of foliar area with lesions. Percentage of disease severity reduction (DSR% was also calculated. Yeast isolates LR32, LR42 and LR19 showed, respectively, 72, 75 and 79% of DSR. These antagonists were tested in seven different application periods in relation to pathogen inoculation (T1=4 d before; T2=simultaneously; T3=4 d after; T4=4 d before + simultaneously; T5=4 d after + simultaneously; T6=4 d before + 4 d after; T7=4 d before + simultaneously + 4 d after. The highest DSRs were showed by LR42 (71%, LR42 (67%, LR35 (69% and LR19 (68% in the treatments T7, T4, T5 and T6, which significantly differed from the others. The same yeast antagonists were also tested for black rot control using different cabbage cultivars (Fuyutoyo, Master-325, Matsukaze, Midori, Sekai I and Red Winner. The DSRs varied from 58 to 61%, and there was no significant difference among cultivars.Vinte isolados de leveduras, obtidos a partir do filoplano de repolho foram avaliados pela atividade antagônica contra Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, em condições de campo. Plantas de repolho cv. Midori foram pulverizadas simultaneamente com suspensões do antagonista e do patógeno. Após 10 dias, as plantas foram avaliadas através da porcentagem de área foliar infectada. A porcentagem de redução da severidade da doença (DSR%, também foi calculada. Os isolados de leveduras LR32, LR42 e LR19 apresentaram, respectivamente, 72, 75 e 79% de DSR. Estes isolados foram testados em sete diferentes períodos de aplicação dos antagonistas em relação a inoculação do patógeno. (T1=4d antes; T2=simultaneamente; T3=4 d após; T4=4 d antes + simultaneamente; T5

  17. Tranformasi Fragmen Dna Kromosom Xanthomonas Campestris ke dalam Escherichia Coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wibowo Mangunwardoyo

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Research on DNA transformation of Xanthomonas campestris into Escherichia coli DH5αα using plasmid vector Escherichia coli (pUC19. was carried out. DNA chromosome was isolated using CTAB method, alkali lysis method was used to isolate DNA plasmid. Both of DNA plasmid and chromosome were digested using restriction enzyme EcoRI. Competent cell was prepared with CaCl2 and heat shock method for transformation procedure. The result revealed transformation obtain 5 white colonies, with transformation frequency was 1,22 x 10-8 colony/competent cell. Electrophoresis analysis showed the DNA fragment (insert in range 0.5 – 7,5 kb. Further research should be carried out to prepare the genomic library to obtain better result of transformant.

  18. The host plant metabolite glucose is the precursor of diffusible signal factor (DSF) family signals in Xanthomonas campestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yinyue; Liu, Xiaoling; Wu, Ji'en; Lee, Jasmine; Chen, Shaohua; Cheng, Yingying; Zhang, Chunyan; Zhang, Lian-Hui

    2015-04-01

    Plant pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris produces cis-11-methyl-2-dodecenoic acid (diffusible signal factor [DSF]) as a cell-cell communication signal to regulate biofilm dispersal and virulence factor production. Previous studies have demonstrated that DSF biosynthesis is dependent on the presence of RpfF, an enoyl-coenzyme A (CoA) hydratase, but the DSF synthetic mechanism and the influence of the host plant on DSF biosynthesis are still not clear. We show here that exogenous addition of host plant juice or ethanol extract to the growth medium of X. campestris pv. campestris could significantly boost DSF family signal production. It was subsequently revealed that X. campestris pv. campestris produces not only DSF but also BDSF (cis-2-dodecenoic acid) and another novel DSF family signal, which was designated DSF-II. BDSF was originally identified in Burkholderia cenocepacia to be involved in regulation of motility, biofilm formation, and virulence in B. cenocepacia. Functional analysis suggested that DSF-II plays a role equal to that of DSF in regulation of biofilm dispersion and virulence factor production in X. campestris pv. campestris. Furthermore, chromatographic separation led to identification of glucose as a specific molecule stimulating DSF family signal biosynthesis in X. campestris pv. campestris. (13)C-labeling experiments demonstrated that glucose acts as a substrate to provide a carbon element for DSF biosynthesis. The results of this study indicate that X. campestris pv. campestris could utilize a common metabolite of the host plant to enhance DSF family signal synthesis and therefore promote virulence. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  19. Biological control of dodder (Cuscuta campestris L. by fungi pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Fallahpour

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Parasite weeds are the most important yield reducing factors, and among them dodder (Cuscuta campestris L. is an obligate parasite of many plant families. In order to find a suitable biocontrol agent for dodder a study was conducted based on a randomized complete design with four replications at research greenhouse of Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran during 2007-2009. Diseased dodders sampled from sugarbeet farms of Chenaran, Iran. After culturing and isolating exiting fungi from infected tissues of dodder, Fusarium sp., Alternaria sp. and Colletotrichum sp. were recognized. Inoculation of isolates was carried out with concenteration of 1×108 spores per ml sterile water at different growth stages of dodder in labratoary and greenhouse. Among different fungi, isolate of 323 of F. oxysporum showed an effective control on germination of dodder seeds and the highest level of plant pathogencity was before the contact of dodder with host and infection in older plants decreased. Infection of this isolate with crops such as sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L., alfalfa (Medigago sativa L., basil (Ocimum basilicum L., wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and barley (Hordeum vulgare L. showed no symptoms.

  20. Enhanced bioenergy recovery from rapeseed plant in a biorefinery concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, Gang; Talebnia, Farid; Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov

    2011-01-01

    peroxide and stream pretreatment. The byproducts (rapeseed cake, glycerol, hydrolysate and stillage) were evaluated for hydrogen and methane production. In batch experiments, the energy yields from each feedstock for, either methane production alone or for both hydrogen and methane, were similar. However...

  1. Oxidation stability of rapeseed biodiesel/petroleum diesel blends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerstrøm, Freja From; Anderson, James E.; Mueller, Sherry A.

    2016-01-01

    of the oxidation of a biodiesel fuel blend consisting of 30% (v/v) rapeseed methyl ester in petroleum diesel (B30) was conducted at 70 and 90 °C with three aeration rates. Oxidation rates increased with increasing temperature as indicated by decreases in induction period (Rancimat), concentrations of unsaturated...

  2. Characterisation of Rapeseed Oil Based Resins Using Infrared and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The hydroxylated chemical structure was crosslinked using methylene-pphenyl diisocyanate to produce a thermoset rapeseed oil resin. The cross linking process was monitored in situ using the Attenuated Total Internal Reflectance Fourier Transform-Infrared spectroscopy and the thermogravimetric analysis techniques.

  3. Phenolic Compounds in Brassica Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Velasco

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds are a large group of phytochemicals widespread in the plant kingdom. Depending on their structure they can be classified into simple phenols, phenolic acids, hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and flavonoids. Phenolic compounds have received considerable attention for being potentially protective factors against cancer and heart diseases, in part because of their potent antioxidative properties and their ubiquity in a wide range of commonly consumed foods of plant origin. The Brassicaceae family includes a wide range of horticultural crops, some of them with economic significance and extensively used in the diet throughout the world. The phenolic composition of Brassica vegetables has been recently investigated and, nowadays, the profile of different Brassica species is well established. Here, we review the significance of phenolic compounds as a source of beneficial compounds for human health and the influence of environmental conditions and processing mechanisms on the phenolic composition of Brassica vegetables.

  4. Multivariate analysis of quantitative traits can effectively classify rapeseed germplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jankulovska Mirjana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the use of different multivariate approaches to classify rapeseed genotypes based on quantitative traits has been presented. Tree regression analysis, PCA analysis and two-way cluster analysis were applied in order todescribe and understand the extent of genetic variability in spring rapeseed genotype by trait data. The traits which highly influenced seed and oil yield in rapeseed were successfully identified by the tree regression analysis. Principal predictor for both response variables was number of pods per plant (NP. NP and 1000 seed weight could help in the selection of high yielding genotypes. High values for both traits and oil content could lead to high oil yielding genotypes. These traits may serve as indirect selection criteria and can lead to improvement of seed and oil yield in rapeseed. Quantitative traits that explained most of the variability in the studied germplasm were classified using principal component analysis. In this data set, five PCs were identified, out of which the first three PCs explained 63% of the total variance. It helped in facilitating the choice of variables based on which the genotypes’ clustering could be performed. The two-way cluster analysissimultaneously clustered genotypes and quantitative traits. The final number of clusters was determined using bootstrapping technique. This approach provided clear overview on the variability of the analyzed genotypes. The genotypes that have similar performance regarding the traits included in this study can be easily detected on the heatmap. Genotypes grouped in the clusters 1 and 8 had high values for seed and oil yield, and relatively short vegetative growth duration period and those in cluster 9, combined moderate to low values for vegetative growth duration and moderate to high seed and oil yield. These genotypes should be further exploited and implemented in the rapeseed breeding program. The combined application of these multivariate methods

  5. Reuse of rapeseed by-products from biodiesel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krička, T.; Matin, A.; Voća, N.; Jurišić, V.; Bilandžija, N.

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this paper is to investigate usability of rapeseed cake from biodiesel fuel production as an energy source. For this research, rapeseed was grown at the research site of the Faculty of Agriculture in Zagreb, Croatia. The investigated rapeseed cake, residue from cold pressing, was divided in two groups of samples. The first group was a mix of three varieties (Bristol, Express and Navajo), while the other group consisted of three hybrids (Artus, Baldur, Titan). The utilization of rapeseed cake for energy via two routes was evaluated; namely, utilization of rapeseed cake as (1) solid biofuel (pellets) with addition of 3% of glycerol, and (2) as substrate in anaerobic digestion (AD). In investigation of cake as solid fuel, proximate (moisture content, ash content, fixed carbon and volatile matter), ultimate (content of carbon, sulphur, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen) and physical and calometry analyses (abrasion, diameter, length, density, higher and lower heating value were carried out. As for its use in AD, production of biogas during 40 days was monitored with a view of assessing the use of digested residue as fertilizer in agricultural production. Both groups of digested residues were analysed (pH, electroconductivity, moisture content, ash content, content of nitrogen and carbon, C/N ratio, content of P2O5, K2O, Ca, Mg, Na). The analysis indicated that the investigated raw material is usable as solid and gas biofuel, and digested residue as fertilizer in ecological agriculture. The two groups of samples analysed here did not show significant differences. (Author)

  6. Reuse of rapeseed by-products from biodiesel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tajana Krička

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to investigate usability of rapeseed cake from biodiesel fuel production as an energy source. For this research, rapeseed was grown at the research site of the Faculty of Agriculture in Zagreb, Croatia. The investigated rapeseed cake, residue from cold pressing, was divided in two groups of samples. The first group was a mix of three varieties (Bristol, Express and Navajo, while the other group consisted of three hybrids (Artus, Baldur, Titan. The utilization of rapeseed cake for energy via two routes was evaluated; namely, utilization of rapeseed cake as (1 solid biofuel (pellets with addition of 3% of glycerol, and (2 as substrate in anaerobic digestion (AD. In investigation of cake as solid fuel, proximate (moisture content, ash content, fixed carbon and volatile matter, ultimate (content of carbon, sulphur, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen and physical and calometry analyses (abrasion, diameter, length, density, higher and lower heating value were carried out. As for its use in AD, production of biogas during 40 days was monitored with a view of assessing the use of digested residue as fertilizer in agricultural production. Both groups of digested residues were analysed (pH, electroconductivity, moisture content, ash content, content of nitrogen and carbon, C/N ratio, content of P2O5, K2O, Ca, Mg, Na. The analysis indicated that the investigated raw material is usable as solid and gas biofuel, and digested residue as fertilizer in ecological agriculture. The two groups of samples analysed here did not show significant differences.

  7. Importance of fruit wall in seed yield of pea (Pisum Sativum L.) and mustard (Brassica campestris L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khanna-Chopra, R.; Sinha, S.K.

    1976-01-01

    Dry weight changes in fruit wall and seed during fruit development in the pea and mustard were suggestive of the importance of fruit wall during seed development. So the relative photosynthetic potential of leaves and reproductive parts in the above crops were studied. In addition, the translocation of current photosynthates to the developing seeds was also assessed when fruits and leaves were fed 14 CO 2 independently. Considerable amount of photosynthetic carboxylase activity was observed in the fruit wall of both pea and mustard on unit fresh weight, chlorophyll and organ basis. On unit chlorophyll basis fruit wall had several times more activity than leaves. Both fruit wall as well as leaves translocated current photosynthates to the developing fruits. In the early stages, translocation from the leaves was more efficient but in the later stages, more translocation occurred from the fruit wall as compared with the leaves. Above results are discussed in relation to the importance of reproductive organs in the developing seeds. (author)

  8. Stereoselective uptake and distribution of chiral neoniconoid insecticide paichongding in chinese pak choi (Brassica campestris ssp. Chinenesis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Haiyan; Yang Zhen; Liu Ruyang; Fu Qiuguo; Zhang Sufen; Li Juying; Zhao Xiaojun; Ye Qingfu; Wang Wei; Li Zhong

    2014-01-01

    Paichongding, a neonicotinoid chiral insecticide containing two chiral centers, is a promising substitute for the widely used imidacloprid because it is effective against many imidacloprid-resistant insects. In this study, four optically-pure stereoisomers of Paichongding with 5R, 7R, 5S, 7S, 5S, 7R, and 5R, 7S were employed in both foliar and root of Chinese pak choi to investigate the stereoselective uptake and distribution of the insecticide in pak choi. The results showed, after foliar application, total absorption of individual "1"4C-Paichongding stereoisomers into pak-choi plants demonstrated no stereoselectivity between the enantiomers. The translocation of the four absorbed stereoisomers within pak choi occurred in both acropetal and basipetal directions and the transport of "1"4C from enantiomers 5R, 7R and 5S, 7S were significantly higher than enantiomers 5R, 7S and 5S, 7R. The statistically significant stereoselective translocation inside plants was observed between Paichongding epimers. Root treatment revealed that enantioselective and diastereoselective root uptake into pak-choi plants were both found between the four enantiomers. The enantiomers of 5R, 7S and 5S, 7R were more readily taken up by roots, and more readily accumulated in edible leaves than 5R, 7R and 5S, 7S. These results will help to develop an understanding of the proper application of Paichongding isomers in vegetables, and give useful information for food and environmental assessments of chiral pesticides. (authors)

  9. Effects of irradiation treatment on shoot regeneration and transformation frequency of chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris SSP. Chinensis L)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Zhengqi; Cui Hairui

    2003-01-01

    Cotyledons with petiole were cultured on MS basic medium containing 5 mg/L BA, 0.5 mg/L NAA, 5 mg/L AgNO 3 , and produced adventitious buds with higher frequency. Induction frequency of adventitious buds could be increased by irradiation treatment of γ-rays with the lower dose of 1-2.5 Gy to seedlings and explants in culture, but decreased dramatically when the dose was higher than 10 Gy. Irradiation treatment in co-culture with lower dose of 1-7.5 Gy also promote transient expression frequency of gus gene, while irradiation treatment in pre-culture did not show obvious effect on transient expression of gus gene

  10. Stereoselective uptake and distribution of the chiral neonicotinoid insecticide, Paichongding, in Chinese pak choi (Brassica campestris ssp. chinenesis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Haiyan; Yang, Zhen; Liu, Ruyang; Fu, Qiuguo; Zhang, Sufen; Cai, Zhiqiang; Li, Juying; Zhao, Xiaojun; Ye, Qingfu; Wang, Wei; Li, Zhong

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Absorption of foliar applied Paichongding by pak choi was not stereoselective. • Foliar uptake and downward transport of Paichongding were both found in pak choi. • Enantioselective and epimer-selective root uptake were observed for Paichongding. • Foliage/root uptake showed diastereoselective transport of Paichongding epimers. • The SR and RS are more easily taken up by roots and accumulated in edible parts. -- Abstract: Neonicotinoid chiral insecticidal Paichongding is a promising substitute for the widely used imidacloprid. Four stereoisomers of Paichongding, 5R,7R, 5S,7S, 5S,7R and 5R,7S, were employed in both foliage and roots of Chinese pak choi to investigate their stereoselective uptake and distribution in pak choi. Results showed that after foliar application, no stereoselective absorption into pak-choi plants was observed among the enantiomers. Total absorptions were 35.40% of the applied amount for 5R,7R, 36.66% for 5S,7S, 36.80% for 5S,7R and 38.20% for 5R,7S at 96 HAT. The translocation of the four absorbed stereoisomers within pak choi occurred both acropetally and basipetally and the transport of 14 C from enantiomers 5R,7R and 5S,7S were significantly higher than for 5R,7S and 5S,7R. Significant stereoselective translocation inside plants was observed between Paichongding epimers. Total root uptake reached 16.49–19.85% for 5R,7R and 5S,7S, and 24.57–28.82% for 5S,7R and 5R,7S at 144 HAT. Both enantioselective and diastereoselective root uptake into pak-choi occurred between the four stereoisomers. The 5R,7S and 5S,7R enantiomers were more readily uptaken by the roots than 5R,7R and 5S,7S and accumulated in the edible leaves. These results will help to develop an understanding of Paichongding using only the target-active enantiomer of pesticides

  11. Alleviation of heavy metal toxicity and phytostimulation of Brassica campestris L. by endophytic Mucor sp. MHR-7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahoor, Mahwish; Irshad, Muhammad; Rahman, Hazir; Qasim, Muhammad; Afridi, Sahib Gul; Qadir, Muhammad; Hussain, Anwar

    2017-08-01

    Heavy metal (HM) pollution is of great concern in countries like Pakistan where a huge proportion of human population is exposed to it. These toxic metals are making their way from water bodies to soil where it not only interferes with plant growth and development but also initiates serious health issues in human consuming the produce of such soils. Bioremediation is one of the most viable and efficient solution for the problem. Purpose of the current study was to isolate endophytic fungi from plants grown on HM contaminated soil and screen them for their ability to tolerate multiple HM including chromium (Cr 6+ ), manganese (Mn 2+ ), cobalt (Co 2+ ), copper (Cu 2+ ) and zinc (Zn 2+ ). Out of 27 isolated endophytes, only one strain (MHR-7) was selected for multiple heavy metals tolerance. The strain was identified as Mucor sp. by 18S and 28S ribosomal RNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) 1 and 4 sequence homology. The strain effectively tolerated up to 900µgmL -1 of these heavy metals showing no remarkable effect on its growth. The adverse effect of the heavy metals, measured as reduction of the fungal growth increased with increasing concentration of the metals. The strain was able to remove 60-87% of heavy metals from broth culture when supplied with 300µgmL -1 of these metals. A trend of decline in bioremediation potential of the strain was observed with increasing amount of metals. The strain removed metals by biotransformation and/or accumulation of heavy metal in its hyphae. Application of Mucor sp. MHR-7 locked down HM in tis mycelium thereby making them less available to plant root reducing HM uptake and toxicity in mustard. Besides its bioremediation potential, the strain was also able to produce IAA, ACC deaminase and solubilize phosphate making it excellent phytostimulant fungus. It is concluded that MHR-7 is an excellent candidate for use as biofertilizer in fields affected with heavy metals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Influence of heat stress on leaf morphology and nitrogen–carbohydrate metabolisms in two wucai (Brassica campestris L. genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingyun Yuan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Heat stress is a major environmental stress that limits plant growth and yield worldwide. The present study was carried out to explore the physiological mechanism of heat tolerant to provide the theoretical basis for heat-tolerant breeding. The changes of leaf morphology, anatomy, nitrogen assimilation, and carbohydrate metabolism in two wucai genotypes (WS-1, heat tolerant; WS-6, heat sensitive grown under heat stress (40°C/30°C for 7 days were investigated. Our results showed that heat stress hampered the plant growth and biomass accumulation in certain extent in WS-1 and WS-6. However, the inhibition extent of WS-1 was significantly smaller than WS-6. Thickness of leaf lamina, upper epidermis, and palisade mesophyll were increased by heat in WS-1, which might be contributed to the higher assimilation of photosynthates. During nitrogen assimilation, WS-1 possessed the higher nitrogen-related metabolic enzyme activities, including nitrate reductase (NR, glutamine synthetase (GS, glutamate synthase (GOGAT, and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH, which were reflected by higher photosynthetic nitrogen-use efficiency (PNUE with respect to WS-6. The total amino acids level had no influence in WS-1, whereas it was reduced in WS-6 by heat. And the proline contents of both wucai genotypes were all increased to respond the heat stress. Additionally, among all treatments, the total soluble sugar content of WS-1 by heat got the highest level, including higher contents of sucrose, fructose, and starch than those of WS-6. Moreover, the metabolism efficiency of sucrose to starch in WS-1 was greater than WS-6 under heat stress, proved by higher activities of sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS, sucrose synthase (SuSy, acid invertase (AI, and amylase. These results demonstrated that leaf anatomical alterations resulted in higher nitrogen and carbon assimilation in heat-tolerant genotype WS-1, which exhibited a greater performance to resist heat stress.

  13. Stereoselective uptake and distribution of the chiral neonicotinoid insecticide, Paichongding, in Chinese pak choi (Brassica campestris ssp. chinenesis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Haiyan; Yang, Zhen; Liu, Ruyang; Fu, Qiuguo; Zhang, Sufen; Cai, Zhiqiang; Li, Juying; Zhao, Xiaojun [Institute of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences, Key Laboratory of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences of Ministry of Agriculture and Zhejiang Province, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Ye, Qingfu, E-mail: qfye@zju.edu.cn [Institute of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences, Key Laboratory of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences of Ministry of Agriculture and Zhejiang Province, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Wang, Wei [Institute of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences, Key Laboratory of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences of Ministry of Agriculture and Zhejiang Province, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Li, Zhong, E-mail: lizhong@ecust.edu.cn [School of Pharmacy, East China University of Science and Technology, 130 Meilong Road, Shanghai 200237 (China)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • Absorption of foliar applied Paichongding by pak choi was not stereoselective. • Foliar uptake and downward transport of Paichongding were both found in pak choi. • Enantioselective and epimer-selective root uptake were observed for Paichongding. • Foliage/root uptake showed diastereoselective transport of Paichongding epimers. • The SR and RS are more easily taken up by roots and accumulated in edible parts. -- Abstract: Neonicotinoid chiral insecticidal Paichongding is a promising substitute for the widely used imidacloprid. Four stereoisomers of Paichongding, 5R,7R, 5S,7S, 5S,7R and 5R,7S, were employed in both foliage and roots of Chinese pak choi to investigate their stereoselective uptake and distribution in pak choi. Results showed that after foliar application, no stereoselective absorption into pak-choi plants was observed among the enantiomers. Total absorptions were 35.40% of the applied amount for 5R,7R, 36.66% for 5S,7S, 36.80% for 5S,7R and 38.20% for 5R,7S at 96 HAT. The translocation of the four absorbed stereoisomers within pak choi occurred both acropetally and basipetally and the transport of {sup 14}C from enantiomers 5R,7R and 5S,7S were significantly higher than for 5R,7S and 5S,7R. Significant stereoselective translocation inside plants was observed between Paichongding epimers. Total root uptake reached 16.49–19.85% for 5R,7R and 5S,7S, and 24.57–28.82% for 5S,7R and 5R,7S at 144 HAT. Both enantioselective and diastereoselective root uptake into pak-choi occurred between the four stereoisomers. The 5R,7S and 5S,7R enantiomers were more readily uptaken by the roots than 5R,7R and 5S,7S and accumulated in the edible leaves. These results will help to develop an understanding of Paichongding using only the target-active enantiomer of pesticides.

  14. QTL for phytosterol and sinapate ester content in Brassica napus L. collocate with the two erucic acid genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amar, Samija; Ecke, Wolfgang; Becker, Heiko C.

    2008-01-01

    Improving oil and protein quality for food and feed purposes is an important goal in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) breeding programs. Rapeseed contains phytosterols, used to enrich food products, and sinapate esters, which are limiting the utilization of rapeseed proteins in the feed industry. Increasing the phytosterol content of oil and lowering sinapate ester content of meal could increase the value of the oilseed rape crop. The objective of the present study was to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) for phytosterol and sinapate ester content in a winter rapeseed population of 148 doubled haploid lines, previously found to have a large variation for these two traits. This population also segregated for the two erucic acid genes. A close negative correlation was found between erucic acid and phytosterol content (Spearman’s rank correlation, rs = −0.80**). For total phytosterol content, three QTL were detected, explaining 60% of the genetic variance. The two QTL with the strongest additive effects were mapped on linkage groups N8 and N13 within the confidence intervals of the two erucic acid genes. For sinapate ester content four QTL were detected, explaining 53% of the genetic variance. Again, a close negative correlation was found between erucic acid and sinapate ester content (rs = −0.66**) and the QTL with the strongest additive effects mapped on linkage groups N8 and N13 within the confidence intervals of the two erucic acid genes. The results suggests, that there is a pleiotropic effect of the two erucic acid genes on phytosterol and sinapate ester content; the effect of the alleles for low erucic acid content is to increase phytosterol and sinapate ester content. Possible reasons for this are discussed based on known biosynthetic pathways. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00122-008-0734-2) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:18335203

  15. Determination of Flowering Phenology, Number of Flowers, Nectar and Pollen Potential of Oil Rape (Brassica napus L., Plant in Black Sea Coastal Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Necda Çankaya

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This research was carried out in 2011 and 2012 in order to determine the flowering phenology, number of flowers, nectar and pollen potential in the Samsun province of the oilseed rape (Brassica napus L., which is widely used in agriculture in our country. In the first year of the study (2011, it was determined that the rapeseed plant was in flower for 44 days, there were 2.694 flowers per plant, 1.89 kg/da nectar per day and 1330 kg/da pollen production. In the second year of the research (2012, it was revealed that the rapeseed plant was in flower for 39 days, there were 701 plants/flower in the plant, 0.38 kg/da nectar secreted daily and 331.57 kg/da pollen. According to the results of two years, the yield of rapeseed was found to be 41.5 days, the daily nectar production was 0.23 mg/flower/day, the nectar dry matter level was 20.25% and the pollen production was 0.48 mg/flower/day. In Samsun province, it was determined that rapeseed plants flowered before the flowering of many plants in the vicinity in the early spring, and provided honey bees, Apis mellifera L., and many other honey bees, nectar and pollen. It has been demonstrated that the cultivation of rapeseed is cultivated in the early spring, and it can be a convenient source of food for honey bees and other dusty insects.

  16. Different myrosinase and idioblast distribution in Arabidopsis and Brassica napus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasson, Erik; Jørgensen, Lise Bolt; Höglund, Anna-Stina

    2001-01-01

    Arabidopsis, Brassica napus, Myrosinase, Myrosinase Binding Protein, Glucosinolates, Myrosin Cell, Immunocytochemistry......Arabidopsis, Brassica napus, Myrosinase, Myrosinase Binding Protein, Glucosinolates, Myrosin Cell, Immunocytochemistry...

  17. User Guidelines for the Brassica Database: BRAD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaobo; Cheng, Feng; Wang, Xiaowu

    2016-01-01

    The genome sequence of Brassica rapa was first released in 2011. Since then, further Brassica genomes have been sequenced or are undergoing sequencing. It is therefore necessary to develop tools that help users to mine information from genomic data efficiently. This will greatly aid scientific exploration and breeding application, especially for those with low levels of bioinformatic training. Therefore, the Brassica database (BRAD) was built to collect, integrate, illustrate, and visualize Brassica genomic datasets. BRAD provides useful searching and data mining tools, and facilitates the search of gene annotation datasets, syntenic or non-syntenic orthologs, and flanking regions of functional genomic elements. It also includes genome-analysis tools such as BLAST and GBrowse. One of the important aims of BRAD is to build a bridge between Brassica crop genomes with the genome of the model species Arabidopsis thaliana, thus transferring the bulk of A. thaliana gene study information for use with newly sequenced Brassica crops.

  18. Growth and xanthan production of Xanthomonas campestris depending on the N-source concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prell, A [Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague (Czech Republic). Inst. of Microbiology; Lasik, J [Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague (Czech Republic). Inst. of Microbiology; Konicek, J [Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague (Czech Republic). Inst. of Microbiology; Sobotka, M [Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague (Czech Republic). Inst. of Microbiology; Sys, J [Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague (Czech Republic). Inst. of Microbiology

    1995-11-01

    Growth of X. campestris and production of xanthan were studied in several batch fermentations with different starting concentrations of N-source. The dependencies of growth, productivity and yields on initial N-source concentration were observed. The maximum yields in the course of cultivations were identified. (orig.)

  19. Predicting rapeseed oil content with near-infrared spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Rossato

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to establish a calibration equation and to estimate the efficiency of near-infrared reflectance (NIR spectroscopy for evaluating rapeseed oil content in Southern Brazil. Spectral data from 124 half-sib families were correlated with oil contents determined by the chemical method. The accuracy of the equation was verified by coefficient of determination (R² of 0.92, error of calibration (SEC of 0.78, and error of performance (SEP of 1.22. The oil content of ten genotypes, which were not included in the calibration with NIR, was similar to the one obtained by the standard chemical method. NIR spectroscopy is adequate to differentiate oil content of rapeseed genotypes.

  20. Preparation and mechanical properties of edible rapeseed protein films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Sung-Ae; Lim, Geum-Ok; Song, Kyung Bin

    2011-03-01

    Edible films were manufactured from rapeseed oil extraction residues. To prepare rapeseed protein (RP) films, various concentrations of plasticizers and emulsifiers were incorporated into the preparation of a film-forming solution. The optimal conditions for the preparation of the RP film were 2% sorbitol/0.5% sucrose as plasticizer and 1.5% polysorbate 20 as an emulsifier. In addition, RP blend films were prepared. Gelidium corneum or gelatin was added to improve the physical properties of the RP film, and the highest tensile strength value of the films was 53.45 MPa for the 3% RP/4% gelatin film. Our results suggest that the RP-gelatin blend film is suitable for applications in food packaging. Edible RP films prepared in the present investigation can be applied in food packaging.

  1. Genome-Wide Identification, Evolutionary and Expression Analyses of the GALACTINOL SYNTHASE Gene Family in Rapeseed and Tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonghai Fan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Galactinol synthase (GolS is a key enzyme in raffinose family oligosaccharide (RFO biosynthesis. The finding that GolS accumulates in plants exposed to abiotic stresses indicates RFOs function in environmental adaptation. However, the evolutionary relationships and biological functions of GolS family in rapeseed (Brassica napus and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum remain unclear. In this study, we identified 20 BnGolS and 9 NtGolS genes. Subcellular localization predictions showed that most of the proteins are localized to the cytoplasm. Phylogenetic analysis identified a lost event of an ancient GolS copy in the Solanaceae and an ancient duplication event leading to evolution of GolS4/7 in the Brassicaceae. The three-dimensional structures of two GolS proteins were conserved, with an important DxD motif for binding to UDP-galactose (uridine diphosphate-galactose and inositol. Expression profile analysis indicated that BnGolS and NtGolS genes were expressed in most tissues and highly expressed in one or two specific tissues. Hormone treatments strongly induced the expression of most BnGolS genes and homologous genes in the same subfamilies exhibited divergent-induced expression. Our study provides a comprehensive evolutionary analysis of GolS genes among the Brassicaceae and Solanaceae as well as an insight into the biological function of GolS genes in hormone response in plants.

  2. Purification and protein composition of oil bodies from Brassica napus seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolivet Pascale

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Seed oil bodies are intracellular particles to store lipids as food reserves in oleaginous plants. Description of oil body-associated proteins of Arabidopsis thaliana has been recently reported whereas only few data are available in the case of rapeseed. Oil bodies have been prepared from two double-low varieties of Brassica napus seeds, a standard variety (Explus and an oleic variety (Cabriolet. Oil bodies have been purified using floatation technique in the successive presence of high salt concentration, detergent or urea in order to remove non-specifically trapped proteins. The integrity of the oil bodies has been verified and their size estimated. Their protein and fatty acid contents have been determined. The proteins composing these organelles were extracted, separated by denaturing gel electrophoresis, digested by trypsin and their peptides were subsequently analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Protein identification was performed using Arabidopsis thaliana protein sequence database and a collection of Expressed Sequence Tag (EST of Brassica napus generated from the framework of the French plant genomics programme “Genoplante”. This led to the identification of a limited number of proteins: eight oleosins showing a high similarity each other and representing up to 75% of oil body proteins, a 11 β hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-like protein highly homologous to the same protein from A. thaliana, and only few contaminating proteins associated with myrosinase activity.

  3. Interesterification of rapeseed oil catalyzed by tin octoate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galia, Alessandro; Centineo, Alessio; Saracco, Guido; Schiavo, Benedetto; Scialdone, Onofrio

    2014-01-01

    The interesterification of rapeseed oil was performed for the first time by using tin octoate as Lewis acid homogeneous catalysts and methyl or ethyl acetate as acyl acceptors in a batch reactor, within the temperature range 393–483 K. The yields in fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) and triacetin (TA) after 20 h of reaction time increased from 8% and 2%–to 61% and 22%, respectively, when the reaction temperature increased from 423 to 483 K. An optimum value of 40 for the acyl acceptor to oil molar ratio was found to be necessary to match good fatty acid alkyl ester yields with high enough reaction rate. The rate of generation of esters was significantly higher when methyl acetate was used as acyl acceptor instead of its ethyl homologue. The collected results suggest that tin octoate can be used as effective catalyst for the interesterification of rapeseed oil with methyl or ethyl acetate being highly soluble in the reaction system, less expensive than enzymes and allowing the operator to work under milder conditions than supercritical interesterification processes. - Highlights: • We study the interesterification of rapeseed oil catalyzed by tin(II) octoate. • Tin(II) octoate is an effective homogeneous catalyst at 483 K. • The acyl acceptor to oil molar ratio must be optimized. • Higher rate of reaction is obtained with methyl acetate as acyl acceptor

  4. Glycerol as a carbon source for xantan production by Xanthomonas campestris isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bajić Bojana Ž.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The success of xanthan biosynthesis depends on several factors, most importantly the genetic potential of the production microorganism and cultivation media composition. Cultivation media composition affects the yield and quality of the desired product as well as production costs. This is why many studies focus on finding cheap alternative raw materials, especially carbon sources, to replace commercially used glucose and sucrose. In addition to the Xanthomonas campestris ATCC 13951 which is the primary industrial production microorganism, other Xanthomonas strains can produce xanthan as well. Under the same conditions, different strains produce different amounts of the biopolymer of varying quality. The aim of this paper is to compare producibility of phytopathogenic X. campestris strains, isolated from the environment with the reference X. campestris ATCC 13951 strain and to estimate the possibility of xanthan production using alternative glycerol-based media than the synthetic glucose-based media. Submerged cultivation on the medium based on glucose or glycerol (2.0 %w/v was performed using the reference strain and eight isolated X. campestris strains. In order to assess the success of biosynthesis, xanthan yield and rheological properties were determined. Strains isolated from the environment produced yields between 2.98 g/L and 12.17 g/L on the glucose-based medium and 1.68 g/L and 6.31 g/L on the glycerol-based medium. Additionally, X. campestris ATCC 13951 provided the highest yield when using glucose (13.24 g/L, as well as glycerol-based medium (7.44 g/L. The obtained results indicate that in the applied experimental conditions and using all tested strains, glycerol is viable as a carbon source for the production of xanthan.

  5. Identification and expression analysis of BoMF25, a novel polygalacturonase gene involved in pollen development of Brassica oleracea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Meiling; Liang, Ying; Yu, Youjian; Ma, Zhiming; Song, Limin; Yue, Xiaoyan; Cao, Jiashu

    2015-06-01

    BoMF25 acts on pollen wall. Polygalacturonase (PG) is a pectin-digesting enzyme involved in numerous plant developmental processes and is described to be of critical importance for pollen wall development. In the present study, a PG gene, BoMF25, was isolated from Brassica oleracea. BoMF25 is the homologous gene of At4g35670, a PG gene in Arabidopsis thaliana with a high expression level at the tricellular pollen stage. Collinear analysis revealed that the orthologous gene of BoMF25 in Brassica campestris (syn. B. rapa) genome was probably lost because of genome deletion and reshuffling. Sequence analysis indicated that BoMF25 contained four classical conserved domains (I, II, III, and IV) of PG protein. Homology and phylogenetic analyses showed that BoMF25 was clustered in Clade F. The putative promoter sequence, containing classical cis-acting elements and pollen-specific motifs, could drive green fluorescence protein expression in onion epidermal cells. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis suggested that BoMF25 was mainly expressed in the anther at the late stage of pollen development. In situ hybridization analysis also indicated that the strong and specific expression signal of BoMF25 existed in pollen grains at the mature pollen stage. Subcellular localization showed that the fluorescence signal was observed in the cell wall of onion epidermal cells, which suggested that BoMF25 may be a secreted protein localized in the pollen wall.

  6. The Host Plant Metabolite Glucose Is the Precursor of Diffusible Signal Factor (DSF) Family Signals in Xanthomonas campestris

    OpenAIRE

    Deng, Yinyue; Liu, Xiaoling; Wu, Ji'en; Lee, Jasmine; Chen, Shaohua; Cheng, Yingying; Zhang, Chunyan; Zhang, Lian-Hui

    2015-01-01

    Plant pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris produces cis-11-methyl-2-dodecenoic acid (diffusible signal factor [DSF]) as a cell-cell communication signal to regulate biofilm dispersal and virulence factor production. Previous studies have demonstrated that DSF biosynthesis is dependent on the presence of RpfF, an enoyl-coenzyme A (CoA) hydratase, but the DSF synthetic mechanism and the influence of the host plant on DSF biosynthesis are still not clear. We show here that exogenous ad...

  7. Subgenome parallel selection is associated with morphotype diversification and convergent crop domestication in Brassica rapa and Brassica oleracea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, Feng; Sun, Rifei; Hou, Xilin; Zheng, Hongkun; Zhang, Fenglan; Zhang, Yangyong; Liu, Bo; Liang, Jianli; Zhuang, Mu; Liu, Yunxia; Liu, Dongyuan; Wang, Xiaobo; Li, Pingxia; Liu, Yumei; Lin, Ke; Bucher, Johan; Zhang, Ningwen; Wang, Yan; Wang, Hui; Deng, Jie; Liao, Yongcui; Wei, Keyun; Zhang, Xueming; Fu, Lixia; Hu, Yunyan; Liu, Jisheng; Cai, Chengcheng; Zhang, Shujiang; Zhang, Shifan; Li, Fei; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Jifang; Guo, Ning; Liu, Zhiyuan; Liu, Jin; Sun, Chao; Ma, Yuan; Zhang, Haijiao; Cui, Yang; Freeling, Micheal R.; Borm, Theo; Bonnema, Guusje; Wu, Jian; Wang, Xiaowu

    2016-01-01

    Brassica species, including crops such as cabbage, turnip and oilseed, display enormous phenotypic variation. Brassica genomes have all undergone a whole-genome triplication (WGT) event with unknown effects on phenotype diversification. We resequenced 199 Brassica rapa and 119 Brassica oleracea

  8. Variations in fatty acid composition, glucosinolate profile and some phyto chemical contents in selected oil seed rape (Brassica napus L.) cultivars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Din Saad El-Beltag, H.; Mohamed, A. A.

    2010-07-01

    Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) is now the third most important source of edible oil in the world after soybean and palm oil. In this study seeds of five different rapeseed cultivars namely; pactol, silvo, topas, serw 4 and serw 6 were evaluated for their fatty acid composition, glucosinolate profile, amino acids, total tocopherols and phenolic content. Among all cultivars significant variability in fatty acids were observed. The oleic acid (C18:1) ranged from 56.31% to 58.67%, linoleic acid (C18:2) from 10.52% to 13.74%, {alpha}-linolenic acid (C18:3) from 8.83% to 10.32% and erucic acid (22:1) from 0.15% to 0.91%. The glucosinolate profile of rapeseed was also separated and identified using high-performance liquid chromatography. Small variations in the glucosinolate profile were observed among all tested cultivars; however, progoitrin and gluconapin were the major glucosinolate found. Additionally, silvo cultivar showed the highest total glucosinolate contents (5.97 {mu}mol/g dw). Generally, the contents of aspartic, glutamic, arginine and leucine were high, while the contents of tyrosine and isoleucine were low among all cultivars. For total tocopherols, the results indicated that both serw 6 and pactol cultivars had the highest total tocopherol contents (138.3 and 102.8 mg/100 g oil, respectively). Total phenolic contents varied from 28.0 to 35.4 mg/g dw. The highest total phenolic content was found in topas while the lowest value was detected in serw 6. These parameters; fatty acid contents, glucosinolate profile and amino acids together with total tocopherols and phenolic contents, could be taken into consideration by oilseed rape breeders as selection criteria for developing genotypes with modified seed quality traits in Brassica napus L. (Author)

  9. Identification of genes differentially expressed in Mikania micrantha during Cuscuta campestris infection by suppression subtractive hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong-Mei; Staehelin, Christian; Zhang, Yi-Shun; Peng, Shao-Lin

    2009-09-01

    The influence of Cuscuta campestris on its host Mikania micrantha has been studied with respect to biomass accumulation, physiology and ecology. Molecular events of this parasitic plant-plant interaction are poorly understood, however. In this study, we identified novel genes from M. micrantha induced by C. campestris infection. Genes expressed upon parasitization by C. campestris at early post-penetration stages were investigated by construction and characterization of subtracted cDNA libraries from shoots and stems of M. micrantha. Three hundred and three presumably up-regulated expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were identified and classified in functional categories, such as "metabolism", "cell defence and stress", "transcription factor", "signal transduction", "transportation" and "photosynthesis". In shoots and stems of infected M. micrantha, genes associated with defence responses and cell wall modifications were induced, confirming similar data from other parasitic plant-plant interactions. However, gene expression profiles in infected shoots and stems were found to be different. Compared to infected shoots, more genes induced in response to biotic and abiotic stress factors were identified in infected stems. Furthermore, database comparisons revealed a notable number of M. micrantha ESTs that matched genes with unknown function. Expression analysis by quantitative real-time RT-PCR of 21 genes (from different functional categories) showed significantly increased levels for 13 transcripts in response to C. campestris infection. In conclusion, this study provides an overview of genes from parasitized M. micrantha at early post-penetration stages. The acquired data form the basis for a molecular understanding of host reactions in response to parasitic plants.

  10. Effect of topdressing with nitrogen and boron on the yield and quality of rapeseed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Varga

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Field trials with winter rape (Brassica napus L. var. napus variety Rasmus were established in August in the years 2002–2004 at the experimental station in Kolíňany which belongs to the Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra. In the experiments we explore the effect of supplementary spring topdressing of rape with nitrogen and boron in the BBCH 29–30 stage with regard to the yields of seeds and their qualitative parameters (TSW, content of oil and crude protein. In the experiment we applied DAM–390 (solution of ammonium nitrate and urea, 30% N at a rate of 30 kg N/ha and Humix Bór (humic acids + N, K, B at a rate of 0.240 kg B / ha. The different climate conditions in the respective years had a significant effect on yields of rapeseed and ranged as follows: 2003: 1.80–2.29 t / ha; 2004: 2.60–3.35 t / ha; 2005: 2.45–3.29 t / ha. The significant decrease in seed yields in the first year of the experiment was caused namely by the deficit in precipitation in January, February and June 2003 and high temperatures in May and June in the same year. In terms of the individual years and the three-year average the application of Humix Bór itself did not significantly improve the yield and qualitative parameters of seeds compared to the unfertilised control. In a three-year average the application of the N fertiliser alone or in combination with Humix Bór increased seed yields and the crude protein content by 22.4–30.7 % and 4.0–4.9 rel. %, respectively, compared to the unfertilised control. The significantly highest seed yields (2.98 t / ha were achieved when the plants were treated with a combination of nitrogen and Humix Bór as compared to all the other treatments (2.28–2.79 t / ha. The oil content in seeds increased significantly to 44.1% only when treated with a combined application of DAM–390 and Humix Bór as against the unfertilised control (42.8%. Fertilisation did not change

  11. Genomic DNA Enrichment Using Sequence Capture Microarrays: a Novel Approach to Discover Sequence Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNP) in Brassica napus L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Wayne E.; Parkin, Isobel A.; Gajardo, Humberto A.; Gerhardt, Daniel J.; Higgins, Erin; Sidebottom, Christine; Sharpe, Andrew G.; Snowdon, Rod J.; Federico, Maria L.; Iniguez-Luy, Federico L.

    2013-01-01

    Targeted genomic selection methodologies, or sequence capture, allow for DNA enrichment and large-scale resequencing and characterization of natural genetic variation in species with complex genomes, such as rapeseed canola (Brassica napus L., AACC, 2n=38). The main goal of this project was to combine sequence capture with next generation sequencing (NGS) to discover single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in specific areas of the B. napus genome historically associated (via quantitative trait loci –QTL– analysis) to traits of agronomical and nutritional importance. A 2.1 million feature sequence capture platform was designed to interrogate DNA sequence variation across 47 specific genomic regions, representing 51.2 Mb of the Brassica A and C genomes, in ten diverse rapeseed genotypes. All ten genotypes were sequenced using the 454 Life Sciences chemistry and to assess the effect of increased sequence depth, two genotypes were also sequenced using Illumina HiSeq chemistry. As a result, 589,367 potentially useful SNPs were identified. Analysis of sequence coverage indicated a four-fold increased representation of target regions, with 57% of the filtered SNPs falling within these regions. Sixty percent of discovered SNPs corresponded to transitions while 40% were transversions. Interestingly, fifty eight percent of the SNPs were found in genic regions while 42% were found in intergenic regions. Further, a high percentage of genic SNPs was found in exons (65% and 64% for the A and C genomes, respectively). Two different genotyping assays were used to validate the discovered SNPs. Validation rates ranged from 61.5% to 84% of tested SNPs, underpinning the effectiveness of this SNP discovery approach. Most importantly, the discovered SNPs were associated with agronomically important regions of the B. napus genome generating a novel data resource for research and breeding this crop species. PMID:24312619

  12. Genome-Wide Identification and Structural Analysis of bZIP Transcription Factor Genes in Brassica napus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yan; Xu, Daixiang; Jia, Ledong; Huang, Xiaohu; Ma, Guoqiang; Wang, Shuxian; Zhu, Meichen; Zhang, Aoxiang; Guan, Mingwei; Lu, Kun; Xu, Xinfu; Wang, Rui; Li, Jiana; Qu, Cunmin

    2017-10-24

    The basic region/leucine zipper motif (bZIP) transcription factor family is one of the largest families of transcriptional regulators in plants. bZIP genes have been systematically characterized in some plants, but not in rapeseed ( Brassica napus ). In this study, we identified 247 BnbZIP genes in the rapeseed genome, which we classified into 10 subfamilies based on phylogenetic analysis of their deduced protein sequences. The BnbZIP genes were grouped into functional clades with Arabidopsis genes with similar putative functions, indicating functional conservation. Genome mapping analysis revealed that the BnbZIPs are distributed unevenly across all 19 chromosomes, and that some of these genes arose through whole-genome duplication and dispersed duplication events. All expression profiles of 247 bZIP genes were extracted from RNA-sequencing data obtained from 17 different B . napus ZS11 tissues with 42 various developmental stages. These genes exhibited different expression patterns in various tissues, revealing that these genes are differentially regulated. Our results provide a valuable foundation for functional dissection of the different BnbZIP homologs in B . napus and its parental lines and for molecular breeding studies of bZIP genes in B . napus .

