WorldWideScience

Sample records for ranging lidar systems

  1. Challenges in miniaturized automotive long-range lidar system design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fersch, Thomas; Weigel, Robert; Koelpin, Alexander

    2017-05-01

    This paper discusses the current technical limitations posed on endeavors to miniaturize lidar systems for use in automotive applications and how to possibly extend those limits. The focus is set on long-range scanning direct time of flight LiDAR systems using APD photodetectors. Miniaturization evokes severe problems in ensuring absolute laser safety while maintaining the systems' performance in terms of maximum range, signal-to-noise ratio, detection probability, pixel density, or frame rate. Based on hypothetical but realistic specifications for an exemplary system the complete lidar signal path is calculated. The maximum range of the system is used as a general performance indicator. It is determined with the minimum signal-to-noise ratio required to detect an object. Various system parameters are varied to find their impact on the system's range. The reduction of the laser's pulse width and the right choice for the transimpedance amplifier's amplification have shown to be practicable measures to double the system's range.

  2. HiRes camera and LIDAR ranging system for the Clementine mission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ledebuhr, A.G.; Kordas, J.F.; Lewis, I.T. [and others

    1995-04-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory developed a space-qualified High Resolution (HiRes) imaging LIDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) system for use on the DoD Clementine mission. The Clementine mission provided more than 1.7 million images of the moon, earth, and stars, including the first ever complete systematic surface mapping of the moon from the ultra-violet to near-infrared spectral regions. This article describes the Clementine HiRes/LIDAR system, discusses design goals and preliminary estimates of on-orbit performance, and summarizes lessons learned in building and using the sensor. The LIDAR receiver system consists of a High Resolution (HiRes) imaging channel which incorporates an intensified multi-spectral visible camera combined with a Laser ranging channel which uses an avalanche photo-diode for laser pulse detection and timing. The receiver was bore sighted to a light-weight McDonnell-Douglas diode-pumped ND:YAG laser transmitter that emmitted 1.06 {micro}m wavelength pulses of 200 mJ/pulse and 10 ns pulse-width, The LIDAR receiver uses a common F/9.5 Cassegrain telescope assembly. The optical path of the telescope is split using a color-separating beamsplitter. The imaging channel incorporates a filter wheel assembly which spectrally selects the light which is imaged onto a custom 12 mm gated image intensifier fiber-optically-coupled into a 384 x 276 pixel frame transfer CCD FPA. The image intensifier was spectrally sensitive over the 0.4 to 0.8 {micro}m wavelength region. The six-position filter wheel contained 4 narrow spectral filters, one broadband and one blocking filter. At periselene (400 km) the HiRes/LIDAR imaged a 2.8 km swath width at 20-meter resolution. The LIDAR function detected differential signal return with a 40-meter range accuracy, with a maximum range capability of 640 km, limited by the bit counter in the range return counting clock.

  3. Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) From Space - Laser Altimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoli

    2016-01-01

    Light detection and ranging, or lidar, is like radar but atoptical wavelengths. The principle of operation and theirapplications in remote sensing are similar. Lidars havemany advantages over radars in instrument designs andapplications because of the much shorter laser wavelengthsand narrower beams. The lidar transmitters and receiveroptics are much smaller than radar antenna dishes. Thespatial resolution of lidar measurement is much finer thanthat of radar because of the much smaller footprint size onground. Lidar measurements usually give a better temporalresolution because the laser pulses can be much narrowerthan radio frequency (RF) signals. The major limitation oflidar is the ability to penetrate clouds and ground surfaces.

  4. Tracking Honey Bees Using LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BENDER, SUSAN FAE ANN; RODACY, PHILIP J.; SCHMITT, RANDAL L.; HARGIS JR., PHILIP J.; JOHNSON, MARK S.; KLARKOWSKI, JAMES R.; MAGEE, GLEN I.; BENDER, GARY LEE

    2003-01-01

    The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) has recognized that biological and chemical toxins are a real and growing threat to troops, civilians, and the ecosystem. The Explosives Components Facility at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has been working with the University of Montana, the Southwest Research Institute, and other agencies to evaluate the feasibility of directing honeybees to specific targets, and for environmental sampling of biological and chemical ''agents of harm''. Recent work has focused on finding and locating buried landmines and unexploded ordnance (UXO). Tests have demonstrated that honeybees can be trained to efficiently and accurately locate explosive signatures in the environment. However, it is difficult to visually track the bees and determine precisely where the targets are located. Video equipment is not practical due to its limited resolution and range. In addition, it is often unsafe to install such equipment in a field. A technology is needed to provide investigators with the standoff capability to track bees and accurately map the location of the suspected targets. This report documents Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) tests that were performed by SNL. These tests have shown that a LIDAR system can be used to track honeybees. The LIDAR system can provide both the range and coordinates of the target so that the location of buried munitions can be accurately mapped for subsequent removal.

  5. Development of atmospheric polarization LIDAR System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghalumyan, A.S.; Ghazaryan, V.R.

    2016-01-01

    LIDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) system sensitive to the polarization of the backscattered signal is being developed in Yerevan Physics Institute. The system is designed primarily for remote sensing of the atmospheric electric fields. At present, the system is being tuned for measuring vertical atmospheric backscatter profiles of aerosols and hydrometeors, analyze the depolarization ratio of elastic backscattered laser beams and investigate the influence of external factors on the beam polarization. In this paper, we describe the complete LIDAR system – the laser transmitter, receiving telescope and the polarization separator. The data acquisition and processing techniques are also described. (author)

  6. 3D pulsed chaos lidar system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chih-Hao; Chen, Chih-Ying; Chen, Jun-Da; Pan, Da-Kung; Ting, Kai-Ting; Lin, Fan-Yi

    2018-04-30

    We develop an unprecedented 3D pulsed chaos lidar system for potential intelligent machinery applications. Benefited from the random nature of the chaos, conventional CW chaos lidars already possess excellent anti-jamming and anti-interference capabilities and have no range ambiguity. In our system, we further employ self-homodyning and time gating to generate a pulsed homodyned chaos to boost the energy-utilization efficiency. Compared to the original chaos, we show that the pulsed homodyned chaos improves the detection SNR by more than 20 dB. With a sampling rate of just 1.25 GS/s that has a native sampling spacing of 12 cm, we successfully achieve millimeter-level accuracy and precision in ranging. Compared with two commercial lidars tested side-by-side, namely the pulsed Spectroscan and the random-modulation continuous-wave Lidar-lite, the pulsed chaos lidar that is in compliance with the class-1 eye-safe regulation shows significantly better precision and a much longer detection range up to 100 m. Moreover, by employing a 2-axis MEMS mirror for active laser scanning, we also demonstrate real-time 3D imaging with errors of less than 4 mm in depth.

  7. Determining roof surfaces suitable for the installation of PV (photovoltaic) systems, based on LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) data, pyranometer measurements, and distribution network configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srećković, Nevena; Lukač, Niko; Žalik, Borut; Štumberger, Gorazd

    2016-01-01

    Proliferation of distributed generation units, integrated within the distribution network requires increased attention to their proper placements. In urban areas, buildings' rooftops are expected to have greater involvement in the deployment of PV (photovoltaic) systems. This paper proposes a novel procedure for determining roof surfaces suitable for their installation. The PV potential of roof surfaces is assessed based on Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) data and pyranometer measurements. Then, the time-dependent PV generation profiles, electricity distribution network configuration, and time-dependent loading profiles are used together over time-steps for selecting those roof surfaces with the highest PV potential, which would lead to the highest reduction of network losses per year. The presented procedure was implemented within a real urban area distribution network. The results obtained confirmed that PV potential assessment could be an insufficient criterion when selecting those roof surfaces suitable for the installation of PV systems. In order to obtain relevant results, network configuration and time-dependent loading and generation profiles must be considered as well. - Highlights: • Roof surfaces, suitable for installation of PV systems are evaluated and ranked. • Improved PV potential based procedure is proposed for their selection in urban areas. • Time-dependent network loading and PV generation profiles are considered. • Losses in a real electricity network are minimized in the optimization procedure. • Final selection of ranked roof surfaces is based on results of optimization.

  8. Wind field reconstruction from nacelle-mounted lidar short-range measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Borraccino

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Profiling nacelle lidars probe the wind at several heights and several distances upstream of the rotor. The development of such lidar systems is relatively recent, and it is still unclear how to condense the lidar raw measurements into useful wind field characteristics such as speed, direction, vertical and longitudinal gradients (wind shear. In this paper, we demonstrate an innovative method to estimate wind field characteristics using nacelle lidar measurements taken within the induction zone. Model-fitting wind field reconstruction techniques are applied to nacelle lidar measurements taken at multiple distances close to the rotor, where a wind model is combined with a simple induction model. The method allows robust determination of free-stream wind characteristics. The method was applied to experimental data obtained with two different types of nacelle lidar (five-beam Demonstrator and ZephIR Dual Mode. The reconstructed wind speed was within 0.5 % of the wind speed measured with a mast-top-mounted cup anemometer at 2.5 rotor diameters upstream of the turbine. The technique described in this paper overcomes measurement range limitations of the currently available nacelle lidar technology.

  9. A cloud masking algorithm for EARLINET lidar systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binietoglou, Ioannis; Baars, Holger; D'Amico, Giuseppe; Nicolae, Doina

    2015-04-01

    Cloud masking is an important first step in any aerosol lidar processing chain as most data processing algorithms can only be applied on cloud free observations. Up to now, the selection of a cloud-free time interval for data processing is typically performed manually, and this is one of the outstanding problems for automatic processing of lidar data in networks such as EARLINET. In this contribution we present initial developments of a cloud masking algorithm that permits the selection of the appropriate time intervals for lidar data processing based on uncalibrated lidar signals. The algorithm is based on a signal normalization procedure using the range of observed values of lidar returns, designed to work with different lidar systems with minimal user input. This normalization procedure can be applied to measurement periods of only few hours, even if no suitable cloud-free interval exists, and thus can be used even when only a short period of lidar measurements is available. Clouds are detected based on a combination of criteria including the magnitude of the normalized lidar signal and time-space edge detection performed using the Sobel operator. In this way the algorithm avoids misclassification of strong aerosol layers as clouds. Cloud detection is performed using the highest available time and vertical resolution of the lidar signals, allowing the effective detection of low-level clouds (e.g. cumulus humilis). Special attention is given to suppress false cloud detection due to signal noise that can affect the algorithm's performance, especially during day-time. In this contribution we present the details of algorithm, the effect of lidar characteristics (space-time resolution, available wavelengths, signal-to-noise ratio) to detection performance, and highlight the current strengths and limitations of the algorithm using lidar scenes from different lidar systems in different locations across Europe.

  10. The design, development, and test of balloonborne and groundbased lidar systems. Volume 1: Balloonborne coherent CO2 lidar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, O.; Aurilio, G.; Bucknam, R. D.; Hurd, A. G.; Rappaport, S. A.

    1991-06-01

    This is Volume 1 of a three volume final report on the design, development, and test of balloonborne and groundbased lidar systems. Volume 2 describes the flight test of Atmospheric Balloonborne Lidar Experiment, ABLE 2, which successfully made atmospheric density backscatter measurements during a flight over White Sands Missile Range. Volume 3 describes groundbased lidar development and measurements, including the design of a telescope dome lidar installation, the design of a transportable lidar shed for remote field sites, and field measurements of atmospheric and cloud backscatter from Ascension Island during SABLE 89 and Terciera, Azores during GABLE 90. In this volume, Volume 1, the design and fabrication of a balloonborne CO2 coherent lidar payload are described. The purpose of this payload is to measure, from altitudes greater than 20 km, the 10.6 micrometers backscatter from atmospheric aerosols as a function of altitude. Minor modifications to the lidar would provide for aerosol velocity measurements to be made. The lidar and payload system design was completed, and major components were fabricated and assembled. These tasks have been successfully completed, and recommendations for further lidar measurements and data analysis have been made.

  11. Opo lidar sounding of trace atmospheric gases in the 3 - 4 μm spectral range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanovskii, Oleg A.; Sadovnikov, Sergey A.; Kharchenko, Olga V.; Yakovlev, Semen V.

    2018-04-01

    The applicability of a KTA crystal-based laser system with optical parametric oscillators (OPO) generation to lidar sounding of the atmosphere in the spectral range 3-4 μm is studied in this work. A technique developed for lidar sounding of trace atmospheric gases (TAG) is based on differential absorption lidar (DIAL) method and differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS). The DIAL-DOAS technique is tested to estimate its efficiency for lidar sounding of atmospheric trace gases. The numerical simulation performed shows that a KTA-based OPO laser is a promising source of radiation for remote DIAL-DOAS sounding of the TAGs under study along surface tropospheric paths. A possibility of using a PD38-03-PR photodiode for the DIAL gas analysis of the atmosphere is shown.

  12. Sensitivity analysis of nacelle lidar free stream wind speed measurements to wind-induction reconstruction model and lidar range configuration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Elin; Borraccino, Antoine; Meyer Forsting, Alexander Raul

    The sensitivity of nacelle lidar wind speed measurements to wind-induction models and lidar range configurations is studied using experimental data from the Nørrekær Enge (NKE) measurement campaign and simulated lidar data from Reynold-Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) aerodynamic computational fluid...... the ZDM was configured to measure at five distances. From the configured distances, a large number of range configurations were created and systematically tested to determine the sensitivity of the reconstructed wind speeds to the number of ranges, minimum range and maximum range in the range......) of the fitting residuals. The results demonstrate that it is not possible to use RANS CFD simulated lidar data to determine optimal range configurations for real-time nacelle lidars due to their perfect (unrealistic) representation of the simulated flow field. The recommended range configurations are therefore...

  13. LIDAR pulse coding for high resolution range imaging at improved refresh rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gunzung; Park, Yongwan

    2016-10-17

    In this study, a light detection and ranging system (LIDAR) was designed that codes pixel location information in its laser pulses using the direct- sequence optical code division multiple access (DS-OCDMA) method in conjunction with a scanning-based microelectromechanical system (MEMS) mirror. This LIDAR can constantly measure the distance without idle listening time for the return of reflected waves because its laser pulses include pixel location information encoded by applying the DS-OCDMA. Therefore, this emits in each bearing direction without waiting for the reflected wave to return. The MEMS mirror is used to deflect and steer the coded laser pulses in the desired bearing direction. The receiver digitizes the received reflected pulses using a low-temperature-grown (LTG) indium gallium arsenide (InGaAs) based photoconductive antenna (PCA) and the time-to-digital converter (TDC) and demodulates them using the DS-OCDMA. When all of the reflected waves corresponding to the pixels forming a range image are received, the proposed LIDAR generates a point cloud based on the time-of-flight (ToF) of each reflected wave. The results of simulations performed on the proposed LIDAR are compared with simulations of existing LIDARs.

  14. Coherent lidar modulated with frequency stepped pulse trains for unambiguous high duty cycle range and velocity sensing in the atmosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindelöw, Per Jonas Petter; Mohr, Johan Jacob

    2007-01-01

    Range unambiguous high duty cycle coherent lidars can be constructed based on frequency stepped pulse train modulation, even continuously emitting systems could be envisioned. Such systems are suitable for velocity sensing of dispersed targets, like the atmosphere, at fast acquisition rates....... The lightwave synthesized frequency sweeper is a suitable generator yielding fast pulse repetition rates and stable equidistant frequency steps. Theoretical range resolution profiles of modulated lidars are presented....

  15. Shipborne LiDAR system for coastal change monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, chang hwan; Park, chang hong; Kim, hyun wook; hyuck Kim, won; Lee, myoung hoon; Park, hyeon yeong

    2016-04-01

    Coastal areas, used as human utilization areas like leisure space, medical care, ports and power plants, etc., are regions that are continuously changing and interconnected with oceans and land and the sea level has risen by about 8cm (1.9mm / yr) due to global warming from 1964 year to 2006 year in Korea. Coastal erosion due to sea-level rise has caused the problem of marine ecosystems and loss of tourism resources, etc. Regular monitoring of coastal erosion is essential at key locations with such volatility. But the survey method of land mobile LiDAR (light detection and ranging) system has much time consuming and many restrictions. For effective monitoring beach erosion, KIOST (Korea Institute of Ocean Science & Technology) has constructed a shipborne mobile LiDAR system. The shipborne mobile LiDAR system comprised a land mobile LiDAR (RIEGL LMS-420i), an INS (inertial navigation system, MAGUS Inertial+), a RTKGPS (LEICA GS15 GS25), and a fixed platform. The shipborne mobile LiDAR system is much more effective than a land mobile LiDAR system in the measuring of fore shore areas without shadow zone. Because the vessel with the shipborne mobile LiDAR system is continuously moved along the shoreline, it is possible to efficiently survey a large area in a relatively short time. Effective monitoring of the changes using the constructed shipborne mobile LiDAR system for seriously eroded coastal areas will be able to contribute to coastal erosion management and response.

  16. New generation lidar systems for eye safe full time observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinhirne, James D.

    1995-01-01

    The traditional lidar over the last thirty years has typically been a big pulse low repetition rate system. Pulse energies are in the 0.1 to 1.0 J range and repetition rates from 0.1 to 10 Hz. While such systems have proven to be good research tools, they have a number of limitations that prevent them from moving beyond lidar research to operational, application oriented instruments. These problems include a lack of eye safety, very low efficiency, poor reliability, lack of ruggedness and high development and operating costs. Recent advances in solid state laser, detectors and data systems have enabled the development of a new generation of lidar technology that meets the need for routine, application oriented instruments. In this paper the new approaches to operational lidar systems will be discussed. Micro pulse lidar (MPL) systems are currently in use, and their technology is highlighted. The basis and current development of continuous wave (CW) lidar and potential of other technical approaches is presented.

  17. The design, development, and test of balloonborne and groundbased lidar systems. Volume 3: Groundbased lidar systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, O.; Aurilio, G.; Bucknam, R. D.; Hurd, A. G.; Robertie, N. F.

    1991-06-01

    This is Volume 3 of a three volume final report on the design, development and test of balloonborne and groundbased lidar systems. Volume 1 describes the design and fabrication of a balloonborne CO2 coherent payload to measure the 10.6 micrometers backscatter from atmospheric aerosols as a function of altitude. Volume 2 describes the August 1987 flight test of Atmospheric Balloonborne Lidar Experiment, ABLE 2. In this volume we describe groundbased lidar development and measurements. A design was developed for installation of the ABLE lidar in the GL rooftop dome. A transportable shed was designed to house the ABLE lidar at the various remote measurement sites. Refurbishment and modification of the ABLE lidar were completed to permit groundbased lidar measurements of clouds and aerosols. Lidar field measurements were made at Ascension Island during SABLE 89. Lidar field measurements were made at Terciera, Azores during GABLE 90. These tasks have been successfully completed, and recommendations for further lidar measurements and data analysis have been made.

  18. Wind turbine wake characterization using long-range Doppler lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitken, M.; Lundquist, J. K.; Hestmark, K.; Banta, R. M.; Pichugina, Y.; Brewer, A.

    2012-12-01

    Wind turbines extract energy from the freestream flow, resulting in a waked region behind the rotor which is characterized by reduced wind speed and increased turbulence. The velocity deficit in the wake diminishes with distance, as faster-moving air outside is gradually entrained. In a concentrated group of turbines, then, downwind machines experience very different inflow conditions compared to those in the front row. As utility-scale turbines rarely exist in isolation, detailed knowledge of the mean flow and turbulence structure inside wakes is needed to correctly model both power production and turbine loading at modern wind farms. To this end, the Turbine Wake and Inflow Characterization Study (TWICS) was conducted in the spring of 2011 to determine the reduction in wind speeds downstream from a multi-MW turbine located at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) near Boulder, Colorado. Full-scale measurements of wake dynamics are hardly practical or even possible with conventional sensors, such as cup anemometers mounted on meteorological (met) masts. Accordingly, the High Resolution Doppler Lidar (HRDL) developed by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Earth System Research Laboratory was employed to investigate the formation and propagation of wakes under varying levels of ambient wind speed, shear, atmospheric stability, and turbulence. HRDL remotely senses line-of-sight wind velocities and has been used in several previous studies of boundary layer aerodynamics. With a fully steerable beam and a maximum range up to about 5 km, depending on atmospheric conditions, HRDL performed a comprehensive survey of the wind flow in front of and behind the turbine to study the shape, meandering, and attenuation of wakes. Due in large part to limited experimental data availability, wind farm wake modeling is still subject to an unacceptable amount of uncertainty, particularly in complex terrain. Here, analytical

  19. Long-Range WindScanner System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vasiljevic, Nikola; Lea, Guillaume; Courtney, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The technical aspects of a multi-Doppler LiDAR instrument, the long-range WindScanner system, are presented accompanied by an overview of the results from several field campaigns. The long-range WindScanner system consists of three spatially-separated, scanning coherent Doppler LiDARs and a remote......-rangeWindScanner system measures the wind field by emitting and directing three laser beams to intersect, and then scanning the beam intersection over a region of interest. The long-range WindScanner system was developed to tackle the need for high-quality observations of wind fields on scales of modern wind turbine...

  20. Influence of Waveform Characteristics on LiDAR Ranging Accuracy and Precision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bingwei; Xie, Xinhao; Li, Duan

    2018-01-01

    Time of flight (TOF) based light detection and ranging (LiDAR) is a technology for calculating distance between start/stop signals of time of flight. In lab-built LiDAR, two ranging systems for measuring flying time between start/stop signals include time-to-digital converter (TDC) that counts time between trigger signals and analog-to-digital converter (ADC) that processes the sampled start/stop pulses waveform for time estimation. We study the influence of waveform characteristics on range accuracy and precision of two kinds of ranging system. Comparing waveform based ranging (WR) with analog discrete return system based ranging (AR), a peak detection method (WR-PK) shows the best ranging performance because of less execution time, high ranging accuracy, and stable precision. Based on a novel statistic mathematical method maximal information coefficient (MIC), WR-PK precision has a high linear relationship with the received pulse width standard deviation. Thus keeping the received pulse width of measuring a constant distance as stable as possible can improve ranging precision. PMID:29642639

  1. Influence of Waveform Characteristics on LiDAR Ranging Accuracy and Precision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolu Li

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Time of flight (TOF based light detection and ranging (LiDAR is a technology for calculating distance between start/stop signals of time of flight. In lab-built LiDAR, two ranging systems for measuring flying time between start/stop signals include time-to-digital converter (TDC that counts time between trigger signals and analog-to-digital converter (ADC that processes the sampled start/stop pulses waveform for time estimation. We study the influence of waveform characteristics on range accuracy and precision of two kinds of ranging system. Comparing waveform based ranging (WR with analog discrete return system based ranging (AR, a peak detection method (WR-PK shows the best ranging performance because of less execution time, high ranging accuracy, and stable precision. Based on a novel statistic mathematical method maximal information coefficient (MIC, WR-PK precision has a high linear relationship with the received pulse width standard deviation. Thus keeping the received pulse width of measuring a constant distance as stable as possible can improve ranging precision.

  2. Measurement of Spray Drift with a Specifically Designed Lidar System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregorio, Eduard; Torrent, Xavier; Planas de Martí, Santiago; Solanelles, Francesc; Sanz, Ricardo; Rocadenbosch, Francesc; Masip, Joan; Ribes-Dasi, Manel; Rosell-Polo, Joan R

    2016-04-08

    Field measurements of spray drift are usually carried out by passive collectors and tracers. However, these methods are labour- and time-intensive and only provide point- and time-integrated measurements. Unlike these methods, the light detection and ranging (lidar) technique allows real-time measurements, obtaining information with temporal and spatial resolution. Recently, the authors have developed the first eye-safe lidar system specifically designed for spray drift monitoring. This prototype is based on a 1534 nm erbium-doped glass laser and an 80 mm diameter telescope, has scanning capability, and is easily transportable. This paper presents the results of the first experimental campaign carried out with this instrument. High coefficients of determination (R² > 0.85) were observed by comparing lidar measurements of the spray drift with those obtained by horizontal collectors. Furthermore, the lidar system allowed an assessment of the drift reduction potential (DRP) when comparing low-drift nozzles with standard ones, resulting in a DRP of 57% (preliminary result) for the tested nozzles. The lidar system was also used for monitoring the evolution of the spray flux over the canopy and to generate 2-D images of these plumes. The developed instrument is an advantageous alternative to passive collectors and opens the possibility of new methods for field measurement of spray drift.

  3. Identification of long-range transport of aerosols over Austria using EARLINET lidar measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camelia, Talianu

    2018-04-01

    The aims of the study is to identify the paths of the long-range transported aerosols over Austria and their potential origin, and to estimate their properties, using lidar measurements from EARLINET stations closest to Austria from Germany and Romania and aerosol transport models. As of now, there is no lidar station in Austria. The study is part of a project to estimate the usefulness of a lidar station located in Vienna, Austria.

  4. Opo lidar sounding of trace atmospheric gases in the 3 – 4 μm spectral range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romanovskii Oleg A.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The applicability of a KTA crystal-based laser system with optical parametric oscillators (OPO generation to lidar sounding of the atmosphere in the spectral range 3–4 μm is studied in this work. A technique developed for lidar sounding of trace atmospheric gases (TAG is based on differential absorption lidar (DIAL method and differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS. The DIAL-DOAS technique is tested to estimate its efficiency for lidar sounding of atmospheric trace gases. The numerical simulation performed shows that a KTA-based OPO laser is a promising source of radiation for remote DIAL-DOAS sounding of the TAGs under study along surface tropospheric paths. A possibility of using a PD38-03-PR photodiode for the DIAL gas analysis of the atmosphere is shown.

  5. Range Information Characterization of the Hokuyo UST-20LX LIDAR Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew A. Cooper

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study on the data measurements that the Hokuyo UST-20LX Laser Rangefinder produces, which compiles into an overall characterization of the LiDAR sensor relative to indoor environments. The range measurements, beam divergence, angular resolution, error effect due to some common painted and wooden surfaces, and the error due to target surface orientation are analyzed. It was shown that using a statistical average of sensor measurements provides a more accurate range measurement. It was also shown that the major source of errors for the Hokuyo UST-20LX sensor was caused by something that will be referred to as “mixed pixels”. Additional error sources are target surface material, and the range relative to the sensor. The purpose of this paper was twofold: (1 to describe a series of tests that can be performed to characterize various aspects of a LIDAR system from a user perspective, and (2 present a detailed characterization of the commonly-used Hokuyo UST-20LX LIDAR sensor.

  6. Deriving aerosol scattering ratio using range-resolved lidar ratio

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-02-13

    Feb 13, 2014 ... ratio (LDR) are used to suggest the type of aerosols. The altitude-dependent ... to the station and the experimentally measured lidar data. The 'model ... The integrated aerosol extinction profile with altitude-dependent S and k.

  7. Lidar: range-resolved optical remote sensing of the atmosphere

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Weitkamp, Claus; Walther, Herbert

    2005-01-01

    "Written by leading experts in optical radar, or lidar, this book brings all the recent practices up-to-date and covers a multitude of applications, from atmospheric sciences to environmental protection...

  8. LiDAR Vegetation Investigation and Signature Analysis System (LVISA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höfle, Bernhard; Koenig, Kristina; Griesbaum, Luisa; Kiefer, Andreas; Hämmerle, Martin; Eitel, Jan; Koma, Zsófia

    2015-04-01

    Our physical environment undergoes constant changes in space and time with strongly varying triggers, frequencies, and magnitudes. Monitoring these environmental changes is crucial to improve our scientific understanding of complex human-environmental interactions and helps us to respond to environmental change by adaptation or mitigation. The three-dimensional (3D) description of the Earth surface features and the detailed monitoring of surface processes using 3D spatial data have gained increasing attention within the last decades, such as in climate change research (e.g., glacier retreat), carbon sequestration (e.g., forest biomass monitoring), precision agriculture and natural hazard management. In all those areas, 3D data have helped to improve our process understanding by allowing quantifying the structural properties of earth surface features and their changes over time. This advancement has been fostered by technological developments and increased availability of 3D sensing systems. In particular, LiDAR (light detection and ranging) technology, also referred to as laser scanning, has made significant progress and has evolved into an operational tool in environmental research and geosciences. The main result of LiDAR measurements is a highly spatially resolved 3D point cloud. Each point within the LiDAR point cloud has a XYZ coordinate associated with it and often additional information such as the strength of the returned backscatter. The point cloud provided by LiDAR contains rich geospatial, structural, and potentially biochemical information about the surveyed objects. To deal with the inherently unorganized datasets and the large data volume (frequently millions of XYZ coordinates) of LiDAR datasets, a multitude of algorithms for automatic 3D object detection (e.g., of single trees) and physical surface description (e.g., biomass) have been developed. However, so far the exchange of datasets and approaches (i.e., extraction algorithms) among LiDAR users

  9. Coaxial direct-detection lidar-system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The invention relates to a coaxial direct-detection LIDAR system for measuring velocity, temperature and/or particulate density. The system comprises a laser source for emitting a laser light beam having a lasing center frequency along an emission path. The system further comprises an optical....... Finally, the system comprises a detector system arranged to receive the return signal from the optical delivery system, the detector system comprising a narrowband optical filter and a detector, the narrowband optical filter having a filter center frequency of a pass-band, wherein the center lasing...... frequency and/or the center filter frequency may be scanned. The invention further relates to an aircraft airspeed measurement device, and a wind turbine airspeed measurement device comprising the LIDAR system....

  10. Novel Ultra-Miniature LIDAR Scanner for Launch Range Data Collection, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) technology plays important roles in NASA's space missions. Specifically in KSC's launch vehicles operations, break-through in...

  11. Model of the Correlation between Lidar Systems and Wind Turbines for Lidar-Assisted Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlipf, David; Cheng, Po Wen; Mann, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    - or spinner-based lidar system. If on the one hand, the assumed correlation is overestimated, then the uncorrelated frequencies of the preview will cause unnecessary control action, inducing undesired loads. On the other hand, the benefits of the lidar-assisted controller will not be fully exhausted......, if correlated frequencies are filtered out. To avoid these miscalculations, this work presents a method to model the correlation between lidar systems and wind turbines using Kaimal wind spectra. The derived model accounts for different measurement configurations and spatial averaging of the lidar system......Investigations of lidar-assisted control to optimize the energy yield and to reduce loads of wind turbines have increased significantly in recent years. For this kind of control, it is crucial to know the correlation between the rotor effective wind speed and the wind preview provided by a nacelle...

  12. Lidar Range-Resolved Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere

    CERN Document Server

    Weitkamp, Claus

    2005-01-01

    Written by leading experts in optical radar, or lidar, this book brings all the recent practices up-to-date and covers a multitude of applications, from atmospheric sciences to environmental protection. Its broad cross-disciplinary scope should appeal to both the experienced scientist and the novice in the field. The Foreword is by one of the early pioneers in the area, Herbert Walther.

  13. An Improved Calibration Method for a Rotating 2D LIDAR System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadan Zeng

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an improved calibration method of a rotating two-dimensional light detection and ranging (R2D-LIDAR system, which can obtain the 3D scanning map of the surroundings. The proposed R2D-LIDAR system, composed of a 2D LIDAR and a rotating unit, is pervasively used in the field of robotics owing to its low cost and dense scanning data. Nevertheless, the R2D-LIDAR system must be calibrated before building the geometric model because there are assembled deviation and abrasion between the 2D LIDAR and the rotating unit. Hence, the calibration procedures should contain both the adjustment between the two devices and the bias of 2D LIDAR itself. The main purpose of this work is to resolve the 2D LIDAR bias issue with a flat plane based on the Levenberg–Marquardt (LM algorithm. Experimental results for the calibration of the R2D-LIDAR system prove the reliability of this strategy to accurately estimate sensor offsets with the error range from −15 mm to 15 mm for the performance of capturing scans.

  14. An Improved Calibration Method for a Rotating 2D LIDAR System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yadan; Yu, Heng; Dai, Houde; Song, Shuang; Lin, Mingqiang; Sun, Bo; Jiang, Wei; Meng, Max Q-H

    2018-02-07

    This paper presents an improved calibration method of a rotating two-dimensional light detection and ranging (R2D-LIDAR) system, which can obtain the 3D scanning map of the surroundings. The proposed R2D-LIDAR system, composed of a 2D LIDAR and a rotating unit, is pervasively used in the field of robotics owing to its low cost and dense scanning data. Nevertheless, the R2D-LIDAR system must be calibrated before building the geometric model because there are assembled deviation and abrasion between the 2D LIDAR and the rotating unit. Hence, the calibration procedures should contain both the adjustment between the two devices and the bias of 2D LIDAR itself. The main purpose of this work is to resolve the 2D LIDAR bias issue with a flat plane based on the Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) algorithm. Experimental results for the calibration of the R2D-LIDAR system prove the reliability of this strategy to accurately estimate sensor offsets with the error range from -15 mm to 15 mm for the performance of capturing scans.

  15. Water-Vapor Raman Lidar System Reaches Higher Altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblanc, Thierry; McDermid, I. Stewart

    2010-01-01

    A Raman lidar system for measuring the vertical distribution of water vapor in the atmosphere is located at the Table Mountain Facility (TMF) in California. Raman lidar systems for obtaining vertical water-vapor profiles in the troposphere have been in use for some time. The TMF system incorporates a number of improvements over prior such systems that enable extension of the altitude range of measurements through the tropopause into the lower stratosphere. One major obstacle to extension of the altitude range is the fact that the mixing ratio of water vapor in the tropopause and the lower stratosphere is so low that Raman lidar measurements in this region are limited by noise. Therefore, the design of the TMF system incorporates several features intended to maximize the signal-to-noise ratio. These features include (1) the use of 355-nm-wavelength laser pulses having an energy (0.9 J per pulse) that is high relative to the laser-pulse energy levels of prior such systems, (2) a telescope having a large aperture (91 cm in diameter) and a narrow field of view (angular width .0.6 mrad), and (3) narrow-bandpass (wavelength bandwidth 0.6 nm) filters for the water-vapor Raman spectral channels. In addition to the large-aperture telescope, three telescopes having apertures 7.5 cm in diameter are used to collect returns from low altitudes.

  16. Novel Hemispherical Scanner for a Coherent Fiber LIDAR System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SibellOptics proposes to develop an eye-safe, long-range, compact, versatile, all-fiber wind LIDAR system for atmospheric wind velocity measurement applications that...

  17. Next Generation Fiber Coherent Lidar System for Wake Vortex Detection, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SibellOptics proposes to develop an eye-safe, long-range, compact, versatile, all-fiber wind LIDAR system for wake vortex measurement and other wind measurement...

  18. COHERENT LIDAR SYSTEM BASED ON A SEMICONDUCTOR LASER AND AMPLIFIER

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to a compact, reliable and low-cost coherent LIDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) system for remote wind-speed determination, determination of particle concentration, and/or temperature based on an all semiconductor light source and related methods. The present...... invention provides a coherent LIDAR system comprising a semiconductor laser for emission of a measurement beam of electromagnetic radiation directed towards a measurement volume for illumination of particles in the measurement volume, a reference beam generator for generation of a reference beam, a detector...... for generation of a detector signal by mixing of the reference beam with light emitted from the particles in the measurement volume illuminated by the measurement beam, and a signal processor for generating a velocity signal corresponding to the velocity of the particles based on the detector signal....

  19. Near-Range Receiver Unit of Next Generation PollyXT Used with Koldeway Aerosol Raman Lidar in Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stachlewska Iwona S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Near-range Aerosol Raman lidar (NARLa receiver unit, that was designed to enhance the detection range of the NeXT generation PollyXT Aerosol-Depolarization-Raman (ADR lidar of the University of Warsaw, was employed next the Koldeway Aerosol Raman Lidar (KARL at the AWI-IPEV German-French station in Arctic during Spring 2015. Here we introduce shortly design of both lidars, the scheme of their installation next to each other, and preliminary results of observations aiming at arctic haze investigation by the lidars and the iCAP a set of particle counter and aethalometer installed under a tethered balloon.

  20. Near-Range Receiver Unit of Next Generation PollyXT Used with Koldeway Aerosol Raman Lidar in Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachlewska, Iwona S.; Markowicz, Krzysztof M.; Ritter, Christoph; Neuber, Roland; Heese, Birgit; Engelmann, Ronny; Linne, Holger

    2016-06-01

    The Near-range Aerosol Raman lidar (NARLa) receiver unit, that was designed to enhance the detection range of the NeXT generation PollyXT Aerosol-Depolarization-Raman (ADR) lidar of the University of Warsaw, was employed next the Koldeway Aerosol Raman Lidar (KARL) at the AWI-IPEV German-French station in Arctic during Spring 2015. Here we introduce shortly design of both lidars, the scheme of their installation next to each other, and preliminary results of observations aiming at arctic haze investigation by the lidars and the iCAP a set of particle counter and aethalometer installed under a tethered balloon.

  1. Development of mobile air pollution monitoring system (LIDAR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Hyung Ki; Song, Kyu Seok; Kim, Dukh Yeon; Yang, Ki Ho; Lee, Jong Min; Yoon, S.; Rostov, A

    2001-01-01

    Most air pollution monitoring technologies accompany a time-consuming sample treatment and provide pollution information only for a local area. Thus, they have a critical restriction in monitoring time-dependent pollution variation effectively over the wide range of area both in height and in width. LIDAR(Light Detection And Ranging) is a new technology to overcome such drawbacks of the existing pollution monitoring technologies and has long been investigated in the advanced countries. The coal of this project is to develop the mobile air pollution monitoring system and to apply the system to the detection of various pollutants, such as ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide and aerosols.

  2. Development of mobile air pollution monitoring system (LIDAR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, Hyung Ki; Song, Kyu Seok; Kim, Dukh Yeon; Yang, Ki Ho; Lee, Jong Min; Yoon, S.; Rostov, A.

    2001-01-01

    Most air pollution monitoring technologies accompany a time-consuming sample treatment and provide pollution information only for a local area. Thus, they have a critical restriction in monitoring time-dependent pollution variation effectively over the wide range of area both in height and in width. LIDAR(Light Detection And Ranging) is a new technology to overcome such drawbacks of the existing pollution monitoring technologies and has long been investigated in the advanced countries. The coal of this project is to develop the mobile air pollution monitoring system and to apply the system to the detection of various pollutants, such as ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide and aerosols

  3. Gluing for Raman lidar systems using the lamp mapping technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Monique; Venable, Demetrius; Whiteman, David N

    2014-12-20

    In the context of combined analog and photon counting (PC) data acquisition in a Lidar system, glue coefficients are defined as constants used for converting an analog signal into a virtual PC signal. The coefficients are typically calculated using Lidar profile data taken under clear, nighttime conditions since, in the presence of clouds or high solar background, it is difficult to obtain accurate glue coefficients from Lidar backscattered data. Here we introduce a new method in which we use the lamp mapping technique (LMT) to determine glue coefficients in a manner that does not require atmospheric profiles to be acquired and permits accurate glue coefficients to be calculated when adequate Lidar profile data are not available. The LMT involves scanning a halogen lamp over the aperture of a Lidar receiver telescope such that the optical efficiency of the entire detection system is characterized. The studies shown here involve two Raman lidar systems; the first from Howard University and the second from NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center. The glue coefficients determined using the LMT and the Lidar backscattered method agreed within 1.2% for the water vapor channel and within 2.5% for the nitrogen channel for both Lidar systems. We believe this to be the first instance of the use of laboratory techniques for determining the glue coefficients for Lidar data analysis.

  4. Underwater lidar system: design challenges and application in pollution detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Pradip; Sankolli, Swati; Chakraborty, A.

    2016-05-01

    The present remote sensing techniques have imposed limitations in the applications of LIDAR Technology. The fundamental sampling inadequacy of the remote sensing data obtained from satellites is that they cannot resolve in the third spatial dimension, the vertical. This limits our possibilities of measuring any vertical variability in the water column. Also the interaction between the physical and biological process in the oceans and their effects at subsequent depths cannot be modeled with present techniques. The idea behind this paper is to introduce underwater LIDAR measurement system by using a LIDAR mounted on an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV). The paper introduces working principles and design parameters for the LIDAR mounted AUV (AUV-LIDAR). Among several applications the papers discusses the possible use and advantages of AUV-LIDAR in water pollution detection through profiling of Dissolved Organic Matter (DOM) in water bodies.

  5. Spaceborne Lidar in the Study of Marine Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostetler, Chris A; Behrenfeld, Michael J; Hu, Yongxiang; Hair, Johnathan W; Schulien, Jennifer A

    2018-01-03

    Satellite passive ocean color instruments have provided an unbroken ∼20-year record of global ocean plankton properties, but this measurement approach has inherent limitations in terms of spatial-temporal sampling and ability to resolve vertical structure within the water column. These limitations can be addressed by coupling ocean color data with measurements from a spaceborne lidar. Airborne lidars have been used for decades to study ocean subsurface properties, but recent breakthroughs have now demonstrated that plankton properties can be measured with a satellite lidar. The satellite lidar era in oceanography has arrived. Here, we present a review of the lidar technique, its applications in marine systems, a perspective on what can be accomplished in the near future with an ocean- and atmosphere-optimized satellite lidar, and a vision for a multiplatform virtual constellation of observational assets that would enable a three-dimensional reconstruction of global ocean ecosystems.

  6. Spaceborne Lidar in the Study of Marine Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostetler, Chris A.; Behrenfeld, Michael J.; Hu, Yongxiang; Hair, Johnathan W.; Schulien, Jennifer A.

    2018-01-01

    Satellite passive ocean color instruments have provided an unbroken ˜20-year record of global ocean plankton properties, but this measurement approach has inherent limitations in terms of spatial-temporal sampling and ability to resolve vertical structure within the water column. These limitations can be addressed by coupling ocean color data with measurements from a spaceborne lidar. Airborne lidars have been used for decades to study ocean subsurface properties, but recent breakthroughs have now demonstrated that plankton properties can be measured with a satellite lidar. The satellite lidar era in oceanography has arrived. Here, we present a review of the lidar technique, its applications in marine systems, a perspective on what can be accomplished in the near future with an ocean- and atmosphere-optimized satellite lidar, and a vision for a multiplatform virtual constellation of observational assets that would enable a three-dimensional reconstruction of global ocean ecosystems.

  7. Mechanical design of a lidar system for space applications - LITE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crockett, Sharon K.

    1990-01-01

    The Lidar In-Space Technology Experiment (LITE) is a Shuttle experiment that will demonstrate the first use of a lidar system in space. Its design process must take into account not only the system design but also the unique design requirements for spaceborne experiment.

  8. Optimization of eyesafe avalanche photodiode lidar for automobile safety and autonomous navigation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, George M.

    2017-03-01

    Newly emerging accident-reducing, driver-assistance, and autonomous-navigation technology for automobiles is based on real-time three-dimensional mapping and object detection, tracking, and classification using lidar sensors. Yet, the lack of lidar sensors suitable for meeting application requirements appreciably limits practical widespread use of lidar in trucking, public livery, consumer cars, and fleet automobiles. To address this need, a system-engineering perspective to eyesafe lidar-system design for high-level advanced driver-assistance sensor systems and a design trade study including 1.5-μm spot-scanned, line-scanned, and flash-lidar systems are presented. A cost-effective lidar instrument design is then proposed based on high-repetition-rate diode-pumped solid-state lasers and high-gain, low-excess-noise InGaAs avalanche photodiode receivers and focal plane arrays. Using probabilistic receiver-operating-characteristic analysis, derived from measured component performance, a compact lidar system is proposed that is capable of 220 m ranging with 5-cm accuracy, which can be readily scaled to a 360-deg field of regard.

  9. A user friendly Lidar system based on LabVIEW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Mats; Weibring, P.

    1996-09-01

    Mobile differential absorption lidar (DIAL) systems have been used for the last two decades. The lidar group in Lund has performed many DIAL measurements with a mobile lidar system which was first described in 1987. This report describes how that system was updated with the graphical programming language LabVIEW in order to get a user friendly system. The software controls the lidar system and analyses measurement data. The measurement results are shown as maps of species concentration. New electronics to support the new lidar program have also been installed. The report describes how all supporting electronics and the program work. A user manual for the new program is also given. 19 refs, 79 figs, 23 charts

  10. Performance analysis and technical assessment of coherent lidar systems for airborne wind shear detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffaker, R. Milton; Targ, Russell

    1988-01-01

    Detailed computer simulations of the lidar wind-measuring process have been conducted to evaluate the use of pulsed coherent lidar for airborne windshear monitoring. NASA data fields for an actual microburst event were used in the simulation. Both CO2 and Ho:YAG laser lidar systems performed well in the microburst test case, and were able to measure wind shear in the severe weather of this wet microburst to ranges in excess of 1.4 km. The consequent warning time gained was about 15 sec.

  11. Analysis of the SNR and sensing ability of different sensor types in a LIDAR system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Gyudong; Han, Munhyun; Seo, Hongseok; Mheen, Bongki

    2017-10-01

    LIDAR (light distance and ranging) systems use sensors to detect reflected signals. The performance of the sensors significantly affects the specification of the LIDAR system. Especially, the number and size of the sensors determine the FOV (field of view) and resolution of the system, regardless of which sensors are used. The resolution of an array-type sensor normally depends on the number of pixels in the array. In this type of sensor, there are several limitations to increase the number of pixels in an array for higher resolution, specifically complexity, cost, and size limitations. Another type of sensors uses multiple pairs of transmitter and receiver channels. Each channel detects different points with the corresponding directions indicated by the laser points of each channel. In this case, in order to increase the resolution, it is required to increase the number of channels, resulting in bigger sensor head size and deteriorated reliability due to heavy rotating head module containing all the pairs. In this paper, we present a method to overcome these limitations and improve the performance of the LIDAR system. ETRI developed a type of scanning LIDAR system called a STUD (static unitary detector) LIDAR system. It was developed to solve the problems associated with the aforementioned sensors. The STUD LIDAR system can use a variety of sensors without any limitations on the size or number of sensors, unlike other LIDAR systems. Since it provides optimal performance in terms of range and resolution, the detailed analysis was conducted in the STUD LIDAR system by applying different sensor type to have improved sensing performance.

  12. Airborne differential absorption lidar system for water vapor investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browell, E. V.; Carter, A. F.; Wilkerson, T. D.

    1981-01-01

    Range-resolved water vapor measurements using the differential-absorption lidar (DIAL) technique is described in detail. The system uses two independently tunable optically pumped lasers operating in the near infrared with laser pulses of less than 100 microseconds separation, to minimize concentration errors caused by atmospheric scattering. Water vapor concentration profiles are calculated for each measurement by a minicomputer, in real time. The work is needed in the study of atmospheric motion and thermodynamics as well as in forestry and agriculture problems.

  13. Imaging Flash Lidar for Safe Landing on Solar System Bodies and Spacecraft Rendezvous and Docking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amzajerdian, Farzin; Roback, Vincent E.; Bulyshev, Alexander E.; Brewster, Paul F.; Carrion, William A; Pierrottet, Diego F.; Hines, Glenn D.; Petway, Larry B.; Barnes, Bruce W.; Noe, Anna M.

    2015-01-01

    NASA has been pursuing flash lidar technology for autonomous, safe landing on solar system bodies and for automated rendezvous and docking. During the final stages of the landing from about 1 kilometer to 500 meters above the ground, the flash lidar can generate 3-Dimensional images of the terrain to identify hazardous features such as craters, rocks, and steep slopes. The onboard flight computer can then use the 3-D map of terrain to guide the vehicle to a safe location. As an automated rendezvous and docking sensor, the flash lidar can provide relative range, velocity, and bearing from an approaching spacecraft to another spacecraft or a space station. NASA Langley Research Center has developed and demonstrated a flash lidar sensor system capable of generating 16,000 pixels range images with 7 centimeters precision, at 20 Hertz frame rate, from a maximum slant range of 1800 m from the target area. This paper describes the lidar instrument and presents the results of recent flight tests onboard a rocket-propelled free-flyer vehicle (Morpheus) built by NASA Johnson Space Center. The flights were conducted at a simulated lunar terrain site, consisting of realistic hazard features and designated landing areas, built at NASA Kennedy Space Center specifically for this demonstration test. This paper also provides an overview of the plan for continued advancement of the flash lidar technology aimed at enhancing its performance to meet both landing and automated rendezvous and docking applications.

  14. Application of a Terrestrial LIDAR System for Elevation Mapping in Terra Nova Bay, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyoungsig Cho

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A terrestrial Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR system has high productivity and accuracy for topographic mapping, but the harsh conditions of Antarctica make LIDAR operation difficult. Low temperatures cause malfunctioning of the LIDAR system, and unpredictable strong winds can deteriorate data quality by irregularly shaking co-registration targets. For stable and efficient LIDAR operation in Antarctica, this study proposes and demonstrates the following practical solutions: (1 a lagging cover with a heating pack to maintain the temperature of the terrestrial LIDAR system; (2 co-registration using square planar targets and two-step point-merging methods based on extracted feature points and the Iterative Closest Point (ICP algorithm; and (3 a georeferencing module consisting of an artificial target and a Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS receiver. The solutions were used to produce a topographic map for construction of the Jang Bogo Research Station in Terra Nova Bay, Antarctica. Co-registration and georeferencing precision reached 5 and 45 mm, respectively, and the accuracy of the Digital Elevation Model (DEM generated from the LIDAR scanning data was ±27.7 cm.

  15. Application of a Terrestrial LIDAR System for Elevation Mapping in Terra Nova Bay, Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyoungsig; Hong, Seunghwan; Kim, Sangmin; Park, Hyokeun; Park, Ilsuk; Sohn, Hong-Gyoo

    2015-09-16

    A terrestrial Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) system has high productivity and accuracy for topographic mapping, but the harsh conditions of Antarctica make LIDAR operation difficult. Low temperatures cause malfunctioning of the LIDAR system, and unpredictable strong winds can deteriorate data quality by irregularly shaking co-registration targets. For stable and efficient LIDAR operation in Antarctica, this study proposes and demonstrates the following practical solutions: (1) a lagging cover with a heating pack to maintain the temperature of the terrestrial LIDAR system; (2) co-registration using square planar targets and two-step point-merging methods based on extracted feature points and the Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm; and (3) a georeferencing module consisting of an artificial target and a Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receiver. The solutions were used to produce a topographic map for construction of the Jang Bogo Research Station in Terra Nova Bay, Antarctica. Co-registration and georeferencing precision reached 5 and 45 mm, respectively, and the accuracy of the Digital Elevation Model (DEM) generated from the LIDAR scanning data was ±27.7 cm.

  16. Atmospheric aerosol measurements by employing a polarization scheimpflug lidar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Liang; Guan, Peng; Yang, Yang

    2018-04-01

    A polarization Scheimpflug lidar system based on the Scheimpflug principle has been developed by employing a compact 808-nm multimode highpower laser diode and two highly integrated CMOS sensors in Dalian University of Technology (DLUT), Dalian, China. The parallel and orthogonal polarized backscattering signal are recorded by two 45 degree tilted image sensors, respectively. Atmospheric particle measurements were carried out by employing the polarization Scheimpflug lidar system.

  17. Adaptive Data Processing Technique for Lidar-Assisted Control to Bridge the Gap between Lidar Systems and Wind Turbines: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlipf, David; Raach, Steffen; Haizmann, Florian; Cheng, Po Wen; Fleming, Paul; Scholbrock, Andrew, Krishnamurthy, Raghu; Boquet, Mathieu

    2015-12-14

    This paper presents first steps toward an adaptive lidar data processing technique crucial for lidar-assisted control in wind turbines. The prediction time and the quality of the wind preview from lidar measurements depend on several factors and are not constant. If the data processing is not continually adjusted, the benefit of lidar-assisted control cannot be fully exploited, or can even result in harmful control action. An online analysis of the lidar and turbine data are necessary to continually reassess the prediction time and lidar data quality. In this work, a structured process to develop an analysis tool for the prediction time and a new hardware setup for lidar-assisted control are presented. The tool consists of an online estimation of the rotor effective wind speed from lidar and turbine data and the implementation of an online cross correlation to determine the time shift between both signals. Further, initial results from an ongoing campaign in which this system was employed for providing lidar preview for feed-forward pitch control are presented.

  18. Lidar system for air-pollution monitoring over urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskalenko, Irina V.; Shcheglov, Djolinard A.; Molodtsov, Nikolai A.

    1997-05-01

    The atmospheric environmental situation over the urban area of a large city is determined by a complex combination of anthropogenic pollution and meteorological factors. The efficient way to provide three-dimensional mapping of gaseous pollutants over wide areas is utilization of lidar systems employing tunable narrowband transmitters. The paper presented describes activity of RRC 'Kurchatov Institute' in the field of lidar atmospheric monitoring. The project 'mobile remote sensing system based on tunable laser transmitter for environmental monitoring' is developed under financial support of International Scientific and Technology Center (Moscow). The objective of the project is design, construction and field testing of a DIAL-technique system. The lidar transmitter consists of an excimer laser pumping dye laser, BBO crystal frequency doubler, and scanning flat mirror. Sulfur dioxide and atomic mercury have been selected as pollutants for field tests of the lidar system under development. A recent large increase in Moscow traffic stimulated taking into consideration also the remote sensing of lower troposphere ozone because of the photochemical smog problem. The status of the project is briefly discussed. The current activity includes also collecting of environmental data relevant to lidar remote sensing. Main attention is paid to pollutant concentration levels over Moscow city and Moscow district areas.

  19. Fluorescence/depolarization lidar for mid-range stand-off detection of biological agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mierczyk, Z.; Kopczyński, K.; Zygmunt, M.; Wojtanowski, J.; Młynczak, J.; Gawlikowski, A.; Młodzianko, A.; Piotrowski, W.; Gietka, A.; Knysak, P.; Drozd, T.; Muzal, M.; Kaszczuk, M.; Ostrowski, R.; Jakubaszek, M.

