Gonzales, Antonio Ignacio; Reeves, Paul C.; Jones, John J.; Farkas, Benjamin D.
This document describes ROCIT, a neural-inspired object recognition algorithm based on a rank-order coding scheme that uses a light-weight neuron model. ROCIT coarsely simulates a subset of the human ventral visual stream from the retina through the inferior temporal cortex. It was designed to provide an extensible baseline from which to improve the fidelity of the ventral stream model and explore the engineering potential of rank order coding with respect to object recognition. This report describes the baseline algorithm, the model's neural network architecture, the theoretical basis for the approach, and reviews the history of similar implementations. Illustrative results are used to clarify algorithm details. A formal benchmark to the 1998 FERET fafc test shows above average performance, which is encouraging. The report concludes with a brief review of potential algorithmic extensions for obtaining scale and rotational invariance.
Masmoudi, Khaled; Antonini, Marc; Kornprobst, Pierre
Our goal is to revisit rank order coding by proposing an original exact decoding procedure for it. Rank order coding was proposed by Thorpe et al. who stated that the order in which the retina cells are activated encodes for the visual stimulus. Based on this idea, the authors proposed in  a rank order coder/decoder associated to a retinal model. Though, it appeared that the decoding procedure employed yields reconstruction errors that limit the model bit-cost/quality performances when used as an image codec. The attempts made in the literature to overcome this issue are time consuming and alter the coding procedure, or are lacking mathematical support and feasibility for standard size images. Here we solve this problem in an original fashion by using the frames theory, where a frame of a vector space designates an extension for the notion of basis. Our contribution is twofold. First, we prove that the analyzing filter bank considered is a frame, and then we define the corresponding dual frame that is necessary for the exact image reconstruction. Second, to deal with the problem of memory overhead, we design a recursive out-of-core blockwise algorithm for the computation of this dual frame. Our work provides a mathematical formalism for the retinal model under study and defines a simple and exact reverse transform for it with over than 265 dB of increase in the peak signal-to-noise ratio quality compared to . Furthermore, the framework presented here can be extended to several models of the visual cortical areas using redundant representations.
Seok Hoon Kang
Full Text Available This paper proposes a new interpolation filter for deinterlacing, which is achievedby enhancing the edge preserving ability of the conventional edge-based line averagemethods. This filter consists of three steps: pre-processing step, fuzzy metric-based weightassignation step, and rank-ordered marginal filter step. The proposed method is able tointerpolate the missing lines without introducing annoying articles. Simulation results showthat the images filtered with the proposed algorithm restrain less annoying pixels than theones acquired by other methods.
Wu, Hsien-Tsai; Hsu, Po-Chun; Sun, Cheuk-Kwan; Liu, An-Bang; Lin, Zong-Lin; Tang, Chieh-Ju; Lo, Men-Tzung
Using frequency and rank order statistics (FROS), this study analyzed the fluctuations in arterial waveform amplitudes recorded from an air pressure sensing system before and after reactive hyperemia (RH) induction by temporary blood flow occlusion to evaluate the vascular endothelial function of aged and diabetic subjects. The modified probability-weighted distance (PWD) calculated from the FROS was compared with the dilatation index (DI) to evaluate its validity and sensitivity in the assessment of vascular endothelial function. The results showed that the PWD can provide a quantitative determination of the structural changes in the arterial pressure signals associated with regulation of vascular tone and blood pressure by intact vascular endothelium after the application of occlusion stress. Our study suggests that the use of FROS is a reliable noninvasive approach to the assessment of vascular endothelial degeneration in aging and diabetes.
Wagstaff, Kiri L.; desJardins, Marie; Eaton, Eric
A method is being developed that provides for an artificial-intelligence system to learn a user's preferences for sets of objects and to thereafter automatically select subsets of objects according to those preferences. The method was originally intended to enable automated selection, from among large sets of images acquired by instruments aboard spacecraft, of image subsets considered to be scientifically valuable enough to justify use of limited communication resources for transmission to Earth. The method is also applicable to other sets of objects: examples of sets of objects considered in the development of the method include food menus, radio-station music playlists, and assortments of colored blocks for creating mosaics. The method does not require the user to perform the often-difficult task of quantitatively specifying preferences; instead, the user provides examples of preferred sets of objects. This method goes beyond related prior artificial-intelligence methods for learning which individual items are preferred by the user: this method supports a concept of setbased preferences, which include not only preferences for individual items but also preferences regarding types and degrees of diversity of items in a set. Consideration of diversity in this method involves recognition that members of a set may interact with each other in the sense that when considered together, they may be regarded as being complementary, redundant, or incompatible to various degrees. The effects of such interactions are loosely summarized in the term portfolio effect. The learning method relies on a preference representation language, denoted DD-PREF, to express set-based preferences. In DD-PREF, a preference is represented by a tuple that includes quality (depth) functions to estimate how desired a specific value is, weights for each feature preference, the desired diversity of feature values, and the relative importance of diversity versus depth. The system applies statistical
Goldhaber-Fiebert, Jeremy D; Jalal, Hawre J
Probabilistic sensitivity analyses (PSA) may lead policy makers to take nonoptimal actions due to misestimates of decision uncertainty caused by ignoring correlations. We developed a method to establish joint uncertainty distributions of quality-of-life (QoL) weights exploiting ordinal preferences over health states. Our method takes as inputs independent, univariate marginal distributions for each QoL weight and a preference ordering. It establishes a correlation matrix between QoL weights intended to preserve the ordering. It samples QoL weight values from their distributions, ordering them with the correlation matrix. It calculates the proportion of samples violating the ordering, iteratively adjusting the correlation matrix until this proportion is below an arbitrarily small threshold. We compare our method with the uncorrelated method and other methods for preserving rank ordering in terms of violation proportions and fidelity to the specified marginal distributions along with PSA and expected value of partial perfect information (EVPPI) estimates, using 2 models: 1) a decision tree with 2 decision alternatives and 2) a chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) Markov model with 3 alternatives. All methods make tradeoffs between violating preference orderings and altering marginal distributions. For both models, our method simultaneously performed best, with largest performance advantages when distributions reflected wider uncertainty. For PSA, larger changes to the marginal distributions induced by existing methods resulted in differing conclusions about which strategy was most likely optimal. For EVPPI, both preference order violations and altered marginal distributions caused existing methods to misestimate the maximum value of seeking additional information, sometimes concluding that there was no value. Analysts can characterize the joint uncertainty in QoL weights to improve PSA and value-of-information estimates using Open Source implementations of our method. Â
Olesen, Frede; Vedsted, Peter; Nielsen, JĂžrgen NĂžrskov
OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate whether standardization of practice populations by age and sex changes the internal prescription ranking order of a group of practices. DESIGN: Data on the prescribing of cardiovascular drugs in a group of practices were obtained from a county-based database. Information...
This paper considers additive conjoint measurement on subsets of Cartesian products containing "rank-ordered" n-tuples. Contrary to what has often been thought, additive conjoint measurement on subsets of Cartesian products has characteristics different from additive conjoint measurement on full
Soltic, Snjezana; Kasabov, Nikola
This paper demonstrates how knowledge can be extracted from evolving spiking neural networks with rank order population coding. Knowledge discovery is a very important feature of intelligent systems. Yet, a disproportionally small amount of research is centered on the issue of knowledge extraction from spiking neural networks which are considered to be the third generation of artificial neural networks. The lack of knowledge representation compatibility is becoming a major detriment to end users of these networks. We show that a high-level knowledge can be obtained from evolving spiking neural networks. More specifically, we propose a method for fuzzy rule extraction from an evolving spiking network with rank order population coding. The proposed method was used for knowledge discovery on two benchmark taste recognition problems where the knowledge learnt by an evolving spiking neural network was extracted in the form of zero-order Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy IF-THEN rules.
An edge-enhancement technique using an interval type II fuzzy set that uses rank-ordered filter to enhance the edges of cellular images is proposed. When cellular images from any laboratory are digitized, scanned, and stored, some kind of degradation occurs, and directly using a rank-ordered filter may not produce clear edges. These images contain uncertainties, present in edges or boundaries of the image. Fuzzy sets that take into account these uncertainties may be a good tool to process these images. However, a fuzzy set sometimes does not produce better results. We used an interval type II fuzzy set, which considers the uncertainty in a different way. It considers the membership function in the fuzzy set as "fuzzy," so the membership values lie within an interval range. A type II fuzzy set has upper and lower membership levels, and with the two levels, a new membership function is computed using Hamacher t-conorm. A new fuzzy image is formed. A rank-ordered filter is applied to the image to obtain an edge-enhanced image. The proposed method is compared with the existing methods visually and quantitatively using entropic method. Entropy of the proposed method is higher (0.4418) than the morphology method (0.2275), crisp method (0.3599), and Sobel method (0.2669), implying that the proposed method is better.
Taylor, Chloe; Franklin, Anna
Ecological valence theory (EVT; Palmer & Schloss, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 107:8877-8882, 2010) proposes that color preferences are due to affective responses to color-associated objects: That is, people generally like colors to the degree that they like the objects associated with those colors. Palmer and Schloss found that the average valence of objects associated with a color, when weighted by how well the objects matched the color (weighted affective valence estimates: WAVE) explained 80% of the variation in preference across colors. Here, we replicated and extended Palmer and Schloss's investigation to establish whether color-object associations can account for sex differences in color preference and whether the relationship between associated objects and color preference is equally strong for males and females. We found some degree of sex specificity to the WAVEs, but the relationship between WAVE and color preference was significantly stronger for males than for females (74% shared variance for males, 45% for females). Furthermore, analyses identified a significant inverse relationship between the number of objects associated with a color and preference for the color. Participants generally liked colors associated with few objects and disliked colors associated with many objects. For the sample overall and for females alone, this association was not significantly weaker than the association of the WAVE and preference. The success of the WAVE at capturing color preference was partly due to the relationship between the number of associated objects and color preference. The findings identify constraints of EVT in its current form, but they also provide general support for the link between color preference and color-object associations.
Wehde, M. E.
The common method of digital image comparison by subtraction imposes various constraints on the image contents. Precise registration of images is required to assure proper evaluation of surface locations. The attribute being measured and the calibration and scaling of the sensor are also important to the validity and interpretability of the subtraction result. Influences of sensor gains and offsets complicate the subtraction process. The presence of any uniform systematic transformation component in one of two images to be compared distorts the subtraction results and requires analyst intervention to interpret or remove it. A new technique has been developed to overcome these constraints. Images to be compared are first transformed using the cumulative relative frequency as a transfer function. The transformed images represent the contextual relationship of each surface location with respect to all others within the image. The process of differentiating between the transformed images results in a percentile rank ordered difference. This process produces consistent terrain-change information even when the above requirements necessary for subtraction are relaxed. This technique may be valuable to an appropriately designed hierarchical terrain-monitoring methodology because it does not require human participation in the process.
Thomas, J R; Nelson, J K; Thomas, K T
Frequent violations of the assumption that data are normally distributed occur in exercise science and other life and behavioral sciences. When this assumption is violated, parametric statistical analyses may be inappropriate for data analysis. We provide a rationale for using a generalized form of nonparametric analyses based on the Puri and Sen (1985) L treated as a chi 2 approximation. If data do not meet the assumption of normality, this nonparametric approach has substantial power and is easy to use. An advantage of this generalized technique is that ranked data may be used in standard parametric statistical programs widely available on desktop and mainframe computers, for example, regression, analysis of variance (ANOVA), multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) within BioMed, SAS, SPSS. Once the data are ranked and analyzed with these programs, the only adjustment required is to use a standard formula to calculate the nonparametric test statistic, L, instead of the parametric test statistic (e.g., F). Thus, rank-order nonparametric models become parallel with their parametric counterparts allowing the researcher to select between them based on characteristics of the data distribution. Examples of this approach are provided using data from exercise science for regression, ANOVA (including repeated measures) and MANOVA techniques from SPSSPC. Using these procedures, researchers can easily examine data distributions and make an appropriate decision about parametric or nonparametric analyses while continuing to use their regular statistical packages.
Hopwood, Christopher J; Morey, Leslie C; Donnellan, M Brent; Samuel, Douglas B; Grilo, Carlos M; McGlashan, Thomas H; Shea, M Tracie; Zanarini, Mary C; Gunderson, John G; Skodol, Andrew E
This study compares the 10-year retest stability of normal traits, pathological traits, and personality disorder dimensions in a clinical sample. Ten-year rank-order stability estimates for the Revised NEO Personality Inventory, Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality, and Diagnostic Interview for DSM-IV Personality Disorders were evaluated before and after correcting for test-retest dependability and internal consistency in a clinical sample (Nâ=â266). Dependability-corrected stability estimates were generally in the range of.60-.90 for traits and.25-.65 for personality disorders. The relatively lower stability of personality disorder symptoms may indicate important differences between pathological behaviors and relatively more stable self-attributed traits and imply that a full understanding of personality and personality pathology needs to take both traits and symptoms into account. The five-factor theory distinction between basic tendencies and characteristic adaptations provides a theoretical framework for the separation of traits and disorders in terms of stability in which traits reflect basic tendencies that are stable and pervasive across situations, whereas personality disorder symptoms reflect characteristic maladaptations that are a function of both basic tendencies and environmental dynamics. Â© 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Campbell, Julie M; Marcinowski, Emily C; Babik, Iryna; Michel, George F
Development of hand preferences for unimanual manipulation of objects was explored in 90 infants (57 males) tested monthly from 6 to 14 months. From a larger sample of 380 infants, 30 infants with a consistent left hand preference for acquiring objects were matched for sex and development of locomotion skills with 30 infants with a consistent right hand preference for acquisition and 30 with no preference. Although frequency of unimanual manipulations increased during 6-14 month period, infants with a hand preference for acquisition did more object manipulations than those without a preference for acquisition. Multilevel modeling of unimanual manipulation trajectories for the three hand-preference groups revealed that hand preferences for unimanual manipulation become more distinctive with age, and the preference is predicted by the hand preference for object acquisition. Infants with a right and left hand preference for object acquisition develop a right and left (respectively) hand preference for unimanual manipulation. However, the majority of infants at each month do not exhibit hand preferences for unimanual manipulation that are unlikely to occur by chance, even by 14 months. The results are consistent with a cascading theory of handedness development in which early preferences (i.e., for acquisition) are transferred to later developing preferences (i.e., for unimanual manipulation). Published by Elsevier Inc.
Full Text Available Searching for generic behaviors has been one of the driving forces leading to a deep understanding and classification of diverse phenomena. Usually a starting point is the development of a phenomenology based on observations. Such is the case for power law distributions encountered in a wealth of situations coming from physics, geophysics, biology, lexicography as well as social and financial networks. This finding is however restricted to a range of values outside of which finite size corrections are often invoked. Here we uncover a universal behavior of the way in which elements of a system are distributed according to their rank with respect to a given property, valid for the full range of values, regardless of whether or not a power law has previously been suggested. We propose a two parameter functional form for these rank-ordered distributions that gives excellent fits to an impressive amount of very diverse phenomena, coming from the arts, social and natural sciences. It is a discrete version of a generalized beta distribution, given by f(r = A(N+1-r(b/r(a, where r is the rank, N its maximum value, A the normalization constant and (a, b two fitting exponents. Prompted by our genetic sequence observations we present a growth probabilistic model incorporating mutation-duplication features that generates data complying with this distribution. The competition between permanence and change appears to be a relevant, though not necessary feature. Additionally, our observations mainly of social phenomena suggest that a multifactorial quality resulting from the convergence of several heterogeneous underlying processes is an important feature. We also explore the significance of the distribution parameters and their classifying potential. The ubiquity of our findings suggests that there must be a fundamental underlying explanation, most probably of a statistical nature, such as an appropriate central limit theorem formulation.
MartĂnez-Mekler, Gustavo; Alvarez MartĂnez, Roberto; BeltrĂĄn del RĂo, Manuel; Mansilla, Ricardo; Miramontes, Pedro; Cocho, Germinal
Searching for generic behaviors has been one of the driving forces leading to a deep understanding and classification of diverse phenomena. Usually a starting point is the development of a phenomenology based on observations. Such is the case for power law distributions encountered in a wealth of situations coming from physics, geophysics, biology, lexicography as well as social and financial networks. This finding is however restricted to a range of values outside of which finite size corrections are often invoked. Here we uncover a universal behavior of the way in which elements of a system are distributed according to their rank with respect to a given property, valid for the full range of values, regardless of whether or not a power law has previously been suggested. We propose a two parameter functional form for these rank-ordered distributions that gives excellent fits to an impressive amount of very diverse phenomena, coming from the arts, social and natural sciences. It is a discrete version of a generalized beta distribution, given by f(r) = A(N+1-r)(b)/r(a), where r is the rank, N its maximum value, A the normalization constant and (a, b) two fitting exponents. Prompted by our genetic sequence observations we present a growth probabilistic model incorporating mutation-duplication features that generates data complying with this distribution. The competition between permanence and change appears to be a relevant, though not necessary feature. Additionally, our observations mainly of social phenomena suggest that a multifactorial quality resulting from the convergence of several heterogeneous underlying processes is an important feature. We also explore the significance of the distribution parameters and their classifying potential. The ubiquity of our findings suggests that there must be a fundamental underlying explanation, most probably of a statistical nature, such as an appropriate central limit theorem formulation.
Borgert, Christopher J; Stuchal, Leah D; Mihaich, Ellen M; Becker, Richard A; Bentley, Karin S; Brausch, John M; Coady, Katie; Geter, David R; Gordon, Elliot; Guiney, Patrick D; Hess, Frederick; Holmes, Catherine M; LeBaron, Matthew J; Levine, Steve; Marty, Sue; Mukhi, Sandeep; Neal, Barbara H; Ortego, Lisa S; Saltmiras, David A; Snajdr, Suzanne; Staveley, Jane; Tobia, Abraham
Weight of evidence (WoE) approaches are recommended for interpreting various toxicological data, but few systematic and transparent procedures exist. A hypothesis-based WoE framework was recently published focusing on the U.S. EPA's Tier 1 Endocrine Screening Battery (ESB) as an example. The framework recommends weighting each experimental endpoint according to its relevance for deciding eight hypotheses addressed by the ESB. Here we present detailed rationale for weighting the ESB endpoints according to three rank ordered categories and an interpretive process for using the rankings to reach WoE determinations. Rank 1 was assigned to in vivo endpoints that characterize the fundamental physiological actions for androgen, estrogen, and thyroid activities. Rank 1 endpoints are specific and sensitive for the hypothesis, interpretable without ancillary data, and rarely confounded by artifacts or nonspecific activity. Rank 2 endpoints are specific and interpretable for the hypothesis but less informative than Rank 1, often due to oversensitivity, inclusion of narrowly context-dependent components of the hormonal system (e.g., in vitro endpoints), or confounding by nonspecific activity. Rank 3 endpoints are relevant for the hypothesis but only corroborative of Ranks 1 and 2 endpoints. Rank 3 includes many apical in vivo endpoints that can be affected by systemic toxicity and nonhormonal activity. Although these relevance weight rankings (WREL ) necessarily involve professional judgment, their a priori derivation enhances transparency and renders WoE determinations amenable to methodological scrutiny according to basic scientific premises, characteristics that cannot be assured by processes in which the rationale for decisions is provided post hoc. Â© 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Jillian Elizabeth Lauer
Full Text Available Accumulating evidence suggests that males outperform females on mental rotation tasks as early as infancy. Sex differences in object preference have also been shown to emerge early in development and precede sex-typed play in childhood. Although research with adults and older children is suggestive of a relationship between play preferences and visuospatial abilities, including mental rotation, little is known about the developmental origins of this relationship. The present study compared mental rotation ability and object preference in 6- to 13-month-old infants. We used a novel paradigm to examine individual differences in infantsâ mental rotation abilities as well as their differential preference for one of two sex-typed objects. A sex difference was found on both tasks, with boys showing an advantage in performance on the mental rotation task and exhibiting greater visual attention to the male-typed object (i.e., a toy truck than to the female-typed object (i.e., a doll in comparison to girls. Moreover, we found a relation between mental rotation and object preference that varied by sex. Greater visual interest in the male-typed object was related to greater mental rotation performance in boys, but not in girls. Possible explanations related to perceptual biases, prenatal androgen exposure, and experiential influences for this sex difference are discussed.
David E. Calkin; Tyron Venn; Matthew Wibbenmeyer; Matthew P. Thompson
Wildfire management involves significant complexity and uncertainty, requiring simultaneous consideration of multiple, non-commensurate objectives. This paper investigates the tradeoffs fire managers are willing to make among these objectives using a choice experiment methodology that provides three key advancements relative to previous stated-preference studies...
Chen, Lei; Qiu, Jiali; Wei, Guoyuan; Shen, Zhenyao
The optimization of best management practices (BMPs) at the watershed scale is notably complex because of the social nature of decision process, which incorporates information that reflects the preferences of decision makers. In this study, a preference-based multi-objective model was designed by modifying the commonly-used Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm (NSGA-II). The reference points, achievement scalarizing functions and an indicator-based optimization principle were integrated for searching a set of preferred Pareto-optimality solutions. Pareto preference ordering was also used for reducing objective numbers in the final decision-making process. This proposed model was then tested in a typical watershed in the Three Gorges Region, China. The results indicated that more desirable solutions were generated, which reduced the burden of decision effort of watershed managers. Compare to traditional Genetic Algorithm (GA), those preferred solutions were concentrated in a narrow region close to the projection point instead of the entire Pareto-front. Based on Pareto preference ordering, the solutions with the best objective function values were often the more desirable solutions (i.e., the minimum cost solution and the minimum pollutant load solution). In the authors' view, this new model provides a useful tool for optimizing BMPs at watershed scale and is therefore of great benefit to watershed managers.
Negro, Juan J; Bustamante, Javier; Milward, Jane; Bird, David M
Object play may be a mechanism by which young predators acquire skills in manipulating prey, as well as physical strength and endurance. It has also been proposed that fledgling raptors play with live or dead prey if available, but would play with surrogates such as sticks or grass if not. Different objects were offered to captive fledgling American kestrels, Falco sparverius, to test whether they prefer to play with objects resembling prey. Individuals were divided into two groups: ...
matrix method by Shannon , an extension beyond Shannon by Navarrete , et al. , a point system by Smith [2211, a branch and bound algorithm...Science Annual, Vol. 5, New York: The Bobbs Merrill Company, 1974. 36. Shisko, R., A Survey of Solution Concepts for Majority Rule Games, Santa Monica : The...Preferences," lat. Journal of Game Theory- Vol. 4, Issue 2, 1975, p. 95. 185. Navarrete , N. Jr., Fukushima, N., and Mine, H., "A New Ranking Method
Ä°. Hatirnaz; GĂŒrkaynak, F. K.; Leblebici, Y.
We present a new scalable architecture for the realization of fully programmable rank order filters (ROF). Capacitive Threshold Logic (CTL) gates are utilized for the implementation of the multi-input programmable majority (voting) functions required in the architecture. The CTL-based realization of the majority gates used in the ROF architecture allows the filter rank as well as the window size to be user-programmable, using a much smaller silicon area, compared to conventional realizations ...
Vauclair, Jacques; Imbault, Juliette
The aim of this study was to measure the pattern of hand preferences for pointing gestures as a function of object-manipulation handedness in 123 infants and toddlers (10-40 months). The results showed that not only right-handers but also left-handers and ambidextrous participants tended to use their right hand for pointing. There was aâŠ
Full Text Available When we grasp an object using one hand, the opposite hemisphere predominantly guides the motor control of grasp movements (Davare et al. 2007; Rice et al. 2007. However, it is unclear whether visual object analysis for grasp control relies more on inputs (a from the contralateral than the ipsilateral visual field, (b from one dominant visual field regardless of the grasping hand, or (c from both visual fields equally. For bimanual grasping of a single object we have recently demonstrated a visual field preference for the left visual field (Le and Niemeier 2013a, 2013b, consistent with a general right-hemisphere dominance for sensorimotor control of bimanual grasps (Le et al., 2013. But visual field differences have never been tested for unimanual grasping. Therefore, here we asked right-handed participants to fixate to the left or right of an object and then grasp the object either with their right or left hand using a precision grip. We found that participants grasping with their right hand performed better with objects in the right visual field: maximum grip apertures (MGAs were more closely matched to the object width and were smaller than for objects in the left visual field. In contrast, when people grasped with their left hand, preferences switched to the left visual field. What is more, MGA scaling showed greater visual field differences compared to right-hand grasping. Our data suggest that, visual object analysis for unimanual grasping shows a preference for visual information from the ipsilateral visual field, and that the left hemisphere is better equipped to control grasps in both visual fields.
Full Text Available Humans like some colours and dislike others, but which particular colours and why remains to be understood. Empirical studies on colour preferences generally targeted most preferred colours, but rarely least preferred (disliked colours. In addition, findings are often based on general colour preferences leaving open the question whether results generalise to specific objects. Here, 88 participants selected the colours they preferred most and least for three context conditions (general, interior walls, t-shirt using a high-precision colour picker. Participants also indicated whether they associated their colour choice to a valenced object or concept. The chosen colours varied widely between individuals and contexts and so did the reasons for their choices. Consistent patterns also emerged, as most preferred colours in general were more chromatic, while for walls they were lighter and for t-shirts they were darker and less chromatic compared to least preferred colours. This meant that general colour preferences could not explain object specific colour preferences. Measures of the selection process further revealed that, compared to most preferred colours, least preferred colours were chosen more quickly and were less often linked to valenced objects or concepts. The high intra- and inter-individual variability in this and previous reports furthers our understanding that colour preferences are determined by subjective experiences and that most and least preferred colours are not processed equally.
Jonauskaite, Domicele; Mohr, Christine; Antonietti, Jean-Philippe; Spiers, Peter M; Althaus, Betty; Anil, Selin; Dael, Nele
Humans like some colours and dislike others, but which particular colours and why remains to be understood. Empirical studies on colour preferences generally targeted most preferred colours, but rarely least preferred (disliked) colours. In addition, findings are often based on general colour preferences leaving open the question whether results generalise to specific objects. Here, 88 participants selected the colours they preferred most and least for three context conditions (general, interior walls, t-shirt) using a high-precision colour picker. Participants also indicated whether they associated their colour choice to a valenced object or concept. The chosen colours varied widely between individuals and contexts and so did the reasons for their choices. Consistent patterns also emerged, as most preferred colours in general were more chromatic, while for walls they were lighter and for t-shirts they were darker and less chromatic compared to least preferred colours. This meant that general colour preferences could not explain object specific colour preferences. Measures of the selection process further revealed that, compared to most preferred colours, least preferred colours were chosen more quickly and were less often linked to valenced objects or concepts. The high intra- and inter-individual variability in this and previous reports furthers our understanding that colour preferences are determined by subjective experiences and that most and least preferred colours are not processed equally.
HĂŒbner, Ronald; Fillinger, Martin G.
The aesthetic appreciation of a picture largely depends on the perceptual balance of its elements. The underlying mental mechanisms of this relation, however, are still poorly understood. For investigating these mechanisms, objective measures of balance have been constructed, such as the Assessment of Preference for Balance (APB) score of Wilson and Chatterjee (2005). In the present study we examined the APB measure and compared it to an alternative measure (DCM; Deviation of the Center of âMassâ) that represents the center of perceptual âmassâ in a picture and its deviation from the geometric center. Additionally, we applied measures of homogeneity and of mirror symmetry. In a first experiment participants had to rate the balance and symmetry of simple pictures, whereas in a second experiment different participants rated their preference (liking) for these pictures. In a third experiment participants rated the balance as well as the preference of new pictures. Altogether, the results show that DCM scores accounted better for balance ratings than APB scores, whereas the opposite held with respect to preference. Detailed analyses revealed that these results were due to the fact that aesthetic preference does not only depend on balance but also on homogeneity, and that the APB measure takes this feature into account. PMID:27014143
Full Text Available Christina Riechel,1,* Anna Christina Alegiani,1,* Sascha KĂ¶pke,2 JĂŒrgen Kasper,3,4 Michael Rosenkranz,1,5 GĂ¶tz Thomalla,1 Christoph Heesen1,4 1Department of Neurology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany; 2Nursing Research Unit, Institute of Social Medicine and Epidemiology, University of LĂŒbeck, LĂŒbeck, Germany; 3Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of TromsĂž, TromsĂž, Norway; 4Institute of Neuroimmunology and Multiple Sclerosis, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany; 5Department of Neurology, Albertinen-Krankenhaus, Hamburg, Germany *These authors contributed equally toÂ this work Background: Risk knowledge and active role preferences are important for patient involvement in treatment decision-making and adherence. Although knowledge about stroke warning signs and risk factors has received considerable attention, objective knowledge on secondary prevention and further self-esteem subjective knowledge have rarely been studied. The aim of our study was to investigate knowledge and treatment decisional role preferences in cerebrovascular patients compared to controls. Methods: We performed a survey on subjective and objective stroke risk knowledge and autonomy preferences in cerebrovascular patients from our stroke outpatient clinic (n=262 and from pedestrians on the street taken as controls during a âWorld Stroke Dayâ (n=274. The questionnaire includes measures for knowledge and decisional role preferences from previously published questionnaires and newly developed measures, for example, subjective knowledge, revealed on a visual analog scale. Results: The overall stroke knowledge was low to moderate, with no differences between patients and controls. Knowledge about secondary prevention was particularly low. Only 10%â15% of participants correctly estimated the stroke absolute risk reduction potential of aspirin. The medical data
Full Text Available Top differentially expressed gene lists are often inconsistent between studies and it has been suggested that small sample sizes contribute to lack of reproducibility and poor prediction accuracy in discriminative models. We considered sex differences (69â, 65 â in 134 human skeletal muscle biopsies using DNA microarray. The full dataset and subsamples (n = 10 (5 â, 5 â to n = 120 (60 â, 60 â thereof were used to assess the effect of sample size on the differential expression of single genes, gene rank order and prediction accuracy. Using our full dataset (n = 134, we identified 717 differentially expressed transcripts (p<0.0001 and we were able predict sex with ~90% accuracy, both within our dataset and on external datasets. Both p-values and rank order of top differentially expressed genes became more variable using smaller subsamples. For example, at n = 10 (5 â, 5 â, no gene was considered differentially expressed at p<0.0001 and prediction accuracy was ~50% (no better than chance. We found that sample size clearly affects microarray analysis results; small sample sizes result in unstable gene lists and poor prediction accuracy. We anticipate this will apply to other phenotypes, in addition to sex.
Lamy, Herve; Echim, Marius; Chang, Tom
Data from the four Cluster spacecraft on 26th of February 2001 show that the Probability Distribution Functions (PDFs) of B 2 in the cusp are non-Gaussian and have an intermittent behavior at scales smaller than about 1 minute. PDFs obtained at various scales cannot be collapsed onto a master curve based on a single monofractal index, except in the central regions. We present here a more geometrical approach based on the multifractal analysis of these intermittent fluctuations using both structure functions and the partition function. These traditional multifractal methods based on the statistics of the full set of fluctuations indicate that the spectrum of the scaling exponents is multifractal. However, the fractal characteristics of large amplitude fluctuations (the less frequent ones) might be masked by those with small amplitude which are by far the dominant population. Chang & Wu (2007) recently proposed a new method of multifractal analysis, based on rank-ordered fractal index of fluctuations. This method subdivides the fluctuations into groups according to the range of their scaled sizes. We show preliminary results of this new multifractal analysis applied to Cluster data in the cusp. T. Chang and C.C. Wu, Rank-Ordered Multifractal Spectrum for Intermittent Fluctuations, arXiv:0712.4256v1 [astro-ph] 27 December 2007.
Cho, Sookeun; Lee, Miseon; O'Grady, William; Song, Minsun; Suzuki, Takaaki; Yoshinaga, Naoko
Pre-school Korean children typically manifest higher comprehension rates on the 'unmarked' SOV sentences of their language than on the 'scrambled' OSV patterns. To date, however, scant attention has been paid to children's ordering preferences with respect to direct and indirect objects. The results of an act-out comprehension experiment involving 40 subjects (aged 4;0 to 7;0) show a strong, statistically significant preference for the accusative-dative order, despite evidence that the reverse order is more common in mother-to-child speech. Two hypotheses are considered, one involving the relationship between word order and grammatical relations and the other involving the relationship between word order and the types of situations denoted by the sentences in question. The results of a follow-up study involving transitive verbs with instrument arguments provide strong evidence in favour of the latter hypothesis.
Specht, Jule; Egloff, Boris; Schmukle, Stefan C
Does personality change across the entire life course, and are those changes due to intrinsic maturation or major life experiences? This longitudinal study investigated changes in the mean levels and rank order of the Big Five personality traits in a heterogeneous sample of 14,718 Germans across all of adulthood. Latent change and latent moderated regression models provided 4 main findings: First, age had a complex curvilinear influence on mean levels of personality. Second, the rank-order stability of Emotional Stability, Extraversion, Openness, and Agreeableness all followed an inverted U-shaped function, reaching a peak between the ages of 40 and 60 and decreasing afterward, whereas Conscientiousness showed a continuously increasing rank-order stability across adulthood. Third, personality predicted the occurrence of several objective major life events (selection effects) and changed in reaction to experiencing these events (socialization effects), suggesting that personality can change due to factors other than intrinsic maturation. Fourth, when events were clustered according to their valence, as is commonly done, effects of the environment on changes in personality were either overlooked or overgeneralized. In sum, our analyses show that personality changes throughout the life span, but with more pronounced changes in young and old ages, and that this change is partly attributable to social demands and experiences. 2011 APA, all rights reserved
MĂ”ttus, RenĂ©; Johnson, Wendy; Deary, Ian J
Lothian Birth Cohorts, 1936 and 1921 were used to study the longitudinal comparability of Five-Factor Model (McCrae & John, 1992) personality traits from ages 69 to 72 years and from ages 81 to 87 years, and cross-cohort comparability between ages 69 and 81 years. Personality was measured using the 50-item International Personality Item Pool (Goldberg, 1999). Satisfactory measurement invariance was established across time and cohorts. High rank-order stability was observed in both cohorts. Almost no mean-level change was observed in the younger cohort, whereas Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, and Intellect declined significantly in the older cohort. The older cohort scored higher on Agreeableness and Conscientiousness. In these cohorts, individual differences in personality traits continued to be stable even in very old age, mean-level changes accelerated.
Royer, Michael P.; Wei, Minchen
Of the many âcomponentsâ of a color rendering measure, one is perhaps the most important: the set of color samples (spectral reflectance functions) that are employed as a standardized means of evaluating and rating a light source. At the same time, a standardized set of color samples can never apply perfectly to a real space or a real set of observed objects, meaning there will always be some level of mismatch between the predicted and observed color shifts. This mismatch is important for lighting specifiers to consider, but even more critical for experiments that seek to evaluate the relationship between color rendering measures and human perception. This article explores how the color distortions of three possible experimental object sets compare to the color distortions predicted using the color evaluation samples of IES TM-30-15 (TM-30). The experimental object sets include those from Royer and colleagues , a set of produce (10 fruits and vegetables), and the X-rite Color Checker Classic. The differences are traced back to properties of the samples sets, such as the coverage of color space, average chroma level, and specific spectral features. The consequence of the differences, that the visual evaluation is based on color distortions that are substantially different from what is predicted, can lead to inaccurate criteria or models of a given perception, such as preference. To minimize the error in using criteria or models when specifying color rendering attributes for a given application, the criteria or models should be developed using a set of experimental objects that matches the typical objects of the application as closely as possible. Alternatively, if typical objects of an application cannot be reasonably determined, an object set that matches the distortions predicted by TM-30 as close as possible is likely to provide the most meaningful results.
In two experiments, the identification of novel 3-D objects was worse for depth-rotated and mirrorreflected views, compared with the study view in an implicit affective preference memory task, as well...
Sengsavang, Sonia; Pratt, Michael W; Alisat, Susan; Sadler, Pamela
In this longitudinal, mixed-methods project, the primary focus was to examine the rank-order stability and mean-level change in the life story during the period of emerging adulthood to young adulthood, while also investigating how the transition to parenthood may impact the life story. Seventy-two participants described three key life story scenes at age 26 and again at 32 (28% attrition from age 26 to 32). The narratives were coded for a range of features, including motivational themes (agency, communion), affective themes (emotional tone), an integrative meaning theme (coherent positive resolution), and a structural property (narrative complexity). Overall, there was moderate temporal stability and mean-level increase in several features of narrative identity over this key period. Positive changes in communion levels and overall emotional tone of life story scenes were especially evident for new parents at age 32. These longitudinal results suggested that adopting new social roles, in this case becoming a parent, predicted how the life story was expressed, just as they seemed to influence other levels of personality, such as traits, following the social investment principle. Â© 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
de Graaf-Ruizendaal, Willemijn A.; Berendsen, Annette J.; de Boer, Dolf; de Bakker, Dinny H.
Background: Previous research showed inconsistent results regarding the relationship between the age of patients and preference statements regarding GP care. This study investigates whether elderly patients have different preference scores and ranking orders concerning 58 preference statements for
de Graaf-Ruizendaal, W.A.; Berendsen, A.J.; de Boer, D.; de Bakker, D.H.
Background Previous research showed inconsistent results regarding the relationship between the age of patients and preference statements regarding GP care. This study investigates whether elderly patients have different preference scores and ranking orders concerning 58 preference statements for GP
Fuerst-Waltl, Birgit; Fuerst, Christian; Obritzhauser, Walter; Egger-Danner, Christa
To optimize breeding objectives of Fleckvieh and Brown Swiss cattle, economic values were re-estimated using updated prices, costs, and population parameters. Subsequently, the expected selection responses for the total merit index (TMI) were calculated using previous and newly derived economic values. The responses were compared for alternative scenarios that consider breeders' preferences. A dairy herd with milk production, bull fattening, and rearing of replacement stock was modeled. The economic value of a trait was derived by calculating the difference in herd profit before and after genetic improvement. Economic values for each trait were derived while keeping all other traits constant. The traits considered were dairy, beef, and fitness traits, the latter including direct health traits. The calculation of the TMI and the expected selection responses was done using selection index methodology with estimated breeding values instead of phenotypic deviations. For the scenario representing the situation up to 2016, all traits included in the TMI were considered with their respective economic values before the update. Selection response was also calculated for newly derived economic values and some alternative scenarios, including the new trait vitality index (subindex comprising stillbirth and rearing losses). For Fleckvieh, the relative economic value for the trait groups milk, beef, and fitness were 38, 16, and 46%, respectively, up to 2016, and 39, 13, and 48%, respectively, for the newly derived economic values. Approximately the same selection response may be expected for the milk trait group, whereas the new weightings resulted in a substantially decreased response in beef traits. Within the fitness block, all traits, with the exception of fertility, showed a positive selection response. For Brown Swiss, the relative economic values for the main trait groups milk, beef, and fitness were 48, 5, and 47% before 2016, respectively, whereas for the newly derived
We analyze the stability of efficiency rankings of German universal banks between 1993 and 2004. First, we estimate traditional efficiency scores with stochastic cost and alternative profit frontier analysis. Then, we explicitly allow for different risk preferences and measure efficiency with a
Clements, Hayley S; Tambling, Craig J; Hayward, Matt W; Kerley, Graham I H
Broad-scale models describing predator prey preferences serve as useful departure points for understanding predator-prey interactions at finer scales. Previous analyses used a subjective approach to identify prey weight preferences of the five large African carnivores, hence their accuracy is questionable. This study uses a segmented model of prey weight versus prey preference to objectively quantify the prey weight preferences of the five large African carnivores. Based on simulations of known predator prey preference, for prey species sample sizes above 32 the segmented model approach detects up to four known changes in prey weight preference (represented by model break-points) with high rates of detection (75% to 100% of simulations, depending on number of break-points) and accuracy (within 1.3Â±4.0 to 2.7Â±4.4 of known break-point). When applied to the five large African carnivores, using carnivore diet information from across Africa, the model detected weight ranges of prey that are preferred, killed relative to their abundance, and avoided by each carnivore. Prey in the weight ranges preferred and killed relative to their abundance are together termed "accessible prey". Accessible prey weight ranges were found to be 14-135 kg for cheetah Acinonyx jubatus, 1-45 kg for leopard Panthera pardus, 32-632 kg for lion Panthera leo, 15-1600 kg for spotted hyaena Crocuta crocuta and 10-289 kg for wild dog Lycaon pictus. An assessment of carnivore diets throughout Africa found these accessible prey weight ranges include 88Â±2% (cheetah), 82Â±3% (leopard), 81Â±2% (lion), 97Â±2% (spotted hyaena) and 96Â±2% (wild dog) of kills. These descriptions of prey weight preferences therefore contribute to our understanding of the diet spectrum of the five large African carnivores. Where datasets meet the minimum sample size requirements, the segmented model approach provides a means of determining, and comparing, the prey weight range preferences of any carnivore species.
Hayley S Clements
Full Text Available Broad-scale models describing predator prey preferences serve as useful departure points for understanding predator-prey interactions at finer scales. Previous analyses used a subjective approach to identify prey weight preferences of the five large African carnivores, hence their accuracy is questionable. This study uses a segmented model of prey weight versus prey preference to objectively quantify the prey weight preferences of the five large African carnivores. Based on simulations of known predator prey preference, for prey species sample sizes above 32 the segmented model approach detects up to four known changes in prey weight preference (represented by model break-points with high rates of detection (75% to 100% of simulations, depending on number of break-points and accuracy (within 1.3Â±4.0 to 2.7Â±4.4 of known break-point. When applied to the five large African carnivores, using carnivore diet information from across Africa, the model detected weight ranges of prey that are preferred, killed relative to their abundance, and avoided by each carnivore. Prey in the weight ranges preferred and killed relative to their abundance are together termed "accessible prey". Accessible prey weight ranges were found to be 14-135 kg for cheetah Acinonyx jubatus, 1-45 kg for leopard Panthera pardus, 32-632 kg for lion Panthera leo, 15-1600 kg for spotted hyaena Crocuta crocuta and 10-289 kg for wild dog Lycaon pictus. An assessment of carnivore diets throughout Africa found these accessible prey weight ranges include 88Â±2% (cheetah, 82Â±3% (leopard, 81Â±2% (lion, 97Â±2% (spotted hyaena and 96Â±2% (wild dog of kills. These descriptions of prey weight preferences therefore contribute to our understanding of the diet spectrum of the five large African carnivores. Where datasets meet the minimum sample size requirements, the segmented model approach provides a means of determining, and comparing, the prey weight range preferences of any carnivore
Shang, Zhe; Tao, Tuoxin; Wang, Lei
Choice effect is a robust phenomenon in which even âmere choiceâ that does not include actual choosing actions could result in more preference for the self-chosen objects over other-chosen objects. In the current research, we proposed that autonomy would impact the mere choice effect. We conducted two studies to examine the hypothesis. The results showed that the mere choice effect measured by Implicit Association Test (IAT) significantly decreased for participants with lower levels of trait autonomy (Study 1) and when participants were primed to experience autonomy deprivation (Study 2). The theoretical and practical implications are discussed. PMID:27148132
In todayâs society, GPS-enabled devices are used widely. A broad range of location-based services (LBS) allow users to receive and share information related to their positions. Thus, it is possible to accumulate GPS data, and it is expected that the amount of available GPS data will increase very...... done with real vehicle trajectory data and an existing online routing service shows that local drivers take diverse routes and that their preferred routes differ from the ones proposed by the routing service. Next, we propose a routing service that exploits historical route usage data from local...... the optimal segment. Algorithm AUG uses graph augmentation, and algorithm ITE uses iterative road-network partitioning. Empirical studies show that algorithms are capable to offer high performance in realistic settings....