  13. Analysis of cold resistance and identification of SSR markers linked to cold resistance genes in Brassica rapa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhen; Zhang, Xuexian; Jiang, Shouhua; Qin, Mengfan; Zhao, Na; Lang, Lina; Liu, Yaping; Tian, Zhengshu; Liu, Xia; Wang, Yang; Zhang, Binbin; Xu, Aixia

    2017-06-01

    Currently, cold temperatures are one of the main factors threatening rapeseed production worldwide; thus, it is imperative to identify cold-resistant germplasm and to cultivate cold-resistant rapeseed varieties. In this study, the cold resistance of four Brassica rapa varieties was analyzed. The cold resistance of Longyou6 and Longyou7 was better than that of Tianyou2 and Tianyou4. Thus, an F 2 population derived from Longyou6 and Tianyou4 was used to study the correlation of cold resistance and physiological indexes. Our results showed that the degree of frost damage was related to the relative conductivity and MDA content (r1 = 0.558 and r2 = 0.447, respectively). In order to identify the markers related to cold resistance, 504 pairs of SSR (simple sequence repeats) primers were used to screen the two parents and F 2 population. Four and five SSR markers had highly significant positive correlation to relative conductivity and MDA, respectively. In addition, three of these SSR markers had a highly significant positive correlation to both of these two indexes. These three SSR markers were subsequently confirmed to be used to distinguish between cold-resistant and non-cold-resistant varieties. The results of this study will lay a solid foundation for the mapping of cold-resistant genes and molecular markers assisted selection for the cold-resistance.

  14. Conformational changes associated with the binding of zinc acetate at the putative active site of XcTcmJ, a cupin from Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axelrod, Herbert L.; Kozbial, Piotr; McMullan, Daniel; Krishna, S. Sri; Miller, Mitchell D.; Abdubek, Polat; Acosta, Claire; Astakhova, Tamara; Carlton, Dennis; Caruthers, Jonathan; Chiu, Hsiu-Ju; Clayton, Thomas; Deller, Marc C.; Duan, Lian; Elias, Ylva; Feuerhelm, Julie; Grzechnik, Slawomir K.; Grant, Joanna C.; Han, Gye Won; Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Jin, Kevin K.; Klock, Heath E.; Knuth, Mark W.; Kumar, Abhinav; Marciano, David; Morse, Andrew T.; Murphy, Kevin D.; Nigoghossian, Edward; Okach, Linda; Oommachen, Silvya; Paulsen, Jessica; Reyes, Ron; Rife, Christopher L.; Tien, Henry J.; Trout, Christina V.; Bedem, Henry van den; Weekes, Dana; White, Aprilfawn; Xu, Qingping; Zubieta, Chloe; Hodgson, Keith O.; Wooley, John; Elsliger, Marc-André; Deacon, Ashley M.; Godzik, Adam; Lesley, Scott A.; Wilson, Ian A.

    2009-01-01

    The crystal structure of an RmlC-type cupin with zinc acetate bound at the putative active site reveals significant differences from a previous structure without any bound ligand. The functional implications of the ligand-induced conformational changes are discussed. In the plant pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, the product of the tcmJ gene, XcTcmJ, encodes a protein belonging to the RmlC family of cupins. XcTcmJ was crystallized in a monoclinic space group (C2) in the presence of zinc acetate and the structure was determined to 1.6 Å resolution. Previously, the apo structure has been reported in the absence of any bound metal ion [Chin et al. (2006 ▶), Proteins, 65, 1046–1050]. The most significant difference between the apo structure and the structure of XcTcmJ described here is a reorganization of the binding site for zinc acetate, which was most likely acquired from the crystallization solution. This site is located in the conserved metal ion-binding domain at the putative active site of XcTcmJ. In addition, an acetate was also bound within coordination distance of the zinc. In order to accommodate this binding, rearrangement of a conserved histidine ligand is required as well as several nearby residues within and around the putative active site. These observations indicate that binding of zinc serves a functional role in this cupin protein

  15. An analysis of growth factors of rapeseed at modern resource-saving technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipova, M.; Zheleva, I.; Sulejmenova, N.; Abildaev, E.

    2017-10-01

    Nowadays the production of rapeseed has grown due to the variety of existing possibilities for its using. This calls the search for new, resource-saving technologies for its growing in Republic of Kazakhstan. For these new technologies it is needed to know which are the factors that influence the production of rapeseed and how each factor influence the production and the quality of this culture. The careful study of these factors is necessary for better understudying the process of the growing aimed increasing the yields and quantity of the rapeseed.

  16. Genetic diversity and relationships among cabbage ( Brassica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The integration of our data with historical documents confirmed that traditional cabbage landraces cultivated in North of China were first introduced from Russia. Key words: Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), genetic diversity, cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata), landraces, population structure.

  17. Intraspecific chromosomal and genetic polymorphism in Brassica ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-04-16

    Apr 16, 2014 ... acid in rapeseeds is one of the important factor of its food or industrial ... under additive control of alleles of FAE1.1 and FAE1.2 genes that encode the .... was designed in such a way that an artificial restriction site for TaqI ...

  18. Generation and characterization of tribenuron-methyl herbicide-resistant rapeseed (Brasscia napus) for hybrid seed production using chemically induced male sterility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haitao; Li, Juanjuan; Zhao, Bo; Wang, Jing; Yi, Licong; Liu, Chao; Wu, Jiangsheng; King, Graham J; Liu, Kede

    2015-01-01

    Identification and molecular analysis of four tribenuron-methyl resistant mutants in Brassica napus , which would be very useful in hybrid production using a Chemically induced male sterility system. Chemically induced male sterility (CIMS) systems dependent on chemical hybridization agents (CHAs) like tribenuron-methyl (TBM) represent an important approach for practical utilization of heterosis in rapeseed. However, when spraying the female parents with TBM to induce male sterility the male parents must be protected with a shield to avoid injury to the stamens, which would otherwise complicate the seed production protocol and increase the cost of hybrid seed production. Here we report the first proposed application of a herbicide-resistant cultivar in hybrid production, using a CIMS system based on identifying four TBM-resistant mutants in Brassica napus. Genetic analysis indicated that the TBM resistance was controlled by a single dominant nuclear gene. An in vitro enzyme activity assay for acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS) suggested that the herbicide resistance is caused by a gain-of-function mutation in a copy of AHAS genes. Comparative sequencing of the mutants and wild type BnaA.AHAS.a coding sequences identified a C-to-T transition at either position 535 or 536 from the translation start site, which resulted in a substitution of proline with serine or leucine at position 197 according to the Arabidopsis thaliana protein sequence. An allele-specific dCAPS marker developed from the C536T variation co-segregated with the herbicide resistance. Transgenic A. thaliana plants expressing BnaA.ahas3.a conferred herbicide resistance, which confirmed that the P197 substitution in BnaA.AHAS.a was responsible for the herbicide resistance. Moreover, the TBM-resistant lines maintain normal male fertility under TBM treatment and can be of practical value in hybrid seed production using CIMS.

  19. Levantamento da intensidade da alternariose e da podridão negra em cultivos orgânicos de brássicas em Pernambuco e Santa Catarina Survey of the intensity of Alternaria black spot and black rot on brassica species under organic farming systems in Pernambuco and Santa Catarina states, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz A M Peruch

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a intensidade da alternariose, causada por Alternaria brassicicola e/ou Alternaria brassicae, e da podridão negra, causada por Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, em cultivos orgânicos de brássicas em Pernambuco e Santa Catarina. Os levantamentos foram realizados no período de novembro de 2001 a fevereiro de 2002, num total de 103 cultivos orgânicos de várias espécies de brássicas. Foram registradas elevadas prevalências das doenças nos estados, com exceção em couve-chinesa em Santa Catarina. A prevalência da alternariose foi 100% nos cultivos de brócolis em Pernambuco, bem como em couve-flor nos dois estados, enquanto a podridão negra atingiu esse nível nos cultivos de brócolis e couve-flor em Santa Catarina. Na média das diferentes espécies de brássicas, as doenças foram mais prevalentes em Pernambuco que Santa Catarina. Entretanto, as médias de severidade de cada doença no conjunto das brássicas não foram diferentes entre os estados, embora as condições climáticas tenham sido nitidamente distintas. A severidade da alternariose variou entre as espécies de brássicas somente em Pernambuco, com a menor severidade registrada em couve-manteiga. Em relação à podridão negra, apenas em Santa Catarina houve diferença na severidade entre as brássicas, sendo registrados os menores níveis em couve-chinesa. Não foram constatadas correlações significativas entre os níveis de severidade da alternariose e da podridão negra, bem como da severidade destas com o número total de plantas e a idade das plantas nos cultivos.The objective of this research was to evaluate the intensity of Alternaria black spot, caused by Alternaria brassicicola and/or Alternaria brassicae, and black rot, caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris in organic cultivation of brassicas in Pernambuco and Santa Catarina. The survey was carried aut from November 2001 to February 2002, in 103 fields under

  20. Mineral, vitamin C and crude protein contents in kale (Brassica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-10-27

    Oct 27, 2011 ... Key words: Kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala), harvesting stage, vitamin C, crude protein, mineral content. .... L-ascorbic acid (or vitamin C) in plant tissues. .... Cooking methods of Brassica rapa affect the preservation of.

  1. Biodiesel in Belgium. From rapeseed oil to used vegetable oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelkmans, L.

    1997-01-01

    There are two motives for the search for alternative motor fuels: reducing the growing pressure of traffic on environment, and looking for a replacement for petrol and diesel oil that are bound to be worn-out in a few decades. A promising alternative motor fuel is biodiesel. The author's institute is involved in its second biodiesel demonstration project. In the first project RME (rapeseed methyl ester) was used undiluted in five passenger cars for two years. There were no technical problems and a clear environmental advantage was noticed. However, the price remains a problem. The use of waste vegetable oils for the production of biodiesel could help to overcome this problem. Therefore, a second biodiesel demonstration project was started in which UVOME (used vegetable oil methyl ester) is used. The preliminary results show a great similarity with the RME results and no technical problems in real life use. 1 fig., 1 tab., 5 refs

  2. Energy and environmental analysis of a rapeseed biorefinery conversion process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldrin, Alessio; Balzan, Alberto; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2013-01-01

    )-based environmental assessment of a Danish biorefinery system was carried out to thoroughly analyze and optimize the concept and address future research. The LCA study was based on case-specific mass and energy balances and inventory data, and was conducted using consequential LCA approach to take into account market...... mechanisms determining the fate of products, lost opportunities and marginal productions. The results show that introduction of enzymatic transesterification and improved oil extraction procedure result in environmental benefits compared to a traditional process. Utilization of rapeseed straw seems to have...... positive effects on the greenhouse gases (GHG) footprint of the biorefinery system, with improvements in the range of 9 % to 29 %, depending on the considered alternative. The mass and energy balances showed the potential for improvement of straw treatment processes (hydrothermal pre-treatment and dark...

  3. Xylitol production by Debaryomyces hansenii and Candida guilliermondii from rapeseed straw hemicellulosic hydrolysate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    López-Linares, Juan Carlos; Romero, Inmaculada; Cara, Cristobal

    2018-01-01

    This study evaluated the possibility of using rapeseed straw hemicellulosic hydrolysate as a fermentation medium for xylitol production. Two yeast strains, namely Debaryomyces hansenii and Candida guilliermondii, were used for this bioconversion process and their performance to convert xylose...

  4. Rapeseed is an efficient energy crop which can still improve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flenet Francis

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The ability of biofuels to contribute efficiently to the replacement of fossil energy and to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions has been a matter of debate. Hence, there is a need to assess accurately the energy balance of biofuels and their ability to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, in order to evaluate and to improve the benefit for society. In rapeseed, the energy ratio (energy produced per unit of non-renewable energy input is well above 2 whatever the method of calculation. In order to investigate the variability of energy ratios and to identify ways of improvement, a study was conducted in France in 2005 and 2006. The method of mass allocation of input energy was used for calculations, instead of the substitution method, because with this method the results do not depend on the utilization of co-products. Hence, this method is better adapted to follow improvements. A great variability in the energy ratio was observed in 2005 and 2006. Seed yields and energy cost of fertilizer N explained most of this variability. Hence, improvements should focus on increasing yield with little increase in energy cost, and on decreasing wasting of N fertilizer. However the farmer incomes, and the net production of energy per hectare, must also be a matter of concern. The inventories of greenhouse gas emissions of biofuels are still uncertain because of the great variability of soil emissions, due to environmental and management factors. Hence, in order to assess the effect of rapeseed on greenhouse gas emissions, methods based on process-oriented models accounting for these factors must be used. Such models give promising results, but further testing is still needed.

  5. SSR marker variations in Brassica species provide insight into the origin and evolution of Brassica amphidiploids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Ajay Kumar; Singh, Kunwar Harendra; Singh, Lal; Nanjundan, Joghee; Khan, Yasin Jeshima; Singh, Dhiraj

    2018-01-01

    Oilseed Brassica represents an important group of oilseed crops with a long history of evolution and cultivation. To understand the origin and evolution of Brassica amphidiploids, simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were used to unravel genetic variations in three diploids and three amphidiploid Brassica species of U's triangle along with Eruca sativa as an outlier. Of 124 Brassica-derived SSR loci assayed, 100% cross-transferability was obtained for B. juncea and three subspecies of B. rapa , while lowest cross-transferability (91.93%) was obtained for Eruca sativa . The average % age of cross-transferability across all the seven species was 98.15%. The number of alleles detected at each locus ranged from one to six with an average of 3.41 alleles per primer pair. Neighbor-Joining-based dendrogram divided all the 40 accessions into two main groups composed of B. juncea / B. nigra/B. rapa and B. carinata/B. napus/B. oleracea . C-genome of oilseed Brassica species remained relatively more conserved than A- and B-genome. A- genome present in B. juncea and B. napus seems distinct from each other and hence provides great opportunity for generating diversity through synthesizing amphidiploids from different sources of A- genome. B. juncea had least intra-specific distance indicating narrow genetic base. B. rapa appears to be more primitive species from which other two diploid species might have evolved. The SSR marker set developed in this study will assist in DNA fingerprinting of various Brassica species cultivars, evaluating the genetic diversity in Brassica germplasm, genome mapping and construction of linkage maps, gene tagging and various other genomics-related studies in Brassica species. Further, the evolutionary relationship established among various Brassica species would assist in formulating suitable breeding strategies for widening the genetic base of Brassica amphidiploids by exploiting the genetic diversity present in diploid progenitor gene pools.

  6. Chemical characterization of Xanthan biopolymers synthesized by Xanthomonas campestris pv pruni strains; Caracterizacao quimica de biopolimeros sintetizados por Xanthomonas campestris pv pruni

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Angelita da S.; Vendruscolo, Claire T.; Furlan, Ligia [Universidade Federal de Pelotas, RS (Brazil). Centro de Biotecnologia]. E-mail: angelita@ufpel.tche.br; claire@ufpel.tche.br; ligia@ufpel.tche.br; Galland, Griselda [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Qumica

    2001-07-01

    In this work we describe the characterisation of Xanthan biopolymers synthesized by two Xanthomonas campestris pv pruni strains, in aerobic fermentation. By chromatography on TLC we could notice the presence of Mannose monomer in higher proportion in the 82 strain with relation to the another ones. The viscosity results showed the temperature dependence. The 06 and 82 strains had their viscosity increased whereas for the 87 strain we could observe a reduction with temperature increasing. The {sup 13}C NMR spectrum of 87 strain showed the characteristic signals at approximately 92.8, 70.4 and 61.4 ppm, attributed to C1, C4 and C6 from glucose monomer, with higher intensity. (author)

  7. Amplifying recombination genome-wide and reshaping crossover landscapes in Brassicas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falque, Matthieu; Trotoux, Gwenn; Eber, Frédérique; Nègre, Sylvie; Gilet, Marie; Huteau, Virginie; Lodé, Maryse; Jousseaume, Thibaut; Dechaumet, Sylvain; Morice, Jérôme; Coriton, Olivier; Rousseau-Gueutin, Mathieu

    2017-01-01

    Meiotic recombination by crossovers (COs) is tightly regulated, limiting its key role in producing genetic diversity. However, while COs are usually restricted in number and not homogenously distributed along chromosomes, we show here how to disrupt these rules in Brassica species by using allotriploid hybrids (AAC, 2n = 3x = 29), resulting from the cross between the allotetraploid rapeseed (B. napus, AACC, 2n = 4x = 38) and one of its diploid progenitors (B. rapa, AA, 2n = 2x = 20). We produced mapping populations from different genotypes of both diploid AA and triploid AAC hybrids, used as female and/or as male. Each population revealed nearly 3,000 COs that we studied with SNP markers well distributed along the A genome (on average 1 SNP per 1.25 Mbp). Compared to the case of diploids, allotriploid hybrids showed 1.7 to 3.4 times more overall COs depending on the sex of meiosis and the genetic background. Most surprisingly, we found that such a rise was always associated with (i) dramatic changes in the shape of recombination landscapes and (ii) a strong decrease of CO interference. Hybrids carrying an additional C genome exhibited COs all along the A chromosomes, even in the vicinity of centromeres that are deprived of COs in diploids as well as in most studied species. Moreover, in male allotriploid hybrids we found that Class I COs are mostly responsible for the changes of CO rates, landscapes and interference. These results offer the opportunity for geneticists and plant breeders to dramatically enhance the generation of diversity in Brassica species by disrupting the linkage drag coming from limits on number and distribution of COs. PMID:28493942

  8. Distribution and harmfulness of field dodder (Cuscuta campestris Yuncker at sugar beet fields in Slovakia

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    Tóth Peter

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available During 2002-2004, field surveys of field dodder (Cuscuta campestris Yunck e r in croplands were done in southwestern Slovakia. From among 150 localities surveyed, 80 were found infested by the field dodder. Within crop plants, C. campestris infested sugar beet (Beta vulgaris, alfalfa (Medicago sativa tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum, potato (Solanum tuberosum, lentil (Lens esculenta, parsley (Pastinaca sativa and onion (Allium cepa. Besides the crops, 18 weed species were also recorded. The species from the genus Polygonum (Polygonaceae were the most important and acted as a significant reservoir of field dodder in cropland. C. campestris was not found in cold climatic regions with altitude higher than 240 m. The impact of field dodder infestation on sugar beet yield was studied during the year of 2004 in two localities (Šalov and Žitavce in southwestern Slovakia. The presence of field dodder markedly reduced both, quantity and quality of sugar beet yield. Weight of heavily infested beets was reduced from 21.6 to 37.4% and sugar content from 12.0 to 15.2%. Such decline of both parameters was also recorded when field dodder was removed together with leaves of sugar beet during growing season at the end of July. The aim of the infested leaves removal was to decrease mass of field dodder seeds. Although the leaf area of sugar beet regenerates, the decrease of quality and quantity was observed. The decline was the same at both localities, no matter whether the fields were irrigated (Šalov or not (Žitavce.

  9. A high-density SNP map for accurate mapping of seed fibre QTL in Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liezhao Liu

    Full Text Available A high density genetic linkage map for the complex allotetraploid crop species Brassica napus (oilseed rape was constructed in a late-generation recombinant inbred line (RIL population, using genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers assayed by the Brassica 60 K Infinium BeadChip Array. The linkage map contains 9164 SNP markers covering 1832.9 cM. 1232 bins account for 7648 of the markers. A subset of 2795 SNP markers, with an average distance of 0.66 cM between adjacent markers, was applied for QTL mapping of seed colour and the cell wall fiber components acid detergent lignin (ADL, cellulose and hemicellulose. After phenotypic analyses across four different environments a total of 11 QTL were detected for seed colour and fiber traits. The high-density map considerably improved QTL resolution compared to the previous low-density maps. A previously identified major QTL with very high effects on seed colour and ADL was pinpointed to a narrow genome interval on chromosome A09, while a minor QTL explaining 8.1% to 14.1% of variation for ADL was detected on chromosome C05. Five and three QTL accounting for 4.7% to 21.9% and 7.3% to 16.9% of the phenotypic variation for cellulose and hemicellulose, respectively, were also detected. To our knowledge this is the first description of QTL for seed cellulose and hemicellulose in B. napus, representing interesting new targets for improving oil content. The high density SNP genetic map enables navigation from interesting B. napus QTL to Brassica genome sequences, giving useful new information for understanding the genetics of key seed quality traits in rapeseed.

  10. In vitro propagation of Ethiopian mustard ( Brassica carinata A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Brassica carinata (A. Braun) is an amphi-diploid species that originated from interspecific hybridization between Brassica nigra and Brassica oleracea in the highlands of Ethiopia. The crop has many desirable agronomic traits but with oil quality constraints like high erucic acid and glucosinolate contents. In this study, two ...

  11. Tolerence of Braccica nigra to Pieris brassicae herbivory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blatt, S.E.; Smallegange, R.C.; Hess, L.; Harvey, J.A.; Dicke, D.; van Loon, J.J.A.

    2008-01-01

    Black mustard, Brassica nigra (L.) Koch, is a wild annual species found throughout Europe and fed on by larvae of the large cabbage-white butterfly, Pieris brassicae L. We examined the impact of herbivory from P. brassicae, a gregarious herbivore, on B. nigra grown from wild seed collected locally.

  12. Characterization of the Factors that Influence Sinapine Concentration in Rapeseed Meal during Fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Yanxing; Jiang, Mulan; Guo, Mian; Wan, Chuyun; Hu, Shuangxi; Jin, Hu; Huang, Fenghong

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed and compared the difference in sinapine concentration in rapeseed meal between the filamentous fungus, Trametes sp 48424, and the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in both liquid and solid-state fermentation. During liquid and solid-state fermentation by Trametes sp 48424, the sinapine concentration decreased significantly. In contrast, the liquid and solid-state fermentation process by Saccharomyces cerevisiae just slightly decreased the sinapine concentration (P ≤ 0.05). After the solid-state fermented samples were dried, the concentration of sinapine in rapeseed meal decreased significantly in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Based on the measurement of laccase activity, we observed that laccase induced the decrease in the concentration of sinapine during fermentation with Trametes sp 48424. In order to eliminate the influence of microorganisms and the metabolites produced during fermentation, high moisture rapeseed meal and the original rapeseed meal were dried at 90°C and 105°C, respectively. During drying, the concentration of sinapine in high moisture rapeseed meal decreased rapidly and we obtained a high correlation coefficient between the concentration of sinapine and loss of moisture. Our results suggest that drying and enzymes, especially laccase that is produced during the solid-state fermentation process, may be the main factors that affect the concentration of sinapine in rapeseed meal. PMID:25606856

  13. Enhanced fish oil-in-water emulsions enabled by rapeseed lecithins obtained under different processing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingbo; Pedersen, Jacob Nedergaard; Anankanbil, Sampson; Guo, Zheng

    2018-10-30

    It is hypothesized that rapeseed lecithins may have different emulsifying and antioxidant properties in delivering fish oil compared to soy lecithin based on previous studies. The results showed that in vitro antioxidant activities of rapeseed lecithins were stronger than those of soy lecithin. Emulsions stabilized by rapeseed based lecithins and DATEM were stable over 3 months at 4 °C, whereas the creaming of emulsions containing soy lecithin started immediately after its preparation. Zeta-potential of rapeseed lecithins was higher than soy lecithin and DATEM, which partially contributed to the emulsion stability. Although the particle sizes of emulsions prepared by rapeseed lecithins increased after 14 days storage, no creaming was observed. Lipid oxidation as indicated by TBARS values suggested that DATEM was the most unfavorable, followed by soy lecithin. It is concluded that rapeseed lecithins are better than soy lecithin and DATEM in terms of emulsion stability and antioxidant capability, respectively. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Phytoextraction of potentially toxic elements by Indian mustard, rapeseed, and sunflower from a contaminated riparian soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaheen, Sabry M; Rinklebe, Jörg

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify the phytoextraction of the potentially toxic elements Al, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, Se, V, and Zn by Indian mustard, rapeseed, and sunflower from a contaminated riparian soil. To achieve this goal, a greenhouse pot experiment was established using a highly contaminated grassland soil collected at the Wupper River (Germany). The impact of ethylene-diamine-tetra-acetic acid (EDTA), humate (HK), and phosphate potassium (PK) on the mobility and uptake of the elements by rapeseed also was investigated. Indian mustard showed the highest efficiency for phytoextraction of Al, Cr, Mo, Se, and V; sunflower for Cd, Ni, Pb, and Zn, and rapeseed for Cu. The bioconcentration ratios were higher than 1 for the elements (except As and Cu), indicating the suitability of the studied plants for phytoextraction. Application of EDTA to the soil increased significantly the solubility of Cd, Co, Cr, Ni, and Pb and decreased the solubility of Al, As, Se, V, and Mo. Humate potassium decreased significantly the concentrations of Al and As in rapeseed but increased the concentrations of Cu, Se, and Zn. We may conclude that HK can be used for immobilization of Al and As, while it can be used for enhancing the phytoextraction of Cu, Se, and Zn by rapeseed. Phosphate potassium immobilized Al, Cd, Pb, and Zn, but enhanced phytoextraction of As, Cr, Mo, and Se by rapeseed.

  15. Irradiation of mushrooms (Agaricus campestris L) to extend their shelf-life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lescano, G.

    1990-01-01

    Mushrooms (Agaricus campestris L) were irradiated with 1.0; 2.0 and 3.0 kGy, being then stored either at 10 deg C ± 1 deg C or at room temperature (20 deg C ± 2 deg C), with the purpose of determining the most convenient condition to extend their shelf-life. It is concluded that 3.0 kGy and 10 deg C are the most suitable for that, leading to the inhibition of cap opening and stem elongation, less darkening and no evidence of fungal development until 17th day. Subsequentely almost a duplication of their shelf-life was obtained. (Author) [es

  16. Antihypertensive and vasorelaxant effects of aqueous extract of Artemisia campestris L. from Eastern Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dib, Ikram; Tits, Monique; Angenot, Luc; Wauters, Jean Noel; Assaidi, Asmae; Mekhfi, Hassane; Aziz, Mohammed; Bnouham, Mohammed; Legssyer, Abdelkhaleq; Frederich, Michel; Ziyyat, Abderrahim

    2017-07-12

    Artemisia campestris L. (Asteraceae) has many traditional uses, among which treatment of diabetes and hypertension. This study was conducted in order to confirm the antihypertensive and hypotensive effects of A. campestris L. aqueous extract (AcAE) and to explore the underlying mechanism of action of its vasorelaxant effect, besides the acute toxicity. Also, the chemical composition of AcAE was investigated. the chemical content of AcAE was determined by using HPLC and NMR techniques. The antihypertensive effect was assessed indirectly by tail-cuff method on L-NAME induced hypertensive rats, while the hypotensive action was monitored intravenously by invasive method on normotensive rats. The vasorelaxant effect and vascular mechanism of action were studied in the presence of antagonists and blockers on aorta isolated from normotensive rats. On the other side, the acute toxicity was studied by oral feeding of extract to the mice. The global phytochemical profile of AcAE reveals the presence of several polyphenols as main components. A. campestris L. infusion was characterized by mono- and di-cinnamoyl compounds, with 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic (isochlorogenic A) acid being the main compound, followed by 5-caffeoylquinic (chlorogenic) acid. Vicenin-2 (apigenin 6,8-di-C-glucoside) appeared to be the most abundant compound among flavonoids. The daily treatment with AcAE at 150mg/kg/day prevented the installation of hypertension on L-NAME hypertensive rats, and reduced SBP from 172mmHg up to 144mmHg. At the dose 40mg/kg, AcAE provoked reduction of systolic (SBP), diastolic (DBP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP), without affecting the heart rate. Also, AcAE (10 -2 -2mg/ml) relaxed the precontracted aorta by 95.8±1.3%. The denudation and preincubation of aorta with atropine, calmidazolium, L-NAME, hydroxycobalamin, ODQ, 8-RP-Br-PET-cGMP, thapsigargin and verapamil attenuated the vasorelaxant response, while the pre-treatment with 4-AP, TEA, glibenclamide and BaCl 2 did not

  17. BrassicaTED - a public database for utilization of miniature transposable elements in Brassica species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murukarthick, Jayakodi; Sampath, Perumal; Lee, Sang Choon; Choi, Beom-Soon; Senthil, Natesan; Liu, Shengyi; Yang, Tae-Jin

    2014-06-20

    MITE, TRIM and SINEs are miniature form transposable elements (mTEs) that are ubiquitous and dispersed throughout entire plant genomes. Tens of thousands of members cause insertion polymorphism at both the inter- and intra- species level. Therefore, mTEs are valuable targets and resources for development of markers that can be utilized for breeding, genetic diversity and genome evolution studies. Taking advantage of the completely sequenced genomes of Brassica rapa and B. oleracea, characterization of mTEs and building a curated database are prerequisite to extending their utilization for genomics and applied fields in Brassica crops. We have developed BrassicaTED as a unique web portal containing detailed characterization information for mTEs of Brassica species. At present, BrassicaTED has datasets for 41 mTE families, including 5894 and 6026 members from 20 MITE families, 1393 and 1639 members from 5 TRIM families, 1270 and 2364 members from 16 SINE families in B. rapa and B. oleracea, respectively. BrassicaTED offers different sections to browse structural and positional characteristics for every mTE family. In addition, we have added data on 289 MITE insertion polymorphisms from a survey of seven Brassica relatives. Genes with internal mTE insertions are shown with detailed gene annotation and microarray-based comparative gene expression data in comparison with their paralogs in the triplicated B. rapa genome. This database also includes a novel tool, K BLAST (Karyotype BLAST), for clear visualization of the locations for each member in the B. rapa and B. oleracea pseudo-genome sequences. BrassicaTED is a newly developed database of information regarding the characteristics and potential utility of mTEs including MITE, TRIM and SINEs in B. rapa and B. oleracea. The database will promote the development of desirable mTE-based markers, which can be utilized for genomics and breeding in Brassica species. BrassicaTED will be a valuable repository for scientists

  18. Ozone affects growth and development of Pieris brassicae on the wild host plant Brassica nigra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaling, Eliezer; Papazian, Stefano; Poelman, Erik H.; Holopainen, Jarmo K.; Albrectsen, Benedicte R.; Blande, James D.

    2015-01-01

    When plants are exposed to ozone they exhibit changes in both primary and secondary metabolism, which may affect their interactions with herbivorous insects. Here we investigated the performance and preferences of the specialist herbivore Pieris brassicae on the wild plant Brassica nigra under elevated ozone conditions. The direct and indirect effects of ozone on the plant-herbivore system were studied. In both cases ozone exposure had a negative effect on P. brassicae development. However, in dual-choice tests larvae preferentially consumed plant material previously fumigated with the highest concentration tested, showing a lack of correlation between larval preference and performance on ozone exposed plants. Metabolomic analysis of leaf material subjected to combinations of ozone and herbivore-feeding, and focussing on known defence metabolites, indicated that P. brassicae behaviour and performance were associated with ozone-induced alterations to glucosinolate and phenolic pools. - Highlights: • We examined the effects of ozone on Pieris brassicae performance and preference. • We studied ozone and herbivore induced changes in the metabolome of Brassica nigra. • The performance of P. brassicae did not correlate with preference of ozonated plants. • Ozone and herbivore-feeding stress changes the phytochemical pools of B. nigra. - Ozone indirectly reduces herbivore performance, which is associated with change in phytochemical pools, but does not correlate with host plant preference

  19. Standardized gene nomenclature for the Brassica genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    King Graham J

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The genus Brassica (Brassicaceae, Brassiceae is closely related to the model plant Arabidopsis, and includes several important crop plants. Against the background of ongoing genome sequencing, and in line with efforts to standardize and simplify description of genetic entities, we propose a standard systematic gene nomenclature system for the Brassica genus. This is based upon concatenating abbreviated categories, where these are listed in descending order of significance from left to right (i.e. genus – species – genome – gene name – locus – allele. Indicative examples are provided, and the considerations and recommendations for use are discussed, including outlining the relationship with functionally well-characterized Arabidopsis orthologues. A Brassica Gene Registry has been established under the auspices of the Multinational Brassica Genome Project that will enable management of gene names within the research community, and includes provisional allocation of standard names to genes previously described in the literature or in sequence repositories. The proposed standardization of Brassica gene nomenclature has been distributed to editors of plant and genetics journals and curators of sequence repositories, so that it can be adopted universally.

  20. Unleashing the genome of Brassica rapa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibao eTang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The completion and release of the Brassica rapa genome is of great benefit to researchers of the Brassicas, Arabidopsis, and genome evolution. While its lineage is closely related to the model organism Arabidopsis thaliana, the Brassicas experienced a whole genome triplication subsequent to their divergence. This event contemporaneously created three copies of its ancestral genome, which had diploidized through the process of homeologous gene loss known as fractionation. By the fractionation of homeologous gene content and genetic regulatory binding sites, Brassica’s genome is well placed to use comparative genomic techniques to identify syntenic regions, homeologous gene duplications, and putative regulatory sequences. Here, we use the comparative genomics platform CoGe to perform several different genomic analyses with which to study structural changes of its genome and dynamics of various genetic elements. Starting with whole genome comparisons, the Brassica paleohexaploidy is characterized, syntenic regions with Arabidopsis thaliana are identified, and the TOC1 gene in the circadian rhythm pathway from Arabidopsis thaliana is used to find duplicated orthologs in Brassica rapa. These TOC1 genes are further analyzed to identify conserved noncoding sequences that contain cis-acting regulatory elements and promoter sequences previously implicated in circadian rhythmicity. Each 'cookbook style' analysis includes a step-by-step walkthrough with links to CoGe to quickly reproduce each step of the analytical process.

  1. Pyranose Dehydrogenase from Agaricus campestris and Agaricus xanthoderma: Characterization and Applications in Carbohydrate Conversions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemens K. Peterbauer

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Pyranose dehydrogenase (PDH is a flavin-dependent sugar oxidoreductase that is limited to a rather small group of litter-degrading basidiomycetes. The enzyme is unable to utilize oxygen as an electron acceptor, using substituted benzoquinones and (organo metal ions instead. PDH displays a broad substrate specificity and intriguing variations in regioselectivity, depending on substrate, enzyme source and reaction conditions. In contrast to the related enzyme pyranose 2-oxidase (POx, PDHs from several sources are capable of oxidizing α- or β-1→4-linked di- and oligosaccharides, including lactose. PDH from A. xanthoderma is able to perform C-1 and C-2 oxidation, producing, in addition to lactobionic acid, 2-dehydrolactose, an intermediate for the production of lactulose, whereas PDH from A. campestris oxidizes lactose nearly exclusively at the C-1 position. In this work, we present the isolation of PDH-encoding genes from A. campestris (Ac and A. xanthoderma (Ax and a comparison of other so far isolated PDH-sequences. Secretory overexpression of both enzymes in Pichia pastoris was successful when using their native signal sequences with yields of 371 U·L−1 for AxPDH and 35 U·L−1 for AcPDH. The pure enzymes were characterized biochemically and tested for applications in carbohydrate conversion reactions of industrial relevance.

  2. Volatiles and Nonvolatiles in Flourensia campestris Griseb. (Asteraceae), How Much Do Capitate Glandular Trichomes Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazza, Leonardo A; López, Daniela; Silva, Mariana P; López Rivilli, Marisa J; Tourn, Mónica G; Cantero, Juan J; Scopel, Ana L

    2018-03-01

    The distribution and ultrastructure of capitate glandular trichomes (GTs) in Flourensia species (Asteraceae) have been recently elucidated, but their metabolic activity and potential biological function remain unexplored. Selective nonvolatile metabolites from isolated GTs were strikingly similar to those found on leaf surfaces. The phytotoxic allelochemical sesquiterpene (-)-hamanasic acid A ((-)-HAA) was the major constituent (ca. 40%) in GTs. Although GTs are quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs)-accumulating species, glycine betaine was not found in GTs; it was only present in the leaf mesophyll. Two (-)-HAA accompanying surface secreted products: compounds 4-hydroxyacetophenone (piceol; 1) and 2-hydroxy-5-methoxyacetophenone (2), which were isolated and fully characterized (GC/MS, NMR), were present in the volatiles found in GTs. The essential oils of fresh leaves revealed ca. 33% monoterpenes, 26% hydrocarbon- and 30% oxygenated sesquiterpenes, most of them related to cadinene and bisabolene derivatives. Present results suggest a main role of GTs in determining the volatile and nonvolatile composition of F. campestris leaves. Based on the known activities of the compounds identified, it can be suggested that GTs in F. campestris would play key ecological functions in plant-pathogen and plant-plant interactions. In addition, the strikingly high contribution of compounds derived from cadinene and bisabolene pathways, highlights the potential of this species as a source of high-valued bioproducts. © 2018 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  3. Comparative transcriptome analysis reveals carbohydrate and lipid metabolism blocks in Brassica napus L. male sterility induced by the chemical hybridization agent monosulfuron ester sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhanjie; Cheng, Yufeng; Cui, Jianmin; Zhang, Peipei; Zhao, Huixian; Hu, Shengwu

    2015-03-17

    Chemical hybridization agents (CHAs) are often used to induce male sterility for the production of hybrid seeds. We previously discovered that monosulfuron ester sodium (MES), an acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitor of the herbicide sulfonylurea family, can induce rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) male sterility at approximately 1% concentration required for its herbicidal activity. To find some clues to the mechanism of MES inducing male sterility, the ultrastructural cytology observations, comparative transcriptome analysis, and physiological analysis on carbohydrate content were carried out in leaves and anthers at different developmental stages between the MES-treated and mock-treated rapeseed plants. Cytological analysis revealed that the plastid ultrastructure was abnormal in pollen mother cells and tapetal cells in male sterility anthers induced by MES treatment, with less material accumulation in it. However, starch granules were observed in chloroplastids of the epidermis cells in male sterility anthers. Comparative transcriptome analysis identified 1501 differentially expressed transcripts (DETs) in leaves and anthers at different developmental stages, most of these DETs being localized in plastid and mitochondrion. Transcripts involved in metabolism, especially in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, and cellular transport were differentially expressed. Pathway visualization showed that the tightly regulated gene network for metabolism was reprogrammed to respond to MES treatment. The results of cytological observation and transcriptome analysis in the MES-treated rapeseed plants were mirrored by carbohydrate content analysis. MES treatment led to decrease in soluble sugars content in leaves and early stage buds, but increase in soluble sugars content and decrease in starch content in middle stage buds. Our integrative results suggested that carbohydrate and lipid metabolism were influenced by CHA-MES treatment during rapeseed anther development, which might

  4. The inheritance of resistance to bacterial leaf spot of lettuce caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. vitians in three lettuce cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lettuce yields can be reduced by the disease bacterial leaf spot (BLS) caused by the pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. vitians (Xcv) and host resistance is the most feasible method to reduce disease losses. The cultivars La Brillante, Pavane, and Little Gem express an incompatible host-pathogen in...

  5. Baby leaf lettuce germplasm enhancement: developing diverse populations with resistance to bacterial leaf spot caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. vitians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baby leaf lettuce cultivars with resistance to bacterial leaf spot (BLS) caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. vitians (Xcv) are needed to reduce crop losses. The objectives of this research were to assess the genetic diversity for BLS resistance in baby leaf lettuce cultivars and to select early gen...

  6. Preparation, crystallization and preliminary X-ray characterization of a conserved hypothetical protein XC1692 from Xanthomonas campestris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chin, Ko-Hsin; Huang, Zhao-Wei; Wei, Kun-Chou; Chou, Chia-Cheng; Lee, Cheng-Chung; Shr, Hui-Lin; Gao, Fei Philip; Lyu, Ping-Chiang; Wang, Andrew H.-J.; Chou, Shan-Ho

    2005-01-01

    A conserved hypothetical protein XC1692 from X. campestris pv. campestris has been overexpressed in E. coli. The purified recombinant protein crystallized in a variety of forms and diffracted to a resolution of at least 1.45 Å. Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris strain 17 is a Gram-negative yellow-pigmented pathogenic bacterium that causes black rot, one of the major worldwide diseases of cruciferous crops. Its genome contains approximately 4500 genes, one third of which have no known structure and/or function yet are highly conserved among several different bacterial genuses. One of these gene products is XC1692 protein, containing 141 amino acids. It was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized in a variety of forms using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals diffract to at least 1.45 Å resolution. They are hexagonal and belong to space group P6 3 , with unit-cell parameters a = b = 56.9, c = 71.0 Å. They contain one molecule per asymmetric unit

  7. Development of a novel Sinapis arvensis disomic addition line in Brassica napus containing the restorer gene for Nsa CMS and improved resistance to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and pod shattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wenhui; Li, Yunchang; Wang, Lijun; Liu, Shengyi; Yan, Xiaohong; Mei, Desheng; Li, Yinde; Xu, Yusong; Peng, Pengfei; Hu, Qiong

    2010-04-01

    An allo-cytoplasmic male sterile line, which was developed through somatic hybridization between Brassica napus and Sinapis arvensis (thus designated as Nsa CMS line), possesses high potential for hybrid production of rapeseed. In order to select for restorer lines, fertile plants derived from the same somatic hybridization combination were self-pollinated and testcrossed with the parental Nsa CMS line for six generations. A novel disomic alien addition line, B. napus-S. arvensis, has been successfully developed. GISH analysis showed that it contains one pair of chromosomes from S. arvensis and 19 pairs from B. napus, and retains stable and regular mitotic and meiotic processes. The addition line displays very strong restoration ability to Nsa CMS line, high resistance to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and a low incidence of pod shattering. Because the addition line shares these very important agricultural characters, it is a valuable restorer to Nsa CMS line, and is named NR1 here (Nsa restorer no. 1).

  8. Limpeza clonal de mudas de videira infectadas por Xanthomonas campestris pv. viticola Clonal cleaning of grapevine plants infected by Xanthomonas campestris pv. viticola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Márcio Freire Silva

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O cancro bacteriano da videira é causado por Xanthomonas campestris pv. viticola (Xcv. Visando à limpeza clonal de mudas de 'Red Globe', foram estudados: tamanho ideal de ápices e gemas axilares para cultivo em meio de Galzy modificado (MGM; efeito da termoterapia (38ºC/30 dias; e ação de antibióticos na eliminação de Xcv em videiras infectadas. Os percentuais de contaminação por Xcv e de regeneração foram analisados, e as plantas obtidas foram indexadas em meio ágar nutritivo-dextrose-extrato de levedura-ampicilina (NYDAM, seguindo-se teste de patogenicidade. O cultivo de explantes com 3 mm possibilitou a obtenção de plantas livres da bactéria, com regeneração 14,3 vezes maior que explantes com 1 mm. A termoterapia de mudas infectadas, associada ao cultivo in vitro, não eliminou o patógeno. O cultivo de explantes com 10 mm, durante 40 dias em MGM + cefotaxima (300 mg L-1, proporcionou limpeza clonal das mudas. A indexação de plantas de videira regeneradas in vitro, quanto à infecção por Xcv utilizando NYDAM, seguida de teste de patogenicidade, é uma alternativa econômica e eficiente para produção de mudas de alta qualidade fitossanitária.Bacterial canker is caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. viticola (Xcv. In order to eliminate Xcv from 'Red Globe' plants it was studied: optimal size of meristem tips and axillary buds for cultivation in modified Galzy's medium (MGM; effects of thermotherapy (38ºC/30 days; and action of antibiotics in the elimination of Xcv in infected grapevines. The percentages of contamination by Xcv and regeneration were analyzed and plants obtained were indexed using the semi-selective culture medium nutrient agar-dextrose-yeast extract-ampicilin (NYDAM followed by a pathogenicity test. The cultivation of 3 mm explants permitted to obtain plants free of bacteria with regeneration 14.3 times higher than 1 mm explants. The thermotherapy of infected plants associated to the in vitro culture

  9. Rapeseed Oil as Renewable Resource for Polyol Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stirna, Uldis; Fridrihsone, Anda; Misane, Marija; Vilsone, Dzintra

    2011-01-01

    Vegetable oils are one of the most important platform chemicals due to their accessibility, specific structure of oils and low price. Rapeseed oil (RO) polyols were prepared by amidization of RO with diethanolamine (DEA). To determine the kinetics of amidization reaction, experiments were carried out. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), amine (NH) value was determined. Group contribution method by Fedor‵s was used to calculate solubility parameters, van der Waals volume was calculated by Askadskii. Obtained polyol‵s OH and NH value are from 304 up to 415 mg KOH/g. RO polyols synthesis meets the criteria of "green chemistry". In the present study, reaction of RO amidization with DEA was investigated, as well as optimum conditions for polyol synthesis was established to obtain polyols for polyurethane production. Calculations of solubility parameter and cohesion energy density were calculated, as RO polyols will be used as side chains in polymers, and solubility parameter will be used to explain properties of polymers.

  10. Canola/rapeseed protein-functionality and nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanasundara Janitha P.D.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Protein rich meal is a valuable co-product of canola/rapeseed oil extraction. Seed storage proteins that include cruciferin (11S and napin (2S dominate the protein complement of canola while oleosins, lipid transfer proteins and other minor proteins of non-storage nature are also found. Although oil-free canola meal contains 36–40% protein on a dry weight basis, non-protein components including fibre, polymeric phenolics, phytates and sinapine, etc. of the seed coat and cellular components make protein less suitable for food use. Separation of canola protein from non-protein components is a technical challenge but necessary to obtain full nutritional and functional potential of protein. Process conditions of raw material and protein preparation are critical of nutritional and functional value of the final protein product. The storage proteins of canola can satisfy many nutritional and functional requirements for food applications. Protein macromolecules of canola also provide functionalities required in applications beyond edible uses; there exists substantial potential as a source of plant protein and a renewable biopolymer. Available information at present is mostly based on the protein products that can be obtained as mixtures of storage protein types and other chemical constituents of the seed; therefore, full potential of canola storage proteins is yet to be revealed.

  11. An investigation on rapeseed oil as potential insulating liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katim, N. I. A.; Nasir, M. S. M.; Ishak, M. T.; Hamid, M. H. A.

    2018-02-01

    Insulation oils are a vital part in power transformers. Insulation oil is not only work as electrical insulation but also as a coolant inside the transformer. Due to the increasing tight regulations on the environment and safety in recent years, vegetable oils are being considered for insulation oils in power transformer. This paper presents two conditions of Rapeseed Oil (RO), which are as received (new) and dried (dry) under difference uniform field electrodes configuration (mushroom-to-mushroom and sphere-to-sphere) with gap distance at 2.5 mm as recommended by the international standards. A comparative study of AC breakdown voltage, dissipation factor (tan δ), and resistivity under variation of temperature were investigated. The experimental works were done according to the IEC 60156 and IEC 60247 standards. The results indicated that the breakdown voltages of both condition are comparable to mineral oil. The dielectric constant and resistivity of two conditions are decreased along with the increasing temperature. However, the dissipation factor properties rose up along with the temperature. The Weibull distribution was used to determine the withstand voltages at 1% and 50% for RO in two probabilities conditions.

  12. Tribological characteristics of monodispersed cerium borate nanospheres in biodegradable rapeseed oil lubricant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boshui, Chen, E-mail: boshuichen@163.com; Kecheng, Gu; Jianhua, Fang; Jiang, Wu; Jiu, Wang; Nan, Zhang

    2015-10-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Monodispersed stearic acid-capped cerium borate composite nanoparticles were prepared by hydrothermal method. Their morphologies, element compositions, size distributions, crystal and chemical structures, hydrophobic characteristics were also characterized. • The surface-capped cerium borate nanoparticles exhibited excellent dispersing stability in rapeseed oil. As new lubricating additives, they were also outstanding in enhancing friction-reducing and anti-wear capacities of rapeseed oil in biodegradable rapeseed oil. The results presented in this paper would be of important significance for developing green lubricants and lubricant additives. • The prominent tribological performances of SA/CeBO{sub 3} in rapeseed oil were investigated and attributed to the formation of a composite boundary lubrication film mainly composed of lubricous tribochemical species on the tribo-surfaces. - Abstract: Stearic acid-capped cerium borate composite nanoparticles, abbreviated as SA/CeBO{sub 3}, were prepared by hydrothermal method. The morphologies, element compositions, size distributions, crystal and chemical structures, hydrophobic characteristics, of SA/CeBO{sub 3} were characterized by scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer, dynamic laser particle size analyzer, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, respectively. The friction and wear performances of SA/CeBO{sub 3} as a lubricating additive in a rapeseed oil were evaluated on a four-ball tribo-tester. The tribochemical characteristics of the worn surfaces were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results showed that the hydrophobic SA/CeBO{sub 3} were monodispersed nanospheres with an average diameter of 8 nm, and exhibited excellent dispersing stability in rapeseed oil. Meanwhile, SA/CeBO{sub 3} nanospheres were outstanding in enhancing friction-reducing and anti-wear capacities of rapeseed oil. The prominent

  13. Rapeseed meal in the diet of common carp reared in heated waters. Pt. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dabrowski, K.; Evans, R.; Czarnocki, J.; Kozlowska, H.; Fisheries Research Board of Canada, Winnipeg, Manitoba. Freshwater Inst.)