    2011-06-01

    LIDAR system for real-time standoff detection of bio-agents is presented and preliminary experimental results are discussed. The detection approach is based on two independent physical phenomena: (1) laser induced fluorescence (LIF), (2) depolarization resulting from elastic scattering on non-spherical particles. The device includes three laser sources, two receiving telescopes, depolarization component and spectral signature analyzing spectrograph. It was designed to provide the stand-off detection capability at ranges from 200 m up to several kilometers. The system as a whole forms a mobile platform for vehicle or building installation. Additionally, it's combined with a scanning mechanics and advanced software, which enable to conduct the semi-automatic monitoring of a specified space sector. For fluorescence excitation, 3-rd (355 nm) and 4-th (266 nm) harmonics of Nd:YAG pulsed lasers are used. They emit short (~6 ns) pulses with the repetition rate of 20 Hz. Collecting optics for fluorescence echo detection and spectral content analysis includes 25 mm diameter f/4 Newton telescope, Czerny Turner spectrograph and 32-channel PMT. Depending on the grating applied, the spectral resolution from 20 nm up to 3 nm per channel can be achieved. The system is also equipped with an eye-safe (1.5 μm) Nd:YAG OPO laser for elastic backscattering/depolarization detection. The optical echo signal is collected by Cassegrain telescope with aperture diameter of 12.5 mm. Depolarization detection component based on polarizing beam-splitter serves as the stand-off particle-shape analyzer, which is very valuable in case of non-spherical bio-aerosols sensing.

  20. LSNR Airborne LIDAR Mapping System Design and Early Results (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, K.; Carter, W. E.; Slatton, K. C.

    2009-12-01

    Low signal-to-noise ratio (LSNR) detection techniques allow for implementation of airborne light detection and range (LIDAR) instrumentation aboard platforms with prohibitive power, size, and weight restrictions. The University of Florida has developed the Coastal Area Tactical-mapping System (CATS), a prototype LSNR LIDAR system capable of single photon laser ranging. CATS is designed to operate in a fixed-wing aircraft flying 600 m above ground level, producing 532 nm, 480 ps, 3 μJ output pulses at 8 kHz. To achieve continuous coverage of the terrain with 20 cm spatial resolution in a single pass, a 10x10 array of laser beamlets is scanned. A Risley prism scanner (two rotating V-coated optical wedges) allows the array of laser beamlets to be deflected in a variety of patterns, including conical, spiral, and lines at selected angles to the direction of flight. Backscattered laser photons are imaged onto a 100 channel (10x10 segmented-anode) photomultiplier tube (PMT) with a micro-channel plate (MCP) amplifier. Each channel of the PMT is connected to a multi-stop 2 GHz event timer. Here we report on tests in which ranges for known targets were accumulated for repeated laser shots and statistical analyses were applied to evaluate range accuracy, minimum separation distance, bathymetric mapping depth, and atmospheric scattering. Ground-based field test results have yielded 10 cm range accuracy and sub-meter feature identification at variable scan settings. These experiments also show that a secondary surface can be detected at a distance of 15 cm from the first. Range errors in secondary surface identification for six separate trials were within 7.5 cm, or within the timing resolution limit of the system. Operating at multi-photon sensitivity may have value for situations in which high ambient noise precludes single-photon sensitivity. Low reflectivity targets submerged in highly turbid waters can cause detection issues. CATS offers the capability to adjust the

  1. IEA Task 32: Wind Lidar Systems for Wind Energy Deployment (LIDAR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhn, Martin; Trabucchi, Davide; Clifton, Andrew; Courtney, Mike; Rettenmeier, Andreas

    2016-05-25

    Under the International Energy Agency Wind Implementing Agreement (IEA Wind) Task 11, researchers started examining novel applications for remote sensing and the issues around them during the 51st topical expert meeting about remote sensing in January 2007. The 59th topical expert meeting organized by Task 11 in October 2009 was also dedicated to remote sensing, and the first draft of the Task's recommended practices on remote sensing was published in January 2013. The results of the Task 11 topical expert meetings provided solid groundwork for a new IEA Wind Task 32 on wind lidar technologies. Members of the wind community identified the need to consolidate the knowledge about wind lidar systems to facilitate their use, and to investigate how to exploit the advantages offered by this technology. This was the motivation that led to the start of IEA Wind Task 32 'Lidar Application for Wind Energy Deployment' in November 2011. The kick-off was meeting was held in May 2012.

  2. Validation of long-range scanning lidars deployed around the Høvsøre Test Station

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lea, Guillaume; Courtney, Michael

    This report describes validation tests performed on the long-range scanning lidars prior to deployment in the RUNE campaign. Position and speed accuracy tests have been performed at a range of 5km from the Høvsøre met mast. This range is typical of ranges for near-coastal resource measurements....... The accuracy of the beam positioning was checked by comparing the predicted position to the position found from hard-target returns from the mast. Radial speeds measured by the lidar were also found to be in close agreement with the mast measured wind speeds projected in the line of sight direction....

  3. A Scanning scheimpflug lidar system developed for urban pollution monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Guan, Peng; Mei, Liang

    2018-04-01

    A scanning Scheimpflug lidar system based on the Scheimpflug principle has been developed by employing a high power multimode 808 nm laser diode and a highly integrated CMOS sensor in Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, Northern China. Atmospheric scanning measurements in urban area were performed for the studies of particle emission sources.

  4. Research and development of commercial lidar systems in romania: critical review of the ESYRO lidar systems developed by sc enviroscopy SRL (ESYRO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihai Cazacu, Marius; Tudose, Ovidiu; Balanici, Dragos; Balin, Ioan

    2018-04-01

    This paper is shortly presenting the two basic lidar system configurations respectively a micro-lidar and a multi-wavelength lidar systems developed by SC EnviroScopY SRL (ESYRO) from Iasi - Romania in the last decade. Furthermore in addition to the comparative analysis of the two technical configurations the examples of various tests and the capability of the two systems to perform are here presented. Measurements samples of aerosols, clouds, PBL, depolarization and Saharan dust are also illustrated.

  5. Demonstration of measuring sea fog with an SNSPD-based Lidar system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jiang; Chen, Yajun; Zhang, Labao; Jia, Xiaoqing; Feng, Zhijun; Wu, Ganhua; Yan, Xiachao; Zhai, Jiquan; Wu, Yang; Chen, Qi; Zhou, Xiaoying; Wang, Zhizhong; Zhang, Chi; Kang, Lin; Chen, Jian; Wu, Peiheng

    2017-11-08

    The monitor of sea fogs become more important with the rapid development of marine activities. Remote sensing through laser is an effective tool for monitoring sea fogs, but still challengeable for large distance. We demonstrated a Long-distance Lidar for sea fog with superconducting nanowire single-photon detector (SNSPD), which extended the ranging area to a 180-km diameter area. The system, which was verified by using a benchmark distance measurement of a known island, is applied to the Mie scattering weather prediction Lidar system. The fog echo signal distribution in the range of 42.3∼63.5 km and 53.2∼74.2 km was obtained by the Lidar system. Then the fog concentration and the velocity of the fog were deduced from the distribution, which is consistent with the weather prediction. The height of the sea fog is about two hundred meter while the visibility at this height is about 90 km due to the Earth's radius of curvature. Therefore, the capability of this SNSPD-based Lidar was close to the theoretical limit for sea fog measurements for extremely high signal-to-noise ratio of SNSPD.

  6. Field evaluation of remote wind sensing technologies: Shore-based and buoy mounted LIDAR systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrington, Thomas [Stevens Inst. of Technology, Hoboken, NJ (United States)

    2017-11-03

    the evaluation of LIDAR-based wind measurement systems to validate the accuracy of remotely measured wind data in marine applications. Specifically, the test-bed will be utilized to systematically evaluate the capability of emerging scanning LIDAR and buoy mounted vertically profiling LIDAR by: (1) Evaluating a fixed scanning LIDAR against land-based 50 and 60 meter high meteorological masts fitted with research quality cup-vane and/or sonic anemometers; (2) Evaluating a buoy mounted vertically profiling LIDAR fixed on land and floating in a sheltered bay against a co-located 60 meter high meteorological mast fitted with a research quality cup-vane and/or sonic anemometers and the fixed scanning LIDAR; and (3) Offshore field evaluation of both LIDAR platforms through a comparison of the fixed scanning LIDAR data and data obtained by the buoy mounted LIDAR located 10 miles offshore. The proposed research will systematically validate Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) based wind measurement systems and assess the temporal and spatial variability of the offshore wind resource in the Mid-Atlantic east of New Jersey. The goal of the proposed project is to address the technical and commercial challenges of the offshore wind energy industry by validating and assessing cost-effective, over ocean wind resource characterization technologies. The objective is to systematically evaluate the capability of both scanning and vertically profiling LIDARs to accurately measure 3D wind fields through comparison with fixed met masts and intercomparison among LIDAR platforms. Once validated, data collected by both buoy mounted vertically profiling LIDARs and shore-based, pulsed horizontally scanning LIDARs can be used to accurately assess offshore wind resources and to quantify the spatial and temporal variability in the offshore wind fields. One of the fundamental research questions to be addressed in phase 1 is the assessment of various measurement and data processing schemes to

  7. Prediction of topographic and bathymetric measurement performance of airborne low-SNR lidar systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossio, Tristan

    Low signal-to-noise ratio (LSNR) lidar (light detection and ranging) is an alternative paradigm to traditional lidar based on the detection of return signals at the single photoelectron level. The objective of this work was to predict low altitude (600 m) LSNR lidar system performance with regards to elevation measurement and target detection capability in topographic (dry land) and bathymetric (shallow water) scenarios. A modular numerical sensor model has been developed to provide data for further analysis due to the dearth of operational low altitude LSNR lidar systems. This simulator tool is described in detail, with consideration given to atmospheric effects, surface conditions, and the effects of laser phenomenology. Measurement performance analysis of the simulated topographic data showed results comparable to commercially available lidar systems, with a standard deviation of less than 12 cm for calculated elevation values. Bathymetric results, although dependent largely on water turbidity, were indicative of meter-scale horizontal data spacing for sea depths less than 5 m. The high prevalence of noise in LSNR lidar data introduces significant difficulties in data analysis. Novel algorithms to reduce noise are described, with particular focus on their integration into an end-to-end target detection classifier for both dry and submerged targets (cube blocks, 0.5 m to 1.0 m on a side). The key characteristic exploited to discriminate signal and noise is the temporal coherence of signal events versus the random distribution of noise events. Target detection performance over dry earth was observed to be robust, reliably detecting over 90% of targets with a minimal false alarm rate. Comparable results were observed in waters of high clarity, where the investigated system was generally able to detect more than 70% of targets to a depth of 5 m. The results of the study show that CATS, the University of Florida's LSNR lidar prototype, is capable of high fidelity

  8. Dimensionless parameterization of lidar for laser remote sensing of the atmosphere and its application to systems with SiPM and PMT detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agishev, Ravil; Comerón, Adolfo; Rodriguez, Alejandro; Sicard, Michaël

    2014-05-20

    In this paper, we show a renewed approach to the generalized methodology for atmospheric lidar assessment, which uses the dimensionless parameterization as a core component. It is based on a series of our previous works where the problem of universal parameterization over many lidar technologies were described and analyzed from different points of view. The modernized dimensionless parameterization concept applied to relatively new silicon photomultiplier detectors (SiPMs) and traditional photomultiplier (PMT) detectors for remote-sensing instruments allowed predicting the lidar receiver performance with sky background available. The renewed approach can be widely used to evaluate a broad range of lidar system capabilities for a variety of lidar remote-sensing applications as well as to serve as a basis for selection of appropriate lidar system parameters for a specific application. Such a modernized methodology provides a generalized, uniform, and objective approach for evaluation of a broad range of lidar types and systems (aerosol, Raman, DIAL) operating on different targets (backscatter or topographic) and under intense sky background conditions. It can be used within the lidar community to compare different lidar instruments.

  9. CALIPSO satellite validation using an elastic backscattering Lidar system and the AERONET sun photometer data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, Fabio Juliano da Silva

    2011-01-01

    ,17 ± 30,12%. This value shows to be in good agreement with other papers in the CALIPSO validation literature, demonstrating the accuracy of the proposed model. The apparent underestimation in the CALIOP Lidar Ratio values indicates a possible problem with the calibration process, since the Brazilian territory is in the so-called South Atlantic Anomaly (SSA) Region. The Lidar Ratio retrieved by the MSP-Lidar system at IPEN provided a mean difference of -2,34 ± 17,53%, confirming that the accuracy in the Lidar Ratio assumed a priori by the CALIOP algorithms is within the uncertainty range of 30%. (author)

  10. A GUI visualization system for airborne lidar image data to reconstruct 3D city model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawata, Yoshiyuki; Koizumi, Kohei

    2015-10-01

    A visualization toolbox system with graphical user interfaces (GUIs) was developed for the analysis of LiDAR point cloud data, as a compound object oriented widget application in IDL (Interractive Data Language). The main features in our system include file input and output abilities, data conversion capability from ascii formatted LiDAR point cloud data to LiDAR image data whose pixel value corresponds the altitude measured by LiDAR, visualization of 2D/3D images in various processing steps and automatic reconstruction ability of 3D city model. The performance and advantages of our graphical user interface (GUI) visualization system for LiDAR data are demonstrated.

  11. Development of the Raman lidar system for remote hydrogen gas detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, In Young; Baik, Sung Hoon; Park, Seung Kyu; Park, Nak Gyu; Choi, Young Soo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Detection of hydrogen (H{sub 2}) gas leakage is very important for safety of the nuclear power plant because H{sub 2} gas is very flammable and explosive. H{sub 2} gas is generated by oxidizing the nuclear fuel cladding during the critical accident and generated H{sub 2} gas leads to serious secondary damages in the containment building of nuclear power plant. Thus, various H{sub 2} gas detection techniques are used in the nuclear power plant such as catalytic combustion sensors, semiconducting oxide sensors, thermal conductivity sensors and electrochemical sensor. A Raman lidar (Light Detection And Ranging) system for remote detection of the H{sub 2} gas can cover the area in the containment building of a nuclear power plant. H{sub 2} gas has a very strong Raman Effect, and H{sub 2} Raman cells have been widely used for laser wavelength conversion. In this study, Raman lidar system was developed for H{sub 2} gas detection used in the containment building of nuclear power plant. In this study, remote hydrogen gas detection devices and measuring algorithm are developed by using the Raman lidar method. Through the experiment, we proved that our developed Raman lidar system was possible to measure the N{sub 2} and H{sub 2} gas scattering signal remotely.

  12. CLOSE RANGE HYPERSPECTRAL IMAGING INTEGRATED WITH TERRESTRIAL LIDAR SCANNING APPLIED TO ROCK CHARACTERISATION AT CENTIMETRE SCALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. H. Kurz

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Compact and lightweight hyperspectral imagers allow the application of close range hyperspectral imaging with a ground based scanning setup for geological fieldwork. Using such a scanning setup, steep cliff sections and quarry walls can be scanned with a more appropriate viewing direction and a higher image resolution than from airborne and spaceborne platforms. Integration of the hyperspectral imagery with terrestrial lidar scanning provides the hyperspectral information in a georeferenced framework and enables measurement at centimetre scale. In this paper, three geological case studies are used to demonstrate the potential of this method for rock characterisation. Two case studies are applied to carbonate quarries where mapping of different limestone and dolomite types was required, as well as measurements of faults and layer thicknesses from inaccessible parts of the quarries. The third case study demonstrates the method using artificial lighting, applied in a subsurface scanning scenario where solar radiation cannot be utilised.

  13. Airborne lidar observations of long-range transport in the free troposphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipley, S. T.; Browell, E. V.; Mcdougal, D. S.; Orndorff, B. L.; Haagenson, P.

    1984-01-01

    Airborne lidar measurements of ozone and aerosols in the lower troposphere show the presence of pollutant layers above the mixed layer. Two case studies are analyzed to identify probable source regions and mechanisms for material injection into the free troposphere above local mixed layers. An elevated haze/oxidant layer observed over South Carolina on Aug. 2, 1980, was found to originate in cumulus convection over Georgia on Aug. 1, 1980. An extensive haze/oxidant layer observed over southeastern Virginia on July 31, 1981, is shown to have been in contact with the New England mixed layer on July 30, 1981. This transported air mass is estimated to contribute approximately 30 percent of the ozone maximum measured at the surface in the Norfolk, VA, area on July 31, 1981. Such elevated 'reservoir' layers are transported over long ranges and are not detected by sensors which are confined to the surface.

  14. Innovative High-Accuracy Lidar Bathymetric Technique for the Frequent Measurement of River Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gisler, A.; Crowley, G.; Thayer, J. P.; Thompson, G. S.; Barton-Grimley, R. A.

    2015-12-01

    Lidar (light detection and ranging) provides absolute depth and topographic mapping capability compared to other remote sensing methods, which is useful for mapping rapidly changing environments such as riverine systems. Effectiveness of current lidar bathymetric systems is limited by the difficulty in unambiguously identifying backscattered lidar signals from the water surface versus the bottom, limiting their depth resolution to 0.3-0.5 m. Additionally these are large, bulky systems that are constrained to expensive aircraft-mounted platforms and use waveform-processing techniques requiring substantial computation time. These restrictions are prohibitive for many potential users. A novel lidar device has been developed that allows for non-contact measurements of water depth down to 1 cm with an accuracy and precision of shallow to deep water allowing for shoreline charting, measuring water volume, mapping bottom topology, and identifying submerged objects. The scalability of the technique opens up the ability for handheld or UAS-mounted lidar bathymetric systems, which provides for potential applications currently unavailable to the community. The high laser pulse repetition rate allows for very fine horizontal resolution while the photon-counting technique permits real-time depth measurement and object detection. The enhanced measurement capability, portability, scalability, and relatively low-cost creates the opportunity to perform frequent high-accuracy monitoring and measuring of aquatic environments which is crucial for understanding how rivers evolve over many timescales. Results from recent campaigns measuring water depth in flowing creeks and murky ponds will be presented which demonstrate that the method is not limited by rough water surfaces and can map underwater topology through moderately turbid water.

  15. Application of lidar techniques to time-of-flight range imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whyte, Refael; Streeter, Lee; Cree, Michael J; Dorrington, Adrian A

    2015-11-20

    Amplitude-modulated continuous wave (AMCW) time-of-flight (ToF) range imaging cameras measure distance by illuminating the scene with amplitude-modulated light and measuring the phase difference between the transmitted and reflected modulation envelope. This method of optical range measurement suffers from errors caused by multiple propagation paths, motion, phase wrapping, and nonideal amplitude modulation. In this paper a ToF camera is modified to operate in modes analogous to continuous wave (CW) and stepped frequency continuous wave (SFCW) lidar. In CW operation the velocity of objects can be measured. CW measurement of velocity was linear with true velocity (R2=0.9969). Qualitative analysis of a complex scene confirms that range measured by SFCW is resilient to errors caused by multiple propagation paths, phase wrapping, and nonideal amplitude modulation which plague AMCW operation. In viewing a complicated scene through a translucent sheet, quantitative comparison of AMCW with SFCW demonstrated a reduction in the median error from -1.3  m to -0.06  m with interquartile range of error reduced from 4.0 m to 0.18 m.

  16. Real-time surveillance system for marine environment based on HLIF LiDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babichenko, Sergey; Sobolev, Innokenti; Aleksejev, Valeri; Sõro, Oliver

    2017-10-01

    The operational monitoring of the risk areas of marine environment requires cost-effective solutions. One of the options is the use of sensor networks based on fixed installations and moving platforms (coastal boats, supply-, cargo-, and passenger vessels). Such network allows to gather environmental data in time and space with direct links to operational activities in the controlled area for further environmental risk assessment. Among many remote sensing techniques the LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) based on Light Induced Fluorescence (LIF) is the tool of direct assessment of water quality variations caused by chemical pollution, colored dissolved organic matter, and phytoplankton composition. The Hyperspectral LIF (HLIF) LiDAR acquires comprehensive LIF spectra and analyses them by spectral pattern recognition technique to detect and classify the substances in water remotely. Combined use of HLIF LiDARs with Real-Time Data Management System (RTDMS) provides the economically effective solution for the regular monitoring in the controlled area. OCEAN VISUALS in cooperation with LDI INNOVATION has developed Oil in Water Locator (OWL™) with RTDMS (OWL MAP™) based on HLIF LiDAR technique. This is a novel technical solution for monitoring of marine environment providing continuous unattended operations. OWL™ has been extensively tested on board of various vessels in the North Sea, Norwegian Sea, Barents Sea, Baltic Sea and Caribbean Sea. This paper describes the technology features, the results of its operational use in 2014-2017, and outlook for the technology development.

  17. Application of Short-Range LIDAR in Early Alerting for Low-Level Windshear and Turbulence at Hong Kong International Airport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. K. Hon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hong Kong Observatory currently uses a series of meteorological instruments, including long-range LIDAR (light detection and ranging systems, to provide alerting services of low-level windshear and turbulence for Hong Kong International Airport. For some events that are smaller in spatial dimensions and are rapidly changing, such as low altitude windshear and turbulence associated with buildings or man-made structures, it would be necessary to involve meteorological instruments that offer greater spatial resolution. Therefore, the Observatory has set up a short-range LIDAR on the roof of the AsiaWorld-Expo during the summers over the past several years, conducting field research on the feasibility of strengthening early alerting for windshear and turbulence over the north runway’s eastern arrival runway (Runway 25RA and developing an automated early alerting algorithm. This paper takes the pilot reports for Runway 25RA during the 2013 field research as verification samples, using different thresholds for radial wind velocity spatial and temporal changes detected by the short-range LIDAR to calculate the relative operating characteristic (ROC curve, and analyzes its early alerting performance.

  18. Software design of control system of CCD side-scatter lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Zhiqiang; Liu, Dong; Deng, Qian; Zhang, Zhanye; Wang, Zhenzhu; Yu, Siqi; Tao, Zongming; Xie, Chenbo; Wang, Yingjian

    2018-03-01

    Because of the existence of blind zone and transition zone, the application of backscattering lidar in near-ground is limited. The side-scatter lidar equipped with the Charge Coupled Devices (CCD) can separate the transmitting and receiving devices to avoid the impact of the geometric factors which is exited in the backscattering lidar and, detect the more precise near-ground aerosol signals continuously. Theories of CCD side-scatter lidar and the design of control system are introduced. The visible control of laser and CCD and automatic data processing method of the side-scatter lidar are developed by using the software of Visual C #. The results which are compared with the calibration of the atmospheric aerosol lidar data show that signals from the CCD side- scatter lidar are convincible.

  19. Application of short-range dual-Doppler lidars to evaluate the coherence of turbulence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheynet, Etienne; Jakobsen, Jasna Bogunović; Snæbjörnsson, Jónas

    2016-01-01

    Two synchronized continuous wave scanning lidars are used to study the coherence of the along-wind and across-wind velocity components. The goal is to evaluate the potential of the lidar technology for application in wind engineering. The wind lidars were installed on the Lysefjord Bridge during...... four days in May 2014 to monitor the wind field in the horizontal plane upstream of the bridge deck. Wind records obtained by five sonic anemometers mounted on the West side of the bridge are used as reference data. Single- and two-point statistics of wind turbulence are studied, with special emphasis...

  20. Empirical Radiometric Normalization of Road Points from Terrestrial Mobile Lidar System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tee-Ann Teo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Lidar data provide both geometric and radiometric information. Radiometric information is influenced by sensor and target factors and should be calibrated to obtain consistent energy responses. The radiometric correction of airborne lidar system (ALS converts the amplitude into a backscatter cross-section with physical meaning value by applying a model-driven approach. The radiometric correction of terrestrial mobile lidar system (MLS is a challenging task because it does not completely follow the inverse square range function at near-range. This study proposed a radiometric normalization workflow for MLS using a data-driven approach. The scope of this study is to normalize amplitude of road points for road surface classification, assuming that road points from different scanners or strips should have similar responses in overlapped areas. The normalization parameters for range effect were obtained from crossroads. The experiment showed that the amplitude difference between scanners and strips decreased after radiometric normalization and improved the accuracy of road surface classification.

  1. Data analysis of backscattering LIDAR system correlated with meteorological data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uehara, Sandro Toshio

    2009-01-01

    In these last years, we had an increase in the interest in the monitoring of the effect of the human activity being on the atmosphere and the climate in the planet. The remote sensing techniques has been used in many studies, also related the global changes. A backscattering LIDAR system, the first of this kind in Brazil, has been used to provide the vertical profile of the aerosol backscatter coefficient at 532 nm up to an altitude of 4-6 km above sea level. In this study, data has was collected in the year of 2005. These data had been correlated with data of solar photometer CIMEL and also with meteorological data. The main results had indicated to exist a standard in the behavior of these meteorological data and the vertical distribution of the extinction coefficient gotten through LIDAR. In favorable periods of atmospheric dispersion, that is, rise of the temperature of associated air the fall of relative humidity, increase of the atmospheric pressure and low ventilation tax, was possible to determine with good precision the height of the Planetary Boundary Layer, as much through the vertical profile of the extinction coefficient how much through the technique of the vertical profile of the potential temperature. The technique LIDAR showed to be an important tool in the determination of the thermodynamic structure of the atmosphere, assisting to characterize the evolution of the CLP throughout the day, which had its good space and secular resolution. (author)

  2. Upgrade of the MAGIC telescopes single wavelength micro power LIDAR system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Dominik [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Collaboration: MAGIC-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    Since 2011 a single wavelength LIDAR system is operated alongside the observations of the MAGIC telescopes. It is used for real-time monitoring of the atmospheric transmission and for detecting cloud layers within the field of view of MAGIC. The system uses a pulsed Nd:YAG laser with 532 nm wavelength and a pulse energy of 5 μJ as transmitter. The receiver is mounted to a 60 cm spherical single mirror telescope with a F/D ratio of 2.5. To compensate for the low light intensities a sensitive detector with the capability of single photon detection as well as charge integration is needed. For this purpose, a hybrid photo diode with a peak quantum efficiency of 55% an a pulse width of 2.5ns is used in a custom designed detector. The analog signal is recorded by a computer mounted 8-bit FADC with 200 MS/s. A signal analysis algorithm converts the LIDAR return signal into a number of single photoelectron counts per range bin. The atmospheric transmission is calculated by fitting a Rayleigh back-scattering model with a sliding window. The resulting transmission profile is used to correct the MAGIC gamma ray data for adverse weather conditions. After five years of data taking the MAGIC LIDAR system is upgraded with a stronger laser and a new detector unit in order to extend the measurement range and to optimize the operation.

  3. Technology of Measuring equipment for Air Pollution. Development of Mobile Air Pollution monitoring system (LIDAR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, Hyung Ki; Song, Ky Seok; Rhee, Young Joo; Kim, Duck Hyun; Yang, Ki Ho; Lee, Jong Min; Cha, Byung Heon; Lee, Kang Soo

    1999-01-01

    Most air pollution monitoring technologies accompany a time-consuming sample treatment process and provides pollution information only for a local area. Thus, they have a critical restriction in monitoring time-dependent pollution variation effectively over the wide range of area both in height and in width. LIDAR (Light detection and ranging) is a new technology to overcome such drawbacks of the existing pollution monitoring technologies and has long been investigated in the advanced countries. The goal of this project is to develop the mobile air pollution monitoring system and to apply the system to the detection of various pollutants, such as ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide and aerosols

  4. Technology of Measuring equipment for Air Pollution. Development of Mobile Air Pollution monitoring system (LIDAR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Hyung Ki; Song, Ky Seok; Rhee, Young Joo; Kim, Duck Hyun; Yang, Ki Ho; Lee, Jong Min; Cha, Byung Heon; Lee, Kang Soo

    1999-01-01

    Most air pollution monitoring technologies accompany a time-consuming sample treatment process and provides pollution information only for a local area. Thus, they have a critical restriction in monitoring time-dependent pollution variation effectively over the wide range of area both in height and in width. LIDAR (Light detection and ranging) is a new technology to overcome such drawbacks of the existing pollution monitoring technologies and has long been investigated in the advanced countries. The goal of this project is to develop the mobile air pollution monitoring system and to apply the system to the detection of various pollutants, such as ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide and aerosols.

  5. The Visualization of the flow field Using Lidar's Range Detection and Digital Image Correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Nak-Gyu; Baik, Seung-Hoon; Park, Seung-Kyu; Kim, Dong-lyul; Ahn, Yong-Jin

    2015-01-01

    In this paper however we focused on flow velocity, visualization measurement. Using cameras one is able to collect large amount of spatial flow structure data in a very short time. Image data is further processed to determine velocity fields and other flow properties. Therefore, we tried to find a way to measure change of image and to apply it to the lidar technique, which is a powerful technique in the field of climate study and we have an interest in the digital image correlation (DIC). Among the DIC algorithms, the sum of squared differences (SSD) method is a way to track the sub-set image in different images. We used this algorithm for tracking the same point in different moving smoke images. For the lidar system, we used an injection seeded pulsed Nd:YAG laser as the transmitter and an photon multiplier tube (PMT) as the laser light sensor to measure the distance to the target clouds. We used the DIC system to track the smoke image and calculate the actual displacement per unit time. The configured lidar system acquired the lidar signal of smoke at a distance of about 150m. The developed fast correlation algorithm of the DIC, which is used to track the fast moving smoke relatively, was efficient to measure the smoke velocity in real time

  6. Lidar and aircraft studies of deep Cirrus systems from the 1986 FIRE IFO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassen, Kenneth; Heymsfield, Andrew J.; Knight, Nancy C.

    1990-01-01

    Several NCAR King Air flight missions were conducted during the Wisconsin FIRE IFO experiment in support of the University of Utah polarization lidar observations of deep cirrus cloud systems at the Wausau ground site. Data collected from four cirrus systems are included in this analysis, including those of 22 and 28 October, and 1 and 2 November. Lidar data were generally obtained at 2 min intervals in the zenith direction over observation periods that ranged from approximately 4 to 10 h, bracketing the aircraft missions. The data were processed to yield height-time (HTI) displays of lidar linear depolarization ratio sigma and relative range-normalized return power P. King Air operations consisted of a combination of rapid profiling and Lagrangian spiral descents and stacked racetrack patterns in the vicinity of the field site. From the spiral descents are constructed vertical profiles of ice particle concentration N(sub i) and ice mass content IWC derived from PMS 2-D probe imagery and, when detected, FSSP cloud droplet concentration N(sub W) and liquid water content, LWC. Aircraft flight leg data are presented for the vertical velocity W and the same ice and water cloud content parameters. In addition, aerosol particle concentrations obtained with the ASAS probe are examined, and photographs of ice particles collected in-situ on oil-coated slides are presented to illustrate ice particle habit.

  7. Airborne Measurements of CO2 Column Concentration and Range Using a Pulsed Direct-Detection IPDA Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abshire, James B.; Ramanathan, Anand; Riris, Haris; Mao, Jianping; Allan, Graham R.; Hasselbrack, William E.; Weaver, Clark J.; Browell, Edward V.

    2013-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated a pulsed direct detection IPDA lidar to measure range and the column concentration of atmospheric CO2. The lidar measures the atmospheric backscatter profiles and samples the shape of the 1,572.33 nm CO2 absorption line. We participated in the ASCENDS science flights on the NASA DC-8 aircraft during August 2011 and report here lidar measurements made on four flights over a variety of surface and cloud conditions near the US. These included over a stratus cloud deck over the Pacific Ocean, to a dry lake bed surrounded by mountains in Nevada, to a desert area with a coal-fired power plant, and from the Rocky Mountains to Iowa, with segments with both cumulus and cirrus clouds. Most flights were to altitudes >12 km and had 5-6 altitude steps. Analyses show the retrievals of lidar range, CO2 column absorption, and CO2 mixing ratio worked well when measuring over topography with rapidly changing height and reflectivity, through thin clouds, between cumulus clouds, and to stratus cloud tops. The retrievals shows the decrease in column CO2 due to growing vegetation when flying over Iowa cropland as well as a sudden increase in CO2 concentration near a coal-fired power plant. For regions where the CO2 concentration was relatively constant, the measured CO2 absorption lineshape (averaged for 50 s) matched the predicted shapes to better than 1% RMS error. For 10 s averaging, the scatter in the retrievals was typically 2-3 ppm and was limited by the received signal photon count. Retrievals were made using atmospheric parameters from both an atmospheric model and from in situ temperature and pressure from the aircraft. The retrievals had no free parameters and did not use empirical adjustments, and >70% of the measurements passed screening and were used in analysis. The differences between the lidar-measured retrievals and in situ measured average CO2 column concentrations were 6 km.

  8. The design, development, and test of balloonborne and groundbased lidar systems. Volume 2: Flight test of Atmospheric Balloon Lidar Experiment, ABLE 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, O.; Bucknam, R. D.; Hurd, A. G.; Sheehan, W. H.

    1991-06-01

    This is Volume 3 of a three volume final report on the design, development, and test of balloonborne and groundbased lidar systems. Volume 1 describes the design and fabrication of a balloonborne CO2 coherent payload to measure the 10.6 micrometers backscatter from atmospheric aerosols as a function of altitude. Volume 2 describes the Aug. 1987 flight test of Atmospheric Balloonborne Lidar Experiment, ABLE 2. In this volume we describe groundbased lidar development and measurements. A design was developed for installation of the ABLE lidar in the GL rooftop dome. A transportable shed was designed to house the ABLE lidar at the various remote measurement sites. Refurbishment and modification of the ABLE lidar were completed to permit groundbased lidar measurements of clouds and aerosols. Lidar field measurements were made at Ascension Island during SABLE 89. Lidar field measurements were made at Terciera, Azores during GABLE 90. These tasks were successfully completed, and recommendations for further lidar measurements and data analysis were made.

  9. Design and development of a compact lidar/DIAL system for aerial surveillance of urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudio, P.; Gelfusa, M.; Malizia, A.; Richetta, M.; Antonucci, A.; Ventura, P.; Murari, A.; Vega, J.

    2013-10-01

    Recently surveying large areas in an automatic way, for early detection of harmful chemical agents, has become a strategic objective of defence and public health organisations. The Lidar-Dial techniques are widely recognized as a cost-effective alternative to monitor large portions of the atmosphere but, up to now, they have been mainly deployed as ground based stations. The design reported in this paper concerns the development of a Lidar-Dial system compact enough to be carried by a small airplane and capable of detecting sudden releases in air of harmful and/or polluting substances. The proposed approach consists of continuous monitoring of the area under surveillance with a Lidar type measurement. Once a significant increase in the density of backscattering substances is revealed, it is intended to switch to the Dial technique to identify the released chemicals and to determine its concentration. In this paper, the design of the proposed system is described and the simulations carried out to determine its performances are reported. For the Lidar measurements, commercially available Nd- YAG laser sources have already been tested and their performances, in combination with avalanche photodiodes, have been experimentally verified to meet the required specifications. With regard to the DIAL measurements, new compact CO2 laser sources are being investigated. The most promising candidate presents an energy per pulse of about 50 mJ typical, sufficient for a range of at least 500m. The laser also provides the so called "agile tuning" option that allows to quickly tune the wavelength. To guarantee continuous, automatic surveying of large areas, innovative solutions are required for the data acquisition, self monitoring of the system and data analysis. The results of the design, the simulations and some preliminary tests illustrate the potential of the chosen, integrated approach.

  10. Integrating forest inventory and analysis data into a LIDAR-based carbon monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristofer D. Johnson; Richard Birdsey; Andrew O Finley; Anu Swantaran; Ralph Dubayah; Craig Wayson; Rachel. Riemann

    2014-01-01

    Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) data may be a valuable component of a LIDAR-based carbon monitoring system, but integration of the two observation systems is not without challenges. To explore integration methods, two wall-to-wall LIDAR-derived biomass maps were compared to FIA data at both the plot and county levels in Anne Arundel and Howard Counties in Maryland...

  11. 2D fluorescence spectra measurement of six kinds of bioagents simulants by short range Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanpedro, Man

    2018-02-01

    Pantoea agglomerans (Pan), Staphylococcus aureus (Sta), Bacillus globigii (BG) and Escherichia coli (EH), these four kinds of bioagents simulants of were cultured and then their growth curves were measured, the generation time was 0.99h, 0.835h, 1.07h and 1.909h, respectively. A small short range fluorescence lidar working at wavelengths of 266nm and 355nm was designed and used to measure the two-dimensional fluorescence spectra of bioagents simulants in the amino acid segment and NADH segment, respectively. In a controllable fluorescence measurement chamber, the two-dimensional fluorescence spectra of vegetative liquid bacterial aerosols as well as BSA and OVA, two protein toxinic simulants were measured with a resolution of 4nm. The two-dimensional fluorescence spectral shape of Pan, Sta, EH and BG, BSA and OVA were consistent with the standard fluorescent component tryptophan in the amino acid band with FWHM of 60nm, but the central wavelength of the fluorescence spectra of these simulants blue/purple shifted obviously as affected by the external biochemical environment, concentration and ratio of different bacterial internal fluorophores, so the energy level between the excited state and the ground state of the fluorescence molecule increased. Differently, weak NADH fluorescence spectra with 100nm FWHM inside the four vegetative bacteria aerosols were detected, but Rayleigh scattering, Raman scattering contribution of water, nitrogen in the fluorescence spectra could not be effectively extracted. The second - order derivative fluorescence spectra of four simulants showed that the high - order processing and recognition of the fluorescence spectra was feasible.

  12. A fast approach to generate large-scale topographic maps based on new Chinese vehicle-borne Lidar system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youmei, Han; Bogang, Yang

    2014-01-01

    Large -scale topographic maps are important basic information for city and regional planning and management. Traditional large- scale mapping methods are mostly based on artificial mapping and photogrammetry. The traditional mapping method is inefficient and limited by the environments. While the photogrammetry methods(such as low-altitude aerial mapping) is an economical and effective way to map wide and regulate range of large scale topographic map but doesn't work well in the small area due to the high cost of manpower and resources. Recent years, the vehicle-borne LIDAR technology has a rapid development, and its application in surveying and mapping is becoming a new topic. The main objective of this investigation is to explore the potential of vehicle-borne LIDAR technology to be used to fast mapping large scale topographic maps based on new Chinese vehicle-borne LIDAR system. It studied how to use the new Chinese vehicle-borne LIDAR system measurement technology to map large scale topographic maps. After the field data capture, it can be mapped in the office based on the LIDAR data (point cloud) by software which programmed by ourselves. In addition, the detailed process and accuracy analysis were proposed by an actual case. The result show that this new technology provides a new fast method to generate large scale topographic maps, which is high efficient and accuracy compared to traditional methods

  13. Derivation of Burn Scar Depths with Airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) in Indonesian Peatlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballhorn, U.; Siegert, F.

    2009-04-01

    more CO2 per year than the fourth-largest industrial nation, Germany, saved to achieve its Kyoto target. Since 1990, emissions from peat burning and peat decomposition have exceeded that of above ground biomass deforestation. These numbers show how important it is to have more accurate estimations for peat burn depth in the future. Until now few field measurements were made, which would require to know the fire affected area in advance or ignite peatland on purpose. Furthermore fire scars are quickly covered by regenerating vegetation. Another problem is the lack of a method without actually having to go into the field (e.g. through remote sensing techniques), due to the fact that many of the fire locations are remote and very difficult to access. We investigated if airborne light detection and ranging (LIDAR), an active laser pulse technology by which the height of objects can be precisely measured, can be used to determine the amount of peat burned during a fire event. From a LIDAR data set acquired in Central Kalimantan, Borneo, in 2007, one year after severe fires resulting from the 2006 El Niño drought, we calculated that the average depth of a burn scar was 0.30 ± 0.15 m .This was achieved through the construction of digital terrain models (DTMs) by interpolating the LIDAR ground return signals in burnt and adjacent unburned peatland. These calculated depths were compared to in situ measurements, which came to similar results. We believe that the method presented here to estimate burnt peat depth has the potential to considerably improve the accuracy of regional and global carbon emission models but would also be helpful for monitoring projects under the Kyoto Protocol like the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) or the proposed Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD) mechanism.

  14. Application of short-range dual-Doppler lidars to evaluate the coherence of turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheynet, Etienne; Jakobsen, Jasna Bogunović; Snæbjörnsson, Jónas; Mikkelsen, Torben; Sjöholm, Mikael; Mann, Jakob; Hansen, Per; Angelou, Nikolas; Svardal, Benny

    2016-12-01

    Two synchronized continuous wave scanning lidars are used to study the coherence of the along-wind and across-wind velocity components. The goal is to evaluate the potential of the lidar technology for application in wind engineering. The wind lidars were installed on the Lysefjord Bridge during four days in May 2014 to monitor the wind field in the horizontal plane upstream of the bridge deck. Wind records obtained by five sonic anemometers mounted on the West side of the bridge are used as reference data. Single- and two-point statistics of wind turbulence are studied, with special emphasis on the root-coherence and the co-coherence of turbulence. A four-parameter decaying exponential function has been fitted to the measured co-coherence, and a good agreement is observed between data obtained by the sonic anemometers and the lidars. The root-coherence of turbulence is compared to theoretical models. The analytical predictions agree rather well with the measured coherence for the along-wind component. For increasing wavenumbers, larger discrepancies are, however, noticeable between the measured coherence and the theoretical predictions. The WindScanners are observed to slightly overestimate the integral length scales, which could not be explained by the laser beam averaging effect alone. On the other hand, the spatial averaging effect does not seem to have any significant effect on the coherence.

  15. Demonstration of short-range wind lidar in a high-performance wind tunnel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anders Tegtmeier; Montes, Belen Fernández; Pedersen, Jens Engholm

    2012-01-01

    -speed regimes very good correlation with reference measurements was found. Furthermore different staring directions were tested and taking a simple geometrical correction into account very good correlation was again found. These measurements all demonstrate the high accuracy of the lidar and indicate a possible...

  16. Applications of KHZ-CW Lidar in Ecological Entomology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmqvist, Elin; Brydegaard, Mikkel

    2016-06-01

    The benefits of kHz lidar in ecological entomology are explained. Results from kHz-measurements on insects, carried out with a CW-lidar system, employing the Scheimpflug principle to obtain range resolution, are presented. A method to extract insect events and analyze the large amount of lidar data is also described.

  17. Single-Photon Avalanche Diode with Enhanced NIR-Sensitivity for Automotive LIDAR Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takai, Isamu; Matsubara, Hiroyuki; Soga, Mineki; Ohta, Mitsuhiko; Ogawa, Masaru; Yamashita, Tatsuya

    2016-03-30

    A single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) with enhanced near-infrared (NIR) sensitivity has been developed, based on 0.18 μm CMOS technology, for use in future automotive light detection and ranging (LIDAR) systems. The newly proposed SPAD operating in Geiger mode achieves a high NIR photon detection efficiency (PDE) without compromising the fill factor (FF) and a low breakdown voltage of approximately 20.5 V. These properties are obtained by employing two custom layers that are designed to provide a full-depletion layer with a high electric field profile. Experimental evaluation of the proposed SPAD reveals an FF of 33.1% and a PDE of 19.4% at 870 nm, which is the laser wavelength of our LIDAR system. The dark count rate (DCR) measurements shows that DCR levels of the proposed SPAD have a small effect on the ranging performance, even if the worst DCR (12.7 kcps) SPAD among the test samples is used. Furthermore, with an eye toward vehicle installations, the DCR is measured over a wide temperature range of 25-132 °C. The ranging experiment demonstrates that target distances are successfully measured in the distance range of 50-180 cm.

  18. Single-Photon Avalanche Diode with Enhanced NIR-Sensitivity for Automotive LIDAR Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isamu Takai

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD with enhanced near-infrared (NIR sensitivity has been developed, based on 0.18 μm CMOS technology, for use in future automotive light detection and ranging (LIDAR systems. The newly proposed SPAD operating in Geiger mode achieves a high NIR photon detection efficiency (PDE without compromising the fill factor (FF and a low breakdown voltage of approximately 20.5 V. These properties are obtained by employing two custom layers that are designed to provide a full-depletion layer with a high electric field profile. Experimental evaluation of the proposed SPAD reveals an FF of 33.1% and a PDE of 19.4% at 870 nm, which is the laser wavelength of our LIDAR system. The dark count rate (DCR measurements shows that DCR levels of the proposed SPAD have a small effect on the ranging performance, even if the worst DCR (12.7 kcps SPAD among the test samples is used. Furthermore, with an eye toward vehicle installations, the DCR is measured over a wide temperature range of 25–132 °C. The ranging experiment demonstrates that target distances are successfully measured in the distance range of 50–180 cm.

  19. Cyclops: single-pixel imaging lidar system based on compressive sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, F.; Correia, M. V.; Farahi, F.; Pereira do Carmo, J.; Araújo, F. M.

    2017-11-01

    Mars and the Moon are envisaged as major destinations of future space exploration missions in the upcoming decades. Imaging LIDARs are seen as a key enabling technology in the support of autonomous guidance, navigation and control operations, as they can provide very accurate, wide range, high-resolution distance measurements as required for the exploration missions. Imaging LIDARs can be used at critical stages of these exploration missions, such as descent and selection of safe landing sites, rendezvous and docking manoeuvres, or robotic surface navigation and exploration. Despite these devices have been commercially available and used for long in diverse metrology and ranging applications, their size, mass and power consumption are still far from being suitable and attractive for space exploratory missions. Here, we describe a compact Single-Pixel Imaging LIDAR System that is based on a compressive sensing technique. The application of the compressive codes to a DMD array enables compression of the spatial information, while the collection of timing histograms correlated to the pulsed laser source ensures image reconstruction at the ranged distances. Single-pixel cameras have been compared with raster scanning and array based counterparts in terms of noise performance, and proved to be superior. Since a single photodetector is used, a better SNR and higher reliability is expected in contrast with systems using large format photodetector arrays. Furthermore, the event of failure of one or more micromirror elements in the DMD does not prevent full reconstruction of the images. This brings additional robustness to the proposed 3D imaging LIDAR. The prototype that was implemented has three modes of operation. Range Finder: outputs the average distance between the system and the area of the target under illumination; Attitude Meter: provides the slope of the target surface based on distance measurements in three areas of the target; 3D Imager: produces 3D ranged

  20. Data analysis for lidar and quartz crystal microbalance systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, G. S.; Deepak, A.

    1985-01-01

    Results are presented of the analysis of data taken on the stratospheric aerosol, using lidar, Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM), and the SAGE and SAM II satellite systems. The main objective of the work reported has been to use the data, taken with the NASA-LaRC instruments to study the stratospheric effects of volcanic eruptions during the period between the launch of the SAGE and SAM II satellite systems and October 1980. Four significant volcanic eruptions, for which data are available, occurred during this period--Soufriere, Sierra Negra, Mt. St. Helens, and Ulawun. Data on these have been analyzed to determine the changes in stratospheric mass loading produced by the eruptions, and to study the dispersion of the newly injected material.

  1. 2015 OLC Lidar: Wasco, WA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — WSI collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data for the Oregon LiDAR Consortium (OLC) Wasco County, WA, study area. The Oregon LiDAR Consortium's Wasco County...

  2. A Least Squares Collocation Method for Accuracy Improvement of Mobile LiDAR Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingzhou Mao

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In environments that are hostile to Global Navigation Satellites Systems (GNSS, the precision achieved by a mobile light detection and ranging (LiDAR system (MLS can deteriorate into the sub-meter or even the meter range due to errors in the positioning and orientation system (POS. This paper proposes a novel least squares collocation (LSC-based method to improve the accuracy of the MLS in these hostile environments. Through a thorough consideration of the characteristics of POS errors, the proposed LSC-based method effectively corrects these errors using LiDAR control points, thereby improving the accuracy of the MLS. This method is also applied to the calibration of misalignment between the laser scanner and the POS. Several datasets from different scenarios have been adopted in order to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed method. The results from experiments indicate that this method would represent a significant improvement in terms of the accuracy of the MLS in environments that are essentially hostile to GNSS and is also effective regarding the calibration of misalignment.

  3. Pulsed Lidar Measurements of Atmospheric CO2 Column Absorption and Range During the ASCENDS 2009-2011 Airborne Campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abshire, J. B.; Weaver, C. J.; Riris, H.; Mao, J.; Sun, X.; Allan, G. R.; Hasselbrack, W. E.; Browell, E. V.

    2012-01-01

    We have developed a pulsed lidar technique for measuring the tropospheric CO2 concentrations as a candidate for NASA's ASCENDS mission and have demonstrated the CO2 and O2 measurements from aircraft. Our technique uses two pulsed lasers allowing simultaneous measurement of a single CO2 absorption line near 1572 nm, O2 extinction in the Oxygen A-band, surface height and backscatter profile. The lasers are stepped in wavelength across the CO2 line and an O2 line doublet during the measurement. The column densities for the CO2 and O2 are estimated from the differential optical depths (DOD) of the scanned absorption lines via the IPDA technique. For the 2009 ASCENDS campaign we flew the CO2 lidar only on a Lear-25 aircraft, and measured the absorption line shapes of the CO2 line using 20 wavelength samples per scan. Measurements were made at stepped altitudes from 3 to 12.6 km over the Lamont OK, central Illinois, North Carolina, and over the Virginia Eastern Shore. Although the received signal energies were weaker than expected for ASCENDS, clear C02 line shapes were observed at all altitudes. Most flights had 5-6 altitude steps with 200-300 seconds of recorded measurements per step. We averaged every 10 seconds of measurements and used a cross-correlation approach to estimate the range to the scattering surface and the echo pulse energy at each wavelength. We then solved for the best-fit CO2 absorption line shape, and calculated the DOD of the fitted CO2 line, and computed its statistics at the various altitude steps. We compared them to CO2 optical depths calculated from spectroscopy based on HITRAN 2008 and the column number densities calculated from the airborne in-situ readings. The 2009 measurements have been analyzed in detail and they were similar on all flights. The results show clear CO2 line shape and absorption signals, which follow the expected changes with aircraft altitude from 3 to 13 km. They showed the expected nearly the linear dependence of DOD vs

  4. Helicopter-based lidar system for monitoring the upper ocean and terrain surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kwi Joo; Park, Youngsik; Bunkin, Alexey; Pershin, Serguei; Voliak, Konstantin; Nunes, Raul

    2002-01-01

    A compact helicopter-based lidar system is developed and tested under laboratory and field conditions. It is shown that the lidar can measure concentrations of chlorophyll a and dissolved organic matter at the surface of water bodies, detect fluorescence spectra of ground vegetation at a distance of up to 530 m, and determine the vertical profile of light-scattering particle concentration in the upper ocean. The possibilities of the lidar system are demonstrated by detection of polluted areas at the ocean surface, by online monitoring of three-dimensional distribution of light-scattering layers, and by recognition of plant types and physiological states

  5. Making lidar more photogenic: creating band combinations from lidar information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoker, Jason M.

    2010-01-01

    Over the past five to ten years the use and applicability of light detection and ranging (lidar) technology has increased dramatically. As a result, an almost exponential amount of lidar data is being collected across the country for a wide range of applications, and it is currently the technology of choice for high resolution terrain model creation, 3-dimensional city and infrastructure modeling, forestry and a wide range of scientific applications (Lin and Mills, 2010). The amount of data that is being delivered across the country is impressive. For example, the U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) Center for Lidar Information Coordination and Knowledge (CLICK), which is a National repository of USGS and partner lidar point cloud datasets (Stoker et al., 2006), currently has 3.5 percent of the United States covered by lidar, and has approximately another 5 percent in the processing queue. The majority of data being collected by the commercial sector are from discrete-return systems, which collect billions of lidar points in an average project. There are also a lot of discussions involving a potential National-scale Lidar effort (Stoker et al., 2008).

  6. Lidar to lidar calibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez Garcia, Sergio; Villanueva, Héctor

    This report presents the result of the lidar to lidar calibration performed for ground-based lidar. Calibration is here understood as the establishment of a relation between the reference lidar wind speed measurements with measurement uncertainties provided by measurement standard and corresponding...... lidar wind speed indications with associated measurement uncertainties. The lidar calibration concerns the 10 minute mean wind speed measurements. The comparison of the lidar measurements of the wind direction with that from the reference lidar measurements are given for information only....

  7. Retrieval method of aerosol extinction coefficient profile by an integral lidar system and case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Huihui; Zhang, Hui; Liu, Junjian; Wang, Shenhao; Ma, Xiaomin; Zhang, Lianqing; Liu, Dong; Xie, Chenbo; Tao, Zongming

    2018-02-01

    Aerosol extinction coefficient profile is an essential parameter for atmospheric radiation model. But it is difficult to get the full aerosol extinction profile from the ground to the tropopause especially in near ground precisely using backscattering lidar. A combined measurement of side-scattering, backscattering and Raman-scattering lidar is proposed to retrieve the aerosol extinction coefficient profile from the surface to the tropopause which covered a dynamic range of 5 orders. The side-scattering technique solves the dead zone and the overlap problem caused by the traditional lidar in the near range. Using the Raman-scattering the aerosol lidar ratio (extinction to backscatter ratio) can be obtained. The cases studies in this paper show the proposed method is reasonable and feasible.