Read, Marilyn A.; Upington, Deborah
This study focuses on children's color preferences in the interior environment. Previous studies highlight young children's preferences for the colors red and blue. The methods of this study used a rank ordering technique and a semi-structured interview process with 3-, 4-, and 5-year-old children. Findings reveal that children prefer the colorâŠ
Full Text Available The article examines expert and diagnostic aspects of "ego-sintonic / ego-dystonic" types of attitudes to sexual desire and describes importance of studying the basis of desire in the context of sexual offenses against minors. We present results of empirical research which aims to study perception features of the sexual preference object in persons with pedophilia depending on the attitude to sexual desire. The study based on data provided by laboratory of forensic sexology, V.P. Serbsky Federal Medical Research Center of Psychiatry and Addiction, Ministry of Health Care of the Russian Federation. The sample consisted of 30 men with such sexual desire disorder as pedophilia. The results analysis showing differences in the perception of the object of sexual desire according to different attitude to the desire. The results indicate that different types of attitudes to sexual desire correspond to certain characteristics of the perception object. Identified patterns can be used in the creating the criminal prospective portrait, dealing with expert issues, developing correction and preventive programs for patients with a diagnosis of pedophilia.
Ingre, M.; Ăkerstedt, T.; Ekstedt, M.; Kecklund, L.G.
Objectives The main objective of the present study was to investigate relative personal fit as the association between rated needs and preferences for work hours, on the one hand, and actual work hours, on the other hand, in three groups (hospital, call-center, and police) working with periodic
Objectivity has a history, and it is full of surprises. In Objectivity, Lorraine Daston and Peter Galison chart the emergence of objectivity in the mid-nineteenth-century sciences--and show how the concept differs from its alternatives, truth-to-nature and trained judgment. This is a story of lofty epistemic ideals fused with workaday practices in the making of scientific images. From the eighteenth through the early twenty-first centuries, the images that reveal the deepest commitments of the empirical sciences--from anatomy to crystallography--are those featured in scientific atlases, the compendia that teach practitioners what is worth looking at and how to look at it. Galison and Daston use atlas images to uncover a hidden history of scientific objectivity and its rivals. Whether an atlas maker idealizes an image to capture the essentials in the name of truth-to-nature or refuses to erase even the most incidental detail in the name of objectivity or highlights patterns in the name of trained judgment is a...
Full Text Available The aim of the research was to analyse the Spearman's Rank Order Correlation between the postural reactions, scoliosis postures and scoliosis in girls aged 12-15 years old. Throughout the whole group of girls, positive correlations between attitude parameters in the frontal plane and the postural reactions were observed: The angle of primary curvature/anteroposterior speed with which eyes closed, angle of primary curvature /average speed with which eyes closed, angle of primary curvature /path length eyes closed, absolute value shoulders angle line/mean loading point X eyes closed, absolute value pelvic inclination angle/lateral speed eyes closed. Negative correlations occurred in cases: absolute value angle of secondary curvature/ mean loading point X eyes open, depth of secondary curvature/mean loading point X eyes open, length of secondary curvature/mean loading point X eyes open, angle of secondary curvature/mean loading point X eyes closed. Statistically significant correlations occurred more frequent when the Rombergâs test was held with eyes closed (CE: angle of primary curvature/anteroposterior speed, torso inclination angle/mean loading point X, angle of primary curvature/average speed, angle of primary curvature/path length, absolute value shoulders angle line/mean loading point X, absolute value pelvic inclination angle/ lateral speed, angle of secondary curvature/mean loading point Y. Among the correlations with eyes closed six were positive: angle of primary curvature/anteroposterior speed, torso inclination angle/mean loading point X, angle of primary curvature/ average speed, angle of primary curvature/ path length, absolute value shoulders angle line/mean loading point X, absolute value pelvic inclination angle/lateral speed, and one was negative: angle of secondary curvature/ mean loading point Y. Among the correlations with eyes open (OE only three negative correlations occurred: absolute value angle of secondary curvature
Moore, William S.
Presents initial data from 725 college and university students on the construct validity of the Learning Environmental Preferences (LEP) instrument. Findings suggest that the LEP accurately measures the cognitive portion of the Perry scheme of intellectual development. (Author/TE)
Suellen A. Bottesini
Full Text Available O estudo teve por objetivo analisar a preferĂȘncia manual de crianĂ§as ao alcanĂ§ar objetos de diferentes tamanhos nas idades de 4, 6, 8 e 36 meses. Para tanto, nove crianĂ§as saudĂĄveis foram posicionadas em uma cadeira reclinada para trĂĄs a 50Âș com a horizontal e a elas foram apresentados quatro objetos de rigidez e tamanhos distintos. Foram coletados longitudinalmente 524 alcances aos 4, 6, 8 e 36 meses, sendo analisadas as variĂĄveis mĂŁo preferida no alcance e Ăndice de contribuiĂ§ĂŁo para os alcances bimanuais. Constatou-se que a mĂŁo preferida no alcance no decorrer dos meses foi a direita e que somente aos 6 meses o tamanho dos objetos influenciou a preferĂȘncia manual: as crianĂ§as fizeram preferencialmente alcances com a mĂŁo direita para objetos pequenos, e mĂŁo esquerda para os grandes. Nos alcances bimanuais, constatou-se que, em geral, a mĂŁo que primeiro toca o objeto Ă© a mĂŁo mais ativa durante todo o movimento de alcanĂ§ar. Provavelmente porque a rigidez seja menos visualmente percebida do que o tamanho, sĂł este influencia o alcance aos 6 meses, idade em que o lactente refina o movimento de alcance. O tamanho o influencia aos 6 meses, idade em que o movimento de alcanĂ§ar se encontra em fase de refinamento: objetos pequenos que exigem maior precisĂŁo foram alcanĂ§ados com a mĂŁo direita (mĂŁo preferida; e objetos grandes, que nĂŁo exigem precisĂŁo para serem apreendidos, foram alcanĂ§ados com a mĂŁo esquerda.The purpose of this study was to analyse infants' and toddlers' manual preference in reaching objects of different sizes and rigidity at the ages of 4, 6, 8, and 36 months. Four objects of different size and stiffness were presented to nine healthy infants leaning on a chair at 50Âș. A total of 524 reaching movements were analysed longitudinally to verify manual preference and the index of contribution of each hand for bimanual reaching. Results showed preference of the right hand for reaching objects; only at the age
Full Text Available Protein structure prediction (PSP is concerned with the prediction of protein tertiary structure from primary structure and is a challenging calculation problem. After decades of research effort, numerous solutions have been proposed for optimisation methods based on energy models. However, further investigation and improvement is still needed to increase the accuracy and similarity of structures. This study presents a novel backbone angle preference factor, which is one of the factors inducing protein folding. The proposed multiobjective optimisation approach simultaneously considers energy models and backbone angle preferences to solve the ab initio PSP. To prove the effectiveness of the multiobjective optimisation approach based on the energy models and backbone angle preferences, 75 amino acid sequences with lengths ranging from 22 to 88 amino acids were selected from the CB513 data set to be the benchmarks. The data sets were highly dissimilar, therefore indicating that they are meaningful. The experimental results showed that the root-mean-square deviation (RMSD of the multiobjective optimization approach based on energy model and backbone angle preferences was superior to those of typical energy models, indicating that the proposed approach can facilitate the ab initio PSP.
Chapelain, Amandine; Laurence, Agathe; Vimond, Marie; Maille, Audrey; Meunier, HĂ©lĂšne; Fagard, Jacqueline; Vauclair, Jacques; Blois-Heulin, Catherine
The extant literature on manual laterality in non-human primates is inconclusive, plagued by inconsistent or contradictory findings and by disturbing methodological issues (e.g. uncontrolled influential factors, comparability issues). The present study examined hand preference and its flexibility in 15 red-capped mangabeys (C. t. torquatus) and 13 Campbell's monkeys (C. c. campbelli), two species that differ in their degree of arboreality. We investigated the influence of the spatial position of the object on hand preference for reaching. We considered spontaneous behaviour (reaching for food during daily feeding) and an experimental task: the QHP task. The QHP is a task that is used in humans. This is a simple reaching task that involves high spatial constraints on hand use. In our study, the subject had to reach for items that were placed on a semi-circle in front of it on five positions, including in the centre position, in the ipsilateral space and in the contralateral space. We assessed hand preference for reaching in front (baseline condition), and we examined how this preference changed when reaching in lateral positions. For reaching in front, about half of the subjects were lateralized and no group-level bias occurred, for both spontaneous and experimental conditions. When considering reaching in the lateral positions, we observed that the position of the object influenced hand use: individuals used the hand that was closest to the object. The results are discussed in relation to previous findings in humans and in non-human primates and regarding theories on handedness and flexibility of hand preference.
Mandryk, M.; Reidsma, P.; Kanellopoulos, A.; Groot, J.C.J.; Ittersum, van M.K.
The diversity in farmersâ objectives and responses to external drivers is usually not considered in integrated assessment studies that investigate impacts and adaptation to climate and socio-economic change. Here, we present an approach to assess how farmersâ stated objectives relate to their
Su Yeon eChoi
Full Text Available Synaptic adhesion molecules regulate diverse aspects of neuronal synapse development, including synapse specificity, formation, and maturation. Neph2, also known as Kirrel3, is an immunoglobulin superfamily adhesion molecule implicated in intellectual disability, neurocognitive delay associated with Jacobsen syndrome, and autism spectrum disorders. We here report mice lacking Neph2 (Neph2â/â mice display moderate hyperactivity in a familiar but not novel environment and novel object recognition deficit with normal performances in Morris water maze spatial learning and memory, contextual fear conditioning and extinction, and pattern separation tests. These mice show normal levels of anxiety-like behaviors, social interaction, and repetitive behaviors. At the synapse level, Neph2â/â dentate gyrus granule cells exhibit unaltered dendritic spine density and spontaneous excitatory synaptic transmission. These results suggest that Neph2 is important for normal locomotor activity and object recognition memory.
Deelen, Ineke; Jansen, Marijke; Dogterom, Nico J; Kamphuis, Carlijn B M; Ettema, Dick
The number of sports facilities, sports clubs, or city parks in a residential neighbourhood may affect the likelihood that people participate in sports and their preferences for a certain sports location. This study aimed to assess whether objective physical and socio-spatial neighbourhood characteristics relate to sports participation and preferences for sports locations. Data from Dutch adults (Nâ=â1201) on sports participation, their most-used sports location, and socio-demographic characteristics were collected using an online survey. Objective land-use data and the number of sports facilities were gathered for each participant using a 2000-m buffer around their home locations, whereas socio-spatial neighbourhood characteristics (i.e., density, socio-economic status, and safety) were determined at the neighbourhood level. A discrete choice-modelling framework (multinomial probit model) was used to model the associations between neighbourhood characteristics and sports participation and location. Higher proportions of green space, blue space, and the number of sports facilities were positively associated with sports participation in public space, at sports clubs, and at other sports facilities. Higher degrees of urbanization were negatively associated with sports participation at public spaces, sports clubs, and other sports facilities. Those with more green space, blue space or sports facilities in their residential neighbourhood were more likely to participate in sports, but these factors did not affect their preference for a certain sports location. Longitudinal study designs are necessary to assess causality: do active people choose to live in sports-facilitating neighbourhoods, or do neighbourhood characteristics affect sports participation?
Dana, Nigussie; van der Waaij, Liesbeth H; Dessie, Tadelle; van Arendonk, Johan A M
To generate information essential for the implementation of breeding schemes suitable for village poultry producers in Ethiopia, a survey was conducted aimed at defining the socioeconomic characteristics of the production environments in different geographic regions, understanding the important functions of chickens, identifying farmers' choice of chicken breeds and the underlying factors that determine the choice of genetic stock used. The survey included both questionnaire survey and a participatory group discussion. A total of 225 households (45 households from each of five Woredas) were interviewed. The questionnaire was designed to collect data covering general information on village poultry production such as socio-management characteristics, production objectives, population structure, breed choice and trait preferences, market preferences of specific traits, and farmers' selection practices. The participatory farmers' discussions were designed to involve stakeholders in defining the breeding objective "traits" and deriving their relative importance in the production environment based on the different functions of chickens and "traits" identified in the interviews. The results showed that production of eggs for consumption is the principal function of chickens in most regions followed by the use as source of income and meat for home consumption. The production system in all geographic regions studied revealed similar features generally characterized by extensive scavenging management, absence of immunization programs, increased risk of exposure of birds to disease and predators, and reproduction entirely based on uncontrolled natural mating and hatching of eggs using broody hens. Farmers' ratings of indigenous chickens with respect to modern breeds showed the highest significance of the adaptive traits in general, and the superior merits of indigenous chickens to high yielding exotic breeds in particular. Adaptation to the production environment was the most
Tennakoon, Ruwan B.; Bab-Hadiashar, Alireza; de Bruijne, Marleen
of research. In this paper we propose a fast and accurate non-rigid registration method for intra-modality volumetric images. Our approach exploits the information provided by an order statistics based segmentation method, to find the important regions for registration and use an appropriate sampling scheme...
Van Doorn, A.; Koenderink, J.; Wagemans, J.
We address the topic of âpictorial depthâ in cases of pictures that are unlike photographic renderings. The most basic measure of âdepthâ is no doubt that of depth order. We establish depth order through the pairwise depth-comparison method, involving all pairs from a set of 49 fiducial points. The
van Doorn, Andrea; Koenderink, Jan; Wagemans, Johan
We address the topic of "pictorial depth" in cases of pictures that are unlike photographic renderings. The most basic measure of "depth" is no doubt that of depth order. We establish depth order through the pairwise depth-comparison method, involving all pairs from a set of 49 fiducial points. The pictorial space for this study was evoked by a capriccio (imaginary landscape) by Francesco Guardi (1712-1793). In such a drawing pictorial space is suggested by the artist through a small set of conventional depth cues. As a result typical Western observers tend to agree largely in their visual awareness when looking at such art. We rank depths for locations that are not on a single surface and far apart in pictorial space. We find that observers resolve about 40 distinct depth layers and agree largely in this. From a previous experiment we have metrical data for the same observers. The rank correlations between the results are high. Perhaps surprisingly, we find no correlation between the number of distinct depth layers and the total metrical depth range. Thus, the relation between subjective magnitude and discrimination threshold fails to hold for pictorial depth.
Kelly, Kevin R.
Results of the online Kuder Career Search (KCS) were compared with concurrent measures of career interest and self-efficacy for 197 college freshmen. The KCS Activity Preference Scales related as expected. The rank order of KCS Career Clusters correlated with the ranks of the concurrent interest scales. (Contains 17 references.) (SK)
Piemonti, Adriana Debora; Babbar-Sebens, Meghna; Mukhopadhyay, Snehasis; Kleinberg, Austin
Interactive Genetic Algorithms (IGA) are advanced human-in-the-loop optimization methods that enable humans to give feedback, based on their subjective and unquantified preferences and knowledge, during the algorithm's search process. While these methods are gaining popularity in multiple fields, there is a critical lack of data and analyses on (a) the nature of interactions of different humans with interfaces of decision support systems (DSS) that employ IGA in water resources planning problems and on (b) the effect of human feedback on the algorithm's ability to search for design alternatives desirable to end-users. In this paper, we present results and analyses of observational experiments in which different human participants (surrogates and stakeholders) interacted with an IGA-based, watershed DSS called WRESTORE to identify plans of conservation practices in a watershed. The main goal of this paper is to evaluate how the IGA adapts its search process in the objective space to a user's feedback, and identify whether any similarities exist in the objective space of plans found by different participants. Some participants focused on the entire watershed, while others focused only on specific local subbasins. Additionally, two different hydrology models were used to identify any potential differences in interactive search outcomes that could arise from differences in the numerical values of benefits displayed to participants. Results indicate that stakeholders, in comparison to their surrogates, were more likely to use multiple features of the DSS interface to collect information before giving feedback, and dissimilarities existed among participants in the objective space of design alternatives.
Full Text Available Sustainability information and decision support can be two important driving forces for making sustainable transitions in society. However, not enough knowledge is available on the effectiveness of these two factors. Here, we conducted an experimental study to support the hypotheses that acquisition of sustainability information and use of decision support methods consistently construct preferences for renewable power generation technologies that use solar power, wind power, small-scale hydroelectric power, geothermal power, wood biomass, or biogas as energy sources. The sustainability information was prepared using a renewable energy-focused input-output model of Japan and contained life cycle greenhouse gas emissions, electricity generation costs, and job creation. We measured rank-ordered preferences in the following four steps in experimental workshops conducted for municipal officials: provision of (1 energy-source names; (2 sustainability information; (3 additional explanation of public value; and (4 knowledge and techniques about multi-attribute value functions. The degree of changes in preference orders was evaluated using Spearmanâs rank correlation coefficient. The consistency of rank-ordered preferences among participants was determined by using the maximum eigenvalue for the coefficient matrix. The results show: (1 the individual preferences evolved drastically in response to the sustainability information and the decision support method; and (2 the rank-ordered preferences were more consistent during the preference construction processes. These results indicate that provision of sustainability information, coupled with decision support methods, is effective for decision making regarding renewable energies.
Akar, Furuzan; Mutlu, Oguz; Komsuoglu Celikyurt, Ipek; Bektas, Emine; Tanyeri, Pelin; Ulak, Guner; Erden, Faruk
Nitric oxide (NO) is an intercellular messenger that plays a critical role in learning and memory processes. Effects of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitors and guanylate cyclase (GC) inhibitors on cognitive function remain controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate effects of an NOS inhibitor, 7-nitroindazole (7-NI), and a GC inhibitor, 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ), on different aspects of memory in passive avoidance (PA), novel object recognition (NOR), and social transmission of food preference (STFP) tests. Male Balb-c mice were treated intraperitoneally with 7-NI (15 mg/kg), ODQ (3,10 mg/kg), L-arginine (100 mg/kg) + 7-NI (15 mg/kg), or physiological saline. ODQ (10 mg/kg) and 7-NI (15 mg/kg) significantly decreased second-day latency in PA test. 7-NI (15 mg/kg) and ODQ (10 mg/kg) significantly decreased the ratio index in the NOR test. 7-NI and ODQ (10 mg/kg) decreased cued/non-cued food eaten in STFP test. Amount of time spent in center zone significantly increased in ODQ (10 mg/kg) and 7-NI (15 mg/kg) groups in open field test, but there was no effect on total distance moved and speed of animals. ODQ (10 mg/kg) significantly increased number of entries into new compartments in exploratory activity apparatus, while 7-NI had no effect. Administration of L-arginine (100 mg/kg) before 7-NI reversed 7-NI-induced effects, supporting the role of NO in cognition. Our results confirm that inhibition of NO/cGMP/GS pathway might disturb emotional, visual, and olfactory memory in mice. Also, 7-NI and ODQ had anxiolytic effects in open field test, and ODQ also enhanced exploratory activity.
N.J.A. van Exel (Job); G. de Graaf; P. Rietveld (Piet)
textabstractThis article presents the results of a study exploring travellers' preferences for middle-distance travel using Q-methodology. Respondents rank-ordered 42 opinion statements regarding travel choice and motivations for travel in general and for car and public transport as alternative
Exel, N.J.A.; de Graaf, G.; Rietveld, P.
This article presents the results of a study exploring travellers' preferences for middle-distance travel using Q-methodology. Respondents rank-ordered 42 opinion statements regarding travel choice and motivations for travel in general and for car and public transport as alternative travel modes.
Mavrides, Dr. Gregory
Based on a study of dating and marital preferences that had been conducted in China over 15 years ago, Chinese young adults ranging in age from 16 through 30 years old were asked to rank-order nine marital assets (i.e., character and temperament, health, appearance, education, height, age, future earning potential, family background, and virginity) and eight personal traits (i.e., intelligence, honesty, loyalty, kindness, romanticism, industriousness, dependability and humor) in descending o...
Sherri L. Livengood
Full Text Available Musical preference is highly individualized and is an area of active study to develop methods for its quantification. Recently, preference-based behavior, associated with activity in brain reward circuitry, has been shown to follow lawful, quantifiable patterns, despite broad variation across individuals. These patterns, observed using a keypress paradigm with visual stimuli, form the basis for relative preference theory (RPT. Here, we sought to determine if such patterns extend to non-visual domains (i.e., audition and dynamic stimuli, potentially providing a method to supplement psychometric, physiological, and neuroimaging approaches to preference quantification. For this study, we adapted our keypress paradigm to two sets of stimuli consisting of seventeenth to twenty-first century western art music (Classical and twentieth to twenty-first century jazz and popular music (Popular. We studied a pilot sample and then a separate primary experimental sample with this paradigm, and used iterative mathematical modeling to determine if RPT relationships were observed with high R2 fits. We further assessed the extent of heterogeneity in the rank ordering of keypress-based responses across subjects. As expected, individual rank orderings of preferences were quite heterogeneous, yet we observed mathematical patterns fitting these data similar to those observed previously with visual stimuli. These patterns in music preference were recurrent across two cohorts and two stimulus sets, and scaled between individual and group data, adhering to the requirements for lawfulness. Our findings suggest a general neuroscience framework that predicts human approach/avoidance behavior, while also allowing for individual differences and the broad diversity of human choices; the resulting framework may offer novel approaches to advancing music neuroscience, or its applications to medicine and recommendation systems.
Livengood, Sherri L.; Sheppard, John P.; Kim, Byoung W.; Malthouse, Edward C.; Bourne, Janet E.; Barlow, Anne E.; Lee, Myung J.; Marin, Veronica; O'Connor, Kailyn P.; Csernansky, John G.; Block, Martin P.; Blood, Anne J.; Breiter, Hans C.
Musical preference is highly individualized and is an area of active study to develop methods for its quantification. Recently, preference-based behavior, associated with activity in brain reward circuitry, has been shown to follow lawful, quantifiable patterns, despite broad variation across individuals. These patterns, observed using a keypress paradigm with visual stimuli, form the basis for relative preference theory (RPT). Here, we sought to determine if such patterns extend to non-visual domains (i.e., audition) and dynamic stimuli, potentially providing a method to supplement psychometric, physiological, and neuroimaging approaches to preference quantification. For this study, we adapted our keypress paradigm to two sets of stimuli consisting of seventeenth to twenty-first century western art music (Classical) and twentieth to twenty-first century jazz and popular music (Popular). We studied a pilot sample and then a separate primary experimental sample with this paradigm, and used iterative mathematical modeling to determine if RPT relationships were observed with high R2 fits. We further assessed the extent of heterogeneity in the rank ordering of keypress-based responses across subjects. As expected, individual rank orderings of preferences were quite heterogeneous, yet we observed mathematical patterns fitting these data similar to those observed previously with visual stimuli. These patterns in music preference were recurrent across two cohorts and two stimulus sets, and scaled between individual and group data, adhering to the requirements for lawfulness. Our findings suggest a general neuroscience framework that predicts human approach/avoidance behavior, while also allowing for individual differences and the broad diversity of human choices; the resulting framework may offer novel approaches to advancing music neuroscience, or its applications to medicine and recommendation systems. PMID:28512395
A simple mathematical result characterizing a subset of a product set is proved and used to obtain additive representations of preferences. The additivity consequences of independence assumptions are obtained for preferences which are not total or transitive. This means that most of the economic...
The focus of this article is social divisions among preschool children in daycare centers. Based on ethnographic fieldwork in three daycare centers in Denmark, the analysis concerns young childrenâs social preferences. The ethnographic material shows that despite an explicit political ambition of...
Hagesaether, Ellen; Christiansen, Elisabeth; Due-Hansen, Maria Elisabeth
The aim of the study was to test the effect of mucus on the permeability of newly developed structurally related free fatty acid receptor 1-agonists TUG-488, TUG-499 and TUG-424, which were compared to the more hydrophilic ketoprofen and the more hydrophobic testosterone as reference drugs...
Although 'giraffing' and carrying of prepared materials into the examination hall were the most common forms of examination malpractice, bribery (ranked 4.5) was the anchor. Students, peer group and parents were the worst malpractitioners in a decreasing order of culpability. Overvaluing of certificates and teachers'Â ...
Tennakoon, Ruwan; Bab-Hadiashar, Alireza; Cao, Zhenwei
burden and increase the registration accuracy has become an intensive area of research. In this paper we propose a fast and accurate non-rigid registration method for intra-modality volumetric images. Our approach exploits the information provided by an order statistics based segmentation method, to find......Non-rigid image registration techniques using intensity based similarity measures are widely used in medical imaging applications. Due to high computational complexities of these techniques, particularly for volumetric images, finding appropriate registration methods to both reduce the computation...... the important regions for registration and use an appropriate sampling scheme to target those areas and reduce the registration computation time. A unique advantage of the proposed method is its ability to identify the point of diminishing returns and stop the registration process. Our experiments...
Taylor, Chloe; Clifford, Alexandra; Franklin, Anna
Claims of universality pervade color preference research. It has been argued that there are universal preferences for some colors over others (e.g., Eysenck, 1941), universal sex differences (e.g., Hurlbert & Ling, 2007), and universal mechanisms or dimensions that govern these preferences (e.g., Palmer & Schloss, 2010). However, there have been surprisingly few cross-cultural investigations of color preference and none from nonindustrialized societies that are relatively free from the common influence of global consumer culture. Here, we compare the color preferences of British adults to those of Himba adults who belong to a nonindustrialized culture in rural Namibia. British and Himba color preferences are found to share few characteristics, and Himba color preferences display none of the so-called "universal" patterns or sex differences. Several significant predictors of color preference are identified, such as cone-contrast between stimulus and background (Hurlbert & Ling, 2007), the valence of color-associated objects (Palmer & Schloss, 2010), and the colorfulness of the color. However, the relationship of these predictors to color preference was strikingly different for the two cultures. No one model of color preference is able to account for both British and Himba color preferences. We suggest that not only do patterns of color preference vary across individuals and groups but the underlying mechanisms and dimensions of color preference vary as well. The findings have implications for broader debate on the extent to which our perception and experience of color is culturally relative or universally constrained. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.
It has been argued that only moral agents can have preference-interests and this therefore excludesÂ animals. I will present two objections to this argument. The first will show that moral agency is notÂ necessary to have preference-interests. The second will assert that the argument that animals cannotÂ have preference-interests has unwelcome consequences.
Full Text Available Catching the essence of consumerâ preferences, a dimension of consumersâ behavior throughmarketing research represents an important aspect in the activity of any organization and, in the sametime, an objective very difficult to reach. This paper is meant to bring some light on the importance ofknowing the consumerâ preferences and on the ways that consumerâ preferences are determined.
Palmer, Stephen E.; Schloss, Karen B.
Color preference is an important aspect of human behavior, but little is known about why people like some colors more than others. Recent results from the Berkeley Color Project (BCP) provide detailed measurements of preferences among 32 chromatic colors as well as other relevant aspects of color perception. We describe the fit of several color preference models, including ones based on cone outputs, color-emotion associations, and Palmer and Schloss's ecological valence theory. The ecological valence theory postulates that color serves an adaptive "steering' function, analogous to taste preferences, biasing organisms to approach advantageous objects and avoid disadvantageous ones. It predicts that people will tend to like colors to the extent that they like the objects that are characteristically that color, averaged over all such objects. The ecological valence theory predicts 80% of the variance in average color preference ratings from the Weighted Affective Valence Estimates (WAVEs) of correspondingly colored objects, much more variance than any of the other models. We also describe how hue preferences for single colors differ as a function of gender, expertise, culture, social institutions, and perceptual experience.
Dimes, R. E.
Summarizes classifications of educational objectives, types of test items, and principles underlying the construction of tests. Indicates that a combination of essay and objective tests is preferable in the overall evaluation of a course. (CC)
Broekhuizen, Henk; IJzerman, Maarten J; Hauber, A Brett; Groothuis-Oudshoorn, Catharina G M
The need for patient engagement has been recognized by regulatory agencies, but there is no consensus about how to operationalize this. One approach is the formal elicitation and use of patient preferences for weighing clinical outcomes. The aim of this study was to demonstrate how patient preferences can be used to weigh clinical outcomes when both preferences and clinical outcomes are uncertain by applying a probabilistic value-based multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) method. Probability distributions were used to model random variation and parameter uncertainty in preferences, and parameter uncertainty in clinical outcomes. The posterior value distributions and rank probabilities for each treatment were obtained using Monte-Carlo simulations. The probability of achieving the first rank is the probability that a treatment represents the highest value to patients. We illustrated our methodology for a simplified case on six HIV treatments. Preferences were modeled with normal distributions and clinical outcomes were modeled with beta distributions. The treatment value distributions showed the rank order of treatments according to patients and illustrate the remaining decision uncertainty. This study demonstrated how patient preference data can be used to weigh clinical evidence using MCDA. The model takes into account uncertainty in preferences and clinical outcomes. The model can support decision makers during the aggregation step of the MCDA process and provides a first step toward preference-based personalized medicine, yet requires further testing regarding its appropriate use in real-world settings.
This paper explores the erosion and problematization of âthe organizationâ as a demarcated entity. Utilizing Foucault's reflections on âstate-phobiaâ as a source of inspiration, I show how an organization-phobia has gained a hold within Organization Theory (OT). By attending to the history...... of this organization-phobia, the paper argues that OT has become increasingly incapable of speaking about its core object. I show how organizations went from being conceptualized as entities of major importance to becoming theoretically deconstructed and associated with all kinds of ills. Through this history......, organizations as distinct entities have been rendered so problematic that they have gradually come to be removed from the center of OT. The costs of this have been rather significant. Besides undermining the grounds that gave OT intellectual credibility and legitimacy to begin with, the organization-phobia...
Department of Veterans Affairs â The Preferences service provides a means to store, retrieve, and manage user preferences. The service supports definition of enterprise wide preferences, as well as...
Background: Previous studies about patients who have undergone ostomy surgery commonly address the issues of the surgery, complications, preoperative counseling, quality of life, and psychosocial changes following surgery. Only a limited number of studies deal with how technical improvements...... in stoma care would affect patients and, to the author's knowledge, the present study is the first to elicit preferences for potential improvements in ostomy pouches in the form of monetary values. Objective: This article examines and measures Swedish patients' preferences for potential improvements...... in ostomy pouch attributes. The theory, study design, elicitation procedure, and resulting preference structure of the sample is described. Methods: A discrete-choice experiment (DCE) was used to elicit preferences. Respondents were asked to choose between alternatives in choice sets, in which each...
Full Text Available Heather L Gelhorn,1 Jiat-Ling Poon,1 Evan W Davies,2 Rosirene Paczkowski,3 Sarah E Curtis,3 Kristina S Boye3 1Outcomes Research, Evidera, Bethesda, MD, USA; 2Outcomes Research, Evidera, London, UK; 3Global Patient Outcomes and Real World Evidence, Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN, USA Objective: To use a discrete choice experiment (DCE to evaluate preferences for the actual treatment features and overall profiles of two injectable glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (dulaglutide and liraglutide among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM in the UK.Methods: In-person interviews were conducted in the UK to administer a DCE to patients with self-reported T2DM, naĂŻve to treatment with injectable medications. The DCE examined six attributes of T2DM treatment each described by two levels: âdosing frequency,â âhemoglobin A1c change,â âweight change,â âtype of delivery system,â âfrequency of nausea,â and âfrequency of hypoglycemia.â Part-worth utilities were estimated using random effects logit models and were used to calculate relative importance (RI values for each attribute. A chi-square test was used to determine differences in preferences for dulaglutide versus liraglutide profiles.Results: A total of 243 participants [mean age: 60.5 (standard deviation 10.9 years; 76.1% male; mean body mass index: 29.8 (standard deviation 5.4 kg/m2] completed the study. RI values for the attributes in rank order were: âdosing frequencyâ (41.6%, âtype of delivery systemâ (35.5%, âfrequency of nauseaâ (10.4%, âweight changeâ (5.9%, âhemoglobin A1c changeâ (3.6%, and âfrequency of hypoglycemiaâ (3.0%. Significantly more participants preferred the dulaglutide profile (83.1% compared with the liraglutide profile (16.9%; P<0.0001.Conclusion: This study elicited patientsâ preferences for attributes and levels representing the actual characteristics of two specific glucagon-like peptide-1 medications
Instrumentation 1 2 3 4 (40) 55 37) Genetic Anomalies of Clinical Interest 1 2 3 4 (41) 38) Forensic Dentistry 1 2 3 4 (42) 39) Sealants 1 2 3 4 (43) 40...Wartime Training Forensic Dentistry Medical Triage Burns Assisting in Surgery IV Therapy/Techniques Use of Med. Tubes Maxillofacial Injuries OR Sterile...Based on Category of Topic . ... 107 35. Comparison of Clinical Dentistry Topics Rank-order Based on Years of Experience . . . .. ........ .108 36
Full Text Available It has been argued that only moral agents can have preference-interests and this therefore excludesÂ animals. I will present two objections to this argument. The first will show that moral agency is notÂ necessary to have preference-interests. The second will assert that the argument that animals cannotÂ have preference-interests has unwelcome consequences.
Liem, Djin Gie; Mars, Monica; De Graaf, Cees
We investigated the relationships in children between rules that restrict consumption of mono- and disaccharides (MDS), consumption of MDS and preferences for sucrose-containing orangeade. The background ideas of restriction rules we also investigated. To this end, 44 children (5.1+/-0.5 years) performed a rank-order and paired-comparison test of preference for five orangeades, which differed in sucrose concentration (0.14, 0.20, 0.29, 0.42, 0.61 M sucrose). Parents filled out a questionnaire concerning restriction rules and their children's consumption of MDS-containing foods. Stronger restriction rules were related to a lower consumption of beverages that contained MDS and to a lower consumption of MDS-containing foods during breakfast and lunch. The most freedom to choose foods that contain MDS was given during the afternoon. Fifty-five percent of the children who were highly restricted showed a preference for the highest concentration of sucrose in orangeade. None of these children preferred the orangeade with the lowest concentration of sucrose. While 19% of the children who were little restricted preferred the beverage with the lowest concentration of sucrose, 33% preferred the beverage with the highest concentration. These parents generally believed that sugar has a bad effect on health and had similar background ideas concerning restriction rules.
Johnson, Earl E; Mueller, H Gustav; Ricketts, Todd A
To determine the amount of importance audiologists place on various items related to their selection of a preferred hearing aid brand manufacturer. Three hundred forty-three hearing aid-dispensing audiologists rated a total of 32 randomized items by survey methodology. Principle component analysis identified seven orthogonal statistical factors of importance. In rank order, these factors were Aptitude of the Brand, Image, Cost, Sales and Speed of Delivery, Exposure, Colleague Recommendations, and Contracts and Incentives. While it was hypothesized that differences among audiologists in the importance ratings of these factors would dictate their preference for a given brand, that was not our finding. Specifically, mean ratings for the six most important factors did not differ among audiologists preferring different brands. A statistically significant difference among audiologists preferring different brands was present, however, for one factor: Contracts and Incentives. Its assigned importance, though, was always lower than that for the other six factors. Although most audiologists have a preferred hearing aid brand, differences in the perceived importance of common factors attributed to brands do not largely determine preference for a particular brand.
Broekhuizen, Henk; Groothuis-Oudshoorn, Catharina G. M.; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Groen, Harry; IJzerman, Maarten J.
Background: Because early detection of lung cancer can substantially improve survival, there is increasing attention for lung cancer screening.Â Objectives: To estimate public preferences for lung cancer screening and to identify subgroups in preferences.Â Methods: Seven important attributes were
Ernst, Jeremy V.; Clark, Aaron C.
The objective of this study was to identify changes in dominant preferred learning styles of students based on instructional presentation of course content. This study evaluates dominant preferred learning styles of two groups of university students. The first group of students was enrolled in a course that introduces graphical representation inâŠ
Full Text Available How stable are human aesthetic preferences, and how does stability change over the lifespan? Here we investigate the stability of aesthetic taste in a cross-sectional study. We employed a simple rank-order preference task using paintings and photographs of faces and landscapes. In each of the four stimulus classes, we find that aesthetic stability generally follows an inverted U-shaped function, with the greatest degree of stability appearing in early to middle adulthood. We propose that one possible interpretation of this result is that it indicates a role for cognitive control (i.e., the ability to adapt cognition to current situations in the construction of aesthetic taste, since cognitive control performance follows a generally similar trajectory across the lifespan. However, human aesthetic stability is on the whole rather low: even the most stable age groups show ranking changes of at least 1 rank per item over a 2-week span. We discuss possible implications for these findings in terms of existing theories of visual aesthetics and in terms of methodological considerations, though we acknowledge that other interpretations of our results are possible.
Liao, Hsin-I; Shimojo, Shinsuke; Yeh, Su-Ling
Familiarity leads to preference (e.g., the mere exposure effect), yet it remains unknown whether it is objective familiarity, that is, repetitive exposure, or subjective familiarity that contributes to preference. In addition, it is unexplored whether and how different emotions influence familiarity-related preference. The authors investigated whether happy or sad faces are preferred or perceived as more familiar and whether this subjective familiarity judgment correlates with preference for different emotional faces. An emotional face--happy or sad--was paired with a neutral face, and participants rated the relative preference and familiarity of each of the paired faces. For preference judgment, happy faces were preferred and sad faces were less preferred, compared with neutral faces. For familiarity judgment, happy faces did not show any bias, but sad faces were perceived as less familiar than neutral faces. Item-by-item correlational analyses show preference for sad faces--but not happy faces--positively correlate with familiarity. These results suggest a direct link between positive emotion and preference, and argue at least partly against a common cause for familiarity and preference. Instead, facial expression of different emotional valence modulates the link between familiarity and preference.
Leaf, Justin B; Oppenheim-Leaf, Misty L; Leaf, Ronald; Courtemanche, Andrea B; Taubman, Mitchell; McEachin, John; Sheldon, Jan B; Sherman, James A
Children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may play with limited objects or toys, making it difficult for teachers to identify reinforcers to use in teaching new skills. The goal of this study was to alter children's preferences from highly preferred toys to toys that were originally less preferred using an observational pairing procedure. Child participants observed a preferred adult playing with toys that were initially less preferred by the child. This intervention resulted in a shift in preference toward the item manipulated by the adult. Maintenance of the changed preference was idiosyncratic across participants. Results suggest a procedure for expanding the range of items that students with ASD will select.
May, Zacnicte; Morrill, Adam; Holcombe, Adam; Johnston, Travis; Gallup, Joshua; Fouad, Karim; Schalomon, Melike; Hamilton, Trevor James
The novel object recognition, or novel-object preference (NOP) test is employed to assess recognition memory in a variety of organisms. The subject is exposed to two identical objects, then after a delay, it is placed back in the original environment containing one of the original objects and a novel object. If the subject spends more time exploring one object, this can be interpreted as memory retention. To date, this test has not been fully explored in zebrafish (Danio rerio). Zebrafish possess recognition memory for simple 2- and 3-dimensional geometrical shapes, yet it is unknown if this translates to complex 3-dimensional objects. In this study we evaluated recognition memory in zebrafish using complex objects of different sizes. Contrary to rodents, zebrafish preferentially explored familiar over novel objects. Familiarity preference disappeared after delays of 5 mins. Leopard danios, another strain of D. rerio, also preferred the familiar object after a 1 min delay. Object preference could be re-established in zebra danios by administration of nicotine tartrate salt (50mg/L) prior to stimuli presentation, suggesting a memory-enhancing effect of nicotine. Additionally, exploration biases were present only when the objects were of intermediate size (2 Ă 5 cm). Our results demonstrate zebra and leopard danios have recognition memory, and that low nicotine doses can improve this memory type in zebra danios. However, exploration biases, from which memory is inferred, depend on object size. These findings suggest zebrafish ecology might influence object preference, as zebrafish neophobia could reflect natural anti-predatory behaviour. Copyright Â© 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Heinen, Thomas; Jeraj, Damian; Vinken, Pia M; Velentzas, Konstantinos
In gymnastics, most skills incorporate rotations about one or more body axes. At present, the question remains open if factors such as lateral preference and/or vestibulo-spinal asymmetry are related to gymnast's rotational preference...
At least to some extent migration behavior is the outcome of a preference for migration. The pattern of migration as an outcome of a preference for migration depends on two key factors: imitation technology and migration feasibility. We show that these factors jointly determine the outcome of a preference for migration and we provide examples that illustrate how the prevalence and transmission of a migration-forming preference yield distinct migration patterns. In particular, the imitation of...
Harrison, Glenn W.; Lau, Morten; RutstrĂ¶m, E. Elisabet
We elicit individual preferences over social risk. We identify the extent to which these preferences are correlated with preferences over individual risk and the well-being of others. We examine these preferences in the context of laboratory experiments over small, anonymous groups, although...... the methodological issues extend to larger groups that form endogenously (e.g., families, committees, communities). Preferences over social risk can be closely approximated by individual risk attitudes when subjects have no information about the risk preferences of other group members. We find no evidence...... that subjects systematically reveal different risk attitudes in a social setting with no prior knowledge about the risk preferences of others compared to when they solely bear the consequences of the decision. However, we also find that subjects are significantly more risk averse when they know the risk...
Franco de los RĂos, Camilo; RodrĂguez, J. Tinguaro; Montero, Javier
on the character of opposition, the compound meaning of preference emerges from the fuzzy reinforcement of paired opposite concepts, searching for significant evidence for affirming dominance among the decision objects. Here we propose a general model for the paired decomposition of preference, examining its...... characteristic semantics under a binary and fuzzy logical frame, and identifying solutions with different values of significance for preference learning....
Leaf, Justin B.; Oppenheim-Leaf, Misty L.; Leaf, Ronald; Courtemanche, Andrea B.; Taubman, Mitchell; McEachin, John; Sheldon, Jan B.; Sherman, James A.
Children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may play with limited objects or toys, making it difficult for teachers to identify reinforcers to use in teaching new skills. The goal of this study was to alter children's preferences from highly preferred toys to toys that were originally less preferred using an observational pairing procedure.âŠ
A. A. Bosov
Full Text Available Purpose. The development of complicated techniques of production and management processes, information systems, computer science, applied objects of systems theory and others requires improvement of mathematical methods, new approaches for researches of application systems. And the variety and diversity of subject systems makes necessary the development of a model that generalizes the classical sets and their development â sets of sets. Multiple objects unlike sets are constructed by multiple structures and represented by the structure and content. The aim of the work is the analysis of multiple structures, generating multiple objects, the further development of operations on these objects in application systems. Methodology. To achieve the objectives of the researches, the structure of multiple objects represents as constructive trio, consisting of media, signatures and axiomatic. Multiple object is determined by the structure and content, as well as represented by hybrid superposition, composed of sets, multi-sets, ordered sets (lists and heterogeneous sets (sequences, corteges. Findings. In this paper we study the properties and characteristics of the components of hybrid multiple objects of complex systems, proposed assessments of their complexity, shown the rules of internal and external operations on objects of implementation. We introduce the relation of arbitrary order over multiple objects, we define the description of functions and display on objects of multiple structures. Originality.In this paper we consider the development of multiple structures, generating multiple objects.Practical value. The transition from the abstract to the subject of multiple structures requires the transformation of the system and multiple objects. Transformation involves three successive stages: specification (binding to the domain, interpretation (multiple sites and particularization (goals. The proposed describe systems approach based on hybrid sets
Schloss, Karen B; Nelson, Rolf; Parker, Laura; Heck, Isobel A; Palmer, Stephen E
We investigated how color preferences vary according to season and whether those changes could be explained by the ecological valence theory (EVT). To do so, we assessed the same participants' preferences for the same colors during fall, winter, spring, and summer in the northeastern United States, where there are large seasonal changes in environmental colors. Seasonal differences were most pronounced between fall and the other three seasons. Participants liked fall-associated dark-warm colors-for example, dark-red, dark-orange (brown), dark-yellow (olive), and dark-chartreuse-more during fall than other seasons. The EVT could explain these changes with a modified version of Palmer and Schloss' (2010) weighted affective valence estimate (WAVE) procedure that added an activation term to the WAVE equation. The results indicate that color preferences change according to season, as color-associated objects become more/less activated in the observer. These seasonal changes in color preferences could not be characterized by overall shifts in weights along cone-contrast axes. Copyright Â© 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.