    1982-01-01

    Diets based on fish meal or barley meal as controls, and rapeseed meal were fed to common carp for approximately 3 months. Rapeseed meals differed due to processing and contained variable amounts of goitrogenic glucosinolate. Radioiodine Na 125 I was injected intraperitoneally and radioactivity measured in different tissues. It was found that thyroid centres in kidney accumulated the major part of the administred 125 I. Kidneys from fish fed high glucosinolate rapeseed meal (HRM) retained 37.3% of the isotope, a significant higher percentage than from the fish meal (27.45%) or barley meal (10.5%) fed fish. Thyroid centres in the pharyngeal region invariably retained 1.16-2.41% of the 125 I. In kidney extracts from fish fed HRM diet, 98.3% of the 125 I radioactivity was found in the sulfosalicyclic acid precipitate in comparison to 89.7% in those from low glucosinolate rapeseed based diet. Kidney thyroid cell heights were slightly larger in all rapeseed fed groups when compared to control fish; otherwise kidney thyroid tissue appeared normal. (orig.) [de

  14. Complete mitochondrial genome sequence of black mustard (Brassica nigra; BB) and comparison with Brassica oleracea (CC) and Brassica carinata (BBCC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagishi, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Yoshiyuki; Terachi, Toru

    2014-11-01

    Crop species of Brassica (Brassicaceae) consist of three monogenomic species and three amphidiploid species resulting from interspecific hybridizations among them. Until now, mitochondrial genome sequences were available for only five of these species. We sequenced the mitochondrial genome of the sixth species, Brassica nigra (nuclear genome constitution BB), and compared it with those of Brassica oleracea (CC) and Brassica carinata (BBCC). The genome was assembled into a 232 145 bp circular sequence that is slightly larger than that of B. oleracea (219 952 bp). The genome of B. nigra contained 33 protein-coding genes, 3 rRNA genes, and 17 tRNA genes. The cox2-2 gene present in B. oleracea was absent in B. nigra. Although the nucleotide sequences of 52 genes were identical between B. nigra and B. carinata, the second exon of rps3 showed differences including an insertion/deletion (indel) and nucleotide substitutions. A PCR test to detect the indel revealed intraspecific variation in rps3, and in one line of B. nigra it amplified a DNA fragment of the size expected for B. carinata. In addition, the B. carinata lines tested here produced DNA fragments of the size expected for B. nigra. The results indicate that at least two mitotypes of B. nigra were present in the maternal parents of B. carinata.

  15. Brassica villosa, a system for studying non-glandular trichomes and genes in the Brassicas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayidu, Naghabushana K; Tan, Yifang; Taheri, Ali; Li, Xiang; Bjorndahl, Trent C; Nowak, Jacek; Wishart, David S; Hegedus, Dwayne; Gruber, Margaret Y

    2014-07-01

    Brassica villosa is a wild Brassica C genome species with very dense trichome coverage and strong resistance to many insect pests of Brassica oilseeds and vegetables. Transcriptome analysis of hairy B. villosa leaves indicated higher expression of several important trichome initiation genes compared with glabrous B. napus leaves and consistent with the Arabidopsis model of trichome development. However, transcripts of the TRY inhibitory gene in hairy B. villosa were surprisingly high relative to B. napus and relative transcript levels of SAD2, EGL3, and several XIX genes were low, suggesting potential ancillary or less important trichome-related roles for these genes in Brassica species compared with Arabidopsis. Several antioxidant, calcium, non-calcium metal and secondary metabolite genes also showed differential expression between these two species. These coincided with accumulation of two alkaloid-like compounds, high levels of calcium, and other metals in B. villosa trichomes that are correlated with the known tolerance of B. villosa to high salt and the calcium-rich natural habitat of this wild species. This first time report on the isolation of large amounts of pure B. villosa trichomes, on trichome content, and on relative gene expression differences in an exceptionally hairy Brassica species compared with a glabrous species opens doors for the scientific community to understand trichome gene function in the Brassicas and highlights the potential of B. villosa as a trichome research platform.

  16. Development of immunofluorescence colony staining (IFC) for detection of Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria and Clavibacter michiganensis subsp michiganensis in tomato seeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nemeth, J.; Vuurde, van J.W.L.

    2006-01-01

    Immunofluorescence colony-staining (IFC) is based on sample pour plating in combination with immunofluorescence staining for recognition of the target colony. IFC was optimised for detecting Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (Xcv) and Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis (Cmm) in

  17. Biogenic greenhouse gas emissions linked to the life cycles of biodiesel derived from European rapeseed and Brazilian soybeans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnders, L.; Huijbregts, M.A.J.

    2008-01-01

    Biogenic emissions of carbonaceous greenhouse gases and N2O turn out to be important determinants of life cycle emissions of greenhouse gases linked to the life cycle of biodiesel from European rapeseed and Brazilian soybeans. For biodiesel from European rapeseed and for biodiesel from Brazilian

  18. Biological Functions of ilvC in Branched-Chain Fatty Acid Synthesis and Diffusible Signal Factor Family Production in Xanthomonas campestris

    OpenAIRE

    Kai-Huai Li; Yong-Hong Yu; Hui-Juan Dong; Wen-Bin Zhang; Jin-Cheng Ma; Hai-Hong Wang

    2017-01-01

    In bacteria, the metabolism of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) is tightly associated with branched-chain fatty acids (BCFAs) synthetic pathways. Although previous studies have reported on BCFAs biosynthesis, more detailed associations between BCAAs metabolism and BCFAs biosynthesis remain to be addressed. In this study, we deleted the ilvC gene, which encodes ketol-acid reductoisomerase in the BCAAs synthetic pathway, from the Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc) genome. We characte...

  19. Brassica rapa L. seed development in hypergravity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Musgrave, M.E.; Kuang, A.; Allen, J.; Blasiak, J.; van Loon, J.J.W.A.

    2009-01-01

    Previous experiments had shown that microgravity adversely affected seed development in Brassica rapa L. We tested the hypothesis that gravity controls seed development via modulation of gases around the developing seeds, by studying how hypergravity affects the silique microenvironment and seed

  20. EFFECT OF FILLER LOADING ON PHYSICAL AND FLEXURAL PROPERTIES OF RAPESEED STEM/PP COMPOSITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Majid Zabihzadeh

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study is to develop a new filler for the production of natural filler thermoplastic composites using the waste rapeseed stalks. The long-term water absorption and thickness swelling behaviors and flexural properties of rapeseed filled polypropylene (PP composites were investigated. Three different contents of filler were tested: 30, 45, and 60 wt%. Results of long-term hygroscopic tests indicated that by the increase in filler content from 30% to 60%, water diffusion absorption and thickness swelling rate parameter increased. A swelling model developed by Shi and Gardner can be used to quantify the swelling rate. The increasing of filler content reduced the flexural strength of the rapeseed/PP composites significantly. In contrast to the flexural strength, the flexural modulus improved with increasing the filler content. The flexural properties of these composites were decreased after the water uptake, due to the effect of the water molecules.

  1. Effect of Dietary Supplementation by Irradiated Full-Fat Rapeseed on Biochemical Changes in Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farga, D. M. H.; El-Shennawy, H. M.; Soliman, N.A.

    2000-01-01

    Supplementation of 230 gk 1 of raw and irradiated full-fat rapeseed at 20 kGy in the food of male albino rats for ten weeks of age, caused significantly lower total plasma protein concentration as compared with those fed control diet, heated seeds and seeds irradiated at 50 and 70 kGy diets. On the other hand, the highest total plasma protein value was obtained from the control group flowed in descending order by heated and seeds irradiated at 70 kGy, and 50 kGy. Plasma albumin decreased significantly in rats fed either raw or rapeseed irradiated at 20 and 50 kGy as compared with rats fed control diet, heated or irradiated rapeseed at 70 kGy diets. The same result was observed with plasma globulin and A/G ratio. Supplementing the diet of rats with raw and irradiated rapeseed at 20 and 50 kGy caused significantly higher plasma transaminases activities (GOT and GPT) as compared with those fed control diet, heated or rapeseed irradiated at 70 kGy. However, rats fed raw and rapeseed irradiated at 20 kGy caused a significant increase in alkaline phosphatase as compared with those fed control diet, heated or irradiated seeds at 50 or 70 kGy diets. Moreover, there was no significant discrepancy between groups fed heated seed and seeds irradiated at 50 or 70 kGy as compared with those fed control diets. Level of plasma creatinine was significantly higher in groups of rats fed row and irradiated seeds at 20 kGy as compared with those fed heat processed and irradiated seeds at 50 kGy and 70 kGy and control diets. The results confirm that the applied radiation doses are insufficient enough to bring a complete detoxification of processed seeds. Increasing the applied radiation doses might be be beneficial in this respect

  2. Rapeseed oil, olive oil, plant sterols, and cholesterol metabolism: an ileostomy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellegård, L; Andersson, H; Bosaeus, I

    2005-12-01

    To study whether olive oil and rapeseed oil have different effects on cholesterol metabolism. Short-term experimental study, with controlled diets. Outpatients at a metabolic-ward kitchen. A total of nine volunteers with conventional ileostomies. Two 3-day diet periods; controlled diet including 75 g of rapeseed oil or olive oil. Cholesterol absorption, ileal excretion of cholesterol, and bile acids. Serum levels of cholesterol and bile acid metabolites. Differences between diets evaluated with Wilcoxon's signed rank sum test. Rapeseed oil diet contained 326 mg more plant sterols than the olive oil diet. Rapeseed oil tended to decrease cholesterol absorption by 11% (P = 0.050), and increased excretion of cholesterol, bile acids, and their sum as sterols by 9% (P = 0.021), 32% (P = 0.038), and 51% (P = 0.011) compared to olive oil. A serum marker for bile acid synthesis (7alpha-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one) increased by 28% (P = 0.038) within 10 h of consumption, and serum cholesterol levels decreased by 7% (P = 0.024), whereas a serum marker for cholesterol synthesis (lathosterol) as well as serum levels of plant sterols remained unchanged. Rapeseed oil and olive oil have different effects on cholesterol metabolism. Rapeseed oil, tends to decrease cholesterol absorption, increases excretion of cholesterol and bile acids, increases serum marker of bile acid synthesis, and decreases serum levels of cholesterol compared to olive oil. This could in part be explained by different concentrations of natural plant sterols. Supported by the Göteborg Medical Society, the Swedish Medical Society, the Swedish Board for Agricultural Research (SJFR) grant 50.0444/98 and by University of Göteborg.

  3. Chemical characterization of Xanthan biopolymers synthesized by Xanthomonas campestris pv pruni strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, Angelita da S.; Vendruscolo, Claire T.; Furlan, Ligia; Galland, Griselda

    2001-01-01

    In this work we describe the characterisation of Xanthan biopolymers synthesized by two Xanthomonas campestris pv pruni strains, in aerobic fermentation. By chromatography on TLC we could notice the presence of Mannose monomer in higher proportion in the 82 strain with relation to the another ones. The viscosity results showed the temperature dependence. The 06 and 82 strains had their viscosity increased whereas for the 87 strain we could observe a reduction with temperature increasing. The 13 C NMR spectrum of 87 strain showed the characteristic signals at approximately 92.8, 70.4 and 61.4 ppm, attributed to C1, C4 and C6 from glucose monomer, with higher intensity. (author)

  4. Effects of Drought and Salinity Stresses on Germination Characteristics of Dodder (Cuscuta campestris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Ghanbari

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the germination characteristics of dodder (Cuscuta campestris under drought and salinity stress conditions, two laboratory's experiment were conducted. Experiments were conducted in completely randomized design with 4 replications. The treatments, for salinity and drought stress were six potential levels (0,-3, -6, -9, -12 and -15 bar of NaCl and five potential levels (0, -3, -6, -9 and -12 bar of PEG 6000 respectively. Results showed that increasing drought and salinity stress significantly germination rate and germination percentage, plumule and radicle length, plumule of Dodder and its radicle fresh weight decreased. However ratio of radicle to plumule and root to shoot were increased (P≤0.01. It seems that among the characters, plumule length is more sensitive to drought and salinity stresses. In addition, germination of dodder was tolernt to drought stress more than salinity stresses.

  5. Antioxidant Enzyme Activities of some Brassica Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica SOARE

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper set out to comparatively study five species: white cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata alba Alef., red cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata f. rubra Alef., Kale (Brassica oleracea L. var. Acephala, cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis and broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. cymosa in order to identify those with high enzymatic and antioxidant activities. The enzymatic activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT and soluble peroxidase (POX as well as the antioxidant activity against 2.2’-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS radical cation were determined. Total superoxide dismutase activity was measured spectrophotometrically based on inhibition in the photochemical reduction of nitroblue tetrazolium. Total soluble peroxidase was assayed by measuring the increase in A436 due to the guaiacol oxidation and the catalase activity was assayed through the colorimetric method. The capacity of extracts to scavenge the ABTS radical cation was assessed colorimetric using Trolox as a standard. The obtained results show that studied enzymatic activities and the antioxidant activity against ABTS vary depending on the analyzed species. So, among the studied Brassicaceae species, it emphasize red cabbage with the highest enzymatic activity (CAT 22.54 mM H2O2/min/g and POX 187.2 mM ΔA/1min/1g f.w. and kale with highest antioxidant activity, of 767 μmol TE/100g f.w. The results of this study recommendintroducing the studied varieties in diet due to the rich antioxidant properties.

  6. Optimization of medium composition for the production of compounds effective against Xanthomonas campestris by bacillus subtilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rončević Zorana Z.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The biocontrol agents are a very promising alternative to synthetic pesticides that are presently used to control plant diseases caused by phytopathogenic microorganisms. Members of the Bacillus genera are soil bacteria that produce significant quantities of agriculturally important bioactive compounds. Production of these compounds can be improved by changing the nutritional and environmental conditions. The aim of this study was the optimization of medium composition, using response surface methodology, for the production of compounds effective against Xanthomonas campestris ATCC 13951 by Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633. To study the production of antimicrobial compounds by selected Bacillus strain, the producing microorganisms were cultivated on nutrient broth. The inhibition zone diameter of 18.0 mm obtained by the diffusion-disc method indicated that the used Bacillus subtilis strain produces compounds with antimicrobial activity against Xanthomonas campestris ATCC 13951. To optimize the composition of the cultivation medium in terms of glycerol, sodium nitrite and phosphates content, experiments were carried out in accordance with Box-Behnken design, and optimization of multiple responses was performed using the concept of desirability function. The developed model predicted that the maximum inhibition zone diameter (26.23 mm against tested phytopathogen is achieved when the initial content of glycerol, sodium nitrite and phosphate were 50.00 g/L, 2.85 g/L and 11.00 g/L, respectively. To minimize the consumption of medium components and costs of effluents processing, additional optimization set was made. The techno-economic analysis of the obtained results has to be done to select optimal medium composition for industrial production of antimicrobial compounds.

  7. A Novel Cytoplasmic Male Sterility in Brassica napus (inap CMS) with Carpelloid Stamens via Protoplast Fusion with Chinese Woad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Lei; Li, Pengfei; Wang, Aifan; Ge, Xianhong; Li, Zaiyun

    2017-01-01

    A novel cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) in Brassica napus (inap CMS) was selected from the somatic hybrid with Isatis indigotica (Chinese woad) by recurrent backcrossing. The male sterility was caused by the conversion of tetradynamous stamens into carpelloid structures with stigmatoid tissues at their tips and ovule-like tissues in the margins, and the two shorter stamens into filaments without anthers. The feminized development of the stamens resulted in the complete lack of pollen grains, which was stable in different years and environments. The pistils of inap CMS displayed normal morphology and good seed-set after pollinated by B. napus . Histological sections showed that the developmental alteration of the stamens initiated at the stage of stamen primordium differentiation. AFLP analysis of the nuclear genomic composition with 23 pairs of selective primers detected no woad DNA bands in inap CMS. Twenty out of 25 mitochondrial genes originated from I. indigotica , except for cox2-2 which was the recombinant between cox2 from woad and cox2-2 from rapeseed. The novel cox2-2 was transcribed in flower buds of inap CMS weakly and comparatively with the fertile B. napus addition line Me harboring one particular woad chromosome. The restorers of other autoplasmic and alloplasmic CMS systems in rapeseed failed to restore the fertility of inap CMS and the screening of B. napus wide resources found no fertility restoration variety, showing its distinct origin and the related mechanism of sterility. The reasons for the mitochondrial rearrangements and the breeding of the restorer for the novel CMS system were discussed.

  8. Combining Ability Analysis and Genetic-Effects Studies for Some Important Quality Characters in Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aamar Shehzad

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Combining ability analysis has an important position in rapeseed breeding. To evaluate genetic and combining ability effects, three Brassica napus L. testers “Punjab Sarson, Legend and Durre-NIFA” and five lines “Duncled, K-258, ZN-R-1, ZN-R-8, ZN-M-6” were crossed using line × tester design in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD with three replications. Mean sum of squares of the analysis of variances (ANOVA for genotypes was highly significant for all of the traits. Most of the lines and testers exhibited significant results of mean sum of squares for combining ability. Line ‘Duncled’ was proved good general combiner for oil (8.8, protein (3.7, erucic acid (33.0, oleic acid (13.0 and glucosinolate (-19.3 over other lines and tester ‘Durree-NIFA’ for protein (6.6, erucic acid (-23.4, and linolenic acid (-5.3 over other testers. Significant specific combining ability effects were also observed. The best hybrid combinations were Legend × ZN-R-1 for oil (9.6, Punjab Sarson × Duncled for minimum erucic acid (-14.0 and linolenic acid contents (-6.0, and Legend × ZN-M-6 for maximum protein (8.2 and minimum glucosinolate contents (-11.1. The maximum oil contents were observed in ‘Legend × ZN-R-1’ (52.4%. The cross ‘Punjab Sarson × Duncled’ expressed maximum values of protein (26.5% and oleic acid (62.5% while minimum for erucic acid (2.3%, linolenic acid (5.4% and glucosinolate contents (19.3µmol/g. This research discloses the significance of non-additive genetic effects for most of the studied traits except oil contents. These studies will also help to improve nutritional values of rapeseed crop by selecting noble crosses.

  9. Regional greenhouse gas emissions from cultivation of winter wheat and winter rapeseed for biofuels in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsgaard, Lars; Olesen, Jørgen E; Hermansen, John Erik

    2013-01-01

    Biofuels from bioenergy crops may substitute a significant part of fossil fuels in the transport sector where, e.g., the European Union has set a target of using 10% renewable energy by 2020. Savings of greenhouse gas emissions by biofuels vary according to cropping systems and are influenced...... by such regional factors as soil conditions, climate and input of agrochemicals. Here we analysed at a regional scale the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with cultivation of winter wheat for bioethanol and winter rapeseed for rapeseed methyl ester (RME) under Danish conditions. Emitted CO2 equivalents...

  10. Ileal digestibility of sunfl ower meal, pea, rapeseed cake, and lupine in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jan Værum; Fernández, José Adalberto; Jørgensen, Henry

    2012-01-01

    .05) for soybean meal and pea compared to sunfl ower meal, rapeseed cake, and lupine. The SID of Lys and His were lowest (P pea to be a high-digestible protein source relative to sunfl ower......The standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA was evaluated in soybean (Glycine max) meal, sunfl ower (Helianthus annuus) meal, rapeseed cake, and fi eld pea (Pisum sativum) using 10 pigs and in lupine (Lupinus angustifolius) using 7 pigs. Pigs were fi tted with either a T...

  11. Optimization of H2SO4-catalyzed hydrothermal pretreatment of rapeseed straw for bioconversion to ethanol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xuebin, Lu; Zhang, Y.; Angelidaki, Irini

    2009-01-01

    A central composite design of response surface method was used to optimize H2SO4-catalyzed hydrothermal pretreatment of rapeseed straw, in respect to acid concentration (0.5-2%), treatment time (5-20 min) and solid content (10-20%) at 180 degrees C. Enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation were also...... content for 10 min at 180 degrees C was found to be the most optimal condition for pretreatment of rapeseed straw for ethanol production. After pretreatment at the optimal condition and enzymatic hydrolysis, 75.12% total xylan and 63.17% total glucan were converted to xylose and glucose, respectively...

  12. Comparative analysis of miRNAs of two rapeseed genotypes in response to acetohydroxyacid synthase-inhibiting herbicides by high-throughput sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maolong Hu

    Full Text Available Acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS, also called acetolactate synthase, is a key enzyme involved in the first step of the biosynthesis of the branched-chain amino acids valine, isoleucine and leucine. Acetohydroxyacid synthase-inhibiting herbicides (AHAS herbicides are five chemical families of herbicides that inhibit AHAS enzymes, including imidazolinones (IMI, sulfonylureas (SU, pyrimidinylthiobenzoates, triazolinones and triazolopyrimidines. Five AHAS genes have been identified in rapeseed, but little information is available regarding the role of miRNAs in response to AHAS herbicides. In this study, an AHAS herbicides tolerant genotype and a sensitive genotype were used for miRNA comparative analysis. A total of 20 small RNA libraries were obtained of these two genotypes at three time points (0h, 24 h and 48 h after spraying SU and IMI herbicides with two replicates. We identified 940 conserved miRNAs and 1515 novel candidate miRNAs in Brassica napus using high-throughput sequencing methods combined with computing analysis. A total of 3284 genes were predicted to be targets of these miRNAs, and their functions were shown using GO, KOG and KEGG annotations. The differentiation expression results of miRNAs showed almost twice as many differentiated miRNAs were found in tolerant genotype M342 (309 miRNAs after SU herbicide application than in sensitive genotype N131 (164 miRNAs. In additiond 177 and 296 miRNAs defined as differentiated in sensitive genotype and tolerant genotype in response to SU herbicides. The miR398 family was observed to be associated with AHAS herbicide tolerance because their expression increased in the tolerant genotype but decreased in the sensitive genotype. Moreover, 50 novel miRNAs from 39 precursors were predicted. There were 8 conserved miRNAs, 4 novel miRNAs and 3 target genes were validated by quantitative real-time PCR experiment. This study not only provides novel insights into the miRNA content of AHAS herbicides

  13. The Effect of Field Dodder (Cuscuta campestris Yunck. on Morphological and Fluorescence Parameters of Giant Ragweed (Ambrosia trifida L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sava Vrbničanin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the parasitic flowering plant known as field dodder (Cuscuta campestrisYunck. on morphological and fluorescence parameters of infested giant ragweed(Ambrosia trifida L. plants was examined under controlled conditions. The parameters ofchlorophyll fluorescence (Fo, Fv/Fm, ΦPSII, Fv, Fm, ETR and IF were measured on infested (Iand non-infested (N A. trifida plants over a period of seven days, beginning with the day ofinfestation. Morphological parameters (plant height, dry and fresh weight were measuredon the last day of fluorescence measurements. C. campestris was found to affect the height,fresh and dry weight of the infested A. trifida plants, causing significant reduction in plantheight and dry weight. Field dodder also affected several parameters of chlorophyll fluorescence(Fo, Fv/Fm, ΦPSII and Fv in infested A. trifida plants.

  14. Evaluation of In Vitro Anticancer Activity of Ocimum Basilicum, Alhagi Maurorum, Calendula Officinalis and Their Parasite Cuscuta Campestris

    OpenAIRE

    Behbahani, Mandana

    2014-01-01

    The present investigation was carried out to study the relationship between presence of cytotoxic compounds in Ocimum basilicum, Alhagi maurorum, Calendula officinalis and their parasite Cuscuta campestris. The cytotoxic activity of the pure compounds was performed by MTT assay against breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) and normal breast cell line (MCF 10A). The induction of apoptosis was measured by the expression levels of p53, bcl-2, bax and caspase-3 genes using quantitative ...

  15. Cloning of a two-component signal transduction system of Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli var. fuscans strain BXPF65

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chan, JWYF; Maynard, Scott; Goodwin, PH

    1998-01-01

    A putative two-component signal transduction system was amplified and cloned from the plant pathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli var. fuscans isolate BXPF65. The 620 bp amplified fragment was sequenced and analyzed with the BLAST Enhanced Alignment Utility (BEAUTY). BEAUTY...... that the putative histidine kinase has homology with conserved “transmitter” domains of sensor proteins in two-component signal transduction systems. RFLP analysis using the putative signal transduction system showed polymorphisms among the strains....

  16. Structure of XC6422 from Xanthomonas campestris at 1.6 Å resolution: a small serine α/β-hydrolase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Chao-Yu; Chin, Ko-Hsin [Institute of Biochemistry, National Chung-Hsing University, Taichung 40227,Taiwan (China); Chou, Chia-Cheng; Wang, Andrew H.-J. [Institute of Biological Chemistry, Academia Sinica, Nankang, Taipei,Taiwan (China); Core Facility for Protein Crystallography, Academia Sinica, Nankang, Taipei,Taiwan (China); Chou, Shan-Ho, E-mail: shchou@nchu.edu.tw [Institute of Biochemistry, National Chung-Hsing University, Taichung 40227,Taiwan (China)

    2006-06-01

    The crystal structure of a conserved hypothetical protein from X. campestris has been determined to a resolution of 1.6 Å. The determined X. campestris structure shows that it belongs to the superfamily of serine α/β hydrolase, with an extra strand preceding the first β-strand to lead to extensive subunit interactions in the crystal. XC6422 is a conserved hypothetical protein from Xanthomonas campestris pathovar campestris (Xcc), a Gram-negative yellow-pigmented pathogenic bacterium that causes black rot, one of the major worldwide diseases of cruciferous crops. The protein consists of 220 amino acids and its structure has been determined to 1.6 Å resolution using the multi-wavelength anomalous dispersion (MAD) method. Although it has very low sequence identity to protein sequences in the PDB (less than 20%), the determined structure nevertheless shows that it belongs to the superfamily of serine α/β-hydrolases, with an active site that is fully accessible to solvent owing to the absence of a lid domain. Modelling studies with the serine esterase inhibitor E600 indicate that XC6422 adopts a conserved Ser-His-Asp catalytic triad common to this superfamily and has a preformed oxyanion hole for catalytic activation. These structural features suggest that XC6422 is most likely to be a hydrolase active on a soluble ester or a small lipid. An extra strand preceding the first β-strand in the canonical α/β-hydrolase fold leads to extensive subunit interactions between XC6422 monomers, which may explain why XC6422 crystals of good diffraction quality can grow to dimensions of up to 1.5 mm in a few days.

  17. Evaluation of indigenous rhizobacterial strains with reduced dose of chemical fertilizer towards growth and yield of mustard (Brassica campestris under old alluvial soil zone of West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shampa Dutta

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment had been carried out in the Crop Research and Seed Multiplication Farm of The University of Burdwan, West Bengal, India during the two consecutive winter seasons of 2011-2012 and 2012-2013 to study the effect of indigenous rhizospheric bacterial strains on growth, physiology and yield of mustard variety. Pseudomonas putida, Burkholderia cepacia, Burkholderia sp. and their mixture were used as seed inoculants for mustard cultivation. The experiment was laid down in a randomized complete block design (RCBD with three replications. Results revealed that indigenous inoculation (with reduced dose of chemical fertilizer significantly increased (p < 0.05 the yield of mustard as compared to uninoculated control (full recommended dose of NPK fertilizers. A combination treatment of biofertilizer and chemical fertilizer also increased plant height, plant biomass and other yield components compared to control. The comprehensive approach of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR in agriculturally important crops should be carried out to explore the hidden potential of PGPR and to promote the quality and yield of crop under field conditions. Keywords: Indigenous rhizobacteria, Mustard, PGPR, Yield

  18. Diversity of indigenous endophytic bacteria associated with the roots of Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris L.) cultivars and their antagonism towards pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Md Azizul; Yun, Han Dae; Cho, Kye Man

    2016-05-01

    The study aimed to reveal the diversity of endophytic bacteria in the roots of Chinese cabbage (CC) cultivated in two areas in Korea, namely, Seosang-gun (SS) and Haenam-gun (HN), and also in a transgenic plant (TP) from the laboratory. A total of 653 colonies were isolated from the interior of CC roots, comprising 118, 302, and 233 isolates from SS, HN, and TP samples, respectively. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the isolates belonged to four major phylogenetic groups: high-G+C Gram-positive bacteria (HGC-GPB), low-G+C Gram-positive bacteria (LGC-GPB), Proteobacteria, and Bacteriodetes. The most dominant groups in the roots of the SS, HN, and TP cultivars were LGC-GPB (48.3%), Proteobacteria (50.2%), and HGC-GPB (38.2%), respectively. Importantly, most of the isolates that produced cell-walldegrading enzymes belonged to the genus Bacillus. Bacillus sp. (HNR03, TPR06), Bacillus pumilus (SSR07, HNR11, TPR07), and Bacillus subtilis (TPR03) showed high antagonism against the tested food-borne pathogenic bacteria. In addition, Bacillus sp. (HNR03, TPR06), Bacillus pumilus (SSR07, HNR11, HNR17, TPR11), Microbacterium oxidans (SSR09, TPR04), Bacillus cereus HNR10, Pseudomonas sp. HNR13, and Bacillus subtilis (TPR02, TPR03) showed strong antagonistic activity against the fungi Phythium ultimum, Phytophthora capsici, Fusarium oxysporum, and Rhizoctonia solani. The endophytes isolated from the TP cultivar showed the strongest antagonistic reactions against pathogens. This study is the first report on endophytic bacteria from Chinese cabbage roots.

  19. Roles of xanthophylls and exogenous ABA in protection against NaCl-induced photodamage in rice (Oryza sativa L) and cabbage (Brassica campestris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Su-Qin; Chen, Ming-Wei; Ji, Ben-Hua; Jiao, De-Mao; Liang, Jian-Sheng

    2011-08-01

    Changes in actual efficiency of PS II photochemistry, non-photochemical quenching (NPQ), content of xanthophylls and kinetics of de-epoxidation were studied in ABA-fed and non-ABA-fed leaves of rice and cabbage under NaCl stress. Salt stress induced more progressive decrease in actual efficiency of PS II photochemistry (ФPS II), higher reduction state of PS II, and a small significant increase in NPQ in NaCl-sensitive rice plants as compared with NaCl-tolerant cabbage plants, whereas exogenously supplied ABA alleviated the decrease in actual efficiency of PS II photochemistry (ФPS II), induced a lower reduction state of PS II, and caused higher capacity of NPQ in ABA-fed plants than in non-ABA-fed plants. As a result, there were higher activities of photosynthetic electron transport, higher capacity of energy dissipation, and lower cumulation of excess light in cabbage than in rice plants, and in ABA-fed leaves than in non-ABA-fed leaves. The effect of ABA was more efficient in cabbage than in rice plants. Addition of exogenous ABA resulted in enhancement of the size of the xanthophyll cycle pool, promotion of de-epoxidation of the xanthophyll cycle components, and a rise in the level of NPQ by altering the kinetics of de-epoxidation of the xanthophyll cycle. Protection from photodamage appears to be achieved by coordinated contributions by exogenous ABA and xanthophyll cycle-mediated NPQ. This variety of photoprotective mechanisms may be essential for conferring photodamage tolerance under NaCl stress. © The Author [2011]. Published by Oxford University Press [on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology]. All rights reserved.

  20. Development of EST-SSR markers in flowering Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis var. utilis Tsen et Lee based on de novo transcriptomic assemblies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingfang Chen

    Full Text Available Flowering Chinese cabbage is one of the most important vegetable crops in southern China. Genetic improvement of various agronomic traits in this crop is underway to meet high market demand in the region, but the progress is hampered by limited number of molecular markers available in this crop. This study aimed to develop EST-SSR markers from transcriptome sequences generated by next-generation sequencing. RNA-seq of eight cabbage samples identified 48,975 unigenes. Of these unigenes, 23,267 were annotated in 56 gene ontology (GO categories, 6,033 were mapped to 131 KEGG pathways, and 7,825 were assigned to clusters of orthologous groups (COGs. From the unigenes, 8,165 EST-SSR loci were identified and 98.57% of them were 1-3 nucleotide repeats with 14.32%, 41.08% and 43.17% of mono-, di- and tri-nucleotide repeats, respectively. Fifty-eight types of motifs were identified with A/T, AG/CT, AT/AT, AC/GT, AAG/CTT and AGG/CCT the most abundant. The lengths of repeated nucleotide sequences in all SSR loci ranged from 12 to 60 bp, with most (88.51% under 20 bp. Among 170 primer pairs were randomly selected from a total of 4,912 SSR primers we designed, 48 yielded unambiguously polymorphic bands with high reproducibility. Cluster analysis using 48 SSRs classified 34 flowering Chinese cabbage cultivars into three groups. A large number of EST-SSR markers identified in this study will facilitate marker-assisted selection in the breeding programs of flowering Chinese cabbage.

  1. Development of EST-SSR markers in flowering Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis var. utilis Tsen et Lee) based on de novo transcriptomeic assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowering Chinese cabbage is one of the most important vegetable crops in southern China. Genetic improvement of various agronomic traits in this crop is underway to meet high market demand in the region, but the progress is hampered by limited number of molecular markers available in this crop. Thi...

  2. Development of EST-SSR markers in flowering Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis var. utilis Tsen et Lee) based on de novo transcriptomic assemblies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jingfang; Li, Ronghua; Xia, Yanshi; Bai, Guihua; Guo, Peiguo; Wang, Zhiliang; Zhang, Hua; Siddique, Kadambot H M

    2017-01-01

    Flowering Chinese cabbage is one of the most important vegetable crops in southern China. Genetic improvement of various agronomic traits in this crop is underway to meet high market demand in the region, but the progress is hampered by limited number of molecular markers available in this crop. This study aimed to develop EST-SSR markers from transcriptome sequences generated by next-generation sequencing. RNA-seq of eight cabbage samples identified 48,975 unigenes. Of these unigenes, 23,267 were annotated in 56 gene ontology (GO) categories, 6,033 were mapped to 131 KEGG pathways, and 7,825 were assigned to clusters of orthologous groups (COGs). From the unigenes, 8,165 EST-SSR loci were identified and 98.57% of them were 1-3 nucleotide repeats with 14.32%, 41.08% and 43.17% of mono-, di- and tri-nucleotide repeats, respectively. Fifty-eight types of motifs were identified with A/T, AG/CT, AT/AT, AC/GT, AAG/CTT and AGG/CCT the most abundant. The lengths of repeated nucleotide sequences in all SSR loci ranged from 12 to 60 bp, with most (88.51%) under 20 bp. Among 170 primer pairs were randomly selected from a total of 4,912 SSR primers we designed, 48 yielded unambiguously polymorphic bands with high reproducibility. Cluster analysis using 48 SSRs classified 34 flowering Chinese cabbage cultivars into three groups. A large number of EST-SSR markers identified in this study will facilitate marker-assisted selection in the breeding programs of flowering Chinese cabbage.

  3. Additives for rapeseed oil fuel. Influence on the exhaust gas emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kastl, Johannes; Remmele, Edgar; Thuneke, Klaus [Technologie- und Foerderzentrum, Straubing (Germany)

    2013-06-01

    In contrast to fossil diesel fuel, the use of additives is not common in rapeseed oil fuel. In a preceding research project the efficacy of several additives, that are commercially available for the use in fossil diesel or FAME, has been investigated for rapeseed oil fuel in the lab. Four additives could be identified, which have a significant influence on the ignition delay or the low temperature flow behaviour of rapeseed oil fuel. To investigate whether there are negative effects of the additives on other fuel-related properties in practical use, a test series on an agricultural tractor capable of running on vegetable oils has been conducted. Attention is focused on the operating parameters like power, torque or fuel consumption as well as on regulated emissions (CO, HC, particulate matter or NOx) and non-regulated emissions like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Additionally, the influence of the additives on the storage stability of rapeseed oil fuel is investigated in long term studies. No negative influence of the additives on the regulated emissions could be seen in the experiments, the data of the non-regulated emissions is still being analysed. This paper will focus on the emissions testing; results of the long term studies will be given in the presentation. (orig.)

  4. Elaboration and characterization of nanoliposome made of soya; rapeseed and salmon lecithins: application to cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arab Tehrany, Elmira; Kahn, Cyril J F; Baravian, Christophe; Maherani, Behnoush; Belhaj, Nabila; Wang, Xiong; Linder, Michel

    2012-06-15

    Health benefits of unsaturated fatty acids have been demonstrated over the last decades. Nanotechnology provided new process to produce particles such as liposomes and nanoliposomes made of pure phospholipids. These techniques are already used in pharmaceutics to augment the bioavailability and the bioefficiency of drugs. The aim of this paper is to characterize and evaluate the potential of nanoliposomes made of three lecithins (soya, rapeseed and salmon) on cell culture in order to use them in the future as drug delivery systems for tissue engineering. We began to measure, with zetasizer, the radius size of liposomes particles which are 125.5, 136.7 and 130.3 nm respectively for rapeseed, soya and salmon lecithin. Simultaneously, solutions observed by TEM demonstrated the particles were made much of liposomes than droplet (emulsion). Finally, we found that the solutions of lecithins were enough stable over 5 days at 37 °C to be used in culture medium. We investigated the effect of soya, rapeseed and salmon lecithin liposome from 2mg/mL to 5.2 μg/mL on metabolic activity and cell proliferation on rat bone marrow stem cells (rBMSC) during 14 days. The results showed that the three lecithins (soya, rapeseed and salmon) improve cell proliferation at different concentration. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Integrated production of cellulosic bioethanol and succinic acid from rapeseed straw after dilute-acid pretreatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuglarz, Mariusz; Alvarado-Morales, Merlin; Dąbkowska, Katarzyna

    2018-01-01

    in high glucose yield (80%) and ethanol output (122-125 kg of EtOH/Mg of rapeseed straw). Supplementation the enzymatic process with 10% dosage of endoxylanases (Cellic® HTec2) reduced the hydrolysis time required to achieve the maximum glucan conversion by 44-46% and increased the xylose yield by 10...

  6. 7 CFR 457.161 - Canola and rapeseed crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...: Canola and Rapeseed Crop Provisions If a conflict exists among the policy provisions, the order of... application of disease control measures; (e) Wildlife; (f) Earthquake; (g) Volcanic eruption; or (h) Failure... injurious to human or animal health. (3) Quality will be a factor in determining your loss in canola...

  7. Effects of Toasting Time on Digestive Hydrolysis of Soluble and Insoluble 00-Rapeseed Meal Proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salazar-Villanea, Sergio; Bruininx, Erik M.A.M.; Gruppen, Harry; Carré, Patrick; Quinsac, Alain; Poel, van der Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Thermal damage to proteins can reduce their nutritional value. The effects of toasting time on the kinetics of hydrolysis, the resulting molecular weight distribution of 00-rapeseed meal (RSM) and the soluble and insoluble protein fractions separated from the RSM were studied. Hydrolysis was

  8. Monitoring lipase-catalyzed butterfat interesterification with rapesee oil by Fourier transform near-infrared spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Hong; Mu, Huiling; Xu, Xuebing

    2006-01-01

    This work demonstrates the application of FT-NIR spectroscopy to monitor the enzymatic interesterification process for butterfat modification. The reactions were catalyzed by Lipozyme TL IM at 70 C for the blend of butterfat/rapeseed oil (70/30, w/w) in a packed-bed reactor. The blend and intere...

  9. Performance of winter-rapeseed lines with an improved fatty acid composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraeling, K.

    1990-01-01

    Full text: High levels of linoleic (C18:2) and low content of linolenic acid (C18:3) are desired traits for rapeseed. Induced mutants with an improved fatty acid composition derived from the spring-rapeseed variety Oro were crossed with a winter-rapeseed line exhibiting an increased C18:2 content and backcrossed two times with several high yielding cultivars of winter-rapeseed. After each cross the F 2 was screened by gaschromatography for the mutant-type. After the second backcross from each of 118 lines (BC 2 -F 3 ) an observation plot (9.4 m 2 ) was sown. Results show that through backcrossing it was possible to develop lines with a high proportion of C18:2 and a reduced level of C18:3, whereas C18:1 remained unchanged, demonstrating new combinations different from the usual positive correlation between C18:2 and C18:3. Yield increased continuously with decreasing portion of the mutant genome. Relatively low genotype x location interaction for fatty acids was found. (author)

  10. Methane production and digestion of different physical forms of rapeseed as fat supplements in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brask, Maike; Lund, Peter; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to study the effect of the physical form of rapeseed fat on methane (CH4) mitigation properties, feed digestion, and rumen fermentation. Four lactating ruminal-, duodenal-, and ileal-cannulated Danish Holstein dairy cows (143 d in milk, milk yield of 34.3 kg) were...

  11. NMR metabolomics of ripened and developing oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and turnip rape (Brassica rapa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortesniemi, Maaria; Vuorinen, Anssi L; Sinkkonen, Jari; Yang, Baoru; Rajala, Ari; Kallio, Heikki

    2015-04-01

    The oilseeds of the commercially important oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and turnip rape (Brassica rapa) were investigated with (1)H NMR metabolomics. The compositions of ripened (cultivated in field trials) and developing seeds (cultivated in controlled conditions) were compared in multivariate models using principal component analysis (PCA), partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA). Differences in the major lipids and the minor metabolites between the two species were found. A higher content of polyunsaturated fatty acids and sucrose were observed in turnip rape, while the overall oil content and sinapine levels were higher in oilseed rape. The genotype traits were negligible compared to the effect of the growing site and concomitant conditions on the oilseed metabolome. This study demonstrates the applicability of NMR-based analysis in determining the species, geographical origin, developmental stage, and quality of oilseed Brassicas. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Biology and harmfulness of Brassica pod midge (Dasineura brassicae Winn. in winter oilseed rape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Draga Graora

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Brassica pod midge (Dasineura brassicae Winn. is an important pest in oilseed rape (Brasica napus L.. It develops two generations per year and overwinters in the larval stage in cocoons in soil. Immigration of the first generation adults lasted from the beginning of April until the end of May. Larvae developed in pods from mid-April to mid-June, causing pod deformation and cracking, which resulted in premature falling out of seeds and yield reduction. Pod damage amounted to 11.6%. The emergence of the second generation adults was detected at the end of May and in the first ten days of June. D. brassicae was found to lay eggs in healthy pods and no correlation was found with the cabbage seed weevil, Ceutorhynchus assimilis Paykull.

  13. High-density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array mapping in Brassica oleracea: identification of QTL associated with carotenoid variation in broccoli florets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Allan F; Yousef, Gad G; Chebrolu, Kranthi K; Byrd, Robert W; Everhart, Koyt W; Thomas, Aswathy; Reid, Robert W; Parkin, Isobel A P; Sharpe, Andrew G; Oliver, Rebekah; Guzman, Ivette; Jackson, Eric W

    2014-09-01

    A high-resolution genetic linkage map of B. oleracea was developed from a B. napus SNP array. The work will facilitate genetic and evolutionary studies in Brassicaceae. A broccoli population, VI-158 × BNC, consisting of 150 F2:3 families was used to create a saturated Brassica oleracea (diploid: CC) linkage map using a recently developed rapeseed (Brassica napus) (tetraploid: AACC) Illumina Infinium single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array. The map consisted of 547 non-redundant SNP markers spanning 948.1 cM across nine chromosomes with an average interval size of 1.7 cM. As the SNPs are anchored to the genomic reference sequence of the rapid cycling B. oleracea TO1000, we were able to estimate that the map provides 96 % coverage of the diploid genome. Carotenoid analysis of 2 years data identified 3 QTLs on two chromosomes that are associated with up to half of the phenotypic variation associated with the accumulation of total or individual compounds. By searching the genome sequences of the two related diploid species (B. oleracea and B. rapa), we further identified putative carotenoid candidate genes in the region of these QTLs. This is the first description of the use of a B. napus SNP array to rapidly construct high-density genetic linkage maps of one of the constituent diploid species. The unambiguous nature of these markers with regard to genomic sequences provides evidence to the nature of genes underlying the QTL, and demonstrates the value and impact this resource will have on Brassica research.

  14. Salt tolerance potential of brassica juncea Linn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrar, M; Jabeen, M; Tabassum, J [University of Peshawar (Pakistan). Dept. of Botany; Hussain, F; Ilahi, I [University of Peshawar (Pakistan). Dept. of Pharmacy

    2003-07-01

    The present study showed that percent germination, radicle and plumule lengths of Brassica juncea were adversely affected by increasing the level of salinity. As compared to 95 per cent germination of the control, there were 92.50. 90.00. 90.00, 85.00, 87.50 and 80.00 per cent germinations respectively at 2.5, 5.0, 7.5. 10.0. 12.5 and 15.0 dSm/sup -1/ NaCI salinity levels. Similarly. all the parameters tested in the pot experiments showed gradual decline with the corresponding increasing levels of NaCl salinity. At lower levels of salinity (2.5 and 5.0 dSm/sup -l/), Brassica juncea had reasonably good growth and productivity. It showed greatly reduced growth and at 7.5 and 10.0 dSm/sup -1/ while at 12.5 and 15.0 10.0 dSm/sup -1/ salinity levels it was severely production affected. It is concluded from the present work that Brassica juncea can be grown fairly on mild saline soils for a food, fodder and seed production. (author)

  15. Salt tolerance potential of brassica juncea Linn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrar, M.; Jabeen, M.; Tabassum, J.; Hussain, F.; Ilahi, I.

    2003-01-01

    The present study showed that percent germination, radicle and plumule lengths of Brassica juncea were adversely affected by increasing the level of salinity. As compared to 95 per cent germination of the control, there were 92.50. 90.00. 90.00, 85.00, 87.50 and 80.00 per cent germinations respectively at 2.5, 5.0, 7.5. 10.0. 12.5 and 15.0 dSm/sup -1/ NaCI salinity levels. Similarly. all the parameters tested in the pot experiments showed gradual decline with the corresponding increasing levels of NaCl salinity. At lower levels of salinity (2.5 and 5.0 dSm/sup -l/), Brassica juncea had reasonably good growth and productivity. It showed greatly reduced growth and at 7.5 and 10.0 dSm/sup -1/ while at 12.5 and 15.0 10.0 dSm/sup -1/ salinity levels it was severely production affected. It is concluded from the present work that Brassica juncea can be grown fairly on mild saline soils for a food, fodder and seed production. (author)

  16. A review of mechanisms underlying anticarcinogenicity by brassica vegetables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, D.T.H.; Verhagen, H.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Poppel, G. van

    1997-01-01

    The mechanisms by which brassica vegetables might decrease the risk of cancer are reviewed in this paper. Brassicas, including all types of cabbages, broccoli, cauliflower and Brussels sprouts, may be protective against cancer due to their relatively high glucosinolate content. Glucosinolates are

  17. Identification and evolutionary dynamics of cacta DNA transposons in brassica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nouroz, F.; Noreen, S.; Harrison, J.S.H.

