WorldWideScience

Sample records for rankine engines volume

  1. The SCSTPE organic Rankine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boda, F. P.

    1980-01-01

    The organic Rankine cycle engine under consideration for a solar thermal system being developed is described. Design parameters, method of control, performance and cost data are provided for engine power levels up to 80 kWe; efficiency is shown as a function of turbine inlet temperature in the range of 149 C to 427 C.

  2. The SCSE Organic Rankine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boda, F. P.

    1981-05-01

    The engine is the heart of a Power Conversion Subsystem (PCS) located at the focal point of a sun-tracking parabolic dish concentrator. The ORC engine employs a single-stage axial-flow turbine driving a high speed alternator to produce up to 25 kW electrical output at the focus of each dish. The organic working fluid is toluene, circulating in a closed-loop system at temperatures up to 400 C (750 F). Design parameters, system description, predicted performance and program status are described.

  3. Rankine-Brayton engine powered solar thermal aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Charles L [Livermore, CA

    2009-12-29

    A solar thermal powered aircraft powered by heat energy from the sun. A Rankine-Brayton hybrid cycle heat engine is carried by the aircraft body for producing power for a propulsion mechanism, such as a propeller or other mechanism for enabling sustained free flight. The Rankine-Brayton engine has a thermal battery, preferably containing a lithium-hydride and lithium mixture, operably connected to it so that heat is supplied from the thermal battery to a working fluid. A solar concentrator, such as reflective parabolic trough, is movably connected to an optically transparent section of the aircraft body for receiving and concentrating solar energy from within the aircraft. Concentrated solar energy is collected by a heat collection and transport conduit, and heat transported to the thermal battery. A solar tracker includes a heliostat for determining optimal alignment with the sun, and a drive motor actuating the solar concentrator into optimal alignment with the sun based on a determination by the heliostat.

  4. Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) bottoming with Organic Rankine Cycles (ORCs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaja, Iacopo; Gambarotta, Agostino

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a specific thermodynamic analysis in order to efficiently match a vapour cycle to that of a stationary Internal Combustion Engine (ICE). Three different working fluids are considered to represent the main classes of fluids, with reference to the shape of the vapour lines in the T-s diagram: overhanging, nearly isoentropic and bell shaped. First a parametric analysis is conducted in order to determine optimal evaporating pressures for each fluid. After which three different cycles setups are considered: a simple cycle with the use of only engine exhaust gases as a thermal source, a simple cycle with the use of exhaust gases and engine cooling water and a regenerated cycle. A second law analysis of the cycles is performed, with reference to the available heat sources. This is done in order to determine the best fluid and cycle configuration to be employed, the main parameters of the thermodynamic cycles and the overall efficiency of the combined power system. The analysis demonstrates that a 12% increase in the overall efficiency can be achieved with respect to the engine with no bottoming; nevertheless it has been observed that the Organic Rankine Cycles (ORCs) can recover only a small fraction of the heat released by the engine through the cooling water.

  5. Organic Rankine cycle - review and research directions in engine applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panesar, Angad

    2017-11-01

    Waste heat to power conversion using Organic Rankine Cycles (ORC) is expected to play an important role in CO2 reductions from diesel engines. Firstly, a review of automotive ORCs is presented focusing on the pure working fluids, thermal architectures and expanders. The discussion includes, but is not limited to: R245fa, ethanol and water as fluids; series, parallel and cascade as architectures; dry saturated, superheated and supercritical as expansion conditions; and scroll, radial turbine and piston as expansion machines. Secondly, research direction in versatile expander and holistic architecture (NOx + CO2) are proposed. Benefits of using the proposed unconventional approaches are quantified using Ricardo Wave and Aspen HYSYS for diesel engine and ORC modelling. Results indicate that, the implementation of versatile piston expander tolerant to two-phase and using cyclopentane can potentially increase the highway drive cycle power by 8%. Furthermore, holistic architecture offering complete utilisation of charge air and exhaust recirculation heat increased the performance noticeably to 5% of engine power at the design point condition.

  6. Biogas Engine Waste Heat Recovery Using Organic Rankine Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Benato

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Italy is a leading country in the biogas sector. Energy crops and manure are converted into biogas using anaerobic digestion and, then, into electricity using internal combustion engines (ICEs. Therefore, there is an urgent need for improving the efficiency of these engines taking the real operation into account. To this purpose, in the present work, the organic Rankine cycle (ORC technology is used to recover the waste heat contained in the exhaust gases of a 1 MWel biogas engine. The ICE behavior being affected by the biogas characteristics, the ORC unit is designed, firstly, using the ICE nameplate data and, then, with data measured during a one-year monitoring activity. The optimum fluid and the plant configuration are selected in both cases using an “in-house” optimization tool. The optimization goal is the maximization of the net electric power while the working fluid is selected among 115 pure fluids and their mixtures. Results show that a recuperative ORC designed using real data guarantees a 30% higher net electric power than the one designed with ICE nameplate conditions.

  7. Utilisation of diesel engine waste heat by Organic Rankine Cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kölsch, Benedikt; Radulovic, Jovana

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, three different organic liquids were investigated as potential working fluids in an Organic Rankine Cycle. Performance of Methanol, Toluene and Solkatherm SES36 was modelled in an ORC powered by a diesel engine waste heat. The ORC model consists of a preheater, evaporator, superheater, turbine, pump and two condensers. With variable maximum cycle temperatures and high cycle pressures, the thermal efficiency, net power output and overall heat transfer area have been evaluated. Methanol was found to have the best thermal performance, but also required the largest heat transfer area. While Toluene achieved lower thermal efficiency, it showed great work potential at high pressures and relatively low temperatures. Our model identified the risks associated with employing these fluids in an ORC: methanol condensing during the expansion and toluene not sufficiently superheated at the turbine inlet, which can compromise the cycle operation. The best compromise between the size of heat exchanger and thermodynamic performance was found for Methanol ORC at intermediate temperatures and high pressures. Flammability and toxicity, however, remain the obstacles for safe implementation of both fluids in ORC systems. - Highlights: • ORC powered by diesel-engine waste heat was developed. • Methanol, Toluene and Solkatherm were considered as working fluids. • Methanol was selected due to the best overall thermal performance. • Optimal cycle operating parameters and heat exchanger area were evaluated

  8. A novel cascade organic Rankine cycle (ORC) system for waste heat recovery of truck diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Tao; Zhuge, Weilin; Zhang, Yangjun; Zhang, Lei

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A confluent cascade expansion ORC (CCE-ORC) system is proposed. • Cyclopentane is considered as the most suitable fluid for this system. • The CCE-ORC system performance under full operating conditions is analyzed. • The BSFC of diesel engine can be reduced by 9.2% with the CCE-ORC system. • Performance comparison of CCE-ORC and dual-loop ORC is conducted. - Abstract: Waste heat recovery (WHR) of engines has attracted increasingly more concerns recently, as it can improve engine thermal efficiency and help truck manufacturers meet the restrictions of CO_2 emission. The organic Rankine cycle (ORC) has been considered as the most potential technology of WHR. To take full advantage of waste heat energy, the waste heat in both exhaust gases and the coolant need to be recovered; however, conventional multi-source ORC systems are too complex for vehicle applications. This paper proposed a confluent cascade expansion ORC (CCE-ORC) system for engine waste heat recovery, which has simpler architecture, a smaller volume and higher efficiency compared with conventional dual-loop ORC systems. Cyclopentane is analyzed to be regarded as the most suitable working fluid for this novel system. A thermodynamic simulation method is established for this system, and off-design performance of main components and the working fluid side pressure drop in the condenser have been taken into consideration. System performance simulations under full engine operating conditions are conducted for the application of this system on a heavy-duty truck diesel engine. Results show that the engine peak thermal efficiency can be improved from 45.3% to 49.5% where the brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) decreases from 185.6 g/(kW h) to 169.9 g/(kW h). The average BSFC in the frequently operating region can decrease by 9.2% from 187.9 g/(kW h) to 172.2 g/(kW h). Compared with the conventional dual-loop ORC system, the CCE-ORC system can generate 8% more net power, while the

  9. Technical and economic study of Stirling and Rankine cycle bottoming systems for heavy truck diesel engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, I.

    1987-01-01

    Bottoming cycle concepts for heavy duty transport engine applications were studied. In particular, the following tasks were performed: (1) conceptual design and cost data development for Stirling systems; (2) life-cycle cost evaluation of three bottoming systems - organic Rankine, steam Rankine, and Stirling cycles; and (3) assessment of future directions in waste heat utilization research. Variables considered for the second task were initial capital investments, fuel savings, depreciation tax benefits, salvage values, and service/maintenance costs. The study shows that none of the three bottoming systems studied are even marginally attractive. Manufacturing costs have to be reduced by at least 65%. As a new approach, an integrated Rankine/Diesel system was proposed. It utilizes one of the diesel cylinders as an expander and capitalizes on the in-cylinder heat energy. The concept eliminates the need for the power transmission device and a sophisticated control system, and reduces the size of the exhaust evaporator. Results of an economic evaluation indicate that the system has the potential to become an attractive package for end users.

  10. Dynamic tests and adaptive control of a bottoming organic Rankine cycle of IC engine using swash-plate expander

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torregrosa, A.; Galindo, J.; Dolz, V.; Royo-Pascual, L.; Haller, R.; Melis, J.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • An experimental testing of a bottoming Rankine Cycle is presented and applied to a 2 l turbocharged gasoline engine. • Both stationary and transient tests were performed, including the NEDC cycle. • Indicated diagrams of the swash-plate expander during these transients were presented and analyzed. - Abstract: This paper deals with the experimental testing of a bottoming Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) integrate in a 2 l turbocharged gasoline engine using ethanol as working fluid. The main components of the cycle are a boiler, a condenser, a pump and a swash-plate expander. Both steady and transient tests were performed in three engine operating points to understand the behavior and inertia of the system. Pressure-Volume diagram during these transients were presented and analyzed. Operating parameters of the expander, such as expander speed and boiler power, were shifted. The objective of these tests is to understand the inertia of the system and to have a robust control in all the possible transient tests. New European Driving Cycle was tested with and without the expander because it is supposed to represent the typical usage of a car in Europe. It was used to validate the control of the ORC in realistic dynamic conditions of the engine. The importance of each parameter was analyzed by fixing all the parameters, changing each time one specific value. The main result of this paper is that using a slightly simple and robust control based on adaptive PIDs, the two dynamic effects of an ORC could be taken into account, i.e. high inertia effects (boiler and condenser) and low inertia effects (pump and volumetric expander).

  11. Review of organic Rankine cycles for internal combustion engine exhaust waste heat recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprouse, Charles; Depcik, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Escalating fuel prices and future carbon dioxide emission limits are creating a renewed interest in methods to increase the thermal efficiency of engines beyond the limit of in-cylinder techniques. One promising mechanism that accomplishes both objectives is the conversion of engine waste heat to a more useful form of energy, either mechanical or electrical. This paper reviews the history of internal combustion engine exhaust waste heat recovery focusing on Organic Rankine Cycles since this thermodynamic cycle works well with the medium-grade energy of the exhaust. Selection of the cycle expander and working fluid are the primary focus of the review, since they are regarded as having the largest impact on system performance. Results demonstrate a potential fuel economy improvement around 10% with modern refrigerants and advancements in expander technology. -- Highlights: ► This review article focuses on engine exhaust waste heat recovery works. ► The organic Rankine cycle is superior for low to medium exergy heat sources. ► Working fluid and expander selection strongly influence efficiency. ► Several authors demonstrate viable systems for vehicle installation

  12. Working fluid selection for the Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) exhaust heat recovery of an internal combustion engine power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douvartzides, S.; Karmalis, I.

    2016-11-01

    Organic Rankine cycle technology is capable to efficiently convert low-grade heat into useful mechanical power. In the present investigation such a cycle is used for the recovery of heat from the exhaust gases of a four stroke V18 MAN 51/60DF internal combustion engine power plant operating with natural gas. Design is focused on the selection of the appropriate working fluid of the Rankine cycle in terms of thermodynamic, environmental and safety criteria. 37 candidate fluids have been considered and all Rankine cycles examined were subcritical. The thermodynamic analysis of all fluids has been comparatively undertaken and the effect of key operation conditions such as the evaporation pressure and the superheating temperature was taken into account. By appropriately selecting the working fluid and the Rankine cycle operation conditions the overall plant efficiency was improved by 5.52% and fuel consumption was reduced by 12.69%.

  13. Computational modelling of an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC waste heat recovery system for an aircraft engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saadon S.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Escalating fuel prices and carbon dioxide emission are causing new interest in methods to increase the thrust force of an aircraft engine with limitation of fuel consumption. One viable means is the conversion of exhaust engine waste heat to a more useful form of energy or to be used in the aircraft environmental system. A one-dimensional analysis method has been proposed for the organic Rankine cycle (ORC waste heat recovery system for turbofan engine in this paper. The paper contains two main parts: validation of the numerical model and a performance prediction of turbofan engine integrated to an ORC system. The cycle is compared with industrial waste heat recovery system from Hangzhou Chinen Steam Turbine Power CO., Ltd. The results show that thrust specific fuel consumption (TSFC of the turbofan engine reach lowest value at 0.91 lbm/lbf.h for 7000 lbf of thrust force. When the system installation weight is applied, the system results in a 2.0% reduction in fuel burn. Hence implementation of ORC system for waste heat recovery to an aircraft engine can bring a great potential to the aviation industry.

  14. A new six stroke single cylinder diesel engine referring Rankine cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Hao; Guo, Qi; Yang, Lu; Liu, Shenghua; Xie, Xuliang; Chen, Zhaoyang; Liu, Zengqiang

    2015-01-01

    Six stroke engine presented by Conklin and Szybist is an effective way to recover energy of exhaust gas by adding a partial exhaust stroke and steam expansion stroke. Characteristics of the engine are analyzed and its disadvantages are pointed out. A new six stroke diesel engine is presented here. It refers rankine cycle inside cylinder. Total exhaust gas is recompressed and at a relatively low back pressure in the fourth stroke water is injected to which maintains liquid phase until the piston moves to the TDC. At c′ 720 °CA (crank angle) the water becomes saturated. An ideal thermodynamics model of exhaust gas compression, water injection and expansion is constructed to investigate this modification. Properties at characteristic points are calculated to determine the increased indicated work. Results show that the work increases with the advance of water injection timing and the quality of water. The cycle is more efficient and the new engine has potential for saving energy. Moreover, it is forecasted that HC and PM emissions may reform with steam in reality and H 2 is produced which will react with NO X . - Highlights: • A new six stroke diesel engine is introduced and a new ideal cycle is constructed. • Increased indicated work of the cycle proves that the cycle is more efficient. • In reality steam may reform with HC and PM and produced H 2 may react with NO X emission. • The engine has the potential for energy saving and emission reducing

  15. An improved CO_2-based transcritical Rankine cycle (CTRC) used for engine waste heat recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu, Gequn; Shi, Lingfeng; Tian, Hua; Li, Xiaoya; Huang, Guangdai; Chang, Liwen

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Propose an improved CTRC system (PR-CTRC) for engine waste heat recovery. • The PR-CTRC achieves a significant increase in thermodynamic performance. • The PR-CTRC possesses a strong coupling capability for high and low grade waste heat. • The PR-CTRC uses smaller turbine design parameters than ORC systems. • Total cooling load analysis of combined engine and recovery system was conducted. - Abstract: CO_2-based transcritical Rankine cycle (CTRC) is a promising technology for the waste heat recovery of an engine considering its safety and environment friendly characteristics, which also matchs the high temperature of the exhaust gas and satisfies the miniaturization demand of recovery systems. But the traditional CTRC system with a basic configuration (B-CTRC) has a poor thermodynamic performance. This paper introduces an improved CTRC system containing both a preheater and regenerator (PR-CTRC), for recovering waste heat in exhaust gas and engine coolant of an engine, and compares its performance with that of the B-CTRC system and also with that of the traditional excellent Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) systems using R123 as a working fluid. The utilization rate of waste heat, total cooling load, net power output, thermal efficiency, exergy loss, exergy efficiency and component size have been investigated. Results show that, the net power output of the PR-CTRC could reach up to 9.0 kW for a 43.8 kW engine, which increases by 150% compared with that of the B-CTRC (3.6 kW). The PR-CTRC also improves the thermal efficiency and exergy efficiency of the B-CTRC, with increases of 184% and 227%, respectively. Compared with the ORC system, the PR-CTRC shows the significant advantage of highly recycling the exhaust gas and engine coolant simultaneously due to the special property of supercritical CO_2’s specific heat capacity. The supercritical property of CO_2 also generates a better heat transfer and flowing performances. Meanwhile, the PR

  16. Analysis and assessment of a new organic Rankine based heat engine system with/without cogeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogerwaard, Janette; Dincer, Ibrahim; Zamfirescu, Calin

    2013-01-01

    A low-temperature heat driven heat engine is proposed as a cost-effective system for power and heat production for small scale applications. The external heat source allows flexibility in the design; the system may be coupled with various available renewable sources including biomass/biofuel/biogas combustion, geothermal heat, concentrated solar radiation, and industrial waste heat, by selecting appropriate off-the-shelf components from the HVAC (heating, ventilation, and air conditioning), refrigeration, and automotive industries for use in an ORC (organic Rankine cycle). A theoretical analysis and an experimental study are carried out for an ORC with R134a as the working fluid, utilizing a low-temperature heat source (T source < 150 °C), with focus on the expansion and boiling processes. The complete ORC model is comprised of models for the expander, working fluid pump, boiler, and condenser. Thermodynamic and heat transfer models are developed to calculate the local and averaged heat transfer coefficient of the working fluid throughout the boiling process, based on the geometry of the selected heat exchanger. Data collected for the experimental ORC test bench are used to validate the expander and boiler models. A case study is performed for the proposed ORC, for cogeneration of power and heat in a residential application. The results of the case study analysis for the proposed ORC system indicate a cycle efficiency of 0.05, exergy efficiency of 0.17, and energy and exergy cogeneration efficiency of 0.87, and 0.35, respectively. - Highlights: • Development and investigation of a scroll based Rankine heat engine operating with R134a. • Thermodynamic analyses of the system and its components. • Heat transfer analyses of boiler and condenser. • Dynamic analysis of expander. • Model validation through performed experiments on an ORC test bench

  17. Organic Rankine cycle – review and research directions in engine applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panesar Angad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Waste heat to power conversion using Organic Rankine Cycles (ORC is expected to play an important role in CO2 reductions from diesel engines. Firstly, a review of automotive ORCs is presented focusing on the pure working fluids, thermal architectures and expanders. The discussion includes, but is not limited to: R245fa, ethanol and water as fluids; series, parallel and cascade as architectures; dry saturated, superheated and supercritical as expansion conditions; and scroll, radial turbine and piston as expansion machines. Secondly, research direction in versatile expander and holistic architecture (NOx + CO2 are proposed. Benefits of using the proposed unconventional approaches are quantified using Ricardo Wave and Aspen HYSYS for diesel engine and ORC modelling. Results indicate that, the implementation of versatile piston expander tolerant to two-phase and using cyclopentane can potentially increase the highway drive cycle power by 8%. Furthermore, holistic architecture offering complete utilisation of charge air and exhaust recirculation heat increased the performance noticeably to 5% of engine power at the design point condition.

  18. Thermodynamic and heat transfer analysis of heat recovery from engine test cell by Organic Rankine Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokati, Naser; Mohammadkhani, Farzad; Farrokhi, Navid; Ranjbar, Faramarz

    2014-12-01

    During manufacture of engines, evaluation of engine performance is essential. This is accomplished in test cells. During the test, a significant portion of heat energy released by the fuel is wasted. In this study, in order to recover these heat losses, Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) is recommended. The study has been conducted assuming the diesel oil to be composed of a single hydrocarbon such as C12H26. The composition of exhaust gases (products of combustion) have been computed (and not determined experimentally) from the stoichiometric equation representing the combustion reaction. The test cell heat losses are recovered in three separate heat exchangers (preheater, evaporator and superheater). These heat exchangers are separately designed, and the whole system is analyzed from energy and exergy viewpoints. Finally, a parametric study is performed to investigate the effect of different variables on the system performance characteristics such as the ORC net power, heat exchangers effectiveness, the first law efficiency, exergy destruction and heat transfer surfaces. The results of the study show that by utilizing ORC, heat recovery equivalent to 8.85 % of the engine power is possible. The evaporator has the highest exergy destruction rate, while the pump has the lowest among the system components. Heat transfer surfaces are calculated to be 173.6, 58.7, and 11.87 m2 for the preheater, evaporator and superheater, respectively.

  19. Parametric analysis of a dual loop Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) system for engine waste heat recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Jian; Gu, Chun-wei

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A dual loop ORC system is designed for engine waste heat recovery. • The two loops are coupled via a shared heat exchanger. • The influence of the HT loop condensation parameters on the LT loop is evaluated. • Pinch point locations determine the thermal parameters of the LT loop. - Abstract: This paper presents a dual loop Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) system consisting of a high temperature (HT) loop and a low temperature (LT) loop for engine waste heat recovery. The HT loop recovers the waste heat of the engine exhaust gas, and the LT loop recovers that of the jacket cooling water in addition to the residual heat of the HT loop. The two loops are coupled via a shared heat exchanger, which means that the condenser of the HT loop is the evaporator of the LT loop as well. Cyclohexane, benzene and toluene are selected as the working fluids of the HT loop. Different condensation temperatures of the HT loop are set to maintain the condensation pressure slightly higher than the atmosphere pressure. R123, R236fa and R245fa are chosen for the LT loop. Parametric analysis is conducted to evaluate the influence of the HT loop condensation temperature and the residual heat load on the LT loop. The simulation results reveal that under different condensation conditions of the HT loop, the pinch point of the LT loop appears at different locations, resulting in different evaporation temperatures and other thermal parameters. With cyclohexane for the HT loop and R245fa for the LT loop, the maximum net power output of the dual loop ORC system reaches 111.2 kW. Since the original power output of the engine is 996 kW, the additional power generated by the dual loop ORC system can increase the engine power by 11.2%.

  20. Study of working fluid selection of organic Rankine cycle (ORC) for engine waste heat recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, E.H.; Zhang, H.G.; Fan, B.Y.; Ouyang, M.G.; Zhao, Y.; Mu, Q.H.

    2011-01-01

    Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) could be used to recover low-grade waste heat. When a vehicle is running, the engine exhaust gas states have a wide range of variance. Defining the operational conditions of the ORC that achieve the maximum utilization of waste heat is important. In this paper the performance of different working fluids operating in specific regions was analyzed using a thermodynamic model built in Matlab together with REFPROP. Nine different pure organic working fluids were selected according to their physical and chemical properties. The results were compared in the regions when net power outputs were fixed at 10 kW. Safety levels and environmental impacts were also evaluated. The outcomes indicate that R11, R141b, R113 and R123 manifest slightly higher thermodynamic performances than the others; however, R245fa and R245ca are the most environment-friendly working fluids for engine waste heat-recovery applications. The optimal control principle of ORC under the transient process is discussed based on the analytical results. -- Highlights: → R11, R141b, R113 and R123 manifest the best thermodynamic performances. → R245fa and R245ca are the most environment-friendly working fluids for the engine waste heat-recovery application. → The condensing temperature has more important effect than the evaporating pressure to the performance of ORC. → The optimal control principle of ORC under the transient process was defined according to the calculation results for the vehicle engine waste heat-recovery application. → ORC thermodynamic model was built in Matlab together with REFPROP.

  1. Thermodynamic analysis of a Rankine cycle applied on a diesel truck engine using steam and organic medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsanos, C.O.; Hountalas, D.T.; Pariotis, E.G.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► ORC improves bsfc from 10.7% to 8.4% as engine load increases from 25% to 100%. ► Increasing ORC high pressure increases thermodynamic efficiency and power output. ► Operating at high pressure the ORC is favorable for the engine cooling system. ► The low temperature values of the ORC favors heat extraction from the EGR gas. ► The impact of the exhaust gas heat exchanger on engine backpressure is limited. - Abstract: A theoretical study is conducted to investigate the potential improvement of the overall efficiency of a heavy-duty truck diesel engine equipped with a Rankine bottoming cycle for recovering heat from the exhaust gas. To this scope, a newly developed thermodynamic simulation model has been used, considering two different working media: water and the refrigerant R245ca. As revealed from the analysis, due to the variation of exhaust gas temperature with engine load it is necessary to modify the Rankine cycle parameters i.e. high pressure and superheated vapor temperature. For this reason, a new calculation procedure is applied for the estimation of the optimum Rankine cycle parameters at each operating condition. The calculation algorithm is conducted by taking certain design criteria into account, such as the exhaust gas heat exchanger size and its pinch point requirement. From the comparative evaluation between the two working media examined, using the optimum configuration of the cycle for each operating condition, it has been revealed that the brake specific fuel consumption improvement ranges from 10.2% (at 25% engine load) to 8.5% (at 100% engine load) for R245ca and 6.1% (at 25% engine load) to 7.5% (at 100% engine load) for water.

  2. Multi-objective optimization of a bottoming Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) of gasoline engine using swash-plate expander

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galindo, J.; Climent, H.; Dolz, V.; Royo-Pascual, L.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A thermo-economic and sizing model of an ORC in a gasoline engine is carried out. • A multi-objective optimization method to design an ORC for vehicle WHR is presented. • A multiple attribute decision-making method is implemented to select the solution. - Abstract: This paper presents a mathematical model of a bottoming Organic Rankine Cycle coupled to a 2 l turbocharged gasoline engine to optimize the cycle from a thermo-economic and sizing point of view. These criteria were optimized with different cycle values. Therefore, a methodology to optimize the ORC coupled to Waste Heat Recovery systems in vehicle applications is presented using a multi-objective optimization algorithm. Multi-objective optimization results show that the optimum solution depend on the importance of each objective to the final solution. Considering thermo-economic criteria as the main objective, greater sizes will be required. Considering sizing criteria as the main objective, higher thermo-economic parameters will be obtained. Therefore, in order to select a single-solution from the Pareto frontier, a multiple attribute decision-making method (TOPSIS) was implemented in order to take into account the preferences of the Decision Maker. Considering the weight factors 0.5 for Specific Investment Cost (SIC), 0.3 for the area of the heat exchangers (A tot ) and 0.2 for Volume Coefficient (VC) and the boundaries of this particular application, the result is optimized with values of 0.48 m 2 (A tot ), 2515 €/kW (SIC) and 2.62 MJ/m 3 (VC). Moreover, the profitability of the project by means of the Net Present Value and the Payback has been estimated.

  3. Cost Engineering Techniques and Their Applicability for Cost Estimation of Organic Rankine Cycle Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanne Lemmens

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The potential of organic Rankine cycle (ORC systems is acknowledged by both considerable research and development efforts and an increasing number of applications. Most research aims at improving ORC systems through technical performance optimization of various cycle architectures and working fluids. The assessment and optimization of technical feasibility is at the core of ORC development. Nonetheless, economic feasibility is often decisive when it comes down to considering practical instalments, and therefore an increasing number of publications include an estimate of the costs of the designed ORC system. Various methods are used to estimate ORC costs but the resulting values are rarely discussed with respect to accuracy and validity. The aim of this paper is to provide insight into the methods used to estimate these costs and open the discussion about the interpretation of these results. A review of cost engineering practices shows there has been a long tradition of industrial cost estimation. Several techniques have been developed, but the expected accuracy range of the best techniques used in research varies between 10% and 30%. The quality of the estimates could be improved by establishing up-to-date correlations for the ORC industry in particular. Secondly, the rapidly growing ORC cost literature is briefly reviewed. A graph summarizing the estimated ORC investment costs displays a pattern of decreasing costs for increasing power output. Knowledge on the actual costs of real ORC modules and projects remains scarce. Finally, the investment costs of a known heat recovery ORC system are discussed and the methodologies and accuracies of several approaches are demonstrated using this case as benchmark. The best results are obtained with factorial estimation techniques such as the module costing technique, but the accuracies may diverge by up to +30%. Development of correlations and multiplication factors for ORC technology in particular is

  4. Design and development of an automotive propulsion system utilizing a Rankine cycle engine (water based fluid). Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demler, R.L.

    1977-09-01

    Under EPA and ERDA sponsorship, SES successfully designed, fabricated and tested the first federally sponsored steam powered automobile. The automobile - referred to as the simulator - is a 1975 Dodge Monaco standard size passenger car with the SES preprototype Rankine cycle automotive propulsion system mounted in the engine compartment. In the latter half of 1975, the simulator successfully underwent test operations at the facilities of SES in Watertown, Massachusetts and demonstrated emission levels below those of the stringent federally established automotive requirements originally set for implementation by 1976. The demonstration was accomplished during testing over the Federal Driving Cycle on a Clayton chassis dynamometer. The design and performance of the vehicle are described.

  5. Experimental and thermodynamic analysis of a bottoming Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) of gasoline engine using swash-plate expander

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galindo, J.; Ruiz, S.; Dolz, V.; Royo-Pascual, L.; Haller, R.; Nicolas, B.; Glavatskaya, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • An experimental analysis of an ORC is presented and applied to a gasoline engine. • 28 Steady-state operating points have been tested to evaluate expander performance. • Optimum points have been used to analyze power balances and cycle efficiencies. - Abstract: This paper deals with the experimental testing of an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) integrate in a 2 liter turbocharged gasoline engine using ethanol as working fluid. The main components of the cycle are a boiler, a condenser, a pump and a swash-plate expander. Five engine operating points have been tested, they correspond to a nominal heat input into the boiler of 5, 12, 20, 25 and 30 kW. With the available bill of material based on prototypes, power balances and cycles efficiencies were estimated, obtaining a maximum improvement in the ICE mechanical power and an expander shaft power of 3.7% and 1.83 kW respectively. A total of 28 steady-state operating points were measured to evaluate performance of the swash-plate expander prototype. Operating parameters of the expander, such as expander speed and expansion ratio, were shifted. The objective of the tests is to master the system and understand physical parameters influence. The importance of each parameter was analyzed by fixing all the parameters, changing each time one specific value. In these sensitivity studies, maximum ideal and real Rankine efficiency value of 19% and 6% were obtained respectively

  6. A thermodynamic analysis of waste heat recovery from reciprocating engine power plants by means of Organic Rankine Cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uusitalo, Antti; Honkatukia, Juha; Turunen-Saaresti, Teemu; Larjola, Jaakko

    2014-01-01

    Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) is a Rankine cycle using organic fluid as the working fluid instead of water and steam. The ORC process is a feasible choice in waste heat recovery applications producing electricity from relatively low-temperature waste heat sources or in applications having a rather low power output. Utilizing waste heat from a large high-efficiency reciprocating engine power plant with ORC processes is studied by means of computations. In addition to exhaust gas heat recovery, this study represents and discusses an idea of directly replacing the charge air cooler (CAC) of a large turbocharged engine with an ORC evaporator to utilize the charge air heat in additional power production. A thermodynamic analysis for ORCs was carried out with working fluids toluene, n-pentane, R245fa and cyclohexane. The effect of different ORC process parameters on the process performance are presented and analyzed in order to investigate the heat recovery potential from the exhaust gas and charge air. A simplified feasibility consideration is included by comparing the ratio of the theoretical heat transfer areas needed and the obtained power output from ORC processes. The greatest potential is related to the exhaust gas heat recovery, but in addition also the lower temperature waste heat streams could be utilized to boost the electrical power of the engine power plant. A case study for a large-scale gas-fired engine was carried out showing that the maximum power increase of 11.4% was obtained from the exhaust gas and 2.4% from the charge air heat. - Highlights: • Waste heat recovery potential of reciprocating engines was studied. • Thermodynamic optimization for ORCs was carried out with different fluids. • The utilization of exhaust gas and charge air heat is presented and discussed. • Simplified economic feasibility study was included in the analysis. • Power increase of 11.4% was obtained from exhaust gas and 2.4% from charge air

  7. Experimental study on Rankine cycle evaporator efficiency intended for exhaust waste heat recovery of a diesel engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milkov Nikolay

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper pressents an experimental study of Rankine cycle evaporator efficiency. Water was chosen as the working fluid in the system. The experimental test was conducted on a test bench equipped with a burner charged by compressed fresh air. Generated exhaust gases parameters were previously determined over the diesel engine operating range (28 engine operating points were studied. For each test point the working fluid parameters (flow rate and evaporating pressure were varied. Thus, the enthalpy flow through the heat exchanger was determined. Heat exchanger was designed as 23 helical tubes are inserted. On the basis of the results, it was found out that efficiency varies from 25 % to 51,9 %. The optimal working fluid pressure is 20 bar at most of the operating points while the optimum fluid mass flow rate varies from 2 g/s to 10 g/s.

  8. An analytical study on the performance of the organic Rankine cycle for turbofan engine exhaust heat recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadon, S.; Abu Talib, A. R.

    2016-10-01

    Due to energy shortage and global warming, issues of energy saving have become more important. To increase the energy efficiency and reduce the fuel consumption, waste heat recovery is a significant method for energy saving. The organic Rankine cycle (ORC) has great potential to recover the waste heat from the core jet exhaust of a turbofan engine and use it to produce power. Preliminary study of the design concept and thermodynamic performance of this ORC system would assist researchers to predict the benefits of using the ORC system to extract the exhaust heat engine. In addition, a mathematical model of the heat transfer of this ORC system is studied and developed. The results show that with the increment of exhaust heat temperature, the mass flow rate of the working fluid, net power output and the system thermal efficiency will also increase. Consequently, total consumption of jet fuel could be significantly saved as well.

  9. Dynamic behavior of Rankine cycle system for waste heat recovery of heavy duty diesel engines under driving cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Hui; Yang, Can

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Waste heat recovery behavior of the RCS during driving cycle was investigated. • Four operating modes were defined to describe the operating process of the RCS under driving cycle. • The operating mode switching is the crucial reason for on-road inefficiency. • The dry and isentropic fluids are superior to the wet ones on the adaptability to unsteady ExGE. • The effects of the vapor parameters on RCT-E and power mode percentage are opposite. - Abstract: The RCS (Rankine cycle system) used to recover the WHE (waste heat energy) from engines has been regarded as one of the most potential ways of achieving higher efficiency. However, it is of great challenge to keep the RCS still in good performance under driving cycle. This paper tries to reveal and explain its on-road inefficiency. The operating process of the RCS under driving cycle was analyzed in advance. Afterwards, four basic operating modes were defined, including startup mode, turbine turning mode, power mode and protection mode. Then, a RCS model was established and operating performances of the RCS under an actual driving cycle were discussed based on this model. The results indicate that the on-road RCS-E (Rankine cycle system efficiency) is as low as 3.63%, which is less than half of the design RCS-E (7.77%) at the rated operating point. Despite the inevitable vapor state fluctuation, it is the operating mode switching during the driving cycle that leads to the on-road inefficiency. Further investigations indicate that the expander safety temperature and its safety margin affected by the working fluids, designed superheat degree and evaporating pressure are the main factors determining the operating mode switching. Finally, the effects of the working fluids, designed superheat degree and evaporating pressure on the operating mode switching and RC (Rankine cycle) efficiencies were profoundly investigated. The study shows that the dry and isentropic fluids are superior to the wet

  10. Study on Mixed Working Fluids with Different Compositions in Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC Systems for Vehicle Diesel Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Yang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available One way to increase the thermal efficiency of vehicle diesel engines is to recover waste heat by using an organic Rankine cycle (ORC system. Tests were conducted to study the running performances of diesel engines in the whole operating range. The law of variation of the exhaust energy rate under various engine operating conditions was also analyzed. A diesel engine-ORC combined system was designed, and relevant evaluation indexes proposed. The variation of the running performances of the combined system under various engine operating conditions was investigated. R245fa and R152a were selected as the components of the mixed working fluid. Thereafter, six kinds of mixed working fluids with different compositions were presented. The effects of mixed working fluids with different compositions on the running performances of the combined system were revealed. Results show that the running performances of the combined system can be improved effectively when mass fraction R152a in the mixed working fluid is high and the engine operates with high power. For the mixed working fluid M1 (R245fa/R152a, 0.1/0.9, by mass fraction, the net power output of the combined system reaches the maximum of 34.61 kW. Output energy density of working fluid (OEDWF, waste heat recovery efficiency (WHRE, and engine thermal efficiency increasing ratio (ETEIR all reach their maximum values at 42.7 kJ/kg, 10.90%, and 11.29%, respectively.

  11. Performance analysis of exhaust heat recovery using organic Rankine cycle in a passenger car with a compression ignition engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghilvacs, M.; Prisecaru, T.; Pop, H.; Apostol, V.; Prisecaru, M.; Pop, E.; Popescu, Gh; Ciobanu, C.; Mohanad, A.; Alexandru, A.

    2016-08-01

    Compression ignition engines transform approximately 40% of the fuel energy into power available at the crankshaft, while the rest part of the fuel energy is lost as coolant, exhaust gases and other waste heat. An organic Rankine cycle (ORC) can be used to recover this waste heat. In this paper, the characteristics of a system combining a compression ignition engine with an ORC which recover the waste heat from the exhaust gases are analyzed. The performance map of the diesel engine is measured on an engine test bench and the heat quantities wasted by the exhaust gases are calculated over the engine's entire operating region. Based on this data, the working parameters of ORC are defined, and the performance of a combined engine-ORC system is evaluated across this entire region. The results show that the net power of ORC is 6.304kW at rated power point and a maximum of 10% reduction in brake specific fuel consumption can be achieved.

  12. Study of mixtures based on hydrocarbons used in ORC (Organic Rankine Cycle) for engine waste heat recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu, Gequn; Gao, Yuanyuan; Tian, Hua; Wei, Haiqiao; Liang, Xingyu

    2014-01-01

    For high temperature ORC (Organic Rankine Cycle) used in engine waste heat recovery, it's very critical to select a high temperature working fluid. HCs (Hydrocarbons) usually have excellent cycle performance, but the flammability limits their practical application. Considering that some retardants can be used to suppress flammability, the paper presents an application of mixtures based on hydrocarbons blending with refrigerant retardants to engine waste heat ORC. Three pure hydrocarbons (cyclopentane, cyclohexane, benzene) and two retardants (R11, R123) are selected for combination. Thermal efficiency and exergy loss are selected as the main objective functions. Based on thermodynamic model, the effects of retardants mass fraction, evaporation temperature and IHE (internal heat exchanger) are investigated. Results show that zeotropic mixtures do have higher thermal efficiency and lower exergy loss than pure fluids, at a certain mixture ratio. There exists the OMR (optimal mixture ratio) for different mixtures, and it changes with the evaporation temperature. When adding IHE to system, cycle performance could be obviously improved, and for benzene/R11 (0.7/0.3), the efficiency growth is about 7.12%∼9.72%. Using it, the maximum thermal efficiency of the system can achieve 16.7%, and minimum exergy loss is only 30.76 kW. - Highlights: • A theoretical analysis of Organic Rankine Cycle for engine exhaust heat recovery is proposed. • Mixtures based on hydrocarbons as working fluids have been suggested. • Effects of the IHE (internal heat exchanger) on ORC system are investigated. • OMR (Optimal mixture ratio) changes with the evaporation temperature. • Using the system, maximum thermal efficiency can achieve 16.7%

  13. Conversion of Low Quality Waste Heat to Electric Power with Small-Scale Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) Engine/Generator Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    efficiency by reducing energy consumption associated with electrical generation and reduces greenhouse gas emissions by increasing electrical generating...integrated system fuel economy test conditions This computation requires prediction of fuel consumption over baseline and integrated system load...EW-201251) Conversion of Low Quality Waste Heat to Electric Power with Small-Scale Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) Engine/Generator Technology

  14. Thermodynamic analysis and performance optimization of an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) waste heat recovery system for marine diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Jian; Song, Yin; Gu, Chun-wei

    2015-01-01

    Escalating fuel prices and imposition of carbon dioxide emission limits are creating renewed interest in methods to increase the thermal efficiency of marine diesel engines. One viable means to achieve such improved thermal efficiency is the conversion of engine waste heat to a more useful form of energy, either mechanical or electrical. Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) has been demonstrated to be a promising technology to recover waste heat. This paper examines waste heat recovery of a marine diesel engine using ORC technology. Two separated ORC apparatuses for the waste heat from both the jacket cooling water and the engine exhaust gas are designed as the traditional recovery system. The maximum net power output is chosen as the evaluation criterion to select the suitable working fluid and define the optimal system parameters. To simplify the waste heat recovery, an optimized system using the jacket cooling water as the preheating medium and the engine exhaust gas for evaporation is presented. The influence of preheating temperature on the system performance is evaluated to define the optimal operating condition. Economic and off-design analysis of the optimized system is conducted. The simulation results reveal that the optimized system is technically feasible and economically attractive. - Highlights: • ORC is used to recover waste heat from both exhaust gas and jacket cooling water. • Comparative study is conducted for different ORC systems. • Thermal performance, system structure and economic feasibility are considered. • Optimal preheating temperature of the system is selected

  15. A comprehensive design methodology of organic Rankine cycles for the waste heat recovery of automotive heavy-duty diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amicabile, Simone; Lee, Jeong-Ik; Kum, Dongsuk

    2015-01-01

    One of the most promising approaches to recover the waste heat from internal combustion engines is the Organic Rankine Cycle owing to its efficiency and reliability. The design optimization of ORC, however, is nontrivial because there exist many design variables and practical considerations. The present paper proposes a comprehensive design methodology to optimize the Organic Rankine Cycles (ORC) considering a wide range of design variables as well as practical aspects such as component limitations and costs. The design process is comprised of three steps: heat source selection, candidate fluid selection, and thermodynamic cycle optimization. In order to select the best waste heat source, the available energy and other practical considerations of various heat sources have been compared. Among others, the Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) cooler is found to be the best heat source, and thus used for the rest of this study. Based on a systematic working fluid analysis, Ethanol, Pentane, and R245fa are selected as three candidate fluids. For the comprehensive ORC optimization, four types of cycle layouts are considered; 1) subcritical cycle without a recuperator, 2) subcritical cycle with a recuperator, 3) supercritical without a recuperator, and 4) supercritical cycle with a recuperator. Four cycle layouts coupled with three candidate fluids give a total of twelve cycle analyses. Results show that the best performance is provided by the regenerative subcritical cycle with Ethanol, while the solution with minimum capital cost is the subcritical cycles with Ethanol but without a recuperator. - Highlights: • Selection of the best waste heat source of a diesel engine for a heat recovery system. • Screening process to identify the most suitable working fluids for the system. • Comprehensive ORC optimization is introduced for four types of cycle layouts. • Pay Back Time investigation to present the economic analysis of the cycles

  16. Thermoeconomic multi-objective optimization of an organic Rankine cycle for exhaust waste heat recovery of a diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Fubin; Zhang, Hongguang; Song, Songsong; Bei, Chen; Wang, Hongjin; Wang, Enhua

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the ORC (Organic Rankine cycle) technology is adopted to recover the exhaust waste heat of diesel engine. The thermodynamic, economic and optimization models of the ORC system are established, respectively. Firstly, the effects of four key parameters, including evaporation pressure, superheat degree, condensation temperature and exhaust temperature at the outlet of the evaporator on the thermodynamic performances and economic indicators of the ORC system are investigated. Subsequently, based on the established optimization model, GA (genetic algorithm) is employed to solve the Pareto solution of the thermodynamic performances and economic indicators for maximizing net power output and minimizing total investment cost under diesel engine various operating conditions using R600, R600a, R601a, R245fa, R1234yf and R1234ze as working fluids. The most suitable working fluid used in the ORC system for diesel engine waste heat recovery is screened out, and then the corresponding optimal parameter regions are analyzed. The results show that thermodynamic performance of the ORC system is improved at the expense of economic performance. Among these working fluids, R245fa is considered as the most suitable working fluid for the ORC waste heat application of the diesel engine with comprehensive consideration of thermoeconomic performances, environmental impacts and safety levels. Under the various operating conditions of the diesel engine, the optimal evaporation pressure is in the range of 1.1 MPa–2.1 MPa. In addition, the optimal superheat degree and the exhaust temperature at the outlet of the evaporator are mainly influenced by the operating conditions of the diesel engine. The optimal condensation temperature keeps a nearly constant value of 298.15 K. - Highlights: • Thermoeconomic multi-objective optimization of an ORC (Organic Rankine cycle) system is conducted. • Sensitivity analysis of the decision variables is performed. • Genetic algorithm

  17. Thermodynamic analysis of a novel dual-loop organic Rankine cycle for engine waste heat and LNG cold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, Taehong; Kim, Kyung Chun

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel dual ORC system is designed for engine waste heat and LNG cold. • Exhaust gas and jacket cooling water are considered as heat sources. • LNG and boil-off gas are considered as heat sinks. • ORC loops are optimized to produce the maximum net work output. - Abstract: The marine sector produces a large portion of total air pollution, so the emissions of the engines used must be improved. This can be achieved using a new eco-friendly engine and waste-heat recovery system. A dual-fuel (DF) engine has been introduced for LNG carriers that is eco-friendly and has high thermal efficiency since it uses natural gas as fuel. The thermal efficiency could be further improved with the organic Rankine cycle (ORC). A novel dual-loop ORC system was designed for DF engines. The upper ORC loop recovers waste heat from the exhaust gas, and the bottom ORC loop recovers waste heat from the jacket cooling water and LNG cold. Both ORC loops were optimized to produce the maximum net work output. The optimum simple dual-loop ORC with n-pentane and R125 as working fluids produces an additional power output of 729.1 kW, which is 4.15% of the original engine output. Further system improvement studies were conducted using a recuperator and preheater, and the feasibility of using boil-off gas as a heat sink was analyzed. Optimization of the system configuration revealed that the preheater and recuperator with n-pentane and R125 as working fluids increase the maximum net work output by 906.4 kW, which is 5.17% of the original engine output.

  18. Working fluid selection for an Organic Rankine Cycle utilizing high and low temperature energy of an LNG engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Sinian; Chang, Huawei; Zhang, Xiaoqing; Shu, Shuiming; Duan, Chen

    2015-01-01

    This study proposed a combined Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) system utilizing exhaust waste as its heat source and liquid natural gas (LNG) as its heat sink to provide alternative power for an LNG-fired vehicle. This system, consisting of a regenerator and a dual heat source composite heat exchanger, was designed to efficiently recover the engine waste heat (EWH) and to guarantee vaporizing LNG steadily. Five potential applicable organic working fluids are analyzed: C4F10, CF3I, R236EA, R236FA and RC318. Each fluid was analyzed at various evaporation temperatures and condensation temperatures using a thermodynamic model, and a self-made MATLAB program based on the physical properties on REFPROP data was applied to run the simulation. Analytical results showed that fluid R236FA has the highest thermal efficiency η_t_h of 21.6%, and that of the others are also around 21%. Based on a twelve-cylinder four stroke stationary natural gas engine, the simulated calculations show that the selected five working fluids can improve the fuel economy by more than 14.7% compared to that without ORC. - Highlights: • We design an ORC utilizing LNG cold energy and engine waste heat. • Five working fluids are examined at various working conditions. • The maximum thermal efficient of our proposed cycle can reach 20.3%–21.6%. • This system can decrease the brake specific fuel consumption by more than 14.7%.

  19. Bearing development program for a 25 kWe solar-powered organic Rankine-cycle engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesmith, B.

    1985-01-01

    The bearing development program is summarized for a 25-kWe power conversion subsystem (PCS) consisting of an organic Rankine-cycle engine, and permanent magnetic alternator (PMA) and rectifier to be used in a 100-kWe point-focusing distributed receiver solar power plant. The engine and alternator were hermetically sealed and used toluene as the working fluid. The turbine, alternator, and feed pump (TAP) were mounted on a single shaft operating at speeds up to 60,000 rev/min. Net thermal-to-electric efficiencies in the range of 21 to 23% were demonstrated at the maximum working fluid temperature of 400 C (750 F). A chronological summary of the bearing development program is presented. The primary causes of bearing wear problems were traced to a combination of rotordynamic instability and electrodynamic discharge across the bearing surfaces caused by recirculating currents from the PMA. These problems were resolved by implementing an externally supplied, flooded-bearing lubrication system and by electrically insulating all bearings from the TAP housing. This program resulted in the successful development of a stable, high-speed, toluene-lubricated five-pad tilting-pad journal bearing and Rayleigh step thrust bearing system capable of operating at all inclinations between horizontal and vertical.

  20. Economic research of the transcritical Rankine cycle systems to recover waste heat from the marine medium-speed diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Min-Hsiung; Yeh, Rong-Hua

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the economic performance of a transcritical Rankine cycle (TRC) system for recovering waste heat from the exhaust gas of a marine medium-speed diesel engine. The variation of net power output, total cost of equipments and exergy destruction are investigated for the TRC system. Furthermore, to evaluate the economic performance of energy utilization, a parameter, net power output index, which is the ratio of net power output to the total cost, is introduced of the TRC system using R125, R143a, R218 and R1234yf as working fluids. The results show that R1234yf performs the highest economic performance, followed by R143a, R125 and R218 of the TRC system. It reveals that R1234yf not only has the smallest high and low pressures of the TRC system for reducing the purchased cost of equipments, but also promotes a larger pressure ratio of the expander for generating power output among these working fluids. The comparisons of optimal pressure ratios obtained from thermodynamic and economic optimizations for these working fluids in the TRC system are also reported. In addition, an evaluation method using thermal efficiency and operating pressure ratio as parameters is proposed to assess the suitability of the working fluids of TRC system in economic analysis for waste heat recovery from the exhaust gas of a diesel engine.

  1. Comparison of a Novel Organic-Fluid Thermofluidic Heat Converter and an Organic Rankine Cycle Heat Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph J.W. Kirmse

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Up-THERM heat converter is an unsteady, two-phase thermofluidic oscillator that employs an organic working fluid, which is currently being considered as a prime-mover in small- to medium-scale combined heat and power (CHP applications. In this paper, the Up-THERM heat converter is compared to a basic (sub-critical, non-regenerative organic Rankine cycle (ORC heat engine with respect to their power outputs, thermal efficiencies and exergy efficiencies, as well as their capital and specific costs. The study focuses on a pre-specified Up-THERM design in a selected application, a heat-source temperature range from 210 °C to 500 °C and five different working fluids (three n-alkanes and two refrigerants. A modeling methodology is developed that allows the above thermo-economic performance indicators to be estimated for the two power-generation systems. For the chosen applications, the power output of the ORC engine is generally higher than that of the Up-THERM heat converter. However, the capital costs of the Up-THERM heat converter are lower than those of the ORC engine. Although the specific costs (£/kW of the ORC engine are lower than those of the Up-THERM converter at low heat-source temperatures, the two systems become progressively comparable at higher temperatures, with the Up-THERM heat converter attaining a considerably lower specific cost at the highest heat-source temperatures considered.

  2. Thermal and economic analyses of a compact waste heat recovering system for the marine diesel engine using transcritical Rankine cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Min-Hsiung

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Schematic diagram of the CWHRS for a marine diesel engine. - Highlights: • The economic optimization of a CWHRS of a marine engine is investigated. • The environmental protection refrigerant, R1234yf is used as the working fluid of the TRC system. • The optimal analysis and comparison of three models for waste heat recovering have been carried out. • The optimization of payback periods, CO_2 emission reducing and diesel oil saving are reported. - Abstract: The aim of this study is to investigate the economic performance of a novel compact waste heat recovering system for the marine diesel engine. The transcritical Rankine cycle is employed to convert the waste heat resources to useful work with R1234yf. To evaluate the utilizing efficiency and economic performance of waste heat resources, which are exhaust gas, cylinder cooling water and scavenge air cooling water, three operating models of the system are investigated and compared. The levelized energy cost, which represents the total cost per kilo-watt power, is employed to evaluate the economic performance of the system. The economic optimization and its corresponding optimal parameters of each operating model in the compact waste heat recovering system are obtained theoretically. The results show that the minimal levelized energy cost of the proposed system operated in Model I is the lowest of the three models, and then are Model II and Model III, which are 2.96% and 9.36% lower for, respectively. Similarly, the CO_2 emission reduction is the highest for Model I of the three models, and 21.6% and 30.1% lower are obtained for Model II and Model III, respectively. The compact waste heat recovering system operated in Model I has superiority on the payback periods and heavy diesel oil saving over the others. Finally, the correlations using specific work of working fluid and condensation temperature as parameters are proposed to assess the optimal conditions in economic performance

  3. HD Diesel engine equipped with a bottoming Rankine cycle as a waste heat recovery system. Part 1: Study and analysis of the waste heat energy

    OpenAIRE

    Dolz Ruiz, Vicente; Novella Rosa, Ricardo; García Martínez, Antonio; Sánchez Serrano, Jaime

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the study of different bottoming Rankine cycles with water-steam and/or ORC configurations in classical and innovative setups such as a waste heat recovery system in a Heavy Duty Diesel (HDD) Engine. This work has been divided in two parts. This first part describes the model of the studied HDD engine and the available waste energy sources in this HDD Engine. The waste energy sources are studied from the standpoint of energy analysis to determine which are the most approp...

  4. Engine Load Effects on the Energy and Exergy Performance of a Medium Cycle/Organic Rankine Cycle for Exhaust Waste Heat Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Liu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC has been proved a promising technique to exploit waste heat from Internal Combustion Engines (ICEs. Waste heat recovery systems have usually been designed based on engine rated working conditions, while engines often operate under part load conditions. Hence, it is quite important to analyze the off-design performance of ORC systems under different engine loads. This paper presents an off-design Medium Cycle/Organic Rankine Cycle (MC/ORC system model by interconnecting the component models, which allows the prediction of system off-design behavior. The sliding pressure control method is applied to balance the variation of system parameters and evaporating pressure is chosen as the operational variable. The effect of operational variable and engine load on system performance is analyzed from the aspects of energy and exergy. The results show that with the drop of engine load, the MC/ORC system can always effectively recover waste heat, whereas the maximum net power output, thermal efficiency and exergy efficiency decrease linearly. Considering the contributions of components to total exergy destruction, the proportions of the gas-oil exchanger and turbine increase, while the proportions of the evaporator and condenser decrease with the drop of engine load.

  5. Development of an Organic Rankine Cycle system for exhaust energy recovery in internal combustion engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipollone, Roberto; Bianchi, Giuseppe; Gualtieri, Angelo; Di Battista, Davide; Mauriello, Marco; Fatigati, Fabio

    2015-11-01

    Road transportation is currently one of the most influencing sectors for global energy consumptions and CO2 emissions. Nevertheless, more than one third of the fuel energy supplied to internal combustion engines is still rejected to the environment as thermal waste at the exhaust. Therefore, a greater fuel economy might be achieved recovering the energy from exhaust gases and converting it into useful power on board. In the current research activity, an ORC-based energy recovery system was developed and coupled with a diesel engine. The innovative feature of the recovery power unit relies upon the usage of sliding vane rotary machines as pump and expander. After a preliminary exhaust gas mapping, which allowed to assess the magnitude of the thermal power to be recovered, a thermodynamic analysis was carried out to design the ORC system and the sliding vane machines using R236fa as working fluid. An experimental campaign was eventually performed at different operating regimes according to the ESC procedure and investigated the recovery potential of the power unit at design and off-design conditions. Mechanical power recovered ranged from 0.7 kW up to 1.9 kW, with an overall cycle efficiency from 3.8% up to 4.8% respectively. These results candidate sliding vane machines as efficient and reliable devices for waste heat recovery applications.

  6. Advanced exergy analysis for a bottoming organic rankine cycle coupled to an internal combustion engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galindo, J.; Ruiz, S.; Dolz, V.; Royo-Pascual, L.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Advanced exergy analysis were carried out using experimental data of an ORC. • Exergy destruction analyzed as endogenous/exogenous and unavoidable/avoidable. • Exergy destruction was estimated by considering technological restrictions. - Abstract: This paper deals with the evaluation and analysis of a bottoming ORC cycle coupled to an IC engine by means of conventional and advanced exergy analysis. Using experimental data of an ORC coupled to a 2 l turbocharged engine, both conventional and advanced exergy analysis are carried out. Splitting the exergy in the advanced exergy analysis into unavoidable and avoidable provides a measure of the potential of improving the efficiency of this component. On the other hand, splitting the exergy into endogenous and exogenous provides information between interactions among system components. The result of this study shows that there is a high potential of improvement in this type of cycles. Although, from the conventional analysis, the exergy destruction rate of boiler is greater than the one of the expander, condenser and pump, the advanced exergy analysis suggests that the first priority of improvement should be given to the expander, followed by the pump, the condenser and the boiler. A total amount of 3.75 kW (36.5%) of exergy destruction rate could be lowered, taking account that only the avoidable part of the exergy destruction rate can be reduced.