  8. Observation of Asian dust properties by using multi-wavelength LIDAR system at anmyeon island, Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Sung Chul; Ko, Do Kyeoung; Lee, Jong Min; Kim, Young Joon; Noh, Young Min

    2004-01-01

    The Asian dust affect climate both directly and indirectly because they act as effective ice nuclei and forms ice cloud. However, little is known about spatial distribution and trajectory because few measurement data are available in the free troposphere over East Asia, where a large amount of Asian dust are transported form desert regions in Asian continent. LIDAR system is an effective tool for remotely measuring the vertical distribution of aerosol optical properties. For measurement of Asian dust optical properties, a multi-wavelength LIDAR system developed by the Advanced Environment Monitoring Research Center (ADEMRC), Gwangju Institute Science and Technology (GIST), Korea. This paper presents the results of ground-based multi-wavelength LIDAR measurements of the Asian dust aerosol over Anmyeon Island (36.40N, 126.10E) during the spring of 2004. To discriminate between Asian dust and cloud, depolarization ratio is useful for the detection of these particles and the LIDAR ratio. Also, we discuss the relationship between LIDAR ratio and other optical properties from LIDAR measurement, i.e., the depolarization ratio, aerosol extinction coefficient and LIDAR ratio

  9. Quantifying TOLNet Ozone Lidar Accuracy During the 2014 DISCOVER-AQ and FRAPPE Campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lihua; Newchurch, Michael J.; Alvarez, Raul J., II; Berkoff, Timothy A.; Brown, Steven S.; Carrion, William; De Young, Russell J.; Johnson, Bryan J.; Ganoe, Rene; Gronoff, Guillaume; hide

    2017-01-01

    The Tropospheric Ozone Lidar Network (TOLNet) is a unique network of lidar systems that measure high-resolution atmospheric profiles of ozone. The accurate characterization of these lidars is necessary to determine the uniformity of the network calibration. From July to August 2014, three lidars, the TROPospheric OZone (TROPOZ) lidar, the Tunable Optical Profiler for Aerosol and oZone (TOPAZ) lidar, and the Langley Mobile Ozone Lidar (LMOL), of TOLNet participated in the Deriving Information on Surface conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality (DISCOVER-AQ) mission and the Front Range Air Pollution and Photochemistry Experiment (FRAPPA) to measure ozone variations from the boundary layer to the top of the troposphere. This study presents the analysis of the intercomparison between the TROPOZ, TOPAZ, and LMOL lidars, along with comparisons between the lidars and other in situ ozone instruments including ozonesondes and a P-3B airborne chemiluminescence sensor. The TOLNet lidars measured vertical ozone structures with an accuracy generally better than +/-15 % within the troposphere. Larger differences occur at some individual altitudes in both the near-field and far-field range of the lidar systems, largely as expected. In terms of column average, the TOLNet lidars measured ozone with an accuracy better than +/-5 % for both the intercomparison between the lidars and between the lidars and other instruments. These results indicate that these three TOLNet lidars are suitable for use in air quality, satellite validation, and ozone modeling efforts.

  10. The Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (CATS): A New Lidar for Aerosol and Cloud Profiling from the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welton, Ellsworth J.; McGill, Mathew J.; Yorks. John E.; Hlavka, Dennis L.; Hart, William D.; Palm, Stephen P.; Colarco, Peter R.

    2012-01-01

    Spaceborne lidar profiling of aerosol and cloud layers has been successfully implemented during a number of prior missions, including LITE, ICESat, and CALIPSO. Each successive mission has added increased capability and further expanded the role of these unique measurements in wide variety of applications ranging from climate, to air quality, to special event monitoring (ie, volcanic plumes). Many researchers have come to rely on the availability of profile data from CALIPSO, especially data coincident with measurements from other A-Train sensors. The CALIOP lidar on CALIPSO continues to operate well as it enters its fifth year of operations. However, active instruments have more limited lifetimes than their passive counterparts, and we are faced with a potential gap in lidar profiling from space if the CALIOP lidar fails before a new mission is operational. The ATLID lidar on EarthCARE is not expected to launch until 2015 or later, and the lidar component of NASA's proposed Aerosols, Clouds, and Ecosystems (ACE) mission would not be until after 2020. Here we present a new aerosol and cloud lidar that was recently selected to provide profiling data from the International Space Station (ISS) starting in 2013. The Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (CATS) is a three wavelength (1064,532,355 nm) elastic backscatter lidar with HSRL capability at 532 nm. Depolarization measurements will be made at all wavelengths. The primary objective of CATS is to continue the CALIPSO aerosol and cloud profile data record, ideally with overlap between both missions and EarthCARE. In addition, the near real time (NRT) data capability ofthe ISS will enable CATS to support operational applications such as aerosol and air quality forecasting and special event monitoring. The HSRL channel will provide a demonstration of technology and a data testbed for direct extinction retrievals in support of ACE mission development. An overview of the instrument and mission will be provided, along with a

  11. A review of the mobile LIDAR system developed at the CSIR and a proposed improvement of the system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Shikwambana, L

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available or cloud of pollutants) and (3) To study the plume (say smoke, biomass burning and etc), Haze and Aerosol/pollutant dispersion. Fig. 5. A schematic view of the modified LIDAR system with Scanner. Fig. 4. (a) Ground-based zenith-pointing lidars...

  12. 2015 OLC Lidar: Chelan

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Quantum Spatial has collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data for the Oregon LiDAR Consortium (OLC) Chelan FEMA study area. This study area is located in...

  13. High-Rate Data-Capture for an Airborne Lidar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valett, Susan; Hicks, Edward; Dabney, Philip; Harding, David

    2012-01-01

    A high-rate data system was required to capture the data for an airborne lidar system. A data system was developed that achieved up to 22 million (64-bit) events per second sustained data rate (1408 million bits per second), as well as short bursts (less than 4 s) at higher rates. All hardware used for the system was off the shelf, but carefully selected to achieve these rates. The system was used to capture laser fire, single-photon detection, and GPS data for the Slope Imaging Multi-polarization Photo-counting Lidar (SIMPL). However, the system has applications for other laser altimeter systems (waveform-recording), mass spectroscopy, xray radiometry imaging, high-background- rate ranging lidar, and other similar areas where very high-speed data capture is needed. The data capture software was used for the SIMPL instrument that employs a micropulse, single-photon ranging measurement approach and has 16 data channels. The detected single photons are from two sources those reflected from the target and solar background photons. The instrument is non-gated, so background photons are acquired for a range window of 13 km and can comprise many times the number of target photons. The highest background rate occurs when the atmosphere is clear, the Sun is high, and the target is a highly reflective surface such as snow. Under these conditions, the total data rate for the 16 channels combined is expected to be approximately 22 million events per second. For each photon detection event, the data capture software reads the relative time of receipt, with respect to a one-per-second absolute time pulse from a GPS receiver, from an event timer card with 0.1-ns precision, and records that information to a RAID (Redundant Array of Independent Disks) storage device. The relative time of laser pulse firings must also be read and recorded with the same precision. Each of the four event timer cards handles the throughput from four of the channels. For each detection event, a flag is

  14. Person detection and tracking with a 360° lidar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Marcus; Hebel, Marcus; Arens, Michael

    2017-10-01

    Today it is easily possible to generate dense point clouds of the sensor environment using 360° LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) sensors which are available since a number of years. The interpretation of these data is much more challenging. For the automated data evaluation the detection and classification of objects is a fundamental task. Especially in urban scenarios moving objects like persons or vehicles are of particular interest, for instance in automatic collision avoidance, for mobile sensor platforms or surveillance tasks. In literature there are several approaches for automated person detection in point clouds. While most techniques show acceptable results in object detection, the computation time is often crucial. The runtime can be problematic, especially due to the amount of data in the panoramic 360° point clouds. On the other hand, for most applications an object detection and classification in real time is needed. The paper presents a proposal for a fast, real-time capable algorithm for person detection, classification and tracking in panoramic point clouds.

  15. Wide range neutron detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todt, W.H. Sr.

    1978-01-01

    A neutron detection system for reactor control is described which is operable over a wide range of neutron flux levels. The system includes a fission type ionization chamber neutron detector, means for gamma and alpha signal compensation, and means for operating the neutron detector in the pulse counting mode for low neutron flux levels, and in the direct current mode for high neutron flux levels

  16. Airborne Measurements of CO2 Column Absorption and Range Using a Pulsed Direct-Detection Integrated Path Differential Absorption Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abshire, James B.; Riris, Haris; Weaver, Clark J.; Mao, Jianping; Allan, Graham R.; Hasselbrack, William E.; Browell, Edward V.

    2013-01-01

    We report on airborne CO2 column absorption measurements made in 2009 with a pulsed direct-detection lidar operating at 1572.33 nm and utilizing the integrated path differential absorption technique. We demonstrated these at different altitudes from an aircraft in July and August in flights over four locations in the central and eastern United States. The results show clear CO2 line shape and absorption signals, which follow the expected changes with aircraft altitude from 3 to 13 km. The lidar measurement statistics were also calculated for each flight as a function of altitude. The optical depth varied nearly linearly with altitude, consistent with calculations based on atmospheric models. The scatter in the optical depth measurements varied with aircraft altitude as expected, and the median measurement precisions for the column varied from 0.9 to 1.2 ppm. The altitude range with the lowest scatter was 810 km, and the majority of measurements for the column within it had precisions between 0.2 and 0.9 ppm.

  17. Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR and Multispectral Scanner (MSS Studies Examine Coastal Environments Influenced by Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Charles Kerfoot

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There are numerous examples of past and present mine disposal into freshwater and marine coastal bays and riverine environments. Due to its high spatial resolution and extended water penetration, coastal light detection and ranging (LiDAR, coupled with multispectral scanning (MSS, has great promise for resolving disturbed shoreline features in low turbidity environments. Migrating mine tailings present serious issues for Lake Superior and coastal marine environments. Previous investigations in Lake Superior uncovered a metal-rich “halo” around the Keweenaw Peninsula, related to past copper mining practices. For over a century, waste rock migrating from shoreline tailing piles has moved along extensive stretches of coastline, compromising critical fish breeding grounds, damming stream outlets, transgressing into wetlands and along recreational beaches and suppressing benthic invertebrate communities. In Grand (Big Traverse Bay, Buffalo Reef is an important spawning area for lake trout and whitefish threatened by drifting tailings. The movement of tailings into Buffalo Reef cobble fields may interfere with the hatching of fish eggs and fry survival, either by filling in crevices where eggs are deposited or by toxic effects on eggs, newly hatched larvae or benthic communities. Here, we show that the coastal tailing migration is not “out of sight, out of mind”, but clearly revealed by using a combination of LiDAR and MSS techniques.

  18. Observation of stratospheric ozone with NIES lidar system in Tsukuba, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakane, H.; Hayashida, S.; Sasano, Y.; Sugimoto, N.; Matsui, I.; Minato, A.

    1992-01-01

    Lidars are expected to play important roles in an international monitoring network of the stratosphere such as the Network for the Detection of Stratospheric Change (NDSC). The National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES) in Tsukuba constructed an ozone lidar system in March 1988 and started observation in August 1988. The lidar system has a 2-m telescope and injection locked XeCl and XeF excimer lasers which can measure ozone profiles (15-45 km) and temperature profiles (30-80 km). From December 1991, lidar observations have been carried out in which the second Stokes line of the stimulated Raman scattering of a KrF laser has been used. Ozone profiles obtained with the NIES lidar system are compared with the data provided by the SAGE II satellite sensor. Results showed good agreement for the individual and the zonal mean profiles. Variations of ozone with various time scales at each altitude can be studied using the data obtained with the NIES ozone lidar system. Seasonal variations are easily found at 20 km, 30 km, and 35 km, which are qualitatively understood as a result of dynamical and photochemical effects. Systematic errors of ozone profiles due to the Pinatubo stratospheric aerosols have been detected using multi-wavelength observation

  19. An elastic lidar system for the H.E.S.S. Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bregeon, J.; Compin, M.; Rivoire, S.; Sanguillon, M.; Vasileiadis, G., E-mail: george.vasileiadis@lupm.in2p3.fr

    2016-05-21

    The H.E.S.S. experiment in Namibia, Africa, is a high energy gamma ray telescope sensitive in the energy range from ~100 Gev to a few tens of TeV, via the use of the atmospheric Cherenkov technique. To minimize the systematic errors on the derived fluxes of the measured sources, one has to calculate the impact of the atmospheric properties, in particular the extinction parameter of the Cherenkov light (~300–650 nm) exploited to observe and reconstruct atmospheric particle showers initiated by gamma-ray photons. A lidar can provide this kind of information for some given wavelengths within this range. In this paper we report on the hardware components, operation and data acquisition of such a system installed at the H.E.S.S. site.

  20. Differential absorption and Raman lidar for water vapor profile measurements - A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, William B.

    1991-01-01

    Differential absorption lidar and Raman lidar have been applied to the range-resolved measurements of water vapor density for more than 20 years. Results have been obtained using both lidar techniques that have led to improved understanding of water vapor distributions in the atmosphere. This paper reviews the theory of the measurements, including the sources of systematic and random error; the progress in lidar technology and techniques during that period, including a brief look at some of the lidar systems in development or proposed; and the steps being taken to improve such lidar systems.

  1. Comparison of Aerosol optical depth (AOD) derived from AERONET sunphotometer and Lidar system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khor, Wei Ying; Hee, Wan Shen; Tan, Fuyi; Lim, Hwee San; Jafri, Mohamad Zubir Mat; Holben, Brent

    2014-01-01

    Aerosol optical depth (AOD) is the measure of aerosols distributed within a column of air from the instrument or Earth's surface to the top of the atmosphere. In this paper, we compared the AOD measured by the Raymetrics Lidar system and AERONET sunphotometer. A total of 6 days data which was collected by both instruments were compiled and compared. Generally, AOD value calculated from Lidar data are higher than that calculated from AERONET data. Differences and similarities in the AOD data trend were observed and the corresponding explanations were done. Level 1.5 data of AERONET is estimated to have an accuracy of ±0.03, thus the Lidar data should follow the trend of the AERONET. But in this regards, this study was conducted less than one month and was very difficult to justify the differences and similarities between AOD measured by the Raymetrics Lidar system and AERONET sunphotometer. So further studies for an extended period will be needed and performed with more comprehensive LIDAR measurements. The slope of the best-fit straight line for the data points between the AOD values retrieved from LIDAR and the AERONET measurements is the closest to unity and the coefficient of determination is high (above 0. 6692). Factors which affect AOD data were discussed. As a conclusion, the trends of the AOD of both systems are similar. Yet due to some external factors, the trend will be slightly different

  2. Development of Raman-Mie lidar system for aerosol and water vapor profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Qian; Wang, Zhenzhu; Xu, Jiwei; Tan, Min; Wu, Decheng; Xie, Chenbo; Liu, Dong; Wang, Yingjian

    2018-03-01

    Aerosol and water vapor are two important atmospheric parameters. The accurate quantification of diurnal variation of these parameters are very useful for environment assessment and climate change studies. A moveable, compact and unattended lidar system based on modular design is developed for aerosol extinction coefficients and water vapor mixing ratios measurements. In the southern suburbs of Beijing, the continuous observation was carried out by this lidar since the middle of the year of 2017. The lidar equipment is presented and the case study is also described in this paper. The observational results show that the lidar kept a very good status from the long-time continuous measurements which is suitable for networking especially in meteorological research field.

  3. Short-range communication system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhorn, Dean C. (Inventor); Howard, David E. (Inventor); Smith, Dennis A. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A short-range communication system includes an antenna, a transmitter, and a receiver. The antenna is an electrical conductor formed as a planar coil with rings thereof being uniformly spaced. The transmitter is spaced apart from the plane of the coil by a gap. An amplitude-modulated and asynchronous signal indicative of a data stream of known peak amplitude is transmitted into the gap. The receiver detects the coil's resonance and decodes same to recover the data stream.

  4. Coherent dual-frequency lidar system design for distance and speed measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xingyuan; Zhao, Changming; Zhang, Haiyang; Zheng, Zheng; Yang, Hongzhi

    2018-01-01

    Lidars have a wide range of applications in military detection and civilian remote sensing. Coherent Dual-Frequency Lidar (CDFL) is a new concept of laser radar that is using electrical coherence instead of optical coherence. It uses laser with two coherent frequency components as transmitting wave. The method is based on the use of an optically-carried radio frequency (RF) signal, which is the frequency difference between the two components, which is specially designed for distance and speed measurements. It not only ensures the system has the characteristics of high spatial resolution, high ranging and velocity precision of laser radar, but also can use mature signal processing technology of microwave radar, and it is a research direction that attracts more concern in recent years. A CDFL detection system is constructed and field experiment is carried out. In the system, a narrow linewidth fiber laser with a wavelength of 1064nm is adopted. The dual-frequency laser with frequency difference of 200MHz and 200.6MHz is obtained by acousto-optic frequency shift and recombination. The maximum output power of dual frequency laser is 200mW. The receiver consists of all-fiber balanced InGaAs photo-detector and homemade analog signal processing board. The experimental results show that the distance resolution and velocity resolution of the system are 0.1m and 0.1m/s separately when the working distance is greater than 200m, and the spatial resolution is 0.5mrad.

  5. Let’s agree on the casing of Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deering, Carol; Stoker, Jason M.

    2014-01-01

    Is it lidar, Lidar, LiDAR, LIDAR, LiDar, LiDaR, or liDAR? A comprehensive review of the scientific/technical literature reveals seven different casings of this short form for light detection and ranging. And there could be more.

  6. SAR and LIDAR fusion: experiments and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Matthew C.; Zaugg, Evan C.; Bradley, Joshua P.; Bowden, Ryan D.

    2013-05-01

    In recent years ARTEMIS, Inc. has developed a series of compact, versatile Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) systems which have been operated on a variety of small manned and unmanned aircraft. The multi-frequency-band SlimSAR has demonstrated a variety of capabilities including maritime and littoral target detection, ground moving target indication, polarimetry, interferometry, change detection, and foliage penetration. ARTEMIS also continues to build upon the radar's capabilities through fusion with other sensors, such as electro-optical and infrared camera gimbals and light detection and ranging (LIDAR) devices. In this paper we focus on experiments and applications employing SAR and LIDAR fusion. LIDAR is similar to radar in that it transmits a signal which, after being reflected or scattered by a target area, is recorded by the sensor. The differences are that a LIDAR uses a laser as a transmitter and optical sensors as a receiver, and the wavelengths used exhibit a very different scattering phenomenology than the microwaves used in radar, making SAR and LIDAR good complementary technologies. LIDAR is used in many applications including agriculture, archeology, geo-science, and surveying. Some typical data products include digital elevation maps of a target area and features and shapes extracted from the data. A set of experiments conducted to demonstrate the fusion of SAR and LIDAR data include a LIDAR DEM used in accurately processing the SAR data of a high relief area (mountainous, urban). Also, feature extraction is used in improving geolocation accuracy of the SAR and LIDAR data.

  7. Wind field measurement in the nonprecipitous regions surrounding storms by an airborne pulsed Doppler lidar system, appendix A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilbro, J. W.; Vaughan, W. W.

    1980-01-01

    Coherent Doppler lidar appears to hold great promise in contributing to the basic store of knowledge concerning flow field characteristics in the nonprecipitous regions surrounding severe storms. The Doppler lidar, through its ability to measure clear air returns, augments the conventional Doppler radar system, which is most useful in the precipitous regions of the storm. A brief description of the Doppler lidar severe storm measurement system is provided along with the technique to be used in performing the flow field measurements. The application of the lidar is addressed, and the planned measurement program is outlined.

  8. Design and Demonstration of a Miniature Lidar System for Rover Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    A basic small and portable lidar system for rover applications has been designed. It uses a 20 Hz Nd:YAG pulsed laser, a 4-inch diameter telescope receiver, a custom-built power distribution unit (PDU), and a custom-built 532 nm photomultiplier tube (PMT) to measure the lidar signal. The receiving optics have been designed, but not constructed yet. LabVIEW and MATLAB programs have also been written to control the system, acquire data, and analyze data. The proposed system design, along with some measurements, is described. Future work to be completed is also discussed.

  9. Estimating forest structural characteristics using the airborne LiDAR scanning system and a near-real time profiling laser system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Kaiguang

    LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) directly measures canopy vertical structures, and provides an effective remote sensing solution to accurate and spatially-explicit mapping of forest characteristics, such as canopy height and Leaf Area Index. However, many factors, such as large data volume and high costs for data acquisition, precludes the operational and practical use of most currently available LiDARs for frequent and large-scale mapping. At the same time, a growing need is arising for real-time remote sensing platforms, e.g., to provide timely information for urgent applications. This study aims to develop an airborne profiling LiDAR system, featured with on-the-fly data processing, for near real- or real-time forest inventory. The development of such a system involves implementing the on-board data processing and analysis as well as building useful regression-based models to relate LiDAR measurements with forest biophysical parameters. This work established a paradigm for an on-the-fly airborne profiling LiDAR system to inventory regional forest resources in real- or near real-time. The system was developed based on an existing portable airborne laser system (PALS) that has been previously assembled at NASA by Dr. Ross Nelson. Key issues in automating PALS as an on-the-fly system were addressed, including the design of an archetype for the system workflow, the development of efficient and robust algorithms for automatic data processing and analysis, the development of effective regression models to predict forest biophysical parameters from LiDAR measurements, and the implementation of an integrated software package to incorporate all the above development. This work exploited the untouched potential of airborne laser profilers for real-time forest inventory, and therefore, documented an initial step toward developing airborne-laser-based, on-the-fly, real-time, forest inventory systems. Results from this work demonstrated the utility and effectiveness of

  10. Pointing Verification Method for Spaceborne Lidars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel Amediek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available High precision acquisition of atmospheric parameters from the air or space by means of lidar requires accurate knowledge of laser pointing. Discrepancies between the assumed and actual pointing can introduce large errors due to the Doppler effect or a wrongly assumed air pressure at ground level. In this paper, a method for precisely quantifying these discrepancies for airborne and spaceborne lidar systems is presented. The method is based on the comparison of ground elevations derived from the lidar ranging data with high-resolution topography data obtained from a digital elevation model and allows for the derivation of the lateral and longitudinal deviation of the laser beam propagation direction. The applicability of the technique is demonstrated by using experimental data from an airborne lidar system, confirming that geo-referencing of the lidar ground spot trace with an uncertainty of less than 10 m with respect to the used digital elevation model (DEM can be obtained.

  11. Airborne lidar measurements to investigate the impact of long-range transported dust on shallow marine trade wind convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, S.; Gutleben, M.; Wirth, M.; Ewald, F.

    2017-12-01

    Aerosols and clouds are still main contributors to uncertainties in estimates and interpretation of the Earth's changing energy budget. Their interaction with the Earth's radiation budged has a direct component by scattering and absorbing solar and terrestrial radiation, and an indirect component, e.g. as aerosols modify the properties and thus the life-time of clouds or by changing the atmosphere's stability. Up to know now sufficient understanding in aerosol-cloud interaction and climate feedback is achieved. Thus studies with respect to clouds, aerosols, their interaction and influence on the radiation budged are highly demanded. In August 2016 the NARVAL-II (Next-generation airborne remote sensing for validation studies) mission took place. Measurements with a combined active (high spectral resolution and water vapor differential absorption lidar and cloud radar) and passive remote sensing (microwave radiometer, hyper spectral imager, radiation measurements) payload were performed with the German high altitude and long-range research aircraft HALO over the subtropical North-Atlantic Ocean to study shallow marine convection during the wet and dusty season. With this, NARVAL-II is follow-up of the NARVAL-I mission which took place during the dry and dust free season in December 2013. During NARVAL-II the measurement flights were designed the way to sample dust influenced areas as well as dust free areas in the trades. One main objective was to investigate the optical and macro physical properties of the dust layer, differences in cloud occurrence in dusty and non-dusty areas, and to study the influence of aerosols on the cloud properties and formation. This allows comparisons of cloud and aerosol distribution as well as their environment between the dry and the wet season, and of cloud properties and distribution with and without the influence of long-range transported dust across the Atlantic Ocean. In our presentation we will give an overview of the NARVAL

  12. 2015 OLC Lidar DEM: Wasco, WA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — WSI collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data for the Oregon LiDAR Consortium (OLC) Wasco County, WA, study area. The Oregon LiDAR Consortium's Wasco County...

  13. Vertical profiles of atmospheric fluorescent aerosols observed by a mutil-channel lidar spectrometer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Z.; Huang, J.; Zhou, T.; Sugimoto, N.; Bi, J.

    2015-12-01

    Zhongwei Huang1*, Jianping Huang1, Tian Zhou1, Nobuo Sugimoto2, Jianrong Bi1 and Jinsen Shi11Key Laboratory for Semi-Arid Climate Change of the Ministry of Education, College of Atmospheric Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, China. 2Atmospheric Environment Division, National Institutes for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, Japan Email: huangzhongwei@lzu.edu.cn Abstract Atmospheric aerosols have a significant impact on regional and globe climate. The challenge in quantifying aerosol direct radiative forcing and aerosol-cloud interactions arises from large spatial and temporal heterogeneity of aerosol concentrations, compositions, sizes, shape and optical properties (IPCC, 2007). Lidar offers some remarkable advantages for determining the vertical structure of atmospheric aerosols and their related optical properties. To investigate the characterization of atmospheric aerosols (especially bioaerosols) with high spatial and temporal resolution, we developed a Raman/fluorescence/polarization lidar system employed a multi-channel spectrometer, with capabilities of providing measurements of Raman scattering and laser-induced fluorescence excitation at 355 nm from atmospheric aerosols. Meanwhile, the lidar system operated polarization measurements both at 355nm and 532nm wavelengths, aiming to obtain more information of aerosols. It employs a high power pulsed laser and a received telescope with 350mm diameter. The receiver could simultaneously detect a wide fluorescent spectrum about 178 nm with spectral resolution 5.7 nm, mainly including an F/3.7 Crossed Czerny-Turner spectrograph, a grating (1200 gr/mm) and a PMT array with 32 photocathode elements. Vertical structure of fluorescent aerosols in the atmosphere was observed by the developed lidar system at four sites across northwest China, during 2014 spring field observation that conducted by Lanzhou University. It has been proved that the developed lidar could detect the fluorescent aerosols with high temporal and

  14. 3D Imaging Cubesat Lidar for Asteroid and Planetary Sciences, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA is actively pursuing guidance and control light detection and ranging (lidar) systems for upcoming exploration missions including asteroid, comet, planet, and...

  15. Integrated remote sensing and visualization (IRSV) system for transportation infrastructure operations and management, phase one, volume 3 : use of scanning LiDAR in structural evaluation of bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    This volume introduces several applications of remote bridge inspection technologies studied in : this Integrated Remote Sensing and Visualization (IRSV) study using ground-based LiDAR : systems. In particular, the application of terrestrial LiDAR fo...

  16. A sample design for globally consistent biomass estimation using lidar data from the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sean P. Healey; Paul L. Patterson; Sassan S. Saatchi; Michael A. Lefsky; Andrew J. Lister; Elizabeth A. Freeman

    2012-01-01

    Lidar height data collected by the Geosciences Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) from 2002 to 2008 has the potential to form the basis of a globally consistent sample-based inventory of forest biomass. GLAS lidar return data were collected globally in spatially discrete full waveform "shots," which have been shown to be strongly correlated with aboveground forest...

  17. Observations of beach cusp evolution using a stationary, shore-based lidar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dea, A.; Whitesides, E. T.; Brodie, K.; Spore, N.

    2016-12-01

    Although beach cusps are common features on beaches around the world, questions still remain regarding the range of conditions in which they form, the initial forcing conditions under which they form, and the erosive or accretionary nature of cusp events. While many prior studies have focused on the formation and morphology of beach cusps, many of these are limited in the spatial extent of observations, in their spatial or temporal resolution, or in the availability of accompanying hydrodynamic data. In this study, beach cusp formation and evolution is investigated using an automated lidar system that provides hourly three-dimensional scans of subaerial beach topography with high spatial resolution ([O(1 cm)]). The stationary lidar scanner is mounted on a 4-m tower located on the crest of a shore-backing dune on an Atlantic Ocean beach near Duck, North Carolina. The device measures a 237°-framescan of the nearshore region over a 15 minute period each hour. Individual scans are coregistered to a baseline scan using an iterative closest point (ICP) algorithm and then filtered to remove noise, dune vegetation, and water. To assess the accuracy of the coregistration algorithm, the 3-dimensional location of five permanent reflectors near the device are found for each scan and compared to their measured GPS location. Precisely coregistered scans allow for an assessment of elevation change across cuspate features in addition to traditional measurements of cusp wavelength. Beach cusp events are assessed over a three month period from September through November 2015. Wave and current data from a cross-shore array of sensors deployed continuously throughout the three month period as well as from two alongshore arrays of ADV sensors deployed from October 13 through November 1 are used to determine the forcing conditions under which the cusps formed and evolved. Funded by the USACE Coastal Field Data Collection Program.

  18. Detection of preferential particle orientation in the atmosphere: Development of an alternative polarization lidar system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geier, Manfred; Arienti, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Increasing interest in polarimetric characterization of atmospheric aerosols has led to the development of complete sample-measuring (Mueller) polarimeters that are capable of measuring the entire backscattering phase matrix of a probed volume. These Mueller polarimeters consist of several moving parts, which limit measurement rates and complicate data analysis. In this paper, we present the concept of a less complex polarization lidar setup for detection of preferential orientation of atmospheric particulates. On the basis of theoretical considerations of data inversion stability and propagation of measurement uncertainties, an optimum optical configuration is established for two modes of operation (with either a linear or a circular polarized incident laser beam). The conceptualized setup falls in the category of incomplete sample-measuring polarimeters and uses four detection channels for simultaneous measurement of the backscattered light. The expected performance characteristics are discussed through an example of a typical aerosol with a small fraction of particles oriented in a preferred direction. The theoretical analysis suggests that achievable accuracies in backscatter cross-sections and depolarization ratios are similar to those with conventional two-channel configurations, while in addition preferential orientation can be detected with the proposed four-channel system for a wide range of conditions. - Highlights: • A theoretical study of a new four-channel lidar concept is offered. • Preferential particle orientation detection could be realized with minor device modifications. • The proposed configuration is optimized to balance inversion uncertainties. • Circular polarized beam is demonstrated to provide the best noise performance. • Operation with ultra-short pulses is proposed to quantify particle number density

  19. Assessment of capabilities of lidar systems in day-and night-time under different atmospheric and internal-noise conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agishev, Ravil; Comerón, Adolfo

    2018-04-01

    As an application of the dimensionless parameterization concept proposed earlier for the characterization of lidar systems, the universal assessment of lidar capabilities in day and night conditions is considered. The dimensionless parameters encapsulate the atmospheric conditions, the lidar optical and optoelectronic characteristics, including the photodetector internal noise, and the sky background radiation. Approaches to ensure immunity of the lidar system to external background radiation are discussed.

  20. An automated model for rooftop PV systems assessment in ArcGIS using LIDAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesude Bayrakci Boz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available As photovoltaic (PV systems have become less expensive, building rooftops have come to be attractive for local power production. Identifying rooftops suitable for solar energy systems over large geographic areas is needed for cities to obtain more accurate assessments of production potential and likely patterns of development. This paper presents a new method for extracting roof segments and locating suitable areas for PV systems using Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR data and building footprints. Rooftop segments are created using seven slope (tilt, ve aspect (azimuth classes and 6 different building types. Moreover, direct beam shading caused by nearby objects and the surrounding terrain is taken into account on a monthly basis. Finally, the method is implemented as an ArcGIS model in ModelBuilder and a tool is created. In order to show its validity, the method is applied to city of Philadelphia, PA, USA with the criteria of slope, aspect, shading and area used to locate suitable areas for PV system installation. The results show that 33.7% of the buildings footprints areas and 48.6% of the rooftop segments identi ed is suitable for PV systems. Overall, this study provides a replicable model using commercial software that is capable of extracting individual roof segments with more detailed criteria across an urban area.

  1. Use of Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) to Obtain High-Resolution Elevation Data for Sussex County, Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Roger A.; Nardi, Mark R.; Reyes, Betzaida

    2008-01-01

    Sussex County, Delaware, occupies a 938-square-mile area of low relief near sea level in the Atlantic Coastal Plain. The county is bounded on the east by the Delaware Bay and the Atlantic Ocean, including a barrier-island system, and inland bays that provide habitat for valuable living resources. Eastern Sussex County is an area of rapid population growth with a long-established beach-resort community, where land elevation is a key factor in determining areas that are appropriate for development. Of concern to State and local planners are evacuation routes inland to escape flooding from severe coastal storms, as most major transportation routes traverse areas of low elevation that are subject to inundation. The western half of the county is typically rural in character, and land use is largely agricultural with some scattered forest land cover. Western Sussex County has several low-relief river flood-prone areas, where accurate high-resolution elevation data are needed for Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) studies. This fact sheet describes the methods and techniques used to collect and process LiDAR elevation data, the generation of the digital elevation model (DEM) and the 2-foot contours, and the quality-assurance procedures and results. It indicates where to view metadata on the data sets and where to acquire bare-earth mass points, DEM data, and contour data.

  2. Characterization of the EPRI Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) System. Final report. [For remote sensing of air pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumgartner, R.A.; Depp, J.G.; Evans, W.E.; Grant, W.B.; Hawley, J.G.; March, R.G.; Murray, E.R.; Proctor, E.K.

    1979-12-01

    SRI International designed and constructed a DIfferential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) to provide EPRI with a mobile field system for remote measurements of SO/sub 2/, NO/sub 3/, and O/sub 3/. After field testing the lidar was prepared for the sytem calibration testing where lidar measurements were compared to in situ profiles of SO/sub 2/, NO/sub 2/, and O/sub 3/. This two-week field program determined overall system accuracy and reliability in measuring varying ambient gas concentrations. The lidar was then returned to SRI for detailed subsystem performance evaluations. Improvements were made wherever possible, and the lidar was prepared for further systems tests. Tests were made using an NO/sub 2/ sample chamber to simulate a calibrated NO/sub 2/ plume, and ambient measured NO/sub 2/ concentrations were compared with values from a regional air pollutant monitoring station. Following the local calibration and the systems field tests, SRI evaluated the performance and reliability of the EPRI lidar. Based on that evaluation, SRI undertook a major analysis of possible system improvements. Although the remote measuring capability had been successfully demonstrated in the field program, SRI makes several recommendations for systems improvements which would increase the lidar accuracy and reliability.

  3. 2014 OLC Lidar: Colville, WA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — WSI, a Quantum Spatial company, has collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data for the Oregon LiDAR Consortium (OLC) Colville study area. This study area is...

  4. 2015 OLC Lidar DEM: Chelan

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Quantum Spatial has collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data for the Oregon LiDAR Consortium (OLC) Chelan FEMA study area. This study area is located in...

  5. 2015 OLC Lidar: Okanogan WA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Quantum Spatial has collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data for the Oregon LiDAR Consortium (OLC) Okanogan FEMA study area. This study area is located in...

  6. LiDAR Scan Matching Aided Inertial Navigation System in GNSS-Denied Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Jian; Chen, Yuwei; Niu, Xiaoji; Wang, Li; Chen, Liang; Liu, Jingbin; Shi, Chuang; Hyyppä, Juha

    2015-01-01

    A new scan that matches an aided Inertial Navigation System (INS) with a low-cost LiDAR is proposed as an alternative to GNSS-based navigation systems in GNSS-degraded or -denied environments such as indoor areas, dense forests, or urban canyons. In these areas, INS-based Dead Reckoning (DR) and Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) technologies are normally used to estimate positions as separate tools. However, there are critical implementation problems with each standalone system. Th...

  7. 2006 Texas Water Development Board (TWDB) Lidar: Brazoria County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Using a LH Systems ALS50 Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) system, flight lines of standard density (1.4 meter ground sample distance) data were collected over...

  8. 2006 Texas Water Development Board (TWDB) Lidar: Orange County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Using a LH Systems ALS50 Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) system, 43 flight lines of standard density (1.4 meter ground sample distance) data were collected over...

  9. 2006 Texas Water Development Board (TWDB) Lidar: Galveston County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Using a LH Systems ALS50 Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) system, flight lines of standard density (1.4 meter ground sample distance) data were collected over...

  10. 2006 Texas Water Development Board (TWDB) Lidar: Jackson County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Using a LH Systems ALS50 Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) system, flight lines of standard density (1.4 meter ground sample distance) data were collected over...

  11. System analysis of a tilted field-widened Michelson interferometer for high spectral resolution lidar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dong; Hostetler, Chris; Miller, Ian; Cook, Anthony; Hair, Johnathan

    2012-01-16

    High spectral resolution lidars (HSRLs) have shown great value in aircraft aerosol remote sensing application and are planned for future satellite missions. A compact, robust, quasi-monolithic tilted field-widened Michelson interferometer is being developed as the spectral discrimination filter for an second-generation HSRL(HSRL-2) at NASA Langley Research Center. The Michelson interferometer consists of a cubic beam splitter, a solid arm and an air arm. Piezo stacks connect the air arm mirror to the body of the interferometer and can tune the interferometer within a small range. The whole interferometer is tilted so that the standard Michelson output and the reflected complementary output can both be obtained. In this paper, the transmission ratio is proposed to evaluate the performance of the spectral filter for HSRL. The transmission ratios over different types of system imperfections, such as cumulative wavefront error, locking error, reflectance of the beam splitter and anti-reflection coatings, system tilt, and depolarization angle are analyzed. The requirements of each imperfection for good interferometer performance are obtained.

  12. Monitoring cirrus cloud and tropopause height over Hanoi using a compact lidar system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bui Van Hai; Dinh Van Trung; Nguyen Xuan Tuan; Dao Duy Thang; Nguyen Thanh Binh

    2012-01-01

    Cirrus clouds in the upper troposphere and the lower stratosphere have attracted great attention due to their important role and impact on the atmospheric radioactive balance. Because cirrus clouds are located high in the atmosphere, their study requires a high resolution remote sensing technique not only for detection but also for the characterization of their properties. The lidar technique with its inherent high sensitivity and resolution has become an indispensable tool for studying and improving our understanding of cirrus cloud. Using lidar technique we can simultaneously measure the cloud height, thickness and follow its temporal evolution. In this paper we describe the development of a compact and highly sensitive lidar system with the aim to remotely monitor for the first time the cirrus clouds over Hanoi (2101:42 N, 10551:12 W). From the lidar data collected during the year 2011. We derive the mean cloud height, location of cloud top, the cloud mean thickness and their temporal evolution. We then compare the location of the cloud top with the position of the tropopause determined the radiosonde data and found good that the distance between cloud top and tropopause remains fairly stable, indicating that generally the top of cirrus clouds is the good tracer of the tropopause. We found that the cirrus clouds are generally located at height between 11.2 to 15 km with average height of 13.4 km. Their thickness is between 0.3 and 3.8 km with average value of 1.7 km. We also compare the properties of cirrus cloud with that observed at other locations around the world based on lidar technique. (author)

  13. Compact lidar system using laser diode, binary continuous wave power modulation, and an avalanche photodiode-based receiver controlled by a digital signal processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardanuy, Antoni; Comerón, Adolfo

    2018-04-01

    We analyze the practical limits of a lidar system based on the use of a laser diode, random binary continuous wave power modulation, and an avalanche photodiode (APD)-based photereceiver, combined with the control and computing power of the digital signal processors (DSP) currently available. The target is to design a compact portable lidar system made all in semiconductor technology, with a low-power demand and an easy configuration of the system, allowing change in some of its features through software. Unlike many prior works, we emphasize the use of APDs instead of photomultiplier tubes to detect the return signal and the application of the system to measure not only hard targets, but also medium-range aerosols and clouds. We have developed an experimental prototype to evaluate the behavior of the system under different environmental conditions. Experimental results provided by the prototype are presented and discussed.

  14. New Generation Lidar Technology and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinhirne, James D.

    1999-01-01

    Lidar has been a tool for atmospheric research for several decades. Until recently routine operational use of lidar was not known. Problems have involved a lack of appropriate technology rather than a lack of applications. Within the last few years, lidar based on a new generation of solid state lasers and detectors have changed the situation. Operational applications for cloud and aerosol research applications are now well established. In these research applications, the direct height profiling capability of lidar is typically an adjunct to other types of sensing, both passive and active. Compact eye safe lidar with the sensitivity for ground based monitoring of all significant cloud and aerosol structure and the reliability to operate full time for several years is now in routine use. The approach is known as micro pulse lidar (MPL). For MPL the laser pulse repetition rate is in the kilohertz range and the pulse energies are in the micro-Joule range. The low pulse energy permits the systems to be eye safe and reliable with solid state lasers. A number of MPL systems have been deployed since 1992 at atmospheric research sites at a variety of global locations. Accurate monitoring of cloud and aerosol vertical distribution is a critical measurement for atmospheric radiation. An airborne application of lidar cloud and aerosol profiling is retrievals of parameters from combined lidar and passive sensing involving visible, infrared and microwave frequencies. A lidar based on a large pulse, solid state diode pumped ND:YAG laser has been deployed on the NASA ER-2 high altitude research aircraft along with multi-spectral visible/IR and microwave imaging radiometers since 1993. The system has shown high reliability in an extensive series of experimental projects for cloud remote sensing. The retrieval of cirrus radiation parameters is an effective application for combined lidar and passive sensing. An approved NASA mission will soon begin long term lidar observation of

  15. A NEW AUTOMATIC SYSTEM CALIBRATION OF MULTI-CAMERAS AND LIDAR SENSORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hassanein

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years, multi-cameras and LIDAR systems draw the attention of the mapping community. They have been deployed on different mobile mapping platforms. The different uses of these platforms, especially the UAVs, offered new applications and developments which require fast and accurate results. The successful calibration of such systems is a key factor to achieve accurate results and for the successful processing of the system measurements especially with the different types of measurements provided by the LIDAR and the cameras. The system calibration aims to estimate the geometric relationships between the different system components. A number of applications require the systems be ready for operation in a short time especially for disasters monitoring applications. Also, many of the present system calibration techniques are constrained with the need of special arrangements in labs for the calibration procedures. In this paper, a new technique for calibration of integrated LIDAR and multi-cameras systems is presented. The new proposed technique offers a calibration solution that overcomes the need for special labs for standard calibration procedures. In the proposed technique, 3D reconstruction of automatically detected and matched image points is used to generate a sparse images-driven point cloud then, a registration between the LIDAR generated 3D point cloud and the images-driven 3D point takes place to estimate the geometric relationships between the cameras and the LIDAR.. In the presented technique a simple 3D artificial target is used to simplify the lab requirements for the calibration procedure. The used target is composed of three intersected plates. The choice of such target geometry was to ensure enough conditions for the convergence of registration between the constructed 3D point clouds from the two systems. The achieved results of the proposed approach prove its ability to provide an adequate and fully automated

  16. Identifying Methane Sources with an Airborne Pulsed IPDA Lidar System Operating near 1.65 µm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerasi, A.; Bartholomew, J.; Tandy, W., Jr.; Emery, W. J.

    2016-12-01

    Methane is a powerful greenhouse gas that is predicted to play an important role in future global climate trends. It would therefore be beneficial to locate areas that produce methane in significant amounts so that these trends can be better understood. In this investigation, some initial performance test results of a lidar system called the Advanced Leak Detector Lidar - Natural Gas (ALDL-NG) are discussed. The feasibility of applying its fundamental principle of operation to methane source identification is also explored. The ALDL-NG was originally created by the Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corp. to reveal leaks emanating from pipelines that transport natural gas, which is primarily composed of methane. It operates in a pulsed integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) configuration and it is carried by a piloted, single-engine aircraft. In order to detect the presence of natural gas leaks, the laser wavelengths of its online and offline channels operate in the 1.65 µm region. The functionality of the ALDL-NG was tested during a recent field campaign in Colorado. It was determined that the ambient concentration of methane in the troposphere ( 1.8 ppm) could indeed be retrieved from ALDL-NG data with a lower-than-expected uncertainty ( 0.2 ppm). Furthermore, when the ALDL-NG scanned over areas that were presumed to be methane sources (feedlots, landfills, etc.), significantly higher concentrations of methane were retrieved. These results are intriguing because the ALDL-NG was not specifically designed to observe anything beyond natural gas pipelines. Nevertheless, they strongly indicate that utilizing an airborne pulsed IPDA lidar system operating near 1.65 µm may very well be a viable technique for identifying methane sources. Perhaps future lidar systems could build upon the heritage of the ALDL-NG and measure methane concentration with even better precision for a variety of scientific applications.

  17. Near Infrared LIDAR for Hazard Sensing and Characterization, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — RL Associates, Inc. proposes to conduct research leading to the development of a shortwave infrared (SWIR) range-gated LIDAR system for use in detecting external...

  18. Lidar signal-to-noise ratio improvements: Considerations and techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassebo, Yasser Y.

    The primary objective of this study is to improve lidar signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and hence extend attainable lidar ranges through reduction of the sky background noise (BGP), which dominates other sources of noise in daytime operations. This is particularly important for Raman lidar techniques where the Raman backscattered signal of interest is relatively weak compared with the elastic backscatter lidars. Two approaches for reduction of sky background noise are considered: (1) Improvements in lidar SNR by optimization of the design of the lidar receiver were examined by a series of simulations. This part of the research concentrated on biaxial lidar systems, where overlap between laser beam and receiver field of view (FOV) is an important aspect of noise considerations. The first optimized design evolved is a wedge shaped aperture. While this design has the virtue of greatly reducing background light, it is difficult to implement practically, requiring both changes in area and position with lidar range. A second more practical approach, which preserves some of the advantages of the wedge design, was also evolved. This uses a smaller area circular aperture optimally located in the image plane for desired ranges. Simulated numerical results for a biaxial lidar have shown that the best receiver parameters selection is one using a small circular aperture (field stop) with a small telescope focal length f, to ensure the minimum FOV that accepts all return signals over the entire lidar range while at the same time minimizing detected BGP and hence maximizing lidar SNR and attainable lidar ranges. The improvement in lidar SNR was up to 18%. (2) A polarization selection technique was implemented to reduce sky background signal for linearly polarized monostatic elastic backscatter lidar measurements. The technique takes advantage of naturally occurring polarization properties in scattered sky light, and then ensures that both the lidar transmitter and receiver track and

  19. Automated lidar-derived canopy height estimates for the Upper Mississippi River System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlavacek, Enrika

    2015-01-01

    Land cover/land use (LCU) classifications serve as important decision support products for researchers and land managers. The LCU classifications produced by the U.S. Geological Survey’s Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) include canopy height estimates that are assigned through manual aerial photography interpretation techniques. In an effort to improve upon these techniques, this project investigated the use of high-density lidar data for the Upper Mississippi River System to determine canopy height. An ArcGIS tool was developed to automatically derive height modifier information based on the extent of land cover features for forest classes. The measurement of canopy height included a calculation of the average height from lidar point cloud data as well as the inclusion of a local maximum filter to identify individual tree canopies. Results were compared to original manually interpreted height modifiers and to field survey data from U.S. Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis plots. This project demonstrated the effectiveness of utilizing lidar data to more efficiently assign height modifier attributes to LCU classifications produced by the UMESC.

  20. Linear LIDAR versus Geiger-mode LIDAR: impact on data properties and data quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullrich, A.; Pfennigbauer, M.

    2016-05-01

    LIDAR has become the inevitable technology to provide accurate 3D data fast and reliably even in adverse measurement situations and harsh environments. It provides highly accurate point clouds with a significant number of additional valuable attributes per point. LIDAR systems based on Geiger-mode avalanche photo diode arrays, also called single photon avalanche photo diode arrays, earlier employed for military applications, now seek to enter the commercial market of 3D data acquisition, advertising higher point acquisition speeds from longer ranges compared to conventional techniques. Publications pointing out the advantages of these new systems refer to the other category of LIDAR as "linear LIDAR", as the prime receiver element for detecting the laser echo pulses - avalanche photo diodes - are used in a linear mode of operation. We analyze the differences between the two LIDAR technologies and the fundamental differences in the data they provide. The limitations imposed by physics on both approaches to LIDAR are also addressed and advantages of linear LIDAR over the photon counting approach are discussed.

  1. Remote Sensing of Sub-Surface Suspended Sediment Concentration by Using the Range Bias of Green Surface Point of Airborne LiDAR Bathymetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinglei Zhao

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Suspended sediment concentrations (SSCs have been retrieved accurately and effectively through waveform methods by using green-pulse waveforms of airborne LiDAR bathymetry (ALB. However, the waveform data are commonly difficult to analyze. Thus, this paper proposes a 3D point-cloud method for remote sensing of SSCs in calm waters by using the range biases of green surface points of ALB. The near water surface penetrations (NWSPs of green lasers are calculated on the basis of the green and reference surface points. The range biases (ΔS are calculated by using the corresponding NWSPs and beam-scanning angles. In situ measured SSCs (C and range biases (ΔS are used to establish an empirical C-ΔS model at SSC sampling stations. The SSCs in calm waters are retrieved by using the established C-ΔS model. The proposed method is applied to a practical ALB measurement performed by Optech Coastal Zone Mapping and Imaging LiDAR. The standard deviations of the SSCs retrieved by the 3D point-cloud method are less than 20 mg/L.

  2. THE RAILMAPPER – A DEDICATED MOBILE LIDAR MAPPING SYSTEM FOR RAILWAY NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kremer

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The Mobile LiDAR Mapping System StreetMapper from IGI and 3D Laser Mapping (Bingham Nottingham, UK is mounted on a large variety of road vehicles to cover different mission specifications. In addition to the operation on the road, the system finds its applications on other kinds of vehicles, like boats or trains. The modular and flexible system concept even allows utilizing the same LiDAR Mapping system for Mobile Mapping on the ground and for airborne missions on helicopters, respectively. Besides this general flexibility, each application has its own special requirements. Special hardware and software components are needed to complete the core components, like the laser scanner and the GNSS/IMU systems, to build a dedicated system for the chosen task. Compared to the typical dynamics of a road vehicle mounted Mobile Mapping system, a dedicated rail mapping system operates under conditions that are much more challenging for a high accuracy GNSS/IMU trajectory determination. Furthermore, the typical rail mapping tasks, like the exact measurement of the rail track geometry, require the operation of the most accurate laser scanners and of specialized post-processing software. In this paper, the RailMapper, a specialized Mobile Mapping system for railway surveys is presented. The system is described with focus on the railway specific requirements and results of practical surveys are given.

  3. System description of the mobile LIDAR of the CSIR, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sharma, Ameeth

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available . In 1963, using a 0.5 J Ruby laser, they obtained Rayleigh-scattered signals from the atmosphere at altitudes up to 50 km and further detected dust layers in the atmosphere. In 1963, Ligda3 made the first LIDAR measurements of cloud heights... in the troposphere height region and, in 1967, Leonard4 detected Raman scattering of O2 and N2 using a nitrogen laser. A year later, Cooney5 made range-resolved nitrogen measurements up to an altitude of 3 km with a Ruby laser, and, in 1970, Inaba and Kobayasi6...

  4. Design and performance simulation of 532 nm Rayleigh-Mie Doppler lidar system for 5-50 km wind measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Fahua; Wang, Bangxin; Shi, Wenjuan; Zhuang, Peng; Zhu, Chengyun; Xie, Chenbo

    2018-04-01

    A novel design of the 532 nm Rayleigh-Mie Doppler lidar receiving system is carried out. The use of polarization isolation technology to effectively improve the receiving system optical reception efficiency, suppress the background noise, not only improves the system wind field detection accuracy, while achieving a high-accuracy temperature measurement. The wind speed and temperature measurement principle of the system are discussed in detail, and the triple Fabry-Perot etalon parameters are optimized. Utilizing the overall design parameters of the system, the system detection performance is simulated. The simulation results show that from 5 to 50 km altitude with vertical resolution of 0.1 km@5 ∼20 km, 0.5 km@20 ∼40 km, 1 km@40 ∼50 km, by using the laser with single pulse energy of 600 mJ, repetition frequency of 50 Hz and the receiving telescope with aperture of 0.8 m, with 2min integration time and in ±50 m/s radial wind speed range, the radial wind speed measurement accuracies of our designed lidar in the day and night are better than 2.6 m/s and 0.9 m/s respectively, and its performance is obviously superior to that of traditional system 5.6 m/s and 1.4 m/s wind speed accuracies; with 10min integration time and in 210 ∼280 K temperature range, the temperature measurement accuracies of the system in the day and night are better than 3.4 K and 1.2 K respectively; since the wind speed sensitivities of the Mie and Rayleigh scattering signals are not exactly the same, in ±50 m/s radial wind speed range, the wind speed bias induced by Mie signal is less than 1 m/s in the temperature range of 210-290 K and in the backscatter ratio range of 1-1.5 for pair measurement.

  5. Modeling of a sensitive time-of-flight flash LiDAR system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathipour, V.; Wheaton, S.; Johnson, W. E.; Mohseni, H.

    2016-09-01

    used for monitoring and profiling structures, range, velocity, vibration, and air turbulence. Remote sensing in the IR region has several advantages over the visible region, including higher transmitter energy while maintaining eye-safety requirements. Electron-injection detectors are a new class of detectors with high internal avalanche-free amplification together with an excess-noise-factor of unity. They have a cutoff wavelength of 1700 nm. Furthermore, they have an extremely low jitter. The detector operates in linear-mode and requires only bias voltage of a few volts. This together with the feedback stabilized gain mechanism, makes formation of large-format high pixel density electron-injection FPAs less challenging compared to other detector technologies such as avalanche photodetectors. These characteristics make electron-injection detectors an ideal choice for flash LiDAR application with mm scale resolution at longer ranges. Based on our experimentally measured device characteristics, a detailed theoretical LiDAR model was developed. In this model we compare the performance of the electron-injection detector with commercially available linear-mode InGaAs APD from (Hamamatsu G8931-20) as well as a p-i-n diode (Hamamatsu 11193 p-i-n). Flash LiDAR images obtained by our model, show the electron-injection detector array (of 100 x 100 element) achieves better resolution with higher signal-to-noise compared with both the InGaAs APD and the p-i-n array (of 100 x 100 element).