    2017-01-01

    Transposable elements are the major drivers of genome evolution and plasticity. Due to their transposition mode, they are classified into two major classes as Retrotransposons and DNA transposons. The En/Spm or CACTA elements are diverse group of DNA transposons proliferating in plant genomes. Various bioinformatics and molecular approaches were used for identification and distribution of CACTA transposons in Brassica genome. A combination of dot plot analysis and BLASTN searches yielded 35 autonomous and 7 non-autonomous CACTA elements in Brassica. The elements ranged in sizes from 1.2 kb non-autonomous elements to 11kb autonomous elements, terminated by 3 bp Target Site Duplication (TSD) and ~15 bp conserved Terminal Inverted Repeat (TIR) motifs (5'-CACTACAAGAAAACA-3'), with heterogeneous internal regions. The transposase (TNP) was identified from autonomous CACTA elements, while other protein domains from Brassica and other plants CACTA revealed similar organizations with minor differences. Both transposases (TNPD, TNPA) are present in most CACTA, while a few CACTA harboured an additional ATHILA ORF1-like domain. The PCR analysis amplified the CACTA transposases from 40 Brassica accessions (A, B, and C-genome) suggesting their distribution among various Brassica crops. A detailed characterization and evolutionary analysis of the identified CACTA elements allowed some to be placed in genome-specific groups, while most of them (Brassica-Arabidopsis elements) have followed the same evolutionary line. The distribution of CACTA in Brassica concluded that 3 bp TSDs generating CACTA transposons contributed significantly to genome size and evolution of Brassica genome. (author)

  18. Epidemiological studies on Brassica vegetables and cancer risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, D.T.H.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Poppel, G. van; Verhagen, H.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    1996-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the epidemiological data concerning the cancer-preventive effect of brassica vegetables, including cabbage, kale, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, and cauliflower. The protective effect of brassicas against cancer may be due to their relatively high content of

  19. Brassica oleracea: the dog of the plant world

    Science.gov (United States)

    The horticultural crop Brassica oleracea L. plays an important role in global food systems. Brassica oleracea is unique in that it has been domesticated into several morphotypes (cultivars), including broccoli, Brussels sprout, cabbage, cauliflower, kale, kohlrabi, and several lesser well known morp...

  20. Brassica oleracea; The dog of the plant world

    Science.gov (United States)

    The horticultural crop Brassica oleracea L. plays an important role in global food systems. Brassica oleracea is unique in that it has been domesticated into several morphotypes (cultivars), including broccoli, Brussels sprout, cabbage, cauliflower, kale, kohlrabi, and several lesser well known morp...

  1. Isolation of an ascorbate peroxidase in Brassica napus and analysis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-04-05

    Apr 5, 2010 ... domain; APX, ascorbate peroxidase; Bn-APX, Brassica napus ascorbate ... Brassica napus, which is widely grown as the oilseed crop of rape or canola, .... grew on the SD-Leu-Trp-His-Ade medium and were verified by PCR.

  2. Evolution of Enzymatic Activities in the Enolase Superfamily: L-Fuconate Dehydratase from Xanthomonas campestris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yew,W.; Fedorov, A.; Fedorov, E.; Rakus, J.; Pierce, R.; Almo, S.; Gerlt, J.

    2006-01-01

    Many members of the mechanistically diverse enolase superfamily have unknown functions. In this report the authors use both genome (operon) context and screening of a library of acid sugars to assign the L-fuconate dehydratase (FucD) function to a member of the mandelate racemase (MR) subgroup of the superfamily encoded by the Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris str. ATCC 33913 genome (GI: 21233491). Orthologues of FucD are found in both bacteria and eukaryotes, the latter including the rTS beta protein in Homo sapiens that has been implicated in regulating thymidylate synthase activity. As suggested by sequence alignments and confirmed by high-resolution structures in the presence of active site ligands, FucD and MR share the same active site motif of functional groups: three carboxylate ligands for the essential Mg2+ located at the ends of th third, fourth, and fifth-strands in the (/)7-barrel domain (Asp 248, Glu 274, and Glu 301, respectively), a Lys-x-Lys motif at the end of the second-strand (Lys 218 and Lys 220), a His-Asp dyad at the end of the seventh and sixth-strands (His 351 and Asp 324, respectively), and a Glue at the end of the eighth-strand (Glu 382). The mechanism of the FucD reaction involves initial abstraction of the 2-proton by Lys 220, acid catalysis of the vinylogous-elimination of the 3-OH group by His 351, and stereospecific ketonization of the resulting 2-keto-3-deoxy-L-fuconate product. Screening of the library of acid sugars revealed substrate and functional promiscuity: In addition to L-fuconate, FucD also catalyzes the dehydration of L-galactonate, D-arabinonate, D-altronate, L-talonate, and D-ribonate. The dehydrations of L-fuconate, L-galactonate, and D-arabinonate are initiated by abstraction of the 2-protons by Lys 220. The dehydrations of L-talonate and D-ribonate are initiated by abstraction of the 2-protons by His 351; however, protonation of the enediolate intermediates by the conjugate acid of Lys 220 yields L

  3. Production of inulinase by Xanthomonas campestris pv phaseoli using onion (Allium cepa) and garlic (Allium sativum) peels in solid state cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayyachamy, M; Khelawan, K; Pillay, D; Permaul, K; Singh, S

    2007-10-01

    To access inulinase production by Xanthomonas campestris pv phaseoli using the submerged and solid state cultivation (SSC) methods. Various carbon sources, inulin-rich solid substrates and pure synthetic inulin were tested for their efficiency in inulinase induction. The highest inulinase production (17.42 IU ml(-1)) in submerged cultures of X. campestris was observed with inulin as a carbon source with an initial pH, temperature and agitation of 7.0, 37 degrees C and 150 rev min(-1) respectively. Among the various substrates, garlic peels (117 IU gds(-1)) and onion peels (101 IU gds(-1)) were found to be the best for inulinase production. The inulinase production level of X. campestris was 6.7-fold higher in garlic and 5.8-fold in onion, under optimized SSC conditions compared with the submerged culture. This is the first report on inulinase production from garlic and onion peels by X. campestris using SSC. SSC is an efficient method for inulinase production by X. campestris for commercial applications.

  4. Ultrasound-assisted production of biodiesel FAME from rapeseed oil in a novel two-compartment reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakayama, Ryo-ichi; Imai, Masanao; Woodley, John

    2017-01-01

    Ultrasonication has been proposed as a promising technique for enzymatic transesterification. In contrast, excess ultrasonication causes an enzyme inactivation. This paper presents enzymatic transesterification to produce fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) from rapeseed oil using Callera Trans L™ usi...

  5. miR395 is involved in detoxification of cadmium in Brassica napus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Liu Wei; Song, Jian Bo; Shu, Xia Xia; Zhang, Yun; Yang, Zhi Min

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Involvement of miR395 in sulfate uptake and assimilation in B. napus. ► miR395 regulation of Cd accumulation and distribution in B. napus. ► Depression of Cd-induced oxidative stress by miR395. -- Abstract: The toxic metal cadmium (Cd) constitutes one of the major inorganic contaminants in environments. microRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of endogenous non-coding small RNAs. miR395 is conserved and regulates sulfate assimilation and distribution in higher plants, but whether it is involved in detoxification of Cd in plants has not been described. In this study, transgenic rapeseed (Brassica napus) over-expressing miR395 was identified under Cd stress. miR395-over-expressing plants showed a lower degree of Cd-induced oxidative stress than wild type. By contrast, chlorophyll, glutathione and non-protein thiols contents were higher in the transformants than wild type. Determination of growth response showed that 35S::MIR395 plants accumulated higher levels of biomass and sulfur than wild type under Cd exposure. miR395 transgenic plants had higher levels of Cd in plants, particularly at the high supply of Cd in the medium, but they tended to repress Cd translocation from roots to shoots. Simultaneously, expression of metal-tolerance genes such as BnPCS1, BnHO1 and Sultr1;1 was up-regulated under Cd stress, and the expression of the genes was more pronounced in 35S::MIR395 plants than in wild type. These results suggest that miR395 would be involved in detoxification of Cd in B. napus

  6. miR395 is involved in detoxification of cadmium in Brassica napus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Liu Wei; Song, Jian Bo; Shu, Xia Xia; Zhang, Yun [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Life Science, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Yang, Zhi Min, E-mail: zmyang@njau.edu.cn [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Life Science, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China)

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► Involvement of miR395 in sulfate uptake and assimilation in B. napus. ► miR395 regulation of Cd accumulation and distribution in B. napus. ► Depression of Cd-induced oxidative stress by miR395. -- Abstract: The toxic metal cadmium (Cd) constitutes one of the major inorganic contaminants in environments. microRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of endogenous non-coding small RNAs. miR395 is conserved and regulates sulfate assimilation and distribution in higher plants, but whether it is involved in detoxification of Cd in plants has not been described. In this study, transgenic rapeseed (Brassica napus) over-expressing miR395 was identified under Cd stress. miR395-over-expressing plants showed a lower degree of Cd-induced oxidative stress than wild type. By contrast, chlorophyll, glutathione and non-protein thiols contents were higher in the transformants than wild type. Determination of growth response showed that 35S::MIR395 plants accumulated higher levels of biomass and sulfur than wild type under Cd exposure. miR395 transgenic plants had higher levels of Cd in plants, particularly at the high supply of Cd in the medium, but they tended to repress Cd translocation from roots to shoots. Simultaneously, expression of metal-tolerance genes such as BnPCS1, BnHO1 and Sultr1;1 was up-regulated under Cd stress, and the expression of the genes was more pronounced in 35S::MIR395 plants than in wild type. These results suggest that miR395 would be involved in detoxification of Cd in B. napus.

  7. Sulphur Nutrition and its Effect on Yield and Oil Content of Oilseed Rape (Brassica Napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Varényiová

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the experiment was to study the importance of sulphur in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. nutrition as well as the effect of rising doses of sulphur in combination with nitrogen on yield, oiliness, oil production, nutrients content in seed and nutrients uptake by rapeseed. The plot–scale experiment was established in years 2013/14 and 2014/15 within the agricultural cooperative in Mojmírovce. There were four fertilization treatments on 600 m2 experimental plots in three replications in this experiment. The first treatment was unfertilized control. Other three treatments were fertilized by the same nitrogen dose of 160 kg.ha−1 and by increasing doses of sulphur. The second treatment was fertilized by a dose of 15 kg.ha−1 S, the third by a dose of 40 kg.ha−1 and a dose of 65 kg.ha−1 S was applied at the fourth treatment. The highest average yield 3.96 t.ha-1 was found when a dose of 40 kg.ha−1 S was applied. The application of sulphur in a dose of 65 kg.ha−1 was accompanied by a yield decrease by 11.4 % as compared to the treatment where a sulphur dose of 40 kg.ha−1 was used. An average oil content of 45.1, 45.5, and 44.0 % was found in treatments in which the doses of sulphur of 15, 40 and 65 kg.ha−1 were applied. No significant difference among the treatments fertilized by sulphur was found. The average oil production reached 1809, 1802 and 1595 kg.ha−1 in cases of treatments fertilized by sulphur doses of 15, 40 and 65 kg.ha−1.

  8. Subgenome parallel selection is associated with morphotype diversification and convergent crop domestication in Brassica rapa and Brassica oleracea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Feng; Sun, Rifei; Hou, Xilin; Zheng, Hongkun; Zhang, Fenglan; Zhang, Yangyong; Liu, Bo; Liang, Jianli; Zhuang, Mu; Liu, Yunxia; Liu, Dongyuan; Wang, Xiaobo; Li, Pingxia; Liu, Yumei; Lin, Ke; Bucher, Johan; Zhang, Ningwen; Wang, Yan; Wang, Hui; Deng, Jie; Liao, Yongcui; Wei, Keyun; Zhang, Xueming; Fu, Lixia; Hu, Yunyan; Liu, Jisheng; Cai, Chengcheng; Zhang, Shujiang; Zhang, Shifan; Li, Fei; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Jifang; Guo, Ning; Liu, Zhiyuan; Liu, Jin; Sun, Chao; Ma, Yuan; Zhang, Haijiao; Cui, Yang; Freeling, Micheal R; Borm, Theo; Bonnema, Guusje; Wu, Jian; Wang, Xiaowu

    2016-10-01

    Brassica species, including crops such as cabbage, turnip and oilseed, display enormous phenotypic variation. Brassica genomes have all undergone a whole-genome triplication (WGT) event with unknown effects on phenotype diversification. We resequenced 199 Brassica rapa and 119 Brassica oleracea accessions representing various morphotypes and identified signals of selection at the mesohexaploid subgenome level. For cabbage morphotypes with their typical leaf-heading trait, we identified four subgenome loci that show signs of parallel selection among subgenomes within B. rapa, as well as four such loci within B. oleracea. Fifteen subgenome loci are under selection and are shared by these two species. We also detected strong subgenome parallel selection linked to the domestication of the tuberous morphotypes, turnip (B. rapa) and kohlrabi (B. oleracea). Overall, we demonstrated that the mesohexaploidization of the two Brassica genomes contributed to their diversification into heading and tuber-forming morphotypes through convergent subgenome parallel selection of paralogous genes.

  9. Physiological responses of Brassica napus to fulvic acid under water stress: Chlorophyll a fluorescence and antioxidant enzyme activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramin Lotfi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The ameliorative effect of fulvic acid (0, 300, and 600 mg L− 1 on photosystem II and antioxidant enzyme activity of the rapeseed (Brassica napus L. plant under water stress (60, 100, and 140 mm evaporation from class A pan was studied using split plots in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Results indicated that application of fulvic acid (FA improved the maximum quantum efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm and performance index (PI of plants under both well-watered and limited-water conditions. The time span from Fo to Fm and the energy necessary for the closure of all reaction centers was significantly increased, but the size of the plastoquinone pool was reduced with increasing water stress levels. Plants treated with FA had higher peroxidase and catalase activities under all irrigation conditions. Activities of ascorbate peroxidase and superoxide dismutase in plants increased with increasing water stress. Malondialdehyde increased under severe water stress, but application of FA significantly decreased lipid peroxidation. Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS is a common phenomenon in plants under stress. Under this condition, the balance between the production of ROS and the quenching activity of antioxidants is upset, often resulting in oxidative damage. In this study, application of FA significantly increased fluorescence of chlorophyll a, inhibiting ROS production and enhancing antioxidant enzymes activity that destroyed ROS. Thus, ROS in plant cells was reduced under water stress by application of FA and consequently lipid peroxidation was reduced.

  10. Significant reductions in oil quality and lipid content of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) under climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Namazkar, Shahla; Egsgaard, Helge; Frenck, Georg

    2015-01-01

    Despite of the potential importance to food and bioenergy purposes, effects from climate change on plant oil quality have hardly been characterized.On a global basis Brassica napus L., rapeseed or oilseed rape, is the second largest source of vegetable oil after soybean and the predominant oil crop...... in Europe. We found significant changes in oil quality and quantity of four cultivars of oilseed rape grown in five future climate scenarios with elevated [CO2], [O-3] temperature and combinations hereof (similar to RCP8.5,(1)). Populations of the cultivars were grown under ambient and climate change...... conditions in a climate-phytotron. The treatments were ambient (360 ppm CO2, 19/12 degrees C (day/night), 20/20 ppb O-3 (day/night)), all factors elevated (650 ppm CO2, 24/17 degrees C, 60/20 ppb O-3), as well as two- and single-factor treatments with the elevated factors.The overall trend was that oil...

  11. A comparison of screening methods to identify waterlogging tolerance in the field in Brassica napus L. during plant ontogeny.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiling Zou

    Full Text Available Waterlogging tolerance is typically evaluated at a specific development stage, with an implicit assumption that differences in waterlogging tolerance expressed in these systems will result in improved yield performance in fields. It is necessary to examine these criteria in fields. In the present study, three experiments were conducted to screen waterlogging tolerance in 25 rapeseed (Brassica napus L. varieties at different developmental stages, such as seedling establishment stage and seedling stage at controlled environment, and maturity stage in the fields. The assessments for physiological parameters at three growth stages suggest that there were difference of waterlogging tolerance at all the development stages, providing an important basis for further development of breeding more tolerant materials. The results indicated that flash waterlogging restricts plant growth and growth is still restored after removal of the stress. Correlation analysis between waterlogging tolerance coefficient (WTC of yield and other traits revealed that there was consistency in waterlogging tolerance of the genotypes until maturity, and good tolerance at seedling establishment stage and seedling stage can guarantee tolerance in later stages. The waterlogging-tolerant plants could be selected using some specific traits at any stage, and selections would be more effective at the seedling establishment stage. Thus, our study provides a method for screening waterlogging tolerance, which would enable the suitable basis for initial selection of a large number of germplasm or breeding populations for waterlogging tolerance and help for verifying their potential utility in crop-improvement.

  12. Radio-sensitivity analysis and selection of useful mutants of rape (Brassica napus L.) by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goh, Eun Jeong; Kim, Wook Jin; Kim, Jin Baek; Kim, Dong Sub; Kim, Sang Hoon; Kang, Si Yong

    2010-01-01

    Rape (Brassica napus L.) plants are one of the major oilseed crops. The main components of rapeseed are oil (35 to 47%) and protein (15 to 32%). For the biodiesel production, the development of a new variety of rape plant with high biomass and/or oleic acid contents is required. In order to determine the optimum dose of gamma-ray irradiation, the rape seeds of cvs. Hanra (Hr), Youngsan (Ys), Tammi (Tm), and Tamra (Tr) were irradiated with a 100 ∼ 4,000 Gy dose range of gamma-rays. Considering the growth factors, the optimum doses were determined to be within the range of 600 ∼ 1,000 Gy for the selection of useful mutant lines. Six-hundred and eighty eight (688) M 2 mutant lines were obtained from 600 ∼ 1,000 Gy gamma-ray-irradiated M 1 plants through selfing. The growth characteristics, leaf shape, early flowering, and flower color were all investigated. The selected mutant numbers of early flowering, leaf shape, and flower color were 34, 52, and 3 from the four cultivars, respectively. These mutant lines will be used for the development of a new variety of rape plant with high biomass and oleic acid contents

  13. Alfalfa dodder (Cuscuta campestris) toxicity in horses: clinical, haematological and serum biochemical findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abutarbush, S M

    2013-07-27

    The objective of this observational study is to describe clinical, haematological and serum biochemical findings of horses affected with alfalfa dodder (Cuscuta campestris) toxicity. Twenty horses naturally exposed to alfalfa dodder toxicity were examined and information was collected on history and clinical signs. Physical examination was done on horses in the premises (n=20), and venous blood samples of 12 horses were submitted for haematology and serum biochemical examination for each horse. Abnormal clinical signs started around 36 hours after horses were fed the contaminated alfalfa. Abnormal signs were seen in 11 horses and those included diarrhoea (n=8), decreased appetite (n=7), neurological signs (n=4) and abdominal pain (n=1). Some horses had multiple clinical signs of the above. The results of complete blood cell count revealed leukocytopenia, neutropenia and thrombocytopenia. Serum biochemical analysis revealed decreased ALP, AST and CPK levels and increased direct bilirubin level. The used alfalfa was stopped immediately and a different alfalfa from a new container that did not contain any weeds was fed. Horses on the premises were observed closely, and the abnormal clinical signs resolved within three days. No treatment was implemented. Knowledge about toxicity of horses by Cuscuta species is scarce in the English veterinary literature and very limited.

  14. Overexpression of stress-related genes in Cuscuta campestris in response to host defense reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Rezaei

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Herb dodder ( Cuscuta spp. is one of the most important parasitic plants that can severely affect crop yields in the world. So far, interactions of this parasitic plant with hosts were not investigated adequately. Here, we conducted a differential expression analyzes and identified a number of genes that were differentially expressed in haustorium tissue compared with the stem of Cuscuta campestris growing on Alfalfa. We obtained 439 cDNA fragments from haustoria (parasite-host connection zone and stems (25 cm away from connections zones using the cDNA-AFLP (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism method with eight different primer combinations. Of 439 transcript-derived fragments (TDFs that were detected, 145 fragments were identified as differentially expressed genes. Five TDF sequences were similar to known functional genes involved in signal transduction, metabolism, respiration, and stress responses. Genes encoding DEAD-box ATP-dependent RNA helicase, potential heme-binding protein, lysine-specific demethylase 5A were selected for qRT-PCR. The qRT-PCR analyzes confirmed the results obtained using cDNA-AFLP. Our findings shed light on the elicitation of dodder defense responses in the connection zone to overcome plant defense reactions.

  15. Limpeza clonal de mudas de videira infectadas por Xanthomonas campestris pv. viticola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Márcio Freire Silva

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O cancro bacteriano da videira é causado por Xanthomonas campestris pv. viticola (Xcv. Visando à limpeza clonal de mudas de 'Red Globe', foram estudados: tamanho ideal de ápices e gemas axilares para cultivo em meio de Galzy modificado (MGM; efeito da termoterapia (38ºC/30 dias; e ação de antibióticos na eliminação de Xcv em videiras infectadas. Os percentuais de contaminação por Xcv e de regeneração foram analisados, e as plantas obtidas foram indexadas em meio ágar nutritivo-dextrose-extrato de levedura-ampicilina (NYDAM, seguindo-se teste de patogenicidade. O cultivo de explantes com 3 mm possibilitou a obtenção de plantas livres da bactéria, com regeneração 14,3 vezes maior que explantes com 1 mm. A termoterapia de mudas infectadas, associada ao cultivo in vitro, não eliminou o patógeno. O cultivo de explantes com 10 mm, durante 40 dias em MGM + cefotaxima (300 mg L-1, proporcionou limpeza clonal das mudas. A indexação de plantas de videira regeneradas in vitro, quanto à infecção por Xcv utilizando NYDAM, seguida de teste de patogenicidade, é uma alternativa econômica e eficiente para produção de mudas de alta qualidade fitossanitária.

  16. Studies on the physiological changes in the rice plants infected with Xanthomonas campestris pv. oryzae, (3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Minoru; Samejima, Shin-ichi; Hosokawa, Daijiro

    1980-01-01

    Accumulation of 14 C-photosynthetic assimilates in rice leaves infected with Xanthomonas campestris pv. oryzae was studied by using autoradiography for the purpose of elucidating the movement of nutrients from healthy tissues to the infected parts. When rice plants were exposed to 14 CO 2 immediately after inoculation, 14 C-photosynthetic assimilates did not accumulate in and around the inoculated spots of leaves until the lesions became visible, i.e., approximately 7 days after inoculation. When the leaves were exposed to 14 CO 2 before visible lesions appeared, 2 and 5 days after inoculation, the assimilates did not accumulate in the inoculated areas, but apparently accumulated in the lesions 24 hr later on from the exposure of leaves with visible lesions. In the newly formed lesions, accumulation site corresponded to the yellow streak parts of lesions along leaf veins. In the large and old lesions, assimilates hardly any accumulated in the center of lesions, grayish-white in color, but accumulated in the border parts of lesions adjacent to healthy tissues which are developing and yellow streak in symptoms. (author)

  17. Structure of a Novel N-acetyl-L-citrulline Deacetylase from Xanthomonas campestris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi,D.; Yu, X.; Roth, L.; Tuchman, M.; Allewell, N.

    2007-01-01

    The structure of a novel acetylcitrulline deacetylase from the plant pathogen Xanthomonas campestris has been solved by multiple-wavelength anomalous dispersion (MAD) using crystals grown from selenomethionine-substituted protein and refined at 1.75 {angstrom} resolution. The asymmetric unit of the crystal contains one monomer consisting of two domains, a catalytic domain and a dimerization domain. The catalytic domain is able to bind a single Co(II) ion at the active site with no change in confirmation. the dimerization domain forms an interface between two monomers related by a crystallographic two-fold symmetry axis. The interface is maintained by hydrophobic interactions between helices and hydrogen bonding between two {beta} strands that form a continuous {beta} sheet across the dimer interface. Because the dimers are also related by two-fold crystallographic axes, they pack together across the crystal via the dimerization domain, suggesting that higher order oligomers may form in solution. The polypeptide fold of the monomer is similar to the fold of Pseudomonas sp. carboxypeptidase G2 and Neisseria meningitidis succinyl diaminopimelate desuccinylase. Structural comparison among these enzymes allowed modeling of substrate binding and suggests a possible catalytic mechanism, in which Glu130 functions as a bifunctional general acid-base catalyst and the metal ion polarizes the carbonyl of the acetyl group.

  18. Xanthan biosynthesis by Xanthomonas campestris ATCC 13951 on wastewaters from white grape processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rončević Zorana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wastewaters from grape processing in wineries are characterized by large seasonal fluctuations in volume and composition, and are often discarded into environment with little or no treatment. The biotechnological production of valuable products is the most promising alternative for reducing the negative environmental impact and recycling these effluents. Results from previous study show that mixed winery wastewaters, after additional optimization of the medium preparation, may be a suitable raw material for industrial xanthan production. Therefore, the aim of this work was to examine the possibility of xanthan production by Xanthomonas campestris ATCC 13951 on mixed wastewaters from different stages of white grape processing in winery with initial sugars content of 20 g/L. In addition to the media characteristics and indicators of biopolymer quality, raw xanthan yield and degree of sugars conversion into product were determined in order to examine the success of performed bioprocess. The results for biopolymer yield (14.66 g/L and sugars conversion into desired product (70.21% obtained in applied experimental conditions confirm that wastewaters from white grape processing have a great potential to be used as a substrate for xanthan biosynthesis.

  19. Bioconversion from crude glycerin by Xanthomonas campestris 2103: xanthan production and characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Brandão

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The production and rheological properties of xanthan gum from crude glycerin fermentation, a primary by-product of the biodiesel industry with environmental and health risks, were evaluated. Batch fermentations (28 °C/250 rpm /120 h were carried out using crude glycerin, 0.01% urea and 0.1% KH2PO4, (% w/v, and compared to a sucrose control under the same operational conditions, using Xanthomonas campestris strain 2103 isolate from Brazil. Its maximal production by crude glycerin fermentation was 7.23±0.1 g·L-1 at 120 h, with an apparent viscosity of 642.57 mPa·s, (2 % w/v, 25 °C, 25 s-1, 70% and 30% higher than from sucrose fermentation, respectively. Its molecular weight varied from 28.2 to 36.2×10(6 Da. The Ostwald-de-Waele model parameters (K and n indicated a pseudoplastic behavior at all concentrations (0.5 to 2.0 %, w/v and temperatures (25-85 °C, while its consistency index indicated promising rheological properties for drilling fluid applications. Therefore, crude glycerin has potential as a cost-effective and alternative substrate for non-food grade xanthan production.

  20. Effect of alcoholic extract of guaco (Mikania glomerata on the control of dark rot (Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris in cauliflower/ Avaliação da eficácia da tintura etanólica de guaco (Mikania glomerata no controle da podridão negra (Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris em couve-flor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia Regina Freitas Schwan-Estrada

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available With the use of irrigation and new hybrids of cauliflower, it is possible to get production during all the year with hight yield. However, the crop has been affected by diseases, as the dark rot caused by X. campestris pv. campestris. The objective of this research work was to study the potential of Mikania glomerata for the control of this disease. Alcoholic extract 50 ºGL of M. glomerata was evaluated regarding to: in vitro antimicrobial activity through bacterial growth in 100, 250, 500 and 1000 mg L-1 of the alcoholic extract; induction of local or systemic resistance in 25 days old cauliflower, with spray of alcoholic extract concomitantly and three days before the inoculation with the pathogen (water and bordeau mixture were used as control; peroxidases activity in leaves of cauliflower treated and not treated, and harvested concomitantly, 24, 48 and 72 hours after spraying the alcoholic extract and also after inoculation. The alcoholic extract of M. glomerata showed inhibition of the bacterial growth in vitro at the concentrations of 250, 500 and 1000 mg L-1. The concentrations of 500 mg L-1 and 1000 mg L-1 inhibited 24% and 38% of the bacterial growth. This inhibition could be due to antibacterial compounds in the alcoholic extract. An inhibition of the disease in vivo occurred only in the leaves treated with 100 and 500 mg L-1 of alcoholic extract when applied concomitantly with the bacteria. This result was similar to bordeau mixture, indicating a control by direct antimicrobial activity. There was no systemic resistence induction for all treatments. The peroxidases induction was due to infectious pathogen process and not to the treatments with alcoholic extract. The results indicate the potential of M. glomerata alcoholic extract for the preventive control of cauliflower dark rot disease.Com a prática da irrigação e novos híbridos de couve-flor, é possível produzir durante todo o ano e com alta produtividade. Mas, a cultura tem

  1. Sinapinic and protocatechuic acids found in rapeseed: isolation, characterisation and potential benefits for human health as functional food ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quinn Leah

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Rapeseed is one of the world’s major oilseeds, and rapeseed oil is produced by pressing of the seeds. This process results in the production of a low-economic-value by-product, rapeseed meal, which is commonly used as animal feed. Rapeseed meal is rich in bioactive phenolic compounds, including sinapinic acid (SA and protocatechuic acid (PCA. Isolation of these bioactive compounds from a by-product of rapeseed oil production is largely in agreement with the current concept of the circular economy and total utilisation of crop harvest using a biorefinery approach. In this review, current information concerning traditional and novel methods to isolate phenolic compounds – including SA and PCA – from rapeseed meal, along with in vitro and in vivo studies concerning the bioactivity of SA and PCA and their associated health effects, is collated. These health effects include anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-diabetes activities, along with histone deacetylase inhibition and protective cardiovascular, neurological and hepatic effects. The traditional extraction methods include use of solvents and/or enzymes. However, a need for simpler, more efficient methodologies has led to the development of novel extraction processes, including microwave-assisted, ultrasound-assisted, pulsed electric field and high-voltage electrical discharge extraction processes.

  2. Direct bio-utilization of untreated rapeseed meal for effective iturin A production by Bacillus subtilis in submerged fermentation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Jin

    Full Text Available The feasibility of using untreated rapeseed meal as a nitrogen source for iturin A production by Bacillus subtilis 3-10 in submerged fermentation was first evaluated by comparison with two different commercial nitrogen sources of peptone and ammonium nitrate. A significant promoting effect of rapeseed meal on iturin A production was observed and the maximum iturin A concentration of 0.60 g/L was reached at 70 h, which was 20% and 8.0 fold higher than that produced from peptone and ammonium nitrate media, respectively. It was shown that rapeseed meal had a positive induction effect on protease secretion, contributing to the release of soluble protein from low water solubility solid rapeseed meal for an effective supply of available nitrogen during fermentation. Moreover, compared to raw rapeseed meal, the remaining residue following fermentation could be used as a more suitable supplementary protein source for animal feed because of the great decrease of major anti-nutritional components including sinapine, glucosinolate and its degradation products of isothiocyanate and oxazolidine thione. The results obtained from this study demonstrate the potential of direct utilization of low cost rapeseed meal as a nitrogen source for commercial production of iturin A and other secondary metabolites by Bacillus subtilis.

  3. A Phylogenetic Analysis of Chloroplast Genomes Elucidates the Relationships of the Six Economically Important Brassica Species Comprising the Triangle of U

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Peirong; Zhang, Shujiang; Li, Fei; Zhang, Shifan; Zhang, Hui; Wang, Xiaowu; Sun, Rifei; Bonnema, Guusje; Borm, Theo J.A.

    2017-01-01

    The Brassica genus comprises many economically important worldwide cultivated crops. The well-established model of the Brassica genus, U’s triangle, consists of three basic diploid plant species (Brassica rapa, Brassica oleracea, and Brassica nigra) and three amphidiploid species (Brassica napus,

  4. Study on Spray Characteristics and Spray Droplets Dynamic Behavior of Diesel Engine Fueled by Rapeseed Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sapit Azwan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Fuel-air mixing is important process in diesel combustion. It directly affects the combustion and emission of diesel engine. Biomass fuel needs great help to atomize because the fuel has high viscosity and high distillation temperature. This study investigates the atomization characteristics and droplet dynamic behaviors of diesel engine spray fueled by rapeseed oil (RO. Optical observation of RO spray was carried out using shadowgraph photography technique. Single nano-spark photography technique was used to study the characteristics of the rapeseed oil spray while dual nano-spark shadowgraph technique was used to study the spray droplet behavior. The results show that RO has very poor atomization due to the high viscosity nature of the fuel. This is in agreement with the results from spray droplet dynamic behavior studies that shows due to the high viscosity, the droplets are large in size and travel downward, with very little influence of entrainment effect due to its large kinematic energy.

  5. Complete genome sequence of the rapeseed plant-growth promoting Serratia plymuthica strain AS9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neupane, Saraswoti [Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Hogberg, Nils [Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Alstrom, Sadhna [Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Lucas, Susan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Han, James [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lapidus, Alla L. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Cheng, Jan-Fang [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Bruce, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Peters, Lin [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ovchinnikova, Galina [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lu, Megan [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tapia, Roxanne [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Fiebig, Anne [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pagani, Ioanna [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Klenk, Hans-Peter [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Woyke, Tanja [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Finlay, Roger D. [Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden

    2012-01-01

    Serratia plymuthica are plant-associated, plant beneficial species belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae. The members of the genus Serratia are ubiquitous in nature and their life style varies from endophytic to free-living. S. plymuthica AS9 is of special interest for its ability to inhibit fungal pathogens of rapeseed and to promote plant growth. The genome of S. plymuthica AS9 comprises a 5,442,880 bp long circular chromosome that consists of 4,952 protein-coding genes, 87 tRNA genes and 7 rRNA operons. This genome is part of the project entitled Genomics of four rapeseed plant growth promoting bacteria with antagonistic effect on plant pathogens awarded through the 2010 DOE-JGI Community Sequencing Program (CSP2010).

  6. Oilseed brassica improvement through induced mutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, S.A.; Ali, I.; Rehman, K.

    1992-07-01

    The improvement in processing and refining technologies of oil seed brassica have now made possible the use of rape seed mustard oil as cooking medium shortening, salad ingredients and in margarine in many countries. Different promising rape seed mutants were tested for yield and other agronomic traits in eight preliminary yields trails and results of these trails are presented in this report. Three varieties of rape seeds were subjected to 80, 100, 120 krads and two varieties of mustard were treated 60, 80, 100 krads dose of gamma rays. (A.B.)

  7. BRAD, the genetics and genomics database for Brassica plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Pingxia

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brassica species include both vegetable and oilseed crops, which are very important to the daily life of common human beings. Meanwhile, the Brassica species represent an excellent system for studying numerous aspects of plant biology, specifically for the analysis of genome evolution following polyploidy, so it is also very important for scientific research. Now, the genome of Brassica rapa has already been assembled, it is the time to do deep mining of the genome data. Description BRAD, the Brassica database, is a web-based resource focusing on genome scale genetic and genomic data for important Brassica crops. BRAD was built based on the first whole genome sequence and on further data analysis of the Brassica A genome species, Brassica rapa (Chiifu-401-42. It provides datasets, such as the complete genome sequence of B. rapa, which was de novo assembled from Illumina GA II short reads and from BAC clone sequences, predicted genes and associated annotations, non coding RNAs, transposable elements (TE, B. rapa genes' orthologous to those in A. thaliana, as well as genetic markers and linkage maps. BRAD offers useful searching and data mining tools, including search across annotation datasets, search for syntenic or non-syntenic orthologs, and to search the flanking regions of a certain target, as well as the tools of BLAST and Gbrowse. BRAD allows users to enter almost any kind of information, such as a B. rapa or A. thaliana gene ID, physical position or genetic marker. Conclusion BRAD, a new database which focuses on the genetics and genomics of the Brassica plants has been developed, it aims at helping scientists and breeders to fully and efficiently use the information of genome data of Brassica plants. BRAD will be continuously updated and can be accessed through http://brassicadb.org.

  8. COMPARATIVE ASSESSMENT OF NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RELAXATION CHARACTERISTICS OF SUNFLOWER AND RAPESEED LECITHIN

    OpenAIRE

    Lisovaya E. V.; Victorova E. P.; Agafonov O. S.; Kornen N. N.; Shahray T. A.

    2015-01-01

    The article presents a comparative assessment and peculiarities of nuclear magnetic relaxation characteristics of rapeseed and sunflower lecithin. It was established, that lecithin’s nuclear magnetic relaxation characteristics, namely, protons’ spin-spin relaxation time and amplitudes of nuclear magnetic relaxation signals of lecithin components, depend on content of oil’s fat acids and phospholipids, contained in the lecithin. Comparative assessment of protons’ spin-spin relaxation time of r...

  9. Heavy metal immobilization in soil near abandoned mines using eggshell waste and rapeseed residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Soo; Lim, Jung Eun; El-Azeem, Samy A M Abd; Choi, Bongsu; Oh, Sang-Eun; Moon, Deok Hyun; Ok, Yong Sik

    2013-03-01

    Heavy metal contamination of agricultural soils has received great concern due to potential risk to human health. Cadmium and Pb are largely released from abandoned or closed mines in Korea, resulting in soil contamination. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of eggshell waste in combination with the conventional nitrogen, phosphorous, and potassium fertilizer (also known as NPK fertilizer) or the rapeseed residue on immobilization of Cd and Pb in the rice paddy soil. Cadmium and Pb extractabilities were tested using two methods of (1) the toxicity characteristics leaching procedure (TCLP) and (2) the 0.1 M HCl extraction. With 5 % eggshell addition, the values of soil pH were increased from 6.33 and 6.51 to 8.15 and 8.04 in combination with NPK fertilizer and rapeseed residue, respectively, compared to no eggshell addition. The increase in soil pH may contribute to heavy metal immobilization by altering heavy metals into more stable in soils. Concentrations of TCLP-extracted Cd and Pb were reduced by up to 67.9 and 93.2 % by addition of 5 % eggshell compared to control. For 0.1 M HCl extraction method, the concentration of 0.1 M HCl-Cd in soils treated with NPK fertilizer and rapeseed residue was significantly reduced by up to 34.01 and 46.1 %, respectively, with 5 % eggshell addition compared to control. A decrease in acid phosphatase activity and an increase in alkaline phosphatase activity at high soil pH were also observed. Combined application of eggshell waste and rapeseed residue can be cost-effective and beneficial way to remediate the soil contaminated with heavy metals.

  10. Influence of metal loading on hydrocracking of rapeseed oil using bifunctional micro-/mesoporous composite materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gille, T.; Busse, O.; Reschetilowski, W. [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Inst. of Industrial Chemistry

    2013-11-01

    Hydrocracking of rapeseed oil has been investigated in a fixed bed reactor under integral conditions. A synthesized micro-/mesoporous composite material Al-MCM-41/ZSM-5 modified by different metal loadings (NiMo, PtNiMo, Pt) was used as catalyst system. It could be demonstrated that the support material and their metal loading influence the product selectivity as well as the deactivation tendencies of the catalyst sample. (orig.)

  11. SWOT Analysis of Industrial Development of Double-low Rapeseed in Hubei Province

    OpenAIRE

    Xiong, Qiu-fang; Sun, Xiu-li

    2011-01-01

    Based on SWOT analysis method, this paper conducts analysis on the industrial development environment of double-low rapeseed in Hubei Province from the following four aspects, in order to crystallize its resources advantage and disadvantage and make it how the opportunities and challenges that it is faced by. First, advantage analysis: excellent geographic conditions, vigorous government support, powerful scientific research force, sound industrial system support; second, disadvantage analysi...

  12. Arabinogalactan Proteins Accumulate in the Cell Walls of Searching Hyphae of the Stem Parasitic Plants, Cuscuta campestris and Cuscuta japonica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hozumi, Akitaka; Bera, Subhankar; Fujiwara, Daiki; Obayashi, Takeshi; Yokoyama, Ryusuke; Nishitani, Kazuhiko; Aoki, Koh

    2017-11-01

    Stem parasitic plants (Cuscuta spp.) develop a specialized organ called a haustorium to penetrate their hosts' stem tissues. To reach the vascular tissues of the host plant, the haustorium needs to overcome the physical barrier of the cell wall, and the parasite-host interaction via the cell wall is a critical process. However, the cell wall components responsible for the establishment of parasitic connections have not yet been identified. In this study, we investigated the spatial distribution patterns of cell wall components at a parasitic interface using parasite-host complexes of Cuscuta campestris-Arabidopsis thaliana and Cuscuta japonica-Glycine max. We focused on arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs), because AGPs accumulate in the cell walls of searching hyphae of both C. campestris and C. japonica. We found more AGPs in elongated haustoria than in pre haustoria, indicating that AGP accumulation is developmentally regulated. Using in situ hybridization, we identified five genes in C. campestris that encode hyphal-expressed AGPs that belong to the fasciclin-like AGP (FLA) family, which were named CcFLA genes. Three of the five CcFLA genes were expressed in the holdfast, which develops on the Cuscuta stem epidermis at the attachment site for the host's stem epidermis. Our results suggest that AGPs are involved in hyphal elongation and adhesion to host cells, and in the adhesion between the epidermal tissues of Cuscuta and its host. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Selective separation and concentration of antihypertensive peptides from rapeseed protein hydrolysate by electrodialysis with ultrafiltration membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Rong; Girgih, Abraham T; Rozoy, Elodie; Bazinet, Laurent; Ju, Xing-Rong; Aluko, Rotimi E

    2016-04-15

    Rapeseed protein isolate was subjected to alcalase digestion to obtain a protein hydrolysate that was separated into peptide fractions using electrodialysis with ultrafiltration membrane (EDUF) technology. The EDUF process (6h duration) led to isolation of three peptide fractions: anionic (recovered in KCl-1 compartment), cationic (recovered in KCl-2 compartment), and those that remained in the feed compartment, which was labeled final rapeseed protein hydrolysate (FRPH). As expected the KCl-1 peptides were enriched in negatively-charged (43.57%) while KCl-2 contained high contents of positively-charged (28.35%) amino acids. All the samples inhibited angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) and renin activities in dose-dependent manner with original rapeseed protein hydrolysate having the least ACE-inhibitory IC50 value of 0.0932±0.0037 mg/mL while FRPH and KCl-2 had least renin-inhibitory IC50 values of 0.47±0.05 and 0.55±0.06 mg/mL, respectively. Six hours after oral administration (100 mg/kg body weight) to spontaneously hypertensive rats, the FRPH produced the maximum systolic blood pressure reduction of -51 mmHg. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Fluidized bed treatment of rapeseed meal and cake as possibility for the production of canolol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pudel Frank

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Canolol (2,6-dimethoxy-4-vinylphenol, 4-vinylsyringol, which is formed by thermally initiated CO2splitting off from sinapic acid, possesses a high antioxidant potential. Furthermore different positive physiological properties are described. Due to rapeseed’s high content of phenolic acids, particularly sinapic acid, it is obvious to produce canolol as by-product of rapeseed processing. Roasting of rapeseed meal or cake in a fluidized bed followed by extraction with supercritical carbon dioxide of the formed canolol represents a production procedure which not impairs the commercial oil mill process. This article summarizes results from the roasting process with rapeseed meal and cake in fluidized bed equipments of different design and size showing that it is a suitable technique to transform sinapic acid into canolol. The achieved canolol contents are at 500 mg/kg in minimum, if the material is rapidly cooled-down after reaching the optimal temperature of 165 °C. Further roasting leads to a fast reduction of the canolol content. In addition it could be observed, that the sinapic acid content is not decreasing in the same amount as the canolol content increases. Sinapic acid seems to be “reproduced” during roasting. The reaction mechanisms of the described phenomena are not known.

  15. USING OF SECONDARY PRODUCTS OF RAPESEED PROCESSING IN THE FOOD INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Raksha-Slusareva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available When oil and biodiesel are extracted from rapeseed, secondary derived products are formed, which are not used effectively at the moment. The article deals with the problems of possible their use in food industry. During food product preparation for special dietary consumption we used electrophysical (processing by hydroelectropulse and physical (drying, grinding, steam treatment processing of raw materials. Through the developed technology for rapeseed cake processing, we received raw materials suitable for use in food industry. On the basis of these raw materials, the «Nutrition product for special dietary consumption “Ripakovyi”» was developed. It is a part of rape seed meal obtained from the seeds with low content of glucosinolates and erucic acid processed by hydroelectropulse dried in the cabinet oven or in the convective dryer, crushed and disinfected based on a developed soft technology for biologically active substances conservation. The production of this product solves the problem of rational utilization of rapeseed meal and diversification of foods for special dietary consumption.

  16. Effect of Rapeseed Meal on Nutrient Digestibility and Gut Morphology in Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidija Peric

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to determine the effect of rapeseed meal (RSM on nutrient digestibility and intestinal parameters of jejunum of 21 days old broiler chickens. Three groups of Ross 308 chickens were formed and fed with corn-soy based feed (control group or feed with inclusion of 10% or 15% of rapeseed meal (low glucosinolate and low eruca acid content. All mixtures were balanced to the same energy and crude protein level.  To determine digestibility, 20 male chickens per treatment were put into metabolic cages. Digestibility was determined by using the method of total collection. Digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, fat and energy was determined. At 21 days of age, chickens were sacrificed to obtain samples for morphometric parameters of jejunum. On jejunal samples, villus height and area, crypt depth and villus to crypt ratio were measured as indicators of gut integrity. No significant differences (P>0.05 were observed in any measured digestibility or gut health parameter. Addition of up to 15% of rapeseed meal in well balanced diets of young broiler chicken does not have an adverse effect on both digestibility of nutrients and broiler gut health.

  17. Utilization of rapeseed pellet from fatty acid methyl esters production as an energy source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciunel, Krzysztof; Klugmann-Radziemska, Ewa

    2014-01-01

    Rapeseed pellet - crushed seed residue from oil extraction is a by-product of fatty acid methyl esters production process. As other types of biomass, it can either be burned directly in furnaces or processed to increase its energetic value. Biomass is renewable, abundant and has domestic usage; the sources ofbiomass can help the world reduce its dependence on petroleum products, fossil coal and natural gas. Energetically effective utilization of rapeseed pellet could substantially improve the economic balance of an individual household in which biodiesel for fulfilling the producer's own energetic demand is obtained. In this article, the experimental results of combusting rapeseed pellet in a calorimeter, combustion in a boiler heater and the analysis of the emissions level of different pollutants in exhaust fumes during different stages of biomass boiler operation are presented. It has been proved that the pellet, a by-product of biodiesel production, is not only a valuable substitute of animal fodder, but also an excellent renewable and environmentally friendly energy source, viable for use in household tap water heating installations.

  18. Optimization of uncatalyzed steam explosion pretreatment of rapeseed straw for biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Linares, Juan C; Ballesteros, Ignacio; Tourán, Josefina; Cara, Cristóbal; Castro, Eulogio; Ballesteros, Mercedes; Romero, Inmaculada

    2015-08-01

    Rapeseed straw constitutes an agricultural residue with great potential as feedstock for ethanol production. In this work, uncatalyzed steam explosion was carried out as a pretreatment to increase the enzymatic digestibility of rapeseed straw. Experimental statistical design and response surface methodology were used to evaluate the influence of the temperature (185-215°C) and the process time (2.5-7.5min). According to the rotatable central composite design applied, 215°C and 7.5min were confirmed to be the optimal conditions, considering the maximization of enzymatic hydrolysis yield as optimization criterion. These conditions led to a maximum yield of 72.3%, equivalent to 81% of potential glucose in pretreated solid. Different configurations for bioethanol production from steam exploded rapeseed straw were investigated using the pretreated solid obtained under optimal conditions as a substrate. As a relevant result, concentrations of ethanol as high as 43.6g/L (5.5% by volume) were obtained as a consequence of using 20% (w/v) solid loading, equivalent to 12.4g ethanol/100g biomass. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Responses of broiler chicks to radiation processed full-fat rapeseed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farag, El-Din Diaa.M.; Abd El-Hakeim, N.F.; Ali, Y.