  7. Theoretical research on working fluid selection for a high-temperature regenerative transcritical dual-loop engine organic Rankine cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Hua; Liu, Lina; Shu, Gequn; Wei, Haiqiao; Liang, Xingyu

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Among all examined working fluids, toluene possesses the maximum W net , highest η e and η ec . • The increase of T 3 worsens system performance, decreasing W net , η e and η ec . • Condenser C LT and turbine T LT possesses the least system irreversibility. • Turbines and exhaust evaporators are optimization components. - Abstract: In this paper, a regenerative transcritical dual-loop organic Rankine cycle is proposed to recover the waste heat of the exhaust, engine coolant and all the residual heat of the HT loop. Double regenerators are adopted in this system. Transcritical cycles are used in both loops. Hexamethyldisiloxane (MM), octamethyl cyclotetrasiloxane (D 4 ), octamethyltrisiloxane (MDM), cyclohexane, toluene and n-decane are chosen as the candidate working fluids of the HT loop and R143a is chosen as the working fluid of the LT loop. Influences of inlet temperature of turbine T HT (T 3 ) on mass flow rates (m f,HT and m f,LT ), net output power (W net ), energy conversion efficiency (η ec ), volumetric expansion ratio (VER), ratio of power consumed to power output (COR) and component irreversibility are analyzed and performance comparison of these working fluids is also evaluated. Results show that toluene possesses the maximum W net (42.46 kW), highest η e (51.92%) and η ec (12.77%). The increase of T 3 worsens system performance, decreasing W net , η e and η ec . Condenser C LT and turbine T LT possess the least system irreversibility. In addition, turbines and exhaust evaporators are optimized components

  8. Bottoming organic Rankine cycle configurations to increase Internal Combustion Engines power output from cooling water waste heat recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peris, Bernardo; Navarro-Esbrí, Joaquín; Molés, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    This work is focused on waste heat recovery of jacket cooling water from Internal Combustion Engines (ICEs). Cooling water heat does not always find use due to its low temperature, typically around 90 °C, and usually is rejected to the ambient despite its high thermal power. An efficient way to take benefit from the ICE cooling water waste heat can be to increase the power output through suitable bottoming Organic Rankine Cycles (ORCs). Thereby, this work simulates six configurations using ten non flammable working fluids and evaluates their performances in efficiency, safety, cost and environmental terms. Results show that the Double Regenerative ORC using SES36 gets the maximum net efficiency of 7.15%, incrementing the ICE electrical efficiency up to 5.3%, although requires duplicating the number of main components and high turbine size. A more rigorous analysis, based on the system feasibility, shows that small improvements in the basic cycle provide similar gains compared to the most complex schemes proposed. So, the single Regenerative ORC using R236fa and the Reheat Regenerative ORC using R134a seem suitable cycles which provide a net efficiency of 6.55%, incrementing the ICE electrical efficiency up to 4.9%. -- Highlights: • Suitable bottoming cycles for ICE cooling water waste heat recovery are studied. • Non flammable working fluids and various ORC configurations are evaluated. • Double regenerative cycle using SES36 is the most efficient configuration. • Regenerative and reheat regenerative ORCs seem feasible cycles. • Electrical efficiency of the ICE can be improved up to 5.3%

  9. Comparative evaluation of a natural gas expansion plant integrated with an IC engine and an organic Rankine cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostowski, Wojciech J.; Usón, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Comparison of natural gas expansion systems integrated with gas boiler, ICE and ORC. • Expansion systems replace the throttling process in pressure regulating stations. • 5 System performance indicators based on the 1st and 2nd law are defined. • Exergy efficiency was calculated from the fuel-product approach. • ORC system yields highest exergy efficiency 52.6% and performance ratio of 0.771. - Abstract: The aim of the paper is to propose and evaluate an innovative exergy recovery system for natural gas expansion, based on the integration of an internal combustion engine (ICE) and an organic Rankine cycle (ORC), and to compare it with other alternatives. Natural gas expansion plants are a substantial improvement to the conventional gas pressure reduction stations, based on the throttling process, since the available physical exergy of pressurized gas is converted into mechanical energy by means of an expansion machine (turbine or piston expander) instead of being lost in the throttling process. However, due to the hydrate formation problem the gas has to be pre-heated prior to the expansion, which diminishes the system performance. An efficient method for performing this pre-heating is by the proposed system that comprises an ICE and an ORC: Pre-heating of natural gas is carried out partially directly by the co-generation module, via the engine cooling cycle, and partially indirectly, by means of the engine exhaust gases, which supply heat for the ORC, while the ORC condenser is connected with the lowest stage of natural gas pre-heating. Other alternatives are the use of an ICE without ORC, the use of a boiler, and even expansion in a throttling valve. The paper evaluates the performance of the aforementioned four configurations by means of both energy and exergy analysis. Several alternative performance indicators have been defined, calculated and discussed. Sources of irreversibilities have been identified by means of exergy analysis

  10. Performance Analysis of an Evaporator for a Diesel Engine–Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) Combined System and Influence of Pressure Drop on the Diesel Engine Operating Characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Chen Bei; Hongguang Zhang; Fubin Yang; Songsong Song; Enhua Wang; Hao Liu; Ying Chang; Hongjin Wang; Kai Yang

    2015-01-01

    The main purpose of this research is to analyze the performance of an evaporator for the organic Rankine cycle (ORC) system and discuss the influence of the evaporator on the operating characteristics of diesel engine. A simulation model of fin-and-tube evaporator of the ORC system is established by using Fluent software. Then, the flow and heat transfer characteristics of the exhaust at the evaporator shell side are obtained, and then the performance of the fin-and-tube evaporator of the ORC...

  11. Experimental investigations on a cascaded steam-/organic-Rankine-cycle (RC/ORC) system for waste heat recovery (WHR) from diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Guopeng; Shu, Gequn; Tian, Hua; Huo, Yongzhan; Zhu, Weijie

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel cascaded RC/ORC system was constructed for WHR of a heavy-duty diesel engine. • The RC/ORC system was experimentally investigated under engine operating conditions. • Good system stability and satisfying thermal states of working fluids were observed. • The power increment can reach up to 5.6% by equipping the novel cascaded RC/ORC system. - Abstract: A novel cascaded RC/ORC system that comprises a steam Rankine cycle as the high-temperature loop (H-RC) and an organic Rankine cycle as the low-temperature loop (L-ORC) was constructed and experimentally investigated to recover waste heat from exhaust gas of a heavy-duty diesel engine (DE). By monitoring key parameters of the RC/ORC system against time, good system stability and satisfying thermal states of working fluids were observed. Impacts that the engine operations have on this proposed waste-heat-recovery (WHR) system were studied, indicating that waste heat recovered from the gas increases gradually and greatly as the engine load increases, yet decreases slightly as the speed grows. At full loads at speeds lower than 2050 rpm, up to 101.5 kW of waste heat can be abstracted from the gas source, showing a promising heat transfer potential. Besides, observations of key exergy states as well as estimations and comparisons of potential output power were carried out stepwise. Results indicated that up to 12.7 kW of output power could be obtained by the novel RC/ORC system under practical estimations. Comparing to the basic diesel engine, the power increment reaches up to 5.6% by equipping the cascaded RC/ORC system.

  12. Effects of Degree of Superheat on the Running Performance of an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC Waste Heat Recovery System for Diesel Engines under Various Operating Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Yang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the variation law of engine exhaust energy under various operating conditions to improve the thermal efficiency and fuel economy of diesel engines. An organic Rankine cycle (ORC waste heat recovery system with internal heat exchanger (IHE was designed to recover waste heat from the diesel engine exhaust. The zeotropic mixture R416A was used as the working fluid for the ORC. Three evaluation indexes were presented as follows: waste heat recovery efficiency (WHRE, engine thermal efficiency increasing ratio (ETEIR, and output energy density of working fluid (OEDWF. In terms of various operating conditions of the diesel engine, this study investigated the variation tendencies of the running performances of the ORC waste heat recovery system and the effects of the degree of superheat on the running performance of the ORC waste heat recovery system through theoretical calculations. The research findings showed that the net power output, WHRE, and ETEIR of the ORC waste heat recovery system reach their maxima when the degree of superheat is 40 K, engine speed is 2200 r/min, and engine torque is 1200 N·m. OEDWF gradually increases with the increase in the degree of superheat, which indicates that the required mass flow rate of R416A decreases for a certain net power output, thereby significantly decreasing the risk of environmental pollution.

  13. Performance analysis of waste heat recovery with a dual loop organic Rankine cycle (ORC) system for diesel engine under various operating conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Fubin; Dong, Xiaorui; Zhang, Hongguang; Wang, Zhen; Yang, Kai; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Enhua; Liu, Hao; Zhao, Guangyao

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Dual loop ORC system is designed to recover waste heat from a diesel engine. • R245fa is used as working fluid for the dual loop ORC system. • Waste heat characteristic under engine various operating conditions is analyzed. • Performance of the combined system under various operating conditions is studied. • The waste heat from coolant and intake air has considerable potential for recovery. - Abstract: To take full advantage of the waste heat from a diesel engine, a set of dual loop organic Rankine cycle (ORC) system is designed to recover exhaust energy, waste heat from the coolant system, and released heat from turbocharged air in the intercooler of a six-cylinder diesel engine. The dual loop ORC system consists of a high temperature loop ORC system and a low temperature loop ORC system. R245fa is selected as the working fluid for both loops. Through the engine test, based on the first and second laws of thermodynamics, the performance of the dual loop ORC system for waste heat recovery is discussed based on the analysis of its waste heat characteristics under engine various operating conditions. Subsequently, the diesel engine-dual loop ORC combined system is presented, and the effective thermal efficiency and the brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) are chosen to evaluate the operating performances of the diesel engine-dual loop ORC combined system. The results show that, the maximum waste heat recovery efficiency (WHRE) of the dual loop ORC system can reach 5.4% under engine various operating conditions. At the engine rated condition, the dual loop ORC system achieves the largest net power output at 27.85 kW. Compared with the diesel engine, the thermal efficiency of the combined system can be increased by 13%. When the diesel engine is operating at the high load region, the BSFC can be reduced by a maximum 4%

  14. Analyzing the Performance of a Dual Loop Organic Rankine Cycle System for Waste Heat Recovery of a Heavy-Duty Compressed Natural Gas Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baofeng Yao

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A dual loop organic Rankine cycle (DORC system is designed to recover waste heat from a heavy-duty compressed natural gas engine (CNGE, and the performance of the DORC–CNGE combined system is simulated and discussed. The DORC system includes high-temperature (HT and low-temperature (LT cycles. The HT cycle recovers energy from the exhaust gas emitted by the engine, whereas the LT cycle recovers energy from intake air, engine coolant, and the HT cycle working fluid in the preheater. The mathematical model of the system is established based on the first and second laws of thermodynamics. The characteristics of waste heat energy from the CNGE are calculated according to engine test data under various operating conditions. Moreover, the performance of the DORC–CNGE combined system is simulated and analyzed using R245fa as the working fluid. Results show that the maximum net power output and the maximum thermal efficiency of the DORC system are 29.37 kW and 10.81%, respectively, under the rated power output condition of the engine. Compared with the original CNG engine, the maximum power output increase ratio and the maximum brake specific fuel consumption improvement ratio are 33.73% and 25%, respectively, in the DORC–CNGE combined system.

  15. Evaluation of a combined cycle based on an HCCI (Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition) engine heat recovery employing two organic Rankine cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaljani, M.; Saray, R. Khoshbakhti; Bahlouli, K.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, a combined power cycle which includes a HCCI (Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition) engine and two ORCs (Organic Rankine Cycles) is introduced. In the proposed cycle, the waste heats from the engine cooling water and exhaust gases are utilized to drive the ORCs. A parametric study is conducted to show the effects of decision parameters on the performance and on the total cost rate of cycle. Results of the parametric study reveal that increasing the pinch point temperature difference of evaporator and temperature of the condenser leads to reduction in both exergy efficiency and total cost rate of the bottoming cycle. There is a specific evaporator temperature where exergy efficiency is improved, but the total cost rate of the bottoming cycle is maximized. Also, a multi-objective optimization strategy is performed to achieve the best system design parameters from both thermodynamic and economic aspects. The exergy efficiency and the total cost rate of the system have been considered as objective functions. Optimization results indicate that the exergy efficiency of the cycle increases from 44.96% for the base case to 46.02%. Also, approximately1.3% reduction in the cost criteria is achieved. Results of the multi-objective optimization justify the results obtained through the parametric study and demonstrate that the design parameters of both ORCs have conflict effect on the objective functions. - Highlights: • Two Organic Rankine bottoming cycles are coupled with an HCCI Engine. • Exergetic and Exergo-economic analysis of the bottoming cycle are reported. • The system is optimized using multi-objective genetic algorithm. • Objective functions are exergy efficiency and total cost rate of the system. • The exergy efficiency of the cycle increases from 44.96% to 46.02%.

  16. A review of test results on parabolic dish solar thermal power modules with dish-mounted Rankine engines and for production of process steam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Leonard D.

    1988-11-01

    This paper presents results of development testing of various solar thermal parabolic dish modules and assemblies. Most of the tests were at modules and assemblies that used a dish-mounted, organic Rankine cycle turbine for production of electric power. Some tests were also run on equipment for production of process steam or for production of electricity using dish-mounted reciprocating steam engines. These tests indicate that early modules achieve efficiencies of about 18 percent in converting sunlight to electricity (excluding the inverter but including parasitics). A number of malfunctions occurred. The performance measurements, as well as the malfunctions and other operating experience, provided information that should be of value in developing systems with improved performance and reduced maintenance.

  17. Modeling and Experimental Validation of a Volumetric Expander Suitable for Waste Heat Recovery from an Automotive Internal Combustion Engine Using an Organic Rankine Cycle with Ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Galindo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Waste heat recovery (WHR in exhaust gas flow of automotive engines has proved to be a useful path to increase the overall efficiency of internal combustion engines (ICE. Recovery potentials of up to 7% are shown in several works in the literature. However, most of them are theoretical estimations. Some present results from prototypes fed by steady flows generated in an auxiliary gas tank and not with actual engine exhaust gases. This paper deals with the modeling and experimental validation of an organic Rankine cycle (ORC with a swash-plate expander integrated in a 2 L turbocharged petrol engine using ethanol as working fluid. A global simulation model of the ORC was developed with a maximum difference of 5%, validated with experimental results. Considering the swash-plate as the main limiting factor, an additional specific submodel was implemented to model the physical phenomena in this element. This model allows simulating the fluid dynamic behavior of the swash-plate expander using a 0D model (Amesim. Differences up to 10.5% between tests and model results were found.

  18. Part-Load Performance Prediction and Operation Strategy Design of Organic Rankine Cycles with a Medium Cycle Used for Recovering Waste Heat from Gaseous Fuel Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Wang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC is regarded as a suitable way to recover waste heat from gaseous fuel internal combustion engines. As waste heat recovery systems (WHRS have always been designed based on rated working conditions, while engines often work under part-load conditions, it is quite significant to analyze the part-load performance and corresponding operation strategy of ORC systems. This paper presents a dynamic model of ORC with a medium cycle used for a large gaseous fuel engine and analyzes the effect of adjustable parameters on the system performance, giving effective control directions under various conditions. The results indicate that the intermediary fluid mass flow rate has nearly no effect on the output power and thermal efficiency of the ORC, while the mass flow rate of working fluid has a great effect on them. In order to get a better system performance under different working conditions, the system should be operated with the working fluid mass flow rate as large as possible, but with a slight degree of superheating. Then, with the control of constant superheat degree at the end of the heating process, the performance of the combined system that consists of ORC and the engine at steady state under seven typical working conditions is also analyzed. The results indicate that the energy-saving effect of WHRS becomes worse and worse as the working condition decreases. Especially at 40% working condition the WHRS nearly has no energy-saving effect anymore.

  19. Software Engineering and Knowledge Engineering Theory and Practice Volume 2

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    The volume includes a set of selected papers extended and revised from the I2009 Pacific-Asia Conference on Knowledge Engineering and Software Engineering (KESE 2009) was held on December 19~ 20, 2009, Shenzhen, China.   Volume 2 is to provide a forum for researchers, educators, engineers, and government officials involved in the general areas of Knowledge Engineering and Communication Technology to disseminate their latest research results and exchange views on the future research directions of these fields. 135 high-quality papers are included in the volume. Each paper has been peer-reviewed by at least 2 program committee members and selected by the volume editor Prof.Yanwen Wu.   On behalf of the this volume, we would like to express our sincere appreciation to all of authors and referees for their efforts reviewing the papers. Hoping you can find lots of profound research ideas and results on the related fields of Knowledge Engineering and Communication Technology. 

  20. Combined rankine and vapor compression cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radcliff, Thomas D.; Biederman, Bruce P.; Brasz, Joost J.

    2005-04-19

    An organic rankine cycle system is combined with a vapor compression cycle system with the turbine generator of the organic rankine cycle generating the power necessary to operate the motor of the refrigerant compressor. The vapor compression cycle is applied with its evaporator cooling the inlet air into a gas turbine, and the organic rankine cycle is applied to receive heat from a gas turbine exhaust to heat its boiler within one embodiment, a common condenser is used for the organic rankine cycle and the vapor compression cycle, with a common refrigerant, R-245a being circulated within both systems. In another embodiment, the turbine driven generator has a common shaft connected to the compressor to thereby eliminate the need for a separate motor to drive the compressor. In another embodiment, an organic rankine cycle system is applied to an internal combustion engine to cool the fluids thereof, and the turbo charged air is cooled first by the organic rankine cycle system and then by an air conditioner prior to passing into the intake of the engine.

  1. Analysis of ORC (Organic Rankine Cycle) systems with pure hydrocarbons and mixtures of hydrocarbon and retardant for engine waste heat recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Jian; Gu, Chun-wei

    2015-01-01

    The Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) has been demonstrated to be a promising technology for the recovery of engine waste heat. Systems with hydrocarbons as the working fluids exhibit good thermal performance. However, the flammability of hydrocarbons limits their practical applications because of safety concerns. This paper examines the potential of using mixtures of a hydrocarbon and a retardant in an ORC system for engine waste heat recovery. Refrigerants R141b and R11 are selected as the retardants and blended with the hydrocarbons to form zeotropic mixtures. The flammability is suppressed, and in addition, zeotropic mixtures provide better temperature matches with the heat source and sink, which reduces the exergy loss within the heat exchange processes, thereby increasing the cycle efficiency. Energetic and exergetic analysis of ORC systems with pure hydrocarbons and with mixtures of a hydrocarbon and a retardant are conducted and compared. The net power output and the second law efficiency are chosen as the evaluation criteria to select the suitable working fluid compositions and to define the optimal set of thermodynamic parameters. The simulation results reveal that the ORC system with cyclohexane/R141b (0.5/0.5) is optimal for this engine waste heat recovery case, thereby increasing the net power output of the system by 13.3% compared to pure cyclohexane. - Highlights: • ORC with zeotropic mixtures for engine waste heat recovery is discussed. • Energetic and exergetic analysis of ORC system are conducted. • Optimal mixture working fluid composition is identified. • Greater utilization of jacket water and lower irreversible loss are important.

  2. Parametric optimization and heat transfer analysis of a dual loop ORC (organic Rankine cycle) system for CNG engine waste heat recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Fubin; Zhang, Hongguang; Yu, Zhibin; Wang, Enhua; Meng, Fanxiao; Liu, Hongda; Wang, Jingfu

    2017-01-01

    In this study, a dual loop ORC (organic Rankine cycle) system is adopted to recover exhaust energy, waste heat from the coolant system, and intercooler heat rejection of a six-cylinder CNG (compressed natural gas) engine. The thermodynamic, heat transfer, and optimization models for the dual loop ORC system are established. On the basis of the waste heat characteristics of the CNG engine over the whole operating range, a GA (genetic algorithm) is used to solve the Pareto solution for the thermodynamic and heat transfer performances to maximize net power output and minimize heat transfer area. Combined with optimization results, the optimal parameter regions of the dual loop ORC system are determined under various operating conditions. Then, the variation in the heat transfer area with the operating conditions of the CNG engine is analyzed. The results show that the optimal evaporation pressure and superheat degree of the HT (high temperature) cycle are mainly influenced by the operating conditions of the CNG engine. The optimal evaporation pressure and superheat degree of the HT cycle over the whole operating range are within 2.5–2.9 MPa and 0.43–12.35 K, respectively. The optimal condensation temperature of the HT cycle, evaporation and condensation temperatures of the LT (low temperature) cycle, and exhaust temperature at the outlet of evaporator 1 are kept nearly constant under various operating conditions of the CNG engine. The thermal efficiency of the dual loop ORC system is within the range of 8.79%–10.17%. The dual loop ORC system achieves the maximum net power output of 23.62 kW under the engine rated condition. In addition, the operating conditions of the CNG engine and the operating parameters of the dual loop ORC system significantly influence the heat transfer areas for each heat exchanger. - Highlights: • A dual loop ORC system is adopted to recover the waste heat of a CNG engine. • Parametric optimization and heat transfer analysis are

  3. Experimental investigation of a low-temperature organic Rankine cycle (ORC) engine under variable heat input operating at both subcritical and supercritical conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosmadakis, George; Manolakos, Dimitris; Papadakis, George

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Small-scale ORC engine with converted scroll expander is installed at laboratory. • Design suitable for supercritical operation. • ORC engine tested at temperature equal to 95 °C. • Focus is given on expansion and thermal efficiency. • Supercritical operation showed some promising performance. - Abstract: The detailed experimental investigation of an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) is presented, which is designed to operate at supercritical conditions. The net capacity of this engine is almost 3 kW and the laboratory testing of the engine includes the variation of the heat input and of the hot water temperature. The maximum heat input is 48 kW_t_h, while the hot water temperature ranges from 65 up to 100°C. The tests are conducted at the laboratory and the heat source is a controllable electric heater, which can keep the hot water temperature constant, by switching on/off its electrical resistances. The expansion machine is a modified scroll compressor with major conversions, in order to be able to operate with safety at high pressure (or even supercritical at some conditions). The ORC engine is equipped with a dedicated heat exchanger of helical coil design, suitable for such applications. The speeds of the expander and ORC pump are regulated with frequency inverters, in order to control the cycle top pressure and heat input. The performance of all components is evaluated, while special attention is given on the supercritical heat exchanger and the scroll expander. The performance tests examined here concern the variation of the heat input, while the hot water temperature is equal to 95 °C. The aim is to examine the engine performance at the design conditions, as well as at off-design ones. Especially the latter ones are very important, since this engine will be coupled with solar collectors at the final configuration, where the available heat is varied to a great extent. The engine has been measured at the laboratory, where a thermal

  4. Performance Analysis of an Evaporator for a Diesel Engine–Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC Combined System and Influence of Pressure Drop on the Diesel Engine Operating Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Bei

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this research is to analyze the performance of an evaporator for the organic Rankine cycle (ORC system and discuss the influence of the evaporator on the operating characteristics of diesel engine. A simulation model of fin-and-tube evaporator of the ORC system is established by using Fluent software. Then, the flow and heat transfer characteristics of the exhaust at the evaporator shell side are obtained, and then the performance of the fin-and-tube evaporator of the ORC system is analyzed based on the field synergy principle. The field synergy angle (β is the intersection angle between the velocity vector and the temperature gradient. When the absolute values of velocity and temperature gradient are constant and β < 90°, heat transfer enhancement can be achieved with the decrease of the β. When the absolute values of velocity and temperature gradient are constant and β >90°, heat transfer enhancement can be achieved with the increase of the β. Subsequently, the influence of the evaporator of the ORC system on diesel engine performance is studied. A simulation model of the diesel engine is built by using GT–Power software under various operating conditions, and the variation tendency of engine power, torque, and brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC are obtained. The variation tendency of the power output and BSFC of diesel engine–ORC combined system are obtained when the evaporation pressure ranges from 1.0 MPa to 3.5 MPa. Results show that the field synergy effect for the areas among the tube bundles of the evaporator main body and the field synergy effect for the areas among the fins on the windward side are satisfactory. However, the field synergy effect in the areas among the fins on the leeward side is weak. As a result of the pressure drop caused by the evaporator of the ORC system, the diesel engine power and torque decreases slightly, whereas the BSFC increases slightly with the increase of exhaust back

  5. Similarity Theory Based Radial Turbine Performance and Loss Mechanism Comparison between R245fa and Air for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Organic Rankine Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic Rankine Cycles using radial turbines as expanders are considered as one of the most efficient technologies to convert heavy-duty diesel engine waste heat into useful work. Turbine similarity design based on the existing air turbine profiles is time saving. Due to totally different thermodynamic properties between organic fluids and air, its influence on turbine performance and loss mechanisms need to be analyzed. This paper numerically simulated a radial turbine under similar conditions between R245fa and air, and compared the differences of the turbine performance and loss mechanisms. Larger specific heat ratio of air leads to air turbine operating at higher pressure ratios. As R245fa gas constant is only about one-fifth of air gas constant, reduced rotating speeds of R245fa turbine are only 0.4-fold of those of air turbine, and reduced mass flow rates are about twice of those of air turbine. When using R245fa as working fluid, the nozzle shock wave losses decrease but rotor suction surface separation vortex losses increase, and eventually leads that isentropic efficiencies of R245fa turbine in the commonly used velocity ratio range from 0.5 to 0.9 are 3%–4% lower than those of air turbine.

  6. Unsteady analysis of a bottoming Organic Rankine Cycle for exhaust heat recovery from an Internal Combustion Engine using Monte Carlo simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Tao; Zhu, Tong; An, Wei; Song, Xu; Liu, Liuchen; Liu, Hao

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • An optimization model of ORC for the recovery of ICE exhaust heat is established. • Three unsteady parameters are considered for the design of ICE-ORC system. • The unsteady performances of ICE-ORC are illustrated using Monte Carlo simulation. - Abstract: An optimization model is developed to maximize the net power output of a bottoming Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) with ten working fluids for exhaust heat recovery from an Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) theoretically. The ICE-ORC system is influenced by several unsteady parameters which make it difficult to determine the optimal design parameters. Therefore, we introduce probability density functions in order to investigate the impacts of the ICE power output, the sink temperature and the pinch point temperature difference on the ORC performances. Each unsteady parameter is illustrated to analyze the performances of the ICE-ORC system. Furthermore, Monte Carlo simulation is introduced to investigate the role played by the unsteady parameters, each of which obeys different probability distributions. By these methods, we obtained the convergence values, the frequency distributions and the cumulative probability distributions of various performance parameters. These results can provide valuable suggestions for the design of ICE-ORC system.

  7. Thermo-economic analysis of zeotropic mixtures based on siloxanes for engine waste heat recovery using a dual-loop organic Rankine cycle (DORC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Hua; Chang, Liwen; Gao, Yuanyuan; Shu, Gequn; Zhao, Mingru; Yan, Nanhua

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Various mixtures based on siloxanes used in the DORC system are proposed. • Thermo-economic analysis is conducted to explore mixtures’ application potential. • Cycle performances of D4/R123 (0.3/0.7) and MD2M/R123 (0.35/0.65) are superior. - Abstract: Siloxanes are usually used in the high temperature organic Rankine cycle (ORC) for engine waste heat recovery, but their flammability limits the practical application. Besides, blending siloxanes with retardants often brings a great temperature glide, causing the large condensation heat and the reduction in net output power. In view of this, the zeotropic mixtures based on siloxanes used in a dual-loop organic Rankine cycle (DORC) system are proposed in this paper. Three kinds of binary zeotropic mixtures consisting of R123 and various siloxanes (octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane ‘D4’, octamethyltrisiloxane ‘MDM’, decamethyltetrasiloxane ‘MD2M’), represented by D4/R123, MDM/R123 and MD2M/R123, are selected as the working fluid of the high temperature (HT) cycle. Meanwhile, R123 is always used in the low temperature (LT) cycle. The net output power and utilization of heat source are considered as the evaluation indexes to select the optimal mixture ratios for further analysis. Based on the thermodynamic and economic model, net output power, thermal efficiency, exergy efficiency, exergy destruction and electricity production cost (EPC) of the DORC system using the selected mixtures have been investigated under different operating parameters. According to the results, the DORC based on D4/R123 (0.3/0.7) shows the best thermodynamic performance with the largest net power of 21.66 kW and the highest thermal efficiency of 22.84%. It also has the largest exergy efficiency of 48.6% and the smallest total exergy destruction of 19.64 kW. The DORC using MD2M/R123 (0.35/0.65) represents the most economic system with the smallest EPC of 0.603 $/kW h. Besides, the irreversibility in the internal heat

  8. Welding engineering handbook. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundarrajan, S.; Bhaskar, S.V.; Amarnath Kumar, G.C.

    1992-11-01

    In this Welding Engineering Handbook, we have brought key application areas of welding which are of technocommercial importance. These details are not normally available. Each author, highly specialized in these areas has spent considerable amount of time and covered the topic exhaustively giving valuable details. Each application area has different quality requirements which are brought out clearly. This handbook is designed to cater the information source for various professionals in core sector industries like fabrication, shipbuilding, automobiles, nuclear plants, machine building, fertilisers and chemical industry, pressure vessel manufactures etc. We are sure that this handbook will serve as a reference reckoner to all plant/works managers, maintenance, projects, engineers, R and D and students. (original)

  9. Dynamic analysis of the dual-loop Organic Rankine Cycle for waste heat recovery of a natural gas engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xuan; Shu, Gequn; Tian, Hua; Liu, Peng; Jing, Dongzhan; Li, Xiaoya

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The performance of DORC under five typical engine working conditions is analyzed. • The control object of superheat degree in LT ORC can be much lower than that in HT ORC. • The DORC has excellent working condition adaptability. • Enlarging the HT cooling water mass flux can enhance the DORC power, but not obviously. - Abstract: Natural gas internal combustion engines for electric generating are important primary movers in distributed energy systems. However, more than half of the energy is wasted by exhaust, jacket water and so on. Therefore, it is very meaningful to recover the waste heat, especially the exhaust heat. The DORC (Double loop ORC) is regarded as a suitable way to recover exhaust heat and it can produce electric required by users all the year around. As the waste heat recovery system of the engine, it often works under different working conditions owing to the varying energy demand of users. However, there is few study on the part-load performance of the DORC under different working conditions. Consequently, the dynamic math model of the DORC for waste heat recovery of a natural gas engine with 1000 kW rated power is established by Simulink in this work. With the PID control of the system, the static performance and dynamic behavior of the DORC under five typical engine working conditions are simulated and analyzed. Besides, the effects of the mass flow rate of the HT (high temperature) cooling water which is the connection between the two loops on the DORC performance are researched as well. The results illustrate that the DORC can improve the efficiency of the combined system quite well from 100% to 60% engine working condition, showing good working condition adaptability. Besides, enlarging the mass flow rate of the HT cooling water can enhance the output power of the DORC system, but not very obviously.

  10. Thermal efficiency improvement in high output diesel engines a comparison of a Rankine cycle with turbo-compounding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weerasinghe, W.M.S.R.; Stobart, R.K.; Hounsham, S.M.

    2010-01-01

    Thermal management, in particular, heat recovery and utilisation in internal combustion engines result in improved fuel economy, reduced emissions, fast warm up and optimized cylinder head temperatures. turbo-compounding is a heat recovery technique that has been successfully used in medium and large scale engines. Heat recovery to a secondary fluid and expansion is used in large scale engines, such as in power plants in the form of heat recovery steam generators (HRSG) . The present paper presents a thermodynamic analysis of turbo-compounding and heat recovery and utilisation through a fluid power cycle, a technique that is also applicable to medium and small scale engines. In a fluid power cycle, the working fluid is stored in a reservoir and expanded subsequently. The reservoir acts as an energy buffer that improves the overall efficiency, significantly. This paper highlights the relative advantage of exhaust heat secondary power cycles over turbo-compounding with the aid of MATLAB based QSS Toolbox simulation results. Steam has been selected as the working fluid in this work for its superior heat capacity over organic fluids and gases.

  11. Affordable Rankine Cycle Waste Heat Recovery for Heavy Duty Trucks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subramanian, Swami Nathan [Eaton Corporation

    2017-06-30

    Nearly 30% of fuel energy is not utilized and wasted in the engine exhaust. Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) based waste heat recovery (WHR) systems offer a promising approach on waste energy recovery and improving the efficiency of Heavy-Duty diesel engines. Major barriers in the ORC WHR system are the system cost and controversial waste heat recovery working fluids. More than 40% of the system cost is from the additional heat exchangers (recuperator, condenser and tail pipe boiler). The secondary working fluid loop designed in ORC system is either flammable or environmentally sensitive. The Eaton team investigated a novel approach to reduce the cost of implementing ORC based WHR systems to Heavy-Duty (HD) Diesel engines while utilizing safest working fluids. Affordable Rankine Cycle (ARC) concept aimed to define the next generation of waste energy recuperation with a cost optimized WHR system. ARC project used engine coolant as the working fluid. This approach reduced the need for a secondary working fluid circuit and subsequent complexity. A portion of the liquid phase engine coolant has been pressurized through a set of working fluid pumps and used to recover waste heat from the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and exhaust tail pipe exhaust energy. While absorbing heat, the mixture is partially vaporized but remains a wet binary mixture. The pressurized mixed-phase engine coolant mixture is then expanded through a fixed-volume ratio expander that is compatible with two-phase conditions. Heat rejection is accomplished through the engine radiator, avoiding the need for a separate condenser. The ARC system has been investigated for PACCAR’s MX-13 HD diesel engine.

  12. Liquid Metal Engineering and Technology. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    These proceedings of the fourth international conference on liquid metal engineering and technology volume 1, are devided into 3 sections bearing on: - Apparatus and components for liquid metal (29 papers) - Liquid metal leaks, fires and fumes (10 papers) - Cleaning, decontamination, waste disposal (14 papers) [fr

  13. Analyzing the optimization of an organic Rankine cycle system for recovering waste heat from a large marine engine containing a cooling water system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Min-Hsiung; Yeh, Rong-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Employing the thermodynamic analysis and a heat-transfer method, an ORC optimization is presented. • An optimal objective parameter evaluation of six working fluids is presented. • Refrigerants with superior thermodynamic properties do not necessary have excellent performance. • Cylinder jacket water temperature strongly affects optimal evaporation temperature. - Abstract: In this study, six working fluids with zero ozone depletion potential and low global warming potential are used in an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) system to recover waste heat from cylinder jacket water of large marine diesel engines. Thermodynamic analysis and a finite-temperature-difference heat-transfer method are developed to evaluate the thermal efficiency, total heat-exchanger area, objective parameter, and exergy destruction of the ORC system. The optimal evaporation and condensation temperatures for achieving the maximal objective parameter, the ratio of net power output to the total heat-transfer area of heat exchangers, of an ORC system are investigated. The results show that, among the working fluids, R600a performs the best in the optimal objective parameter evaluation followed by R1234ze, R1234yf, R245fa, R245ca, and R1233zd at evaporation temperatures ranging from 58 °C to 68 °C and condensation temperatures ranging from 35 °C to 45 °C. The optimal operating temperatures and corresponding thermal efficiency and exergy destruction are proposed. Furthermore, the influences of inlet temperatures on cylinder jacket water and cooling water in the ORC are presented for recovering waste heat. The results of this work were verified with theoretical solutions and experimental results in the literature and it was revealed that they were consistent with them

  14. Thermodynamic and economic performances optimization of an organic Rankine cycle system utilizing exhaust gas of a large marine diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Min-Hsiung; Yeh, Rong-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A new parameter is proposed for optimizing economic performance of the ORC system. • Maximal thermodynamic and economic performances of an ORC system are presented. • The corresponding operating pressures in turbine of optimum thermodynamic and economic performances are investigated. • An optimal effectiveness of pre-heater is obtained for the ORC system. - Abstract: The aim of this study is to investigate the thermodynamic and economic performances optimization for an ORC system recovering the waste heat of exhaust gas from a large marine diesel engine of the merchant ship. Parameters of net power output index and thermal efficiency are used to represent the economic and thermodynamic performances, respectively. The maximum net power output index and thermal efficiency are obtained and the corresponding turbine inlet pressure, turbine outlet pressure, and effectiveness of pre-heater of the ORC system are also evaluated using R1234ze, R245fa, R600, and R600a. Furthermore, the analyses of the effects of turbine inlet temperature and cooling water temperature on the optimal economic and thermodynamic performances of the ORC system are carried out. The results show that R245fa performs the most satisfactorily followed by R600, R600a, and R1234ze under optimal economic performance. However, in the optimal thermodynamic performance evaluations, R1234ze has the largest thermal efficiency followed by R600a, R245fa, and R600. The payback periods will decrease from 0.5 year for R245fa to 0.65 year for R1234ze respectively as the system is equipped with a pre-heater. In addition, compared with conventional diesel oil feeding, the proposed ORC system can reduce 76% CO 2 emission per kilowatt-hour

  15. Multi-approach evaluations of a cascade-Organic Rankine Cycle (C-ORC) system driven by diesel engine waste heat: Part B-techno-economic evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Guopeng; Shu, Gequn; Tian, Hua; Wei, Haiqiao; Liang, Xingyu

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel C-ORC system was proposed for recovering waste heat from a diesel engine. • Techno-economic evaluations were conducted to explore C-ORC’s practical benefits. • Toluene and R143a show the best economic performance for two ORC loops in C-ORC. • The best electricity production cost is 0.27 Dollar/kW h under engine conditions. - Abstract: A novel transcritical cascade-Organic Rankine Cycle (C-ORC) system was proposed for recovering multi-grade waste heat from a typical heavy-duty diesel engine. The C-ORC comprises a high temperature ORC loop (HT-Loop) and a low temperature ORC loop (LT-Loop) for recovering waste heat from engine exhaust gas (EG), exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), jacket water (JW) and charge air (CA) in a cascaded pattern. The basic thermodynamic evaluation on energy and exergy aspects were covered in the companion piece-‘Part A-thermodynamic evaluations’, indicating that the proposed C-ORC possesses great heat-recovery capacities and efficiency-promotion potentials. The techno-economic evaluations in Part B of this paper will further explore the performance of the C-ORC system based on costs and benefits in order to reveal its practical benefits. Four techno-economic indexes are mainly focused on: component-to-system cost ratio (CSCR), electricity production cost (EPC), depreciated payback period (DPP) and savings-to-investment ratio (SIR). Under rated engine conditions, working fluids were initially compared to find the most economical fluids for the HT-Loop and the LT-Loop respectively. Results indicated that toluene and R143a still make the perfect match for the C-ORC with the lowest EPC (0.27 Dollar/kW h), DPP (7.8 years) and the highest SIR (1.6). As to component-to-system cost ratio (CSCR), the cost of expanders and heat exchangers together account for more than 3/4 of the total system cost, and the expander of the LT-Loop is the most costly single component. The C-ORC’s techno-economic performance was

  16. Multi-approach evaluations of a cascade-Organic Rankine Cycle (C-ORC) system driven by diesel engine waste heat: Part A – Thermodynamic evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu, Gequn; Yu, Guopeng; Tian, Hua; Wei, Haiqiao; Liang, Xingyu; Huang, Zhiyong

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel C-ORC system was proposed for recovering waste heat from a diesel engine. • Thermodynamic evaluations were conducted to explore C-ORC’s practical benefits. • C-ORC has significant heat-recovery capacities and efficiency-promotion potential. • Up to 16.0% of engine efficiency can be improved combining with C-ORC. - Abstract: A novel transcritical cascade-Organic Rankine Cycle (C-ORC) system was proposed to recover multi-grade waste heat from a typical heavy-duty diesel engine. The C-ORC comprises of a high-temperature ORC loop (HT-Loop) and a low temperature ORC loop (LT-Loop) to recover waste heat from an engine’s exhaust gas (EG), exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), jacket water (JW) and charge air (CA) in a cascaded pattern. In order to reveal the full performance of the C-ORC system, with due consideration to diesel’s complex practical running conditions, multi-approach evaluations were conducted containing two parts: Part A – thermodynamic evaluations of the energy and exergy aspects and Part B – techno-economic evaluations on costs and benefits aspects. This paper shows the Part A – evaluations of the C-ORC, focusing on indexes including recovered waste heat, net power output, thermal efficiencies and exergy efficiencies. First of all, distributions of the engine’s multi-grade waste heat were studied to reveal the characteristics and utilization potential of waste energy. The comparison and screening of working fluids were carried out next to find the best fluids for the HT-Loop and LT-Loop respectively based on the rated engine condition. Toluene, decane, cyclohexane and D4 were four proper alternatives for the HT-Loop while R143a, R125, R218 and R41 were four proper alternatives for the LT-Loop. Comparisons indicated that toluene and R143a made the perfect match for the C-ORC with the highest net power output (33.9 kW), thermal efficiency (9.9%) and exergy efficiency (39.1%). The rankings of the two groups of

  17. Fusion Engineering Device. Volume II. Design description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-10-01

    This volume summarizes the design of the FED. It includes a description of the major systems and subsystems, the supporting plasma design analysis, a projected device cost and associated construction schedule, and a description of the facilities to house and support the device. This effort represents the culmination of the FY81 studies conducted at the Fusion Engineering Design Center (FEDC). Unique in these design activities has been the collaborative involvement of the Design Center personnel and numerous resource physicists from the fusion community who have made significant contributions in the physics design analysis as well as the physics support of the engineering design of the major FED systems and components

  18. Collected software engineering papers, volume 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    This document is a collection of selected technical papers produced by participants in the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) from November 1992 through November 1993. The purpose of the document is to make available, in one reference, some results of SEL research that originally appeared in a number of different forums. This is the 11th such volume of technical papers produced by the SEL. Although these papers cover several topics related to software engineering, they do not encompass the entire scope of SEL activities and interests. Additional information about the SEL and its research efforts may be obtained from the sources listed in the bibliography at the end of this document.

  19. Collected software engineering papers, volume 12

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This document is a collection of selected technical papers produced by participants in the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) from November 1993 through October 1994. The purpose of the document is to make available, in one reference, some results of SEL research that originally appeared in a number of different forums. This is the 12th such volume of technical papers produced by the SEL. Although these papers cover several topics related to software engineering, they do not encompass the entire scope of SEL activities and interests. Additional information about the SEL and its research efforts may be obtained from the sources listed in the bibliography at the end of this document.

  20. Performance Analysis of a Reciprocating Piston Expander and a Plate Type Exhaust Gas Recirculation Boiler in a Water-Based Rankine Cycle for Heat Recovery from a Heavy Duty Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnar Latz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The exhaust gas in an internal combustion engine provides favorable conditions for a waste-heat recovery (WHR system. The highest potential is achieved by the Rankine cycle as a heat recovery technology. There are only few experimental studies that investigate full-scale systems using water-based working fluids and their effects on the performance and operation of a Rankine cycle heat recovery system. This paper discusses experimental results and practical challenges with a WHR system when utilizing heat from the exhaust gas recirculation system of a truck engine. The results showed that the boiler’s pinch point necessitated trade-offs between maintaining adequate boiling pressure while achieving acceptable cooling of the EGR and superheating of the water. The expander used in the system had a geometric compression ratio of 21 together with a steam outlet timing that caused high re-compression. Inlet pressures of up to 30 bar were therefore required for a stable expander power output. Such high pressures increased the pump power, and reduced the EGR cooling in the boiler because of pinch-point effects. Simulations indicated that reducing the expander’s compression ratio from 21 to 13 would allow 30% lower steam supply pressures without adversely affecting the expander’s power output.

  1. Solar engineering 1995: Proceedings. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stine, W.B.; Tanaka, Tadayoshi; Claridge, D.E.

    1995-01-01

    This is Volume 1 of the papers presented at the 1995 ASME/JSME/JSES International Solar Energy Conference. The topics of the papers include wind energy, heat pump performance, ground source and solar chemical heat pumps, analysis of measured building energy data, thermal storage, system modeling of buildings, evaluation of the Federal Building energy Efficiency program, sustainable projects, bioconversion, solar chemistry, solar detoxification innovative concepts and industrial applications, solar thermal power systems, DISH/engine power systems, power towers, solar thermal power advanced development, and solar thermal process heating and cooling

  2. Nuclear reactor engineering: Reactor systems engineering. Fourth edition, Volume Two

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glasstone, S.; Sesonske, A.

    1994-01-01

    This new edition of this classic reference combines broad yet in-depth coverage of nuclear engineering principles with practical descriptions of their application in the design and operation of nuclear power plants. Extensively updated, the fourth edition includes new materials on reactor safety and risk analysis, regulation, fuel management, waste management and operational aspects of nuclear power. This volume contains the following: the systems concept, design decisions, and information tools; energy transport; reactor fuel management and energy cost considerations; environmental effects of nuclear power and waste management; nuclear reactor safety and regulation; power reactor systems; plant operations; and advanced plants and the future

  3. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), Westinghouse phase 1. Volume 7: Metal vapor Rankine topping-steam bottoming cycles. [energy conversion efficiency in electric power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deegan, P. B.

    1976-01-01

    Adding a metal vapor Rankine topper to a steam cycle was studied as a way to increase the mean temperature at which heat is added to the cycle to raise the efficiency of an electric power plant. Potassium and cesium topping fluids were considered. Pressurized fluidized bed or pressurized (with an integrated low-Btu gasifier) boilers were assumed. Included in the cycles was a pressurizing gas turbine with its associated recuperator, and a gas economizer and feedwater heater. One of the ternary systems studied shows plant efficiency of 42.3% with a plant capitalization of $66.7/kW and a cost of electricity of 8.19 mills/MJ (29.5 mills/kWh).

  4. Collected software engineering papers, volume 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    This document is a collection of selected technical papers produced by participants in the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) from November 1990 through October 1991. The purpose of the document is to make available, in one reference, some results of SEL research that originally appeared in a number of different forums. This is the ninth such volume of technical papers produced by the SEL. Although these papers cover several topics related to software engineering, they do not encompass the entire scope of SEL activities and interests. For the convenience of this presentation, the eight papers contained here are grouped into three major categories: (1) software models studies; (2) software measurement studies; and (3) Ada technology studies. The first category presents studies on reuse models, including a software reuse model applied to maintenance and a model for an organization to support software reuse. The second category includes experimental research methods and software measurement techniques. The third category presents object-oriented approaches using Ada and object-oriented features proposed for Ada. The SEL is actively working to understand and improve the software development process at GSFC.

  5. Ammonia-water Rankine cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bo Hanliang; Ma Changwen; Wu Shaorong

    1997-01-01

    On characteristics of heating source and cooling source in nuclear heating reactor cooperation, the authors advance a new kind of power cycle in which a multicomponent mixture as the work fluid, ammonia-water Rankine cycle, describe its running principle, and compare it with steam Rankine cycle in the same situation. The result is that: the new kind of power cycle, ammonia-water Rankine cycle has higher electricity efficiency; it suits for the situation of heating source and cooling source which offered by nuclear heating reactor cooperation. For low temperature heating source, it maybe has a widely application

  6. Number theory and modular forms papers in memory of Robert A Rankin

    CERN Document Server

    Ono, Ken

    2003-01-01

    Robert A. Rankin, one of the world's foremost authorities on modular forms and a founding editor of The Ramanujan Journal, died on January 27, 2001, at the age of 85. Rankin had broad interests and contributed fundamental papers in a wide variety of areas within number theory, geometry, analysis, and algebra. To commemorate Rankin's life and work, the editors have collected together 25 papers by several eminent mathematicians reflecting Rankin's extensive range of interests within number theory. Many of these papers reflect Rankin's primary focus in modular forms. It is the editors' fervent hope that mathematicians will be stimulated by these papers and gain a greater appreciation for Rankin's contributions to mathematics. This volume would be an inspiration to students and researchers in the areas of number theory and modular forms.

  7. Rankine bottoming cycle safety analysis. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewandowski, G.A.

    1980-02-01

    Vector Engineering Inc. conducted a safety and hazards analysis of three Rankine Bottoming Cycle Systems in public utility applications: a Thermo Electron system using Fluorinal-85 (a mixture of 85 mole % trifluoroethanol and 15 mole % water) as the working fluid; a Sundstrand system using toluene as the working fluid; and a Mechanical Technology system using steam and Freon-II as the working fluids. The properties of the working fluids considered are flammability, toxicity, and degradation, and the risks to both plant workers and the community at large are analyzed.

  8. Collected software engineering papers, volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Topics addressed include: summaries of the software engineering laboratory (SEL) organization, operation, and research activities; results of specific research projects in the areas of resource models and software measures; and strategies for data collection for software engineering research.

  9. Organic Rankine Cycle with Solar Heat Storage in Paraffin Way

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin LUCA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an electricity generation system based on an Organic Rankine Cycle and proposed storing the amount of the heat produced by the solar panels using large volume of paraffin wax. The proposed working fluid is R-134a refrigerant. The cycle operates at very low temperatures. A efficiency of 6,55% was obtained.

  10. Software Engineering Laboratory Series: Collected Software Engineering Papers. Volume 14

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    The Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) is an organization sponsored by NASA/GSFC and created to investigate the effectiveness of software engineering technologies when applied to the development of application software. The activities, findings, and recommendations of the SEL are recorded in the Software Engineering Laboratory Series, a continuing series of reports that includes this document.

  11. Software Engineering Laboratory Series: Collected Software Engineering Papers. Volume 15

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) is an organization sponsored by NASA/GSFC and created to investigate the effectiveness of software engineering technologies when applied to the development of application software. The activities, findings, and recommendations of the SEL are recorded in the Software Engineering Laboratory Series, a continuing series of reports that includes this document.

  12. Software Engineering Laboratory Series: Collected Software Engineering Papers. Volume 13

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    The Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) is an organization sponsored by NASA/GSFC and created to investigate the effectiveness of software engineering technologies when applied to the development of application software. The activities, findings, and recommendations of the SEL are recorded in the Software Engineering Laboratory Series, a continuing series of reports that includes this document.

  13. Rail Safety/Equipment Crashworthiness : Volume 3. Proposed Engineering Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-07-01

    The document, the third of four volumes, contains recommended Engineering Standards prepared in the format of the standards published in the Code of Federal Regulations (Title 49, Transportation, Parts 200). The standards proposed provide improved oc...

  14. Thermodynamic analysis of a Stirling engine including regenerator dead volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puech, Pascal; Tishkova, Victoria [Universite de Toulouse, UPS, CNRS, CEMES, 29 rue Jeanne Marvig, F-31055 Toulouse (France)

    2011-02-15

    This paper provides a theoretical investigation on the thermodynamic analysis of a Stirling engine with linear and sinusoidal variations of the volume. The regenerator in a Stirling engine is an internal heat exchanger allowing to reach high efficiency. We used an isothermal model to analyse the net work and the heat stored in the regenerator during a complete cycle. We show that the engine efficiency with perfect regeneration doesn't depend on the regenerator dead volume but this dead volume strongly amplifies the imperfect regeneration effect. An analytical expression to estimate the improvement due to the regenerator has been proposed including the combined effects of dead volume and imperfect regeneration. This could be used at the very preliminary stage of the engine design process. (author)

  15. Modeling and Experimental Validation of a Volumetric Expander Suitable for Waste Heat Recovery from an Automotive Internal Combustion Engine Using an Organic Rankine Cycle with Ethanol

    OpenAIRE

    Galindo, José; Dolz Ruiz, Vicente; Royo-Pascual, Lucía; Haller, R.; Melis, J.

    2016-01-01

    Waste heat recovery (WHR) in exhaust gas flow of automotive engines has proved to be a useful path to increase the overall efficiency of internal combustion engines (ICE). Recovery potentials of up to 7% are shown in several works in the literature. However, most of them are theoretical estimations. Some present results from prototypes fed by steady flows generated in an auxiliary gas tank and not with actual engine exhaust gases. This paper deals with the modeling and experimenta...

  16. Hydrothermal analysis in engineering using control volume finite element method

    CERN Document Server

    Sheikholeslami, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    Control volume finite element methods (CVFEM) bridge the gap between finite difference and finite element methods, using the advantages of both methods for simulation of multi-physics problems in complex geometries. In Hydrothermal Analysis in Engineering Using Control Volume Finite Element Method, CVFEM is covered in detail and applied to key areas of thermal engineering. Examples, exercises, and extensive references are used to show the use of the technique to model key engineering problems such as heat transfer in nanofluids (to enhance performance and compactness of energy systems),

  17. Collected Software Engineering Papers, Volume 10

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    This document is a collection of selected technical papers produced by participants in the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) from Oct. 1991 - Nov. 1992. The purpose of the document is to make available, in one reference, some results of SEL research that originally appeared in a number of different forums. Although these papers cover several topics related to software engineering, they do not encompass the entire scope of SEL activities and interests. Additional information about the SEL and its research efforts may be obtained from the sources listed in the bibliography at the end of this document. For the convenience of this presentation, the 11 papers contained here are grouped into 5 major sections: (1) the Software Engineering Laboratory; (2) software tools studies; (3) software models studies; (4) software measurement studies; and (5) Ada technology studies.

  18. Volume I: Introduction and engineering aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicol, Allen H.; Flint, Delos E.; Saplis, Raymond A.

    1957-01-01

    This series of military geology reports on Okinawa is part of the Corps of Engineers Post Hostilities Mapping Program. The purpose of this survey is twofold. The first is to collect scientific information through field study; the second is to publish it in a form that is usable by the United States Armed Forces and Civil Administrators.

  19. Collected software engineering papers, volume 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    A collection of selected technical papers produced by participants in the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) during the period November 1989 through October 1990 is presented. The purpose of the document is to make available, in one reference, some results of SEL research that originally appeared in a number of different forums. Although these papers cover several topics related to software engineering, they do not encompass the entire scope of SEL activities and interests. Additional information about the SEL and its research efforts may be obtained from the sources listed in the bibliography. The seven presented papers are grouped into four major categories: (1) experimental research and evaluation of software measurement; (2) studies on models for software reuse; (3) a software tool evaluation; and (4) Ada technology and studies in the areas of reuse and specification.

  20. Optimization of organic Rankine cycle power systems considering multistage axial turbine design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meroni, Andrea; Andreasen, Jesper Graa; Persico, Giacomo

    2018-01-01

    Organic Rankine cycle power systems represent a viable and efficient solution for the exploitation of medium-to-low temperature heat sources. Despite the large number of commissioned units, there is limited literature on the design and optimization of organic Rankine cycle power systems considering...... multistage turbine design. This work presents a preliminary design methodology and working fluid selection for organic Rankine cycle units featuring multistage axial turbines. The method is then applied to the case of waste heat recovery from a large marine diesel engine. A multistage axial turbine model...

  1. Optimization of organic Rankine cycle power systems considering multistage axial turbine design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meroni, Andrea; Andreasen, Jesper Graa; Persico, Giacomo

    2017-01-01

    Organic Rankine cycle power systems represent a viable and efficient solution for the exploitation of medium-to-low temperature heat sources. Despite the large number of commissioned units, there is limited literature on the design and optimization of organic Rankine cycle power systems considering...... multistage turbine design. This work presents a preliminary design methodology and working fluid selection for organic Rankine cycle units featuring multistage axial turbines. The method is then applied to the case of waste heat recovery from a large marine diesel engine. A multistage axial turbine model...

  2. Conversion of Low Quality Waste Heat to Electric Power with Small-Scale Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) Engine/Generator Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    block (expander) that allows gas expansion and converts the energy into rotational work, • an electric induction generator driven from the power block...is in the form of waste heat – thermal energy emitted via hot exhaust and heat removal systems associated with engine and other electric generator ...than 250 ºC), improves energy efficiency by reducing energy consumption associated with electrical generation and reduces greenhouse gas emissions

  3. K-Rankine systems for piloted and cargo Mars missions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, J.C.; Rovang, R.D.; Johnson, G.A.

    1992-03-01

    Studies are performed to demonstrate the attractiveness of potassium-Rankine (K-Rankine) nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) systems for both piloted and cargo Mars missions. The key results of the piloted mission study are that a full-up piloted mission can be accomplished with a trip time of less than 390 days with an attractive initial mass in low earth orbit (IMLEO) of 700 metric tons. This is achieved by coupling two advanced cermet fuel reactors (1550 K outlet temperature) to K-Rankine power-conversion systems to produce the 46 MWe needed to power advanced ion engines. This design approach offers an alternative to a more risky split-sprint mission where comparable trip times and IMLEO can be achieved with a nearer-term reactor (SP-100 at 1350 K outlet temperature) technology. The results of the cargo-mission study indicate that a lower-power K-Rankine system (5.5 MWe) operating at SP-100 reactor conditions would best perform a representative Mars cargo transport. A round-trip mission (480 days outbound; 600 day return) to Mars requires only 225 metric tons IMLEO and permit possible system reuse. 6 refs

  4. Collected software engineering papers, volume 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    A collection is presented of selected technical papers produced by participants in the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) during the period Dec. 1988 to Oct. 1989. The purpose of the document is to make available, in one reference, some results of SEL research that originally appeared in a number of different forums. For the convenience of this presentation, the seven papers contained here are grouped into three major categories: (1) Software Measurement and Technology Studies; (2) Measurement Environment Studies; and (3) Ada Technology Studies. The first category presents experimental research and evaluation of software measurement and technology; the second presents studies on software environments pertaining to measurement. The last category represents Ada technology and includes research, development, and measurement studies.

  5. Collected software engineering papers, volume 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    A collection is presented of technical papers produced by participants in the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) during the period 1 Jun. 1987 to 1 Jan. 1989. The purpose of the document is to make available, in one reference, some results of SEL research that originally appeared in a number of different forums. For the convenience of this presentation, the twelve papers contained here are grouped into three major categories: (1) Software Measurement and Technology Studies; (2) Measurement Environment Studies; and (3) Ada Technology Studies. The first category presents experimental research and evaluation of software measurement and technology; the second presents studies on software environments pertaining to measurement. The last category represents Ada technology and includes research, development, and measurement studies.

  6. Fusion Engineering Device. Volume 1. Mission and program summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-10-01

    This volume presents, in summary form, a recommended approach to implementing the Magnetic Fusion Energy Engineering Act of 1980. These recommendations constitute the findings of the FED Technical Management Board (TMB). The TMB and the affiliated technical managers gave particular scrutiny to elucidating the role of FED in fusion development and to defining the device mission

  7. Rankine cycle system and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Timothy C.; Nelson, Christopher R.

    2014-09-09

    A Rankine cycle waste heat recovery system uses a receiver with a maximum liquid working fluid level lower than the minimum liquid working fluid level of a sub-cooler of the waste heat recovery system. The receiver may have a position that is physically lower than the sub-cooler's position. A valve controls transfer of fluid between several of the components in the waste heat recovery system, especially from the receiver to the sub-cooler. The system may also have an associated control module.