  6. Retrieval method of aerosol extinction coefficient profile based on backscattering, side-scattering and Raman-scattering lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Huihui; Zhang, Hui; Liu, Junjian; Tao, Zongming; Wang, Shenhao; Ma, Xiaomin; Zhou, Pucheng; Yao, Ling; Liu, Dong; Xie, Chenbo; Wang, Yingjian

    2018-03-01

    Aerosol extinction coefficient profile is an essential parameter for atmospheric radiation model. It is difficult to get higher signal to noise ratio (SNR) of backscattering lidar from the ground to the tropopause especially in near range. Higher SNR problem can be solved by combining side-scattering and backscattering lidar. Using Raman-scattering lidar, aerosol extinction to backscatter ratio (lidar ratio) can be got. Based on side-scattering, backscattering and Raman-scattering lidar system, aerosol extinction coefficient is retrieved precisely from the earth's surface to the tropopause. Case studies show this method is reasonable and feasible.

  7. Remote wind sensing with a CW diode laser lidar beyond the coherence regime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Qi; Rodrigo, Peter John; Pedersen, Christian

    2014-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate for the first time (to our knowledge) a coherent CW lidar system capable of wind speed measurement at a probing distance beyond the coherence regime of the light source. A side-by-side wind measurement was conducted on the field using two lidar systems with identical...... optical designs but different laser linewidths. While one system was operating within the coherence regime, the other was measuring at least 2.4 times the coherence range. The probing distance of both lidars is 85 m and the radial wind speed correlation was measured to be r2=0.965 between the two lidars...

  8. Spectral control of an alexandrite laser for an airborne water-vapor differential absorption lidar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponsardin, Patrick; Grossmann, Benoist E.; Browell, Edward V.

    1994-01-01

    A narrow-linewidth pulsed alexandrite laser has been greatly modified for improved spectral stability in an aircraft environment, and its operation has been evaluated in the laboratory for making water-vapor differential absorption lidar measurements. An alignment technique is described to achieve the optimum free spectral range ratio for the two etalons inserted in the alexandrite laser cavity, and the sensitivity of this ratio is analyzed. This technique drastically decreases the occurrence of mode hopping, which is commonly observed in a tunable, two-intracavity-etalon laser system. High spectral purity (greater than 99.85%) at 730 nm is demonstrated by the use of a water-vapor absorption line as a notch filter. The effective cross sections of 760-nm oxygen and 730-nm water-vapor absorption lines are measured at different pressures by using this laser, which has a finite linewidth of 0.02 cm(exp -1) (FWHM). It is found that for water-vapor absorption linewidths greater than 0.04 cm(exp -1) (HWHM), or for altitudes below 10 km, the laser line can be considered monochromatic because the measured effective absorption cross section is within 1% of the calculated monochromatic cross section. An analysis of the environmental sensitivity of the two intracavity etalons is presented, and a closed-loop computer control for active stabilization of the two intracavity etalons in the alexandrite laser is described. Using a water-vapor absorption line as a wavelength reference, we measure a long-term frequency drift (approximately 1.5 h) of less than 0.7 pm in the laboratory.

  9. Assessment and Optimization of Lidar Measurement Availability for Wind Turbine Control: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davoust, S.; Jehu, A.; Bouillet, M.; Bardon, M.; Vercherin, B.; Scholbrock, A.; Fleming, P.; Wright, A.

    2014-05-01

    Turbine-mounted lidars provide preview measurements of the incoming wind field. By reducing loads on critical components and increasing the potential power extracted from the wind, the performance of wind turbine controllers can be improved [2]. As a result, integrating a light detection and ranging (lidar) system has the potential to lower the cost of wind energy. This paper presents an evaluation of turbine-mounted lidar availability. Availability is a metric which measures the proportion of time the lidar is producing controller-usable data, and is essential when a wind turbine controller relies on a lidar. To accomplish this, researchers from Avent Lidar Technology and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory first assessed and modeled the effect of extreme atmospheric events. This shows how a multirange lidar delivers measurements for a wide variety of conditions. Second, by using a theoretical approach and conducting an analysis of field feedback, we investigated the effects of the lidar setup on the wind turbine. This helps determine the optimal lidar mounting position at the back of the nacelle, and establishes a relationship between availability, turbine rpm, and lidar sampling time. Lastly, we considered the role of the wind field reconstruction strategies and the turbine controller on the definition and performance of a lidar's measurement availability.

  10. Compressive full waveform lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Weiyi; Ke, Jun

    2017-05-01

    To avoid high bandwidth detector, fast speed A/D converter, and large size memory disk, a compressive full waveform LIDAR system, which uses a temporally modulated laser instead of a pulsed laser, is studied in this paper. Full waveform data from NEON (National Ecological Observatory Network) are used. Random binary patterns are used to modulate the source. To achieve 0.15 m ranging resolution, a 100 MSPS A/D converter is assumed to make measurements. SPIRAL algorithm with canonical basis is employed when Poisson noise is considered in the low illuminated condition.

  11. LIDAR Thomson scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-07-01

    This collection contains 21 papers on the application and development of LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) Thomson scattering techniques for the determination of spatially resolved electron temperature and density in magnetic confinement experiments, particularly tokamaks. Refs, figs and tabs

  12. Lidar instruments for ESA Earth observation missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hélière, Arnaud; Armandillo, Errico; Durand, Yannig; Culoma, Alain; Meynart, Roland

    2017-11-01

    The idea of deploying a lidar system on an Earthorbiting satellite stems from the need for continuously providing profiles of our atmospheric structure with high accuracy and resolution and global coverage. Interest in this information for climatology, meteorology and the atmospheric sciences in general is huge. Areas of application range from the determination of global warming and greenhouse effects, to monitoring the transport and accumulation of pollutants in the different atmospheric regions (such as the recent fires in Southeast Asia), to the assessment of the largely unknown microphysical properties and the structural dynamics of the atmosphere itself. Spaceborne lidar systems have been the subject of extensive investigations by the European Space Agency since mid 1970's, resulting in mission and instrument concepts, such as ATLID, the cloud backscatter lidar payload of the EarthCARE mission, ALADIN, the Doppler wind lidar of the Atmospheric Dynamics Mission (ADM) and more recently a water vapour Differential Absorption Lidar considered for the WALES mission. These studies have shown the basic scientific and technical feasibility of spaceborne lidars, but they have also demonstrated their complexity from the instrument viewpoint. As a result, the Agency undertook technology development in order to strengthen the instrument maturity. This is the case for ATLID, which benefited from a decade of technology development and supporting studies and is now studied in the frame of the EarthCARE mission. ALADIN, a Direct Detection Doppler Wind Lidar operating in the Ultra -Violet, will be the 1st European lidar to fly in 2007 as payload of the Earth Explorer Core Mission ADM. WALES currently studied at the level of a phase A, is based upon a lidar operating at 4 wavelengths in near infrared and aims to profile the water vapour in the lower part of the atmosphere with high accuracy and low bias. Lastly, the European Space Agency is extending the lidar instrument field

  13. Autonomous system for launch vehicle range safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrell, Bob; Haley, Sam

    2001-02-01

    The Autonomous Flight Safety System (AFSS) is a launch vehicle subsystem whose ultimate goal is an autonomous capability to assure range safety (people and valuable resources), flight personnel safety, flight assets safety (recovery of valuable vehicles and cargo), and global coverage with a dramatic simplification of range infrastructure. The AFSS is capable of determining current vehicle position and predicting the impact point with respect to flight restriction zones. Additionally, it is able to discern whether or not the launch vehicle is an immediate threat to public safety, and initiate the appropriate range safety response. These features provide for a dramatic cost reduction in range operations and improved reliability of mission success. .

  14. Raman lidars for a better understanding of pollution in the Arctic System (PARCS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Chazette; Jean-Christophe, Raut; Julien, Totems; Xiaoxia, Shang; Christophe, Caudoux; Julien, Delanoë; Kathy, Law

    2018-04-01

    The development of oil and gas drilling and the opening of new shipping routes, in the Barents and Norway seas, poses new challenges for the Arctic environment due to the impact of air pollution emissions on climate and air quality. To improve our knowledge of the interactions between aerosols, water vapor and cloud cover, within the French PARCS (Pollution in the ARCtic System) project, Raman lidar observations were performed from the ground and from an ultra-light aircraft near the North Cape in northern Norway, and coupled with measurements from a 95 GHz ground-based Doppler radar.

  15. A compact led lidar system fitted for a mars rover - design and ground experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Prane Mariel B.; Shiina, Tatsuo; Manago, Naohiro; Kuze, Hiroaki; Senshu, Hiroki; Otobe, Naohito; Hashimoto, George; Kawabata, Yasuhiro

    2018-04-01

    A compact LED lidar was constructed and fieldtested with the aim to observe the Mars' dust devils. To be able to fit it on the Mars rover, a specialized Cassegrain telescope was designed to be within a 10 cm-cube, with a field of view of 3mrad. The transmitter has 385 nm LED light source with 3 cmϕ opening, 70mrad divergence, 0.75W (7.5nJ/10ns) pulse power, and 500 kHz repetition frequency. The configuration of the optical system is biaxial to easily configure the overlap between their optical axes.

  16. A compact led lidar system fitted for a mars rover – design and ground experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ong Prane Mariel B.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A compact LED lidar was constructed and fieldtested with the aim to observe the Mars’ dust devils. To be able to fit it on the Mars rover, a specialized Cassegrain telescope was designed to be within a 10 cm-cube, with a field of view of 3mrad. The transmitter has 385 nm LED light source with 3 cmϕ opening, 70mrad divergence, 0.75W (7.5nJ/10ns pulse power, and 500 kHz repetition frequency. The configuration of the optical system is biaxial to easily configure the overlap between their optical axes.

  17. System analysis and simulation of airborne scannerless 3D imaging lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Pan; Hao, Qiwei; Chen, Siying

    2009-11-01

    Airborne non-scanned 3D imaging lidar is a recently developed method for remote sensing. The design method and flow of the system parameters round with the spatial resolution are established and explained in detail with examples. An evaluation indicator of data coverage is proposed to optimize the imaging control method. Pixel aliasing in all directions are analyzed, the possible factors cause the aliasing are stated, including the time control error, atmospheric disturbance and platform shake. At last, a parallel data output format is proposed to eliminate the timing mismatch of image data and POS parameters.

  18. NAMMA LIDAR ATMOSPHERIC SENSING EXPERIMENT (LASE) V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA's Lidar Atmospheric Sensing Experiment (LASE) system using the DIAL (Differential Absorption Lidar) system was operated during the NASA African Monsoon...

  19. a Distributed Online 3D-LIDAR Mapping System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmiemann, J.; Harms, H.; Schattenberg, J.; Becker, M.; Batzdorfer, S.; Frerichs, L.

    2017-08-01

    In this paper we are presenting work done within the joint development project ANKommEn. It deals with the development of a highly automated robotic system for fast data acquisition in civil disaster scenarios. One of the main requirements is a versatile system, hence the concept embraces a machine cluster consisting of multiple fundamentally different robotic platforms. To cover a large variety of potential deployment scenarios, neither the absolute amount of participants, nor the precise individual layout of each platform shall be restricted within the conceptual design. Thus leading to a variety of special requirements, like onboard and online data processing capabilities for each individual participant and efficient data exchange structures, allowing reliable random data exchange between individual robots. We are demonstrating the functionality and performance by means of a distributed mapping system evaluated with real world data in a challenging urban and rural indoor/outdoor scenarios.

  20. A DISTRIBUTED ONLINE 3D-LIDAR MAPPING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Schmiemann

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we are presenting work done within the joint development project ANKommEn. It deals with the development of a highly automated robotic system for fast data acquisition in civil disaster scenarios. One of the main requirements is a versatile system, hence the concept embraces a machine cluster consisting of multiple fundamentally different robotic platforms. To cover a large variety of potential deployment scenarios, neither the absolute amount of participants, nor the precise individual layout of each platform shall be restricted within the conceptual design. Thus leading to a variety of special requirements, like onboard and online data processing capabilities for each individual participant and efficient data exchange structures, allowing reliable random data exchange between individual robots. We are demonstrating the functionality and performance by means of a distributed mapping system evaluated with real world data in a challenging urban and rural indoor/outdoor scenarios.

  1. Development, Field Testing, and Evaluation of LIDAR Assisted Controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehrmann, Robert [Asltom Power Inc.; Wang, Na [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Scholbrock, Andrew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Guadayol, Marc [Alstom Power Inc.; Wright, Alan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Arora, Dhiraj [Alstom Power Inc.

    2015-05-18

    Typical wind turbines utilize feedback controllers which have a delayed response to winds peed disturbances. A nacelle mounted LIght Detection and Ranging(LIDAR) system measures a preview wind signal in front of the turbine. This can be included in a feed-forward control system, improving turbine pitch command for incoming variations in wind speed. The overall aim is reduced blade and tower fatigue, and potentially improved annual energy production. To be successful, the LIDAR must yield accurate wind speed measurements. Therefore, a LIDAR was characterized against a nearby met tower and turbine wind speed estimator. Results indicate good correlation between measurements.

  2. LiDAR Scan Matching Aided Inertial Navigation System in GNSS-Denied Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jian; Chen, Yuwei; Niu, Xiaoji; Wang, Li; Chen, Liang; Liu, Jingbin; Shi, Chuang; Hyyppä, Juha

    2015-07-10

    A new scan that matches an aided Inertial Navigation System (INS) with a low-cost LiDAR is proposed as an alternative to GNSS-based navigation systems in GNSS-degraded or -denied environments such as indoor areas, dense forests, or urban canyons. In these areas, INS-based Dead Reckoning (DR) and Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) technologies are normally used to estimate positions as separate tools. However, there are critical implementation problems with each standalone system. The drift errors of velocity, position, and heading angles in an INS will accumulate over time, and on-line calibration is a must for sustaining positioning accuracy. SLAM performance is poor in featureless environments where the matching errors can significantly increase. Each standalone positioning method cannot offer a sustainable navigation solution with acceptable accuracy. This paper integrates two complementary technologies-INS and LiDAR SLAM-into one navigation frame with a loosely coupled Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) to use the advantages and overcome the drawbacks of each system to establish a stable long-term navigation process. Static and dynamic field tests were carried out with a self-developed Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) platform-NAVIS. The results prove that the proposed approach can provide positioning accuracy at the centimetre level for long-term operations, even in a featureless indoor environment.

  3. LiDAR Scan Matching Aided Inertial Navigation System in GNSS-Denied Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Tang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A new scan that matches an aided Inertial Navigation System (INS with a low-cost LiDAR is proposed as an alternative to GNSS-based navigation systems in GNSS-degraded or -denied environments such as indoor areas, dense forests, or urban canyons. In these areas, INS-based Dead Reckoning (DR and Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM technologies are normally used to estimate positions as separate tools. However, there are critical implementation problems with each standalone system. The drift errors of velocity, position, and heading angles in an INS will accumulate over time, and on-line calibration is a must for sustaining positioning accuracy. SLAM performance is poor in featureless environments where the matching errors can significantly increase. Each standalone positioning method cannot offer a sustainable navigation solution with acceptable accuracy. This paper integrates two complementary technologies—INS and LiDAR SLAM—into one navigation frame with a loosely coupled Extended Kalman Filter (EKF to use the advantages and overcome the drawbacks of each system to establish a stable long-term navigation process. Static and dynamic field tests were carried out with a self-developed Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV platform—NAVIS. The results prove that the proposed approach can provide positioning accuracy at the centimetre level for long-term operations, even in a featureless indoor environment.

  4. Innovative LIDAR 3D Dynamic Measurement System to estimate fruit-tree leaf area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz-Cortiella, Ricardo; Llorens-Calveras, Jordi; Escolà, Alexandre; Arnó-Satorra, Jaume; Ribes-Dasi, Manel; Masip-Vilalta, Joan; Camp, Ferran; Gràcia-Aguilá, Felip; Solanelles-Batlle, Francesc; Planas-DeMartí, Santiago; Pallejà-Cabré, Tomàs; Palacin-Roca, Jordi; Gregorio-Lopez, Eduard; Del-Moral-Martínez, Ignacio; Rosell-Polo, Joan R

    2011-01-01

    In this work, a LIDAR-based 3D Dynamic Measurement System is presented and evaluated for the geometric characterization of tree crops. Using this measurement system, trees were scanned from two opposing sides to obtain two three-dimensional point clouds. After registration of the point clouds, a simple and easily obtainable parameter is the number of impacts received by the scanned vegetation. The work in this study is based on the hypothesis of the existence of a linear relationship between the number of impacts of the LIDAR sensor laser beam on the vegetation and the tree leaf area. Tests performed under laboratory conditions using an ornamental tree and, subsequently, in a pear tree orchard demonstrate the correct operation of the measurement system presented in this paper. The results from both the laboratory and field tests confirm the initial hypothesis and the 3D Dynamic Measurement System is validated in field operation. This opens the door to new lines of research centred on the geometric characterization of tree crops in the field of agriculture and, more specifically, in precision fruit growing.

  5. Observing System Simulation Experiment (OSSE) for a future Doppler Wind Lidar satellite in Japan:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Philippe; Ishii, Shoken; Okamoto, Kozo

    2017-04-01

    A feasibility study of tropospheric wind measurements by a coherent Doppler lidar aboard a super-low-altitude satellite is being conducted in Japan. We consider a coherent lidar with a laser light source at 2.05 μm whose characteristics correspond to an existing ground-based instrument (power=3.75 W, PRF=30 Hz and pulse width=200 ns). An Observing System Simulation Experiment (OSSE) has been implemented based on the Sensitivity Observing System experiment (SOSE) developed at the Japanese Meteorological-Research-Institute using the Japan Meteorological Agency global Numerical Weather Prediction model. The measurement simulator uses wind, aerosol and cloud 3-d global fields from the OSSE speudo-truth and the aerosol model MASINGAR. In this presentation, we will first discuss the measurement performances. Considering measurement horizontal resolutions of 100 km along the orbit track, we found that below 3 km, the median horizontal wind error is between 0.8-1 m/s for a vertical resolution of 0.5 km, and that near 50% of the data are valid measurements. Decreasing the vertical resolution to 1 km allows us to maintain similar performances up to 8 km almost over most latitudes. Above, the performances significantly fall down but a relatively good percentage of valid measurements (20-40%) are still found near the tropics where cirrus clouds frequently occur. The potential of the instrument to improve weather prediction models will be discussed using the OSSE results obtained for both polar and low inclination orbit satellites. The first results show positive improvements of short-term forecasts (Meteor. Soc. Japan, 2016 P. Baron et al., "Feasibility study for future space-borne coherent Doppler wind lidar, Part 2: Measurement simulation algorithms and retrieval error characterization", submitted to J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 2016.

  6. Development of teaching modules for geology and engineering coursework using terrestrial LiDAR scanning systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarbrough, L. D.; Katzenstein, K.

    2012-12-01

    Exposing students to active and local examples of physical geologic processes is beneficial to the learning process. Students typically respond with interest to examples that use state-of-the-art technologies to investigate local or regional phenomena. For lower cognitive level of learning (e.g. knowledge, comprehension, and application), the use of "close-to-home" examples ensures that students better understand concepts. By providing these examples, the students may already have a familiarity or can easily visit the location. Furthermore, these local and regional examples help students to offer quickly other examples of similar phenomena. Investigation of these examples using normal photographic techniques, as well as a more sophisticated 3-D Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) (AKA Terrestrial Laser Scanning or TLS) system, allows students to gain a better understanding of the scale and the mechanics of the geologic processes and hazards. The systems are used for research, teaching and outreach efforts and depending on departmental policies can be accessible to students are various learning levels. TLS systems can yield scans at sub-centimeter resolution and contain surface reflectance of targets. These systems can serve a number of learning goals that are essential for training geoscientists and engineers. While querying the data to answer geotechnical or geomorphologic related questions, students will develop skills using large, spatial databases. The upper cognitive level of learning (e.g. analysis, synthesis, and evaluation) is also promoted by using a subset of the data and correlating the physical geologic process of stream bank erosion and rock slope failures with mathematical and computer models using the scanned data. Students use the examples and laboratory exercises to help build their engineering judgment skills with Earth materials. The students learn not only applications of math and engineering science but also the economic and social implication

  7. The value of Doppler LiDAR systems to monitor turbulence intensity during storm events in order to enhance aviation safety in Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shu; Nína Petersen, Guðrún; Finger, David C.

    2017-04-01

    Turbulence and wind shear are a major natural hazards for aviation safety in Iceland. The temporal and spatial scale of atmospheric turbulence is very dynamic, requiring an adequate method to detect and monitor turbulence with high resolution. The Doppler Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) system can provide continuous information about the wind field using the Doppler effect form emitted light signals. In this study, we use a Leosphere Windcube 200s LiDAR systems stationed near Reykjavik city Airport and at Keflavik International Airport, Iceland, to evaluate turbulence intensity by estimating eddy dissipation rate (EDR). For this purpose, we retrieved radial wind velocity observations from Velocity Azimuth Display (VAD) scans (360°scans at 15° and 75° elevation angle) to compute EDR. The method was used to monitor and characterize storm events in fall 2016 and the following winter. The preliminary result reveal that the LiDAR observations can detect and quantify atmospheric turbulence with high spatial and temporal resolution. This finding is an important step towards enhanced aviation safety in subpolar climate characterized by sever wind turbulence.

  8. Coastal Zone Mapping and Imaging Lidar (CZMIL): first flights and system validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feygels, Viktor I.; Park, Joong Yong; Aitken, Jennifer; Kim, Minsu; Payment, Andy; Ramnath, Vinod

    2012-09-01

    CZMIL is an integrated lidar-imagery sensor system and software suite designed for the highly automated generation of physical and environmental information products for mapping the coastal zone. This paper presents the results of CZMIL system validation in turbid water conditions on the Gulf Coast of Mississippi and in relatively clear water conditions in Florida in late spring 2012. The system performance test shows that CZMIL successfully achieved 7-8m depth in Kd =0.46m-1 (Kd is the diffuse attenuation coefficient) in Mississippi and up to 41m when Kd=0.11m-1 in Florida. With a seven segment array for topographic mode and the shallow water zone, CZMIL generated high resolution products with a maximum pulse rate of 70 kHz, and with 10 kHz in the deep water zone. Diffuse attenuation coefficient, bottom reflectance and other environmental parameters for the whole multi km2 area were estimated based on fusion of lidar and CASI-1500 hyperspectral camera data.

  9. Lidar/DIAL detection of acetone at 3.3 μm by a tunable OPO laser system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puiu, A.; Fiorani, L.; Rosa, O.; Borelli, R.; Pistilli, M.; Palucci, A.

    2014-08-01

    In this paper we report, for the first time to our knowledge, on lidar/DIAL detection of acetone vapors at 3.3 μm by means of an optical parametric tunable laser system. After a preliminary spectroscopic study in an absorption cell, the feasibility of a differential absorption (DIAL) lidar for the detection of acetone vapors has been investigated in the laboratory, simulating the experimental conditions of a field campaign. Having in mind measurements in a real scenario, a study of possible atmospheric intereferents has been performed, looking for all known compounds that share acetone IR absorption in the spectral band selected for its detection. Possible interfering species from urban and industrial atmospheres were investigated and limits of acetone detection in both environments were identified. This study confirmed that a lidar system can detect a low concentration of acetone at considerable distances.

  10. Next Generation Scanning LIDAR Systems for Optimizing Wake Turbulence Separation Minima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludovic Thobois

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have been performed to better understand the behavior of wake vortices with regards to aircraft characteristics and weather conditionsover the pastten years. These studies have led to the development of the aircraft RECATegorization (RECAT programs in Europe and in USA. Its phase one focused on redefining distance separation matrix with six static aircraft wake turbulence categories instead of three with the current International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO regulations. In Europe, the RECAT-EU regulation is now entering under operational implementation atseveral key airports. As proven by several research projects in the past, LIght Detection And Ranging (LIDAR sensors are considered as the ground truth wake vortex measurements for assessing the safety impact of a new wake turbulence regulation at an airport in quantifying the risks given the local specificities. LIDAR’s can also be used to perform risk monitoring after the implementation. In this paper, the principle to measure wake vortices with scanning coherent Doppler LIDARs is described as well as its dedicated post-processing. Finally the use of WINDCUBELIDAR based solution for supporting the implementation of new wake turbulenceregulation is described along with satisfyingresults that have permitted the monitoring of the wake vortex encounter risk after the implementation of a new wake turbulence regulation.

  11. Automotive Radar and Lidar Systems for Next Generation Driver Assistance Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. H. Rasshofer

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Automotive radar and lidar sensors represent key components for next generation driver assistance functions (Jones, 2001. Today, their use is limited to comfort applications in premium segment vehicles although an evolution process towards more safety-oriented functions is taking place. Radar sensors available on the market today suffer from low angular resolution and poor target detection in medium ranges (30 to 60m over azimuth angles larger than ±30°. In contrast, Lidar sensors show large sensitivity towards environmental influences (e.g. snow, fog, dirt. Both sensor technologies today have a rather high cost level, forbidding their wide-spread usage on mass markets. A common approach to overcome individual sensor drawbacks is the employment of data fusion techniques (Bar-Shalom, 2001. Raw data fusion requires a common, standardized data interface to easily integrate a variety of asynchronous sensor data into a fusion network. Moreover, next generation sensors should be able to dynamically adopt to new situations and should have the ability to work in cooperative sensor environments. As vehicular function development today is being shifted more and more towards virtual prototyping, mathematical sensor models should be available. These models should take into account the sensor's functional principle as well as all typical measurement errors generated by the sensor.

  12. Derivation of Sky-View Factors from LIDAR Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Christopher; Chapman, Lee

    2013-01-01

    The use of Lidar (Light Detection and Ranging), an active light-emitting instrument, is becoming increasingly common for a range of potential applications. Its ability to provide fine resolution spatial and vertical resolution elevation data makes it ideal for a wide range of studies. This paper demonstrates the capability of Lidar data to measure sky view factors (SVF). The Lidar data is used to generate a spatial map of SVFs which are then compared against photographically-derived SVF at selected point locations. At each location three near-surface elevations measurements were taken and compared with collocated Lidar-derived estimated. It was found that there was generally good agreement between the two methodologies, although with decreasing SVF the Lidar-derived technique tended to overestimate the SVF: this can be attributed in part to the spatial resolution of the Lidar sampling. Nevertheless, airborne Lidar systems can map sky view factors over a large area easily, improving the utility of such data in atmospheric and meteorological models.

  13. High dynamic range coding imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Renfan; Huang, Yifan; Hou, Guangqi

    2014-10-01

    We present a high dynamic range (HDR) imaging system design scheme based on coded aperture technique. This scheme can help us obtain HDR images which have extended depth of field. We adopt Sparse coding algorithm to design coded patterns. Then we utilize the sensor unit to acquire coded images under different exposure settings. With the guide of the multiple exposure parameters, a series of low dynamic range (LDR) coded images are reconstructed. We use some existing algorithms to fuse and display a HDR image by those LDR images. We build an optical simulation model and get some simulation images to verify the novel system.

  14. Temporal Analysis and Automatic Calibration of the Velodyne HDL-32E LiDAR System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. O. Chan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available At the end of the first quarter of 2012, more than 600 Velodyne LiDAR systems had been sold worldwide for various robotic and high-accuracy survey applications. The ultra-compact Velodyne HDL-32E LiDAR has become a predominant sensor for many applications that require lower sensor size/weight and cost. For high accuracy applications, cost-effective calibration methods with minimal manual intervention are always desired by users. However, the calibrations are complicated by the Velodyne LiDAR's narrow vertical field of view and the very highly time-variant nature of its measurements. In the paper, the temporal stability of the HDL-32E is first analysed as the motivation for developing a new, automated calibration method. This is followed by a detailed description of the calibration method that is driven by a novel segmentation method for extracting vertical cylindrical features from the Velodyne point clouds. The proposed segmentation method utilizes the Velodyne point cloud's slice-like nature and first decomposes the point clouds into 2D layers. Then the layers are treated as 2D images and are processed with the Generalized Hough Transform which extracts the points distributed in circular patterns from the point cloud layers. Subsequently, the vertical cylindrical features can be readily extracted from the whole point clouds based on the previously extracted points. The points are passed to the calibration that estimates the cylinder parameters and the LiDAR's additional parameters simultaneously by constraining the segmented points to fit to the cylindrical geometric model in such a way the weighted sum of the adjustment residuals are minimized. The proposed calibration is highly automatic and this allows end users to obtain the time-variant additional parameters instantly and frequently whenever there are vertical cylindrical features presenting in scenes. The methods were verified with two different real datasets, and the results suggest

  15. LIDAR-INCORPORATED TRAFFIC SIGN DETECTION FROM VIDEO LOG IMAGES OF MOBILE MAPPING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Li

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Mobile Mapping System (MMS simultaneously collects the Lidar points and video log images in a scenario with the laser profiler and digital camera. Besides the textural details of video log images, it also captures the 3D geometric shape of point cloud. It is widely used to survey the street view and roadside transportation infrastructure, such as traffic sign, guardrail, etc., in many transportation agencies. Although many literature on traffic sign detection are available, they only focus on either Lidar or imagery data of traffic sign. Based on the well-calibrated extrinsic parameters of MMS, 3D Lidar points are, the first time, incorporated into 2D video log images to enhance the detection of traffic sign both physically and visually. Based on the local elevation, the 3D pavement area is first located. Within a certain distance and height of the pavement, points of the overhead and roadside traffic signs can be obtained according to the setup specification of traffic signs in different transportation agencies. The 3D candidate planes of traffic signs are then fitted using the RANSAC plane-fitting of those points. By projecting the candidate planes onto the image, Regions of Interest (ROIs of traffic signs are found physically with the geometric constraints between laser profiling and camera imaging. The Random forest learning of the visual color and shape features of traffic signs is adopted to validate the sign ROIs from the video log images. The sequential occurrence of a traffic sign among consecutive video log images are defined by the geometric constraint of the imaging geometry and GPS movement. Candidate ROIs are predicted in this temporal context to double-check the salient traffic sign among video log images. The proposed algorithm is tested on a diverse set of scenarios on the interstate highway G-4 near Beijing, China under varying lighting conditions and occlusions. Experimental results show the proposed algorithm enhances the

  16. Prototype firing range air cleaning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glissmeyer, J.A.; Mishima, J.; Bamberger, J.A.

    1984-07-01

    PNL's study proceeded by examining the characteristics of the aerosol challenge to the filtration system and the operating experience at similar firing ranges. Candidate filtration systems were proposed; including baghouses, cartridge houses, electrostatic precipitators, cleanable high efficiency filters, rolling filters and cyclones--each followed by one or more of the existing filter banks. Methodology was developed to estimate the operating costs of the candidate systems. Costs addressed included the frequency (based on fractional efficiency and loading data) and cost of media replacement, capital investment, maintenance, waste disposal and electrical power consumption. The recommended system will be installed during calendar year 1984

  17. A system design of data acquisition and processing for side-scatter lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, ZhanYe; Xie, ChenBo; Wang, ZhenZhu; Kuang, ZhiQiang; Deng, Qian; Tao, ZongMing; Liu, Dong; Wang, Yingjian

    2018-03-01

    A system for collecting data of Side-Scatter lidar based on Charge Coupled Device (CCD),is designed and implemented. The system of data acquisition is based on Microsoft. Net structure and the language of C# is used to call dynamic link library (DLL) of CCD for realization of the real-time data acquisition and processing. The software stores data as txt file for post data acquisition and analysis. The system has ability to operate CCD device in all-day, automatic, continuous and high frequency data acquisition and processing conditions, which will catch 24-hour information of the atmospheric scatter's light intensity and retrieve the spatial and temporal properties of aerosol particles. The experimental result shows that the system is convenient to observe the aerosol optical characteristics near surface.

  18. 2015 OLC Lidar DEM: Big Wood, ID

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Quantum Spatial has collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data for the Oregon LiDAR Consortium (OLC) Big Wood 2015 study area. This study area is located in...

  19. Iowa LiDAR Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — This is collection level metadata for LAS and ASCII data files from the statewide Iowa Lidar Project. The Iowa Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) Project collects...

  20. 2015 OLC FEMA Lidar: Snake River, ID

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Quantum Spatial has collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data for the Oregon LiDAR Consortium (OLC) Snake River FEMA study area. This study area is located...

  1. 2014 PSLC Lidar: City of Redmond

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In February 2014, Quantum Spatial (QSI) was contracted by the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) to collect Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data for the City of...

  2. 2014 OLC Lidar DEM: Colville, WA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — WSI, a Quantum Spatial company, has collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data for the Oregon LiDAR Consortium (OLC) Colville study area. This study area is...

  3. 2007 USGS Lidar: Canyon Fire (CA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This Southern California Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data is to provide high accuracy LIDAR data. These datasets will be the initial acquisition to support...

  4. Meteorology and lidar data from the URAHFREP field trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ott, Søren; Ejsing Jørgensen, Hans

    2002-01-01

    to the HF release. The instrumentation included various types of HF sensors, thermocouple arrays, a fully instrumented release rig, a passive smokemachine, a meteorological mast and a lidar backscatter system. This report deals exclusively with the meteorological data and the lidar data. The trials cover...... a range meteorological conditions. These include neutral conditions with relatively highwindspeed and low humidity as well as unstable conditions with low windspeed and high humidity, the most favorable conditions for lift-off to occur. The lidar was used to scan vertical cross-plume slices 100 meter...

  5. Alexandrite Lidar Receiver

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilkerson, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    ...". The chosen vendor, Orca Photonics, In. (Redmond, WA), in close collaboration with USU personnel, built a portable, computerized lidar system that not only is suitable as a receiver for a near IR alexandrite laser, but also contains an independent Nd...

  6. Magnitude-frequency and Spatial Distribution of Rockfalls in the White Canyon, British Columbia using Terrestrial LiDAR and Microseismic Monitoring Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Veen, M.

    2015-12-01

    Transportation corridors built along natural slopes are subject to frequent rockfall hazards, which can disrupt service and cause damage to infrastructure. Many of these areas exist along the Fraser-Thompson corridor of the CN rail line in Southern British Columbia, particularly in the White Canyon area near Lytton. Here the rail track is situated between the 500 m high slopes and the river, for 2.4 km. The frequency-magnitude relationship between these events and the percentage of rockfalls making it to track level are important components of hazard assessment for these slopes. Traditional methods of collecting rockfall data in this area involve visual inspection by maintenance personnel, however this is an onerous task for such a large slope with frequent rockfall activity, and therefore the rockfall record for this area is often lacking data. Since 2012, high-resolution terrestrial LiDAR (Light detection and ranging) data has been collected for the White Canyon area and analysis of change from sequential LiDAR scans provides detailed data that can't be obtained from traditional rockfall databases, including the magnitude and spatial distribution of rockfall events. While the LiDAR change detection can be useful in identifying rockfall volumes and source zones, it can be difficult to determine the end location of each rockfall and the exact timing of events, as scan data is usually collected over a period of several months. Recently, a microseismic monitoring system has been deployed over a section of the railway track and data is available on time and location of impact at the track level, which permits assessment of the number of rockfalls traversing the whole slope down to track level. This, in combination with data on rockfall magnitudes and source zones obtained from the LiDAR change detection can provide useful information for management of tracks in these hazardous settings and also provides data for calibration of rockfall modelling.

  7. Ultrasonic Ranging System With Increased Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, William E.; Johnson, William G.

    1987-01-01

    Master-oscillator frequency increased. Ultrasonic range-measuring system with 0.1-in. resolution provides continuous digital display of four distance readings, each updated four times per second. Four rangefinder modules in system are modified versions of rangefinder used for automatic focusing in commercial series of cameras. Ultrasonic pulses emitted by system innocuous to both people and equipment. Provides economical solutions to such distance-measurement problems as posed by boats approaching docks, truck backing toward loading platform, runway-clearance readout for tail of airplane with high angle attack, or burglar alarm.

  8. 2006 Texas Water Development Board (TWDB) Lidar: Northern Cameron and Willacy Counties

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Using a LH Systems ALS50 Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) system, standard density (1.4 meter ground sample distance) data were collected over areas in Northern...

  9. GRIP LIDAR ATMOSPHERIC SENSING EXPERIMENT (LASE) V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GRIP Lidar Atmospheric Sensing Experiment (LASE) dataset was collected by NASA's Lidar Atmospheric Sensing Experiment (LASE) system, which is an airborne...

  10. LIDAR COMBINED SCANNING UNIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Elizarov

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research. The results of lidar combined scanning unit development for locating leaks of hydrocarbons are presented The unit enables to perform high-speed scanning of the investigated space in wide and narrow angle fields. Method. Scanning in a wide angular field is produced by one-line scanning path by means of the movable aluminum mirror with a frequency of 20Hz and amplitude of 20 degrees of swing. Narrowband scanning is performed along a spiral path by the deflector. The deflection of the beam is done by rotation of the optical wedges forming part of the deflector at an angle of ±50. The control function of the scanning node is performed by a specialized software product written in C# programming language. Main Results. This scanning unit allows scanning the investigated area at a distance of 50-100 m with spatial resolution at the level of 3 cm. The positioning accuracy of the laser beam in space is 15'. The developed scanning unit gives the possibility to browse the entire investigated area for the time not more than 1 ms at a rotation frequency of each wedge from 50 to 200 Hz. The problem of unambiguous definition of the beam geographical coordinates in space is solved at the software level according to the rotation angles of the mirrors and optical wedges. Lidar system coordinates are determined by means of GPS. Practical Relevance. Development results open the possibility for increasing the spatial resolution of scanning systems of a wide range of lidars and can provide high positioning accuracy of the laser beam in space.

  11. Long-range transport and mixing of aerosol sources during the 2013 North American biomass burning episode: analysis of multiple lidar observations in the western Mediterranean basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Ancellet

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Long-range transport of biomass burning (BB aerosols between North America and the Mediterranean region took place in June 2013. A large number of ground-based and airborne lidar measurements were deployed in the western Mediterranean during the Chemistry-AeRosol Mediterranean EXperiment (ChArMEx intensive observation period. A detailed analysis of the potential North American aerosol sources is conducted including the assessment of their transport to Europe using forward simulations of the FLEXPART Lagrangian particle dispersion model initialized using satellite observations by MODIS and CALIOP. The three-dimensional structure of the aerosol distribution in the ChArMEx domain observed by the ground-based lidars (Minorca, Barcelona and Lampedusa, a Falcon-20 aircraft flight and three CALIOP tracks, agrees very well with the model simulation of the three major sources considered in this work: Canadian and Colorado fires, a dust storm from western US and the contribution of Saharan dust streamers advected from the North Atlantic trade wind region into the westerlies region. Four aerosol types were identified using the optical properties of the observed aerosol layers (aerosol depolarization ratio, lidar ratio and the transport model analysis of the contribution of each aerosol source: (i pure BB layer, (ii weakly dusty BB, (iii significant mixture of BB and dust transported from the trade wind region, and (iv the outflow of Saharan dust by the subtropical jet and not mixed with BB aerosol. The contribution of the Canadian fires is the major aerosol source during this episode while mixing of dust and BB is only significant at an altitude above 5 km. The mixing corresponds to a 20–30 % dust contribution in the total aerosol backscatter. The comparison with the MODIS aerosol optical depth horizontal distribution during this episode over the western Mediterranean Sea shows that the Canadian fire contributions were as large as the direct

  12. 2008 St. Johns County, FL Countywide Lidar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne terrestrial LiDAR was collected for St. Johns County, FL. System Parameters/Flight Plan. The LiDAR system acquisition parameters were developed based on a...

  13. An historically consistent and broadly applicable MRV system based on LiDAR sampling and Landsat time-series

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Cohen; H. Andersen; S. Healey; G. Moisen; T. Schroeder; C. Woodall; G. Domke; Z. Yang; S. Stehman; R. Kennedy; C. Woodcock; Z. Zhu; J. Vogelmann; D. Steinwand; C. Huang

    2014-01-01

    The authors are developing a REDD+ MRV system that tests different biomass estimation frameworks and components. Design-based inference from a costly fi eld plot network was compared to sampling with LiDAR strips and a smaller set of plots in combination with Landsat for disturbance monitoring. Biomass estimation uncertainties associated with these different data sets...

  14. Long-term systematic profiling of dust aerosol optical properties using the EOLE NTUA lidar system over Athens, Greece (2000-2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soupiona, O.; Papayannis, A.; Kokkalis, P.; Mylonaki, M.; Tsaknakis, G.; Argyrouli, A.; Vratolis, S.

    2018-06-01

    We present a comprehensive analysis of the seasonal variability of the vertical profiles of the optical and geometrical properties of Saharan dust aerosols, observed in the height region between 1000 and 6000 m, over the city of Athens, Greece, from February 2000 to December 2016. These observations were performed by a multi-wavelength (355-387-532-1064 nm) Raman lidar system under cloud-free conditions. The statistical analysis (using aerosol monthly mean values) is based on nighttime vertical Raman measurements of range-resolved aerosol optical properties (backscatter and extinction coefficients, lidar ratio, Ångström exponent) at 355 nm (57 dust events during more than 80 measurement hours). We found that the number of dust events was highest in spring, summer, and early autumn periods and that during spring the dust layers were moved at higher altitudes (∼4500 m) than in other seasons. The number of the forecasted dusty days (on monthly basis) by the BSC-DREAM8b model compared to those of the performed lidar measurements were found to have a quite strong correlation (R2 = 0.81), with a maximum occurrence predicted for the spring season. In the worst case scenario, at least 50% of the model-forecasted dust events can be observed by lidar under cloudless skies over Athens. For the sampled dust plumes we found mean lidar ratios of 52 ± 13 sr at 355 nm in the height range 2000-4000 m a.s.l. Moreover, the dust layers had a mean thickness of 2497 ± 1026 m and a center of mass of 2699 ± 1017 m. An analysis performed regarding the air mass back-trajectories arriving over Athens revealed two main clusters: one pathway from south-west to north-east, with dust emission areas in Tunisia, Algeria and Libya and a second one from south, across the Mediterranean Sea with emission areas over Libya and the remaining part of Algeria and Tunisia. This clustering enabled us to differentiate between the aerosol optical properties between the two clusters, based on their

  15. Balloonborne lidar payloads for remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, O.; Aurilio, G.; Hurd, A. G.; Rappaport, S. A.; Reidy, W. P.; Rieder, R. J.; Bedo, D. E.; Swirbalus, R. A.

    1994-02-01

    A series of lidar experiments has been conducted using the Atmospheric Balloonborne Lidar Experiment payload (ABLE). These experiments included the measurement of atmospheric Rayleigh and Mie backscatter from near space (approximately 30 km) and Raman backscatter measurements of atmospheric constituents as a function of altitude. The ABLE payload consisted of a frequency-tripled Nd:YAG laser transmitter, a 50 cm receiver telescope, and filtered photodetectors in various focal plane configurations. The payload for lidar pointing, thermal control, data handling, and remote control of the lidar system. Comparison of ABLE performance with that of a space lidar shows significant performance advantages and cost effectiveness for balloonborne lidar systems.

  16. CZMIL (coastal zone mapping and imaging lidar): from first flights to first mission through system validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feygels, Viktor I.; Park, Joong Yong; Wozencraft, Jennifer; Aitken, Jennifer; Macon, Christopher; Mathur, Abhinav; Payment, Andy; Ramnath, Vinod

    2013-06-01

    CZMIL is an integrated lidar-imagery system and software suite designed for highly automated generation of physical and environmental information products for coastal zone mapping in the framework of the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) National Coastal Mapping Program (NCMP). This paper presents the results of CZMIL system validation in turbid water conditions along the Gulf Coast of Mississippi and in relatively clear water conditions in Florida in late spring 2012. Results of the USACE May-October 2012 mission in Green Bay, WI and Lake Erie are presented. The system performance tests show that CZMIL successfully achieved 7-8m depth in Mississippi with Kd =0.46m-1 (Kd is the diffuse attenuation coefficient) and up to 41m in Florida when Kd=0.11m-1. Bathymetric accuracy of CZMIL was measured by comparing CZMIL depths with multi-beam sonar data from Cat Island, MS and from off the coast of Fort. Lauderdale, FL. Validation demonstrated that CZMIL meets USACE specifications (two standard deviation, 2σ, ~30 cm). To measure topographic accuracy we made direct comparisons of CZMIL elevations to GPS-surveyed ground control points and vehicle-based lidar scans of topographic surfaces. Results confirmed that CZMIL meets the USACE topographic requirements (2σ, ~15 cm). Upon completion of the Green Bay and Lake Erie mission there were 89 flights with 2231 flightlines. The general hours of aircraft engine time (which doesn't include all transit/ferry flights) was 441 hours with 173 hours of time on survey flightlines. The 4.8 billion (!) laser shots and 38.6 billion digitized waveforms covered over 1025 miles of shoreline.

  17. Long range position and Orientation Tracking System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, G.A.; Jansen, J.F.; Burks, B.L.

    1996-01-01

    The long range Position and Orientation Tracking System is an active triangulation-based system that is being developed to track a target to a resolution of 6.35 mm (0.25 in.) and 0.009 degrees(32.4 arcseconds) over a range of 13.72 m (45 ft.). The system update rate is currently set at 20 Hz but can be increased to 100 Hz or more. The tracking is accomplished by sweeping two pairs of orthogonal line lasers over infrared (IR) sensors spaced with known geometry with respect to one another on the target (the target being a rigid body attached to either a remote vehicle or a remote manipulator arm). The synchronization and data acquisition electronics correlates the time that an IR sensor has been hit by one of the four lasers and the angle of the respective mirror at the time of the hit. This information is combined with the known geometry of the IR sensors on the target to determine position and orientation of the target. This method has the advantage of allowing the target to be momentarily lost due to occlusions and then reacquired without having to return the target to a known reference point. The system also contains a camera with operator controlled lighting in each pod that allows the target to be continuously viewed from either pod, assuming their are no occlusions

  18. Holographic Raman lidar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, G.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: We have constructed a Raman lidar system that incorporates a holographic optical element. By resolving just 3 nitrogen lines in the Resonance Raman spectroscopy (RRS) spectrum, temperature fits as good as 1% at altitudes of 20km can be made in 30 minutes. Due to the narrowband selectivity of the HOE, the lidar provides measurements over a continuous 24hr period. By adding a 4th channel to capture the Rayleigh backscattered light, temperature profiles can be extended to 80km

  19. TOLNet ozone lidar intercomparison during the discover-aq and frappé campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newchurch, Michael J.; Alvarez, Raul J.; Berkoff, Timothy A.; Carrion, William; DeYoung, Russell J.; Ganoe, Rene; Gronoff, Guillaume; Kirgis, Guillaume; Kuang, Shi; Langford, Andy O.; Leblanc, Thierry; McGee, Thomas J.; Pliutau, Denis; Senff, Christoph; Sullivan, John T.; Sumnicht, Grant; Twigg, Laurence W.; Wang, Lihua

    2018-04-01

    The Tropospheric Ozone Lidar Network (TOLNet) is a unique network of lidar systems that measure atmospheric profiles of ozone and aerosols, to contribute to air-quality studies, atmospheric modeling, and satellite validation efforts. The accurate characterization of these lidars is of critical interest, and is necessary to determine cross-instrument calibration uniformity. From July to August 2014, three lidars, the TROPospheric OZone (TROPOZ) lidar, the Tunable Optical Profiler for Aerosol and oZone (TOPAZ) lidar, and the Langley Mobile Ozone Lidar (LMOL), of TOLNet participated in the "Deriving Information on Surface conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality" (DISCOVER-AQ) mission and the "Front Range Air Pollution and Photochemistry Éxperiment" (FRAPPÉ) to measure sub-hourly ozone variations from near the surface to the top of the troposphere. Although large differences occur at few individual altitudes in the near field and far field range, the TOLNet lidars agree with each other within ±4%. These results indicate excellent measurement accuracy for the TOLNet lidars that is suitable for use in air-quality and ozone modeling efforts.

  20. New lidar challenges for gas hazard management in industrial environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cézard, Nicolas; Liméry, Anasthase; Bertrand, Johan; Le Méhauté, Simon; Benoit, Philippe; Fleury, Didier; Goular, Didier; Planchat, Christophe; Valla, Matthieu; Augère, Béatrice; Dolfi-Bouteyre, Agnès.

    2017-10-01

    The capability of Lidars to perform range-resolved gas profiles makes them an appealing choice for many applications. In order to address new remote sensing challenges, arising from industrial contexts, Onera currently develops two lidar systems, one Raman and one DIAL. On the Raman side, a high spatial-resolution multi-channel Raman Lidar is developed in partnership with the French National Radioactive Waste Management Agency (Andra). This development aims at enabling future monitoring of hydrogen gas and water vapor profiles inside disposal cells containing radioactive wastes. We report on the development and first tests of a three-channel Raman Lidar (H2, H2O, N2) designed to address this issue. Simultaneous hydrogen and water vapor profiles have been successfully performed along a 5m-long gas cell with 1m resolution at a distance of 85 m. On the DIAL side, a new instrumental concept is being explored and developed in partnership with Total E and P. The objective is to perform methane plume monitoring and flux assessment in the vicinity of industrials plants or platforms. For flux assessment, both gas concentration and air speed must be profiled by lidar. Therefore, we started developing a bi-function, all-fiber, coherent DIAL/Doppler Lidar. The first challenge was to design and build an appropriate fiber laser source. The achieved demonstrator delivers 200 W peak power, polarized, spectrally narrow (<15 MHz), 110 ns pulses of light out of a monomode fiber at 1645 nm. It fulfills the requirements for a future implementation in a bi-function Dial/Doppler lidar with km-range expectation. We report on the laser and lidar architecture, and on first lidar tests at 1645 nm.

  1. Long range position and orientation tracking system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, G.A.; Jansen, J.F.; Burks, B.L.; Bernacki, B.E.; Nypaver, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    The long range position and orientation tracking system (LRPOTS) will consist of two measurement pods, a VME-based computer system, and a detector array. The system is used to measure the position and orientation of a target that may be attached to a robotic arm, teleoperated manipulator, or autonomous vehicle. The pods have been designed to be mounted in the man-ways of the domes of the Fernald K-65 waste silos. Each pod has two laser scanner subsystems as well as lights and camera systems. One of the laser scanners will be oriented to scan in the pan direction, the other in the tilt direction. As the lasers scan across the detector array, the angles of incidence with each detector are recorded. Combining measurements from each of the four lasers yields sufficient data for a closed-form solution of the transform describing the location and orientation of the Content Mobilization System (CMS). Redundant detectors will be placed on the CMS to accommodate occlusions, to provide improved measurement accuracy, and to determine the CMS orientation

  2. Object Classification Using Airborne Multispectral LiDAR Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAN Suoyan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Airborne multispectral LiDAR system,which obtains surface geometry and spectral data of objects,simultaneously,has become a fast effective,large-scale spatial data acquisition method.Multispectral LiDAR data are characteristics of completeness and consistency of spectrum and spatial geometric information.Support vector machine (SVM,a machine learning method,is capable of classifying objects based on small samples.Therefore,by means of SVM,this paper performs land cover classification using multispectral LiDAR data. First,all independent point cloud with different wavelengths are merged into a single point cloud,where each pixel contains the three-wavelength spectral information.Next,the merged point cloud is converted into range and intensity images.Finally,land-cover classification is performed by means of SVM.All experiments were conducted on the Optech Titan multispectral LiDAR data,containing three individual point cloud collected by 532 nm,1024 nm,and 1550 nm laser beams.Experimental results demonstrate that ①compared to traditional single-wavelength LiDAR data,multispectral LiDAR data provide a promising solution to land use and land cover applications;②SVM is a feasible method for land cover classification of multispectral LiDAR data.

  3. 2006 Fulton County Georgia Lidar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) LAS dataset is a survey of Fulton County. The Fulton County LiDAR Survey project area consists of approximately 690.5 square...

  4. Measurement of the Flow Over Two Parallel Mountain Ridges in the Nighttime Stable Boundary Layer With Scanning Lidar Systems at the Perdigão 2017 Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildmann, N.; Kigle, S.; Gerz, T.; Bell, T.; Klein, P. M.

    2017-12-01

    For onshore wind energy production, the highest wind potential is often found on exposed spots like hilltops, mountain ridges or escarpments with heterogeneous land cover. The understanding of the flow field in such complex terrain in the relevant heights where wind power is generated is an ongoing field of research. The German Aerospace Center (DLR) contributed to the NEWA (New European Wind Atlas) experiment in the province of Perdigão (Portugal) with three long-range Doppler wind lidar of type Leosphere Windcube-200S from May to June 2017. In the experiment, a single wind energy converter (WEC) of type Enercon E82 is situated on a forested mountain ridge. In main wind direction, which is from South-West and almost perpendicular to the ridge, a valley and then a second mountain ridge in a distance of approximately 1.4 km follow. Two of the DLR lidar instruments are placed downstream and in line with the main wind direction and the WEC. One of these instruments is placed in the valley, and the other one on the distant mountain ridge. This line-up allows coplanar scanning of the flow in the valley and over the ridge tops and thus the determination of horizontal and vertical wind components. The third DLR system, placed on the WEC ridge, and an additional scanning lidar from the University of Oklahoma, placed in the valley, are used to determine the cross-wind component of the flow. Regular flow features that were observed with this lidar setup in the six weeks of the intensive operation period are jet-like layers of high wind speeds that occur during the night from a North-Easterly direction. These jets are found to have wind speeds up to 13 m s-1 and are very variable with regards to their maximum speed, height and broadness. Depending on the Froude number of the flow, waves are forming over the two mountain ridges with either a stable wavelength that equals the mountain ridge distance, or more dynamic higher frequency oscillations. All of these flow features are

  5. 2013 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Tulalip Partnership

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In October 2012, WSI (Watershed Sciences, Inc.) was contracted by the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC)to collect Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data on a...