    1999-01-01

    Studies were undertaken to determine a safe inclusion for full-fat rapeseed processed through radiation treatment, as a step towards detoxification, in broiler chick's diet. Raw and processed full-fat seeds (10 and 20 KGy) were fed to arbor acres broiler chicks from 7 d of 49 d of age. Body weight of chicks fed the control diet were heaviest followed in order against those fed seed irradiated at 20 and 10 KGy weight depression relative to birds fed, over the experimental duration, of chicks fed diets containing raw and irradiated rapeseed at 10 and 20 KGy were-11.2, - 7.2 and - 0.14%, respectively. In general, the study indicates that processed seeds at 20 KGy fed to broilers resulted in body weights (7 wk) similar to the control birds. leg abnormalities were seen in birds fed raw and irradiated rapeseed at 10 and 20 KGy to be 31.1, 17.8 and 8.9%, respectively. Mortality rate of birds fed raw seeds was more pronounced than those fed the irradiated seeds. Birds fed raw seeds showed thyroid and liver enlargement. Processed seeds at 10 and 20 KGy reduced the effect on these organs. Feeding chicks irradiated seed at 10 and 20 KGy did not normalize the weight of thyroid and liver. Meanwhile, there is no significant difference in relative weight of gizzard, pancreas, heart and kidney of chicks fed control diet and those fed irradiated seeds

  20. Characteristics of a tractor engine using mineral and biodiesel fuels blended with rapeseed oil Características de um motor de trator alimentado com combustíveis mineral e biodisel misturados com óleo de colza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tone Godeša

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the most unfavourable characteristics of crude vegetable oil when used as the fuel is the high viscosity. To improve this weakness, oil can be blended with mineral diesel or biodiesel fuels. This study was designed to evaluate how the use of mineral diesel or biodiesel blend with cold pressed rapeseed (Brassica napus oil affects the engine power, torque and fuel consumption. A tractor equipped with direct injection, water cooling system and three-cylinder diesel engine was used for the experiment. Fuels used were standard diesel fuel (diesel, rapeseed oil methyl ester - biodiesel (B100 and their mixtures with 10, 30 and 50 vol. % of cold pressed rapeseed oil (RO. Increased portion of RO in diesel fuel blends had almost no effect on the torque measured on the tractor PTO shaft; it however decreased the maximal power. Fuel blends with B100 and rising RO content (up to 50% gave a positive correlation with maximal torque and power. By increasing the portion of RO from 0 to 50%, the minimal specific fuel consumption increased by 6.65% with diesel and decreased by 2.98% with B100 based fuel.Uma das características mais desfavoráveis dos óleos vegetais crus usados como combustível é a alta viscosidade. Para melhorar este ponto fraco, o óleo pode ser misturado com diesel mineral ou biodiesel. Este estudo foi desenvolvido para avaliar como o uso de diesel mineral ou biodiesel misturado a oleo de colza (Brassica napus extraído por pressão a frio afeta a potência do motor, o torque e o consumo de combustível, empregando um trator equipado com injeção direta, sistema de refrigeração de água e um motor de três cilindros. Os combustíveis utilizados foram o diesel padrão (diesel, éster metílico de óleo de sementes de colza - biodiesel (B100 e suas misturas com 10, 30 e 50 % vol. de óleo de semente de colza pressionado a frio (RO. Maiores proporções de RO nas misturas de diesel praticamente não tiveram efeito sobre o torque

  1. Multiplex PCR for specific and robust detection of Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum in pure culture and infected plant material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriko, John; Aritua, V.; Mortensen, Carmen Nieves

    2012-01-01

    The present study developed a pathovar-specific PCR for the detection of Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum (Xcm), the cause of banana xanthomonas wilt, by amplification of a 265-bp region of the gene encoding the general secretion pathway protein D (GspD). A distinct DNA fragment......-specific PCR was successfully multiplexed with internal control primers targeting 16S rDNA for application on DNA from bacterial cultures and with primers targeting plant mitochondrial 26S rDNA for application on DNA extracted from plant material. Diagnostic discrimination of healthy and infected plants...

  2. Transcriptome analysis of Brassica juncea var. tumida Tsen responses to Plasmodiophora brassicae primed by the biocontrol strain Zhihengliuella aestuarii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yuanli; Dong, Daiwen; Su, Yu; Wang, Xuyi; Peng, Yumei; Peng, Jiang; Zhou, Changyong

    2018-05-01

    Mustard clubroot, caused by Plasmodiophora brassicae, is a serious disease that affects Brassica juncea var. tumida Tsen, a mustard plant that is the raw material for a traditional fermented food manufactured in Chongqing, China. In our laboratory, we screened the antagonistic bacteria Zhihengliuella aestuarii against P. brassicae. To better understand the biocontrol mechanism, three transcriptome analyses of B. juncea var. tumida Tsen were conducted using Illumina HiSeq 4000, one from B. juncea only inoculated with P. brassicae (P), one inoculated with P. brassica and the biocontrol agent Z. aestuarii at the same time (P + B), and the other was the control (H), in which P. brassicae was replaced by sterile water. A total of 19.94 Gb was generated by Illumina HiSeq sequencing. The sequence data were de novo assembled, and 107,617 unigenes were obtained. In total, 5629 differentially expressed genes between biocontrol-treated (P + B) and infected (P) samples were assigned to 126 KEGG pathways. Using multiple testing corrections, 20 pathways were significantly enriched with Qvalue ≤ 0.05. The resistance-related genes, involved in the production of pathogenesis-related proteins, pathogen-associated molecular pattern-triggered immunity, and effector-triggered immunity signaling pathways, calcium influx, salicylic acid pathway, reactive oxygen intermediates, and mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades, and cell wall modification, were obtained. The various defense responses induced by the biocontrol strain combatted the P. brassicae infection. The genes and pathways involved in plant resistance were induced by a biocontrol strain. The transcriptome data explained the molecular mechanism of the potential biocontrol strain against P. brassicae. The data will also serve as an important public information platform to study B. juncea var. tumida Tsen and will be useful for breeding mustard plants resistant to P. brassicae.

  3. Salacia campestris root bark extract: peroxidase inhibition, antioxidant and antiradical profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Rebuglio Vellosa

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS and free radical species have been implicated in initiating or accompanying many diseases in living organisms; there is thus, a continual need for antioxidants molecules to inactivate ROS/free radicals. Many studies of plants crude extracts have demonstrated free-radical scavenging and antioxidant action. Salacia species have long been used, in several countries, as traditional medicines against certain diseases and for their anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, Salacia campestris Walp (Hippocrateaceae root bark ethanol extract (ScEtOH was assessed for its ability to scavenge free radicals and reactive oxygen species; the results were expressed as percentage inhibition of the active species. ScEtOH was efficient against studied species: DPPH radical (obtained inhibition = 30%, ABTS•+ (IC50 = 1.8±0.8 μg/mL, HOCl (IC50 = 1.7 ± 0.1 μg/mL, O2•- (obtained inhibition = 32%, and NO• (obtained inhibition = 18 %. Peroxidase activity inhibition was evaluated through the guaiacol oxidation reaction catalyzed by hemin, HRP and myeloperoxidase (MPO; data showed that ScEtOH at 10 μg/mL led to 54 and 51% of inhibition, respectively, for the hemin and HRP systems. In the MPO system, ScEtOH promoted a 50% inhibition at 8.9 μg/mL, whereas quercetin, a powerful MPO inhibitor, inhibited this system at 1.35 μg/mL.Espécies reativas do oxigênio (ERO e radicais livres estão relacionados ao início ou à exacerbação de muitas doenças em organismos vivos; existindo portanto uma necessidade contínua por moléculas antioxidantes que inativem as ERO e radicais livres. Muitos estudos com extratos brutos de plantas têm demonstrado propriedades antioxidantes e seqüestradoras de radicais livres. Espécies de Salacia são utilizadas, em muitos países, como remédio tradicional contra certas doenças e por suas propriedades antiinflamatórias. Neste estudo, o extrato bruto etanólico da casca da raiz da Salacia

  4. Genotipos de frijol (Phaseolus Vulgaris l. resistentes a Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli de Mexico

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    Rosa Navarrete

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Genotipos de frijol (Phaseolus vulgaris L. resistentes a Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli de México. Durante 1995 se evaluó la reacción de genotipos de frijol de diversos origenes a Xcp, bajo condiciones de invernadero en el Campo Experimental del Valle de México, del INIFAP. Se realizaron tres experimentos con a120, b44 y csiete genotipos de frijol. Las plantas se inocularon por corte con navajas en la etapa V3, a y b con una mezcla de nueve cepas de Xcp y el c, con cada una de siete cepas con diferente grado de patogenicidad. La severidad se evaluó 20 días después de la inoculación, por comparación con una escala visual de nueve grados. Los datos se analizaron bajo un diseño completamente al azar. En a, los genotipos que mostraron reacción de resistencia a Xcp fueron: A 36, A 475, G 5686, G 11867, Harowood, SEA 14, XAN 266, MCD 4012 y REN 27. En b los genotipos resistentes fueron: Sequía Durango, Taylor y XAN 30. En los experimentos anteriores la severidad de la enfermedad mostró una distribución normal, con el máximo número de genotipos en el grado de severidad cinco en a y seis en b. Los resultados obtenidos indican que el uso de mezclas de cepas de bacterias con diferente patogenicidad es eficiente para identificar genotipos de frijol resistentes a Xcp. Los genotipos resistentes identificados en el último experimento, mostraron respuesta diferencial e interacciones genotipo por cepa. REN 27 y SEA 14 mostraron resistencia a las cepas utilizadas

  5. Aconitase B is required for optimal growth of Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria in pepper plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine Kirchberg

    Full Text Available The aerobic plant pathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (Xcv colonizes the intercellular spaces of pepper and tomato. One enzyme that might contribute to the successful proliferation of Xcv in the host is the iron-sulfur protein aconitase, which catalyzes the conversion of citrate to isocitrate in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle and might also sense reactive oxygen species (ROS and changes in cellular iron levels. Xcv contains three putative aconitases, two of which, acnA and acnB, are encoded by a single chromosomal locus. The focus of this study is aconitase B (AcnB. acnB is co-transcribed with two genes, XCV1925 and XCV1926, encoding putative nucleic acid-binding proteins. In vitro growth of acnB mutants was like wild type, whereas in planta growth and symptom formation in pepper plants were impaired. While acnA, XCV1925 or XCV1926 mutants showed a wild-type phenotype with respect to bacterial growth and in planta symptom formation, proliferation of the acnB mutant in susceptible pepper plants was significantly impaired. Furthermore, the deletion of acnB led to reduced HR induction in resistant pepper plants and an increased susceptibility to the superoxide-generating compound menadione. As AcnB complemented the growth deficiency of an Escherichia coli aconitase mutant, it is likely to be an active aconitase. We therefore propose that optimal growth and survival of Xcv in pepper plants depends on AcnB, which might be required for the utilization of citrate as carbon source and could also help protect the bacterium against oxidative stress.

  6. GERMINATION TEST IN SEEDS OF MELOTHRIA CAMPESTRIS (NAUDIN H. SCHAEF. & S.S. RENNER

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    ANA CARINA DA SILVA CÂNDIDO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Cerrado occupies 25% of the Brazilian territory and is the second largest biome in South America, second only to the Amazon Rainforest. Hence, studies on the native species of the Cerrado are important for implementing conservation strategies. In this context, knowledge of the requirements and conditions for germination of seeds of these native species is essential. The Cerrado watermelon ( Melothria campestris (Naudin H. Schaef. & S.S. Renner is a plant that is not cultivated, but has been used in revegetation projects in the countryside of the Cerrado because its fruits are fed upon by fauna in times of food shortage. The purpose of this study was to determine the most appropriate methodology for the germination of the Cerrado watermelon, by identifying the best - suited substrate, the optimal temperature, and the corresponding time taken for germination . The treatments consisted of four substrates: in a paper roll, on paper, in sand, and on sand; and four temperatures: 20, 25, and 30 °C (maintained constant, and a fourth temperature treatment that alternated 20 - 30 °C. The effect of the substrates and temperatures on seed performance was evaluated using the germination test, speed index, and average time for germination. The experimental design was fully randomized, with treatments distributed in a 4 × 4 (substrates × temperatures factorial scheme, with four replications. Our results show that the temperature of 20 °C had a negative influence on germination in all substrates. Further, we found that the germination of the Cerrado watermelon seeds was best in a paper roll or on sand substrate, maintained at a constant temperature of 30 °C, or when temperature was alternated 20 - 30 °C, and the time required for germination stabilization was 30 days.

  7. Análisis comparativo de los caracteres epidérmicos en Flourensia campestris y F. oolepis (Asteraceae Comparative analysis of the epidermal characters in Flourensia campestris and F. oolepis (Asteraceae

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    Natalia Delbón

    Full Text Available En el presente estudio se examinaron y compararon cuantitativamente las epidermis foliares de Flourensia campestris Griseb. y F. oolepis S. F. Blake, especies endémicas que crecen en las sierras de Córdoba, Argentina. Para ello, se seleccionaron cinco variables: número de células epidérmicas propiamente dichas, estomas, tricomas glandulares y eglandulares e índice estomático. Los resultados obtenidos se evaluaron por métodos estadísticos; ellos indican que hay diferencias significativas entre ambas especies en las variables frecuencia de estomas, de células propiamente dichas, de tricomas glandulares e índice estomático. Estos datos podrían ser de interés para su reconocimiento cuando se dispone de muestras pequeñas o fragmentos.This study provides comparative analyses of foliar epidermis in Flourensia campestris Griseb. and F. oolepis S. F. Blake, endemic species that grow in Córdoba, Argentina. Five variables were selected: number of epidermal cells, stomata, glandular and eglandular trichomes and stomatal index. Results were evaluated by statistical methods; they show that there are significant differences between the variables of both species; these data could be of interest for their identification, when only are available small samples and fragments.

  8. Association mapping of flowering time QTLs and insight into their contributions to rapeseed growth habits

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    Nian eWang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Plants have developed sophisticated systems to adapt to local conditions during evolution, domestication and natural or artificial selection. The selective pressures of these different growing conditions have caused significant genomic divergence within species. The flowering time trait is the most crucial factor because it helps plants to maintain sustainable development. Controlling flowering at appropriate times can also prevent plants from suffering from adverse growth conditions, such as drought, winter hardness, and disease. Hence, discovering the genome-wide genetic mechanisms that influence flowering time variations and understanding their contributions to adaptation should be a central goal of plant genetics and genomics. A global core collection panel with 448 inbred rapeseed lines was first planted in four independent environments, and their flowering time traits were evaluated. We then performed a genome-wide association mapping of flowering times with a 60 K SNP array for this core collection. With quality control and filtration, 20,342 SNP markers were ultimately used for further analyses. In total, 312 SNPs showed marker-trait associations in all four environments, and they were based on a threshold p value of 4.06x10-4; the 40 QTLs showed significant association with flowering time variations. To explore flowering time QTLs and genes related to growth habits in rapeseed, selection signals related to divergent habits were screened at the genome-wide level and 117 genomic regions were found. Comparing locations of flowering time QTLs and genes with these selection regions revealed that 20 flowering time QTLs and 224 flowering time genes overlapped with 24 and 81 selected regions, respectively. Based on this study, a number of marker-trait associations and candidate genes for flowering time variations in rapeseed were revealed. Moreover, we also showed that both flowering time QTLs and genes play important roles in rapeseed growth

  9. Hydrogenation of rapeseed oil for production of liquid bio-chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, F.; Martins, S.; Gonçalves, M.; Costa, P.; Gulyurtlu, I.; Alves, A.; Mendes, B.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Production of renewable liquid hydrocarbons through rapeseed oil hydrogenation. ► Hydrogenation at lower temperature and lower hydrogen pressures. ► Test of a catalyst commonly employed in petrochemical industry. ► Improve of hydrogenation process viability by decreasing operational costs. ► Analysis of hydrogenated product applications as bio-chemicals. -- Abstract: The main objective of rapeseed oil hydrogenation tests was the production of liquid bio-chemicals to be used as renewable raw material for the production of several chemicals and in chemical synthesis to substitute petroleum derived stuff. As, hydrogenation of vegetable oils is already applied for the production of biofuels, the work done focused in producing aromatic compounds, due to their economic value. The effect of experimental conditions on rapeseed oil hydrogenation was studied, namely, reaction temperature and time with the aim of selecting the most favourable conditions to convert rapeseed oil into liquid valuable bio-chemicals. Rapeseed oil was hydrogenated at a hydrogen initial pressure of 1.10 MPa. Reaction temperature varied in the range from 200 °C to 400 °C, while reaction times between 6 and 180 min were tested. The performance of a commercial cobalt and molybdenum catalyst was also studied. The highest hydrocarbons yields were obtained at the highest temperature and reaction times tested. At a temperature of 400 °C and at the reaction time of 120 min hydrocarbons yield was about 92% in catalyst presence, while in the absence of the catalyst this value decreased to 85%. Hydrocarbons yield was even higher when the reaction time of 180 min was used in the presence of catalyst, as the yield of 97% was observed. At these conditions hydrocarbons formed had a high content of aromatic compounds, around 50%. For this reason, the viscosity values of hydrogenated oils were lower than that established by EN590, which together with hydrogenated liquids composition

  10. Origin of new Brassica types from a single intergeneric hybrid ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Origin of new Brassica types from a single intergeneric hybrid between B. rapa and Orychophragmus ... The morphological and genetic divergence of these novel types derived from a single hybrid is probably due ... Journal of Genetics | News.

  11. Yield performance of brassica varieties under rainfed condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, M.Z.U.; Wahla, A.J.; Waqar, M.Q.

    2014-01-01

    A field study was conducted to evaluate crop growth and seed yield performance of Brassica varieties under Rainfed conditions. The varieties, included in the study, were BSA, Zafar-2000, Pakola, Con.1, Con.2, Abaseen, Rainbow, SPS-5, Bard-1, and KJ-119. KJ-119 (2500.0 KG/HA) among Brassica juncea L. varieties and Abaseen (2425.9 kg/ha) among Brassica napusL. Varieties produced with maximum seed yield as compared to rest of varieties. Significantly, minimum seed yield was observed in check variety BSA. The significant difference in seed yield of Brassica varieties, Abaseen and KJ 119, was attributed to improve yield components over other varieties. Maximum pods per plant and seeds per pod led these varieties to attain maximum yield. Inspite of weather variations existence during years 2007-09,the same varieties produced with maximum seed yield. (author)

  12. Identification of novel QTLs for isolate-specific partial resistance to Plasmodiophora brassicae in Brassica rapa.

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    Jingjing Chen

    Full Text Available Plasmodiophora brassicae, the causal agent of clubroot disease of the Brassica crops, is widespread in the world. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs for partial resistance to 4 different isolates of P. brassicae (Pb2, Pb4, Pb7, and Pb10 were investigated using a BC1F1 population from a cross between two subspecies of Brassica rapa, i.e. Chinese cabbage inbred line C59-1 as a susceptible recurrent parent and turnip inbred line ECD04 as a resistant donor parent. The BC1F2 families were assessed for resistance under controlled conditions. A linkage map constructed with simple sequence repeats (SSR, unigene-derived microsatellite (UGMS markers, and specific markers linked to published clubroot resistance (CR genes of B. rapa was used to perform QTL mapping. A total of 6 QTLs residing in 5 CR QTL regions of the B. rapa chromosomes A01, A03, and A08 were identified to account for 12.2 to 35.2% of the phenotypic variance. Two QTL regions were found to be novel except for 3 QTLs in the respective regions of previously identified Crr1, Crr2, and Crr3. QTL mapping results indicated that 1 QTL region was common for partial resistance to the 2 isolates of Pb2 and Pb7, whereas the others were specific for each isolate. Additionally, synteny analysis between B. rapa and Arabidopsis thaliana revealed that all CR QTL regions were aligned to a single conserved crucifer blocks (U, F, and R on 3 Arabidopsis chromosomes where 2 CR QTLs were detected in A. thaliana. These results suggest that some common ancestral genomic regions were involved in the evolution of CR genes in B. rapa.

  13. Vernalization and photoperiod-related changes in the DNA methylation state in winter and spring rapeseed

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Guzy-Wrobelska, J.; Filek, M.; Kaliciak, A.; Szarejko, I.; Macháčková, Ivana; Krekule, Jan; Barciszewska, M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 3 (2013), s. 817-827 ISSN 0137-5881 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Brassica napus * DNA methylation * MSAP Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.524, year: 2013

  14. Metabolic profiling and biological capacity of Pieris brassicae fed with kale (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreres, Federico; Fernandes, Fátima; Oliveira, Jorge M A; Valentão, Patrícia; Pereira, José A; Andrade, Paula B

    2009-06-01

    Phenolic and organic acid profiles of aqueous extracts from Pieris brassicae material and the host kale (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala) leaves were determined by HPLC/UV-DAD/MS(n)-ESI and HPLC-UV, respectively. The identified phenolics included acylated and nonacylated flavonoid glycosides, hydroxycinnamic acyl gentiobiosides, and sulphate phenolics. Kale exhibited the highest content (11g/kg lyophilized extract), while no phenolics were identified in the butterflies or exuviae. Nine different organic acids were characterized in the materials, with kale showing the highest amount (112g/kg lyophilized extract). With the exception of the exuviae extract, the rest were screened for bioactivity. Using spectrophotometric microassays, all exhibited antiradical capacity against DPPH and NO in a concentration-dependent way, whereas only kale and excrement extracts were active against superoxide. All displayed activity on intestinal smooth muscle, albeit with distinct relaxation-contraction profiles. Larvae and butterfly extracts were more efficacious for intestinal relaxation than was kale extract, whereas excrement extract evoked only contractions, thus evidencing their different compositions. Collectively, these results show that P. brassicae sequesters and metabolizes kale's phenolic compounds. Moreover, the extract's bioactivities suggest that they may constitute an interesting source of bioactive compounds whose complex chemical structures preclude either synthesis or isolation.

  15. Evaluation of in vitro anticancer activity of Ocimum basilicum, Alhagi maurorum, Calendula officinalis and their parasite Cuscuta campestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behbahani, Mandana

    2014-01-01

    The present investigation was carried out to study the relationship between presence of cytotoxic compounds in Ocimum basilicum, Alhagi maurorum, Calendula officinalis and their parasite Cuscuta campestris. The cytotoxic activity of the pure compounds was performed by MTT assay against breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) and normal breast cell line (MCF 10A). The induction of apoptosis was measured by the expression levels of p53, bcl-2, bax and caspase-3 genes using quantitative Real Time PCR. Three active fractions were detected by nuclear magnetic resonance as lutein, lupeol and eugenol, respectively, in C. officinalis, A. maurorum and O. basilicum. These compounds and their epoxidized forms were also detected in their parasite C. campestris. The cytotoxic activity of lutein epoxide, lupeol epoxide and eugenol epoxide was significantly more than lutein, lupeol and eugenol. The mRNA expression level of p53, caspase-3 and bax genes were increased in both cancer cells treated with all pure compounds. However, bcl-2 gene expression decreased in treated breast cancer cells. In conclusion, all the data indicated that the epoxide forms of lupeol, lutein and eugenol are potential drug candidates for inducing apoptosis in human breast cancer cells.

  16. Hepatoprotective Effect of Cuscuta campestris Yunck. Whole Plant on Carbon Tetrachloride Induced Chronic Liver Injury in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Wen-Huang; Chen, Yi-Wen; Lee, Meng-Shiou; Chang, Wen-Te; Tsai, Jen-Chieh; Lin, Ying-Chih; Lin, Ming-Kuem

    2016-12-07

    Cuscuta seeds and whole plant have been used to nourish the liver and kidney. This study was aimed to investigate the hepatoprotective activity of the ethanol extract of Cuscuta campestris Yunck. whole plant (CC EtOH ). The hepatoprotective effect of CC EtOH (20, 100 and 500 mg/kg) was evaluated on carbon tetrachloride (CCl₄)-induced chronic liver injury. Serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, triglyceride and cholesterol were measured and the fibrosis was histologically examined. CC EtOH exhibited a significant inhibition of the increase of serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, triglyceride and cholesterol. Histological analyses showed that fibrosis of liver induced by CCl₄ were significantly reduced by CC EtOH . In addition, 20, 100 and 500 mg/kg of the extract decreased the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) and enhanced the activities of anti-oxidative enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GRd) in the liver. We demonstrate that the hepatoprotective mechanisms of CC EtOH were likely to be associated to the decrease in MDA level by increasing the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as SOD, GPx and GRd. In addition, our findings provide evidence that C. campestris Yunck. whole plant possesses a hepatoprotective activity to ameliorate chronic liver injury.

  17. Hepatoprotective Effect of Cuscuta campestris Yunck. Whole Plant on Carbon Tetrachloride Induced Chronic Liver Injury in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Huang Peng

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Cuscuta seeds and whole plant have been used to nourish the liver and kidney. This study was aimed to investigate the hepatoprotective activity of the ethanol extract of Cuscuta campestris Yunck. whole plant (CCEtOH. The hepatoprotective effect of CCEtOH (20, 100 and 500 mg/kg was evaluated on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4-induced chronic liver injury. Serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, triglyceride and cholesterol were measured and the fibrosis was histologically examined. CCEtOH exhibited a significant inhibition of the increase of serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, triglyceride and cholesterol. Histological analyses showed that fibrosis of liver induced by CCl4 were significantly reduced by CCEtOH. In addition, 20, 100 and 500 mg/kg of the extract decreased the level of malondialdehyde (MDA and enhanced the activities of anti-oxidative enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPx and glutathione reductase (GRd in the liver. We demonstrate that the hepatoprotective mechanisms of CCEtOH were likely to be associated to the decrease in MDA level by increasing the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as SOD, GPx and GRd. In addition, our findings provide evidence that C. campestris Yunck. whole plant possesses a hepatoprotective activity to ameliorate chronic liver injury.

  18. Deduction of upstream sequences of Xanthomonas campestris flagellar genes responding to transcription activation by FleQ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, R.-M.; Yang, T.-C.; Yang, S.-H.; Tseng, Y.-H.

    2005-01-01

    Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc), a close relative to Pseudomonas aeruginosa, is the pathogen causing black rot in cruciferous plants. In P. aeruginosa, FleQ serves as a cognate activator of σ 54 in transcription from several σ 54 -dependent promoters of flagellar genes. These P. aeruginosa promoters have been analyzed for FleQ-binding sequences; however, no consensus was deduced. Xcc, although lacks fleSR, has a fleQ homologue residing among over 40 contiguously clustered flagellar genes. A fleQ mutant, Xc17fleQ, constructed by insertional mutation is deficient in FleQ protein, non-flagellated, and immobile. Transcriptional fusion assays on six putative σ 54 -dependent promoters of the flagellar genes, fliE, fliQ, fliL, flgG, flgB, and flhF, indicated that each of them is also FleQ dependent. Each of these promoters has a sequence with weak consensus to 5'-gaaacCCgccgCcgctTt-3', immediately upstream of the predicted σ 54 -binding site, with an imperfect inverted repeat containing a GC-rich center flanked by several A and T at 5'- and 3'-ends, respectively. Replacing this region in fliE promoter with a HindIII recognition sequence abolished the transcription, indicating that this region responds to transcription activation by FleQ

  19. Evaluation of in vitro anticancer activity of Ocimum basilicum, Alhagi maurorum, Calendula officinalis and their parasite Cuscuta campestris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandana Behbahani

    Full Text Available The present investigation was carried out to study the relationship between presence of cytotoxic compounds in Ocimum basilicum, Alhagi maurorum, Calendula officinalis and their parasite Cuscuta campestris. The cytotoxic activity of the pure compounds was performed by MTT assay against breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 and normal breast cell line (MCF 10A. The induction of apoptosis was measured by the expression levels of p53, bcl-2, bax and caspase-3 genes using quantitative Real Time PCR. Three active fractions were detected by nuclear magnetic resonance as lutein, lupeol and eugenol, respectively, in C. officinalis, A. maurorum and O. basilicum. These compounds and their epoxidized forms were also detected in their parasite C. campestris. The cytotoxic activity of lutein epoxide, lupeol epoxide and eugenol epoxide was significantly more than lutein, lupeol and eugenol. The mRNA expression level of p53, caspase-3 and bax genes were increased in both cancer cells treated with all pure compounds. However, bcl-2 gene expression decreased in treated breast cancer cells. In conclusion, all the data indicated that the epoxide forms of lupeol, lutein and eugenol are potential drug candidates for inducing apoptosis in human breast cancer cells.

  20. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis between Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) and Wild Cabbage (Brassica macrocarpa Guss.) in Response to Plasmodiophora brassicae during Different Infection Stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoli; Liu, Yumei; Fang, Zhiyuan; Li, Zhansheng; Yang, Limei; Zhuang, Mu; Zhang, Yangyong; Lv, Honghao

    2016-01-01

    Clubroot, one of the most devastating diseases to the Brassicaceae family, is caused by the obligate biotrophic pathogen Plasmodiophora brassicae . However, studies of the molecular basis of disease resistance are still poor especially in quantitative resistance. In the present paper, two previously identified genotypes, a clubroot-resistant genotype (wild cabbage, B2013) and a clubroot-susceptible genotype (broccoli, 90196) were inoculated by P. brassicae for 0 (T0), 7 (T7), and 14 (T14) day after inoculation (DAI). Gene expression pattern analysis suggested that response changes in transcript level of two genotypes under P. brassicae infection were mainly activated at the primary stage (T7). Based on the results of DEGs functional enrichments from two infection stages, genes associated with cell wall biosynthesis, glucosinolate biosynthesis, and plant hormone signal transduction showed down-regulated at T14 compared to T7, indicating that defense responses to P. brassicae were induced earlier, and related pathways were repressed at T14. In addition, the genes related to NBS-LRR proteins, SA signal transduction, cell wall and phytoalexins biosynthesis, chitinase, Ca 2+ signals and RBOH proteins were mainly up-regulated in B2013 by comparing those of 90196, indicating the pathways of response defense to clubroot were activated in the resistant genotype. This is the first report about comparative transcriptome analysis for broccoli and its wild relative during the different stages of P. brassicae infection and the results should be useful for molecular assisted screening and breeding of clubroot-resistant genotypes.

  1. Cloning, expression, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of a putative multiple antibiotic resistance repressor protein (MarR) from Xanthomonas campestris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tu, Zhi-Le; Li, Juo-Ning; Chin, Ko-Hsin; Chou, Chia-Cheng; Lee, Cheng-Chung; Shr, Hui-Lin; Lyu, Ping-Chiang; Gao, Fei Philip; Wang, Andrew H.-J.; Chou, Shan-Ho

    2005-01-01

    A putative repressor for the multiple antibiotic resistance operon from a plant pathogen X. campestris pv. campestris has been overexpressed in E. coli, purified and crystallized. The crystals diffracted to 2.3 Å with good quality. The multiple antibiotic resistance operon (marRAB) is a member of the multidrug-resistance system. When induced, this operon enhances resistance of bacteria to a variety of medically important antibiotics, causing a serious global health problem. MarR is a marR-encoded protein that represses the transcription of the marRAB operon. Through binding with salicylate and certain antibiotics, however, MarR can derepress and activate the marRAB operon. In this report, the cloning, expression, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of XC1739, a putative MarR repressor protein present in the Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, a Gram-negative bacterium causing major worldwide disease of cruciferous crops, are described. The XC1739 crystals diffracted to a resolution of at least 1.8 Å. They are orthorhombic and belong to space group P2 1 2 1 2 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 39.5, b = 54.2 and c = 139.5 Å, respectively. They contain two molecules in the asymmetric unit from calculation of the self-rotation function

  2. Preparation, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of XC2382, an ApaG protein of unknown structure from Xanthomonas campestris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chin, Ko-Hsin; Chou, Chia-Cheng; Lee, Cheng-Chung; Shr, Hui-Lin; Lyu, Ping-Chiang; Wang, Andrew H.-J.; Chou, Shan-Ho

    2005-01-01

    A putative ApaG gene product from X. campestris pv. campestris was overexpressed in E. coli, purified and crystallized. The crystals diffracted to a resolution of at least 2.3 Å. Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris is the causative agent of black rot, one of the major worldwide diseases of cruciferous crops. Its genome encodes approximately 4500 proteins, roughly one third of which have unknown function. XC2382 is one such protein, with a MW of 14.2 kDa. Based on a bioinformatics study, it was annotated as an ApaG gene product that serves multiple functions. The ApaG protein has been overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals diffracted to a resolution of at least 2.30 Å. They are tetragonal and belong to space group P4 1/3 , with unit-cell parameters a = b = 57.6, c = 122.9 Å. There are two, three or four molecules in the asymmetric unit

  3. Standardized ileal digestibility of amino acids in European soya bean and rapeseed products fed to growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewtapee, C; Mosenthin, R; Nenning, S; Wiltafsky, M; Schäffler, M; Eklund, M; Rosenfelder-Kuon, P

    2018-04-01

    This study was conducted to determine the chemical composition and standardized ileal digestibility coefficients (SID) of crude protein (CP) and amino acids (AA) of European soya bean and rapeseed products in pigs. Six soya bean and two rapeseed products were used as the sole dietary source of CP and AA, including raw (FFSB) and roasted full-fat soya beans (FFSB R oasted ), soya bean (SBC) and rapeseed cake (RSC), and rapeseed meal (RSM) from Bavaria (Germany), soya bean meal (SBM) from the Danube region (Austria; SBM A ustria ), a commercially available standard SBM (SBM S td ) and an imported genetically modified organism-free SBM (SBM GMO -free ). Eight ileal- cannulated pigs with an initial body weight of 32 ± 2 kg were allotted to a row-column design with eight diets and six periods of seven days each. Trypsin inhibitor activity (TIA) ranged from 1.8 in SBM S td to 24.5 mg/g DM in FFSB. The SID of CP and all AA in FFSB R oasted were greater than in FFSB, but lower when compared to SBC and SBM A ustria (p soya bean and rapeseed products as influenced by differences in processing conditions. European SBC and SBM A ustria can be used as alternative to imported SBM GMO -free and SBM S td in diets for growing pigs. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Variations in fatty acid composition, glucosinolate profile and some phytochemical contents in selected oil seed rape (Brassica napus L. cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Mohamed, Amal

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Rapeseed (Brassica napus L. is now the third most important source of edible oil in the world after soybean and palm oil. In this study seeds of five different rapeseed cultivars namely; pactol, silvo, topas, serw 4 and serw 6 were evaluated for their fatty acid composition, glucosinolate profile, amino acids, total tocopherols and phenolic content. Among all cultivars significant variability in fatty acids were observed. The oleic acid (C18:1 ranged from 56.31% to 58.67%, linoleic acid (C18:2 from 10.52% to 13.74%, α-linolenic acid (C18:3 from 8.83% to 10.32% and erucic acid (22:1 from 0.15% to 0.91%. The glucosinolate profile of rapeseed was also separated and identified using high-performance liquid chromatography. Small variations in the glucosinolate profile were observed among all tested cultivars; however, progoitrin and gluconapin were the major glucosinolate found. Additionally, silvo cultivar showed the highest total glucosinolate c ontents (5.97 μmol/g dw. Generally, the contents of aspartic, glutamic, arginine and leucine were high, while the contents of tyrosine and isoleucine were low among all cultivars. For total tocopherols, the results indicated that both serw 6 and pactol cultivars had the highest total tocopherol contents (138.3 and 102.8 mg/100 g oil, respectively. Total phenolic contents varied from 28.0 to 35.4 mg/g dw. The highest total phenolic content was found in topas while the lowest value was detected in serw 6. These parameters; fatty acid contents, glucosinolate profile and amino acids together with total tocopherols and phenolic contents, could be taken into consideration by oilseed rape breeders as selection criteria for developing genotypes with modified seed quality traits in Brassica napus L.La colza (Brassica napus L. es hoy en día el tercer cultivo más importante de aceites comestibles en el mundo tras el aceite de soja y de palma. En este estudio semillas de cinco cultivos diferentes de colza

  5. Effect of spring versus autumn grass/clover silage and rapeseed supplementation on milk production, composition and quality in Jersey cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mette Krogh; Vogdanou, Stefania; Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl

    2016-01-01

    of C16 : 0, riboflavin and α-tocopherol were decreased with autumn silage. The majority of C18 FAs in milk and α-tocopherol concentration increased with rapeseed whereas C11 : 0 to C16 : 0 FA were reduced. Autumn silage reduced biohydrogenation of C18 : 2n6, whereas rapeseed increased biohydrogenation...

  6. Ideotype population exploration: growth, photosynthesis, and yield components at different planting densities in winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ni; Yuan, Jinzhan; Li, Ming; Li, Jun; Zhang, Liyan; Liu, Lixin; Naeem, Muhammad Shahbaz; Zhang, Chunlei

    2014-01-01

    Rapeseed is one of the most important edible oil crops in the world and the seed yield has lagged behind the increasing demand driven by population growth. Winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) is widely cultivated with relatively low yield in China, so it is necessary to find the strategies to improve the expression of yield potential. Planting density has great effects on seed yield of crops. Hence, field experiments were conducted in Wuhan in the Yangtze River basin with one conventional variety (Zhongshuang 11, ZS11) and one hybrid variety (Huayouza 9, HYZ9) at five planting densities (27.0×10(4), 37.5×10(4), 48.0×10(4), 58.5×10(4), 69.0×10(4) plants ha(-1)) during 2010-2012 to investigate the yield components. The physiological traits for high-yield and normal-yield populations were measured during 2011-2013. Our results indicated that planting densities of 58.5×10(4) plants ha(-1) in ZS11 and 48.0×10(4) plants ha(-1) in HYZ9 have significantly higher yield compared with the density of 27.0×10(4) plants ha(-1) for both varieties. The ideal silique numbers for ZS11 and HYZ9 were ∼0.9×10(4) (n m(-2)) and ∼1×10(4) (n m(-2)), respectively, and ideal primary branches for ZS11 and HYZ9 were ∼250 (n m(-2)) and ∼300 (n m(-2)), respectively. The highest leaf area index (LAI) and silique wall area index (SAI) was ∼5.0 and 7.0, respectively. Moreover, higher leaf net photosynthetic rate (Pn) and water use efficiency (WUE) were observed in the high-yield populations. A significantly higher level of silique wall photosynthesis and rapid dry matter accumulation were supposed to result in the maximum seed yield. Our results suggest that increasing the planting density within certain range is a feasible approach for higher seed yield in winter rapeseed in China.

  7. Effect of processing of rapeseed under defined conditions in a pilot plant on chemical composition and standardized ileal amino acid digestibility in rapeseed meal for pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eklund, M; Sauer, N; Schöne, F; Messerschmidt, U; Rosenfelder, P; Htoo, J K; Mosenthin, R

    2015-06-01

    Five rapeseed meals (RSM) were produced from a single batch of rapeseed in a large-scale pilot plant under standardized conditions. The objective was to evaluate the effect of residence time in the desolventizer/toaster (DT) on chemical composition and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of AA in RSM. Four RSM, with 48, 64, 76, and 93 min residence time and using unsaturated steam in the DT, referred to as RSM48, RSM64, RSM76, and RSM93, respectively, and 1 low-glucosinolate RSM, which was subjected to sequential treatment with unsaturated steam, saturated steam, and dry heat in the DT, referred to as low-GSL RSM, were assayed. Six barrows (average initial BW = 22 ± 1 kg) were surgically fitted with a T-cannula at the distal ileum. Pigs were allotted to a 5 × 6 row × column design with 5 diets and 5 periods. The 5 RSM were included in a cornstarch-casein-based basal diet. In addition, basal ileal endogenous losses and SID of AA originating from casein were determined at the conclusion of the experiment in 2 additional periods by means of the regression method and using 3 graded levels of casein. The SID of AA in the 5 RSM was determined in difference to SID of AA originating from casein. The glucosinolates (GSL) were efficiently reduced, whereas NDF, ADF, ADL, and NDIN contents increased and reactive Lys (rLys) and Lys:CP ratio decreased as the residence time in the DT was increased from 48 to 93 min. The SID of most AA in RSM linearly decreased (P based on content of NDIN, GSL, rLys or on Lys:CP ratio, in different batches of RSM used for feed manufacturing.

  8. Colonización radical por endófitos fúngicos en Trithrinax campestris (Arecaceae de ecosistemas semiáridos del centro de Argentina Root colonization by fungal endophytes in Trithrinax campestris (Arecaceae from semiarid ecosystems from Central Argentine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica A Lugo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available En ecosistemas áridos y semiáridos las raíces de las plantas suelen formar simbiosis con hongos, los que les proporcionan nutrientes y agua. Poco se conoce sobre los hongos asociados a palmeras nativas y cómo éstos podrían estar relacionados entre ellos. Se describe y cuantifica la colonización radical de los simbiontes de Trithrinax campestris en poblaciones leve y fuertemente afectadas por el fuego. T. campestris fue colonizada por hongos micorrícico-arbusculares (HMA y endófitos septados oscuros (ESO. La colonización por HMA fue del tipo intermedio entre los tipos Arum y Paris. La colonización por HMA y ESO y la producción de pelos radicales, presentó diferencias entre las poblaciones estudiadas. Los resultados sugieren que en T. campestris la relación entre hongos simbiontes/producción de pelos radicales podrían estar relacionada con su alta tolerancia al fuego y la aridez.In arid and semiarid ecosystems, roots frequently form symbiosis with fungi that provides access to nutrients and water. Knowledge regarding the study of fungal symbionts colonizing native palms roots is still scarce. We described, quantified and compared fungal colonization in roots of Trithrinax campestris from two environmental situations: population with weak-burning-signs and population with strong-burning-signs. T. campestris was colonized by arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungi (AMF and dark-septate-endophytes (DSE. AMF colonization was an intermediate type between Arum and Paris. The AMF and DSE colonization and root hair production differed between populations. Our results suggest that in T. campestris the relation between fungal-symbionts and root-hair-production might be related to tolerance to burning and aridity.

  9. Production of rapeseed oil fuel in decentralized oil extraction plants. Handbook. 2. new rev. and enl. ed.; Herstellung von Rapsoelkraftstoff in dezentralen Oelgewinnungsanlagen. Handbuch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remmele, Edgar [Technologie- und Foerderzentrum (TFZ) im Kompetenzzentrum fuer Nachwachsende Rohstoffe, Straubing (Germany)

    2009-11-15

    Increasing oil prices, the dependence on petroleum imports and the desire to reduce the CO{sub 2} emissions, are arguments to accelerate the production and utilization of biofuels. In 2007, 3.3 million tons of biodiesel and 772,000 tons of vegetable oil were used as fuel. The technically and economically successful production of rapeseed oil fuel in decentralized oil mills requires a quality assurance. Specifically, the brochure under consideration reports on the following: (1) Oilseed processing; (2) Centralized oil production in Germany; (3) Design of a decentralized oil mill; (4) Production of rapeseed oil fuel in decentralized systems; (5) Quality assurance for rapeseed oil fuel in decentralized oil mills; (6) Properties of rapeseed oil fuel; (7) Quality of rapeseed oil fuel from decentralized oil mills; (8) Economic aspects of decentralized oil extraction; (9) Legal framework conditions.

  10. Analysis of yield and plant traits of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. cultivated in temperate region in light of the possibilities of sowing in arid areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Zając

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This work is a review of selected literature on the species of Brassica with the greatest economic significance. Oilseed rape (Brassica napus ssp. oleifera currently ranks third worldwide among oilseed crops used for oil production and is the most important in the temperate zone. The manifold uses of rape include not only human consumption of oil, but also the use of post-extraction meal to feed livestock as well as industrial applications as a source of bioenergy or cellulose. The improvement in the economic position of rape among crop plants is also due to the doubling of its yield between 1970 and 2009; the average annual increase in seed yield worldwide was 27 kg ha−1 yr−1. The yield level in Europe exceeds the average yields achieved in the world, particularly in Asia. Recently, the cultivation of oilseed rape was started on a relatively large acreage in Iran where the yield amounted 2.1 t ha−1, exceeding the yields of China and India. In Poland, the acreage of oilseed rape cultivation between 1965 and 2013 increased 3–4 times, and during this period the annual increase in seed yield was 29 kg ha−1 yr−1. Under the field conditions of the temperate climate zone, winter oilseed rape yield is mainly determined by agro-climatic conditions during the growing period, the level of nitrogen fertilization, and the production potential of varieties, which is currently highest in hybrids. There is a noticeable tendency of hybrids towards formation of more siliques by individual oilseed plants. Different production categories of plants appear in a rape crop. Semi-dwarf varieties of winter rapeseed are distinguished by greater silique density, particularly on the main shoot. Moreover, these hybrids are characterized by faster growth of the root system, which enables them to take up nitrogen from the soil more efficiently.

  11. Could nitrile derivatives of turnip (Brassica rapa) glucosinolates be Hepato-and/or cholangiotoxic in cattle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnip (Brassica rapa ssp. rapa) and rape (Brassica napus ssp. biennis) and other brassica forage crops are generally regarded as “safe” feed for cattle during late summer and fall in New Zealand. However, when Pithomyces chartarum spore counts are high there are epidemics of sporidesmin toxicity (...

  12. Ectopic expression of GA 2-oxidase 6 from rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) causes dwarfism, late flowering and enhanced chlorophyll accumulation in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jindong; Liao, Xiaoying; He, Reqing; Zhong, Ming; Feng, Panpan; Li, Xinmei; Tang, Dongying; Liu, Xuanming; Zhao, Xiaoying

    2017-02-01

    Gibberellins (GAs) are endogenous hormones that play an important role in higher plant growth and development. GA2-oxidase (GA2ox) promotes catabolism and inactivation of bioactive GAs or their precursors. In this study, we identified the GA2-oxidase gene, BnGA2ox6, and found it to be highly expressed in the silique and flower. Overexpression of BnGA2ox6 in Arabidopsis resulted in GA-deficiency symptoms, including inhibited elongation of the hypocotyl and stem, delayed seed germination, and late flowering. BnGA2ox6 overexpression reduced silique growth, but had no effect on seed development. Additionally, BnGA2ox6 overexpression enhanced chlorophyll b and total chlorophyll accumulation, and downregulated mRNA expression levels of the CHL1 and RCCR genes, which are involved in the chlorophyll degradation. These findings suggest that BnGA2ox6 regulates plant hight, silique development, flowering and chlorophyll accumulation in transgenic Arabidopsis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. French environmental communication on sunflower and rapeseed oils based on life cycle assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badey Laureen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The French “Grenelle” laws sparked a French national experiment trialling the environmental labelling of fast-moving consumer goods. The data required for this labelling scheme are generated by carrying out a life cycle assessment (LCA. The aim of this study is to provide all necessary information to fit the national experiment for two standard oils: sunflower oil and rapeseed oil. The complete oil life cycle was studied, from oilseed farming through to the end-of-life of the packaging. We focused heavily on the impacts of crushing and refining. The seed processing data was collected from different plants that are representative of the French crushing/refining industry and packaging site practice. The data inventory was used to calculate the identified environmental labelling indicators, i.e. greenhouse gas (GHG emissions and water consumption. The production of 100g of refined bulk sunflower and rapeseed emits 89 and 127 g equivalent CO2 and consumes 1.7 L and 0.8 L of water, respectively. Most impacts on the studied indicators stem from the farming phase. Energy and water consumptions during crushing and refining also weigh on the studied indicators. The results of this study provide a relevant overview of all sunflower and rapeseed oils produced in France, and are usable as standard values for vegetable oil producers and users. Oil supply chain operators can use these values to compare to their own process values and gauge the improvements brought about by their ecodesign strategies. For example, using a biomass boiler, using less packaging, and making different choices on seed suppliers can lead to a lower set of impact values.