  8. Combined Turbine and Cycle Optimization for Organic Rankine Cycle Power Systems—Part B

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    La Seta, Angelo; Meroni, Andrea; Andreasen, Jesper Graa

    2016-01-01

    Organic Rankine cycle (ORC) power systems have recently emerged as promising solutions for waste heat recovery in low- and medium-size power plants. Their performance and economic feasibility strongly depend on the expander. The design process and efficiency estimation are particularly challenging...... due to the peculiar physical properties of the working fluid and the gas-dynamic phenomena occurring in the machine. Unlike steam Rankine and Brayton engines, organic Rankine cycle expanders combine small enthalpy drops with large expansion ratios. These features yield turbine designs with few highly...... is the preliminary design of an organic Rankine cycle turbogenerator to increase the overall energy efficiency of an offshore platform. For an increase in expander pressure ratio from 10 to 35, the results indicate up to 10% point reduction in expander performance. This corresponds to a relative reduction in net...

  9. A Comparison of Organic and Steam Rankine Cycle Power Systems for Waste Heat Recovery on Large Ships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesper Graa Andreasen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparison of the conventional dual pressure steam Rankine cycle process and the organic Rankine cycle process for marine engine waste heat recovery. The comparison was based on a container vessel, and results are presented for a high-sulfur (3 wt % and low-sulfur (0.5 wt % fuel case. The processes were compared based on their off-design performance for diesel engine loads in the range between 25% and 100%. The fluids considered in the organic Rankine cycle process were MM(hexamethyldisiloxane, toluene, n-pentane, i-pentane and c-pentane. The results of the comparison indicate that the net power output of the steam Rankine cycle process is higher at high engine loads, while the performance of the organic Rankine cycle units is higher at lower loads. Preliminary turbine design considerations suggest that higher turbine efficiencies can be obtained for the ORC unit turbines compared to the steam turbines. When the efficiency of the c-pentane turbine was allowed to be 10% points larger than the steam turbine efficiency, the organic Rankine cycle unit reaches higher net power outputs than the steam Rankine cycle unit at all engine loads for the low-sulfur fuel case. The net power production from the waste heat recovery units is generally higher for the low-sulfur fuel case. The steam Rankine cycle unit produces 18% more power at design compared to the high-sulfur fuel case, while the organic Rankine cycle unit using MM produces 33% more power.

  10. Equation of State Selection for Organic Rankine Cycle Modeling Under Uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frutiger, Jerome; O'Connell, John; Abildskov, Jens

    In recent years there has been a great interest in the design and selection of working fluids for low-temperature Organic Rankine Cycles (ORC), to efficiently produce electrical power from waste heat from chemical engineering applications, as well as from renewable energy sources such as biomass...... cycle, all influence the model output uncertainty. The procedure is highlighted for an ORC for with a low-temperature heat source from exhaust gas from a marine diesel engine.[1] Saleh B, Koglbauer G, Wendland M, Fischer J. Working fluids for lowtemperature organic Rankine cycles. Energy 2007...

  11. Exergoeconomic comparison of TLC (trilateral Rankine cycle), ORC (organic Rankine cycle) and Kalina cycle using a low grade heat source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yari, M.; Mehr, A.S.; Zare, V.; Mahmoudi, S.M.S.; Rosen, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the TLC (trilateral power cycle) has attracted significant interest as it provides better matching between the temperature profiles in the evaporator compared to conventional power cycles. This article investigates the performance of this cycle and compares it with those for the ORC (organic Rankine cycle) and the Kalina cycle, from the viewpoints of thermodynamics and thermoeconomics. A low-grade heat source with a temperature of 120 °C is considered for all the three systems. Parametric studies are performed for the systems for several working fluids in the ORC and TLC. The systems are then optimized for either maximum net output power or minimum product cost, using the EES (engineering equation solver) software. The results for the TLC indicate that an increase in the expander inlet temperature leads to an increase in net output power and a decrease in product cost for this power plant, whereas this is not the case for the ORC system. It is found that, although the TLC can achieve a higher net output power compared with the ORC and Kalina (KCS11 (Kalina cycle system 11)) systems, its product cost is greatly affected by the expander isentropic efficiency. It is also revealed that using n-butane as the working fluid can result in the lowest product cost in the ORC and the TLC. In addition, it is observed that, for both the ORC and Kalina systems, the optimum operating condition for maximum net output power differs from that for minimum product cost. - Highlights: • Exergoeconomic analysis of trilateral Rankine cycle is performed. • The system performance is compared with Organic Rankine and Kalina cycles. • Net power from trilateral Rankine cycle is higher than the other power systems. • Superiority of trilateral cycle depends on its expander isentropic efficiency

  12. Nuclear reactor engineering: Reactor design basics. Fourth edition, Volume One

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glasstone, S.; Sesonske, A.

    1994-01-01

    This new edition of this classic reference combines broad yet in-depth coverage of nuclear engineering principles with practical descriptions of their application in design and operation of nuclear power plants. Extensively updated, the fourth edition includes new material on reactor safety and risk analysis, regulation, fuel management, waste management, and operational aspects of nuclear power. This volume contains the following: energy from nuclear fission; nuclear reactions and radiations; neutron transport; nuclear design basics; nuclear reactor kinetics and control; radiation protection and shielding; and reactor materials

  13. A Comparison of Organic and Steam Rankine Cycle Power Systems for Waste Heat Recovery on Large Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jesper Graa; Meroni, Andrea; Haglind, Fredrik

    2017-01-01

    %) fuel case. The processes were compared based on their off-design performance for diesel engine loads in the range between 25% and 100%. The fluids considered in the organic Rankine cycle process were MM(hexamethyldisiloxane), toluene, n-pentane, i-pentane and c-pentane. The results of the comparison....... The net power production from the waste heat recovery units is generally higher for the low-sulfur fuel case. The steam Rankine cycle unit produces 18% more power at design compared to the high-sulfur fuel case, while the organic Rankine cycle unit using MM produces 33% more power....

  14. A review of the use of organic Rankine cycle power systems for maritime applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mondejar, M. E.; Andreasen, J. G.; Pierobon, L.

    2018-01-01

    combustion, geothermal reservoirs, and waste heat from industrial processes. However, its economic feasibility has not yet been demonstrated for marine applications. This paper aims at evaluating the potential of using organic Rankine cycle systems for waste heat recovery aboard ships. The suitable vessels......Diesel engines are by far the most common means of propulsion aboard ships. It is estimated that around half of their fuel energy consumption is dissipated as low-grade heat. The organic Rankine cycle technology is a well-established solution for the energy conversion of thermal power from biomass...... in order to tackle the challenges limiting a widespread use of this technology in currently operating vessels and new-buildings. The results indicate that organic Rankine cycle units recovering heat from the exhaust gases of engines using low-sulfur fuels could yield fuel savings between 10% and 15%....

  15. Organic Rankine Cycles. Old wine in new bottles; Organic Rankine Cycles. Oude wijn in nieuwe zakken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Den Hartog, T.L.B. [Cumae, Arnhem (Netherlands)

    2007-05-15

    An overview is given of the renewed interest for the Organic Rankine Cycle technology and new developments with regard to this power generating technology. [Dutch] Een overzicht wordt gegeven van de hernieuwde belangstelling voor de Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) technologie en nieuwe ontwikkeling m.b.t. deze vorm van elektriciteitopwekking.

  16. Alternatives for Jet Engine Control. Volume 1: Modelling and Control Design with Jet Engine Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sain, M. K.

    1985-01-01

    This document compiles a comprehensive list of publications supported by, or related to, National Aeronautics and Space Administration Grant NSG-3048, entitled "Alternatives for Jet Engine Control". Dr. Kurt Seldner was the original Technical Officer for the grant, at Lewis Research Center. Dr. Bruce Lehtinen was the final Technical Officer. At the University of Notre Dame, Drs. Michael K. Sain and R. Jeffrey Leake were the original Project Directors, with Dr. Sain becoming the final Project Director. Publications cover work over a ten-year period. The Final Report is divided into two parts. Volume i, "Modelling and Control Design with Jet Engine Data", follows in this report. Volume 2, "Modelling and Control Design with Tensors", has been bound separately.

  17. 20th intersociety energy conversion engineering conference. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    This volume contains information on the mission and status of the DOE's battery energy storage program, the development of an advanced battery electric energy storage system for electric utility load leveling, and the aluminum-air power cell. Plastic-bonded, nonsintered nickel-cadmium batteries for submarines and the cycle life chemistry of ambient-temperature secondary lithium cells are also discussed. The development of zinc-bromine batteries for stationary energy storage, the development of a zinc-chloride battery for 10-kw electric energy storage, and sodium sulfur cells with high conductivity glass electrolytes are discussed. The recovery of lead/acid batteries from abusive deep discharge, and high rate lithium batteries safety testing for U.L. component recognition are reviewed. Enhanced energy recovery, geothermal power, and heat engine cycles are discussed. Hydrogen energy, magnetohydrodynamics and nuclear fission are examined

  18. Idaho National Engineering Laboratory historical dose evaluation: Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, S.J.

    1991-08-01

    The methodology and results are presented for an evaluation of potential radiation doses to a hypothetical individual who may have resided at an offsite location with the highest concentration of airborne radionuclides near the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Volume 1 contains a summary of methods and results. The years of INEL operations from 1952 to 1989 were evaluated. Radiation doses to an adult, child, and infant were estimated for both operational (annual) and episodic (short-term) airborne releases from INEL facilities. Atmospheric dispersion of operational releases was modeled using annual average meteorological conditions. Dispersion of episodic releases was generally modeled using actual hourly wind speed and direction data at the time of release. 50 refs., 23 figs., 10 tabs

  19. Stratified charge rotary engine critical technology enablement. Volume 2: Appendixes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irion, C. E.; Mount, R. E.

    1992-01-01

    This second volume of appendixes is a companion to Volume 1 of this report which summarizes results of a critical technology enablement effort with the stratified charge rotary engine (SCRE) focusing on a power section of 0.67 liters (40 cu. in.) per rotor in single and two rotor versions. The work is a continuation of prior NASA Contracts NAS3-23056 and NAS3-24628. Technical objectives are multi-fuel capability, including civil and military jet fuel and DF-2, fuel efficiency of 0.355 Lbs/BHP-Hr. at best cruise condition above 50 percent power, altitude capability of up to 10Km (33,000 ft.) cruise, 2000 hour TBO and reduced coolant heat rejection. Critical technologies for SCRE's that have the potential for competitive performance and cost in a representative light-aircraft environment were examined. Objectives were: the development and utilization of advanced analytical tools, i.e. higher speed and enhanced three dimensional combustion modeling; identification of critical technologies; development of improved instrumentation; and to isolate and quantitatively identify the contribution to performance and efficiency of critical components or subsystems. A family of four-stage third-order explicit Runge-Kutta schemes is derived that required only two locations and has desirable stability characteristics. Error control is achieved by embedding a second-order scheme within the four-stage procedure. Certain schemes are identified that are as efficient and accurate as conventional embedded schemes of comparable order and require fewer storage locations.

  20. Experimental Study of a Low-Temperature Power Generation System in an Organic Rankine Cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, Yongchao; Zhang, Yufeng; Deng, Na

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new power generation system under the principle of organic Rankine cycle which can generate power with a low-temperature heat source. A prototype was built to investigate the proposed system. In the prototype, an air screw compressor was converted into an expander and used...... as the engine of the power generator. The style of the preheater was a shell and tube heat exchanger, which could provide a long path for the working fluid. A flooded heat exchanger with a high heat transfer coefficient was taken as the evaporator. R134a was used as working fluid for the Rankine cycle......, the average isentropic efficiency of the screw expander was 68%, and the efficiency of power generation varies from 1.2 to 4.56%. The highest value of thermodynamical perfectness was 29.06%. It can be concluded that organic Rankine cycle could be competitive for recovering low-temperature heat source...

  1. Turbomachinery design for Rankine cycles in waste heat recovery applications

    OpenAIRE

    Agromayor Otero, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    Rankine Cycles are an effective and efficient manner to convert waste thermal energy into power. Numerous fluids can be used in Rankine cycles, including water, hydrocarbons, hydrofluorocarbons, siloxanes, alcohols or even mixtures of fluids. The performance of Rankine cycles is highly dependent on the optimization of the operating conditions and the design of its components. The expander is, perhaps, the most important component of the Rankine cycle, as it is the device where the energy of t...

  2. Working fluid charge oriented off-design modeling of a small scale Organic Rankine Cycle system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Liuchen; Zhu, Tong; Ma, Jiacheng

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Organic Rankine Cycle model considering working fluid charge has been established. • Overall solution algorithm of system off-design performance is proposed. • Variation trend of different zones in both heat exchangers can be observed. • Optimal working fluid charge volume for different output work has been estimated. - Abstract: Organic Rankine Cycle system is one of the most widely used technique for low-grade waste heat recovery. Developing of dynamic Organic Rankine Cycle models played an increasingly important part in system performance prediction. The present paper developed a working fluid charge oriented model for an small scale Organic Rankine Cycle to calculate the theoretical value of working fluid charge level for the system under rated condition. The two heat exchangers are divided into three different zones and related heat transfer correlations are employed to estimate the length variation of each zones. Steady state models have been applied to describe the performance of pump and expander. Afterwards, an overall solution algorithm based on the established model has been proposed in order to exact simulate the system’s off-design performance. Additionally, the impact of different working fluid charge volumes has also been discussed. Simulation results clearly shows the variation trend of different zones in both heat exchangers, as well as the variation trend of system operating parameters under various expander output work. Furthermore, the highest thermal efficiency can be reached 6.37% under rated conditions with a working fluid charge volume of 34.6 kg.

  3. Kempe's engineers year-book for 1977. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prockter, C.E. (ed.)

    1977-01-01

    The second volume of this two-volume yearbook contains data on: electrical and electronic engineering; aerodynamics and aircraft propulsion; gas turbines; internal combustion engines; motor vehicles; fuels; fluidics; nuclear energy; gas and gas engineering; steam engineering and steam turbines; marine diesel engines; naval architecture; mining engineering; industrial explosives; air compression, pneumatic equipment, etc.; refrigeration, heating, ventilation and air conditioning; lighting; industrial safety and protection; fire protection; highway engineering; surveying; foundation and earthwork; cements, mortars and clay products; buildings; public health engineering; concretes; design of steel structures; bridges and bridgework; paints and coatings; patents, designs and trade marks; depreciation; legal notes for engineers; factory planning and layout; and agricultural engineering. (1325p.) A subject index is provided. (LCL)

  4. Rankine cycle waste heat recovery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Timothy C.; Nelson, Christopher R.

    2014-08-12

    This disclosure relates to a waste heat recovery (WHR) system and to a system and method for regulation of a fluid inventory in a condenser and a receiver of a Rankine cycle WHR system. Such regulation includes the ability to regulate the pressure in a WHR system to control cavitation and energy conversion.

  5. Cascaded organic rankine cycles for waste heat utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radcliff, Thomas D [Vernon, CT; Biederman, Bruce P [West Hartford, CT; Brasz, Joost J [Fayetteville, NY

    2011-05-17

    A pair of organic Rankine cycle systems (20, 25) are combined and their respective organic working fluids are chosen such that the organic working fluid of the first organic Rankine cycle is condensed at a condensation temperature that is well above the boiling point of the organic working fluid of the second organic Rankine style system, and a single common heat exchanger (23) is used for both the condenser of the first organic Rankine cycle system and the evaporator of the second organic Rankine cycle system. A preferred organic working fluid of the first system is toluene and that of the second organic working fluid is R245fa.

  6. 20th Annual Systems Engineering Conference, Thursday, Volume 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-26

    20th Annual Systems Engineering Conference October 23-26, 2017 | Waterford at Springfield | Springfield, VA NDIA.org/systemsengineering...Conference Program SYSTEMS ENGINEERING CONFERENCE 2 Welcome to the NDIA Systems Engineering Conference On behalf of the National Defense Industrial...Association’s Systems Engineering Division, I would like to extend a very warm welcome to the 20th Annual Systems Engineering Conference. Yes, the 20th Annual

  7. 40 CFR 1045.635 - What special provisions apply for small-volume engine manufacturers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... provisions related to the transition to new emission standards. See § 1045.145. (2) More flexible arrangements for creating engine families for high-performance engines. See § 1045.230. (3) Assigned... small-volume engine manufacturer, we will work with you to determine a reasonable schedule for complying...

  8. 2005 8th Annual Systems Engineering Conference. Volume 1, Tuesday

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-10-27

    systems engineering – Based on ISO 12207 – software engineering – Measure using best practices of CMMI® • Benefits – Facilitates sharing of tools... 12207 Software Life-Cycle Processes IEEE SSC-C Software Engineering Process SECNAV 5000.2C DoD Architecture Framework ISO 9001:2000 Quality Systems GIG...Comparisons and Contrasts Between ISO 14001, OHSAS 18001, and MIL-STD-882D and their Suitability for the Systems Engineering Process Mr. Kenneth Dormer

  9. Cost and price estimate of Brayton and Stirling engines in selected production volumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortgang, H. R.; Mayers, H. F.

    1980-01-01

    The methods used to determine the production costs and required selling price of Brayton and Stirling engines modified for use in solar power conversion units are presented. Each engine part, component and assembly was examined and evaluated to determine the costs of its material and the method of manufacture based on specific annual production volumes. Cost estimates are presented for both the Stirling and Brayton engines in annual production volumes of 1,000, 25,000, 100,000 and 400,000. At annual production volumes above 50,000 units, the costs of both engines are similar, although the Stirling engine costs are somewhat lower. It is concluded that modifications to both the Brayton and Stirling engine designs could reduce the estimated costs.

  10. Process integration of organic Rankine cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desai, Nishith B.; Bandyopadhyay, Santanu

    2009-01-01

    An organic Rankine cycle (ORC) uses an organic fluid as a working medium within a Rankine cycle power plant. ORC offers advantages over conventional Rankine cycle with water as the working medium, as ORC generates shaft-work from low to medium temperature heat sources with higher thermodynamic efficiency. The dry and the isentropic fluids are most preferred working fluid for the ORC. The basic ORC can be modified by incorporating both regeneration and turbine bleeding to improve its thermal efficiency. In this paper, 16 different organic fluids have been analyzed as a working medium for the basic as well as modified ORCs. A methodology is also proposed for appropriate integration and optimization of an ORC as a cogeneration process with the background process to generate shaft-work. It has been illustrated that the choice of cycle configuration for appropriate integration with the background process depends on the heat rejection profile of the background process (i.e., the shape of the below pinch portion of the process grand composite curve). The benefits of integrating ORC with the background process and the applicability of the proposed methodology have been demonstrated through illustrative examples.

  11. A thermodynamic study of waste heat recovery from GT-MHR using organic Rankine cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yari, Mortaza; Mahmoudi, S.M.S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation on the utilization of waste heat from a gas turbine-modular helium reactor (GT-MHR) using different arrangements of organic Rankine cycles (ORCs) for power production. The considered organic Rankine cycles were: simple organic Rankine cycle (SORC), ORC with internal heat exchanger (HORC) and regenerative organic Rankine cycle (RORC). The performances of the combined cycles were studied from the point of view of first and second-laws of thermodynamics. Individual models were developed for each component and the effects of some important parameters such as compressor pressure ratio, turbine inlet temperature, and evaporator and environment temperatures on the efficiencies and on the exergy destruction rate were studied. Finally the combined cycles were optimized thermodynamically using the EES (Engineering Equation Solver) software. Based on the identical operating conditions for the GT-MHR cycle, a comparison between the three combined cycles and a simple GT-MHR cycle is also were made. This comparison was also carried out from the point of view of economics. The GT-MHR/SORC combined cycle proved to be the best among all the cycles from the point of view of both thermodynamics and economics. The efficiency of this cycle was about 10% higher than that of GT-MHR alone. (orig.)

  12. Conventional engine technology. Volume 3: Comparisons and future potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowdy, M. W.

    1981-01-01

    The status of five conventional automobile engine technologies was assessed and the future potential for increasing fuel economy and reducing exhaust emission was discussed, using the 1980 EPA California emisions standards as a comparative basis. By 1986, the fuel economy of a uniform charge Otto engine with a three-way catalyst is expected to increase 10%, while vehicles with lean burn (fast burn) engines should show a 20% fuel economy increase. Although vehicles with stratified-charge engines and rotary engines are expected to improve, their fuel economy will remain inferior to the other engine types. When adequate NO emissions control methods are implemented to meet the EPA requirements, vehicles with prechamber diesel engines are expected to yield a fuel economy advantage of about 15%. While successful introduction of direct injection diesel engine technology will provide a fuel savings of 30 to 35%, the planned regulation of exhaust particulates could seriously hinder this technology, because it is expected that only the smallest diesel engine vehicles could meet the proposed particulate requirements.

  13. A review of the use of organic Rankine cycle power systems for maritime applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mondejar, M. E.; Andreasen, J. G.; Pierobon, L.

    2018-01-01

    Diesel engines are by far the most common means of propulsion aboard ships. It is estimated that around half of their fuel energy consumption is dissipated as low-grade heat. The organic Rankine cycle technology is a well-established solution for the energy conversion of thermal power from biomass...... combustion, geothermal reservoirs, and waste heat from industrial processes. However, its economic feasibility has not yet been demonstrated for marine applications. This paper aims at evaluating the potential of using organic Rankine cycle systems for waste heat recovery aboard ships. The suitable vessels...... and engine heat sources are identified by estimating the total recoverable energy. Different cycle architectures, working fluids, components, and control strategies are analyzed. The economic feasibility and integration on board are also evaluated. A number of research and development areas are identified...

  14. System and method for regulating EGR cooling using a rankine cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Timothy C.; Morris, Dave

    2015-12-22

    This disclosure relates to a waste heat recovery (WHR) system and method for regulating exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) cooling, and more particularly, to a Rankine cycle WHR system and method, including a recuperator bypass arrangement to regulate EGR exhaust gas cooling for engine efficiency improvement and thermal management. This disclosure describes other unique bypass arrangements for increased flexibility in the ability to regulate EGR exhaust gas cooling.

  15. Exergy analysis of micro-organic Rankine power cycles for a small scale solar driven reverse osmosis desalination system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tchanche, B.F.; Lambrinos, Gr.; Frangoudakis, A.; Papadakis, G.

    2010-01-01

    Exergy analysis of micro-organic Rankine heat engines is performed to identify the most suitable engine for driving a small scale reverse osmosis desalination system. Three modified engines derived from simple Rankine engine using regeneration (incorporation of regenerator or feedliquid heaters) are analyzed through a novel approach, called exergy-topological method based on the combination of exergy flow graphs, exergy loss graphs, and thermoeconomic graphs. For the investigations, three working fluids are considered: R134a, R245fa and R600. The incorporated devices produce different results with different fluids. Exergy destruction throughout the systems operating with R134a was quantified and illustrated using exergy diagrams. The sites with greater exergy destruction include turbine, evaporator and feedliquid heaters. The most critical components include evaporator, turbine and mixing units. A regenerative heat exchanger has positive effects only when the engine operates with dry fluids; feedliquid heaters improve the degree of thermodynamic perfection of the system but lead to loss in exergetic efficiency. Although, different modifications produce better energy conversion and less exergy destroyed, the improvements are not significant enough and subsequent modifications of the simple Rankine engine cannot be considered as economically profitable for heat source temperature below 100 °C. As illustration, a regenerator increases the system's energy efficiency by 7%, the degree of thermodynamic perfection by 3.5% while the exergetic efficiency is unchanged in comparison with the simple Rankine cycle, with R600 as working fluid. The impacts of heat source temperature and pinch point temperature difference on engine's performance are also examined. Finally, results demonstrate that energy analysis combined with the mathematical graph theory is a powerful tool in performance assessments of Rankine based power systems and permits meaningful comparison of different

  16. Powder metallurgy Rene 95 rotating turbine engine parts, volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbers, L. G.; Redden, T. K.

    1981-01-01

    A Rene 95 alloy as-HIP high pressure turbine aft shaft in the CF6-50 engine and a HIP plus forged Rene 95 compressor disk in the CFM56 engine were tested. The CF6-50 engine test was conducted for 1000 C cycles and the CFM56 test for 2000 C cycles. Post test evaluation and analysis of the CF6-50 shaft and the CFM56 compressor disk included visual, fluorescent penetrant, and dimensional inspections. No defects or otherwise discrepant conditions were found. These parts were judged to have performed satisfactorily.

  17. Design and Control of Chemical Grouting : Volume 3 - Engineering Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-04-01

    Recent improvements in the engineering practice of chemical grouting have provided increased confidence in this method of ground modification. Designers can significantly improve the success of chemical grouting by defining their grouting program obj...

  18. Modelling of an air-cooled two-stage Rankine cycle for electricity production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Bo

    2014-01-01

    This work considers a two stage Rankine cycle architecture slightly different from a standard Rankine cycle for electricity generation. Instead of expanding the steam to extremely low pressure, the vapor leaves the turbine at a higher pressure then having a much smaller specific volume. It is thus possible to greatly reduce the size of the steam turbine. The remaining energy is recovered by a bottoming cycle using a working fluid which has a much higher density than the water steam. Thus, the turbines and heat exchangers are more compact; the turbine exhaust velocity loss is lower. This configuration enables to largely reduce the global size of the steam water turbine and facilitate the use of a dry cooling system. The main advantage of such an air cooled two stage Rankine cycle is the possibility to choose the installation site of a large or medium power plant without the need of a large and constantly available water source; in addition, as compared to water cooled cycles, the risk regarding future operations is reduced (climate conditions may affect water availability or temperature, and imply changes in the water supply regulatory rules). The concept has been investigated by EDF R and D. A 22 MW prototype was developed in the 1970's using ammonia as the working fluid of the bottoming cycle for its high density and high latent heat. However, this fluid is toxic. In order to search more suitable working fluids for the two stage Rankine cycle application and to identify the optimal cycle configuration, we have established a working fluid selection methodology. Some potential candidates have been identified. We have evaluated the performances of the two stage Rankine cycles operating with different working fluids in both design and off design conditions. For the most acceptable working fluids, components of the cycle have been sized. The power plant concept can then be evaluated on a life cycle cost basis. (author)

  19. Model based control for waste heat recovery rankine cycle system in heavy duty trucks

    OpenAIRE

    Grelet, Vincent; Dufour, Pascal; Nadri, Madiha; Lemort, Vincent; Reiche, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Driven by future emissions legislations and increase in fuel prices engine, gas heat recovering has recently attracted a lot of interest. In the past few years, a high number of studies have shown the interest of energy recovery Rankine based systems for heavy duty trucks engine compounding. Recent studies have brought a significant potential for such a system in a Heavy Duty (HD) vehicle, which can lead to a decrease in fuel consumption of about 5% [Wang et al. (2011)] and reduce engine emis...

  20. Parametric investigation of working fluids for organic Rankine cycle applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, J. Steven; Brignoli, Riccardo; Quine, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates working fluids for organic Rankine cycle (ORC) applications with a goal of identifying “ideal” working fluids for five renewable/alternative energy sources. It employs a methodology for screening and comparing with good engineering accuracy the thermodynamic performance potential of ORC operating with working fluids that are not well characterized experimentally or by high-accuracy equations of state. A wide range of “theoretical” working fluids are investigated with the goals to identify potential alternative working fluids and to guide future research and development efforts of working fluids. The “theoretical” working fluids investigated are described in terms of critical state properties, acentric factor, and ideal gas specific heat capacity at constant pressure and are obtained by parametrically varying each of these parameters. The performances of these “theoretical” working fluids are compared to the performances of several “real” working fluids. The study suggests a working fluid's critical temperature and its critical ideal gas molar heat capacity have the largest impact on the cycle efficiency and volumetric work output, with “ideal” working fluids for high efficiency possessing critical temperatures on the order of 100%–150% of the source temperature and possessing intermediate values of critical ideal gas molar heat capacity. - Highlights: • “Ideal” working fluids are investigated for organic Rankine cycles (ORC). • The thermodynamic space of “ideal” working fluids is parametrically investigated. • Five low- and high-temperature ORC applications are investigated. • 1620 “ideal” and several “real” working fluids per application are investigated.

  1. Compilation of contract research for the Materials Engineering Branch, Division of Engineering Technology. Annual report for FY 1985. Volume 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-03-01

    The compilation of annual reports by contractors to the Materials Engineering Branch of the NRC Office of Research, concentrates on achievements in safety research for the primary system of commercial light water power reactors, particularly with regard to reactor vessels, primary system piping, steam generators and for non-destructive examination of primary system components. This report, covering research conducted during Fiscal Year 1985, is the fourth volume of the series of NUREG-0975, Compilation of Contractor Research for the Materials Engineering Branch, Division of Engineering Technology

  2. Compilation of contract research for the Materials Engineering Branch, Division of Engineering Technology. Annual report for FY 1984. Volume 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-04-01

    This compilation of annual reports by contractors to the Materials Engineering Branch of the NRC Office of Research, concentrates on achievments in safety research for the primary system of commercial light water power reactors, particularly with regard to reactor vessels, primary system piping, steam generators and for non-destructive examination of primary system components. This report, covering research conducted during Fiscal Year 1984, is the third volume of the series of NUREG-0975, compilation of Contractor Research for the Materials Engineering Branch, Division of Engineering Technology

  3. Design and optimisation of organic Rankine cycles for waste heat recovery in marine applications using the principles of natural selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ulrik; Pierobon, Leonardo; Haglind, Fredrik

    2013-01-01

    , boundary conditions, hazard levels and environmental concerns. A generally applicable methodology, based on the principles of natural selection, is presented and used to determine the optimum working fluid, boiler pressure and Rankine cycle process layout for scenarios related to marine engine heat...

  4. Organic rankine cycle waste heat applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasz, Joost J.; Biederman, Bruce P.

    2007-02-13

    A machine designed as a centrifugal compressor is applied as an organic rankine cycle turbine by operating the machine in reverse. In order to accommodate the higher pressures when operating as a turbine, a suitable refrigerant is chosen such that the pressures and temperatures are maintained within established limits. Such an adaptation of existing, relatively inexpensive equipment to an application that may be otherwise uneconomical, allows for the convenient and economical use of energy that would be otherwise lost by waste heat to the atmosphere.

  5. Toluene stability Space Station Rankine power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havens, V. N.; Ragaller, D. R.; Sibert, L.; Miller, D.

    1987-01-01

    A dynamic test loop is designed to evaluate the thermal stability of an organic Rankine cycle working fluid, toluene, for potential application to the Space Station power conversion unit. Samples of the noncondensible gases and the liquid toluene were taken periodically during the 3410 hour test at 750 F peak temperature. The results obtained from the toluene stability loop verify that toluene degradation will not lead to a loss of performance over the 30-year Space Station mission life requirement. The identity of the degradation products and the low rates of formation were as expected from toluene capsule test data.

  6. Intake plenum volume and its influence on the engine performance, cyclic variability and emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceviz, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    Intake manifold connects the intake system to the intake valve of the engine and through which air or air-fuel mixture is drawn into the cylinder. Details of the flow in intake manifolds are extremely complex. Recently, most of engine companies are focused on variable intake manifold technology due to their improvement on engine performance. This paper investigates the effects of intake plenum volume variation on engine performance and emissions to constitute a base study for variable intake plenum. Brake and indicated engine performance characteristics, coefficient of variation in indicated mean effective pressure (COV imep ) as an indicator for cyclic variability, pulsating flow pressure in the intake manifold runner, and CO, CO 2 and HC emissions were taken into consideration to evaluate the effects of different plenum volumes. The results of this study showed that the variation in the plenum volume causes an improvement on the engine performance and the pollutant emissions. The brake torque and related performance characteristics improved pronouncedly about between 1700 and 2600 rpm by increasing plenum volume. Additionally, although the increase in the plenum volume caused the mixture leaner due to the increase in the intake runner pressure and lean mixtures inclined to increase the cyclic variability, a decrease was interestingly observed in the COV imep

  7. Stirling Space Engine Program. Volume 1; Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, Manmohan

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this program was to develop the technology necessary for operating Stirling power converters in a space environment and to demonstrate this technology in full-scale engine tests. Hardware development focused on the Component Test Power Converter (CTPC), a single cylinder, 12.5-kWe engine. Design parameters for the CTPC were 150 bar operating pressure, 70 Hz frequency, and hot-and cold-end temperatures of 1050 K and 525 K, respectively. The CTPC was also designed for integration with an annular sodium heat pipe at the hot end, which incorporated a unique "Starfish" heater head that eliminated highly stressed brazed or weld joints exposed to liquid metal and used a shaped-tubed electrochemical milling process to achieve precise positional tolerances. Selection of materials that could withstand high operating temperatures with long life were another focus. Significant progress was made in the heater head (Udimet 700 and Inconel 718 and a sodium-filled heat pipe); the alternator (polyimide-coated wire with polyimide adhesive between turns and a polyimide-impregnated fiberglass overwrap and samarium cobalt magnets); and the hydrostatic gas bearings (carbon graphite and aluminum oxide for wear couple surfaces). Tests on the CTPC were performed in three phases: cold end testing (525 K), engine testing with slot radiant heaters, and integrated heat pipe engine system testing. Each test phase was successful, with the integrated engine system demonstrating a power level of 12.5 kWe and an overall efficiency of 22 percent in its maiden test. A 1500-hour endurance test was then successfully completed. These results indicate the significant achievements made by this program that demonstrate the viability of Stirling engine technology for space applications.

  8. Engineered cementitious composites with low volume of cementitious materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, J.; Quian, S.; Van Breugel, K.

    2010-01-01

    Engineered cementitious composite (ECC) is an ultra ductile cement-based material reinforced with fibers. It is characterized by high tensile ductility and tight crack width control. Thanks to the excellent performance, ECC is emerging in broad applications to enhance the loading capacity and the

  9. Engineering development of advanced froth flotation. Volume 2, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferris, D.D.; Bencho, J.R.; Torak, E.R. [ICF Kaiser Engineers, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1995-03-01

    This report is an account of findings related to the Engineering and Development of Advanced Froth Flotation project. The results from benchscale and proof-of-concept (POC) level testing are presented and the important results from this testing are used to refine a conceptual design and cost estimate for a 20 TPH Semi-Works Facility incorporating the final proposed technology.

  10. A demonstration of expert systems applications in transportation engineering : volume I, transportation engineers and expert systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    Expert systems, a branch of artificial-intelligence studies, is introduced with a view to its relevance in transportation engineering. Knowledge engineering, the process of building expert systems or transferring knowledge from human experts to compu...

  11. Orbit Transfer Vehicle (OTV) advanced expander cycle engine point design study. Volume 3: Engine data summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    The engine operating characteristics were examined. Inlet pressure effects, tank pressurization effects, steady-state specific impulse, and the steady-state cycle were studied. The propellant flow schematic and operating sequence are presented. Engine hardware drawings are included.

  12. Symposium on engineering with nuclear explosives. Proceedings. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1970-05-01

    This symposium on 'Engineering with Nuclear Explosives' reports to the Plowshare community, both national and international, the progress achieved since April 1964, the date of the Third Plowshare Symposium. In structuring the technical presentations, contributions of broadest interest were placed at the beginning, thus forming a common base of current information and applied science understanding developed in support of Plowshare technology. Sessions of speciality or pertaining to specific areas of application and engineering follow logically in the program. The Plenary Session reviewed the current status of the Plowshare Program from the technical, government, and industrial points of view. The 112 papers presented at 15 technical sessions covered all technical aspects of the Plowshare Program. The conference summary reviewed principal themes, areas of significant advance, and subjects requiring further attention that emerged during the technical conference. This proceedings is the record of the symposium

  13. Symposium on engineering with nuclear explosives. Proceedings. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1970-05-15

    This symposium on 'Engineering with Nuclear Explosives' reports to the Plowshare community, both national and international, the progress achieved since April 1964, the date of the Third Plowshare Symposium. In structuring the technical presentations, contributions of broadest interest were placed at the beginning, thus forming a common base of current information and applied science understanding developed in support of Plowshare technology. Sessions of speciality or pertaining to specific areas of application and engineering follow logically in the program. The Plenary Session reviewed the current status of the Plowshare Program from the technical, government, and industrial points of view. The 112 papers presented at 15 technical sessions covered all technical aspects of the Plowshare Program. The conference summary reviewed principal themes, areas of significant advance, and subjects requiring further attention that emerged during the technical conference. This proceedings is the record of the symposium.

  14. Advances in Computer Science and Information Engineering Volume 2

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Sally

    2012-01-01

    CSIE2012 is an integrated conference concentrating its focus on Computer Science and Information Engineering . In the proceeding, you can learn much more knowledge about Computer Science and Information Engineering of researchers from all around the world. The main role of the proceeding is to be used as an exchange pillar for researchers who are working in the mentioned fields. In order to meet the high quality of Springer, AISC series, the organization committee has made their efforts to do the following things. Firstly, poor quality paper has been refused after reviewing course by anonymous referee experts. Secondly, periodically review meetings have been held around the reviewers about five times for exchanging reviewing suggestions. Finally, the conference organizers had several preliminary sessions before the conference. Through efforts of different people and departments, the conference will be successful and fruitful.

  15. Recent Progress in Data Engineering and Internet Technology Volume 1

    CERN Document Server

    Gaol, Ford Lumban

    2013-01-01

    The latest inventions in internet technology influence most of business and daily activities. Internet security, internet data management, web search, data grids, cloud computing, and web-based applications play vital roles, especially in business and industry, as more transactions go online and mobile. Issues related to ubiquitous computing are becoming critical.   Internet technology and data engineering should reinforce efficiency and effectiveness of business processes. These technologies should help people make better and more accurate decisions by presenting necessary information and possible consequences for the decisions. Intelligent information systems should help us better understand and manage information with ubiquitous data repository and cloud computing.   This book is a compilation of some recent research findings in Internet Technology and Data Engineering. This book provides state-of-the-art accounts in computational algorithms/tools, database management and database technologies,  intelli...

  16. Recent Progress in Data Engineering and Internet Technology Volume 2

    CERN Document Server

    Gaol, Ford Lumban

    2012-01-01

    The latest inventions in internet technology influence most of business and daily activities. Internet security, internet data management, web search, data grids, cloud computing, and web-based applications play vital roles, especially in business and industry, as more transactions go online and mobile. Issues related to ubiquitous computing are becoming critical.   Internet technology and data engineering should reinforce efficiency and effectiveness of business processes. These technologies should help people make better and more accurate decisions by presenting necessary information and possible consequences for the decisions. Intelligent information systems should help us better understand and manage information with ubiquitous data repository and cloud computing.   This book is a compilation of some recent research findings in Internet Technology and Data Engineering. This book provides state-of-the-art accounts in computational algorithms/tools, database management and database technologies,  intelli...

  17. Advances in Computer Science and Information Engineering Volume 1

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Sally

    2012-01-01

    CSIE2012 is an integrated conference concentrating its focus on Computer Science and Information Engineering . In the proceeding, you can learn much more knowledge about Computer Science and Information Engineering of researchers from all around the world. The main role of the proceeding is to be used as an exchange pillar for researchers who are working in the mentioned fields. In order to meet the high quality of Springer, AISC series, the organization committee has made their efforts to do the following things. Firstly, poor quality paper has been refused after reviewing course by anonymous referee experts. Secondly, periodically review meetings have been held around the reviewers about five times for exchanging reviewing suggestions. Finally, the conference organizers had several preliminary sessions before the conference. Through efforts of different people and departments, the conference will be successful and fruitful.

  18. Modeling and analysis of scroll compressor conversion into expander for Rankine cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oralli, E.; Dincer, I.; Zamfirescu, C. [Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology (Canada)], E-mail: Emre.Oralli@uoit.ca, email: Ibrahim.Dincer@uoit.ca, email: Calin.Zamfirescu@uoit.ca

    2011-07-01

    With the current push towards the use of sustainable energies, low power heat generation systems are shifting towards sustainable heat sources such as geothermal, solar, industrial waste and cogeneration energy. The aim of this paper is to investigate the use of a scroll expander for power generation using the Rankine cycle. A parametric study was carried out on a refrigeration scroll compressor to determine the impact of geometry, working fluid, and operating conditions on the efficiency of the Rankine heat engine. In addition modifications were made to the expander to optimize its operation. Results showed that organic fluids should be used at saturated conditions, that decreasing the temperature of the condenser leads to an increased thermal efficiency of ORC and that the designed radius is an optimum value. This study highlighted the impacts of geometric and thermodynamic parameters on scroll expanders.

  19. Air Force Civil Engineer, Volume 9, Number 2, Summer 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    and massive concrete slabs with protruding steel segments were partially hidden by an overgrowth of vegetation . The three-story structure, which was...terms of the job you get afterward. Capt Bill Kale came to AFIT from Lajes Field, Azores, where he was the base architect with the 65th CES. Q. Why did...meet Air Force civil engineer needs. Speaking of AFIT � Capt Manuel Fernandez Capt Bill Kale Capt Laurie Richter Interviews with current and former

  20. Integral Engine Inlet Particle Separator. Volume 2. Design Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-08-01

    herein will be used in the design of integral inlet particle separators for future Army aircraft gas turbine engines. Apprupriate technical personnel...into the comprensor at some future date. 5. A typical scavenge vane design Js; shown in Figures 85 and 86. The important features of the scavenge...service passageweys, for cooling of oil, and for directing sand and air into the scroll. Orientetion of the vanes is set by collection efficiency

  1. 20th Annual Systems Engineering Conference. Volume 2, Wednesday

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-26

    Roadmap Key Capability Areas C yber M odeling, Sim ulation, and Experim entation (M SE) Em bedded, M obile, and Tactical System s ( EM T) (MSE & EMT) cross...Space Weapons Missile Bomb Sensors WS Characteristics WS Quality Properties Defining Themes WS Engineering Methods WS Types | 10 | This technical data...aircraft 10 Aircraft depart initial point (IP) 11 JTAC controls CAS aircraft 12 Bombs on target 13 Assessment < 3min < 2 min > 95% Acrcy ASOC/ DASC CAS

  2. Nuclear electric propulsion mission engineering study. Volume 2: Final report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    Results of a mission engineering analysis of nuclear-thermionic electric propulsion spacecraft for unmanned interplanetary and geocentric missions are summarized. Critical technologies associated with the development of nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) are assessed, along with the impact of its availability on future space programs. Outer planet and comet rendezvous mission analysis, NEP stage design for geocentric and interplanetary missions, NEP system development cost and unit costs, and technology requirements for NEP stage development are studied.

  3. System Engineering Concept Demonstration, Effort Summary. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-01

    involve only the system software, user frameworks and user tools. U •User Tool....s , Catalyst oExternal 00 Computer Framwork P OSystems • •~ Sysytem...analysis, synthesis, optimization, conceptual design of Catalyst. The paper discusses the definition, design, test, and evaluation; operational concept...This approach will allow system engineering The conceptual requirements for the Process Model practitioners to recognize and tailor the model. This

  4. 9th Annual Systems Engineering Conference: Volume 4 Thursday

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-10-26

    ISO /IEC 27000 series – Information Security Management System (ISMS) – ISO /IEC 17799:2005 – Code of Practice for Information Security Management...October 2006, Track 2 Standards Organizations Supporting Assurance ISO IEC JTC1TC176 SC1 SC22 Terminology Software Engineering Language, OS SC7...Information Assurance IEEE CS ISO IEC IEEE CS NIST FISMA Projects U.S. Gov’t DoD MIL-STDsPolicy Memos OMG Knowledge Discovery Models OMG 259th Annual

  5. Grouting applications in civil engineering. Volume I and II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einstein, H.H.; Barvenik, M.J.

    1975-01-01

    A comprehensive description of grouting applications in civil engineering is presented that can serve as a basis for the selection of grouting methods in the borehole sealing problem. The breadth and depth of the study was assured by conducting the main part of the review, the collection and evaluation of information, without specifically considering the borehole sealing problem (but naturally incorporating any aspect of civil engineering applications that could be of potential use). Grouting is very much an art and not a science. In most cases, it is a trial and error procedure where an inexpensive method is initially tried and then a more expensive one is used until the desired results are obtained. Once a desired effect is obtained, it is difficult to credit any one procedure with the success because the results are due to the summation of all the methods used. In many cases, the method that proves successful reflects a small abnormality in the ground or structure rather than its overall characteristics. Hence, successful grouting relies heavily on good engineering judgement and experience, and not on a basic set of standard correlations or equations. 800 references

  6. Rankine cycle generators using geothermal fluids. Final progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    The Rankine Cycle generator was delivered and installed at Gila Hot Springs. Trial runs were made at that time, using Freon 12 as the expansion fluid. These tests showed that the boiler capacity was inadequate. It could not extract enough heat to generate sufficient volumes of Freon gas at the heat and pressure necessary to operate the system at an acceptable level. Increasing and decreasing the flow of hot water had a direct influence on efficiency, but it was not a linear relationship. Added amounts of hot water increased the power very little, but raised the water temperature at the discharge point. This implied that the heat exchange capacity of the boiler was saturated. The reverse was found in the condenser system. There was little increase in pressure of the condenser when we switched from static to run mode. Efficiency was maintained even when the cold water flow was reduced as much as 40%. The tests using Freon 12 resulted in the conclusion that the boiler volume needs to be increased and/or the configuration changed to radically increase its efficiency.

  7. ALKASYS, Rankine-Cycle Space Nuclear Power System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: The program ALKASYS is used for the creation of design concepts of multimegawatt space power systems that employ potassium Rankine power conversion cycles. 2 - Method of solution: ALKASYS calculates performance and design characteristics and mass estimates for the major subsystems composing the total power system. Design and engineering performance characteristics are determined by detailed engineering procedures rather than by empirical algorithms. Mass estimates are developed using basic design principles augmented in some cases by empirical coefficients determined from the literature. The reactor design is based on a fast spectrum, metallic-clad rod fuel element containing UN pellets. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: ALKASYS was developed primarily for the analysis of systems with electric power in the range from 1,000 to 25,000 kW(e) and full-power life from 1 to 10 years. The program should be used with caution in systems that are limited by heat flux (which might indicate need for extended surfaces on fuel elements) or criticality (which might indicate the need for other geometries or moderators)

  8. Nuclear electric propulsion mission engineering study. Volume 1: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    Results of a mission engineering analysis of nuclear-thermionic electric propulsion spacecraft for unmanned interplanetary and geocentric missions are summarized. Critical technologies associated with the development of nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) are assessed. Outer planet and comet rendezvous mission analysis, NEP stage design for geocentric and interplanetary missions, NEP system development cost and unit costs, and technology requirements for NEP stage development are studied. The NEP stage design provides both inherent reliability and high payload mass capability. The NEP stage and payload integration was found to be compatible with the space shuttle.

  9. Physics for Scientists and Engineers, 5th edition - Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipler, Paul A.; Mosca, Gene P.

    For nearly 30 years, Paul Tipler's Physics for Scientists and Engineers has set the standard in the introductory calculus-based physics course for clarity, accuracy, and precision. In this fifth edition, Paul has recruited Gene Mosca to bring his years of teaching experience to bear on the text, to scrutinize every explanation and example from the perspective of the freshman student. The result is a teaching tool that retains its precision and rigor, but offers struggling students the support they need to solve problems strategically and to gain real understanding of physical concepts.

  10. ICPP tank farm closure study. Volume 2: Engineering design files

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-02-01

    Volume 2 contains the following topical sections: Tank farm heel flushing/pH adjustment; Grouting experiments for immobilization of tank farm heel; Savannah River high level waste tank 20 closure; Tank farm closure information; Clean closure of tank farm; Remediation issues; Remote demolition techniques; Decision concerning EIS for debris treatment facility; CERCLA/RCRA issues; Area of contamination determination; Containment building of debris treatment facility; Double containment issues; Characterization costs; Packaging and disposal options for the waste resulting from the total removal of the tank farm; Take-off calculations for the total removal of soils and structures at the tank farm; Vessel off-gas systems; Jet-grouted polymer and subsurface walls; Exposure calculations for total removal of tank farm; Recommended instrumentation during retrieval operations; High level waste tank concrete encasement evaluation; Recommended heavy equipment and sizing equipment for total removal activities; Tank buoyancy constraints; Grout and concrete formulas for tank heel solidification; Tank heel pH requirements; Tank cooling water; Evaluation of conservatism of vehicle loading on vaults; Typical vault dimensions and approximately tank and vault void volumes; Radiological concerns for temporary vessel off-gas system; Flushing calculations for tank heels; Grout lift depth analysis; Decontamination solution for waste transfer piping; Grout lift determination for filling tank and vault voids; sprung structure vendor data; Grout flow properties through a 2--4 inch pipe; Tank farm load limitations; NRC low level waste grout; Project data sheet calculations; Dose rates for tank farm closure tasks; Exposure and shielding calculations for grout lines; TFF radionuclide release rates; Documentation of the clean closure of a system with listed waste discharge; and Documentation of the ORNL method of radionuclide concentrations in tanks

  11. ICPP tank farm closure study. Volume 2: Engineering design files

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    Volume 2 contains the following topical sections: Tank farm heel flushing/pH adjustment; Grouting experiments for immobilization of tank farm heel; Savannah River high level waste tank 20 closure; Tank farm closure information; Clean closure of tank farm; Remediation issues; Remote demolition techniques; Decision concerning EIS for debris treatment facility; CERCLA/RCRA issues; Area of contamination determination; Containment building of debris treatment facility; Double containment issues; Characterization costs; Packaging and disposal options for the waste resulting from the total removal of the tank farm; Take-off calculations for the total removal of soils and structures at the tank farm; Vessel off-gas systems; Jet-grouted polymer and subsurface walls; Exposure calculations for total removal of tank farm; Recommended instrumentation during retrieval operations; High level waste tank concrete encasement evaluation; Recommended heavy equipment and sizing equipment for total removal activities; Tank buoyancy constraints; Grout and concrete formulas for tank heel solidification; Tank heel pH requirements; Tank cooling water; Evaluation of conservatism of vehicle loading on vaults; Typical vault dimensions and approximately tank and vault void volumes; Radiological concerns for temporary vessel off-gas system; Flushing calculations for tank heels; Grout lift depth analysis; Decontamination solution for waste transfer piping; Grout lift determination for filling tank and vault voids; sprung structure vendor data; Grout flow properties through a 2--4 inch pipe; Tank farm load limitations; NRC low level waste grout; Project data sheet calculations; Dose rates for tank farm closure tasks; Exposure and shielding calculations for grout lines; TFF radionuclide release rates; Documentation of the clean closure of a system with listed waste discharge; and Documentation of the ORNL method of radionuclide concentrations in tanks.

  12. SP-100 ground engineering system at Hanford. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The SP-100 reactor is intended to provide a reliable power source for space applications. The reactor development program includes a ground test of the reactor systems to demonstrate that reliability and safety issues have been resolved. The use of an existing containment structure provides a unique facility with large safety margins and ample space. Preliminary seismic analysis shows that current site earthquake criteria can be met. The building is currently utilized to house engineering personnel, and the containment area is in use as an assembly facility. Only minimal activity is required to activate major support systems. All of the principal support facilities are in close proximity to the proposed test site. The various systems and facilities and their status are identified

  13. SP-100 Ground Engineering System at Hanford. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The SP-100 reactor is intended to provide a reliable power source for space applications. The reactor development program includes a ground test of the reactor systems to demonstrate that reliability and safety issues have been resolved. The use of an existing containment structure provides a unique facility with large safety margins and ample space. Preliminary seismic analysis shows that current site earthquake criteria can be met. The building is currently utilized to house engineering personnel, and the containment area is in use as an assembly facility. Only minimal activity is required to activate major support systems. All of the principal support facilities are in close proximity to the proposed test site. The various systems and facilities and their status are identified

  14. Analysis of a combined Rankine-vapour-compression refrigeration cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aphornratana, Satha; Sriveerakul, Thanarath

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a theoretical analysis of a heat-powered refrigeration cycle, a combined Rankine-vapour-compression refrigeration cycle. This refrigeration cycle combines an Organic Rankine Cycle and a vapour-compression cycle. The cycle can be powered by low grade thermal energy as low as 60 deg. C and can produce cooling temperature as low as -10 deg. C. In the analysis, two combined Rankine-vapour-compression refrigeration cycles were investigated: the system with R22 and the system with R134a. Calculated COP values between 0.1 and 0.6 of both the systems were found.

  15. Controlled air incinerator for radioactive waste. Volume II. Engineering design references manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, R.A.; Draper, W.E.; Newmyer, J.M.; Warner, C.L.

    1982-11-01

    This two-volume report is a detailed design and operating documentation of the Los Alamos National Laboratory Controlled Air Incinerator (CAI) and is an aid to technology transfer to other Department of Energy contractor sites and the commercial sector. Volume I describes the CAI process, equipment, and performance, and it recommends modifications based on Los Alamos experience. It provides the necessary information for conceptual design and feasibility studies. Volume II provides descriptive engineering information such as drawings, specifications, calculations, and costs. It aids duplication of the process at other facilities

  16. Los Alamos Controlled Air Incinerator for radioactive waste. Volume II. Engineering design reference manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenig, R.A.; Draper, W.E.; Newmyer, J.M.; Warner, C.L.

    1982-10-01

    This two-volume report is a detailed design and operating documentation of the Los Alamos National Laboratory Controlled Air Incinerator (CAI) and is an aid to technology transfer to other Department of Energy contractor sites and the commercial sector. Volume I describes the CAI process, equipment, and performance, and it recommends modifications based on Los Alamos experience. It provides the necessary information for conceptual design and feasibility studies. Volume II provides descriptive engineering information such as drawings, specifications, calculations, and costs. It aids duplication of the process at other facilities.

  17. Los Alamos Controlled Air Incinerator for radioactive waste. Volume II. Engineering design reference manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, R.A.; Draper, W.E.; Newmyer, J.M.; Warner, C.L.

    1982-10-01

    This two-volume report is a detailed design and operating documentation of the Los Alamos National Laboratory Controlled Air Incinerator (CAI) and is an aid to technology transfer to other Department of Energy contractor sites and the commercial sector. Volume I describes the CAI process, equipment, and performance, and it recommends modifications based on Los Alamos experience. It provides the necessary information for conceptual design and feasibility studies. Volume II provides descriptive engineering information such as drawings, specifications, calculations, and costs. It aids duplication of the process at other facilities

  18. Fuzzy Nonlinear Dynamic Evaporator Model in Supercritical Organic Rankine Cycle Waste Heat Recovery Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahedul Islam Chowdhury

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The organic Rankine cycle (ORC-based waste heat recovery (WHR system operating under a supercritical condition has a higher potential of thermal efficiency and work output than a traditional subcritical cycle. However, the operation of supercritical cycles is more challenging due to the high pressure in the system and transient behavior of waste heat sources from industrial and automotive engines that affect the performance of the system and the evaporator, which is the most crucial component of the ORC. To take the transient behavior into account, the dynamic model of the evaporator using renowned finite volume (FV technique is developed in this paper. Although the FV model can capture the transient effects accurately, the model has a limitation for real-time control applications due to its time-intensive computation. To capture the transient effects and reduce the simulation time, a novel fuzzy-based nonlinear dynamic evaporator model is also developed and presented in this paper. The results show that the fuzzy-based model was able to capture the transient effects at a data fitness of over 90%, while it has potential to complete the simulation 700 times faster than the FV model. By integrating with other subcomponent models of the system, such as pump, expander, and condenser, the predicted system output and pressure have a mean average percentage error of 3.11% and 0.001%, respectively. These results suggest that the developed fuzzy-based evaporator and the overall ORC-WHR system can be used for transient simulations and to develop control strategies for real-time applications.

  19. Conventional engine technology. Volume 1: Status of OTTO cycle engine technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowdy, M. W.

    1981-01-01

    Federally-mandated emissions standards have led to major changes in automotive technology during the last decade. Efforts to satisfy the new standards were directed more toward the use of add-on devices, such as catalytic converters, turbochargers, and improved fuel metering, than toward complete engine redesign. The resulting changes are described and the improvement brought about by them in fuel economy and emissions levels are fully documented. Four specific categories of gasoline-powered internal combustion engines are covered, including subsystem and total engine development. Also included are the results of fuel economy and exhaust emissions tests performed on representative vehicles from each category.

  20. Precision engineering center. 1988 Annual report, Volume VI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dow, T. [ed.; Fornaro, R.; Keltie, R.; Paesler, M. [and others

    1988-12-01

    To reverse the downward trend in the balance of trade, American companies must concentrate on increasing research into new products, boosting productivity, and improving manufacturing processes. The Precision Engineering Center at North Carolina State University is a multidisciplinary research and graduate education program dedicated to providing the new technology necessary to respond to this challenge. One extremely demanding manufacturing area is the fabrication and assembly of optical systems. These systems are at the heart of such consumer products as cameras, lenses, copy machines, laser bar-code scanners, VCRs, and compact audio discs - products that the Japanese and other East Asian countries are building dominance. A second critical area is the fabrication of VLSI and ULSI circuits. The tolerances required to produce the next generation of components for such systems have created the need for new approaches - approaches that could either make or break America`s competitive position. This report contains individual reports on research projects grouped into three broad areas: measurement and actuation; real-time control; precision fabrication. Separate abstracts for these articles have been indexed into the energy database.

  1. Long-term decontamination engineering study. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geuther, W.J.

    1995-04-03

    This report was prepared by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) with technical and cost estimating support from Pacific Northwest Laboratories (PNL) and Parsons Environmental Services, Inc. (Parsons). This engineering study evaluates the requirements and alternatives for decontamination/treatment of contaminated equipment at the Hanford Site. The purpose of this study is to determine the decontamination/treatment strategy that best supports the Hanford Site environmental restoration mission. It describes the potential waste streams requiring treatment or decontamination, develops the alternatives under consideration establishes the criteria for comparison, evaluates the alternatives, and draws conclusions (i.e., the optimum strategy for decontamination). Although two primary alternatives are discussed, this study does identify other alternatives that may warrant additional study. hanford Site solid waste management program activities include storage, special processing, decontamination/treatment, and disposal facilities. This study focuses on the decontamination/treatment processes (e.g., waste decontamination, size reduction, immobilization, and packaging) that support the environmental restoration mission at the Hanford Site.