Full Text Available Human object recognition is largely independent of conditions in which objects are viewed, although affective impressions to the objects may be influenced by viewing conditions. To what degree does viewing condition alter our subjective likability to objects? We tested the effects of viewpoint (frontal view and three-quarter view and viewing durations (100, 500, and 1000 msec on the subjective likability to 32 common objects (e.g., vehicles, furniture, stationery. Participants observed the object images on the computer display and rated their likability of the objects by 7-point Likert scale. The viewing conditions affected the likability; the mean rated likability was higher for three-quarter view than for frontal view, and higher for longer duration. However, the object-wise correlations of rated likability were fairly high and significant between the object orientations and among the durations, indicating that the rank order of the objects were largely consistent across the viewing conditions. Our findings suggest that the mechanism for determining likability to visual objects may be composed of two components; one is sensitive to viewing condition and another is robust against viewing condition.
Plescia, Carolina; Aichholzer, Julian
ABSTRACT An expanding literature indicates that in multiparty systems with coalition governments, citizens consider the post-electoral bargaining process among parties when casting their vote. Yet, we know surprisingly little about the nature of votersâ coalition preferences. This paper uses data from the Austrian National Election Study to examine the determinants as well as the independence of preferences for coalitions as political object. We find that coalition preferences are strongly informed by spatial considerations; but additional non-ideological factors, such as party and leader preferences, also play a fundamental role. We also find that coalitions enjoy a certain degree of independence from other objects of vote choice and they do not always represent a simple average score on the feeling thermometer of the constituent parties. There are, however, substantial differences among voters, with party identifiers and those with extreme ideology being less likely to consider coalitions as separate entities from their component parties. PMID:28824702
Plescia, Carolina; Aichholzer, Julian
An expanding literature indicates that in multiparty systems with coalition governments, citizens consider the post-electoral bargaining process among parties when casting their vote. Yet, we know surprisingly little about the nature of voters' coalition preferences. This paper uses data from the Austrian National Election Study to examine the determinants as well as the independence of preferences for coalitions as political object. We find that coalition preferences are strongly informed by spatial considerations; but additional non-ideological factors, such as party and leader preferences, also play a fundamental role. We also find that coalitions enjoy a certain degree of independence from other objects of vote choice and they do not always represent a simple average score on the feeling thermometer of the constituent parties. There are, however, substantial differences among voters, with party identifiers and those with extreme ideology being less likely to consider coalitions as separate entities from their component parties.
Wijtzes, Anne I; Jansen, Wilma; Bouthoorn, Selma H; Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C; Jansen, Pauline W; Franco, Oscar H; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Hofman, Albert; Raat, Hein
A healthy diet is important for optimal growth and development in children. Food preferences are a main determinant of children's intake. The aim of this study was to examine the associations of 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) taster status (taste sensitivity to PROP) with children's food preferences and consumption of high-calorie snacks and sweet beverages among ethnically diverse children. We analysed data from 5585 6-year-old children enrolled in the Generation R Study, a birth cohort study in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. PROP taster status was evaluated using a suprathreshold screening solution. Food preferences of the children were assessed by a two-stage protocol using photographs of eight food items (candy, chocolate, mayonnaise, whipped cream, soup, potato chips, carrot and bread), yielding both hedonic ratings (1-3) and rank order scores (1-8). Univariate and multivariable linear and logistic regression analyses were performed, using tasters as the reference group. Non-tasters had a slightly higher preference for carrots (ÎČ: -0.07; 95% CI: -0.13, -0.02 and ÎČ: -0.15; 95% CI: -0.27, -0.02 for hedonic ratings and rank order scores, respectively) and bread (hedonic ratings; ÎČ: -0.06; 95% CI: -0.11, -0.01) compared with tasters. No differences were found in children's preference for sweet, fat or salty food items. Furthermore, there were no associations of PROP taster status with the consumption of high-calorie snacks â„â2 times/day (aOR: 1.06; 95% CI: 0.91,1.24) or sweet beverages â„â3 glasses/day (aOR: 1.06; 95% CI: 0.92,1.23). Other factors relating to the family food environment may be more important for young children's food preferences and consumption of high-calorie snacks and sweet beverages than their innate taste sensitivity. Â© 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Sluik, D.; Brouwer, E.M.; Vries, de J.H.M.; Geelen, M.M.E.E.; Feskens, E.J.M.
Objectives The preference for a specific alcoholic beverage may be related to an individual's overall lifestyle and health. The objective was to investigate associations between alcoholic beverage preference and several cardiometabolic and lifestyle factors, including adiposity, cholesterol,
Jiang, Ting; Potters, Jan; Funaki, Yukihiko
We hypothesize that if people are motivated by a particular social preference, then choosing in accordance with this preference will lead to an identifiable pattern of eye movements. We track eye movements while subjects make choices in simple three-person distribution experiments. We characterize
Geraldine Banks; Julie Bernhardt; Leonid Churilov; Cumming, Toby B
Objective. To explore exercise preferences in stroke survivors and controls. Methods. A novel scaleâthe Exercise Preference Questionnaireâwas developed for this study. This questionnaire, together with established assessments of physical activities, mood, and quality of life, was completed in a single assessment session. Results. Twenty-three adult stroke survivors (mean age 63, 65% male) and 41 healthy controls (mean age 61, 66% male) participated. The groups differed on 4 of the 5 a priori ...
Nicholas Rescher writes that âobjectivity is not something we infer from the data; it is something we must presuppose. It is something that we postulate or presume from the very outset of our dealings with peopleâs claims about the worldâs factsâ. Such definition is just the opposite of objectivity conceived of in classical terms, but it cannot be equated with an idealistic viewpoint according to which objectivity is something that our mind simply creates in the process of reflection. It is, ...
Edenbrandt, Anna Kristina; Gamborg, Christian; Thorsen, Bo Jellesmark
Consumers are apprehensive about transgenic technologies, so cisgenics, which limit gene transfers to sexually compatible organisms, have been suggested to address consumer concerns. We study consumer preferences for rye bread alternatives based on transgenic or cisgenic rye, grown conventionally...... pesticide-free production methods, and that while cisgenics is preferred over transgenics, the majority of respondents favour traditional breeding methods. The distribution in preferences suggests that some respondents prefer bread from cisgenic crops produced without pesticides over traditional crops...... produced using pesticides. Preferences for organic bread are stronger than for pesticide-free products. From a policy perspective results suggest that excluding cisgenics from mandatory labeling in the EU, or including it in the voluntary non-GM labelling in the US, would cause welfare losses for consumers....
Full Text Available The contribution of modern science to the progress of civilization is immeasurable. Even its tendency toward exclusive concentration on the objective world has had salutary effects of great value. Modern science has wiped away much that was merely superstitious or speculative. Its rejection of unfounded opinions and prejudices has helped the thinking mind question conventional beliefs, shed preferences and prejudices, and challenge established authority. But modern systems thinking inherited from natural science is the suppression of the subjective dimension of reality. Many complex systems are an attempt to define and represent all subjective experience in physical terms. The modern man has a bias towards objectivity. The powerful influence of sense impressions on his mind and thinking makes him ignore the subjective experience and consider only objective facts as a valid, legitimate and representation of reality. Observing objective factors that are physical is easier than observing subjective factors that are subtle. The mechanistic view of reality has led to the rejection of the role of the individual in social development as insignificant. The individuals determine the development of society. Their social power has its roots both in subjective factors and objective factors. Economy, politics, society, and culture are inseparable dimensions of a single integrated reality. Subject and object constitute an integrated whole. The mind sees them as separate and independent. Or it views one as completely subordinate to the other. Unbiased approach to the study of all human experiences may prove that subject and object are interdependent dimensions or elements of reality.
CAMPBELL,PHILIP L.; PIERSON,LYNDON G.; WITZKE,EDWARD L.
In the world of computers a trusted object is a collection of possibly-sensitive data and programs that can be allowed to reside and execute on a computer, even on an adversary's machine. Beyond the scope of one computer we believe that network-based agents in high-consequence and highly reliable applications will depend on this approach, and that the basis for such objects is what we call ''faithful execution.''
Clemen, Bob , and Robert C. Kwit. âThe Value of Decision Analysis at Eastman Kodak Company, 1990-1999,â Interfaces, 31: 74 â 92 (2001). Clemen... Bob . âThe Value of Decision Analysis: An Update.â Presentation to the Decision Analysis Affinity Group, Calgary, May 18, 2000. Coates, Joseph F...Duncan, and A. A. J. Marley . âOn Elements of Chance,â Theory and Decision, 49: 97 â 126 (2000a). Luce, R. D. Utility of Gains and Losses
KieĂling, Werner; KĂ¶stler, Gerhard
Current search engines can hardly cope adequately with complex preferences. The biggest problem of search engines directly implemented with standard SQL is that SQL does not directly understand the notion of preferences. Preference SQL extends standard SQL by a preference model based on strict partial orders, where preference queries behave like soft selection constraints. A variety of built-in base preference types and the powerful Pareto accumulation operator to construct complex preference...
Andersen, BjĂžrn Schiermer
This article attempts to create a framework for understanding modern fashion phenomena on the basis of Durkheim's sociology of religion. It focuses on Durkheim's conception of the relation between the cult and the sacred object, on his notion of 'exteriorisation', and on his theory of the social...... symbol in an attempt to describe the peculiar attraction of the fashion object and its social constitution. However, Durkheim's notions of cult and ritual must undergo profound changes if they are to be used in an analysis of fashion. The article tries to expand the Durkheimian cult, radically enlarging...... it without totally dispersing it; depicting it as held together exclusively by the sheer 'force' of the sacred object. Firstly, the article introduces the themes and problems surrounding Durkheim's conception of the sacred. Next, it briefly sketches an outline of fashion phenomena in Durkheimian categories...
Scofield, Jason; Miller, Andrea; Hartin, Travis
Two studies examined whether preschool children preferred to select a moving object over stationary objects when determining the referent of a novel word. In both studies three- and four-year-olds observed three novel objects, one moving object and two stationary objects. In Study 1, children (n=44) were asked to select the object that best matched a novel word. In Study 2, children (n=45) were asked to select the object that best matched a novel fact. Results across the two studies indicated that three- and four-year-olds showed a preference for selecting the moving object and that this preference was similar for both words and facts. These results suggest that preschool children are able to use movement to determine the referent of a novel word, especially when other cues are unavailable or unhelpful, but that movement may not be uniquely helpful for word learning.
Hennefield, Laura; Markson, Lori
Children express preferences for a wide range of options, such as objects, and frequently observe the preferences that others express towards these things. However, little is know about how these initial preferences develop. The present research investigated whether one particular type of social information â other childrenâs preferences â influences childrenâs own preferences. Four-year-old children observed, via video, two boys and two girls display the same preference for one of two sticke...
Dahl, Sofia; Huron, David; Brod, Garvin
predictors of preferred dance tempo in Experiment 1. A second experiment, where males and females were matched in terms of height, resulted in no significant correlation between sex and preferred dance tempo. In the matched sample, height was found to be the single best predictor but with a relatively small...... effect size. These results are consistent with a biomechanical âresonanceâ model of dancing....
Zwaanswijk, Marieke; Tates, Kiek; van Dulmen, Sandra; Hoogerbrugge, Peter M.; Kamps, Willem A.; Beishuizen, A.; Bensing, Jozien M.
Objective: To investigate the preferences of children with cancer, their parents, and survivors of childhood cancer regarding medical communication with child patients and variables associated with these preferences. Methods: Preferences regarding health-care provider empathy in consultations, and
Park, Hayoung; Chon, Yucheong; Lee, Jongsu; Choi, Ie-Jung; Yoon, Kun-Ho
Attempts to introduce telemedicine in South Korea have failed mostly, leaving critical questions for service developers and providers about whether patients would be willing to pay for the service and how the service should be designed to encourage patient buy-in. In this study, we explore patients' valuations and preferences for each attribute of telemedicine service for diabetes management and evaluate patient willingness to pay for specific service attributes. We conducted a conjoint survey to collect data on patients' stated preferences among telemedicine service alternatives. The alternatives for diabetes-related service differed in 10 attributes, including those related to price, type of service provider, and service scope. To estimate the relative importance of attributes, patients' willingness to pay for each attribute, and their probable choice of specific alternatives, we used a rank-ordered logit model. A total of 118 respondents participated in the survey. All 10 attributes significantly affected patients' valuations and preferences, and demographic and disease characteristics, such as existence of complications and comorbidities, significantly affected patients' valuations of the attributes. Price was the most important attribute, followed by comprehensive scope of service, the availability of mobile phone-based delivery, and large general-hospital provided services. The study findings have significant implications for adoption policy and strategy of telemedicine in diabetes management care. Further, the methodology presented in this study can be used to draw knowledge needed to formulate effective policy for adoption of the necessary technology and for the design of services that attract potential beneficiaries.
Zuzana DerflerovĂĄ BrĂĄzdovĂĄ
Full Text Available Milk and dairy products constitute an important source of energy and nutrients for humans. Food preferences may significantly influence the actual consumption (and thus nutrition of people at the population level. The objective of the present large-scale survey was to specify current preferences for milk and dairy products with regard to age and sex. The study was conducted across the Moravia region, Czech Republic, on a sample of 451 individuals divided into 4 age groups: children, adolescents, young adults, and elderly people. A graphic scale questionnaire was administered, with respondents rating their degree of preference for each food item by drawing a mark on a 35 mm line. Out of the 115 items in the questionnaire, 11 items represented dairy products. Data was analysed by means of a general linear model using IBM SPSS Statistics software. Preference for milk was lower in the elderly group than the other groups (P P < 0.01. The overall preference for dairy products (21.6 was lower than the average preference for all foods on the list (22.5. The cross-sectional study revealed intergenerational differences in preferences for specific dairy products, which were most marked in case of cream, processed cheese, blue cheese, and buttermilk. The knowledge of these differences might help promote more focused action at the community level directed at increasing the overall consumption of dairy products in the population.
Full Text Available Objective. To explore exercise preferences in stroke survivors and controls. Methods. A novel scaleâthe Exercise Preference Questionnaireâwas developed for this study. This questionnaire, together with established assessments of physical activities, mood, and quality of life, was completed in a single assessment session. Results. Twenty-three adult stroke survivors (mean age 63, 65% male and 41 healthy controls (mean age 61, 66% male participated. The groups differed on 4 of the 5 a priori exercise preference factors: relative to controls, stroke survivors preferred exercise to be more structured, in a group, at a gym or fitness centre, and for exercises to be demonstrated. Factor analysis yielded 6 data-driven factors, and these factors also differentiated stroke and control groups. There was evidence that group differences were diminished when activity levels and psychological wellbeing were accounted for. Individual variability in exercise preferences and reported barriers to exercise are outlined. Conclusion. Stroke survivors have different exercise preferences, and a better understanding of these preferences can be used to inform rehabilitation programs and increase adherence.
PriorizaciĂłn de pacientes en lista de espera para cirugĂa de cataratas: diferencias en las preferencias entre ciudadanos Prioritizing patients on waiting list for cataract surgery: preference differences among citizens
Full Text Available Objetivos: Estimar y comparar las preferencias de los ciudadanos sobre la priorizaciĂłn de pacientes en lista de espera para cirugĂa de cataratas. MĂ©todo: AnĂĄlisis de conjunto. IdentificaciĂłn y selecciĂłn de criterios de priorizaciĂłn: 4 grupos focales/nominales de poblaciĂłn general, pacientes/familiares, profesionales relacionados, y especialistas de Catalunya (n = 36. EstimaciĂłn de las preferencias (puntuaciones de los criterios: entrevista a una muestra representativa de los 4 grupos (n = 771 y aplicaciĂłn del modelo del rank-ordered logit. Las diferencias se estudiaron mediante anĂĄlisis separado por grupo y su comparaciĂłn. Resultados: Los criterios seleccionados y su importancia relativa fueron: incapacidad visual (45%, limitaciĂłn de las actividades (15%, limitaciĂłn para trabajar (14%, tener alguna persona que le cuide (11%, ser cuidador (8% y probabilidad de recuperaciĂłn (7%. Existieron diferencias entre grupos en la puntuaciĂłn de los criterios. La poblaciĂłn general y los pacientes/familiares valoraron mĂĄs la incapacidad visual que los otros grupos (p 0,9, la ordenaciĂłn final de Ă©stos en la lista de espera podĂa variar hasta 27 posiciones al aplicar las preferencias obtenidas de un grupo o de otro. Conclusiones: Se considerĂł relevantes los criterios clĂnicos y los sociales. La existencia de diferencias sobre cĂłmo deberĂan priorizarse los pacientes en espera recomienda tener en cuenta las preferencias de todas las partes afectadas.Objectives: To estimate and compare citizen preferences regarding patient prioritization for cataract surgery. Method: A conjoint analysis was performed. Priority criteria were identified and selected using 4 focus/nominal groups consisting of the general public, patients/relatives, allied health-professionals and specialists from Catalonia (n = 36. Preferences elicitation (score of criteria: representative sample survey of the above mentioned groups (n = 771 and rank-ordered logit model
Goldsmith, Judy; University of Kentucky; Junker, Ulrich; ILOG
This article explains the benefits of preferences for AI systems and draws a picture of current AI research on preference handling. It thus provides an introduction to the topics covered by this special issue on preference handling.
Brown, Culum; Magat, Maria
Individual preference for the use of one limb over the other to explore the environment or manipulate objects is common trait among vertebrates. Here, we explore the hypothesis that limb preference is determined by the engagement of a particular cerebral hemisphere to analyse certain stimuli. We recorded the eye and foot preferences of 322 individuals from 16 species of Australian parrots while investigating potential food items. Across all species, eye preferences explained 99 per cent of the variation in foot use in Australian parrots. The vast majority of species showed significant relationships between eye and foot preferences at the population level. This journal is Â© 2011 The Royal Society
Jakub BoĆŒydar WiĆniewski
Full Text Available In this paper, I investigate the issue of whether there exists an objective element of well-being, completely independent of anyoneâs desires, interests and preferences. After rejecting health-based and convention-based approaches to objectivity, I conclude that the element in question consists in respecting autonomy, voluntariness of every purposive agent and the principle of non-aggression.
Olsen, Annemarie; Kildegaard, Heidi; Gabrielsen, Gorm
The aim of this study is to investigate if childrenâs food preferences can be reliable measured by using pictures of foods presented on a computer screen in a conjoint layout.We investigate reproducibility (testâretest) and infer validity by comparison with traditional hedonic evaluations...... juices (tangible products), chosen to span the preference spectrum, were hedonically evaluated for appearance and taste. Finally, an actual product choice was performed by having the children choose between two buns and two juices.Results showed that the computer evaluationswith pictures of foods...... provided reproducible information about the childrenâs visual food preferences, which were in concordance with both hedonic measures and products choices, and can thus be considered valid....
An irreversible thermodynamical theory of solids is presented where the kinematic quantities are defined in an automatically objective way. Namely, auxiliary elements like reference frame, reference time and reference configuration are avoided by formulating the motion of the continuum on spacetime directly, utilizing the Weyl-Matolcsi description of spacetime. This restricts the range of definable kinematic quantities heavily. Solids are distinguished from fluids by possessing not only an instantaneous metric tensor but a relaxed metric, too, that represents the natural geometric structure of the solid. The comparison of the instantaneous metric to the relaxed one is the basis of the definition of the elastic state variable, the elastic deformedness tensor. Thermal expansion is conceived as the temperature dependence of the relaxed metric. As opposed to this reversible type of change, plasticity means an irreversible change in the relaxed metric, and is describable via a plastic change rate tensor. The relat...
Many systems administrators on the Mac need a way to manage machine configuration after initial setup and deployment. Apple's Managed Preferences system (also known as MCX) is under-documented, often misunderstood, and sometimes outright unknown by sys admins. MCX is usually deployed in conjunction with an OS X server, but it can also be used in Windows environments or where no dedicated server exists at all. Enterprise Mac Managed Preferences is the definitive guide to Apple's Managed Client technology. With this book, you'll get the following: * An example-driven guide to Mac OS X Managed Pr
Davy, J D
The 1980s has marked the beginning of a new alternative health care delivery system: the preferred provider organization ( PPO ). This system has developed from the health maintenance organization model and is predominant in California and Colorado. A PPO is a group of providers, usually hospitals and doctors, who agree to provide health care to subscribers for a negotiated fee that is usually discounted. Preferred provider organizations are subject to peer review and strict use controls in exchange for a consistent volume of patients and speedy turnaround on claims payments. This article describes the factors leading to the development of PPOs and the implications for occupational therapy.
Musolino, Dario Antonino
The objective of the thesis is to study and analyse the stated locational preferences of entrepreneurs in Italy: that is, their mental maps, their characteristics (pattern, shape, etc.), and their explanatory factors. The research was undertaken following the conceptual, theoretical and
Objective: To evaluate our experience with ureterocystoplasty as to whether it is the preferred method for bladder augmentation to achieve continence and preserve the upper urinary tract. Design: Retrospective study. Setting: Paediatric urology unit, Dana Children\\'s hospital, Tel Aviv Medical Center (affiliated to the SacklerÂ ...
ter Bogt, T.F.M.; Keijsers, L.G.M.T.; Meeus, W.H.J.
Objectives: To test Music Marker Theory (MMT) positing that early adolescentsâ preferences for nonmainstream types of popular music indicate concurrent and later minor delinquency. Methods: MMT was tested in a 4-year longitudinal study (n = 309). Results: The results showed that early fans of
Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is one of the interventions meant to prolong the progression from HIV to AIDS for People Living with HIV (PLHIVs). Although ART was introduced in Ghana in 2003, there is little or no information about the preferences of those on ART services. The main objective of the study therefore was toÂ ...
Xu, Zeshui S; Chen, Jian
Group decision making with preference information on alternatives is an interesting and important research topic which has been receiving more and more attention in recent years. The purpose of this paper is to investigate multiple-attribute group decision-making (MAGDM) problems with distinct uncertain preference structures. We develop some linear-programming models for dealing with the MAGDM problems, where the information about attribute weights is incomplete, and the decision makers have their preferences on alternatives. The provided preference information can be represented in the following three distinct uncertain preference structures: 1) interval utility values; 2) interval fuzzy preference relations; and 3) interval multiplicative preference relations. We first establish some linear-programming models based on decision matrix and each of the distinct uncertain preference structures and, then, develop some linear-programming models to integrate all three structures of subjective uncertain preference information provided by the decision makers and the objective information depicted in the decision matrix. Furthermore, we propose a simple and straightforward approach in ranking and selecting the given alternatives. It is worth pointing out that the developed models can also be used to deal with the situations where the three distinct uncertain preference structures are reduced to the traditional ones, i.e., utility values, fuzzy preference relations, and multiplicative preference relations. Finally, we use a practical example to illustrate in detail the calculation process of the developed approach.
H.P. van Dalen (Hendrik); K. Henkens
textabstractWhat drives stated preferences about the number of foreigners? Is it self-interest as stressed by the political economy of immigration? Does social interaction affect this preference or is the immigration preference completely in line with the preference for the aggregate population
PINEAPPLE CHEESE SALAD PINEAPPLE CREAM PIE PINEAPPLE JUICE PINEAPPLE PIE PINEAPPLE SUNDAE PINEAPPLE UPSIDE DOWN CAKE PIZZA PIZZA PLAIN MUFFINS...fruit and vegetable juices, orange, apple and grape flavors are preferred, with grapefruit, pineapple , tomato, and vegetable falling lower, and...include many popular items Oasagna, pizza , beef stew). Overall, entrees do not contribute heavily to the bottom ranking items. This is especially
This study sought to evaluate components of the Environmental Preference Questionnaire (EPQ). The 267 teenagers who completed the EPQ in this study also responded to questions relating to facets of self esteem and the reasons for selecting their favorite activities. (BT)
Bulte, E.H.; Horan, R.D.
We propose a perfect empathy model of cultural transmission to capture the evolution of preferences in a population. Unlike existing imperfect empathy models, focusing on stable interior equilibria, we demonstrate that a corner outcome will eventuate. However, which corner outcome emerges is
Damm, Anna Piil
This paper exploits a spatial dispersal policy for refugee immigrants to estimate the importance of local and regional factors for refugees' location preferences. The main results of a mixed proportional hazard competing risks model are that placed refugees react to high regional unemployment...
Conclusions: Computer assisted objective structured clinical examination was found to be a valid, reliable and effective format for dermatology assessment, being rated as the preferred format by examiners.
Full Text Available Objective - This research aims to provide empirical evidence on the factors motivating consumers to save in Islamic banking.Methods - The one sample t-test is employed to test hypothesis. The validity and the reliability of research variables have been examined.Results - The result proved that consumersâ decision to save in Islamic banking are influenced by economic and religious factors, such as receiving economic benefits, quick services, online facilities, easily reachable locations, and having a better understanding of Islamic principles.Conclusions - The existence of a relationship between economic and religious preference proves that, in making decisions, consumers wish to attain two satisfaction levels: satisfaction in the world and in the hereafter.
Hjorth, Katrine; BĂ¶rjesson, Maria; Engelson, Leonid
time by maximising expected total utility over the day, their departure times are conditional on rates of utility derived at these locations. For forecasting and economic evaluation of planning alternatives, it is desirable to have simple forms of utility rates with few parameters. Several forms......Extended abstract Choice of departure time is a travel choice dimension that transportation planners often need to forecast in appraisal. A traveller may shift departure time in response to changes in expected travel time or travel time variability (TTV) or in response to time......-differentiated congestion pricing. The direction and size of such shifts depend on the travellerâs scheduling preferences, i.e. his preferences for travelling and being at the origin and destination at different times of day (Vickrey, 1973). Moreover, the travellerâs response to and economic value of TTV can be derived...
Skovsgaard, Morten; Bro, Peter
journalists justify themselves and their work. This article introduces an analytical framework for understanding legitimacy in a journalistic context. A framework based on a review of material ranging from historical accounts to research articles, and book-length studies. The framework comprises three...... distinct, but interconnected categories*preference, principle, and practice. Through this framework, historical attempts to justify journalism and journalists are described and discussed in the light of the present challenges for the profession....
Terry, P C; Howe, B L
The study examined the coaching preferences of 80 male and 80 female athletes, as measured by the Leadership Scale for Sports (Chelladurai and Saleh, 1978, 1980). In addition, it attempted to assess the applicability to sport of the Life-cycle and Path-goal theories of leadership. Comparisons between groups were made on the basis of sex, age, and type of sport. A MANOVA indicated that athletes in independent sports preferred more democratic behaviour (p less than .001) and less autocratic behaviour (p = .028) than athletes in interdependent sports. No differences in coaching preferences were found which could be attributed to the age or sex of the athlete, or the variability of the sports task. These results partially supported the Path-goal theory, but did not support the Life-cycle theory. Athletes of all groups tended to favour coaches who displayed training behaviour and rewarding behaviour "often", democratic behaviour and social support behaviour "occasionally", and autocratic behaviour "seldom". This consistency may be a useful finding for those organizations and institutions interested in preparing coaches.
Full Text Available Our preferences are shaped by past experience in many ways, but a systematic understanding of the factors is yet to be achieved. For example, studies of the mere exposure effect show that experience with an item leads to increased liking (familiarity preference, but the exact opposite tendency is found in other studies utilizing dishabituation (novelty preference. Recently, it has been found that image category affects whether familiarity or novelty preference emerges from repeated stimulus exposure (Park, Shimojo, and Shimojo, PNAS 2010. Faces elicited familiarity preference, but natural scenes elicited novelty preference. In their task, preference judgments were made throughout all exposures, raising the question of whether the task-context during exposure was involved. We adapt their paradigm, testing if passive exposure or objective judgment task-contexts lead to different results. Results showed that after passive viewing, familiar faces were preferred, but no preference bias in either direction was found with natural scenes, or with geometric figures (control. After exposure during the objective judgment task, familiar faces were preferred, novel natural scenes were preferred, and no preference bias was found with geometric figures. The overall results replicate the segregation of preference biases across object categories and suggest that the preference for familiar faces and novel natural scenes are modulated by task-context memory at different processing levels or selection involvement. Possible underlying mechanisms of the two types of preferences are discussed.
Liao, Hsin-I; Yeh, Su-Ling; Shimojo, Shinsuke
Our preferences are shaped by past experience in many ways, but a systematic understanding of the factors is yet to be achieved. For example, studies of the mere exposure effect show that experience with an item leads to increased liking (familiarity preference), but the exact opposite tendency is found in other studies utilizing dishabituation (novelty preference). Recently, it has been found that image category affects whether familiarity or novelty preference emerges from repeated stimulus exposure (Park et al., 2010). Faces elicited familiarity preference, but natural scenes elicited novelty preference. In their task, preference judgments were made throughout all exposures, raising the question of whether the task-context during exposure was involved. We adapt their paradigm, testing if passive exposure or objective judgment task-contexts lead to different results. Results showed that after passive viewing, familiar faces were preferred, but no preference bias in either direction was found with natural scenes, or with geometric figures (control). After exposure during the objective judgment task, familiar faces were preferred, novel natural scenes were preferred, and no preference bias was found with geometric figures. The overall results replicate the segregation of preference biases across object categories and suggest that the preference for familiar faces and novel natural scenes are modulated by task-context memory at different processing levels or selection involvement. Possible underlying mechanisms of the two types of preferences are discussed.
Morris, Robert; Morris, Paul; Khatib, Lina; Venable, Brent
This paper focuses on temporal constraint problems where the objective is to optimize a set of local preferences for when events occur. In previous work, a subclass of these problems has been formalized as a generalization of Temporal CSPs, and a tractable strategy for optimization has been proposed, where global optimality is defined as maximizing the minimum of the component preference values. This criterion for optimality, which we call 'Weakest Link Optimization' (WLO), is known to have limited practical usefulness because solutions are compared only on the basis of their worst value; thus, there is no requirement to improve the other values. To address this limitation, we introduce a new algorithm that re-applies WLO iteratively in a way that leads to improvement of all the values. We show the value of this strategy by proving that, with suitable preference functions, the resulting solutions are Pareto Optimal.
MĂžrcke, Anne Mette; Wichmann-Hansen, Gitte; Guldbrand Nielsen, Dorte
OBJECTIVE To understand core curriculum design and involvement of stakeholders.METHODS Twelve homogeneous focus group interviews with a total of 88 students, house officers, seniordoctors and nurses concerning an undergraduate emergency medicine curriculum. Following content coding of transcripts...... opposite perspectives: objectives as context-free theory-based rules versus objectives as personal practice-based guidelines. The students favoured theory-based objectives, which should be defined by experts conclusively as minimum levels and checklists. The senior doctors preferred practice......-based objectives, which should be decided in a collaborative, local, continuous process, and should be expressed as ideals and expectations. The house officers held both perspectives. Adding to complexity, participants also interpreted competence inconsistently and mixed concepts such as knowledge, observation...
Paternotte, E.; Dulmen, S. van; Bank, L.; Seeleman, C.M.; Scheele, F.
Objectives: To explore patientsâ preferences and experiences regarding intercultural communication which could influence the development of intercultural patient-centred communication training. Methods: This qualitative study is based on interviews with non-native patients. Thirty non-native
Paternotte, E.; Dulmen, S. van; Bank, L.; Seeleman, C.; Scherpbier, A.; Scheele, F.
Objectives: To explore patients' preferences and experiences regarding intercultural communication which could influence the development of intercultural patient-centred communication training. Methods: This qualitative study is based on interviews with non-native patients. Thirty non-native
Kunce, Joseph T.; Kappes, Bruno Maurice
This study investigated the relationship between vocational interest measured by the Vocational Preference Inventory (VPI) and preferences of 175 undergraduates for structured or unstructured environments. Males having clear-cut preferences for structured situations had significantly higher Realistic-Conventional scores than those withoutâŠ
Ludmila, DĂ¶meovĂĄ; Milan, HouĆĄka; Martin, PelikĂĄn
Many managerial problems involve multiple criteria decision-making. For such decision making the user needs to set his/her objectives, define decision criteria and decision alternatives. The criteria weights represent individual preferences, but some general rules and methods can be applied. Simple methods for criteria weights assessment are based on comparison of their importance. The multiple criteria decision-making is often supported by results of so called consumersÂŽ tests. These tests a...
Controversies in Adult Education, answers one criticism against detailed educational objectives raised by educators with the humanistic versus behavioral...She augments the humanist based education axiom, âThe truth will set you freeâ to âThe truth will set you free if translated into action.â44 She... psychological preferences of adult learners. Malcolm Knowlesâs research into how adults learn led him to conclude that adults develop and achieve
Keith M. Pickett, MLIS
Full Text Available Objective: This research study sought to determine the formats (print or electronic of articles and book chapters most-preferred by first-year medical students, third-year medical students entering clinical clerkships, and incoming residents and to determine if these preferences change during the course of the medical curriculum. These trends will enable academic health sciences libraries to make appropriate collection development decisions to best cater to their user populations. Methods: First-year medical students, third-year medical students, and incoming medical residents were asked to complete a paper survey from September 2014 to June 2015. The survey consisted of five multiple-choice questions, with two questions given space for optional short answers. Quantitative and qualitative responses were collected and calculated using Microsoft Excel. Results: First-year students, third-year students, and incoming residents all preferred to read journal articles and book chapters in print, except in cases where the article or book chapter is under ten pages in length. Although print is preferred, demand for electronic articles and book chapters increases as students progress from undergraduate medical education into residency. The only category where a majority of incoming residents chose an electronic resource was which format they would give to a colleague, if the article or book chapter was critical to the care of an individual patient. Conclusions: The preference for print resources is strong across the medical curriculum, although residents show an increased preference for electronic materials when compared to first- and third-year students. Academic health sciences libraries should take these preferences into account when making decisions regarding collection development.
Kjaer, Trine; Gyrd-Hansen, Dorte; Willaing, Ingrid
the preferences for the offer of participation in various cardiac rehabilitation program activities: smoking cessation course, physical exercise program, personal meetings with cardiac nurse, group meetings managed by cardiac nurses, and nutritional counseling guidance. The questionnaire was sent to 742 former......OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to analyze preferences for activities comprised in comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation programs among former cardiac patients from three different hospitals in Copenhagen County, Denmark. METHODS: A discrete choice experiment was applied to elicit...
Toftum, JĂžrn; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Tynel, A.
Human preference for air movement was studied at slightly cool, neutral, and slightly warm overall thermal sensations and at temperatures ranging from 18 deg.C to 28 deg.C. Air movement preference depended on both thermal sensation and temperature, but large inter-individual differences existed...... between subjects. Preference for less air movement was linearly correlated with draught discomfort, but the percentage of subjects who felt draught was lower than the percentage who preferred less air movement....
Complexity theory is a useful tool to study computational issues surrounding the elicitation of preferences, as well as the strategic manipulation of elections aggregating together preferences of multiple agents. We study here the complexity of determining when we can terminate eliciting preferences, and prove that the complexity depends on the elicitation strategy. We show, for instance, that it may be better from a computational perspective to elicit all preferences from one agent at a time...
Soga, Ryo; Shiramatsu, Tomoyo I; Kanzaki, Ryohei; Takahashi, Hirokazu
Biased or too strong preference for a particular object is often problematic, resulting in addiction and phobia. In animal models, alternative forced-choice tasks have been routinely used, but such preference test is far from daily situations that addicts or phobic are facing. In the present study, we developed a behavioral assay to evaluate the preference of sounds in rodents. In the assay, several sounds were presented according to the position of free-moving rats, and quantified the sound preference based on the behavior. A particular tone was paired with microstimulation to the ventral tegmental area (VTA), which plays central roles in reward processing, to increase sound preference. The behaviors of rats were logged during the classical conditioning for six days. Consequently, some behavioral indices suggest that rats search for the conditioned sound. Thus, our data demonstrated that quantitative evaluation of preference in the behavioral assay is feasible.
Marra, Carlo A; Harvard, Stephanie; Grubisic, Maja; Galo, Jessica; Clarke, Ann; Elliott, Susan; Lynd, Larry D
Food allergen labeling is an important tool to reduce risk of exposure and prevent anaphylaxis for individuals with food allergies. Health Canada released a Canadian food allergen labeling regulation (2008) and subsequent update (2012) suggesting that research is needed to guide further iterations of the regulation to improve food allergen labeling and reduce risk of exposure. The primary objective of this study was to examine consumer preferences in food labeling for allergy avoidance and anaphylaxis prevention. A secondary objective was to identify whether different subgroups within the consumer population emerged. A discrete choice experiment using a fractional factorial design divided into ten different versions with 18 choice-sets per version was developed to examine consumer preferences for different attributes of food labeling. Three distinct subgroups of Canadian consumers with different allergen considerations and food allergen labeling needs were identified. Overall, preferences for standardized precautionary and safety symbols at little or no increased cost emerged. While three distinct groups with different preferences were identified, in general the results revealed that the current Canadian food allergen labeling regulation can be improved by enforcing the use of standardized precautionary and safety symbols and educating the public on the use of these symbols.
Zillmann, Dolf; Bryant, Jennings
Concludes that subjects with considerable prior exposure to common, nonviolent pornography preferred to watch uncommon pornography. Male nonstudents preferred it almost exclusively, as did male students to a lesser extent. Females also exhibited this consumption preference, though it was far less pronounced, especially in female students. (JD)
Full Text Available Abstract Background Shared decision-making has been advocated; however there are relatively few studies on physician preferences for, and experiences of, different styles of clinical decision-making as most research has focused on patient preferences and experiences. The objectives of this study were to determine 1 physician preferences for different styles of clinical decision-making; 2 styles of clinical decision-making physicians perceive themselves as practicing; and 3 the congruence between preferred and perceived style. In addition we sought to determine physician perceptions of the availability of time in visits, and their role in encouraging patients to look for health information. Methods Cross-sectional survey of a nationally representative sample of U.S. physicians. Results 1,050 (53% response rate physicians responded to the survey. Of these, 780 (75% preferred to share decision-making with their patients, 142 (14% preferred paternalism, and 118 (11% preferred consumerism. 87% of physicians perceived themselves as practicing their preferred style. Physicians who preferred their patients to play an active role in decision-making were more likely to report encouraging patients to look for information, and to report having enough time in visits. Conclusion Physicians tend to perceive themselves as practicing their preferred role in clinical decision-making. The direction of the association cannot be inferred from these data; however, we suggest that interventions aimed at promoting shared decision-making need to target physicians as well as patients.
Magnezi, Racheli; Bergman, Lisa Carroll; Urowitz, Sara
Objectives. To understand how patient preferences and perceptions of their relationship with their doctor (as patient, friend, partner, client, consumer, or insured) affects confidence in care provided and participation in health care. Methods. Telephone questionnaire to 2,135 households, representative of the population in Israel. Results. AâŠ
Schofield, Thomas J; Toro, Rosa I; Parke, Ross D; Cookston, Jeffrey T; Fabricius, William V; Coltrane, Scott
The primary goal of the current study was to test whether parent and adolescent preference for a common language moderates the association between parenting and rank-order change over time in offspring substance use. A sample of Mexican-origin 7th-grade adolescents (Mage = 12.5 years, N = 194, 52% female) was measured longitudinally on use of tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana. Mothers, fathers, and adolescents all reported on consistent discipline and monitoring of adolescents. Both consistent discipline and monitoring predicted relative decreases in substance use into early adulthood but only among parent-offspring dyads who expressed preference for the same language (either English or Spanish). This moderation held after controlling for parent substance use, family structure, having completed schooling in Mexico, years lived in the United States, family income, and cultural values. An unintended consequence of the immigration process may be the loss of parenting effectiveness that is normally present when parents and adolescents prefer to communicate in a common language. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available We consider decision-making and game scenarios in which an agent is limited by his/her computational ability to foresee all the available moves towards the future â that is, we study scenarios with short sight. We focus on how short sight affects the logical properties of decision making in multi-agent settings. We start with single-agent sequential decision making (SSDM processes, modeling them by a new structure of 'preference-sight trees'. Using this model, we first explore the relation between a new natural solution concept of Sight-Compatible Backward Induction (SCBI and the histories produced by classical Backward Induction (BI. In particular, we find necessary and sufficient conditions for the two analyses to be equivalent. Next, we study whether larger sight always contributes to better outcomes. Then we develop a simple logical special-purpose language to formally express some key properties of our preference-sight models. Lastly, we show how short-sight SSDM scenarios call for substantial enrichments of existing fixed-point logics that have been developed for the classical BI solution concept. We also discuss changes in earlier modal logics expressing 'surface reasoning' about best actions in the presence of short sight. Our analysis may point the way to logical and computational analysis of more realistic game models.
G. G. Rousseau; D. J. L. Venter
The main objectives of this study were to investigate the influence of nostalgia on consumer preference and to measure levels of nostalgia amongst multicultural groups. The study was based on past research in the field and used a modified version of a questionnaire developed by Holbrook (1993). A non-probability convenience sample (N = 504) was drawn from English, Afrikaans and Xhosa speaking consumers in the Eastern Cape. Field work was carried out by students of industrial psychology at the...
Kramer, S.; Maas, V.S.; van Rinsum, M.
We conduct a laboratory experiment to examine whether the provision of detailed relative performance information (i.e., information about the specific performance levels of peers) affects employee performance. We also investigate how â if at all â explicit ranking of performance levels affects how
Rafael BrandĂŁo Rocha
Full Text Available The benefits of integration companies-suppliers top the strategic agendas of managers. Developing a system showing which suppliers merit continuing and deepening the partnership is difficult because of the large quantity of variables to be analyzed. The internationalized petroleum industry, requiring a large variety of materials, is no different. In this context, the Brazilian company PETROBRAS S.A. has a system to evaluate its suppliers based on a consensus panel formed by its managers. This paper shows a two phase methodology for classifying and awarding suppliers using the DEA model. Firstly, the suppliers are classified according to their efficiency based on commercial transactions realized. Secondly they are classified according to the opinions of the managers, using a DEA model for calculating votes, with the assurance regions and superefficiency defining the best suppliers. The paper presents a case study in the E&P segment of PETROBRAS and the results obtained with the methodology.Os benefĂcios da integraĂ§ĂŁo entre empresas e fornecedores assumem um cunho cada vez mais estratĂ©gico nas empresas. PorĂ©m, avaliar quais fornecedores sĂŁo merecedores de aprofundar parceria tornou-se extremamente complexo pela grande quantidade de variĂĄveis no processo. Na indĂșstria do petrĂłleo nĂŁo Ă© diferente. A empresa brasileira PETROBRAS S.A. possui um sistema para classificar e premiar seus fornecedores baseado em painĂ©is de consenso entre gerentes. Este artigo apresenta uma metodologia alternativa para classificaĂ§ĂŁo e premiaĂ§ĂŁo, que utiliza o mĂ©todo DEA em duas fases. Primeiramente, os fornecedores sĂŁo selecionados de acordo com sua eficiĂȘncia baseando-se em variĂĄveis relativas a transaĂ§Ă”es realizadas. Em seguida, os fornecedores sĂŁo classificados de acordo com a opiniĂŁo dos gerentes, utilizando o mĂ©todo DEA, com regiĂ”es de seguranĂ§a e super-eficiĂȘncia, como forma de agregaĂ§ĂŁo dos votos dos gerentes, definindo-se assim seus melhores fornecedores. O artigo apresenta tambĂ©m estudo de caso no segmento E&P da PETROBRAS.
Mullett, Timothy L.; Tunney, Richard J.