  14. Biocompounds from rapeseed oil industry co-stream as active ingredients for skin care applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, D; Rommi, K; Fernandes, M M; Lantto, R; Tzanov, T

    2015-10-01

    Despite the great number of substances produced by the skincare industry, very few of them seem to truly have an effect on the skin. Therefore, given the social implications surrounding physical appearance, the search for new bioactive compounds to prevent or attenuate skin ageing and enhance self-image is a priority of current research. In this context, being rich in valuable compounds, such as proteins, phenolics, lipids and vitamins, this study is focused on the potential activity of rapeseed press cake hydrolysates to be used as raw materials for skincare applications. In this study, the protein-rich press residue from the rapeseed oil industry was converted enzymatically into short-chain biologically active peptides using four protease products with varying substrate specificity - Alcalase 2.4L FG, Protex 6L, Protamex and Corolase 7089. The antioxidant, anti-wrinkle and anti-inflammatory activities of the obtained hydrolysates were evaluated in vitro while their biocompatibility with human skin fibroblasts was tested. All hydrolysates were biocompatible with skin fibroblasts after 24 h of exposure, while the non-hydrolysed extract induced cell toxicity. Alcalase 2,4L FG and Protex 6L-obtained hydrolysates were the most promising extracts showing improved bioactivities suitable for skin anti-ageing formulations, namely antioxidant activity, inhibiting approximately 80% cellular reactive oxidative species, anti-inflammatory and anti-wrinkle properties, inhibiting around 36% of myeloperoxidase activity and over 83% of elastase activity. The enzymatic technology applied to the rapeseed oil industry costream results in the release of bioactive compounds suitable for skincare applications. © 2015 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  15. Extracting sensitive spectrum bands of rapeseed using multiscale multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shan; Wang, Fang; Shen, Luming; Liao, Guiping; Wang, Lin

    2017-03-01

    Spectrum technology has been widely used in crop non-destructive testing diagnosis for crop information acquisition. Since spectrum covers a wide range of bands, it is of critical importance to extract the sensitive bands. In this paper, we propose a methodology to extract the sensitive spectrum bands of rapeseed using multiscale multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis. Our obtained sensitive bands are relatively robust in the range of 534 nm-574 nm. Further, by using the multifractal parameter (Hurst exponent) of the extracted sensitive bands, we propose a prediction model to forecast the Soil and plant analyzer development values ((SPAD), often used as a parameter to indicate the chlorophyll content) and an identification model to distinguish the different planting patterns. Three vegetation indices (VIs) based on previous work are used for comparison. Three evaluation indicators, namely, the root mean square error, the correlation coefficient, and the relative error employed in the SPAD values prediction model all demonstrate that our Hurst exponent has the best performance. Four rapeseed compound planting factors, namely, seeding method, planting density, fertilizer type, and weed control method are considered in the identification model. The Youden indices calculated by the random decision forest method and the K-nearest neighbor method show that our Hurst exponent is superior to other three Vis, and their combination for the factor of seeding method. In addition, there is no significant difference among the five features for other three planting factors. This interesting finding suggests that the transplanting and the direct seeding would make a big difference in the growth of rapeseed.

  16. In situ visualization and effect of glycerol in lipase-catalyzed ethanolysis of rapeseed oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Yuan; Nordblad, Mathias; Nielsen, Per M.

    2011-01-01

    Immobilized lipases can be used in biodiesel production to overcome many disadvantages of the conventional base-catalyzed process. However, the glycerol by-product poses a potential problem for the biocatalytic process as it is known to inhibit immobilized lipases, most likely by clogging...... of the catalyst particles. In this paper, this negative effect was further investigated and confirmed in ethanolysis of rapeseed oil. A dyeing method was developed for in situ visualization of glycerol in order to study its partitioning and accumulation during the ethanolysis reaction. The method was used...

  17. Enzymatic interesterification of butterfat with rapeseed oil in a continuous packed bed reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønne, Torben Harald; Yang, Tiankui; Mu, Huiling

    2005-01-01

    , whereafter it dramatically decreased over the next 10 days to an activity level of 40%. In general, the study shows no significant difference for butterfat interesterification in terms of enzyme behavior from normal vegetable oils and fats even though it contains short-chain fatty acids and cholesterol......Lipase-catalyzed interesterification of butterfat blended with rapeseed oil (70/30, w/w) was investigated both in batch and in continuous reactions. Six commercially available immobilized lipases were screened in batch experiments, and the lipases, Lipozyme TL IM and Lipozyme RM IM, were chosen...

  18. Fermentation of rapeseed meal, sunflower meal and faba beans in combination with wheat bran increases solubility of protein and phosphorus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard; Blaabjerg, Karoline

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND To increase self-supply of protein and phosphorus (P) in European pig and poultry diets and reduce nitrogen (N) and P excretion, attention is directed to approaches increasing protein and P digestibility of rapeseed, sunflower and faba beans. Wheat bran is rich in enzymes degrading...... and solubilizing protein and phytate. Herein, solubilization of protein, N and P was investigated when increasing ratios of wheat bran were fermented with rapeseed meal (RSM), sunflower meal (SFM), faba beans (FB) or a combination of these (RSM/SFM/FB). RESULTS Protein, N and P solubility was greater, for all...

  19. Counteracting foaming caused by lipids or proteins in biogas reactors using rapeseed oil or oleic acid as antifoaming agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kougias, Panagiotis; Boe, Kanokwan; Einarsdottir, E. S.

    2015-01-01

    in biogas reactors fed with protein or lipid rich substrates. The results showed that both antifoams efficiently suppressed foaming. Moreover rapeseed oil resulted in stimulation of the biogas production. Finally, it was reckoned that the chemical structure of lipids, and more specifically their carboxylic...... deterioration of the methanogenic process. Many commercial antifoams are derivatives of fatty acids or oils. However, it is well known that lipids can induce foaming in manure based biogas plants. This study aimed to elucidate the effect of rapeseed oil and oleic acid on foam reduction and process performance...

  20. Produção de goma xantana por cepas nativas de Xanthomonas campestris a partir de casca de cacau ou soro de leite Production of xanthan gum by Xanthomonas campestris strains native from bark cocoa or whey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis de M. Diniz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudada a otimização do processo de produção de goma xantana a partir de casca de cacau ou soro de leite como fonte de carbono, e determinou-se o rendimento da goma obtida pela bioconversão de casca de cacau e soro de leite com a Xanthomonas campestris 1182. A goma foi produzida em meios com potássio e nitrogênio a 25 °C, 250 rpm por 120 horas. Os rendimentos foram: 2,335 g.L-1 para a sacarose; 4,995 g.L-1 para a casca de cacau seca e 12,01 g.L-1 utilizando soro de leite. Portanto, é viável a produção de goma xantana utilizando fontes de carbono como a casca de cacau e o soro de leite.The optimization of the production process of xanthan gum from cocoa husks or milk whey as carbon source was studied, and the production rate of gum obtained by the bioconversion of cocoa pods and whey was determined, using Xanthomonas campestris 1182. The gum was produced in a medium with potassium and nitrogen at 25 °C, 250 rpm for 120 hours. The results were: 2.335 g.L-1 for sucrose; 4.995 g.L-1 for cocoa dry pods and 12.01 g.L-1 using whey. Therefore, the production of xanthan gum is feasible upon using carbon sources such as cocoa hulls and whey.

  1. Genome-Wide Identification and Expression Analysis of WRKY Transcription Factors under Multiple Stresses in Brassica napus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yajun; Mao, Shaoshuai; Gao, Yulong; Zhu, Liying; Wu, Daoming; Cui, Yixin; Li, Jiana; Qian, Wei

    2016-01-01

    WRKY transcription factors play important roles in responses to environmental stress stimuli. Using a genome-wide domain analysis, we identified 287 WRKY genes with 343 WRKY domains in the sequenced genome of Brassica napus, 139 in the A sub-genome and 148 in the C sub-genome. These genes were classified into eight groups based on phylogenetic analysis. In the 343 WRKY domains, a total of 26 members showed divergence in the WRKY domain, and 21 belonged to group I. This finding suggested that WRKY genes in group I are more active and variable compared with genes in other groups. Using genome-wide identification and analysis of the WRKY gene family in Brassica napus, we observed genome duplication, chromosomal/segmental duplications and tandem duplication. All of these duplications contributed to the expansion of the WRKY gene family. The duplicate segments that were detected indicated that genome duplication events occurred in the two diploid progenitors B. rapa and B. olearecea before they combined to form B. napus. Analysis of the public microarray database and EST database for B. napus indicated that 74 WRKY genes were induced or preferentially expressed under stress conditions. According to the public QTL data, we identified 77 WRKY genes in 31 QTL regions related to various stress tolerance. We further evaluated the expression of 26 BnaWRKY genes under multiple stresses by qRT-PCR. Most of the genes were induced by low temperature, salinity and drought stress, indicating that the WRKYs play important roles in B. napus stress responses. Further, three BnaWRKY genes were strongly responsive to the three multiple stresses simultaneously, which suggests that these 3 WRKY may have multi-functional roles in stress tolerance and can potentially be used in breeding new rapeseed cultivars. We also found six tandem repeat pairs exhibiting similar expression profiles under the various stress conditions, and three pairs were mapped in the stress related QTL regions

  2. Genome-Wide Identification and Expression Analysis of WRKY Transcription Factors under Multiple Stresses in Brassica napus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yajun He

    Full Text Available WRKY transcription factors play important roles in responses to environmental stress stimuli. Using a genome-wide domain analysis, we identified 287 WRKY genes with 343 WRKY domains in the sequenced genome of Brassica napus, 139 in the A sub-genome and 148 in the C sub-genome. These genes were classified into eight groups based on phylogenetic analysis. In the 343 WRKY domains, a total of 26 members showed divergence in the WRKY domain, and 21 belonged to group I. This finding suggested that WRKY genes in group I are more active and variable compared with genes in other groups. Using genome-wide identification and analysis of the WRKY gene family in Brassica napus, we observed genome duplication, chromosomal/segmental duplications and tandem duplication. All of these duplications contributed to the expansion of the WRKY gene family. The duplicate segments that were detected indicated that genome duplication events occurred in the two diploid progenitors B. rapa and B. olearecea before they combined to form B. napus. Analysis of the public microarray database and EST database for B. napus indicated that 74 WRKY genes were induced or preferentially expressed under stress conditions. According to the public QTL data, we identified 77 WRKY genes in 31 QTL regions related to various stress tolerance. We further evaluated the expression of 26 BnaWRKY genes under multiple stresses by qRT-PCR. Most of the genes were induced by low temperature, salinity and drought stress, indicating that the WRKYs play important roles in B. napus stress responses. Further, three BnaWRKY genes were strongly responsive to the three multiple stresses simultaneously, which suggests that these 3 WRKY may have multi-functional roles in stress tolerance and can potentially be used in breeding new rapeseed cultivars. We also found six tandem repeat pairs exhibiting similar expression profiles under the various stress conditions, and three pairs were mapped in the stress related

  3. Producão de goma xantana por X. Campestris ATCC 13951 utilizando soro de queijo desproteinado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Sobenes G.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A goma xantana é um biopolímero microbiano producido pela bactéria Xanthomonas. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo estudar a produção de goma xantana por processo fermentativo utilizando a linhagem X. campestris ATCC 13951 e como fonte de carbono: soro de queijo desproteinado suplementado com extrato de levedura e sulfato de amônia como fontes de nitrogênio; soro de queijo desproteinado suplementado só com extrato de levedura como fonte de nitrogênio e só soro de queijo desproteinado sem suplementos, tempo de fermentação de 72h para os três meios. Dos meios em análise aquele constituido apenas por soro de queijo desproteinado, atingiu o maior rendimento com valor de 58% e a melhor qualidade de goma.

  4. Macroporous Activated Carbon Derived from Rapeseed Shell for Lithium–Sulfur Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingbo Zheng

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Lithium–sulfur batteries have drawn considerable attention because of their extremely high energy density. Activated carbon (AC is an ideal matrix for sulfur because of its high specific surface area, large pore volume, small-size nanopores, and simple preparation. In this work, through KOH activation, AC materials with different porous structure parameters were prepared using waste rapeseed shells as precursors. Effects of KOH amount, activated temperature, and activated time on pore structure parameters of ACs were studied. AC sample with optimal pore structure parameters was investigated as sulfur host materials. Applied in lithium–sulfur batteries, the AC/S composite (60 wt % sulfur exhibited a high specific capacity of 1065 mAh g−1 at 200 mA g−1 and a good capacity retention of 49% after 1000 cycles at 1600 mA g−1. The key factor for good cycling stability involves the restraining effect of small-sized nanopores of the AC framework on the diffusion of polysulfides to bulk electrolyte and the loss of the active material sulfur. Results demonstrated that AC materials derived from rapeseed shells are promising materials for sulfur loading.

  5. Biodiesel from rapeseed variety "Banaćanka" using KOH catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mićić Radoslav D.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a complete characterization of rapeseed oil, of Banaćanka variety, as well as the potential use of oil generated after filtering, in order to obtain biodiesel. Researches are based on the fact that Banaćanka is the oldest domestic rapeseed variety, the so-called double zero "00" (low in erucic acid, below 5%, and glucosinolates below than 30 mmol g-1, suitable for use in the region, since it is low temperatures tolerant, posseses high genetic potential for seed yield of about 5.2 t/ha, and high oil content of around 45%. Transesterification was carried out in batch reactor Parr 4520, with KOH as a catalyst. Cold pressed oil without prior treatment was used as feedstock for transesterificataion. The paper analyses the effects of temperature, reaction duration, catalyst amount and rate of agitation on the synthesis of biodiesel at constant pressure and molar methanol/oil ratio.[Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-31046: Improvement of the quality of tractors and mobile systems with the aim of increasing competitiveness and preserving soil and environment

  6. Comparison of biogas production from rapeseed and wheat residues in compound with cattle manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Safari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Seventy million tons of agricultural crops are produced from 18 million hectares of agricultural lands in Iran every year. Since 80% of the crops (wt. basis ends up as residues, therefore, about 50 million tons of crop residues are generated annually the majority of which is burnt on field leading to vast emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG due to the incomplete combustion process. These residues could potentially be transformed into heat energy directly by adopting a burning process or indirectly by first transforming them into secondary fuel as hydrogen, bio-methane, methanol or ethanol. Materials and Methods The present study was conducted using, wheat and rapeseed straws dried at ambient temperature co-digested with fresh cow dung while the total solid content and detention time were kept constant. To conduct the Anaerobic Digestion (AD experiments, cylinder reactors (13 L were constructed and placed in a water bath equipped with a heater and sensor to maintain the temperature at 35±2 oC. The biogas produced in the digester was investigated by measuring the displacement of the water in a measuring tube connected to the reactor. Gas samples were obtained from the sampling port and were analyzed gas chromatograph. The temperature for detector, injector and oven were 170, 110 and 50 oC respectively. Before the test, the first CH4 and CO2 net gases, peaks corresponding percentage was determined with respect to the retention time of the area. Then sample was compared with standard gas and samples gas percentage was determined. The residues were mechanically pretreated using a mill in order to increase the availability of the biomass to enzymes. After the pre-treatment, the material (<2 mm was mixed with a different proportion of fresh cow dung, Initial Total Solids (TS content in the reactor was adjusted at 9%. Factors such as PH, Volatile Solids (VS were determined by the standard method. Results and Discussion A decrease in the

  7. Tribological study on rapeseed oil with nano-additives in close contact sliding situation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rajeev Nayan; Harsha, A. P.; Singh, Sagar

    2018-02-01

    The present work deals with the tribological evaluation of three types of nano-additives, i.e., copper oxide (CuO; ≈ 151.2 nm), cerium oxide (CeO2; ≈ 80 nm) and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE; ≈ 90.4 nm) with rapeseed oil under steel-steel sliding contacts. The nano-additives concentrations in the base oil were 0.1, 0.25 and 0.5% w/v for the lubricant formulation. Further, the rapeseed oil was also epoxidized by a chemical method and the tribological behavior was compared with the base oil (unmodified oil) at similar nano-additives concentrations. The ASTM standards were followed for the study of wear preventive and extreme-pressure analysis of nanolubricants, and it was carried out using four-ball tester. In the antiwear test, CeO2 and PTFE nano-additives have shown the significant reduction in the wear scar diameter at the concentration of 0.1% w/v. In the extreme-pressure test, 0.5% w/v concentration was optimum for oxide nanoparticles; however, PTFE nanoparticles did not show positive effect with both the base oils. Different characterization techniques were employed to confirm the oil modification and for the study of the worn surfaces.

  8. Immobilized protease on the magnetic nanoparticles used for the hydrolysis of rapeseed meals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Xin; Li Jufang; Huang Pingying; Dong Xuyan; Guo Lulu; Yang Liang; Cao Yuancheng; Wei Fang; Zhao Yuandi

    2010-01-01

    (3-aminopropl) triethoxysilaneand modified magnetic nanoparticles with the average diameter of 25.4 nm were synthesized in water-phase co-precipitation method. And then these nanoparticles were covalently coupled with alkaline protease as enzyme carrier by using 1,4-phenylene diisothlocyanate as coupling agent. Experiments showed that the immobilized protease can keep the catalytic bioactivity, which can reach to 47.8% when casein was served as substrate. Results showed that the catalytic activity of immobilized protease on these magnetic nanoparticles could retain 98.63±2.37% after 60 days. And it is more stable than the free protease during the shelf-life test. The enzyme reaction conditions such as optimum reaction temperature and pH are the same as free protease. Furthermore, mix-and-separate experiments showed that the immobilized protease could be recycled through the magnetic nanoparticles after the biocatalysis process. When the rapeseed meals were used as substrate, the degree of hydrolysis of immobilized alkaline protease achieved 9.86%, while it was 10.41% for the free protease. The macromolecular proteins of rapeseed meals were hydrolyzed by immobilized protease into small molecules such as polypeptides or amino acids. Thus, a novel efficient and economic way for the recycling of enzymes in the application of continuous production of active peptides was provided based on these magnetic nanoparticles.

  9. Contribution of multitemporal polarimetric synthetic aperture radar data for monitoring winter wheat and rapeseed crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betbeder, Julie; Fieuzal, Remy; Philippets, Yannick; Ferro-Famil, Laurent; Baup, Frederic

    2016-04-01

    This paper aims to evaluate the contribution of multitemporal polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data for winter wheat and rapeseed crops parameters [height, leaf area index, and dry biomass (DB)] estimation, during their whole vegetation cycles in comparison to backscattering coefficients and optical data. Angular sensitivities and dynamics of polarimetric indicators were also analyzed following the growth stages of these two common crop types using, in total, 14 radar images (Radarsat-2), 16 optical images (Formosat-2, Spot-4/5), and numerous ground data. The results of this study show the importance of correcting the angular effect on SAR signals especially for copolarized signals and polarimetric indicators associated to single-bounce scattering mechanisms. The analysis of the temporal dynamic of polarimetric indicators has shown their high potential to detect crop growth changes. Moreover, this study shows the high interest of using SAR parameters (backscattering coefficients and polarimetric indicators) for crop parameters estimation during the whole vegetation cycle instead of optical vegetation index. They particularly revealed their high potential for rapeseed height and DB monitoring [i.e., Shannon entropy polarimetry (r2=0.70) and radar vegetation index (r2=0.80), respectively].

  10. Immobilized protease on the magnetic nanoparticles used for the hydrolysis of rapeseed meals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin Xin [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics-Hubei Bioinformatics and Molecular Imaging Key Laboratory, College of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, HuBei 430074 (China); Li Jufang [Key Lab of Oil Crops Biology, Ministry of Agriculture, Institute of Oil Crops Research, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Wuhan, Hubei 430062 (China); Huang Pingying [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics-Hubei Bioinformatics and Molecular Imaging Key Laboratory, College of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, HuBei 430074 (China); Dong Xuyan [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics-Hubei Bioinformatics and Molecular Imaging Key Laboratory, College of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, HuBei 430074 (China); Key Lab of Oil Crops Biology, Ministry of Agriculture, Institute of Oil Crops Research, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Wuhan, Hubei 430062 (China); Guo Lulu [Key Lab of Oil Crops Biology, Ministry of Agriculture, Institute of Oil Crops Research, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Wuhan, Hubei 430062 (China); Yang Liang; Cao Yuancheng [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics-Hubei Bioinformatics and Molecular Imaging Key Laboratory, College of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, HuBei 430074 (China); Wei Fang [Key Lab of Oil Crops Biology, Ministry of Agriculture, Institute of Oil Crops Research, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Wuhan, Hubei 430062 (China); Zhao Yuandi, E-mail: zydi@mail.hust.edu.c [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics-Hubei Bioinformatics and Molecular Imaging Key Laboratory, College of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, HuBei 430074 (China)

    2010-07-15

    (3-aminopropl) triethoxysilaneand modified magnetic nanoparticles with the average diameter of 25.4 nm were synthesized in water-phase co-precipitation method. And then these nanoparticles were covalently coupled with alkaline protease as enzyme carrier by using 1,4-phenylene diisothlocyanate as coupling agent. Experiments showed that the immobilized protease can keep the catalytic bioactivity, which can reach to 47.8% when casein was served as substrate. Results showed that the catalytic activity of immobilized protease on these magnetic nanoparticles could retain 98.63+-2.37% after 60 days. And it is more stable than the free protease during the shelf-life test. The enzyme reaction conditions such as optimum reaction temperature and pH are the same as free protease. Furthermore, mix-and-separate experiments showed that the immobilized protease could be recycled through the magnetic nanoparticles after the biocatalysis process. When the rapeseed meals were used as substrate, the degree of hydrolysis of immobilized alkaline protease achieved 9.86%, while it was 10.41% for the free protease. The macromolecular proteins of rapeseed meals were hydrolyzed by immobilized protease into small molecules such as polypeptides or amino acids. Thus, a novel efficient and economic way for the recycling of enzymes in the application of continuous production of active peptides was provided based on these magnetic nanoparticles.

  11. Extraction of oil and minor lipids from cold-press rapeseed cake with supercritical CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Uquiche

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the extraction of oil from cold-press rapeseed cake using Supercritical CO2(SC-CO2. The effects of pressure (20, 30, and 40 MPa, temperature (40, 50, and 60 ºC, and extraction time (60, 90, and 120 min on oil yield and composition (tocopherols and carotenoids were studied using response surface design. The results indicated that pressure influenced the most the yield of oil, followed by temperature and extraction time. Extraction time had no effect on oil composition. Extraction pressure and temperature did not affect the tocopherol concentration of the oil to a great extent, whereas temperature had no affect in its carotenoid concentration. A comparison was made between the relative qualities of oil extracted with SC-CO2at 40 MPa and 60 ºC and with n-hexane. Neither solvent affected the unsaponifiable matter content or the composition of phytosterols (mainly β-sitosterol, campesterol and brassicasterol of the oils, although there was a significant difference (p<0.05 in tocopherol. Extraction with SC-CO2at 40 MPa and 60 ºC is recommended to obtain rapeseed-oil enriched with tocopherols and carotenoids as important functional components.

  12. Transesterification of rapeseed and palm oils in supercritical methanol and ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biktashev, Sh.A.; Usmanov, R.A.; Gabitov, R.R.; Gazizov, R.A.; Gumerov, F.M.; Gabitov, F.R.; Abdulagatov, I.M.; Yarullin, R.S.; Yakushev, I.A.

    2011-01-01

    The results of the rapeseed and palm oils transesterification with supercritical methanol and ethanol were presented. The studies were performed using the experimental setups which are working in batch and continuous regimes. The effect of reaction conditions (temperature, pressure, oil to alcohol ratio, reaction time) on the biodiesel production (conversion yield) was studied. Also the effect of preliminary ultrasonic treatment (ultrasonic irradiation, emulsification of immiscible oil and alcohol mixture) of the initial reagents (emulsion preparation) on the stage before transesterification reaction conduction on the conversion yield was studied. We found that the preliminary ultrasonic treatment of the initial reagents increases considerably the conversion yield. Optimal technological conditions were determined to be as follows: pressure within 20-30 MPa, temperature within 573-623 K. The optimal values of the oil to alcohol ratio strongly depend on preliminary treatment of the reaction mixture. The study showed that the conversion yield at the same temperature with 96 wt.% of ethanol is higher than with 100 wt.% of methanol. -- Highlights: → The results of the rapeseed and palm oils transesterification with supercritical methanol and ethanol were presented. → The effect of reaction conditions (temperature, pressure, oil to alcohol ratio, reaction time) on the biodiesel production (conversion yield) was studied. → Transesterification of vegetable oil with supercritical alcohols. → Effect of temperature and pressure on conversion yield. → Preliminary ultrasonic treatment of the vegetable oil+methanol mixture.

  13. Effects of abscisic acid and high osmoticum on storage protein gene expression in microspore embryos of Brassica napus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilen, R.W.; Mandel, R.M.; Pharis, R.P.; Moloney, M.M.; Holbrook, L.A.

    1990-01-01

    Storage protein gene expression, characteristic of mid- to late embryogenesis, was investigated in microspore embryos of rapeseed (Brassica napus). These embryos, derived from the immature male gametophyte, accumulate little or no detectable napin or cruciferin mRNA when cultured on hormone-free medium containing 13% sucrose. The addition of abscisic acid (ABA) to the medium results in an increase in detectable transcripts encoding both these polypeptides. Storage protein mRNA is induced at 1 micromolar ABA with maximum stimulation occurring between 5 and 50 micromolar. This hormone induction results in a level of storage protein mRNA that is comparable to that observed in zygotic embryos of an equivalent morphological stage. Effects similar to that of ABA are noted when 12.5% sorbitol is added to the microspore embryo medium (osmotic potential = 25.5 bars). Time course experiments, to study the induction of napin and cruciferin gene expression demonstrated that the ABA effect occurred much more rapidly than the high osmoticum effect, although after 48 hours, the levels of napin or cruciferin mRNA detected were similar in both treatments. This difference in the rates of induction is consistent with the idea that the osmotic effect may be mediated by ABA which is synthesized in response to the reduced water potential. Measurements of ABA (by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using [ 2 H 6 ]ABA as an internal standard) present in microspore embryos during sorbitol treatment and in embryos treated with 10 micromolar ABA were performed to investigate this possibility. Within 2 hours of culture on high osmoticum the level of ABA increased substantially and significantly above control and reached a maximum concentration within 24 hours. This elevated concentration was maintained for 48 hours after culturing and represents a sixfold increase over control embryos

  14. Reduction of antinutritional glucosinolates in Brassica oilseeds by mutation of genes encoding transporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nour-Eldin, Hussam Hassan; Madsen, Svend Roesen; Engelen, Steven

    2017-01-01

    The nutritional value of Brassica seed meals is reduced by the presence of glucosinolates, which are toxic compounds involved in plant defense. Mutation of the genes encoding two glucosinolate transporters (GTRs) eliminated glucosinolates from Arabidopsis thaliana seeds, but translation of loss......-of-function phenotypes into Brassica crops is challenging because Brassica is polyploid. We mutated one of seven and four of 12 GTR orthologs and reduced glucosinolate levels in seeds by 60-70% in two different Brassica species (Brassica rapa and Brassica juncea). Reduction in seed glucosinolates was stably inherited...... over multiple generations and maintained in field trials of two mutant populations at three locations. Successful translation of the gtr loss-of-function phenotype from model plant to two Brassica crops suggests that our transport engineering approach could be broadly applied to reduce seed...

  15. Analysis of the a genome genetic diversity among brassica napus, b. rapa and b. juncea accessions using specific simple sequence repeat markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, H.; Yan, J.; Zhang, R.; Guo, Y.; Hu, S.; Channa, S.A.

    2017-01-01

    This investigation was aimed at evaluating the genetic diversity of 127 accessions among Brassica napus, B. rapa, and B. juncea by using 15 pairs of the A genome specific simple sequence repeat primers. These 127 accessions could be clearly separated into three groups by cluster analysis, principal component analysis, and population structure analysis separately, and the results analyzed by the three methods were very similar. Group I comprised of mainly B. napus accessions and the most of B. juncea accessions formed Group II, Group III included nearly all of the B. rapa accessions. The result showed that 36.86% of the variance was due to significant differences among populations of species, indicated that abundance genetic diversity existed among the A genome of B. napus, B. rapa, and B. juncea accessions. B. napus, B. rapa, and B. juncea have the abundant genetic diversity in the A genome, and some elite genes can be used to broaden the genetic base of them, especially for B. napus, in future rapeseed breeding program. (author)

  16. Light influence in the nutritional composition of Brassica oleracea sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, A P; Santos, J; Brito, N V; Peixoto, V; Carvalho, Rosa; Rosa, E; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P

    2015-07-01

    Brassica sprouts are considered a healthy food product, whose nutritional quality can be influenced by several factors. The aim of this work was to monitor the nutritional composition changes promoted by different sprouting conditions of four varieties of Brassica oleracea (red cabbage, broccoli, Galega kale and Penca cabbage). Sprouts were grown under light/darkness cycles and complete darkness. Standard AOAC methods were applied for nutritional value evaluation, while chromatographic methods with UV-VIS and FID detection were used to determine the free amino acids and fatty acids, respectively. Mineral content was analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry. Sprouts composition revealed them as an excellent source of protein and dietary fiber. Selenium content was one of the most distinctive feature of sprouts, being the sprouting conditions determinant for the free amino acid and fatty acids profile. The use of complete darkness was beneficial to the overall nutritional quality of the brassica sprouts studied. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Phosphate-assisted phytoremediation of arsenic by Brassica napus and Brassica juncea: Morphological and physiological response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niazi, Nabeel Khan; Bibi, Irshad; Fatimah, Ayesha; Shahid, Muhammad; Javed, Muhammad Tariq; Wang, Hailong; Ok, Yong Sik; Bashir, Safdar; Murtaza, Behzad; Saqib, Zulfiqar Ahmad; Shakoor, Muhammad Bilal

    2017-07-03

    In this study, we examined the potential role of phosphate (P; 0, 50, 100 mg kg -1 ) on growth, gas exchange attributes, and photosynthetic pigments of Brassica napus and Brassica juncea under arsenic (As) stress (0, 25, 50, 75 mg kg -1 ) in a pot experiment. Results revealed that phosphate supplementation (P100) to As-stressed plants significantly increased shoot As concentration, dry biomass yield, and As uptake, in addition to the improved morphological and gas exchange attributes and photosynthetic pigments over P0. However, phosphate-assisted increase in As uptake was substantially (up to two times) greater for B. napus, notably due to higher shoot As concentration and dry biomass yield, compared to B. juncea at the P100 level. While phosphate addition in soil (P100) led to enhanced shoot As concentration in B. juncea, it reduced shoot dry biomass, primarily after 50 and 75 mg kg -1 As treatments. The translocation factor and bioconcentration factor values of B. napus were higher than B. juncea for all As levels in the presence of phosphate. This study demonstrates that phosphate supplementation has a potential to improve As phytoextraction efficiency, predominantly for B. napus, by minimizing As-induced damage to plant growth, as well as by improving the physiological and photosynthetic attributes.

  18. Evaluating the environmental sustainability of energy crops: A life cycle assessment of Spanish rapeseed and Argentinean soybean cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Fernández-Tirado

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Rapeseed oil is expected to be increasingly used in Spain as raw material to produce biodiesel to the detriment of extra-EU imports of biodiesel mainly based on soybean oil from Argentina. Therefore, the environmental impacts produced throughout the life cycle of energy crops used to produce biodiesel which is consumed in Spain could be radically affected. In this context, the environmental impacts of rapeseed cultivation in Spain and soybean cultivation in Argentina, were compared under certain growing conditions using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA. Two methods of calculation for Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA and two functional units (FUs were used to test potential biases. The results showed that the cultivation of soybean in Argentina had, in general, fewer environmental impacts than rapeseed cultivation in Spain when the FU was the area of cultivation, but these findings are inverted when the analysis is conducted according to the energy content of the biodiesel obtained from these crops. Soybean in fact has very low oil content, meaning that larger areas of land are required to obtain the same amount of biodiesel and that consequently it has a higher environmental impact by energy content. Fertilization was, in general, the process that generated the greatest environmental burdens, and is an area in which improvement is necessary in order to increase sustainability, particularly with regard to Spanish rapeseed.

  19. Evaluating the environmental sustainability of energy crops: A life cycle assessment of Spanish rapeseed and Argentinean soybean cultivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernández-Tirado, F.; Parra-López, C.; Romero-Gámez, M.

    2017-01-01

    Rapeseed oil is expected to be increasingly used in Spain as raw material to produce biodiesel to the detriment of extra-EU imports of biodiesel mainly based on soybean oil from Argentina. Therefore, the environmental impacts produced throughout the life cycle of energy crops used to produce biodiesel which is consumed in Spain could be radically affected. In this context, the environmental impacts of rapeseed cultivation in Spain and soybean cultivation in Argentina, were compared under certain growing conditions using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). Two methods of calculation for Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) and two functional units (FUs) were used to test potential biases. The results showed that the cultivation of soybean in Argentina had, in general, fewer environmental impacts than rapeseed cultivation in Spain when the FU was the area of cultivation, but these findings are inverted when the analysis is conducted according to the energy content of the biodiesel obtained from these crops. Soybean in fact has very low oil content, meaning that larger areas of land are required to obtain the same amount of biodiesel and that consequently it has a higher environmental impact by energy content. Fertilization was, in general, the process that generated the greatest environmental burdens, and is an area in which improvement is necessary in order to increase sustainability, particularly with regard to Spanish rapeseed.

  20. Evaluating the environmental sustainability of energy crops: A life cycle assessment of Spanish rapeseed and Argentinean soybean cultivation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernández-Tirado, F.; Parra-López, C.; Romero-Gámez, M.

    2017-09-01

    Rapeseed oil is expected to be increasingly used in Spain as raw material to produce biodiesel to the detriment of extra-EU imports of biodiesel mainly based on soybean oil from Argentina. Therefore, the environmental impacts produced throughout the life cycle of energy crops used to produce biodiesel which is consumed in Spain could be radically affected. In this context, the environmental impacts of rapeseed cultivation in Spain and soybean cultivation in Argentina, were compared under certain growing conditions using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). Two methods of calculation for Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) and two functional units (FUs) were used to test potential biases. The results showed that the cultivation of soybean in Argentina had, in general, fewer environmental impacts than rapeseed cultivation in Spain when the FU was the area of cultivation, but these findings are inverted when the analysis is conducted according to the energy content of the biodiesel obtained from these crops. Soybean in fact has very low oil content, meaning that larger areas of land are required to obtain the same amount of biodiesel and that consequently it has a higher environmental impact by energy content. Fertilization was, in general, the process that generated the greatest environmental burdens, and is an area in which improvement is necessary in order to increase sustainability, particularly with regard to Spanish rapeseed.

  1. The Comparison of Co, Ni, Mo, CoMo and NiMo Sulfided Catalysts in Rapeseed Oil Hydrodeoxygenation.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaluža, Luděk; Kubička, D.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 122, č. 1 (2017), s. 333-341 ISSN 1878-5190 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA17-22490S Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : triolein hydrodeoxygenation scheme * rapeseed oil * sulfide catalysts Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry OBOR OECD: Physical chemistry Impact factor: 1.264, year: 2016

  2. Profiling Gene Expression in Germinating Brassica Roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Myoung Ryoul; Wang, Yi-Hong; Hasenstein, Karl H

    2014-01-01

    Based on previously developed solid-phase gene extraction (SPGE) we examined the mRNA profile in primary roots of Brassica rapa seedlings for highly expressed genes like ACT7 (actin7), TUB (tubulin1), UBQ (ubiquitin), and low expressed GLK (glucokinase) during the first day post-germination. The assessment was based on the mRNA load of the SPGE probe of about 2.1 ng. The number of copies of the investigated genes changed spatially along the length of primary roots. The expression level of all genes differed significantly at each sample position. Among the examined genes ACT7 expression was most even along the root. UBQ was highest at the tip and root-shoot junction (RS). TUB and GLK showed a basipetal gradient. The temporal expression of UBQ was highest in the MZ 9 h after primary root emergence and higher than at any other sample position. Expressions of GLK in EZ and RS increased gradually over time. SPGE extraction is the result of oligo-dT and oligo-dA hybridization and the results illustrate that SPGE can be used for gene expression profiling at high spatial and temporal resolution. SPGE needles can be used within two weeks when stored at 4 °C. Our data indicate that gene expression studies that are based on the entire root miss important differences in gene expression that SPGE is able to resolve for example growth adjustments during gravitropism.

  3. The broccoli (Brassica oleracea) phloem tissue proteome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anstead, James A; Hartson, Steven D; Thompson, Gary A

    2013-11-07

    The transport of sugars, hormones, amino acids, proteins, sugar alcohols, and other organic compounds from the sites of synthesis to the sites of use or storage occurs through the conducting cells of the phloem. To better understand these processes a comprehensive understanding of the proteins involved is required. While a considerable amount of data has been obtained from proteomic analyses of phloem sap, this has mainly served to identify the soluble proteins that are translocated through the phloem network. In order to obtain more comprehensive proteomic data from phloem tissue we developed a simple dissection procedure to isolate phloem tissue from Brassica oleracea. The presence of a high density of phloem sieve elements was confirmed using light microscopy and fluorescently labeled sieve element-specific antibodies. To increase the depth of the proteomic analysis for membrane bound and associated proteins, soluble proteins were extracted first and subsequent extractions were carried out using two different detergents (SDS and CHAPSO). Across all three extractions almost four hundred proteins were identified and each extraction method added to the analysis demonstrating the utility of an approach combining several extraction protocols. The phloem was found to be enriched in proteins associated with biotic and abiotic stress responses and structural proteins. Subsequent expression analysis identified a number of genes that appear to be expressed exclusively or at very high levels in phloem tissue, including genes that are known to express specifically in the phloem as well as novel phloem genes.

  4. Ruminal Degradability of Dry Matter and Crude Protein from Moist Dehulled Lupin and Extruded Rapeseed Meal Degradabilidad Ruminal de la Materia Seca y de la Proteína Cruda de Lupino Descascarado y Torta de Raps Extruidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Barchiesi-Ferrari

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The flow of ruminal undegradable protein (RUP to the small intestine can be increased if ruminal degradation of dietary protein is reduced. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of extrusion on ruminal degradability of dry matter (DM and crude protein (CP from dehulled lupin (Lupinus albus L. (DL and rapeseed (Brassica napus L. meal (RM. Unextruded soybean (Glicine max L. meal (SBM was used as a control. The DL was extruded at 130 ºC with 20% moisture and RM was extruded at 120 ºC with 20% moisture. Ruminal degradability was evaluated in situ by incubating feed samples for 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, and 48 h of fermentation in the rumen using three rumen-fistulated dairy cows. Values of CP soluble fraction (“a” in SBM, DL, extruded dehulled lupin (EDL, RM, and extruded rapeseed meal (ERM was lower in the extruded feeds (P El flujo de proteína no degradable en el rumen (RUP hacia el intestino delgado puede ser incrementado si se reduce la degradación ruminal de la proteína dietaria. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el efecto de la extrusión sobre la degradabilidad ruminal de la materia seca (DM y proteína cruda (CP de lupino (Lupinus albus L. descascarado (DL y torta de raps (Brassica napus L. (RM. Se utilizó afrecho de soya (Glicine max L. sin extruir (SBM como control. El DL fue extruido a 130 ºC con 20% de humedad y la RM fue extruida a 120 ºC con 20% de humedad. La degradabilidad ruminal se evaluó in situ incubando las muestras de alimentos a 2, 4, 8, 12, 24 y 48 h de fermentación en tres vacas lecheras con fístula ruminal. Los valores de la fracción soluble de la CP (“a” en SBM, en DL, lupino descascarado extruido (EDL, RM y torta de raps extruida (ERM fue menor en los extruidos (P < 0.05. La fracción lentamente degradable (“b” de SBM, DL, EDL, RM y de ERM fue 858; 593; 622 y 451 y 457 g kg-1, respectivamente, y se incrementó por extrusión (P < 0.05. La extrusión redujo la degradabilidad efectiva

  5. Moisture Sensitivity, Optical, Mechanical and Structural Properties of Whey Protein-Based Edible Films Incorporated with Rapeseed Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Kadzińska

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to study the effect of the rapeseed oil content on the physical properties of whey protein emulsion films. For this purpose, whey protein films with the addition of 0, 1, 2 and 3 % of rapeseed oil, and glycerol as a plasticizer were obtained by the casting method. Film-forming emulsions were evaluated and compared using light scattering granulometry. The Sauter mean diameters (d32 of lipid droplets in film-forming solutions showed an increasing trend when increasing the oil volume fractions. The inclusion of rapeseed oil enhanced the hydrophobic character of whey protein films, reducing moisture content and film solubility in water. All emulsified films showed high lightness (L*≈90. Parameter a* decreased and parameter b* and total colour difference (ΔE increased with the increase of the volume fractions of oil. These results were consistent with visual observations; control films were transparent and those containing oil opaque. Water vapour sorption experimental data at the full range of water activity values from 0.11 to 0.93 were well described with Peleg’s equation (R2≥0.99. The tensile strength, Young’s modulus and elongation at break increased with the increase of rapeseed oil volume fraction, which could be explained by interactions between lipids and the protein matrix. These results revealed that rapeseed oil has enormous potential to be incorporated into whey protein to make edible film or coating for some food products. The mechanical resistance decreased with the addition of the lipids, and the opacity and soluble matter content increased.

  6. Moisture Sensitivity, Optical, Mechanical and Structural Properties of Whey Protein-Based Edible Films Incorporated with Rapeseed Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galus, Sabina; Kadzińska, Justyna

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this work is to study the effect of the rapeseed oil content on the physical properties of whey protein emulsion films. For this purpose, whey protein films with the addition of 0, 1, 2 and 3% of rapeseed oil, and glycerol as a plasticizer were obtained by the casting method. Film-forming emulsions were evaluated and compared using light scattering granulometry. The Sauter mean diameters ( d 32 ) of lipid droplets in film-forming solutions showed an increasing trend when increasing the oil volume fractions. The inclusion of rapeseed oil enhanced the hydrophobic character of whey protein films, reducing moisture content and film solubility in water. All emulsified films showed high lightness ( L* ≈90). Parameter a * decreased and parameter b* and total colour difference (∆ E ) increased with the increase of the volume fractions of oil. These results were consistent with visual observations; control films were transparent and those containing oil opaque. Water vapour sorption experimental data at the full range of water activity values from 0.11 to 0.93 were well described with Peleg's equation (R 2 ≥0.99). The tensile strength, Young's modulus and elongation at break increased with the increase of rapeseed oil volume fraction, which could be explained by interactions between lipids and the protein matrix. These results revealed that rapeseed oil has enormous potential to be incorporated into whey protein to make edible film or coating for some food products. The mechanical resistance decreased with the addition of the lipids, and the opacity and soluble matter content increased.

  7. Interaction of the phage-xanthomonas campestris (Pammel) Dowson at the eletronic microscopy level, Virazole effect and radioautographic study of the phage action on the host

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sittolin, I.M.

    1982-04-01

    A bacteriophage from the cabbage tissue infected with Xanthomonas campestris is described. The infection process is studied through a negative staining technique (PTA) and ultrathin section. The effect of Virazole, an antivirus agent, is tested. Radioautography showed that the phage presented a reasonable domain on the bacterial host genome since the beginning of the treatment. Sorological reactions indicated the induction of specific antibodies for the phage. (M.A.C.) [pt

  8. Regional greenhouse gas emissions from cultivation of winter wheat and winter rapeseed for biofuels in Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsgaard, Lars; Olesen, Joergen E.; Hermansen, John E.; Kristensen, Inge T.; Boergesen, Christen D. [Dept. of Agroecology, Aarhus Univ., Tjele (Denmark)], E-mail: lars.elsgaard@agrsci.dk

    2013-04-15

    Biofuels from bioenergy crops may substitute a significant part of fossil fuels in the transport sector where, e.g., the European Union has set a target of using 10% renewable energy by 2020. Savings of greenhouse gas emissions by biofuels vary according to cropping systems and are influenced by such regional factors as soil conditions, climate and input of agrochemicals. Here we analysed at a regional scale the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with cultivation of winter wheat for bioethanol and winter rapeseed for rapeseed methyl ester (RME) under Danish conditions. Emitted CO{sub 2} equivalents (CO{sub 2}eq) were quantified from the footprints of CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O associated with cultivation and the emissions were allocated between biofuel energy and co-products. Greenhouse gas emission at the national level (Denmark) was estimated to 22.1 g CO{sub 2}eq MJ{sup 1} ethanol for winter wheat and 26.0 g CO{sub 2}eq MJ{sup 1} RME for winter rapeseed. Results at the regional level (level 2 according to the Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics [NUTS]) ranged from 20.0 to 23.9 g CO{sub 2}eq MJ{sup 1} ethanol and from 23.5 to 27.6 g CO{sub 2}eq MJ{sup 1} RME. Thus, at the regional level emission results varied by up to 20%. Differences in area-based emissions were only 4% reflecting the importance of regional variation in yields for the emission result. Fertilizer nitrogen production and direct emissions of soil N{sub 2}O were major contributors to the final emission result and sensitivity analyses showed that the emission result depended to a large extent on the uncertainty ranges assumed for soil N{sub 2}O emissions. Improvement of greenhouse gas balances could be pursued, e.g., by growing dedicated varieties for energy purposes. However, in a wider perspective, land-use change of native ecosystems to bioenergy cropping systems could compromise the CO{sub 2} savings of bioenergy production and challenge the targets set for biofuel

  9. Genetic basis of nitrogen use efficiency and yield stability across environments in winter rapeseed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchet, Anne-Sophie; Laperche, Anne; Bissuel-Belaygue, Christine; Baron, Cécile; Morice, Jérôme; Rousseau-Gueutin, Mathieu; Dheu, Jean-Eric; George, Pierre; Pinochet, Xavier; Foubert, Thomas; Maes, Olivier; Dugué, Damien; Guinot, Florent; Nesi, Nathalie

    2016-09-15

    Nitrogen use efficiency is an important breeding trait that can be modified to improve the sustainability of many crop species used in agriculture. Rapeseed is a major oil crop with low nitrogen use efficiency, making its production highly dependent on nitrogen input. This complex trait is suspected to be sensitive to genotype × environment interactions, especially genotype × nitrogen interactions. Therefore, phenotyping diverse rapeseed populations under a dense network of trials is a powerful approach to study nitrogen use efficiency in this crop. The present study aimed to determine the quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with yield in winter oilseed rape and to assess the stability of these regions under contrasting nitrogen conditions for the purpose of increasing nitrogen use efficiency. Genome-wide association studies and linkage analyses were performed on two diversity sets and two doubled-haploid populations. These populations were densely genotyped, and yield-related traits were scored in a multi-environment design including seven French locations, six growing seasons (2009 to 2014) and two nitrogen nutrition levels (optimal versus limited). Very few genotype × nitrogen interactions were detected, and a large proportion of the QTL were stable across nitrogen nutrition conditions. In contrast, strong genotype × trial interactions in which most of the QTL were specific to a single trial were found. To obtain further insight into the QTL × environment interactions, genetic analyses of ecovalence were performed to identify the genomic regions contributing to the genotype × nitrogen and genotype × trial interactions. Fifty-one critical genomic regions contributing to the additive genetic control of yield-associated traits were identified, and the structural organization of these regions in the genome was investigated. Our results demonstrated that the effect of the trial was greater than the effect of nitrogen nutrition

  10. Inducible Expression of the De-Novo Designed Antimicrobial Peptide SP1-1 in Tomato Confers Resistance to Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Areli Herrera Diaz

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs are small peptides with less than 50 amino acids and are part of the innate immune response in almost all organisms, including bacteria, vertebrates, invertebrates and plants. AMPs are active against a broad-spectrum of pathogens. The inducible expression of AMPs in plants is a promising approach to combat plant pathogens with minimal negative side effects, such as phytotoxicity or infertility. In this study, inducible expression of the de-novo designed AMP SP1-1 in Micro Tom tomato protected tomato fruits against bacterial spot disease caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria. The peptide SP1-1 was targeted to the apoplast which is the primary infection site for plant pathogens, by fusing SP1-1 peptide to the signal peptide RsAFP1 of radish (Raphanus sativus. The pathogen inducibility of the expression was enabled by using an optimized inducible 4XW2/4XS promoter. As a result, the tomato fruits of independently generated SP1-1 transgenic lines were significantly more resistant to X. campestris pv. vesicatoria than WT tomato fruits. In transgenic lines, bacterial infection was reduced up to 65% in comparison to the infection of WT plants. Our study demonstrates that the combination of the 4XW2/4XS cis-element from parsley with the synthetic antimicrobial peptide SP1-1 is a good alternative to protect tomato fruits against infections with X. campestris pv. vesicatoria.