  2. Stratified Charge Rotary Engine Critical Technology Enablement, Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irion, C. E.; Mount, R. E.

    1992-01-01

    This report summarizes results of a critical technology enablement effort with the stratified charge rotary engine (SCRE) focusing on a power section of 0.67 liters (40 cu. in.) per rotor in single and two rotor versions. The work is a continuation of prior NASA Contracts NAS3-23056 and NAS3-24628. Technical objectives are multi-fuel capability, including civil and military jet fuel and DF-2, fuel efficiency of 0.355 Lbs/BHP-Hr. at best cruise condition above 50 percent power, altitude capability of up to 10Km (33,000 ft.) cruise, 2000 hour TBO and reduced coolant heat rejection. Critical technologies for SCRE's that have the potential for competitive performance and cost in a representative light-aircraft environment were examined. Objectives were: the development and utilization of advanced analytical tools, i.e. higher speed and enhanced three dimensional combustion modeling; identification of critical technologies; development of improved instrumentation, and to isolate and quantitatively identify the contribution to performance and efficiency of critical components or subsystems.

  3. Long-term decontamination engineering study. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geuther, W.J.

    1995-01-01

    This report was prepared by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) with technical and cost estimating support from Pacific Northwest Laboratories (PNL) and Parsons Environmental Services, Inc. (Parsons). This engineering study evaluates the requirements and alternatives for decontamination/treatment of contaminated equipment at the Hanford Site. The purpose of this study is to determine the decontamination/treatment strategy that best supports the Hanford Site environmental restoration mission. It describes the potential waste streams requiring treatment or decontamination, develops the alternatives under consideration establishes the criteria for comparison, evaluates the alternatives, and draws conclusions (i.e., the optimum strategy for decontamination). Although two primary alternatives are discussed, this study does identify other alternatives that may warrant additional study. hanford Site solid waste management program activities include storage, special processing, decontamination/treatment, and disposal facilities. This study focuses on the decontamination/treatment processes (e.g., waste decontamination, size reduction, immobilization, and packaging) that support the environmental restoration mission at the Hanford Site

  4. Savannah River Plant - Project 8980 engineering and design history. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1957-01-01

    This volume provides an engineering and design history of the 100 area of the Savannah River Plant. This site consisted of five separate production reactor sites, 100-R, P, L, K, and C. The document summarizes work on design of the reactors, support facilities, buildings, siting, etc. for these areas.

  5. CrossTalk. The Journal of Defense Software Engineering. Volume 15, Number 12, December 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-12-01

    Journal of Defense Software Engineering. Volume 15, Number 12, December 2002 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...You sit backwards on Disneyland rides to see how they do the special effects. • You’ve tried to repair a $5 radio. • You look forward to Christmas so

  6. On the design of a real-time volume rendering engine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Jaap; Wessels, H.L.F.; van der Horst, A.; Bentum, Marinus Jan

    1992-01-01

    An architecture for a Real-Time Volume Rendering Engine (RT-VRE) is given, capable of computing 750 × 750 × 512 samples from a 3D dataset at a rate of 25 images per second. The RT-VRE uses for this purpose 64 dedicated rendering chips, cooperating with 16 RISC-processors. A plane interpolator

  7. On the design of a real-time volume rendering engine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Jaap; Wessels, H.J.; van der Horst, A.; Bentum, Marinus Jan

    1995-01-01

    An architecture for a Real-Time Volume Rendering Engine (RT-VRE) is given, capable of computing 750 × 750 × 512 samples from a 3D dataset at a rate of 25 images per second. The RT-VRE uses for this purpose 64 dedicated rendering chips, cooperating with 16 RISC-processors. A plane interpolator

  8. Increasing the Air Charge and Scavenging the Clearance Volume of a Compression-Ignition Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanogle, J A; Hicks, C W; Foster, H H

    1934-01-01

    The object of the investigation presented in this report was to determine the effects of increasing the air charge and scavenging the clearance volume of a 4-stroke-cycle compression-ignition engine having a vertical-disk form combustion chamber. Boosting the inlet-air pressure with normal valve timing increased the indicated engine power in proportion to the additional air inducted and resulted in smoother engine operation with less combustion shock. Scavenging the clearance volume by using a valve overlap of 145 degrees and an inlet-air boost pressure of approximately 2 1/2 inches of mercury produced a net increase in performance for clear exhaust operation of 33 percent over that obtained with normal valve timing and the same boost pressure. The improved combustion characteristics result in lower specific fuel consumption, and a clearer exhaust.

  9. Electric utility engineer`s FGD manual -- Volume 1: FGD process design. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-04

    Part 1 of the Electric Utility Engineer`s Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) Manual emphasizes the chemical and physical processes that form the basis for design and operation of lime- and limestone-based FGD systems applied to coal- or oil-fired steam electric generating stations. The objectives of Part 1 are: to provide a description of the chemical and physical design basis for lime- and limestone-based wet FGD systems; to identify and discuss the various process design parameters and process options that must be considered in developing a specification for a new FGD system; and to provide utility engineers with process knowledge useful for operating and optimizing a lime- or limestone-based wet FGD system.

  10. High-Efficiency Small-Scale Combined Heat and Power Organic Binary Rankine Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costante Mario Invernizzi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Small-CHP (Combined Heat and Power systems are generally considered a valuable technological option to the conventional boilers, in a technology developed context. If small-CHP systems are associated with the use of renewable energies (biomass, for example they could play an important role in distributed generation even in developing countries or, in any case, where there are no extensive electricity networks. Traditionally the considered heat engines for micro- or mini-CHP are: the gas engine, the gas turbine (with internal combustion, the steam engine, engine working according to the Stirling and to the Rankine cycles, the last with organic fluids. In principle, also fuel cells could be used. In this paper, we focus on small size Rankine cycles (10–15 k W with organic working fluids. The assumed heat source is hot combustion gases at high temperature (900–950 ∘ C and we assume to use only single stages axial turbines. The need to work at high temperatures, limits the choice of the right organic working fluids. The calculation results show the limitation in the performances of simple cycles and suggest the opportunity to resort to complex (binary cycle configurations to achieve high net conversion efficiencies (15–16%.

  11. Engineer. The Professional Bulletin of Army Engineers. Volume 42. May-August 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Olsen The Extraordinary Career of Lieutenant General Frank A. Camm— Three Tenets for Building Great Engineers Norris Bradbury stands next to a...successful. Three departments were organized to teach mathematics, English grammar, French, Spanish , his- tory, law, geography, and penmanship.9 Although

  12. Engineer: The Professional Bulletin of Army Engineers. Volume 41, May-August 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    agement Authority ( NDMA ), more than 20 million Paki- stanis have been affected by this catastrophic event—the country’s worst monsoon season in 80 years... NDMA for the Pakistan mil- itary engineers to install, and an official bridge turnover ceremony was held at the U.S. embassy in Islamabad on 1

  13. Design and analysis of a dead volume control for a solar Stirling engine with induction generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beltrán-Chacon, Ricardo; Leal-Chavez, Daniel; Sauceda, D.; Pellegrini-Cervantes, Manuel; Borunda, Mónica

    2015-01-01

    In this work, a power generation system dish/Stirling with cavity receiver and an electrical induction generator was simulated. We propose a control system using a variable-dead-volume and analyze its influence on the mechanical performance. A system with a dead volume of 160 cm"3 was designed to control the power and speed of the engine considering annual insolation, mechanical properties of the heater and the limits of frequency and voltage for the systems interconnected to the electricity network. The designed system achieves net efficient solar conversion to electric of 23.38% at an irradiance of 975 W/m"2 and allows an annual increase of 18% of the useful electrical energy compared to a system without control. - Highlights: • Numerical simulation of a nitrogen charged solar Stirling engine for electric power generation. • Design and analysis of a dead volume control for performance increase and power modulation. • Effect of dead space on average working pressure and mass flow rate. • Comparison between dead volume and average pressure control methods. • Impact of Stirling engine control settings on annual generated electric power.

  14. Fluid selection for a low-temperature solar organic Rankine cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tchanche, Bertrand Fankam; Papadakis, George; Lambrinos, Gregory; Frangoudakis, Antonios

    2009-01-01

    Theoretical performances as well as thermodynamic and environmental properties of few fluids have been comparatively assessed for use in low-temperature solar organic Rankine cycle systems. Efficiencies, volume flow rate, mass flow rate, pressure ratio, toxicity, flammability, ODP and GWP were used for comparison. Of 20 fluids investigated, R134a appears as the most suitable for small scale solar applications. R152a, R600a, R600 and R290 offer attractive performances but need safety precautions, owing to their flammability.

  15. Engineered materials characterization report for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. Volume 3: Corrosion and data modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Konynenburg, R.A.; McCright, R.D.; Roy, A.K.; Jones, D.A.

    1995-08-01

    This three-volume report serves several purposes. The first volume provides an introduction to the engineered materials effort for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. It defines terms and outlines the history of selection and characterization of these materials. A summary of the recent engineered barrier materials characterization workshop is presented, and the current candidate materials are listed. The second volume tabulates design data for engineered materials, and the third volume is devoted to corrosion data, radiation effects on corrosion, and corrosion modeling. The second and third volumes are intended to be evolving documents, to which new data will be added as they become available from additional studies. The initial version of Volume 3 is devoted to information currently available for environments most similar to those expected in the potential Yucca Mountain repository. This is volume three

  16. Influence of working fluids on Organic Rankine Cycle for waste heat recovery applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Struzyna, Ralf; Eifler, Wolfgang; Steinmill, Jens [Bochum Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Verbrennungsmotoren

    2012-11-01

    More than 50% of the energy contained in fuel is lost due to the loss of heat content to the exhaust gas, the cooling water or the charge air cooler medium. Therefore, one of the most promising attempts to further increase the efficiency of internal combustion engines is waste heat recovery by means of a combined process. The Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) is a promising process for waste heat recovery systems. The main purpose is to identify suitable working fluids to achieve best system performance. Therefore an analysis of the influence of different working fluids on system output is required. (orig.)

  17. Panel cutting method: new approach to generate panels on a hull in Rankine source potential approximation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee-Jong Choi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, a new hull panel generation algorithm, namely panel cutting method, was developed to predict flow phenomena around a ship using the Rankine source potential based panel method, where the iterative method was used to satisfy the nonlinear free surface condition and the trim and sinkage of the ship was taken into account. Numerical computations were performed to investigate the validity of the proposed hull panel generation algorithm for Series 60 (CB=0.60 hull and KRISO container ship (KCS, a container ship designed by Maritime and Ocean Engineering Research Institute (MOERI. The computational results were validated by comparing with the existing experimental data.

  18. Panel cutting method: new approach to generate panels on a hull in Rankine source potential approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hee-Jong; Chun, Ho-Hwan; Park, Il-Ryong; Kim, Jin

    2011-12-01

    In the present study, a new hull panel generation algorithm, namely panel cutting method, was developed to predict flow phenomena around a ship using the Rankine source potential based panel method, where the iterative method was used to satisfy the nonlinear free surface condition and the trim and sinkage of the ship was taken into account. Numerical computations were performed to investigate the validity of the proposed hull panel generation algorithm for Series 60 (CB=0.60) hull and KRISO container ship (KCS), a container ship designed by Maritime and Ocean Engineering Research Institute (MOERI). The computational results were validated by comparing with the existing experimental data.

  19. A Novel Organic Rankine Cycle System with Improved Thermal Stability and Low Global Warming Fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panesar Angad S

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC system for long haul truck application. Rather than typical tail pipe heat recovery configurations, the proposed setup exploits the gaseous streams that are already a load on the engine cooling module. The system uses dual loops connected only by the Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR stream. A water blend study is conducted to identify suitable mixtures for the High Temperature (HT loop, while the Low Temperature (LT loop utilises a Low Global Warming (GWP Hydrofluoroether.

  20. Conceptual design and analysis of a Dish-Rankine solar thermal power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons, R. L.

    1980-08-01

    A Point Focusing Distributed Receiver (PFDR) solar thermal electric system which employs small Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) engines is examined with reference to its projected technical/economic performance. With mass-produced power modules (about 100,000 per year), the projected life-cycle energy cost for an optimized no-storage system is estimated at 67 mills/kWh (Levelized Busbar Energy Cost) without the need for advanced development of any of its components. At moderate production rates (about 50 MWe/yr) system energy costs are competitive with conventional power generation systems in special remote-site types of applications.

  1. SMC Systems Engineering: Specialty Engineering Disciplines Framework and Descriptions. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-03

    Evaluation Activities Provide T&E Program Contract Req’ts: JRMET Participation; GIDEP; FRB, RCM; FMEA; FTA , Derating, Otller T&E Reqts Provide...Operation of the Defense Acquisition System 08 Dec08 CJCSI 3170 01G Joint Capabilities lnteoration and Development svstem 01 Mar 09 DoDI 3020.37...Acquisition and Sustainment Life Cycle Management 22 Mar 11 AFI63-1201 Life Cycle Systems Engineering 23 Jul 07 Document X umber Standards Title Issue

  2. Engineer: The Professional Bulletin of Army Engineers. Volume 40, September-December 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    minutes for each pile. Last, a prefabricated wooden form was emplaced around each cage on the piles, and concrete was pumped into the form. After 24...in this austere environment. For instance, when one hydraulic September-December 201010 Engineer This prefabricated wooden form was emplaced around...mainland compounded ecological hazards. The only alternative for the Army and Navy divers came in initiat- ing preventive measures—including constantly

  3. Engineer: The Professional Bulletin of Army Engineers. Volume 41, September-December 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    leader or lieutenant immediately after first formation to ensure maximum participation. To reinforce this learning, the battalion conducted intensive ...master’s degree from California State University, Fullerton. Dr. Ravizza is a professor of kinesiology at California State University, Fullerton. He is...Remagen. After the war, he commanded the Engineer Center at Fort Belvoir from January 1946 to June 1948. Activity was intense at the ERTC in early

  4. Satellite Power Systems (SPS) concept definition study, exhibit C. Volume 2, part 1: System engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, G. M.

    1979-01-01

    Volume 2, Part 1, of a seven volume report is presented. Part 1 encompasses Satellite Power Systems (SPS) systems engineering aspects and is divided into three sections. The first section presents descriptions of the various candidate concepts considered and conclusions and recommendations for a preferred concept. The second section presents a summary of results of the various trade studies and analysis conducted during the course of the study. The third section describes the Photovoltaic Satellite Based Satellite Power System (SPS) Point Design as it was defined through studies performed during the period January 1977 through March 1979.

  5. Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) Engineering Test Facility (ETF) 200 MWe power plant. Conceptual Design Engineering Report (CDER). Volume 4: Supplementary engineering data

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    The reference conceptual design of the Magnetohydrodynamic Engineering Test Facility (ETF), a prototype 200 MWe coal-fired electric generating plant designed to demonstrate the commercial feasibility of open cycle MHD is summarized. Main elements of the design are identified and explained, and the rationale behind them is reviewed. Major systems and plant facilities are listed and discussed. Construction cost and schedule estimates, and identification of engineering issues that should be reexamined are also given. The latest (1980-1981) information from the MHD technology program are integrated with the elements of a conventional steam power electric generating plant. Supplementary Engineering Data (Issues, Background, Performance Assurance Plan, Design Details, System Design Descriptions and Related Drawings) is presented.

  6. Fusion Engineering Device. Volume VI. Complementary development plan for engineering development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-10-01

    The basic approach followed in this volume is to define key technical issues for several fusion reactor technologies and to device program strategies to resolve each of these issues. Particular attention has been paid to elucidating the role of FED vis-a-vis complementary (non-FED) facilities in this process. The remainder of this chapter consists of summaries of the major conclusions of the technology plans in each of the areas studied, i.e., plasma heating, magnetics, nuclear, and systems considerations

  7. Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) Engineering Test Facility (ETF) 200 MWe power plant. Conceptual Design Engineering Report (CDER). Volume 2: Engineering. Volume 3: Costs and schedules

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Engineering design details for the principal systems, system operating modes, site facilities, and structures of an engineering test facility (ETF) of a 200 MWE power plant are presented. The ETF resembles a coal-fired steam power plant in many ways. It is analogous to a conventional plant which has had the coal combustor replaced with the MHD power train. Most of the ETF components are conventional. They can, however, be sized or configured differently or perform additional functions from those in a conventional coal power plant. The boiler not only generates steam, but also performs the functions of heating the MHD oxidant, recovering seed, and controlling emissions.

  8. Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) Engineering Test Facility (ETF) 200 MWe power plant. Conceptual Design Engineering Report (CDER). Volume 2: Engineering. Volume 3: Costs and schedules. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-09-01

    Engineering design details for the principal systems, system operating modes, site facilities, and structures of an engineering test facility (ETF) of a 200 MWE power plant are presented. The ETF resembles a coal-fired steam power plant in many ways. It is analogous to a conventional plant which has had the coal combustor replaced with the MHD power train. Most of the ETF components are conventional. They can, however, be sized or configured differently or perform additional functions from those in a conventional coal power plant. The boiler not only generates steam, but also performs the functions of heating the MHD oxidant, recovering seed, and controlling emissions

  9. Rankine cycle waste heat recovery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Timothy C.; Nelson, Christopher R.

    2015-09-22

    A waste heat recovery (WHR) system connects a working fluid to fluid passages formed in an engine block and/or a cylinder head of an internal combustion engine, forming an engine heat exchanger. The fluid passages are formed near high temperature areas of the engine, subjecting the working fluid to sufficient heat energy to vaporize the working fluid while the working fluid advantageously cools the engine block and/or cylinder head, improving fuel efficiency. The location of the engine heat exchanger downstream from an EGR boiler and upstream from an exhaust heat exchanger provides an optimal position of the engine heat exchanger with respect to the thermodynamic cycle of the WHR system, giving priority to cooling of EGR gas. The configuration of valves in the WHR system provides the ability to select a plurality of parallel flow paths for optimal operation.

  10. Parts, materials, and processes experience summary, volume 2. [design, engineering, and quality control

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    This summary provides the general engineering community with the accumulated experience from ALERT reports issued by NASA and the Government-Industry. Data Exchange Program, and related experience gained by Government and industry. It provides expanded information on selected topics by relating the problem area (failure) to the cause, the investigation and findings, the suggestions for avoidance (inspections, screening tests, proper part applications, requirements for manufacturer's plant facilities, etc.), and failure analysis procedures. Diodes, integrated circuits, and transistors are covered in this volume.

  11. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Using Double-Stage Rankine Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuyuki Ikegami

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC using non-azeotropic mixtures such as ammonia/water as working fluid and the multistage cycle has been investigated in order to improve the thermal efficiency of the cycle because of small ocean temperature differences. The performance and effectiveness of the multistage cycle are barely understood. In addition, previous evaluation methods of heat exchange process cannot clearly indicate the influence of the thermophysical characteristics of the working fluid on the power output. Consequently, this study investigated the influence of reduction of the irreversible losses in the heat exchange process on the system performance in double-stage Rankine cycle using pure working fluid. Single Rankine, double-stage Rankine and Kalina cycles were analyzed to ascertain the system characteristics. The simple evaluation method of the temperature difference between the working fluid and the seawater is applied to this analysis. From the results of the parametric performance analysis it can be considered that double-stage Rankine cycle using pure working fluid can reduce the irreversible losses in the heat exchange process as with the Kalina cycle using an ammonia/water mixture. Considering the maximum power efficiency obtained in the study, double-stage Rankine and Kalina cycles can improve the power output by reducing the irreversible losses in the cycle.

  12. Stirling Space Engine Program. Volume 2; Appendixes A, B, C and D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, Manmohan

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this program was to develop the technology necessary for operating Stirling power converters in a space environment and to demonstrate this technology in full-scale engine tests. Volume 2 of the report includes the following appendices: Appendix A: Heater Head Development (Starfish Heater Head Program, 1/10th Segment and Full-Scale Heat Pipes, and Sodium Filling and Processing); Appendix B: Component Test Power Converter (CTPC) Component Development (High-temperature Organic Materials, Heat Exchanger Fabrication, Beryllium Issues, Sodium Issues, Wear Couple Tests, Pressure Boundary Penetrations, Heating System Heaters, and Cooler Flow Test); Appendix C: Udimet Testing (Selection of the Reference Material for the Space Stirling Engine Heater Head, Udimet 720LI Creep Test Result Update, Final Summary of Space Stirling Endurance Engine Udimet 720L1 Fatigue Testing Results, Udimet 720l1 Weld Development Summary, and Udimet 720L1 Creep Test Final Results Summary), and Appendix D: CTPC Component Development Photos.

  13. Analysis of Low Temperature Organic Rankine Cycles for Solar Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yunfei

    The present work focuses on Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) systems and their application to low temperature waste heat recovery, combined heat and power as well as off-grid solar power generation applications. As CO_2 issues come to the fore front and fossil fuels become more expensive, interest in low grade heat recovery has grown dramatically in the past few years. Solar energy, as a clean, renewable, pollution-free and sustainable energy has great potential for the use of ORC systems. Several ORC solutions have been proposed to generate electricity from low temperature sources. The ORC systems discussed here can be applied to fields such as solar thermal, biological waste heat, engine exhaust gases, small-scale cogeneration, domestic boilers, etc. The current work presents a thermodynamic and economic analysis for the use of ORC systems to convert solar energy or low exergy energy to generate electrical power. The organic working fluids investigated here were selected to investigate the effect of the fluid saturation temperature on the performance of ORCs. The working fluids under investigation are R113, R245fa, R123, with boiling points between 40°C and 200°C at pressures from 10 kPa to 10 MPa. Ambient temperature air at 20oC to 30oC is utilized as cooling resource, and allowing for a temperature difference 10°C for effective heat transfer. Consequently, the working fluids are condensed at 40°C. A combined first- and second-law analysis is performed by varying some system independent parameters at various reference temperatures. The present work shows that ORC systems can be viable and economical for the applications such as waste heat use and off-grid power generation even though they are likely to be more expensive than grid power.

  14. Emissions-critical charge cooling using an organic rankine cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Timothy C.; Nelson, Christopher R.

    2014-07-15

    The disclosure provides a system including a Rankine power cycle cooling subsystem providing emissions-critical charge cooling of an input charge flow. The system includes a boiler fluidly coupled to the input charge flow, an energy conversion device fluidly coupled to the boiler, a condenser fluidly coupled to the energy conversion device, a pump fluidly coupled to the condenser and the boiler, an adjuster that adjusts at least one parameter of the Rankine power cycle subsystem to change a temperature of the input charge exiting the boiler, and a sensor adapted to sense a temperature characteristic of the vaporized input charge. The system includes a controller that can determine a target temperature of the input charge sufficient to meet or exceed predetermined target emissions and cause the adjuster to adjust at least one parameter of the Rankine power cycle to achieve the predetermined target emissions.

  15. Preliminary thermodynamic study for an efficient turbo-blower external combustion Rankine cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero Gómez, Manuel; Romero Gómez, Javier; Ferreiro Garcia, Ramón; Baaliña Insua, Álvaro

    2014-08-01

    This research paper presents a preliminary thermodynamic study of an innovative power plant operating under a Rankine cycle fed by an external combustion system with turbo-blower (TB). The power plant comprises an external combustion system for natural gas, where the combustion gases yield their thermal energy, through a heat exchanger, to a carbon dioxide Rankine cycle operating under supercritical conditions and with quasi-critical condensation. The TB exploits the energy from the pressurised exhaust gases for compressing the combustion air. The study is focused on the comparison of the combustion system's conventional technology with that of the proposed. An energy analysis is carried out and the effect of the flue gas pressure on the efficiency and on the heat transfer in the heat exchanger is studied. The coupling of the TB results in an increase in efficiency and of the convection coefficient of the flue gas with pressure, favouring a reduced volume of the heat exchanger. The proposed innovative system achieves increases in efficiency of around 12 % as well as a decrease in the heat exchanger volume of 3/5 compared with the conventional technology without TB.

  16. A synthesis/design optimization algorithm for Rankine cycle based energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toffolo, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The algorithm presented in this work has been developed to search for the optimal topology and design parameters of a set of Rankine cycles forming an energy system that absorbs/releases heat at different temperature levels and converts part of the absorbed heat into electricity. This algorithm can deal with several applications in the field of energy engineering: e.g., steam cycles or bottoming cycles in combined/cogenerative plants, steam networks, low temperature organic Rankine cycles. The main purpose of this algorithm is to overcome the limitations of the search space introduced by the traditional mixed-integer programming techniques, which assume that possible solutions are derived from a single superstructure embedding them all. The algorithm presented in this work is a hybrid evolutionary/traditional optimization algorithm organized in two levels. A complex original codification of the topology and the intensive design parameters of the system is managed by the upper level evolutionary algorithm according to the criteria set by the HEATSEP method, which are used for the first time to automatically synthesize a “basic” system configuration from a set of elementary thermodynamic cycles. The lower SQP (sequential quadratic programming) algorithm optimizes the objective function(s) with respect to cycle mass flow rates only, taking into account the heat transfer feasibility constraint within the undefined heat transfer section. A challenging example of application is also presented to show the capabilities of the algorithm. - Highlights: • Energy systems based on Rankine cycles are used in many applications. • A hybrid algorithm is proposed to optimize the synthesis/design of such systems. • The topology of the candidate solutions is not limited by a superstructure. • Topology is managed by the genetic operators of the upper level algorithm. • The effectiveness of the algorithm is proved in a complex test case

  17. Optimization of Cycle and Expander Design of an Organic Rankine Cycle Unit using Multi-Component Working Fluids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meroni, Andrea; Andreasen, Jesper Graa; Pierobon, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    Organic Rankine cycle (ORC) power systems represent at-tractive solutions for power conversion from low temperatureheat sources, and the use of these power systems is gaining increasing attention in the marine industry. This paper proposesthe combined optimal design of cycle and expander...... for an organic Rankine cycle unit utilizing waste heat from low temperature heat sources. The study addresses a case where the minimum temperature of the heat source is constrained and a case where no constraint is imposed. The former case is the wasteheat recovery from jacket cooling water of a marine diesel...... engine onboard a large ship, and the latter is representative of a low-temperature geothermal, solar or waste heat recovery application. Multi-component working fluids are investigated, as they allow improving the match between the temperature pro-files in the heat exchangers and, consequently, reducing...

  18. Composite materials. Volume 3 - Engineering applications of composites. Volume 4 - Metallic matrix composites. Volume 8 - Structural design and analysis, Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noton, B. R. (Editor); Kreider, K. G.; Chamis, C. C.

    1974-01-01

    This volume discusses a vaety of applications of both low- and high-cost composite materials in a number of selected engineering fields. The text stresses the use of fiber-reinforced composites, along with interesting material systems used in the electrical and nuclear industries. As to technology transfer, a similarity is noted between many of the reasons responsible for the utilization of composites and those problems requiring urgent solution, such as mechanized fabrication processes and design for production. Features topics include road transportation, rail transportation, civil aircraft, space vehicles, builing industry, chemical plants, and appliances and equipment. The laminate orientation code devised by Air Force materials laboratory is included. Individual items are announced in this issue.

  19. Broadband Fan Noise Prediction System for Turbofan Engines. Volume 3; Validation and Test Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Bruce L.

    2010-01-01

    Pratt & Whitney has developed a Broadband Fan Noise Prediction System (BFaNS) for turbofan engines. This system computes the noise generated by turbulence impinging on the leading edges of the fan and fan exit guide vane, and noise generated by boundary-layer turbulence passing over the fan trailing edge. BFaNS has been validated on three fan rigs that were tested during the NASA Advanced Subsonic Technology Program (AST). The predicted noise spectra agreed well with measured data. The predicted effects of fan speed, vane count, and vane sweep also agreed well with measurements. The noise prediction system consists of two computer programs: Setup_BFaNS and BFaNS. Setup_BFaNS converts user-specified geometry and flow-field information into a BFaNS input file. From this input file, BFaNS computes the inlet and aft broadband sound power spectra generated by the fan and FEGV. The output file from BFaNS contains the inlet, aft and total sound power spectra from each noise source. This report is the third volume of a three-volume set documenting the Broadband Fan Noise Prediction System: Volume 1: Setup_BFaNS User s Manual and Developer s Guide; Volume 2: BFaNS User s Manual and Developer s Guide; and Volume 3: Validation and Test Cases. The present volume begins with an overview of the Broadband Fan Noise Prediction System, followed by validation studies that were done on three fan rigs. It concludes with recommended improvements and additional studies for BFaNS.

  20. LOX/hydrocarbon rocket engine analytical design methodology development and validation. Volume 2: Appendices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niiya, Karen E.; Walker, Richard E.; Pieper, Jerry L.; Nguyen, Thong V.

    1993-05-01

    This final report includes a discussion of the work accomplished during the period from Dec. 1988 through Nov. 1991. The objective of the program was to assemble existing performance and combustion stability models into a usable design methodology capable of designing and analyzing high-performance and stable LOX/hydrocarbon booster engines. The methodology was then used to design a validation engine. The capabilities and validity of the methodology were demonstrated using this engine in an extensive hot fire test program. The engine used LOX/RP-1 propellants and was tested over a range of mixture ratios, chamber pressures, and acoustic damping device configurations. This volume contains time domain and frequency domain stability plots which indicate the pressure perturbation amplitudes and frequencies from approximately 30 tests of a 50K thrust rocket engine using LOX/RP-1 propellants over a range of chamber pressures from 240 to 1750 psia with mixture ratios of from 1.2 to 7.5. The data is from test configurations which used both bitune and monotune acoustic cavities and from tests with no acoustic cavities. The engine had a length of 14 inches and a contraction ratio of 2.0 using a 7.68 inch diameter injector. The data was taken from both stable and unstable tests. All combustion instabilities were spontaneous in the first tangential mode. Although stability bombs were used and generated overpressures of approximately 20 percent, no tests were driven unstable by the bombs. The stability instrumentation included six high-frequency Kistler transducers in the combustion chamber, a high-frequency Kistler transducer in each propellant manifold, and tri-axial accelerometers. Performance data is presented, both characteristic velocity efficiencies and energy release efficiencies, for those tests of sufficient duration to record steady state values.

  1. Standard technical specifications: Combustion engineering plants. Volume 1, Revision 1: Specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    This report documents the results of the combined effort of the NRC and the industry to produce improved Standard Technical Specifications (STS), Revision 1 for Combustion Engineering Plants. The changes reflected in Revision 1 resulted from the experience gained from license amendment applications to convert to these improved STS or to adopt partial improvements to existing technical specifications. This NUREG is the result of extensive public technical meetings and discussions between the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff and various nuclear power plant licensees, Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) Owners Groups, NSSS vendors, and the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI). The improved STS were developed based on the criteria in the Final Commission Policy Statement on Technical Specifications Improvements for Nuclear Power Reactors, dated July 22, 1993. The improved STS will be used as the basis for individual nuclear power plant licensees to develop improved plant-specific technical specifications. This report contains three volumes. Volume 1 contains the Specifications for all chapters and sections of the improved STS. Volume 2 contains the Bases for Chapters 2.0 and 3.0, and Sections 3.1--3.3 of the improved STS. Volume 3 contains the Bases for Sections 3.4--3.9 of the improved STS

  2. Organic Rankine cycle unit for waste heat recovery on ships (PilotORC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haglind, Fredrik; Montagud, Maria E. Mondejar; Andreasen, Jesper Graa

    The project PilotORC was aimed at evaluating the technical and economic feasibility of the use of organic Rankine cycle (ORC) units to recover low-temperature waste heat sources (i.e. exhaust gases, scavenge air, engine cooling system, and lubricant oil system) on container vessels. The project...... included numerical simulations and experimental tests on a 125 kW demonstration ORC unit that utilizes the waste heat of the main engine cooling system on board one of Mærsk's container vessels. During the design of the demonstration ORC unit, different alternatives for the condenser were analyzed in order...... of using ORC units for maritime applications, and the relevance of this technology for new-building projects. Firstly, an evaluation of the waste heat resources available on board Mærsk containers fleet, and an estimation of the potential energy recovery by means of the ORC technology was performed...

  3. New concepts for organic Rankine cycle power systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casati, E.I.M.

    2014-01-01

    Energy provision is one of the major challenges for the Human Society, and it is increasingly clear that the current production/consumption model is not sustainable. The envisaged energy system is smarter, more decentralised and integrated. Energy conversion systems based on the organic Rankine

  4. Increasing thermal efficiency of Rankine cycles by using refrigeration cycles: A theoretical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarr, Joachim-André Raymond; Mathieu-Potvin, François

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A new stratagem is proposed to improve thermal efficiency of Rankine cycles. • Three new configurations are optimized by means of numerical simulations. • The Rankine-1SCR design is advantageous for 1338 different fluid combinations. • The Rankine-2SCR design is advantageous for 772 different fluid combinations. • The Rankine-3SCR design is advantageous for 768 different fluid combinations. - Abstract: In this paper, three different modifications of the basic Rankine thermodynamic cycle are proposed. The objective is to increase the thermal efficiency of power systems based on Rankine cycles. The three new systems are named “Rankine-1SCR”, “Rankine-2SCR”, and “Rankine-3SCR” cycles, and they consist of linking a refrigeration cycle to the basic Rankine cycle. The idea is to use the refrigeration cycle to create a low temperature heat sink for the Rankine cycle. These three new power plant configurations are modeled and optimized with numerical tools, and then they are compared with the basic Rankine cycle. The objective function is the thermal efficiency of the systems (i.e., net power output (kW) divided by heat rate (kW) entering the system), and the design variables are the operating temperatures within the systems. Among the 84 × 84 (i.e., 7056) possible combinations of working and cooling fluids investigated in this paper, it is shown that: (i) the Rankine-1SCR system is advantageous for 1338 different fluid combinations, (ii) the Rankine-2SCR system is advantageous for 772 different fluid combinations, and (iii) the Rankine-3SCR system is advantageous for 768 different fluid combinations.

  5. An integrated optimization for organic Rankine cycle based on entransy theory and thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Tailu; Fu, Wencheng; Zhu, Jialing

    2014-01-01

    The organic Rankine cycle has been one of the essential heat-work conversion technologies nowadays. Lots of effectual optimization methods are focused on the promotion of the system efficiency, which are mainly relied on engineering experience and numerical simulations rather than theoretical analysis. A theoretical integrated optimization method was established based on the entransy theory and thermodynamics, with the ratio of the net power output to the ratio of the total thermal conductance to the thermal conductance in the condenser as the objective function. The system parameters besides the optimal pinch point temperature difference were obtained. The results show that the mass flow rate of the working fluid is inversely proportional to the evaporating temperature. An optimal evaporating temperature maximizes the net power output, and the maximal net power output corresponds to the maximal entransy loss and the change points of the heat source outlet temperature and the change rates for the entropy generation and the entransy dissipation. Moreover, the net power output and the total thermal conductance are inversely proportional to the pinch point temperature difference, contradicting with each other. Under the specified condition, the optimal operating parameters are ascertained, with the optimal pinch point temperature difference of 5 K. - Highlights: • We establish an integrated optimization model for organic Rankine cycle. • The model combines the entransy theory with thermodynamics. • The maximal net power output corresponds to the maximal entransy loss. • The pinch point temperature difference is optimized to be 5 K

  6. Savannah River Plant engineering, design, and construction history of ``S`` projects and other work, January 1961--December 1964. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1970-03-01

    The work described in this volume of ``S`` Projects History is an extension of the type of work described in Volume I. E.I. du Pont de flemours & Company had entered into Contract AT (07-2)-l with the United States Atomic Energy Commission to develop, design, construct, install, and operate facilities to produce heavy water, fissionable materials, and related products. Under this contract,, Du Pont constructed and operated the Savannah River Plant. The engineering, design, and construction for most of the larger ``S`` projects was performed by the Engineering DeDartment. For some of the large and many of the smaller projects the Engineering Department was responsible only for the construction because the Atomic Energy Division (AED) of the Explosives Department handled the other phases. The Engineering Department Costruction Division also performed the physical work for many of the plant work orders. This volume includes a general description of the Du Pont Engineering Department activities pertaining to the engineering, design, and construction of the ``S`` projects at the Savannah River Plant; brief summaries of the projects and principal work requests; and supplementary informaticn on a few subjects in Volume I for which final data was not available at the closing date. Projects and other plant engineering work which were handled entirely by the Explosives Department -- AED are not included in this history.

  7. Predicted costs of environmental controls for a commercial oil shale industry. Volume 1. An engineering analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nevens, T.D.; Culbertson, W.J. Jr.; Wallace, J.R.; Taylor, G.C.; Jovanovich, A.P.; Prien, C.H.; Hicks, R.E.; Probstein, R.F.; Domahidy, G.

    1979-07-01

    The pollution control costs for a commercial oil shale industry were determined in a joint effort by Denver Research Institute, Water Purification Associates of Cambridge, and Stone and Webster Engineering of Boston and Denver. Four commercial oil shale processes were considered. The results in terms of cost per barrel of syncrude oil are predicted to be as follows: Paraho Process, $0.67 to $1.01; TOSCO II Process, $1.43 to $1.91; MIS Process, $2.02 to $3.03; and MIS/Lurgi-Ruhrgas Process, $1.68 to $2.43. Alternative pollution control equipment and integrated pollution control strategies were considered and optimal systems selected for each full-scale plant. A detailed inventory of equipment (along with the rationale for selection), a detailed description of control strategies, itemized costs and predicted emission levels are presented for each process. Capital and operating cost data are converted to a cost per barrel basis using detailed economic evaluation procedures. Ranges of cost are determined using a subjective self-assessment of uncertainty approach. An accepted methodology for probability encoding was used, and cost ranges are presented as subjective probability distributions. Volume I presents the detailed engineering results. Volume II presents the detailed analysis of uncertainty in the predicted costs.

  8. Part-Load Performance of aWet Indirectly Fired Gas Turbine Integrated with an Organic Rankine Cycle Turbogenerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Pierobon

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the last years, much attention has been paid to the development of efficient and low-cost power systems for biomass-to-electricity conversion. This paper aims at investigating the design- and part-load performance of an innovative plant based on a wet indirectly fired gas turbine (WIFGT fueled by woodchips and an organic Rankine cycle (ORC turbogenerator. An exergy analysis is performed to identify the sources of inefficiencies, the optimal design variables, and the most suitable working fluid for the organic Rankine process. This step enables to parametrize the part-load model of the plant and to estimate its performance at different power outputs. The novel plant has a nominal power of 250 kW and a thermal efficiency of 43%. The major irreversibilities take place in the burner, recuperator, compressor and in the condenser. Toluene is the optimal working fluid for the organic Rankine engine. The part-load investigation indicates that the plant can operate at high efficiencies over a wide range of power outputs (50%–100%, with a peak thermal efficiency of 45% at around 80% load. While the ORC turbogenerator is responsible for the efficiency drop at low capacities, the off-design performance is governed by the efficiency characteristics of the compressor and turbine serving the gas turbine unit.

  9. Optimal design of compact organic Rankine cycle units for domestic solar applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbazza Luca

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic Rankine cycle turbogenerators are a promising technology to transform the solar radiation harvested by solar collectors into electric power. The present work aims at sizing a small-scale organic Rankine cycle unit by tailoring its design for domestic solar applications. Stringent design criteria, i. e., compactness, high performance and safe operation, are targeted by adopting a multi-objective optimization approach modeled with the genetic algorithm. Design-point thermodynamic variables, e. g., evaporating pressure, the working fluid, minimum allowable temperature differences, and the equipment geometry, are the decision variables. Flat plate heat exchangers with herringbone corrugations are selected as heat transfer equipment for the preheater, the evaporator and the condenser. The results unveil the hyperbolic trend binding the net power output to the heat exchanger compactness. Findings also suggest that the evaporator and condenser minimum allowable temperature differences have the largest impact on the system volume and on the cycle performances. Among the fluids considered, the results indicate that R1234yf and R1234ze are the best working fluid candidates. Using flat plate solar collectors (hot water temperature equal to 75 °C, R1234yf is the optimal solution. The heat exchanger volume ranges between 6.0 and 23.0 dm3, whereas the thermal efficiency is around 4.5%. R1234ze is the best working fluid employing parabolic solar collectors (hot water temperature equal to 120 °C. In such case the thermal efficiency is around 6.9%, and the heat exchanger volume varies from 6.0 to 18.0 dm3.

  10. Exergy analysis of biomass organic Rankine cycle for power generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nur, T. B.; Sunoto

    2018-02-01

    The study examines proposed small biomass-fed Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) power plant through exergy analysis. The system consists of combustion burner unit to utilize biomass as fuel, and organic Rankine cycle unit to produce power from the expander. The heat from combustion burner was transfered by thermal oil heater to evaporate ORC working fluid in the evaporator part. The effects of adding recuperator into exergy destruction were investigated. Furthermore, the results of the variations of system configurations with different operating parameters, such as the evaporating pressures, ambient temperatures, and expander pressures were analyzed. It was found that the largest exergy destruction occurs during processes are at combustion part, followed by evaporator, condenser, expander, and pump. The ORC system equipped with a recuperator unit exhibited good operational characteristics under wide range conditions compared to the one without recuperator.

  11. New concepts for organic Rankine cycle power systems

    OpenAIRE

    Casati, E.I.M.

    2014-01-01

    Energy provision is one of the major challenges for the Human Society, and it is increasingly clear that the current production/consumption model is not sustainable. The envisaged energy system is smarter, more decentralised and integrated. Energy conversion systems based on the organic Rankine thermodynamic cycle (ORC) have the potential to play a major role in this framework, being one of the most proven solutions for the exploitation of external thermal sources in the power-output range fr...

  12. Energy recovery system using an organic rankine cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Timothy C

    2013-10-01

    A thermodynamic system for waste heat recovery, using an organic rankine cycle is provided which employs a single organic heat transferring fluid to recover heat energy from two waste heat streams having differing waste heat temperatures. Separate high and low temperature boilers provide high and low pressure vapor streams that are routed into an integrated turbine assembly having dual turbines mounted on a common shaft. Each turbine is appropriately sized for the pressure ratio of each stream.

  13. Pb-H2O Thermogravimetric Plants. The Rankine Cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arosio, S.; Carlevaro, R.

    2000-01-01

    An economic evaluation concerning Pb-H 2 O thermogravimetric systems with an electric power in the range 200-1.000 kW has been done. Moreover, plant and running costs for a thermogravimetric and a Rankine cycle, 1 MW power, have been compared. Basically due to the lead charge, the plant cost of the former is higher: nevertheless such amount can be recuperated in less than three years, being higher the running cost of the latter [it

  14. Experimental demonstrations of organic Rankine cycle waste heat rejection systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bland, Timothy J.; Lacey, P. Douglas

    Two phase fluid management is an important factor in the successful design of organic Rankine cycle (ORC) power conversion systems for space applications. The evolution of the heat rejection system approach from a jet condenser, through a rotary jet condenser, to a rotary fluid management device (RFMD) with a surface condenser has been described in a previous paper. Some of the test programs that were used to prove the validity of the selected approach are described.

  15. Engineered materials characterization report for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. Volume 2, Design data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konynenburg, R.A.; McCright, R.D.; Roy, A.K.; Jones, D.A.

    1995-08-01

    This is Volume 2 of the Engineered Materials Characterization Report which presents the design data for candidate materials needed in fabricating different components for both large and medium multi-purpose canister (MPC) disposal containers, waste packages for containing uncanistered spent fuel (UCF), and defense high-level waste (HLW) glass disposal containers. The UCF waste package consists of a disposal container with a basket therein. It is assumed that the waste packages will incorporate all-metallic multibarrier disposal containers to accommodate medium and large MPCs, ULCF, and HLW glass canisters. Unless otherwise specified, the disposal container designs incorporate an outer corrosion-allowance metal barrier over an inner corrosion-resistant metal barrier. The corrosion-allowance barrier, which will be thicker than the inner corrosion-resistant barrier, is designed to undergo corrosion-induced degradation at a very low rate, thus providing the inner barrier protection from the near-field environment for a prolonged service period

  16. Feasibility of disposal of high-level radioactive waste into the seabed. Volume 4: Engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickerson, J.; Freeman, T.J.; Boisson, J.Y.; Murray, C.N.; Gera, F.; Nakamura, H.; Nieuwenhuis, J.D.; Schaller, K.H.

    1988-01-01

    One of the options suggested for disposal of high-level radioactive waste resulting from the generation of nuclear power is burial beneath the deep ocean floor in geologically stable sediment formations which have no economic value. The 8-volume series provides an assessment of the technical feasibility and radiological safety of this disposal concept based on the results obtained by ten years of co-operation and information exchange among the Member countries participating in the NEA Seabed Working Group. This report summarizes work performed to develop and evaluate engineering methods of emplacing high level radioactive waste in stable, deep ocean sediments. It includes results of desktop studies, laboratory experiments and field tests conducted in deep water

  17. Proceedings of the 30. intersociety energy conversion engineering conference. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goswami, D.Y.; Kannberg, L.D.; Somasundaram, S.

    1995-01-01

    This conference provides a forum to present and discuss the engineering aspects of energy conversion, advanced and unconventional energy systems and devices, energy conversion and utilization, environmental issues and policy implications on research, development, and implementation of technologies. The solution for a sustainable future will lie in a mix of all of the available energy resources (renewable and non-renewable) and diverse energy conversion technologies that will maintain quality of life in a sustainable manner. The 129 papers in Volume 1 deal with aerospace power and are divided into the following topical sections: Aircraft power; Aerospace power systems; Batteries for aerospace power; Computer simulation; Power electronics; Power management; Space solar power; Space power systems; Space energy statics/dynamics; Space power--requirements and issues; Space Station power; Terrestrial applications of space power; Thermal management; Wireless transmission; Space nuclear power; Bimodal propulsion; Electric propulsion; Solar thermal; and Solar bimodal. All papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base

  18. Space reactor/organic Rankine conversion - A near-term state-of-the-art solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niggemann, R. E.; Lacey, D.

    The use of demonstrated reactor technology with organic Rankine cycle (ORC) power conversion can provide a low cost, minimal risk approach to reactor-powered electrical generation systems in the near term. Several reactor technologies, including zirconium hydride, EBR-II and LMFBR, have demonstrated long life and suitability for space application at the operating temperature required by an efficient ORC engine. While this approach would not replace the high temperature space reactor systems presently under development, it could be available in a nearer time frame at a low and predictable cost, allowing some missions requiring high power levels to be flown prior to the availability of advanced systems with lower specific mass. Although this system has relatively high efficiency, the heat rejection temperature is low, requiring a large radiator on the order of 3.4 sq m/kWe. Therefore, a deployable heat pipe radiator configuration will be required.

  19. Uncertainty Assessment of Equations of State with Application to an Organic Rankine Cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frutiger, Jerome; Bell, Ian; O’Connell, John P.

    2017-01-01

    Evaluations of equations of state (EoS) with application to process systems should include uncertainty analysis. A generic method is presented for determining such uncertainties from both the mathematical formand the data for obtaining EoS parameter values. The method is implemented for the Soave......–Redlich–Kwong (SRK), the Peng-Robinson (PR) cubic EoS, and the perturbed-chain statistical associating fluid theory (PCSAFT) EoS, as applied to an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) power system to recover heat from the exhaust gas of a marine diesel engine with cyclopentane as the working fluid. Uncertainties of the Eo......S input parameters, including their corresponding correlation structure, are quantified from the data using a bootstrap method. A Monte Carlo procedure propagates parameter input uncertainties onto the process output. Regressions have been made of the three cubic EoS parameters from both critical point...

  20. Analysis of vehicle exhaust waste heat recovery potential using a Rankine cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domingues, António; Santos, Helder; Costa, Mário

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluates the vehicle exhaust WHR (waste heat recovery) potential using a RC (Rankine cycle ). To this end, both a RC thermodynamic model and a heat exchanger model have been developed. Both models use as input, experimental data obtained from a vehicle tested on a chassis dynamometer. The thermodynamic analysis was performed for water, R123 and R245fa and revealed the advantage of using water as the working fluid in applications of thermal recovery from exhaust gases of vehicles equipped with a spark-ignition engine. Moreover, the heat exchanger effectiveness for the organic working fluids R123 and R245fa is higher than that for the water and, consequently, they can also be considered appropriate for use in vehicle WHR applications through RCs when the exhaust gas temperatures are relatively low. For an ideal heat exchanger, the simulations revealed increases in the internal combustion engine thermal and vehicle mechanical efficiencies of 1.4%–3.52% and 10.16%–15.95%, respectively, while for a shell and tube heat exchanger, the simulations showed an increase of 0.85%–1.2% in the thermal efficiency and an increase of 2.64%–6.96% in the mechanical efficiency for an evaporating pressure of 2 MPa. The results confirm the advantages of using the thermal energy contained in the vehicle exhaust gases through RCs. Furthermore, the present analysis demonstrates that improved evaporator designs and appropriate expander devices allowing for higher evaporating pressures are required to obtain the maximum WHR potential from vehicle RC systems. -- Highlights: ► This study evaluates the vehicle exhaust waste heat recovery potential using Rankine cycle systems. ► A thermodynamic model and a heat exchanger model were developed. ► Experimental data obtained in a vehicle tested on a chassis dynamometer was used as models input. ► Thermodynamic analysis was performed for water, R123 and R245fa. ► Results confirm advantages of using the thermal energy

  1. Experimental Engineering Section semiannual progress report, March 1-August 31, 1976. Volume 2. Biotechnology and environmental programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitt, Jr., W. W.; Mrochek, J. E. [comps.

    1978-03-01

    This volume contains the progress report of the biotechnology and environmental programs in the Experimental Engineering Section of the Chemical Technology Division. Research efforts in these programs during this report period have been in five areas: (1) environmental research; (2) centrifugal analyzer development; (3) advanced analytical systems development; (4) bioengineering research; and (5) bioengineering development. Summaries of these programmatic areas are contained in Volume I.

  2. Thermodynamic analysis and optimization of an integrated Rankine power cycle and nano-fluid based parabolic trough solar collector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toghyani, Somayeh; Baniasadi, Ehsan; Afshari, Ebrahim

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The performance of an integrated nano-fluid based solar Rankine cycle is studied. • The effect of solar intensity, ambient temperature, and volume fraction is evaluated. • The concept of Finite Time Thermodynamics is applied. • It is shown that CuO/oil nano-fluid has the best performance from exergy perspective. - Abstract: In this paper, the performance of an integrated Rankine power cycle with parabolic trough solar system and a thermal storage system is simulated based on four different nano-fluids in the solar collector system, namely CuO, SiO_2, TiO_2 and Al_2O_3. The effects of solar intensity, dead state temperature, and volume fraction of different nano-particles on the performance of the integrated cycle are studied using second law of thermodynamics. Also, the genetic algorithm is applied to optimize the net output power of the solar Rankine cycle. The solar thermal energy is stored in a two-tank system to improve the overall performance of the system when sunlight is not available. The concept of Finite Time Thermodynamics is applied for analyzing the performance of the solar collector and thermal energy storage system. This study reveals that by increasing the volume fraction of nano-particles, the exergy efficiency of the system increases. At higher dead state temperatures, the overall exergy efficiency is increased, and higher solar irradiation leads to considerable increase of the output power of the system. It is shown that among the selected nano-fluids, CuO/oil has the best performance from exergy perspective.

  3. Streaming Model Based Volume Ray Casting Implementation for Cell Broadband Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jusub Kim

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Interactive high quality volume rendering is becoming increasingly more important as the amount of more complex volumetric data steadily grows. While a number of volumetric rendering techniques have been widely used, ray casting has been recognized as an effective approach for generating high quality visualization. However, for most users, the use of ray casting has been limited to datasets that are very small because of its high demands on computational power and memory bandwidth. However the recent introduction of the Cell Broadband Engine (Cell B.E. processor, which consists of 9 heterogeneous cores designed to handle extremely demanding computations with large streams of data, provides an opportunity to put the ray casting into practical use. In this paper, we introduce an efficient parallel implementation of volume ray casting on the Cell B.E. The implementation is designed to take full advantage of the computational power and memory bandwidth of the Cell B.E. using an intricate orchestration of the ray casting computation on the available heterogeneous resources. Specifically, we introduce streaming model based schemes and techniques to efficiently implement acceleration techniques for ray casting on Cell B.E. In addition to ensuring effective SIMD utilization, our method provides two key benefits: there is no cost for empty space skipping and there is no memory bottleneck on moving volumetric data for processing. Our experimental results show that we can interactively render practical datasets on a single Cell B.E. processor.

  4. Consultation on the implementation of Engineering Recommendation ER G77. Volume 2: Subgroup report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornycroft, J.; Cotterell, M.; Crabtree, J.

    2002-07-01

    A Sub-Group report of a project whose main objective is to develop Engineering Recommendation ER G77/1 'Connection of Single-Phase Inverter Connected Photovoltaic (PV) Generating Equipment of up to 5kVA in Parallel with a Distribution Network Operators (DNOs) Distribution System' is presented. The paper specifically addresses the testing of inverters, including small integrated systems called 'AC Modules'. The report is linked to Volume 1 of report ETSU/P2/00400 'Research into Aspects of PV Inverters and Engineering Recommendation ER G77'. The sub-group's objectives were: (i) to develop a safety assessment and accreditation strategy for PV inverter topologies incorporating solid-state switched protection systems; (ii) develop strategies for safe and cost-effective installation of PV systems utilising AC Modules; (iii) consult with the main ER G77 Group on what to include in ER G77/1 and (iv) obtain independent views.

  5. Exploring Young Children's Understanding about the Concept of Volume through Engineering Design in a STEM Activity: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Do-Yong; Park, Mi-Hwa; Bates, Alan B.

    2018-01-01

    This case study explores young children's understanding and application of the concept of volume through the practices of engineering design in a STEM activity. STEM stands for science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. However, engineering stands out as a challenging area to implement. In addition, most early engineering education…

  6. Multi-objective optimization of organic Rankine cycles for waste heat recovery: Application in an offshore platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pierobon, Leonardo; Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Larsen, Ulrik

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims at finding the optimal design of MW-size organic Rankine cycles by employing the multi-objective optimization with the genetic algorithm as the optimizer. We consider three objective functions: thermal efficiency, total volume of the system and net present value. The optimization...... for acetone. Other promising working fluids are cyclohexane, hexane and isohexane. The present methodology can be utilized in waste heat recovery applications where a compromise between performance, compactness and economic revenue is required. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  7. Sizing models and performance analysis of volumetric expansion machines for waste heat recovery through organic Rankine cycles on passenger cars

    OpenAIRE

    Guillaume, Ludovic; Legros, Arnaud; Quoilin, Sylvain; Declaye, Sébastien; Lemort, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims at helping designers of waste heat recovery organic (or non-organic) Rankine cycles on internal combustion engines to best select the expander among the piston, scroll and screw machines, and the working fluids among R245fa, ethanol and water. The first part of the paper presents the technical constraints inherent to each machine through a state of the art of the three technologies. The second part of the paper deals with the modeling of such expanders. Finally, in the last pa...

  8. Integrated working fluid-thermodynamic cycle design of organic Rankine cycle power systems for waste heat recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cignitti, Stefano; Andreasen, Jesper Graa; Haglind, Fredrik

    2017-01-01

    recovery. Inthis paper, an organic Rankine cycle process and its pure working fluid are designed simultaneously forwaste heat recovery of the exhaust gas from a marine diesel engine. This approach can overcome designissues caused by the high sensitivity between the fluid and cycle design variables......Today, some established working fluids are being phased out due to new international regulations on theuse of environmentally harmful substances. With an ever-increasing cost to resources, industry wants toconverge on improved sustainability through resource recovery, and in particular waste heat...

  9. Combined Turbine and Cycle Optimization for Organic Rankine Cycle Power Systems—Part B: Application on a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo La Seta

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Organic Rankine cycle (ORC power systems have recently emerged as promising solutions for waste heat recovery in low- and medium-size power plants. Their performance and economic feasibility strongly depend on the expander. The design process and efficiency estimation are particularly challenging due to the peculiar physical properties of the working fluid and the gas-dynamic phenomena occurring in the machine. Unlike steam Rankine and Brayton engines, organic Rankine cycle expanders combine small enthalpy drops with large expansion ratios. These features yield turbine designs with few highly-loaded stages in supersonic flow regimes. Part A of this two-part paper has presented the implementation and validation of the simulation tool TURAX, which provides the optimal preliminary design of single-stage axial-flow turbines. The authors have also presented a sensitivity analysis on the decision variables affecting the turbine design. Part B of this two-part paper presents the first application of a design method where the thermodynamic cycle optimization is combined with calculations of the maximum expander performance using the mean-line design tool described in part A. The high computational cost of the turbine optimization is tackled by building a model which gives the optimal preliminary design of an axial-flow turbine as a function of the cycle conditions. This allows for estimating the optimal expander performance for each operating condition of interest. The test case is the preliminary design of an organic Rankine cycle turbogenerator to increase the overall energy efficiency of an offshore platform. For an increase in expander pressure ratio from 10 to 35, the results indicate up to 10% point reduction in expander performance. This corresponds to a relative reduction in net power output of 8.3% compared to the case when the turbine efficiency is assumed to be 80%. This work also demonstrates that this approach can support the plant designer

  10. U-Pb zircon age for a volcanic suite in the Rankin Inlet Group, Rankin Inlet map area, District of Keewatin, Northwest Territories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tella, S; Roddick, J C; VanBreemen, O [Geological Survey of Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    1997-12-31

    U-Pb zircon analyses from a felsic band within dominantly mafic volcanics of the Rankin Inlet Group yields a U-Pb upper concordia intercept age of 2663 {+-} 3 Ma. These supracrustals at Rankin Inlet appear to be 15-20 Ma younger than volcanics of the Kaminak Group in the Tavani area, 70 km to the southwest. The 2.68-2.66 Ga volcanism in the Tavani and Rankin Inlet areas coincided with the last stage of the main phase of magmatism in the Slave Structural Province. (author). 16 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs.