We report the results of a human fMRI experiment investigating the influence of context upon value judgement. Trials were separated into high and low value blocks such that it is possible to investigate the effect of a change in surrounding trials upon the encoding of financial value. The ventral striatum was dependent upon "local context", withâŠ
I have recently become involved in the ABET certification process under the new system - ABET 2000. This system relies heavily on concepts of Total Quality Management (TQM). It encourages each institution to define its objectives in terms of its own mission and then create a coherent program based on it. The prescribed steps in setting up the new system at an engineering institution are: o identification of constituencies G definition of mission. It is expected that the department's mission will be consistent with that of the overall institution, but containing some higher resolution language appropriate to that particular discipline of the engineering profession. o statement of objectives consistent with the mission 3G~~\\vED " enumeration of desired, and preferably measurable, outcomes of the process that would ~ `=. verify satisfaction of the objectives. ~~~ 07 !398 o establish performance standards for each outcome. o creation of appropriate feedback loops to assure that the objectives are still consistent with Q$YT1 the mission, that the outcomes remain consistent with the objectives, and that the curriculum and the teaching result in those outcomes. It is my assertion that once the institution verbalizes a mission, enumerated objectives naturally flow from that mission. (We shall try to demonstrate by example.) Further, if the mission uses the word "engineer", one would expect that word also to appear in at least one of the objectives. The objective of producing engineers of any sort must -by decree - involve the presence of the ABET criteria in the outcomes list. In other words, successful satisfaction of the ABET items a-k are a necessary subset of the measure of success in producing engineers. o We shall produce bachelor level engineers whose training in the core topics of chemical (or electrical, or mechanical) engineering is recognized to be among the best in the nation. o We shall provide an opportunity for our students to gain
Kaufman, Erin A.; Wiese, Deborah L.
Skin-tone preferences and colourism within Hispanic children have been largely unexamined in the psychological literature. The objectives of the current study were to investigate Hispanic children's skin-tone preferences and the effect of assessor race and ethnicity on those preferences. To carry out the study, Clark and Clark's colouring task wasâŠ
Full Text Available The marine zone tourism is growing attracting more tourists. Pramuka Island is marine conservation area enriched with marine biodiversity in coral reefs and other natural resources. To develop this potential tourist destination, a customer-based marketing program is required to attract domestic and foreign tourists. The main vision is to understand tourist preferences for marine tourism activities and facilities. A research was conducted on Pramuka Island as a well-known marine tourism zone. The objective was to determine the key tourist preferences for marine tourism destination. Research methods utilized Cochran Q test and Conjoint analysis where the primary data were obtained from tourist respondents. The result showed that there was a tourist preference based on the five attributes considered most important, namely tourism activities, tourist attractions, types of accommodation, food and souvenirs types. This study provided marine tourism destination management with useful guidance for broader implications of the implementation of marketing programs and tourism attraction. Moreover, the results of this study consolidated the learning of a variety of academic and industrial research papers in particular for the measurement of customer preferences towards marine tourism destination.
Full Text Available The objective of the experiment was to evaluate the light colour preference of growing rabbits placed in a free-choice cage. The experiment was carried out on 128 Pannon White growing rabbits weaned at the age of 5 weeks and placed into blocks (2m2 of four cages. The rabbits could move freely among the four cages (0.5m2 each through swing doors. The cages differed only in the colour of the light applied (white, yellow, green or blue. The lighting schedule was 16L: 8D. From 6 until 10 weeks of age, infrared video recording was performed once a week (24 hours. The number of rabbits in each cage was counted every 15 minutes. Feed consumption was measured weekly. Between 6 and 10 weeks of age the rabbits significantly preferred white light (28.0%. The preference order was the following: yellow (26.3%, blue (23.4% and green (22.3% (P<0.001. No significant differences were recorded in the feed consumption among the cages. In conclusion, the cage preference of the rabbits was slightly affected by the light colour.
Sassi, MichaĂ«l; Machilsen, Bart; Wagemans, Johan
We previously tested the identifiability of six versions of Gaborized outlines of everyday objects, differing in the orientations assigned to elements inside and outside the outline. We found significant differences in identifiability between the versions, and related a number of stimulus metrics to identifiability [Sassi, M., Vancleef, K., Machilsen, B., Panis, S., & Wagemans, J. (2010). Identification of everyday objects on the basis of Gaborized outline versions. i-Perception, 1(3), 121-142]. In this study, after retesting the identifiability of new variants of three of the stimulus versions, we tested their robustness to local orientation jitter in a detection experiment. In general, our results replicated the key findings from the previous study, and allowed us to substantiate our earlier interpretations of the effects of our stimulus metrics and of the performance differences between the different stimulus versions. The results of the detection task revealed a different ranking order of stimulus versions than the identification task. By examining the parallels and differences between the effects of our stimulus metrics in the two tasks, we found evidence for a trade-off between shape detectability and identifiability. The generally simple and smooth shapes that yield the strongest contour integration and most robust detectability tend to lack the distinguishing features necessary for clear-cut identification. Conversely, contours that do contain such identifying features tend to be inherently more complex and, therefore, yield weaker integration and less robust detectability.
Siroky, David S.; Mueller, Sean; Hechter, Michael
that cultural identities matter for explaining secessionism, but not because of primordial attachments. Rather, religious and linguistic groups matter because their members are imbued with cultural legacies that lead to distinct political preferences â in this case preferences over welfare statism. Further......, ecological constraints such as geography and topography affect social interaction with like-minded individuals. On the basis of both these political preferences and ecological constraints, individuals then make rational choices about the desirability of secession. Instrumental considerations are therefore...
Full Text Available This essay critically analyses how historical institutionalists and rational choice scholars study institutional stability and change. Special attention is paid to the thorny issued of how political actorsâ preferences are formed, with historical institutionalists considering preferences as endogenously formed, and rational choice analysts postulating that preferences are fixed and exogenous. An argument is made in favour of the perspective that considers preferences as being formed within the functioning of the political system over time, endogenously. The essay also proposes the incorporation of ideas and non-decisions as tools to elucidate processes of change.
Full Text Available Objective: Our study sought to assess the learning preferences of students studying in the preclinical years of the medical degree program at Oman Medical College, Sohar.â Methods: In this descriptive, cross-sectional study, we administered a learning style questionnaire (VARK model to 140 students to assess their preferred mode of learning, specifically the sensory modality by which they prefer to take in information.â Results: Over one third (35% of the respondents expressed their preference for a single mode of learning, either visual (8%, auditory (9%, read/write (9%, or kinesthetic (9%. The remaining students preferred learning using a combination of either two (14%, three (19%, or four (32% sensory modalities.â Conclusion: The results of our study provide us with useful information to develop appropriate learning approaches to reach all types of learners at the college.
â. In this paper, I review recent neurocognitive research suggesting that the auditory system is sensitive to structural information about real-world objects. Instead of focusing solely on perceptual sound features as determinants of auditory objects, I propose that real-world object properties are inherent......The auditory system transforms patterns of sound energy into perceptual objects but the precise definition of an âauditory objectâ is much debated. In the context of music listening, Pierre Schaeffer argued that âsound objectsâ are the fundamental perceptual units in âmusical objects...
â. In this paper, I review recent neurocognitive research suggesting that the auditory system is sensitive to structural information about real-world objects. Instead of focusing solely on perceptual sound features as determinants of auditory objects, I propose that real-world object properties are inherent......The auditory system transforms patterns of sound energy into perceptual objects but the precise definition of an âauditory objectâ is much debated. In the context of music listening, Pierre Schaeffer argued that âsound objectsâ are the fundamental perceptual units in âmusical objects...
Achterbosch, T.J.; Tongeren, van F.W.; Bruin, S.
This report draws on a body of existing literature to assess the impact of trade preferences granted by the European Union on trade and welfare in developing countries. It is argued that the Everything But Arms amendment to the EU preference scheme will have limited effect on export potential and
Fosgerau, Mogens; Small, Kenneth
Dynamic models of congestion so far rely on exogenous scheduling preferences of travelers, based for example on disutility of deviation from a preferred departure or arrival time for a trip. This paper provides a more fundamental view in which travelers derive utility just from consumption and le...
Petit Dit Dariel, A.C.
This paper presents the results from an experiment investigating whether framing affects the elicitation and predictive power of preferences for cooperation, i.e., the willingness to cooperate with others. Cooperation preferences are elicited in three treatments using the method of Fischbacher,
Bell, Jason; Huber, Joel; Viscusi, W. Kip
This article examines the political economy of preferences with respect to the environment using a new stated preference survey that presents the first benefit values for national water quality levels. The mean valuation greatly exceeds the median value, as the distribution of valuations is highly skewed. The study couples the survey valuationsâŠ
Stratton, Valerie N.; Zalanowski, Annette H.
Two experiments were conducted to determine a possible relationship between the right hemisphere, music perception, and mental imagery. The first experiment compared two groups of college students, one of which showed a preference for left hemisphere thinking (n=22) and the other a preference for right hemisphere thinking (n=20), in order to testâŠ
Gregory, Patricia; Edwards, Lloyd; Faurot, Keturah; Williams, Sharon W; Felix, Ana C G
Early aggressive rehabilitation therapies maximize functional recovery. We examined patient-reported preferences for their initial rehabilitation therapy setting during their acute stroke hospitalization and whether there was an association between their preferences and their actual discharge destination. Eligible stroke patients were surveyed during their acute hospital stay at either a primary stroke center or a rural community hospital in North Carolina. Patients were questioned about their knowledge of inpatient rehabilitation, preferences for the initial rehabilitation therapy setting and intensity, and how far from home they were willing to travel to receive therapies. The primary outcome was their actual discharge destination. The exposure variable was their preference for initial rehabilitation therapy setting. Logistic regression models assessed the relationship between the outcome and exposure while controlling for other variables of interest. Among 53 patients surveyed in the study, 85% preferred to be discharged home. After controlling for other factors, discharge to the actual destination of home was associated with a preference for an initial rehabilitation therapy setting of home (OR, 7.19; 95% CI, 1.10-46.89). Patient preference for the initial rehabilitation therapy setting is home. Providers should inquire about patient preference and provide information about treatment options to help inform decision making.
Clay, Casey J.; Samaha, Andrew L.; Bloom, Sarah E.; Bogoev, Bistra K.; Boyle, Megan A.
We examined a procedure to assess preference for social interactions in individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities. Preferences were identified in five individuals using a paired-choice procedure in which participants approached therapists who provided different forms of social interactions. A subsequent tracking test showed thatâŠ
George Frederick Michel
Full Text Available Hand preference develops in the first two postnatal years with nearly half of infants exhibiting a consistent early preference for acquiring objects. Others exhibit a more variable developmental trajectory but by the end of their second postnatal year, most exhibit a consistent hand preference for role-differentiated bimanual manipulation. According to some forms of embodiment theory, these differences in hand use patterns should influence the way children interact with their environments, which, in turn, should affect the structure and function of brain development. Such early differences in brain development should result in different trajectories of psychological development. We present evidence that children with consistent early hand preferences exhibit advanced patterns of cognitive development as compared to children who develop a hand preference later. Differences in the developmental trajectory of hand preference are predictive of developmental differences in language, object management skills, and tool-use skills. As predicted by Cassasantoâs body-specificity hypothesis, infants with different hand preferences proceed along different developmental pathways of cognitive functioning.
Turban, Joseph W
Objectives: Student evaluation of courses is an important component of overall course evaluation. The extent of student participation in the evaluation may be related to the ease of the evaluation process. The standard evaluation format is a paper form. This study examines medical students preference of utilizing Audience Response System compared to a paper method. Methods: Following several medical school lectures, students were queried if they preferred Audience Response System versus a pap...
Doepke, Matthias; Zilibotti, Fabrizio
We develop a theory of intergenerational transmission of preferences that rationalizes the choice between alternative parenting styles (as set out in Baumrind 1967). Parents maximize an objective function that combines Beckerian altruism and paternalism towards children. They can affect their children's choices via two channels: either by influencing children's preferences or by imposing direct restrictions on their choice sets. Different parenting styles (authoritarian, authoritative, and pe...
Dore, Rebecca A; Lillard, Angeline S
Against a long tradition of childhood realism (Piaget, 1929), A. S. Lillard and J. H. Flavell (1990) found that 3-year-olds prefer to characterize people by their mental states (beliefs, desires, emotions) than by their visible behaviors. In this exploratory study, we extend this finding to a new cohort of 3-year-olds, examine how these preferences change from 3-4 years, and explore relationships with theory of mind and parental mind-mindedness. The results showed a developmental change and a possible cohort difference: at 3 years, children in the sample preferred behavioral descriptions, although by 4 years of age, they preferred mentalistic ones. Interestingly, mentalistic preferences were unrelated to theory of mind or parental mind-mindedness, concurrently or over time. Perspective-taking skills at 3 years, however, predicted an increase in mentalistic responses from 3 years to 4 years. Possible explanations for each finding are discussed.
Tarek Tawfik Amin
Full Text Available Tarek Tawfik Amin1, Feroze Kaliyadan2, Nouria Saab Al-Muhaidib31Community Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo, Egypt; 2Department of Internal Medicine, Dermatology Section; 3Vice Dean for Female Students, College of Medicine, King Faisal University, Saudi ArabiaObjective: To assess the preferred methods for assessment among medical students at both preclinical and clinical stages of medical education and the possible correlates that promote these preferences.Subjects and methods: All medical students from the third year onwards were surveyed. A self-administered anonymous questionnaire was designed to gather information on the preferred assessment method for course achievement. The preferred methods were also evaluated in relation to cognitive functions. Preference for specific exam format, in the form of multiple choices, short essay questions, or both, and the stated reasons for that preference, was also included in the questionnaire.Results: Out of 310 questionnaires distributed, 238 were returned. Written tests, projects, portfolios, and take home exams were the preferred modes for assessing studentsâachievements in a course; oral tests including a viva voce were the least preferred type of assessment. Questions that tested the domains of âunderstandingâ and âapplicationâ were the most preferred type while those entailing âanalysisâ were the least preferred. Multiple choice question format was the most preferred type of question (68.7% at both pre- and clinical stages.Conclusion: Studentsâ assessments at the College of Medicine, King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia, do not use the full range of cognitive domains. The emphasis on higher domains for medical studentsâ assessment incorporating critical thinking should increase as the studentsâ progress through their medical courses.Keywords: medical students, assessment, exams, multiple choices, essay
Wild, de Victoire W.T.; Graaf, de Kees; Jager, Gerry
Background: Children's low vegetable consumption requires effective strategies to enhance preference for and intake of vegetables. Objective: The study compared three preparation practices for a target vegetable (spinach) on their effectiveness in increasing preschool-aged children's preference
Nelson, Eliza L; Konidaris, George D; Berthier, Neil E
Infants show age-related improvements in reach straightness and smoothness over the first years of life as well as a decrease in average movement speed. This period of changing kinematics overlaps the emergence of handedness. We examined whether infant hand preference status is related to the development of motor control in 53 infants ranging from 11 to 14 months old. Hand preference status was assessed from reaching to a set of 5 objects presented individually at the infant's midline; infants were classified into 'right preference' or 'no preference' groups. Three-dimensional (3-D) recordings were made of each arm for reaches under two distinct conditions: pick up a ball and fit it into the opening of a toy (grasp-to-place task) or pick up a CheerioÂź and consume it (grasp-to-eat task). Contrary to expectations, there was no effect of hand preference status on reach smoothness or straightness for either task. On the grasp-to-eat task only, average speed of the left hand differed as a function of hand preference status. Infants in the no preference group exhibited higher left hand average speeds than infants in the right preference group. Our results suggest that while behavioral differences in the use of the two hands may be present in some infants, these differences do not appear to be systematically linked to biases in motor control of the arms early in development. Copyright Â© 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wijk, R.M. van; Pelsma, M.; Groothuis-Oudshoorn, C.G.; IJzerman, M.J.; Vlimmeren, L.A. van; Boere-Boonekamp, M.M.
BACKGROUND: Pediatric physical therapy seems to reduce skull deformation in infants with positional preference. However, not all infants show improvement. OBJECTIVE: The study objective was to determine which infant and parent characteristics were related to responses to pediatric physical therapy
Recent studies have summarized reported music preferences by genre into four broadly defined categories, which relate to various personality characteristics. Other research has indicated that genre classification is ambiguous and inconsistent. This ambiguity suggests that research relating personality to music preferences based on genre could benefit from a more objective definition of music. This problem is addressed by investigating how music preferences linked to objective audio features r...
Andersen, BjĂžrn Schiermer
This article attempts to rehabilitate the concept of fetishism and to contribute to the debate on the social role of objects as well as to fashion theory. Extrapolating from Michel Serresâ theory of the quasi-objects, I distinguish two phenomenologies possessing almost opposite characteristics....... These two phenomenologies are, so I argue, essential to quasi-object theory, yet largely ignored by Serresâ sociological interpreters. They correspond with the two different theories of fetishism found in Marx and Durkheim, respectively. In the second half of the article, I introduce the fashion object...... as a unique opportunity for studying the interchange between these two forms of fetishism and their respective phenomenologies. Finally, returning to Serres, I briefly consider the theoretical consequences of introducing the fashion object as a quasi-object....
Pogun, Sakire; Yararbas, Gorkem; Nesil, Tanseli; Kanit, Lutfiye
Smoking is the major cause of preventable deaths worldwide, and although there is a decline in overall smoking prevalence in developed countries, the decline in women is less pronounced than in men. Women become dependent faster and experience greater difficulties in quitting. Similar trends have been observed in animal models of nicotine/tobacco addiction. Individual differences in vulnerability to drug abuse are also observed in nicotine/tobacco addiction and point to the importance of sex differences. This Review, summarizes findings from three experimental approaches used to depict nicotine preference in animal models, intravenous and oral nicotine self-administration and nicotine-induced conditioned place preference. Nicotine preference is considered to be reflected in the animal's motivation to administer the drug (intravenously or orally) or to prefer an environment paired with the presence of the drug (conditioned place preference). These approaches all point to the importance of sex and age of the subjects; the preference of females and adolescents appear to be more pronounced than that of males and adults, respectively. A closer look at these factors will help us understand the mechanisms that underlie nicotine addiction and develop strategies to cope. Ignoring sex differences and reaching conclusions based only on studies using male subjects has resulted in erroneous generalizations in the past. Sex differences in nicotine preference have been clearly documented, and awareness on this aspect of nicotine dependence will significantly impact our success in translational research. Â© 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Â© 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Li, Jing; Dow, William H; Kariv, Shachar
We measure the social preferences of a sample of US medical students and compare their preferences with those of the general population sampled in the American Life Panel (ALP). We also compare the medical students with a subsample of highly educated, wealthy ALP subjects as well as elite law school students and undergraduate students. We further associate the heterogeneity in social preferences within medical students to the tier ranking of their medical schools and their expected specialty choice. Our experimental design allows us to rigorously distinguish altruism from preferences regarding equality-efficiency tradeoffs and accurately measure both at the individual level rather than pooling data or assuming homogeneity across subjects. This is particularly informative, because the subjects in our sample display widely heterogeneous social preferences in terms of both their altruism and equality-efficiency tradeoffs. We find that medical students are substantially less altruistic and more efficiency focused than the average American. Furthermore, medical students attending the top-ranked medical schools are less altruistic than those attending lower-ranked schools. We further show that the social preferences of those attending top-ranked medical schools are statistically indistinguishable from the preferences of a sample of elite law school students. The key limitation of this study is that our experimental measures of social preferences have not yet been externally validated against actual physician practice behaviors. Pending this future research, we probed the predictive validity of our experimental measures of social preferences by showing that the medical students choosing higher-paying medical specialties are less altruistic than those choosing lower-paying specialties. Copyright Â© 2017 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.
Bonetti, Leonardo; Costa, Marco
The relationship between fluid intelligence and preference for majorâminor musical mode was investigated in a sample of 80 university students. Intelligence was assessed by the Ravenâs Advanced Progressive Matrices. Musical mode preference was assessed by presenting 14 pairs of musical stimuli...... that varied only in mode. Mood and personality were assessed, respectively, by the Brief Mood Introspection Scale and the Big Five Questionnaire. Preference for minor stimuli was related positively and significantly to fluid intelligence and openness to experience. The results add evidence of individual...
Hechter, Michael Norman; Siroky, David; Mueller, Sean
The study of secession generally stresses the causal influence of cultural identities, political preferences, or ecological factors. Whereas these different views are often considered to be mutually exclusive, this paper proposes a two-stage model in which they are complementary. We posit...... that cultural identities matter for explaining secessionism, but not because of primordial attachments. Rather, religious and linguistic groups matter because their members are imbued with cultural legacies that lead to distinct political preferences â in this case preferences over welfare statism. Further...
O'Sullivan, D; Wilk, S; Michalowski, W; Slowinski, R; Thomas, R; Kadzinski, M; Farion, K
Online medical knowledge repositories such as MEDLINE and The Cochrane Library are increasingly used by physicians to retrieve articles to aid with clinical decision making. The prevailing approach for organizing retrieved articles is in the form of a rank-ordered list, with the assumption that the higher an article is presented on a list, the more relevant it is. Despite this common list-based organization, it is seldom studied how physicians perceive the association between the relevance of articles and the order in which articles are presented. In this paper we describe a case study that captured physician preferences for 3-element lists of medical articles in order to learn how to organize medical knowledge for decision-making. Comprehensive relevance evaluations were developed to represent 3-element lists of hypothetical articles that may be retrieved from an online medical knowledge source such as MEDLINE or The Cochrane Library. Comprehensive relevance evaluations asses not only an article's relevance for a query, but also whether it has been placed on the correct list position. In other words an article may be relevant and correctly placed on a result list (e.g. the most relevant article appears first in the result list), an article may be relevant for a query but placed on an incorrect list position (e.g. the most relevant article appears second in a result list), or an article may be irrelevant for a query yet still appear in the result list. The relevance evaluations were presented to six senior physicians who were asked to express their preferences for an article's relevance and its position on a list by pairwise comparisons representing different combinations of 3-element lists. The elicited preferences were assessed using a novel GRIP (Generalized Regression with Intensities of Preference) method and represented as an additive value function. Value functions were derived for individual physicians as well as the group of physicians. The results show
Ăstergaard, Jeanette; Ăstergaard, Stine VernstrĂžm; Fletcher, Adam
. An in situ survey of 1,298 young adults (18â35 years) conducted in 50 bars, pubs, and nightclubs in England and Denmark assessed sociodemographics, substance use patterns, and personal preference(s) for mixing alcohol and drug use. Multinomial regression analyses examined the relative risk of PSPU categories....... Lifetime cocaine use was 38% in England and 17% in Denmark. In England, young adults with drug experience preferred to mix alcohol with cocaine (65%). In Denmark, young adults with drug experience preferred to mix alcohol with cannabis (78%). In multinominal regression, Danish young adultsâ educational...... among those reporting drug use, according to sociodemographics, alcohol intake, frequency of intoxication, and smoking. Illicit drug use was more prevalent among young adults in England than Denmark. The difference was smallest for cannabis use: Lifetime cannabis use is 66% in England and 58% in Denmark...
Jelle de Boer
Full Text Available This paper is a partial review of the literature on âsocial preferences'. There are empirical findings that convincingly demonstrate the existence of social preferences, but there are also studies that indicate their fragility. So how robust are social preferences, and how exactly are they context dependent? One of the most promising insights from the literature, in my view, is an equilibrium explanation of mutually referring conditional social preferences and expectations. I use this concept of equilibrium, summarized by means of a figure, to discuss a range of empirical studies. Where appropriate, I also briefly discuss a couple of insights from the (mostly parallel evolutionary literature about cooperation. A concrete case of the Orma in Kenya will be used as a motivating example in the beginning.
Jong, de, M.J.M.; Reenen, van, C.G.
We investigated the substrate preference of laying hens with respect to dustbathing and foraging behaviour, in order to determine which resources should be provided in laying hen housing systems for the expression of these behaviours. The consumer demand approach was used to study the strength of preference. Hens had to push a weighted door to enter choice pens with either a wire floor, sand, wood shavings or peat moss as substrate. Twelve Isa-Brown hens, reared on battery cages, successfully...
We investigate implementation of social choice functions that map states to lotteries, where agents have preferences not only for consequences but also for 'honesty'. We show that in the complete information environments with three or more agents, every social choice function is implementable in Nash equilibrium. This is in contrast with the standard implementation models where agents have preferences only for consequences and no social choice function depending on factors other than agents' ...
Beecks, Christian; Assent, Ira; Seidl, Thomas
address the problem of content-based multimedia retrieval in the presence of unknown user preferences. Our idea consists in performing content-based retrieval by considering all possibilities in a family of similarity models simultaneously. To this end, we propose a novel content-based retrieval approach......Content-based multimedia retrieval requires an appropriate similarity model which reflects user preferences. When these preferences are unknown or when the structure of the data collection is unclear, retrieving the most preferable objects the user has in mind is challenging, as the notion...... of similarity varies from data to data, from task to task, and ultimately from user to user. Based on a specific query object and unknown user preferences, retrieving the most similar objects according to some default similarity model does not necessarily include the most preferable ones. In this work, we...
Full Text Available Jose G Castro,1 Deborah L Jones,2 Stephen M Weiss2 1Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, 2Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Miami, Miami, FL, USA Abstract: The objective of this pilot study was to explore the knowledge of and preferences regarding effective biomedical interventions among high risk individuals attending a sexually transmitted diseases clinic, and to examine the effect of a brief information intervention on preference. Participants completed a baseline assessment, attended a presentation on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV prevention methods, and completed a postintervention assessment. Outcome measures included: demographics and sexual risk factors, self-perceived HIV risk, and knowledge and attitudes regarding new biomedical methods of HIV prevention. After the baseline evaluation, participants were provided with information on new biomedical prevention strategies. Participants were given the option to review the information by reading a pamphlet or by viewing a brief video containing the same information. Participants (n=97 were female (n=51 and male (n=46. At baseline, only a small minority of participants were aware of the newer biomedical strategies to prevent HIV infection. Postintervention, 40% endorsed having heard about the use of HIV medications to prevent HIV infection; 72% had heard that male circumcision can decrease the risk of acquiring HIV infection in men; and 73% endorsed knowledge of the potential role of microbicides in decreasing the risk of acquiring HIV. Following the intervention, the most preferred prevention method was male condoms, followed by preexposure prophylaxis, and microbicides. The least preferred methods were male circumcision and female condoms. This study provides preliminary information on knowledge and attitudes regarding newer biomedical interventions to protect against HIV infection. Keywords: STD clinic, biomedical HIV prevention, PrEP, male
Meropol, Neal J.; Egleston, Brian L.; Buzaglo, Joanne S.; Benson, Al B.; Cegala, Donald J.; Diefenbach, Michael A.; Fleisher, Linda; Miller, Suzanne M.; Sulmasy, Daniel P.; Weinfurt, Kevin P.
Background Optimal patient decision making requires integration of patient values, goals, and preferences with information received from the physician. In the case of life-threatening illness such as cancer, the weights placed on quality of life (QOL) and length of life (LOL) represent critical values. The objective of this study is to describe cancer patient values regarding QOL and LOL, and explore associations with communication preferences. Methods Patients with advanced cancer completed a computer-based survey prior to the initial consultation with a medical oncologist. Assessments included sociodemographics, physical and mental health state, values regarding quality and length of life, communication preferences and cancer-related distress. Results Seven hundred forty three advanced cancer patients were enrolled. Among 459 advanced cancer patients, fifty-five percent of patients equally valued QOL and LOL, 27% preferred QOL, and 18% preferred LOL. Patients with a QOL preference had lower levels of cancer-related distress (p style from their oncologists. Conclusions These data indicate that a values preference for length vs. quality of life may be simply measured, and is associated with wishes regarding the nature of oncologist communication. Awareness of these values during the clinical encounter could improve decision making by influencing the style and content of the communication between oncologists and their patients. PMID:18988231
Meropol, Neal J; Egleston, Brian L; Buzaglo, Joanne S; Benson, Al B; Cegala, Donald J; Diefenbach, Michael A; Fleisher, Linda; Miller, Suzanne M; Sulmasy, Daniel P; Weinfurt, Kevin P
Optimal patient decision making requires integration of patient values, goals, and preferences with information received from the physician. In the case of a life-threatening illness such as cancer, the weights placed on quality of life (QOL) and length of life (LOL) represent critical values. The objective of the current study was to describe cancer patient values regarding QOL and LOL and explore associations with communication preferences. Patients with advanced cancer completed a computer-based survey before the initial consultation with a medical oncologist. Assessments included sociodemographics, physical and mental health state, values regarding quality and length of life, communication preferences, and cancer-related distress. Among 459 patients with advanced cancer, 55% placed equal valued on QOL and LOL, 27% preferred QOL, and 18% preferred LOL. Patients with a QOL preference had lower levels of cancer-related distress (P style from their oncologists. These data indicate that a values preference for LOL versus QOL may be simply measured, and is associated with wishes regarding the nature of oncologist communication. Awareness of these values during the clinical encounter could improve decision making by influencing the style and content of the communication between oncologists and their patients.
Full Text Available Background: Regular physical activity is the crucial factor in treating lifestyle diseases. The age of adolescence is considered as the important period of person's life for creation and further maintaining healthy lifestyle habits. WeâŻassume that the level of physical activities of young people could be influenced by the possibilities to perform the preferred sporting activities. Objective: The aim of the presented study was to estimate the total amount ofâŻperformed physical activity and the structure of sport preferences in West Bohemian adolescents. Further to find out the existence of relationships between preferred sport branches and composition of weekly physical activities ofâŻgirls and boys. Methods: The research was conducted at five selected secondary schools of the Pilsen region, under theâŻtotal participation of 382 boys and 529 girls. The level of physical activity (PA and sporting preferences was assessed by means of the IPAQ questionnaire and questionnaire of sports preferences, with the use of the internet system INDARES. For the statistical processing of the gained data, the Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA test, crosstabulation tables, and Spearman correlation analysis were used. Results: The results showed that the preference ofâŻfitness activities is associated with a higher level of PA in spare time of boys (p = .006, and with intensive PA ofâŻboys (pâŻ=âŻ.014 and girls (pâŻ=âŻ.044, compared to those, who do not prefer these activities. In addition, in case ofâŻboys, we have found statistically significant correlations (pâŻ=âŻ.022 between the preference of team sports and PA atâŻschool. 51.8% of boys and 37.7% of girls, who prefer fitness activities, comply with the recommendation ofâŻat least 3 Ă 20 minutes ofâŻintensive PA during one week (out of those, who do not prefer, only 30.5% of boys and 18.1% of girls. Individual sports (swimming, cycling, and downhill skiing are the main physical activities preferred by
Full Text Available Taking the stock market as a whole object, we assume that prior losses and gains are two different factors that can influence risk preference separately. The two factors are introduced as separate explanatory variables into the time-varying GARCH-M (TVRA-GARCH-M model. Then, we redefine prior losses and gains by selecting different reference point to study investorsâ time-varying risk preference. The empirical evidence shows that investorsâ risk preference is time varying and is influenced by previous outcomes; the stock market as a whole exhibits house money effect; that is, prior gains can decrease investorsâ risk aversion while prior losses increase their risk aversion. Besides, different reference points selected by investors will cause different valuation of prior losses and gains, thus affecting investorsâ risk preference.
Three sets of findings are reported here, all related to behavioral and neural correlates of preference decision. First, when one is engaged in a preference decision task with free observation, one's gaze is biased towards the to-be-chosen stimulus (eg. face) long before (s)he is consciously aware of the decision ("gaze cascade effect"). Second, an fMRI study suggested that implicit activity in a subcortical structure (the Nucleus Accumbens) precedes cognitive and conscious decision of preference. Finally, both novelty and familiarity causally contribute to attractiveness, but differently across object categories (such as faces and natural scenes). Taken together, these results point to dynamical and implicit processes both in short- and long-term, towards conscious preference decision. Finally, some discussion will be given on aesthetic decision (i.e. "beauty").
Full Text Available A reflection between a pair of contours is more rapidly detected than a translation, but this effect is stronger when the contours are closed to form a single object compared to when they are closed to form 2 objects with a gap between them. That is, grouping changes the relative salience of different regularities. We tested whether this manipulation would also change preference for reflection or translation. We measured preference for these patterns using the Implicit Association Test (IAT. On some trials, participants saw words that were either positive or negative and had to classify them as quickly as possible. On interleaved trials, they saw reflection or translation patterns and again had to classify them. Participants were faster when 1 button was used for reflection and positive words and another button was used for translation and negative words, compared to when the reverse response mapping was used (translation and positive vs. reflection and negative. This reaction time difference indicates an implicit preference for reflection over translation. However, the size of the implicit preference was significantly reduced in the Two-objects condition. We concluded that factors that affect perceptual sensitivity also systematically affect implicit preference formation.
Abarshi, E.; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, B.; Donker, G.; Echteld, M.; Block, L. van den; Deliens, L.
Background: To improve the quality of end-of-life care, general practitioner (GP) awareness of where their patients prefer to die is important. Objective: To examine GP awareness of patientsâ preferred place of death (POD), associated patient and care-related characteristics, and the congruence
Cox, Robyn M; Schwartz, Kathryn S.; Noe, Colleen M.; Alexander, Genevieve C.
Objectives Most practitioners believe that use of two hearing aids is the ideal fitting for adults with bilateral symmetrical hearing loss. However, previous research has consistently shown that a substantial proportion of these patients actually prefer to use only one hearing aid. The current study explored whether this pattern of preferences is seen with technologically advanced hearing aids. In addition, a selection of variables that were available pre-fitting were used to attempt to predict which patients will prefer one hearing aid rather than two. Design The study was designed as a 12-week field trial including structured and unstructured use of one and two hearing aids. Ninety-four subjects with mild to moderate bilaterally symmetrical hearing loss were bilaterally fit with 2005-2007 era hearing aids. Potential predictors included demographic, audiometric, auditory lifestyle, personality, and binaural processing variables. After the field trial, each subject stated his/her preference for one or two hearing aids and completed three self-report outcome questionnaires for their preferred fitting. Results Previous research was confirmed with modern technology hearing aids: after the field trial 46% of the subjects preferred to use one hearing aid rather than two. Subjects who preferred two hearing aids tended to report better real-world outcomes than those who preferred one. Subjects who reported more hearing problems in daily life, who experienced more binaural loudness summation, and whose ears were more equivalent in dichotic listening were more likely to prefer to use two hearing aids. Contrary to conventional wisdom (ideas that are generally accepted as true), audiometric hearing loss and auditory lifestyle were not predictive of aiding preference. However, the best predictive approach from these data yielded accurate predictions for only two-thirds of subjects. Conclusions Evidence-based practice calls for a conscientious melding of current evidence
Hachiga, Yosuke; Sakagami, Takayuki; Silberberg, Alan
Eight rats responded on concurrent Variable-Ratio 20 Extinction schedules for food reinforcement. The assignment of variable-ratio reinforcement to a left or right lever varied randomly following each reinforcer, and was cued by illumination of a stimulus light above that lever. Postreinforcement preference levels decreased substantially and reliably over time when the lever that just delivered reinforcement was now in extinction; however, if that lever was once again associated with variable ratio, this decrease in same-lever preference tended to be small, and for some subjects, not in evidence. The changes in preference level to the extinction lever were well described by a modified version of Killeen, Hanson, and Osborne's (1978) induction model. Consistent with this model's attribution of preference change to induction, we attribute preference change in this report to a brief period of reinforcer-induced arousal that energizes responding to the lever that delivered the last reinforcer. After a few seconds, this induced responding diminishes, and the operant responding that remains comes under the control of the stimulus light cuing the lever providing variable-ratio reinforcement. Â© Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.
Tartakovsky, Eugene; Walsh, Sophie D
The current study examines value preferences of social workers in Israel. Using a theoretical framework of person-environment fit paradigm and theory of values, the study compared social workers (N = 641, mean age = 37.7 years, 91 percent female) with a representative sample of Israeli Jews (N = 1,600, mean age = 44.2, 52 percent female). Questionnaires included personal value preferences and sociodemographic variables (gender, age, education, religiosity, and immigrant status). Multivariate analysis of covariance showed that value preferences of social workers differed significantly from those of the general population. Analyses of covariance showed that social workers reported a higher preference for self-transcendence and a lower preference for conservation and self-enhancement values. Results have significance for the selection, training, and supervision of social workers. They suggest that it is important to assess to what extent selection processes for social workers are primarily recruiting social workers with shared values, thus creating an overly homogenous population of social workers. An understanding of personal value motivations can help social workers in their own process of self-development and growth, and to understand how the profession can fulfill their basic motivations. Â© 2018 National Association of Social Workers.
Soethout, Marc B M; ten Cate, Olle Th J
Research on the preference of medical specialty among medical students in the Netherlands and the attractiveness of aspects of the medical profession during the period 2009-2013. Retrospective, descriptive research. Data from medical students in the Netherlands who participated in the computer programme Inventory Medical Professionals Choice (IMBK) were analyzed with respect to their preference of medical specialty and the attractiveness of various aspects of the medical profession. The IMBK programme was available free of charge through the Royal Dutch Medical Association (KNMG) website 'Arts in Spe' (Future Physician) during the period 2009-2013. The content of the IMBK programme was based on the questionnaire from the medical profile book developed by the pharmaceutical company GlaxoSmithKline (GSK). General practice was the most popular specialty, particularly among female medical students, with interest increasing during the undergraduate medical curriculum. Hardly any students were interested in insurance medicine, occupational medicine and elderly medicine. Direct patient care was the most attractive professional aspect for medical students. Female students were more attracted to direct and prolonged patient contact than their male counterparts. The number of hours students wished to work in future declined during the course of the undergraduate curriculum, and women were more inclined to prefer regular working hours with adequate leisure time than men. During the course of the undergraduate medical curriculum, medical students changed their preference for medical specialty. Major differences exist between male and female students in terms of preference of medical specialty and attractiveness of aspects of the medical profession.
Full Text Available The distribution of weak and strong non-linear feeding interactions (i.e., functional responses across the links of complex food webs is critically important for their stability. While empirical advances have unravelled constraints on single-prey functional responses, their validity in the context of complex food webs where most predators have multiple prey remain uncertain. In this study, we present conceptual evidence for the invalidity of strictly density-dependent consumption as the null model in multi-prey experiments. Instead, we employ two-prey functional responses parameterised with allometric scaling relationships of the functional response parameters that were derived from a previous single-prey functional response study as novel null models. Our experiments included predators of different sizes from two taxonomical groups (wolf spiders and ground beetles simultaneously preying on one small and one large prey species. We define compliance with the null model predictions (based on two independent single-prey functional responses as passive preferences or passive switching, and deviations from the null model as active preferences or active switching. Our results indicate active and passive preferences for the larger prey by predators that are at least twice the size of the larger prey. Moreover, our approach revealed that active preferences increased significantly with the predator-prey body-mass ratio. Together with prior allometric scaling relationships of functional response parameters, this preference allometry may allow estimating the distribution of functional response parameters across the myriads of interactions in natural ecosystems.
This RS code is to do Object-by-Object analysis of each Object's sub-objects, e.g. statistical analysis of an object's individual image data pixels. Statistics, such as percentiles (so-called "quartiles") are derived by the process, but the return of that can only be a Scene Variable, not an Object...... an analysis of the values of the object's pixels in MS-Excel. The shell of the proceedure could also be used for purposes other than just the derivation of Object - Sub-object statistics, e.g. rule-based assigment processes....... Variable. This procedure was developed in order to be able to export objects as ESRI shape data with the 90-percentile of the Hue of each object's pixels as an item in the shape attribute table. This procedure uses a sub-level single pixel chessboard segmentation, loops for each of the objects...
Hu, Ronghang; Xu, Huazhe; Rohrbach, Marcus; Feng, Jiashi; Saenko, Kate; Darrell, Trevor
In this paper, we address the task of natural language object retrieval, to localize a target object within a given image based on a natural language query of the object. Natural language object retrieval differs from text-based image retrieval task as it involves spatial information about objects within the scene and global scene context. To address this issue, we propose a novel Spatial Context Recurrent ConvNet (SCRC) model as scoring function on candidate boxes for object retrieval, integ...
Fosgerau, Mogens; Small, Kenneth
We consider the timing of activities through a dynamic model of commuting with congestion, in which workers care solely about leisure and consumption. Implicit preferences for the timing of the commute form endogenously due to temporal agglomeration economies. Equilibrium exists uniquely and is i......We consider the timing of activities through a dynamic model of commuting with congestion, in which workers care solely about leisure and consumption. Implicit preferences for the timing of the commute form endogenously due to temporal agglomeration economies. Equilibrium exists uniquely...... and is indistinguishable from that of a generalized version of the classical Vickrey bottleneck model, based on exogenous trip-timing preferences, but optimal policies differ: the Vickrey model will misstate the benefits of a capacity increase, it will underpredict the benefits of congestion pricing, and pricing may make...
Moffett, L A; Dreger, R M
Factor analyzed the preference ratings of 70 male and 70 female undergraduates for 36 slides of sculpture. A principal factors solution with orthogonal rotations yielded 6 factors: ambiguous abstraction vs. controlled human realism, mildly distorted representation, emotional detachment, traditional portraiture vs. surrealism, highly distorted representation, and geometric abstraction. Some of these factors were similar to the Apollonian, the Dionysian, and the Pythagorean dimensions previously postualted by Nietzsche and Knapp. Preference scores for each factor were computed and correlated with scores on the 16 PF and with selected educational and physical variables. A few small, significant (p less than .05) correlations were found, supporting the hypothesis that artistic style preferences resemble the personality traits of the spectator.
David C. Kingsley; Thomas C. Brown
Results from paired comparison experiments suggest that as respondents progress through a sequence of binary choices they become more consistent, apparently fine-tuning their preferences. Consistency may be indicated by the variance of the estimated valuation distribution measured by the error term in the random utility model. A significant reduction in the variance is...
Herig, C.; Houston, A. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)
Customer preference (CP), or green pricing, may be the financial hedge for electric supply industry integration of photovoltaics. CP is currently defined as a voluntary contribution for energy generated with renewable resources. Several utilities have examined the CP financing of renewables through experimental or implemented programs and market research. This paper first expands the concept of customer preference to include both voluntary and involuntary customer contributions. It then categorizes the features of existing and proposed CP programs. The connections between these features and market research and marketing strategies for new product development from a competitive industry are analyzed.
Objective: To ascertain Ugandan youth access to complete information about sexual health and identify preferences for website design and content for a comprehensive sexuality education program. Methods: Qualitative focus group discussions with 15 youth enrolled in secondary school, levels S1-S3 Results: Youth getÂ ...
Sep 3, 2013 ... Department of Community Medicine , Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Mangalore- 575001,. India. 2. Student ... Objectives: To understand the preferences and perception of medical students about the current methods of teaching, aids used for ..... modes for undergraduate evidence- based.
Context Knowledge of different HIV testing modules is necessary to make an informed consent. The basic conditions of confidentiality, voluntary and counseling (pre-and-post) should apply in all HIV testing. Objective To assess the knowledge and preference of HIV counseling and testing types among antenatal women atÂ ...
Bowen, Daniel H.; Buck, Stuart; Deck, Cary; Mills, Jonathan N.; Shuls, James V.
A range of proposals aim to reform teacher compensation, recruitment, and retention. Teachers have generally not embraced these policies. One potential explanation for their objections is that teachers are relatively risk averse. We examine this hypothesis using a risk-elicitation task common to experimental economics. By comparing preferences ofâŠ
This thesis deals with individual financial decision making, that is the process of choosing a preferred option from among a set of alternatives. Individual behavior has been traditionally studied in economics by means of the rational-choice model, which assumes that agents maximize some objective
The objective is to determine if fruit and vegetable (FV) commercials have an impact on preschool children's preferences for specific FV. A year of extensive formative assessment was conducted to develop two 30-second commercials; Judy Fruity promoted apples and bananas and Reggie Veggie promoted br...
Objective: To determine the number of embryos patients' attending a fertility clinic in Nigeria, would prefer transferred during IVF/ICSI. Materials and Methods: Fifty four consecutive female patients who underwent IVF/ICSI procedures between May 2006 and April 2007 at the Port Harcourt Fertility Centre, Rivers State wereÂ ...