  11. Genome-wide microsatellite characterization and marker development in the sequenced Brassica crop species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jiaqin; Huang, Shunmou; Zhan, Jiepeng; Yu, Jingyin; Wang, Xinfa; Hua, Wei; Liu, Shengyi; Liu, Guihua; Wang, Hanzhong

    2014-02-01

    Although much research has been conducted, the pattern of microsatellite distribution has remained ambiguous, and the development/utilization of microsatellite markers has still been limited/inefficient in Brassica, due to the lack of genome sequences. In view of this, we conducted genome-wide microsatellite characterization and marker development in three recently sequenced Brassica crops: Brassica rapa, Brassica oleracea and Brassica napus. The analysed microsatellite characteristics of these Brassica species were highly similar or almost identical, which suggests that the pattern of microsatellite distribution is likely conservative in Brassica. The genomic distribution of microsatellites was highly non-uniform and positively or negatively correlated with genes or transposable elements, respectively. Of the total of 115 869, 185 662 and 356 522 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers developed with high frequencies (408.2, 343.8 and 356.2 per Mb or one every 2.45, 2.91 and 2.81 kb, respectively), most represented new SSR markers, the majority had determined physical positions, and a large number were genic or putative single-locus SSR markers. We also constructed a comprehensive database for the newly developed SSR markers, which was integrated with public Brassica SSR markers and annotated genome components. The genome-wide SSR markers developed in this study provide a useful tool to extend the annotated genome resources of sequenced Brassica species to genetic study/breeding in different Brassica species.

  12. Genetic variability among advanced lines of brassica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullah, N.; Farhatullah, A.; Rahman, H.U.; Fayyaz, L.

    2015-01-01

    Genetic variability for morphological and biochemical traits among six advanced lines (F10:11) of brassica was studied at The University of Agriculture Peshawar during crop season of 2012-13. These lines were developed through interspecific hybridization. Significant differences at (p=0.01) for plant height, main, pods main raceme-1, pod length, seed yield plant-1 and protein content at (p=0.05) for 100-seed weight, oil content were recorded. The advanced line, AUP-05 produced the maximum seed yield plant-1 (19.73 g), protein content (24.56%), 100-seed weight (0.64 g). Advanced line AUP-04 had the highest erucic acid (50.31%), linolenic acid (10.60%) and was late maturing (179.33). Advanced line AUP-06 produced the high oil content (48.82%). Advanced line AUP-03 produced comparatively longer main raceme (69.32 cm). Environmental variance was smaller than genotypic variance for majority of the traits. Genotypic and phenotypic coefficients of variation ranged from 2.45 to 25.67% and 2.50 to 27.68%, respectively. Heritability was high for majority of the traits. The maximum heritability was recorded for plant height (0.61), main raceme length (0.81), pods main raceme-1 (0.74), seed yield plant-1 (0.86) and protein content (0.77). Moderate heritability was observed for oil (0.58) contents. Heritability for 100-seed weight (0.30) was the lowest. These lines may be released as new improved varieties for specific parameters. (author)

  13. Oxygen dependency of germinating Brassica seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Myoung Ryoul; Hasenstein, Karl H.

    2016-02-01

    Establishing plants in space, Moon or Mars requires adaptation to altered conditions, including reduced pressure and composition of atmospheres. To determine the oxygen requirements for seed germination, we imbibed Brassica rapa seeds under varying oxygen concentrations and profiled the transcription patterns of genes related to early metabolism such as starch degradation, glycolysis, and fermentation. We also analyzed the activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), and measured starch degradation. Partial oxygen pressure (pO2) greater than 10% resulted in normal germination (i.e., protrusion of radicle about 18 hours after imbibition) but lower pO2 delayed and reduced germination. Imbibition in an oxygen-free atmosphere for three days resulted in no germination but subsequent transfer to air initiated germination in 75% of the seeds and the root growth rate was transiently greater than in roots germinated under ambient pO2. In hypoxic seeds soluble sugars degraded faster but the content of starch after 24 h was higher than at ambient oxygen. Transcription of genes related to starch degradation, α-amylase (AMY) and Sucrose Synthase (SUS), was higher under ambient O2 than under hypoxia. Glycolysis and fermentation pathway-related genes, glucose phosphate isomerase (GPI), 6-phosphofructokinase (PFK), fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (ALD), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC), LDH, and ADH, were induced by low pO2. The activity of LDH and ADH was the highest in anoxic seeds. Germination under low O2 conditions initiated ethanolic fermentation. Therefore, sufficient oxygen availability is important for germination before photosynthesis provides necessary oxygen and the determination of an oxygen carrying capacity is important for uniform growth in space conditions.

  14. Efficacy of Different Insecticides in Controlling Pollen Beetle (Meligethes aeneus F. in Rapeseed Crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Predrag Milovanović

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Since pollen beetle, M. aeneus, is usually controlled by insecticides, the efficacy of several compounds with different modes of action against adult beetles was studied in a threeyear field study. The selected insecticides were: three pyrethroids (lambda-cyhalothrin, alpha-cypermethrin and bifenthrin, an oganophosphate (pirimiphos-methyl, a combination of an organophosphate and a pyrethroid (chlorpyrifos + cypermethrin and a neonicotinoid (thiacloprid. The insecticides were applied at label rates to winter rapeseed crops at the moment of visible but still closed flower buds (BBCH 55-57. In all experiments, the efficacy of pyrethroids and the organophosphate ranged from 90-100%, while the efficacy of the neonicotinoid was 85-95%. Therefore, they can be recommended for control of pollen beetle in Serbia.

  15. Fixed-bed hydrogen pyrolysis of rapeseed: product yields and compositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onay, O.; Kockar, O.M.; Gaines, A.F.; Snape, C.E.

    2006-01-01

    The fixed-bed hydro pyrolysis tests have been conducted on a sample of rapeseed to investigate the effect of hydro pyrolysis on the yields and chemical structures of bio-oils, with a view to improving overall product quality. A ammonium dioxydithiomolybdenate catalyst has been used in some tests to further increase conversion. The maximum bio-oil yield of 84% was obtained in hydrogen atmosphere (with catalyst) at hydrogen pressure of 15 MPa, hydrogen flow rate of 10 dm 3 min -1 , hydro pyrolysis temperature of 520 degree C, and heating rate of 5 o Cmin -1 . Then this bio-oil was characterized by elemental analysis and some spectroscopic and chromatographic techniques. And finally, this bio-oil yield and chemical composition compared with oil obtained from fast pyrolysis condition

  16. Preparation of Biodiesel with Liquid Synergetic Lipases from Rapeseed Oil Deodorizer Distillate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Leping; He, Yaojia; Jiao, Liangcheng; Li, Kai; Yan, Yunjun

    2017-11-01

    To reduce industrial production cost, cheap and easily available rapeseed oil deodorizer distillates were used as feedstock to prepare biodiesel in this study. As a result, liquid forms of Candida rugosa lipase and Rhizopus oryzae lipase (ROL) were functioned as new and effective catalysts with biodiesel yield of 92.63% for 30 h and 94.36% for 9 h, respectively. Furthermore, the synergetic effect between the two lipases was employed to enhance biodiesel yield with a result of 98.16% in 6 h under optimized conditions via response surface methodology. The obtained conversion rate surpassed both yields of the individual two lipases and markedly shortened the reaction time. The resultant optimal conditions were ROL ratio 0.84, water content 46 wt% (w/w), reaction temperature 34 °C, and reaction time 6 h.

  17. Shear and Rapeseed Oil Addition Affect the Crystal Polymorphic Behavior of Milk Fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaufmann, Niels; Kirkensgaard, Jacob Judas Kain; Andersen, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    The effect of shear on the crystallization kinetics of anhydrous milk fat (AMF) and blends with 20 and 30 % w/w added rapeseed oil (RO) was studied. Pulse 1H NMR was used to follow the a to b0 polymorphic transition. The NMR method was confirmed and supported by SAXS/WAXS experiments. Samples were...... faster in the presence of RO allowing more room for the conformational changes to occur. Final SFC decreased with increasing RO content. Shear applied in 20 and 30 % blends caused the destruction of b0-related 3L structure leaving only 2L packing. In AMF and statically crystallized samples, both 3L and 2......L packing existed. Shear did not affect the amount of b crystals formed. The study shows that both shear and RO affect the polymorphic behavior of milk fat, and that 1H NMR is able to detect polymorphic transition in blends with up to 30 % w/w RO....

  18. Plant regeneration of Brassica oleracea subsp. italica (Broccoli) CV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-06-03

    Jun 3, 2009 ... Department of Agriculture Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor Darul. Ehsan, Malaysia. Accepted 20 March, 2009. Hypocotyls and shoot tips were used as explants in in vitro plant regeneration of broccoli (Brassica oleracea subsp.italica) cv. Green Marvel.

  19. Processing of Brassica seeds for feedstock in biofuels production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several Brassica species are currently being evaluated to develop regionalized production systems based on their suitability to the environment and with the prevailing practices of growing commodity food crops like wheat, corn, and soybeans. This integrated approach to farming will provide high qual...

  20. Genetic diversity analysis of mustard ( Brassica spp.) germplasm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Molecular characterization of 16 mustard (Brassica spp.) genotypes by using 12 RAPD markers revealed that three primers GLA-11, OPB-04 and OPD-02 showed good technical resolution and sufficient variations among different genotypes. A total of 40 RAPD bands were scored of which 38 (94.87%) polymorphic ...

  1. Phytotoxicity assay for seed production using Brassica rapa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although pesticide drift can affect crop yield adversely, current plant testing protocols emphasize only the potential impacts on vegetative plant growth. The present study was conducted to determine whether a plant species with a short life cycle, such as Brassica rapa L. Wiscon...

  2. Phenotyping of Brassica napus for high oil content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multi-trait and multi-growth stage phenotyping may improve our ability to assess the dynamic changes in the B. napus phenome under spatiotemporal field conditions. A minimum set of phenotypic traits that can integrate ontogeny and architecture of Brassica napus L. is required for breeding and select...

  3. Study of total seed storage protein in indigenous Brassica species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    2010-11-08

    Nov 8, 2010 ... Brassica napus. Acc. No Location. Acc. No Location. Acc. No Location. Acc. No Location. 500. Islamsbad. 522. Hassan Abdal. 544. Naseer abad. 566. Rawalpindi. 501. Islamsbad. 523. Bannu. 545. Jaglot. 567. Karak. 502. Rawalakot. 524. Karak. 546. Haripur North. 568. Akora Khattack. 503. Sibi. 525.

  4. Mineral, vitamin C and crude protein contents in kale ( Brassica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study compares mineral, vitamin C and crude protein contents at different harvesting stages in kale (Brassica oleraceae var. acephala). Three different harvest periods as first harvest stage (at the rosette stage), second harvest stage (at the budding stage) and third harvest stage (at the flowering/blooming stage) were ...

  5. Suitability of an artificial diet for rape aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-09-15

    Sep 15, 2009 ... Brevicoryne brassicae, using life table parameters. A. Balvasi1* ... In this work, suitability of an artificial diet was studied through age-specific life tables. Development ... In large measure, the success of entomology over the past century is ..... balance on the improvement of an artificial diet for a biotype of.

  6. Occurrence of Escherichia coli in Brassica rapa L. chinensis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Low quality water has become valuable resource with restricted or unrestricted use in food production depending on its quality. This study has quantified the occurrence of Escherichia coli in Brassica rapa L. chinensis (Chinese cabbage) vegetables and low quality irrigation water. A total of 106 samples including Chinese ...

  7. Glucosinolates during preparation of Brassica vegetables in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nugrahedi, P.Y.

    2015-01-01

    Title:

    Glucosinolates during preparation of Brassica vegetables in Indonesia

    Dutch translation of title:

    Effecten van Indonesische bereidingsmethoden op gezondheidsbevorderende stoffen in groenten

    Title/description

  8. Molecular characterization of some local and exotic Brassica juncea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-07-18

    Jul 18, 2007 ... 1Institute of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering (IBGE) NWFP Agricultural University, Peshawar, Pakistan. 2Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, NWFP Agricultural University Peshawar, Pakistan. Accepted 14 June, 2007. The production of Brassica germplasm with a wider genetic base is ...

  9. Local cabbage ( Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.) populations from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In previous experiments, we were able to augment cabbages (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L.) with two new local open pollinated (OP) populations and one cultivar. The type of use indicated that these are cabbages with thinner and juicier leaves, which predisposes their heads for fine grating and also makes their ...

  10. Identification of seed-related QTL in Brassica rapa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bagheri, H.; Pino del Carpio, D.; Hanhart, C.J.; Bonnema, A.B.; Keurentjes, J.J.B.; Aarts, M.G.M.

    2013-01-01

    To reveal the genetic variation, and loci involved, for a range of seed-related traits, a new F2 mapping population was developed by crossing Brassica rapa ssp. parachinensis L58 (CaiXin) with B. rapa ssp. trilocularis R-o-18 (spring oil seed), both rapid flowering and self-compatible. A linkage map

  11. Factors affecting the density of Brassica napus seeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Young, L.; Jalink, H.; Denkert, R.; Reaney, M.

    2006-01-01

    Brassica napus seed is composed of low density oil (0.92 g.cm(-3)) and higher density solids (1.3-1.45 g.cm(-3)). Seed buoyant density may potentially be used to determine seed oil content and to separate seeds with different oil contents, however, we have found that seeds with the lowest buoyant

  12. Respon Tiga Varietas Sawi (Brassica Rapa L.) Terhadap Cekaman Air

    OpenAIRE

    Moctava, Mohammad Aries; Koesriharti, Koesriharti; Maghfoer, Mochammad Dawam

    2013-01-01

    Kebutuhan air tanaman berbeda-beda tergantung pada jenis tanamannya. Ketersediaan air bagi tanaman yang tidak mencukupi akan mempengaruhi morfologi dan fisiologis sehingga pertumbuhan dan hasil tanaman. Tujuan dari penelitian mendapatkan varietas sawi (Brassica rapa L.) yang tahan terhadap cekaman air. Penelitian dilaksanakan pada bulan Oktober sampai dengan Desember 2012. Tempat penelitian Kebun Percobaan Fakultas Pertanian Brawijaya, Desa Jatikerto, Kabupaten Malang.Penelitian menggunakan ...

  13. Effect of graded levels of rapeseed oil in isonitrogenous diets on the development of the gastrointestinal tract, and utilisation of protein, fat and energy in broiler chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henry; Zhao, Xin Quan; Theil, Peter Kappel

    2008-01-01

    The effect of feeding 0, 4, 8 and 16% rapeseed oil from 12-42 days of age was studied in broiler chickens on performance, digestibility of nutrients, and development of gastrointestinal tract, protein and energy metabolism. Thirty six female chickens (Ross 208) with initial body weight average 246...... periods each of five days with two 24 h measurements of gas exchange in two open-air-circuit respiration chambers inserted on the second and third day of each period. The addition of rapeseed oil increased the amount of gutfill indicating a reduced rate of passage and causing a hypertrophy...... of the gastrointestinal tract. There was a positive effect on feed utilisation as well as on digestibility especially of dietary fat together with higher utilisation of protein with addition of rapeseed oil. The partial fat digestibility of rapeseed oil estimated by regression was 91.1% and the partial metabolisability...

  14. Physicochemical Properties Analysis and Secretome of Aspergillus niger in Fermented Rapeseed Meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Changyou; He, Jun; Yu, Jie; Yu, Bing; Mao, Xiangbing; Zheng, Ping; Huang, Zhiqing; Chen, Daiwen

    2016-01-01

    The nutrient digestibility and feeding value of rapeseed meal (RSM) for non-ruminant animals is poor due to the presence of anti-nutritional substances such as glucosinolate, phytic acid, crude fiber etc. In the present study, a solid state fermentation (SSF) using Aspergillus niger was carried out with the purpose of improving the nutritional quality of RSM. The chemical composition and physicochemical properties of RSM before and after fermentation were compared. To further understand possible mechanism of solid state fermentation, the composition of extracellular enzymes secreted by Aspergillus niger during fermentation was analysed using two-dimentional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) combined with matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometer (MALDI-TOF-MS). Results of the present study indicated that SSF had significant effects on chemical composition of RSM. The fermented rapeseed meal (FRSM) contained more crude protein (CP) and amino acid (AA) (except His) than unfermented RSM. Notably, the small peptide in FRSM was 2.26 time larger than that in unfermented RSM. Concentrations of anti-nutritional substrates in FRSM including neutral detergent fiber (NDF), glucosinolates, isothiocyanate, oxazolidithione, and phytic acid declined (P niger fermentation disrupted the surface structure, changed macromolecular organic compounds, and reduced the protein molecular weights of RSM substrate. Total proteins of raw RSM and FRSM were separated and 51 protein spots were selected for mass spectrometry according to 2D-DIGE map. In identified proteins, there were 15 extracellular hydrolases secreted by A. niger including glucoamylase, acid protease, beta-glucanase, arabinofuranosidase, xylanase, and phytase. Some antioxidant related enzymes also were identified. These findings suggested that A. niger is able to secrete many extracellular degradation enzymes (especially lignocellulosic hydrolyzing enzymes, acid proteases and phytase

  15. Flame structure, spectroscopy and emissions quantification of rapeseed biodiesel under model gas turbine conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chong, Cheng Tung; Hochgreb, Simone

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Rapeseed biodiesel shows extended flame reaction zone with no soot formation. • RME spray flame shows higher droplet number density and volume flux than diesel. • RME droplet size and velocity distribution are similar to diesel. • Blending 50% RME with diesel reduces soot formation non-linearly. • RME shows lower NO_x and higher CO emissions level compared to diesel. - Abstract: The spray combustion characteristics of rapeseed biodiesel/methyl esters (RME) and 50% RME/diesel blend were investigated and compared with conventional diesel fuel, using a model swirl flame burner. The detailed database with well-characterised boundary conditions can be used as validation targets for flame modelling. An airblast, swirl-atomized liquid fuel spray was surrounded by air preheated to 350 °C at atmospheric pressure. The reacting droplet distribution within the flame was determined using phase Doppler particle anemometry. For both diesel and RME, peak droplet concentrations are found on the outside of the flame region, with large droplets migrating to the outside via swirl, and smaller droplets located around the centreline region. However, droplet concentrations and sizes are larger for RME, indicating a longer droplet evaporation timescale. This delayed droplet vaporisation leads to a different reaction zone relative to diesel, with an extended core reaction. In spite of the longer reaction zone, RME flames displayed no sign of visible soot radiation, unlike the case of diesel spray flame. Blending 50% RME with diesel results in significant reduction in soot radiation. Finally, RME emits 22% on average lower NO_x emissions compared to diesel under lean burning conditions.

  16. Nutritional value of yellow-seeded winter rapeseed cakes for growing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Święch

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective of the study was to compare the composition and nutritional value of a winter brown- (BRC and three yellow-seeded (YRC cold-pressed rapeseed cakes as the components of pigs’ diets, and to assess their effects on colonic bacterial fermentation and the relative weight of organs. In experiment 1, the standardised ileal digestibility (SID of protein and amino acids (AA of cakes was determined in 12 male cannulated pigs. Each diet was fed to six pigs during three seven-day periods. Ileal digesta was collected during the last three days of the period. In experiment 2, five groups each containing six female pigs with initial body weights (BW of 20 kg were fed on diets containing BRC, YRC, or soyabean oil meal (SBM as the main protein source. The apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD of nutrients and growth performance were measured untill 60 kg BW was reached, and short chain fatty acids (SCFA concentrations in the colon, as well as the weight of the liver, kidney, heart, and thyroid, were recorded. The main differences between BRC and YRC were found in higher content of fat and protein, lower amounts of fibre and glucosinolates (Gls, and higher ATTD of fibre in YRC. Protein and AA SID, ATTD of nutrients, total SCFA colonic concentration, and growth performance did not significantly differ. The chemical composition of the three YRC was not uniform, the greatest differences were found among the amounts of Gls. The relative weights of the thyroid and heart were greater in pigs fed BRC than in YRC and SBM diets. Thyroid weight was positively correlated with dietary progoitrin, alkenyl Gls, and total Gls, whereas heart weight was positively correlated with progoitrin and alkenyl Gls. It was concluded that winter yellow-seeded rapeseed is a better raw material for cold-pressing than brown-seeded due to having lower Gls and fibre content. 

  17. Quantitative evaluation of multi-walled carbon nanotube uptake in wheat and rapeseed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larue, Camille, E-mail: Camille.larue@cea.fr [UMR3299 CEA-CNRS, Service Interdisciplinaire des Systemes Moleculaires et Materiaux, Laboratoire Structure et Dynamique par Resonance Magnetique (LSDRM), CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Pinault, Mathieu, E-mail: Mathieu.pinault@cea.fr [CEA, IRAMIS, SPAM, Laboratoire Francis Perrin (CNRS URA 2453), 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Czarny, Bertrand, E-mail: Bertrand.czarny@cea.fr [CEA, iBiTecS SIMOPRO, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Georgin, Dominique, E-mail: Dominique.georgin@cea.fr [CEA, IBiTecS, SCBM, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Jaillard, Danielle, E-mail: danielle.jaillard@u-psud.fr [UMR8195 CNRS-Universite Paris-Sud, Centre Commun de Microscopie Electronique, F-91405 Orsay (France); Bendiab, Nedjma, E-mail: Nedjma.bendiab@grenoble.cnrs.fr [Institut Neel, CNRS-Universite Joseph Fourier, 25 rue des Martyrs, 38049 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Mayne-L' Hermite, Martine, E-mail: martine.mayne@cea.fr [CEA, IRAMIS, SPAM, Laboratoire Francis Perrin (CNRS URA 2453), 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Taran, Frederic, E-mail: frederic.taran@cea.fr [CEA, IBiTecS, SCBM, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Dive, Vincent, E-mail: vincent.dive@cea.fr [CEA, iBiTecS SIMOPRO, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); and others

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Wheat and rapeseed accumulate MWCNT through root exposure, and translocate them to their leaves. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Transfer factor of MWCNT from hydroponic solution to leaves never exceeds 0.005 Per-Mille-Sign . Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MWCNT majorly accumulate in the most peripheral areas and in newly developed leaves. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Accumulation of less than 200 ng MWCNT per g of leaf does not impact plant development and physiology. - Abstract: Environmental contamination with carbon nanotubes would lead to plant exposure and particularly exposure of agricultural crops. The only quantitative exposure data available to date which can be used for risk assessment comes from computer modeling. The aim of this study was to provide quantitative data relative to multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) uptake and distribution in agricultural crops, and to correlate accumulation data with impact on plant development and physiology. Roots of wheat and rapeseed were exposed in hydroponics to uniformly {sup 14}C-radiolabeled MWCNTs. Radioimaging, transmission electron microscopy and raman spectroscopy were used to identify CNT distribution. Radioactivity counting made it possible absolute quantification of CNT accumulation in plant leaves. Impact of CNTs on seed germination, root elongation, plant biomass, evapotranspiration, chlorophyll, thiobarbituric acid reactive species and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} contents was evaluated. We demonstrate that less than 0.005 Per-Mille-Sign of the applied MWCNT dose is taken up by plant roots and translocated to the leaves. This accumulation does not impact plant development and physiology. In addition, it does not induce any modifications in photosynthetic activity nor cause oxidative stress in plant leaves. Our results suggest that if environmental contamination occurs and MWCNTs are in the same physico-chemical state than the ones used in the present article, MWCNT transfer to

  18. Quantitative evaluation of multi-walled carbon nanotube uptake in wheat and rapeseed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larue, Camille; Pinault, Mathieu; Czarny, Bertrand; Georgin, Dominique; Jaillard, Danielle; Bendiab, Nedjma; Mayne-L’Hermite, Martine; Taran, Frédéric; Dive, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Wheat and rapeseed accumulate MWCNT through root exposure, and translocate them to their leaves. ► Transfer factor of MWCNT from hydroponic solution to leaves never exceeds 0.005‰. ► MWCNT majorly accumulate in the most peripheral areas and in newly developed leaves. ► Accumulation of less than 200 ng MWCNT per g of leaf does not impact plant development and physiology. - Abstract: Environmental contamination with carbon nanotubes would lead to plant exposure and particularly exposure of agricultural crops. The only quantitative exposure data available to date which can be used for risk assessment comes from computer modeling. The aim of this study was to provide quantitative data relative to multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) uptake and distribution in agricultural crops, and to correlate accumulation data with impact on plant development and physiology. Roots of wheat and rapeseed were exposed in hydroponics to uniformly 14 C-radiolabeled MWCNTs. Radioimaging, transmission electron microscopy and raman spectroscopy were used to identify CNT distribution. Radioactivity counting made it possible absolute quantification of CNT accumulation in plant leaves. Impact of CNTs on seed germination, root elongation, plant biomass, evapotranspiration, chlorophyll, thiobarbituric acid reactive species and H 2 O 2 contents was evaluated. We demonstrate that less than 0.005‰ of the applied MWCNT dose is taken up by plant roots and translocated to the leaves. This accumulation does not impact plant development and physiology. In addition, it does not induce any modifications in photosynthetic activity nor cause oxidative stress in plant leaves. Our results suggest that if environmental contamination occurs and MWCNTs are in the same physico-chemical state than the ones used in the present article, MWCNT transfer to the food chain via food crops would be very low.

  19. Atmospheric H2S and SO2 as sulfur sources for Brassica juncea and Brassica rapa: Regulation of sulfur uptake and assimilation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aghajanzadeh, T.; Hawkesford, M.J.; De Kok, L.J.

    2016-01-01

    Brassica juncea and Brassica rapa were able to utilize foliarly absorbed H2S and SO2 as sulfur source for growth and resulted in a decreased sink capacity of the shoot for sulfur supplied by the root and subsequently in a partial decrease in sulfate uptake capacity of the roots. Sulfate-deprived

  20. Effect of Scarification, Self-Inhibition, and Sowing Depth on Seed Germination of Lupinus campestris Efecto de la Escarificación, Autoinhibición y Profundidad de Siembra sobre la Germinación de Semillas de Lupinus campestris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Gutiérrez Nava

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Lupinus campestris Schltdl. & Cham. grows in shallow fields and disturbed areas of Central Mexico. It has potential to improve soil fertility and as fodder. Seeds of L. campestris show dormancy, and the technology needed to increase its potential use requires information about conditions favouring seed germination. The aim of this study was to evaluate the seed germination responseof L. campestris under controlled (laboratory and natural field conditions. Under laboratory conditions, 2 yr old seeds had a maximum germination percentage (50% when they were scarified with sulphuric acid for 90 min prior to sowing and when laboratory light (0.5 µmol m-2 s-1 was maintained during the diurnal period. Without scarification, only about 3% of the seeds germinated. Light in laboratory resulted in an increased seed germination as compared to darkness condition. In the field experiment 1 yr old seeds were used testing the following treatments: (a seed scarification (seeds scarified by 30 min immersion in sulphuric acid vs. not scarified, (b presence or absence of plants of L. campestris in plots before field experiments, and (c sowing depth (on soil surface and at 3 cm deep. The scarified seeds showed a germination percentage range between 50 and 64%, whereas non-scarified seeds had 9 to 16% germination. The seeds sowed in plots with or without plants of L. campestris (before the experiment germinated similarly, indicating no evidence of self-inhibition of germination. Three conclusions come out: (1 Scarification treatment with sulphuric acid effectively breaks dormancy in L. campestris seeds; (2 Direct sowing of scarified seeds (on the soil surface or at 3 cm depth resulted in a range of 50-64% of germination under field conditions; and (3 no evidence was obtained for self-inhibition or a positive interaction between preceding vegetation and seed germination of L. campestris.Lupinus campestris Schltdl. & Cham. crece en campos en descanso y

  1. Functional analysis and tissue-differential expression of four FAD2 genes in amphidiploid Brassica napus derived from Brassica rapa and Brassica oleracea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyeong-Ryeol; In Sohn, Soo; Jung, Jin Hee; Kim, Sun Hee; Roh, Kyung Hee; Kim, Jong-Bum; Suh, Mi Chung; Kim, Hyun Uk

    2013-12-01

    Fatty acid desaturase 2 (FAD2), which resides in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), plays a crucial role in producing linoleic acid (18:2) through catalyzing the desaturation of oleic acid (18:1) by double bond formation at the delta 12 position. FAD2 catalyzes the first step needed for the production of polyunsaturated fatty acids found in the glycerolipids of cell membranes and the triacylglycerols in seeds. In this study, four FAD2 genes from amphidiploid Brassica napus genome were isolated by PCR amplification, with their enzymatic functions predicted by sequence analysis of the cDNAs. Fatty acid analysis of budding yeast transformed with each of the FAD2 genes showed that whereas BnFAD2-1, BnFAD2-2, and BnFAD2-4 are functional enzymes, and BnFAD2-3 is nonfunctional. The four FAD2 genes of B. napus originated from synthetic hybridization of its diploid progenitors Brassica rapa and Brassica oleracea, each of which has two FAD2 genes identical to those of B. napus. The BnFAD2-3 gene of B. napus, a nonfunctional pseudogene mutated by multiple nucleotide deletions and insertions, was inherited from B. rapa. All BnFAD2 isozymes except BnFAD2-3 localized to the ER. Nonfunctional BnFAD2-3 localized to the nucleus and chloroplasts. Four BnFAD2 genes can be classified on the basis of their expression patterns. © 2013.

  2. Genome-wide identification of QTL for seed yield and yield-related traits and construction of a high-density consensus map for QTL comparison in Brassica napus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiguo eZhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Seed yield (SY is the most important trait in rapeseed, which was determined by multiple seed yield-related traits (SYRTs and also easily subject to environmental influence. Lots of quantitative trait loci (QTL for SY and SYRTs were reported in Brassica napus. However, no studies have focused on SY and seven agronomic traits affecting SY simultaneous. Genome-wide QTL analysis for SY and seven SYRTs in eight environments was conducted in a doubled haploid population containing 348 lines. Totally, 18 and 208 QTLs for SY and SYRTs were observed, respectively, and then these QTLs were integrated into 144 consensus QTLs by a meta-analysis. Three major QTLs for SY were observed, including cqSY-C6-2 and cqSY-C6-3 that expressed stably in winter cultivation area for three years and cqSY-A2-2 only expressed in spring rapeseed area. Trait-by-trait meta-analysis revealed that the 144 consensus QTLs were integrated into 72 pleiotropic unique QTLs. Among them, all the unique QTLs affected SY, except for uq-A6-1, including uq.A2-3, uq.C1-2, uq.C1-3, uq.C6-1, uq.C6-5 and uq.C6-6 could also affect more than two SYRTs. According to high density consensus map construction and QTL comparison from literature, 36 QTLs from five populations were co-localized with QTLs identified in this study. In addition, 13 orthologs genes were observed, including five each genes for SY and SW, one each gene for BY, BH and PH, respectively. The genomic information of these QTLs would be valuable in hybrid cultivar breeding, and be helpful to analyze QTL expression in different environments.

  3. The response of transgenic Brassica species to salt stress: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Nadil; Anwar, Sumera; Xu, Jingjing; Hou, Zhaoke; Salah, Akram; Khan, Shahbaz; Gong, Jianfang; Shang, Zhengwei; Qian, Li; Zhang, Chunyu

    2018-06-01

    Salt stress is considered one of the main abiotic factors to limit crop growth and productivity by affecting morpho-physiological and biochemical processes. Genetically, a number of salt tolerant Brassica varieties have been developed and introduced, but breeding of such varieties is time consuming. Therefore, current focus is on transgenic technology, which plays an important role in the development of salt tolerant varieties. Various salt tolerant genes have been characterized and incorporated into Brassica. Therefore, such genetic transformation of Brassica species is a significant step for improvement of crops, as well as conferring salt stress resistance qualities to Brassica species. Complete genome sequencing has made the task of genetically transforming Brassica species easier, by identifying desired candidate genes. The present review discusses relevant information about the principles which should be employed to develop transgenic Brassica species, and also will recommend tools for improved tolerance to salinity.

  4. Quality control of mixtures consisting of engine oil and rapeseed oil by means of online oil sensors; Qualitaetsueberwachung von Motoroel-Rapsoelmischungen mit Online-Oelsensoren. Labortests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thuneke, Klaus; Schreiber, Katja [Technologie- und Foerderzentrum, Straubing (Germany)

    2013-10-01

    It was the goal of the work to investigate interactions between motor oils and rapeseed oil fuel and to test oil sensors for monitoring the quality of aged mixtures of motor oil and rapeseed oil. At first oil samples were aged in the laboratory, whereby motor oil type, share of rapeseed oil and aeration was varied. Depending on type of engine oil different ageing effects were noticed. Higher shares of rapeseed and aeration stimulate increase of viscosity and acid value. In a further step online oil sensors were tested in both, a model of a lubrication system and a test engine. The signals of the sensors plausibly described the oil ageing process by the indicators dynamic or acoustic viscosity, permittivity number, specific electric conductivity. In particular viscosity and permittivity are suitable for showing changes in different motor oil rapeseed oil mixtures during oil ageing. However, for a reliable control system detecting critical rapeseed oil enrichment in the motor oil onboard, further work has to be done. (orig.)

  5. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in exhaust emissions from diesel engines powered by rapeseed oil methylester and heated non-esterified rapeseed oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vojtisek-Lom, Michal; Czerwinski, Jan; Leníček, Jan; Sekyra, Milan; Topinka, Jan

    2012-12-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) of exhaust emissions were studied in four direct-injection turbocharged four-cylinder diesel engines, with power ratings of 90-136 kW. The engines were operated on biodiesel (B-100), a blend of 30% biodiesel in diesel fuel (B-30), and heated rapeseed oil (RO) in two independent laboratories. Diesel particle filters (DPF) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems were used with B-30 and B-100. Concentrations of individual PAHs sampled in different substrates (quartz, borosilicate fiber and fluorocarbon membrane filters, polyurethane foam) were analyzed using different methods. Benzo[a]pyrene toxic equivalents (BaP TEQ) were calculated using different sets of toxic equivalency factors (TEF). Operation on B-100 without aftertreatment devices, compared to diesel fuel, yielded a mean reduction in PAHs of 73%, consistent across engines and among TEF used. A lower PAH reduction was obtained using B-30. The BaP TEQ reductions on DPF were 91-99% using B-100, for one non-catalyzed DPF, and over 99% in all other cases. The BaP TEQ for heated RO were higher than those for B-100 and one half lower to over twice as high as that of diesel fuel. B-100 and RO samples featured, compared to diesel fuel, a relatively high share of higher molecular weight PAH and a relatively low share of lighter PAHs. Using different sets of TEF or different detection methods did not consistently affect the observed effect of fuels on BaP TEQ. The compilation of multiple tests was helpful for discerning emerging patterns. The collection of milligrams of particulate matter per sample was generally needed for quantification of all individual PAHs.

  6. Quantification of Plasmodiophora brassicae Using a DNA-Based Soil Test Facilitates Sustainable Oilseed Rape Production

    OpenAIRE

    Ann-Charlotte Wallenhammar; Albin Gunnarson; Fredrik Hansson; Anders Jonsson

    2016-01-01

    Outbreaks of clubroot disease caused by the soil-borne obligate parasite Plasmodiophora brassicae are common in oilseed rape (OSR) in Sweden. A DNA-based soil testing service that identifies fields where P. brassicae poses a significant risk of clubroot infection is now commercially available. It was applied here in field surveys to monitor the prevalence of P. brassicae DNA in field soils intended for winter OSR production and winter OSR field experiments. In 2013 in Scania, prior to plantin...

  7. Molecular breeding in Brassica for salt tolerance: importance of microsatellite (SSR) markers for molecular breeding in Brassica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manu; Choi, Ju-Young; Kumari, Nisha; Pareek, Ashwani; Kim, Seong-Ryong

    2015-01-01

    Salinity is one of the important abiotic factors for any crop management in irrigated as well as rainfed areas, which leads to poor harvests. This yield reduction in salt affected soils can be overcome by improving salt tolerance in crops or by soil reclamation. Salty soils can be reclaimed by leaching the salt or by cultivation of salt tolerance crops. Salt tolerance is a quantitative trait controlled by several genes. Poor knowledge about mechanism of its inheritance makes slow progress in its introgression into target crops. Brassica is known to be a good reclamation crop. Inter and intra specific variation within Brassica species shows potential of molecular breeding to raise salinity tolerant genotypes. Among the various molecular markers, SSR markers are getting high attention, since they are randomly sparsed, highly variable and show co-dominant inheritance. Furthermore, as sequencing techniques are improving and softwares to find SSR markers are being developed, SSR markers technology is also evolving rapidly. Comparative SSR marker studies targeting Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica species which lie in the same family will further aid in studying the salt tolerance related QTLs and subsequent identification of the “candidate genes” and finding out the origin of important QTLs. Although, there are a few reports on molecular breeding for improving salt tolerance using molecular markers in Brassica species, usage of SSR markers has a big potential to improve salt tolerance in Brassica crops. In order to obtain best harvests, role of SSR marker driven breeding approaches play important role and it has been discussed in this review especially for the introgression of salt tolerance traits in crops. PMID:26388887

  8. Molecular breeding in Brassica for salt tolerance: importance of microsatellite (SSR) markers for molecular breeding in Brassica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manu; Choi, Ju-Young; Kumari, Nisha; Pareek, Ashwani; Kim, Seong-Ryong

    2015-01-01

    Salinity is one of the important abiotic factors for any crop management in irrigated as well as rainfed areas, which leads to poor harvests. This yield reduction in salt affected soils can be overcome by improving salt tolerance in crops or by soil reclamation. Salty soils can be reclaimed by leaching the salt or by cultivation of salt tolerance crops. Salt tolerance is a quantitative trait controlled by several genes. Poor knowledge about mechanism of its inheritance makes slow progress in its introgression into target crops. Brassica is known to be a good reclamation crop. Inter and intra specific variation within Brassica species shows potential of molecular breeding to raise salinity tolerant genotypes. Among the various molecular markers, SSR markers are getting high attention, since they are randomly sparsed, highly variable and show co-dominant inheritance. Furthermore, as sequencing techniques are improving and softwares to find SSR markers are being developed, SSR markers technology is also evolving rapidly. Comparative SSR marker studies targeting Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica species which lie in the same family will further aid in studying the salt tolerance related QTLs and subsequent identification of the "candidate genes" and finding out the origin of important QTLs. Although, there are a few reports on molecular breeding for improving salt tolerance using molecular markers in Brassica species, usage of SSR markers has a big potential to improve salt tolerance in Brassica crops. In order to obtain best harvests, role of SSR marker driven breeding approaches play important role and it has been discussed in this review especially for the introgression of salt tolerance traits in crops.

  9. Radiation effects on Brassica seeds and seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deoli, Naresh; Hasenstein, Karl H.

    2016-07-01

    Space radiation consists of high energy charged particles and affects biological systems, but because of its stochastic, non-directional nature is difficult to replicate on Earth. Radiation damages biological systems acutely at high doses or cumulatively at low doses through progressive changes in DNA organization. These damages lead to death or cause of mutations. While radiation biology typically focuses on mammalian or human systems, little is known as to how radiation affects plants. In addition, energetic ion beams are widely used to generate new mutants in plants considering their high-LET (Linear Energy Transfer) as compared to gamma rays and X-rays. Understanding the effect of ionizing radiation on plant provides a basis for studying effects of radiation on biological systems and will help mitigate (space) radiation damage in plants. We exposed dry and imbibed Brassica rapa seeds and seedling roots to proton beams of varying qualities and compared the theoretical penetration range of different energy levels with observable growth response. We used 1, 2 and 3 MeV protons in air at the varying fluences to investigate the effect of direct irradiation on the seeds (1012 - 1015 ions/cm2) and seedlings (1013 ions/cm2). The range of protons in the tissue was calculated using Monte-Carlo based SRIM (Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter) software. The simulation and biological results indicate that ions did not penetrate the tissue of dry or hydrated seeds at all used ion energies. Therefore the entire energy was transferred to the treated tissue. Irradiated seeds were germinated vertically under dim light and roots growth was observed for two days after imbibition. The LD50 of the germination was about 2×1014 ions/cm2 and about 5×1014 ions/cm2 for imbibed and dry seeds, respectively. Since seedlings are most sensitive to gravity, the change in gravitropic behavior is a convenient means to assess radiation damage on physiological responses other than direct tissue

  10. Characterization and expression patterns of small RNAs in synthesized Brassica hexaploids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yanyue; Zhao, Qin; Zou, Jun; Wang, Wenliang; Gao, Yi; Meng, Jinling; Wang, Jianbo

    2014-06-01

    Polyploidy has played an important role in promoting plant evolution through genomic merging and doubling. We used high-throughput sequencing to compare miRNA expression profiles between Brassica hexaploid and its parents. A total of 613, 784 and 742 known miRNAs were identified in Brassica rapa, Brassica carinata, and Brassica hexaploid, respectively. We detected 618 miRNAs were differentially expressed (log(2)Ratio ≥ 1, P ≤ 0.05) between Brassica hexaploid and its parents, and 425 miRNAs were non-additively expressed in Brassica hexaploid, which suggest a trend of non-additive miRNA regulation following hybridization and polyploidization. Remarkably, majority of the non-additively expressed miRNAs in the Brassica hexaploid are repressed, and there was a bias toward repression of B. rapa miRNAs, which is consistent with the progenitor-biased gene repression in the synthetic allopolyploids. In addition, we identified 653 novel mature miRNAs in Brassica hexaploid and its parents. Finally, we found that almost all the non-additive accumulation of siRNA clusters exhibited a low-parent pattern in Brassica hexaploid. Non-additive small RNA regulation is involved in a range of biological pathways, probably providing a driving force for variation and adaptation in allopolyploids.

  11. Studies on the physiological changes in the rice plants infected with Xanthomonas campestris pv. of oryzae, (4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Minoru; Samejima, Shin-ichi; Hayashi, Nobuo; Hosokawa, Daijiro

    1980-01-01

    The translocation and accumulation of 14 C-photosynthetic assimilates in rice plants infected with Xanthomonas campestris pv. oryzae were investigated. Approximately the same quantities of assimilates were detected in healthy and infected leaves 1 day after photosynthesis, but 1.7 times as much as healthy leaves assimilates were still remained in infected leaves 7 days after photosynthesis. Much more 14 C-photosynthetic assimilates were generally detected in leaf blade than in leaf sheath or in root within 1 day after photosynthesis, but detected in leaf sheath than in leaf blade later than 2 days after photosynthesis. The rates of translocation of 14 C-assimilates from leaf blade to leaf sheath were lower in inoculated rice plants than in healthy ones. In both healthy and inoculated leaves of susceptible and resistant cultivars, there was a tendency that 14 C-sugar contents decreased, but 14 C-organic acid and -amino acid contents increased gradually after photosynthesis. Incorporation of 14 C-photosynthetic assimilates into invading bacterial cells which were separated from leaf tissues by the methods of leakage and Millipore filtration was not detected immediately after photosynthesis, but became apparent 5 days after photosynthesis. The leakage of 14 C-photosynthetic assimilates from leaf tissues into bathing solution was about 4 times higher in infected leaves than in healthy ones 5 days after photosynthesis, suggesting that the permeability in infected leaf tissues would increase. (author)

  12. Morphological and biochemical characterization of xanthomonas campestris (pammel) dawson pv. Sesame and it's management by bacterial antagonists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naqvi, S.F.; Haq, M.I.U.; Tahir, M.I.; Khan, M.A.; Ali, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Isolates of Xanthomonas campestris (Pammel) Dawson pv. sesami (Xcs) were collected from various locations in Pakistan and were characterized using several biochemical tests including; (KOH) string test, gram staining, H/sub 2/S production, catalase activity, oxidation/fermentation of glucose, oxidase activity and nitrate reduction. The isolates were positive in tests for KOH string assay, H/sub 2/S, catalase and showed negative reactions in gram staining, oxidase test and nitrate reduction while oxidative utilization of glucose was observed. To develop biological control for the pathogen we isolated numerous bacteria from the rhizosphere of sesame plants and screened them for antagonism against the pathogen using the zone inhibition method. Out of 87 isolates, 9 isolates were inhibitory to the pathogen in vitro. Pseudomonas fluorescens ID-3 exhibited the highest zone of inhibition i.e. 7.97mm. All antagonistic isolates were tested for disease control under greenhouse conditions. Four sesame lines that were found to be moderately resistant in previous studies (i.e. 95001, 96007, 96019, and 20003) were selected for evaluating biocontrol efficacy. The isolates were found to control the disease and reduced severity to 3% compared to untreated plants. The isolate P. fluorescens ID-3 was considered to provide the best disease control with each cultivar. Average biocontrol efficiency (BE) of ID-3 was 78.25% while the best BE was obtained in line 96019, i.e. 81%. (author)

  13. Experimental investigations of combustion and emission characteristics of rapeseed oil–diesel blends in a two cylinder agricultural diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi, D.H.; Lee, C.F.; Jia, C.C.; Wang, P.P.; Wu, S.T.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The main properties of rapeseed oil and diesel fuel were measure and analyzed. • The cylinder pressure of the rapeseed oil–diesel blends was measured and compared. • The heat release rate of the test fuels was calculated and the combustion process was analyzed. • The fuel consumption and emissions characteristics were measured and compared. - Abstract: The main objective of this paper was to study the performance, emissions and combustion characteristics of a diesel engine using rapeseed oil–diesel blends. The main fuel properties of rapeseed oil (RSO) were investigated and compared with that of diesel fuel. The experimental results showed that the viscosity and density of the blends were decreased and approached to that of diesel fuel when RSO volume fraction was less than 20%. At low engine loads, the start of combustion for the blends was almost similar to that for diesel fuel, but the peak cylinder pressure and heat release rate were higher. At high engine loads, the start of combustion for the blends was slightly earlier than that for diesel fuel, but the peak cylinder pressure and heat release rate were identical. For the blends, there was slightly higher brake specific fuel consumptions (BSFC) and brake specific energy consumptions (BSEC) at low engine loads. Smoke emission was higher at low engine loads, but lower at high engine loads. Nitrogen oxide (NO x ) emission was observed slightly lower at low engine loads and almost identical at high engine loads. Carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbon (HC) emission were higher under all range of engine loads for the blends

  14. Tracing the Transcriptomic Changes in Synthetic Trigenomic allohexaploids of Brassica Using an RNA-Seq Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qin; Zou, Jun; Meng, Jinling; Mei, Shiyong; Wang, Jianbo

    2013-01-01

    Polyploidization has played an important role in plant evolution and speciation, and newly formed allopolyploids have experienced rapid transcriptomic changes. Here, we compared the transcriptomic differences between a synthetic Brassica allohexaploid and its parents using a high-throughput RNA-Seq method. A total of 35,644,409 sequence reads were generated, and 32,642 genes were aligned from the data. Totals of 29,260, 29,060, and 29,697 genes were identified in Brassica rapa , Brassica carinata , and Brassica allohexaploid, respectively. We compared 7,397 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between Brassica hexaploid and its parents, as well as 2,545 nonadditive genes of Brassica hexaploid. We hypothesized that the higher ploidy level as well as secondary polyploidy might have influenced these changes. The majority of the 3,184 DEGs between Brassica hexaploid and its paternal parent, B . rapa , were involved in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, plant–pathogen interactions, photosynthesis, and circadian rhythm. Among the 2,233 DEGs between Brassica hexaploid and its maternal parent, B . carinata , several played roles in plant–pathogen interactions, plant hormone signal transduction, ribosomes, limonene and pinene degradation, photosynthesis, and biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. There were more significant differences in gene expression between the allohexaploid and its paternal parent than between it and its maternal parent, possibly partly because of cytoplasmic and maternal effects. Specific functional categories were enriched among the 2,545 nonadditive genes of Brassica hexaploid compared with the additive genes; the categories included response to stimulus, immune system process, cellular process, metabolic process, rhythmic process, and pigmentation. Many transcription factor genes, methyltransferases, and methylation genes showed differential expression between Brassica hexaploid and its parents. Our results demonstrate that the

  15. Physicochemical Properties Analysis and Secretome of Aspergillus niger in Fermented Rapeseed Meal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changyou Shi

    Full Text Available The nutrient digestibility and feeding value of rapeseed meal (RSM for non-ruminant animals is poor due to the presence of anti-nutritional substances such as glucosinolate, phytic acid, crude fiber etc. In the present study, a solid state fermentation (SSF using Aspergillus niger was carried out with the purpose of improving the nutritional quality of RSM. The chemical composition and physicochemical properties of RSM before and after fermentation were compared. To further understand possible mechanism of solid state fermentation, the composition of extracellular enzymes secreted by Aspergillus niger during fermentation was analysed using two-dimentional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE combined with matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometer (MALDI-TOF-MS. Results of the present study indicated that SSF had significant effects on chemical composition of RSM. The fermented rapeseed meal (FRSM contained more crude protein (CP and amino acid (AA (except His than unfermented RSM. Notably, the small peptide in FRSM was 2.26 time larger than that in unfermented RSM. Concentrations of anti-nutritional substrates in FRSM including neutral detergent fiber (NDF, glucosinolates, isothiocyanate, oxazolidithione, and phytic acid declined (P < 0.05 by 13.47, 43.07, 55.64, 44.68 and 86.09%, respectively, compared with unfermented RSM. A. niger fermentation disrupted the surface structure, changed macromolecular organic compounds, and reduced the protein molecular weights of RSM substrate. Total proteins of raw RSM and FRSM were separated and 51 protein spots were selected for mass spectrometry according to 2D-DIGE map. In identified proteins, there were 15 extracellular hydrolases secreted by A. niger including glucoamylase, acid protease, beta-glucanase, arabinofuranosidase, xylanase, and phytase. Some antioxidant related enzymes also were identified. These findings suggested that A. niger is able to secrete many

  16. Intraspecific Variation in Carotenoids of Brassica oleracea var. sabellica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mageney, Vera; Baldermann, Susanne; Albach, Dirk C

    2016-04-27

    Carotenoids are best known as a source of natural antioxidants. Physiologically, carotenoids are part of the photoprotection in plants as they act as scavengers of reactive oxygen species (ROS). An important source of carotenoids in European food is Brassica oleracea. Focusing on the most abundant carotenoids, we estimated the contents of ß-carotene, (9Z)-neoxanthin, zeaxanthin, and lutein as well as those of chlorophylls a and b to assess their variability in Brassica oleracea var. sabellica. Our analyses included more than 30 cultivars categorized in five distinct sets grouped according to morphological characteristics or geographical origin. Our results demonstrated specific carotenoid patterns characteristic for American, Italian, and red-colored kale cultivars. Moreover, we demonstrated a tendency of high zeaxanthin proportions under traditional harvest conditions, which accord to low-temperature regimes. We also compared the carotenoid patterns of self-generated hybrid lines. Corresponding findings indicated that crossbreeding has a high potential for carotenoid content optimization in kale.