  11. U-Pb zircon age for a volcanic suite in the Rankin Inlet Group, Rankin Inlet map area, District of Keewatin, Northwest Territories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tella, S.; Roddick, J.C.; VanBreemen, O.

    1996-01-01

    U-Pb zircon analyses from a felsic band within dominantly mafic volcanics of the Rankin Inlet Group yields a U-Pb upper concordia intercept age of 2663 ± 3 Ma. These supracrustals at Rankin Inlet appear to be 15-20 Ma younger than volcanics of the Kaminak Group in the Tavani area, 70 km to the southwest. The 2.68-2.66 Ga volcanism in the Tavani and Rankin Inlet areas coincided with the last stage of the main phase of magmatism in the Slave Structural Province. (author). 16 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs

  12. Utilization of waste heat from GT-MHR for power generation in organic Rankine cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yari, Mortaza; Mahmoudi, S.M.S.

    2010-01-01

    The gas turbine-modular helium reactor (GT-MHR) is currently being developed by an international consortium. In this power plant, circulating helium that has to be compressed in a single or two successive stages cools the reactor core. For thermodynamic reasons, these compression stages require pre-cooling of the helium to about 26 deg. C through the use of intercooler and pre-cooler in which water is used to cool the helium. Considerable thermal energy (∼300 MWth) is thus dissipated in these components. This thermal energy is then rejected to a heat sink. For different designs, the temperature ranges of the helium in the intercooler and pre-cooler could be about 100 and 150 deg. C, respectively. These are ideal energy sources to be used in an organic Rankine cycles for power generation. This study examines the performance of a gas-cooled nuclear power plant with closed Brayton cycle (CBC) combined with two organic Rankine cycles (ORC). More attention was paid to the irreversibilities generated in the combined cycle. Individual models are developed for each component through applications of the first and second laws of thermodynamics. The effects of the turbine inlet temperature, compressor pressure ratio, evaporator temperature and temperature difference in the evaporator on the first- and second-law efficiencies and on the exergy destruction rate of the combined cycle were studied. Finally the combined cycle was optimized thermodynamically using the EES (Engineering Equation Solver) software. Based on identical operating conditions, a comparison between the GT-MHR/ORC and a simple GT-MHR cycle is also made. It was found that both the first- and second-law efficiencies of GT-MHR/ORC cycle are about 3%-points higher than that of the simple GT-MHR cycle. Also, the exergy destruction rate for GT-MHR/ORC cycle is about 5% lower than that of the GT-MHR cycle.

  13. Nuclear alkali metal Rankine power systems for space applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moyers, J.C.; Holcomb, R.S.

    1986-08-01

    Nucler power systems utilizing alkali metal Rankine power conversion cycles offer the potential for high efficiency, lightweight space power plants. Conceptual design studies are being carried out for both direct and indirect cycle systems for steady state space power applications. A computational model has been developed for calculating the performance, size, and weight of these systems over a wide range of design parameters. The model is described briefly and results from parametric design studies, with descriptions of typical point designs, are presented in this paper

  14. Nuclear alkali metal Rankine power systems for space applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moyers, J.C.; Holcomb, R.S.

    1986-01-01

    Nuclear power systems utilizing alkali metal Rankine power conversion cycles offer the potential for high efficiency, lightweight space power plants. Conceptual design studies are being carried out for both direct and indirect cycle systems for steady state space power applications. A computational model has been developed for calculating the performance, size, and weight of these systems over a wide range of design parameters. The model is described briefly and results from parametric design studies, with descriptions of typical point designs, are presented in this paper

  15. Status of the organic Rankine cycle for space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bland, T. J.; Lacey, P. D.; Sorensen, G. L.

    The Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) has been under continuous development and evaluation since the 1960s for both terrestrial and space power applications. Recent activities (Bland et al, 1987) have focused primarily on the Space Station's solar dynamic power system and Dynamic Isotope Power Systems (DIPS) applications. This paper addresses ORC-DIPS system level trade studies conducted during the past year and a half. Two companion papers (Bland and Pearson) present more detailed data on specific ORC-DIPS technology issues and testing conducted during the same period.

  16. Dynamic Simulation of an Organic Rankine Cycle—Detailed Model of a Kettle Boiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Pili

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Organic Rankine Cycles (ORCs are nowadays a valuable technology to produce electricity from low and medium temperature heat sources, e.g., in geothermal, biomass and waste heat recovery applications. Dynamic simulations can help improve the flexibility and operation of such plants, and guarantee a better economic performance. In this work, a dynamic model for a multi-pass kettle evaporator of a geothermal ORC power plant has been developed and its dynamics have been validated against measured data. The model combines the finite volume approach on the tube side and a two-volume cavity on the shell side. To validate the dynamic model, a positive and a negative step function in heat source flow rate is applied. The simulation model performed well in both cases. The liquid level appeared the most challenging quantity to simulate. A better agreement in temperature was achieved by increasing the volume flow rate of the geothermal brine by 2% over the entire simulation. Measurement errors, discrepancies in working fluid and thermal brine properties and uncertainties in heat transfer correlations can account for this. In the future, the entire geothermal power plant will be simulated, and suggestions to improve its dynamics and control by means of simulations will be provided.

  17. Proceedings of the 30. intersociety energy conversion engineering conference. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goswami, D.Y.; Kannberg, L.D.; Somasundaram, S.

    1995-01-01

    This conference provides a forum to present and discuss the engineering aspects of energy conversion, advanced and unconventional energy systems and devices, energy conversion and utilization, environmental issues and policy implications on research, development, and implementation of technologies. The solution for a sustainable future will lie in a mix of all of the available energy resources (renewable and non-renewable) and diverse energy conversion technologies that will maintain quality of life in a sustainable manner. The 100 papers in Volume 2 are divided into the following topical sections: (1) Environmental impact--Impacts and technologies; (2) Energy systems--Electric/hybrid vehicle technology; Transportation system assessments; Simulation and modeling of systems; Cogeneration and other energy systems; Thermal energy storage applications; Fluids and heat transfer topics; Demand-side management in buildings; and Energy management; (3) Policy impacts on energy--Developing countries and Global; (4) Renewable energy sources--Solar and geothermal power; Solar thermal power; Photovoltaics; Biomass power; Solar thermal; and Renewable energy--status and future. All papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base

  18. Orbit transfer vehicle advanced expander cycle engine point design study. Volume 2: Study results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diem, H. G.

    1980-01-01

    The design characteristics of the baseline engine configuration of the advanced expander cycle engine are described. Several aspects of engine optimization are considered which directly impact the design of the baseline thrust chamber. Four major areas of the power cycle optimization are emphasized: main turbine arrangement; cycle engine source; high pressure pump design; and boost pump drive.

  19. Orbit Transfer Vehicle (OTV) advanced expander cycle engine point design study. Volume 1: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    The objective of the study was to generate the system design of a performance-optimized, advanced LOX/hydrogen expander cycle space engine. The engine requirements are summarized, and the development and operational experience with the expander cycle RL10 engine were reviewed. The engine development program is outlined.

  20. 20th Annual Systems Engineering Conference. Volume 1, Monday-Tuesday

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-26

    20th Annual Systems Engineering Conference October 23-26, 2017 | Waterford at Springfield | Springfield, VA NDIA.org/systemsengineering...Conference Program SYSTEMS ENGINEERING CONFERENCE 2 Welcome to the NDIA Systems Engineering Conference On behalf of the National Defense Industrial...Association’s Systems Engineering Division, I would like to extend a very warm welcome to the 20th Annual Systems Engineering Conference. Yes, the 20th Annual

  1. Integrated biomass pyrolysis with organic Rankine cycle for power generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nur, T. B.; Syahputra, A. W.

    2018-02-01

    The growing interest on Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) application to produce electricity by utilizing biomass energy sources are increasingly due to its successfully used to generate power from waste heat available in industrial processes. Biomass pyrolysis is one of the thermochemical technologies for converting biomass into energy and chemical products consisting of liquid bio-oil, solid biochar, and pyrolytic gas. In the application, biomass pyrolysis can be divided into three main categories; slow, fast and flash pyrolysis mainly aiming at maximizing the products of bio-oil or biochar. The temperature of synthesis gas generated during processes can be used for Organic Rankine Cycle to generate power. The heat from synthesis gas during pyrolysis processes was transfer by thermal oil heater to evaporate ORC working fluid in the evaporator unit. In this study, the potential of the palm oil empty fruit bunch, palm oil shell, and tree bark have been used as fuel from biomass to generate electricity by integrated with ORC. The Syltherm-XLT thermal oil was used as the heat carrier from combustion burner, while R245fa was used as the working fluid for ORC system. Through Aspen Plus, this study analyses the influences on performance of main thermodynamic parameters, showing the possibilities of reaching an optimum performance for different working conditions that are characteristics of different design parameters.

  2. Solar thermal organic rankine cycle for micro-generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkahli, N. A.; Abdullah, H.; Darus, A. N.; Jalaludin, A. F.

    2012-06-01

    The conceptual design of an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) driven by solar thermal energy is developed for the decentralized production of electricity of up to 50 kW. Conventional Rankine Cycle uses water as the working fluid whereas ORC uses organic compound as the working fluid and it is particularly suitable for low temperature applications. The ORC and the solar collector will be sized according to the solar flux distribution in the Republic of Yemen for the required power output of 50 kW. This will be a micro power generation system that consists of two cycles, the solar thermal cycle that harness solar energy and the power cycle, which is the ORC that generates electricity. As for the solar thermal cycle, heat transfer fluid (HTF) circulates the cycle while absorbing thermal energy from the sun through a parabolic trough collector and then storing it in a thermal storage to increase system efficiency and maintains system operation during low radiation. The heat is then transferred to the organic fluid in the ORC via a heat exchanger. The organic fluids to be used and analyzed in the ORC are hydrocarbons R600a and R290.

  3. Energy-state formulation of lumped volume dynamic equations with application to a simplified free piston Stirling engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniele, C. J.; Lorenzo, C. F.

    1979-01-01

    Lumped volume dynamic equations are derived using an energy-state formulation. This technique requires that kinetic and potential energy state functions be written for the physical system being investigated. To account for losses in the system, a Rayleigh dissipation function is also formed. Using these functions, a Lagrangian is formed and using Lagrange's equation, the equations of motion for the system are derived. The results of the application of this technique to a lumped volume are used to derive a model for the free-piston Stirling engine. The model was simplified and programmed on an analog computer. Results are given comparing the model response with experimental data.

  4. Preliminary Design and Simulation of a Turbo Expander for Small Rated Power Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Capata

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC system, which operates with organic fluids, is one of the leading technologies for “waste energy recovery”. It works as a conventional Rankine Cycle but, as mentioned, instead of steam/water, an organic fluid is used. This change allows it to convert low temperature heat into electric energy where required. Large numbers of studies have been carried out to identify the most suitable fluids, system parameters and the various configurations. In the present market, most ORC systems are designed and manufactured for the recovery of thermal energy from various sources operating at “large power rating” (exhaust gas turbines, internal combustion engines, geothermal sources, large melting furnaces, biomass, solar, etc.; from which it is possible to produce a large amount of electric energy (30 kW ÷ 300 kW. Such applications for small nominal power sources, as well as the exhaust gases of internal combustion engines (car sedan or town, ships, etc. or small heat exchangers, are very limited. The few systems that have been designed and built for small scale applications, have, on the other hand, different types of expander (screw, scroll, etc.. These devices are not adapted for placement in small and restricted places like the interior of a conventional car. The aim of this work is to perform the preliminary design of a turbo-expander that meets diverse system requirements such as low pressure, small size and low mass flow rates. The expander must be adaptable to a small ORC system utilizing gas of a diesel engine or small gas turbine as thermal source to produce 2–10 kW of electricity. The temperature and pressure of the exhaust gases, in this case study (400–600 °C and a pressure of 2 bar, imposes a limit on the use of an organic fluid and on the net power that can be produced. In addition to water, fluids such as CO2, R134a and R245fa have been considered. Once the operating fluids has been chosen

  5. Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Waste Area Groups 1-7 and 10 Technology Logic Diagram. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Brien, M.C.; Meservey, R.H.; Little, M.; Ferguson, J.S.; Gilmore, M.C.

    1993-09-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Technology Logic Diagram (TLD) was developed to provide a decision support tool that relates Environmental Restoration (ER) and Waste Management (WM) problems at the INEL to potential technologies that can remediate these problems. The TLD identifies the research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation needed to develop these technologies to a state that allows technology transfer and application to an environmental restoration need. It is essential that follow-on engineering and system studies be conducted to build on the output of this project. These studies will begin by selecting the most promising technologies identified in this TLD and finding an optimum mix of technologies that will provide a socially acceptable balance between cost and risk to meet the site windows of opportunity. The TLD consists of three separate volumes: Volume I includes the purpose and scope of the TLD, a brief history of the INEL Waste Area Groups, and environmental problems they represent. A description of the TLD, definitions of terms, a description of the technology evaluation process, and a summary of each subelement, is presented. Volume II (this volume) describes the overall layout and development of the TLD in logic diagram format. This section addresses the environmental restoration of contaminated INEL sites. Specific INEL problem areas/contaminants are identified along with technology solutions, the status of the technologies, precise science and technology needs, and implementation requirements. Volume III provides the Technology Evaluation Data Sheets (TEDS) for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) activities that are referenced by a TEDS codenumber in Volume II. Each of these sheets represents a single logic trace across the TLD. These sheets contain more detail than provided for technologies in Volume II.

  6. Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Waste Area Groups 1-7 and 10 Technology Logic Diagram. Volume 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Brien, M.C.; Meservey, R.H.; Little, M.; Ferguson, J.S.; Gilmore, M.C.

    1993-09-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Technology Logic Diagram (TLD) was developed to provide a decision support tool that relates Environmental Restoration (ER) and Waste Management (WM) problems at the INEL to potential technologies that can remediate these problems. The TLD identifies the research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation needed to develop these technologies to a state that allows technology transfer and application to an environmental restoration need. It is essential that follow-on engineering and system studies be conducted to build on the output of this project. These studies will begin by selecting the most promising technologies identified in this TLD and finding an optimum mix of technologies that will provide a socially acceptable balance between cost and risk to meet the site windows of opportunity. The TLD consists of three separate volumes: Volume I includes the purpose and scope of the TLD, a brief history of the INEL Waste Area Groups, and environmental problems they represent. A description of the TLD, definitions of terms, a description of the technology evaluation process, and a summary of each subelement, is presented. Volume II describes the overall layout and development of the TLD in logic diagram format. This section addresses the environmental restoration of contaminated INEL sites. Volume III (this volume) provides the Technology Evaluation Data Sheets (TEDS) for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) activities that are reference by a TEDS code number in Volume II. Each of these sheets represents a single logic trace across the TLD. These sheets contain more detail than provided for technologies in Volume II. Data sheets are arranged alphanumerically by the TEDS code number in the upper right corner of each sheet.

  7. Effect of Surface Impulsive Thermal Loads on Fatigue Behavior of Constant Volume Propulsion Engine Combustor Materials

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhu, Dongming

    2004-01-01

    .... In this study, a simulated engine test rig has been established to evaluate thermal fatigue behavior of a candidate engine combustor material, Haynes 188, under superimposed CO2 laser surface impulsive thermal loads (30 to 100 Hz...

  8. Orbit Transfer Vehicle (OTV) advanced expander cycle engine point design study, volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    The engine requirements are emphasized and include: high specific impulse within a restricted installed length constraint, long life, multiple starts, different thrust levels, and man-rated reliability. The engine operating characteristics and the major component analytical design are summarized.

  9. Lightweight two-stroke cycle aircraft diesel engine technology enablement program, volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freen, P. D.; Berenyi, S. G.; Brouwers, A. P.; Moynihan, M. E.

    1985-01-01

    An experimental Single Cylinder Test Engine Program is conducted to confirm the analytically projected performance of a two-stroke cycle diesel engine for aircraft applications. Testing confirms the ability of a proposed 4-cylinder version of such an engine to reach the target power at altitude in a highly turbocharged configuration. The experimental program defines all necessary parameters to permit a design of a multicylinder engine for eventual flight applications.

  10. A Study of the Relationship Between the Practice of Civil Engineering and Student Courses: Volume 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, A. J. U.; Richardson, E.

    Australian civil engineers were surveyed for a study intended to establish a model for development based on a list of the basic stock of knowledge and techniques that need to be mastered by the graduate civil engineer. Following a brief introduction and summary, chapters 3-7 review the survey objectives, civil engineering definitions and…

  11. Reciprocating Expander for an Exhaust Heat Recovery Rankine Cycle for a Passenger Car Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osoko Shonda

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, on average, two thirds of the fuel energy consumed by an engine is wasted through the exhaust gases and the cooling liquid. The recovery of this energy would enable a substantial reduction in fuel consumption. One solution is to integrate a heat recovery system based on a steam Rankine cycle. The key component in such a system is the expander, which has a strong impact on the system’s performance. A survey of different expander technologies leads us to select the reciprocating expander as the most promising one for an automotive application. This paper therefore proposes a steady-state semi-empirical model of the expander device developed under the Engineering Equation Solver (EES environment. The ambient and mechanical losses as well as internal leakage were taken into account by the model. By exploiting the expander manufacturer’s data, all the parameters of the expander model were identified. The model computes the mass flow rate, the power output delivered and the exhaust enthalpy of the steam. The maximum deviation between predictions and measurement data is 4.7%. A performance study of the expander is carried out and shows that the isentropic efficiency is quite high and increases with the expander rotary speed. The mechanical efficiency depends on mechanical losses which are quite high, approximately 90%. The volumetric efficiency was also evaluated.

  12. Integration between a thermophotovoltaic generator and an Organic Rankine Cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Pascale, Andrea; Ferrari, Claudio; Melino, Francesco; Morini, Mirko; Pinelli, Michele

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A new energy system comprising a Thermo-Photo-Voltaic and Organic Rankine Cycle. ► An analytical model to calculate the performance of the system is introduced. ► The system shows promising results in terms of CHP performance. -- Abstract: The constant increase in energy need and the growing attention to the related environmental impact have given a boost to the development of new strategies in order to reduce the primary energy consumption and to improve its utilization. One of the possible strategies for achieving this aim is Combined Heat and Power (CHP) specially if coupled with the concept of on-site generation (also known as distributed generation). These approaches allow the reduction of fuel consumption and pollutant emissions and the increase of security in energy supply. This paper introduces the Thermophotovoltaic Organic Rankine Cycle Integrated System (TORCIS), an energy system integrating a ThermoPhotoVoltaic generator (TPV) and an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC). This study represents the start-up of a research program which involves three research teams from IMEM – National Research Council, ENDIF – University of Ferrara and DIEM – University of Bologna. The aim of this research is the complete definition and the pre-prototyping characterization of this system covering all the unresolved issues in this field. More specifically, TPV is a system to convert the radiation emitted from an artificial heat source (i.e. the combustion of fuel) into electrical energy by the use of photovoltaic cells. In this system, the produced electrical power is strictly connected to the thermal one as their ratio is almost constant and cannot be changed without severe loss in performance. The coupling between TPV and ORC allows this limitation to be overcome by the realization of a CHP system which can be regulated with a large degree of freedom changing the ratio between the produced electrical and thermal power. In this study a thermodynamic

  13. Improving the efficiency of heat supply systems on the basis of plants operating on organic Rankine cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomin, I. N.; Daminov, A. Z.; Sadykov, R. A.

    2017-11-01

    Results of experimental and analytical studies of the plant main element - plant turbomachine (turbo-expander) operating on organic Rankine cycle were obtained for facilities of the heat supply systems of small-scale power generation. At simultaneous mathematical modeling and experimental studies it was found that the best working medium to be used in the turbomachines of these plants is Freon R245fa which has the most suitable calorimetric properties to be used in the cycle. The mathematical model of gas flow in the turbomachine was developed. The main engineering dependencies to calculate the optimal design parameters of the turbomachine were obtained. The engineering problems of providing the minimum axial size of the turbomachine impeller were solved and the main design elements were unified.

  14. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE) Summer Faculty Fellowship Program, 1998. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannerot, Richard B. (Editor); Sickorez, Donn G. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    JSC NASA/ASEE Summer Faculty Fellowship Program was conducted by the University of Houston and JSC, under ASEE. The objectives of the program are to further the professional knowledge of qualified engineering and science members; stimulate an exchange of ideas between participants and NASA; enrich and refresh the research and teaching activities of participants; and contribute to the research objectives of the NASA Centers. Each faculty fellow spent at least 10 weeks at JSC engaged in a research project commensurate with his/her interests and background and worked in collaboration with a NASA/JSC colleague. This document is a compilation of the final reports on the fellows' research projects performed during the summer of 1998. Volume 1, current volume, contains the first reports, and volume 2 contains the remaining reports.

  15. Solar-powered Rankine heat pump for heating and cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, J.

    1978-01-01

    The design, operation and performance of a familyy of solar heating and cooling systems are discussed. The systems feature a reversible heat pump operating with R-11 as the working fluid and using a motor-driven centrifugal compressor. In the cooling mode, solar energy provides the heat source for a Rankine power loop. The system is operational with heat source temperatures ranging from 155 to 220 F; the estimated coefficient of performance is 0.7. In the heating mode, the vapor-cycle heat pump processes solar energy collected at low temperatures (40 to 80 F). The speed of the compressor can be adjusted so that the heat pump capacity matches the load, allowing a seasonal coefficient of performance of about 8 to be attained.

  16. RANKINE-HUGONIOT RELATIONS IN RELATIVISTIC COMBUSTION WAVES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Yang; Law, Chung K.

    2012-01-01

    As a foundational element describing relativistic reacting waves of relevance to astrophysical phenomena, the Rankine-Hugoniot relations classifying the various propagation modes of detonation and deflagration are analyzed in the relativistic regime, with the results properly degenerating to the non-relativistic and highly relativistic limits. The existence of negative-pressure downstream flows is noted for relativistic shocks, which could be of interest in the understanding of the nature of dark energy. Entropy analysis for relativistic shock waves is also performed for relativistic fluids with different equations of state (EoS), denoting the existence of rarefaction shocks in fluids with adiabatic index Γ < 1 in their EoS. The analysis further shows that weak detonations and strong deflagrations, which are rare phenomena in terrestrial environments, are expected to exist more commonly in astrophysical systems because of the various endothermic reactions present therein. Additional topics of relevance to astrophysical phenomena are also discussed.

  17. Organic Rankine Kilowatt Isotope Power System. Final phase I report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    On 1 August 1975 under Department of Energy Contract EN-77-C-02-4299, Sundstrand Energy Systems commenced development of a Kilowatt Isotope Power System (KIPS) directed toward satisfying the higher power requirements of satellites of the 1980s and beyond. The KIPS is a 238 PuO 2 fueled organic Rankine cycle turbine power system which will provide design output power in the range of 500 to 2000 W/sub (e)/ with a minimum of system changes. The principal objectives of the Phase 1 development effort were to: conceptually design a flight system; design a Ground Demonstration System (GDS) that is prototypic of the flight system in order to prove the feasibility of the flight system design; fabricate and assemble the GDS; and performance and endurance test the GDS using electric heaters in lieu of the isotope heat source. Results of the work performed under the Phase 1 contract to 1 July 1978 are presented

  18. Energy analysis of Organic Rankine Cycles for biomass applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Algieri Angelo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims at analysing the performances of Organic Rankine Cycles (ORCs adopted for the exploitation of the biomass resulting from the pruning residues in a 3000 hectares district in Southern Italy. A parametric energy analysis has been carried out to define the influence of the main plant operating conditions. To this purpose, both subcritical and transcritical power plants have been examined and saturated and superheated conditions at the turbine inlet have been imposed. Moreover, the effect of the working fluid, condensation temperature, and internal regeneration on system performances has been investigated. The results show that ORC plants represent an interesting and sustainable solution for decentralised and small-scale power production. Furthermore, the analysis highlights the significant impact of the maximum temperature and the noticeable effect of internal regeneration on the performances of the biomass power plants.

  19. Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) Engineering Test Facility (ETF) 200 MWe power plant. Conceptual Design Engineering Report (CDER). Volume 1: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Main elements of the design are identified and explained, and the rationale behind them was reviewed. Major systems and plant facilities are listed and discussed. Construction cost and schedule estimates are presented, and the engineering issues that should be reexamined are identified. The latest (1980-1981) information from the MHD technology program is integrated with the elements of a conventional steam power electric generating plant.

  20. Optimal integration of organic Rankine cycles with industrial processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hipólito-Valencia, Brígido J.; Rubio-Castro, Eusiel; Ponce-Ortega, José M.; Serna-González, Medardo; Nápoles-Rivera, Fabricio; El-Halwagi, Mahmoud M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • An optimization approach for heat integration is proposed. • A new general superstructure for heat integration is proposed. • Heat process streams are simultaneously integrated with an organic Rankine cycle. • Better results can be obtained respect to other previously reported methodologies. - Abstract: This paper presents a procedure for simultaneously handling the problem of optimal integration of regenerative organic Rankine cycles (ORCs) with overall processes. ORCs may allow the recovery of an important fraction of the low-temperature process excess heat (i.e., waste heat from industrial processes) in the form of mechanical energy. An integrated stagewise superstructure is proposed for representing the interconnections and interactions between the HEN and ORC for fixed data of process streams. Based on the integrated superstructure, the optimization problem is formulated as a mixed integer nonlinear programming problem to simultaneously account for the capital and operating costs including the revenue from the sale of the shaft power produced by the integrated system. The application of this method is illustrated with three example problems. Results show that the proposed procedure provides significantly better results than an earlier developed method for discovering optimal integrated systems using a sequential approach, due to the fact that it accounts simultaneously for the tradeoffs between the capital and operating costs as well as the sale of the produced energy. Also, the proposed method is an improvement over the previously reported methods for solving the synthesis problem of heat exchanger networks without the option of integration with an ORC (i.e., stand-alone heat exchanger networks)

  1. Theoretical thermodynamic analysis of Rankine power cycle with thermal driven pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakew, Amlaku Abie; Bolland, Olav; Ladam, Yves

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The work is focused on theoretical aspects of thermal driven pump (TDP) Rankine cycle. → The mechanical pump is replaced by thermal driven pump. → Important parameters of thermal driven pump Rankine cycle are investigated. → TDP Rankine cycle produce more power but it requires additional low grade heat. - Abstract: A new approach to improve the performance of supercritical carbon dioxide Rankine cycle which uses low temperature heat source is presented. The mechanical pump in conventional supercritical carbon dioxide Rankine cycle is replaced by thermal driven pump. The concept of thermal driven pump is to increase the pressure of a fluid in a closed container by supplying heat. A low grade heat source is used to increase the pressure of the fluid instead of a mechanical pump, this increase the net power output and avoid the need for mechanical pump which requires regular maintenance and operational cost. The thermal driven pump considered is a shell and tube heat exchanger where the working fluid is contained in the tube, a tube diameter of 5 mm is chosen to reduce the heating time. The net power output of the Rankine cycle with thermal driven pump is compared to that of Rankine cycle with mechanical pump and it is observed that the net power output is higher when low grade thermal energy is used to pressurize the working fluid. The thermal driven pump consumes additional heat at low temperature (60 o C) to pressurize the working fluid.

  2. Thermo-economic analysis and selection of working fluid for solar organic Rankine cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desai, Nishith B.; Bandyopadhyay, Santanu

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Concentrating solar power plant with organic Rankine cycle. • Thermo-economic analysis of solar organic Rankine cycle. • Performance evaluation for different working fluids. • Comparison diagram to select appropriate working fluid. - Graphical Abstract: Display Omitted - Abstract: Organic Rankine cycle (ORC), powered by line-focusing concentrating solar collectors (parabolic trough collector and linear Fresnel reflector), is a promising option for modular scale. ORC based power block, with dry working fluids, offers higher design and part-load efficiencies compared to steam Rankine cycle (SRC) in small-medium scale, with temperature sources up to 400 °C. However, the cost of ORC power block is higher compared to the SRC power block. Similarly, parabolic trough collector (PTC) system has higher optical efficiency and higher cost compared to linear Fresnel reflector (LFR) system. The thermodynamic efficiencies and power block costs also vary with working fluids of the Rankine cycle. In this paper, thermo-economic comparisons of organic Rankine and steam Rankine cycles powered by line-focusing concentrating solar collectors are reported. A simple selection methodology, based on thermo-economic analysis, and a comparison diagram for working fluids of power generating cycles are also proposed. Concentrating solar power plants with any collector technology and any power generating cycle can be compared using the proposed methodology.

  3. Lightweight two-stroke cycle aircraft diesel engine technology enablement program, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freen, P. D.; Berenyi, S. G.; Brouwers, A. P.; Moynihan, M. E.

    1985-01-01

    An experimental Single Cylinder Test Engine Program is conducted to confirm the analytically projected performance of a two-stroke cycle diesel engine for aircraft applications. The test engine delivered 78kW indicated power from 1007cc displacement, operating at 3500 RPM on Schnuerle loop scavenged two-stroke cycle. Testing confirms the ability of a proposed 4-cylinder version of such an engine to reach the target power at altitude, in a highly turbocharged configuration. The experimental program defines all necessary parameters to permit design of a multicylinder engine for eventual flight applications; including injection system requirement, turbocharging, heat rejection, breathing, scavenging, and structural requirements. The multicylinder engine concept is configured to operate with an augmented turbocharger, but with no primary scavenge blower. The test program is oriented to provide a balanced turbocharger compressor to turbine power balance without an auxiliary scavenging system. Engine cylinder heat rejection to the ambient air has been significantly reduced and the minimum overall turbocharger efficiency required is within the range of commercially available turbochargers. Analytical studies and finite element modeling is made of insulated configurations of the engines - including both ceramic and metallic versions. A second generation test engine is designed based on current test results.

  4. Potential application of Rankine and He-Brayton cycles to sodium fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Pichel, G.D.; Linares, J.I.; Herranz, L.E.; Moratilla, B.Y.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → This paper has been focused on thermal efficiency of several Rankine and Brayton cycles for SFR. → A sub-critical Rankine configuration could reach a thermal efficiency higher than 43%. → It could be increased to almost 45% using super-critical configurations. → Brayton cycles thermal performance can be enhanced by adding a super-critical organic fluid Rankine cycle. → The moderate coolant temperature at the reactor makes Brayton configurations have poorer. - Abstract: Traditionally all the demos and/or prototypes of the sodium fast reactor (SFR) technology with power output, have used a steam sub-critical Rankine cycle. Sustainability requirement of Gen. IV reactors recommends exploring alternate power cycle configurations capable of reaching high thermal efficiency. By adopting the anticipated working parameters of next SFRs, this paper investigates the potential of some Rankine and He-Brayton layouts to reach thermal efficiencies as high as feasible, so that they could become alternates for SFR reactor balance of plant. The assessment has encompassed from sub-critical to super-critical Rankine cycles and combined cycles based on He-Brayton gas cycles of different complexity coupled to Organic Rankine Cycles. The sub-critical Rankine configuration reached at thermal efficiency higher than 43%, which has been shown to be a superior performance than any of the He-Brayton configurations analyzed. By adopting a super-critical Rankine arrangement, thermal efficiency would increase less than 1.5%. In short, according to the present study a sub-critical layout seems to be the most promising configuration for all those upcoming prototypes to be operated in the short term (10-15 years). The potential of super-critical CO 2 -Brayton cycles should be explored for future SFRs to be deployed in a longer run.

  5. Analysis of hot spots in boilers of organic Rankine cycle units during transient operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benato, A.; Kærn, Martin Ryhl; Pierobon, Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the investigation of critical dynamic events causing thermochemical decompositionof the working fluid in organic Rankine cycle power systems. The case study is the plant of an oiland gas platform where one of the three gas turbines is combined with an organic Rankine cycle...... and fluid decomposition. It is demonstrated thatthe use of a spray attemperator can mitigate the problems of local overheating of the organic compound.As a practical consequence, this paper provides guidelines for safe and reliable operation of organicRankine cycle power modules on offshore installations....

  6. FLUOROETHERS AS A WORKING FLUIDS FOR LOW TEMPERATURE ORGANIC RANKINE CYCLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artemenko S.V

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Hydrofluoroethers as a new class of working fluids for the organic Rankine cycle have been considered to utilize the low-potential waste heat. Temperature range 300…400 K was chosen to provide energy conversion of waste heat from fuel cells. The direct assessment of the efficiency criteria for the Rankine cycle via artificial neural networks (ANN was used. To create ANN the critical parameters of substance and normal boiling temperature as input were chosen. The forecast of efficiency criteria for the Rankine cycle as output parameter which reproduces the coefficient of performance with high accuracy and without thermodynamic property calculations was presented.

  7. Evaluation of economic and technical efficiency of diesel engines operation on the basis of volume combustion rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    І. О. Берестовой

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with a new approach to evaluation of complex efficiency of diesel engines. Traditionally, cylinder’s capacity, rotation frequency, average efficient pressure inside cylinder, piston’s stroke, average piston’s velocity, fuel specific consumption and other indices are used as generalizing criteria, characterizing diesel engine’s efficiency, but they do not reflect interrelation between engine’s complex efficiency and a set of economic, mass-dimensional, operational and ecological efficiency. The approach applied in the article makes it possible to reveal the existing and modify the existing methods of solving the problem of improving diesel engine’s efficiency with due regard to interrelation of the parameters, characterizing efficiency of their operation. Statistic analyses were carried out, on the basis of which an assumption regarding the existence of interrelation between specific fuel consumption and the analyzed engine’s parameters was made. Processing of statistical data for various analyzed functions of diesel engines helped offer a function, illustrating the link between volume combustion rate, piston’s area and nominal theoretical specific fuel consumption. Interrelation between volume combustion rate, nominal parameters of diesel operation and efficiency indices, obtained by processing statistical data of more than 500 models of diesels of different series was evaluated, the main feature of it being a mathematical trend. The analysis of the obtained function makes it possible to establish an interrelation between economic efficiency of a diesel, its main index being specific fuel consumption and volume combustion rate and design peculiarities

  8. Annular tidal regenerator engine for nuclear circulatory support systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagen, K.G.; Ruggles, A.E.; Fam, S.S.; Torti, V.A.

    1975-01-01

    In order to simplify the configuration of the tidal regenerator engine nuclear-powered circulatory support system, thereby drastically reducing its size and improving the intrinsic reliability, the engine has been redesigned. This redesign focuses on allowing power to be extracted at the low temperature end of the engine utilizing a piston-cylinder arrangement wherein all of the necessary heat transfer processes occur in the annular gap between the piston and cylinder. In all other respects the engine retains its basic characteristics as a hybrid between a Stirling engine and a Rankine engine. A significant advantage of the new arrangement is the ability to raise the superheat temperature limit from 650 0 F to over 900 0 F. This has yielded an increase in engine efficiency from 10 percent to 14 percent, and further increases are anticipated by utilizing an expansion and/or a binary version of the engine. The implantable system volume has been reduced by a factor of three and orientation insensitivity with respect to gravity has been demonstrated. Many system components have already demonstrated endurances of several thousand hours

  9. Simulation of the parabolic trough solar energy generation system with Organic Rankine Cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Ya-Ling; Mei, Dan-Hua; Tao, Wen-Quan; Yang, Wei-Wei; Liu, Huai-Liang

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A parabolic trough solar power generation system with ORC is numerically simulated. ► The effects of key parameters on collector field and system performance are studied. ► Collector heat loss increases with small absorber and glass tube interlayer pressure. ► Heat collecting efficiency increases with initial increase of absorber HTO flow rate. ► Recommended thermal storage system volumes are different in year four typical days. -- Abstract: A model for a typical parabolic trough solar thermal power generation system with Organic Rankine Cycle (PT-SEGS–ORC) was built within the transient energy simulation package TRNSYS, which is formed by integrating several submodels for the trough collector system, the single-tank thermal storage system, the auxiliary power system and the heat-electricity conversion system. With this model, the effects of several key parameters, including the interlayer pressure between the absorber tube and the glass tube (p inter ), the flow rate of high temperature oil in the absorber tube (v), solar radiation intensity (I dn ) and incidence angle (θ), on the performance of the parabolic trough collector field based on the meteorological data of Xi’an city were examined. The study shows that the heat loss of the solar collector (q loss ) increases sharply with the increase in p inter at beginning and then reaches to an approximately constant value. The variation of heat collecting efficiency (η hc ) with v is quite similar to the variation of q loss with p inter . However, I dn and θ exhibit opposite effect on η hc . In addition, it is found that the optimal volume of the thermal storage system is sensitively dependent on the solar radiation intensity. The optimal volumes are 100, 150, 50, and 0 m 3 for spring equinox, summer solstice, autumnal equinox and winter solstice, respectively.

  10. Nuclear Engine System Simulation (NESS). Volume 1: Program user's guide. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelaccio, D.G.; Scheil, C.M.; Petrosky, L.J.

    1993-03-01

    A Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) engine system design analysis tool is required to support current and future Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) propulsion and vehicle design studies. Currently available NTP engine design models are those developed during the NERVA program in the 1960's and early 1970's and are highly unique to that design or are modifications of current liquid propulsion system design models. To date, NTP engine-based liquid design models lack integrated design of key NTP engine design features in the areas of reactor, shielding, multi-propellant capability, and multi-redundant pump feed fuel systems. Additionally, since the SEI effort is in the initial development stage, a robust, verified NTP analysis design tool could be of great use to the community. This effort developed an NTP engine system design analysis program (tool), known as the Nuclear Engine System Simulation (NESS) program, to support ongoing and future engine system and stage design study efforts. In this effort, Science Applications International Corporation's (SAIC) NTP version of the Expanded Liquid Engine Simulation (ELES) program was modified extensively to include Westinghouse Electric Corporation's near-term solid-core reactor design model. The ELES program has extensive capability to conduct preliminary system design analysis of liquid rocket systems and vehicles. The program is modular in nature and is versatile in terms of modeling state-of-the-art component and system options as discussed. The Westinghouse reactor design model, which was integrated in the NESS program, is based on the near-term solid-core ENABLER NTP reactor design concept. This program is now capable of accurately modeling (characterizing) a complete near-term solid-core NTP engine system in great detail, for a number of design options, in an efficient manner

  11. Magnetohydrodynamics MHD Engineering Test Facility ETF 200 MWe power plant. Conceptual Design Engineering Report CDER. Volume 3: Costs and schedules

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    The estimated plant capital cost for a coal fired 200 MWE electric generating plant with open cycle magnetohydrodynamics is divided into principal accounts based on Federal Energy Regulatory Commision account structure. Each principal account is defined and its estimated cost subdivided into identifiable and major equipment systems. The cost data sources for compiling the estimates, cost parameters, allotments, assumptions, and contingencies, are discussed. Uncertainties associated with developing the costs are quantified to show the confidence level acquired. Guidelines established in preparing the estimated costs are included. Based on an overall milestone schedule related to conventional power plant scheduling experience and starting procurement of MHD components during the preliminary design phase there is a 6 1/2-year construction period. The duration of the project from start to commercial operation is 79 months. The engineering phase of the project is 4 1/2 years; the construction duration following the start of the man power block is 37 months.

  12. Evaluation of Working Fluids for Organic Rankine Cycle Based on Exergy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiawan, D.; Subrata, I. D. M.; Purwanto, Y. A.; Tambunan, A. H.

    2018-05-01

    One of the crucial aspects to determine the performance of Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) is the selection of appropriate working fluids. This paper describes the simulative performance of several organic fluid and water as working fluid of an ORC based on exergy analysis with a heat source from waste heat recovery. The simulation was conducted by using Engineering Equation Solver (EES). The effect of several parameters and thermodynamic properties of working fluid was analyzed, and part of them was used as variables for the simulation in order to determine their sensitivity to the exergy efficiency changes. The results of this study showed that water is not appropriate to be used as working fluid at temperature lower than 130 °C, because the expansion process falls in saturated area. It was also found that Benzene had the highest exergy efficiency, i.e. about 10.49%, among the dry type working fluid. The increasing turbine inlet temperature did not lead to the increase of exergy efficiency when using organic working fluids with critical temperature near heat source temperature. Meanwhile, exergy efficiency decreasing linearly with the increasing condenser inlet temperature. In addition, it was found that working fluid with high latent heat of vaporization and specific heat exert in high exergy efficiency.

  13. Evaluation of external heat loss from a small-scale expander used in organic Rankine cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jing; Pei Gang; Li Yunzhu; Ji Jie

    2011-01-01

    With the scaling down of the Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC), the engine shaft power is not only determined by the enthalpy drop in the expansion process but also the external heat loss from the expander. Theoretical and experimental support in evaluating small-scale expander heat loss is rare. This paper presents a quantitative study on the convection, radiation, and conduction heat transfer from a kW-scale expander. A mathematical model is built and validated. The results show that the external radiative or convective heat loss coefficient was about 3.2 or 7.0 W/K.m 2 when the ORC operated around 100 o C. Radiative and convective heat loss coefficients increased as the expander operation temperature increased. Conductive heat loss due to the connection between the expander and the support accounted for a large proportion of the total heat loss. The fitting relationships between heat loss and mean temperature difference were established. It is suggested that low conductivity material be embodied in the support of expander. Mattress insulation for compact expander could be eliminated when the operation temperature is around 100 o C. - Highlights: → A close examination of external heat loss from a small expander is presented. → Theoretical analysis and experimental test were conducted. → The established formulas can be applied to other small ORC expanders. → The results are useful in further research of small-scale ORC.

  14. TIBER II/ETR final design report: Volume 2, 3.0 Engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.D.

    1987-09-01

    This paper discusses the design of the TIBER II Tokamak. This particular volume discusses: mechanical systems; electrical systems; shield nuclear analysis and tritium issues; reactor building facilities; and tritium systems

  15. Fusion Engineering Device. Volume V. Technology R and D requirements for construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-10-01

    This volume covers the following areas: (1) nuclear systems, (2) auxiliary heating, (3) magnet systems, (4) remote maintenance, (5) fueling, (6) diagnostics, instrumentation, information and control, and (7) safety and environment

  16. Recent research trends in organic Rankine cycle technology: A bibliometric approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Imran, Muhammad; Haglind, Fredrik; Asim, Muhammad

    2018-01-01

    This work describes the contribution of researchers around the world in the field of the organic Rankine cycle in the period 2000–2016. A bibliometric approach was applied to analyze the scientific publications in the field using the Scopus Elsevier database, together with Science Citation Index...... of active countries, institutes, authors, and journals in the organic Rankine cycle technology field. From 2000 to 2016, there were 2120 articles published by 3443 authors from 997 research institutes scattered over 71 countries. The total number of citations and impact factor are 36,739 and 4597...... are the leading countries in organic Rankine cycle research and account for 64% of the total number of publications. The core research activities in the field are mainly focused on applications of the organic Rankine cycle technology, working fluids selection/performance, cycle architecture, and design...

  17. Prospects of the use of nanofluids as working fluids for organic Rankine cycle power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mondejar, Maria E.; Andreasen, Jesper G.; Regidor, Maria

    2017-01-01

    The search of novel working fluids for organic Rankine cycle power systems is driven by the recent regulations imposing additional phase-out schedules for substances with adverse environmental characteristics. Recently, nanofluids (i.e. colloidal suspensions of nanoparticles in fluids) have been...... suggested as potential working fluids for organic Rankine cycle power systems due to their enhanced thermal properties, potentially giving advantages with respect to the design of the components and the cycle performance. Nevertheless, a number of challenges concerning the use of nanofluids must...... the prospects of using nanofluids as working fluids for organic Rankine cycle power systems. As a preliminary study, nanofluids consisting of a homogenous and stable mixture of different nanoparticles types and a selected organic fluid are simulated on a case study organic Rankine cycle unit for waste heat...

  18. Profiles of Automotive Suppliers Industries--Engineered Mechanical Components and Systems : Volume II, Appendices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    The profile describes and analyzes that segment of the automotive supplier industry which provides engineered mechanical components/assemblies/systems to the prime auto manufacturers. It presents an overview of the role and structure of this industry...

  19. Profiles of Automotive Suppliers Industries--Engineered Mechanical Components and Systems : Volume I, Text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    This profile describes and analyzes that segment of the automotive supplier industry which provides engineered mechanical components/assemblies/systems to the prime auto manufacturers. It presents an overview of the role and structure of this industr...

  20. High-Level Waste Salt Disposition Systems Engineering Team Final Report, Volumes I, II, and III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piccolo, S.F.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes the process used and results obtained by the High Level Waste Salt Disposition Systems Engineering Team to select a primary and backup alternative salt disposition method for the Savannah River Site

  1. Wildland fire management. Volume 1: Prevention methods and analysis. [systems engineering approach to California fire problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissenberger, S. (Editor)

    1973-01-01

    A systems engineering approach is reported for the problem of reducing the number and severity of California's wildlife fires. Prevention methodologies are reviewed and cost benefit models are developed for making preignition decisions.

  2. ICPP calcined solids storage facility closure study. Volume III: Engineering design files

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    The following information was calculated to support cost estimates and radiation exposure calculations for closure activities at the Calcined Solids Storage Facility (CSSF). Within the estimate, volumes were calculated to determine the required amount of grout to be used during closure activities. The remaining calcine on the bin walls, supports, piping, and floor was also calculated to approximate the remaining residual calcine volumes at different stages of the removal process. The estimates for remaining calcine and vault void volume are higher than what would actually be experienced in the field, but are necessary for bounding purposes. The residual calcine in the bins may be higher than was is experienced in the field as it was assumed that the entire bin volume is full of calcine before removal activities commence. The vault void volumes are higher as the vault roof beam volumes were neglected. The estimations that follow should be considered rough order of magnitude, due to the time constraints as dictated by the project`s scope of work. Should more accurate numbers be required, a new analysis would be necessary.

  3. ICPP calcined solids storage facility closure study. Volume III: Engineering design files

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-02-01

    The following information was calculated to support cost estimates and radiation exposure calculations for closure activities at the Calcined Solids Storage Facility (CSSF). Within the estimate, volumes were calculated to determine the required amount of grout to be used during closure activities. The remaining calcine on the bin walls, supports, piping, and floor was also calculated to approximate the remaining residual calcine volumes at different stages of the removal process. The estimates for remaining calcine and vault void volume are higher than what would actually be experienced in the field, but are necessary for bounding purposes. The residual calcine in the bins may be higher than was is experienced in the field as it was assumed that the entire bin volume is full of calcine before removal activities commence. The vault void volumes are higher as the vault roof beam volumes were neglected. The estimations that follow should be considered rough order of magnitude, due to the time constraints as dictated by the project's scope of work. Should more accurate numbers be required, a new analysis would be necessary

  4. Broadband Fan Noise Prediction System for Turbofan Engines. Volume 1; Setup_BFaNS User's Manual and Developer's Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Bruce L.

    2010-01-01

    Pratt & Whitney has developed a Broadband Fan Noise Prediction System (BFaNS) for turbofan engines. This system computes the noise generated by turbulence impinging on the leading edges of the fan and fan exit guide vane, and noise generated by boundary-layer turbulence passing over the fan trailing edge. BFaNS has been validated on three fan rigs that were tested during the NASA Advanced Subsonic Technology Program (AST). The predicted noise spectra agreed well with measured data. The predicted effects of fan speed, vane count, and vane sweep also agreed well with measurements. The noise prediction system consists of two computer programs: Setup_BFaNS and BFaNS. Setup_BFaNS converts user-specified geometry and flow-field information into a BFaNS input file. From this input file, BFaNS computes the inlet and aft broadband sound power spectra generated by the fan and FEGV. The output file from BFaNS contains the inlet, aft and total sound power spectra from each noise source. This report is the first volume of a three-volume set documenting the Broadband Fan Noise Prediction System: Volume 1: Setup_BFaNS User s Manual and Developer s Guide; Volume 2: BFaNS User's Manual and Developer s Guide; and Volume 3: Validation and Test Cases. The present volume begins with an overview of the Broadband Fan Noise Prediction System, followed by step-by-step instructions for installing and running Setup_BFaNS. It concludes with technical documentation of the Setup_BFaNS computer program.

  5. Broadband Fan Noise Prediction System for Turbofan Engines. Volume 2; BFaNS User's Manual and Developer's Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Bruce L.

    2010-01-01

    Pratt & Whitney has developed a Broadband Fan Noise Prediction System (BFaNS) for turbofan engines. This system computes the noise generated by turbulence impinging on the leading edges of the fan and fan exit guide vane, and noise generated by boundary-layer turbulence passing over the fan trailing edge. BFaNS has been validated on three fan rigs that were tested during the NASA Advanced Subsonic Technology Program (AST). The predicted noise spectra agreed well with measured data. The predicted effects of fan speed, vane count, and vane sweep also agreed well with measurements. The noise prediction system consists of two computer programs: Setup_BFaNS and BFaNS. Setup_BFaNS converts user-specified geometry and flow-field information into a BFaNS input file. From this input file, BFaNS computes the inlet and aft broadband sound power spectra generated by the fan and FEGV. The output file from BFaNS contains the inlet, aft and total sound power spectra from each noise source. This report is the second volume of a three-volume set documenting the Broadband Fan Noise Prediction System: Volume 1: Setup_BFaNS User s Manual and Developer s Guide; Volume 2: BFaNS User s Manual and Developer s Guide; and Volume 3: Validation and Test Cases. The present volume begins with an overview of the Broadband Fan Noise Prediction System, followed by step-by-step instructions for installing and running BFaNS. It concludes with technical documentation of the BFaNS computer program.

  6. Reliability Analysis of Large Commercial Vessel Engine Room Automation Systems. Volume 1. Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-11-01

    analyzing the engine room automiations systems on two steam vessels and one diesel vessel, conducting a criticality evaluation, pre- paring...of automated engine room systems,° the effect of *. maintenance was also to be considered, as was the human inter- face and backup. Besides being...designed to replace the human element, the systems periorm more efficiently than the human watchstander. But as with any system, there is no such thing as

  7. Orbit Transfer Vehicle (OTV) advanced expander cycle engine point design study. Volume 2: Study results

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Detailed computer models of the engine were developed to predict both the steady state and transient operation of the engine system. Mechanical design layout drawings were prepared for the following components: thrust chamber and nozzle; extendible nozzle actuating mechanism and seal; LOX turbopump and boost pump; hydrogen turbopump and boost pump; and the propellant control valves. The necessary heat transfer, stress, fluid flow, dynamic, and performance analyses were performed to support the mechanical design.

  8. Standard technical specifications: Combustion engineering plants. Volume 3, Revision 1: Bases (Sections 3.4--3.9)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    This report documents the results of the combined effort of the NRC and the industry to produce improved Standard Technical Specifications (STS), Revision 1 for Combustion Engineering Plants. The changes reflected in Revision 1 resulted from the experience gained from license amendment applications to convert to these improved STS or to adopt partial improvements to existing technical specifications. This NUREG is the result of extensive public technical meetings and discussions between the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff and various nuclear power plant licensees, Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) Owners Groups, NSSS vendors, and the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI). The improved STS were developed based on the criteria in the Final Commission Policy Statement on Technical Specifications Improvements for Nuclear Power Reactors, dated July 22, 1993. The improved STS will be used as the basis for individual nuclear power plant licensees to develop improved plant-specific technical specifications. This report contains three volumes. Volume 1 contains the Specifications for all chapters and sections of the improved STS. Volume 2 contains the Bases for Chapters 2.0 and 3.0, and Sections 3.1--3.3 of the improved STS Volume 3 contains the Bases for Sections 3.4--3.9 of the improved STS

  9. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE) summer faculty fellowship program, 1986, Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mcinnis, B.; Goldstein, S.

    1987-06-01

    The Johnson Space Center (JSC) NASA/ASEE Summer Faculty Fellowship Program was conducted by the University of Houston. The basic objectives of the program are: (1) to further the professional knowledge of qualified engineering and science faculty members; (2) to stimulate an exchange of ideas between participants and NASA; (3) to enrich and refresh the research and teaching objectives of participants' institutions; and (4) to contribute to the research objectives of the NASA Centers. Each faculty fellow spent ten weeks at JSC engaged in a research project commensurate with his interests and background and worked in collaboration with a NASA/JSC colleague. Volume 1 contains sections 1 through 14

  10. Study on the Characteristics of Expander Power Output Used for Offsetting Pumping Work Consumption in Organic Rankine Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ting Wu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The circulation pump in an organic Rankine cycle (ORC increases the pressure of the liquid working fluid from low condensing pressure to high evaporating pressure, and the expander utilizes the pressure difference to generate work. A portion of the expander output power is used to offset the consumed pumping work, and the rest of the expander power is exactly the net work produced by the ORC system. Because of the relatively great theoretical pumping work and very low efficiency of the circulation pump reported in previous papers, the characteristics of the expander power used for offsetting the pumping work need serious consideration. In particular, the present work examines those characteristics. It is found that the characteristics of the expander power used for offsetting the pumping work are satisfactory only under the condition that the working fluid absorbs sufficient heat in the evaporator and its specific volume at the evaporator outlet is larger than or equal to a threshold value.

  11. The record of electrical and communication engineering conversazione Tohoku University Volume 63, No. 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-05-01

    English abstracts contained are from papers authored by the research staff of the Research Institute of Electrical Communication and the departments of Electrical Engineering, Electrical Communications, Electronic Engineering, and Information Engineering, Tohoku University, which originally appeared in scientific journals in 1994. The abstracts are organized under the following disciplines: electromagnetic theory; physics; fundamental theory of information; communication theory and systems; signal and image processing; systems control; computers; artificial intelligence; recording; acoustics and speech; ultrasonic electronics; antenna, propagation, and transmission; optoelectronics and optical communications; quantum electronics; superconducting materials and applications; magnetic materials and magnetics; semiconductors; electronic materials and parts; electronic devices and integrated circuits; electronic circuits; medical electronics and bionics; measurements and applied electronics; electric power; and miscellaneous.

  12. Rankin-Selberg methods for closed string amplitudes

    CERN Document Server

    Pioline, Boris

    2014-01-01

    After integrating over supermoduli and vertex operator positions, scattering amplitudes in superstring theory at genus $h\\leq 3$ are reduced to an integral of a Siegel modular function of degree $h$ on a fundamental domain of the Siegel upper half plane. A direct computation is in general unwieldy, but becomes feasible if the integrand can be expressed as a sum over images under a suitable subgroup of the Siegel modular group: if so, the integration domain can be extended to a simpler domain at the expense of keeping a single term in each orbit -- a technique known as the Rankin-Selberg method. Motivated by applications to BPS-saturated amplitudes, Angelantonj, Florakis and I have applied this technique to one-loop modular integrals where the integrand is the product of a Siegel-Narain theta function times a weakly, almost holomorphic modular form. I survey our main results, and take some steps in extending this method to genus greater than one.

  13. Quasi-dynamic model for an organic Rankine cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bamgbopa, Musbaudeen O.; Uzgoren, Eray

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Study presents a simplified transient modeling approach for an ORC under variable heat input. • The ORC model is presented as a synthesis of its models of its sub-components. • The model is compared to benchmark numerical simulations and experimental data at different stages. - Abstract: When considering solar based thermal energy input to an organic Rankine cycle (ORC), intermittent nature of the heat input does not only adversely affect the power output but also it may prevent ORC to operate under steady state conditions. In order to identify reliability and efficiency of such systems, this paper presents a simplified transient modeling approach for an ORC operating under variable heat input. The approach considers that response of the system to heat input variations is mainly dictated by the evaporator. Consequently, overall system is assembled using dynamic models for the heat exchangers (evaporator and condenser) and static models of the pump and the expander. In addition, pressure drop within heat exchangers is neglected. The model is compared to benchmark numerical and experimental data showing that the underlying assumptions are reasonable for cases where thermal input varies in time. Furthermore, the model is studied on another configuration and mass flow rates of both the working fluid and hot water and hot water’s inlet temperature to the ORC unit are shown to have direct influence on the system’s response

  14. Performance analysis of organic Rankine cycles using different working fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Qidi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Low-grade heat from renewable or waste energy sources can be effectively recovered to generate power by an organic Rankine cycle (ORC in which the working fluid has an important impact on its performance. The thermodynamic processes of ORCs using different types of organic fluids were analyzed in this paper. The relationships between the ORC’s performance parameters (including evaporation pressure, condensing pressure, outlet temperature of hot fluid, net power, thermal efficiency, exergy efficiency, total cycle irreversible loss, and total heat-recovery efficiency and the critical temperatures of organic fluids were established based on the property of the hot fluid through the evaporator in a specific working condition, and then were verified at varied evaporation temperatures and inlet temperatures of the hot fluid. Here we find that the performance parameters vary monotonically with the critical temperatures of organic fluids. The values of the performance parameters of the ORC using wet fluids are distributed more dispersedly with the critical temperatures, compared with those of using dry/isentropic fluids. The inlet temperature of the hot fluid affects the relative distribution of the exergy efficiency, whereas the evaporation temperature only has an impact on the performance parameters using wet fluid.