Background: Child's gender preference (GP) frequently leads to high fertility which has adverse effect on family health. The link between women's fertility intention, GP and Living Children's Sex Composition (LCSC) as found in this study is less explored in Malawi. Objectives: We examined the relationship between GP,Â ...
Abstract. Background: Child's gender preference (GP) frequently leads to high fertility which has adverse effect on family health. The link between women's fertility intention, GP and Living Children's Sex Composition (LCSC) as found in this study is less explored in Malawi. Objectives: We examined the relationship betweenÂ ...
Fish pathogens may attack any convenient part of the host. But studies indicate that pathogens of fish tend to reveal their preference for particular fish organs. The present study set out with the objective of identifying the organs most inhabited by these pathogenic organisms in fishes. Collecting samples of Clarias gariepinusÂ ...
Shaffer, Jeannette R.
The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between the self-reported demographic characteristics of high school students that play games online and their social preferences when playing offline and online. Adolescents are using communication tools while playing games to meet new people, learn new strategies, and maintainâŠ
Back Pain is one of the most frequent reasons for visiting a general practitioner or physical therapist. The objectives of this study were to investigate the attitudes and treatment preferences of Physiotherapists in Nigeria about the management of Low back Pain. A survey of 101 practicing physiotherapists from selected healthÂ ...
Jaramillo, Sandra J; Yang, Su-Jau; Hughes, Sheryl O; Fisher, Jennifer Orlet; Morales, Miriam; Nicklas, Theresa A
The objective of this study was to develop a computerized measure for assessing fruit, fruit juice and vegetable (FJV) preferences of African-American (AA) and Hispanic (H) preschool children. Preschool children were selected from Head Start Centers to participate in this study. PARTICIPANTS/MAIN OUTCOME: Descriptive data on FJV preferences were obtained from a sample of 198 preschool children. Test-retest reliability (n = 50) and predicitve validity (n = 47) were assessed in a sample of children. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to evaluate gender and ethnic differences in FJV preference scores. Mean FJV preference scores were correlated using the Pearson's correlation coefficients and intra-class correlation to assess the reliability of the preference measure. ANOVA was applied to test the mean FV consumption difference between the low and high FV preference groups. Compared to H, AA had a significantly higher preference for vegetables. Boys had a significantly lower preference for fruit than girls. Data show adequate test-retest reliability (r = .70; p lower FV preferences (p < 0.05). Data provide evidence for the reliability and validity of an interactive, computerized measure for assessing FJV preferences of young children. Development of a valid and reliable method for assessing FJV preferences of preschool children may be useful in characterizing FJV preferences of young children and in evaluating specific intervention programs.
Atchison, Kathryn A.; Gironda, Melanie W.; Black, Edward E.; Schweitzer, Stuart; Der-Martirosian, Claudia; Felsenfeld, Alan; Leathers, Richard; Belin, Thomas R.
Background Patient preferences for treatment choices may depend on subject characteristics. Objective Using Standard Gamble (SG) and Willingness to Pay (WTP), this study compares preferences for treatment of mandibular fracture among patients in a low-income urban area. Patients and Methods Surveys of African American and Hispanic adults receiving treatment at King/Drew Medical Center for either a mandibular fracture (n=98) or third-molar removal (n=105) are used to investigate differences in patient characteristics across treatment groups (third-molar vs. fracture) and treatment preference (wiring vs. surgery). Results Fracture patients were willing to pay more to restore function without scarring or nerve damage than third-molar patients. Subjects who chose surgery were willing to accept a greater risk of possible nerve damage or scarring than those who chose wiring. Among 15 potential predictors of SG and WTP studied in 4 subgroups defined by actual treatment and treatment preference, significant predictors varied with associations for education and clinical experience for SG, and income and psychosocial predictors for WTP. Conclusions SG and WTP capture different domains of health values among subjects. There is considerable heterogeneity in relationships between patient characteristics and patient preferences across subgroups defined by actual treatment and treatment preferences. PMID:18022465
This paper deals with decision-making problems where a fuzzy preference relation with no unfuzzy nondominated alternatives has been defined. While in the first part randomized extension was considered in order to get a solution, in this second part an aggregative approach to fuzzified extension will be developed.
Chrysochou, Polymeros; Krystallis Krontalis, Athanasios; Mocanu, Ana
Purpose â The purpose of this paper is to explore differences in wine preferences between Generation Y and older cohorts in the USA. Design/methodology/approach â A total of 260 US consumers participated in a web-based survey that took place in April 2010. The best-worst scaling method was applie...
Cruz, Josue, Jr.; And Others
The purpose of this study was to explore the preferences of primary-aged, non-handicapped children for particular handicapping conditions, including visual, hearing, and orthopedic impairments. Of particular interest were the following questions: (1) Do young children understand the nature of a given handicap? (2) Are young children capable ofâŠ
Cabrales, Antonio; Miniaci, Raffaele; Piovesan, Marco
by the chosen contract. We find that (heterogeneous) social preferences are significant determinants of choices in all phases of the experiment. Since the available contracts display a trade-off between fairness and strategic uncertainty, we observe that the latter is a much stronger determinant of choices...
Adda, D' Giovanna; Levely, Ian
This article examines the effect of exogenous health shocks in utero and in infancy on the development of social preferences later in childhood. We use data from binarychoice dictator games run with school children in rural Sierra Leone to measure aversion to inequality, altruism and spite
The potential to improve the management of fisheries in Pemba, Mozambique, were explored by evaluating stakeholder's preferences for management and the key institutional design elements of the fisheries organisations or community councils of fisheries (CCPs). We interviewed fishers, community leaders andÂ ...
B.G.C. Dellaert (Benedict); S. Stremersch (Stefan)
textabstractIncreasingly, firms adopt mass customization, which allows consumers to customize products by self-selecting their most preferred composition of the product for a predefined set of modules. For example, PC vendors such as Dell allow customers to customize their PC by choosing the type of
Fosgerau, Mogens; Small, Kenneth
. Compared to the predictions of an analyst observing untolled equilibrium and taking scheduling preferences as exogenous, we find that both the optimal capacity and the marginal external cost of congestion have changed. The benefits of tolling are greater, and the optimal time varying toll is different....
CahlĂkovĂĄ, Jana; Cingl, L.
RoÄ. 20, Ä. 1 (2017), s. 209-236 ISSN 1386-4157 R&D Projects: GA MĆ k(CZ) SVV 265801/2012 Institutional support: Progres-Q24 Keywords : risk preferences * risk aversion * stress Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 2.391, year: 2016
Margerison, C. J.; And Others
An important factor in job choice, both at the start of and during one's career, is one's psychological makeup, which must be taken into account in training and development programs. The authors relate the Jungian introvert-extrovert, judgment-perception theories to work and management, presenting data from a management work preferences sampling.âŠ
Blocker, Kenneth A.; Wright, Timothy J.; Boot, Walter R.
Increasing evidence suggests that action digital game training can improve a variety of perceptual and cognitive abilities, including those that decline most with age. Unfortunately, previous work has found that older adults dislike these games and adherence may be poor for action game-based interventions. The focus of the current study was to better understand the types of games older adults are willing to play and explore predictors of game preference (e.g., gender, age, technology experience, personality). With this information action games might be modified or developed to maximize adherence and cognitive benefit. Older adults were administered a modified version of an existing game questionnaire and a custom game preference survey. Clear preferences were observed that were similar between participants with and without previous digital game experience (with puzzle and intellectually stimulating games being most interesting to older adults in our sample, and massively multiplayer online games and first-person shooters being least interesting). Personality, demographic, and technology experience variables were also collected. Interesting trends suggested the possibility that several demographic and personality variables might be predictive of game preference. Results have implications for future directions of research, designing games that would appeal to older adult audiences, and for how to design custom games to maximize intervention adherence based on individual difference characteristics. PMID:29033699
Kandasamy, Narayanan; Hardy, Ben; Page, Lionel; Schaffner, Markus; Graggaber, Johann; Powlson, Andrew S.; Fletcher, Paul C.; Gurnell, Mark; Coates, John
Risk taking is central to human activity. Consequently, it lies at the focal point of behavioral sciences such as neuroscience, economics, and finance. Many influential models from these sciences assume that financial risk preferences form a stable trait. Is this assumption justified and, if not, what causes the appetite for risk to fluctuate? We have previously found that traders experience a sustained increase in the stress hormone cortisol when the amount of uncertainty, in the form of market volatility, increases. Here we ask whether these elevated cortisol levels shift risk preferences. Using a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over protocol we raised cortisol levels in volunteers over 8 d to the same extent previously observed in traders. We then tested for the utility and probability weighting functions underlying their risk taking and found that participants became more risk-averse. We also observed that the weighting of probabilities became more distorted among men relative to women. These results suggest that risk preferences are highly dynamic. Specifically, the stress response calibrates risk taking to our circumstances, reducing it in times of prolonged uncertainty, such as a financial crisis. Physiology-induced shifts in risk preferences may thus be an underappreciated cause of market instability. PMID:24550472
Full Text Available Background and purpose: Learning style is the processing of information and comprehension. If teachers present contents in a style that matches a studentâs preferred learning style, academic performance and success will improve. If content retention improves it will result in an increase in thetest scores. It is also important to determine if students, as a group, fit into a particular style or a particular cycle as they move through an educational program.Methods: The study is a descriptive analytical research. Nursing Students at Isfahan Medical Sciences University completed a questionnaireÂ formulated to assess learning styles. Analysis of variance was used to investigate the possible relationship between learning cycle and studentâs grades in the curriculum (i.e. freshman, sophomore, junior, or senior. Cross tabulation was used to test for a relationship between learning style and student academic year of study in the curriculum.Results: 294 students received the Kolb LSI questionnaire. The data demonstrated that juniors preferred a converger learning style and the senior students were in the abstract conceptualization cycle of learning. There were no relationships demonstrated between other groups in the study.Conclusion: The junior and senior students appear to prefer the stage of learning involving thinking and problem analysis. When a group of students demonstrate a preference for particular learning style teachers can develop their curriculum along their learning styleKey words: LEARNING STYLES, NURSING STUDENTS, FRESHMAN, SOPHOMORE, JUNIOR, SENIOR
Kandasamy, Narayanan; Hardy, Ben; Page, Lionel; Schaffner, Markus; Graggaber, Johann; Powlson, Andrew S; Fletcher, Paul C; Gurnell, Mark; Coates, John
Risk taking is central to human activity. Consequently, it lies at the focal point of behavioral sciences such as neuroscience, economics, and finance. Many influential models from these sciences assume that financial risk preferences form a stable trait. Is this assumption justified and, if not, what causes the appetite for risk to fluctuate? We have previously found that traders experience a sustained increase in the stress hormone cortisol when the amount of uncertainty, in the form of market volatility, increases. Here we ask whether these elevated cortisol levels shift risk preferences. Using a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over protocol we raised cortisol levels in volunteers over 8 d to the same extent previously observed in traders. We then tested for the utility and probability weighting functions underlying their risk taking and found that participants became more risk-averse. We also observed that the weighting of probabilities became more distorted among men relative to women. These results suggest that risk preferences are highly dynamic. Specifically, the stress response calibrates risk taking to our circumstances, reducing it in times of prolonged uncertainty, such as a financial crisis. Physiology-induced shifts in risk preferences may thus be an underappreciated cause of market instability.
Blocker, Kenneth A; Wright, Timothy J; Boot, Walter R
Increasing evidence suggests that action digital game training can improve a variety of perceptual and cognitive abilities, including those that decline most with age. Unfortunately, previous work has found that older adults dislike these games and adherence may be poor for action game-based interventions. The focus of the current study was to better understand the types of games older adults are willing to play and explore predictors of game preference (e.g., gender, age, technology experience, personality). With this information action games might be modified or developed to maximize adherence and cognitive benefit. Older adults were administered a modified version of an existing game questionnaire and a custom game preference survey. Clear preferences were observed that were similar between participants with and without previous digital game experience (with puzzle and intellectually stimulating games being most interesting to older adults in our sample, and massively multiplayer online games and first-person shooters being least interesting). Personality, demographic, and technology experience variables were also collected. Interesting trends suggested the possibility that several demographic and personality variables might be predictive of game preference. Results have implications for future directions of research, designing games that would appeal to older adult audiences, and for how to design custom games to maximize intervention adherence based on individual difference characteristics.
Full Text Available This paper proposes a new demand response scheduling framework for an array of households, which are grouped into different categories based on socio-economic factors, such as the number of occupants, family decomposition and employment status. Each of the households is equipped with a variety of appliances. The model takes the preferences of participating households into account and aims to minimize the overall production cost and, in parallel, to lower the individual electricity bills. In the existing literature, customers submit binary values for each time period to indicate their operational preferences. However, turning the appliances âonâ or âoffâ does not capture the associated discomfort levels, as each appliance provides a different service and leads to a different level of satisfaction. The proposed model employs integer values to indicate household preferences and models the scheduling problem as a multi-objective mixed integer programming. The main thrust of the framework is that the multi-level preference modeling of appliances increases their âflexibilityâ; hence, the job scheduling can be done at a lower cost. The model is evaluated by using the real data provided by the Department of Energy & Climate Change, UK. In the computational experiments, we examine the relation between the satisfaction of consumers based on the appliance usage preferences and the electricity costs by exploring the Pareto front of the related objective functions. The results show that the proposed model leads to significant savings in electricity cost, while maintaining a good level of customer satisfaction.
Evans, Sharon; Daly, Anne; Chahal, Satnam; Ashmore, Catherine; MacDonald, John; MacDonald, Anita
Background In a previous case-control study, we demonstrated that children with PKU and non-PKU controls preferred sweet foods. Additionally, children with PKU exhibited food neophobia, with no preference for bitter tasting foods associated with the taste of phenylalanine (Phe)-free L-amino acid supplements. Objective In an observational extension study, we evaluated the influence of parental food choice and neophobia on their children's taste preferences and food neophobia. Methods Male and ...
Zhao, Yinzhu; Aoki, Naokazu; Kobayashi, Hiroyuki
According to color research, people have memory colors for familiar objects, which correlate with high color preference. As a similar concept to this, we propose memory texture as a mechanism of texture preference by adding image noise (1/f noise or white noise) to photographs of seven familiar objects. Our results showed that (1) memory texture differed from real-life texture; (2) no consistency was found between memory texture and real-life texture; (3) correlation existed between memory texture and preferred texture; and (4) the type of image noise which is more appropriate to texture reproduction differed by object.
Wijnen, B F M; de Kinderen, R J A; Colon, A J; Dirksen, C D; Essers, B A B; Hiligsmann, M; Leijten, F S S; Ossenblok, P P W; Evers, S M A A
Diagnosing epilepsy is a lengthy and burdensome process for patients and their family. Although the need for a more patient-centered approach in clinical practice is widely acknowledged, empirical evidence regarding patient preferences for diagnostic modalities in epilepsy is missing. The objectives of this study were 1) to identify to what extent important attributes of diagnostic procedures in epilepsy affect preferences for a procedure, 2) to determine the relative importance of these attributes, and 3) to calculate overall utility scores for routine electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) recordings. A discrete choice experiment was performed to determine patients' preferences, which involved presentation of pairwise choice tasks regarding hypothetical scenarios. Scenarios varied along six attributes: "way of measuring brain activity", "duration", "freedom of movement", "travel time", "type of additional examination", and "chance of additional examination". Choice tasks were constructed using a statistically efficient design, and the questionnaire contained 15 unique unlabeled choice tasks. Mixed multinomial logistic regression was used to estimate patients' preferences. A total of 289 questionnaires were included in the analysis. McFadden's pseudo R(2) showed a model fit of 0.28, and all attributes were statistically significant. Heterogeneity in preferences was present for all attributes. "Freedom of movement" and "Chance of additional examination" were perceived as the most important attributes. Overall utility scores did not substantially differ between routine EEG and MEG. This study suggests that the identified attributes are important in determining patients' preference for epilepsy diagnostics. It can be concluded that MEG is not necessarily more patient-friendly than a routine EEG in primary diagnostics and, regarding additional diagnostics, patients have a strong preference for long-term 24-h EEG over EEG after sleep deprivation
Teo, Jason; Hou, Chew Lin; Mountstephens, James
Electroencephalogram (EEG)-based emotion classification is rapidly becoming one of the most intensely studied areas of brain-computer interfacing (BCI). The ability to passively identify yet accurately correlate brainwaves with our immediate emotions opens up truly meaningful and previously unattainable human-computer interactions such as in forensic neuroscience, rehabilitative medicine, affective entertainment and neuro-marketing. One particularly useful yet rarely explored areas of EEG-based emotion classification is preference recognition , which is simply the detection of like versus dislike. Within the limited investigations into preference classification, all reported studies were based on musically-induced stimuli except for a single study which used 2D images. The main objective of this study is to apply deep learning, which has been shown to produce state-of-the-art results in diverse hard problems such as in computer vision, natural language processing and audio recognition, to 3D object preference classification over a larger group of test subjects. A cohort of 16 users was shown 60 bracelet-like objects as rotating visual stimuli on a computer display while their preferences and EEGs were recorded. After training a variety of machine learning approaches which included deep neural networks, we then attempted to classify the users' preferences for the 3D visual stimuli based on their EEGs. Here, we show that that deep learning outperforms a variety of other machine learning classifiers for this EEG-based preference classification task particularly in a highly challenging dataset with large inter- and intra-subject variability.
Karaoglu, S.; van Gemert, J.C.; Gevers, T.
We propose to use text recognition to aid in visual object class recognition. To this end we first propose a new algorithm for text detection in natural images. The proposed text detection is based on saliency cues and a context fusion step. The algorithm does not need any parameter tuning and can
Full Text Available The face is a special visual stimulus. Both bottom-up processes for low-level facial features and top-down modulation by face expectations contribute to the advantages of face perception. However, it is hard to dissociate the top-down factors from the bottom-up processes, since facial stimuli mandatorily lead to face awareness. In the present study, using the face pareidolia phenomenon, we demonstrated that face awareness, namely seeing an object as a face, enhances object detection performance. In face pareidolia, some people see a visual stimulus, for example, three dots arranged in V shape, as a face, while others do not. This phenomenon allows us to investigate the effect of face awareness leaving the stimulus per se unchanged. Participants were asked to detect a face target or a triangle target. While target per se was identical between the two tasks, the detection sensitivity was higher when the participants recognized the target as a face. This was the case irrespective of the stimulus eccentricity or the vertical orientation of the stimulus. These results demonstrate that seeing an object as a face facilitates object detection via top-down modulation. The advantages of face perception are, therefore, at least partly, due to face awareness.
Branding is increasingly being used as a strategy for managing markets plays a very vital role in consumer buying decision. It has already proven that brands are are the companyÂÂs most important asset. The objective of this study is to provide the information about the brand preference of smartphone in Manado and to reveal which brand that become brand preference in Manado. This research uses two important indicators that are brand equity and brand image. The method that is used in this re...
This book focuses on opera house acoustics based on subjective preference theory; it targets researchers in acoustics and vision who are working in physics, psychology, and brain physiology. This book helps readers to understand any subjective attributes in relation to objective parameters based on the powerful and workable model of the auditory system. It isÂ reconfirmed here that the well-known Helmholtz theory, which was based on a peripheral model of the auditory system, may not well describe pitch, timbre, and duration as well as the spatial sensations described in this book, nor overall responses such as subjective preference of sound fields and the annoyance of environmental noise.
Asheim, Geir B
"The Consistent Preferences Approach to Deductive Reasoning in Games" presents, applies, and synthesizes what my co-authors and I have called the 'consistent preferences' approach to deductive reasoning in games. Briefly described, this means that the object of the analysis is the ranking by each player of his own strategies, rather than his choice. The ranking can be required to be consistent (in different senses) with his beliefs about the opponent's ranking of her strategies. This can be contrasted to the usual 'rational choice' approach where a player's strategy choice is (in dif
Maroto, C.; Segura, M.; Ginestar, C.; Uriol, J.; Segura, B.
Aim of study: There is a lack of empirical research that deals with sustainable forest management in Mediterranean regions, among the most vulnerable ecosystems. The main purpose of this work is to define the strategic criteria and objectives for sustainable forest management and aggregate the preferences of stake holders in a Mediterranean region, using AHP and Goal Programming. Area of study: Valencian Community (Spain). Material and Methods: Firstly, we identified forest stake holders and structured a decision hierarchy. Then a workshop was carried out to test and validate the proposed criteria and objectives, as well as a survey to determine social preferences. Secondly, another survey was conducted amongst experts to prioritize action plans. Main results: Stake holders preferences gave the greatest importance to the environmental criteria (hydrological regulation and erosion, climate change mitigation and biodiversity) with an average weight of 40%. Social criteria (employment, recreational activities and landscape) had a weight of 38% and 22% the economic criteria case (wood, hunting and fishing, livestock, renewable energies, rural tourism and mining). The results showed that new products and services such as tourism, renewable energies, landscape, hydrological regulation and erosion control, biodiversity or climate change mitigation are very relevant objectives. We also prioritized action plans comparing them with the distribution of the administration budget. Research highlights: The environmental and social criteria are much more important than the economic ones in the regional planning of the Mediterranean forest, regardless of the method used to aggregate the social preferences and if the forest is public or private. (Author)
Bt Maznin, Nur Liyanna; Creedy, Debra Kay
Although many women prefer a vaginal birth, caesarean deliveries have risen dramatically, reaching more than 50% in some countries, despite a lack of evidence of any increase in obstetric emergencies. Some authors concluded that maternal request is a significant factor in the rising caesarean section rates. There is a need to examine factors that influence women's birthing preferences for normal vaginal birth or caesarean delivery. The objective of this systematic review was to identify factors influencing women's birthing preferences. Studies that involved women with low-obstetric risk, who have given birth at term or were going to give birth.This review considered studies that investigated women's experience of birth and factors influencing women's birth preferences for mode of delivery, excluding preference for place of birth.This review considered studies indicating women's preference for vaginal birth, caesarean section and vaginal birth after caesarean; factors influencing birth preference; and subjective accounts of childbirth during the antenatal period or first postpartum year.This review included quantitative descriptive survey studies and qualitative studies that examined women's childbirth preferences. The search was limited to English language reports from 1990 to 2009. A three step strategy to search for relevant articles was undertaken. Papers selected were assessed by two independent reviewers for methodological validity prior to inclusion in the review using critical appraisal instruments from Joanna Briggs Institute. Quantitative and qualitative data were extracted using standardised data extraction tools from Joanna Briggs Institute. A narrative summary was done for quantitative studies while qualitative findings were pooled into a meta-synthesis. The qualitative meta-synthesis identified three major factors influencing women's birth preferences which were: fear of childbirth that relates to safety, pain, and the rate of recovery of childbirth
Roberts, Amanda Shackleford
The purpose of this study was to identify the preferred instructional design strategies for the preparation of pre-service teachers who will deliver integrated STEM lessons. The research objectives were threefold and included identifying a preferred definition of integrated STEM education, developing its purpose statement, and creating a list ofâŠ
Thon, Sarah; Hansen, Pamela
Context: Recognizing the preferred learning style of professional undergraduate and graduate athletic training students will equip educators to more effectively improve their teaching methods and optimize student learning. Objective: To determine the preferred learning style of professional undergraduate and graduate athletic training studentsâŠ
Sickel, H; Abrahamsen, R K; Eldegard, K; Lunnan, T; Norderhaug, A; Petersen, M.A.; Sickel, M.; Steenhuisen, F.; Ohlson, M.
The results from the study âEffects of vegetation and grazing preferences on the quality of alpine dairy productsâ will be presented. The main objective of the project was to investigate the connections bet - ween alpine rangeland vegetation, landscape use and grazing preferences of free ranging
Koster, Ellen S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/308480643; Philbert, Daphne; Van Dijk, Liset L.; De Vries, Tjalling W.; Bouvy, Marcel L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/153182210
Background: In adolescents, non-adherence is a major problem and leads to uncontrolled disease. Objectives: To assess adolescents needs and preferences regarding counseling and support with focus on use of new media. Methods: Asthmatic adolescents needs and preferences were examined by means of
Schneider, A.; Wensing, M.J.P.; Quinzler, R.; Bieber, C.; Szecsenyi, J.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the interrelations between medication adherence, self-management, preference for involvement in treatment decisions and preference for information in asthma patients in primary care. METHODS: One hundred and eighty-five patients from 43 practices completed a series of
Cashman, Linda; Tripurana, Madhuri; Englund, Tim; Bergman, Ethan A.
Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of the study was to assess the food group preferences of second through fifth grade children based on ethnic background, gender, and grade. Food group preferences were determined by the amount of various food groups consumed in meals served as part of the National School Lunch Program at selected schools. ResearchâŠ
Knuttel, Floor; van den Bosch, Maurice A A J|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/182981630; Young-Afat, Danny A.; Emaus, Marleen J.; van den Bongard, DesirĂ©e H J G; Witkamp, Arjen J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/245008780; Verkooijen, Helena M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/213707705
Background: Noninvasive or minimally invasive treatments are being developed as alternatives to surgery for patients with early-stage breast cancer. Patients' preferences with regard to these new treatments have not been investigated. Objectives: To assess preferences of patients with breast cancer
Nkurunziza, A.; Zuidgeest, M.H.P.; Brussel, M.J.G.; van Maarseveen, M.F.A.M.
The paper analyzes individual commuter preferences towards the proposed bus rapid transit (BRT) system in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania. The objective of the survey was to identify how commuters perceive and value the proposed BRT service quality attributes. A stated preference survey of potential users
Hoorn, R.A. van; Kievit, W.; Booth, A.; Mozygemba, K.; Lysdahl, K.B.; Refolo, P.; Sacchini, D.; Gerhardus, A.; Wilt, G.J. van der; Tummers, M.J.G.M.
BACKGROUND: The importance of respecting patients' preferences when making treatment decisions is increasingly recognized. Efficiently retrieving papers from the scientific literature reporting on the presence and nature of such preferences can help to achieve this goal. The objective of this study
Valentine, Kenneth H.; Falter, Diedre D.; Falter, Kelly G.
A system for monitoring moving objects, such as the flight of honeybees and other insects, using a pulsed laser light source. This system has a self-powered micro-miniaturized transmitting unit powered, in the preferred embodiment, with an array solar cells. This transmitting unit is attached to the object to be monitored. These solar cells provide current to a storage energy capacitor to produce, for example, five volts for the operation of the transmitter. In the simplest embodiment, the voltage on the capacitor operates a pulse generator to provide a pulsed energizing signal to one or more very small laser diodes. The pulsed light is then received at a receiving base station using substantially standard means which converts the light to an electrical signal for processing in a microprocessor to create the information as to the movement of the object. In the case of a unit for monitoring honeybees and other insects, the transmitting unit weighs less than 50 mg, and has a size no larger than 1.times.3.times.5 millimeters. Also, the preferred embodiment provides for the coding of the light to uniquely identify the particular transmitting unit that is being monitored. A "wake-up" circuit is provided in the preferred embodiment whereby there is no transmission until the voltage on the capacitor has exceeded a pre-set threshold. Various other uses of the motion-detection system are described.
Croff, A.G.; Hightower, J.R.; Lee, D.W.; Michaels, G.E.; Ranek, N.L.; Trabalka, J.R.
The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of converting about 700,000 metric tons (MT) of depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF6) containing 475,000 MT of depleted uranium (DU) to a stable form more suitable for long-term storage or disposal. Potential conversion forms include the tetrafluoride (DUF4), oxide (DUO2 or DU3O8), or metal. If worthwhile beneficial uses cannot be found for the DU product form, it will be sent to an appropriate site for disposal. The DU products are considered to be low-level waste (LLW) under both DOE orders and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations. The objective of this study was to assess the acceptability of the potential DU conversion products at potential LLW disposal sites to provide a basis for DOE decisions on the preferred DU product form and a path forward that will ensure reliable and efficient disposal.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the study was to develop a menopause-specific, preference-based health-related quality-of-life (HRQoL index reflecting both menopausal symptoms and potential side-effects of Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT. Methods The study had three phases: the development of a health state classification, a prospective valuation survey and the estimation of a model to interpolate HRQoL indices for all remaining health states as defined by the classification. A menopausal health state classification was developed with seven dimensions: hot flushes, aching joints/muscles, anxious/frightened feelings, breast tenderness, bleeding, vaginal dryness and undesirable androgenic signs. Each dimension contains between three and five levels and defines a total of 6,075 health states. A sample of 96 health states was selected for the valuation survey. These states were valued by a sample of 229 women aged 45 to 60, randomly selected from 6 general practice lists in Sheffield, UK. Respondents were asked to complete a time trade-off (TTO task for nine health states, resulting in an average of 16.5 values for each health state. Results Mean health states valued range from 0.48 to 0.98 (where 1.0 is full health and zero is for states regarded as equivalent to death. Symptoms, as described by the classification system, can be rank-ordered in terms of their impact (from high to low on menopausal HRQoL as follows: aching joints and muscles, bleeding, breast tenderness, anxious or frightened feelings, vaginal dryness, androgenic signs. Hot flushes did not significantly contribute to model fit. The preferred model produced a mean absolute error of 0.053, but suffered from bias at both ends of the scale. Conclusion This article presents an attempt to directly value a condition specific health state classification. The overall fit was disappointing, but the results demonstrate that menopausal symptoms are perceived by patients to have a significant
Schoonenboom, Judith; Emans, Bruno; Meijer, Joost
Choosing for learning objects discusses eight educational ambitions and the possible roles of learning objects in realising these ambitions. The eight educational ambitions are: (1) Creating independent learning pathways, for example for lifelong learners; (2) Making education more flexible; (3)
Epstein, Robert S; Cimen, Ali; Benenson, Hannah; Aubert, Ronald E; Khalid, Mona; Sostek, Mark B; Salimi, Tehseen
While opioids have become a standard treatment option for those experiencing moderate to severe chronic pain, side effects of constipation and related symptoms have interfered with their usage in as many as 40-50% of treated patients. Prior research has elucidated the range of these symptoms, but no study has determined which of these symptoms patients most desire improving or whether improving constipation itself by as little as one more bowel movement per week is deemed an important change. We conducted an online patient survey of 513 participants residing in one of six countries who reported having chronic pain, were taking opioids, and experiencing opioid-induced constipation (OIC) to address these questions. Respondents rank ordered their preferences and the following eight symptoms generated >80% endorsement as important to improve: improvement in having bowel movements without rectal pain, soft stools that are not loose or watery, regular bowel movements, a reduction in rectal straining, relief from feeling bloated, feeling less fear about having OIC when following their opioid medication regime, a desire to worry less overall about having a bowel movement, and with less 'stomach' area pain. When asked 'how important is it you to have 1 more bowel movement per week", over 90% endorsed it was 'somewhat', 'very', or 'extremely important' with nearly 70% (nÂ =Â 354) endorsing the 'extremely' or 'very important' response options. In multivariate models, being in more overall pain or reporting fewer than 3 bowel movements per week were found to be independent predictors of the importance. These results highlight the notable range of OIC symptoms most desired by patients to improve and demonstrate that bowel movements of only one more per week were important to register a meaningful improvement. The latter is particularly helpful for those assessing the minimal clinically important difference in treating this condition.
Andrea Velandia Morales
Full Text Available According to The Ambivalent Sexism Theory (Glick y Fiske, 1996 there are distinct stereotypes of women that men express different attitudes. Among them, the housewife, sexy women and executive women are the clearest ones. One hundred people participated in the present study in order to test the relationship between the female stereotypes, their level of influence and prestige and the level of preference for a commercial product (described in female and male terms. The results showed that sexy women is more associated with the masculine description, whereas the executive women is more associated to the feminine product description, and in both cases the housewife is the least associated with the two different descriptions. It was also found that the influence and the women prestige mediated the relationship between the stereotypes and the preference shown for the product described in feminine terms
de la Rosa, Leonidas Enrique
If our decision-making processes are to some extent shaped by evolutionary pressures and our environment is different from that to which we adapted, some of our choices will not be in our best interest. But revealed preference is the only tool that we have so far to conduct a normative analysis. ....... Given advances in evolutionary psychology and neuroscience, I propose one way to model those evolutionary pressures that will hopefully prove useful in expanding normative economics.......If our decision-making processes are to some extent shaped by evolutionary pressures and our environment is different from that to which we adapted, some of our choices will not be in our best interest. But revealed preference is the only tool that we have so far to conduct a normative analysis...
A review-critique of On Writing Behavioral Objectives for English, by John Maxwell and Anthony Lovat, in which behavioral objectives theory is dominated by a stimulus-response rather than a stimulus-response-reinforcement psychology. The reviewer questions whether behavioral objectives can be applied accurately and without distortion of meanings,âŠ
One thing scientists study is how objects move. A famous scientist named Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727) spent a lot of time observing objects in motion and came up with three laws that describe how things move. This explanation only deals with the first of his three laws of motion. Newton's First Law of Motion says that moving objects will continueâŠ
Control objectives open an additional front in the survivability battle. A given set of control objectives is valuable if it represents good practices, it is complete (it covers all the necessary areas), and it is auditable. CobiT and BS 7799 are two examples of control objective sets.
Akutaev, Rasul M.; Magomedov, Guseyn B.
The relevance of the research of this problem is caused by the theoretical and practical needs of a specific concept of the crime object as one of the corpus delicti signs essentially the determining and defining its object and objective side, thereby--the nature of socially dangerous act. Besides, being a facultative sign of corpus delicti, theâŠ
Essers, Brigitte A B; van Helvoort-Postulart, Debby; Prins, Martin H; Neumann, Martino; Dirksen, Carmen D
Nowadays, an increasing number of discrete-choice experiments (DCEs) incorporate cost as an attribute. However, the inclusion of a cost attribute, particularly within collectively funded healthcare systems, can be challenging because health services or goods are generally not traded in a market situation and individuals are not used to paying for a service or a good at the point of consumption. To examine whether the inclusion of a cost attribute in a DCE results in different preferences regarding a surgical treatment for primary basal cell carcinoma (BCC) compared with a DCE without a cost attribute. A randomized study was performed in which the impact of a cost attribute on the general public's preferences for a surgical treatment (Mohs micrographic surgery [MMS] or standard excision [SE]) to remove BCC was examined. This was done by comparing the outcomes of two DCEs, one with a cost attribute (DCE_cost) and one without (DCE_nocost). Six attributes (recurrence, re-excision, travel time, surgical time, waiting time for surgical results, costs) and their levels were selected, based on results of a clinical trial, a cost-effectiveness study, a review and a focus group of patients who had recently received treatment for BCC. Outcomes of both DCEs were compared in terms of theoretical validity, relative importance of the attributes and the rank order of preferences. A total of 615 respondents (n = 303 for DCE_nocost; n = 312 for DCE_cost) were interviewed by telephone. This gave an overall response rate of 38%. Respondents in DCE_nocost preferred a surgical treatment with a lower probability of recurrence, lower surgery time, lower waiting time and no risk for a re-excision. Respondents in DCE_cost showed the same preferences, but also preferred a treatment with less travel time and lower costs. Overall, respondents in both DCEs showed the same preference for a surgical treatment: MMS was preferred over SE. Results suggest that, in this population, the inclusion of a
The results of interviews suggest that majority of the cut flowersâ consumers has favourite kind of flower, among which most frequently pointed one was the rose. More than half of the interviewed favour the uniform colour of cut flowers and red colour was the most favourite one. The subtle smell of flowers was the most preferable one but the intensive fragrance was favoured for more consumers than odourless flowers. The data from selected floristsâ confirm the information from interviews â in...
Stochastic trees are extensions of decision trees that facilitate the modeling of temporal uncertainties. Their primary application has been to medical treatment decisions. It is often convenient to present stochastic trees in factored form, allowing loosely coupled pieces of the model to be formulated and presented separately. In this paper, we show how the notion of factoring can be extended as well to preference components of the stochastic model. We examine updateable-state utility, a fle...
Jaroslava Varella Valentova
Full Text Available Previous research has shown repeatedly that human stature influences mate preferences and mate choice in heterosexuals. In general, it has been shown that tall men and average height women are most preferred by the opposite sex, and that both sexes prefer to be in a relationship where the man is taller than the woman. However, little is known about such partner preferences in homosexual individuals. Based on an online survey of a large sample of non-heterosexual men (N = 541, we found that the majority of men prefer a partner slightly taller than themselves. However, these preferences were dependent on the participant's own height, such that taller men preferred shorter partners, whereas shorter men preferred taller partners. We also examined whether height preferences predicted the preference for dominance and the adoption of particular sexual roles within a couple. Although a large proportion of men preferred to be in an egalitarian relationship with respect to preferred dominance (although not with respect to preferred sexual role, men that preferred a more dominant and more "active" sexual role preferred shorter partners, whereas those that preferred a more submissive and more "passive" sexual role preferred taller partners. Our results indicate that preferences for relative height in homosexual men are modulated by own height, preferred dominance and sex role, and do not simply resemble those of heterosexual women or men.
Full Text Available This study aimed at verifying the presence of variations in the reactions of different types of audiences to certain communication tools for wine. Five samples of audiences were compared: wine professionals, organic produce specialists, wine tourists, and two samples of general tourists. The following bundle of attributes were considered: name of the grape; information on organic production methods; type of closure; QR code; landscape; advertising language. Diverse audienceâs preferences were measured by conjoint analysis. The results have shown a common sensitivity to certain attributes, and a different or contrary sensitivity to others. In particular, all samples have demonstrated that: 1 certified organic wines communicated in standard wine-market style have the potential of becoming market leaders; 2 photographs facilitate the acceptance of technologically-advanced closures; 3 the presence of the QR code in printed advertisements increases the expected value of the product; 4a landscape characterised by holistic âgarden viticultureâ increases preferences. Textual language was more effective with professionals, while photographic language was more effective with tourists. Supplementary information on the organic production methods, in addition to the mandatory labelling requirements, increased the preferences of professionals and wine tourists, and was counterproductive with the general tourists.
Sober, Stephanie; Shea, Judy A; Shaber, Allison G; Whittaker, Paul G; Schreiber, Courtney A
The optimal approach for provision and timing of postpartum contraceptive counselling for adolescents has not been established. To reduce repeat pregnancies from current USA levels of nearly 20%, a better understanding is needed of postpartum adolescent females' preferences regarding contraceptive counselling and delivery. Semi-structured interviews with 30 USA postpartum teens (97% Black) explored pregnancy prevention and contraceptive counselling. Transcripts were independently coded by two researchers and inter-rater reliability calculated using Kappa coefficients. With a standard content analysis approach, common themes were identified, coded and summarized. Findings indicated pregnancy prevention was important - two thirds of subjects reported becoming pregnant 'too soon', almost all did not desire another child for at least 6 years and most indicated that pregnancy prevention was either 'very' or 'extremely' important right now. The subjects described doctors and their prenatal clinic as their most accurate sources of contraception information, but stated that doctors and parents were the most helpful sources. All were comfortable discussing contraception with providers and had a desire for shared decision making. While many had received written materials, most preferred in-person contraceptive counselling. Optimally, participants suggested that contraceptive counselling would be provided by a physician, begin antepartum and almost all preferred to leave the hospital with their chosen method of contraception. Pregnancy prevention is important for postpartum adolescents as most desired to delay future childbearing. In-person contraceptive counselling should begin in the antepartum period and include provision of contraception prior to discharge.
Williams, Charlene R; McLaughlin, Jacqueline E; Cox, Wendy C; Shepherd, Greene
Objective. To determine if student pharmacists' preferences towards experiential and rational thinking are associated with performance on advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs) and whether thinking style preference changes following APPEs. Methods. The Rational Experiential Inventory (REI), a validated survey of thinking style, was administered to student pharmacists before starting APPEs and re-administered after completing APPEs. APPE grades were compared to initial REI scores. Results. Rational Experiential Inventory scores remained consistent before and after APPEs. Overall, APPE grades were independent of REI scores. In a regression model, the REI experiential score was a significant negative predictor of hospital APPE grades. Conclusion. These findings suggest that overall APPE performance is independent of decision-making preference, and decision-making style does not change following immersion into APPEs. Instead of targeting teaching strategies towards a specific decision-making style, preceptors may use pedagogical approaches that promote sound clinical decision-making skills through critical thinking and reflection.
SĂžndergaard, Jens; Vach, Kirstin; Kragstrup, Jakob
BACKGROUND: Pharmaceutical representative visits are believed to have substantial impact, but the effects on prescribing patterns have not been systematically evaluated. OBJECTIVE: This study investigates how pharmaceutical sales representative visits influenced physicians' company-specific drug...... preferences and prevalence of steroid prescribing. METHODS: Observational cohort study in Funen County, Denmark, including 165 general practices visited 832 times by pharmaceutical representatives and 54 080 patients treated with asthma drugs. Visits were conducted from 2001 to 2003. Our main outcome measures...... treated with inhaled steroids. RESULTS: The first visit had a statistically significant effect on the GPs' drug preference in favour of the marketed drug [odds ratio (OR), 2.39; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.72-3.32]. The effect on drug preference increased further after the second visit (OR, 1.51; 95...
Lenau, Torben Anker; Lindegaard, Hanne
of the object, and the designers aim is therefore to tune both in order to achieve a desired goal. To do so the designer basically has 2 options: Alteration of the physical shape of the object and the selection of materials. Through the manipulation of shape and materials can symbolic and sensory information......The present research work investigates the relation between physical objects, their materiality, understood as the physical substances they are made from, and the communication from the objects. In product design of physical objects the communicative aspects are just as important as the function...... be written into the object. The materials are therefore carriers of communication, even though this is dependent of the cultural context and the environment which the object will be part of. However the designer has only minor influence on those....
Verbs do often take arguments of quite different types. In an orthodox type-theoretic framework this results in an extreme polysemy of many verbs. In this article, it is shown that this unwanted consequence can be avoided when a theory of "abstract objects" is adopted according to which...... these objects represent non-objectual entities in contexts from which they are excluded by type restrictions. Thus these objects are "abstract'' in a functional rather than in an ontological sense: they function as representatives of other entities but they are otherwise quite normal objects. Three examples...... of such a representation are considered: the denotations of that-phrases are objects representing propositions, generic noun phrases denote objects standing for sorts, and infinitivals are viewed as denoting objects representing attributes, i.e., the "ordinary'' meanings of verb phrases....
Franssen, Sanne J.; Lagarde, Sjoerd M.; van Werven, Jochem R.; Smets, Ellen M. A.; Tran, Khe T. C.; Plukker, John Th. M.; van Lanschot, J. Jan B.; de Haes, Hanneke C. J. M.
Objective: Discussing prognosis is often confronting and complex for cancer patients. This study investigates bow patients' psychological characteristics relate to their preferences concerning the disclosure of prognosis. Methods: One hundred and seventy-six esophageal cancer patients participated
Zijlstra, Trudy J.; Leenman-Dekker, Sonja J.; Oldenhuis, Hilbrand K. E.; Bosveld, Henk E. P.; Berendsen, Annette J.
Objective: Survival rates following cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) are low for older people, and are associated with a high risk of neurological damage. This study investigated the relationship between the preferences, knowledge of survival chances, and characteristics among older people
Martin, L.; Hutton, E.K.; Spelten, E.R.; Gitsels-van der Wal, J.T.; Dulmen, S. van
Objective: this study aims to provide insight into: (a) midwives' views on appropriate antenatal counselling for congenital anomaly tests, and (b) whether these views match clients' preferences regarding antenatal counselling. Design: a comparative (midwives versus clients) questionnaire survey.
Martin, L.; Hutton, E.K.; Spelten, E.R.; Gitsels-van der Wal, J.T.; Dulmen, S. van
OBJECTIVE: this study aims to provide insight into: (a) midwives' views on appropriate antenatal counselling for congenital anomaly tests, and (b) whether these views match clients' preferences regarding antenatal counselling. DESIGN: a comparative (midwives versus clients) questionnaire survey.