  6. 2014 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Willapa Valley (Delivery 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In January, 2014 WSI, a Quantum Spatial (QSI) company, was contracted by the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) to collect Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data...

  7. 2013 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Saddle Mountain

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In October 2013, WSI, a Quantum Spatial Company (QSI), was contracted by the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) to collect Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data...

  8. 2015 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) LiDAR: WA DNR Lands (P2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In June 2014, WSI, a Quantum Spatial Inc. (QSI) company, was contracted by the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) to collect Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR)...

  9. 2015 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) LiDAR: WA DNR Lands (P1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In June 2014, WSI, a Quantum Spatial Inc. (QSI) company, was contracted by the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) to collect Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR)...

  10. 2012 MEGIS Topographic Lidar: Statewide Lidar Project Area 1 (Aroostook), Maine

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — LiDAR data is a remotely sensed high resolution elevation data collected by an airborne platform. The LiDAR sensor uses a combination of laser range finding, GPS...

  11. 2009 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Lewis County, Washington

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Watershed Sciences, Inc. (WSI) collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data for the Lewis County survey area for the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium. This data...

  12. 2012 MEGIS Topographic Lidar: Statewide Lidar Project Areas 2 and 3 (Mid-Coastal Cleanup), Maine

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — LiDAR data is a remotely sensed high resolution elevation data collected by an airborne platform. The LiDAR sensor uses a combination of laser range finding, GPS...

  13. Development of a High Energy Er-Fiber Amplifier for a Space-based Wind, Aerosol, and Range Lidar Sensor, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA is interested in Lidar technologies that will enhance the measurement of atmospheric and topographic parameters of the Earth, Mars, the Moon, and other...

  14. Doppler Lidar System Design via Interdisciplinary Design Concept at NASA Langley Research Center - Part III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Bruce W.; Sessions, Alaric M.; Beyon, Jeffrey; Petway, Larry B.

    2014-01-01

    Optimized designs of the Navigation Doppler Lidar (NDL) instrument for Autonomous Landing Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) were accomplished via Interdisciplinary Design Concept (IDEC) at NASA Langley Research Center during the summer of 2013. Three branches in the Engineering Directorate and three students were involved in this joint task through the NASA Langley Aerospace Research Summer Scholars (LARSS) Program. The Laser Remote Sensing Branch (LRSB), Mechanical Systems Branch (MSB), and Structural and Thermal Systems Branch (STSB) were engaged to achieve optimal designs through iterative and interactive collaborative design processes. A preliminary design iteration was able to reduce the power consumption, mass, and footprint by removing redundant components and replacing inefficient components with more efficient ones. A second design iteration reduced volume and mass by replacing bulky components with excessive performance with smaller components custom-designed for the power system. The existing power system was analyzed to rank components in terms of inefficiency, power dissipation, footprint and mass. Design considerations and priorities are compared along with the results of each design iteration. Overall power system improvements are summarized for design implementations.

  15. Doppler Lidar System Design via Interdisciplinary Design Concept at NASA Langley Research Center - Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crasner, Aaron I.; Scola,Salvatore; Beyon, Jeffrey Y.; Petway, Larry B.

    2014-01-01

    Optimized designs of the Navigation Doppler Lidar (NDL) instrument for Autonomous Landing Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) were accomplished via Interdisciplinary Design Concept (IDEC) at NASA Langley Research Center during the summer of 2013. Three branches in the Engineering Directorate and three students were involved in this joint task through the NASA Langley Aerospace Research Summer Scholars (LARSS) Program. The Laser Remote Sensing Branch (LRSB), Mechanical Systems Branch (MSB), and Structural and Thermal Systems Branch (STSB) were engaged to achieve optimal designs through iterative and interactive collaborative design processes. A preliminary design iteration was able to reduce the power consumption, mass, and footprint by removing redundant components and replacing inefficient components with more efficient ones. A second design iteration reduced volume and mass by replacing bulky components with excessive performance with smaller components custom-designed for the power system. Thermal modeling software was used to run steady state thermal analyses, which were used to both validate the designs and recommend further changes. Analyses were run on each redesign, as well as the original system. Thermal Desktop was used to run trade studies to account for uncertainty and assumptions about fan performance and boundary conditions. The studies suggested that, even if the assumptions were significantly wrong, the redesigned systems would remain within operating temperature limits.

  16. Airborne differential absorption lidar system for measurements of atmospheric water vapor and aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Arlen F.; Allen, Robert J.; Mayo, M. Neale; Butler, Carolyn F.; Grossman, Benoist E.; Ismail, Syed; Grant, William B.; Browell, Edward V.; Higdon, Noah S.; Mayor, Shane D.; hide

    1994-01-01

    An airborne differential absorption lidar (DIAL) system has been developed at the NASA Langley Research Center for remote measurements of atmospheric water vapor (H2O) and aerosols. A solid-state alexandrite laser with a 1-pm linewidth and greater than 99.85% spectral purity was used as the on-line transmitter. Solid-state avalanche photodiode detector technology has replaced photomultiplier tubes in the receiver system, providing an average increase by a factor of 1.5-2.5 in the signal-to-noise ratio of the H2O measurement. By incorporating advanced diagnostic and data-acquisition instrumentation into other subsystems, we achieved additional improvements in system operational reliability and measurement accuracy. Laboratory spectroscopic measurements of H2O absorption-line parameters were performed to reduce the uncertainties in our knowledge of the absorption cross sections. Line-center H2O absorption cross sections were determined, with errors of 3-6%, for more than 120 lines in the 720-nm region. Flight tests of the system were conducted during 1989-1991 on the NASA Wallops Flight Facility Electra aircraft, and extensive intercomparison measurements were performed with dew-point hygrometers and H2O radiosondes. The H2O distributions measured with the DIAL system differed by less than 10% from the profiles determined with the in situ probes in a variety of atmospheric conditions.

  17. Remote wind sensing with a CW diode laser lidar beyond the coherence regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qi; Rodrigo, Peter John; Pedersen, Christian

    2014-08-15

    We experimentally demonstrate for the first time (to our knowledge) a coherent CW lidar system capable of wind speed measurement at a probing distance beyond the coherence regime of the light source. A side-by-side wind measurement was conducted on the field using two lidar systems with identical optical designs but different laser linewidths. While one system was operating within the coherence regime, the other was measuring at least 2.4 times the coherence range. The probing distance of both lidars is 85 m and the radial wind speed correlation was measured to be r2=0.965 between the two lidars at a sampling rate of 2 Hz. Based on our experimental results, we describe a practical guideline for designing a wind lidar operating beyond the coherence regime.

  18. Long range inductive power transfer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawson, James; Pinuela, Manuel; Yates, David C; Lucyszyn, Stepan; Mitcheson, Paul D

    2013-01-01

    We report upon a recently developed long range inductive power transfer system (IPT) designed to power remote sensors with mW level power consumption at distances up to 7 m. In this paper an inductive link is established between a large planar (1 × 1 m) transmit coil (Tx) and a small planer (170 × 170 mm) receiver coil (Rx), demonstrating the viability of highly asymmetrical coil configurations that real-world applications such as sensor networks impose. High Q factor Tx and Rx coils required for viable power transfer efficiencies over such distances are measured using a resonant method. The applicability of the Class-E amplifier in very low magnetic coupling scenarios and at the high frequencies of operation required for high Q operation is demonstrated by its usage as the Tx coil driver

  19. Construction and first atmospheric observations of a high spectral resolution lidar system in Argentina in the frame of a trinational Japanese-Argentinean-Chilean collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papandrea, S.; Jin, Y.; Ristori, P.; Otero, L.; Nishizawa, T.; Mizuno, A.; Sugimoto, N.; Quel, E.

    2016-05-01

    Atmospheric monitoring stations are being developed in Argentina. The most important targets are volcanic ashes, desert aerosols in particular Patagonian dust and biomass burning aerosols. Six stations deployed in the Patagonian Region and Buenos Aires have lidar systems, sun photometers integrated to the AERONET/NASA monitoring network, in situ optical particle analyzers, four solar radiation sensors (pyranometer, UVA, UVB and GUV), and meteorological equipment. The stations are in the main international airports of the Regions (San Carlos de Bariloche, Comodoro Rivadavia, Neuquén, Rio Gallegos) and in Buenos Aires (Aeroparque Jorge Newbery and at CEILAP/CITEDEF). CEILAP and the National Institute of Environmental Studies (NIES) at Tsukuba, Japan developed the first iodine cell-based high spectral resolution lidar (HSRL) in Argentina to add in the lidar network. We upgraded the standard CEILAP multi-wavelength Raman lidar adding the laser frequency tuning system and the 532 iodine-filtered channel at the reception to built the HSRL. HSRL will provide daytime and nighttime direct observation of the aerosol and cloud optical properties (backscatter and extinction) without the pre-assumption of the lidar ratio. This work shows the design and construction of the first Argentinean HSRL. We also show the first lidar observations done in the country with this kind of lidar.

  20. Identifying Feasible Locations for Wetland Creation or Restoration in Catchments by Suitability Modelling Using Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR Digital Elevation Model (DEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Uuemaa

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Wetlands play a key role in controlling flooding and non-point-source (diffuse pollution. They are therefore an important tool for mitigating diffuse water pollution from farms. However, to use this tool, it is necessary to obtain detailed assessments and identification of potential wetland restoration or creation sites. This is complicated by the diversity of landscapes, environmental conditions, and land ownership. Site suitability for wetland restoration or creation depends on many factors: the underlying geology, soils, topography, hydrology, drainage, and land ownership. Local hydrology and soils are among the most important factors. However, the inventory and characterization of a site’s soils and hydrology often requires extensive, expensive, and time-consuming ground surveys, and it is therefore limited to small areas. Another possibility would be to consider topography, which strongly determines water movement patterns. Light detection and ranging (LiDAR data provides detailed topographic information and can be acquired by remote sensing. Our study showed that terrain analysis using high-resolution topographical data can produce suitability maps for wetlands that can be easily used by decision makers and planners in watershed management. The rapid methodology reveals potential wetland creation or restoration sites at a reasonable cost; with the resulting spatially explicit suitability map, managers can plan for wetland creation or restoration without having to wait for field-data collection.

  1. Small Imaging Depth LIDAR and DCNN-Based Localization for Automated Guided Vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Seigo; Hiratsuka, Shigeyoshi; Ohta, Mitsuhiko; Matsubara, Hiroyuki; Ogawa, Masaru

    2018-01-10

    We present our third prototype sensor and a localization method for Automated Guided Vehicles (AGVs), for which small imaging LIght Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) and fusion-based localization are fundamentally important. Our small imaging LIDAR, named the Single-Photon Avalanche Diode (SPAD) LIDAR, uses a time-of-flight method and SPAD arrays. A SPAD is a highly sensitive photodetector capable of detecting at the single-photon level, and the SPAD LIDAR has two SPAD arrays on the same chip for detection of laser light and environmental light. Therefore, the SPAD LIDAR simultaneously outputs range image data and monocular image data with the same coordinate system and does not require external calibration among outputs. As AGVs travel both indoors and outdoors with vibration, this calibration-less structure is particularly useful for AGV applications. We also introduce a fusion-based localization method, named SPAD DCNN, which uses the SPAD LIDAR and employs a Deep Convolutional Neural Network (DCNN). SPAD DCNN can fuse the outputs of the SPAD LIDAR: range image data, monocular image data and peak intensity image data. The SPAD DCNN has two outputs: the regression result of the position of the SPAD LIDAR and the classification result of the existence of a target to be approached. Our third prototype sensor and the localization method are evaluated in an indoor environment by assuming various AGV trajectories. The results show that the sensor and localization method improve the localization accuracy.

  2. 2017 NOAA/OCM Unmanned Aerial System Lidar: Grand Bay NERR

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Quantum Spatial (QSI) and PrecisionHawk (PH) collected lidar for test sites within the Grand Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve (NERR) using an unmanned aerial...

  3. 2017 NOAA/OCM Unmanned Aerial System Lidar DEM: Grand Bay NERR

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Quantum Spatial (QSI) and PrecisionHawk (PH) collected lidar for test sites within the Grand Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve (NERR) using an unmanned aerial...

  4. Lidar to lidar calibration of Ground-based Lidar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez Garcia, Sergio; Courtney, Michael

    This report presents the result of the lidar to lidar calibration performed for ground-based lidar. Calibration is here understood as the establishment of a relation between the reference lidar wind speed measurements with measurement uncertainties provided by measurement standard and corresponding...... lidar wind speed indications with associated measurement uncertainties. The lidar calibration concerns the 10 minute mean wind speed measurements. The comparison of the lidar measurements of the wind direction with that from the reference lidar measurements are given for information only....

  5. LIDAR AND INS FUSION IN PERIODS OF GPS OUTAGES FOR MOBILE LASER SCANNING MAPPING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Klein

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Mobile laser scanning systems are becoming an increasingly popular means to obtain 3D coverage on a large scale. To perform the mapping, the exact position of the vehicle must be known throughout the trajectory. Exact position is achieved via integration of Global Positioning Systems (GPS and Inertial Navigation Systems (INS. Yet, in urban environments, cases of complete or even partial GPS outages may occur leaving the navigation solution to rely only on the INS. The INS navigation solution degrades with time as the Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU measurements contains noise, which permeates into the navigation equations. Degradation of the position determination leads to loss of data in such segments. To circumvent such drift and its effects, we propose fusing INS with lidar data by using building edges. This detection of edges is then translated into position data, which is used as an aiding to the INS. It thereby enables the determination of the vehicle position with a satisfactory level accuracy, sufficient to perform the laser-scanning based mapping in those outage periods.

  6. Doppler Lidar System Design via Interdisciplinary Design Concept at NASA Langley Research Center - Part I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Charles M.; Jackson, Trevor P.; Beyon, Jeffrey Y.; Petway, Larry B.

    2013-01-01

    Optimized designs of the Navigation Doppler Lidar (NDL) instrument for Autonomous Landing Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) were accomplished via Interdisciplinary Design Concept (IDEC) at NASA Langley Research Center during the summer of 2013. Three branches in the Engineering Directorate and three students were involved in this joint task through the NASA Langley Aerospace Research Summer Scholars (LARSS) Program. The Laser Remote Sensing Branch (LRSB), Mechanical Systems Branch (MSB), and Structural and Thermal Systems Branch (STSB) were engaged to achieve optimal designs through iterative and interactive collaborative design processes. A preliminary design iteration was able to reduce the power consumption, mass, and footprint by removing redundant components and replacing inefficient components with more efficient ones. A second design iteration reduced volume and mass by replacing bulky components with excessive performance with smaller components custom-designed for the power system. Mechanical placement collaboration reduced potential electromagnetic interference (EMI). Through application of newly selected electrical components and thermal analysis data, a total electronic chassis redesign was accomplished. Use of an innovative forced convection tunnel heat sink was employed to meet and exceed project requirements for cooling, mass reduction, and volume reduction. Functionality was a key concern to make efficient use of airflow, and accessibility was also imperative to allow for servicing of chassis internals. The collaborative process provided for accelerated design maturation with substantiated function.

  7. Simulations of the observation of clouds and aerosols with the Experimental Lidar in Space Equipment system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z; Voelger, P; Sugimoto, N

    2000-06-20

    We carried out a simulation study for the observation of clouds and aerosols with the Japanese Experimental Lidar in Space Equipment (ELISE), which is a two-wavelength backscatter lidar with three detection channels. The National Space Development Agency of Japan plans to launch the ELISE on the Mission Demonstrate Satellite 2 (MDS-2). In the simulations, the lidar return signals for the ELISE are calculated for an artificial, two-dimensional atmospheric model including different types of clouds and aerosols. The signal detection processes are simulated realistically by inclusion of various sources of noise. The lidar signals that are generated are then used as input for simulations of data analysis with inversion algorithms to investigate retrieval of the optical properties of clouds and aerosols. The results demonstrate that the ELISE can provide global data on the structures and optical properties of clouds and aerosols. We also conducted an analysis of the effects of cloud inhomogeneity on retrievals from averaged lidar profiles. We show that the effects are significant for space lidar observations of optically thick broken clouds.

  8. Augmented reality system using lidar point cloud data for displaying dimensional information of objects on mobile phones

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, S.; Lohani, B.

    2014-01-01

    Mobile augmented reality system is the next generation technology to visualise 3D real world intelligently. The technology is expanding at a fast pace to upgrade the status of a smart phone to an intelligent device. The research problem identified and presented in the current work is to view actual dimensions of various objects that are captured by a smart phone in real time. The methodology proposed first establishes correspondence between LiDAR point cloud, that are stored in a ser...

  9. Remote sensing systems – Platforms and sensors: Aerial, satellites, UAVs, optical, radar, and LiDAR: Chapter 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Sudhanshu S.; Rao, Mahesh N.; Thenkabail, Prasad S.; Fitzerald, James E.

    2015-01-01

    The American Society of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing defined remote sensing as the measurement or acquisition of information of some property of an object or phenomenon, by a recording device that is not in physical or intimate contact with the object or phenomenon under study (Colwell et al., 1983). Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI) in its geographic information system (GIS) dictionary defines remote sensing as “collecting and interpreting information about the environment and the surface of the earth from a distance, primarily by sensing radiation that is naturally emitted or reflected by the earth’s surface or from the atmosphere, or by sending signals transmitted from a device and reflected back to it (ESRI, 2014).” The usual source of passive remote sensing data is the measurement of reflected or transmitted electromagnetic radiation (EMR) from the sun across the electromagnetic spectrum (EMS); this can also include acoustic or sound energy, gravity, or the magnetic field from or of the objects under consideration. In this context, the simple act of reading this text is considered remote sensing. In this case, the eye acts as a sensor and senses the light reflected from the object to obtain information about the object. It is the same technology used by a handheld camera to take a photograph of a person or a distant scenic view. Active remote sensing, however, involves sending a pulse of energy and then measuring the returned energy through a sensor (e.g., Radio Detection and Ranging [RADAR], Light Detection and Ranging [LiDAR]). Thermal sensors measure emitted energy by different objects. Thus, in general, passive remote sensing involves the measurement of solar energy reflected from the Earth’s surface, while active remote sensing involves synthetic (man-made) energy pulsed at the environment and the return signals are measured and recorded.

  10. 2012 Oregon Lidar Consortium (OLC) Lidar DEM: Keno (OR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Watershed Sciences, Inc. (WSI) collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data of the Oregon Keno Study Area for the Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral...

  11. 2012 Oregon Lidar Consortium (OLC) Lidar: Keno (OR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Watershed Sciences, Inc. (WSI) collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data of the Oregon Keno Study Area for the Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral...

  12. Atmospheric aerosol and gas sensing using Scheimpflug lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Liang; Brydegaard, Mikkel

    2015-04-01

    This work presents a new lidar technique for atmospheric remote sensing based on Scheimpflug principle, which describes the relationship between nonparallel image- and object-planes[1]. When a laser beam is transmitted into the atmosphere, the implication is that the backscattering echo of the entire illuminated probe volume can be in focus simultaneously without diminishing the aperture. The range-resolved backscattering echo can be retrieved by using a tilted line scan or two-dimensional CCD/CMOS camera. Rather than employing nanosecond-pulsed lasers, cascade detectors, and MHz signal sampling, all of high cost and complexity, we have developed a robust and inexpensive atmospheric lidar system based on compact laser diodes and array detectors. We present initial applications of the Scheimpflug lidar for atmospheric aerosol monitoring in bright sunlight, with a 3 W, 808 nm CW laser diode. Kilohertz sampling rates are also achieved with applications for wind speed and entomology [2]. Further, a proof-of-principle demonstration of differential absorption lidar (DIAL) based on the Scheimpflug lidar technique is presented [3]. By utilizing a 30 mW narrow band CW laser diode emitting at around 760 nm, the detailed shape of an oxygen absorption line can be resolved remotely with an integration time of 6 s and measurement cycle of 1 minute during night time. The promising results demonstrated in this work show potential for the Scheimpflug lidar technique for remote atmospheric aerosol and gas sensing, and renews hope for robust and realistic instrumentation for atmospheric lidar sensing. [1] F. Blais, "Review of 20 years of range sensor development," Journal of Electronic Imaging, vol. 13, pp. 231-243, Jan 2004. [2] M. Brydegaard, A. Gebru, and S. Svanberg, "Super resolution laser radar with blinking atmospheric particles - application to interacting flying insects " Progress In Electromagnetics Research, vol. 147, pp. 141-151, 2014. [3] L. Mei and M. Brydegaard

  13. Project ABLE: (Atmospheric Balloonborne Lidar Experiment)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, O.; Aurilio, G.; Bucknam, R. D.; Hurd, A. G.; Sheehan, W. H.

    1985-03-01

    Project ABLE (Atmospheric Balloonborne Lidar Experiment) is part of the A.F. Geophysics Laboratory's continuing interest in developing techniques for making remote measurements of atmospheric quantities such as density, pressure, temperatures, and wind motions. The system consists of a balloonborne lidar payload designed to measure neutral molecular density as a function of altitude from ground level to 70 km. The lidar provides backscatter data at the doubled and tripled frequencies of a Nd:YAG laser, which will assist in the separation of the molecular and aerosol contributions and subsequent determination of molecular and aerosol contributions and subsequent determination of molecular density vs altitude. The object of this contract was to fabricate and operate in a field test a balloonborne lidar experiment capable of performing nighttime atmospheric density measurements up to 70 km altitude with a resolution of 150 meters. The payload included a frequency-doubled and -tripled Nd:YAG laser with outputs at 355 and 532 nm; a telescoped receiver with PMT detectors; a command-controlled optical pointing system; and support system, including thermal control, telmetry, command, and power. Successful backscatter measurements were made during field operations which included a balloon launch from Roswell, NM and a flight over the White Sands Missile Range.

  14. Four-wavelength lidar evaluation of particle characteristics and aerosol densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uthe, E. E.; Livingston, J. M.; Delateur, S. A.; Nielsen, N. B.

    1985-06-01

    The SRI International four-wavelength (0.53, 1.06, 3.8, 10.6 micron) lidar systems was used during the SNOW-ONE-B and Smoke Week XI/SNOW-TWO field experiments to validate its capabilities in assessing obscurant optical and physical properties. The lidar viewed along a horizontal path terminated by a passive reflector. Data examples were analyzed in terms of time-dependent transmission, wavelength dependence of optical depth, and range-resolved extinction coefficients. Three methods were used to derive extinction data from the lidar signatures. These were target method, Klett method and experimental data method. The results of the field and analysis programs are reported in the journal and conference papers that are appended to this report, and include: comparison study of lidar extinction methods, submitted to applied optics, error analysis of lidar solution techniques for range-resolved extinction coefficients based on observational data, smoke/obscurants symposium 9, Four--Wavelength Lidar Measurements from smoke week 6/SNOW-TWO, smoke/obscurants symposium 8, SNOW-ONE-B multiple-wavelength lidar measurements. Snow symposium 3, and lidar applications for obscurant evaluations, smoke/obscurants Symposium 7. The report also provides a summary of background work leading to this project, and of project results.

  15. LIDAR Wind Speed Measurements of Evolving Wind Fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simley, E.; Pao, L. Y.

    2012-07-01

    Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) systems are able to measure the speed of incoming wind before it interacts with a wind turbine rotor. These preview wind measurements can be used in feedforward control systems designed to reduce turbine loads. However, the degree to which such preview-based control techniques can reduce loads by reacting to turbulence depends on how accurately the incoming wind field can be measured. Past studies have assumed Taylor's frozen turbulence hypothesis, which implies that turbulence remains unchanged as it advects downwind at the mean wind speed. With Taylor's hypothesis applied, the only source of wind speed measurement error is distortion caused by the LIDAR. This study introduces wind evolution, characterized by the longitudinal coherence of the wind, to LIDAR measurement simulations to create a more realistic measurement model. A simple model of wind evolution is applied to a frozen wind field used in previous studies to investigate the effects of varying the intensity of wind evolution. LIDAR measurements are also evaluated with a large eddy simulation of a stable boundary layer provided by the National Center for Atmospheric Research. Simulation results show the combined effects of LIDAR errors and wind evolution for realistic turbine-mounted LIDAR measurement scenarios.

  16. Measuring Oscillating Walking Paths with a LIDAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Palacín

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the analysis of different walking paths registered using a Light Detection And Ranging (LIDAR laser range sensor in order to measure oscillating trajectories during unsupervised walking. The estimate of the gait and trajectory parameters were obtained with a terrestrial LIDAR placed 100 mm above the ground with the scanning plane parallel to the floor to measure the trajectory of the legs without attaching any markers or modifying the floor. Three different large walking experiments were performed to test the proposed measurement system with straight and oscillating trajectories. The main advantages of the proposed system are the possibility to measure several steps and obtain average gait parameters and the minimum infrastructure required. This measurement system enables the development of new ambulatory applications based on the analysis of the gait and the trajectory during a walk.

  17. Augmented reality system using lidar point cloud data for displaying dimensional information of objects on mobile phones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, S.; Lohani, B.

    2014-05-01

    Mobile augmented reality system is the next generation technology to visualise 3D real world intelligently. The technology is expanding at a fast pace to upgrade the status of a smart phone to an intelligent device. The research problem identified and presented in the current work is to view actual dimensions of various objects that are captured by a smart phone in real time. The methodology proposed first establishes correspondence between LiDAR point cloud, that are stored in a server, and the image t hat is captured by a mobile. This correspondence is established using the exterior and interior orientation parameters of the mobile camera and the coordinates of LiDAR data points which lie in the viewshed of the mobile camera. A pseudo intensity image is generated using LiDAR points and their intensity. Mobile image and pseudo intensity image are then registered using image registration method SIFT thereby generating a pipeline to locate a point in point cloud corresponding to a point (pixel) on the mobile image. The second part of the method uses point cloud data for computing dimensional information corresponding to the pairs of points selected on mobile image and fetch the dimensions on top of the image. This paper describes all steps of the proposed method. The paper uses an experimental setup to mimic the mobile phone and server system and presents some initial but encouraging results

  18. Semiconductor Laser Wind Lidar for Turbine Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Qi

    This thesis describes an experimentally oriented study of continuous wave (CW) coherent Doppler lidar system design. The main application is remote wind sensing for active wind turbine control using nacelle mounted lidar systems; and the primary focus is to devise an industrial instrument that can...... historical overview within the topic of wind lidar systems. Both the potential and the challenges of an industrialized wind lidar has been addressed here. Furthermore, the basic concept behind the heterodyne detection and a brief overview of the lidar signal processing is explained; and a simple...... investigation of the telescope truncation and lens aberrations is conducted, both numerically and experimentally. It is shown that these parameters dictate the spatial resolution of the lidar system, and have profound impact on the SNR. In this work, an all-semiconductor light source is used in the lidar design...

  19. 2014 NJMC Lidar: Hackensack Meadowlands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In February 2014, Quantum Spatial, Inc. (QSI) was contracted by the New Jersey Meadowlands Commission (NJMC) to collect Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data in...

  20. 2014 Mobile County, AL Lidar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Atlantic was contracted to acquire high resolution topographic LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) data located in Mobile County, Alabama. The intent was to collect...

  1. Improved Model for Depth Bias Correction in Airborne LiDAR Bathymetry Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhu Zhao

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Airborne LiDAR bathymetry (ALB is efficient and cost effective in obtaining shallow water topography, but often produces a low-accuracy sounding solution due to the effects of ALB measurements and ocean hydrological parameters. In bathymetry estimates, peak shifting of the green bottom return caused by pulse stretching induces depth bias, which is the largest error source in ALB depth measurements. The traditional depth bias model is often applied to reduce the depth bias, but it is insufficient when used with various ALB system parameters and ocean environments. Therefore, an accurate model that considers all of the influencing factors must be established. In this study, an improved depth bias model is developed through stepwise regression in consideration of the water depth, laser beam scanning angle, sensor height, and suspended sediment concentration. The proposed improved model and a traditional one are used in an experiment. The results show that the systematic deviation of depth bias corrected by the traditional and improved models is reduced significantly. Standard deviations of 0.086 and 0.055 m are obtained with the traditional and improved models, respectively. The accuracy of the ALB-derived depth corrected by the improved model is better than that corrected by the traditional model.

  2. Development and operation of a real-time data acquisition system for the NASA-LaRC differential absorption lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, C.

    1985-01-01

    Computer hardware and software of the NASA multipurpose differential absorption lidar (DIAL) sysatem were improved. The NASA DIAL system is undergoing development and experimental deployment for remote measurement of atmospheric trace gas concentration from ground and aircraft platforms. A viable DIAL system was developed with the capability of remotely measuring O3 and H2O concentrations from an aircraft platform. Test flights were successfully performed on board the NASA/Goddard Flight Center Electra aircraft from 1980 to 1984. Improvements on the DIAL data acquisition system (DAS) are described.

  3. Mapping river bathymetry with a small footprint green LiDAR: Applications and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinzel, Paul J.; Legleiter, Carl; Nelson, Jonathan M.

    2013-01-01

    Airborne bathymetric Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) systems designed for coastal and marine surveys are increasingly sought after for high-resolution mapping of fluvial systems. To evaluate the potential utility of bathymetric LiDAR for applications of this kind, we compared detailed surveys collected using wading and sonar techniques with measurements from the United States Geological Survey’s hybrid topographic⁄ bathymetric Experimental Advanced Airborne Research LiDAR (EAARL). These comparisons, based upon data collected from the Trinity and Klamath Rivers, California, and the Colorado River, Colorado, demonstrated

  4. CO2-Tea pulse clipping using pulsed high voltage preionization for high spatial resolution I.R. Lidar systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gasmi Taieb

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available An extra-cavity CO2-TEA laser pulse clipper for high spatial resolution atmospheric monitoring is presented. The clipper uses pulsed high voltageto facilitate the breakdown of the gas within the clipper cell. Complete extinction of the nitrogen tail, that degrades the range resolution of LIDARS, is obtained at pressures from 375 up to 1500 Torr for nitrogen and argon gases whereas an attenuation coefficient of almost 102 is achieved for helium. Excellent energy stability and pulse width repeatability were achieved using high voltage pre-ionized gas technique.

  5. CO2-Tea pulse clipping using pulsed high voltage preionization for high spatial resolution I.R. Lidar systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasmi, Taieb

    2018-04-01

    An extra-cavity CO2-TEA laser pulse clipper for high spatial resolution atmospheric monitoring is presented. The clipper uses pulsed high voltageto facilitate the breakdown of the gas within the clipper cell. Complete extinction of the nitrogen tail, that degrades the range resolution of LIDARS, is obtained at pressures from 375 up to 1500 Torr for nitrogen and argon gases whereas an attenuation coefficient of almost 102 is achieved for helium. Excellent energy stability and pulse width repeatability were achieved using high voltage pre-ionized gas technique.

  6. Lidar to lidar calibration phase 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yordanova, Ginka; Courtney, Michael

    This report presents the results from phase 2 of a lidar to lidar (L2L) calibration procedure. Phase two of the project included two measurement campaigns conducted at given sites. The purpose was to find out if the lidar-to-lidar calibration procedure can be conducted with similar results...

  7. Capability of Raman lidar for monitoring the variation of atmospheric CO2 profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Peitao; Hu Shunxing; Su Jia; Cao Kaifa; Hu Huanling; Zhang Yinchao; Wang Lian; Zhao Yuefeng

    2008-01-01

    Lidar (Light detection and ranging) has special capabilities for remote sensing of many different behaviours of the atmosphere. One of the techniques which show a great deal of promise for several applications is Raman scattering. The detecting capability, including maximum operation range and minimum detectable gas concentration is one of the most significant parameters for lidar remote sensing of pollutants. In this paper, based on the new method for evaluating the capabilities of a Raman lidar system, we present an evaluation of detecting capability of Raman lidar for monitoring atmospheric CO 2 in Hefei. Numerical simulations about the influence of atmospheric conditions on lidar detecting capability were carried out, and a conclusion can be drawn that the maximum difference of the operation ranges caused by the weather conditions alone can reach about 0.4 to 0.5km with a measuring precision within 30ppmv. The range of minimum detectable concentration caused by the weather conditions alone can reach about 20 to 35 ppmv in vertical direction for 20000 shots at a distance of 1 km on the assumption that other parameters are kept constant. The other corresponding parameters under different conditions are also given. The capability of Raman lidar operated in vertical direction was found to be superior to that operated in horizontal direction. During practical measurement with the Raman lidar whose hardware components were fixed, aerosol scattering extinction effect would be a significant factor that influenced the capability of Raman lidar. This work may be a valuable reference for lidar system designing, measurement accuracy improving and data processing

  8. Lidar-based Research and Innovation at DTU Wind Energy - a Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkelsen, T.

    2014-06-01

    (short-range system), and another consisting of three synchronized pulsed wind lidar systems (long-range system). Today, wind lidar profilers and WindScanners are routinely deployed and operated during field tests and measurement campaigns. Lidars have been installed and operated from ground, on offshore platforms, and also as scanning lidars integrated in operating turbines. As a result, wind profiles and also detailed 3D scanning of wind and turbulence fields have been achieved: 1) of the free wind aloft, 2) over complex terrain, 3) at coastal ranges with land-sea interfaces, 4) offshore, 5) in turbine inflow induction zone, and 6) of the complex and turbulent flow fields in the wakes inside wind parks.

  9. Long-range interaction of anisotropic systems

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Junyi

    2015-02-01

    The first-order electrostatic interaction energy between two far-apart anisotropic atoms depends not only on the distance between them but also on their relative orientation, according to Rayleigh-Schrödinger perturbation theory. Using the first-order interaction energy and the continuum model, we study the long-range interaction between a pair of parallel pristine graphene sheets at zero temperature. The asymptotic form of the obtained potential density, &epsi:(D) &prop: ?D ?3 ?O(D?4), is consistent with the random phase approximation and Lifshitz theory. Accordingly, neglectance of the anisotropy, especially the nonzero first-order interaction energy, is the reason why the widely used Lennard-Jones potential approach and dispersion corrections in density functional theory give a wrong asymptotic form ε(D) &prop: ?D?4. © EPLA, 2015.

  10. Long-range interaction of anisotropic systems

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Junyi; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2015-01-01

    The first-order electrostatic interaction energy between two far-apart anisotropic atoms depends not only on the distance between them but also on their relative orientation, according to Rayleigh-Schrödinger perturbation theory. Using the first-order interaction energy and the continuum model, we study the long-range interaction between a pair of parallel pristine graphene sheets at zero temperature. The asymptotic form of the obtained potential density, &epsi:(D) &prop: ?D ?3 ?O(D?4), is consistent with the random phase approximation and Lifshitz theory. Accordingly, neglectance of the anisotropy, especially the nonzero first-order interaction energy, is the reason why the widely used Lennard-Jones potential approach and dispersion corrections in density functional theory give a wrong asymptotic form ε(D) &prop: ?D?4. © EPLA, 2015.

  11. 2004 Alaska Lidar Mapping

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data sets are generated using the OPTECH ALTM 70 kHz LIDAR system mounted onboard AeroMap's twin-engine Cessna 320 aircraft. Classified data sets such as this...

  12. Dual-range linearized transimpedance amplifier system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessendorf, Kurt O.

    2010-11-02

    A transimpedance amplifier system is disclosed which simultaneously generates a low-gain output signal and a high-gain output signal from an input current signal using a single transimpedance amplifier having two different feedback loops with different amplification factors to generate two different output voltage signals. One of the feedback loops includes a resistor, and the other feedback loop includes another resistor in series with one or more diodes. The transimpedance amplifier system includes a signal linearizer to linearize one or both of the low- and high-gain output signals by scaling and adding the two output voltage signals from the transimpedance amplifier. The signal linearizer can be formed either as an analog device using one or two summing amplifiers, or alternately can be formed as a digital device using two analog-to-digital converters and a digital signal processor (e.g. a microprocessor or a computer).

  13. Lidar to lidar calibration phase 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yordanova, Ginka; Courtney, Michael

    This report presents a feasibility study of a lidar to lidar (L2L) calibration procedure. Phase one of the project was conducted at Høvsøre, Denmark. Two windcubes were placed next to the 116m met mast and different methods were applied to obtain the sensing height error of the lidars. The purpose...... is to find the most consistent method and use it in a potential lidar to lidar calibration procedure....

  14. Raster Vs. Point Cloud LiDAR Data Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Ashmawy, N.; Shaker, A.

    2014-09-01

    Airborne Laser Scanning systems with light detection and ranging (LiDAR) technology is one of the fast and accurate 3D point data acquisition techniques. Generating accurate digital terrain and/or surface models (DTM/DSM) is the main application of collecting LiDAR range data. Recently, LiDAR range and intensity data have been used for land cover classification applications. Data range and Intensity, (strength of the backscattered signals measured by the LiDAR systems), are affected by the flying height, the ground elevation, scanning angle and the physical characteristics of the objects surface. These effects may lead to uneven distribution of point cloud or some gaps that may affect the classification process. Researchers have investigated the conversion of LiDAR range point data to raster image for terrain modelling. Interpolation techniques have been used to achieve the best representation of surfaces, and to fill the gaps between the LiDAR footprints. Interpolation methods are also investigated to generate LiDAR range and intensity image data for land cover classification applications. In this paper, different approach has been followed to classifying the LiDAR data (range and intensity) for land cover mapping. The methodology relies on the classification of the point cloud data based on their range and intensity and then converted the classified points into raster image. The gaps in the data are filled based on the classes of the nearest neighbour. Land cover maps are produced using two approaches using: (a) the conventional raster image data based on point interpolation; and (b) the proposed point data classification. A study area covering an urban district in Burnaby, British Colombia, Canada, is selected to compare the results of the two approaches. Five different land cover classes can be distinguished in that area: buildings, roads and parking areas, trees, low vegetation (grass), and bare soil. The results show that an improvement of around 10 % in the

  15. Lidars as an operational tool for meteorology and advanced atmospheric research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeonov, Valentin; Dinoev, Todor; Serikov, Ilya; Froidevaux, Martin; Bartlome, Marcel; Calpini, Bertrand; Bobrovnikov, Sergei; Ristori, Pablo; van den Bergh, Hubert; Parlange, Marc; Archinov, Yury

    2010-05-01

    The talk will present the concept and observation results of three advanced lidar systems developed recently at the Swiss federal Institute of Technology- Lausanne (EPFL) Switzerland. Two of the systems are Raman lidars for simultaneous water vapor, temperature and aerosol observations and the third one is an ozone UV DIAL system. The Ranan lidars use vibrational water vapor and nitrogen signals to derive water vapor mixing ratio and temperature, aerosol extinction and backscatter are measured using pure-rotational Raman and elastic signals. The first Raman lidar (RALMO) is a fully automated, water vapor /temperature/aerosol lidar developed for operational use by the Swiss meteorological office (MeteoSiss). The lidar supplies water vapor mixing ratio and temperature plus aerosol extinction and backscatter coefficients at 355 nm. The operational range of the lidar is 100-7000 m (night time) and 100- 5000 m (daytime) with time resolution of 30 min. The spatial resolution varies with height from 25 to 300 m in order to maintain the maximum measurement error of 10%. The system is designed to provide long-term database with minimal instrument-induced variations in time of the measured parameters. The lidar has been in regular operation in the main aerological station of Meteoswiss- Payerne since September 2008. The second Raman lidar is a new generation, solar-blind system with an operational range 10-500 m and high spatial (1.5 m) and temporal (1 s) resolutions designed for simultaneous humidity, temperature, and aerosol measurements in the lower atmosphere. To maintain the measurement accuracy while operating with fixed spatial and temporal resolution, the receiver is designed to provide lower than ten dynamic range of the signals within the distance range of the lidar. The lidar has 360° azimuth and 240°elevation scanning ability. The lidar was used in two field campaigns aiming to study the structure of the lower atmosphere over complex terrains and, in particular

  16. LIDAR and atmosphere remote sensing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Venkataraman, S

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available using state of the art Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) instrumentation and other active and passive remote sensing tools. First “Lidar Field Campaign” • 2-day measurement campaign at University of Pretoria • First 23-hour continuous measurement... head2rightCirrus cloud morphology and dynamics. Atmospheric Research in Southern Africa and Indian Ocean (ARSAIO) Slide 24 © CSIR 2008 www.csir.co.za Middle atmosphere dynamics and thermal structure: comparative studies from...

  17. 2015 OLC FEMA Lidar DEM: Snake River, ID

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Quantum Spatial has collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data for the Oregon LiDAR Consortium (OLC) Snake River FEMA study area. This study area is located...

  18. 2009 - 2011 CA Coastal Conservancy Coastal Lidar Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data is remotely sensed high-resolution elevation data collected by an airborne collection platform. This LiDAR dataset is a...

  19. 2006 FEMA New Jersey Flood Mitigation Lidar: Highlands Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data is remotely sensed high-resolution elevation data collected by an airborne collection platform. LiDAR was flown for...

  20. 2012 NRCS-USGS Tupelo, MS Lidar Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — LiDAR data is a remotely sensed high resolution elevation data collected by an airborne platform. The LiDAR sensor uses a combination of laser range finding, GPS...

  1. Volumetric visualization of multiple-return LIDAR data: Using voxels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoker, Jason M.

    2009-01-01

    Elevation data are an important component in the visualization and analysis of geographic information. The creation and display of 3D models representing bare earth, vegetation, and surface structures have become a major focus of light detection and ranging (lidar) remote sensing research in the past few years. Lidar is an active sensor that records the distance, or range, of a laser usually fi red from an airplane, helicopter, or satellite. By converting the millions of 3D lidar returns from a system into bare ground, vegetation, or structural elevation information, extremely accurate, high-resolution elevation models can be derived and produced to visualize and quantify scenes in three dimensions. These data can be used to produce high-resolution bare-earth digital elevation models; quantitative estimates of vegetative features such as canopy height, canopy closure, and biomass; and models of urban areas such as building footprints and 3D city models.

  2. Comparisons of Simultaneously Acquired Airborne Sfm Photogrammetry and Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, C. F.

    2014-12-01

    Digital elevation models (DEMs) created using images from a consumer DSLR camera are compared against simultaneously acquired LiDAR on a number of airborne mapping projects across Alaska, California and Utah. The aircraft used is a Cessna 180, and is equipped with the University of Alaska Geophysical Institute (UAF-GI) scanning airborne LiDAR system. This LiDAR is the same as described in Johnson et al, 2013, and is the principal instrument used for NASA's Operation IceBridge flights in Alaska. The system has been in extensive use since 2009, and is particularly well characterized with dozens of calibration flights and a careful program of boresight angle determination and monitoring. The UAF-GI LiDAR has a precision of +/- 8 cm and accuracy of +/- 15 cm. The photogrammetry DEM simultaneously acquired with the LiDAR relies on precise shutter timing using an event marker input to the IMU associated with the LiDAR system. The photo positions are derived from the fully coupled GPS/IMU processing, which samples at 100 Hz and is able to directly calculate the antenna to image plane offset displacements from the full orientation data. This use of the GPS/IMU solution means that both the LiDAR and Cessna 180 photogrammetry DEM share trajectory input data, however no orientation data nor ground control is used for the photorammetry processing. The photogrammetry DEMs are overlaid on the LiDAR point cloud and analyzed for horizontal shifts or warps relative to the LiDAR. No warping or horizontal shifts have been detectable for a number of photogrammetry DEMs. Vertical offsets range from +/- 30 cm, with a typical standard deviation about that mean of 10 cm or better. LiDAR and photogrammetry function inherently differently over trees and brush, and direct comparisons between the two methods show much larger differences over vegetated areas. Finally, the differences in flight patterns associated with the two methods will be discussed, highlighting the photogrammetry

  3. Calibrating nacelle lidars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courtney, M.

    2013-01-15

    Nacelle mounted, forward looking wind lidars are beginning to be used to provide reference wind speed measurements for the power performance testing of wind turbines. In such applications, a formal calibration procedure with a corresponding uncertainty assessment will be necessary. This report presents four concepts for performing such a nacelle lidar calibration. Of the four methods, two are found to be immediately relevant and are pursued in some detail. The first of these is a line of sight calibration method in which both lines of sight (for a two beam lidar) are individually calibrated by accurately aligning the beam to pass close to a reference wind speed sensor. A testing procedure is presented, reporting requirements outlined and the uncertainty of the method analysed. It is seen that the main limitation of the line of sight calibration method is the time required to obtain a representative distribution of radial wind speeds. An alternative method is to place the nacelle lidar on the ground and incline the beams upwards to bisect a mast equipped with reference instrumentation at a known height and range. This method will be easier and faster to implement and execute but the beam inclination introduces extra uncertainties. A procedure for conducting such a calibration is presented and initial indications of the uncertainties given. A discussion of the merits and weaknesses of the two methods is given together with some proposals for the next important steps to be taken in this work. (Author)

  4. Voxel-Based LIDAR Analysis and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagstrom, Shea T.

    One of the greatest recent changes in the field of remote sensing is the addition of high-quality Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) instruments. In particular, the past few decades have been greatly beneficial to these systems because of increases in data collection speed and accuracy, as well as a reduction in the costs of components. These improvements allow modern airborne instruments to resolve sub-meter details, making them ideal for a wide variety of applications. Because LIDAR uses active illumination to capture 3D information, its output is fundamentally different from other modalities. Despite this difference, LIDAR datasets are often processed using methods appropriate for 2D images and that do not take advantage of its primary virtue of 3-dimensional data. It is this problem we explore by using volumetric voxel modeling. Voxel-based analysis has been used in many applications, especially medical imaging, but rarely in traditional remote sensing. In part this is because the memory requirements are substantial when handling large areas, but with modern computing and storage this is no longer a significant impediment. Our reason for using voxels to model scenes from LIDAR data is that there are several advantages over standard triangle-based models, including better handling of overlapping surfaces and complex shapes. We show how incorporating system position information from early in the LIDAR point cloud generation process allows radiometrically-correct transmission and other novel voxel properties to be recovered. This voxelization technique is validated on simulated data using the Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Image Generation (DIRSIG) software, a first-principles based ray-tracer developed at the Rochester Institute of Technology. Voxel-based modeling of LIDAR can be useful on its own, but we believe its primary advantage is when applied to problems where simpler surface-based 3D models conflict with the requirement of realistic geometry. To

  5. 2012 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Quinault River Watershed, Washington (Delivery 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Watershed Sciences, Inc. (WSI) collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data on the Quinault watershed survey area for the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium. This...

  6. 2014 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Cedar River Watershed (Delivery 2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In September 2013, WSI, a Quantum Spatial company (QSI), was contracted by the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) to collect Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR)...

  7. 2014 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Cedar River Watershed (Delivery 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In September 2013, WSI, a Quantum Spatial company (QSI), was contracted by the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) to collect Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR)...

  8. Three-Dimensional Reconstruction of the Virtual Plant Branching Structure Based on Terrestrial LIDAR Technologies and L-System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Y.; Yang, Y.; Yang, X.

    2018-04-01

    For the purpose of extracting productions of some specific branching plants effectively and realizing its 3D reconstruction, Terrestrial LiDAR data was used as extraction source of production, and a 3D reconstruction method based on Terrestrial LiDAR technologies combined with the L-system was proposed in this article. The topology structure of the plant architectures was extracted using the point cloud data of the target plant with space level segmentation mechanism. Subsequently, L-system productions were obtained and the structural parameters and production rules of branches, which fit the given plant, was generated. A three-dimensional simulation model of target plant was established combined with computer visualization algorithm finally. The results suggest that the method can effectively extract a given branching plant topology and describes its production, realizing the extraction of topology structure by the computer algorithm for given branching plant and also simplifying the extraction of branching plant productions which would be complex and time-consuming by L-system. It improves the degree of automation in the L-system extraction of productions of specific branching plants, providing a new way for the extraction of branching plant production rules.

  9. Rating of roofs’ surfaces regarding their solar potential and suitability for PV systems, based on LiDAR data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukač, Niko; Žlaus, Danijel; Seme, Sebastijan; Žalik, Borut; Štumberger, Gorazd

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A new method for estimating and rating buildings roofs’ solar potential is presented. ► Considering LiDAR geospatial data together with pyranometer measurements. ► Use of multi-resolution shadowing model with new heuristic vegetation shadowing. ► High correlation between estimated solar potential and onsite measurements. -- Abstract: The roof surfaces within urban areas are constantly attracting interest regarding the installation of photovoltaic systems. These systems can improve self-sufficiency of electricity supply, and can help to decrease the emissions of greenhouse gases throughout urban areas. Unfortunately, some roof surfaces are unsuitable for installing photovoltaic systems. This presented work deals with the rating of roof surfaces within urban areas regarding their solar potential and suitability for the installation of photovoltaic systems. The solar potential of a roof’s surface is determined by a new method that combines extracted urban topography from LiDAR data with the pyranometer measurements of global and diffuse solar irradiances. Heuristic annual vegetation shadowing and a multi-resolution shadowing model, complete the proposed method. The significance of different influential factors (e.g. shadowing) was analysed extensively. A comparison between the results obtained by the proposed method and measurements performed on an actual PV power plant showed a correlation agreement of 97.4%.

  10. THREE-DIMENSIONAL RECONSTRUCTION OF THE VIRTUAL PLANT BRANCHING STRUCTURE BASED ON TERRESTRIAL LIDAR TECHNOLOGIES AND L-SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Gong

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available For the purpose of extracting productions of some specific branching plants effectively and realizing its 3D reconstruction, Terrestrial LiDAR data was used as extraction source of production, and a 3D reconstruction method based on Terrestrial LiDAR technologies combined with the L-system was proposed in this article. The topology structure of the plant architectures was extracted using the point cloud data of the target plant with space level segmentation mechanism. Subsequently, L-system productions were obtained and the structural parameters and production rules of branches, which fit the given plant, was generated. A three-dimensional simulation model of target plant was established combined with computer visualization algorithm finally. The results suggest that the method can effectively extract a given branching plant topology and describes its production, realizing the extraction of topology structure by the computer algorithm for given branching plant and also simplifying the extraction of branching plant productions which would be complex and time-consuming by L-system. It improves the degree of automation in the L-system extraction of productions of specific branching plants, providing a new way for the extraction of branching plant production rules.

  11. Frequency Stepped Pulse Train Modulated Wind Sensing Lidar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Anders Sig; Pedersen, Anders Tegtmeier; Rottwitt, Karsten

    2011-01-01

    of frequency shifts corresponding to a specific distance. The spatial resolution depends on the repetition rate of the pulses in the pulse train. Directional wind measurements are shown and compared to a CW lidar measurement. The carrier to noise ratio of the FSPT lidar compared to a CW lidar is discussed......In this paper a wind sensing lidar utilizing a Frequency Stepped Pulse Train (FSPT) is demonstrated. One of the advantages in the FSTP lidar is that it enables direct measurement of wind speed as a function of distance from the lidar. Theoretically the FSPT lidar continuously produces measurements...... as is the case with a CW lidar, but at the same time with a spatial resolution, and without the range ambiguity originating from e.g. clouds. The FSPT lidar utilizes a frequency sweeping source for generation of the FSPT. The source generates a pulse train where each pulse has an optical carrier frequency...

  12. NAMMA LIDAR ATMOSPHERIC SENSING EXPERIMENT (LASE) V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NAMMA Lidar Atmospheric Sensing Experiment (LASE) dataset used the LASE system using the Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) system was operated during the NASA...

  13. UV Lidar Receiver Analysis for Tropospheric Sensing of Ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pliutau, Denis; DeYoung, Russell J.