  15. Bottoming micro-Rankine cycles for micro-gas turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Invernizzi, Costante; Iora, Paolo; Silva, Paolo

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates the possibility of enhancing the performances of micro-gas turbines through the addition of a bottoming organic Rankine cycle which recovers the thermal power of the exhaust gases typically available in the range of 250-300 o C. The ORC cycles are particularly suitable for the recovery of heat from sources at variable temperatures, and for the generation of medium to small electric power. With reference to a micro-gas turbine with a size of about 100 kWe, a combined configuration could increase the net electric power by about 1/3, yielding an increase of the electrical efficiency of up to 40%. A specific analysis of the characteristics of different classes of working fluids is carried out in order to define a procedure to select the most appropriate fluid, capable of satisfying both environmental (ozone depletion potential, global warming potential) and technical (flammability, toxicity, fluid critical temperature and molecular complexity) concerns. Afterwards, a thermodynamic analysis is performed to ascertain the most favourable cycle thermodynamic conditions, from the point of view of heat recovery. Furthermore, a preliminary design of the ORC turbine (number of stages, outer diameter and rotational speed) is carried out

  16. Efficiency optimization potential in supercritical Organic Rankine Cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuster, A.; Aumann, R. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen Institute of Energy Systems Boltzmannstr. 15, 85748 Garching (Germany); Karellas, S. [National Technical University of Athens Laboratory of Steam Boilers and Thermal Plants Heroon Polytechniou 9, 15780 Athens (Greece)

    2010-02-15

    Nowadays, the use of Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) in decentralised applications is linked with the fact that this process allows the use of low temperature heat sources and offers an advantageous efficiency in small-scale concepts. Many state-of-the-art and innovative applications can successfully use the ORC process. In this process, according to the heat source level, special attention must be drawn to the choice of the appropriate working fluid, which is a factor that affects the thermal and exergetic efficiency of the cycle. The investigation of supercritical parameters of various working fluids in ORC applications seems to bring promising results concerning the efficiency of the application. This paper presents the results from a simulation of the ORC and the optimization potential of the process when using supercritical parameters. In order to optimize the process, various working fluids are considered and compared concerning their thermal efficiency and the usable percentage of heat. The reduction of exergy losses is discussed based on the need of surplus heat exchanger surface. (author)

  17. Thermodynamic analysis of a simple Organic Rankine Cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javanshir, Alireza; Sarunac, Nenad

    2017-01-01

    Thermodynamic performance (thermal efficiency and net power output) of a simple subcritical and supercritical Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) was analyzed over a range of operating conditions for a number of working fluids to determine the effect of operating parameters on cycle performance and select the best working fluid. The results show that for an ORC operating with a dry working fluid, thermal efficiency decreases with an increase in the turbine inlet temperature (TIT) due to the convergence of the isobaric lines with temperature. The results also show that efficiency of an ORC operating with isentropic working fluids is higher compared to the dry and wet fluids, and working fluids with higher specific heat capacity provide higher cycle net power output. New expressions for thermal efficiency of a subcritical and supercritical simple ORC are proposed. For a subcritical ORC without the superheat, thermal efficiency is expressed as a function of the Figure of Merit (FOM), while for the superheated subcritical ORC thermal efficiency is given in terms of the modified Jacob number. For the supercritical ORC, thermal efficiency is expressed as a function of dimensionless temperature. - Highlights: • Analyzing thermodynamic performance of ORC over a range of operating conditions. • Selecting the best working fluid suitable for a simple ORC. • Proposing new expressions for thermal efficiency of a simple ORC.

  18. Performance of an organic Rankine cycle with multicomponent mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaitanya Prasad, G.S.; Suresh Kumar, C.; Srinivasa Murthy, S.; Venkatarathnam, G.

    2015-01-01

    There is a renewed interest in ORC (organic Rankine cycle) systems for power generation using solar thermal energy. Many authors have studied the performance of ORC with different pure fluids as well as binary zeotropic mixtures in order to improve the thermal efficiency. It has not been well appreciated that zeotropic mixtures can also be used to reduce the size and cost of an ORC system. The main objective of this paper is to present mixtures that help reduce the cost while maintaining high thermal efficiency. The proposed method also allows us to design an optimum mixture for a given expander. This new approach is particularly beneficial for designing mixtures for small ORC systems operating with solar thermal energy. A number of examples are presented to demonstrate this concept. - Highlights: • The performance of an ORC operating with different zeotropic multicomponent mixtures is presented. • A thermodynamic method is proposed for the design of multicomponent mixtures for ORC power plants. • High exergy efficiency as well as high volumetric expander work can be achieved with appropriate mixtures. • The method allows design of mixtures that can be used with off-the-shelf positive displacement expanders

  19. Photonic-band-gap engineering for volume plasmon polaritons in multiscale multilayer hyperbolic metamaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhukovsky, Sergei; Orlov, Alexey A.; Babicheva, Viktoriia E.

    2014-01-01

    ) on a larger, wavelength scale, the propagation of volume plasmon polaritons in the resulting multiscale hyperbolic metamaterials is subject to photonic-band-gap phenomena. A great degree of control over such plasmons can be exerted by varying the superstructure geometry. When this geometry is periodic, stop......, fractal Cantor-like multiscale metamaterials are found to exhibit characteristic self-similar spectral signatures in the volume plasmonic band. Multiscale hyperbolic metamaterials are shown to be a promising platform for large-wave-vector bulk plasmonic waves, whether they are considered for use as a kind...

  20. Fusion Engineering Device. Volume IV. Physics basis and physics R and D requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-10-01

    This volume covers the following issues: (1) confinement scaling, (2) cross section shaping, limits on B and q, (3) ion cyclotron heating, (4) neutral beam heating, (5) mechanical pump limiter, (6) poloidal divertor, and (7) non-divertor active impurity control

  1. Erratum: Erratum to Central European Journal of Engineering, Volume 4, Issue 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, M. Ajay; Srikanth, N. V.

    2014-06-01

    Paper by M. Ajay Kumar, N. V. Srikanth, et al. "An adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system controlled space cector pulse width modulation based HVDC light transmission system under AC fault conditions" in Volume 4, Issue 1, 27-38/March 2014 doi: 10.2478/s13531-013-0143-4 contains an error in the title. The correct title is presented below

  2. Engineering Drawing Practices - Volume I of II: Aerospace and Ground Support Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwindt, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    This manual establishes the essential requirements and reference documents for the preparation and revision of digital product definition data sets prepared for or by NASA at KSC. This volume is only applicable to KSC in-house programs/projects. These requirements do not apply to the preparation of illustrations, artwork, or figures in technical publications.

  3. CrossTalk: The Journal of Defense Software Engineering. Volume 19, Number 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    8>. 7. Wallace, Delores R. Practical Soft- ware Reliability Modeling. Proc. of the 26th Annual NASA Goddard Software Engineering Workshop, Nov. 2001...STAR WARS TO STAR TREK To Request Back Issues on Topics Not Listed Above, Please Contact <stsc. customerservice@hill.af.mil>. About the Authors Kym

  4. CRITERIA POLLUTANT EMISSIONS FROM INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES IN THE NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report summarizes emission factors for criteria pollutants (NOx, CO, CH4, C2H6, THC, NMHC, and NMEHC) from stationary internal combustion engines and gas turbines used in the natural gas industry. The emission factors were calculated from test results from five test campaigns...

  5. CrossTalk. The Journal of Defense Software Engineering. Volume 25, Number 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    both editorial oversight and technical review of the journal. CrossTalk’s mission is to encour- age the engineering development of software to improve...sending e-mail. (Robertson, 2011) Mobile Workers and related products - Telecommuting -- the home office - Pressure to provide tools and access to

  6. Waste heat recovery from the exhaust of a diesel generator using Rankine Cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossain, Shekh Nisar; Bari, Saiful

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Diesel engine exhaust contains 40% energy which can be used to produce extra power. • Extra 11% power gained with optimized heat exchangers using water as working fluid. • As a result brake specific fuel consumption improved by 12%. • Parallel arrangement of heat exchangers showed better performance than series. • Optimum working fluid pressure varies with the engine power. - Abstract: Exhaust heat from diesel engines can be an important heat source to provide additional power using a separate Rankine Cycle (RC). In this research, experiments were conducted to measure the available exhaust heat from a 40 kW diesel generator using two ‘off-the-shelf’ heat exchangers. The effectiveness of the heat exchangers using water as the working fluid was found to be 0.44 which seems to be lower than a standard one. This lower performance of the existing heat exchangers indicates the necessity of optimization of the design of the heat exchangers for this particular application. With the available experimental data, computer simulations were carried out to optimize the design of the heat exchangers. Two heat exchangers were used to generate super-heated steam to expand in the turbine using two orientations: series and parallel. The optimized heat exchangers were then used to estimate additional power considering actual turbine isentropic efficiency. The proposed heat exchanger was able to produce 11% additional power using water as the working fluid at a pressure of 15 bar at rated engine load. This additional power resulted into 12% improvement in brake-specific fuel consumption (bsfc). The effects of the working fluid pressure were also investigated to maximize the additional power production. The pressure was limited to 15 bar which was constrained by the exhaust gas temperature. However, higher pressure is possible for higher exhaust gas temperatures from higher capacity engines. This would yield more additional power with further improvements in

  7. Propulsion and Power Supplies for Unmanned Vehicles. Volume I. Engines for Small Propeller-Driven RPVS

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-11-01

    AVAILABILIT -K-NSA~imA ON BACK CCVERAp o 1!icrW2I Appowed ior PDitdt160 r/AGARD-AR- -A--/f Volume I 1’ NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY ORGANIZATION ADVISORY GROUP FOR...fishing surveillance-type activity, and many others. These applications include operation over densely populated areas ana over water . The RPV’s for these

  8. Acoustic Database for Turbofan Engine Core-Noise Sources. I; Volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Grant

    2015-01-01

    In this program, a database of dynamic temperature and dynamic pressure measurements were acquired inside the core of a TECH977 turbofan engine to support investigations of indirect combustion noise. Dynamic temperature and pressure measurements were recorded for engine gas dynamics up to temperatures of 3100 degrees Fahrenheit and transient responses as high as 1000 hertz. These measurements were made at the entrance of the high pressure turbine (HPT) and at the entrance and exit of the low pressure turbine (LPT). Measurements were made at two circumferential clocking positions. In the combustor and inter-turbine duct (ITD), measurements were made at two axial locations to enable the exploration of time delays. The dynamic temperature measurements were made using dual thin-wire thermocouple probes. The dynamic pressure measurements were made using semi-infinite probes. Prior to the engine test, a series of bench, oven, and combustor rig tests were conducted to characterize the performance of the dual wire temperature probes and to define and characterize the data acquisition systems. A measurement solution for acquiring dynamic temperature and pressure data on the engine was defined. A suite of hardware modifications were designed to incorporate the dynamic temperature and pressure instrumentation into the TECH977 engine. In particular, a probe actuation system was developed to protect the delicate temperature probes during engine startup and transients in order to maximize sensor life. A set of temperature probes was procured and the TECH977 engine was assembled with the suite of new and modified hardware. The engine was tested at four steady state operating speeds, with repeats. Dynamic pressure and temperature data were acquired at each condition for at least one minute. At the two highest power settings, temperature data could not be obtained at the forward probe locations since the mean temperatures exceeded the capability of the probes. The temperature data

  9. 3D laser scanning in civil engineering - measurements of volume of earth masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawłowicz, J. A.; Szafranko, E.; Harasymiuk, J.

    2018-03-01

    Considering the constant drive to improve and accelerate building processes as well as possible applications of the latest technological achievements in civil engineering practice, the author has proposed to use 3D laser scanning in the construction industry. For example, data achieved through a 3D laser scanning process will facilitate making inventories of parameters of buildings in a very short time, will enable one to check irregularly shaped masses of earth, heavy and practically impossible to calculate precisely using traditional techniques. The other part of the research, performed in the laboratory, consisted of measurements of a model mound of earth. All the measurements were made with a 3D SkanStation C10 laser scanner manufactured by Leica. The data were analyzed. The results suggest that there are great opportunities for using the laser scanning technology in civil engineering

  10. Waste Receiving and Processing Facility, Module 1: Volume 5, Engineering studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-03-01

    The WRAP facility at Hanford will retrieve, process, certify transuranic, mixed, and low level radioactive wastes for disposal/either on-site or at the WIPP. The Conceptual Design Report for the Waste Receiving And Processing Facility, Module 1 (WRAP 1), established the technical benchmark. The UE ampersand C Engineering Proposal/Work Plan proposed twenty Evaluation/Optimization Engineering Studies to evaluate design alternatives and critically examine functional performance requirements prior to commencement of Preliminary Design. Of these twenty studies, one has been eliminated as unnecessary (The Use of Scintered Metal Filters) due mainly to the lack of National Standards and to the fact that standard HEPA type filters are totally adequate for WRAP application. This report presents an executive summary of the remaining nineteen studies

  11. Flat-plate solar array project. Volume 6: Engineering sciences and reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, R. G., Jr.; Smokler, M. I.

    1986-01-01

    The Flat-Plate Solar Array (FSA) Project activities directed at developing the engineering technology base required to achieve modules that meet the functional, safety, and reliability requirements of large scale terrestrial photovoltaic systems applications are reported. These activities included: (1) development of functional, safety, and reliability requirements for such applications; (2) development of the engineering analytical approaches, test techniques, and design solutions required to meet the requirements; (3) synthesis and procurement of candidate designs for test and evaluation; and (4) performance of extensive testing, evaluation, and failure analysis of define design shortfalls and, thus, areas requiring additional research and development. A summary of the approach and technical outcome of these activities are provided along with a complete bibliography of the published documentation covering the detailed accomplishments and technologies developed.

  12. Proceedings of Symposium on Energy Engineering in the 21st Century (SEE 2000). Volume One

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-13

    Regimes of Gliding Arc Discharges 96 O. Mutaf-Yardimci, A. V. Saveliev , A. A. Fridman andL. A. Kennedy A8. Multicomponent Gas-Liquid Flows with...GLIDING ARC DISCHARGES Ozlem Mutaf-Yardimci, Alexei V. Saveliev Alexander A. Fridman, Lawrence A. Kennedy Department of Mechanical Engineering...2. Czeraichowski, Pur & Applied Chem.66,1301 (1994) 3. A. A.Fridman, S. Nester, L. A. Kennedy, A. Saveliev , O. Mutaf-Yardimci, J. Prog. Energy and

  13. CrossTalk. The Journal of Defense Software Engineering. Volume 14, Number 5, May 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-05-01

    superb leadership, and adequate funding to fuel the program engine. A good start requires disciplined requirements generation and plotting the right course...multimedia products. • Self -contained, closed products. • Desk-top and portable computers. • Information documentation and support. The entire regulation...machines prefer certain e-mail clients. The Oracle sales force lives on laptops and prefers different e-mail clients. Some employees telecommute and

  14. Sodium--NaK engineering handbook. Volume IV. Sodium pumps, valves, piping, and auxiliary equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foust, O.J.

    1978-01-01

    The handbook is useful for designers in the Liquid Metals Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) program and by the engineering and scientific community performing investigation and experimentation requiring high-temperature Na and NaK technology. Data are presented for pumps, bearings and seals, valves, vessels and piping, and auxiliary equipment including vapor traps, freeze plugs, fuel-channel flow regulators, antivortexing devices, and miscellaneous mechanical elements. Reactor materials are also discussed

  15. Environmental resource document for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irving, J.S.

    1993-07-01

    This document contains information related to the environmental characterization of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The INEL is a major US Department of Energy facility in southeastern Idaho dedicated to nuclear research, waste management, environmental restoration, and other activities related to the development of technology. Environmental information covered in this document includes land, air, water, and ecological resources; socioeconomic characteristics and land use; and cultural, aesthetic, and scenic resources.

  16. Environmental resource document for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irving, J.S.

    1993-07-01

    This document contains information related to the environmental characterization of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The INEL is a major US Department of Energy facility in southeastern Idaho dedicated to nuclear research, waste management, environmental restoration, and other activities related to the development of technology. Environmental information covered in this document includes land, air, water, and ecological resources; socioeconomic characteristics and land use; and cultural, aesthetic, and scenic resources.

  17. ATS-6 engineering performance report. Volume 2: Orbit and attitude controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wales, R. O. (Editor)

    1981-01-01

    Attitude control is reviewed, encompassing the attitude control subsystem, spacecraft attitude precision pointing and slewing adaptive control experiment, and RF interferometer experiment. The spacecraft propulsion system (SPS) is discussed, including subsystem, SPS design description and validation, orbital operations and performance, in-orbit anomalies and contingency operations, and the cesium bombardment ion engine experiment. Thruster failure due to plugging of the propellant feed passages, a major cause for mission termination, are considered among the critical generic failures on the satellite.

  18. Grouting applications in civil engineering. Volume I and II. [800 references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Einstein, H.H.; Barvenik, M.J.

    1975-01-01

    A comprehensive description of grouting applications in civil engineering is presented that can serve as a basis for the selection of grouting methods in the borehole sealing problem. The breadth and depth of the study was assured by conducting the main part of the review, the collection and evaluation of information, without specifically considering the borehole sealing problem (but naturally incorporating any aspect of civil engineering applications that could be of potential use). Grouting is very much an art and not a science. In most cases, it is a trial and error procedure where an inexpensive method is initially tried and then a more expensive one is used until the desired results are obtained. Once a desired effect is obtained, it is difficult to credit any one procedure with the success because the results are due to the summation of all the methods used. In many cases, the method that proves successful reflects a small abnormality in the ground or structure rather than its overall characteristics. Hence, successful grouting relies heavily on good engineering judgement and experience, and not on a basic set of standard correlations or equations. 800 references. (JRD)

  19. Bulletin of the Division of Electrical Engineering, 1987-1988, volume 3, number 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-05-01

    A report is provided on the activities of the Division of Electrical Engineering of the National Research Council of Canada. The Division engages in the development of standards and test procedures, and undertakes applied research in support of Canadian industry, government departments, and universities. Technology transfer and collaborative research continue to grow in importance as focuses of Division activities. The Division is comprised of three sections: the Laboratory for Biomedical Engineering, the Laboratory for Electromagnetic and Power Engineering, and the Laboratory for Intelligent Systems. An agreement has been reached to commercially exploit the realtime multiprocessor operating system Harmony. The dielectrics group has made contract research agreements with industry from both Canada and the United States. The possibility of employing a new advanced laser vision camera, which can be mounted on a robot arm in a variety of industrial applications is being explored. Potential short-term spinoffs related to intelligent wheelchairs are being sought as part of the new interlaboratory program which has as its long-term objective the development of a mobile robot for health care applications. A program in applied artificial intelligence has been established. Initiatives in collaboration with outside groups include proposals for major institutes in areas ranging from police and security research to rehabilitation research, programs to enhance Canadian industrial competence working with the Canadian Manufacturers' Association and other government departments, and approaches to the utilization of existing facilities which will make them more valuable without significant financial expenditures.

  20. Organic Rankine cycle for power recovery of exhaust flue gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Cong; Du, Xiaoze; Yang, Lijun; Yang, Yongping

    2015-01-01

    To study the effects of different working fluids on the performance of organic Rankine cycle (ORC), three working fluids, a mixture that matches with heat source, a mixture that matches with heat sink and a pure working fluid, are selected in this paper. Thermodynamic models were built in Matlab together with REFPROP, with which, the physical properties of the selected working fluids can be acquired. Heat source of the ORC system is the exhaust flue gas of boiler in a 240 MW pulverized coal-fired power plant. Some indicators such as thermal efficiency, inlet temperature of expander, superheat degree, mass flow, volumetric flow, and exergy destruction distribution, as well as the influence of recuperator are studied. The analytical results show that the mixture that matches with heat sink has the greatest efficiency and the mixture that matches with heat source has the lowest superheat degree. The rate of heat exchanged in recuperator to that in evaporator has a maximum value with evaporating pressure. There exists no optimal working fluid for all indicators (thermal efficiency, heat exchanger area, mass flow and volumetric flow etc.). An appropriate working fluid should be chosen by taking both investment cost and power generating benefits into account. The cost-benefit ratio of the proposed ORC plant was evaluated either. - Highlights: • Three types of working fluids are selected for ORC using exhaust flue gas. • The mixture that matches with heat sink has the greatest efficiency. • The mixture that matches with heat source has the lowest superheat degree. • There does not exist a working fluid that satisfies all the indicators

  1. Impact of organic Rankine cycle system installation on light duty vehicle considering both positive and negative aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usman, Muhammad; Imran, Muhammad; Yang, Youngmin; Park, Byung-Sik

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Positive and negative effects of waste heat recovery unit on vehicle were studied. • Organic Rankine cycle based power system for waste heat recovery. • Relationship of ORC unit weight and power was developed. • Impact of added weight, Part load operation and back pressure are presented. • Power enhancement of 5.82% of engine when positive & negative effects considered. - Abstract: This paper presents the analysis of organic Rankine cycle (ORC) based waste heat recovery system. Both the positive and negative effects of ORC system installation on a light duty vehicle were evaluated. Engine exhaust data for a light duty vehicle was used to design an ORC based system. Optimum cycle design suggests that ORC system installation is feasible. Results presented that for the vehicle operation at 100 km/h, engine power can be enhanced by 10.88% which is 5.92 kW of additional power and at the lower speed of 23.5 km/h, the engine power enhancement was 2.34%. ORC component weight data from manufacturers were used to estimate the weight of the designed system. The performance decline due to added weight is calculated. Effects of added back pressure and performance decline due to the part-load operation of ORC unit were also calculated and an overall effect of waste heat recovery system was evaluated. The results then suggested that maximum power enhancement is 5.82% at the vehicle speed of 100 km/h instead of previously mentioned 10.88% can be achieved if negative effects are also considered. Furthermore, it was concluded that at speeds lower than 48 km/h the waste heat recovery system was not beneficial at all and low-speed operation was in fact not preferable as it results in additional power demand from the engine by 6.39% at 23.5 km/h. The vehicles for city driving cycles are not recommended for ORC installation. Another finding revealed that if exhaust heat recovery heat exchanger is designed for maximum heat recovery, at part load operation, the

  2. Advanced Concepts of Naval Engineering Maintenance Training. Volume 2. Appendix F

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-05-01

    maintenance instruction, the Hagan Automatic Boiler Control (ABC) course. These job requirements also included the tasks, skills, and knowledges for all...Pressure 1 3/4 NAVTRAEQÜIPCEN 74-C-0151-1 TABLE OF CONTENTS VOLUME II OF II APPENDIX F Page Hagan Automatic Boiler Controls Systems (FAS) 6...a c a ■* w ■H u 0 M « s? u ’• B n J-riH 3 o c 0 hhO a a o -i •H -I 0 -H 9J ■ a a oi « C -a u <rl « vi) •a - 8 ai >> u u

  3. Energetic and financial investigation of a stand-alone solar-thermal Organic Rankine Cycle power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tzivanidis, Christos; Bellos, Evangelos; Antonopoulos, Kimon A.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A stand-alone solar driven Organic Rankine Cycle is optimized parametrically. • The system is optimized energetically and financially. • Nine working fluids are tested with cyclohexane to be the most suitable. • A collecting area of 25,000 m"2 parabolic trough collectors is the optimum solution. • The maximum IRR is 13.46% and the payback period is about 9 years. - Abstract: The use of solar thermal energy for electricity production is a clean and sustainable way to cover the increasing energy needs of our society. The most mature technology for capturing solar energy in high temperature levels is the parabolic trough collectors (PTC). In this study, an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) coupled with PTC is analyzed parametrically in order to be optimized financially and energetically. The first step is the thermodynamic investigation of the ORC by using various working fluids. The second step is the energetic and financial investigation of the total system which includes the solar field, the storage tank and the ORC module. By testing many combinations of collecting areas and storage tank volumes, finally cyclohexane proved to be the most suitable working fluid for producing 1 MW_e_l with PTC. Specifically, in the optimum situation a solar field of 25,000 m"2 with storage tank of about 300 m"3 leads to a payback period of 9 years and to an internal rate of return (IRR) equal to 13.46%. Moreover, an economic comparison for different commercial collectors is presented, with Eurotrough ET-150 being the financially optimum solution for this case study.

  4. Preliminary analysis of compound systems based on high temperature fuel cell, gas turbine and Organic Rankine Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, D.; Muñoz de Escalona, J. M.; Monje, B.; Chacartegui, R.; Sánchez, T.

    This article presents a novel proposal for complex hybrid systems comprising high temperature fuel cells and thermal engines. In this case, the system is composed by a molten carbonate fuel cell with cascaded hot air turbine and Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC), a layout that is based on subsequent waste heat recovery for additional power production. The work will credit that it is possible to achieve 60% efficiency even if the fuel cell operates at atmospheric pressure. The first part of the analysis focuses on selecting the working fluid of the Organic Rankine Cycle. After a thermodynamic optimisation, toluene turns out to be the most efficient fluid in terms of cycle performance. However, it is also detected that the performance of the heat recovery vapour generator is equally important, what makes R245fa be the most interesting fluid due to its balanced thermal and HRVG efficiencies that yield the highest global bottoming cycle efficiency. When this fluid is employed in the compound system, conservative operating conditions permit achieving 60% global system efficiency, therefore accomplishing the initial objective set up in the work. A simultaneous optimisation of gas turbine (pressure ratio) and ORC (live vapour pressure) is then presented, to check if the previous results are improved or if the fluid of choice must be replaced. Eventually, even if system performance improves for some fluids, it is concluded that (i) R245fa is the most efficient fluid and (ii) the operating conditions considered in the previous analysis are still valid. The work concludes with an assessment about safety-related aspects of using hydrocarbons in the system. Flammability is studied, showing that R245fa is the most interesting fluid also in this regard due to its inert behaviour, as opposed to the other fluids under consideration all of which are highly flammable.

  5. Stand-Alone Solar Organic Rankine Cycle Water Pumping System and Its Economic Viability in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Baral

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The current study presents the concept of a stand-alone solar organic Rankine cycle (ORC water pumping system for rural Nepalese areas. Experimental results for this technology are presented based on a prototype. The economic viability of the system was assessed based on solar radiation data of different Nepalese geographic locations. The mechanical power produced by the solar ORC is coupled with a water pumping system for various applications, such as drinking and irrigation. The thermal efficiency of the system was found to be 8% with an operating temperature of 120 °C. The hot water produced by the unit has a temperature of 40 °C. Economic assessment was done for 1-kW and 5-kW solar ORC water pumping systems. These systems use different types of solar collectors: a parabolic trough collector (PTC and an evacuated tube collector (ETC. The economic analysis showed that the costs of water are $2.47/m3 (highest and $1.86/m3 (lowest for the 1-kW system and a 150-m pumping head. In addition, the cost of water is reduced when the size of the system is increased and the pumping head is reduced. The minimum volumes of water pumped are 2190 m3 and 11,100 m3 yearly for 1 kW and 5 kW, respectively. The payback period is eight years with a profitability index of 1.6. The system is highly feasible and promising in the context of Nepal.

  6. Thermo-Economic Performance Analysis of a Regenerative Superheating Organic Rankine Cycle for Waste Heat Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhonghe Han

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC is a promising form of technology for recovering low-grade waste heat. In this study, a regenerative ORC system is established to recover the waste flue gas of 160 °C. Focusing on thermodynamic and economic performance while simultaneously considering the limitations of volume flow ratio (VFR and the effect of superheat, working fluid selection and parameter optimization have been investigated. The optimization of the evaporation temperature is carried out by analyzing the variation of net power output and specific investment cost (SIC. Then, the net power output, specific net power output, total exergy destruction rate, VFR, total capital cost, and levelized electricity cost (LEC are selected as criteria, and a fuzzy multi-criteria evaluation method is adopted to select a more suitable working fluid and determine the optimal degree of superheat. In addition, the preheating coefficient, latent heat coefficient, superheating coefficient, and internal heat coefficient were proposed to explore the effect of working fluid critical temperature on thermal efficiency. Research studies demonstrate that there is an optimal evaporation temperature, maximizing net power output and minimizing the SIC. Isohexane and butane have greater specific net power output due to greater latent heat. A suitable degree of superheat is not only conducive to improving the working capacity of working fluids, but also reduces the VFR, total capital cost, SIC, and LEC for different working fluids. Thus, the system’s thermodynamic and economic performance—as well as the operational stability—are improved. Among the six working fluids, butane exhibits the best comprehensive performance, and its optimal evaporation temperature and degree of superheat are 100 °C and 5 °C, respectively.

  7. Thermodynamic Optimization of a Geothermal- Based Organic Rankine Cycle System Using an Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Özkaraca

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Geothermal energy is a renewable form of energy, however due to misuse, processing and management issues, it is necessary to use the resource more efficiently. To increase energy efficiency, energy systems engineers carry out careful energy control studies and offer alternative solutions. With this aim, this study was conducted to improve the performance of a real operating air-cooled organic Rankine cycle binary geothermal power plant (GPP and its components in the aspects of thermodynamic modeling, exergy analysis and optimization processes. In-depth information is obtained about the exergy (maximum work a system can make, exergy losses and destruction at the power plant and its components. Thus the performance of the power plant may be predicted with reasonable accuracy and better understanding is gained for the physical process to be used in improving the performance of the power plant. The results of the exergy analysis show that total exergy production rate and exergy efficiency of the GPP are 21 MW and 14.52%, respectively, after removing parasitic loads. The highest amount of exergy destruction occurs, respectively, in condenser 2, vaporizer HH2, condenser 1, pumps 1 and 2 as components requiring priority performance improvement. To maximize the system exergy efficiency, the artificial bee colony (ABC is applied to the model that simulates the actual GPP. Under all the optimization conditions, the maximum exergy efficiency for the GPP and its components is obtained. Two of these conditions such as Case 4 related to the turbine and Case 12 related to the condenser have the best performance. As a result, the ABC optimization method provides better quality information than exergy analysis. Based on the guidance of this study, the performance of power plants based on geothermal energy and other energy resources may be improved.

  8. Bottoming organic Rankine cycle for a small scale gas turbine: A comparison of different solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clemente, Stefano; Micheli, Diego; Reini, Mauro; Taccani, Rodolfo

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The ORC bottoming section for a commercial micro gas turbine has been studied. ► Six different organic working fluids have been considered and compared. ► The preliminary designs of both axial and radial turbines have been developed. ► Also scroll and reciprocating expanders have been analyzed for comparison. ► The best suited machine has to be selected after a detailed analysis in each case. - Abstract: Recently, several efforts have been devoted to the improvement of the thermal efficiency of small gas turbines, in order to approach the typical values of the internal combustion engines in the same range of power. One possibility is represented by a combined cycle, obtained coupling the gas turbine to a bottoming organic Rankine cycle (ORC). This paper deals with the definition of the main features of an ORC system aimed to recover heat from a 100 kWe commercial gas turbine with internal recuperator. After the optimization of the thermodynamic cycles, involving a comparison between six working fluids, different expanders are analyzed, with the aim of detecting, if possible, the best suited machine. First, single stage turbines, in both radial and axial flow configuration, are designed specifically for each considered fluid, in particular investigating the opportunity of mounting the ORC expander directly on the high-speed shaft of the gas turbine. Then, the performances of these dynamic machines are compared with those of positive displacement expanders, such as scroll devices, obtainable from commercial HVAC compressor with minor revisions, and reciprocating ones, here newly designed

  9. The development of a volume element model for energy systems engineering and integrative thermodynamic optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sam

    The dissertation presents the mathematical formulation, experimental validation, and application of a volume element model (VEM) devised for modeling, simulation, and optimization of energy systems in their early design stages. The proposed model combines existing modeling techniques and experimental adjustment to formulate a reduced-order model, while retaining sufficient accuracy to serve as a practical system-level design analysis and optimization tool. In the VEM, the physical domain under consideration is discretized in space using lumped hexahedral elements (i.e., volume elements), and the governing equations for the variable of interest are applied to each element to quantify diverse types of flows that cross it. Subsequently, a system of algebraic and ordinary differential equations is solved with respect to time and scalar (e.g., temperature, relative humidity, etc.) fields are obtained in both spatial and temporal domains. The VEM is capable of capturing and predicting dynamic physical behaviors in the entire system domain (i.e., at system level), including mutual interactions among system constituents, as well as with their respective surroundings and cooling systems, if any. The VEM is also generalizable; that is, the model can be easily adapted to simulate and optimize diverse systems of different scales and complexity and attain numerical convergence with sufficient accuracy. Both the capability and generalizability of the VEM are demonstrated in the dissertation via thermal modeling and simulation of an Off-Grid Zero Emissions Building, an all-electric ship, and a vapor compression refrigeration (VCR) system. Furthermore, the potential of the VEM as an optimization tool is presented through the integrative thermodynamic optimization of a VCR system, whose results are used to evaluate the trade-offs between various objective functions, namely, coefficient of performance, second law efficiency, pull-down time, and refrigerated space temperature, in

  10. Sodium-NaK engineering handbook. Volume III. Sodium systems, safety, handling, and instrumentation. [LMFBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foust, O J [ed.

    1978-01-01

    The handbook is intended for use by present and future designers in the Liquid Metals Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) Program and by the engineering and scientific community performing other type investigation and exprimentation requiring high-temperature sodium and NaK technology. The arrangement of subject matter progresses from a technological discussion of sodium and sodium--potassium alloy (NaK) to discussions of varius categories and uses of hardware in sodium and NaK systems. Emphasis is placed on sodium and NaK as heat-transport media. Sufficient detail is included for basic understanding of sodium and NaK technology and of technical aspects of sodium and NaK components and instrument systems. Information presented is considered adequate for use in feasibility studies and conceptual design, sizing components and systems, developing preliminary component and system descriptions, identifying technological limitations and problem areas, and defining basic constraints and parameters.

  11. Mission definition study for Stanford relativity satellite. Volume 2: Engineering flight test program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-01-01

    The need is examined for orbital flight tests of gyroscope, dewar, and other components, in order to reduce the technical and financial risk in performing the relativity experiment. A program is described that would generate engineering data to permit prediction of final performance. Two flight tests are recommended. The first flight would test a dewar smaller than that required for the final flight, but of size and form sufficient to allow extrapolation to the final design. The second flight would use the same dewar design to carry a set of three gyroscopes, which would be evaluated for spinup and drift characteristics for a period of a month or more. A proportional gas control system using boiloff helium gas from the dewar, and having the ability to prevent sloshing of liquid helium, would also be tested.

  12. Actuation and system design and evaluation OMS engine shutoff valve, Volume 1. [space shuttles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, V. B.

    1975-01-01

    A technology program was conducted to identify and verify the optimum valve and actuation system concept for the Space Shuttle Orbit Maneuvering System engine. Of major importance to the valve and actuation system selection was the ten-year, 100-mission, 10,000-cycle life requirement, while maintaining high reliability, low leakage, and low weight. Valve and actuation system concepts were comparatively evaluated against past valve failure reports and potential failure modes due to the shuttle mission profile to aid in the selection of the most optimum concept for design, manufacture and verification testing. Two valve concepts were considered during the preliminary design stage; i.e., the moving seat and lifting ball. Two actuation systems were manufactured and tested. Test results demonstrate the viability of a lifting ball concept as well as the applicability of an ac motor actuation system to best meet the requirements of the shuttle mission.

  13. Analysis of the backpressure effect of an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) evaporator on the exhaust line of a turbocharged heavy duty diesel power generator for marine applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michos, Constantine N.; Lion, Simone; Vlaskos, Ioannis; Taccani, Rodolfo

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Waste heat recovery on internal combustion engines is studied. • The backpressure effect of the Organic Rankine Cycle boiler has been evaluated. • Three different state-of-the art turbocharging technologies have been assessed. • Six different fluids for medium-high temperature recovery have been considered. • A reduction up to 10% in fuel consumption can be achieved. - Abstract: In marine and power generation sectors, waste heat recovery technologies are attracting growing attention in order to increase heavy duty diesel engines efficiency and decrease fuel consumption, with the purpose of respecting stringent emissions legislations. In this work, the backpressure effect of an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) evaporator on the exhaust line of a turbocharged, V12 heavy duty diesel engine, for typical marine and power generation applications has been investigated using the commercial software Ricardo WAVE. Three different state-of-the art turbocharging strategies are assessed in order to counterbalance the increased pumping losses of the engine due to the boiler installation: fixed turbine, Waste-Gate (WG) and Variable Geometry Turbine (VGT). At the same time, the steady-state thermodynamic performance of two different ORC configurations, simple tail-pipe evaporator and recuperated simple tail-pipe evaporator layouts, are assessed, with the scope of further increasing the engine power output, recovering unutilized exhaust gas heat. Several different working fluids, suitable for medium-high temperature waste heat recovery, are evaluated and screened, considering, as well, health and safety issues. Thermodynamic cycle parameters such as, for example, evaporation and condensing pressures, working fluid mass flow and cycle temperatures, are optimized in order to obtain the maximum improvement in Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (bsfc). From the engine side point of view, a VGT turbocharger is the most favorable solution to withstand increased

  14. Power generation and heating performances of integrated system of ammonia–water Kalina–Rankine cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Zhi; Guo, Zhanwei; Chen, Yaping; Wu, Jiafeng; Hua, Junye

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Integrated system of ammonia–water Kalina–Rankine cycle (AWKRC) is investigated. • Ammonia–water Rankine cycle is operated for cogenerating room heating-water in winter. • Kalina cycle with higher efficiency is operated for power generation in other seasons. • Power recovery efficiency accounts thermal efficiency and waste heat absorbing ratio. • Heating water with 70 °C and capacity of 55% total reclaimed heat load is cogenerated. - Abstract: An integrated system of ammonia–water Kalina–Rankine cycle (AWKRC) for power generation and heating is introduced. The Kalina cycle has large temperature difference during evaporation and small one during condensation therefore with high thermal efficiency for power generation, while the ammonia–water Rankine cycle has large temperature difference during condensation as well as evaporation, thus it can be adopted to generate heating-water as a by-product in winter. The integrated system is based on the Kalina cycle and converted to the Rankine cycle with a set of valves. The performances of the AWKRC system in different seasons with corresponding cycle loops were studied and analyzed. When the temperatures of waste heat and cooling water are 300 °C and 25 °C respectively, the thermal efficiency and power recovery efficiency of Kalina cycle are 20.9% and 17.4% respectively in the non-heating seasons, while these efficiencies of the ammonia–water Rankine cycle are 17.1% and 13.1% respectively with additional 55.3% heating recovery ratio or with comprehensive efficiency 23.7% higher than that of the Kalina cycle in heating season

  15. Optimal design of compact organic Rankine cycle units for domestic solar applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barbazza, Luca; Pierobon, Leonardo; Mirandola, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    criteria, i.e., compactness, high performance and safe operation, are targeted by adopting a multi-objective optimization approach modeled with the genetic algorithm. Design-point thermodynamic variables, e.g., evaporating pressure, the working fluid, minimum allowable temperature differences......Organic Rankine cycle turbogenerators are a promising technology to transform the solar radiation harvested by solar collectors into electric power. The present work aims at sizing a small-scale organic Rankine cycle unit by tailoring its design for domestic solar applications. Stringent design...

  16. Combined Turbine and Cycle Optimization for Organic Rankine Cycle Power Systems—Part A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meroni, Andrea; La Seta, Angelo; Andreasen, Jesper Graa

    2016-01-01

    Axial-flow turbines represent a well-established technology for a wide variety of power generation systems. Compactness, flexibility, reliability and high efficiency have been key factors for the extensive use of axial turbines in conventional power plants and, in the last decades, in organic...... Rankine cycle power systems. In this two-part paper, an overall cycle model and a model of an axial turbine were combined in order to provide a comprehensive preliminary design of the organic Rankine cycle unit, taking into account both cycle and turbine optimal designs. Part A presents the preliminary...

  17. ECONOMICS AND FEASIBILITY OF RANKINE CYCLE IMPROVEMENTS FOR COAL FIRED POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard E. Waryasz; Gregory N. Liljedahl

    2004-09-08

    ALSTOM Power Inc.'s Power Plant Laboratories (ALSTOM) has teamed with the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL), American Electric Company (AEP) and Parsons Energy and Chemical Group to conduct a comprehensive study evaluating coal fired steam power plants, known as Rankine Cycles, equipped with three different combustion systems: Pulverized Coal (PC), Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB), and Circulating Moving Bed (CMB{trademark}). Five steam cycles utilizing a wide range of steam conditions were used with these combustion systems. The motivation for this study was to establish through engineering analysis, the most cost-effective performance potential available through improvement in the Rankine Cycle steam conditions and combustion systems while at the same time ensuring that the most stringent emission performance based on CURC (Coal Utilization Research Council) 2010 targets are met: > 98% sulfur removal; < 0.05 lbm/MM-Btu NO{sub x}; < 0.01 lbm/MM-Btu Particulate Matter; and > 90% Hg removal. The final report discusses the results of a coal fired steam power plant project, which is comprised of two parts. The main part of the study is the analysis of ten (10) Greenfield steam power plants employing three different coal combustion technologies: Pulverized Coal (PC), Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB), and Circulating Moving Bed (CMB{trademark}) integrated with five different steam cycles. The study explores the technical feasibility, thermal performance, environmental performance, and economic viability of ten power plants that could be deployed currently, in the near, intermediate, and long-term time frame. For the five steam cycles, main steam temperatures vary from 1,000 F to 1,292 F and pressures from 2,400 psi to 5,075 psi. Reheat steam temperatures vary from 1,000 F to 1,328 F. The number of feedwater heaters varies from 7 to 9 and the associated feedwater temperature varies from 500 F to 626 F. The main part of the

  18. Site-specific probabilistic seismic hazard analyses for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Volume 2: Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    The identification of seismic sources is often based on a combination of geologic and tectonic considerations and patterns of observed seismicity; hence, a historical earthquake catalogue is important. A historical catalogue of earthquakes of approximate magnitude (M) 2.5 and greater for the time period 1850 through 1992 was compiled for the INEL region. The primary data source used was the Decade of North American Geology (DNAG) catalogue for the time period from about 1800 through 1985 (Engdahl and Rinehart, 1988). A large number of felt earthquakes, especially prior to the 1970`s, which were below the threshold of completeness established in the DNAG catalogue (Engdahl and Rinehart, 1991), were taken from the state catalogues compiled by Stover and colleagues at the National Earthquake Information Center (NEIC) and combined with the DNAG catalogue for the INEL region. The state catalogues were those of Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Utah, and Wyoming. NEIC`s Preliminary Determination of Epicenters (PDE) and the state catalogues compiled by the Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries (DOGAMI), and the University of Nevada at Reno (UNR) were also used to supplement the pre-1986 time period. A few events reanalyzed by Jim Zollweg (Boise State University, written communication, 1994) were also modified in the catalogue. In the case of duplicate events, the DNAG entry was preferred over the Stover et al. entry for the period 1850 through 1985. A few events from Berg and Baker (1963) were also added to the catalogue. This information was and will be used in determining the seismic risk of buildings and facilities located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory.

  19. Site-specific probabilistic seismic hazard analyses for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Volume 2: Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-05-01

    The identification of seismic sources is often based on a combination of geologic and tectonic considerations and patterns of observed seismicity; hence, a historical earthquake catalogue is important. A historical catalogue of earthquakes of approximate magnitude (M) 2.5 and greater for the time period 1850 through 1992 was compiled for the INEL region. The primary data source used was the Decade of North American Geology (DNAG) catalogue for the time period from about 1800 through 1985 (Engdahl and Rinehart, 1988). A large number of felt earthquakes, especially prior to the 1970's, which were below the threshold of completeness established in the DNAG catalogue (Engdahl and Rinehart, 1991), were taken from the state catalogues compiled by Stover and colleagues at the National Earthquake Information Center (NEIC) and combined with the DNAG catalogue for the INEL region. The state catalogues were those of Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Utah, and Wyoming. NEIC's Preliminary Determination of Epicenters (PDE) and the state catalogues compiled by the Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries (DOGAMI), and the University of Nevada at Reno (UNR) were also used to supplement the pre-1986 time period. A few events reanalyzed by Jim Zollweg (Boise State University, written communication, 1994) were also modified in the catalogue. In the case of duplicate events, the DNAG entry was preferred over the Stover et al. entry for the period 1850 through 1985. A few events from Berg and Baker (1963) were also added to the catalogue. This information was and will be used in determining the seismic risk of buildings and facilities located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

  20. Economic assessment of greenhouse gas reduction through low-grade waste heat recovery using organic Rankine cycle (ORC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imran, Muhammad; Park, Byung Sik; Kim, Hyouck Ju; Usman, Muhammad [University of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dong Hyun [Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    Low-grade waste heat recovery technologies reduce the environmental impact of fossil fuels and improve overall efficiency. This paper presents the economic assessment of greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction through waste heat recovery using organic Rankine cycle (ORC). The ORC engine is one of the mature low temperature heat engines. The low boiling temperature of organic working fluid enables ORC to recover low-temperature waste heat. The recovered waste heat is utilized to produce electricity and hot water. The GHG emissions for equivalent power and hot water from three fossil fuels-coal, natural gas, and diesel oil-are estimated using the fuel analysis approach and corresponding emission factors. The relative decrease in GHG emission is calculated using fossil fuels as the base case. The total cost of the ORC system is used to analyze the GHG reduction cost for each of the considered fossil fuels. A sensitivity analysis is also conducted to investigate the effect of the key parameter of the ORC system on the cost of GHG reduction. Throughout the 20-year life cycle of the ORC plant, the GHG reduction cost for R245fa is 0.02 $/kg to 0.04 $/kg and that for pentane is 0.04 $/kg to 0.05 $/kg. The working fluid, evaporation pressure, and pinch point temperature difference considerably affect the GHG emission.

  1. Technical Analysis of Organic Rankine Cycle System Using Low-Temperature Source to Generate Electricity in Ship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Faisal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the shipping sector has growth rapidly as followed by the increasing of world population and the demands for public transportation via sea. This issue entails the large attention on emission, energy efficiency and fuel consumption on the ship. Waste Heat Recovery (WHR is one of the solution to overcome the mentioned issue and one of the WHR method is by installing Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC system in ship. ORC demonstrate to recover and exploit the low temperature waste heat rejected by the ship power generation plant. The main source of heat to be utilized is obtained from container ship (7900 kW BHP, DWT 10969 mt ship jacket water cooling system and use R-134a as a refrigerant. The main equipment consists of evaporator, condenser, pump and steam turbine to generate the electricity. The main objective is to quantifying the estimation of electrical power which can be generated at typical loads of the main engine. As the final result of analysis, the ORC system is able to generate the electricity power ranged from 77,5% - 100% of main engine load producing power averagely 57,69 kW.

  2. Multiple regression models for the prediction of the maximum obtainable thermal efficiency of organic Rankine cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ulrik; Pierobon, Leonardo; Wronski, Jorrit

    2014-01-01

    Much attention is focused on increasing the energy efficiency to decrease fuel costs and CO2 emissions throughout industrial sectors. The ORC (organic Rankine cycle) is a relatively simple but efficient process that can be used for this purpose by converting low and medium temperature waste heat ...

  3. Constrained multi-objective optimization of radial expanders in organic Rankine cycles by firefly algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahadormanesh, Nikrouz; Rahat, Shayan; Yarali, Milad

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A multi-objective optimization for radial expander in Organic Rankine Cycles is implemented. • By using firefly algorithm, Pareto front based on the size of turbine and thermal efficiency is produced. • Tension and vibration constrains have a significant effect on optimum design points. - Abstract: Organic Rankine Cycles are viable energy conversion systems in sustainable energy systems due to their compatibility with low-temperature heat sources. In the present study, one dimensional model of radial expanders in conjunction with a thermodynamic model of organic Rankine cycles is prepared. After verification, by defining thermal efficiency of the cycle and size parameter of a radial turbine as the objective functions, a multi-objective optimization was conducted regarding tension and vibration constraints for 4 different organic working fluids (R22, R245fa, R236fa and N-Pentane). In addition to mass flow rate, evaporator temperature, maximum pressure of cycle and turbo-machinery design parameters are selected as the decision variables. Regarding Pareto fronts, by a little increase in size of radial expanders, it is feasible to reach high efficiency. Moreover, by assessing the distribution of decision variables, the variables that play a major role in trending between the objective functions are found. Effects of mechanical and vibration constrains on optimum decision variables are investigated. The results of optimization can be considered as an initial values for design of radial turbines for Organic Rankine Cycles.

  4. Technical and economical feasibility of the Rankine compression gas turbine (RCG)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouwerkerk, H.; Lange, de H.C.

    2006-01-01

    The Rankine compression gas turbine (RCG) is a new type of combined cycle, i.e. combined steam and gas turbine installation, that returns all shaft power on one free power turbine. The novelty of the RCG is that the steam turbine drives the compressor of the gas turbine cycle. This way, the turbine

  5. Performance analysis of different organic Rankine cycle configurations on board liquefied natural gas-fuelled vessels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baldasso, Enrico; Andreasen, Jesper Graa; Meroni, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Gas-fuelled shipping is expected to increase significantly in the coming years. Similarly, much effort is devoted to the study of waste heat recovery systems to be implemented on board ships. In this context, the organic Rankine cycle (ORC) technology is considered one of the most promising...

  6. Design of organic Rankine cycle power systems accounting for expander performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    La Seta, Angelo; Andreasen, Jesper Graa; Pierobon, Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    Organic Rankine cycle power systems have recently emerged as promising solutions for waste heat recovery in low- and medium-size power plants. Their performance and economic feasibility strongly depend on the expander. Its design process and efficiency estimation are particularly challenging due...

  7. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE) Summer Faculty Fellowship Program: 1995. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyman, William A. (Editor); Sickorez, Donn G. (Editor)

    1996-01-01

    The objectives of the JSC NASA/ASEE Summer Faculty Fellowship Program, which began nationally in 1964 and at JSC in 1965, are (1) to further the professional knowledge of qualified engineering and science faculty members; (2) to stimulate an exchange of ideas between participants and NASA; (3) to enrich and refresh the research and teaching activities of the participants' institutions; and (4) to contribute to the research objectives of the NASA centers. Each faculty fellow spent at least 10 weeks at JSC engaged in a research project in collaboration with a NASA/JSC colleague. In addition to the faculty participants, the 1995 program included five students. This document is a compilation of the first fifteen of twenty-seven final reports on the research projects completed by the faculty fellows and visiting students during the summer of 1995. The reports of two of the students are integral with that of the respective fellow. Three students wrote separate reports included in Volume 2.

  8. A hybrid Rankine cycle (HyRC) with ambient pressure combustion (APC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Lijun; Thimsen, David; Clements, Bruce; Zheng, Ligang; Pomalis, Richard

    2014-01-01

    The main losses in thermal power generation include heat in exhaust flue gas, heat rejected through steam condensation of low-pressure turbine, and exergy destruction in heat exchange process etc. To the extent that the heat losses are significantly greater in temperature than either air or water coolant resources, these losses also represent exergy losses which might be exploited to improve plant capacity and efficiency. This paper presents a hybrid Rankine cycle (HyRC) with an ambient pressure combustion (APC) boiler to address the recovery potential of these losses within the steam Rankine cycle (SRC). The APC–HyRC concept employs an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) to supplement SRC and to reduce cycle energy losses to the atmosphere since organic fluids are capable of lowering cycle condensation temperature when a very low temperature heat sink is available. The case studies based on a 399 MW SRC unit show that the APC–HyRC configurations have better thermodynamic performance than its base case SRC at a cycle condensation temperature of 30 °C and below. The best APC–HyRC configuration generates up to 14% more power than the baseline steam cycle which is a 5.45% increase in overall gross efficiency with a cycle condensation temperature at 4 °C. - Highlights: • A hybrid Rankine cycle with water and organic fluid is presented. • Heat losses in exhaust flue gas and exhaust steam are reduced. • Exergy losses in regeneration process are reduced. • Efficiency improvements are made to the conventional steam Rankine cycle. • Issues in design/construction of greenfield and repowering project are discussed

  9. Parametric and exergetic analysis of waste heat recovery system based on thermoelectric generator and organic rankine cycle utilizing R123

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu, Gequn; Zhao, Jian; Tian, Hua; Liang, Xingyu; Wei, Haiqiao

    2012-01-01

    The paper analyzes the combined TEG-ORC (thermoelectric generator and organic rankine cycle) used in exhaust heat recovery of ICE (internal combustion engine) theoretically. A theoretical model is proposed to calculate the optimal parameters of the bottoming cycle based on thermodynamic theory when net output power and volumetric expansion ratio are selected as objective functions, which affect system performance and size. The effects of relative TEG flow direction, TEG scale, highest temperature, condensation temperature, evaporator pressure and efficiency of IHE (internal heat exchanger) on system performance are investigated. R123 is chosen among the fluids whose decomposition temperature exceeds 600 K to avoid fluid resolving and resulting in wet stroke when expansion process ends. The thermodynamic irreversibility that occurs in evaporator, turbine, IHE, condenser, pump and TEG is revealed at target working areas. The results indicate a significant increase of system performance when TEG and IHE are combined with ORC bottoming cycle. It is also suggested that TEG-ORC system is suitable to recovering waste heat from engines, because TEG can extend the temperature range of heat source and thereby improve the security and fuel economy of engines. -- Highlights: ► Development of a TEG-ORC system using R123 as working fluid for WHR of engines. ► Performance of the developed cycle was investigated theoretically. ► Optimization of configurations and parameters can be obtained. ► Irreversibility in the evaporator, turbine, IHE, condenser, pump and TEG is revealed. ► Optimal net power and indicated efficiency is 27 kW and 45.7%, respectively.

  10. Electric and Magnetic Fields (EMF) RAPID Program Engineering Project 8: FINAL REPORT, Evaluation of Field Reduction Technologies, Volume 1 (Report) and Volume 2 (Appendices)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Commonwealth Associates, Inc.; IIT Research Institute

    1997-08-01

    This draft report consists of two volumes. Volume 1, the main body, contains an introducto~ sectionj an overview of magnetic fields sectio~ and field reduction technology evaluation section. Magnetic field reduction methods are evalpated for transmission lines, distribution Iines,sulxtations, building wiring applkmd machinery, and transportation systems. The evaluation considers effectiveness, co% and other ftiors. Volume 2 contains five appendices, Append~ A presents magnetic field shielding information. Appendices B and C present design assumptions and magnetic field plots for transmission and distribution lines, respectively. Appendices D and E present cost estimate details for transmission and distribution limes, respectively.

  11. Feasibility assessment of refinery waste heat-to-power conversion using an organic Rankine cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, H.C.; Krumdieck, Susan; Vranjes, Tony

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Kerosene enthalpies were estimated at different temperatures using samples and simulations. • Numerical ORC and financial models were developed to assess feasibility of waste heat-to-power conversion. • Six pure fluids and two mixtures were investigated for selecting optimum fluid. • It is technically and economically feasible to install a 250 kW ORC unit to capture kerosene waste heat. - Abstract: Industrial waste heat is a large potential resource for generation of carbon-free electricity. This study investigates the technical and economic feasibility of converting waste heat from a stream of liquid kerosene which must be cooled down to control the vacuum distillation temperature. The process conditions were determined for a simple 250 kW organic Rankine cycle (ORC) with a heat extraction loop. The pinch point technique was adopted to determine the optimum evaporation and condensation temperatures and assess the influence of the kerosene temperature at the evaporator exit on net power output. The operating conditions and performance of the ORC system were evaluated with eight potential refrigerants and refrigerant mixtures such as R123, R134a, R245fa, isobutane, butane, pentane, an equimolar mixture of butane and pentane, and a mixture of 40% isobutane and 50% butane on a mole basis. A financial model was established for the total plant cost. Results show that isobutane, of the pure fluids, yields the best plant efficiency of 6.8% with approximately half of the kerosene flow available, and the efficiency can be increased up to 7.6% using the butane/pentane mixture. The optimum kerosene temperature at the evaporator outlet is estimated to be 70 °C for all the fluid, except the butane/pentane mixture, which meets the design constraint not to disturb the existing distillation process. A capital cost target of $3000/kW could be achieved with a payback period of 6.8 years and the internal rate of return (IRR) of 21.8%. Therefore, if the detailed

  12. Twenty-third water reactor safety information meeting. Volume 3, structural and seismic engineering, primary systems integrity, equipment operability and aging, ECCS strainer blockage research and regulatory issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteleone, S. [comp.] [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1996-03-01

    This three-volume report contains papers presented at the Twenty- Third Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting held at the Bethesda Marriott Hotel, Bethesda, Maryland, October 23-25, 1995. The papers are printed in the order of their presentation in each session and describe progress and results of programs in nuclear safety research conducted in this country and abroad. Foreign participation in the meeting included papers presented by researchers from France, Italy, Japan, Norway, Russia, Sweden, and Switzerland. This document, Volume 3, presents topics in Structural & Seismic Engineering, Primary Systems Integrity, Equipment Operability and Aging, and ECCS Strainer Blockage Research & Regulatory Issues. Individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  13. Twenty-third water reactor safety information meeting. Volume 3, structural and seismic engineering, primary systems integrity, equipment operability and aging, ECCS strainer blockage research and regulatory issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteleone, S.

    1996-03-01

    This three-volume report contains papers presented at the Twenty- Third Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting held at the Bethesda Marriott Hotel, Bethesda, Maryland, October 23-25, 1995. The papers are printed in the order of their presentation in each session and describe progress and results of programs in nuclear safety research conducted in this country and abroad. Foreign participation in the meeting included papers presented by researchers from France, Italy, Japan, Norway, Russia, Sweden, and Switzerland. This document, Volume 3, presents topics in Structural ampersand Seismic Engineering, Primary Systems Integrity, Equipment Operability and Aging, and ECCS Strainer Blockage Research ampersand Regulatory Issues. Individual papers have been cataloged separately

  14. Rankine cycle load limiting through use of a recuperator bypass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Timothy C.