Janssen, S.M.; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.
OBJECTIVE: Review of studies published in the last 10 years about women seeking gynecological- or obstetrical care and physician's gender in relation to patient preferences, differences in communication style and patient satisfaction. METHODS: Studies were identified by searching the online
Koster, Ellen S; Philbert, Daphne; de Vries, Tjalling W; van Dijk, Liset; Bouvy, Marcel L
BACKGROUND: Medication adherence rates often decline as children become teenagers. Effective adherence-enhancing interventions for adolescents are lacking. The objective of this study was to assess adolescent asthmatics needs and preferences regarding medication counseling and support, with focus on
Downey, T W
Two strands of change are suggested by this review, one maturational, the other therapeutic or developmental (Hartmann and Kris, 1945). By "maturational" I mean to suggest energies that infuse the individual from earliest life in a manner that includes object relations, but for the healthy exercise of which object relations per se need not be of central and crucial importance. Within wide limits such energies may be delayed until growth conditions prevail without significant distortion of certain of the organism's ego functions. Therapeutic change is analogous to developmental change in that both involve the crucial presence of another to release energies. In therapeutic change these are energies that have been repressed beyond the reach of developmental dynamics. In everyday development crisis and synthesis alternate in conjunction with new and emerging objects to add to the psychological structures brought to the fore by maturation. In many instances, as we see with John, over time and in a less focussed manner, developmental changes can approximate therapeutic change and visa versa. Freud-Dann in their "experiment" pursued one line, in which the equipmental delay brought on by extremely adverse living circumstances was redressed by providing an interpersonally enriching, loving, developmentally facilitating milieu. The sketches of individual children and John's subsequent story provide a perspective into what becomes the stuff of growth and what remains the stuff of neurosis. The developmental reserves and ego resilience of these children were impressive but probably not extraordinary. Usual growth ensued as soon as they were provided with the rich soil of Bulldogs Bank instead of the desert sand of the Tereszin concentration camp. However, no one can escape such adverse circumstances without having taken in the stuff of neurosis. Affects and percepts that were not assimilatable or even available to consciousness at the time remain buried in the unconscious
Chan Jean Lee; Eduardo Andrade
.... However, little is known about which colors consumers prefer, and why. Given the strong associations between colors and feelings, we investigate how the emotional state of an individual affects his/her color preferences...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce â Revealed preference models provide insights into recreational angler behavior and the economic value of recreational fishing trips. Revealed preference data is...
Oltman, A E; Yates, M D; Drake, M A
Tomatoes (Solanum lycoperiscum) are a popular produce choice and provide many bioactive compounds. Consumer choice of tomatoes is influenced by flavor and visual appearance and external texture cues including hand firmness and sliceability. The objective of this study was to determine drivers of liking for fresh tomatoes across 3 stages of consumption. Seven tomato cultivars were ripened to a 6 on the USDA color chart. Trained panelists documented appearance, flavor, and texture attributes of tomatoes in triplicate. Tomato consumers (n = 177) were provided with knives and cutting boards and evaluated tomatoes across 3 stages: appearance (stage 1), slicing (stage 2), and consumption (stage 3). Consumers evaluated overall liking at each stage. Analysis of variance and external preference mapping were conducted. Overall liking was highest during the appearance portion of the test and lowest during the consumption portion (P sweet and umami tastes were drivers of liking for tomatoes at consumption (stage 3). Four separate clusters of tomato consumers were identified. Cluster 1 preferred tomatoes with even color, higher color intensity, and flavor intensity. Cluster 2 preferred firm tomatoes. Cluster 3 preferred tomatoes that were soft and at peak ripeness; this cluster also had the highest liking scores for all tomatoes. Cluster 4 consumers generally consumed tomatoes in sandwiches rather than as-is and preferred tomatoes with even and intense color. Tomato growers can utilize these results to target cultivars that are well liked by consumers. Â© 2016 Institute of Food TechnologistsÂź
the interactional resources which mundane everyday objects provide interactants in the multimodal design of their turns-at-talk. Although the objects which feature in the data â for example notepads, tables, computer monitors â have practical functions within the social ecology of these institutional settings......This paper demonstrates how an initial indexing of objects through gesture and talk provides a residual basis for later indexical development across a stretch of discourse. I show how participants are able to perform an initial mobilization of affordances (Hutchby, 2001) of objects in the immediate...... surround through a combination of vocal, visual and tactile means; once indexed one way, these objects are subsequently recycled in later multimodal turn design. By tracking recurrent participant orientations to particular objects made relevant in the surround, we are able to explore further...
Widekind, Sven von; Fandel, G
The theory on the evolution of preferences deals with the endogenous formation of preference relations in strategic situations. It is related to the field of evolutionary game theory. In this book we analyze the role and the influence of general, possibly non-expected utility preferences in such an evolutionary setup. In particular, we demonstrate that preferences which diverge from von Neumann-Morgenstern expected utility may potentially prove to be successful under evolutionary pressures.
Greenberg, David M.; Simon Baron-Cohen; Stillwell, David J.; Michal Kosinski; Rentfrow, Peter J.
Why do we like the music we do? Research has shown that musical preferences and personality are linked, yet little is known about other influences on preferences such as cognitive styles. To address this gap, we investigated how individual differences in musical preferences are explained by the empathizing-systemizing (E-S) theory. Study 1 examined the links between empathy and musical preferences across four samples. By reporting their preferential reactions to musical stimuli, samples 1 and...
Full Text Available Although infant speech perception in often studied in isolated modalities, infants' experience with speech is largely multimodal (i.e., speech sounds they hear are accompanied by articulating faces. Across two experiments, we tested infants' sensitivity to the relationship between the auditory and visual components of audiovisual speech in their native (English and non-native (Spanish language. In Experiment 1, infants' looking times were measured during a preferential looking task in which they saw two simultaneous visual speech streams articulating a story, one in English and the other in Spanish, while they heard either the English or the Spanish version of the story. In Experiment 2, looking times from another group of infants were measured as they watched single displays of congruent and incongruent combinations of English and Spanish audio and visual speech streams. Findings demonstrated an age-related increase in looking towards the native relative to non-native visual speech stream when accompanied by the corresponding (native auditory speech. This increase in native language preference did not appear to be driven by a difference in preference for native vs. non-native audiovisual congruence as we observed no difference in looking times at the audiovisual streams in Experiment 2.
In this paper, we provide a formal framework for the security of distributed active objects. Active objects com-municate asynchronously implementing method calls via futures. We base the formal framework on a security model that uses a semi-lattice to enable multi-lateral security crucial for distributed architectures. We further provide a security type system for the programming model ASPfun of functional active objects. Type safety and a confinement property are presented. ASPfun thus reali...
C. Maroto Ălvarez
Full Text Available Aim of study: There is a lack of empirical research that deals with sustainable forest management in Mediterranean regions, among the most vulnerable ecosystems. The main purpose of this work is to define the strategic criteria and objectives for sustainable forest management and aggregate the preferences of stakeholders in a Mediterranean region, using AHP and Goal Programming.Area of study: Valencian Community (Spain.Material and Methods: Firstly, we identified forest stakeholders and structured a decision hierarchy. Then a workshop was carried out to test and validate the proposed criteria and objectives, as well as a survey to determine social preferences. Secondly, another survey was conducted amongst experts to prioritize action plans.Main results: Stakeholdersâ preferences gave the greatest importance to the environmental criteria (hydrological regulation and erosion, climate change mitigation and biodiversity with an average weight of 40%. Â Social criteria (employment, recreational activities and landscape had a weight of 38% and 22% the economic criteria case (wood, hunting and fishing, livestock, renewable energies, rural tourism and mining. The results showed that new products and services such as tourism, renewable energies, landscape, hydrological regulation and erosion control, biodiversity or climate change mitigation are very relevant objectives. We also prioritized action plans comparing them with the distribution of the administration budget.Research highlights: The environmental and social criteria are much more important than the economic ones in the regional planning of the Mediterranean forest, regardless of the method used to aggregate the social preferences and if the forest is public or private.Key words: Multiple Criteria Decision Making; Goal Programming; Analytic Hierarchy Process; Preferences Aggregation.
A soup-to-nuts guide on the Objective-C programming language. Objective-C is the language behind Cocoa and Cocoa Touch, which is the Framework of applications written for the Macintosh, iPod touch, iPhone, and iPad platforms. Part of the Developer Reference series covering the hottest Apple topics, this book covers everything from the basics of the C language to advanced aspects of Apple development. You'll examine Objective-C and high-level subjects of frameworks, threading, networking, and much more.: Covers the basics of the C language and then quickly moves onto Objective-C and more advanc
Verbs do often take arguments of quite different types. In an orthodox type-theoretic framework this results in an extreme polysemy of many verbs. In this article, it is shown that this unwanted consequence can be avoided when a theory of "abstract objects" is adopted according to which...... of such a representation are considered: the denotations of that-phrases are objects representing propositions, generic noun phrases denote objects standing for sorts, and infinitivals are viewed as denoting objects representing attributes, i.e., the "ordinary'' meanings of verb phrases....
Schullery, Nancy M.; Ickes, Linda; Schullery, Stephen E.
This article reports the results of a survey of employers' preferences for resume style, resume delivery method, and cover letters. Employers still widely prefer the standard chronological resume, with only 3% desiring a scannable resume. The vast majority of employers prefer electronic delivery, either by email (46%) or at the company's Web siteâŠ
Cutler, A.; Hawkins, J.A.; Gilligan, G.
Cross-linguistic studies of morphology have demonstrated that there is an asymmetry in the type of affixation preferred: languages which would he predicted on independent structural grounds to prefer suffixes to prefixes do so, but languages which would be predicted to prefer prefixes to suffixes
Sparenberg, Peggy; Topolinski, Sascha; Springer, Anne; Prinz, Wolfgang
Both mimicking and being mimicked induces preference for a target. The present experiments investigate the minimal sufficient conditions for this mimicry-preference link to occur. We argue that mere effector matching between one's own and the other person's movement is sufficient to induce preference, independent of which movement is actuallyâŠ
Assessing Consumer Preference using Community Pharmacy Preference Evaluation Questionnaire (ComPETe): A Pilot Survey in a Malaysia City. ... the consumer preference for community pharmacy (CP) for filling prescription, and purchasing over-the-counter (OTC) and health products among customers frequenting eightÂ ...
Melton, Annette Ghent; Cox, Edward P.
Little is known about the change style preferences of superintendents, and how they differ from school principals and from business leaders and whether a superintendent's change-style preference affects student achievement. The purpose of this study was to explore the change-style preferences of South Carolina superintendents, compare them withâŠ
Non, J.A.; Tempelaar, D.T.
We analyze the relation between time preferences, study effort, and academic performance among first-year Business and Economics students. Time preferences are measured by stated preferences for an immediate payment over larger delayed payments. Data on study efforts are derived from an electronic
Saylor, Megan M.; Sabbagh, Mark A.; Fortuna, Alexandra; Troseth, Georgene
In two studies, we investigated preschoolers' ability to use others' preferences to learn names for things. Two studies demonstrated that preschool children make smart use of others' preferences. In the first study, preschool children only used information about others' preferences when they were clearly linked to referential intentions. TheâŠ
Diderichsen, Saima; Johansson, Eva E; Verdonk, Petra; Lagro-Janssen, Toine; Hamberg, Katarina
Today, women constitute about half of medical students in several Western societies, yet women physicians are still underrepresented in surgical specialties and clustered in other branches of medicine. Gender segregation in specialty preference has been found already in medical school. It is important to study the career preferences of our future physicians, as they will influence the maintenance of an adequate supply of physicians in all specialties and the future provision of health care. American and British studies dominate the area of gender and medical careers whereas Swedish studies on medical students' reasons for specialty preference are scarce. The aim of this study is to investigate and compare Swedish male and female medical students' specialty preferences and the motives behind them. Between 2006 and 2009, all last-year medical students at Umea University, Sweden (Nâ=â421), were invited to answer a questionnaire about their future career and family plans. They were asked about their specialty preference and how they rated the impact that the motivational factors had for their choice. The response rate was 89% (Nâ=â372); 58% were women (Nâ=â215) and 42% were men (Nâ=â157). Logistic regression was used to evaluate the independent impact of each motivational factor for specialty preference. On the whole, male and female last-year students opted for similar specialties. Men and women had an almost identical ranking order of the motivational factors. When analyzed separately, male and female students showed both similarities and differences in the motivational factors that were associated with their specialty preference. A majority of the women and a good third of the men intended to work part-time. The motivational factor combining work with family correlated with number of working hours for women, but not for men. The gender similarities in the medical students' specialty preferences are striking and contrast with research from other
Full Text Available The results of interviews suggest that majority of the cut flowersâ consumers has favourite kind of flower, among which most frequently pointed one was the rose. More than half of the interviewed favour the uniform colour of cut flowers and red colour was the most favourite one. The subtle smell of flowers was the most preferable one but the intensive fragrance was favoured for more consumers than odourless flowers. The data from selected floristsâ confirm the information from interviews â in spite of the occasion, roses were the most demanded cut flowers.
Cabrales, Antonio; Miniaci, Raffaele; Piovesan, Marco
This paper reports a three-phase experiment on a stylized labor market. In the first two phases, agents face simple games, which we use to estimate subjects' social and reciprocity concerns. In the last phase, four principals compete by offering agents a contract from a fixed menu. Then, agents...... "choose to work" for a principal by selecting one of the available contracts. We find that (i) (heterogeneous) social preferences are significant determinants of choices, (ii) for both principals and agents, strategic uncertainty aversion is a stronger determinant of choices than fairness, and (iii...
Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Svarer, Michael
of the systematic sortingon education is due to low search frictions in marriage markets of the educationalinstitutions. The other half is attributed to complementarities in household pro-duction, since income properties of the joint income process show no influence on partner selection.......Individuals match on length and type of education. We investigate whether thesystematic relationship between educations of partners is explained by opportuni-ties (e.g. low search frictions) or preferences (e.g. complementarities in householdproduction or portfolio optimization). We find that half...
Bloznelis, Mindaugas; GĂ¶tze, Friedrich
Vertices of an affiliation network are linked to attributes and two vertices are declared adjacent whenever they share a common attribute. For example, two customers of an internet shop (or video-sharing website) are called adjacent if they have purchased (or downloaded) the same or similar items. Assuming that each newly arrived customer is linked preferentially to already popular items we obtain a preferred attachment affiliation network that evolves in time. We show that the fraction of customers having neighbours scales as for large . Here is the ratio between the two intensities: intensity of the flow of customers and that of the newly arriving items.
Pedersen, Rasmus Tue
Numbers permeate modern political communication. While current scholarship on framing effects has focused on the persuasive effects of words and arguments, this article shows that framing of numbers can also substantially affect policy preferences. Such effects are caused by ratio bias, which...... regarding salient political issues such as education and taxes. Furthermore, the effects of numerical framing are found across most groups of the population, largely regardless of their political predisposition and their general ability to understand and use numerical information. These findings have...
OKURÂ , Prof. Dr. Mehmet C.
Teaching object oriented programming has become a rapidly expanding preference at various educational environments. However, teachers usually experience problems when introducing object oriented concepts and programming to beginners. How to teach the fundamentals of object oriented programming at an introductory level course is still a common subject for debate. In this paper, an evaluation of these problems is presented and some possible approaches for improving the quality and success of su...
Obj ect oriented development of software systems is becom- ing de-facto standard in large software projects. This article explains the motivation behind object orientation and how it promotes the use of software components. Objects as Reusable Subsystems. Can you imagine, designing afresh and fabricating every unit.
is chapter explores patterns of repeated orientations to physical objects in interactantsâ visuo-spatial and haptic surround. A number of examples are presented from advice-giving activities in various institutional settings, where participants-in-interaction initially draw on material objects at...
Plaisier, M.A.; Bergmann Tiest, W.M.; Kappers, A.M.L.
Item individuation, i.e., how we decide which parts belong to one object and which to another, is an important aspect of haptic perception and may be important for design of interfaces in which different buttons have to be distinguished. We daily hold several objects in our hand. Somehow, we decide
In Western countries conscientious objection is usually accommodated in various ways, at least in certain areas (military conscription, medicine) and to some extent. It appears to be regarded as fundamentally different from other kinds of objection. But why? This study argues that conscientious
The goal of this thesis is to investigate two relevant issues regarding computational representation and classification of digital multi-media objects. With a special focus on music, a model for representation of objects comprising multiple heterogeneous data types is investigated. Necessary...
Although object-orientation has been around for several decades, its key concept abstraction has not been exploited for proper application of object-orientation in other phases of software development than the implementation phase. We mention some issues that lead to a lot of confusion and obscurity
Simultanagnosic patients have difficulty in perceiving multiple objects when presented simultaneously. In this review article, I discuss how neuropsychological research on simultanagnosia has been inspirational for two interconnected lines of research related to the core mechanisms by which the visual system processes cluttered scenes. First, I review previous studies on enumeration tasks indicating that, despite their inability to identify multiple objects, simultanagnosic patients can enumerate up to 2-3 elements as efficiently as healthy individuals (the so-called "subitizing" phenomenon). This intriguing observation is one of the first results toÂ support the existence of an "object individuation" mechanism that can spatially tag a limited set of objects simultaneously, and resonates with recent research on the brain dynamics of enumeration in healthy individuals. Second, I further develop the implications of the dissociation between object identification and object enumeration in simultanagnosia specifically for the distinction between object identification and individuation. The latter distinction has been theÂ subject of recent neuroimaging research that has provided fine-grained information on the spatial as well as temporal aspects of object individuation and recognition. The lessons learned from neuropsychological research on exact enumeration in simultanagnosia can be generalized to the normal functioning of the human mind, and have provided insightful clues for cognitive neuroscience.
, Near Earth Objects: Asteroids and comets following paths that bring them near the Earth. NEOs have collided with the Earth since its formation, some causing local devastation, some causing global climate changes, yet the threat from a collision with a near Earth object has only recently been recognised...
This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the Second Symposium on Programs as Data Objects, PADO 2001, held in Aarhus, Denmark, in May 2001. The 14 revised full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 30 submissions. Various aspects of looking at programs as data objects...... are covered from the point of view of program analysis, program transformation, computational complexity, etc....
Spampinato, Concetto; Palazzo, Simone; Giordano, Daniela
Video object segmentation can be considered as one of the most challenging computer vision problems. Indeed, so far, no existing solution is able to effectively deal with the peculiarities of real-world videos, especially in cases of articulated motion and object occlusions; limitations that appear more evident when we compare the performance of automated methods with the human one. However, manually segmenting objects in videos is largely impractical as it requires a lot of time and concentration. To address this problem, in this paper we propose an interactive video object segmentation method, which exploits, on one hand, the capability of humans to identify correctly objects in visual scenes, and on the other hand, the collective human brainpower to solve challenging and large-scale tasks. In particular, our method relies on a game with a purpose to collect human inputs on object locations, followed by an accurate segmentation phase achieved by optimizing an energy function encoding spatial and temporal constraints between object regions as well as human-provided location priors. Performance analysis carried out on complex video benchmarks, and exploiting data provided by over 60 users, demonstrated that our method shows a better trade-off between annotation times and segmentation accuracy than interactive video annotation and automated video object segmentation approaches.
Ălvaro, Leticia; Moreira, Humberto; Lillo, Julio; Franklin, Anna
Around 2% of males have redâgreen dichromacy, which is a genetic disorder of color vision where one type of cone photoreceptor is missing. Here we investigate the color preferences of dichromats. We aim (i) to establish whether the systematic and reliable color preferences of normal trichromatic observers (e.g., preference maximum at blue, minimum at yellow-green) are affected by dichromacy and (ii) to test theories of color preference with a dichromatic sample. Dichromat and normal trichromat observers named and rated how much they liked saturated, light, dark, and focal colors twice. Trichromats had the expected pattern of preference. Dichromats had a reliable pattern of preference that was different to trichromats, with a preference maximum rather than minimum at yellow and a much weaker preference for blue than trichromats. Color preference was more affected in observers who lacked the cone type sensitive to long wavelengths (protanopes) than in those who lacked the cone type sensitive to medium wavelengths (deuteranopes). Trichromatsâ preferences were summarized effectively in terms of cone-contrast between color and background, and yellow-blue cone-contrast could account for dichromatsâ pattern of preference, with some evidence for residual redâgreen activity in deuteranopesâ preference. Dichromatsâ color naming also could account for their color preferences, with colors named more accurately and quickly being more preferred. This relationship between color naming and preference also was present for trichromat males but not females. Overall, the findings provide novel evidence on how dichromats experience color, advance the understanding of why humans like some colors more than others, and have implications for general theories of aesthetics. PMID:26170287
Objective-C is today's fastest growing programming language, at least in part due to the popularity of Apple's Mac, iPhone and iPad. Beginning Objective-CÂ is for you if you have some programming experience, but you're new to the Objective-C programming language and you want a modern-and fast-way forwards to your own coding projects. Beginning Objective-C offers you a modern programmer's perspective on Objective-C courtesy of two of the best iOS and Mac developers in the field today, and gets youÂ programming to the best of your ability in this important language.Â It gets you rolling fast into
Phillips, Veronica J.
STI is for a fact sheet on the Space Object Query Tool being created by the MDC. When planning launches, NASA must first factor in the tens of thousands of objects already in orbit around the Earth. The number of human-made objects, including nonfunctional spacecraft, abandoned launch vehicle stages, mission-related debris and fragmentation debris orbiting Earth has grown steadily since Sputnik 1 was launched in 1957. Currently, the U.S. Department of Defenses Joint Space Operations Center, or JSpOC, tracks over 15,000 distinct objects and provides data for more than 40,000 objects via its Space-Track program, found at space-track.org.
NĂșĂ±ez MartĂnez, Paula; ArgĂŒelles Luis, Juan; PerillĂĄn MĂ©ndez, Carmen
The Stevia rebaudiana plant is likely to become a major source of high-potency sweetener for the growing natural-food market. S. rebaudiana is the source of a number of sweet diterpenoid glycosides, but the major sweet constituents are rebaudioside A and stevioside. These two constituents have similar pharmacokinetic and metabolic profiles in rats and humans, and thus, studies carried out with either steviol glycoside are relevant to both. Other studies illustrate the diversity of voluntary sweet intake in mammals. This study was done using a series of two-bottle tests that compared a wide range of sweetener concentrations versus saccharin concentrations and versus water. Wistar rats displayed preferences for stevia extract and pure rebaudioside A solutions over water at a range of concentrations (0.001% to 0.3%), and their intake peak occurred at 0.1% concentration. They also preferred solutions prepared with a commercial rebaudioside A plus erythritol mixture to water, and their peak was at 2% concentration. The present study provides new information about the responses of Wistar rats to stevia compounds and commercial stevia products such as Truvia. These results could help with the appropriate dosage selection for focused behavioral and physiological studies on stevia.
Vicars, Sara M; Miguel, Caio F; Sobie, Jennifer L
The paired-stimulus (PS) preference assessment has been shown to be effective in assessing preference with animal subjects, including dogs; however, evaluations on whether preferred stimuli would also function as reinforcers are lacking. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the use of the PS preference assessment as a predictor of reinforcer effectiveness in eight dogs. The assessment was followed by concurrent and progressive ratio schedules to evaluate the reinforcer efficacy of food items. Results showed that the preference assessment predicted reinforcer efficacy for all subjects. Benefits of using this assessment with dogs are discussed. Published by Elsevier B.V.
G. G. Rousseau
Full Text Available The main objectives of this study were to investigate the influence of nostalgia on consumer preference and to measure levels of nostalgia amongst multicultural groups. The study was based on past research in the field and used a modified version of a questionnaire developed by Holbrook (1993. A non-probability convenience sample (N = 504 was drawn from English, Afrikaans and Xhosa speaking consumers in the Eastern Cape. Field work was carried out by students of industrial psychology at the University of Port Elizabeth. Different levels of nostalgia emerged from the sample. These differences can be attributed to socio- demographic variables such as language, age, education and income. Results suggest that nostalgia not only influences consumer preference but also that nostalgic consumers represent an important market segment. Due to the complexity of the construct, marketers however need to be cautious when using nostalgia as a marketing tool. Opsomming Die hoof doelstellings van hierdie studie was om die invloed van nostalgia op verbruikersvoorkeure te ondersoek en vlakke van nostalgia by multikulturele groepe te meet. Die studie is gegrond op vorige navorsing in die veld en maak gebruik van 'n uitgebreide weergawe van 'n vraelys ontwikkel deur Holbrook (1993. 'n Nie-ewekansige gerieflikheidsteekproef (N = 504 is getrek uit Engels, Afrikaans en Xhosa-sprekende verbruikers in die Oos-Kaap. Veldwerk is uitgevoer deur bedryfsielkundestudente van die Universiteit van Port Elizabeth. Verskillende vlakke van nostalgia het na vore getree uit die steekproef. Hierdie verskille kan toegeskryf word aan sosio-demografiese veranderlikes soos taal, ouderdom, opvoeding en inkomste. Bevindinge suggereer dat nostalgia nie slegs verbruikersvoorkeure beihvloed nie maar ook dat nostalgiese verbruikers 'n belangrike marksegment verteenwoordig. Bemarkers moet egter versigting wees in die gebruik van nostalgia as 'n bemarkingsinstrument, as gevolg van die
DeJesus, Jasmine M; Hwang, Hyesung G; Dautel, Jocelyn B; Kinzler, Katherine D
Past research finds that monolingual and bilingual children prefer native speakers to individuals who speak in unfamiliar foreign languages or accents. Do children in bilingual contexts socially distinguish among familiar languages and accents and, if so, how do their social preferences based on language and accent compare? The current experiments tested whether 5- to 7-year-olds in two bilingual contexts in the United States demonstrate social preferences among the languages and accents that are present in their social environments. We compared children's preferences based on language (i.e., English vs. their other native language) and their preferences based on accent (i.e., English with a native accent vs. English with a non-native [yet familiar] accent). In Experiment 1, children attending a French immersion school demonstrated no preference between English and French speakers but preferred American-accented English to French-accented English. In Experiment 2, bilingual Korean American children demonstrated no preference between English and Korean speakers but preferred American-accented English to Korean-accented English. Across studies, bilingual children's preferences based on accent (i.e., American-accented English over French- or Korean-accented English) were not related to their own language dominance. These results suggest that children from diverse linguistic backgrounds demonstrate social preferences for native-accented speakers. Implications for understanding the potential relation between social reasoning and language acquisition are discussed. Copyright Â© 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
West, Joshua H; Hall, P Cougar; Page, Randy M; Trinidad, Dennis R; Lindsay, Gordon B
Advertising plays a major role in smoking behavior and forming brand preferences. Additionally, the most advertised tobacco brands have also been the most preferred. Maintaining brand loyalty in Latin America remains a priority for the tobacco industry. The purpose of this study was to explore tobacco brand preference trends from 2003 to 2006, and explore marketing and advertising factors that might be associated with these trends. Data for this study came from Mexican adolescents residing in cities that participated in the Global Youth Tobacco Survey in both 2003 and 2006 and reported smoking either Marlboro or Camel cigarettes in the past 30 days. Respondents reported the brand name of their preferred cigarette during the past 30 days. Multivariate regression analysis was used to determine differences by brand preference and exposure to tobacco marketing and advertising, which was assessed using six items. In 2003, most adolescents preferred Marlboro. By 2006, older boys preferred Camel cigarettes to Marlboro, while girls' preference for Camel was similar to their preference for Marlboro. Adolescents that preferred Camel cigarettes in 2003 also reported greater exposure to tobacco marketing and advertising. Findings indicate that there are ongoing shifts in youth brand preference in Mexico, and that these shifts might be related to marketing and advertising practices. There is an ongoing need for monitoring marketing and advertising practices in an effort to protect adolescents from tobacco company exploits.
Abildtrup, Jens; Garcia, Serge; Olsen, SĂžren BĂžye
In this study, we analyze the preferences for recreational use of forests in Lorraine (Northeastern France), applying stated preference data. Our approach allows us to estimate individual-specific preferences for recreational use of different forest types. These estimates are used in a second stage...... of the analysis where we test whether preferences depend on access to recreation sites. We find that there is significant preference heterogeneity with respect to most forest attributes. The spatial analysis shows that preferences for forests with parking and picnic facilities are correlated with having access...... to such forests while for the other attributes considered (dominant tree species, trekking paths and presence of lake and rivers) we find no correlation between stated preferences and accessibility. This implies that the problem of endogenous distances in the travel cost method (Parsons, 1991) may be present...
Hougaard, Jens Leth; Ăsterdal, Lars Peter; Tjur, Tue
Recent studies have tested the preference axioms of completeness and transitivity, and have detected other preference phenomena such as unstability, learning- and tiredness effects, ordering effects and dominance, in stated preference discrete choice experiments. However, it has not been explicitly...... addressed in these studies which preference models are actually being tested, and the connection between the statistical tests performed and the relevant underlying models of respondent behavior has not been explored further. This paper tries to fill that gap. We specifically analyze the meaning and role...... of the preference axioms and other preference phenomena in the context of stated preference discrete choice experiments, and examine whether or how these can be subject to meaningful (statistical) tests...
Turksen, I. B.; Willson, Ian A.
A flexible fuzzy set preference model first requires approximate methodologies for implementation. Fuzzy sets must be defined for each individual consumer using computer software, requiring a minimum of time and expertise on the part of the consumer. The amount of information needed in defining sets must also be established. The model itself must adapt fully to the subject's choice of attributes (vague or precise), attribute levels, and importance weights. The resulting individual-level model should be fully adapted to each consumer. The methodologies needed to develop this model will be equally useful in a new generation of intelligent systems which interact with ordinary consumers, controlling electronic devices through fuzzy expert systems or making recommendations based on a variety of inputs. The power of personal computers and their acceptance by consumers has yet to be fully utilized to create interactive knowledge systems that fully adapt their function to the user. Understanding individual consumer preferences is critical to the design of new products and the estimation of demand (market share) for existing products, which in turn is an input to management systems concerned with production and distribution. The question of what to make, for whom to make it and how much to make requires an understanding of the customer's preferences and the trade-offs that exist between alternatives. Conjoint analysis is a widely used methodology which de-composes an overall preference for an object into a combination of preferences for its constituent parts (attributes such as taste and price), which are combined using an appropriate combination function. Preferences are often expressed using linguistic terms which cannot be represented in conjoint models. Current models are also not implemented an individual level, making it difficult to reach meaningful conclusions about the cause of an individual's behavior from an aggregate model. The combination of complex aggregate
Robert D. Chow
Full Text Available Background: To reduce the duration and overall costs of cardiovascular trials, use of the combined endpoints in trial design has become commonplace. Though this methodology may serve the needs of investigators and trial sponsors, the preferences of patients or potential trial subjects in the trial design process has not been studied. Objective: To determine the preferences of patients in the design of cardiovascular trials. Design: Participants were surveyed in a pilot study regarding preferences among various single endpoints commonly used in cardiovascular trials, preference for single vs. composite endpoints, and the likelihood of compliance with a heart medication if patients similar to them participated in the trial design process. Participants: One hundred adult English-speaking patients, 38% male, from a primary care ambulatory practice located in an urban setting. Key results: Among single endpoints, participants rated heart attack as significantly more important than death from other causes (4.53 vs. 3.69, p=0.004 on a scale of 1â6. Death from heart disease was rated as significantly more important than chest pain (4.73 vs. 2.47, p<0.001, angioplasty/PCI/CABG (4.73 vs. 2.43, p<0.001, and stroke (4.73 vs. 2.43, p<0.001. Participants also expressed a slight preference for combined endpoints over single endpoint (43% vs. 57%, incorporation of the opinions of the study patient population into the design of trials (48% vs. 41% for researchers, and a greater likelihood of medication compliance if patient preferences were considered during trial design (67% indicated a significant to major effect. Conclusions: Patients are able to make judgments and express preferences regarding trial design. They prefer that the opinions of the study population rather than the general population be incorporated into the design of the study. This novel approach to study design would not only incorporate patient preferences into medical decision making, but
Full Text Available A collaborative object represents a data type (such as a text document designed to be shared by a group of dispersed users. The Operational Transformation (OT is a coordination approach used for supporting optimistic replication for these objects. It allows the users to concurrently update the shared data and exchange their updates in any order since the convergence of all replicas, i.e. the fact that all users view the same data, is ensured in all cases. However, designing algorithms for achieving convergence with the OT approach is a critical and challenging issue. In this paper, we propose a formal compositional method for specifying complex collaborative objects. The most important feature of our method is that designing an OT algorithm for the composed collaborative object can be done by reusing the OT algorithms of component collaborative objects. By using our method, we can start from correct small collaborative objects which are relatively easy to handle and incrementally combine them to build more complex collaborative objects.
Holt, Jerred; Bennett, Kevin B; Flach, John M
Two sets of design principles for analogical visual displays, based on the concepts of emergent features and perceptual objects, are described. An interpretation of previous empirical findings for three displays (bar graph, polar graphic, alphanumeric) is provided from both perspectives. A fourth display (configural coordinate) was designed using principles of ecological interface design (i.e. direct perception). An experiment was conducted to evaluate performance (accuracy and latency of state identification) with these four displays. Numerous significant effects were obtained and a clear rank ordering of performance emerged (from best to worst): configural coordinate, bar graph, alphanumeric and polar graphic. These findings are consistent with principles of design based on emergent features; they are inconsistent with principles based on perceptual objects. Some limitations of the configural coordinate display are discussed and a redesign is provided. Practitioner Summary: Principles of ecological interface design, which emphasise the quality of very specific mappings between domain, display and observer constraints, are described; these principles are applicable to the design of all analogical graphical displays.
Raket, Lars Lau
We propose a direction it the field of statistics which we will call functional object analysis. This subfields considers the analysis of functional objects defined on continuous domains. In this setting we will focus on model-based statistics, with a particularly emphasis on mixed......-effect formulations, where the observed functional signal is assumed to consist of both fixed and random functional effects. This thesis takes the initial steps toward the development of likelihood-based methodology for functional objects. We first consider analysis of functional data defined on high...
Therapeutic objectives for patients with atherogenic dyslipidemia are achieved by improving patient compliance and adherence. Clinical practice guidelines address the importance of treatment compliance for achieving objectives. The combination of a fixed dose of pravastatin and fenofibrate increases the adherence by simplifying the drug regimen and reducing the number of daily doses. The good tolerance, the cost of the combination and the possibility of adjusting the administration to the patient's lifestyle helps achieve the objectives for these patients with high cardiovascular risk. Copyright Â© 2014 Sociedad EspaĂ±ola de Arteriosclerosis y Elsevier EspaĂ±a, S.L. All rights reserved.
Greenberg, David M; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Stillwell, David J; Kosinski, Michal; Rentfrow, Peter J
Why do we like the music we do? Research has shown that musical preferences and personality are linked, yet little is known about other influences on preferences such as cognitive styles. To address this gap, we investigated how individual differences in musical preferences are explained by the empathizing-systemizing (E-S) theory. Study 1 examined the links between empathy and musical preferences across four samples. By reporting their preferential reactions to musical stimuli, samples 1 and 2 (Ns = 2,178 and 891) indicated their preferences for music from 26 different genres, and samples 3 and 4 (Ns = 747 and 320) indicated their preferences for music from only a single genre (rock or jazz). Results across samples showed that empathy levels are linked to preferences even within genres and account for significant proportions of variance in preferences over and above personality traits for various music-preference dimensions. Study 2 (N = 353) replicated and extended these findings by investigating how musical preferences are differentiated by E-S cognitive styles (i.e., 'brain types'). Those who are type E (bias towards empathizing) preferred music on the Mellow dimension (R&B/soul, adult contemporary, soft rock genres) compared to type S (bias towards systemizing) who preferred music on the Intense dimension (punk, heavy metal, and hard rock). Analyses of fine-grained psychological and sonic attributes in the music revealed that type E individuals preferred music that featured low arousal (gentle, warm, and sensual attributes), negative valence (depressing and sad), and emotional depth (poetic, relaxing, and thoughtful), while type S preferred music that featured high arousal (strong, tense, and thrilling), and aspects of positive valence (animated) and cerebral depth (complexity). The application of these findings for clinicians, interventions, and those on the autism spectrum (largely type S or extreme type S) are discussed.
Greenberg, David M.; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Stillwell, David J.; Kosinski, Michal; Rentfrow, Peter J.
Why do we like the music we do? Research has shown that musical preferences and personality are linked, yet little is known about other influences on preferences such as cognitive styles. To address this gap, we investigated how individual differences in musical preferences are explained by the empathizing-systemizing (E-S) theory. Study 1 examined the links between empathy and musical preferences across four samples. By reporting their preferential reactions to musical stimuli, samples 1 and 2 (Ns = 2,178 and 891) indicated their preferences for music from 26 different genres, and samples 3 and 4 (Ns = 747 and 320) indicated their preferences for music from only a single genre (rock or jazz). Results across samples showed that empathy levels are linked to preferences even within genres and account for significant proportions of variance in preferences over and above personality traits for various music-preference dimensions. Study 2 (N = 353) replicated and extended these findings by investigating how musical preferences are differentiated by E-S cognitive styles (i.e., âbrain typesâ). Those who are type E (bias towards empathizing) preferred music on the Mellow dimension (R&B/soul, adult contemporary, soft rock genres) compared to type S (bias towards systemizing) who preferred music on the Intense dimension (punk, heavy metal, and hard rock). Analyses of fine-grained psychological and sonic attributes in the music revealed that type E individuals preferred music that featured low arousal (gentle, warm, and sensual attributes), negative valence (depressing and sad), and emotional depth (poetic, relaxing, and thoughtful), while type S preferred music that featured high arousal (strong, tense, and thrilling), and aspects of positive valence (animated) and cerebral depth (complexity). The application of these findings for clinicians, interventions, and those on the autism spectrum (largely type S or extreme type S) are discussed. PMID:26200656
David M Greenberg
Full Text Available Why do we like the music we do? Research has shown that musical preferences and personality are linked, yet little is known about other influences on preferences such as cognitive styles. To address this gap, we investigated how individual differences in musical preferences are explained by the empathizing-systemizing (E-S theory. Study 1 examined the links between empathy and musical preferences across four samples. By reporting their preferential reactions to musical stimuli, samples 1 and 2 (Ns = 2,178 and 891 indicated their preferences for music from 26 different genres, and samples 3 and 4 (Ns = 747 and 320 indicated their preferences for music from only a single genre (rock or jazz. Results across samples showed that empathy levels are linked to preferences even within genres and account for significant proportions of variance in preferences over and above personality traits for various music-preference dimensions. Study 2 (N = 353 replicated and extended these findings by investigating how musical preferences are differentiated by E-S cognitive styles (i.e., 'brain types'. Those who are type E (bias towards empathizing preferred music on the Mellow dimension (R&B/soul, adult contemporary, soft rock genres compared to type S (bias towards systemizing who preferred music on the Intense dimension (punk, heavy metal, and hard rock. Analyses of fine-grained psychological and sonic attributes in the music revealed that type E individuals preferred music that featured low arousal (gentle, warm, and sensual attributes, negative valence (depressing and sad, and emotional depth (poetic, relaxing, and thoughtful, while type S preferred music that featured high arousal (strong, tense, and thrilling, and aspects of positive valence (animated and cerebral depth (complexity. The application of these findings for clinicians, interventions, and those on the autism spectrum (largely type S or extreme type S are discussed.
Kim, Roger H; Gilbert, Timothy
The learning style preferences of general surgery residents have been previously reported; there is evidence that residents who prefer read/write learning styles perform better on the American Board of Surgery In-Training Examination (ABSITE). However, little is known regarding the learning style preferences of applicants to general surgery residency and their impact on educational outcomes. In this study, the preferred learning styles of surgical residency applicants were determined. We hypothesized that applicant rank data are associated with specific learning style preferences. The Fleming VARK learning styles inventory was offered to all general surgery residency applicants that were interviewed at a university hospital-based program. The VARK model categorizes learners as visual (V), aural (A), read/write (R), kinesthetic (K), or multimodal (MM). Responses on the inventory were scored to determine the preferred learning style for each applicant. Applicant data, including United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) scores, class rank, interview score, and overall final applicant ranking, were examined for association with preferred learning styles. Sixty-seven applicants were interviewed. Five applicants were excluded due to not completing the VARK inventory or having incomplete applicant data. The remaining 62 applicants (92%) were included for analysis. Most applicants (57%) had a multimodal preference. Sixty-nine percent of all applicants had some degree of preference for kinesthetic learning. There were statistically significant differences between applicants of different learning styles in terms of USMLE step 1 scores (P = 0.001) and USMLE step 2 clinical knowledge scores (P = 0.01), but not for class ranks (P = 0.27), interview scores (P = 0.20), or final ranks (P = 0.14). Multiple comparison analysis demonstrated that applicants with aural preferences had higher USMLE 1 scores (233.2) than those with kinesthetic (211.8, P = 0.005) or multimodal
Palmer, Stephen E; Schloss, Karen B
Color preference is an important aspect of visual experience, but little is known about why people in general like some colors more than others. Previous research suggested explanations based on biological adaptations [Hurlbert AC, Ling YL (2007) Curr Biol 17:623-625] and color-emotions [Ou L-C, Luo MR, Woodcock A, Wright A (2004) Color Res Appl 29:381-389]. In this article we articulate an ecological valence theory in which color preferences arise from people's average affective responses to color-associated objects. An empirical test provides strong support for this theory: People like colors strongly associated with objects they like (e.g., blues with clear skies and clean water) and dislike colors strongly associated with objects they dislike (e.g., browns with feces and rotten food). Relative to alternative theories, the ecological valence theory both fits the data better (even with fewer free parameters) and provides a more plausible, comprehensive causal explanation of color preferences.
Palmer, Stephen E.; Schloss, Karen B.
Color preference is an important aspect of visual experience, but little is known about why people in general like some colors more than others. Previous research suggested explanations based on biological adaptations [Hurlbert AC, Ling YL (2007) Curr Biol 17:623â625] and color-emotions [Ou L-C, Luo MR, Woodcock A, Wright A (2004) Color Res Appl 29:381â389]. In this article we articulate an ecological valence theory in which color preferences arise from peopleâs average affective responses to color-associated objects. An empirical test provides strong support for this theory: People like colors strongly associated with objects they like (e.g., blues with clear skies and clean water) and dislike colors strongly associated with objects they dislike (e.g., browns with feces and rotten food). Relative to alternative theories, the ecological valence theory both fits the data better (even with fewer free parameters) and provides a more plausible, comprehensive causal explanation of color preferences. PMID:20421475
Schloss, Karen B; Palmer, Stephen E
There are well-known and extensive differences in color preferences between individuals, but there are also within-individual differences from one time to another. Despite the seeming independence between these individual and temporal effects, we propose that they have the same underlying cause: people's ecological experiences with color-associated objects and events. Our approach is motivated by the Ecological Valence Theory (EVT; Palmer & Schloss, 2010) which states that preference for a given color is determined by the combined valence (liking/disliking) of all objects and events associated with that color. We define three ecologically-based hypotheses for explaining temporal and individual differences in color preferences concerning: (1) differences in object valences, (2) differences in color-object associations, and (3) differences in object activations in the mind when preferences are measured. We review prior studies that support these hypotheses and raise open research questions about untested predictions. We also extend the computational framework of the EVT by defining a single weighted average equation that captures both individual and temporal differences in color preferences. Finally, we consider other factors that potentially contribute to color preferences, including abstract symbolic associations, color in design, and psychophysical and/or physiological factors. Copyright Â© 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
We present a method for directly modeling piles of objects in multi-body simulations. Piles of objects represent some of the more interesting, but also most time-consuming portion of simulation. We propose a method for reducing computation in many of these situations by explicitly modeling the piles that the objects may form into. By modeling pile behavior rather than the behavior of all individual objects, we can achieve realistic results in less time, and without directly modeling the frictional component that leads to desired pile shapes. Our method is simple to implement and can be easily integrated with existing rigid body simulations. We observe notable speedups in several rigid body examples, and generate a wider variety of piled structures than possible with strict impulse-based simulation. Â© 2010 ACM.