    2013-01-01

    A simulation of a ground based Ultra-Violet Differential Absorption Lidar (UV-DIAL) receiver system was performed under realistic daytime conditions to understand how range and lidar performance can be improved for a given UV pulse laser energy. Calculations were also performed for an aerosol channel transmitting at 3 W. The lidar receiver simulation studies were optimized for the purpose of tropospheric ozone measurements. The transmitted lidar UV measurements were from 285 to 295 nm and the aerosol channel was 527-nm. The calculations are based on atmospheric transmission given by the HITRAN database and the Modern Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) meteorological data. The aerosol attenuation is estimated using both the BACKSCAT 4.0 code as well as data collected during the CALIPSO mission. The lidar performance is estimated for both diffuseirradiance free cases corresponding to nighttime operation as well as the daytime diffuse scattered radiation component based on previously reported experimental data. This analysis presets calculations of the UV-DIAL receiver ozone and aerosol measurement range as a function of sky irradiance, filter bandwidth and laser transmitted UV and 527-nm energy

  14. Lidar Remote Sensing for Industry and Environment Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Upendra N. (Editor); Itabe, Toshikazu (Editor); Sugimoto, Nobuo (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    Contents include the following: 1. Keynote paper: Overview of lidar technology for industrial and environmental monitoring in Japan. 2. lidar technology I: NASA's future active remote sensing mission for earth science. Geometrical detector consideration s in laser sensing application (invited paper). 3. Lidar technology II: High-power femtosecond light strings as novel atmospheric probes (invited paper). Design of a compact high-sensitivity aerosol profiling lidar. 4. Lasers for lidars: High-energy 2 microns laser for multiple lidar applications. New submount requirement of conductively cooled laser diodes for lidar applications. 5. Tropospheric aerosols and clouds I: Lidar monitoring of clouds and aerosols at the facility for atmospheric remote sensing (invited paper). Measurement of asian dust by using multiwavelength lidar. Global monitoring of clouds and aerosols using a network of micropulse lidar systems. 6. Troposphere aerosols and clouds II: Scanning lidar measurements of marine aerosol fields at a coastal site in Hawaii. 7. Tropospheric aerosols and clouds III: Formation of ice cloud from asian dust particles in the upper troposphere. Atmospheric boundary layer observation by ground-based lidar at KMITL, Thailand (13 deg N, 100 deg. E). 8. Boundary layer, urban pollution: Studies of the spatial correlation between urban aerosols and local traffic congestion using a slant angle scanning on the research vessel Mirai. 9. Middle atmosphere: Lidar-observed arctic PSC's over Svalbard (invited paper). Sodium temperature lidar measurements of the mesopause region over Syowa Station. 10. Differential absorption lidar (dIAL) and DOAS: Airborne UV DIAL measurements of ozone and aerosols (invited paper). Measurement of water vapor, surface ozone, and ethylene using differential absorption lidar. 12. Space lidar I: Lightweight lidar telescopes for space applications (invited paper). Coherent lidar development for Doppler wind measurement from the International Space

  15. Mapping Above- and Below-Ground Carbon Pools in Boreal Forests: The Case for Airborne Lidar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Terje; Næsset, Erik; Ohlson, Mikael; Bolstad, Paul V; Kolka, Randall

    2015-01-01

    A large and growing body of evidence has demonstrated that airborne scanning light detection and ranging (lidar) systems can be an effective tool in measuring and monitoring above-ground forest tree biomass. However, the potential of lidar as an all-round tool for assisting in assessment of carbon (C) stocks in soil and non-tree vegetation components of the forest ecosystem has been given much less attention. Here we combine the use airborne small footprint scanning lidar with fine-scale spatial C data relating to vegetation and the soil surface to describe and contrast the size and spatial distribution of C pools within and among multilayered Norway spruce (Picea abies) stands. Predictor variables from lidar derived metrics delivered precise models of above- and below-ground tree C, which comprised the largest C pool in our study stands. We also found evidence that lidar canopy data correlated well with the variation in field layer C stock, consisting mainly of ericaceous dwarf shrubs and herbaceous plants. However, lidar metrics derived directly from understory echoes did not yield significant models. Furthermore, our results indicate that the variation in both the mosses and soil organic layer C stock plots appears less influenced by differences in stand structure properties than topographical gradients. By using topographical models from lidar ground returns we were able to establish a strong correlation between lidar data and the organic layer C stock at a stand level. Increasing the topographical resolution from plot averages (~2000 m2) towards individual grid cells (1 m2) did not yield consistent models. Our study demonstrates a connection between the size and distribution of different forest C pools and models derived from airborne lidar data, providing a foundation for future research concerning the use of lidar for assessing and monitoring boreal forest C.

  16. An Online Solution of LiDAR Scan Matching Aided Inertial Navigation System for Indoor Mobile Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoji Niu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Multisensors (LiDAR/IMU/CAMERA integrated Simultaneous Location and Mapping (SLAM technology for navigation and mobile mapping in a GNSS-denied environment, such as indoor areas, dense forests, or urban canyons, becomes a promising solution. An online (real-time version of such system can extremely extend its applications, especially for indoor mobile mapping. However, the real-time response issue of multisensors is a big challenge for an online SLAM system, due to the different sampling frequencies and processing time of different algorithms. In this paper, an online Extended Kalman Filter (EKF integrated algorithm of LiDAR scan matching and IMU mechanization for Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV indoor navigation system is introduced. Since LiDAR scan matching is considerably more time consuming than the IMU mechanism, the real-time synchronous issue is solved via a one-step-error-state-transition method in EKF. Stationary and dynamic field tests had been performed using a UGV platform along typical corridor of office building. Compared to the traditional sequential postprocessed EKF algorithm, the proposed method can significantly mitigate the time delay of navigation outputs under the premise of guaranteeing the positioning accuracy, which can be used as an online navigation solution for indoor mobile mapping.

  17. Insect remote sensing using a polarization sensitive cw lidar system in chinese rice fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Shiming

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A joint Chinese-Swedish field campaign of Scheimpflug continuous-wave lidar monitoring of rice-field flying pest insects was pursued in very hot July weather conditions close to Guangzhou, China. The occurrence of insects, birds and bats with almost 200 hours of round-the-clock polarization-sensitive recordings was studied. Wing-beat frequency recordings and depolarization properties were used for target classification. Influence of weather conditions on the flying fauna was also investigated.

  18. Insect remote sensing using a polarization sensitive cw lidar system in chinese rice fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shiming; Malmqvist, Elin; Li, Yiyun; Jansson, Samuel; Li, Wansha; Duan, Zheng; Fu, Wei; Svanberg, Katarina; Bood, Joakim; Feng, Hongqiang; Åkesson, Susanne; Song, Ziwei; Zhang, Baoxin; Zhao, Guangyu; Li, Dunsong; Brydegaard, Mikkel; Svanberg, Sune

    2018-04-01

    A joint Chinese-Swedish field campaign of Scheimpflug continuous-wave lidar monitoring of rice-field flying pest insects was pursued in very hot July weather conditions close to Guangzhou, China. The occurrence of insects, birds and bats with almost 200 hours of round-the-clock polarization-sensitive recordings was studied. Wing-beat frequency recordings and depolarization properties were used for target classification. Influence of weather conditions on the flying fauna was also investigated.

  19. Setting up a mobile Lidar (DIAL) system for detecting chemical warfare agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tehrani, M Kavosh; Jaafari, E; Mobashery, A; Mohammad, M Malek

    2015-01-01

    The mobile light detection and ranging DIAL system of Malek Ashtar University of Technology has been developed for the detection of chemical warfare agents whose absorption wavelengths are in the range of 9.2–10.8 μm tunable CO 2 lasers of the system. In this paper, this system is first described and then ammonia detection is analyzed experimentally. Also, experimental results of detecting a sarin agent simulant, dimethyl–methyl phosphonate (DMMP), are presented. The power levels received from different ranges to detect specific concentrations of NH 3 and DMMP have been measured and debated. The primary test results with a 150 ns clipped pulse width by passive pinhole plasma shutter indicate that the system is capable of monitoring several species of pollutants in the range of about 1 km, with a 20 m spatial and 2 min temporal resolution. (paper)

  20. Lidar: air pollution applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collis, R.T.H.

    1977-01-01

    This introduction to the use of lidar in air pollution applications is mainly concerned with its capability to detect and monitor atmospheric particulates by elastic backscattering. Even when quite imperceptible to the eye, such particulates may be detected at ranges of several kilometers even by lidars of modest performance. This capability is valuable in connection with air pollution in the following ways: by mapping and tracking inhomogeneities in particulate concentration, atmospheric structure and motion may be monitored; measurements of the optical properties of the atmosphere provide an indication of turbidity or of particulate number or mass concentrations; and the capability of obtaining at a single point return signals from remote atmospheric volumes makes it possible to make range-resolved measurements of gaseous concentration along the path by using the resonant absorption of energy of appropriate wavelengths

  1. Study of ocean red tide multi-parameter monitoring technology based on double-wavelength airborne lidar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hong; Wang, Xinming; Liang, Kun

    2010-10-01

    For monitoring and forecasting of the ocean red tide in real time, a marine environment monitoring technology based on the double-wavelength airborne lidar system is proposed. An airborne lidar is father more efficient than the traditional measure technology by the boat. At the same time, this technology can detect multi-parameter about the ocean red tide by using the double-wavelength lidar.It not only can use the infrared laser to detect the scattering signal under the water and gain the information about the red tise's density and size, but also can use the blue-green laser to detect the Brillouin scattering signal and deduce the temperature and salinity of the seawater.The red tide's density detecting model is firstly established by introducing the concept about the red tide scattering coefficient based on the Mie scattering theory. From the Brillouin scattering theory, the relationship about the blue-green laser's Brillouin scattering frequency shift value and power value with the seawater temperature and salinity is found. Then, the detecting mode1 of the saewater temperature and salinity can be established. The value of the red tide infrared scattering signal is evaluated by the simulation, and therefore the red tide particles' density can be known. At the same time, the blue-green laser's Brillouin scattering frequency shift value and power value are evaluated by simulating, and the temperature and salinity of the seawater can be known. Baed on the multi-parameters, the ocean red tide's growth can be monitored and forecasted.

  2. Lidar/DIAL detection of acetone at 3.3 μm by a tunable OPO laser system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puiu, A; Fiorani, L; Borelli, R; Pistilli, M; Palucci, A; Rosa, O

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we report, for the first time to our knowledge, on lidar/DIAL detection of acetone vapors at 3.3 μm by means of an optical parametric tunable laser system. After a preliminary spectroscopic study in an absorption cell, the feasibility of a differential absorption (DIAL) lidar for the detection of acetone vapors has been investigated in the laboratory, simulating the experimental conditions of a field campaign. Having in mind measurements in a real scenario, a study of possible atmospheric intereferents has been performed, looking for all known compounds that share acetone IR absorption in the spectral band selected for its detection. Possible interfering species from urban and industrial atmospheres were investigated and limits of acetone detection in both environments were identified. This study confirmed that a lidar system can detect a low concentration of acetone at considerable distances. (paper)

  3. An All-Fiber, Modular, Compact Wind Lidar for Wind Sensing and Wake Vortex Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Narasimha S.; Sibell, Russ; Vetorino, Steve; Higgins, Richard; Tracy, Allen

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses an innovative, compact and eyesafe coherent lidar system developed for wind and wake vortex sensing applications. With an innovative all-fiber and modular transceiver architecture, the wind lidar system has reduced size, weight and power requirements, and provides enhanced performance along with operational elegance. This all-fiber architecture is developed around fiber seed laser coupled to uniquely configured fiber amplifier modules. The innovative features of this lidar system, besides its all fiber architecture, include pulsewidth agility and user programmable 3D hemispherical scanner unit. Operating at a wavelength of 1.5457 microns and with a PRF of up to 20 KHz, the lidar transmitter system is designed as a Class 1 system with dimensions of 30"(W) x 46"(L) x 60"(H). With an operational range exceeding 10 km, the wind lidar is configured to measure wind velocities of greater than 120 m/s with an accuracy of +/- 0.2 m/s and allow range resolution of less than 15 m. The dynamical configuration capability of transmitted pulsewidths from 50 ns to 400 ns allows high resolution wake vortex measurements. The scanner uses innovative liquid metal slip ring and is built using 3D printer technology with light weight nylon. As such, it provides continuous 360 degree azimuth and 180 degree elevation scan angles with an incremental motion of 0.001 degree. The lidar system is air cooled and requires 110 V for its operation. This compact and modular lidar system is anticipated to provide mobility, reliability, and ease of field deployment for wind and wake vortex measurements. Currently, this wind lidar is undergoing validation tests under various atmospheric conditions. Preliminary results of these field measurements of wind characteristics that were recently carried out in Colorado are discussed.

  4. Lidar and Laser Technology for NASA’S Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (CATS Payload on The International Space Station (JEM-EF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Storm Mark

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the ISS lidar technology provided by Fibertek, Inc. in support of the NASA GSFC CATS mission and provides an assessment of the in-flight systems performance and lessons learned. During February the systems successfully operated in space for more than 300 hours using 25 W average power lasers and photon counting of aerosol atmospheric returns.

  5. Topographic laser ranging and scanning principles and processing

    CERN Document Server

    Shan, Jie

    2008-01-01

    A systematic, in-depth introduction to theories and principles of Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) technology is long overdue, as it is the most important geospatial data acquisition technology to be introduced in recent years. An advanced discussion, this text fills the void.Professionals in fields ranging from geology, geography and geoinformatics to physics, transportation, and law enforcement will benefit from this comprehensive discussion of topographic LiDAR principles, systems, data acquisition, and data processing techniques. The book covers ranging and scanning fundamentals, and broad, contemporary analysis of airborne LiDAR systems, as well as those situated on land and in space. The authors present data collection at the signal level in terms of waveforms and their properties; at the system level with regard to calibration and georeferencing; and at the data level to discuss error budget, quality control, and data organization. They devote the bulk of the book to LiDAR data processing and inform...

  6. Advanced technologies in the ASI MLRO towards a new generation laser ranging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghese, Thomas; Bianco, Giuseppe

    1994-01-01

    Matera Laser Ranging Observatory (MLRO) is a high performance, highly automated optical and astronomical observatory currently under design and development by AlliedSignal for the Italian Space Agency (ASI). It is projected to become operational at the Centro Geodesia Spaziale in Matera, Italy, in 1997. MLRO, based on a 1.5-meter astronomical quality telescope, will perform ranging to spacecraft in earthbound orbits, lunar reflectors, and specially equipped deep space missions. The primary emphasis during design is to incorporate state-of-the-art technologies to produce an intelligent, automated, high accuracy ranging system that will mimic the characteristic features of a fifth generation laser ranging system. The telescope has multiple ports and foci to support future experiments in the areas of laser communications, lidar, astrometry, etc. The key features providing state-of-the-art ranging performance include: a diode-pumped picosecond (50 ps) laser, high speed (3-5 GHz) optoelectronic detection and signal processing, and a high accuracy (6 ps) high resolution (less than 2 ps) time measurement capability. The above combination of technologies is expected to yield millimeter laser ranging precision and accuracy on targets up to 300,000 km, surpassing the best operational instrument performance to date by a factor of five or more. Distributed processing and control using a state-of-the-art computing environment provides the framework for efficient operation, system optimization, and diagnostics. A computationally intelligent environment permits optimal planning, scheduling, tracking, and data processing. It also supports remote access, monitor, and control for joint experiments with other observatories.

  7. 3D indoor modeling using a hand-held embedded system with multiple laser range scanners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shaoxing; Wang, Duhu; Xu, Shike

    2016-10-01

    Accurate three-dimensional perception is a key technology for many engineering applications, including mobile mapping, obstacle detection and virtual reality. In this article, we present a hand-held embedded system designed for constructing 3D representation of structured indoor environments. Different from traditional vehicle-borne mobile mapping methods, the system presented here is capable of efficiently acquiring 3D data while an operator carrying the device traverses through the site. It consists of a simultaneous localization and mapping(SLAM) module, a 3D attitude estimate module and a point cloud processing module. The SLAM is based on a scan matching approach using a modern LIDAR system, and the 3D attitude estimate is generated by a navigation filter using inertial sensors. The hardware comprises three 2D time-flight laser range finders and an inertial measurement unit(IMU). All the sensors are rigidly mounted on a body frame. The algorithms are developed on the frame of robot operating system(ROS). The 3D model is constructed using the point cloud library(PCL). Multiple datasets have shown robust performance of the presented system in indoor scenarios.

  8. Model Predictive Control of Wind Turbines using Uncertain LIDAR Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirzaei, Mahmood; Soltani, Mohsen; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2013-01-01

    , we simplify state prediction for the MPC. Consequently, the control problem of the nonlinear system is simplified into a quadratic programming. We consider uncertainty in the wind propagation time, which is the traveling time of wind from the LIDAR measurement point to the rotor. An algorithm based......The problem of Model predictive control (MPC) of wind turbines using uncertain LIDAR (LIght Detection And Ranging) measurements is considered. A nonlinear dynamical model of the wind turbine is obtained. We linearize the obtained nonlinear model for different operating points, which are determined...... on wind speed estimation and measurements from the LIDAR is devised to find an estimate of the delay and compensate for it before it is used in the controller. Comparisons between the MPC with error compensation, the MPC without error compensation and an MPC with re-linearization at each sample point...

  9. Aircraft Wake Vortex Measurement with Coherent Doppler Lidar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Songhua

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aircraft vortices are generated by the lift-producing surfaces of the aircraft. The variability of near-surface conditions can change the drop rate and cause the cell of the wake vortex to twist and contort unpredictably. The pulsed Coherent Doppler Lidar Detection and Ranging is an indispensable access to real aircraft vortices behavior which transmitting a laser beam and detecting the radiation backscattered by atmospheric aerosol particles. Experiments for Coherent Doppler Lidar measurement of aircraft wake vortices has been successfully carried out at the Beijing Capital International Airport (BCIA. In this paper, the authors discuss the Lidar system, the observation modes carried out in the measurements at BCIA and the characteristics of vortices.

  10. Raman lidar water vapor profiling over Warsaw, Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachlewska, Iwona S.; Costa-Surós, Montserrat; Althausen, Dietrich

    2017-09-01

    Water vapor mixing ratio and relative humidity profiles were derived from the multi-wavelength Raman PollyXT lidar at the EARLINET site in Warsaw, using the Rayleigh molecular extinction calculation based on atmospheric temperature and pressure from three different sources: i) the standard atmosphere US 62, ii) the Global Data Assimilation System (GDAS) model output, and iii) the WMO 12374 radiosoundings launched at Legionowo. With each method, 136 midnight relative humidity profiles were obtained for lidar observations from July 2013 to August 2015. Comparisons of these profiles showed in favor of the latter method (iii), but it also indicated that the other two data sources could replace it, if necessary. Such use was demonstrated for an automated retrieval of water vapor mixing ratio from dusk until dawn on 19/20 March 2015; a case study related to an advection of biomass burning aerosol from forest fires over Ukraine. Additionally, an algorithm that applies thresholds to the radiosounding relative humidity profiles to estimate macro-physical cloud vertical structure was used for the first time on the Raman lidar relative humidity profiles. The results, based on a subset of 66 profiles, indicate that below 6 km cloud bases/tops can be successfully obtained in 53% and 76% cases from lidar and radiosounding profiles, respectively. Finally, a contribution of the lidar derived mean relative humidity to cloudy conditions within the range of 0.8 to 6.2 km, in comparison to clear-sky conditions, was estimated.

  11. A Study on Factors Affecting Airborne LiDAR Penetration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Chen Hsu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study uses data from different periods, areas and parameters of airborne LiDAR (light detection and ranging surveys to understand the factors that influence airborne LiDAR penetration rate. A discussion is presented on the relationships between these factors and LiDAR penetration rate. The results show that the flight height above ground level (AGL does not have any relationship with the penetration rate. There are some factors that should have larger influence. For example, the laser is affected by a wet ground surface by reducing the number of return echoes. The field of view (FOV has a slightly negative correlation with the penetration rate, which indicates that the laser incidence angle close to zero should achieve the best penetration. The vegetation cover rate also shows a negative correlation with the penetration rate, thus bare ground and reduced vegetation in the aftermath of a typhoon also cause high penetration rate. More return echoes could be extracted from the full-waveform system, thereby effectively improving the penetration rate. This study shows that full-waveform LiDAR is an effective method for increasing the number of surface reflected echoes. This study suggests avoiding LiDAR survey employment directly following precipitation to prevent laser echo reduction.

  12. Continuous limit of discrete systems with long-range interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarasov, Vasily E

    2006-01-01

    Discrete systems with long-range interactions are considered. Continuous medium models as continuous limit of discrete chain system are defined. Long-range interactions of chain elements that give the fractional equations for the medium model are discussed. The chain equations of motion with long-range interaction are mapped into the continuum equation with the Riesz fractional derivative. We formulate the consistent definition of continuous limit for the systems with long-range interactions. In this paper, we consider a wide class of long-range interactions that give fractional medium equations in the continuous limit. The power-law interaction is a special case of this class

  13. A Wide Spectral Range Reflectance and Luminescence Imaging System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapani Hirvonen

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we introduce a wide spectral range (200–2500 nm imaging system with a 250 μm minimum spatial resolution, which can be freely modified for a wide range of resolutions and measurement geometries. The system has been tested for reflectance and luminescence measurements, but can also be customized for transmittance measurements. This study includes the performance results of the developed system, as well as examples of spectral images. Discussion of the system relates it to existing systems and methods. The wide range spectral imaging system that has been developed is however highly customizable and has great potential in many practical applications.

  14. Charactering lidar optical subsystem using four quadrants method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xiaomin; Liu, Dong; Xu, Jiwei; Wang, Zhenzhu; Wang, Bangxin; Wu, Decheng; Zhong, Zhiqing; Xie, Chenbo; Wang, Yingjian

    2018-02-01

    Lidar is a kind of active optical remote sensing instruments , can be applied to sound atmosphere with a high spatial and temporal resolution. Many parameter of atmosphere can be get by using different inverse algorithm with lidar backscatter signal. The basic setup of a lidar consist of a transmitter and a receiver. To make sure the quality of lidar signal data, the lidar must be calibrated before being used to measure the atmospheric variables. It is really significant to character and analyze lidar optical subsystem because a well equiped lidar optical subsystem contributes to high quality lidar signal data. we pay close attention to telecover test to character and analyze lidar optical subsystem.The telecover test is called four quadrants method consisting in dividing the telescope aperture in four quarants. when a lidar is well configured with lidar optical subsystem, the normalized signal from four qudrants will agree with each other on some level. Testing our WARL-II lidar by four quadrants method ,we find the signals of the four basically consistent with each other both in near range and in far range. But in detail, the signals in near range have some slight distinctions resulting from overlap function, some signals distinctions are induced by atmospheric instability.

  15. 2006 South Carolina DNR Lidar: Aiken County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The LiDAR data acquisition was executed in five sessions, on March 15, 16 & 17, 2006, using a Leica ALS50 LiDAR System. Specific details about the ALS50 system...

  16. Accuracy assessment of a mobile terrestrial lidar survey at Padre Island National Seashore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Samsung; Thatcher, Cindy A.; Brock, John C.; Kimbrow, Dustin R.; Danielson, Jeffrey J.; Reynolds, B.J.

    2013-01-01

    The higher point density and mobility of terrestrial laser scanning (light detection and ranging (lidar)) is desired when extremely detailed elevation data are needed for mapping vertically orientated complex features such as levees, dunes, and cliffs, or when highly accurate data are needed for monitoring geomorphic changes. Mobile terrestrial lidar scanners have the capability for rapid data collection on a larger spatial scale compared with tripod-based terrestrial lidar, but few studies have examined the accuracy of this relatively new mapping technology. For this reason, we conducted a field test at Padre Island National Seashore of a mobile lidar scanner mounted on a sport utility vehicle and integrated with a position and orientation system. The purpose of the study was to assess the vertical and horizontal accuracy of data collected by the mobile terrestrial lidar system, which is georeferenced to the Universal Transverse Mercator coordinate system and the North American Vertical Datum of 1988. To accomplish the study objectives, independent elevation data were collected by conducting a high-accuracy global positioning system survey to establish the coordinates and elevations of 12 targets spaced throughout the 12 km transect. These independent ground control data were compared to the lidar scanner-derived elevations to quantify the accuracy of the mobile lidar system. The performance of the mobile lidar system was also tested at various vehicle speeds and scan density settings (e.g. field of view and linear point spacing) to estimate the optimal parameters for desired point density. After adjustment of the lever arm parameters, the final point cloud accuracy was 0.060 m (east), 0.095 m (north), and 0.053 m (height). The very high density of the resulting point cloud was sufficient to map fine-scale topographic features, such as the complex shape of the sand dunes.

  17. Range-Image Acquisition for Discriminated Objects in a Range-gated Robot Vision System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Seung-Kyu; Ahn, Yong-Jin; Park, Nak-Kyu; Baik, Sung-Hoon; Choi, Young-Soo; Jeong, Kyung-Min [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The imaging capability of a surveillance vision system from harsh low-visibility environments such as in fire and detonation areas is a key function to monitor the safety of the facilities. 2D and range image data acquired from low-visibility environment are important data to assess the safety and prepare appropriate countermeasures. Passive vision systems, such as conventional camera and binocular stereo vision systems usually cannot acquire image information when the reflected light is highly scattered and absorbed by airborne particles such as fog. In addition, the image resolution captured through low-density airborne particles is decreased because the image is blurred and dimmed by the scattering, emission and absorption. Active vision systems, such as structured light vision and projected stereo vision are usually more robust for harsh environment than passive vision systems. However, the performance is considerably decreased in proportion to the density of the particles. The RGI system provides 2D and range image data from several RGI images and it moreover provides clear images from low-visibility fog and smoke environment by using the sum of time-sliced images. Nowadays, the Range-gated (RG) imaging is an emerging technology in the field of surveillance for security applications, especially in the visualization of invisible night and fog environment. Although RGI viewing was discovered in the 1960's, this technology is, nowadays becoming more applicable by virtue of the rapid development of optical and sensor technologies. Especially, this system can be adopted in robot-vision system by virtue of its compact portable configuration. In contrast to passive vision systems, this technology enables operation even in harsh environments like fog and smoke. During the past decades, several applications of this technology have been applied in target recognition and in harsh environments, such as fog, underwater vision. Also, this technology has been

  18. Range-Image Acquisition for Discriminated Objects in a Range-gated Robot Vision System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Seung-Kyu; Ahn, Yong-Jin; Park, Nak-Kyu; Baik, Sung-Hoon; Choi, Young-Soo; Jeong, Kyung-Min

    2015-01-01

    The imaging capability of a surveillance vision system from harsh low-visibility environments such as in fire and detonation areas is a key function to monitor the safety of the facilities. 2D and range image data acquired from low-visibility environment are important data to assess the safety and prepare appropriate countermeasures. Passive vision systems, such as conventional camera and binocular stereo vision systems usually cannot acquire image information when the reflected light is highly scattered and absorbed by airborne particles such as fog. In addition, the image resolution captured through low-density airborne particles is decreased because the image is blurred and dimmed by the scattering, emission and absorption. Active vision systems, such as structured light vision and projected stereo vision are usually more robust for harsh environment than passive vision systems. However, the performance is considerably decreased in proportion to the density of the particles. The RGI system provides 2D and range image data from several RGI images and it moreover provides clear images from low-visibility fog and smoke environment by using the sum of time-sliced images. Nowadays, the Range-gated (RG) imaging is an emerging technology in the field of surveillance for security applications, especially in the visualization of invisible night and fog environment. Although RGI viewing was discovered in the 1960's, this technology is, nowadays becoming more applicable by virtue of the rapid development of optical and sensor technologies. Especially, this system can be adopted in robot-vision system by virtue of its compact portable configuration. In contrast to passive vision systems, this technology enables operation even in harsh environments like fog and smoke. During the past decades, several applications of this technology have been applied in target recognition and in harsh environments, such as fog, underwater vision. Also, this technology has been

  19. Laser Ranging in Solar System: Technology Developments and New Science Measurement Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, X.; Smith, D. E.; Zuber, M. T.; Mcgarry, J.; Neumann, G. A.; Mazarico, E.

    2015-12-01

    Laser Ranging has played a major role in geodetic studies of the Earth over the past 40 years. The technique can potentially be used in between planets and spacecrafts within the solar system to advance planetary science. For example, a direct measurement of distances between planets, such as Mars and Venus would make significant improvements in understanding the dynamics of the whole solar system, including the masses of the planets and moons, asteroids and their perturbing interactions, and the gravity field of the Sun. Compared to the conventional radio frequency (RF) tracking systems, laser ranging is potentially more accurate because it is much less sensitive to the transmission media. It is also more efficient because the laser beams are much better focused onto the targets than RF beams. However, existing laser ranging systems are all Earth centric, that is, from ground stations on Earth to orbiting satellites in near Earth orbits or lunar orbit, and to the lunar retro-reflector arrays deployed by the astronauts in the early days of lunar explorations. Several long distance laser ranging experiments have been conducted with the lidar in space, including a two-way laser ranging demonstration between Earth and the Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA) on the MESSENGER spacecraft over 24 million km, and a one way laser transmission and detection experiment over 80 million km between Earth and the Mars Orbiting Laser Altimeter (MOLA) on the MGS spacecraft in Mars orbit. A one-way laser ranging operation has been carried out continuously from 2009 to 2014 between multiple ground stations to LRO spacecraft in lunar orbit. The Lunar Laser Communication Demonstration (LLCD) on the LADEE mission has demonstrated that a two way laser ranging measurements, including both the Doppler frequency and the phase shift, can be obtained from the subcarrier or the data clocks of a high speed duplex laser communication system. Plans and concepts presently being studied suggest we may be

  20. AIRBORNE LIGHT DETECTION AND RANGING (LIDAR DERIVED DEFORMATION FROM THE MW 6.0 24 AUGUST, 2014 SOUTH NAPA EARTHQUAKE ESTIMATED BY TWO AND THREE DIMENSIONAL POINT CLOUD CHANGE DETECTION TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. W. Lyda

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing via LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging has proven extremely useful in both Earth science and hazard related studies. Surveys taken before and after an earthquake for example, can provide decimeter-level, 3D near-field estimates of land deformation that offer better spatial coverage of the near field rupture zone than other geodetic methods (e.g., InSAR, GNSS, or alignment array. In this study, we compare and contrast estimates of deformation obtained from different pre and post-event airborne laser scanning (ALS data sets of the 2014 South Napa Earthquake using two change detection algorithms, Iterative Control Point (ICP and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV. The ICP algorithm is a closest point based registration algorithm that can iteratively acquire three dimensional deformations from airborne LiDAR data sets. By employing a newly proposed partition scheme, “moving window,” to handle the large spatial scale point cloud over the earthquake rupture area, the ICP process applies a rigid registration of data sets within an overlapped window to enhance the change detection results of the local, spatially varying surface deformation near-fault. The other algorithm, PIV, is a well-established, two dimensional image co-registration and correlation technique developed in fluid mechanics research and later applied to geotechnical studies. Adapted here for an earthquake with little vertical movement, the 3D point cloud is interpolated into a 2D DTM image and horizontal deformation is determined by assessing the cross-correlation of interrogation areas within the images to find the most likely deformation between two areas. Both the PIV process and the ICP algorithm are further benefited by a presented, novel use of urban geodetic markers. Analogous to the persistent scatterer technique employed with differential radar observations, this new LiDAR application exploits a classified point cloud dataset to assist the change detection

  1. Note: A wide temperature range MOKE system with annealing capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahil, Narpinder Singh; Mankey, G J

    2017-07-01

    A novel sample stage integrated with a longitudinal MOKE system has been developed for wide temperature range measurements and annealing capabilities in the temperature range 65 K temperatures without adversely affecting the cryostat and minimizes thermal drift in position. In this system the hysteresis loops of magnetic samples can be measured simultaneously while annealing the sample in a magnetic field.

  2. Surface characteristics modeling and performance evaluation of urban building materials using LiDAR data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaolu; Liang, Yu

    2015-05-20

    Analysis of light detection and ranging (LiDAR) intensity data to extract surface features is of great interest in remote sensing research. One potential application of LiDAR intensity data is target classification. A new bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) model is derived for target characterization of rough and smooth surfaces. Based on the geometry of our coaxial full-waveform LiDAR system, the integration method is improved through coordinate transformation to establish the relationship between the BRDF model and intensity data of LiDAR. A series of experiments using typical urban building materials are implemented to validate the proposed BRDF model and integration method. The fitting results show that three parameters extracted from the proposed BRDF model can distinguish the urban building materials from perspectives of roughness, specular reflectance, and diffuse reflectance. A comprehensive analysis of these parameters will help characterize surface features in a physically rigorous manner.

  3. The analysis on dynamic range of industrial CT system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Huiqian; Wang Jue; Tan Hui

    2011-01-01

    Concerning the limitations of the definition of the dynamic range of industrial computed tomography (ICT) system, it researches the definition, measuring method and influencing factors of the dynamic range of industrial computed tomography (ICT) system from the concept of quantization and system. First, the character of the input-output curve was analyzed, and the method of obtaining the dynamic range of industrial computed tomography (ICT) system was proposed. Then, an experiment model was designed to gain dynamic range, based on 6 MeV high-energy industrial computed tomography (ICT) system. The results show that the larger the photosurface is, the smaller the dynamic range is, when the other parameters are unchanged. (authors)

  4. Development of lidar techniques for environmental studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Mats

    1996-09-01

    The lidar group in Lund has performed many DIAL measurements with a mobile lidar system that was first described in 1987. The lidar system is based on a Nd:YAG-pumped dye laser. During the last few years the lidar group has focused on fluorescence imaging and mercury measurements in the troposphere. In 1994 we performed two campaigns: one fluorescence imaging measurement campaign outside Avignon, France and one unique lidar campaign at a mercury mine in Almaden, Spain. Both campaigns are described in this thesis. This thesis also describes how the mobile lidar system was updated with the graphical programming language LabVIEW to obtain a user friendly lidar system. The software controls the lidar system and analyses measured data. The measurement results are shown as maps of species concentration. All electronics and the major parts of the program are described. A new graphical technique to estimate wind speed from plumes is also discussed. First measurements have been performed with the new system. 31 refs, 19 figs, 1 tab

  5. Lidar technologies for airborne and space-based applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henson, T.D.; Schmitt, R.L.; Sobering, T.J.; Raymond, T.D.; Stephenson, D.A.

    1994-10-01

    This study identifies technologies required to extend the capabilities of airborne light detection and ranging (lidar) systems and establish the feasibility of autonomous space-based lidars. Work focused on technologies that enable the development of a lightweight, low power, rugged and autonomous Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) instruments. Applications for airborne or space-based DIAL include the measurement of water vapor profiles in support of climate research and processing-plant emissions signatures for environmental and nonproliferation monitoring. A computer-based lidar performance model was developed to allow trade studies to be performed on various technologies and system configurations. It combines input from the physics (absorption line strengths and locations) of the problem, the system requirements (weight, power, volume, accuracy), and the critical technologies available (detectors, lasers, filters) to produce the best conceptual design. Conceptual designs for an airborne and space-based water vapor DIAL, and a detailed design of a ground-based water vapor DIAL demonstration system were completed. Future work planned includes the final testing, integration, and operation of the demonstration system to prove the capability of the critical enabling technologies identified

  6. Compact, High Energy 2-micron Coherent Doppler Wind Lidar Development for NASA's Future 3-D Winds Measurement from Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Upendra N.; Koch, Grady; Yu, Jirong; Petros, Mulugeta; Beyon, Jeffrey; Kavaya, Michael J.; Trieu, Bo; Chen, Songsheng; Bai, Yingxin; Petzar, paul; hide

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of 2-micron laser transmitter development at NASA Langley Research Center for coherent-detection lidar profiling of winds. The novel high-energy, 2-micron, Ho:Tm:LuLiF laser technology developed at NASA Langley was employed to study laser technology currently envisioned by NASA for future global coherent Doppler lidar winds measurement. The 250 mJ, 10 Hz laser was designed as an integral part of a compact lidar transceiver developed for future aircraft flight. Ground-based wind profiles made with this transceiver will be presented. NASA Langley is currently funded to build complete Doppler lidar systems using this transceiver for the DC-8 aircraft in autonomous operation. Recently, LaRC 2-micron coherent Doppler wind lidar system was selected to contribute to the NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) Earth Science Division (ESD) hurricane field experiment in 2010 titled Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP). The Doppler lidar system will measure vertical profiles of horizontal vector winds from the DC-8 aircraft using NASA Langley s existing 2-micron, pulsed, coherent detection, Doppler wind lidar system that is ready for DC-8 integration. The measurements will typically extend from the DC-8 to the earth s surface. They will be highly accurate in both wind magnitude and direction. Displays of the data will be provided in real time on the DC-8. The pulsed Doppler wind lidar of NASA Langley Research Center is much more powerful than past Doppler lidars. The operating range, accuracy, range resolution, and time resolution will be unprecedented. We expect the data to play a key role, combined with the other sensors, in improving understanding and predictive algorithms for hurricane strength and track. 1

  7. Heterodyne lidar for chemical sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oldenborg, Richard C.; Tiee, Joe J.; Shimada, Tsutomu; Wilson, Carl W.; Remelius, Dennis K.; Fox, Jay; Swim, Cynthia

    2004-01-01

    The overall objective is to assess the detection performance of LWIR (long wavelength infrared) coherent Lidar systems that potentially possess enhanced effluent detection capabilities. Previous work conducted by Los Alamos has demonstrated that infrared DIfferential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) is capable of detecting chemicals in plumes from long standoff ranges. Our DIAL approach relied on the reflectivity of topographical targets to provide a strong return signal. With the inherent advantage of applying heterodyne transceivers to approach single-photon detection in LWIR, it is projected that marked improvements in detection range or in spatial coverage can be attained. In some cases, the added photon detection sensitivity could be utilized for sensing 'soft targets', such as atmospheric and threat aerosols where return signal strength is drastically reduced, as opposed to topographical targets. This would allow range resolved measurements and could lead to the mitigation of the limiting source of noise due to spectral/spatial/temporal variability of the ground scene. The ability to distinguish normal variations in the background from true chemical signatures is crucial to the further development of sensitive remote chemical sensing technologies. One main difficulty in demonstrating coherent DIAL detection is the development of suitable heterodyne transceivers that can achieve rapid multi-wavelength tuning required for obtaining spectral signature information. LANL has recently devised a novel multi-wavelength heterodyne transceiver concept that addresses this issue. A 5-KHz prototype coherent CO 2 transceiver has been constructed and is being now used to help address important issues in remote CBW agent standoff detection. Laboratory measurements of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) will be reported. Since the heterodyne detection scheme fundamentally has poor shot-to-shot signal statistics, in order to achieve sensitive detection limits, favorable averaging statistics

  8. Polarimetric LIDAR with FRI sampling for target characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijerathna, Erandi; Creusere, Charles D.; Voelz, David; Castorena, Juan

    2017-09-01

    Polarimetric LIDAR is a significant tool for current remote sensing applications. In addition, measurement of the full waveform of the LIDAR echo provides improved ranging and target discrimination, although, data storage volume in this approach can be problematic. In the work presented here, we investigated the practical issues related to the implementation of a full waveform LIDAR system to identify polarization characteristics of multiple targets within the footprint of the illumination beam. This work was carried out on a laboratory LIDAR testbed that features a flexible arrangement of targets and the ability to change the target polarization characteristics. Targets with different retardance characteristics were illuminated with a linearly polarized laser beam and the return pulse intensities were analyzed by rotating a linear analyzer polarizer in front of a high-speed detector. Additionally, we explored the applicability and the limitations of applying a sparse sampling approach based on Finite Rate of Innovations (FRI) to compress and recover the characteristic parameters of the pulses reflected from the targets. The pulse parameter values extracted by the FRI analysis were accurate and we successfully distinguished the polarimetric characteristics and the range of multiple targets at different depths within the same beam footprint. We also demonstrated the recovery of an unknown target retardance value from the echoes by applying a Mueller matrix system model.

  9. Auto-locking waveguide amplifier system for lidar and magnetometric applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouliot, A.; Beica, H. C.; Carew, A.; Vorozcovs, A.; Carlse, G.; Kumarakrishnan, A.

    2018-02-01

    We describe a compact waveguide amplifier system that is suitable for optically pumping rubidium magnetometers. The system consists of an auto-locking vacuum-sealed external cavity diode laser, a semiconductor tapered amplifier and a pulsing unit based on an acousto-optic modulator. The diode laser utilises optical feedback from an interference filter to narrow the linewidth of an inexpensive laser diode to 500 kHz. This output is scannable over an 8 GHz range (at 780 nm) and can be locked without human intervention to any spectral marker in an expandable library of reference spectra, using the autolocking controller. The tapered amplifier amplifies the output from 50 mW up to 2 W with negligible distortions in the spectral quality. The system can operate at visible and near infrared wavelengths with MHz repetition rates. We demonstrate optical pumping of rubidium vapour with this system for magnetometric applications. The magnetometer detects the differential absorption of two orthogonally polarized components of a linearly polarized probe laser following optical pumping by a circularly polarized pump laser. The differential absorption signal is studied for a range of pulse lengths, pulse amplitudes and DC magnetic fields. Our results suggest that this laser system is suitable for optically pumping spin-exchange free magnetometers.

  10. Perdigão 2015: Methodology for atmospheric multi-Doppler lidar experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vasiljevia, Nikola; Palma, José M.L.M.; Angelou, Nikolas

    2017-01-01

    The long-range and short-range WindScanner systems (LRWS and SRWS), multi-Doppler lidar instruments, when combined together can map the turbulent flow around a wind turbine and at the same time measure mean flow conditions over an entire region such as a wind farm. As the WindScanner technology...

  11. Laser remote sensing of water vapor: Raman lidar development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldsmith, J.E.M.; Lapp, M.; Bisson, S.E.; Melfi, S.H.; Whiteman, D.N.; Ferrare, R.A.; Evans, K.D.

    1994-01-01

    The goal of this research is the development of a critical design for a Raman lidar system optimized to match ARM Program needs for profiling atmospheric water vapor at CART sites. This work has emphasized the development of enhanced daytime capabilities using Raman lidar techniques. This abstract touches briefly on the main components of the research program, summarizing results of the efforts. A detailed Raman lidar instrument model has been developed to predict the daytime and nighttime performance capabilities of Raman lidar systems. The model simulates key characteristics of the lidar system, using realistic atmospheric profiles, modeled background sky radiance, and lidar system parameters based on current instrument capabilities. The model is used to guide development of lidar systems based on both the solar-blind concept and the narrowband, narrow field-of-view concept for daytime optimization

  12. Coherent Doppler lidar for automated space vehicle rendezvous, stationkeeping and capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilbro, James A.

    1991-01-01

    The inherent spatial resolution of laser radar makes ladar or lidar an attractive candidate for Automated Rendezvous and Capture application. Previous applications were based on incoherent lidar techniques, requiring retro-reflectors on the target vehicle. Technology improvements (reduced size, no cryogenic cooling requirement) have greatly enhanced the construction of coherent lidar systems. Coherent lidar permits the acquisition of non-cooperative targets at ranges that are limited by the detection capability rather than by the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) requirements. The sensor can provide translational state information (range, velocity, and angle) by direct measurement and, when used with any array detector, also can provide attitude information by Doppler imaging techniques. Identification of the target is accomplished by scanning with a high pulse repetition frequency (dependent on the SNR). The system performance is independent of range and should not be constrained by sun angle. An initial effort to characterize a multi-element detection system has resulted in a system that is expected to work to a minimum range of 1 meter. The system size, weight and power requirements are dependent on the operating range; 10 km range requires a diameter of 3 centimeters with overall size at 3 x 3 x 15 to 30 cm, while 100 km range requires a 30 cm diameter.

  13. Long-range interactions in dilute granular systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müller, M.K

    2008-01-01

    In this thesis, on purpose, we focussed on the most challenging, longest ranging potentials. We analyzed granular media of low densities obeying 1/r long-range interaction potentials between the granules. Such systems are termed granular gases and differ in their behavior from ordinary gases by

  14. Long-Range Nondestructive Testing System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal is for the development of a long range, multi-point non-destructive system for the detection of subsurface flaws in metallic and composite materials of...

  15. A high-resolution full-field range imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnegie, D. A.; Cree, M. J.; Dorrington, A. A.

    2005-08-01

    There exist a number of applications where the range to all objects in a field of view needs to be obtained. Specific examples include obstacle avoidance for autonomous mobile robots, process automation in assembly factories, surface profiling for shape analysis, and surveying. Ranging systems can be typically characterized as being either laser scanning systems where a laser point is sequentially scanned over a scene or a full-field acquisition where the range to every point in the image is simultaneously obtained. The former offers advantages in terms of range resolution, while the latter tend to be faster and involve no moving parts. We present a system for determining the range to any object within a camera's field of view, at the speed of a full-field system and the range resolution of some point laser scans. Initial results obtained have a centimeter range resolution for a 10 second acquisition time. Modifications to the existing system are discussed that should provide faster results with submillimeter resolution.

  16. 2012 OLC Lidar: West Metro, Oregon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — WSI has collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data of the Oregon West Metro Study Area for the Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries (DOGAMI)....

  17. 2012 OLC Lidar DEM: West Metro, Oregon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — WSI has collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data of the Oregon West Metro Study Area for the Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries (DOGAMI)....

  18. 2006 NOAA Bathymetric Lidar: Puerto Rico (Southwest)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set (Project Number OPR-I305-KRL-06) depicts depth values (mean 5 meter gridded) collected using LiDAR (Light Detection & Ranging) from the shoreline...

  19. USGS Atchafalaya 2 LiDAR

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) dataset is a survey of the Atchafalaya Basin project area. The entire survey area for Atchafalaya encompasses approximately...

  20. 2004 USGS Lidar: San Francisco Bay (CA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Lidar (Light detection and ranging) discrete-return point cloud data are available in the American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ASPRS) LAS format....

  1. 2007 Sumpter Powder River Mine Lidar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Watershed Sciences, Inc. (WS) collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data for the USDA Forest Service on September 17, 2007. The project covers an 8-mile...

  2. 2009 - 2011 OLC Lidar DEM: Deschutes (OR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Watershed Sciences, Inc. collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data of the Deschutes Study Area for the Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries...

  3. 2011 USGS Lidar: Orange County (CA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) discrete-return point cloud data are available in the American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ASPRS) LAS format....

  4. 2009 - 2011 OLC Lidar: Deschutes (OR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Watershed Sciences, Inc. collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data of the Deschutes Study Area for the Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries...

  5. 2006 FEMA Lidar: Rhode Island Coastline

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — LIDAR data is remotely sensed high-resolution elevation data collected by an airborne collection platform. By positioning laser range finding with the use of 1...

  6. Balloonborne lidar experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, O.; Aurilio, G.; Bucknam, R. D.; Brooke, R. W.; Hurd, A. G.

    1980-12-01

    The object of this contract was to design a balloonborne lidar experiment capable of performing nightime atmospheric density measurements in the 10 to 40 km altitude domain with a resolution of 100 meters. The payload includes a frequency-tripled Nd:YAG laser with outputs at 353 and 1064 nm, a telescoped receiver with PMT detectors, a command-controlled optical pointing system, and support systems, including thermal control, telemetry, command, and power. Density measurements would be made using the back-scattered 353 nm radiation data with aerosol corrections obtained from 1064 nm radiation scatterings.

  7. Characterization of Water Vapor Fluxes by the Raman Lidar System Basil and the Univeristy of Cologne Wind Lidar in the Frame of the HD(CP)2 Observational Prototype Experiment - Hope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Girolamo, Paolo; Summa, Donato; Stelitano, Dario; Cacciani, Marco; Scoccione, Andrea; Schween, Jan H.

    2016-06-01

    Measurements carried out by the Raman lidar system BASIL and the University of Cologne wind lidar are reported to demonstrate the capability of these instruments to characterize water vapour fluxes within the Convective Boundary Layer (CBL). In order to determine the water vapour flux vertical profiles, high resolution water vapour and vertical wind speed measurements, with a temporal resolution of 1 sec and a vertical resolution of 15-90, are considered. Measurements of water vapour flux profiles are based on the application of covariance approach to the water vapour mixing ratio and vertical wind speed time series. The algorithms are applied to a case study (IOP 11, 04 May 2013) from the HD(CP)2 Observational Prototype Experiment (HOPE), held in Central Germany in the spring 2013. For this case study, the water vapour flux profile is characterized by increasing values throughout the CBL with lager values (around 0.1 g/kg m/s) in the entrainment region. The noise errors are demonstrated to be small enough to allow the derivation of water vapour flux profiles with sufficient accuracy.

  8. University of Hawaii Lure Observatory. [lunar laser ranging system construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, W. E.; Williams, J. D.

    1973-01-01

    The University of Hawaii's Institute for Astronomy is currently constructing a lunar laser ranging observatory at the 3050-meter summit of Mt. Haleakala, Hawaii. The Nd YAG laser system to be employed provides three pulses per second, each pulse being approximately 200 picoseconds in duration. The energy contained in one pulse at 5320 A lies in the range from 250 to 350 millijoules. Details of observatory construction are provided together with transmitter design data and information concerning the lunastat, the feed telescope, the relative pointing system, the receiver, and the event timer system.

  9. LIDAR Research & Development Lab

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The LIDAR Research and Development labs are used to investigate and improve LIDAR components such as laser sources, optical signal detectors and optical filters. The...

  10. 2012-2013 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Hoh River Watershed, Washington (Deliveries 1 and 2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Watershed Sciences, Inc. (WSI) collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data on the Hoh River watershed survey area for the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium and the...

  11. Medium-range dielectric order in systems with collectivized electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismagilov, A.M.; Kopaev, Yu.V.

    1993-01-01

    The problem of formation of a medium-range dielectric order (on a scale much larger than the interatomic one) due to electron-electron correlations and to scattering by an impurity in a system near a phase transition into a long-range order state is solved by a microscopic approach. It is shown that for a weak impurity potential the effect of medium-range order formation is stronger than the effect of long-range order suppression related to scattering by an impurity. The influence of medium-range order on the one-particle excitation spectrum and on the density of states is considered. It is found that since the medium-range order in a system is due to correlations of electron and hole states open-quotes coupledclose quotes by a continuous set of inhomogeneity vectors (in contrast to the long-range order formed on a discrete set of such vectors), the density of states varies on an energy scale determined by the mean absolute value of these vectors. Therefore in a system undergoing phase transition into an inhomogeneous state with the modulus q 0 of inhomogeneity vectors the medium-range order forms in the density of states a pseudogap of scale length v F q 0 (v F is the Fermi velocity). This distinguishes such a system substantially from one, which tends to a phase transition into a homogeneous state (q 0 ≡0), where the medium-range order forms a pseudogap of scale length v F /ξ much-lt v F q 0 (ξ is the correlation length). The possible role of medium dielectric order effects in high-T c superconductors is discussed. 30 refs., 6 figs

  12. Range Information Systems Management (RISM) Phase 1 Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastin, Gary L.; Harris, William G.; Nelson, Richard A.

    2002-01-01

    RISM investigated alternative approaches, technologies, and communication network architectures to facilitate building the Spaceports and Ranges of the future. RISM started by document most existing US ranges and their capabilities. In parallel, RISM obtained inputs from the following: 1) NASA and NASA-contractor engineers and managers, and; 2) Aerospace leaders from Government, Academia, and Industry, participating through the Space Based Range Distributed System Working Group (SBRDSWG), many of whom are also; 3) Members of the Advanced Range Technology Working Group (ARTWG) subgroups, and; 4) Members of the Advanced Spaceport Technology Working Group (ASTWG). These diverse inputs helped to envision advanced technologies for implementing future Ranges and Range systems that builds on today s cabled and wireless legacy infrastructures while seamlessly integrating both today s emerging and tomorrow s building-block communication techniques. The fundamental key is to envision a transition to a Space Based Range Distributed Subsystem. The enabling concept is to identify the specific needs of Range users that can be solved through applying emerging communication tech

  13. A method of short range system analysis for nuclear utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eng, R.; Mason, E.A.; Benedict, M.

    1976-01-01

    An optimization procedure has been formulated and tested that is capable of solving for the optimal generation schedule of several nuclear power reactors in an electric power utility system, under short-range, resource-limited, conditions. The optimization procedure utilizes a new concept called the Opportunity Cost of Nuclear Power (OCNP) to optimally assign the resource-limited nuclear energy to the different weeks and hours in the short-range planning horizon. OCNP is defined as the cost of displaced energy when optimally distributed nuclear energy is marginally increased. Under resource-limited conditions, the short-range 'value' of nuclear power to a utility system is not its actual generation cost, but the cost of the next best alternative supply of energy, the OCNP. OCNP is a function of a week's system reserve capacity, the system's economic loading order, the customer demand function, and the nature of the available utility system generating units. The optimized OCNP value of the short-range planning period represents the utility's short-range energy replacement cost incurred when selling nuclear energy to a neighbouring utility. (author)

  14. Remote Sensing of Aerosol Backscatter and Earth Surface Targets By Use of An Airborne Focused Continuous Wave CO2 Doppler Lidar Over Western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarzembski, Maurice A.; Srivastava, Vandana; Goodman, H. Michael (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Airborne lidar systems are used to determine wind velocity and to measure aerosol or cloud backscatter variability. Atmospheric aerosols, being affected by local and regional sources, show tremendous variability. Continuous wave (cw) lidar can obtain detailed aerosol loading with unprecedented high resolution (3 sec) and sensitivity (1 mg/cubic meter) as was done during the 1995 NASA Multi-center Airborne Coherent Atmospheric Wind Sensor (MACAWS) mission over western North America and the Pacific Ocean. Backscatter variability was measured at a 9.1 micron wavelength cw focused CO2 Doppler lidar for approximately 52 flight hours, covering an equivalent horizontal distance of approximately 30,000 km in the troposphere. Some quasi-vertical backscatter profiles were also obtained during various ascents and descents at altitudes that ranged from approximately 0.1 to 12 km. Similarities and differences for aerosol loading over land and ocean were observed. Mid-tropospheric aerosol backscatter background mode was approximately 6 x 10(exp -11)/ms/r, consistent with previous lidar datasets. While these atmospheric measurements were made, the lidar also retrieved a distinct backscatter signal from the Earth's surface from the unfocused part of the focused cw lidar beam during aircraft rolls. Atmospheric backscatter can be highly variable both spatially and temporally, whereas, Earth-surface backscatter is relatively much less variant and can be quite predictable. Therefore, routine atmospheric backscatter measurements by an airborne lidar also give Earth surface backscatter which can allow for investigating the Earth terrain. In the case where the Earth's surface backscatter is coming from a well-known and fairly uniform region, then it can potentially offer lidar calibration opportunities during flight. These Earth surface measurements over varying Californian terrain during the mission were compared with laboratory backscatter measurements using the same lidar of various

  15. Information content and sensitivity of the 3β + 2α lidar measurement system for aerosol microphysical retrievals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Sharon P.; Chemyakin, Eduard; Liu, Xu; Knobelspiesse, Kirk; Stamnes, Snorre; Sawamura, Patricia; Moore, Richard H.; Hostetler, Chris A.; Ferrare, Richard A.