    2011-08-16

    A system for converting heat from an engine into work includes a boiler coupled to a heat source for transferring heat to a working fluid, a turbine that transforms the heat into work, a condenser that transforms the working fluid into liquid, a recuperator with one flow path that routes working fluid from the turbine to the condenser, and another flow path that routes liquid working fluid from the condenser to the boiler, the recuperator being configured to transfer heat to the liquid working fluid, and a bypass valve in parallel with the second flow path. The bypass valve is movable between a closed position, permitting flow through the second flow path and an opened position, under high engine load conditions, bypassing the second flow path.

  15. A comparative analysis of rankine and absorption power cycles from exergoeconomic viewpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shokati, Naser; Ranjbar, Faramarz; Yari, Mortaza

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The Rankine and absorption power cycles are compared from exergoeconomic viewpoint. • The LiBr–H 2 O cycle has the highest unit cost of electricity produced by turbine. • The LiBr–H 2 O cycle has the lowest exergy destruction cost rate. • In LiBr–H 2 O cycle, the generator has the maximum value regarding (C-dot) D,k +(C-dot) L,k +(Z-dot) k . - Abstract: In this paper LiBr–H 2 O and NH 3 –H 2 O absorption power cycles and Rankine cycle which produce 1 MW electrical power in same conditions of heat sources are compared from exergoeconomic point of view. Exergoeconomic analysis is performed using the specific exergy costing (SPECO) method. The results show that among these cycles, although the LiBr–H 2 O cycle has the highest first law efficiency, but unit cost of electricity produced by turbine for LiBr–H 2 O cycle is more than that for Rankine cycle. This value is lowest for the NH 3 –H 2 O cycle. Moreover, the NH 3 –H 2 O cycle has the highest and the LiBr–H 2 O cycle has the lowest exergy destruction cost rate. The generator, the absorber and the boiler in all considered cycles have the maximum value of sum of cost rate associated with capital investment, operating and maintenance, exergy destruction and exergy losses. Therefore, these components should be taken into consideration from exergoeconomic viewpoint. In parametric study, it is observed that in the constant generator temperature, as the generator pressure increases, unit cost of power produced by turbine for LiBr–H 2 O and Rankine cycles decreases. This value for Rankine cycle is lower than for LiBr–H 2 O cycle whereas Rankine cycle efficiency is less than the efficiency of LiBr–H 2 O cycle. Also, in LiBr–H 2 O cycle, at constant temperature of the generator, the value of exergy destruction cost rate is minimized and exergoeconomic factor is maximized at particular values of generator pressure and the more absorber pressure results the minimum value of

  16. Feasibility study of a pressure fed engine for a water recoverable space shuttle booster Volume 2: Technical, phase A effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    Design and systems considerations are presented on an engine concept selection for further preliminary design and program evaluation. These data have been prepared from a feasibility study of a pressure-fed engine for the water recoverable space shuttle booster.

  17. Novel and conventional working fluid mixtures for solar Rankine cycles: Performance assessment and multi-criteria selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mavrou, Paschalia; Papadopoulos, Athanasios I.; Stijepovic, Mirko Z.; Seferlis, Panos; Linke, Patrick; Voutetakis, Spyros

    2015-01-01

    This work investigates the performance of working fluid mixtures for use in solar ORC (Organic Rankine Cycle systems) with heat storage employing FPC (Flat Plate Collectors). Several mixtures are considered including conventional choices often utilized in ORC as well as novel mixtures previously designed using advanced computer aided molecular design methods (Papadopoulos et al., 2013). The impact of heat source variability on the ORC performance is assessed for different working fluid mixtures. Solar radiation is represented in detail through actual, hourly averaged data for an entire year. A multi-criteria mixture selection methodology unveils important trade-offs among several important system operating parameters and efficiently highlights optimum operating ranges. Such parameters include the ORC thermal efficiency, the net generated power, the volume ratio across the turbine, the mass flow rate of the ORC working fluid, the evaporator temperature glide, the temperature drop in the storage tank, the ORC total yearly operating duration, the required collector aperture area to generate 1 kW of power and the irreversibility. A mixture of neopentane – 2-fluoromethoxy-2-methylpropane at 70% neopentane is found to be the most efficient in all the considered criteria simultaneously. - Highlights: • Investigation of novel and conventional working fluid mixtures for solar ORCs. • Systematic, multi-criteria assessment methodology for mixture selection. • Simultaneous consideration of multiple important mixture performance criteria. • Effects of year-round solar variability in a solar ORC with heat storage tank

  18. Test Requirements and Conceptual Design for a Potassium Test Loop to Support an Advanced Potassium Rankine Cycle Power Conversion Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoder, JR.G.L.

    2006-03-08

    Parameters for continuing the design and specification of an experimental potassium test loop are identified in this report. Design and construction of a potassium test loop is part of the Phase II effort of the project ''Technology Development Program for an Advanced Potassium Rankine Power Conversion System''. This program is supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Design features for the potassium test loop and its instrumentation system, specific test articles, and engineered barriers for ensuring worker safety and protection of the environment are described along with safety and environmental protection requirements to be used during the design process. Information presented in the first portion of this report formed the basis to initiate the design phase of the program; however, the report is a living document that can be changed as necessary during the design process, reflecting modifications as additional design details are developed. Some portions of the report have parameters identified as ''to be determined'' (TBD), reflecting the early stage of the overall process. In cases where specific design values are presently unknown, the report attempts to document the quantities that remain to be defined in order to complete the design of the potassium test loop and supporting equipment.

  19. Design and optimisation of organic Rankine cycles for waste heat recovery in marine applications using the principles of natural selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, Ulrik; Pierobon, Leonardo; Haglind, Fredrik; Gabrielii, Cecilia

    2013-01-01

    Power cycles using alternative working fluids are currently receiving significant attention. Selection of working fluid among many candidates is a key topic and guidelines have been presented. A general problem is that the selection is based on numerous criteria, such as thermodynamic performance, boundary conditions, hazard levels and environmental concerns. A generally applicable methodology, based on the principles of natural selection, is presented and used to determine the optimum working fluid, boiler pressure and Rankine cycle process layout for scenarios related to marine engine heat recovery. Included in the solution domain are 109 fluids in sub and supercritical processes, and the process is adapted to the properties of the individual fluid. The efficiency losses caused by imposing process constraints are investigated to help propose a suitable process layout. Hydrocarbon dry type fluids in recuperated processes produced the highest efficiencies, while wet and isentropic fluids were superior in non-recuperated processes. The results suggested that at design point, the requirements of process simplicity, low operating pressure and low hazard resulted in cumulative reductions in cycle efficiency. Furthermore, the results indicated that non-flammable fluids were able to produce near optimum efficiency in recuperated high pressure processes

  20. Parametric-based thermodynamic analysis of organic Rankine cycle as bottoming cycle for combined-cycle power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, S.; Memon, A.G.; Abbasi, A.F.

    2017-01-01

    In Pakistan, the thermal efficiency of the power plants is low because of a huge share of fuel energy is dumped into the atmosphere as waste heat. The ORC (Organic Rankine Cycle) has been revealed as one of the promising technologies to recover waste heat to enhance the thermal efficiency of the power plant. In current work, ORC is proposed as a second bottoming cycle for existing CCPP (Combined Cycle Power Plant). In order to assess the efficiency of the plant, a thermodynamic model is developed in the ESS (Engineering Equation Solver) software. The developed model is used for parametric analysis to assess the effects of various operating parameters on the system performance. The analysis of results shows that the integration of ORC system with existing CCPP system enhances the overall power output in the range of 150.5-154.58 MW with 0.24-5% enhancement in the efficiency depending on the operating conditions. During the parametric analysis of ORC, it is observed that inlet pressure of the turbine shows a significant effect on the performance of the system as compared to other operating parameters. (author)

  1. An Innovative Application of a Solar Storage Wall Combined with the Low-Temperature Organic Rankine Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-Chen Hung

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to collect energy on the waste heat from air produced by solar ventilation systems. This heat used for electricity generation by an organic Rankine cycle (ORC system was implemented. The advantages of this method include the use of existing building’s wall, and it also provides the region of energy scarcity for reference. This is also an innovative method, and the results will contribute to the efforts made toward improving the design of solar ventilation in the field of solar thermal engineering. In addition, ORC system would help generate electricity and build a low-carbon building. This study considered several critical parameters such as length of the airflow channel, intensity of solar radiation, pattern of the absorber plate, stagnant air layer, and operating conditions. The simulation results show that the highest outlet temperature and heat collecting efficiency of solar ventilation system are about 120°C and 60%, respectively. The measured ORC efficiency of the system was 6.2%. The proposed method is feasible for the waste heat from air produced by ventilation systems.

  2. Probabilistic Structural Analysis Methods for select space propulsion system components (PSAM). Volume 2: Literature surveys of critical Space Shuttle main engine components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopal, K. R.

    1992-01-01

    The technical effort and computer code development is summarized. Several formulations for Probabilistic Finite Element Analysis (PFEA) are described with emphasis on the selected formulation. The strategies being implemented in the first-version computer code to perform linear, elastic PFEA is described. The results of a series of select Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) component surveys are presented. These results identify the critical components and provide the information necessary for probabilistic structural analysis. Volume 2 is a summary of critical SSME components.

  3. Investigations on the application of zeotropic fluid mixtures in the organic rankine cycle for the geothermal power generation; Untersuchung zum Einsatz von zeotropen Fluidgemischen im Organic Rankine Cycle fuer die geothermische Stromerzeugung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heberle, Florian

    2013-04-01

    The organic rankine cycle is a thermodynamic cycle process which uses an organic fluid working fluid instead of water in comparison to the commercial rankine process. The organic rankine cycle facilitates sufficiently high pressures at moderate temperatures. The organic rankine cycle significantly expands the technically possible and economically feasible ranges of application of such heat and power processes. The geothermal power is a very attractive field of application. Thermal water with a temperature of nearly 100 Celsius can be used for the power generation by means of the organic rankine cycle. Especially zeotropic mixtures are interesting as a working fluid. This is due to a non-isothermal phase change to a temperature glide which adapts very well to the temperature progress of the heat source. The author of the book under consideration reports on the application of different mixtures in the organic rankine cycle. The evaluation is based on a thermodynamic analysis and considers also toxicological, ecologic, technical as well as economic aspects.

  4. Comparative thermodynamic performance of some Rankine/Brayton cycle configurations for a low-temperature energy application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansing, F. L.

    1977-01-01

    Various configurations combining solar-Rankine and fuel-Brayton cycles were analyzed in order to find the arrangement which has the highest thermal efficiency and the smallest fuel share. A numerical example is given to evaluate both the thermodynamic performance and the economic feasibility of each configuration. The solar-assisted regenerative Rankine cycle was found to be leading the candidates from both points of energy utilization and fuel conservation.

  5. Studi Variasi Flowrate Refrigerant pada Sistem Organic Rankine Cycle dengan Fluida Kerja R-123

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aria Halim Pamungkas

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Saat ini kelangkaan sumber energi fosil telah menjadi isu utama di seluruh dunia. Hal tersebut memberikan dampak yang signifikan di setiap aspek kehidupan dan salah satunya adalah di bidang pembangkit listrik. Salah satu sistem pembangkit listrik yang tidak menggunakan energi fosil adalah Organic rankine cycle (ORC. Pada penelitian ini dilakukan dengan metode eksperimental pada suatu sistem Organic rankine cycle yang telah dibangun. Penelitian ini yang divariasikan adalah flowrate dari fluida kerja dalam hal ini R-123. Variasi flowrate yang digunakan yaitu 3-1 GPM (Galon per menit dengan penurunan 0,5 GPM setiap pengambilan data. Hasil yang didapatkan dari penelitian ini berupa grafik–grafik daya pada turbin, kondensor, pompa dan evaporator, efisiensi siklus dan back work ratio  fungsi flowrate fluida kerja. Efisiensi siklus tertinggi adalah 5,86% yang terjadi pada flowrate 3 GPM dan efisiensi siklus terendah adalah 4,32% yang terjadi pada flowrate 1 GPM.

  6. Study of toluene stability for an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) space-based power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havens, Vance; Ragaller, Dana

    1988-01-01

    The design, fabrication, assembly, and endurance operation of a dynamic test loop, built to evaluate the thermal stability of a proposed Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) working fluid, is discussed. The test fluid, toluene, was circulated through a heater, simulated turbine, regenerator, condenser and pump to duplicate an actual ORC system. The maximum nominal fluid temperature, 750 F, was at the turbine simulator inlet. Samples of noncondensible gases and liquid toluene were taken periodically during the test. The samples were analyzed to identify the degradation products formed and the quantity of these products. From these data it was possible to determine the degradation rate of the working fluid and the generation rate of noncondensible gases. A further goal of this work was to relate the degradation observed in the dynamic operating loop to degradation obtained in isothermal capsule tests. This relationship was the basis for estimating the power loop degradation in the Space Station Organic Rankine Cycle system.

  7. Performance Estimation of Organic Rankine Cycle by Using Soft Computing Technics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuğba Kovacı

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the thermal efficiency values of Organic Rankine cycle system were estimated depending on the condenser temperature and the evaporator temperatures values by adaptive network fuzzy interference system (ANFIS and artificial neural networks system (ANN. Organic Rankine cycle (ORC fluids of R365-mfc and SES32 were chosen to evaluate as the system fluid. The performance values of ANN and ANFIS models are compared with actual values. The R2 values are determined between 0.97 and 0.99 for SES36 and R365-mfc, and this is satisfactory. Although it was observed that both ANN and ANFIS models obtained a good statistical prediction performance through coefficient of determination variance, the accuracies of ANN predictions were usually imperceptible better than those of ANFIS predictions.

  8. Plan for studies of subsurface radionuclide migration at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Volume 2 of 2. Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-11-01

    This document describes planned studies of subsurface radionuclide migration at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. A plan is provided for each proposed study. The rational for arriving at the list of proposed studies is also presented. This document consists of two volumes. In the first volume, Sections 1 through 5 contain the introduction, the objectives of the proposed studies, and background information. The discussion is not comprehensive in detail; documents are referenced that discuss the background material in greater detail. Sections 6 through 9 identify and select the group of studies to be performed and discuss the peer review process. The second volume contains Appendices A and B, which present the assignment of responsibilities and the detailed plans, schedules, and costs for the proposed program

  9. Plan for studies of subsurface radionuclide migration at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Volume 1 of 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-11-01

    This document describes planned studies of subsurface radionuclide migration at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. A plan is provided for each proposed study. The rational for arriving at the list of proposed studies is also presented. This document consists of two volumes. In the first volume, Sections 1 through 5 contain the introduction, the objectives of the proposed studies, and background information. The discussion is not comprehensive in detail; documents are referenced that discuss the background material in greater detail. Sections 6 through 9 identify and select the group of studies to be performed and discuss the peer review process. The second volume contains Appendices A and B, which present the assignment of responsibilities and the detailed plans, schedules, and costs for the proposed program

  10. Instability of a two-step Rankine vortex in a reduced gravity QG model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perrot, Xavier [Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique, Ecole Normale Supérieure, 24 rue Lhomond, F-75005 Paris (France); Carton, Xavier, E-mail: xperrot@lmd.ens.fr, E-mail: xcarton@univ-brest.fr [Laboratoire de Physique des Océans, Université de Bretagne Occidentale, 6 avenue Le Gorgeu, F-29200 Brest (France)

    2014-06-01

    We investigate the stability of a steplike Rankine vortex in a one-active-layer, reduced gravity, quasi-geostrophic model. After calculating the linear stability with a normal mode analysis, the singular modes are determined as a function of the vortex shape to investigate short-time stability. Finally we determine the position of the critical layer and show its influence when it lies inside the vortex. (papers)

  11. Parametric Adjustments to the Rankine Vortex Wind Model for Gulf of Mexico Hurricanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Parametric Adjustments to the Rankine Vortex Wind Model for Gulf of Mexico Hurricanes 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT ...may be used to construct spatially varying wind fields for the GOM region (e.g., Thompson and Cardone [12]), but this requires using a complicated...Storm Damage Reduc- tion, and Dredging Operations and Environmental Research (DOER). The USACE Headquarters granted permission to publish this paper

  12. Energy and exergy analysis of integrated system of ammonia–water Kalina–Rankine cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yaping; Guo, Zhanwei; Wu, Jiafeng; Zhang, Zhi; Hua, Junye

    2015-01-01

    The integrated system of AWKRC (ammonia–water Kalina–Rankine cycle) is a novel cycle operated on KC (Kalina cycle) for power generation in non-heating seasons and on AWRC (ammonia–water Rankine cycle) for cogeneration of power and heating water in winter. The influences of inlet temperatures of both heat resource and cooling water on system efficiencies were analyzed based on the first law and the second law of thermodynamics. The calculation is based on following conditions that the heat resource temperature keeps 300 °C, the cooling water temperature for the KC or AWRC is respectively 25 °C or 15 °C; and the temperatures of heating water and backwater are respectively 90 °C and 40 °C. The results show that the evaluation indexes of the power recovery efficiency and the exergy efficiency of KC were respectively 18.2% and 41.9%, while the composite power recovery efficiency and the composite exergy efficiency of AWRC are respectively 21.1% and 43.0% accounting both power and equivalent power of cogenerated heating capacity, including 54.5% heating recovery ratio or 12.4% heating water exergy efficiency. The inventory flow diagrams of both energy and exergy gains and losses of the components operating on KC or AWRC are also demonstrated. - Highlights: • An integrated system of AWKRC (ammonia–water Kalina–Rankine cycle) is investigated. • NH_3–H_2O Rankine cycle is operated for cogenerating power and heating-water in winter. • Heating water with 90 °C and capacity of 54% total reclaimed heat load is cogenerated. • Kalina cycle is operated for power generation in other seasons with high efficiency. • Energy and exergy analysis draw similar results in optimizing the system parameters.

  13. Stand-Alone Solar Organic Rankine Cycle Water Pumping System and Its Economic Viability in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Suresh Baral; Kyung Chun Kim

    2015-01-01

    The current study presents the concept of a stand-alone solar organic Rankine cycle (ORC) water pumping system for rural Nepalese areas. Experimental results for this technology are presented based on a prototype. The economic viability of the system was assessed based on solar radiation data of different Nepalese geographic locations. The mechanical power produced by the solar ORC is coupled with a water pumping system for various applications, such as drinking and irrigation. The thermal ef...

  14. Combination solar photovoltaic heat engine energy converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubb, Donald L.

    1987-01-01

    A combination solar photovoltaic heat engine converter is proposed. Such a system is suitable for either terrestrial or space power applications. The combination system has a higher efficiency than either the photovoltaic array or the heat engine alone can attain. Advantages in concentrator and radiator area and receiver mass of the photovoltaic heat engine system over a heat-engine-only system are estimated. A mass and area comparison between the proposed space station organic Rankine power system and a combination PV-heat engine system is made. The critical problem for the proposed converter is the necessity for high temperature photovoltaic array operation. Estimates of the required photovoltaic temperature are presented.

  15. Thermo- economical consideration of Regenerative organic Rankine cycle coupling with the absorption chiller systems incorporated in the trigeneration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anvari, Simin; Taghavifar, Hadi; Parvishi, Alireza

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A new trigeneration cycle was studied from a new viewpoint of exergoeconomic and thermodynamic. • Organic Rankine and refrigeration cycles are used for recovery waste heat of cogeneration system. • Application of trigeneration cycles is advantageous in economical and thermodynamic aspects. - Abstract: In this paper, a combined cooling, heating and power cycle is proposed consisting of three sections of gas turbine and heat recovery steam generator cycle, Regenerative organic Rankine cycle, and absorption refrigeration cycle. This trigeneration cycle is subjected to a thorough thermodynamic and exergoeconomic analysis. The principal goal followed in the investigation is to address the thermodynamic and exergoeconomic of a trigeneration cycle from a new prospective such that the economic and thermodynamic viability of incorporating Regenerative organic Rankine cycle, and absorption refrigeration cycle to the gas turbine and heat recovery steam generator cycle is being investigated. Thus, the cost-effectiveness of the introduced method can be studied and further examined. The results indicate that adding Regenerative organic Rankine cycle to gas turbine and heat recovery steam generator cycle leads to 2.5% increase and the addition of absorption refrigeration cycle to the gas turbine and heat recovery steam generator/ Regenerative Organic Rankine cycle would cause 0.75% increase in the exergetic efficiency of the entire cycle. Furthermore, from total investment cost of the trigeneration cycle, only 5.5% and 0.45% results from Regenerative organic Rankine cycle and absorption refrigeration cycles, respectively.

  16. Rankine earth pressure theory considering microstructure of porous materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junhu; Xue, Wei; Zhang, Chao; Zhang, Wenchao; Xu, Riqing

    2017-11-01

    Soil as an engineering material has very complex properties, such as non-continuous, non-uniformity and nonlinear mechanical. In a certain extent, macroscopic properties of soil are affected by the changes of the microstructure. And microscopic porosity of soft clay and its influencing factors, the relationship between macro and micro porosity, the average contact area rate and its influencing factors are studied. Some mechanics problems were analyzed by using the relationship between macro-porosity and the average contact area rate. Combining soil lateral stress transfer principle, a calculation theory of earth pressure considering soil contact area was got. The possible reason of the differences between earth pressure and the actual monitoring earth pressure was analyzed by the case.

  17. Thermodynamic analysis of high-temperature regenerative organic Rankine cycles using siloxanes as working fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, F.J.; Prieto, M.M.; Suarez, I.

    2011-01-01

    A recent novel adjustment of the Span-Wagner equation of state for siloxanes, used as working fluids in high-temperature organic Rankine cycles, is applied in a mathematical model to solve cycles under several working conditions. The proposed scheme includes a thermo-oil intermediate heat circuit between the heat source and the organic Rankine cycle. Linear and cyclic siloxanes are assayed in saturated, superheated and supercritical cycles. The cycle includes an internal heat exchanger (regenerative cycle), although a non-regenerative scheme is also solved. In the first part of the study, a current of combustion gases cooled to close to their dew point temperature is taken as the reference heat source. In the second part, the outlet temperature of the heat source is varied over a wide range, determining appropriate fluids and schemes for each thermal level. Simple linear (MM, MDM) siloxanes in saturated regenerative schemes show good efficiencies and ensure thermal stability of the working fluid. -- Highlights: → Organic Rankine cycles with polymethylsiloxanes as working fluids were modelled. → The cycle scheme is regenerative and includes an intermediate heat transfer fluid. → The fluid properties were calculated by means of the Span-Wagner equation of state. → Vapour conditions to the expander and source thermal level were analysed. → Siloxanes MM, MDM and D 4 under saturated conditions were the best options.

  18. Design of a Rankine cycle operating with a passive turbine multi fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Placco, Guilherme M., E-mail: guilhermeplacco@gmail.com [Instituto Tecnológico de Aeronáutica (ITA), São José dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Guimarães, Lamartine N.F., E-mail: guimarae@ieav.cta.br [Instituto de Estudo Avançados (CTA/IEAV), São José dos Campos, SP, (Brazil); Santos, Gabriela S. B., E-mail: siqueira.gsb@gmail.com [Universidade Paulista (UNIP), São José dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The Institute of Advanced Studies - IEAv, has been conducting a project called TERRA - 'Fast Advanced Reactors Technology', which aims to study the effects on the working of a Rankine cycle operating with a Multi Fluid Passive Turbine - TPMF. This turbine has the main characteristic operate bladeless using discs arranged in parallel along a rotating axis. After a thorough literature search, we have not found a previous operating Rankine cycle with this kind of turbine. Thus, the work presented here, began its development with few guidelines to follow. It will be presented, of a sucint way, of the design of the parts that makes up a Rankine cycle; the boundary conditions of the cycle; Data acquisition system; the development schedule; assembly of the components; some associated costs and project management. Experimental results thermal conduction through the cycle; the results of net power generated by the turbine and a comparison between thermal energy to mechanical energy in the turbine (efficiency curve). (author)

  19. Design of a Rankine cycle operating with a passive turbine multi fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Placco, Guilherme M.; Guimarães, Lamartine N.F.; Santos, Gabriela S. B.

    2017-01-01

    The Institute of Advanced Studies - IEAv, has been conducting a project called TERRA - 'Fast Advanced Reactors Technology', which aims to study the effects on the working of a Rankine cycle operating with a Multi Fluid Passive Turbine - TPMF. This turbine has the main characteristic operate bladeless using discs arranged in parallel along a rotating axis. After a thorough literature search, we have not found a previous operating Rankine cycle with this kind of turbine. Thus, the work presented here, began its development with few guidelines to follow. It will be presented, of a sucint way, of the design of the parts that makes up a Rankine cycle; the boundary conditions of the cycle; Data acquisition system; the development schedule; assembly of the components; some associated costs and project management. Experimental results thermal conduction through the cycle; the results of net power generated by the turbine and a comparison between thermal energy to mechanical energy in the turbine (efficiency curve). (author)

  20. On the Rankin-Selberg method for higher genus string amplitudes

    CERN Document Server

    Florakis, Ioannis

    2017-01-01

    Closed string amplitudes at genus $h\\leq 3$ are given by integrals of Siegel modular functions on a fundamental domain of the Siegel upper half-plane. When the integrand is of rapid decay near the cusps, the integral can be computed by the Rankin-Selberg method, which consists of inserting an Eisenstein series $E_h(s)$ in the integrand, computing the integral by the orbit method, and finally extracting the residue at a suitable value of $s$. String amplitudes, however, typically involve integrands with polynomial or even exponential growth at the cusps, and a renormalization scheme is required to treat infrared divergences. Generalizing Zagier's extension of the Rankin-Selberg method at genus one, we develop the Rankin-Selberg method for Siegel modular functions of degree 2 and 3 with polynomial growth near the cusps. In particular, we show that the renormalized modular integral of the Siegel-Narain partition function of an even self-dual lattice of signature $(d,d)$ is proportional to a residue of the Langla...

  1. Performance analysis of double organic Rankine cycle for discontinuous low temperature waste heat recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Dongxiang; Ling Xiang; Peng Hao

    2012-01-01

    This research proposes a double organic Rankine cycle for discontinuous waste heat recovery. The optimal operation conditions of several working fluids have been calculated by a procedure employing MATLAB and REFPROP. The influence of outlet temperature of heat source on the net power output, thermal efficiency, power consumption, mass flow rate, expander outlet temperature, cycle irreversibility and exergy efficiency at a given pinch point temperature difference (PPTD) has been analyzed. Pinch point analysis has also been employed to obtain a thermodynamic understanding of the ORC performance. Of all the working fluids investigated, some performances between each working fluid are rather similar. For a fixed low temperature heat source, the optimal operation condition should be mainly determined by the heat carrier of the heat source, and working fluids have limited influence. Lower outlet temperature of heat source does not always mean more efficient energy use. Acetone exhibits the least exergy destruction, while R245fa possesses the maximal exergy efficiency at a fixed PPTD. Wet fluids exhibit lower thermal efficiency than the others with the increasing of PPTD at a fixed outlet temperature of heat source. Dry and isentropic fluids offer attractive performance. - Highlights: ► We propose a double organic Rankine cycle for discontinuous waste heat recovery. ► Performance of organic Rankine cycle (ORC) is analyzed by pinch point analysis. ► The heat carrier of the heat source determines ORC optimal operation condition. ► Design of ORC heat exchangers prefers lower pinch point temperature difference.

  2. Thermodynamic Analysis of a Rankine Cycle Powered Vapor Compression Ice Maker Using Solar Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Hu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To develop the organic Rankine-vapor compression ice maker driven by solar energy, a thermodynamic model was developed and the effects of generation temperature, condensation temperature, and working fluid types on the system performance were analyzed. The results show that the cooling power per square meter collector and ice production per square meter collector per day depend largely on generation temperature and condensation temperature and they increase firstly and then decrease with increasing generation temperature. For every working fluid there is an optimal generation temperature at which organic Rankine efficiency achieves the maximum value. The cooling power per square meter collector and ice production per square meter collector per day are, respectively, 126.44 W m−2 and 7.61 kg m−2 day−1 at the generation temperature of 140°C for working fluid of R245fa, which demonstrates the feasibility of organic Rankine cycle powered vapor compression ice maker.

  3. Thermodynamic, economic and thermo-economic optimization of a new proposed organic Rankine cycle for energy production from geothermal resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazemi, Neda; Samadi, Fereshteh

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A new cycle was designed to improve basic organic Rankine cycle performance. • Peng Robinson equation of state was used to obtain properties of working fluids. • Operating parameters were optimized with three different objective functions. • Efficiency of new organic Rankine cycle is higher than other considered cycles. • Return on investment of new cycle for Iran is more than France and America. - Abstract: The main goal of this study is to propose and investigate a new organic Rankine cycle based on three considered configurations: basic organic Rankine cycle, regenerative organic Rankine cycle and two-stage evaporator organic Rankine cycle in order to increase electricity generation from geothermal sources. To analyze the considered cycles’ performance, thermodynamic (energy and exergy based on the first and second laws of thermodynamics) and economic (specific investment cost) models are investigated. Also, a comparison of cycles modeling results is carried out in optimum conditions according to different optimization which consist thermodynamic, economic and thermo-economic objective functions for maximizing exergy efficiency, minimizing specific investment cost and applying a multi-objective function in order to maximize exergy efficiency and minimize specific investment cost, respectively. Optimized operating parameters of cycles include evaporators and regenerative temperatures, pinch point temperature difference of evaporators and degree of superheat. Furthermore, Peng Robinson equation of state is used to obtain thermodynamic properties of isobutane and R123 which are selected as dry and isentropic working fluids, respectively. The results of optimization indicate that, thermal and exergy efficiencies increase and exergy destruction decrease especially in evaporators for both working fluids in new proposed organic Rankine cycle compared to the basic organic Rankine cycle. Moreover, the amount of specific investment cost in new

  4. Satellite Power Systems (SPS) concept definition study, exhibit C. Volume 2, part 2: System engineering, cost and programmatics, appendixes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, G. M.

    1979-01-01

    Appendixes for Volume 2 (Part 2) of a seven volume Satellite (SPS) report are presented. The document contains two appendixes. The first is a SPS work breakdown structure dictionary. The second gives SPS cost estimating relationships and contains the cost analyses and a description of cost elements that comprise the SPS program.

  5. Feasibility study of a pressure-fed engine for a water recoverable space shuttle booster. Volume 1: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    An overview is presented of the results of the analyses conducted in support of the selected engine system for the pressure-fed booster stage. During initial phases of the project, a gimbaled, regeneratively cooled, fixed thrust engine having a coaxial pintle injector was selected as optimum for this configuration.

  6. Ideal Point Design and Operation of CO2-Based Transcritical Rankine Cycle (CTRC System Based on High Utilization of Engine’s Waste Heats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingfeng Shi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This research conducted a study specially to systematically analyze combined recovery of exhaust gas and engine coolant and related influence mechanism, including a detailed theoretical study and an assistant experimental study. In this research, CO2-based transcritical Rankine cycle (CTRC was used for fully combining the wastes heats. The main objective of theoretical research was to search an ‘ideal point’ of the recovery system and related influence mechanism, which was defined as operating condition of complete recovery of two waste heats. The theoretical methodology of this study could also provide a design reference for effective combined recovery of two or multiple waste heats in other fields. Based on a kW-class preheated CTRC prototype that was designed by the ‘ideal point’ method, an experimental study was conducted to verify combined utilization degree of two engine waste heats by the CTRC system. The operating results showed that the prototype can gain 44.4–49.8 kW and 22.7–26.7 kW heat absorption from exhaust gas and engine coolant, respectively. To direct practical operation, an experimental optimization work on the operating process was conducted for complete recovery of engine coolant exactly, which avoided deficient or excessive recovery.

  7. Method of operating a thermal engine powered by a chemical reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, J.; Escher, C.

    1988-06-07

    The invention involves a novel method of increasing the efficiency of a thermal engine. Heat is generated by a non-linear chemical reaction of reactants, said heat being transferred to a thermal engine such as Rankine cycle power plant. The novel method includes externally perturbing one or more of the thermodynamic variables of said non-linear chemical reaction. 7 figs.

  8. The hard start phenomena in hypergolic engines. Volume 4: The chemistry of hydrazine fuels and nitrogen tetroxide propellant systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miron, Y.; Perlee, H. E.

    1974-01-01

    The various chemical reactions that occur and that could possibly occur in the RCS engines utilizing hydrazine-type fuel/nitrogen tetroxide propellant systems, prior to ignition (preignition), during combustion, and after combustion (postcombustion), and endeavors to relate the hard-start phenomenon to some of these reactions are discussed. The discussion is based on studies utilizing a variety of experimental techniques and apparatus as well as current theories of chemical reactions and reaction kinetics. The chemical reactions were studied in low pressure gas flow reactors, low temperature homogeneous- and heterogeneous-phase reactors, simulated two-dimensional (2-D) engines, and scaled and full size engines.

  9. Comparison between regenerative organic Rankine cycle (RORC) and basic organic Rankine cycle (BORC) based on thermoeconomic multi-objective optimization considering exergy efficiency and levelized energy cost (LEC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Yongqiang; Zhang, Yaning; Li, Bingxi; Yang, Jinfu; Shi, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The thermoeconomic comparison of regenerative RORC and BORC is investigated. • The Pareto frontier solution with bi-objective compares with the corresponding single-objective solutions. • The three-objective optimization of the RORC and BORC is studied. • The RORC owns 8.1% higher exergy efficiency and 21.1% more LEC than the BORC under the Pareto-optimal solution. - Abstract: Based on the thermoeconomic multi-objective optimization by using non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II), considering both thermodynamic performance and economic factors, the thermoeconomic comparison of regenerative organic Rankine cycles (RORC) and basic organic Rankine cycles (BORC) are investigated. The effects of five key parameters including evaporator outlet temperature, condenser temperature, degree of superheat, pinch point temperature difference and degree of supercooling on the exergy efficiency and levelized energy cost (LEC) are examined. Meanwhile, the Pareto frontier solution with bi-objective for maximizing exergy efficiency and minimizing LEC is obtained and compared with the corresponding single-objective solutions. Research demonstrates that there is a significant negative correlation between thermodynamic performance and economic factors. And the optimum exergy efficiency and LEC for the Pareto-optimal solution of the RORC are 55.97% and 0.142 $/kW h, respectively, which are 8.1% higher exergy efficiency and 21.1% more LEC than that of the BORC under considered condition. Highest exergy and thermal efficiencies are accompanied with lowest net power output and worst economic performance. Furthermore, taking the net power output into account, detailed investigation on the three-objective optimization for maximizing exergy efficiency, maximizing net power output and minimizing LEC is discussed

  10. Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) data base reporting software user's guide and system description. Volume 1: Introduction and user's guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Reporting software programs provide formatted listings and summary reports of the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) data base contents. The operating procedures and system information for 18 different reporting software programs are described. Sample output reports from each program are provided.

  11. Parametric analysis of blade configurations for a small-scale nitrogen axial expander with hybrid open-Rankine cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, Khalil M.; Mahmoud, S.; Al- Dadah, R.K.; AL-Mousawi, Fadhel

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Develop cryogenic energy storage and efficient recovery technologies. • Integrate small scale closed and cryogenic open-Rankine cycles. • Investigate blade configuration on small-scale axial expander performance. • Use mean line and 3D CFD simulation for expander robust design procedure. • Predict effects of expander efficiency on hybrid open-Rankine cycle efficiency. - Abstract: During the last few decades, low-grade energy sources such as solar energy and wind energy have enhanced the efficiency of the advanced renewable technologies such as the combined Rankine. Furthermore, these heat sources have contributed to a reduction in CO2 emissions. To address the problem of the intermittent nature of such renewable sources, energy storage technologies have been used to balance the power demand and smooth out energy production. In this study, the direct expansion cycle (open Rankine cycle) is combined with a closed loop Rankine cycle to generate power more efficiently and address the problem of discontinuous renewable sources. The topping cycle of this system is a closed looped Rankine cycle and propane is used as a hydrocarbon fluid, while the direct expansion cycle is considered to be the bottoming cycle utilizing nitrogen as cryogen fluid. Small-scale expanders are the most important parts in many thermal power cycles, such as the Rankine cycle, due to the significant impact on the overall cycle’s efficiency. This work investigated the effect of using a number of blade configurations on the cycle’s performance using a small-scale axial expander. A three-dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) simulation was used to examine four proposed blade configurations (lean, sweep, twist, bowl) with three hub- tip ratios (0.83, 0.75, 0.66). In addition, a numerical simulation model of the hybrid open expansion- Rankine cycle was designed and modeled in order to estimate the cycle’s performance. The results show that when the expander

  12. Proposal of a combined heat and power plant hybridized with regeneration organic Rankine cycle: Energy-Exergy evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anvari, Simin; Jafarmadar, Samad; Khalilarya, Shahram

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A new thermodynamic cogeneration system is proposed. • Energy and exergy analysis of the considered cycle were performed. • An enhancement of 2.6% in exergy efficiency compared to that of baseline cycle. - Abstract: Among Rankine cycles (simple, reheat and regeneration), regeneration organic Rankine cycle demonstrates higher efficiencies compared to other cases. Consequently, in the present work a regeneration organic Rankine cycle has been utilized to recuperate gas turbine’s heat using heat recovery steam generator. At first, this cogeneration system was subjected to energy and exergy analysis and the obtained results were compared with that of investigated cogeneration found in literature (a cogeneration system in which a reheat organic Rankine cycle for heat recuperation of gas turbine cycle was used with the aid of heat recovery steam generator). Results indicated that the first and second thermodynamic efficiencies in present cycle utilizing regeneration cycle instead of reheat cycle has increased 2.62% and 2.6%, respectively. In addition, the effect of thermodynamic parameters such as combustion chamber’s inlet temperature, gas turbine inlet temperature, evaporator and condenser temperature on the energetic and exergetic efficiencies of gas turbine-heat recovery steam generator cycle and gas turbine-heat recovery steam generator cycle with regeneration organic Rankine cycle was surveyed. Besides, parametric analysis shows that as gas turbine and combustion chamber inlet temperatures increase, energetic and exergetic efficiencies tend to increase. Moreover, once condenser and evaporator temperature raise, a slight decrement in energetic and exergetic efficiency is expected.

  13. Department of Energy Programmatic Spent Nuclear Fuel Management and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programs draft environmental impact statement. Volume 1, Appendix B: Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Spent Nuclear Fuel Management Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared this report to assist its management in making two decisions. The first decision, which is programmatic, is to determine the management program for DOE spent nuclear fuel. The second decision is on the future direction of environmental restoration, waste management, and spent nuclear fuel management activities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Volume 1 of the EIS, which supports the programmatic decision, considers the effects of spent nuclear fuel management on the quality of the human and natural environment for planning years 1995 through 2035. DOE has derived the information and analysis results in Volume 1 from several site-specific appendixes. Volume 2 of the EIS, which supports the INEL-specific decision, describes environmental impacts for various environmental restoration, waste management, and spent nuclear fuel management alternatives for planning years 1995 through 2005. This Appendix B to Volume 1 considers the impacts on the INEL environment of the implementation of various DOE-wide spent nuclear fuel management alternatives. The Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program, which is a joint Navy/DOE program, is responsible for spent naval nuclear fuel examination at the INEL. For this appendix, naval fuel that has been examined at the Naval Reactors Facility and turned over to DOE for storage is termed naval-type fuel. This appendix evaluates the management of DOE spent nuclear fuel including naval-type fuel.

  14. Exergy analysis and parameter study on a novel auto-cascade Rankine cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao, Junjiang; Zhao, Li

    2012-01-01

    A novel auto-cascade Rankine cycle (ARC) is proposed to reduce thermodynamics irreversibility and improve energy utilization. Like the Kalina cycle, the working fluid for the ARC is zeotropic mixture, which can improve the system efficiency due to the temperature slip that zeotropic mixtures exhibit during phase change. Unlike the Kalina cycle, two expanders are included in the ARC rather than a expander and a throttling valve in the Kalina cycle, which means more work can be obtained. Using the exhaust gas as the heat source and water as the heat sink, a program is written by Matlab 2010a to carry out exergy analysis and parameter study on the ARC. Results show that the R245fa mass fraction in the primary circuit exists an optimum value with respect to the minimum total cycle irreversibility. The largest exergy loss occurs in evaporator, followed by the superheater, condenser, regenerator and IHE (Internal heat exchanger). As the R245fa mass fraction increases, the exergy losses of different components vary diversely. With the evaporation pressure rises, the total cycle irreversibility decreases and work output increases. Separator temperature has a greater influence on the system performance than superheating temperature. Compared with ORC (organic Rankine cycle) and Kalina cycle in the literature, the ARC has proven to be thermodynamically better. -- Highlights: ► We have proposed a novel auto-cascade Rankine cycle (ARC) system. ► The zeotropic mixture Isopentane/R245fa is employed in this system. ► Exergy analysis and parameter study on the ARC are presented. ► Compared with ORC and Kalina cycle in the literature, the ARC has proven to be thermodynamically better.

  15. Engineering mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Gross, Dietmar; Schröder, Jörg; Wall, Wolfgang A; Rajapakse, Nimal

    Statics is the first volume of a three-volume textbook on Engineering Mechanics. The authors, using a time-honoured straightforward and flexible approach, present the basic concepts and principles of mechanics in the clearest and simplest form possible to advanced undergraduate engineering students of various disciplines and different educational backgrounds. An important objective of this book is to develop problem solving skills in a systematic manner. Another aim of this volume is to provide engineering students as well as practising engineers with a solid foundation to help them bridge the gap between undergraduate studies on the one hand and advanced courses on mechanics and/or practical engineering problems on the other. The book contains numerous examples, along with their complete solutions. Emphasis is placed upon student participation in problem solving. The contents of the book correspond to the topics normally covered in courses on basic engineering mechanics at universities and colleges. Now in i...

  16. Off-design dynamic model of a real Organic Rankine Cycle system fuelled by exhaust gases from industrial processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzi, N.; Rech, S.; Lazzaretto, A.

    2015-01-01

    ORCs (Organic Rankine Cycles) represent an effective option to exploit low grade heat fluxes, the characteristics of which not only affect design, but also performance and stability during operation. This paper presents a detailed design and off-design dynamic model of a superheated regenerative ORC system using the exhaust gases of an industrial process. The point of view is that of a designer who has to predict the system behavior both at steady-state and transient operation to get a reliable and efficient operation. Real physical and operating characteristics of all components are considered, with particular attention to the geometries of shell-and-tube commercial heat exchangers to properly simulate mass and thermal inertias. A suitable control system is chosen to govern the off-design operation taking into account all real operating constraints. Results show a slight decrease in gross system efficiency (less than 1% point) either varying the oil mass flow rate (in the range 80–110%) at constant temperature of the cold sink or this temperature (of 10 °C) at constant oil mass flow rate. Simulation of the transient behavior demonstrates the effectiveness of the control system on ORC stability under variation of the hot source mass flow rate and cold sink temperature. - Highlights: • A detailed off-design dynamic model of a regenerative ORC system is presented. • The model includes real geometries of commercial shell-and-tube heat exchangers. • High efficiency of the ORC system is obtained at partial load in the range 80–110%. • Variations of the evaporator volume does not significantly affect system stability.

  17. Preliminary design package for residential heating/cooling system: Rankine air conditioner redesign

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    A summary of the preliminary redesign and development of a marketable single family heating and cooling system is presented. The interim design and schedule status of the residential (3-ton) redesign, problem areas and solutions, and the definition of plans for future design and development activities were discussed. The proposed system for a single-family residential heating and cooling system is a single-loop, solar-assisted, hydronic-to-warm-air heating subsystem with solar-assisted domestic water heating and a Rankine-driven expansion air-conditioning subsystem.

  18. Design and optimization of a novel organic Rankine cycle with improved boiling process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jesper Graa; Larsen, U.; Knudsen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    to improve the boiling process. Optimizations are carried out for eight hydrocarbon mixtures for hot fluid inlet temperatures at 120 °C and 90 °C, using a genetic algorithm to determine the cycle conditions for which the net power output is maximized. The most promising mixture is an isobutane....../pentane mixture which, for the 90 °C hot fluid inlet temperature case, achieves a 14.5% higher net power output than an optimized organic Rankine cycle using the same mixture. Two parameter studies suggest that optimum conditions for the organic split-cycle are when the temperature profile allows the minimum...

  19. Evaluation of Rankine cycle air conditioning system hardware by computer simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, H. M.; Clark, D.

    1978-01-01

    A computer program for simulating the performance of a variety of solar powered Rankine cycle air conditioning system components (RCACS) has been developed. The computer program models actual equipment by developing performance maps from manufacturers data and is capable of simulating off-design operation of the RCACS components. The program designed to be a subroutine of the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Solar Energy System Analysis Computer Program 'SOLRAD', is a complete package suitable for use by an occasional computer user in developing performance maps of heating, ventilation and air conditioning components.

  20. Applying the principles of thermoeconomics to the organic Rankine Cycle for low temperature waste heat recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, F.; Lilun, Q.; Changsun, S.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper, thermoeconomic principle is used to study the selection of working fluids and the option of the cycle parameters in the organic Rankine cycle of low temperature waste heat recovery. The parameter ξ, the product of the ratio of waste heat recovery and real cycle thermal efficiency, is suggested as a unified thermodynamic criterion for the selection of the working fluids. The mathematical expressions are developed to determine the optimal boiling temperature and the optimal pin point temperature difference in the heat recovery exchanger by way of thermoeconomic principle

  1. A study of organic working fluids of an organic Rankine cycle for solar concentrating power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saifaoui, D.; Elmaanaoui, Y.; Faik, A.

    2014-01-01

    This work is a comparative study between four different configurations of an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) in order to find the configuration that gives the best performances. This study also made a comparison between seven organic fluids used as working fluids in the four ORC configurations. These fluids are all hydrocarbons. Then we made a parametric analysis of the results obtained in this first part. In a second part, we developed the binary mixtures of the seven pure hydrocarbons with the NIST software REFPROP 9 and we used them in our four ORC configurations. The obtained results are given and discussed. (author)

  2. Advanced Rankine and Brayton cycle power systems: Materials needs and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisaffe, S. J.; Guentert, D. C.

    1974-01-01

    Conceptual advanced potassium Rankine and closed Brayton power conversion cycles offer the potential for improved efficiency over steam systems through higher operating temperatures. However, for utility service of at least 100,000 hours, materials technology advances will be needed for such high temperature systems. Improved alloys and surface protection must be developed and demonstrated to resist coal combustion gases as well as potassium corrosion or helium surface degradation at high temperatures. Extensions in fabrication technology are necessary to produce large components of high temperature alloys. Long time property data must be obtained under environments of interest to assure high component reliability.

  3. Advanced Rankine and Brayton cycle power systems - Materials needs and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisaffe, S. J.; Guentert, D. C.

    1974-01-01

    Conceptual advanced potassium Rankine and closed Brayton power conversion cycles offer the potential for improved efficiency over steam systems through higher operating temperatures. However, for utility service of at least 100,000 hours, materials technology advances will be needed for such high temperature systems. Improved alloys and surface protection must be developed and demonstrated to resist coal combustion gases as well as potassium corrosion or helium surface degradation at high temperatures. Extensions in fabrication technology are necessary to produce large components of high temperature alloys. Long-time property data must be obtained under environments of interest to assure high component reliability.

  4. Experimental Comparison Of Working Fluids For Organic Rankine Cycle With Single-Screw Expander

    OpenAIRE

    Gusev, Sergei; Ziviani, Davide; Bell, Ian; De Paepe, Michel; van den Broek, Martijn

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the behavior of an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) fed by a heat source with adaptable temperature and mass flow. For a suitable choice of working fluid, the setting of its evaporation pressure is crucial for the performance of an ORC installation. The higher the evaporation pressure, the higher the cycle efficiency on the one hand, but the lower the energy recovered from the heat source due to a higher outlet temperature on the other hand. An optimum has to be found to achie...

  5. Technology for industrial waste heat recovery by organic Rankine cycle systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, W. G.; Drake, R. L.; Prisco, C. J.

    1984-10-01

    The recovery of industrial waste heat and the conversion thereof to useful electric power by use of Rankine cycle systems is studied. Four different aspects of ORC technology were studied: possible destructive chemical reaction between an aluminum turbine wheel and R-113 working fluid under wheel-to-rotor rub conditions; possible chemical reaction between stainless steel or carbon steel and any of five different ORC working fluids under rotor-stator rub conditions; effects on electric generator properties of extended exposure to an environment of saturated R-113 vapor/fluid; and operational proof tests under laboratory conditions of two 1070 kW, ORC, R-113 hermetic turbogenerator power module systems.

  6. Thermal energy storage for organic Rankine cycle solar dynamic space power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidenreich, G. R.; Parekh, M. B.

    An organic Rankine cycle-solar dynamic power system (ORC-SDPS) comprises a concentrator, a radiator, a power conversion unit, and a receiver with a thermal energy storage (TES) subsystem which charges and discharges energy to meet power demands during orbital insolation and eclipse periods. Attention is presently given to the criteria used in designing and evaluating an ORC-SDPS TES, as well as the automated test facility employed. It is found that a substantial data base exists for the design of an ORC-SDPS TES subsystem.

  7. Preliminary design package for residential heating/cooling system--Rankine air conditioner redesign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-12-01

    This report contains a summary of the preliminary redesign and development of a marketable single-family heating and cooling system. The objectives discussed are the interim design and schedule status of the Residential (3-ton) redesign, problem areas and solutions, and the definition of plans for future design and development activities. The proposed system for a single-family residential heating and cooling system is a single-loop, solar-assisted, hydronic-to-warm-air heating subsystem with solar-assisted domestic water heating and a Rankine-driven expansion air-conditioning subsystem.

  8. Multi-Objective Optimization of Organic Rankine Cycle Power Plants Using Pure and Mixed Working Fluids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jesper Graa; Kærn, Martin Ryhl; Pierobon, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    , which is beneficial for cycle performance. On the other hand, larger heat transfer surface areas are typically required for evaporation and condensation when zeotropic mixtures are used as working fluids. In order to assess the feasibility of using zeotropic mixtures, it is, therefore, important......For zeotropic mixtures, the temperature varies during phase change, which is opposed to the isothermal phase change of pure fluids. The use of such mixtures as working fluids in organic Rankine cycle power plants enables a minimization of the mean temperature difference of the heat exchangers...

  9. Multi-objective optimization of organic Rankine cycle power plants using pure and mixed working fluids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jesper Graa; Kærn, Martin Ryhl; Pierobon, Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    For zeotropic mixtures, the temperature varies during phase change, which is opposed to the isothermalphase change of pure fluids. The use of such mixtures as working fluids in organic Rankine cyclepower plants enables a minimization of the mean temperature difference of the heat exchangers whenthe...... minimum pinch point temperature difference is kept fixed. A low mean temperature differencemeans low heat transfer irreversibilities, which is beneficial for cycle performance, but it also results inlarger heat transfer surface areas. Moreover, the two-phase heat transfer coefficients for zeotropic...

  10. A systematic method to customize an efficient organic Rankine cycle (ORC) to recover waste heat in refineries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Haoshui; Feng, Xiao; Wang, Yufei; Biegler, Lorenz T.; Eason, John

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Multiple waste heat streams in refinery are recovered for an ORC using a hot water intermediate. • WHCC and GCC are used to identify opportunities to save utility and/or upgrade waste heat. • The methods consider the interaction between the HEN and ORC in an integrated manner. - Abstract: Organic Rankine cycles (ORCs) convert low temperature waste heat into power. When there are multiple waste heat sources in a refinery, operability and safety considerations may make it more practical to use hot water as the medium to recover waste heat. The hot water stream can then release the heat to the organic working fluid in an ORC system. In this paper, how to customize an efficient ORC for a heat exchanger network (HEN) to optimally recover multiple strands of waste heat is investigated. Because the heat exchanger network structure, the hot water loop, and ORC system interact with each other, the coordination and synthesis of these systems ought to be considered simultaneously to maximize the energy performance. A methodology is proposed using the waste heat composite curve (WHCC) and grand composite curve (GCC) to diagnose inefficiencies in an existing heat exchanger network. In addition, the WHCC can be used to solve the problem of the tradeoff between waste heat quality and quantity recovered with an intermediate stream. WHCCs are classified into two types, and procedures for designing the recovery network for each type are presented while considering the interaction with working fluid selection. The methods proposed in this paper can help engineers diagnose problems with the original heat exchanger network, and determine the flowrate of hot water, the structure of the waste heat recovery network, the best working fluid and the operating conditions of ORC system in an integrated manner. The ideas are applied to an illustrative case study in collaboration with Sinopec. The case study shows the effectiveness of this method and compares different

  11. Thermodynamic analysis of an integrated gasification solid oxide fuel cell plant combined with an organic Rankine cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pierobon, Leonardo; Rokni, Masoud; Larsen, Ulrik

    2013-01-01

    into a fixed bed gasification plant to produce syngas which fuels the combined solid oxide fuel cells e organic Rankine cycle system to produce electricity. More than a hundred fluids are considered as possible alternative for the organic cycle using non-ideal equations of state (or state-of-the-art equations......A 100 kWe hybrid plant consisting of gasification system, solid oxide fuel cells and organic Rankine cycle is presented. The nominal power is selected based on cultivation area requirement. For the considered output a land of around 0.5 km2 needs to be utilized. Woodchips are introduced...... achieved by simple and double stage organic Rankine cycle plants and around the same efficiency of a combined gasification, solid oxide fuel cells and micro gas turbine plant. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  12. Thermodynamic performance analysis of a coupled transcritical and subcritical organic Rankine cycle system for waste heat recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Xi Wu [Zhejiang Ocean University, Zhejian (China); Wang, Xiao Qiong; Li, You Rong; Wu, Chun Mei [Chongqing University, Chongqing (China)

    2015-07-15

    We present a novel coupled organic Rankine cycle (CORC) system driven by the low-grade waste heat, which couples a transcritical organic Rankine cycle with a subcritical organic Rankine cycle. Based on classical thermodynamic theory, a detailed performance analysis on the novel CORC system was performed. The results show that the pressure ratio of the expander is decreased in the CORC and the selection of the working fluids becomes more flexible and abundant. With the increase of the pinch point temperature difference of the internal heat exchanger, the net power output and thermal efficiency of the CORC all decrease. With the increase of the critical temperature of the working fluid, the system performance of the CORC is improved. The net power output and thermal efficiency of the CORC with isentropic working fluids are higher than those with dry working fluids.

  13. SOLERAS - Solar Controlled Environment Agriculture Project. Final report, Volume 4. Saudi Engineering Solar Energy Applications System Design Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    Literature summarizing a study on the Saudi Arabian solar controlled environment agriculture system is presented. Specifications and performance requirements for the system components are revealed. Detailed performance and cost analyses are used to determine the optimum design. A preliminary design of an engineering field test is included. Some weather data are provided for Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. (BCS)

  14. NASTRAN thermal analyzer: Theory and application including a guide to modeling engineering problems, volume 1. [thermal analyzer manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, H. P.

    1977-01-01

    The NASTRAN Thermal Analyzer Manual describes the fundamental and theoretical treatment of the finite element method, with emphasis on the derivations of the constituent matrices of different elements and solution algorithms. Necessary information and data relating to the practical applications of engineering modeling are included.

  15. CRITERIA POLLUTANT EMISSIONS FROM INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES IN THE NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY VOLUME II. APPENDICES A-I

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report summarizes emission factors for criteria pollutants (NOx, CO, CH4, C2H6, THC, NMHC, and NMEHC) from stationary internal combustion engines and gas turbines used in the natural gas industry. The emission factors were calculated from test results from five test campaigns...

  16. 40 CFR 1054.635 - What special provisions apply for small-volume engine and equipment manufacturers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... provisions apply as specified in this part. (b) If you are a small business (as defined by the Small Business... be expected to fulfill future regulatory obligations and administrative judgments. We may also... before you certify your engines for the next model year, we might allow you to use assigned deterioration...

  17. Space-based solar power conversion and delivery systems study. Volume 2: Engineering analysis of orbital systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    Program plans, schedules, and costs are determined for a synchronous orbit-based power generation and relay system. Requirements for the satellite solar power station (SSPS) and the power relay satellite (PRS) are explored. Engineering analysis of large solar arrays, flight mechanics and control, transportation, assembly and maintenance, and microwave transmission are included.

  18. Off-design performance analysis of a solar-powered organic Rankine cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jiangfeng; Yan, Zhequan; Zhao, Pan; Dai, Yiping

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Solar-powered organic Rankine cycle with CPC and thermal storage unit is studied. • Off-design performances encountering the changes of key parameters are examined. • Off-design performance is analyzed over a whole day and in different months. - Abstract: Performance evaluation of a thermodynamic system under off-design conditions is very important for reliable and cost-effective operation. In this study, an off-design model of an organic Rankine cycle driven by solar energy is established with compound parabolic collector (CPC) to collect the solar radiation and thermal storage unit to achieve the continuous operation of the overall system. The system off-design behavior is examined under the change in environment temperature, as well as thermal oil mass flow rates of vapor generator and CPC. In addition, the off-design performance of the system is analyzed over a whole day and in different months. The results indicate that a decrease in environment temperature, or the increases in thermal oil mass flow rates of vapor generator and CPC could improve the off-design performance. The system obtains the maximum average exergy efficiency in December and the maximum net power output in June or in September. Both the net power output and the average exergy efficiency reach minimum values in August

  19. Selecting working fluids in an organic Rankine cycle for power generation from low temperature heat sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredy Vélez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo presenta un estudio termodinámico realizado sobre el uso de fuentes de calor de baja temperatura para la generaci ón de energía a través de un ciclo Rankin e subcrítico con fluidos de trabajo orgánicos. Un análisis d el estado del arte de esta tecn ología muestra como línea de investigación abierta, la selección del fluido de trabajo, pues hasta ahora, no existe un fluido que satisfaga t odos los aspectos medioambientales y técnicos a tener en cuenta en estos ciclos. Por ello, se ha desarrollado una serie de simulaciones que permiten estudiar el comportamiento del ciclo Rankine con difer entes configuraciones y fluidos (húmedo, seco e isoentrópico, permitiendo con ello observar de qué manera influyen cambios ta nto en esos tipos de fluidos utilizados (refrigerantes, hidroca rburos y agua, como de condiciones de temperatura, presión, flujo, etc. , sobre la eficiencia total del ciclo. Con el trabajo realizado se demuestra la viabilidad de este tipo de proceso en la recuperación de calore s en la industria y/o aprovechamiento de fuentes renovables de baja y media temperatura para la producción de energía eléctrica.