This is the third year in which the CERN Management has presented annual safety objectives for the Organization, the âHSE Objectivesâ. Â The HSE objectives for 2014, which were announced by the Director-General at his traditional New Yearâs address to the staff and were presented at the first Enlarged Directorate meeting of the year, have been drawn up and agreed in close collaboration between the DSOs, the HSE Unit and the DG himself. From safety in the workplace to radiation and environmental protection, the document emphasises that âSafety is a priority for CERNâ and that safety policy is a key element in how the Organization is run. And, like all policies, it generates objectives that âserve as a general framework for actionâ. The HSE objectives are broken down into the following fields: occupational health and safety on sites and in the workplace, radiation protection, radiation safety, environmental protection, emerge...
.... From this perspective, the author puts forward the following hypothesis: Pinocchio is a puppet who comes to life and is therefore, from a child's perception, a transitional object according to Winnicott...
Kraft, Dirk; Pugeault, Nicolas; Baseski, Emre
by the robot. This also leads to the concept of an "object" as a set of features that change predictably over different frames. The system is equipped with a certain degree of generic prior knowledge about the world in terms of a sophisticated visual feature extraction process in an early cognitive vision...... system, knowledge about its own embodiment as well as knowledge about geometric relationships such as rigid body motion. This prior knowledge allows the extraction of representations that are semantically richer compared to many other approaches.......We describe a process in which the segmentation of objects as well as the extraction of the object shape becomes realized through active exploration of a robot vision system. In the exploration process, two behavioral modules that link robot actions to the visual and haptic perception of objects...
Abbasian, Pooneh; Mahdavi-Amiri, Nezam; Fazlollahtabar, Hamed
A utility function is an important tool for representing a DM's preference. We adjoin utility functions to multi-objective optimization problems. In current studies, usually one utility function is used for each objective function. Situations may arise for a goal to have multiple utility functions. Here, we consider a constrained multi-objective problem with each objective having multiple utility functions. We induce the probability of the utilities for each objective function using Bayesian theory. Illustrative examples considering dependence and independence of variables are worked through to demonstrate the usefulness of the proposed model.
Jessee, Stephen A; O'Neill, Paula N; Dosch, Robert O
The purpose of this study was to identify teaching styles that complement the learning preferences of undergraduate dental students while enhancing the quality of patient care. A formidable challenge to reform in dental education has been overcoming the resistance by faculty and administration to recommended changes. The organizational structure of dental institutions, with their independent departments, makes obtaining consensus on educational issues difficult. For beneficial change to occur, clear evidence of the benefits to all within the organization must be presented. The objectives of the study were to 1) identify the most common personality types among first- and second-year undergraduate dental students at the University of Texas Dental Branch at Houston using the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI); 2) identify the learning preferences of these personality types; and 3) determine a more effective approach to teaching clinical dentistry based upon student personality types and learning preferences. Four common personality types were identified among respondents: ISTJ, ESFJ, ESTJ, and ISFJ, with a predisposition for Sensing (S) (desire for facts, use of senses) over Intuition (N) (look for possibilities, relationships) and Judging (J) (prefers decisiveness, closure) over Perceiving (P) (desire flexibility, spontaneity). The most common occurring personality type, ISTJ, represents an Introverted, Sensing, Thinking, Judging individual. Specific clinical curricular techniques that would appeal to these common personality types are identified, and an explanation of their benefit is provided. Results of this study demonstrate the importance of faculty understanding and acknowledging different student personality types and related learning preferences as a way to initiate improvement of undergraduate dental education, promote student motivation, and allow for an expression of learning style preference.
Full Text Available Over the past 15 years work on visual salience has been restricted to models of low-level, bottom-up salience that give an estimate of the salience for every pixel in an image. This study concerns the question of how to measure the salience of objects: given an image and a list of areas of interest (AOIs, can we assign salience scores to the AOIs that reflect their visual prominence? There is increasing evidence that fixations locations are best explained at an object level and an object-level notion of visual salience can easily be incorporated with other object features task relevance and concepts such as scene context. However, extracting scores for AOIs from the saliency maps output by existing models is a non-trivial task. Using simple psychophysical (1/f-noise stimuli, we demonstrate that simple methods for assigning salience score to AOIs (such as taking the maximum, mean, or sum of the relevant pixels in the salience map produce unintuitive results, such as predicting that larger objects are less salient. We also evaluate object salience models over a range of tasks and compare to empirical data. Beyond predicting the number of fixations to different objects in a scene, we also estimate the difficulty of visual search trials; and incorporate visual salience into language production tasks. We present a simple object-based salience model (based on comparing the likelihood of an AOI given the rest of the image to the likelihood of a typical patch of the same area] that gives intuitive results for the 1/f-noise stimuli and performs as well as existing methods on empirical datasets.
Based Systems Engineering ( MBSE ) has shifted the emphasis of the Systems Engineering community away from documents towards view-based artifacts. These...Engineering lies primarily in these objects, not the containers that deliver them. FIGURE 1: Evolution of Systems Engineering Practice MBSE ...capture minority viewpoints and discussion threads associated with each object of interest. If the majority view doesn’t lead to success, this data may
Clarke, Steve; Giubilini, Alberto; Walker, Mary Jean
ABSTRACT Vaccine refusal occurs for a variety of reasons. In this article we examine vaccine refusals that are made on conscientious grounds; that is, for religious, moral, or philosophical reasons. We focus on two questions: first, whether people should be entitled to conscientiously object to vaccination against contagious diseases (either for themselves or for their children); second, if so, to what constraints or requirements should conscientious objection (CO) to vaccination be subject. ...
LĂžvengreen, Hans Henrik; Schwarzer, Jens Christian
We present an implementation of Ada 95's notion of protected objects in Java. The implementation comprises a class library supporting entry queues and a (pre-) compiler translating slightly decorated Java classes to pure Java classes utilizing the library.......We present an implementation of Ada 95's notion of protected objects in Java. The implementation comprises a class library supporting entry queues and a (pre-) compiler translating slightly decorated Java classes to pure Java classes utilizing the library....
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Can non-human animals comprehend and employ symbols? The most convincing empirical evidence comes from language-trained apes, but little is known about this ability in monkeys. Tokens can be regarded as symbols since they are inherently non-valuable objects that acquire an arbitrarily assigned value upon exchange with an experimenter. Recent evidence suggested that capuchin monkeys, which diverged from the human lineage 35 million years ago, can estimate, represent and combine token quantities. A fundamental and open question is whether monkeys can reason about symbols in ways similar to how they reason about real objects. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we examined this broad question in the context of economic choice behavior. Specifically, we assessed whether, in a symbolic context, capuchins' preferences satisfy transitivity--a fundamental trait of rational decision-making. Given three options A, B and C, transitivity holds true if A > or = B, B > or = C and A > or = C (where > or = indicates preference. In this study, we trained monkeys to exchange three types of tokens for three different foods. We then compared choices monkeys made between different types of tokens with choices monkeys made between the foods. Qualitatively, capuchins' preferences revealed by the way of tokens were similar to those measured with the actual foods. In particular, when choosing between tokens, monkeys displayed strict economic preferences and their choices satisfied transitivity. Quantitatively, however, values measured by the way of tokens differed systematically from those measured with the actual foods. In particular, for any pair of foods, the relative value of the preferred food increased when monkeys chose between the corresponding tokens. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results indicate that indeed capuchins are capable of treating tokens as symbols. However, as they do so, capuchins experience the cognitive burdens imposed by symbolic
LindstrĂ¶m, Hanna-Stiina; Soliman, Gabriela
TĂ€mĂ€n opinnĂ€ytetyĂ¶n aiheena oli internetin personointi ja siitĂ€ aiheutuva filter bubble âilmiĂ¶. Tarkoituksena oli tutkia kuluttajien suhtautumista ilmiĂ¶Ă¶n, jota Suomessa ei vielĂ€ tunnisteta laajasti. Suhtautuminen haluttiin tuoda esiin vastakkainasettelun avulla. Filter bubble ânĂ€kĂ¶kulma edusti tĂ€ssĂ€ tyĂ¶ssĂ€ ilmiĂ¶n negatiivista suhtautumistapaa ja preference bubble ânĂ€kĂ¶kulma positiivista. OpinnĂ€ytetyĂ¶ oli tietopaketti yrityksille Filter bubble âilmiĂ¶n ominaisuuksista sekĂ€ sen kĂ€yttĂ€ytymisestĂ€...
Riccardi, Demian M [ORNL; Guo, Hao-Bo [ORNL; Gu, Baohua [ORNL; Parks, Jerry M [ORNL; Summers, Anne [University of Georgia, Athens, GA; Miller, S [University of California, San Francisco; Liang, Liyuan [ORNL; Smith, Jeremy C [ORNL
Mercury (Hg) is a major global pollutant arising from both natural and anthropogenic sources. Defining the factors that determine the relative affinities of different ligands for the mercuric ion, Hg2+, is critical to understanding its speciation, transformation, and bioaccumulation in the environment. Here, we use quantum chemistry to dissect the relative binding free energies for a series of inorganic anion complexes of Hg2+. Comparison of Hg2+ ligand interactions in the gaseous and aqueous phases shows that differences in interactions with a few, local water molecules led to a clear periodic trend within the chalcogenide and halide groups and resulted in the well-known experimentally observed preference of Hg2+ for soft ligands such as thiols. Our approach establishes a basis for understanding Hg speciation in the biosphere.
Full Text Available We present a brief overview of the experimental economics literature on social preferences. In numerous experiments, economically incentivized subjects are willing to sacrifice part of their material earnings to compensate the kind behavior of others, or will be willing to reciprocate at a non-negligible cost, or even pay a positive price for punishing the behavior of selfish individuals. All these actions are labeled as social in economics because there is no apparent way to reconcile them with any reasonable form of pure self-interest. We focus on social dilemma games and want to communicate two main messages. First, research in experimental economics has produced abundant evidence that illustrates the social components of peopleâs preferences. Second, social sanctions of different types play an important role in facilitating cooperative behavior.
Presentamos un breve panorama de la literatura en economĂa experimental sobre preferencias sociales. En numerosos experimentos, participantes con incentivos econĂłmicos estĂĄn dispuestos a sacrificar parte de sus ingresos materiales para compensar el comportamiento amable de otros o a pagar un precio positivo para castigar el comportamiento de individuos egoĂstas. En economĂa todas estas acciones reciben el calificativo de sociales, porque no hay una manera clara de reconciliarlas con alguna forma razonable de egoĂsmo puro. Nos centramos en juegos de dilemas sociales y queremos transmitir dos mensajes. Primero, la investigaciĂłn en economĂa experimental ha producido abundante evidencia que ilustra los componentes sociales de las preferencias de las personas. Segundo, sanciones sociales de diferentes tipos desempeĂ±an un papel importante a la hora de facilitar el comportamiento cooperativo.
Ren, Aihong; Wang, Yuping; Xue, Xingsi
This paper proposes a new methodology for solving the interval bilevel linear programming problem in which all coefficients of both objective functions and constraints are considered as interval numbers. In order to keep as much uncertainty of the original constraint region as possible, the original problem is first converted into an interval bilevel programming problem with interval coefficients in both objective functions only through normal variation of interval number and chance-constrained programming. With the consideration of different preferences of different decision makers, the concept of the preference level that the interval objective function is preferred to a target interval is defined based on the preference-based index. Then a preference-based deterministic bilevel programming problem is constructed in terms of the preference level and the order relation [Formula: see text]. Furthermore, the concept of a preference ÎŽ-optimal solution is given. Subsequently, the constructed deterministic nonlinear bilevel problem is solved with the help of estimation of distribution algorithm. Finally, several numerical examples are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.
Donald David Hoffman
Full Text Available Current models of visual perception typically assume that human vision estimates true properties of physical objects, properties that exist even if unperceived. However, recent studies of perceptual evolution, using evolutionary games and genetic algorithms, reveal that natural selection often drives true perceptions to extinction when they compete with perceptions tuned to fitness rather than truth: Perception guides adaptive behavior; it does not estimate a preexisting physical truth. Moreover, shifting from evolutionary biology to quantum physics, there is reason to disbelieve in preexist-ing physical truths: Certain interpretations of quantum theory deny that dynamical properties of physical objects have defi-nite values when unobserved. In some of these interpretations the observer is fundamental, and wave functions are com-pendia of subjective probabilities, not preexisting elements of physical reality. These two considerations, from evolutionary biology and quantum physics, suggest that current models of object perception require fundamental reformulation. Here we begin such a reformulation, starting with a formal model of consciousness that we call a conscious agent. We develop the dynamics of interacting conscious agents, and study how the perception of objects and space-time can emerge from such dynamics. We show that one particular object, the quantum free particle, has a wave function that is identical in form to the harmonic functions that characterize the asymptotic dynamics of conscious agents; particles are vibrations not of strings but of interacting conscious agents. This allows us to reinterpret physical properties such as position, momentum, and energy as properties of interacting conscious agents, rather than as preexisting physical truths. We sketch how this approach might extend to the perception of relativistic quantum objects, and to classical objects of macroscopic scale.
Hoffman, Donald D; Prakash, Chetan
Current models of visual perception typically assume that human vision estimates true properties of physical objects, properties that exist even if unperceived. However, recent studies of perceptual evolution, using evolutionary games and genetic algorithms, reveal that natural selection often drives true perceptions to extinction when they compete with perceptions tuned to fitness rather than truth: Perception guides adaptive behavior; it does not estimate a preexisting physical truth. Moreover, shifting from evolutionary biology to quantum physics, there is reason to disbelieve in preexisting physical truths: Certain interpretations of quantum theory deny that dynamical properties of physical objects have definite values when unobserved. In some of these interpretations the observer is fundamental, and wave functions are compendia of subjective probabilities, not preexisting elements of physical reality. These two considerations, from evolutionary biology and quantum physics, suggest that current models of object perception require fundamental reformulation. Here we begin such a reformulation, starting with a formal model of consciousness that we call a "conscious agent." We develop the dynamics of interacting conscious agents, and study how the perception of objects and space-time can emerge from such dynamics. We show that one particular object, the quantum free particle, has a wave function that is identical in form to the harmonic functions that characterize the asymptotic dynamics of conscious agents; particles are vibrations not of strings but of interacting conscious agents. This allows us to reinterpret physical properties such as position, momentum, and energy as properties of interacting conscious agents, rather than as preexisting physical truths. We sketch how this approach might extend to the perception of relativistic quantum objects, and to classical objects of macroscopic scale.
Hoffman, Donald D.; Prakash, Chetan
Current models of visual perception typically assume that human vision estimates true properties of physical objects, properties that exist even if unperceived. However, recent studies of perceptual evolution, using evolutionary games and genetic algorithms, reveal that natural selection often drives true perceptions to extinction when they compete with perceptions tuned to fitness rather than truth: Perception guides adaptive behavior; it does not estimate a preexisting physical truth. Moreover, shifting from evolutionary biology to quantum physics, there is reason to disbelieve in preexisting physical truths: Certain interpretations of quantum theory deny that dynamical properties of physical objects have definite values when unobserved. In some of these interpretations the observer is fundamental, and wave functions are compendia of subjective probabilities, not preexisting elements of physical reality. These two considerations, from evolutionary biology and quantum physics, suggest that current models of object perception require fundamental reformulation. Here we begin such a reformulation, starting with a formal model of consciousness that we call a âconscious agent.â We develop the dynamics of interacting conscious agents, and study how the perception of objects and space-time can emerge from such dynamics. We show that one particular object, the quantum free particle, has a wave function that is identical in form to the harmonic functions that characterize the asymptotic dynamics of conscious agents; particles are vibrations not of strings but of interacting conscious agents. This allows us to reinterpret physical properties such as position, momentum, and energy as properties of interacting conscious agents, rather than as preexisting physical truths. We sketch how this approach might extend to the perception of relativistic quantum objects, and to classical objects of macroscopic scale. PMID:24987382
Keen, Deb; Pennell, Donna
Identifying and using preferred items and activities to increase motivation and participation of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has been an important and frequently used intervention strategy. Preferred objects, typically identified through a preference assessment, are most frequently used during instruction as reinforcers. TheseâŠ
Carlos Eduardo Pimentel
Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Considerando-se que vĂĄrios estudos internacionais indicam que a preferĂȘncia musical, especialmente pelo heavy metal, correlaciona-se ao suicĂdio, objetivou-se na presente pesquisa conhecer as relaĂ§Ă”es entre preferĂȘncia musical e risco de suicĂdio. MĂTODOS: Participaram 200 estudantes universitĂĄrios de diversos cursos de uma universidade pĂșblica da cidade de JoĂŁo Pessoa, PB, com idade mĂ©dia de 22 anos (DP = 4,77. Estes responderam Ă Escala Abreviada de PreferĂȘncia Musical, que visa mensurar a preferĂȘncia musical com relaĂ§ĂŁo a 14 gĂȘneros musicais, e o InventĂĄrio de RazĂ”es para Viver (RFL, que objetiva aferir as razĂ”es que as pessoas tĂȘm para viver. RESULTADOS: De acordo com os resultados, verificaram-se correlaĂ§Ă”es entre a pontuaĂ§ĂŁo total da RFL e os gĂȘneros musicais convencional (positiva e alternativo (negativa. PĂŽde-se ainda verificar que a preferĂȘncia musical pelo estilo convencional foi um preditor de menor risco de suicĂdio entre jovens. CONCLUSĂES: Esta pesquisa demonstra a importĂąncia de mais uma variĂĄvel, no caso a preferĂȘncia musical, para entender o risco de suicĂdio entre jovens. Mas outros estudos devem ser realizados no contexto brasileiro para que se possa entender melhor essa relaĂ§ĂŁo.OBJECTIVE: Taking into account that several international studies suggest a correlation between music preference, especially for heavy metal, and suicide, this study aimed at to know the association of music preference with potential indicators of suicide risk. METHODS: Participants were two hundred undergraduate students from a public University in JoĂŁo Pessoa city (Brazil. They were 22 years old (SD = 4.77. They answered the Shorted Test of Music Preference, which measures the music preference with respect to fourteen music genres, and the Reasons for Living Inventory (RFL, which intents to know the reasons for living reported by people. RESULTS: Results indicated the total score of the RFL correlated
Rekker, Roderik; Keijsers, Loes; Branje, Susan; Meeus, Wim
This three-wave cohort-sequential longitudinal study (NÂ =Â 1302) examined the development of two core political attitudes, economic egalitarianism and ethnocentrism, among Dutch youths between age 12 and 31. Longitudinal regression analyses revealed a curvilinear mean level development for both attitudes, reflecting an increased disagreement with economic redistribution and multiculturalism around late adolescence. Furthermore, attitudes became decreasingly polarized (i.e., less extreme) and increasingly stable with age. Finally, several effects of attitudes' correlates gradually changed: The effect of educational level on ethnocentrism increased with age, whereas the effect of gender diminished. Regional effects on ethnocentrism developed as youths resided in a new area. No age-related change was found in the effect of parental SES. Overall, these findings support the idea that attitudes mature during the formative phase of adolescence and that this process slows down during emerging adulthood. Furthermore, these results support developmental explanations for the association between attitudes and their correlates. Copyright Â© 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Portelli, Geoffrey; Barrett, John M; Hilgen, Gerrit; Masquelier, TimothĂ©e; Maccione, Alessandro; Di Marco, Stefano; Berdondini, Luca; Kornprobst, Pierre; Sernagor, Evelyne
How a population of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) encodes the visual scene remains an open question. Going beyond individual RGC coding strategies, results in salamander suggest that the relative latencies of a RGC pair encode spatial information. Thus, a population code based on this concerted spiking could be a powerful mechanism to transmit visual information rapidly and efficiently. Here, we tested this hypothesis in mouse by recording simultaneous light-evoked responses from hundreds of RGCs, at pan-retinal level, using a new generation of large-scale, high-density multielectrode array consisting of 4096 electrodes. Interestingly, we did not find any RGCs exhibiting a clear latency tuning to the stimuli, suggesting that in mouse, individual RGC pairs may not provide sufficient information. We show that a significant amount of information is encoded synergistically in the concerted spiking of large RGC populations. Thus, the RGC population response described with relative activities, or ranks, provides more relevant information than classical independent spike count- or latency- based codes. In particular, we report for the first time that when considering the relative activities across the whole population, the wave of first stimulus-evoked spikes is an accurate indicator of stimulus content. We show that this coding strategy coexists with classical neural codes, and that it is more efficient and faster. Overall, these novel observations suggest that already at the level of the retina, concerted spiking provides a reliable and fast strategy to rapidly transmit new visual scenes.
Rekker, Roderik; Keijsers, Loes; Branje, Susan; Meeus, Wim
This three-wave cohort-sequential longitudinal study (N=1302) examined the development of two core political attitudes, economic egalitarianism and ethnocentrism, among Dutch youths between age 12 and 31. Longitudinal regression analyses revealed a curvilinear mean level development for both
Rekker, Roderik; Keijsers, Loes; Branje, Susan; Meeus, W.H.J.
This three-wave cohort-sequential longitudinal study (N = 1302) examined the development of two core political attitudes, economic egalitarianism and ethnocentrism, among Dutch youths between age 12 and 31. Longitudinal regression analyses revealed a curvilinear mean level development for both
SchrĂ¶der, Christina; Schmutzer, Gabriele; Klaiberg, Antje; BrĂ€hler, Elmar
Several surveys of the German population concerning the attitude towards euthanasia in patients with terminal illness yielded contradictory results, ranging from high acquisition to high refusal rates. After a critical discussion of the methodological concepts of these investigations, we present the results of a representative study of 1957 German persons (age range: 14 - 96 years) which was performed by the institute USUMA in February 2001. Four different types of euthanasia were included in the study: active, passive, and indirect euthanasia as well as physician's assisted suicide. The affirmative response categories were "declared will and unbearable pain", "declared will", "referred will", and "in the responsibility of the physician". Additionally, we asked to state the personal preference in the case of an own incurable illness. The resulting frequency distributions stress the autonomy of the patients (declared will) and the legal forms of professional euthanasia (passive and indirect euthanasia), independent from the degree of pain. The rank order of the hypothetic personal preferences was: passive euthanasia (26.1 %), active euthanasia (21.1 %), indirect euthanasia (13.1 %) and assisted suicide (6.2 %). For each category the hypothetic personal will to utilize euthanasia personally is markedly lower than the consent to legalize euthanasia in the society. This points to a diminished readiness of the population to seek for euthanasia. Persons aged 60 years and above deny all types of euthanasia significantly more often than younger persons. Persons with subjectively bad health status prefer the category "in the responsibility of the physician" more often than healthy subjects. The representative study proves that there is no polarized public opinion concerning euthanasia, rather there is a picture of high complexity.
Svenningsen, Lea SkrĂŠp; Thorsen, Bo Jellesmark
What role do people think distributional aspects should play in design of climate policy? The literature assessing climate policies has shown that assumptions regarding peoplesâ distributional preferences for climate change policy impacts are central for policy assessment, but empirical evidence...... for such preferences is lacking. We design a discrete choice experiment that varies how climate policies affect the income of people living in the future in three geographical regions. The experiment is implemented on a representative sample of the Danish population and preferences are modelled in a latent class model...... expresses some form of distributional preferences, but shows positive preferences for costs, suggesting that responses could be influenced by strategic behaviour and over-signalling of commitment. Our results provide support for the inclusion of social preferences regarding distributional effects of climate...
Hanazuka, Yuki; Kurotori, Hidetoshi; Shimizu, Mika; Midorikawa, Akira
Although previous studies have confirmed that trained orangutans visually discriminate between mammals and artificial objects, whether orangutans without operant conditioning can discriminate remains unknown. The visual discrimination ability in an orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus) with no experience in operant learning was examined using measures of visual preference. Sixteen color photographs of inanimate objects and of mammals with four legs were randomly presented to an orangutan. The results showed that the mean looking time at photographs of mammals with four legs was longer than that for inanimate objects, suggesting that the orangutan discriminated mammals with four legs from inanimate objects. The results implied that orangutans who have not experienced operant conditioning may possess the ability to discriminate visually.
Conscientious objection to democratically accepted laws in democratic societies is a fact, both among citizens and among professionals. Due respect for laws is a prima facie duty in these societies. But democratic justice must at the same time respect peoples' conscience for it constitutes the ethical identity of individuals. And both law and ethics are necessary - although neither of them is sufficient - for its realization. The problem of conscientious objection among healthcare professionals is analysed from this standpoint and the conclusion is that objection is not an absolute right to exemption from several duties, but that the responsibility of the professional and of the institutions towards the citizenry must always be taken into account. Some solutions are suggested that try to protect both the professionals and the citizens in a bi-directional way.
Smarr, Cory-Ann; Mitzner, Tracy L; Beer, Jenay M; Prakash, Akanksha; Chen, Tiffany L; Kemp, Charles C; Rogers, Wendy A
The population of older adults in America is expected to reach an unprecedented level in the near future. Some of them have difficulties with performing daily tasks and caregivers may not be able to match pace with the increasing need for assistance. Robots, especially mobile manipulators, have the potential for assisting older adults with daily tasks enabling them to live independently in their homes. However, little is known about their views of robot assistance in the home. Twenty-one independently living older Americans (65-93 years old) were asked about their preferences for and attitudes toward robot assistance via a structured group interview and questionnaires. In the group interview, they generated a diverse set of 121 tasks they would want a robot to assist them with in their homes. These data, along with their questionnaire responses, suggest that the older adults were generally open to robot assistance but were discriminating in their acceptance of assistance for different tasks. They preferred robot assistance over human assistance for tasks related to chores, manipulating objects, and information management. In contrast, they preferred human assistance to robot assistance for tasks related to personal care and leisure activities. Our study provides insights into older adults' attitudes and preferences for robot assistance with everyday living tasks in the home which may inform the design of robots that will be more likely accepted by older adults.
Mitzner, Tracy L.; Beer, Jenay M.; Prakash, Akanksha; Chen, Tiffany L.; Kemp, Charles C.; Rogers, Wendy A.
The population of older adults in America is expected to reach an unprecedented level in the near future. Some of them have difficulties with performing daily tasks and caregivers may not be able to match pace with the increasing need for assistance. Robots, especially mobile manipulators, have the potential for assisting older adults with daily tasks enabling them to live independently in their homes. However, little is known about their views of robot assistance in the home. Twenty-one independently living older Americans (65â93 years old) were asked about their preferences for and attitudes toward robot assistance via a structured group interview and questionnaires. In the group interview, they generated a diverse set of 121 tasks they would want a robot to assist them with in their homes. These data, along with their questionnaire responses, suggest that the older adults were generally open to robot assistance but were discriminating in their acceptance of assistance for different tasks. They preferred robot assistance over human assistance for tasks related to chores, manipulating objects, and information management. In contrast, they preferred human assistance to robot assistance for tasks related to personal care and leisure activities. Our study provides insights into older adults' attitudes and preferences for robot assistance with everyday living tasks in the home which may inform the design of robots that will be more likely accepted by older adults. PMID:25152779
Domaradzka, Ewa; Bielecki, Maksymilian
Numerous studies have shown that biases in visual attention might be evoked by affective and personally relevant stimuli, for example addiction-related objects. Despite the fact that addiction is often linked to specific products and systematic purchase behaviors, no studies focused directly on the existence of bias evoked by brands. Smokers are characterized by high levels of brand loyalty and everyday contact with cigarette packaging. Using the incentive-salience mechanism as a theoretical framework, we hypothesized that this group might exhibit a bias toward the preferred cigarette brand. In our study, a group of smokers (N = 40) performed a dot probe task while their eye movements were recorded. In every trial a pair of pictures was presented - each of them showed a single cigarette pack. The visual properties of stimuli were carefully controlled, so branding information was the key factor affecting subjects' reactions. For each participant, we compared gaze behavior related to the preferred vs. other brands. The analyses revealed no attentional bias in the early, orienting phase of the stimulus processing and strong differences in maintenance and disengagement. Participants spent more time looking at the preferred cigarettes and saccades starting at the preferred brand location had longer latencies. In sum, our data shows that attentional bias toward brands might be found in situations not involving choice or decision making. These results provide important insights into the mechanisms of formation and maintenance of attentional biases to stimuli of personal relevance and might serve as a first step toward developing new attitude measurement techniques.
Full Text Available Children express preferences for a wide range of options, such as objects, and frequently observe the preferences that others express towards these things. However, little is know about how these initial preferences develop. The present research investigated whether one particular type of social information â other childrenâs preferences â influences childrenâs own preferences. Four-year-old children observed, via video, two boys and two girls display the same preference for one of two stickers. Each child (peer expressed liking for one sticker and dislike for the other. Then children completed two rounds of the Dictator Game, a classic resource distribution task. In each round, children distributed either 10 'liked' stickers or 10 'disliked' stickers (counterbalanced between themselves and another child who was not present. If the preferences expressed by their peers influenced childrenâs own preferences, children should keep more of the 'liked' than 'disliked' stickers for themselves. In line with this prediction, more children kept more liked than disliked stickers, indicating their distribution patterns were influenced by their peersâ preferences. This finding suggests that children extracted informational content about the value of the stickers from their peers and used that information to guide their own preferences. Children might also have aligned their preferences with those of their peers to facilitate social bonding and group membership. This research demonstrates the strong influence of peers on childrenâs developing preferences, and reveals the effect of peer influence via video â a medium that young children are frequently exposed to but often struggle to learn from in other contexts.
Full Text Available The literature has been considered by Freud and others after him, a form of unaware exploration of mind that can leads to discoveries similar to psychoanalysisâs discoveries. From this perspective, the author puts forward the following hypothesis: Pinocchio is a puppet who comes to life and is therefore, from a child's perception, a transitional object according to Winnicott. Consequently Geppetto is nothing more than the involuntary representation of any child interacting with the transitional object. The author explains the results of the analysis of the text in support of the hypothesis and reflects on the impact of The adventure of Pinocchio on the reader.
BlĂ„bjerg, Niels JĂžrgen
Learning Objects Web er et DEFF projekt som Aalborg Universitetsbibliotek har initieret. Projektet tager afsĂŠt i de resultater og erfaringer som er opnĂ„et med vores tidligere projekt Streaming Webbased Information Modules (SWIM). Vi har et internationalt netvĂŠrk af interessenter som giver os...... sparring og feedback i forhold til udviklingskoncept bĂ„de omkring de teoretiske rammer og i forhold til praktisk anvendelse af vores undervisningskoncept. Med disse rygstĂžd og input har vi forfulgt Ăžnsket om at videreudvikle SWIM i det nye projekt Learning Objects Web. Udgivelsesdato: juni...
Eskildsen, Kasper Risbjerg
. The arrangement of artifacts not only helped him formulate his theories, but also allowed him to present his arguments in a language of objects. At the same time, Thomsen's definition of archaeology as a museum science placed his branch of archaeology in a closer relationship with other museum sciences...... themselves to histories of texts and therefore abandoned the earliest human history. Instead, he proposed a new history of objects, which included the entire history of humankind. Thomsen's work as director of the Royal Museum of Nordic Antiquities in Copenhagen was especially important for this renewal...
Joan Costa-i-Font; Frank Cowell
Social identity is increasingly accepted as a key concept underpin- ning the endogeneity of economic behaviour and preferences. This feature is especially important in explaining redistribution preferences as well as attitudes towards redistribution and pro-social behaviour. This paper carries out a review of the literature on the question and ex- amines how economic theory conceptualises and empirically measures social identity and its effects on preferences towards redistribution, so- cial ...
Their preferred communication modes were cell phone calls (57.6%) or text messages/SMS (35.6%). Only 2.2% preferred home-visits and 0.4%, e-mails. About 4% were not willing to receive any form of immunization reminder/recall. Mothers with post-secondary education were more likely to prefer SMS than other mothersÂ ...
Lundhede, Thomas; Ladenburg, Jacob; Olsen, SĂžren BĂžye
Using stated preference methods for valuation of non-market goods is known to be vulnerable to a range of biases. Some authors claim that these so-called anomalies in effect render the methods useless for the purpose. However, the Discovered Preference Hypothesis, as put forth by Plott , offers...... as respondents evaluate more and more choice sets. This finding supports the Discovered Preference Hypothesis interpretation and explanation of starting point bias....
Guan, Zhengfei; Wu, Feng
In this paper we specify and estimate producersâ risk preference using farm data. We allow heterogeneous risk preference across individuals and propose a specification to model the heterogeneity. We base farmersâ decision making on a utility maximization framework and incorporate both market and production risk in farmersâ decision making. We do not assume any specific utility function or distribution of risk. The empirical application to farm level production data shows that risk preference ...
Blankenship, James C
Patients rate the downsides of bare metal stents (higher restenosis rates) as being of similar magnitude to the downsides of drug eluting stents (longer dual anti-platelet therapy). Patient preferences regarding choice of bare metal versus drug eluting stents should be elicited before coronary stenting. This article does not study actual patient preferences for stent type. Future studies should assess how personalized discussions of trade-offs of stent types affect patient preferences. Â© 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Kocher, Martin G.; Pogrebna, Ganna; Sutter, Matthias
We use a laboratory experiment to examine whether and to what extent other-regarding preferences of team leaders influence their leadership style in choice under risk. We find that leaders who prefer efficiency or report high levels of selfishness are more likely to exercise an autocratic leadership style by ignoring preferences of the other team members. Yet, inequity aversion has no significant impact on leadership styles. Elected leaders have a higher propensity than exogenously assigned l...
Non, J.A.; Tempelaar, D. T.
We analyze the relation between time preferences, study effort, and academic performance among first-year Business and Economics students. Time preferences are measured by stated preferences for an immediate payment over larger delayed payments. Data on study efforts are derived from an electronic learning environment, which records the amount of time students are logged in and the fraction of exercises completed. Our third measure of study effort is participation in an on-line summer course....
Hock, Howard S; Nichols, David F
Wertheimer, M. (Zeitschrift fĂŒr Psychologie und Physiologie der Sinnesorgane, 61:161-265, 1912) classical distinction between beta (object) and phi (objectless) motion is elaborated here in a series of experiments concerning competition between two qualitatively different motion percepts, induced by sequential changes in luminance for two-dimensional geometric objects composed of rectangular surfaces. One of these percepts is of spreading-luminance motion that continuously sweeps across the entire object; it exhibits shape invariance and is perceived most strongly for fast speeds. Significantly for the characterization of phi as objectless motion, the spreading luminance does not involve surface boundaries or any other feature; the percept is driven solely by spatiotemporal changes in luminance. Alternatively, and for relatively slow speeds, a discrete series of edge motions can be perceived in the direction opposite to spreading-luminance motion. Akin to beta motion, the edges appear to move through intermediate positions within the object's changing surfaces. Significantly for the characterization of beta as object motion, edge motion exhibits shape dependence and is based on the detection of oppositely signed changes in contrast (i.e., counterchange) for features essential to the determination of an object's shape, the boundaries separating its surfaces. These results are consistent with area MT neurons that differ with respect to speed preference Newsome et al (Journal of Neurophysiology, 55:1340-1351, 1986) and shape dependence Zeki (Journal of Physiology, 236:549-573, 1974).
Full Text Available Among many objects around us, some of them are more salient than others (i.e., attract our attention automatically. Some objects may be inherently salient (e.g., brighter, but others may become salient by virtue of their ecological relevance through experience. However, the importance of ecological experience in guiding attention has not been studied systematically. To address this question, we let subjects (macaque monkeys view a large number of complex objects (>300, each experienced repeatedly (>5 days with rewarding, aversive or no outcome association (mere-perceptual exposure. Test of salience was done on separate days using free viewing with no outcome. We found that gaze was biased among the objects from the outset, affecting saccades to objects or fixations within objects. When the outcome was rewarding, gaze preference was stronger (i.e. positive for objects with larger or equal but uncertain rewards. The effects of aversive outcomes were variable. Gaze preference was positive for some outcome associations (e.g. airpuff, but negative for others (e.g. time-out, possibly due to differences in threat levels. Finally, novel objects attracted gaze, but mere perceptual exposure of objects reduced their salience (learned negative salience. Our results show that, in primates, object salience is strongly influenced by previous ecological experience and is supported by a large memory capacity. Owing to such learned salience, the capacity to rapidly choose important objects can grow during the entire life to promote biological fitness.
Kerssens, J J; Bensing, J M; Andela, M G
Preferences for physicians' gender is an obvious and well documented example of considerations of patients' attitudes. But research carried out in this field is rather limited to the domain of family medicine. This article describes preferences for 13 different health professions: surgeons, neurologists, anaesthetists, internists, general practitioners, psychiatrists, psychologists, social workers, hospital and district nurses, home helps, gynaecologists and midwives. Our investigation also concerns the reasons for people's preferences. In February 1993 a self-administered survey was completed and returned by 961 out of 1113 (response 86%) participants of the Dutch Health Care Consumers Panel, a panel resulting from a random sample of Dutch households. On a range of different health professions a varying minority of patients prefer a care provider of a particular gender. There are virtually no sex preferences for the more "instrumental" health professions (e.g. surgeons, anaesthetists). Gender preferences are stronger for those health professions more likely engaged in intimate and psychosocial health problems (e.g. gynaecologists and GPs). Preferences expressed do not relate to sex stereotypes of gender differences in instrumentality, expertise, efficiency, consultation length, and personal interest. The majority of persons who prefer female health professionals indicate that they talk more easily to females than to males, and feel more at ease during (internal) examination by females than by males. Persons who prefer male health professionals use the same reasons in favour of males. The discussion relates to gender differences in the communication style of male and female physicians.
Filos-Ratsikas, Aris; Li, Minming; Zhang, Jie
We study the problem of locating a single facility on a real line based on the reports of self-interested agents, when agents have double-peaked preferences, with the peaks being on opposite sides of their locations. We observe that double-peaked preferences capture real-life scenarios and thus...... complement the well-studied notion of single-peaked preferences. We mainly focus on the case where peaks are equidistant from the agentsâ locations and discuss how our results extend to more general settings. We show that most of the results for single-peaked preferences do not directly apply to this setting...
Cardoso, Maria JoĂŁo; Cardoso, Jaime; Amaral, NatĂĄlia
Twelve expert observers from nine different countries convened in a workshop to evaluate the validity of the Breast Cancer Conservative Treatment. Cosmetic results (BCCT.core) software, an objective method for the aesthetic evaluation of breast cancer conservative treatment. Experts were initiall...
Sigmon, Scott B.
This test was designed primarily for the purpose of assisting social psychologists in researching sex roles and/or sex differences when a nonverbal instrument is desired. The hypothesis was that some objects would be easier for members of one gender to name. The subjects were 30 female and 20 male undergraduate students. Pictures of 65 commercialâŠ
Wang, Wenguan; Shen, Jianbing; Li, Xuelong; Porikli, Fatih
With ever-increasing volumes of video data, automatic extraction of salient object regions became even more significant for visual analytic solutions. This surge has also opened up opportunities for taking advantage of collective cues encapsulated in multiple videos in a cooperative manner. However, it also brings up major challenges, such as handling of drastic appearance, motion pattern, and pose variations, of foreground objects as well as indiscriminate backgrounds. Here, we present a cosegmentation framework to discover and segment out common object regions across multiple frames and multiple videos in a joint fashion. We incorporate three types of cues, i.e., intraframe saliency, interframe consistency, and across-video similarity into an energy optimization framework that does not make restrictive assumptions on foreground appearance and motion model, and does not require objects to be visible in all frames. We also introduce a spatio-temporal scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT) flow descriptor to integrate across-video correspondence from the conventional SIFT-flow into interframe motion flow from optical flow. This novel spatio-temporal SIFT flow generates reliable estimations of common foregrounds over the entire video data set. Experimental results show that our method outperforms the state-of-the-art on a new extensive data set (ViCoSeg).
Bean, Jonathan; Figueiredo, Bernardo; Pico Larsen, Hanne
explicates the role of objects in supporting this patterning. We explain how an in-situ diary tool (dscout, in our case) can be useful to support this approach. We demonstrate our methodological approach in the context of the Red Rooster Harlem, a cosmopolitan restaurant in New York, owned by the celebrity...
Full Text Available Harman presents an outline of how object-oriented ontology (OOO differentiates itself from other branches of speculative realism. Can OOO steer philosophy from an epistemological project that tends to reduce the discipline to "a series of small-time drug busts"?
In this thesis we provide a unit testing approach for multi-purposes object-oriented programming languages in the style of Java and C#. Our approach includes the definition of a test specification language which results from extending the programming language with new designated specification
Horstmann, Cay S
Big Java: Late Objects is a comprehensive introduction to Java and computer programming, which focuses on the principles of programming, software engineering, and effective learning. It is designed for a two-semester first course in programming for computer science students.
Marinovic, IvĂĄn; Ottaviani, Marco; SĂžrensen, Peter Norman
This chapter develops a unified modeling framework for analyzing the strategic behavior of forecasters. The theoretical model encompasses reputational objectives, competition for the best accuracy, and bias. Also drawing from the extensive lit- erature on analysts, we review the empirical evidenc...
Burr, D. C.; Ross, J.; Morrone, M. C.
This paper reports estimates of the conjoint spatiotemporal tuning functions of the neural mechanisms of the human vision system which detect image motion. The functions were derived from measurements of the minimum contrast necessary to detect the direction of drift of a sinusoidal grating, in the presence of phase-reversed masking gratings of various spatial and temporal frequencies. A mask of similar spatial and temporal frequencies to the test grating reduces sensitivity considerably, whereas one differing greatly in spatial or temporal frequency has little or no effect. The results show that for test gratings drifting at 8 Hz, the tuning function is bandpass in both space and time, peaked at the temporal and spatial frequency (SF) of the test (SFS were 0.1, 1 or 5 c deg-1; c represents cycles throughout). For a grating of 5 c deg-1 drifting at 0.3 Hz, the function is bandpass in space but lowpass in time. Fourier transform of the frequency results yields a function in space-time which we term the `spatiotemporal receptive field'. For movement detectors (bandpass in space and time) the fields comprise alternating ridges of opposing polarity, elongated in space-time along the preferred velocity axis of the detector. We suggest that this organization explains how detectors analyse form and motion concurrently and accounts, at least in part, for a variety of perceptual phenomena, including summation, reduction of motion smear, metacontrast, stroboscopic motion and spatiotemporal interpolation.
Gaither, Sarah E.; Chen, Eva E.; Corriveau, Kathleen H.; Harris, Paul L.; Ambady, Nalini; Sommers, Samuel R.
Children prefer learning from, and affiliating with, their racial ingroup but those preferences may vary for biracial children. Monoracial (White, Black, Asian) and biracial (Black/White, Asian/White) children (N=246, 3â8 years) had their racial identity primed. In a learning preferences task, participants determined the function of a novel object after watching adults (White, Black, and Asian) demonstrate its uses. In the social preferences task, participants saw pairs of children (White, Black, and Asian) and chose with whom they most wanted to socially affiliate. Biracial children showed flexibility in racial identification during learning and social tasks. However, minority-primed biracial children were not more likely than monoracial minorities to socially affiliate with primed racial ingroup members, indicating their ingroup preferences are contextually based. PMID:25040708
Di Luzio, Luca; Mescia, Federico; Nardi, Enrico
We discuss phenomenological criteria for defining "axion windows," namely regions in the parameter space of the axion-photon coupling where realistic models live. Currently, the boundaries of this region depend on somewhat arbitrary criteria, and it would be highly desirable to specify them in terms of precise phenomenological requirements. We first focus on hadronic axion models within post-inflationary scenarios, in which the initial abundance of the new vectorlike quarks Q is thermal. We classify their representations RQ by requiring that (i) the Q are sufficiently short lived to avoid issues with long-lived strongly interacting relics, (ii) the theory remains weakly coupled up to the Planck scale. The more general case of multiple RQ is also studied, and the absolute upper and lower bounds on the axion-photon coupling as a function of the axion mass is identified. Pre-inflationary scenarios in which the axion decay constant remains bounded as faâ€5 Ă1011 GeV allow for axion-photon couplings only about 20% larger. Realistic Dine-Fischler-Srednicki-Zhitnitsky type of axion models also remain encompassed within the hadronic axion window. Some mechanisms that can allow to enhance the axion-photon coupling to values sizeably above the preferred window are discussed.