    2016-11-01

    There is considerable interest in retrieving profiles of aerosol effective radius, total number concentration, and complex refractive index from lidar measurements of extinction and backscatter at several wavelengths. The combination of three backscatter channels plus two extinction channels (3β + 2α) is particularly important since it is believed to be the minimum configuration necessary for the retrieval of aerosol microphysical properties and because the technological readiness of lidar systems permits this configuration on both an airborne and future spaceborne instrument. The second-generation NASA Langley airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL-2) has been making 3β + 2α measurements since 2012. The planned NASA Aerosol/Clouds/Ecosystems (ACE) satellite mission also recommends the 3β + 2α combination.Here we develop a deeper understanding of the information content and sensitivities of the 3β + 2α system in terms of aerosol microphysical parameters of interest. We use a retrieval-free methodology to determine the basic sensitivities of the measurements independent of retrieval assumptions and constraints. We calculate information content and uncertainty metrics using tools borrowed from the optimal estimation methodology based on Bayes' theorem, using a simplified forward model look-up table, with no explicit inversion. The forward model is simplified to represent spherical particles, monomodal log-normal size distributions, and wavelength-independent refractive indices. Since we only use the forward model with no retrieval, the given simplified aerosol scenario is applicable as a best case for all existing retrievals in the absence of additional constraints. Retrieval-dependent errors due to mismatch between retrieval assumptions and true atmospheric aerosols are not included in this sensitivity study, and neither are retrieval errors that may be introduced in the inversion process. The choice of a simplified model adds clarity to the

  16. Lidar sounding of volcanic plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorani, Luca; Aiuppa, Alessandro; Angelini, Federico; Borelli, Rodolfo; Del Franco, Mario; Murra, Daniele; Pistilli, Marco; Puiu, Adriana; Santoro, Simone

    2013-10-01

    Accurate knowledge of gas composition in volcanic plumes has high scientific and societal value. On the one hand, it gives information on the geophysical processes taking place inside volcanos; on the other hand, it provides alert on possible eruptions. For this reasons, it has been suggested to monitor volcanic plumes by lidar. In particular, one of the aims of the FP7 ERC project BRIDGE is the measurement of CO2 concentration in volcanic gases by differential absorption lidar. This is a very challenging task due to the harsh environment, the narrowness and weakness of the CO2 absorption lines and the difficulty to procure a suitable laser source. This paper, after a review on remote sensing of volcanic plumes, reports on the current progress of the lidar system.

  17. Hybrid gesture recognition system for short-range use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minagawa, Akihiro; Fan, Wei; Katsuyama, Yutaka; Takebe, Hiroaki; Ozawa, Noriaki; Hotta, Yoshinobu; Sun, Jun

    2012-03-01

    In recent years, various gesture recognition systems have been studied for use in television and video games[1]. In such systems, motion areas ranging from 1 to 3 meters deep have been evaluated[2]. However, with the burgeoning popularity of small mobile displays, gesture recognition systems capable of operating at much shorter ranges have become necessary. The problems related to such systems are exacerbated by the fact that the camera's field of view is unknown to the user during operation, which imposes several restrictions on his/her actions. To overcome the restrictions generated from such mobile camera devices, and to create a more flexible gesture recognition interface, we propose a hybrid hand gesture system, in which two types of gesture recognition modules are prepared and with which the most appropriate recognition module is selected by a dedicated switching module. The two recognition modules of this system are shape analysis using a boosting approach (detection-based approach)[3] and motion analysis using image frame differences (motion-based approach)(for example, see[4]). We evaluated this system using sample users and classified the resulting errors into three categories: errors that depend on the recognition module, errors caused by incorrect module identification, and errors resulting from user actions. In this paper, we show the results of our investigations and explain the problems related to short-range gesture recognition systems.

  18. New focal plane detector system for the broad range spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoreen, T.P.

    1984-01-01

    A focal plane detector system consisting of a vertical drift chamber, parallel plate avalanche counters, and an ionization chamber with segmented anodes has been installed in the Broad Range Spectrometer at the Holifield Facility at Oak Ridge. The system, which has been designed for use with light-heavy ions with energies ranging from 10 to 25 MeV/amu, has a position resolution of approx. 0.1 mm, a scattering angle resolution of approx. 3 mrad, and a mass resolution of approx. 1/60

  19. Automated tracking for advanced satellite laser ranging systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarry, Jan F.; Degnan, John J.; Titterton, Paul J., Sr.; Sweeney, Harold E.; Conklin, Brion P.; Dunn, Peter J.

    1996-06-01

    NASA's Satellite Laser Ranging Network was originally developed during the 1970's to track satellites carrying corner cube reflectors. Today eight NASA systems, achieving millimeter ranging precision, are part of a global network of more than 40 stations that track 17 international satellites. To meet the tracking demands of a steadily growing satellite constellation within existing resources, NASA is embarking on a major automation program. While manpower on the current systems will be reduced to a single operator, the fully automated SLR2000 system is being designed to operate for months without human intervention. Because SLR2000 must be eyesafe and operate in daylight, tracking is often performed in a low probability of detection and high noise environment. The goal is to automatically select the satellite, setup the tracking and ranging hardware, verify acquisition, and close the tracking loop to optimize data yield. TO accomplish the autotracking tasks, we are investigating (1) improved satellite force models, (2) more frequent updates of orbital ephemerides, (3) lunar laser ranging data processing techniques to distinguish satellite returns from noise, and (4) angular detection and search techniques to acquire the satellite. A Monte Carlo simulator has been developed to allow optimization of the autotracking algorithms by modeling the relevant system errors and then checking performance against system truth. A combination of simulator and preliminary field results will be presented.

  20. Lidar calibration experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejsing Jørgensen, Hans; Mikkelsen, T.; Streicher, J.

    1997-01-01

    detection to test the reproducibility and uncertainty of lidars. Lidar data were obtained from both single-ended and double-ended Lidar configurations. A backstop was introduced in one of the experiments and a new method was developed where information obtained from the backstop can be used in the inversion...... algorithm. Independent in-situ aerosol plume concentrations were obtained from a simultaneous tracer gas experiment with SF6, and comparisons with the two lidars were made. The study shows that the reproducibility of the lidars is within 15%, including measurements from both sides of a plume...

  1. Towards a medium-range coastal station fog forecasting system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Landman, S

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available -1 29th Annual conference of South African Society for Atmospheric Sciences (SASAS) 2013 http://sasas.ukzn.ac.za/homepage.aspx Towards a Medium-Range Coastal Station Fog Forecasting System Stephanie Landman*1, Estelle Marx1, Willem A. Landman2...

  2. Leveraging Open Standards and Technologies to Enhance Community Access to Earth Science Lidar Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, C. J.; Nandigam, V.; Krishnan, S.; Cowart, C.; Baru, C.; Arrowsmith, R.

    2011-12-01

    Lidar (Light Detection and Ranging) data, collected from space, airborne and terrestrial platforms, have emerged as an invaluable tool for a variety of Earth science applications ranging from ice sheet monitoring to modeling of earth surface processes. However, lidar present a unique suite of challenges from the perspective of building cyberinfrastructure systems that enable the scientific community to access these valuable research datasets. Lidar data are typically characterized by millions to billions of individual measurements of x,y,z position plus attributes; these "raw" data are also often accompanied by derived raster products and are frequently terabytes in size. As a relatively new and rapidly evolving data collection technology, relevant open data standards and software projects are immature compared to those for other remote sensing platforms. The NSF-funded OpenTopography Facility project has developed an online lidar data access and processing system that co-locates data with on-demand processing tools to enable users to access both raw point cloud data as well as custom derived products and visualizations. OpenTopography is built on a Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) in which applications and data resources are deployed as standards compliant (XML and SOAP) Web services with the open source Opal Toolkit. To develop the underlying applications for data access, filtering and conversion, and various processing tasks, OpenTopography has heavily leveraged existing open source software efforts for both lidar and raster data. Operating on the de facto LAS binary point cloud format (maintained by ASPRS), open source libLAS and LASlib libraries provide OpenTopography data ingestion, query and translation capabilities. Similarly, raster data manipulation is performed through a suite of services built on the Geospatial Data Abstraction Library (GDAL). OpenTopography has also developed our own algorithm for high-performance gridding of lidar point cloud data

  3. Real-time computational photon-counting LiDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgar, Matthew; Johnson, Steven; Phillips, David; Padgett, Miles

    2018-03-01

    The availability of compact, low-cost, and high-speed MEMS-based spatial light modulators has generated widespread interest in alternative sampling strategies for imaging systems utilizing single-pixel detectors. The development of compressed sensing schemes for real-time computational imaging may have promising commercial applications for high-performance detectors, where the availability of focal plane arrays is expensive or otherwise limited. We discuss the research and development of a prototype light detection and ranging (LiDAR) system via direct time of flight, which utilizes a single high-sensitivity photon-counting detector and fast-timing electronics to recover millimeter accuracy three-dimensional images in real time. The development of low-cost real time computational LiDAR systems could have importance for applications in security, defense, and autonomous vehicles.

  4. Mini-Uav LIDAR for Power Line Inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, G. E.; Zhou, M.; Li, C. R.; Wu, H. H.; Li, W.; Meng, F. R.; Zhou, C. C.; Ma, L.

    2017-09-01

    Light detection and ranging (LIDAR) system based on unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) recently are in rapid advancement, meanwhile portable and flexible mini-UAV-borne laser scanners have been a hot research field, especially for the complex terrain survey in the mountains and other areas. This study proposes a power line inspection system solution based on mini-UAV-borne LIDAR system-AOEagle, developed by Academy of Opto-Electronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, which mounted on a Multi-rotor unmanned aerial vehicle for complex terrain survey according to real test. Furthermore, the point cloud data was explored to validate its applicability for power line inspection, in terms of corridor and line laser point clouds; deformation detection of power towers, etc. The feasibility and advantages of AOEagle have been demonstrated by the promising results based on the real-measured data in the field of power line inspection.

  5. LIDAR TS for ITER core plasma. Part II: simultaneous two wavelength LIDAR TS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowers, C.; Nielsen, P.; Salzmann, H.

    2017-12-01

    We have shown recently, and in more detail at this conference (Salzmann et al) that the LIDAR approach to ITER core TS measurements requires only two mirrors in the inaccessible port plug area of the machine. This leads to simplified and robust alignment, lower risk of mirror damage by plasma contamination and much simpler calibration, compared with the awkward and vulnerable optical geometry of the conventional imaging TS approach, currently under development by ITER. In the present work we have extended the simulation code used previously to include the case of launching two laser pulses, of different wavelengths, simultaneously in LIDAR geometry. The aim of this approach is to broaden the choice of lasers available for the diagnostic. In the simulation code it is assumed that two short duration (300 ps) laser pulses of different wavelengths, from an Nd:YAG laser are launched through the plasma simultaneously. The temperature and density profiles are deduced in the usual way but from the resulting combined scattered signals in the different spectral channels of the single spectrometer. The spectral response and quantum efficiencies of the detectors used in the simulation are taken from catalogue data for commercially available Hamamatsu MCP-PMTs. The response times, gateability and tolerance to stray light levels of this type of photomultiplier have already been demonstrated in the JET LIDAR system and give sufficient spatial resolution to meet the ITER specification. Here we present the new simulation results from the code. They demonstrate that when the detectors are combined with this two laser, LIDAR approach, the full range of the specified ITER core plasma Te and ne can be measured with sufficient accuracy. So, with commercially available detectors and a simple modification of a Nd:YAG laser similar to that currently being used in the design of the conventional ITER core TS design mentioned above, the ITER requirements can be met.

  6. A hybrid 3D LIDAR imager based on pixel-by-pixel scanning and DS-OCDMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gunzung; Eom, Jeongsook; Park, Yongwan

    2016-03-01

    We propose a new hybrid 3D light detection and ranging (LIDAR) system, which measures a scene with 1280 x 600 pixels at a refresh rate of 60fps. The emitted pulses of each pixel are modulated by direct sequence optical code division multiple access (DS-OCDMA) techniques. The modulated pulses include a unique device identification number, the pixel position in the line, and a checksum. The LIDAR emits the modulated pulses periodically without waiting to receive returning light at the detector. When all the pixels are completely through the process, the travel time, amplitude, width, and speed are used by the pixel-by-pixel scanning LIDAR imager to generate point cloud data as the measured results. We programmed the entire hybrid 3D LIDAR operation in a simulator to observe the functionality accomplished by our proposed model.

  7. Characterization of turbulent processes by the Raman lidar system BASIL during the HD(CP)2 observational prototype experiment - HOPE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Girolamo, Paolo; Summa, Donato; Stelitano, Dario; Cacciani, Marco; Scoccione, Andrea; Behrendt, Andreas; Wulfmeyer, Volker

    2017-02-01

    Measurements carried out by the Raman lidar system BASIL are reported to demonstrate the capability of this instrument to characterize turbulent processes within the Convective Boundary Layer (CBL). In order to resolve the vertical profiles of turbulent variables, high resolution water vapour and temperature measurements, with a temporal resolution of 10 sec and a vertical resolution of 90 and 30 m, respectively, are considered. Measurements of higher-order moments of the turbulent fluctuations of water vapour mixing ratio and temperature are obtained based on the application of spectral and auto-covariance analyses to the water vapour mixing ratio and temperature time series. The algorithms are applied to a case study (IOP 5, 20 April 2013) from the HD(CP)2 Observational Prototype Experiment (HOPE), held in Central Germany in the spring 2013. The noise errors are demonstrated to be small enough to allow the derivation of up to fourth-order moments for both water vapour mixing ratio and temperature fluctuations with sufficient accuracy.

  8. An Efficient Method to Create Digital Terrain Models from Point Clouds Collected by Mobile LiDAR Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gézero, L.; Antunes, C.

    2017-05-01

    The digital terrain models (DTM) assume an essential role in all types of road maintenance, water supply and sanitation projects. The demand of such information is more significant in developing countries, where the lack of infrastructures is higher. In recent years, the use of Mobile LiDAR Systems (MLS) proved to be a very efficient technique in the acquisition of precise and dense point clouds. These point clouds can be a solution to obtain the data for the production of DTM in remote areas, due mainly to the safety, precision, speed of acquisition and the detail of the information gathered. However, the point clouds filtering and algorithms to separate "terrain points" from "no terrain points", quickly and consistently, remain a challenge that has caught the interest of researchers. This work presents a method to create the DTM from point clouds collected by MLS. The method is based in two interactive steps. The first step of the process allows reducing the cloud point to a set of points that represent the terrain's shape, being the distance between points inversely proportional to the terrain variation. The second step is based on the Delaunay triangulation of the points resulting from the first step. The achieved results encourage a wider use of this technology as a solution for large scale DTM production in remote areas.

  9. Upgrading NASA/DOSE laser ranging system control computers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricklefs, Randall L.; Cheek, Jack; Seery, Paul J.; Emenheiser, Kenneth S.; Hanrahan, William P., III; Mcgarry, Jan F.

    1993-01-01

    Laser ranging systems now managed by the NASA Dynamics of the Solid Earth (DOSE) and operated by the Bendix Field Engineering Corporation, the University of Hawaii, and the University of Texas have produced a wealth on interdisciplinary scientific data over the last three decades. Despite upgrades to the most of the ranging station subsystems, the control computers remain a mix of 1970's vintage minicomputers. These encompass a wide range of vendors, operating systems, and languages, making hardware and software support increasingly difficult. Current technology allows replacement of controller computers at a relatively low cost while maintaining excellent processing power and a friendly operating environment. The new controller systems are now being designed using IBM-PC-compatible 80486-based microcomputers, a real-time Unix operating system (LynxOS), and X-windows/Motif IB, and serial interfaces have been chosen. This design supports minimizing short and long term costs by relying on proven standards for both hardware and software components. Currently, the project is in the design and prototyping stage with the first systems targeted for production in mid-1993.

  10. A novel track imaging system as a range counter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Z. [National Institute of Radiological Sciences (Japan); Matsufuji, N. [National Institute of Radiological Sciences (Japan); Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan); Kanayama, S. [Chiba University (Japan); Ishida, A. [National Institute of Radiological Sciences (Japan); Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan); Kohno, T. [Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan); Koba, Y.; Sekiguchi, M.; Kitagawa, A.; Murakami, T. [National Institute of Radiological Sciences (Japan)

    2016-05-01

    An image-intensified, camera-based track imaging system has been developed to measure the tracks of ions in a scintillator block. To study the performance of the detector unit in the system, two types of scintillators, a dosimetrically tissue-equivalent plastic scintillator EJ-240 and a CsI(Tl) scintillator, were separately irradiated with carbon ion ({sup 12}C) beams of therapeutic energy from HIMAC at NIRS. The images of individual ion tracks in the scintillators were acquired by the newly developed track imaging system. The ranges reconstructed from the images are reported here. The range resolution of the measurements is 1.8 mm for 290 MeV/u carbon ions, which is considered a significant improvement on the energy resolution of the conventional ΔE/E method. The detector is compact and easy to handle, and it can fit inside treatment rooms for in-situ studies, as well as satisfy clinical quality assurance purposes.

  11. Lidar-based estimates of aboveground biomass in the continental US and Mexico using ground, airborne, and satellite observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross Nelson; Hank Margolis; Paul Montesano; Guoqing Sun; Bruce Cook; Larry Corp; Hans-Erik Andersen; Ben deJong; Fernando Paz Pellat; Thaddeus Fickel; Jobriath Kauffman; Stephen Prisley

    2017-01-01

    Existing national forest inventory plots, an airborne lidar scanning (ALS) system, and a space profiling lidar system (ICESat-GLAS) are used to generate circa 2005 estimates of total aboveground dry biomass (AGB) in forest strata, by state, in the continental United States (CONUS) and Mexico. The airborne lidar is used to link ground observations of AGB to space lidar...

  12. A short-range ensemble prediction system for southern Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Park, R

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available system for southern Africa R PARK, WA LANDMAN AND F ENGELBRECHT CSIR, PO Box 395, Pretoria, South Africa, 0001 Email: xxxxxxxxxxxxxx@csir.co.za ? www.csir.co.za INTRODUCTION This research has been conducted in order to develop a short-range ensemble... stream_source_info Park_2012.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 7211 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Park_2012.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 A short-range ensemble prediction...

  13. 2015 Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries (DOGAMI) Lidar: Big Wood, ID

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Quantum Spatial has collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data for the Oregon LiDAR Consortium (OLC) Big Wood 2015 study area. This study area is located in...

  14. 2012 Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries (DOGAMI) Oregon Lidar: Green Peter

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — WSI collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data of the Green Peter study area for the Oregon LiDAR Consortium (OLC) in Linn County, Oregon. The collection of...

  15. 2015 Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries (DOGAMI) Oregon Lidar: Big Windy

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Quantum Spatial collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data for the Oregon LiDAR Consortium (OLC) Big Windy 2015 study area. This study area is located near...

  16. 2016 Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries (DOGAMI) Oregon Lidar: McKenzie River

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Quantum Spatial collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data for the Oregon LiDAR Consortium (OLC) McKenzie River study area. This study area is located near...

  17. 2015 Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries (DOGAMI) Oregon Lidar: Upper Rogue 3DEP

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Quantum Spatial collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data for the Oregon LiDAR Consortium (OLC) Upper Rogue 2015 study area. The collection of high...

  18. 2013 Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries (DOGAMI) Oregon Lidar: Scappoose

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — WSI collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data for the Oregon LiDAR Consortium (OLC) Scappoose study area. The Scappoose project area encompasses...

  19. 2015 Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries (DOGAMI) Oregon Lidar: Upper Umpqua

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — QSI has completed the acquisition and processing of Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data describing the Oregon LiDAR Consortium's (OLC) Umpqua Study Area. The...

  20. 2013 Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries (DOGAMI) Oregon Lidar: Clackamol

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — WSI collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data for the Oregon LiDAR Consortium (OLC) Clackamol 2013 study area in Clackamas and Marion County, Oregon. The...

  1. 2013 Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries (DOGAMI) Oregon Lidar DEM: Scappoose

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — WSI collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data for the Oregon LiDAR Consortium (OLC) Scappoose study area. The Scappoose project area encompasses...

  2. 2013 Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries (DOGAMI) Oregon Lidar DEM: Clackamol

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — WSI collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data for the Oregon LiDAR Consortium (OLC) Clackamol 2013 study area in Clackamas and Marion County, Oregon. The...

  3. 2015 Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries (DOGAMI) Oregon Lidar: Green Peter

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — WSI collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data of the Green Peter study area for the Oregon LiDAR Consortium (OLC) in Linn County, Oregon. The collection of...

  4. 2015 Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries (DOGAMI) Oregon Lidar DEM: Upper Rogue 3DEP

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Quantum Spatial collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data for the Oregon LiDAR Consortium (OLC) Upper Rogue 2015 study area. The collection of high...

  5. 2016 Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries (DOGAMI) Oregon Lidar DEM: McKenzie River

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Quantum Spatial collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data for the Oregon LiDAR Consortium (OLC) McKenzie River study area. This study area is located near...

  6. 2007 US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), Jacksonville District US Virgin Islands LiDAR

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) bare-earth classified LAS dataset is a topographic survey conducted for the USACE USVI LiDAR Project. These data were...

  7. 2009 - 2011 CA Coastal Conservancy Coastal Lidar Project: Hydro-flattened Bare Earth DEM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data is remotely sensed high-resolution elevation data collected by an airborne collection platform. This LiDAR dataset is a...

  8. 2010 US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) Portland District Columbia River Lidar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Columbia River Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) survey project was a collaborative effort to develop detailed high density LiDAR terrain data for the US Army...

  9. Application of multiple signal classification algorithm to frequency estimation in coherent dual-frequency lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ruixiao; Li, Kun; Zhao, Changming

    2018-01-01

    Coherent dual-frequency Lidar (CDFL) is a new development of Lidar which dramatically enhances the ability to decrease the influence of atmospheric interference by using dual-frequency laser to measure the range and velocity with high precision. Based on the nature of CDFL signals, we propose to apply the multiple signal classification (MUSIC) algorithm in place of the fast Fourier transform (FFT) to estimate the phase differences in dual-frequency Lidar. In the presence of Gaussian white noise, the simulation results show that the signal peaks are more evident when using MUSIC algorithm instead of FFT in condition of low signal-noise-ratio (SNR), which helps to improve the precision of detection on range and velocity, especially for the long distance measurement systems.

  10. 2011 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Rattlesnake

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Watershed Sciences, Inc. (WSI) collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data on six days between September 15th and November 5th, and from November 6th - 13th,...

  11. 2005 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: North Puget Sound Lowlands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Terrapoint collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data contributing to the Puget Sound Lowlands project of 2005. Arlington, City of Snohomish, Snohomish...

  12. 2013 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Nooksack

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In July 2012, WSI (Watershed Sciences, Inc.) was contracted by the Puget Sound LiDARConsortium (PSLC) to collect Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data on a...

  13. 2005 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Lewis County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Terrapoint collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data for the Lewis County project of 2005. The project site covered approximately 223 square miles, divided...

  14. 2005 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Olympic Peninsula

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Terrapoint collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data for the Olympic Peninsula project of 2005, totaling approximately 114.59 sq mi: 24.5 for Clallam...

  15. 2012 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Upper Naches River, Washington

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Watershed Sciences, Inc. (WSI) collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data of the Upper Naches River Valley and Nile Slide area of interest on September 30th,...

  16. 2013 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Entiat

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In October 2012, WSI (Watershed Sciences, Inc.) was contracted by the Puget Sound LiDARConsortium (PSLC) to collect Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data for the...

  17. LiDAR based prediction of forest biomass using hierarchical models with spatially varying coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chad Babcock; Andrew O. Finley; John B. Bradford; Randy Kolka; Richard Birdsey; Michael G. Ryan

    2015-01-01

    Many studies and production inventory systems have shown the utility of coupling covariates derived from Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data with forest variables measured on georeferenced inventory plots through regression models. The objective of this study was to propose and assess the use of a Bayesian hierarchical modeling framework that accommodates both...

  18. The precision of today's satellite laser ranging systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Peter J.; Torrence, Mark H.; Hussen, Van S.; Pearlman, Michael R.

    1993-06-01

    Recent improvements in the accuracy of modern satellite laser ranging (SLR) systems are strengthened by the new capability of many instruments to track an increasing number of geodetic satellite targets without significant scheduling conflict. This will allow the refinement of some geophysical parameters, such as solid Earth tidal effects and GM, and the improved temporal resolution of others, such as Earth orientation and station position. Better time resolution for the locations of fixed observatories will allow us to monitor more subtle motions at the stations, and transportable systems will be able to provide indicators of long term trends with shorter occupations. If we are to take advantage of these improvements, care must be taken to preserve the essential accuracy of an increasing volume of range observations at each stage of the data reduction process.

  19. Sensitivity and Dynamic Range Considerations for Homodyne Detection Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaggard, Dwight L.; King, Ray J

    1973-01-01

    The effects of modulation frequency, RF reference power, and external bias upon the sensitivity and dynamic range of microwave homodyne detection systems was measured for point contact diodes and low l/f noise Schottky and backward diodes. The measurements were made at 4.89 GHz using a signal...... to noise ratio of 3 dB and a detection system bandwidth of 10 Hz. Maximum sensitivities of -135, -150, and -145 dBm, and dynamic ranges of 92, 110, and 124 dB were measured for the point contact, Schottky, and backward diodes at modulation frequencies of 30, 30, and 3 kHz, respectively. It was found...... that the level of RF reference signal needed to obtain the maximum sensitivity was equal to or somewhat above the point where the diode changes from square law to linear detection. The results are significant in that previously reported homodyne sensitivities (not necessarily maximum) were on the order of -90...

  20. Long-range analysis of density fitting in extended systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Scarontefan

    Density fitting scheme is analyzed for the Coulomb problem in extended systems from the correctness of long-range behavior point of view. We show that for the correct cancellation of divergent long-range Coulomb terms it is crucial for the density fitting scheme to reproduce the overlap matrix exactly. It is demonstrated that from all possible fitting metric choices the Coulomb metric is the only one which inherently preserves the overlap matrix for infinite systems with translational periodicity. Moreover, we show that by a small additional effort any non-Coulomb metric fit can be made overlap-preserving as well. The problem is analyzed for both ordinary and Poisson basis set choices.

  1. Analysis of pattern formation in systems with competing range interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, H J; Misko, V R; Peeters, F M

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed pattern formation and identified various morphologies in a system of particles interacting through a non-monotonic potential with a competing range interaction characterized by a repulsive core (r c ) and an attractive tail (r > r c ), using molecular-dynamics simulations. Depending on parameters, the interaction potential models the inter-particle interaction in various physical systems ranging from atoms, molecules and colloids to vortices in low κ type-II superconductors and in recently discovered ‘type-1.5’ superconductors. We constructed a ‘morphology diagram’ in the plane ‘critical radius r c -density n’ and proposed a new approach to characterizing the different types of patterns. Namely, we elaborated a set of quantitative criteria in order to identify the different pattern types, using the radial distribution function (RDF), the local density function and the occupation factor. (paper)

  2. Marine: a new wide range neutron monitoring system concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trama, J.C.; Lescop, B.; Lefevre, J.; Nguyen, T.; Sudres, C. [CEA Saclay, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France). Dept. d' Electronique et d' Instrumentation Nucleaire; Pasdeloup, P. [Technicatome, 13 - Les Milles (France)

    2001-07-01

    In a Nuclear Power Plant, the developed power is proportional to the emitted neutron flux. The 10 to 11 decades measurement range from source to power generally needs 3 distinct neutron measurement chains to be monitored. A wide range neutron monitoring system may cover this range with only one sensor followed by adequate electronics. In the past this concept has been developed with an analogue technology which was presenting some drawbacks (slow log amplifier, components perenniality). In this paper, we introduce a completely new design, that makes use of a recent technology, including full linear input electronics, and advanced digital signal processing. As far as the sensor is concerned, both a well known commercial fission chamber, or an innovative wide range sensor presenting a high sensitivity may be used. The basic concept is that the single signal is continuously processed by three different electronic stages, each one being dedicated to approximately one third of the full range: pulse, Campbelling and current modes. After amplification, appropriate shaping, this signal is numerically filtered by a Kalman filter algorithm to compute the neutron flux as well as the reactor period. A specifically developed test module allows the surveillance of the sensor and the electronics via stimuli injections and characteristic curves plotting. A computerised simulation of the whole chain is used to validate the signal processing algorithms evolutions. In the paper we will specifically develop the metrological performances of this chain and the general agreement that exists between simulated and measured values. (authors)

  3. Multiangle lidar observations of the Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalitkumar Prakash, Pawar; Choukiker, Yogesh Kumar; Raghunath, K.

    2018-04-01

    Atmospheric Lidars are used extensively to get aerosol parameters like backscatter coefficient, backscatter ratio etc. National Atmospheric Research Laboratory, Gadanki (13°N, 79°E), India has a powerful lidar which has alt-azimuth capability. Inversion method is applied to data from observations of lidar system at different azimuth and elevation angles. Data Analysis is described and Observations in 2D and 3D format are discussed. Presence of Cloud and the variation of backscatter parameters are seen in an interesting manner.

  4. Multiangle lidar observations of the Atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalitkumar Prakash Pawar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric Lidars are used extensively to get aerosol parameters like backscatter coefficient, backscatter ratio etc. National Atmospheric Research Laboratory, Gadanki (13°N, 79°E, India has a powerful lidar which has alt-azimuth capability. Inversion method is applied to data from observations of lidar system at different azimuth and elevation angles. Data Analysis is described and Observations in 2D and 3D format are discussed. Presence of Cloud and the variation of backscatter parameters are seen in an interesting manner.

  5. Detectors for LIDAR type Thomson scattering diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirsch, K.

    1991-04-01

    A report on the capability of the microchannel plate photomultiplier type (ITT F4128) presently used at the JET LIDAR Thomson Scattering System is given. Detailed investigation on time response, low noise amplification, shutter ratio, gating behaviour, linear mode of operation and saturation pulse recovery carried out during the design phase for LIDAR are presented. New investigation with respect to dc- and gated operation showed no measurable changes in sensitivity of this MCP photomultiplier. Comparing this type of detector with other MCP photomultipliers and with streak cameras some detection schemes for future LIDAR type diagnostic are proposed. (orig.)

  6. Strategies for lidar characterization of particulates from point and area sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcik, Michael D.; Moore, Kori D.; Martin, Randal S.; Hatfield, Jerry

    2010-10-01

    Use of ground based remote sensing technologies such as scanning lidar systems (light detection and ranging) has gained traction in characterizing ambient aerosols due to some key advantages such as wide area of regard (10 km2), fast response time, high spatial resolution (University, in conjunction with the USDA-ARS, has developed a three-wavelength scanning lidar system called Aglite that has been successfully deployed to characterize particle motion, concentration, and size distribution at both point and diffuse area sources in agricultural and industrial settings. A suite of massbased and size distribution point sensors are used to locally calibrate the lidar. Generating meaningful particle size distribution, mass concentration, and emission rate results based on lidar data is dependent on strategic onsite deployment of these point sensors with successful local meteorological measurements. Deployment strategies learned from field use of this entire measurement system over five years include the characterization of local meteorology and its predictability prior to deployment, the placement of point sensors to prevent contamination and overloading, the positioning of the lidar and beam plane to avoid hard target interferences, and the usefulness of photographic and written observational data.

  7. Nonequilibrium statistical mechanics of systems with long-range interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levin, Yan, E-mail: levin@if.ufrgs.br; Pakter, Renato, E-mail: pakter@if.ufrgs.br; Rizzato, Felipe B., E-mail: rizzato@if.ufrgs.br; Teles, Tarcísio N., E-mail: tarcisio.teles@fi.infn.it; Benetti, Fernanda P.C., E-mail: fbenetti@if.ufrgs.br

    2014-02-01

    Systems with long-range (LR) forces, for which the interaction potential decays with the interparticle distance with an exponent smaller than the dimensionality of the embedding space, remain an outstanding challenge to statistical physics. The internal energy of such systems lacks extensivity and additivity. Although the extensivity can be restored by scaling the interaction potential with the number of particles, the non-additivity still remains. Lack of additivity leads to inequivalence of statistical ensembles. Before relaxing to thermodynamic equilibrium, isolated systems with LR forces become trapped in out-of-equilibrium quasi-stationary states (qSSs), the lifetime of which diverges with the number of particles. Therefore, in the thermodynamic limit LR systems will not relax to equilibrium. The qSSs are attained through the process of collisionless relaxation. Density oscillations lead to particle–wave interactions and excitation of parametric resonances. The resonant particles escape from the main cluster to form a tenuous halo. Simultaneously, this cools down the core of the distribution and dampens out the oscillations. When all the oscillations die out the ergodicity is broken and a qSS is born. In this report, we will review a theory which allows us to quantitatively predict the particle distribution in the qSS. The theory is applied to various LR interacting systems, ranging from plasmas to self-gravitating clusters and kinetic spin models.

  8. Airborne LIDAR borsight error calibration based on surface coincide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Fangyan; Li, Guoqing; Zuo, Zhengli; Li, Dong; Qi, Zengying; Qiu, Wen; Tan, Junxiang

    2014-01-01

    Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) is a system which can directly collect three-dimensional coordinate information of ground point and laser reflection strength information. With the wide application of LIDAR system, users hope to get more accurate results. Boresight error has an important effect on data accuracy and thus, it is thought that eliminating the error is very important. In recent years, many methods have been proposed to eliminate the error. Generally, they can be categorized into tie point method and surface matching method. In this paper, we propose another method called try value method based on surface coincide that is used in actual production by many companies. The method is simple and operable. Further, the efficacy of the method was demonstrated by analyzing the data from Zhangye city

  9. Advances and perspectives in bathymetry by airborne lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Guoqing; Wang, Chenxi; Li, Mingyan; Wang, Yuefeng; Ye, Siqi; Han, Caiyun

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, the history of the airborne lidar and the development stages of the technology are reviewed. The basic principle of airborne lidar and the method of processing point-cloud data were discussed. At present, single point laser scanning method is widely used in bathymetric survey. Although the method has high ranging accuracy, the data processing and hardware system is too much complicated and expensive. For this reason, this paper present a kind of improved dual-frequency method for bathymetric and sea surface survey, in this method 176 units of 1064nm wavelength laser has been used by push-broom scanning and due to the airborne power limits still use 532nm wavelength single point for bathymetric survey by zigzag scanning. We establish a spatial coordinates for obtaining the WGS-84 of point cloud by using airborne POS system.

  10. A Review of LIDAR Radiometric Processing: From Ad Hoc Intensity Correction to Rigorous Radiometric Calibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza G. Kashani

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In addition to precise 3D coordinates, most light detection and ranging (LIDAR systems also record “intensity”, loosely defined as the strength of the backscattered echo for each measured point. To date, LIDAR intensity data have proven beneficial in a wide range of applications because they are related to surface parameters, such as reflectance. While numerous procedures have been introduced in the scientific literature, and even commercial software, to enhance the utility of intensity data through a variety of “normalization”, “correction”, or “calibration” techniques, the current situation is complicated by a lack of standardization, as well as confusing, inconsistent use of terminology. In this paper, we first provide an overview of basic principles of LIDAR intensity measurements and applications utilizing intensity information from terrestrial, airborne topographic, and airborne bathymetric LIDAR. Next, we review effective parameters on intensity measurements, basic theory, and current intensity processing methods. We define terminology adopted from the most commonly-used conventions based on a review of current literature. Finally, we identify topics in need of further research. Ultimately, the presented information helps lay the foundation for future standards and specifications for LIDAR radiometric calibration.

  11. "LOSA-S" - basic lidar of the CSF "ATMOSPHERE" IAO SB RAS for tropospheric studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balin, Yu. S.; Kokhanenko, G. P.; Klemasheva, M. G.; Penner, I. E.; Nasonov, S. V.; Samoilova, S. V.

    2017-11-01

    Stationary lidar "LOSA-S" of the center of shared facilities (CSF) "ATMOSPHERE" IAO SB RAS is intended for the study of aerosol fields in the boundary layer of the troposphere in the height range 0.5 up to 15 km, as well as for the study of crystal clouds using the polarization unit with linear and circular polarization of radiation. The scheme of simultaneous observation of the elastic and Raman scattering signals when irradiating the medium at the wavelengths of 1064, 532 and 355 nm is realized in the lidar. The lidar is based on the LOTIS-2135 Nd:YAG laser and the receiving specular telescope of the Cassegrain system with the diameter of 300 mm. In addition to the return signals of elastic scattering recorded in analog mode, the lidar records the Raman scattering signals on molecular nitrogen (387 and 607 nm) and water vapor (407 nm) in the photon counting mode. To realize the aforementioned height range, two receiving telescopes are used in the lidar for near and far zones, the signals are recorded by the same photodetectors.

  12. A Review of LIDAR Radiometric Processing: From Ad Hoc Intensity Correction to Rigorous Radiometric Calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashani, Alireza G; Olsen, Michael J; Parrish, Christopher E; Wilson, Nicholas

    2015-11-06

    In addition to precise 3D coordinates, most light detection and ranging (LIDAR) systems also record "intensity", loosely defined as the strength of the backscattered echo for each measured point. To date, LIDAR intensity data have proven beneficial in a wide range of applications because they are related to surface parameters, such as reflectance. While numerous procedures have been introduced in the scientific literature, and even commercial software, to enhance the utility of intensity data through a variety of "normalization", "correction", or "calibration" techniques, the current situation is complicated by a lack of standardization, as well as confusing, inconsistent use of terminology. In this paper, we first provide an overview of basic principles of LIDAR intensity measurements and applications utilizing intensity information from terrestrial, airborne topographic, and airborne bathymetric LIDAR. Next, we review effective parameters on intensity measurements, basic theory, and current intensity processing methods. We define terminology adopted from the most commonly-used conventions based on a review of current literature. Finally, we identify topics in need of further research. Ultimately, the presented information helps lay the foundation for future standards and specifications for LIDAR radiometric calibration.

  13. Coastal monitoring solutions of the geomorphological response of beach-dune systems using multi-temporal LiDAR datasets (Vendée coast, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Mauff, Baptiste; Juigner, Martin; Ba, Antoine; Robin, Marc; Launeau, Patrick; Fattal, Paul

    2018-03-01

    Three beach and dune systems located in the northeastern part of the Bay of Biscay in France were monitored over 5 years with a time series of three airborne LiDAR datasets. The three study sites illustrate a variety of morphological beach types found in this region. Reproducible monitoring solutions adapted to basic and complex beach and dune morphologies using LiDAR time series were investigated over two periods bounded by the three surveys. The first period (between May 2008 and August 2010) is characterized by a higher prevalence of storm events, and thus has a greater potential for eroding the coast, than the second period (between August 2010 and September 2013). During the first period, the central and northeastern part of the Bay of Biscay was notably impacted by Storm Xynthia, with water levels and wave heights exceeding the 10-year return period and 1-year return period, respectively. Despite differences in dune morphology between the sites, the dune crest (Dhigh) and the dune base (Dlow) are efficiently extracted from each DEM. Based on the extracted dune base, an original shoreline mobility indicator is built displaying a combination of the horizontal and vertical migrations of this geomorphic indicator between two LiDAR datasets. A 'Geomorphic Change Detection' is also completed by computing DEMs of Difference (DoD) resulting in segregated maps of erosion and deposition and sediment budgets. Accounting for the accuracy of LiDAR datasets, a probabilistic approach at a 95% confidence interval is used as a threshold for the Geomorphic Change Detection showing more reliable results. However, caution should be taken when interpreting thresholded maps of changes and sediment budgets because some beach processes may be masked, especially on wide tidal beaches, by only keeping the most significant changes. The results of the shoreline mobility and Geomorphic Change Detection show a high variability in the beach responses between and within the three study

  14. Differential Absorption Lidar to Measure Subhourly Variation of Tropospheric Ozone Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Shi; Burris, John F.; Newchurch, Michael J.; Johnson, Steve; Long, Stephania

    2011-01-01

    A tropospheric ozone Differential Absorption Lidar system, developed jointly by The University of Alabama in Huntsville and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, is making regular observations of ozone vertical distributions between 1 and 8 km with two receivers under both daytime and nighttime conditions using lasers at 285 and 291 nm. This paper describes the lidar system and analysis technique with some measurement examples. An iterative aerosol correction procedure reduces the retrieval error arising from differential aerosol backscatter in the lower troposphere. Lidar observations with coincident ozonesonde flights demonstrate that the retrieval accuracy ranges from better than 10% below 4 km to better than 20% below 8 km with 750-m vertical resolution and 10-min 17 temporal integration.

  15. Assessing hydrometeorological impacts with terrestrial and aerial Lidar data in Monterrey, México

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yepez Rincon, F.; Lozano Garcia, D.; Vela Coiffier, P.; Rivera Rivera, L.

    2013-10-01

    Light Detection Ranging (Lidar) is an efficient tool to gather points reflected from a terrain and store them in a xyz coordinate system, allowing the generation of 3D data sets to manage geoinformation. Translation of these coordinates, from an arbitrary system into a geographical base, makes data feasible and useful to calculate volumes and define topographic characteristics at different scales. Lidar technological advancement in topographic mapping enables the generation of highly accurate and densely sampled elevation models, which are in high demand by many industries like construction, mining and forestry. This study merges terrestrial and aerial Lidar data to evaluate the effectiveness of these tools assessing volumetric changes after a hurricane event of riverbeds and scour bridges The resulted information could be an optimal approach to improve hydrological and hydraulic models, to aid authorities in proper to decision making in construction, urban planning, and homeland security.

  16. 2015 Lowndes County (GA) Lidar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TASK NAME: NOAA OCM Lidar for Lowndes County, GA with the option to Collect Lidar in Cook and Tift Counties, GA Lidar Data Acquisition and Processing Production Task...

  17. Chasing Salmonella Typhimurium in free range egg production system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chousalkar, Kapil; Gole, Vaibhav; Caraguel, Charles; Rault, Jean-Loup

    2016-08-30

    Free range production systems are becoming a major source of egg production in Australia and worldwide. This study investigated shedding and ecology of Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella species in a free range layer flock, wild birds and foxes in the vicinity of the free range farm in different seasons. Shedding of Salmonella was significantly higher in summer. Within the shed, overall, Salmonella prevalence was highest in dust. Corticosterone level in faeces was highest in spring and lowest in winter. There was no direct association between the Salmonella shedding (MPN/gm) and corticosterone levels in faeces. Salmonella Typhimurium MLVA types isolated from fox and wild birds were similar to MLVA types isolated from layer flock and reported during human food borne illness. Wild birds and foxes appear to play an important role in S. Typhimurium ecology and food safety. Environmental factors could play a role in evolution of S. Typhimurium in free range environment. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Advanced Range Safety System for High Energy Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claxton, Jeffrey S.; Linton, Donald F.

    2002-01-01

    The advanced range safety system project is a collaboration between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the United States Air Force to develop systems that would reduce costs and schedule for safety approval for new classes of unmanned high-energy vehicles. The mission-planning feature for this system would yield flight profiles that satisfy the mission requirements for the user while providing an increased quality of risk assessment, enhancing public safety. By improving the speed and accuracy of predicting risks to the public, mission planners would be able to expand flight envelopes significantly. Once in place, this system is expected to offer the flexibility of handling real-time risk management for the high-energy capabilities of hypersonic vehicles including autonomous return-from-orbit vehicles and extended flight profiles over land. Users of this system would include mission planners of Space Launch Initiative vehicles, space planes, and other high-energy vehicles. The real-time features of the system could make extended flight of a malfunctioning vehicle possible, in lieu of an immediate terminate decision. With this improved capability, the user would have more time for anomaly resolution and potential recovery of a malfunctioning vehicle.

  19. Development of a LiDAR derived digital elevation model (DEM) as Input to a METRANS geographic information system (GIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    This report describes an assessment of digital elevation models (DEMs) derived from : LiDAR data for a subset of the Ports of Los Angeles and Long Beach. A methodology : based on Monte Carlo simulation was applied to investigate the accuracy of DEMs ...

  20. Fluctuation-induced long-range interactions in polymer systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semenov, A N; Obukhov, S P

    2005-01-01

    We discover a new universal long-range interaction between solid objects in polymer media. This polymer-induced interaction is directly opposite to the van der Waals attraction. The predicted effect is deeply related to the classical Casimir interactions, providing a unique example of universal fluctuation-induced repulsion rather than normal attraction. This universal repulsion comes from the subtracted soft fluctuation modes in the ideal counterpart of the real polymer system. The effect can also be interpreted in terms of subtracted (ghost) large-scale polymer loops. We establish the general expressions for the energy of polymer-induced interactions for arbitrary solid particles in a concentrated polymer system. We find that the correlation function of the polymer density in a concentrated solution of very long chains follows a scaling law rather than an exponential decay at large distances. These novel universal long-range interactions can be of importance in various polymer systems. We discuss the ways to observe/simulate these fluctuation-induced effects

  1. Integrated remote sensing and visualization (IRSV) system for transportation infrastructure operations and management, phase two, volume 3 : advanced consideration in LiDAR technology for bridge evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    This report describes Phase Two enhancement of terrestrial LiDAR scanning for bridge damage : evaluation that was initially developed in Phase One. Considering the spatial and reflectivity : information contained in LiDAR scans, two detection algorit...

  2. Lidar-based Research and Innovation at DTU Wind Energy – a Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikkelsen, T

    2014-01-01

    scanning continuous-wave based wind lidars (short-range system), and another consisting of three synchronized pulsed wind lidar systems (long-range system). Today, wind lidar profilers and WindScanners are routinely deployed and operated during field tests and measurement campaigns. Lidars have been installed and operated from ground, on offshore platforms, and also as scanning lidars integrated in operating turbines. As a result, wind profiles and also detailed 3D scanning of wind and turbulence fields have been achieved: 1) of the free wind aloft, 2) over complex terrain, 3) at coastal ranges with land-sea interfaces, 4) offshore, 5) in turbine inflow induction zone, and 6) of the complex and turbulent flow fields in the wakes inside wind parks

  3. Feasibility study for airborne fluorescence/reflectivity lidar bathymetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinvall, Ove; Kautsky, Hans; Tulldahl, Michael; Wollner, Erika

    2012-06-01

    There is a demand from the authorities to have good maps of the coastal environment for their exploitation and preservation of the coastal areas. The goal for environmental mapping and monitoring is to differentiate between vegetation and non-vegetated bottoms and, if possible, to differentiate between species. Airborne lidar bathymetry is an interesting method for mapping shallow underwater habitats. In general, the maximum depth range for airborne laser exceeds the possible depth range for passive sensors. Today, operational lidar systems are able to capture the bottom (or vegetation) topography as well as estimations of the bottom reflectivity using e.g. reflected bottom pulse power. In this paper we study the possibilities and advantages for environmental mapping, if laser sensing would be further developed from single wavelength depth sounding systems to include multiple emission wavelengths and fluorescence receiver channels. Our results show that an airborne fluorescence lidar has several interesting features which might be useful in mapping underwater habitats. An example is the laser induced fluorescence giving rise to the emission spectrum which could be used for classification together with the elastic lidar signal. In the first part of our study, vegetation and substrate samples were collected and their spectral reflectance and fluorescence were subsequently measured in laboratory. A laser wavelength of 532 nm was used for excitation of the samples. The choice of 532 nm as excitation wavelength is motivated by the fact that this wavelength is commonly used in bathymetric laser scanners and that the excitation wavelengths are limited to the visual region as e.g. ultraviolet radiation is highly attenuated in water. The second part of our work consisted of theoretical performance calculations for a potential real system, and comparison of separability between species and substrate signatures using selected wavelength regions for fluorescence sensing.

  4. Long-range position and orientation tracking system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, G.A.; Jansen, J.F.; Burks, B.L.

    1995-01-01

    The long-range position and orientation tracking system will consist of two measurement pods, a VME-based computer system, and a detector array. The system is used to measure the position and orientation of a target that may be attached to a robotic arm, teleoperated manipulator, or autonomous vehicle. The pods have been designed to be mounted in the manways of the domes of the Fernald K-65 waste silos. Each pod has two laser scanner subsystems as well as lights and camera systems. One of the laser scanners will be oriented to scan in the pan direction, the other in the tilt direction. As the lasers scan across the detector array, the angles of incidence with each detector are recorded. Combining measurements from each of the four lasers yields sufficient data for a closed-form solution of the transform describing the location and orientation of the content mobilization system (CMS). Redundant detectors will be placed on the CMS to accommodate occlusions, to provide improved measurement accuracy, and to determine the CMS orientation

  5. Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory long-range alarm system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DesJardin, R.; Machanik, J.

    1980-01-01

    The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) Long-Range Alarm System is described. The last few years have brought significant changes in the Department of Energy regulations for protection of classified documents and special nuclear material. These changes in regulations have forced a complete redesign of the LASL security alarm system. LASL covers many square miles of varying terrain and consists of separate technical areas connected by public roads and communications. A design study over a period of 2 years produced functional specifications for a distributed intelligence, expandable alarm system that will handle 30,000 alarm points from hundreds of data concentrators spread over a 250-km 2 area. Emphasis in the design was on nonstop operation, data security, data communication, and upward expandability to incorporate fire alarms and the computer-aided dispatching of security and fire vehicles. All aspects of the alarm system were to be fault tolerant from the central computer system down to but not including the individual data concentrators. Redundant communications lines travel over public domain from the alarmed area to the central alarm station

  6. LIDAR and atmosphere remote sensing [DST Space Science Initiatives

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Venkataraman, S

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Energy Source included in the measurement. Slide 2 © CSIR 2008 www.csir.co.za The observer can control the source Eg. Radar, Lidar, Sodar, Sonar etc. (b) Passive remote sensors. Energy source is not included in the measurement... Instrument Passive Slide 3 © CSIR 2008 www.csir.co.za Active LiDAR Principle • LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) • LiDAR employs a laser as a source of pulsed energy • Lasers are advantageous because – checkbld Monochromatic...

  7. Independent evaluation of the SNODAS snow depth product using regional-scale lidar-derived measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedrick, A.; Marshall, H.-P.; Winstral, A.; Elder, K.; Yueh, S.; Cline, D.

    2015-01-01

    Repeated light detection and ranging (lidar) surveys are quickly becoming the de facto method for measuring spatial variability of montane snowpacks at high resolution. This study examines the potential of a 750 km2 lidar-derived data set of snow depths, collected during the 2007 northern Colorado Cold Lands Processes Experiment (CLPX-2), as a validation source for an operational hydrologic snow model. The SNOw Data Assimilation System (SNODAS) model framework, operated by the US National Weather Service, combines a physically based energy-and-mass-balance snow model with satellite, airborne and automated ground-based observations to provide daily estimates of snowpack properties at nominally 1 km resolution over the conterminous United States. Independent validation data are scarce due to the assimilating nature of SNODAS, compelling the need for an independent validation data set with substantial geographic coverage. Within 12 distinctive 500 × 500 m study areas located throughout the survey swath, ground crews performed approximately 600 manual snow depth measurements during each of the CLPX-2 lidar acquisitions. This supplied a data set for constraining the uncertainty of upscaled lidar estimates of snow depth at the 1 km SNODAS resolution, resulting in a root-mean-square difference of 13 cm. Upscaled lidar snow depths were then compared to the SNODAS estimates over the entire study area for the dates of the lidar flights. The remotely sensed snow depths provided a more spatially continuous comparison data set and agreed more closely to the model estimates than that of the in situ measurements alone. Finally, the results revealed three distinct areas where the differences between lidar observations and SNODAS estimates were most drastic, providing insight into the causal influences of natural processes on model uncertainty.

  8. Measuring Systems for Thermometer Calibration in Low-Temperature Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szmyrka-Grzebyk, A.; Lipiński, L.; Manuszkiewicz, H.; Kowal, A.; Grykałowska, A.; Jancewicz, D.

    2011-12-01

    The national temperature standard for the low-temperature range between 13.8033 K and 273.16 K has been established in Poland at the Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research (INTiBS). The standard consists of sealed cells for realization of six fixed points of the International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90) in the low-temperature range, an adiabatic cryostat and Isotech water and mercury triple-point baths, capsule standard resistance thermometers (CSPRT), and AC and DC bridges with standard resistors for thermometers resistance measurements. INTiBS calibrates CSPRTs at the low-temperature fixed points with uncertainties less than 1 mK. In lower temperature range—between 2.5 K and about 25 K — rhodium-iron (RhFe) resistance thermometers are calibrated by comparison with a standard which participated in the EURAMET.T-K1.1 comparison. INTiBS offers a calibration service for industrial platinum resistance thermometers and for digital thermometers between 77 K and 273 K. These types of thermometers may be calibrated at INTiBS also in a higher temperature range up to 550°C. The Laboratory of Temperature Standard at INTiBS acquired an accreditation from the Polish Centre for Accreditation. A management system according to EN ISO/IEC 17025:2005 was established at the Laboratory and presented on EURAMET QSM Forum.