  20. Waste Heat Recovery of a PEMFC System by Using Organic Rankine Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianqi He

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, two systems are brought forward to recover the waste heat of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC, which are named the organic Rankine cycle (ORC, and heat pump (HP combined organic Rankine cycle (HPORC. The performances of both systems are simulated on the platform of MATLAB with R123, R245fa, R134a, water, and ethanol being selected as the working fluid, respectively. The results show that, for PEMFC where operating temperature is constantly kept at 60 °C, there exists an optimum working temperature for each fluid in ORC and HPORC. In ORC, the maximal net power can be achieved with R245fa being selected as the working fluid. The corresponding thermal efficiency of the recovery system is 4.03%. In HPORC, the maximal net power can be achieved with water being selected in HP and R123 in ORC. The thermal efficiency of the recovery system increases to 4.73%. Moreover, the possibility of using ORC as the cooling system of PEMFC is also studied. The heat released from PEMFC stack is assumed to be wholly recovered by the ORC or HPORC system. The results indicate that the HPORC system is much more feasible for the cooling system of a PEMFC stack, since the heat recovery ability can be promoted due to the presence of HP.

  1. Simulation of a passive house coupled with a heat pump/organic Rankine cycle reversible unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dumont, Olivier; Carmo, Carolina; Randaxhe, François

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a dynamic model of a passive house located in Denmark with a large solar absorber, a horizontal ground heat exchanger coupled with a HP/ORC unit. The HP/ORC reversible unit is a module able to work as an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) or as a heat pump (HP). There are 3 possible ...... presents a higher global COP because the heat produced on the roof can heat the storage directly.......This paper presents a dynamic model of a passive house located in Denmark with a large solar absorber, a horizontal ground heat exchanger coupled with a HP/ORC unit. The HP/ORC reversible unit is a module able to work as an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) or as a heat pump (HP). There are 3 possible...... modes that need to be chosen optimally depending on the weather conditions, the heat demand and the temperature level of the storage. The ORC mode is activated, as long as the heat demand of the house is covered by the storage to produce electricity based upon the heat generated by the solar roof...

  2. Selection of Optimum Working Fluid for Organic Rankine Cycles by Exergy and Exergy-Economic Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamyar Darvish

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The thermodynamic performance of a regenerative organic Rankine cycle that utilizes low temperature heat sources to facilitate the selection of proper organic working fluids is simulated. Thermodynamic models are used to investigate thermodynamic parameters such as output power, and energy efficiency of the ORC (Organic Rankine Cycle. In addition, the cost rate of electricity is examined with exergo-economic analysis. Nine working fluids are considered as part of the investigation to assess which yields the highest output power and exergy efficiency, within system constraints. Exergy efficiency and cost rate of electricity are used as objective functions for system optimization, and each fluid is assessed in terms of the optimal operating condition. The degree of superheat and the pressure ratio are independent variables in the optimization. R134a and iso-butane are found to exhibit the highest energy and exergy efficiencies, while they have output powers in between the systems using other working fluids. For a source temperature was equal to 120 °C, the exergy efficiencies for the systems using R134a and iso-butane are observed to be 19.6% and 20.3%, respectively. The largest exergy destructions occur in the boiler and the expander. The electricity cost rates for the system vary from 0.08 USD/kWh to 0.12 USD/kWh, depending on the fuel input cost, for the system using R134a as a working fluid.

  3. Multi-Objective Optimization of Organic Rankine Cycle Power Plants Using Pure and Mixed Working Fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesper G. Andreasen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available For zeotropic mixtures, the temperature varies during phase change, which is opposed to the isothermal phase change of pure fluids. The use of such mixtures as working fluids in organic Rankine cycle power plants enables a minimization of the mean temperature difference of the heat exchangers, which is beneficial for cycle performance. On the other hand, larger heat transfer surface areas are typically required for evaporation and condensation when zeotropic mixtures are used as working fluids. In order to assess the feasibility of using zeotropic mixtures, it is, therefore, important to consider the additional costs of the heat exchangers. In this study, we aim at evaluating the economic feasibility of zeotropic mixtures compared to pure fluids. We carry out a multi-objective optimization of the net power output and the component costs for organic Rankine cycle power plants using low-temperature heat at 90 ∘ C to produce electrical power at around 500 kW. The primary outcomes of the study are Pareto fronts, illustrating the power/cost relations for R32, R134a and R32/R134a (0.65/0.35 mole . The results indicate that R32/R134a is the best of these fluids, with 3.4 % higher net power than R32 at the same total cost of 1200 k$.

  4. Scoping calculation of nuclides migration in engineering barrier system for effect of volume expansion due to overpack corrosion and intrusion of the buffer material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshita, Takashi; Ishihara, Yoshinao; Ishiguro, Katsuhiko; Ohi, Takao; Nakajima, Kunihiko

    1999-11-01

    Corrosion of the carbon steel overpack leads to a volume expansion since the specific gravity of corrosion products is smaller than carbon steel. The buffer material is compressed due to the corrosive swelling, reducing its thickness and porosity. On the other hand, buffer material may be extruded into fractures of the surrounding rock and this may lead to a deterioration of the planned functions of the buffer, including retardation of nuclides migration and colloid filtration. In this study, the sensitivity analyses for the effect of volume expansion and intrusion of the buffer material on nuclide migration in the engineering barrier system are carried out. The sensitivity analyses were performed on the decrease in the thickness of the buffer material in the radial direction caused by the corrosive swelling, and the change in the porosity and dry density of the buffer caused by both compacting due to corrosive swelling and intrusion of buffer material. As results, it was found the maximum release rates of relatively shorter half-life nuclides from the outside of the buffer material decreased for taking into account of a volume expansion due to overpack corrosion. On the other hand, the maximum release rates increased when the intrusion of buffer material was also taking into account. It was, however, the maximum release rates of longer half-life nuclides, such as Cs-137 and Np-237, were insensitive to the change of buffer material thickness, and porosity and dry density of buffer. (author)

  5. Satellite Power Systems (SPS) concept definition study, exhibit C. Volume 2, part 2: System engineering, cost and programmatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, G. M.

    1979-01-01

    Volume 2, Part 2, of a seven volume Satellite Power Systems (SPS) report is presented. Part 2 covers cost and programmatics and is divided into four sections. The first section gives illustrations of the SPS reference satellite and rectenna concept, and an overall scenario for SPS space transportation involvement. The second section presents SPS program plans for the implementation of PHASE C/D activities. These plans describe SPS program schedules and networks, critical items of systems evolution/technology development, and the natural resources analysis. The fourth section presents summary comments on the methods and rationale followed in arriving at the results documented. Suggestions are also provided in those areas where further analysis or evaluation will enhance SPS cost and programmatic definitions.

  6. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE) Summer Faculty Fellowship Program, 1989, volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, William B., Jr. (Editor); Goldstein, Stanley H. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    The 1989 Johnson Space Center (JSC) National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE) Summer Faculty Fellowship Program was conducted by Texas A and M University and JSC. The 10-week program was operated under the auspices of the ASEE. The program at JSC, as well as the programs at other NASA Centers, was funded by the Office of University Affairs, NASA Headquarters, Washington, D.C. The objectives of the program, which began nationally in 1964 and at JSC in 1965, are: (1) to further the professional knowledge of qualified engineering and science faculty members; (2) to stimulate an exchange of ideas between participants and NASA; (3) to enrich and refresh the research and teaching activities of participants' institutions; and (4) to contribute to the research objective of the NASA Centers.

  7. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE) Summer Faculty Fellowship Program 1988, volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannerot, Richard B.; Goldstein, Stanley H.

    1989-01-01

    The 1988 Johnson Space Center (JSC) National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE) Summer Faculty Fellowship Program was conducted by the University of Houston and JCS. The 10-week program was operated under the auspices of the ASEE. The program at JSC, as well as the programs at other NASA Centers, was funded by the Office of University Affairs, NASA Headquarters, Washington, D.C. The objectives of the program, which began in 1965 at JSC and in 1964 nationally, are: (1) to further the professional knowledge of qualified engineering and science faculty members; (2) to stimulate an exchange of ideas between participants and NASA; (3) to enrich and refresh the research and teaching activities of participants' institutions; and (4) to contribute to the research objectives of the NASA Centers.

  8. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE) Summer Faculty Fellowship Program, 1989, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, William B., Jr. (Editor); Goldstein, Stanley H. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    The 1989 Johnson Space Center (JSC) National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE) Summer Faculty Fellowship Program was conducted by Texas A and M University and JSC. The 10-week program was operated under the auspices of the ASEE. The program at JSC, as well as the programs at other NASA Centers, was funded by the Office of University Affairs, NASA Headquarters, Washington, D.C. The objectives of the program, which began nationally in 1964 and at JSC in 1965, are: (1) to further the professional knowledge of qualified engineering and science faculty members; (2) to stimulate an exchange of ideas between participants and NASA; (3) to enrich and refresh the research and teaching activities of participants' institutions; and (4) to contribute to the research objective of the NASA Centers.

  9. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE) Summer Faculty Fellowship Program 1988, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannerot, Richard B. (Editor); Goldstein, Stanley H. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    The 1988 Johnson Space Center (JSC) National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE) Summer Faculty Fellowship Program was conducted by the University of Houston and JSC. The 10-week program was operated under the auspices of the ASEE. The program at JSC, as well as the programs at other NASA Centers, was funded by the Office of University Affairs, NASA Headquarters, Washington, D.C. The objectives of the program, which began in 1965 at JSC and in 1964 nationally, are (1) to further the professional knowledge of qualified engineering and science faculty members; (2) to stimulate an exchange of ideas between participants and NASA; (3) to enrich and refresh the research and teaching activities of participants' institutions; and (4) to contribute to the research objectives of the NASA Centers.

  10. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE) Summer Faculty Fellowship Program, 1992, volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannerot, Richard B. (Editor); Goldstein, Stanley H. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    The 1992 Johnson Space Center (JSC) National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE) Summer Faculty Fellowship Program was conducted by the University of Houston and JSC. The program at JSC, as well as the programs at other NASA Centers, was funded by the Office of University Affairs, NASA Headquarters Washington, DC. The objectives of the program, which began nationally in 1964 and at JSC in 1965, are (1) to further the professional knowledge of qualified engineering and science faculty members; (2) to stimulate an exchange of ideas between participants and NASA; (3) to enrich and refresh the research and teaching activities of participants' institutions; and (4) to contribute to the research objective of the NASA Centers. This document contains reports 13 through 24.

  11. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE) Summer Faculty Fellowship Program, 1987, volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, William B., Jr. (Editor); Goldstein, Stanley H. (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    The 1987 Johnson Space Center (JCS) National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE) Summer Faculty Fellowship program was conducted by Texas A and M University and JSC. The 10-week program was operated under the auspices of ASEE. The basic objectives of the program are: to further the professional knowledge of qualified engineering and science faculty members; to stimulate an exchange of ideas between participants and NASA; to enrich and refresh the research and teaching activities of participants' institutions; and to contribute to the research objective of the NASA Centers. This document is a compilation of the final reports on the research projects done by the faculty fellows during the summer of 1987.

  12. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE) Summer Faculty Fellowship Program, 1992, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannerot, Richard B. (Editor); Goldstein, Stanley H. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    The 1992 Johnson Space Center (JSC) National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE) Summer Faculty Fellowship Program was conducted by the University of Houston and JSC. The program at JSC, as well as the programs at other NASA Centers, was funded by the Office of University Affairs, Washington, DC. The objectives of the program, which began nationally in 1964 and at JSC in 1965, are (1) to further the professional knowledge of qualified engineering and science faculty members; (2) to stimulate an exchange of ideas between participants and NASA; (3) to enrich and refresh the research and teaching activities of participants' institutions; and (4) to contribute to the research objective of the NASA Centers. This document is a compilation of the final reports 1 through 12.

  13. CrossTalk: The Journal of Defense Software Engineering. Volume 27, Number 6, November/December 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    conclusion lest the analysis is biased . 6 CrossTalk—November/December 2014 SOFTWARE ENGINEERING TOOLS AND THE PROCESSES THEY SUPPORT To demonstrate...In some Agile development environments the relative separa- tion between tools and processes is so seamless as to be almost subconscious to process...a well-articulated process description, but if the performer is a tool lover, he will find fault with the defined process, always having a bias for

  14. CrossTalk. The Journal of Defense Software Engineering. Volume 23, Number 6, Nov/Dec 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    such standards are International Standards Organization/ International Electrotechnical Commission ( ISO / IEC) standards 15288 for system engineering...and 12207 for software development. 13. Office of the DoD CIO. White Paper Phase I: A Competency Framework for the DoD Architect. Washington...processes in later phases. DoD-Centric Use Case Current support for net-centric operations is based on iso - lated deployments of relevant services in

  15. Annual Systems Engineering Conference (9th): Focusing on Improving Performance of Defense Systems Programs. Volume 3. Wednesday

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-10-26

    Bubble and Requirements Management by Mr. Jimmy Thai Cost Efficient Risk Management Through Integrated T&E Throughout the Systems Engineering Life-Cycle...ACSG/ Miller Seven Steps of an Effective Lessons Learned Process by Mr. Jimmy Thai Lessons Learned from a Mature DMSMS Program by SQNLDR P.D.Weeding...Aircraft AAR-47 Missile Warning System (MWS) GTRI_B-9 Lessons Learned with System Integration - 9 Theatre Airborne Reconnaissance System (TARS

  16. Materials of 47. Scientific Assembly of Polish Chemical Society and Association of Engineers and Technicians of Chemical Industry. Volume 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Scientific assemblies of Polish Chemical Society are the most important chemical meeting organised annually in Poland. Basic as well as application studies in all chemical branches have been extensively presented. The next subjects was proposed as scientific sessions and symposia topics: organic chemistry, inorganic chemistry, physical chemistry, analytical chemistry, technology and chemical engineering, polymer chemistry, solid state chemistry, catalysis, biological chemistry, chemistry and technology of coal, environmental protection, didactics of chemistry, history of chemistry, young scientist forum

  17. Backup power working group best practices handbook for maintenance and operation of engine generators, Volume 1. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, R.; Padgett, A.B.; Burrows, K.P.; Fairchild, P.N.; Lam, T.; Janes, J.

    1997-01-01

    This handbook is divided into the four chapters. Chapter one covers the design, procurement, storage, handling and testing of diesel fuel oil to be used in DOE backup power supplies. Chapter two discusses the selection of automatic transfer switches to be used in DOE backup power supplies. Chapter three is about low voltage open frame air circuit breaker operation, testing, and maintenance for DOE backup power supplies. And chapter four covers installation, design, and maintenance of engine cooling water and jacket water systems

  18. Engineered materials characterization report for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. Volume 1, Introduction, history, and current candidates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Konynenburg, R.A.; McCright, R.D.; Roy, A.K.; Jones, D.A.

    1995-08-01

    The purpose of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project is to evaluate Yucca Mountain for its suitability as a potential site for the nation's first high-level nuclear waste repository. As part of this effort, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has been occupied for a number of years with developing and evaluating the performance of waste packages for the potential repository. In recent years this work has been carried out under the guidance of and in collaboration with the Management and Operating contractor for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System, TRW Environmental Safety Systems, Inc., which in turn reports to the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management of the US Department of Energy. This report summarizes the history of the selection and characterization of materials to be used in the engineered barrier system for the potential repository at Yucca Mountain, describes the current candidate materials, presents a compilation of their properties, and summarizes available corrosion data and modeling. The term ''engineered materials'' is intended to distinguish those materials that are used as part of the engineered barrier system from the natural, geologic materials of the site

  19. Environmental and other evaluations of alternatives for management of defense transuranic waste at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Volume 1 of 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-04-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for developing and implementing methods for the safe and environmentally acceptable disposal of radioactive wastes. In connection with this responsibility, the DOE is formulating a program for the long-term management of transuranic (TRU) waste buried and stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). This report has been prepared to document the results of environmental and other evaluations for three decisions that the DOE is considering: (1) the selection of a general method for the long-term management of the buried TRU waste; (2) the selection of a method for processing the stored waste and for processing the buried waste, if it is retrieved; (3) the selection of a location for the waste-processing facility. This document pertains only to the contact-handled TRU waste buried in pits and trenches and the contact-handled TRU waste held in aboveground storage at the INEL. A decision has previously been made on a method for the long-term management of the stored waste; it will be retrieved and shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, New Mexico. The WIPP is also used in this report as a reference repository for evaluation purposes for the buried waste. This report is contained in two volumes. Volume I is arranged as follows: the summary is an overview of the analyses contained in this document. Section 1 is a statement of the underlying purpose and need to which the report is responding. Section 2 describes the alterntives. Section 3 describes the affected environment at the INEL and the WIPP sites. Section 4 analyzes the environmental effects of each alternative. The appendices in Volume II contain data and discussions supporting the material presented in Volume I

  20. Optimization of the ship type using waveform by means of Rankine source method; Rankine source ho ni yoru hakei wo mochiita funagata saitekika ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirayama, A; Eguchi, T [Mitsui Engineering and Shipbuilding Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-04-10

    Among the numerical calculation methods for steady-state wave-making problems, the panel shift Rankine source (PSRS) method has the advantages of rather precise determination of wave pattern of practical ship types, and short calculation period. The wave pattern around the hull was calculated by means of the PSRS method. The waveform analysis was carried out for the wave, to obtain an amplitude function of the original ship type. Based on the amplitude function, a ship type improvement method aiming at the optimization of ship type was provided using a conditional calculus of variation. A Series 60 (Cb=0.6) ship type was selected for the ship type improvement, to apply this technique. It was suggested that optimum design can be made for reducing the wave making resistance by means of this method. For the improvement of Series 60 ship type using this method, a great degree of reduction in the wave making resistance was recognized from the results of numerical waveform analysis. It was suggested that the ship type improvement aiming at the reduction of wave-making resistance can be made in shorter period and by smaller labor compared with the method using a waveform analysis of cistern tests. 5 refs., 9 figs.

  1. Materials and process engineering projects for the Sandia National Laboratories/Newly Independent States Industrial Partnering Program. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zanner, F.J.; Moffatt, W.C.

    1995-07-01

    In July, 1994, a team of materials specialists from Sandia and US. Industry traveled to Russia and the Ukraine to select and fund projects in materials and process technology in support of the Newly Independent States/Industrial Partnering Program (NIS/IPP). All of the projects are collaborations with scientists and Engineers at NIS Institutes. Each project is scheduled to last one year, and the deliverables are formatted to supply US. Industry with information which will enable rational decisions to be made regarding the commercial value of these technologies. This work is an unedited interim compilation of the deliverables received to date

  2. Materials and process engineering projects for the Sandia National Laboratories/Newly Independent States Industrial Partnering Program. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanner, F.J.; Moffatt, W.C.

    1995-07-01

    In July, 1994, a team of materials specialists from Sandia and U S Industry traveled to Russia and the Ukraine to select and fund projects in materials and process technology in support of the Newly Independent States/Industrial Partnering Program (NIS/IPP). All of the projects are collaborations with scientists and Engineers at NIS Institutes. Each project is scheduled to last one year, and the deliverables are formatted to supply US Industry with information which will enable rational decisions to be made regarding the commercial value of these technologies. This work is an unedited interim compilation of the deliverables received to date.

  3. Materials and process engineering projects for the Sandia National Laboratories/Newly Independent States Industrial Partnering Program. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanner, F.J.; Moffatt, W.C.

    1995-07-01

    In July, 1994, a team of materials specialists from Sandia and US. Industry traveled to Russia and the Ukraine to select and fund projects in materials and process technology in support of the Newly Independent States/Industrial Partnering Program (NIS/IPP). All of the projects are collaborations with scientists and Engineers at NIS Institutes. Each project is scheduled to last one year, and the deliverables are formatted to supply US. Industry with information which will enable rational decisions to be made regarding the commercial value of these technologies. This work is an unedited interim compilation of the deliverables received to date.

  4. Biomedical Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Suh, Sang C; Tanik, Murat M

    2011-01-01

    Biomedical Engineering: Health Care Systems, Technology and Techniques is an edited volume with contributions from world experts. It provides readers with unique contributions related to current research and future healthcare systems. Practitioners and researchers focused on computer science, bioinformatics, engineering and medicine will find this book a valuable reference.

  5. Selection and optimization of pure and mixed working fluids for low grade heat utilization using organic Rankine cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jesper Graa; Larsen, Ulrik; Knudsen, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    We present a generic methodology for organic Rankine cycle optimization, where the working fluid is included as an optimization parameter, in order to maximize the net power output of the cycle. The method is applied on two optimization cases with hot fluid inlet temperatures at 120°C and 90°C. P...

  6. Optimizing cutoff scores for the Barthel Index and the modified Rankin Scale for defining outcome in acute stroke trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uyttenboogaart, Maarten; Stewart, Roy E; Vroomen, Patrick C A J; De Keyser, Jacques; Luijckx, Gert-Jan

    Background and Purpose - There is little agreement on how to assess outcome in acute stroke trials. Cutoff scores for the Barthel Index (BI) and modified Rankin Scale (mRS) are frequently arbitrarily chosen to dichotomize favorable and unfavorable outcome. We investigated sensitivity and specificity

  7. Site-specific probabilistic seismic hazard analyses for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Volume 1: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-05-01

    This report describes and summarizes a probabilistic evaluation of ground motions for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The purpose of this evaluation is to provide a basis for updating the seismic design criteria for the INEL. In this study, site-specific seismic hazard curves were developed for seven facility sites as prescribed by DOE Standards 1022-93 and 1023-96. These sites include the: Advanced Test Reactor (ATR); Argonne National Laboratory West (ANL); Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP or CPP); Power Burst Facility (PBF); Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC); Naval Reactor Facility (NRF); and Test Area North (TAN). The results, probabilistic peak ground accelerations and uniform hazard spectra, contained in this report are not to be used for purposes of seismic design at INEL. A subsequent study will be performed to translate the results of this probabilistic seismic hazard analysis to site-specific seismic design values for the INEL as per the requirements of DOE Standard 1020-94. These site-specific seismic design values will be incorporated into the INEL Architectural and Engineering Standards

  8. Working fluid selection for organic Rankine cycles - Impact of uncertainty of fluid properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frutiger, Jerome; Andreasen, Jesper Graa; Liu, Wei

    2016-01-01

    of processmodels and constraints 2) selection of property models, i.e. Penge Robinson equation of state 3)screening of 1965 possible working fluid candidates including identification of optimal process parametersbased on Monte Carlo sampling 4) propagating uncertainty of fluid parameters to the ORC netpower output......This study presents a generic methodology to select working fluids for ORC (Organic Rankine Cycles)taking into account property uncertainties of the working fluids. A Monte Carlo procedure is described as a tool to propagate the influence of the input uncertainty of the fluid parameters on the ORC....... The net power outputs of all the feasible working fluids were ranked including their uncertainties. The method could propagate and quantify the input property uncertainty of the fluidproperty parameters to the ORC model, giving an additional dimension to the fluid selection process. In the given analysis...

  9. Comparative investigation of working fluids for an organic Rankine cycle with geothermal water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yan-Na

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the thermodynamic investigation on the use of geothermal water (130 °C as maximum for power generation through a basic Rankine has been presented together with obtained main results. Six typical organic working fluids (i.e., R245fa, R141b, R290, R600, R152a, and 134a were studied with modifying the input pressure and temperature to the turbine. The results show that there are no significant changes taking place in the efficiency for these working fluids with overheating the inlet fluid to the turbine, i.e., efficiency is a weak function of temperature. However, with the increasing of pressure ratio in the turbine, the efficiency rises more sharply. The technical viability is shown of implementing this type of process for recovering low temperature heat resource.

  10. Leak detectors for organic Rankine cycle power plants: On-line and manual methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertus, R. J.; Pool, K. H.; Kindle, C. H.; Sullivan, R. G.; Shannon, D. W.; Pierce, D. D.

    1984-10-01

    Two leak detector systems were designed, built, and tested at a binary-cycle (organic Rankine cycle) geothermal plant. One system is capable of detecting water in hydrocarbon streams down to 100 ppm liquid water ion liquid isobutane. The magnitude of the leak is estimated from the frequency at which solenoid-operated valve opens and closes. The second system can detect the presence of isobutane on water or brine streams down to 2 ppm liquid isobutane in liquid water or brine. The unit first cools the liquid stream if necessary then reduces the pressure in an expansion chamber so the hydrocarbon will vaporize. In brine streams flashed CO2 carries the hydrocarbon to a non-dispersive infrared analyzer (NDIR). The NDIR was modified to be highly selective for isobutane. One can estimate the size of a leak knowing the total gas-to-liquid ratio entering the leak detection system and the concentration of hydrocarbon in the gas phase.

  11. Uncertainty assessment of equations of state with application to an organic Rankine cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frutiger, Jerome; Bell, Ian; O’Connell, John P.

    2017-01-01

    Evaluations of equations of state (EoS) should include uncertainty. This study presents a genericmethod to analyse EoS from a detailed uncertainty analysis of the mathematical form and the dataused to obtain EoS parameter values. The method is illustrated by comparison of Soave–Redlich–Kwong (SRK......) cubic EoS with perturbed-chain statistical associating fluid theory (PC-SAFT) EoS for anorganic Rankine cycle (ORC) for heat recovery to power fromthe exhaust gas of a marine diesel engineusing cyclopentane as working fluid. Uncertainties of the EoS input parameters including......Evaluations of equations of state (EoS) should include uncertainty. This study presents a genericmethod to analyse EoS from a detailed uncertainty analysis of the mathematical form and the dataused to obtain EoS parameter values. The method is illustrated by comparison of Soave–Redlich–Kwong (SRK...

  12. Rankine cycle condenser pressure control using an energy conversion device bypass valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Timothy C; Nelson, Christopher R; Zigan, James A

    2014-04-01

    The disclosure provides a waste heat recovery system and method in which pressure in a Rankine cycle (RC) system of the WHR system is regulated by diverting working fluid from entering an inlet of an energy conversion device of the RC system. In the system, an inlet of a controllable bypass valve is fluidly coupled to a working fluid path upstream of an energy conversion device of the RC system, and an outlet of the bypass valve is fluidly coupled to the working fluid path upstream of the condenser of the RC system such that working fluid passing through the bypass valve bypasses the energy conversion device and increases the pressure in a condenser. A controller determines the temperature and pressure of the working fluid and controls the bypass valve to regulate pressure in the condenser.

  13. Control system to a Rankine cycle with a Tesla turbine using arduino

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medeiros, Josenei G.; Guimaraes, Lamartine F.; Placco, Guilherme M.

    2013-01-01

    The thermal Rankine cycle is a thermodynamic cycle which converts heat in energy. This cycle occurs in steady state, in other words the cycle is a closed loop circuit with continuous feedback, which guarantees the reuse process one energy transformed in the various stages of the cycle. This cycle is used to drive a turbine type TESLA designed for the system. The objective of this work is to create the control and automation of this cycle using an micro-controlled system with Arduino that will hold the collection of sensors and the system will act to maintain the balance of the cycle causing it to behave continuously and with less interference from human operation for maintenance. Data will be collected and further processed, where it will display all the sensors and the situation of the actuators involved. Using Arduino system ensures the stability and reliability with a low cost of implementation

  14. Thermodynamic analysis of an integrated solid oxide fuel cell cycle with a rankine cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rokni, Masoud

    2010-01-01

    Hybrid systems consisting of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) on the top of a steam turbine (ST) are investigated. The plants are fired by natural gas (NG). A desulfurization reactor removes the sulfur content in the fuel while a pre-reformer breaks down the heavier hydro-carbons. The pre-treated fuel enters then into the anode side of the SOFC. The remaining fuels after the SOFC stacks enter a burner for further burning. The off-gases are then used to produce steam for a Rankine cycle in a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG). Different system setups are suggested. Cyclic efficiencies up to 67% are achieved which is considerably higher than the conventional combined cycles (CC). Both adiabatic steam reformer (ASR) and catalytic partial oxidation (CPO) fuel pre-reformer reactors are considered in this investigation.

  15. Working fluid selection for organic Rankine cycles - Impact of uncertainty of fluid properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frutiger, Jerome; Andreasen, Jesper Graa; Liu, Wei

    2016-01-01

    This study presents a generic methodology to select working fluids for ORC (Organic Rankine Cycles)taking into account property uncertainties of the working fluids. A Monte Carlo procedure is described as a tool to propagate the influence of the input uncertainty of the fluid parameters on the ORC...... modeloutput, and provides the 95%-confidence interval of the net power output with respect to the fluid property uncertainties. The methodology has been applied to a molecular design problem for an ORCusing a low-temperature heat source and consisted of the following four parts: 1) formulation...... of processmodels and constraints 2) selection of property models, i.e. Penge Robinson equation of state 3)screening of 1965 possible working fluid candidates including identification of optimal process parametersbased on Monte Carlo sampling 4) propagating uncertainty of fluid parameters to the ORC netpower output...

  16. Parametric optimization and comparative study of organic Rankine cycle (ORC) for low grade waste heat recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Yiping; Wang Jiangfeng; Gao Lin

    2009-01-01

    Organic Rankine cycles for low grade waste heat recovery are described with different working fluids. The effects of the thermodynamic parameters on the ORC performance are examined, and the thermodynamic parameters of the ORC for each working fluid are optimized with exergy efficiency as an objective function by means of the genetic algorithm. The optimum performance of cycles with different working fluids was compared and analyzed under the same waste heat condition. The results show that the cycles with organic working fluids are much better than the cycle with water in converting low grade waste heat to useful work. The cycle with R236EA has the highest exergy efficiency, and adding an internal heat exchanger into the ORC system could not improve the performance under the given waste heat condition. In addition, for the working fluids with non-positive saturation vapor curve slope, the cycle has the best performance property with saturated vapor at the turbine inlet

  17. Development of a computer code for a regenerative Rankine cycle analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wi, Myung Hwan; Kim, Seong O; Choi, Seok Ki; Kim, Jin Hwan

    2005-01-01

    A regenerative Rankine cycle can increase the thermal efficiency of a steam system without increasing the steam pressure and temperature. The regenerative process involves heating the feedwater on its return trip to the steam generator by extracting steam at various stages of the turbine and transferring the energy to the feedwater via a feedwater heater. Some real plants use more than five feedwater heaters to enhance the cycle efficiency. However, the optimum number of feedwater heaters required is determined by balancing the efficiency improvement against the capital investment for a given cycle. In the present study, the computer code, TAOPCS, for the thermodynamic analysis of a regenerative steam cycle was developed to optimally design and accurately analyze the behavior of the power conversion system of Korea Advance Liquid Metal Reactor (KALIMER). In order to understand the functions and the characteristics of the code, the main features of the TAPCS were described and the example results are presented in this paper

  18. Potassium Rankine cycle power conversion systems for lunar-Mars surface power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holcomb, R.S.

    1992-01-01

    The potassium Rankine cycle has good potential for application to nuclear power systems for surface power on the moon and Mars. A substantial effort on the development of the power conversion system was carried out in the 1960's which demonstrated successful operation of components made of stainless steel at moderate temperatures. This technology could be applied in the near term to produce a 360 kW(e) power system by coupling a stainless steel power conversion system to the SP-100 reactor. Improved performance could be realized in later systems by utilizing niobium or tantalum refractory metal alloys in the reactor and power conversion system. The design characteristics and estimated mass of power systems for each of three technology levels are presented in the paper

  19. Control system to a Rankine cycle with a Tesla turbine using arduino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medeiros, Josenei G., E-mail: joseneigodoi@yahoo.com.br [Faculdade de Tecnologia Sao Francisco (FATESF), Jacarei, SP (Brazil); Guimaraes, Lamartine F.; Placco, Guilherme M., E-mail: guimarae@ieav.cta.br, E-mail: placco@ieav.cta.br [Instituto de Estudos Avancados (ENU/IEAv/DCTA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Departamento de Energia Nuclear

    2013-07-01

    The thermal Rankine cycle is a thermodynamic cycle which converts heat in energy. This cycle occurs in steady state, in other words the cycle is a closed loop circuit with continuous feedback, which guarantees the reuse process one energy transformed in the various stages of the cycle. This cycle is used to drive a turbine type TESLA designed for the system. The objective of this work is to create the control and automation of this cycle using an micro-controlled system with Arduino that will hold the collection of sensors and the system will act to maintain the balance of the cycle causing it to behave continuously and with less interference from human operation for maintenance. Data will be collected and further processed, where it will display all the sensors and the situation of the actuators involved. Using Arduino system ensures the stability and reliability with a low cost of implementation.

  20. Performance analysis a of solar driven organic Rankine cycle using multi-component working fluids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baldasso, E.; Andreasen, J. G.; Modi, A.

    2015-01-01

    suitable control strategy and both the overall annual production and the average solar to electrical efficiency are estimated with an annual simulation. The results suggest that the introduction of binary working fluids enables to increase the solar system performance both in design and part-load operation....... cycle. The purpose of this paper is to optimize a low temperature organic Rankine cycle tailored for solar applications. The objective of the optimization is the maximization of the solar to electrical efficiency and the optimization parameters are the working fluid and the turbine inlet temperature...... and pressure. Both pure fluids and binary mixtures are considered as possible working fluids and thus one of the primary aims of the study is to evaluate whether the use of multi-component working fluids might lead to increased solar to electrical efficiencies. The considered configuration includes a solar...

  1. Thermal Stability of Hexamethyldisiloxane (MM for High-Temperature Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Preißinger

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The design of efficient Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC units for the usage of industrial waste heat at high temperatures requires direct contact evaporators without intermediate thermal oil circuits. Therefore, the thermal stability of high-temperature working fluids gains importance. In this study, the thermal degradation of hexamethyldisiloxane (MM is investigated in an electrically heated tube. Qualitative results concerning remarks on degradation products as well as quantitative results like the annual degradation rate are presented. It is shown that MM is stable up to a temperature of 300 °C with annual degradation rates of less than 3.5%. Furthermore, the break of a silicon–carbon bond can be a main chemical reaction that influences the thermal degradation. Finally, it is discussed how the results may impact the future design of ORC units.

  2. Standard technical specifications combustion engineering plants: Bases (Sections 2.0--3.3). Volume 2, Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    This report documents the results of the combined effort of the NRC and the industry to produce improved Standard Technical Specifications (STS), Revision 1 for General Electric BWR/6 Plants. The changes reflected in Revision 1 resulted from the experience gained from license amendment applications to convert to these improved STS or to adopt partial improvements to existing technical specifications. This NUREG is the result of extensive public technical meetings and discussions between the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff and various nuclear power plant licensees, Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) Owners Groups, NSSS vendors, and the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI). The improved STS were developed based on the criteria in the Final Commission Policy Statement on Technical Specifications Improvements for Nuclear Power Reactors, dated July 22, 1993. The improved STS will be used as the basis for individual nuclear power plant licensees to develop improved plant-specific technical specifications. This report contains three volumes

  3. Identifying Structure-Property Relationships Through DREAM.3D Representative Volume Elements and DAMASK Crystal Plasticity Simulations: An Integrated Computational Materials Engineering Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Martin; Groeber, Michael; Haase, Christian; Molodov, Dmitri A.; Roters, Franz; Raabe, Dierk

    2017-05-01

    Predicting, understanding, and controlling the mechanical behavior is the most important task when designing structural materials. Modern alloy systems—in which multiple deformation mechanisms, phases, and defects are introduced to overcome the inverse strength-ductility relationship—give raise to multiple possibilities for modifying the deformation behavior, rendering traditional, exclusively experimentally-based alloy development workflows inappropriate. For fast and efficient alloy design, it is therefore desirable to predict the mechanical performance of candidate alloys by simulation studies to replace time- and resource-consuming mechanical tests. Simulation tools suitable for this task need to correctly predict the mechanical behavior in dependence of alloy composition, microstructure, texture, phase fractions, and processing history. Here, an integrated computational materials engineering approach based on the open source software packages DREAM.3D and DAMASK (Düsseldorf Advanced Materials Simulation Kit) that enables such virtual material development is presented. More specific, our approach consists of the following three steps: (1) acquire statistical quantities that describe a microstructure, (2) build a representative volume element based on these quantities employing DREAM.3D, and (3) evaluate the representative volume using a predictive crystal plasticity material model provided by DAMASK. Exemplarily, these steps are here conducted for a high-manganese steel.

  4. Phase I: the pipeline-gas demonstration plant. Demonstration plant engineering and design. Volume 18. Plant Section 2700 - Waste Water Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-05-01

    Contract No. EF-77-C-01-2542 between Conoco Inc. and the US Department of Energy provides for the design, construction, and operation of a demonstration plant capable of processing bituminous caking coals into clean pipeline quality gas. The project is currently in the design phase (Phase I). This phase is scheduled to be completed in June 1981. One of the major efforts of Phase I is the process and project engineering design of the Demonstration Plant. The design has been completed and is being reported in 24 volumes. This is Volume 18 which reports the design of Plant Section 2700 - Waste Water Treatment. The objective of the Waste Water Treatment system is to collect and treat all plant liquid effluent streams. The system is designed to permit recycle and reuse of the treated waste water. Plant Section 2700 is composed of primary, secondary, and tertiary waste water treatment methods plus an evaporation system which eliminates liquid discharge from the plant. The Waste Water Treatment Section is designed to produce 130 pounds per hour of sludge that is buried in a landfill on the plant site. The evaporated water is condensed and provides a portion of the make-up water to Plant Section 2400 - Cooling Water.

  5. Study on a New Type of Electric-controlled Engine Fuel Consumption Meter Based on Volume Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-Yong Zhang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available At present study on the testing methods and instruments for vehicles’ fuel consumption is still not perfect. It still can’t provide a rapid and accurate measuring method and instrument. A new type of fuel consumption meter structure is developed which used two small containers to relay to supply the engine and realizes oil consumption measuring by detecting the real- time liquid level in the containers. Photoelectric sensors and a chip microcomputer are used to realize transient detection. Its structure and principle are analyzed. The system of its hardware and software of the electric-controlling system are designed. Some key components are selected and the process of exhausting, starting and measuring are designed. Precision test of the system is performed, and the result shows the accuracy of the meter in the range of 800 ml is 0.1 %, which meets the requirements and the feasibility of the structure is verified. Finally the main influencing factors are analyzed.

  6. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE) Summer Faculty Fellowship Program, 1994, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannerot, Richard; Sickorez, Donn G.

    1995-01-01

    The JSC NASA/ASEE Summer Faculty Fellowship Program was conducted by Texas A&M University and JSC. The objectives of the program, which began nationally in 1964 and at JSC in 1965 are to: (1) further the professional knowledge of qualified engineering and science faculty members, (2) stimulate an exchange of ideas between participants and NASA, (3) enrich and refresh the research and teaching activities of participants' institutions, and (4) contribute to the research objectives of the NASA centers. Each faculty fellow spent at least 10 weeks at JSC engaged in a research project in collaboration with a NASA JSC colleague. This document is a compilation of the final reports on the research projects completed by the faculty fellows during the summer of 1994.

  7. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) /American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE) Summer Faculty Fellowship Program. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannerot, Richard B. (Editor); Sickorez, Donn G. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    The 1996 JSC NASA/ASEE Summer Faculty Fellowship Program was conducted by the University of Houston and JSC. The objectives of the program, which began nationally in 1964 and at JSC in 1965 are to (1) further the professional knowledge qualified engineering and science faculty members, (2) stimulate an exchange of ideas between participants and NASA, (3) refresh the research and teaching activities of participants' institutions, and (4) contribute to the research objectives of the NASA centers. Each faculty fellow spent at least 10 weeks at JSC engaged in a research project in collaboration with a NASA JSC colleague. This document is a compilation of the final reports on the research projects completed by the faculty fellows during the summer of 1996.

  8. Thermodynamic analysis of an organic rankine cycle using a tubular solar cavity receiver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loni, R.; Kasaeian, A.B.; Mahian, O.; Sahin, A.Z.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A non-regenerative Organic Rankine Cycle has been analyzed. • R113, R601, R11, R141b, Ethanol and Methanol were used as the working fluid. • A parabolic dish concentrator with a square prismatic cavity receiver was used. • Thermal efficiency, second law efficiency, and net power output were analyzed. - Abstract: In this study, a non-regenerative Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) has been thermodynamically analyzed under superheated conditions, constant evaporator pressure of 2.5 MPa, and condenser temperature of 300 K. R113, R601, R11, R141b, Ethanol and Methanol were employed as the working fluid. A parabolic dish concentrator with a square prismatic tubular cavity receiver was used as the heat source of the ORC system. The effects of the tube diameter, the cavity depth, and the solar irradiation on the thermodynamic performance of the selected working fluid were investigated. Some thermodynamic parameters were analyzed in this study. These thermodynamic parameters included the thermal efficiency, second law efficiency, total irreversibility, availability ratio, mass flow rate, and net power output. The results showed that, among the selected working fluids, methanol had the highest thermal efficiency, net power output, second law efficiency, and availability ratio in the range of turbine inlet temperature (TIT) considered. On the other hand, methanol had the smallest total irreversibility in the same range of TIT. The results showed also that mass flow rate and consequently the net power output increased for higher solar irradiation, smaller tube diameter, and for the case of cubical cavity receiver (i.e. cavity depth h equal to the receiver aperture side length a).

  9. Analysis and optimization of the low-temperature solar organic Rankine cycle (ORC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delgado-Torres, Agustin M.; Garcia-Rodriguez, Lourdes

    2010-01-01

    Solar thermal driven reverse osmosis desalination is a promising renewable energy-driven desalination technology. A joint use of the solar thermal powered organic Rankine cycle (ORC) and the desalination technology of less energy consumption, reverse osmosis (RO), makes this combination interesting in some scarce water resource scenarios. However, prior to any practical experience with any new process, a comprehensive and rigorous theoretical study must be done in order to assess the performance of the new technology or combination of existing technologies. The main objective of the present paper is the expansion of the theoretical analysis done by the authors in previous works to the case in which the thermal energy required by a solar ORC is supplied by means of stationary solar collectors. Twelve substances are considered as working fluids of the ORC and four different models of stationary solar collectors (flat plate collectors, compound parabolic collectors and evacuated tube collectors) are also taken into account. Operating conditions of the solar ORC that minimizes the aperture area needed per unit of mechanical power output of the solar cycle are determined for every working fluid and every solar collector. The former is done considering a direct vapour generation configuration of the solar cycle and also the configuration with water as heat transfer fluid flowing inside the solar collector. This work is part of the theoretical analysis of the solar thermal driven seawater and brackish water reverse osmosis desalination technology. Nevertheless, the supplied information can be also used for the assessment of different applications of the solar ORC. In that case, results presented in this paper can be useful in techno-economic analysis, selection of working fluids of the Rankine cycle, sizing of systems and assessment of solar power cycle configuration.

  10. Performance analyses of geothermal organic Rankine cycles with selected hydrocarbon working fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Qiang; Duan, Yuanyuan; Yang, Zhen

    2013-01-01

    ORC (organic Rankine cycles) are promising systems for conversion of low temperature geothermal energy to electricity. The thermodynamic performance of the ORC with a wet cooling system is analyzed here using hydrocarbon working fluids driven by geothermal water from 100 °C to 150 °C and reinjection temperatures not less than 70 °C. The hydrocarbon working fluids are butane (R600), isobutane (R600a), pentane (R601), isopentane (R601a) and hexane. For each fluid, the ORC net power output first increases and then decreases with increasing turbine inlet temperature. The turbine inlet parameters are then optimized for the maximum power output. The ORC net power output increases as the condensation temperature decreases but the circulating pump power consumption increases especially for lower condensation temperatures at higher cooling water flow rates. The optimal condensation temperatures for the maximum plant power output are 29.45–29.75 °C for a cooling water inlet temperature of 20 °C and a pinch point temperature difference of 5 °C in the condenser. The maximum power is produced by an ORC using R600a at geothermal water inlet temperatures higher than 120 °C, followed by R245fa and R600 for reinjection temperatures not less than 70 °C. R600a also has the highest plant exergetic efficiency with the lowest turbine size factor. - Highlights: • ORC (organic Rankine cycles) using geothermal water from 100 to 150 °C and reinjection temperatures not less than 70 °C are analyzed. • Condensation temperatures optimized to maximize the plant power output. • An IHE (internal heat exchanger) gives higher plant power at low geothermal water temperatures and high reinjection temperatures. • ORC performance optimized considering the condensation and reinjection temperature. • R600a gives the best performance at the optimal turbine operating parameters

  11. Exergy analysis of parabolic trough solar collectors integrated with combined steam and organic Rankine cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Sulaiman, Fahad A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • As the solar irradiation increases, the exergetic efficiency increases. • The R134a combined cycle has best exergetic performance, 26%. • The R600a combined cycle has the lowest exergetic efficiency, 20%. • The main source of exergy destruction is the solar collector. • There is an exergetic improvement potential of 75% in the systems considered. - Abstract: In this paper, detailed exergy analysis of selected thermal power systems driven by parabolic trough solar collectors (PTSCs) is presented. The power is produced using either a steam Rankine cycle (SRC) or a combined cycle, in which the SRC is the topping cycle and an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) is the bottoming cycle. Seven refrigerants for the ORC were examined: R134a, R152a, R290, R407c, R600, R600a, and ammonia. Key exergetic parameters were examined: exergetic efficiency, exergy destruction rate, fuel depletion ratio, irreversibility ratio, and improvement potential. For all the cases considered it was revealed that as the solar irradiation increases, the exergetic efficiency increases. Among the combined cycles examined, the R134a combined cycle demonstrates the best exergetic performance with a maximum exergetic efficiency of 26% followed by the R152a combined cycle with an exergetic efficiency of 25%. Alternatively, the R600a combined cycle has the lowest exergetic efficiency, 20–21%. This study reveals that the main source of exergy destruction is the solar collector where more than 50% of inlet exergy is destructed, or in other words more than 70% of the total destructed exergy. In addition, more than 13% of the inlet exergy is destructed in the evaporator which is equivalent to around 19% of the destructed exergy. Finally, this study reveals that there is an exergetic improvement potential of 75% in the systems considered

  12. Potential of organic Rankine cycle using zeotropic mixtures as working fluids for waste heat recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, You-Rong; Du, Mei-Tang; Wu, Chun-Mei; Wu, Shuang-Ying; Liu, Chao

    2014-01-01

    The performance of the ORC (organic Rankine cycle) systems using zeotropic mixtures as working fluids for recovering waste heat of flue gas from industrial boiler is examined on the basis of thermodynamics and thermo-economics under different operating conditions. In order to explore the potential of the mixtures as the working fluids in the ORC, the effects of various mixtures with different components and composition proportions on the system performance have been analyzed. The results show that the compositions of the mixtures have an important effect on the ORC system performance, which is associated with the temperature glide during the phase change of mixtures. From the point of thermodynamics, the performance of the ORC system is not always improved by employing the mixtures as the working fluids. The merit of the mixtures is related to the restrictive conditions of the ORC, different operating conditions results in different conclusions. At a fixed pinch point temperature difference, the small mean heat transfer temperature difference in heat exchangers will lead to a larger heat transfer area and the larger total cost of the ORC system. Compared with the ORC with pure working fluids, the ORC with the mixtures presents a poor economical performance. - Highlights: • Organic Rankine cycle system with the mixture working fluids for recovering waste heat is analyzed. • The performance of the mixture-fluid ORC is related to temperature glide in phase change of mixture working fluids. • The relative merit of the mixture working fluids depends on the restrictive operation conditions of the ORC. • The ORC with mixture working fluid presents a poor economical performance compared with the pure working fluid case

  13. Tri-State Synfuels Project Review: Volume 12. Fluor project status. [Proposed Henderson, Kentucky coal to gasoline plant; engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to document and summarize activities associated with Fluor's efforts on the Tri-State Synfuels Project. The proposed facility was to be coal-to-transport fuels facility located in Henderson, Kentucky. Tri-State Synfuels Company was participating in the project as a partner of the US Department of Energy per terms of a Cooperative Agreement resulting from DOE's synfuel's program solicitation. Fluor's initial work plan called for preliminary engineering and procurement services to the point of commitment for construction for a Sasol Fischer-Tropsch plant. Work proceeded as planned until October 1981 when results of alternative coal-to-methanol studies revealed the economic disadvantage of the Synthol design for US markets. A number of alternative process studies followed to determine the best process configuration. In January 1982 Tri-State officially announced a change from Synthol to a Methanol to Gasoline (MTG) design basis. Further evaluation and cost estimates for the MTG facility eventually led to the conclusion that, given the depressed economic outlook for alternative fuels development, the project should be terminated. Official announcement of cancellation was made on April 13, 1982. At the time of project cancellation, Fluor had completed significant portions of the preliminary engineering effort. Included in this report are descriptions and summaries of Fluor's work during this project. In addition location of key project data and materials is identified and status reports for each operation are presented.

  14. Optimizing the performance of small-scale organic Rankine cycle that utilizes a single-screw expander

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziviani, D.; Gusev, S.; Lecompte, S.; Groll, E.A.; Braun, J.E.; Horton, W.T.; Broek, M. van den; De Paepe, M.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A total of 102 steady-state points with R245fa and SES336 have been collected. • R245fa led to 10% higher power output despite lower expander isentropic efficiency. • The ORC running with SES36 presented a better matching between expander and cycle. • The theoretical matching between expander volume ratio and cycle efficiency is determined. • Steady-state performance maps are used to build a feed-forward controller. - Abstract: This paper deals with the operation and optimization of a down-scaled industrial organic Rankine cycle (ORC) for low-grade waste heat recovery. The system is a sub-critical regenerative ORC with a nominal power output of 11 kW. The ORC unit has been assembled using off-the-shelf components including three identical plate heat exchangers, a liquid receiver, a multi-stage centrifugal pump and a single-screw compressor adapted to operate as an expander. The experimental results are used to evaluate the influence of the expander performance on the behavior of the ORC system at nominal and part-load conditions. The matching between the volumetric expander and the system operating conditions is also analyzed. Results showed that in the case of SES36, both the expander efficiency and system performance were maximized for a pressure ratio between 7 and 9. In the case of R245fa, while the system efficiency achieved values similar to SES36, but the expander maximum isentropic efficiency was 17% lower. Two analyses are carried out to optimize the operation of the ORC unit with R245fa. At first, the insights gained by analyzing the experimental data are used to evaluate the theoretical matching between volumetric expander and the system maximum efficiency in terms of the Second Law of thermodynamics. Secondly, a control-oriented steady-state cycle model based on empirical correlations calibrated on the experimental results is developed. The model is used to implement a feed-forward control strategy based on predetermined steady

  15. Improving the economy-of-scale of small organic rankine cycle systems through appropriate working fluid selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, Martin; Sayma, Abdulnaser I.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Novel system model coupling turbine and ORC system performance. • Contour plots to characterise working fluid and turbine performance. • Changing working fluid can expand pump and turbine operating envelope. • Possible to improve the economy-of-scale through optimal working fluid selection. - Abstract: Organic Rankine cycles (ORC) are becoming a major research area within the field of sustainable energy systems. However, a major challenge facing the widespread implementation of small and mini-scale ORC systems is the economy-of-scale. To overcome this challenge requires single components that can be manufactured in large volumes and then implemented into a wide variety of different applications where the heat source conditions may vary. The aim of this paper is to investigate whether working fluid selection can improve the current economy-of-scale by enabling the same system components to be used in multiple ORC systems. This is done through coupling analysis and optimisation of the energy process, with a performance map for a small-scale ORC radial turbine. The performance map, obtained using CFD, is adapted to account for additional loss mechanisms not accounted for in the original CFD simulation before being non-dimensionalised using a modified similitude theory developed for subsonic ORC turbines. The updated performance map is then implemented into a thermodynamic model, enabling the construction of a single performance contour that displays the range of heat source conditions that can be accommodated by the existing turbine whilst using a particular working fluid. Constructing this performance map for a range of working fluids, this paper demonstrates that through selecting a suitable working fluid, the same turbine can efficiently utilise heat sources between 360 and 400 K, with mass flow rates ranging between 0.5 and 2.75 kg/s respectively. This corresponds to using the same turbine in ORC applications where the heat available ranges

  16. An experimental analysis of flow boiling and pressure drop in a brazed plate heat exchanger for organic Rankine cycle power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Desideri, Adriano; Zhang, Ji; Kærn, Martin Ryhl

    2017-01-01

    Organic Rankine cycle power systems for low quality waste heat recovery applications can play a major role in achieving targets of increasing industrial processes efficiency and thus reducing the emissions of greenhouse gases. Low capacity organic Rankine cycle systems are equipped with brazed...... and pressure drop during vaporization at typical temperatures for low quality waste heat recovery organic Rankine cycle systems are presented for the working fluids HFC-245fa and HFO-1233zd. The experiments were carried out at saturation temperatures of 100°C, 115°C and 130°C and inlet and outlet qualities...

  17. Role of computation fluid dynamics in aeronautical engineering (4). Development and applications of implicit TVD finete volume code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shima, Eiji; Jounouchi, Tadamasa

    1986-12-01

    Potential analysis in aeronautic design has reached the stage of practical use although it involves problems concerning accuracy and restrictions on its application. On the other hand, numerical analysis using Euler and Navier-Stokes (N-S) equations is based on a highly accurate theory, so is preferable, but has not reached the stage of practical use because it involves problems that shapes that can be analyzed are restricted on account of factors relating to computation lattice generation and because it involves difficulty relating to computation time. The essential factor in numerical analysis is stoutness (numeric stability). From this viewpoint, an Euler/N-S method was developed; the theory begins with TVD finite volume code, and incorporates various types of improvement to raise accuracy and shorten computation time; hence, it satisfies design requirements. The use of this method helps get solution under a wide range of flow condition without any fine adjustments, such as artificial viscosity. (6 figs, 1 tab, 10 refs)

  18. Nuclear Electric Propulsion mission engineering study covering the period April 1971 to January 1973. Volume I. Executive summary. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-03-01

    The results of a mission engineering analysis of nuclear-thermionic electric propulsion spacecraft for unmanned interplanetary and geocentric missions are presented. Critical technologies assessed are associated with the development of Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP), and the impact of its availability on future space programs. Specific areas of investigation include outer planet and comet rendezvous mission analysis, NEP Stage design for geocentric and interplanetary missions, NEP system development cost and unit costs, and technology requirements for NEP Stage development. A multimission NEP Stage can be developed to perform both multiple geocentric and interplanetary missions. Development program costs for a 1983 launch would be of the order of $275 M, including hardware and reactor development, flight system hardware, and mission support. Recurring unit costs for flight NEP systems would be of the order of $25 M for a 120 kWe NEP Stage. Identified pacing NEP technology requirements are the development of 20,000 full power hour ion thrusters and thermionic reactor, and the development of related power conditioning. The resulting NEP Stage design provides both inherent reliability and high payload mass capability. High payload mass capability can be translated into both low payload cost and high payload reliability. NEP Stage and payload integration is compatible with the Space Shuttle

  19. Nuclear Electric Propulsion mission engineering study covering the period April 1971 to January 1973. Volume II. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-03-01

    The results of a mission engineering analysis of nuclear-thermionic electric propulsion spacecraft for unmanned interplanetary and geocentric missions are summarized. Critical technologies assessed are associated with the development of Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP), and the impact of its availability on future space programs. Specific areas of investigation include outer planet and comet rendezvous mission analysis, NEP Stage design for geocentric and interplanetary missions NEP system development cost and unit costs, and technology requirements for NEP Stage development. A multi-mission NEP Stage can be developed to perform both multiple geocentric and interplanetary missions. Development program costs for a 1983 launch would be of the order of $275 M, including hardware and reactor development, flight system hardware, and mission support. Recurring unit costs for flight NEP systems would be of the order of $25 M for a 120kWe NEP Stage. Identified pacing NEP technology requirements are the development of 20,000 full power hour ion thrusters and thermionic reactor, and the development of related power conditioning. The resulting NEP Stage design provides both inherent reliability and high payload mass capability. High payload mass capability can be translated into both low payload cost and high payload reliability. NEP Stage and payload integration is compatible with the Space Shuttle

  20. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE) Summer Faculty Fellowship Program: 1995.. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyman, William A. (Editor); Sickorez, Donn G. (Editor)

    1996-01-01

    The JSC NASA/ASEE Summer Faculty Fellowship Program was conducted at JSC, including the White Sands Test Facility, by Texas A&M University and JSC. The objectives of the program, which began nationally in 1964 and at JSC in 1965, are (1) to further the professional knowledge of qualified engineering and science faculty members; (2) to stimulate an exchange of ideas between participants and NASA; (3) to enrich and refresh the research and teaching activities of the participants' institutions; and (4) to contribute to the research objectives of the NASA centers. Each faculty fellow spent at least 10 weeks at JSC engaged in a research project in collaboration with a NASA/JSC colleague. In addition to the faculty participants, the 1995 program included five students. This document is a compilation of the final reports on the research projects completed by the faculty fellows and visiting students during the summer of 1995. The reports of two of the students are integral with that of the respective fellow. Three students wrote separate reports.