Paisley, William J.
In this study data were collected on "major" and "most helpful" sources used by high school students (incoming Syracuse University freshmen at the time of data collection) as they gathered information about Syracuse and other colleges. Sources were both interpersonal (family, friends, high school personnel, college representatives) and impersonalâŠ
Madsen, Ole Lehrmann; MĂžller-Pedersen, Birger
The notion of location of part objects is introduced, yielding a reference to the containing object. Combined with locally defined objects and classes (block structure), singularly defined part objects, and references to part objects, it is a powerful language mechanism for defining objects...... with different aspects or roles. The use of part objects for inheritance of code is also explored....
Varella Valentova, Jaroslava; Stulp, Gert; TĆebickĂœ, VĂt; HavlĂÄek, Jan
.... In general, it has been shown that tall men and average height women are most preferred by the opposite sex, and that both sexes prefer to be in a relationship where the man is taller than the woman...
The decision-making stage was then performed with the aid of data clustering techniques to reduce the sizeof the Pareto-optimal set and obtain a smaller representation of the multi-objective design space, there by making it easier for the decision-maker to find satisfactory and meaningful trade-offs, and to select a preferred final design solution.
Pasgaard, Niels Jakob
Education is traditionally seen as a teleological discipline. Teaching is always done with a purpose in mind. Thus, teaching can be said to be an intentional practice. With a popular Danish expression, one may say that teaching is to want something with someone (Nepper Larsen 2016). In recent years...... tradition, where predefined learning-objectives form the basis for the selection of content and methods of teaching. However, the idea of letting such learning-objectives form the basis for teaching, now also permeates the educational policies of the European Union (European Commision 2011). The spread......, Bogost 2012, Bryant 2014), the article presents a critique of this development. The criticism is based on a questioning of the idea that education should be understood as wanting something with someone. Instead, it is argued that education is the art of introducing Something for someone. The article aims...
The law regulating abortion in Italy gives healthcare practitioners the option to make a conscientious objection to activities that are specific and necessary to an abortive intervention. Conscientious objectors among Italian gynaecologists amount to about 70%. This means that only a few doctors are available to perform abortions, and therefore access to abortion is subject to constraints. In 2012 the International Planned Parenthood Federation European Network (IPPF EN) lodged a complaint against Italy to the European Committee of Social Rights, claiming that the inadequate protection of the right to access abortion implies a violation of the right to health. In this paper I will discuss the Italian situation with respect to conscientious objection to abortion and I will suggest possible solutions to the problem. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
D' Azevedo, E.F.
This report describes the use and implementation of DOLIB (Distributed Object Library), a library of routines that emulates global or virtual shared memory on Intel multiprocessor systems. Access to a distributed global array is through explicit calls to gather and scatter. Advantages of using DOLIB include: dynamic allocation and freeing of huge (gigabyte) distributed arrays, both C and FORTRAN callable interfaces, and the ability to mix shared-memory and message-passing programming models for ease of use and optimal performance. DOLIB is independent of language and compiler extensions and requires no special operating system support. DOLIB also supports automatic caching of read-only data for high performance. The virtual shared memory support provided in DOLIB is well suited for implementing Lagrangian particle tracking techniques. We have also used DOLIB to create DONIO (Distributed Object Network I/O Library), which obtains over a 10-fold improvement in disk I/O performance on the Intel Paragon.
D`Azevedo, E.F.; Romine, C.H.
This report describes the use and implementation of DOLIB (Distributed Object Library), a library of routines that emulates global or virtual shared memory on Intel multiprocessor systems. Access to a distributed global array is through explicit calls to gather and scatter. Advantages of using DOLIB include: dynamic allocation and freeing of huge (gigabyte) distributed arrays, both C and FORTRAN callable interfaces, and the ability to mix shared-memory and message-passing programming models for ease of use and optimal performance. DOLIB is independent of language and compiler extensions and requires no special operating system support. DOLIB also supports automatic caching of read-only data for high performance. The virtual shared memory support provided in DOLIB is well suited for implementing Lagrangian particle tracking techniques. We have also used DOLIB to create DONIO (Distributed Object Network I/O Library), which obtains over a 10-fold improvement in disk I/O performance on the Intel Paragon.
This paper is about Java object relational frameworks and related processes. The goal of this work consists of showing design patterns for ORM, introducing Java ORM standards along with the main implementations, finding criteria for comparison of ORM frameworks and showing working ORM example in a case study. This paper has the following structure: The first part of this paper discusses main ORM design patters, approaches to ORM and performance related features of Java ORM frameworks. Next pa...
Master's thesis in Offshore structural engineering Impact from dropped object is a typical accident action (NOKSOK N-004, 2013). Hence, the DOP structure is to be analyzed in an accidental limit state (ALS) design practice, which means that a non-linear finite element analysis can be applied. The DOP structure will be based on a typical DOP structure. Several FEM analyses are performed for the DOP structure. Different shapes size and weights and various impact positions are used for si...
Ratner, Helene Gad
In Western secular societies, spiritual life is no longer limited to classical religious institutions but can also be found at workplace organizations. While spirituality is conventionally understood as a subjective and internal process, this paper proposes the concept of âsuggestive objectsâ, co...... scaffolding. This has deep implications for our understanding of the sacred, including a better appreciation of the way that suggestive objects make the sacred durable, the way they organize it....
Full Text Available This paper presents partial results of a research on consumer preferences when shopping for groceries. It is focused on regional products and consumer preferences in relation to the country of origin of food products. The main objective of this paper is to find the existence of spatial relationships between spatial deployment of regional products and consumer preferences for regional products. It will be necessary to create a data model for monitoring the deployment of regional products and also a data model for tracking important indicators of consumer behavior in all regions of the Czech Republic. The results are based on questionnaire survey that was conducted within the period from October 2010 to January 2011 on a sample of 3767 respondents from the Czech Republic, via both online questionnaires and their printed version. For the data collection the questionnaire system ReLa, developed by the Department of Marketing and Trade at Faculty of Business and Economics at Mendel University in Brno, was used. Data was processed with statistical software STATISTICA (ver. 10. Spatial visualisation was processed with GIS software ArcGIS (ver. 10.1. Preferences for food of Czech origin were analysed in relation to identification criteria. The research results show that the origin of food has an important role in consumer purchase decision-making. There is no significant difference in importance of this factor based on gender of consumers, however, we could prove moderate dependence on respondentâs occupation, education and age. We could also experience regional differences in levels of preferences of local products or products of Czech origin in regard of 14 regions of the Czech Republic. Ï2 (N = 3767 = 245.25; p < 0.001. Value of Pearsonâs coefficient of contingency is 0.334.
Zickafoose, Joseph S.; DeCamp, Lisa R.; Prosser, Lisa A.
IMPORTANCE Efforts to transform primary care through the medical home model may have limited effectiveness if they do not incorporate familiesâ preferences for different primary care services. OBJECTIVE To assess parents' relative preferences for different categories of enhanced access services in primary care. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Internet-based survey that took place with a national online panel from December 8, 2011, to December 22, 2011. Participants included 820 parents of children aged 0 to 17 years. Hispanic and black non-Hispanic parents were each oversampled to 20% of the sample. The survey included a discrete choice experiment with questions that asked parents to choose between hypothetical primary care practices with different levels of enhanced access and other primary care services. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES We estimated parentsâ relative preferences for different enhanced access services using travel time to the practice as a trade-off and parentsâ marginal willingness to travel in minutes for practices with different levels of services. RESULTS The response rate of parents who participated in the study was 41.2%. Parents were most likely to choose primary care offices that guaranteed same-day sick visits (coefficient, 0.57 [SE, 0.05]; P preferences among parents with different sociodemographic characteristics. Parents' marginal willingness to travel was 14 minutes (95% CI, 11â16 minutes) for guaranteed same-day sick visits and 44 minutes (95% CI, 37â51 minutes) for an office with idealized levels of all services. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE As primary care practices for children implement aspects of the medical home model, those that emphasize same-day sick care and professional continuity are more likely to meet parentsâ preferences for enhanced access. Practices should seek to engage families in prioritizing changes in practice services as part of medical home implementation. PMID:25643000
Full Text Available The decision-making process of consumers buying organic food is affected by several factors. Because of organic agriculture in Romania is growing, the objective of this paper was to analyze consumer opinions and preferences concerning organic food products in Romania. The survey involved 350 respondents. The respondents were divided into two groups using the Hierarchical multiple factor analysis (HMFA. The strongest reason for buying organic food for Romanian respondents is health care, presented by 42% of respondents. Respondents prefer to buy organic foods directly from the producers, followed by supermarkets, specialized shops and pharmacies. The prevailing price of monthly purchase of organic food is 10 to 20âŹ. The respondents are able to pay for organic food from 5 to 10% more than for conventional food.
Flensborg-Madsen, Trine; Knop, Joachim; Mortensen, Erik Lykke
had a risk of 3.1 (CI: 1.8-5.4), whereas those whose total alcohol intake comprised more than 35% wine had a risk of 0.8 (CI: 0.3-2.1). Consuming more than 35% beer increased the risk of AUD for women, whereas the percentage of distilled spirits intake did not influence the risk of AUD for either...... women or men. CONCLUSIONS: Individuals who include wine when they drink alcohol have lower risks of AUD, independent of the total amount of alcohol consumed. The most likely explanation of these results is that lifestyle factors and personal characteristics are associated with beverage preference.......OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine whether preferred type of alcoholic beverage influences the later risk of alcohol-use disorders (AUD). METHOD: A prospective cohort study was used, comprising three updated measures of alcohol intake and covariates, and 26 years of follow-up data...
Natsis, Antonios; Hormova, Hara; Mikropoulos, Tassos
The paper attempts to compare studentsâ views on three different Learning Objects (LOs), also known as Web-Based Learning Tools (WBLTs), which are used for educational purposes aiming at natural disaster readiness. Following an iterative development process, 100 LOs of various types are being......, as those will be further studied in an upcoming study. It became evident by the results that students remained highly-engaged while using the three LOs and they positively reviewed the perceived learning and the quality of design of all three learning objects without their responses being affected...... by the factors of sex and computer comfort. However, a large percentage of students preferred to use the educational game....
Cherchye, L.J.H.; de Rock, B.; Vermeulen, F.M.P.; Verriest, E.; Molina, J.A.
This chapter contains a state of the art of revealed preference tests for consistency of observed household behavior with Pareto efficiency. These tests are entirely nonparametric, since they do not require any assumptions regarding the parametric form of individual preferences or the intrahousehold
Roorda, Berend; Joosten, Reinoud A.M.G.
We propose a normative framework for complete preference orderings, in which updating is based on a straightforward fixed point principle. Its scope goes far beyond the Sure Thing Principle, and covers Bayesian updating as a special case, without reference to probabilities. The induced preference
Bonany, J.; Buehler, A.; CarbĂł, J.; Codarin, C.; Donati, F.; Echeverria, G.; Egger, S.; Guerra, W.; Hilaire, C.; HĂ¶ller, I.; Iglesias, I.; Jesionkowska, K.; Konopacka, D.; Kruczynska, D.; Martinelli, A.; PItiot, C.; Sansavini, S.; Stehr, R.; Schoorl, F.W.
A consumer test carried out in 7 different European countries compared 3 standard apple varieties to 8 new ones. A total of 4290 consumers took part in the test. Data from this test was used to develop a preference map for apple. The preference map was constructed with 3 main dimensions (1 â
this increasingly important sector. This study examined the determinants of visitors' preference for wild animal species in Kwara State, Nigeria. It determined the animal species preference in the state and highlighted the desired animal characteristics that endeared animals to zoo visitors.A structured questionnaire was usedÂ ...
Eskildsen, Jacob KjĂŠr; Kristensen, Kai
The scope of this paper is to analyze whether or not segments with different customer preferences and customer satisfaction can be identified. This analysis is based on customer satisfaction data from the Danish banking industry from the years 2004 and 2005. The analysis showed that the preference...
Lettau, M.; Uhlig, H.F.H.V.S.
Risk premia in the consumption capital asset pricing model depend on preferences and dividend. We develop a decomposition which allows a separate treatment of both components. We show that preferences alone determine the risk-return tradeoff measured by the Sharpe-ratio. In general, the risk-return
Juhasz, J B; Paxson, L
40 university students were asked to choose between the cubist or surrealist from among 15 pairs of slides of paintings according to their aesthetic preference. Their choices were correlated with scores on Rotter's internal vs external locus of control scale. The data support the hypothesis that there is a positive relationship between preference for cubism over surrealism and internal locus control and vice versa.
Some empirical research into students' typographical preferences. WD Coetzee. Abstract. This article focuses on some features of typographic layout and design and the possible impact of typography on comprehensibility and reader preferences. Reference is made to works by several authorities on the matter who dealÂ ...
Kerssens, J.J.; Bensing, J.M.; Andela, M.G.
Preferences for physicians' gender is an obvious and well documented example of considerations of patients' attitudes. But research carried out in this field is rather limited to the domain of family medicine. This article describes preferences for 13 different health professions: surgeons,
Kerssens, J.J.; Bensing, J.; Andela, M.G.
Preferences for physicians' gender is an obvious and well documented example of considerations of patients' attitudes. But research carried out in this field is rather limited to the domain of family medicine. This article describes preferences for 13 different health professions: surgeons,
In the industrialized countries children have many foods to choose from, both healthy and unhealthy products, these choices mainly depend on children's taste preferences. The present thesis focused on preferences for sweet and sour taste of young children (4- to 12-years of age) living in the US and
Williams, Stephen M.
Examined relationship between handedness and preferred ear for telephoning in 140 college students. Increased degree of sinistrality was associated with increased tendency to use left ear for telephoning. Found tendency to pick up telephone receiver with preferred hand and hold earpiece to ipsilateral ear. Results may relate to reports of reducedâŠ
Beckers, Ronald; van der Voordt, Theo; Dewulf, Geert P.M.R.
This paper aims to address higher education studentsâ learning space preferences. The study is based on a survey that involved 697 business management students of a Dutch University of Applied Sciences. The research focuses on preferred learning spaces for individual study activities, which require
Franklin, Anna; Bevis, Laura; Ling, Yazhu; Hurlbert, Anya
Adult colour preference has been summarized quantitatively in terms of weights on the two fundamental neural processes that underlie early colour encoding: the S-(L+M) ("blue-yellow") and L-M ("red-green") cone-opponent contrast channels ( Ling, Hurlbert & Robinson, 2006; Hurlbert & Ling, 2007). Here, we investigate whether colour preference inâŠ
Hui, Wanfong Viny
This is a pioneer study of Macau's music education focusing on music listening preference. Adopting models from Western cultures, the study, launched in 2006, aimed to explore the factors of age and gender in regard to music preference. The subjects ranged from fourth-graders to university students (N=2495) (15 missing). Participants rated theirâŠ
Lau, Sofie Rosenlund; Christensen, SĂžren Troels; Andreasen T., Jesper
To investigate patients' preferences for patient-centered communication (PCC) in the encounter with healthcare professionals in an outpatient department in rural Sierra Leone.......To investigate patients' preferences for patient-centered communication (PCC) in the encounter with healthcare professionals in an outpatient department in rural Sierra Leone....
Paciorek, Albertyna; Williams, John N.
Previous studies of semantic implicit learning in language have only examined learning grammatical form-meaning connections in which learning could have been supported by prior linguistic knowledge. In this study we target the domain of verb meaning, specifically semantic preferences regarding novel verbs (e.g., the preference for a novel verb toâŠ
Meadowcroft, Jeanne M.; Zillman, Dolf
Indicates that premenstrual and menstrual women preferred comedy over alternative choices more strongly than did women midway through the cycle. Suggests that this preference reflects a desire to overcome the hormonally mediated noxious mood states that are characteristically associated with the premenstrual and menstrual phases of the cycle. (JD)
M. Dastani; G. Governatori; A. Rotolo; L.W.N. van der Torre (Leon)
htmlabstractDefeasible Logic is extended to programming languages for cognitive agents with preferences and actions for planning. We define rule-based agent theories that contain preferences and actions, together with inference procedures. We discuss patterns of agent types in this setting. Finally,
Reuben, E.; Traxler, C.; van Winden, F.
We study the formation of advocacy groups and how they can impact policy outcomes by revealing information about votersŚł preferences to uninformed political candidates. We conduct a laboratory experiment based on a two-candidate spatial electoral competition setting where the policy preferences of
Roberta C. Patey; Richard M. Evans
This study identified manipulated forest landscapes with a low understory shrub density as being esthetic-ally preferred over non-manipulated, dense understory landscapes. This landscape pattern was identified both qualitatively, by preference ratings of respondents, and quantitatively, by measuring the physical components of each landscape. Forest sites were selected...
Haagsma, Hessel; Bjerva, Johannes
Recent work on metaphor processing often employs selectional preference information. We present a comparison of different approaches to the modelling of selectional preferences, based on various ways of generalizing over corpus frequencies. We evaluate on the VU Amsterdam Metaphor corpus, a broad
P.F.M. Stalmeier (Peep); P.P. Wakker (Peter); Th.G.G. Bezembinder (Thom)
textabstractPreference reversals have usually been explained by weighted additive models, in which different tasks give rise to different importance weights for the stimulus attributes, resulting in contradictory trade-offs. This article presents a preference reversal of a more extreme nature. Let
Wakker, P.P.; Stalmeijer, P.F.M.; Bezembinder, T.G.G.
Preference reversals have usually been explained by weighted additive models, in which different tasks give rise to different importance weights for the stimulus attributes, resulting in contradictory tradeoffs. This article presents a preference reversal of a more extreme nature. Let (10, 5 Migr)
Revealed Preference Theory (Samuelson 1938) is an attempt to establish economic theory as a genuine empirical science by ridding it of nonempirical psychological concepts. Samuelson's goal was to rid economic theory of the last vestiges of utility analysis. Samuelson structured his theory on a set of preference axiomsÂ ...
Lokki, Tapio; PĂ€tynen, Jukka; Kuusinen, Antti; Tervo, Sakari
Subjective evaluation of acoustics was studied by recording nine concert halls with a simulated symphony orchestra on a seat 12 m from the orchestra. The recorded music was spatially reproduced for subjective listening tests and individual vocabulary profiling. In addition, the preferences of the assessors and objective parameters were gathered. The results show that concert halls were discriminated using perceptual characteristics, such as Envelopment/Loudness, Reverberance, Bassiness, Proximity, Definition, and Clarity. With these perceptual dimensions the preference ratings can be explained. Seventeen assessors were divided into two groups based on their preferences. The first group preferred concert halls with relatively intimate sound, in which it is quite easy to hear individual instruments and melody lines. In contrast, the second group preferred a louder and more reverberant sound with good envelopment and strong bass. Even though all halls were recorded exactly at the same distance, the preference is best explained with subjective Proximity and with Bassiness, Envelopment, and Loudness to some extent. Neither the preferences nor the subjective ratings could be fully explained by objective parameters (ISO3382-1:2009), although some correlations were found.
Sae-Lim, P.; Komen, J.; Kause, A.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Barfoot, A.J.; Martin, K.E.; Parsons, A.J.
Distributing animals from a single breeding program to a global market may not satisfy all producers, as they may differ in market objectives and farming environments. Analytic hierarchy process (AHP) is used to estimate preferences, which can be aggregated to consensus preference values using
Baniya, Rupak Raj
The objectives of this thesis were to explore different approaches to improve energy efficiency and colour quality, and to find out the subjective preference of LED office lighting. Four approaches (optimization of LED spectra, lighting retrofitting, hue-heat hypothesis, and smart indoor lighting control) were studied for energy efficiency and colour quality improvement. Two experiments, one in lighting booths and the other in an office room, were conducted to examine subjective preferences. ...
Halawany, Hassan Suliman; Binassfour, Abdullah Salman; AlHassan, Waleed Khalid; Alhejaily, Rami Ayed; Al Maflehi, Nassr; Jacob, Vimal; Abraham, Nimmi Biju
Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate evolving trends in dental post graduate specialty preferences and career aspirations among final year dental students in Saudi Arabia. Materials and methods: A cross sectional survey using a self-administered questionnaire was conducted among final year dental students from seventeen universities in Saudi Arabia. The questionnaire enquired about socio-demographic details and the ranking of three of their best preferences among the lis...
Beaver, Kinta; Bogg, Janet; Luker, Karen A
Objective: An exploratory study has been carried out to examine decision-making role preferences and information needs for a sample of people with colorectal cancer (n = 48). The work replicated a larger study carried out for women with breast cancer (n = 150), and this paper compares and contrasts findings for both disease groups. Design: A cross-sectional design was employed, involving structured interviews. The main variables investigated were decision-making preference (using a decisional...
Ayanniyi, Olusola; Egwu, Roseline F.; Adeniyi, Ade F.
Background: knee osteoarthritis (OA) is a prevalent condition. Little is known about whether treatments provided by physiotherapists to patients with knee OA in Nigeria follow recommended clinical practice guidelines. Objective: The aims of this study were to investigate Nigerian physiotherapists' treatment preferences for knee osteoarthritis (OA) and to evaluate if their preferences were in line with contemporary clinical practice guidelines and recommendations. Methods: A cross-sectio...
Moradveisi, L.; Huibers, M.; Renner, F.; Arntz, A.
Background and objectives: Preferences and attitudes patients hold towards treatment are important, as these can influence treatment outcome. In depression research, the influence of patients' preference/attitudes on outcome and dropout has mainly been studied for antidepressant medication, and less
Eser, Mehmet Taha; Dogan, Nuri
Purpose: The objective of this study is to develop the Inventory of Motive of Preference for Conventional Paper-And-Pencil Tests and to evaluate students' motives for preferring written tests, short-answer tests, true/false tests or multiple-choice tests. This will add a measurement tool to the literature with valid and reliable results to helpâŠ
Van Abbema, Renske; De Greef, Mathieu; Craje, Celine; Krijnen, Wim; Hobbelen, Hans; van der Schans, Cornelis
Background: Improved preferred gait speed in older adults is associated with increased survival rates. There are inconsistent findings in clinical trials regarding effects of exercise on preferred gait speed, and heterogeneity in interventions in the current reviews and meta-analyses. Objective: to
Zupan, Barbra; Sussman, Joan E.
Experiment 1 examined modality preferences in children and adults with normal hearing to combined auditory-visual stimuli. Experiment 2 compared modality preferences in children using cochlear implants participating in an auditory emphasized therapy approach to the children with normal hearing from Experiment 1. A second objective in bothâŠ
Pasman, H.R.W.; Kaspers, P.J.; Deeg, D.J.H.; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, B.D.
Objectives To compare actual treatments with preferences for starting or forgoing treatment of older adults at the end of life. Design Mortality follow-back study of relatives of deceased older adults. Preferences and actual treatment were studied for each of four treatments: starting or forgoing
Bayram, Neriman; van Wely, Madelon; van der Veen, Fulco; Bossuyt, Patrick M. M.; Nieuwkerk, Pythia
Objective: To investigate patient preferences and trade-offs for laparoscopic electrocautery of the ovaries relative to ovulation induction with recombinant FSH (rFSH) in patients with clomiphene citrate (CC)-resistant polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Design: Assessment of preferences and
Renske van Abbema; Celine CrajĂ©; dr. Hans Hobbelen; dr. M.H. de Greef; Dr. C.P. van der Schans; W.P. Krijnen
Improved preferred gait speed in older adults is associated with increased survival rates. There are inconsistent findings in clinical trials regarding effects of exercise on preferred gait speed, and heterogeneity in interventions in the current reviews and meta-analyses. Objective: to determine
Van Abbema, Renske; De Greef, Mathieu; Craje, Celine; Krijnen, Wim; Hobbelen, Hans; van der Schans, Cornelis
Background: Improved preferred gait speed in older adults is associated with increased survival rates. There are inconsistent findings in clinical trials regarding effects of exercise on preferred gait speed, and heterogeneity in interventions in the current reviews and meta-analyses. Objective: to
Gorter, K.J.; Tuytel, G.J.; Leeuw, J.R.J. de; Bijl, J.J. van der; Bensing, J.M.; Rutten, G.E.H.M.
OBJECTIVE: To assess the preferences of patients with Type 2 diabetes regarding self-care activities and diabetes education. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Questionnaire survey carried out in general practices and outpatient clinics across the Netherlands. Outcomes: preferred setting for education,
The current paper reports a pilot study of the preferences of children aged 2-3.5 years for different kinds of music. With the use of a novel interactive procedure to measure active preferences, preliminary results indicate general preferences for fast and loud music irrespective of style.
Liem, D.G.; Westerbeek, A.; Wolterink, S.; Kok, F.J.; Graaf, de C.
Previous research has suggested that some children have a preference for sour tastes. The origin of this preference remains unclear. We investigated whether preference for sour tastes is related to a difference in rated sour intensity due to physiological properties of saliva, or to an overall
Mallett, Robyn K; Melchiori, Kala J
Although most women assume they would confront sexism, assertive responses are rare. We test whether women's preference for respect or liking during interpersonal interactions explains this surprising tendency. Women report preferring respect relative to liking after being asked sexist, compared with inappropriate, questions during a virtual job interview (Study 1, n = 149). Women's responses to sexism increase in assertiveness along with their preference for being respected, and a respect-preference mediates the relation between the type of questions and response assertiveness (Studies 1 and 2). In Study 2 (n = 105), women's responses to sexist questions are more assertive when the sense of belonging is enhanced with a belonging manipulation. Moreover, preference for respect mediates the effect of the type of questions on response assertiveness, but only when belonging needs are met. Thus the likelihood of confrontation depends on the goal to be respected outweighing the goal to be liked.
For START III level forces, strike allocations and magnitudes vary little with L, but first strike costs vary directly with L, which means that for K reflecting a preference for the survival of high value targets over their destruction and a preference for high value over military targets, the costs of action are far greater than those of inaction for a wide range of values of damage preference L. Thus, if both sides have much greater preferences for the survival of their high value targets than for military targets or destruction, they do not see a net incentive to strike, and crises are terminated by inaction. Recent decades suggest strong preferences for the survival of high value and that this has contributed to the lack of direct conflict during that period.
Hans Skifter Andersen
Full Text Available This article is based on a survey carried out in Denmark that asked a random sample of the population about their preferences for home surroundings and locations. It shows that the characteristics of social surroundings are very important and can be divided into three independent dimensions: avoiding social nuisances, preferring social homogeneity and living close to oneâs social network and place of origin. The study shows that most people have many detailed preferences, whereas some have very few. This confirms an earlier theory that some people are very connected to certain places with given characteristics and thus do not have priorities regarding home surroundings and locations. For others, mostly young people and singles, home is just a place to sleep and relax, whereas life is lived elsewhere. For this group, there are only preferences for location and there are few specific preferences for surroundings.
Full Text Available A large number of studies have assessed human mate preferences using lists of characteristics. To date, there is little data regarding mate preferences in Iran. The present study aimed to investigate dimensions in mate preferences among Iranian women and to validate a female-specific instrument in Iranian context. Three studies were designed and conducted. The first study was an interview-based qualitative analysis of womenâs mate preferences. The second study provided a psychometrically sound list of 26 characteristics in a potential mate. The third study confirmed the five-factor structure of the instrument. In sum, five dimensions of mate preferences among Iranian women are kindness/dependability, status/resources, attractiveness/sexuality, religiosity/chastity, and education/intelligence, as measured by the newly developed 26-item scale.
Kroth, Jerry; Lamas, Jasmin; Pisca, Nicholas; Bourret, Kristy; Kollath, Miranda
Retrospective dream components endorsed on the KJP Dream Inventory were correlated with those on the Short Test of Musical Preference for 68 graduate students in counseling psychology (11 men). Among 40 correlations, 6 were significant between preferences for Heavy Metal and Dissociative avoidance dreams (.32), Dreaming that you are dreaming (.40), Dreaming that you have fallen unconscious or asleep (.41), Recurring pleasantness (.31), and Awakening abruptly from a dream (-.31); between preferences for Rap/Hip-Hop and Sexual dreams (.27); and between preferences for Jazz and Recurring pleasantness in dreams (.33). Subjects preferring Classical music reported a higher incidence of Dreams of flying (.33) and rated higher Discontentedness in dreams (-.26). The meaning of these low values awaits research based on personality inventories and full dream reports.
Full Text Available Information is one of the most important resources that a company must possess. Some information is hidden deep in the black box - the mind of the consumer, as in the case of information about consumer preferences. Although it seems a concept difficult to grasp, it was shown that consumer preferences can be effectively measured and their research may provide a deeper understanding of the choices that consumers make when deciding to select an offer against another and when deciding to continue in time the relationship with one supplier. The following paper reveals some important aspects regarding the use of information regarding consumer preferences, the fundamentals behind consumer preferences research and the milestones in the consumer preferences research process.
Full Text Available Information is one of the most important resources that a company must possess. Some information is hidden deep in the black box - the mind of the consumer, as in the case of information about consumer preferences. Although it seems a concept difficult to grasp, it was shown that consumer preferences can be effectively measured and their research may provide a deeper understanding of the choices that consumers make when deciding to select an offer against another and when deciding to continue in time the relationship with one supplier. The following paper reveals some important aspects regarding the use of information regarding consumer preferences, the fundamentals behind consumer preferences research and the milestones in the consumer preferences research process.
Almigbal, Turky H.
Objectives: To investigate the relationship between the learning style preferences of Saudi medical students and their academic achievements. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 600 medical students at King Saud University in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from October 2012 to July 2013. The Visual, Aural, Read/Write, and Kinesthetic questionnaire (VARK) questionnaire was used to categorize learning style preferences. Descriptive and analytical statistics were used to identify the learning style preferences of medical students and their relationship to academic achievement, gender, marital status, residency, different teaching curricula, and study resources (for example, teachersâ PowerPoint slides, textbooks, and journals). Results: The results indicated that 261 students (43%) preferred to learn using all VARK modalities. There was a significant difference in learning style preferences between genders (p=0.028). The relationship between learning style preferences and students in different teaching curricula was also statistically significant (p=0.047). However, learning style preferences are not related to a studentâs academic achievements, marital status, residency, or study resources (for example, teachersâ PowerPoint slides, textbooks, and journals). Also, after being adjusted to other studiesâ variables, the learning style preferences were not related to GPA. Conclusion: Our findings can be used to improve the quality of teaching in Saudi Arabia; students would be advantaged if teachers understood the factors that can be related to studentsâ learning styles. PMID:25737179
Full Text Available Background: Anxiety about doctors among children is very common. White coat phobia which is a classical conditioning phenomenon is said to be prevalent among children. Objectives: To analyze the association between anxious states of children about dentists and their preference of dentist attire and gender in the dental office. Materials and Methods: The 9-12-year-old middle school children were selected for the study. Children were asked to fill a questionnaire containing childrenâČs fear survey schedule-dental subscale (CFSS-DS and asked to prefer dental attire from four different pictures displaying the single anonymous dentist in four different attires in the same operator. The CFSS-DS gave the anxiety scale, and age, gender, and experience were also plotted against children preference in an apron, protective wear, and gender preference. Results were tabulated and statistically analyzed using Chi-square test. Results: About 718 (62% were scored as anxious children. Of all anxious children, 502 (69.9% had preference of colored attires of the dentist, and 408 (66.8% anxious children preferred dentist with protective wear. Female dentists were preferred by 452 (66% anxious children. Same gender preference was also prevalent.
Pasch, Lauri A; Penilla, Carlos; Tschann, Jeanne M; Martinez, Suzanna M; Deardorff, Julianna; de Groat, Cynthia L; Gregorich, Steven E; Flores, Elena; Butte, Nancy F; Greenspan, Louise C
Objective To determine whether parents who prefer a heavier child would underestimate their child's weight more than those who prefer a leaner child. Methods Participants were Mexican-American families (312 mothers, 173 fathers, and 312 children ages 8-10) who were interviewed and had height and weight measurements. Parents reported their preferred child body size and their perceptions of their child's weight. Parents' underestimation of their child's weight was calculated as the standardized difference between parent's perception of their child's weight and the child's body mass index (BMI) z-score. Demographic factors and parental BMI were also assessed. Results Although 50Â % of children were overweight or obese, only 11Â % of mothers and 10Â % of fathers perceived their children as being somewhat or very overweight. Multiple regressions controlling for covariates (parental BMI and child age) showed that parents who preferred a heavier child body size underestimated their children's weight more, compared to those who preferred a leaner child (ÎČ for mothersÂ =Â .13, pÂ child body size underestimated their child's weight to a greater degree than parents who preferred a leaner child. Attempts by pediatricians to correct parents' misperceptions about child weight may damage rapport and ultimately fail if the misperception is actually a reflection of parents' preferences, which may not be readily amenable to change. Future research should address optimal methods of communication about child overweight which take into account parent preferences.
Full Text Available This article opens by considering an apparent paradox. Many professional journalists, working on many media in many countries, consider themselves 'objective'. They do not, at least, set out to skew their coverage of important issues in favour of one side or the other. And yet much of their coverage of conflicts shows a discernible dominant pattern of War Journalism - biased in favour of war. This is not because of a lack of objectivity, the article suggests, but a surfeit. The set of conventions many editors and reporters regard as defining 'objective' journalism arose in response to economic and political conditions which rewarded news that could commend itself as unobjectionable to the maximum number of potential customers. Three of the most important conventions privilege official sources; a dualistic construction of stories and event, over process. Each of these, when applied to the representation of conflicts, leads readers and audiences - or leaves them - to over-value violent, reactive responses and under-value non-violent, developmental responses. Industry conventions sit uneasily alongside equally time-honoured expectations of journalism. These are encoded in rules and regulations governing the content of broadcast news, in many jurisdictions which have a public service concept for radio and television. In some respects, War Journalism can be shown to make it more difficult for broadcast news services to fulfil their public service obligations. Awareness is now growing, of the tension between these two pressures on journalism and its influence on the way pressing public debates are shaped and mediated. More Peace Journalism would help to bring public service news back into line with legitimate public expectations.
The Numerical Analysis Objects project (NAO) is a project in the Mathematics Department of IBM's TJ Watson Research Center. While there are plenty of numerical tools available today, it is not an easy task to combine them into a custom application. NAO is directed at the dual problems of building applications from a set of tools, and creating those tools. There are several "reuse" projects, which focus on the problems of identifying and cataloging tools. NAO is directed at the specific context of scientific computing. Because the type of tools is restricted, problems such as tools with incompatible data structures for input and output, and dissimilar interfaces to tools which solve similar problems can be addressed. The approach we've taken is to define interfaces to those objects used in numerical analysis, such as geometries, functions and operators, and to start collecting (and building) a set of tools which use these interfaces. We have written a class library (a set of abstract classes and implementations) in C++ which demonstrates the approach. Besides the classes, the class library includes "stub" routines which allow the library to be used from C or Fortran, and an interface to a Visual Programming Language. The library has been used to build a simulator for petroleum reservoirs, using a set of tools for discretizing nonlinear differential equations that we have written, and includes "wrapped" versions of packages from the Netlib repository. Documentation can be found on the Web at "http://www.research.ibm.com/nao". I will describe the objects and their interfaces, and give examples ranging from mesh generation to solving differential equations.
Boukellal, Hakim; Plastino, Julie; Noireaux, Vincent; Sykes, CĂ©cile
Cells move by the action of specific proteins or small molecules that assemble and interact, constituting a dynamic network called the cytoskeleton. Actin, one of the major components of eucaryotic cells, exists as filaments (semi-flexible polymers) or as monomers. Local assembly of the actin network leads to cell movement as well as to the propulsion of objects like bacteria or liposomes within cells. In order to understand the force generated for this propulsion, we use biomimetic experimental systems that allow for the control of physical parameters. We show evidence for the role of elasticity in the propulsion mechanism. To cite this article: H. Boukellal et al., C. R. Physique 4 (2003).
The region of the solar system immediately beyond Neptune's orbit is densely populated with small bodies. This region, known as the Kuiper Belt, consists of objects that may predate Neptune, the orbits of which provide a fossil record of processes operative in the young solar system. The Kuiper Belt contains some of the Solar System's most primitive, least thermally processed matter. It is probably the source of the short-period comets and Centaurs, and may also supply collisionally generated interplanetary dust. I discuss the properties of the Kuiper Belt and provide an overview of the outstanding scientific issues.
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Full Text Available Abstract Background With the progress of nanotechnology, one frequently has to model biological macromolecules simultaneously with nano-objects. However, the atomic structures of the nano objects are typically not available or they are solid state entities. Because of that, the researchers have to investigate such nano systems by generating models of the nano objects in a manner that the existing software be able to carry the simulations. In addition, it should allow generating composite objects with complex shape by combining basic geometrical figures and embedding biological macromolecules within the system. Results Here we report the Protein Nano-Object Integrator (ProNOI which allows for generating atomic-style geometrical objects with user desired shape and dimensions. Unlimited number of objects can be created and combined with biological macromolecules in Protein Data Bank (PDB format file. Once the objects are generated, the users can use sliders to manipulate their shape, dimension and absolute position. In addition, the software offers the option to charge the objects with either specified surface or volumetric charge density and to model them with user-desired dielectric constants. According to the user preference, the biological macromolecule atoms can be assigned charges and radii according to four different force fields: Amber, Charmm, OPLS and PARSE. The biological macromolecules and the atomic-style objects are exported as a position, charge and radius (PQR file, or if a default dielectric constant distribution is not selected, it is exported as a position, charge, radius and epsilon (PQRE file. As illustration of the capabilities of the ProNOI, we created a composite object in a shape of a robot, aptly named the Clemson Robot, whose parts are charged with various volumetric charge densities and holds the barnase-barstar protein complex in its hand. Conclusions The Protein Nano-Object Integrator (ProNOI is a convenient tool for
Smith, Nicholas; Campbell, Brandon; Li, Lin; Li, Chuan; Alexov, Emil
With the progress of nanotechnology, one frequently has to model biological macromolecules simultaneously with nano-objects. However, the atomic structures of the nano objects are typically not available or they are solid state entities. Because of that, the researchers have to investigate such nano systems by generating models of the nano objects in a manner that the existing software be able to carry the simulations. In addition, it should allow generating composite objects with complex shape by combining basic geometrical figures and embedding biological macromolecules within the system. Here we report the Protein Nano-Object Integrator (ProNOI) which allows for generating atomic-style geometrical objects with user desired shape and dimensions. Unlimited number of objects can be created and combined with biological macromolecules in Protein Data Bank (PDB) format file. Once the objects are generated, the users can use sliders to manipulate their shape, dimension and absolute position. In addition, the software offers the option to charge the objects with either specified surface or volumetric charge density and to model them with user-desired dielectric constants. According to the user preference, the biological macromolecule atoms can be assigned charges and radii according to four different force fields: Amber, Charmm, OPLS and PARSE. The biological macromolecules and the atomic-style objects are exported as a position, charge and radius (PQR) file, or if a default dielectric constant distribution is not selected, it is exported as a position, charge, radius and epsilon (PQRE) file. As illustration of the capabilities of the ProNOI, we created a composite object in a shape of a robot, aptly named the Clemson Robot, whose parts are charged with various volumetric charge densities and holds the barnase-barstar protein complex in its hand. The Protein Nano-Object Integrator (ProNOI) is a convenient tool for generating atomic-style nano shapes in conjunction with
Full Text Available Over the last fifty years, the quality of construction has been constantly declining in light of the ideology of fast updating of the whole sphere of consumption. As a result, the houses built in the 1950s remain elite, despite their respectable age. Bulgakov House (the object of the issue is built in the historical center of Moscow. The high quality of its design and construction and careful and attentive treatment of the historic environment make this house an example of true elitism.
Fusilli, Lorenzo; Laneve, Giovanni; De Bonis, Roberto; Sebastian, Ana; Ferrucci, Fabrizio; Oliveira, Sandra
take into account the influence of water present in the alive vegetation (relevant in determining the fire regime) through the Equivalent Water Thickness. PREFER will use daily FPI forecasts to produce a seasonal fire hazard index by introducing in the model the human factor as captured by the fire occurrence statistics. PREFER will produce also seasonal fire risk maps by combining the seasonal hazard data with vulnerability and exposure maps. Finally, Prescribed Burning (PB) represents the controlled application of fire to vegetation under specific environmental conditions to attain planned resource management objectives. The main objective of the PREFER service for PB is to support the user in the identification of the areas and the time, that is where and when, the PB practice is applicable in a secure way. The main innovation, taking into account the results previously obtained in the frame work of other European projects (FIREPARADOX), will be the integration of the advanced remote sensing techniques that have not yet been developed for the problem under study, aiming at developing an index capable to provide the right time to intervene with the PB in the area of interest.
Clarke, Steve; Giubilini, Alberto
ABSTRACT Vaccine refusal occurs for a variety of reasons. In this article we examine vaccine refusals that are made on conscientious grounds; that is, for religious, moral, or philosophical reasons. We focus on two questions: first, whether people should be entitled to conscientiously object to vaccination against contagious diseases (either for themselves or for their children); second, if so, to what constraints or requirements should conscientious objection (CO) to vaccination be subject. To address these questions, we consider an analogy between CO to vaccination and CO to military service. We argue that conscientious objectors to vaccination should make an appropriate contribution to society in lieu of being vaccinated. The contribution to be made will depend on the severity of the relevant disease(s), its morbidity, and also the likelihood that vaccine refusal will lead to harm. In particular, the contribution required will depend on whether the rate of CO in a given population threatens herd immunity to the disease in question: for severe or highly contagious diseases, if the population rate of CO becomes high enough to threaten herd immunity, the requirements for CO could become so onerous that CO, though in principle permissible, would be de facto impermissible. PMID:28008636
Clarke, Steve; Giubilini, Alberto; Walker, Mary Jean
Vaccine refusal occurs for a variety of reasons. In this article we examine vaccine refusals that are made on conscientious grounds; that is, for religious, moral, or philosophical reasons. We focus on two questions: first, whether people should be entitled to conscientiously object to vaccination against contagious diseases (either for themselves or for their children); second, if so, to what constraints or requirements should conscientious objection (CO) to vaccination be subject. To address these questions, we consider an analogy between CO to vaccination and CO to military service. We argue that conscientious objectors to vaccination should make an appropriate contribution to society in lieu of being vaccinated. The contribution to be made will depend on the severity of the relevant disease(s), its morbidity, and also the likelihood that vaccine refusal will lead to harm. In particular, the contribution required will depend on whether the rate of CO in a given population threatens herd immunity to the disease in question: for severe or highly contagious diseases, if the population rate of CO becomes high enough to threaten herd immunity, the requirements for CO could become so onerous that CO, though in principle permissible, would be de facto impermissible. Â© 2016 The Authors Bioethics Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available In Polish literature in the field of accounting there are many synonymous terms such as the object of cost calculation, cost unit, or cost driver. Their definitions are often very similar, and their use in certain cir-cumstances unclear. This article aims to answer the question whether the term costs object meaning âsomething whose cost is of interest to accounting information usersâ, can replace previously used terms. The analysis applies to literature in Polish, in which different schools have developed their own terms, which is connected with the tradition of schools of accounting in Poland and the evolution of the con-cepts. The analysis aims to verify the hypothesis that for many synonymous terms used in publications in the field of accounting a universal solution can be proposed, taking into account the technological pro-gress and changing user needs. The research methods used include a systematic review of literature in Polish from the period 1966 to 2016 and an analysis of the terms.