  17. Erosion of Brassica incana Genetic Resources: Causes and Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscolo, A.; Settineri, G.; Mallamaci, C.; Papalia, T.; Sidari, M.

    2017-07-01

    Brassica incana Ten., possessing a number of useful agronomic traits, represents a precious genetic resource to be used in plant breeding programs to broaden the genetic base in most Brassica crop species. B. incana that grows on limestone cliffs is at risk of genetic erosion for environmental constraints and human activities. We studied the pedological conditions of a Calabrian site where the B. incana grows, and we correlated the soil properties to the physiological and biochemical aspects of B. incana to identify the causes and effects of the genetic erosion of this species. Our results evidenced that physical soil conditions did not affect B. incana growth and nutraceutical properties; conversely, biological soil properties modified its properties. We identified leaf pigments and secondary metabolites that can be used routinely as early warning indicators of plant threat, to evaluate in a short term the dynamic behavior of plants leading to species extinction.

  18. Effect of Heavy Metals in Plants of the Genus Brassica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourato, Miguel P.; Moreira, Inês N.; Leitão, Inês; Pinto, Filipa R.; Sales, Joana R.; Louro Martins, Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Several species from the Brassica genus are very important agricultural crops in different parts of the world and are also known to be heavy metal accumulators. There have been a large number of studies regarding the tolerance, uptake and defense mechanism in several of these species, notably Brassica juncea and B. napus, against the stress induced by heavy metals. Numerous studies have also been published about the capacity of these species to be used for phytoremediation purposes but with mixed results. This review will focus on the latest developments in the study of the uptake capacity, oxidative damage and biochemical and physiological tolerance and defense mechanisms to heavy metal toxicity on six economically important species: B. juncea, B. napus, B. oleracea, B. carinata, B. rapa and B. nigra. PMID:26247945

  19. Omics Approach to Identify Factors Involved in Brassica Disease Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco, Marta; Soengas, Pilar; Velasco, Pablo; Bhadauria, Vijai; Cartea, Maria E; Rodríguez, Victor M

    2016-01-01

    Understanding plant's defense mechanisms and their response to biotic stresses is of fundamental meaning for the development of resistant crop varieties and more productive agriculture. The Brassica genus involves a large variety of economically important species and cultivars used as vegetable source, oilseeds, forage and ornamental. Damage caused by pathogens attack affects negatively various aspects of plant growth, development, and crop productivity. Over the last few decades, advances in plant physiology, genetics, and molecular biology have greatly improved our understanding of plant responses to biotic stress conditions. In this regard, various 'omics' technologies enable qualitative and quantitative monitoring of the abundance of various biological molecules in a high-throughput manner, and thus allow determination of their variation between different biological states on a genomic scale. In this review, we have described advances in 'omic' tools (genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics) in the view of conventional and modern approaches being used to elucidate the molecular mechanisms that underlie Brassica disease resistance.

  20. Catalytic properties of three catalases from Kohlrabi ( Brassica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Catalase (EC 1.11.1.6) was extracted from kohlrabi bulbs (Brassica oleracea gongylodes) with 0.05 M phosphate buffer, pH 7.0. On the basis of kinetic studies and activity stain for catalase, only three isoenzymes of catalases were detected in kohlrabi bulbs extract with pH optima at 4.5, 6.5 and 10. Highest catalytic ...

  1. Cadmium uptake potential of Brassica napus cocropped with Brassica parachinensis and Zea mays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selvam, Ammaiyappan; Wong, Jonathan Woon-Chung

    2009-01-01

    Cadmium uptake potential of Brassica napus cocropped with B. parachinensis or Zea mays plants in split pot (allow the solutes to pass but prevent the interaction of roots between compartments) experiments was evaluated. Plants were grown in split pots filled with soil spiked at 0, 3, 6, 12, 25 and 50 mg Cd/kg soil. Biomass and Cd uptake were detemined after 6 weeks, and rhizospheric soil solutions, extracted using soil probes, were analyzed for pH and water soluble Cd at weekly intervals. Cadmium treatments affected the biomass. Cadmium concentration in the shoots of B. napus was higher when cocropped with B. parachinensis and significantly higher with Z. mays; however, the biomass was negatively affected implying the higher nutrient apportionment to the crop plants than B. napus. Concentration of Cd in B. napus was higher in shoots than in roots as revealed by shoot/root Cd quotient and was always >1; the quotient for B. parachinensis was ∼1 and that of Z. mays was <1, indicating the potential of Brassicaceae members to translocate the Cd to aboveground tissue. Results indicate the feasibility of cocropping method to clean the Cd contaminated soils.

  2. Cadmium uptake potential of Brassica napus cocropped with Brassica parachinensis and Zea mays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selvam, Ammaiyappan [Sino-Forest Applied Research Centre for Pearl River Delta Environment, Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong, (Hong Kong); Wong, Jonathan Woon-Chung, E-mail: jwcwong@hkbu.edu.hk [Sino-Forest Applied Research Centre for Pearl River Delta Environment, Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong (Hong Kong)

    2009-08-15

    Cadmium uptake potential of Brassica napus cocropped with B. parachinensis or Zea mays plants in split pot (allow the solutes to pass but prevent the interaction of roots between compartments) experiments was evaluated. Plants were grown in split pots filled with soil spiked at 0, 3, 6, 12, 25 and 50 mg Cd/kg soil. Biomass and Cd uptake were detemined after 6 weeks, and rhizospheric soil solutions, extracted using soil probes, were analyzed for pH and water soluble Cd at weekly intervals. Cadmium treatments affected the biomass. Cadmium concentration in the shoots of B. napus was higher when cocropped with B. parachinensis and significantly higher with Z. mays; however, the biomass was negatively affected implying the higher nutrient apportionment to the crop plants than B. napus. Concentration of Cd in B. napus was higher in shoots than in roots as revealed by shoot/root Cd quotient and was always >1; the quotient for B. parachinensis was {approx}1 and that of Z. mays was <1, indicating the potential of Brassicaceae members to translocate the Cd to aboveground tissue. Results indicate the feasibility of cocropping method to clean the Cd contaminated soils.

  3. Genetic diversity assessment in brassica germplasm based on morphological attributes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, I.; Ali, N.; Ali, S.; Hussain, I.; Khan, S. A.; Tahira, R.

    2015-01-01

    Genetic diversity of 28 Brassica genotypes was studied using different morphological attributes. Data were recorded on days to maturity (DM), plant height (PH), primary branches plant (PBPP), pod length (PL), seed pod (SP), 1000 - seed weight (1000 - SW), yield plant (YPP) and oil (percentage). Three checks (Pakola, CM and TA), were used to check the performance of collected materials with already available brassica varieties. significant statistical differences were observed among the tested genotypes based on the studied morphological traits. Among the tested genotypes, genotype keelboat proved to be superior as compared to other studied genotypes due to maximum level of studied traits like pod length (7.03 cm), seed pod (32.33), 1000 - seed weight (5.38 g), seed yield plant (110.8 g) and oil content (52.9 percentage. The highest level of performance recorded by kalabat in terms of branches plant, pod length (cm), number of seed pod, seed yield plant (g), 1000 - seed weight (g) and oil content (percentage), indicates that this genotype is genetically different and superior than the other studied genotype. Therefore, genotype kalabat can be either used as variety after adaptability trials over a larger area or included in Brassica breeding programmes as a good source of genetic variation. (author)

  4. Isolate dependency of Brassica rapa resistance QTLs to Botrytis cinerea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei eZhang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Generalist necrotrophic pathogens including Botrytis cinerea cause significant yield and financial losses on Brassica crops. However, there is little knowledge about the mechanisms underlying the complex interactions encoded by both host and pathogen genomes in this interaction. This potentially includes multiple layers of plant defense and pathogen virulence mechanisms that could complicate in breeding broad spectrum resistance within Brassica species. Glucosinolates are a diverse group of defense metabolites that play a key role in interaction between Brassica and biotic attackers. In this study, we utilized a collection of diverse B. cinerea isolates to investigate resistance within the B. rapa R500 x IMB211 recombinant inbred line population. We tested variation on lesion development and glucosinolate accumulation in parental lines and all population lines. We then mapped quantitative trait loci (QTL for both resistances to B. cinerea and defense metabolites in this population. Phenotypic analysis and QTL mapping demonstrate that the genetic basis of resistance to B. cinerea in B. rapa is isolate specific and polygenic with transgressive segregation that both parents contribute resistance alleles. QTLs controlling defensive glucosinolates are highly dependent on pathogen infection. An overlap of two QTLs identified between resistance to B. cinerea and defense metabolites also showed isolate specific effects. This work suggests that directly searching for resistance loci may not be the best approach at improving resistance in B. rapa to necrotrophic pathogen.

  5. NEW ACCESSIONS OF BRASSICA OLERACEA L. IN VIR PLANT COLLECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Artemieva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Varieties of Brassica oleracea L. are widespread and favorite crops, where among them the head cabbage and cauliflower are the most economically important. Russia takes third place after India and Chine among countries with largest production areas and gross yield for the crop. In Russia, the area sown to cabbage is about 27 thousand hectares. 728 cultivars and hybrids of eight cabbage crops including 528 hybrids have been added in State Register of Breeding Achievements of Russian Federation in 2017. The collection of Brassica oleracea L. totally contains of 2421 accessions and takes first place at number of collected items among the world’s plant genbanks. The phenotyping, genotyping, passportization, development of core collection and trait collection as well as initial breeding accessions, covering all genetic diversity have been carried out at department of genetic resources of vegetables and melons at VIR. Selection of most promising accessions is performed to find genes and sources for economically valuable traits to develop proper lines and hybrids. There are the enrichment of the collection by means of ordering and gathering in expeditions, the improvement of methods of phenotyping and development of database for all biological accessions studied at the department. In 2007-2016, 255 accessions of Brassica oleracea L. have been included into collection to be used in different national breeding programs.

  6. Life cycle assessment of rapeseed oil, rape methyl ester and ethanol as fuels - a comparison between large- and smallscale production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernesson, Sven [Swedish Univ. of Agriculture Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dep. of Biometry and Engineering

    2004-05-01

    Production of rapeseed oil, rape methyl ester (RME) and ethanol fuel for heavy diesel engines can be carried out with different systems solutions, in which the choice of system is usually related to the scale of the production. The main purpose of this study was to analyse whether the use of a small-scale rapeseed oil, RME and ethanol fuel production system reduced the environmental load in comparison to a medium- and a large-scale system. To fulfil this purpose, a limited LCA, including air-emissions and energy requirements, was carried out for the three fuels and the three plant sizes. Four different methods to allocate the environmental burden between different products were compared: physical allocation according to the lower heat value in the products [MJ/kg], economic allocation according to the product prices [SEK/kg], no allocation and allocation with a system expansion so that rapemeal and distiller's waste could replace soymeal mixed with soyoil and glycerine could replace glycerine produced from fossil raw material. The functional unit, to which the total environmental load was related, was 1.0 MJ of energy delivered on the engine shaft to the final consumer. Production of raw materials, cultivation, transport, fuel production and use of the fuels produced were included in the systems studied. It was shown in the study that the differences in environmental impact and energy requirement between small-, medium- and large-scale systems were small or even negligible in most cases for all three fuels, except for the photochemical ozone creation potential (POCP) during ethanol fuel production. The longer transport distances to a certain degree outweighed the higher oil extraction efficiency, the higher energy efficiency and the more efficient use of machinery and buildings in the large-scale system. The dominating production step was the cultivation, in which production of fertilisers, followed by soil emissions and tractive power, made major contributions to

  7. Impact of nanoparticles and butanol on properties and spray characteristics of waste cooking oil biodiesel and pure rapeseed oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad K. H.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Renewable biofuels can offset greenhouse gases by replacing fossil fuels destined for internal combustion engines. However, biofuels have their own setbacks and may lead to poor combustion inside the engine cylinder. In this study, nanoparticles and butanol were blended either separately or together with waste cooking oil biodiesel and neat rape seed oil to investigate the impact of these additives on the properties and spray characteristics. The investigation comprised of three stages, with each having an effect on how the next stage of the investigation was conducted. Initially, the physicochemical characteristics of 25ppm, 50ppm, 75ppm and 100ppm concentrations of aluminium oxide and copper oxide nanoparticle blends with fossil diesel, waste cooking oil biodiesel and rapeseed oil were investigated. The results from first stage investigation showed that, in general, blends containing aluminium oxide nanoparticles gave better results for almost all the concentrations when compared with copper oxide nanoparticle blends with the same nanoparticle concentrations. Overall, waste cooking oil biodiesel blended with 100ppm aluminium oxide nanoparticle showed most promising results like the flash point of 159.3°C, kinematic viscosity @40°C of 4.66 cSt, and gross calorific value of 44.43 MJ/kg. These values were 61.6% higher, 51.3% higher and 3.2% lower than that of corresponding fossil diesel values. Subsequently, in the second stage of the study, the addition of butanol was investigated to assess its ability to enhance the emulsion of biofuel-nanoparticles blends. Four blends containing 90% biodiesel & 10% butanol, and 90% rapeseed oil & 10% butanol, with and without 100ppm Al2O3 were prepared. Results showed that the kinematic viscosity of the fuel blends containing 100ppm aluminium oxide nanoparticles were decreased by 0.4% and 3.3%, for 90% biodiesel & 10% butanol and 90% rapeseed oil & 10% butanol blends respectively, when compared to without

  8. Life cycle assessment of rapeseed oil, rape methyl ester and ethanol as fuels - a comparison between large- and smallscale production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernesson, Sven [Swedish Univ. of Agriculture Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dep. of Biometry and Engineering

    2004-05-01

    Production of rapeseed oil, rape methyl ester (RME) and ethanol fuel for heavy diesel engines can be carried out with different systems solutions, in which the choice of system is usually related to the scale of the production. The main purpose of this study was to analyse whether the use of a small-scale rapeseed oil, RME and ethanol fuel production system reduced the environmental load in comparison to a medium- and a large-scale system. To fulfil this purpose, a limited LCA, including air-emissions and energy requirements, was carried out for the three fuels and the three plant sizes. Four different methods to allocate the environmental burden between different products were compared: physical allocation according to the lower heat value in the products [MJ/kg], economic allocation according to the product prices [SEK/kg], no allocation and allocation with a system expansion so that rapemeal and distiller's waste could replace soymeal mixed with soyoil and glycerine could replace glycerine produced from fossil raw material. The functional unit, to which the total environmental load was related, was 1.0 MJ of energy delivered on the engine shaft to the final consumer. Production of raw materials, cultivation, transport, fuel production and use of the fuels produced were included in the systems studied. It was shown in the study that the differences in environmental impact and energy requirement between small-, medium- and large-scale systems were small or even negligible in most cases for all three fuels, except for the photochemical ozone creation potential (POCP) during ethanol fuel production. The longer transport distances to a certain degree outweighed the higher oil extraction efficiency, the higher energy efficiency and the more efficient use of machinery and buildings in the large-scale system. The dominating production step was the cultivation, in which production of fertilisers, followed by soil emissions and tractive power, made major

  9. Impact of nanoparticles and butanol on properties and spray characteristics of waste cooking oil biodiesel and pure rapeseed oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, K. H.; Hossain, A. K.

    2017-11-01

    Renewable biofuels can offset greenhouse gases by replacing fossil fuels destined for internal combustion engines. However, biofuels have their own setbacks and may lead to poor combustion inside the engine cylinder. In this study, nanoparticles and butanol were blended either separately or together with waste cooking oil biodiesel and neat rape seed oil to investigate the impact of these additives on the properties and spray characteristics. The investigation comprised of three stages, with each having an effect on how the next stage of the investigation was conducted. Initially, the physicochemical characteristics of 25ppm, 50ppm, 75ppm and 100ppm concentrations of aluminium oxide and copper oxide nanoparticle blends with fossil diesel, waste cooking oil biodiesel and rapeseed oil were investigated. The results from first stage investigation showed that, in general, blends containing aluminium oxide nanoparticles gave better results for almost all the concentrations when compared with copper oxide nanoparticle blends with the same nanoparticle concentrations. Overall, waste cooking oil biodiesel blended with 100ppm aluminium oxide nanoparticle showed most promising results like the flash point of 159.3°C, kinematic viscosity @40°C of 4.66 cSt, and gross calorific value of 44.43 MJ/kg. These values were 61.6% higher, 51.3% higher and 3.2% lower than that of corresponding fossil diesel values. Subsequently, in the second stage of the study, the addition of butanol was investigated to assess its ability to enhance the emulsion of biofuel-nanoparticles blends. Four blends containing 90% biodiesel & 10% butanol, and 90% rapeseed oil & 10% butanol, with and without 100ppm Al2O3 were prepared. Results showed that the kinematic viscosity of the fuel blends containing 100ppm aluminium oxide nanoparticles were decreased by 0.4% and 3.3%, for 90% biodiesel & 10% butanol and 90% rapeseed oil & 10% butanol blends respectively, when compared to without the nanoparticles. The

  10. Enteric methane production and ruminal fermentation from forage brassica diets fed in continuous culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassicas provide forage for livestock during the late fall when traditional perennial cool-season forages are not productive. However, little research exists on ruminal fermentation and methane(CH4) production of brassicas fed as forage. A continuous culture fermentor system was used to assess nutr...

  11. The genome of the mesopolyploid crop species Brassica rapa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiaowu; Wang, Hanzhong; Wang, Jun

    2011-01-01

    We report the annotation and analysis of the draft genome sequence of Brassica rapa accession Chiifu-401-42, a Chinese cabbage. We modeled 41,174 protein coding genes in the B. rapa genome, which has undergone genome triplication. We used Arabidopsis thaliana as an outgroup for investigating...... of Brassica oil and vegetable crops....

  12. Variation and Distribution of Glucosinolates in 42 Cultivars of Brassica oleracea Vegetable Crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkerk, R.; Tebbenhoff, S.; Dekker, M.

    2010-01-01

    Brassica vegetables are known to contain glucosinolates that are precursors for bioactive compounds like isothiocyanates that have been shown to play an important role in human health. This study reports the results of a screening of 11 Brassica oleracea crops consisting of 42 cultivars (6 white

  13. Database derived microsatellite markers (SSRs) for cultivar differentiation in Brassica oleracea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Louarn, Sébastien Jean Yves; Torp, Anna Maria; Holme, I.B.

    2007-01-01

     Fifty-nine Brassica oleracea cultivars, belonging to five botanical varieties, were evaluated for microsatellite (SSR) polymorphisms using 11 database sequence derived primer pairs. The cultivars represented 12 broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica), ten Brussels sprouts (B. o. var. gemmifera...

  14. Numerical and structural chromosome aberrations in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and Arabidopsis thaliana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ji, X.

    2014-01-01

    Numerical and structural chromosome aberrations in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and Arabidopsis thaliana.

    I studied numerical and structural chromosome aberrations in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and

  15. Influence of de-hulled rapeseed roasting on the physicochemical composition and oxidative state of oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rękas, A.; Siger, A.; Wroniak, M.; Ścibisz, I.; Derewiaka, D.; Anders, A.

    2017-01-01

    The effect of roasting time on the contents of bioactive compounds (tocopherols, phytosterols, phenolic compounds), antioxidant capacity and physicochemical properties of rapeseed oil pressed from de-hulled seeds was investigated. The de-hulled seeds were roasted at a temperature of 165 °C for 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 min. The results of this study show that a roasting pre-treatment led to a gradual increase in canolol content (from 1.34 to 117.33 mg/100 g), total phytosterols (from 573.51 to 609.86 mg/100 g) and total carotenoids (0.82 to 2.41 mg/100 g), while only slight changes in the contents of tocopherols were noted. With the increase in roasting time a gradual increase in oxidative stability (from 4.27 to 6.85 h), and antioxidant capacity, seen mainly in the hydrophilic fraction of oil (from 0.32 to 2.30 mmol TEAC/l) was found. Although roasting resulted in the formation of primary and secondary oxidation products, the quality parameters of oils were within Codex Alimentarius limits. [es

  16. Experimental Investigations of Extracted Rapeseed Combustion Emissions in a Small Scale Stationary Fluidized Bed Combustor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieter Steinbrecht

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to observe the combustion process of extracted rapeseed (ER grist in a stationary fluidized bed combustor (SFBC and evaluate the chemical compositions of the flue gas emissions. The experimental tests of ER combustion in the 90 to 200 kW (Kilowatt SFB combustion test facility show that the optimal ER combustion temperature is within the range from 850 to 880° C. Temperature and the concentration of exhausted emissions (e.g. O2, CO, CO2, NO, NO2, SO2, Corg were measured with dedicated sensors distributed within the combustor, along its height and in the flue gas duct. The experimental results showed that with respect to German emission limits the concentration of SO2 and NOx in the flue gas were high whereas that of CO was low. This study furthermore is applicable for the abundant biomass residue resources in Vietnam (rice husk, rice straw, bagasse, cassava residues, coconut shell etc., which have similar chemical compositions to ER.

  17. Experimental investigations of extracted rapeseed combustion emissions in a small scale stationary fluidized bed combustor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinh Tung, N.; Steinbrecht, D. [Rostock University, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Marine Technology, Chair of Environmental Technology, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 6, D - 18059 Rostock (Germany); Tung, N. D. [Hanoi University of Agriculture- Hanoi/Vietnam, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Trau Quy - Gia Lam - Hanoi (Viet Nam); Vincent, T. [Rostock University, Chair of Energy Systems, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 6, D - 18059 Rostock (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    The objective of this study was to observe the combustion process of extracted rapeseed (ER) grist in a stationary fluidized bed combustor (SFBC) and evaluate the chemical compositions of the flue gas emissions. The experimental tests of ER combustion in the 90 to 200 kW SFB combustion test facility show that the optimal ER combustion temperature is within the range from 850 to 880 {sup o}C. Temperature and the concentration of exhausted emissions (e.g. O{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, NO, NO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2}, C{sub org}) were measured with dedicated sensors distributed within the combustor, along its height and in the flue gas duct. The experimental results showed that with respect to German emission limits the concentration of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} in the flue gas were high whereas that of CO was low. This study furthermore is applicable for the abundant biomass residue resources in Vietnam (rice husk, rice straw, bagasse, cassava residues, coconut shell etc.), which have similar chemical compositions to ER. (author)

  18. Surface tension and wetting properties of rapeseed oil to biofuel conversion by-products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muszyński, Siemowit; Sujak, Agnieszka; Stępniewski, Andrzej; Kornarzyński, Krzysztof; Ejtel, Marta; Kowal, Natalia; Tomczyk-Warunek, Agnieszka; Szcześniak, Emil; Tomczyńska-Mleko, Marta; Mleko, Stanisław

    2018-04-01

    This work presents a study on the surface tension, density and wetting behaviour of distilled glycerol, technical grade glycerol and the matter organic non-glycerin fraction. The research was conducted to expand the knowledge about the physical properties of wastes from the rapeseed oil biofuel production. The results show that the densities of technical grade glycerol (1.300 g cm-3) and distilled glycerol (1.267 g cm-3) did not differ and were significantly lower than the density of the matter organic non-glycerin fraction (1.579 g cm-3). Furthermore, the surface tension of distilled glycerol (49.6 mN m-1) was significantly higher than the matter organic non-glycerin fraction (32.7 mN m-1) and technical grade glycerol (29.5 mN m-1). As a result, both technical grade glycerol and the matter organic non-glycerin fraction had lower contact angles than distilled glycerol. The examined physical properties of distilled glycerol were found to be very close to that of the commercially available pure glycerol. The results suggest that technical grade glycerol may have potential application in the production of glycerol/fuel blends or biosurfactants. The presented results indicate that surface tension measurements are more useful when examining the quality of biofuel wastes than is density determination, as they allow for a more accurate analysis of the effects of impurities on the physical properties of the biofuel by-products.

  19. Rapeseed oil-rich diet alters in vitro menadione and nimesulide hepatic mitochondrial toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, João P; Silva, Ana M; Jurado, Amália S; Oliveira, Paulo J

    2013-10-01

    Diet-induced changes in the lipid composition of mitochondrial membranes have been shown to influence physiological processes. However, the modulation effect of diet on mitochondrially-active drugs has not yet received the deserved attention. Our hypothesis is that modulation of membrane dynamics by diet impacts drug-effects on liver mitochondrial functioning. In a previous work, we have shown that a diet rich in rapeseed oil altered mitochondrial membrane composition and bioenergetics in Wistar rats. In the present work, we investigated the influence of the modified diet on hepatic mitochondrial activity of two drugs, menadione and nimesulide, and FCCP, a classic protonophore, was used for comparison. The results showed that the effects of menadione and nimesulide were less severe on liver mitochondria for rats fed the modified diet than on rats fed the control diet. A specific effect on complex I seemed to be involved in drug-induced mitochondria dysfunction. Liver mitochondria from the modified diet group were more susceptible to nimesulide effects on MPT induction. The present work demonstrates that diet manipulation aimed at modifying mitochondrial membrane properties alters the toxicity of mitochondria active agents. This work highlights that diet may potentiate mitochondrial pharmacologic effects or increase drug-induced liabilities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Improved rapeseed oil extraction yield and quality via cold separation of ethanol miscella

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    Citeau Morgane

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In the extraction of vegetable oils, the idea of using ethanol as a solvent, allowing solvent recycling without distillation, can be attested as early as 1948 (Beckel, yet it is now seldom envisaged. The development of organic farming and a growing demand for a more natural diet prompted us to revisit this approach, which takes advantage of the relatively low affinity of ethanol for lipids to produce pure crude oils and meal with higher protein content. This method is based on the change of oil solubility in ethanol with temperature. Rapeseed oil extraction was carried out by hot pressurized ethanol (subcritical extraction condition. Oil was then recovered by cooling the miscella and demixing of two phases, an oil-rich phase and a solvent-rich phase. This study, after verifying the kinetics of extraction, focused on the optimization of the demixing temperature based on the amount and quality of recovered oil. The results show that ethanol extraction followed by cold demixing of the miscella makes it possible to obtain a high quality oil, free of free fatty acids and phospholipids.

  1. Impact of Power Ultrasound on Antihypertensive Activity, Functional Properties, and Thermal Stability of Rapeseed Protein Hydrolysates

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    Asif Wali

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of power ultrasound pretreatments on the degree of hydrolysis (DH, angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE inhibitory activity, amino acid composition, surface hydrophobicity, protein solubility, and thermal stability of ACE inhibition of rapeseed protein hydrolysates were evaluated. Ultrasonic pretreatments before enzymolysis in terms of power and exposure time increased the DH and ACE inhibitory activities over the control (without sonication. In this study, maximum DH 22.07% and ACE inhibitory activity 72.13% were achieved at 600 W and 12 min pretreatment. Compared to the hydrolysates obtained without sonication, the amino acid profile of ultrasound pretreated hydrolysates showed significant changes particularly in the proline content and hydrophobic amino acids with an increased rate of 2.47% and 6.31%, respectively. Ultrasound pretreatment (600 watts, 12 min improved functional properties of protein hydrolysates over control by enhancing surface hydrophobicity and solubility index with an increased rate of 130.76% and 34.22%. Moreover, the stability test showed that the ACE inhibitory activity remains stable against heat treatments. However, extensive heat, prolonged heating time, and alkaline conditions were not in the favor of stability test, while under mild heat and acidic conditions their ACE inhibitory activities were not significantly different from unheated samples.

  2. Low pressure catalytic co-conversion of biogenic waste (rapeseed cake) and vegetable oil.

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    Giannakopoulou, Kanellina; Lukas, Michael; Vasiliev, Aleksey; Brunner, Christoph; Schnitzer, Hans

    2010-05-01

    Zeolite catalysts of three types (H-ZSM-5, Fe-ZSM-5 and H-Beta) were tested in the catalytic co-conversion of rapeseed cake and safflower oil into bio-fuel. This low pressure process was carried out at the temperatures of 350 and 400 degrees Celsius. The yields and compositions of the product mixtures depended on the catalyst nature and the process temperatures. The produced organic phases consisted mainly of hydrocarbons, fatty acids and nitriles. This mixture possessed improved characteristics (e.g. heating value, water content, density, viscosity, pH) compared with the bio-oils, making possible its application as a bio-fuel. The most effective catalyst, providing the highest yield of organic liquid phase, was the highly acidic/wide-pore H-Beta zeolite. The products obtained on this catalyst demonstrated the highest degree of deoxygenation and the higher HHV (Higher Heating Value). The aqueous liquid phase contained water-soluble carboxylic acids, phenols and heterocyclic compounds. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparision on dynamic behavior of diesel spray and rapeseed oil spray in diesel engine

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    Sapit, Azwan; Azahari Razali, Mohd; Faisal Hushim, Mohd; Jaat, Norrizam; Nizam Mohammad, Akmal; Khalid, Amir

    2017-04-01

    Fuel-air mixing is important process in diesel combustion. It significantly affects the combustion and emission of diesel engine. Biomass fuel has high viscosity and high distillation temperature and may negatively affect the fuel-air mixing process. Thus, study on the spray development and atomization of this type of fuel is important. This study investigates the atomization characteristics and droplet dynamic behaviors of diesel engine spray fuelled by rapeseed oil (RO) and comparison to diesel fuel (GO). Optical observation of RO spray was carried out using shadowgraph photography technique. Single nano-spark photography technique was used to study the characteristics of the spray while dual nano-spark shadowgraph technique was used to study the spray droplet behavior. Using in-house image processing algorithm, the images were processed and the boundary condition of each spray was also studied. The results show that RO has very poor atomization due to the high viscosity nature of the fuel when compared to GO. This is in agreement with the results from spray droplet dynamic behavior studies that shows due to the high viscosity, the RO spray droplets are large in size and travel downward, with very little influence of entrainment effect due to its large kinematic energy.

  4. Pulsed electric field pretreatment of rapeseed green biomass (stems) to enhance pressing and extractives recovery.

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    Yu, X; Gouyo, T; Grimi, N; Bals, O; Vorobiev, E

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of pulsed electric field (PEF) pretreatment on the valorization of extractives (proteins and polyphenols) from rapeseed green biomass (stems) by pressing. The effect of pressure, electric field strength and pulse number on the juice expression yield, total polyphenols and total proteins content in the expressed juices were studied. Experiments conducted under optimal conditions (E = 8 kV/cm, tPEF = 2 ms, P = 10 bar) permitted to increase the juice expressed yield from 34% to 81%. Significant increases in total polyphenols content (0.48 vs. 0.10 g GAE/100g DM), in total proteins content (0.14 vs. 0.07 g BSA/100g DM) and in consolidation coefficient (9.0 × 10(-8) vs. 2.2 × 10(-8)m(2)/s) were also observed after PEF pretreatment. The recovered press cake was well dehydrated with an increase of dry matter content from 8.8% to 53.0%. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The Deposition and Elimination of Glucosinolate Metabolites Derived from Rapeseed Meal in Eggs of Laying Hens.

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    Zhu, L P; Wang, J P; Ding, X M; Bai, S P; Zeng, Q F; Su, Z W; Xuan, Y; Zhang, K Y

    2018-02-14

    This study was to investigate the deposition and elimination of glucosinolate metabolites including 5-vinyl-1,3-oxazolidine-2-thione (5-VOT) and thiocyanate ion (SCN - ) derived from rapeseed meal (RSM) in hen eggs. During 12 weeks accumulation phase, the serum triiodothyronine, thyronine, blood urea nitrogen, kidney index, and thyroid index linearly increased with the RSM at week 12 (P eggs (Y, ng/g) was correlated with 5-VOT intake (X 2 , μg/d·bird) and 5-VOT feeding time (X 1 , week): Y = 54.94X 1 + 0.51X 2 - 430.34 (P eggs (Y, mg/kg) was correlated with RSM intake (X 2 , μg/d·bird) and RSM feeding time (X 1 , week): Y = 0.095X 1 + 0.302X 2 - 0.4211 (P eggs. Taken together, 5.88% RSM with dietary supplements of 23.55 mg/kg 5-VOT and 10.76 mg/kg SCN - had no effects on hens with regard to serum parameters, organ index, and thyroid histopathology, and more than 4 weeks withdrawal should be considered for human and hen health.

  6. Synthesis of novel octyl sinapate to enhance antioxidant capacity of rapeseed-linseed oil mixture.

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    Szydłowska-Czerniak, Aleksandra; Rabiej, Dobrochna; Krzemiński, Marek

    2018-03-01

    Lipophilisation allows the formation of new functionalised antioxidants having beneficial properties compared to natural hydrophilic phenolic acids. Therefore, this work focused on the synthesis of lipophilic antioxidants, such as a new octyl sinapate, octyl caffeate and octyl ferulate using the modified Fischer esterification of selected hydroxycinnamic acids with 1-octanol. The lipophilic octyl sinapate was obtained for the first time with satisfactory yield (83%) after purification by column chromatography. The identity of the synthesised phenolipids was confirmed by chromatographic and spectroscopic analyses. Antioxidant capacity of phenolipids was determined by DPPH (IC 50  = 35.87-52.24 μg mL -1 ) and ABTS (IC 50  = 39.45-48.72 μg mL -1 ) methods and compared with IC 50 values (7.37-35.30 μg mL -1 and 7.55-41.67 μg mL -1 , respectively) for well known antioxidants. The antioxidant capacity of rapeseed-linseed oil enriched with the purified esters was about two to 30 times higher in comparison with a non-supplemented oil. The novel octyl sinapate as well as octyl caffeate and octyl ferulate have antioxidant properties and lipophilic character, therefore they may be added to vegetable oils as potential antioxidants for tackling oxidative processes. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. High Density Linkage Map Construction and QTL Detection for Three Silique-Related Traits in Orychophragmus violaceus Derived Brassica napus Population

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    Yi Yang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Seeds per silique (SS, seed weight (SW, and silique length (SL are important determinant traits of seed yield potential in rapeseed (Brassica napus L., and are controlled by naturally occurring quantitative trait loci (QTLs. Mapping QTLs to narrow chromosomal regions provides an effective means of characterizing the genetic basis of these complex traits. Orychophragmus violaceus is a crucifer with long siliques, many SS, and heavy seeds. A novel B. napus introgression line with many SS was previously selected from multiple crosses (B. rapa ssp. chinesis × O. violaceus × B. napus. In present study, a doubled haploid (DH population with 167 lines was established from a cross between the introgression line and a line with far fewer SS, in order to detect QTLs for silique-related traits. By screening with a Brassica 60K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP array, a high-density linkage map consisting of 1,153 bins and spanning a cumulative length of 2,209.1 cM was constructed, using 12,602 high-quality polymorphic SNPs in the DH population. The average recombination bin densities of the A and C subgenomes were 1.7 and 2.4 cM, respectively. 45 QTLs were identified for the three traits in all, which explained 4.0–34.4% of the total phenotypic variation; 20 of them were integrated into three unique QTLs by meta-analysis. These unique QTLs revealed a significant positive correlation between SS and SL and a significant negative correlation between SW and SS, and were mapped onto the linkage groups A05, C08, and C09. A trait-by-trait meta-analysis revealed eight, four, and seven consensus QTLs for SS, SW, and SL, respectively, and five major QTLs (cqSS.A09b, cqSS.C09, cqSW.A05, cqSW.C09, and cqSL.C09 were identified. Five, three, and four QTLs for SS, SW, and SL, respectively, might be novel QTLs because of the existence of alien genetic loci for these traits in the alien introgression. Thirty-eight candidate genes underlying nine QTLs for silique

  8. Identification of salivary gland proteins depleted after blood feeding in the malaria vector Anopheles campestris-like mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae.

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    Sriwatapron Sor-suwan

    Full Text Available Malaria sporozoites must invade the salivary glands of mosquitoes for maturation before transmission to vertebrate hosts. The duration of the sporogonic cycle within the mosquitoes ranges from 10 to 21 days depending on the parasite species and temperature. During blood feeding salivary gland proteins are injected into the vertebrate host, along with malaria sporozoites in the case of an infected mosquito. To identify salivary gland proteins depleted after blood feeding of female Anopheles campestris-like, a potential malaria vector of Plasmodium vivax in Thailand, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and nano-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry techniques were used. Results showed that 19 major proteins were significantly depleted in three to four day-old mosquitoes fed on a first blood meal. For the mosquitoes fed the second blood meal on day 14 after the first blood meal, 14 major proteins were significantly decreased in amount. The significantly depleted proteins in both groups included apyrase, 5'-nucleotidase/apyrase, D7, D7-related 1, short form D7r1, gSG6, anti-platelet protein, serine/threonine-protein kinase rio3, putative sil1, cyclophilin A, hypothetical protein Phum_PHUM512530, AGAP007618-PA, and two non-significant hit proteins. To our knowledge, this study presents for the first time the salivary gland proteins that are involved in the second blood feeding on the day corresponding to the transmission period of the sporozoites to new mammalian hosts. This information serves as a basis for future work concerning the possible role of these proteins in the parasite transmission and the physiological processes that occur during the blood feeding.

  9. Identification of salivary gland proteins depleted after blood feeding in the malaria vector Anopheles campestris-like mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sor-suwan, Sriwatapron; Jariyapan, Narissara; Roytrakul, Sittiruk; Paemanee, Atchara; Phumee, Atchara; Phattanawiboon, Benjarat; Intakhan, Nuchpicha; Chanmol, Wetpisit; Bates, Paul A; Saeung, Atiporn; Choochote, Wej

    2014-01-01

    Malaria sporozoites must invade the salivary glands of mosquitoes for maturation before transmission to vertebrate hosts. The duration of the sporogonic cycle within the mosquitoes ranges from 10 to 21 days depending on the parasite species and temperature. During blood feeding salivary gland proteins are injected into the vertebrate host, along with malaria sporozoites in the case of an infected mosquito. To identify salivary gland proteins depleted after blood feeding of female Anopheles campestris-like, a potential malaria vector of Plasmodium vivax in Thailand, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and nano-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry techniques were used. Results showed that 19 major proteins were significantly depleted in three to four day-old mosquitoes fed on a first blood meal. For the mosquitoes fed the second blood meal on day 14 after the first blood meal, 14 major proteins were significantly decreased in amount. The significantly depleted proteins in both groups included apyrase, 5'-nucleotidase/apyrase, D7, D7-related 1, short form D7r1, gSG6, anti-platelet protein, serine/threonine-protein kinase rio3, putative sil1, cyclophilin A, hypothetical protein Phum_PHUM512530, AGAP007618-PA, and two non-significant hit proteins. To our knowledge, this study presents for the first time the salivary gland proteins that are involved in the second blood feeding on the day corresponding to the transmission period of the sporozoites to new mammalian hosts. This information serves as a basis for future work concerning the possible role of these proteins in the parasite transmission and the physiological processes that occur during the blood feeding.

  10. Allelopatic effect of different caster bean organs (Ricinus communis L. on reducing germination and growth of dodder (Cuscuta campestris Yuncker

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    S.M Seyyedi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Dodder (Cascuta campestris Yuncker is an annual parasitic plant from the Convolvulaceae family (Mishra et al., 2007. It wraps around many adjacent dicot and a few monocot plants, penetrates in their vascular tissue and exploits photosynthates, nutrients and water (Lanini & Kogan, 2005. Consequently, the growth, vigor and production of the host plant will be severely reduced (Nadler-Hasasr & Rubin, 2003. Dodder is not able to complete its cycle, if it is not attached to a host. Therefore, it is entirely dependent on its host for supplying water, assimilates and minerals (Mishra et al., 2007. Considering the nature of dodder habit, it is rarely possible to completely control dodder by using different chemical herbicides (Lanini & Kogan, 2005. In addition, because of increasing the environmental concerns caused by applying synthetic herbicides, there is considerable attention to alternative strategies for weeds management (Batish et al., 2002; Bowmik & Inderjit, 2003. In recent years, allelopathic plants, an alternative strategy for weed management, have received massive attention (Narwal, 2010; Jamil et al., 2009. Due to the importance of dodder as a parasitic weed, this research was conducted with the purpose of studying the allelopathic effects of aqueous extracts and decay durations of caster bean (Ricinus communis L. organs on germination and emergence of dodder. Materials and methods The current study was conducted based on three separate experiments using a completely randomized design (CRD with factorial arrangement with three replications. The first experiment was conducted in petri dishes and consisted of caster bean organs at four levels (root, stem, leaf and total plant without inflorescence and their aqueous extract concentrations at 11 levels (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10%. The second experiment was conducted in pots and factors were caster bean organs at 4 levels (root, stem, leaf and total plant without

  11. Comparative mapping of Brassica juncea and Arabidopsis thaliana using Intron Polymorphism (IP markers: homoeologous relationships, diversification and evolution of the A, B and C Brassica genomes

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    Gupta Vibha

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extensive mapping efforts are currently underway for the establishment of comparative genomics between the model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana and various Brassica species. Most of these studies have deployed RFLP markers, the use of which is a laborious and time-consuming process. We therefore tested the efficacy of PCR-based Intron Polymorphism (IP markers to analyze genome-wide synteny between the oilseed crop, Brassica juncea (AABB genome and A. thaliana and analyzed the arrangement of 24 (previously described genomic block segments in the A, B and C Brassica genomes to study the evolutionary events contributing to karyotype variations in the three diploid Brassica genomes. Results IP markers were highly efficient and generated easily discernable polymorphisms on agarose gels. Comparative analysis of the segmental organization of the A and B genomes of B. juncea (present study with the A and B genomes of B. napus and B. nigra respectively (described earlier, revealed a high degree of colinearity suggesting minimal macro-level changes after polyploidization. The ancestral block arrangements that remained unaltered during evolution and the karyotype rearrangements that originated in the Oleracea lineage after its divergence from Rapa lineage were identified. Genomic rearrangements leading to the gain or loss of one chromosome each between the A-B and A-C lineages were deciphered. Complete homoeology in terms of block organization was found between three linkage groups (LG each for the A-B and A-C genomes. Based on the homoeology shared between the A, B and C genomes, a new nomenclature for the B genome LGs was assigned to establish uniformity in the international Brassica LG nomenclature code. Conclusion IP markers were highly effective in generating comparative relationships between Arabidopsis and various Brassica species. Comparative genomics between the three Brassica lineages established the major rearrangements

  12. Systemic Resistance to Powdery Mildew in Brassica napus (AACC) and Raphanus alboglabra (RRCC) by Trichoderma harzianum TH12.

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    Alkooranee, Jawadayn Talib; Yin, Yongtai; Aledan, Tamarah Raad; Jiang, Yingfen; Lu, Guangyuan; Wu, Jiangsheng; Li, Maoteng

    2015-01-01

    Trichoderma harzianum TH12 is a microbial pesticide for certain rapeseed diseases. The mechanism of systemic resistance induced by TH12 or its cell-free culture filtrate (CF) in Brassica napus (AACC) and Raphanus alboglabra (RRCC) to powdery mildew disease caused by ascomycete Erysiphe cruciferarum was investigated. In this study, we conducted the first large-scale global study on the cellular and molecular aspects of B. napus and R. alboglabra infected with E. cruciferarum. The histological study showed the resistance of R. alboglabra to powdery mildew disease. The growth of fungal colonies was not observed on R. alboglabra leaves at 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 days post-inoculation (dpi), whereas this was clearly observed on B. napus leaves after 6 dpi. In addition, the gene expression of six plant defense-related genes, namely, PR-1, PR-2 (a marker for SA signaling), PR-3, PDF 1.2 (a marker for JA/ET signaling), CHI620, and CHI570, for both genotypes were analyzed in the leaves of B. napus and R. alboglabra after treatment with TH12 or CF and compared with the non-treated ones. The qRT-PCR results showed that the PR-1 and PR-2 expression levels increased in E. cruciferarum-infected leaves, but decreased in the TH12-treated leaves compared with leaves treated with CF. The expression levels of PR-3 and PDF1.2 decreased in plants infected by E. cruciferarum. However, expression levels increased when the leaves were treated with TH12. For the first time, we disclosed the nature of gene expression in B. napus and R. alboglabra to explore the resistance pathways in the leaves of both genotypes infected and non-infected by powdery mildew and inoculated or non-inoculated with elicitor factors. Results suggested that R. alboglabra exhibited resistance to powdery mildew disease, and the application of T. harzianum and its CF are a useful tool to facilitate new protection methods for resist or susceptible plants.

  13. Comparative transcriptomic analysis of two Brassica napus near-isogenic lines reveals a network of genes that influences seed oil accumulation

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    Jingxue Wang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Rapeseed (Brassica napus is an important oil seed crop, providing more than 13% of the world’s supply of edible oils. An in-depth knowledge of the gene network involved in biosynthesis and accumulation of seed oil is critical for the improvement of B. napus. Using available genomic and transcriptomic resources, we identified 1,750 acyl lipid metabolism (ALM genes that are distributed over 19 chromosomes in the B. napus genome. B. rapa and B. oleracea, two diploid progenitors of B. napus, contributed almost equally to the ALM genes. Genome collinearity analysis demonstrated that the majority of the ALM genes have arisen due to genome duplication or segmental duplication events. In addition, we profiled the expression patterns of the ALM genes in four different developmental stages. Furthermore, we developed two B. napus near isogenic lines (NILs. The high oil NIL, YC13-559, accumulates more than 10% of seed oil compared to the other, YC13-554. Comparative gene expression analysis revealed upregulation of lipid biosynthesis-related regulatory genes in YC13-559, including SHOOTMERISTEMLESS, LEAFY COTYLEDON 1 (LEC1, LEC2, FUSCA3, ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE 3 (ABI3, ABI4, ABI5, and WRINKLED1, as well as structural genes, such as ACETYL-CoA CARBOXYLASE, ACYL-CoA DIACYLGLYCEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE, and LONG-CHAIN ACYL-CoA SYNTHETASES. We observed that several genes related to the phytohormones, gibberellins, jasmonate, and indole acetic acid, were differentially expressed in the NILs. Our findings provide a broad account of the numbers, distribution, and expression profiles of acyl lipid metabolism genes, as well as gene networks that po