  9. Detecting Topological Defect Dark Matter Using Coherent Laser Ranging System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wanpeng; Leng, Jianxiao; Zhang, Shuangyou; Zhao, Jianye

    2016-01-01

    In the last few decades, optical frequency combs with high intensity, broad optical bandwidth, and directly traceable discrete wavelengths have triggered rapid developments in distance metrology. However, optical frequency combs to date have been limited to determine the absolute distance to an object (such as satellite missions). We propose a scheme for the detection of topological defect dark matter using a coherent laser ranging system composed of dual-combs and an optical clock via nongravitational signatures. The dark matter field, which comprises a defect, may interact with standard model particles, including quarks and photons, resulting in the alteration of their masses. Thus, a topological defect may function as a dielectric material with a distinctive frequency-depend index of refraction, which would cause the time delay of a periodic extraterrestrial or terrestrial light. When a topological defect passes through the Earth, the optical path of long-distance vacuum path is altered, this change in optical path can be detected through the coherent laser ranging system. Compared to continuous wavelength(cw) laser interferometry methods, dual-comb interferometry in our scheme excludes systematic misjudgement by measuring the absolute optical path length. PMID:27389642

  10. Short range spread-spectrum radiolocation system and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stephen F.

    2003-04-29

    A short range radiolocation system and associated methods that allow the location of an item, such as equipment, containers, pallets, vehicles, or personnel, within a defined area. A small, battery powered, self-contained tag is provided to an item to be located. The tag includes a spread-spectrum transmitter that transmits a spread-spectrum code and identification information. A plurality of receivers positioned about the area receive signals from a transmitting tag. The position of the tag, and hence the item, is located by triangulation. The system employs three different ranging techniques for providing coarse, intermediate, and fine spatial position resolution. Coarse positioning information is provided by use of direct-sequence code phase transmitted as a spread-spectrum signal. Intermediate positioning information is provided by the use of a difference signal transmitted with the direct-sequence spread-spectrum code. Fine positioning information is provided by use of carrier phase measurements. An algorithm is employed to combine the three data sets to provide accurate location measurements.

  11. A UV multifunctional Raman lidar system for the observation and analysis of atmospheric temperature, humidity, aerosols and their conveying characteristics over Xi'an

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yufeng, Wang; Qiang, Fu; Meina, Zhao; Fei, Gao; Huige, Di; Yuehui, Song; Dengxin, Hua

    2018-01-01

    To monitor the variability and the correlation of multiple atmospheric parameters in the whole troposphere and the lower stratosphere, a ground-based ultraviolet multifunctional Raman lidar system was established to simultaneously measure the atmospheric parameters in Xi'an (34.233°N, 108.911°E). A set of dichroic mirrors (DMs) and narrow-band interference filters (IFs) with narrow angles of incidence were utilized to construct a high-efficiency 5-channel polychromator. A series of high-quality data obtained from October 2013 to December 2015 under different weather conditions were used to investigate the functionality of the Raman lidar system and to study the variability of multiple atmospheric parameters in the whole stratosphere. Their conveying characteristics are also investigated using back trajectories with a hybrid single-particle Lagrangian integrated trajectory model (HYSPLIT). The lidar system can be operated efficiently under weather conditions with a cloud backscattering ratio of less than 18 and an atmospheric visibility of 3 km. We observed an obvious temperature inversion phenomenon at the tropopause height of 17-18 km and occasional temperature inversion layers below the boundary layer. The rapidly changing atmospheric water vapor is mostly concentrated at the lower troposphere, below ∼4-5 km, accounting for ∼90% of the total water vapor content at 0.5-10 km. The back trajectory analysis shows that the air flow from the northwest and the west mainly contributes to the transport of aerosols and water vapor over Xi'an. The simultaneous continuous observational results demonstrate the variability and correlation among the multiple atmospheric parameters, and the accumulated water vapor density in the bottom layer causes an increase in the aerosol extinction coefficient and enhances the relative humidity in the early morning. The long-term observations provide a large amount of reliable atmospheric data below the lower stratosphere, and can be

  12. Airborne lidar measurements of the Soufriere eruption of 17 April 1979

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, W. H., Jr.; Sokol, S.; Hunt, W. H.

    1982-01-01

    At the time of the Soufriere, St. Vincent, volcanic eruption of April 17, 1979, a NASA P-3 aircraft with an uplooking lidar (light detection and ranging) system onboard was airborne 130 kilometers east of the island. Lidar measurements of the fresh volcanic ash were made approximately 2 hours after the eruption, 120 kilometers to the northeast and east. On the evening of April 18, the airborne lidar, on a southerly flight track, detected significant amounts of stratospheric material in layers at 16, 17, 18, and 19.5 kilometers. These data, and measurements to the north on April 19, indicate that the volcanic plume penetrated the stratosphere to an altitude of about 20 kilometers and moved south during the first 48 hours after the eruption.

  13. Use of lidar for the evaluation of traffic-related urban pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichinger, William E.; Cooper, D. I.; Buttler, William T.; Cottingame, William; Tellier, Larry

    1994-03-01

    Lidar (Light Detection and Ranging) is demonstrated as a tool for the detection and tracking of sources of aerosol pollution. Existing elastic lidars have been used to demonstrate the potential of the application of this technology in urban areas. Data from several experiments is shown along with analysis methods used for interpretation of the data. The goal of the project is to develop a light-weight, low-cost, lidar system and data analysis methods which can be used by urban planners and local air quality managers. The ability to determine the sources, i.e., causes, of non-attainment may lead to more effective use of tax dollars. Future directions for the project are also discussed.

  14. Correction of elevation offsets in multiple co-located lidar datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, David M.; Dalyander, P. Soupy; Long, Joseph W.; Plant, Nathaniel G.

    2017-04-07

    IntroductionTopographic elevation data collected with airborne light detection and ranging (lidar) can be used to analyze short- and long-term changes to beach and dune systems. Analysis of multiple lidar datasets at Dauphin Island, Alabama, revealed systematic, island-wide elevation differences on the order of 10s of centimeters (cm) that were not attributable to real-world change and, therefore, were likely to represent systematic sampling offsets. These offsets vary between the datasets, but appear spatially consistent within a given survey. This report describes a method that was developed to identify and correct offsets between lidar datasets collected over the same site at different times so that true elevation changes over time, associated with sediment accumulation or erosion, can be analyzed.

  15. Demystifying LiDAR technologies for temperate rainforest in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhonda Mazza; Demetrios Gatziolis

    2013-01-01

    Light detection and ranging (LiDAR), also known as airborne laser scanning, is a rapidly emerging technology for remote sensing. Used to help map, monitor, and assess natural resources, LiDAR data were first embraced by forestry professionals in Scandinavia as a tool for conducting forest inventories in the mid to late 1990s. Thus early LiDAR theory and applications...

  16. A multiscale curvature algorithm for classifying discrete return LiDAR in forested environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey S. Evans; Andrew T. Hudak

    2007-01-01

    One prerequisite to the use of light detection and ranging (LiDAR) across disciplines is differentiating ground from nonground returns. The objective was to automatically and objectively classify points within unclassified LiDAR point clouds, with few model parameters and minimal postprocessing. Presented is an automated method for classifying LiDAR returns as ground...

  17. An automatic high precision registration method between large area aerial images and aerial light detection and ranging data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Q.; Xie, D.; Sun, Y.

    2015-06-01

    The integration of digital aerial photogrammetry and Light Detetion And Ranging (LiDAR) is an inevitable trend in Surveying and Mapping field. We calculate the external orientation elements of images which identical with LiDAR coordinate to realize automatic high precision registration between aerial images and LiDAR data. There are two ways to calculate orientation elements. One is single image spatial resection using image matching 3D points that registered to LiDAR. The other one is Position and Orientation System (POS) data supported aerotriangulation. The high precision registration points are selected as Ground Control Points (GCPs) instead of measuring GCPs manually during aerotriangulation. The registration experiments indicate that the method which registering aerial images and LiDAR points has a great advantage in higher automation and precision compare with manual registration.

  18. On mean wind and turbulence profile measurements from ground-based wind lidars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Torben

    2009-01-01

    Two types of wind lidar?s have become available for ground-based vertical mean wind and turbulence profiling. A continuous wave (CW) wind lidar, and a pulsed wind lidar. Although they both are build upon the same recent 1.55 μ telecom fibre technology, they possess fundamental differences between...... their temporal and spatial resolution capabilities. A literature review of the two lidar systems spatial and temporal resolution characteristics will be presented, and the implication for the two lidar types vertical profile measurements of mean wind and turbulence in the lower atmospheric boundary layer...

  19. The application of LiDAR to investigate foredune morphology and vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Thomas B.; Woodroffe, Colin D.

    2018-02-01

    LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) has been used to investigate coastal landform morphology, evolution, and change for almost a decade. Repeated airborne LiDAR surveys can provide the scientific community with significant observations of how shorelines have evolved, which may then enable forecasts of future patterns of change. However, there have been few studies that have considered the application of this new technology to the specific study of foredune morphology and vegetation. The accuracy and appropriateness of airborne LiDAR needs to be assessed, particularly where the density of vegetation may obscure the underlying topography, prior to interpreting derived geomorphic features. This study: i) tests the vertical accuracy of airborne LiDAR in 37 foredune systems along the coast of south-eastern Australia, and ii) demonstrates that it can be used to describe foredune morphology and vegetation in considerable detail. There was a strong correlation between the remotely-sensed LiDAR-derived elevation and field topographic and vegetation surveys (R2 = 0.96). A protocol for obtaining foredune geomorphic and botanical parameters is described. It enables widespread biogeomorphic characterisation along coasts for which LiDAR data is available, which can benefit both coastal managers and researchers alike.

  20. 2013 Suwannee River Water Management District Lidar: Greenville (FL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) dataset is a survey of Suwannee River G12PD00242 1.0 Meter LiDAR Survey Area 3, Classified Point Cloud, in north-central...

  1. 2014 Suwannee River Water Management District Lidar: Cooks Hammock (FL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) dataset is a survey of the Suwannee River G14PD00206 0.7 Meter LiDAR Survey in central Florida and encompasses 571 square...

  2. 2013 Suwannee River Water Management District Lidar: Bell (FL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) dataset is a survey of Suwannee River G13PD00141 1.0 Meter LiDAR Survey Area 4, Classified Point Cloud, in north-central...

  3. Alternative method for determining the constant offset in lidar signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladimir A. Kovalev; Cyle Wold; Alexander Petkov; Wei Min Hao

    2009-01-01

    We present an alternative method for determining the total offset in lidar signal created by a daytime background-illumination component and electrical or digital offset. Unlike existing techniques, here the signal square-range-correction procedure is initially performed using the total signal recorded by lidar, without subtraction of the offset component. While...

  4. 2013 Suwannee River Water Management District Lidar: Mayo (FL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) dataset is a survey of Suwannee River G12PD00242 1.0 Meter LiDAR Survey Area 4, Classified Point Cloud, in north-central...

  5. 2013 Suwannee River Water Management District Lidar: Obrien (FL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) dataset is a survey of Suwannee River G13PD00141 1.0 Meter LiDAR Survey Area 1, Classified Point Cloud, in north-central...

  6. Wind speed errors for LIDARs and SODARs in complex terrain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, S

    2008-01-01

    All commercial LIDARs and SODARs are monostatic and hence sample distributed volumes to construct wind vector components. We use an analytic potential flow model to estimate errors arising for a range of LIDAR and SODAR configurations on hills and escarpments. Wind speed errors peak at a height relevant to wind turbines and can be typically 20%

  7. Wind speed errors for LIDARs and SODARs in complex terrain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, S [Physics Department, The University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland (New Zealand) and School of Computing, Science and Engineering, University of Salford, M5 4WT (United Kingdom)], E-mail: s.bradley@auckland.ac.nz

    2008-05-01

    All commercial LIDARs and SODARs are monostatic and hence sample distributed volumes to construct wind vector components. We use an analytic potential flow model to estimate errors arising for a range of LIDAR and SODAR configurations on hills and escarpments. Wind speed errors peak at a height relevant to wind turbines and can be typically 20%.

  8. 2013 Suwannee River Water Management District (SRWMD) Lidar: Ichetucknee (FL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) dataset is a survey of the Suwannee River G12PD00242 1.0 Meter LiDAR Survey area 2 in north-central Florida and encompasses...

  9. Suwannee River Water Management District Lidar: Falmouth (FL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) dataset is a survey of the Suwannee River G12PD00242 1.0 Meter LiDAR Survey area 5 in north-central Florida and encompasses...

  10. 2013 Suwannee River Water Management District Lidar: Ocean Pond (FL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) dataset is a survey of Suwannee River G13PD00141 1.0 Meter LiDAR Survey Area 3, Classified Point Cloud, in north-central...

  11. Zero-range approximation for two-component boson systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sogo, T.; Fedorov, D.V.; Jensen, A.S.

    2005-01-01

    The hyperspherical adiabatic expansion method is combined with the zero-range approximation to derive angular Faddeev-like equations for two-component boson systems. The angular eigenvalues are solutions to a transcendental equation obtained as a vanishing determinant of a 3 x 3 matrix. The eigenfunctions are linear combinations of Jacobi functions of argument proportional to the distance between pairs of particles. We investigate numerically the influence of two-body correlations on the eigenvalue spectrum, the eigenfunctions and the effective hyperradial potential. Correlations decrease or increase the distance between pairs for effectively attractive or repulsive interactions, respectively. New structures appear for non-identical components. Fingerprints can be found in the nodal structure of the density distributions of the condensates. (author)

  12. NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Smart Materials for Ranging Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Franse, Jaap; Sirenko, Valentyna

    2006-01-01

    The problem of determining the location of an object (usually called ranging) attracts at present much attention in different areas of applications, among them in ecological and safety devices. Electromagnetic waves along with sound waves are widely used for these purposes. Different aspects of materials with specific magnetic, electric and elastic properties are considered in view of potential application in the design and manufacturing of smart materials. Progress is reported in the fabrication and understanding of in-situ formation and characterization of solid state structures with specified properties. Attention is paid to the observation and study of the mobility of magnetic structures and of the kinetics of magnetic ordering transitions. Looking from a different perspective, one of the outcomes of the ARW is the emphasis on the important role that collective phenomena (like spin waves in systems with a magnetically ordered ground state, or critical currents in superconductors) could play at the design ...

  13. Application of Airborne LiDAR Data and Geographic Information Systems (GIS to Develop a Distributed Generation System for the Town of Normal, IL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin H. Jo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Distributed generation allows a variety of small, modular power-generating technologies to be combined with load management and energy storage systems to improve the quality and reliability of our electricity supply. As part of the US Environmental Protection Agency's effort to reduce CO2 emissions from existing power plants by 30% by 2030, distributed generation through solar photovoltaic systems provides a viable option for mitigating the negative impacts of centralized fossil fuel plants. This study conducted a detailed analysis to identify the rooftops in a town in Central Illinois that are suitable for distributed generation solar photovoltaic systems with airborn LiDAR data and to quantify their energy generation potential with an energy performance model. By utilizing the available roof space of the 9,718 buildings in the case study area, a total of 39.27 MW solar photovoltaic systems can provide electrical generation of 53,061 MWh annually. The unique methodology utilized for this assessment of a town's solar potential provides an effective way to invest in a more sustainable energy future and ensure economic stability.

  14. Design and implementation of 3D LIDAR based on pixel-by-pixel scanning and DS-OCDMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gunzung; Eom, Jeongsook; Park, Yongwan

    2017-02-01

    We designed a prototype for testing feasibility of a proposed light detection and ranging (LIDAR) system, which was designed to encode pixel location information in its laser pulses using the direct-sequence optical code division multiple access method in conjunction with a scanning-based microelectromechanical system (MEMS) mirror. The prototype was built using commercial o -the-shelf optical components and development kits. It comprised of an optical modulator, an amplified photodetector, an MEMS mirror development kit, an analog-to-digital converter evaluation module, a digital signal processor with ARM evaluation kit and a Windows personal computer. The prototype LIDAR system has capable of acquiring 120 x 32-pixel images at 5 frames/s. We measured a watering pot to demonstrate the imaging performance of the prototype LIDAR system.

  15. Eye-safe diode laser Doppler lidar with a MEMS beam-scanner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Qi; Pedersen, Christian; Rodrigo, Peter John

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel Doppler lidar that employs a cw diode laser operating at 1.5 μm and a micro-electro-mechanical-system scanning mirror (MEMS-SM). In this work, two functionalities of the lidar system are demonstrated. Firstly, we describe the capability to effectively steer the lidar probe beam...

  16. Raman Lidar for Meteorological Observations, RALMO – Part 1: Instrument description

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Dinoev

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A new Raman lidar for unattended, round-the-clock measurement of vertical water vapor profiles for operational use by the MeteoSwiss has been developed during the past years by the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Lausanne. The lidar uses narrow field-of-view, narrowband configuration, a UV laser, and four 30 cm in diameter mirrors, fiber-coupled to a grating polychromator. The optical design allows water vapor retrieval from the incomplete overlap region without instrument-specific range-dependent corrections. The daytime vertical range covers the mid-troposphere, whereas the nighttime range extends to the tropopause. The near range coverage is extended down to 100 m AGL by the use of an additional fiber in one of the telescopes. This paper describes the system layout and technical realization. Day- and nighttime lidar profiles compared to Vaisala RS92 and Snow White® profiles and a six-day continuous observation are presented as an illustration of the lidar measurement capability.

  17. A Raman lidar at La Reunion (20.8° S, 55.5° E for monitoring water vapour and cirrus distributions in the subtropical upper troposphere: preliminary analyses and description of a future system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Hoareau

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A ground-based Rayleigh lidar has provided continuous observations of tropospheric water vapour profiles and cirrus cloud using a preliminary Raman channels setup on an existing Rayleigh lidar above La Reunion over the period 2002–2005. With this instrument, we performed a first measurement campaign of 350 independent water vapour profiles. A statistical study of the distribution of water vapour profiles is presented and some investigations concerning the calibration are discussed. Analysis regarding the cirrus clouds is presented and a classification has been performed showing 3 distinct classes. Based on these results, the characteristics and the design of a future lidar system, to be implemented at the new Reunion Island altitude observatory (2200 m for long-term monitoring, is presented and numerical simulations of system performance have been realised to compare both instruments.

  18. Satellite lidar and radar: Key components of the future climate observing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winker, D. M.

    2017-12-01

    Cloud feedbacks represent the dominant source of uncertainties in estimates of climate sensitivity and aerosols represent the largest source of uncertainty in climate forcing. Both observation of long-term changes and observational constraints on the processes responsible for those changes are necessary. The existing 30-year record of passive satellite observations has not yet provided constraints to significantly reduce these uncertainties, though. We now have more than a decade of experience with active sensors flying in the A-Train. These new observations have demonstrated the strengths of active sensors and the benefits of continued and more advanced active sensors. This talk will discuss the multiple roles for active sensors as an essential component of a global climate observing system.

  19. Theory and operation of the real-time data acquisition system for the NASA-LaRC differential absorption lidar (DIAL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Carolyn; Spencer, Randall

    1988-01-01

    The improvement of computer hardware and software of the NASA Multipurpose Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) system is documented. The NASA DIAL system has undergone development and experimental deployment at NASA/Langley Res. Center for the remote measurement of atmospheric trace gas concentrations from ground and aircraft platforms. A viable DIAL system was developed capable of remotely measuring O3 and H2O concentrations from an aircraft platform. The DIAL Data Acquisition System (DAS) has undergone a number of improvements also. Due to the participation of the DIAL in the Global Tropospheric Experiment, modifications and improvements of the system were tested and used both in the lab and in air. Therefore, this is an operational manual for the DIAL DAS.

  20. Landforms in Lidar: Building a Catalog of Digital Landforms for Education and Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleber, E.; Crosby, C.; Olds, S. E.; Arrowsmith, R.

    2012-12-01

    Lidar (Light Detection and Ranging) has emerged as a fundamental tool in the earth sciences. The collection of high-resolution lidar topography from an airborne or terrestrial platform allows landscapes and landforms to be spatially represented in at sub-meter resolution and in three dimensions. While the growing availability of lidar has led to numerous new scientific findings, these data also have tremendous value for earth science education. The study of landforms is an essential and basic element of earth science education that helps students to grasp fundamental earth system processes and how they manifest themselves in the world around us. Historically students are introduced to landforms and related processes through diagrams and images seen in earth science textbooks. Lidar data, coupled with free tools such as Google Earth, provide a means to allow students and the interested public to visualize, explore, and interrogate these same landforms in an interactive manner not possible in two-dimensional remotely sensed imagery. The NSF-funded OpenTopography facility hosts data collected for geologic, hydrologic, and biological research, covering a diverse range of landscapes, and thus provides a wealth of data that could be incorporated into educational materials. OpenTopography, in collaboration with UNAVCO, are developing a catalog of classic geologic landforms depicted in lidar. Beginning with textbook-examples of features such as faults and tectonic landforms, dunes, fluvial and glacial geomorphology, and natural hazards such as landslides and volcanoes, the catalog will be an online resource for educators and the interested public. Initially, the landforms will be sourced from pre-existing datasets hosted by OpenTopography. Users will see an image representative of the landform then have the option to download the data in Google Earth KMZ format, as a digital elevation model, or the original lidar point cloud file. By providing the landform in a range of

  1. Coherent Lidar Turbulence Measurement for Gust Load Alleviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogue, Rodney K.; Ehernberger, L. J.; Soreide, David; Bagley, Hal

    1996-01-01

    Atmospheric turbulence adversely affects operation of commercial and military aircraft and is a design constraint. The airplane structure must be designed to survive the loads imposed by turbulence. Reducing these loads allows the airplane structure to be lighter, a substantial advantage for a commercial airplane. Gust alleviation systems based on accelerometers mounted in the airplane can reduce the maximum gust loads by a small fraction. These systems still represent an economic advantage. The ability to reduce the gust load increases tremendously if the turbulent gust can be measured before the airplane encounters it. A lidar system can make measurements of turbulent gusts ahead of the airplane, and the NASA Airborne Coherent Lidar for Advanced In-Flight Measurements (ACLAIM) program is developing such a lidar. The ACLAIM program is intended to develop a prototype lidar system for use in feasibility testing of gust load alleviation systems and other airborne lidar applications, to define applications of lidar with the potential for improving airplane performance, and to determine the feasibility and benefits of these applications. This paper gives an overview of the ACLAIM program, describes the lidar architecture for a gust alleviation system, and describes the prototype ACLAIM lidar system.

  2. Development of Fluorescence Imaging Lidar for Boat-Based Coral Observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasano Masahiko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A fluorescence imaging lidar system installed in a boat-towable buoy has been developed for the observation of reef-building corals. Long-range fluorescent images of the sea bed can be recorded in the daytime with this system. The viability of corals is clear in these fluorescent images because of the innate fluorescent proteins. In this study, the specifications and performance of the system are shown.

  3. Simulation study on detection performance of eye-safe coherent Doppler wind lidar operating near 1.6 μm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Han; Wang, Qing; Na, Quanxin; Gao, Mingwei

    2018-01-01

    Coherent Doppler wind lidars (CDWL) are widely used in aerospace, atmospheric monitoring and other fields. The parameters of laser source such as the wavelength, pulse energy, pulse duration and pulse repetition rate (PRR) have significant influences on the detection performance of wind lidar. We established a simulation model which takes into account the effects of atmospheric transmission, backscatter, atmospheric turbulence and parameters of laser source. The maximum detection range is also calculated under the condition that the velocity estimation accuracy is 0.1 m/s by using this model. We analyzed the differences of the detection performance between two operation systems, which show the high pulse energy-low pulse repetition rate (HPE-LPRR) and low pulse energy-high repetition rate (LPE-HPRR), respectively. We proved our simulation model reliable by using the parameters of two commercial lidar products. This research has important theoretical and practical values for the design of eye-safe coherent Doppler wind lidar.

  4. Optics of the ozone lidar ELSA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porteneuve, J.

    1992-01-01

    In order to study the ozone layer in the Arctic, we have to define a new optical concept for a lidar. It was necessary to build a transportable system with a large collecting surface in a minimum of volume. It was too useful to have a multichannel receptor. A description of the Emettor Receptor System, collecting system, and analysis system is provided.

  5. 2012 NOAA American Samoa Lidar: Islands of Tutuila, Aunu'u, Ofu, Olosega, Ta'u and Rose Atoll

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data is remotely sensed high-resolution elevation data collected by an airborne collection platform. This LiDAR dataset is a...

  6. Demonstration of a diode-laser-based high spectral resolution lidar (HSRL) for quantitative profiling of clouds and aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayman, Matthew; Spuler, Scott

    2017-11-27

    We present a demonstration of a diode-laser-based high spectral resolution lidar. It is capable of performing calibrated retrievals of aerosol and cloud optical properties at a 150 m range resolution with less than 1 minute integration time over an approximate range of 12 km during day and night. This instrument operates at 780 nm, a wavelength that is well established for reliable semiconductor lasers and detectors, and was chosen because it corresponds to the D2 rubidium absorption line. A heated vapor reference cell of isotopic rubidium 87 is used as an effective and reliable aerosol signal blocking filter in the instrument. In principle, the diode-laser-based high spectral resolution lidar can be made cost competitive with elastic backscatter lidar systems, yet delivers a significant improvement in data quality through direct retrieval of quantitative optical properties of clouds and aerosols.

  7. Urban forest topographical mapping using UAV LIDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putut Ash Shidiq, Iqbal; Wibowo, Adi; Kusratmoko, Eko; Indratmoko, Satria; Ardhianto, Ronni; Prasetyo Nugroho, Budi

    2017-12-01

    Topographical data is highly needed by many parties, such as government institution, mining companies and agricultural sectors. It is not just about the precision, the acquisition time and data processing are also carefully considered. In relation with forest management, a high accuracy topographic map is necessary for planning, close monitoring and evaluating forest changes. One of the solution to quickly and precisely mapped topography is using remote sensing system. In this study, we test high-resolution data using Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) collected from unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) to map topography and differentiate vegetation classes based on height in urban forest area of University of Indonesia (UI). The semi-automatic and manual classifications were applied to divide point clouds into two main classes, namely ground and vegetation. There were 15,806,380 point clouds obtained during the post-process, in which 2.39% of it were detected as ground.

  8. Tentative detection of clear-air turbulence using a ground-based Rayleigh lidar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauchecorne, Alain; Cot, Charles; Dalaudier, Francis; Porteneuve, Jacques; Gaudo, Thierry; Wilson, Richard; Cénac, Claire; Laqui, Christian; Keckhut, Philippe; Perrin, Jean-Marie; Dolfi, Agnès; Cézard, Nicolas; Lombard, Laurent; Besson, Claudine

    2016-05-01

    Atmospheric gravity waves and turbulence generate small-scale fluctuations of wind, pressure, density, and temperature in the atmosphere. These fluctuations represent a real hazard for commercial aircraft and are known by the generic name of clear-air turbulence (CAT). Numerical weather prediction models do not resolve CAT and therefore provide only a probability of occurrence. A ground-based Rayleigh lidar was designed and implemented to remotely detect and characterize the atmospheric variability induced by turbulence in vertical scales between 40 m and a few hundred meters. Field measurements were performed at Observatoire de Haute-Provence (OHP, France) on 8 December 2008 and 23 June 2009. The estimate of the mean squared amplitude of bidimensional fluctuations of lidar signal showed excess compared to the estimated contribution of the instrumental noise. This excess can be attributed to atmospheric turbulence with a 95% confidence level. During the first night, data from collocated stratosphere-troposphere (ST) radar were available. Altitudes of the turbulent layers detected by the lidar were roughly consistent with those of layers with enhanced radar echo. The derived values of turbulence parameters Cn2 or CT2 were in the range of those published in the literature using ST radar data. However, the detection was at the limit of the instrumental noise and additional measurement campaigns are highly desirable to confirm these initial results. This is to our knowledge the first successful attempt to detect CAT in the free troposphere using an incoherent Rayleigh lidar system. The built lidar device may serve as a test bed for the definition of embarked CAT detection lidar systems aboard airliners.

  9. Advances in High Energy Solid-State Pulsed 2-Micron Lidar Development for Ground and Airborne Wind, Water Vapor and CO2 Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Upendra N.; Yu, Jirong; Petros, Mulugeta; Refaat, Tamer; Kavaya, Michael J.; Remus, Ruben

    2015-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center has a long history of developing 2-micron lasers. From fundamental spectroscopy research, theoretical prediction of new materials, laser demonstration and engineering of lidar systems, it has been a very successful program spanning around two decades. Successful development of 2-micron lasers has led to development of a state-of-the-art compact lidar transceiver for a pulsed coherent Doppler lidar system for wind measurement with an unprecedented laser pulse energy of 250 millijoules in a rugged package. This high pulse energy is produced by a Ho:Tm:LuLiF laser with an optical amplifier. While the lidar is meant for use as an airborne instrument, ground-based tests were carried out to characterize performance of the lidar. Atmospheric measurements will be presented, showing the lidar's capability for wind measurement in the atmospheric boundary layer and free troposphere. Lidar wind measurements are compared to a balloon sonde, showing good agreement between the two sensors. Similar architecture has been used to develop a high energy, Ho:Tm:YLF double-pulsed 2-micron Integrated Differential Absorption Lidar (IPDA) instrument based on direct detection technique that provides atmospheric column CO2 measurements. This instrument has been successfully used to measure atmospheric CO2 column density initially from a ground mobile lidar trailer, and then it was integrated on B-200 plane and 20 hours of flight measurement were made from an altitude ranging 1500 meters to 8000 meters. These measurements were compared to in-situ measurements and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) airborne flask measurement to derive the dry mixing ratio of the column CO2 by reflecting the signal by various reflecting surfaces such as land, vegetation, ocean surface, snow and sand. The lidar measurements when compared showed a very agreement with in-situ and airborne flask measurement. NASA Langley Research Center is currently developing a

  10. Multispectral LiDAR Data for Land Cover Classification of Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salem Morsy

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Airborne Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR systems usually operate at a monochromatic wavelength measuring the range and the strength of the reflected energy (intensity from objects. Recently, multispectral LiDAR sensors, which acquire data at different wavelengths, have emerged. This allows for recording of a diversity of spectral reflectance from objects. In this context, we aim to investigate the use of multispectral LiDAR data in land cover classification using two different techniques. The first is image-based classification, where intensity and height images are created from LiDAR points and then a maximum likelihood classifier is applied. The second is point-based classification, where ground filtering and Normalized Difference Vegetation Indices (NDVIs computation are conducted. A dataset of an urban area located in Oshawa, Ontario, Canada, is classified into four classes: buildings, trees, roads and grass. An overall accuracy of up to 89.9% and 92.7% is achieved from image classification and 3D point classification, respectively. A radiometric correction model is also applied to the intensity data in order to remove the attenuation due to the system distortion and terrain height variation. The classification process is then repeated, and the results demonstrate that there are no significant improvements achieved in the overall accuracy.

  11. Multispectral LiDAR Data for Land Cover Classification of Urban Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsy, Salem; Shaker, Ahmed; El-Rabbany, Ahmed

    2017-04-26

    Airborne Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) systems usually operate at a monochromatic wavelength measuring the range and the strength of the reflected energy (intensity) from objects. Recently, multispectral LiDAR sensors, which acquire data at different wavelengths, have emerged. This allows for recording of a diversity of spectral reflectance from objects. In this context, we aim to investigate the use of multispectral LiDAR data in land cover classification using two different techniques. The first is image-based classification, where intensity and height images are created from LiDAR points and then a maximum likelihood classifier is applied. The second is point-based classification, where ground filtering and Normalized Difference Vegetation Indices (NDVIs) computation are conducted. A dataset of an urban area located in Oshawa, Ontario, Canada, is classified into four classes: buildings, trees, roads and grass. An overall accuracy of up to 89.9% and 92.7% is achieved from image classification and 3D point classification, respectively. A radiometric correction model is also applied to the intensity data in order to remove the attenuation due to the system distortion and terrain height variation. The classification process is then repeated, and the results demonstrate that there are no significant improvements achieved in the overall accuracy.

  12. Analysis of elevation changes detected from multi-temporal LiDAR surveys in forested landslide terrain in western Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, W.J.; Coe, J.A.; Kaya, B.S.; Ma, Liwang

    2010-01-01

    We examined elevation changes detected from two successive sets of Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data in the northern Coast Range of Oregon. The first set of LiDAR data was acquired during leafon conditions and the second set during leaf-off conditions. We were able to successfully identify and map active landslides using a differential digital elevation model (DEM) created from the two LiDAR data sets, but this required the use of thresholds (0.50 and 0.75 m) to remove noise from the differential elevation data, visual pattern recognition of landslideinduced elevation changes, and supplemental QuickBird satellite imagery. After mapping, we field-verified 88 percent of the landslides that we had mapped with high confidence, but we could not detect active landslides with elevation changes of less than 0.50 m. Volumetric calculations showed that a total of about 18,100 m3 of material was missing from landslide areas, probably as a result of systematic negative elevation errors in the differential DEM and as a result of removal of material by erosion and transport. We also examined the accuracies of 285 leaf-off LiDAR elevations at four landslide sites using Global Positioning System and total station surveys. A comparison of LiDAR and survey data indicated an overall root mean square error of 0.50 m, a maximum error of 2.21 m, and a systematic error of 0.09 m. LiDAR ground-point densities were lowest in areas with young conifer forests and deciduous vegetation, which resulted in extensive interpolations of elevations in the leaf-on, bare-earth DEM. For optimal use of multi-temporal LiDAR data in forested areas, we recommend that all data sets be flown during leaf-off seasons.

  13. Separation of Ground and Low Vegetation Signatures in LiDAR Measurements of Salt-Marsh Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, C.; Menenti, M.; Stoll, M.P.; Feola, A.; Belluco, E.; Marani, M.

    2009-01-01

    Light detection and ranging (LiDAR) has been shown to have a great potential in the accurate characterization of forest systems; however, its application to salt-marsh environments is challenging because the characteristic short vegetation does not give rise to detectable differences between first

  14. Geomorphological evolution of landslides near an active normal fault in northern Taiwan, as revealed by lidar and unmanned aircraft system data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Kuo-Jen; Chan, Yu-Chang; Chen, Rou-Fei; Hsieh, Yu-Chung

    2018-03-01

    Several remote sensing techniques, namely traditional aerial photographs, an unmanned aircraft system (UAS), and airborne lidar, were used in this study to decipher the morphological features of obscure landslides in volcanic regions and how the observed features may be used for understanding landslide occurrence and potential hazard. A morphological reconstruction method was proposed to assess landslide morphology based on the dome-shaped topography of the volcanic edifice and the nature of its morphological evolution. Two large-scale landslides in the Tatun volcano group in northern Taiwan were targeted to more accurately characterize the landslide morphology through airborne lidar and UAS-derived digital terrain models and images. With the proposed reconstruction method, the depleted volume of the two landslides was estimated to be at least 820 ± 20 × 106 m3. Normal faulting in the region likely played a role in triggering the two landslides, because there are extensive geological and historical records of an active normal fault in this region. The subsequent geomorphological evolution of the two landslides is thus inferred to account for the observed morphological and tectonic features that are indicative of resulting in large and life-threatening landslides, as characterized using the recent remote sensing techniques.

  15. Inter-comparison of lidar and ceilometer retrievals for aerosol and Planetary Boundary Layer profiling over Athens, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Tsaknakis

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study presents an inter-comparison of two active remote sensors (lidar and ceilometer to determine the mixing layer height and structure of the Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL and to retrieve tropospheric aerosol vertical profiles over Athens, Greece. This inter-comparison was performed under various strongly different aerosol loads/types (urban air pollution, biomass burning and Saharan dust event, implementing two different lidar systems (one portable Raymetrics S.A. lidar system running at 355 nm and one multi-wavelength Raman lidar system running at 355 nm, 532 nm and 1064 nm and one CL31 Vaisala S.A. ceilometer (running at 910 nm. Spectral conversions of the ceilometer's data were performed using the Ångström exponent estimated by ultraviolet multi-filter radiometer (UV-MFR measurements. The inter-comparison was based on two parameters: the mixing layer height determined by the presence of the suspended aerosols and the attenuated backscatter coefficient. Additionally, radiosonde data were used to derive the PBL height. In general, a good agreement was found between the ceilometer and the lidar techniques in both inter-compared parameters in the height range from 500 m to 5000 m, while the limitations of each instrument are also examined.

  16. Measuring the In-Process Figure, Final Prescription, and System Alignment of Large Optics and Segmented Mirrors Using Lidar Metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohl, Raymond; Slotwinski, Anthony; Eegholm, Bente; Saif, Babak

    2011-01-01

    The fabrication of large optics is traditionally a slow process, and fabrication capability is often limited by measurement capability. W hile techniques exist to measure mirror figure with nanometer precis ion, measurements of large-mirror prescription are typically limited to submillimeter accuracy. Using a lidar instrument enables one to measure the optical surface rough figure and prescription in virtuall y all phases of fabrication without moving the mirror from its polis hing setup. This technology improves the uncertainty of mirror presc ription measurement to the micron-regime.

  17. 2003 Oahu Coastline Lidar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — LIDAR data is remotely sensed high-resolution elevation data collected by an airborne collection platform. Using a combination of laser rangefinding, GPS positioning...

  18. Lidar 2009 - All Returns

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — LIDAR-derived binary (.las) files containing classified points of all returns. We have 3 classifications Unclassified, Ground, Low points. The average Ground Sample...

  19. KML-Based Access and Visualization of High Resolution LiDAR Topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, C. J.; Blair, J. L.; Nandigam, V.; Memon, A.; Baru, C.; Arrowsmith, J. R.

    2008-12-01

    Over the past decade, there has been dramatic growth in the acquisition of LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) high-resolution topographic data for earth science studies. Capable of providing digital elevation models (DEMs) more than an order of magnitude higher resolution than those currently available, LiDAR data allow earth scientists to study the processes that contribute to landscape evolution at resolutions not previously possible yet essential for their appropriate representation. These datasets also have significant implications for earth science education and outreach because they provide an accurate representation of landforms and geologic hazards. Unfortunately, the massive volume of data produced by LiDAR mapping technology can be a barrier to their use. To make these data available to a larger user community, we have been exploring the use of Keyhole Markup Language (KML) and Google Earth to provide access to LiDAR data products and visualizations. LiDAR digital elevation models are typically delivered in a tiled format that lends itself well to a KML-based distribution system. For LiDAR datasets hosted in the GEON OpenTopography Portal (www.opentopography.org) we have developed KML files that show the extent of available LiDAR DEMs and provide direct access to the data products. Users interact with these KML files to explore the extent of the available data and are able to select DEMs that correspond to their area of interest. Selection of a tile loads a download that the user can then save locally for analysis in their software of choice. The GEON topography system also has tools available that allow users to generate custom DEMs from LiDAR point cloud data. This system is powerful because it enables users to access massive volumes of raw LiDAR data and to produce DEM products that are optimized to their science applications. We have developed a web service that converts the custom DEM models produced by the system to a hillshade that is delivered to

  20. Installation report - Lidar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgieva Yankova, Ginka; Villanueva, Héctor

    The report describes the installation, configuration and data transfer for the ground-based lidar. The unit is provided by a customer but is installed and operated by DTU while in this project.......The report describes the installation, configuration and data transfer for the ground-based lidar. The unit is provided by a customer but is installed and operated by DTU while in this project....

  1. An Observing System Simulation Experiment (OSSE to Assess the Impact of Doppler Wind Lidar (DWL Measurements on the Numerical Simulation of a Tropical Cyclone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of wind observations has been recognized for many years. However, wind observations—especially three-dimensional global wind measurements—are very limited. A satellite-based Doppler Wind Lidar (DWL is proposed to measure three-dimensional wind profiles using remote sensing techniques. Assimilating these observations into a mesoscale model is expected to improve the performance of the numerical weather prediction (NWP models. In order to examine the potential impact of the DWL three-dimensional wind profile observations on the numerical simulation and prediction of tropical cyclones, a set of observing simulation system experiments (OSSEs is performed using the advanced research version of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model and its three-dimensional variational (3DVAR data assimilation system. Results indicate that assimilating the DWL wind observations into the mesoscale numerical model has significant potential for improving tropical cyclone track and intensity forecasts.

  2. A Robust Gold Deconvolution Approach for LiDAR Waveform Data Processing to Characterize Vegetation Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, T.; Popescu, S. C.; Krause, K.; Sheridan, R.; Ku, N. W.

    2014-12-01

    Increasing attention has been paid in the remote sensing community to the next generation Light Detection and Ranging (lidar) waveform data systems for extracting information on topography and the vertical structure of vegetation. However, processing waveform lidar data raises some challenges compared to analyzing discrete return data. The overall goal of this study was to present a robust de-convolution algorithm- Gold algorithm used to de-convolve waveforms in a lidar dataset acquired within a 60 x 60m study area located in the Harvard Forest in Massachusetts. The waveform lidar data was collected by the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON). Specific objectives were to: (1) explore advantages and limitations of various waveform processing techniques to derive topography and canopy height information; (2) develop and implement a novel de-convolution algorithm, the Gold algorithm, to extract elevation and canopy metrics; and (3) compare results and assess accuracy. We modeled lidar waveforms with a mixture of Gaussian functions using the Non-least squares (NLS) algorithm implemented in R and derived a Digital Terrain Model (DTM) and canopy height. We compared our waveform-derived topography and canopy height measurements using the Gold de-convolution algorithm to results using the Richardson-Lucy algorithm. Our findings show that the Gold algorithm performed better than the Richardson-Lucy algorithm in terms of recovering the hidden echoes and detecting false echoes for generating a DTM, which indicates that the Gold algorithm could potentially be applied to processing of waveform lidar data to derive information on terrain elevation and canopy characteristics.

  3. Automatic extraction of pavement markings on streets from point cloud data of mobile LiDAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Yang; Zhong, Ruofei; Liu, Xianlin; Tang, Tao; Wang, Liuzhao

    2017-01-01

    Pavement markings provide an important foundation as they help to keep roads users safe. Accurate and comprehensive information about pavement markings assists the road regulators and is useful in developing driverless technology. Mobile light detection and ranging (LiDAR) systems offer new opportunities to collect and process accurate pavement markings’ information. Mobile LiDAR systems can directly obtain the three-dimensional (3D) coordinates of an object, thus defining spatial data and the intensity of (3D) objects in a fast and efficient way. The RGB attribute information of data points can be obtained based on the panoramic camera in the system. In this paper, we present a novel method process to automatically extract pavement markings using multiple attribute information of the laser scanning point cloud from the mobile LiDAR data. This method process utilizes a differential grayscale of RGB color, laser pulse reflection intensity, and the differential intensity to identify and extract pavement markings. We utilized point cloud density to remove the noise and used morphological operations to eliminate the errors. In the application, we tested our method process on different sections of roads in Beijing, China, and Buffalo, NY, USA. The results indicated that both correctness ( p ) and completeness ( r ) were higher than 90%. The method process of this research can be applied to extract pavement markings from huge point cloud data produced by mobile LiDAR. (paper)

  4. The study on the lidar's detection limit for Iodine Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong-lyul; Baik, Seung-Hoon; Park, Seung-Kyu; Park, Nak-Gyu; Ahn, Yong-Jin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    A powerful and reliable tool for range-resolved remote sensing of gas concentrations that has proven its capabilities in a variety of studies is the differential absorption lidar (DIAL). Differential absorption lidar (DIAL) is frequently used for atmospheric gas monitoring to detect impurities such as nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, iodine, and ozone. DIAL can measure air pollutant concentrations with a high spatial resolution by adopting two laser systems with different degrees of absorption between the two different wavelengths. The absorption of the reference wavelength is very weak, while the absorption of the other wavelength is very strong. In this paper, we measured the limit of detection capability of our designed DIAL system. The DIAL measurements were performed using a target iodine cell in the laboratory. We confirmed that the concentration of iodine gas ratio increased after the laser passed through the iodine cell. The system of DIAL(Differential Absorption Lidar) was effective to detect the iodine gas. We obtained the signals from the iodine target cell and the lidar signal from the iodine target cell was proportional to frequency locking ratios.

  5. Automatic extraction of pavement markings on streets from point cloud data of mobile LiDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yang; Zhong, Ruofei; Tang, Tao; Wang, Liuzhao; Liu, Xianlin

    2017-08-01

    Pavement markings provide an important foundation as they help to keep roads users safe. Accurate and comprehensive information about pavement markings assists the road regulators and is useful in developing driverless technology. Mobile light detection and ranging (LiDAR) systems offer new opportunities to collect and process accurate pavement markings’ information. Mobile LiDAR systems can directly obtain the three-dimensional (3D) coordinates of an object, thus defining spatial data and the intensity of (3D) objects in a fast and efficient way. The RGB attribute information of data points can be obtained based on the panoramic camera in the system. In this paper, we present a novel method process to automatically extract pavement markings using multiple attribute information of the laser scanning point cloud from the mobile LiDAR data. This method process utilizes a differential grayscale of RGB color, laser pulse reflection intensity, and the differential intensity to identify and extract pavement markings. We utilized point cloud density to remove the noise and used morphological operations to eliminate the errors. In the application, we tested our method process on different sections of roads in Beijing, China, and Buffalo, NY, USA. The results indicated that both correctness (p) and completeness (r) were higher than 90%. The method process of this research can be applied to extract pavement markings from huge point cloud data produced by mobile LiDAR.

  6. Complex Urban LiDAR Data Set

    OpenAIRE

    Jeong, Jinyong; Cho, Younggun; Shin, Young-Sik; Roh, Hyunchul; Kim, Ayoung

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data set that targets complex urban environments. Urban environments with high-rise buildings and congested traffic pose a significant challenge for many robotics applications. The presented data set is unique in the sense it is able to capture the genuine features of an urban environment (e.g. metropolitan areas, large building complexes and underground parking lots). Data of two-dimensional (2D) and threedimensional (3D) LiDAR, which...

  7. Assessment of the CALIPSO Lidar 532 nm attenuated backscatter calibration using the NASA LaRC airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. R. Rogers

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP instrument on the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO spacecraft has provided global, high-resolution vertical profiles of aerosols and clouds since it became operational on 13 June 2006. On 14 June 2006, the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL was deployed aboard the NASA Langley B-200 aircraft for the first of a series of 86 underflights of the CALIPSO satellite to provide validation measurements for the CALIOP data products. To better assess the range of conditions under which CALIOP data products are produced, these validation flights were conducted under both daytime and nighttime lighting conditions, in multiple seasons, and over a large range of latitudes and aerosol and cloud conditions. This paper presents a quantitative assessment of the CALIOP 532 nm calibration (through the 532 nm total attenuated backscatter using internally calibrated airborne HSRL underflight data and is the most extensive study of CALIOP 532 nm calibration. Results show that HSRL and CALIOP 532 nm total attenuated backscatter agree on average within 2.7% ± 2.1% (CALIOP lower at night and within 2.9% ± 3.9% (CALIOP lower during the day, demonstrating the accuracy of the CALIOP 532 nm calibration algorithms. Additionally, comparisons with HSRL show consistency of the CALIOP calibration before and after the laser switch in 2009 as well as improvements in the daytime version 3.01 calibration scheme compared with the version 2 calibration scheme. Potential biases and uncertainties in the methodology relevant to validating satellite lidar measurements with an airborne lidar system are discussed and found to be less than 4.5% ± 3.2% for this validation effort with HSRL. Results from this study are also compared with prior assessments of the CALIOP 532 nm attenuated backscatter calibration.

  8. Lidar mapping of atmospheric atomic mercury in the Wanshan area, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Ming; Shang, Lihai; Duan, Zheng; Li, Yiyun; Zhao, Guangyu; Zhu, Shiming; Qiu, Guangle; Meng, Bo; Sommar, Jonas; Feng, Xinbin; Svanberg, Sune

    2018-05-08

    A novel mobile laser radar system was used for mapping gaseous atomic mercury (Hg 0 ) atmospheric pollution in the Wanshan district, south of Tongren City, Guizhou Province, China. This area is heavily impacted by legacy mercury from now abandoned mining activities. Differential absorption lidar measurements were supplemented by localized point monitoring using a Lumex RA-915M Zeeman modulation mercury analyzer. Range-resolved concentration measurements in different directions were performed. Concentrations in the lower atmospheric layers often exceeded levels of 100 ng/m 3 for March conditions with temperature ranging from 5 °C to 20 °C. A flux measurement of Hg 0 over a vertical cross section of 0.12 km 2 resulted in about 29 g/h. Vertical lidar sounding at night revealed quickly falling Hg 0 concentrations with height. This is the first lidar mapping demonstration in a heavily mercury-polluted area in China, illustrating the lidar potential in complementing point monitors. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. UAV-borne lidar with MEMS mirror-based scanning capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasturi, Abhishek; Milanovic, Veljko; Atwood, Bryan H.; Yang, James

    2016-05-01

    Firstly, we demonstrated a wirelessly controlled MEMS scan module with imaging and laser tracking capability which can be mounted and flown on a small UAV quadcopter. The MEMS scan module was reduced down to a small volume of smartphone via Bluetooth while flying on a drone, and could project vector content, text, and perform laser based tracking. Also, a "point-and-range" LiDAR module was developed for UAV applications based on low SWaP (Size, Weight and Power) gimbal-less MEMS mirror beam-steering technology and off-the-shelf OEM LRF modules. For demonstration purposes of an integrated laser range finder module, we used a simple off-the-shelf OEM laser range finder (LRF) with a 100m range, +/-1.5mm accuracy, and 4Hz ranging capability. The LRFs receiver optics were modified to accept 20° of angle, matching the transmitter's FoR. A relatively large (5.0mm) diameter MEMS mirror with +/-10° optical scanning angle was utilized in the demonstration to maintain the small beam divergence of the module. The complete LiDAR prototype can fit into a small volume of battery. The MEMS mirror based LiDAR system allows for ondemand ranging of points or areas within the FoR without altering the UAV's position. Increasing the LRF ranging frequency and stabilizing the pointing of the laser beam by utilizing the onboard inertial sensors and the camera are additional goals of the next design.

  10. 2009 PSLC-USGS Topographic LiDAR: Wenatchee

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Watershed Sciences, Inc. (WS) collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data of the Wenatchee USGS area of interest (AOI) east of Wenatchee, WA on May 1nd - May...

  11. 2007 FEMA New Jersey Flood Mitigation Lidar: Gloucester County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — LIDAR data is remotely sensed high-resolution elevation data collected by an airborne collection platform. By positioning laser range finding with the use of 1...

  12. 2010 ARRA Lidar: California Coastal Project (Zone 4)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The primary purpose of this project was to develop a consistent and accurate surface elevation dataset derived from high-accuracy Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR)...

  13. 2005 Southwest Florida Water Management District (SWFWMD) Lidar: Manatee District

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) LAS dataset is a survey of select areas within Southwest Florida. These data were produced for the Southwest Florida Water...

  14. 2010 ARRA Lidar: California Coastal Project (Zone 3)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The primary purpose of this project was to develop a consistent and accurate surface elevation dataset derived from high-accuracy Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR)...

  15. 2006 Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Lidar: Nueces County, Texas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spectrum Mapping, LLC was tasked by MAPVI - URS Corporation, Albuquergue, to provide airborne Light Detection and Ranging (Lidar) of approximately 620 square miles...

  16. 2006 FEMA New Jersey Flood Mitigation Lidar: Middlesex County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — LIDAR data is remotely sensed high-resolution elevation data collected by an airborne collection platform. By positioning laser range finding with the use of 1...

  17. 2011 MDEQ Tennessee-Tombigbee Waterway Lidar Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collect and deliver high-density elevation point data derived from multiple-return light detection and ranging (LiDAR) measurements for use in supporting topographic...

  18. Evaluating lidar point densities for effective estimation of aboveground biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhuoting; Dye, Dennis G.; Stoker, Jason M.; Vogel, John M.; Velasco, Miguel G.; Middleton, Barry R.

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) was recently established to provide airborne lidar data coverage on a national scale. As part of a broader research effort of the USGS to develop an effective remote sensing-based methodology for the creation of an operational biomass Essential Climate Variable (Biomass ECV) data product, we evaluated the performance of airborne lidar data at various pulse densities against Landsat 8 satellite imagery in estimating above ground biomass for forests and woodlands in a study area in east-central Arizona, U.S. High point density airborne lidar data, were randomly sampled to produce five lidar datasets with reduced densities ranging from 0.5 to 8 point(s)/m2, corresponding to the point density range of 3DEP to provide national lidar coverage over time. Lidar-derived aboveground biomass estimate errors showed an overall decreasing trend as lidar point density increased from 0.5 to 8 points/m2. Landsat 8-based aboveground biomass estimates produced errors larger than the lowest lidar point density of 0.5 point/m2, and therefore Landsat 8 observations alone were ineffective relative to airborne lidar for generating a Biomass ECV product, at least for the forest and woodland vegetation types of the Southwestern U.S. While a national Biomass ECV product with optimal accuracy could potentially be achieved with 3DEP data at 8 points/m2, our results indicate that even lower density lidar data could be sufficient to provide a national Biomass ECV product with accuracies significantly higher than that from Landsat observations alone.

  19. Lidar for Wind and Optical Turbulence Profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fastig Shlomo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A field campaign for the comparison investigation of systems to measure wind and optical turbulence profiles was conducted in northern Germany. The experimental effort was to compare the performance of the LIDAR, SODAR-RASS and ultrasonic anemometers for the measurement of the above mentioned atmospheric parameters. Soreq's LIDAR is a fiber laser based system demonstrator for the vertical profiling of the wind and turbulence, based on the correlation of aerosol density variations. It provides measurements up to 350m with 20m resolution.

  20. Atmospheric lidar: Legal, scientific and technological aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbini, R.; Colao, F.; Fiorani, L.; Palucci, A.

    2000-01-01

    The Atmospheric Lidar is one of the systems of the Mobile Laboratory of Laser Remote Sensing under development at the ENEA Research Center of Frascati. This technical report addresses the legislative, scientific and technological aspects that are the basis for the identification of the requirements, the definition of the architecture and the fixation of the specifications of the Atmospheric Lidar. The problems of air pollution are introduced in section 2. A summary of the Italian laws on that topic is then given. Section 4 provides a survey of the atmospheric measurements that can be achieved with the lidar. The sensitivity in the monitoring of pollutants is discussed in section 5. The other systems of the Mobile Laboratory of Laser Remote Sensing are shortly described in section 6. The last section is devoted to conclusions and perspectives [it