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Sample records for ranging helmeted guinea

  1. Confinement lowers fertility rate of helmeted guinea fowl ( Numida ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Guinea fowl is a common game bird in Africa and there have been efforts to domesticate it for use as a source of human food. An important obstacle in successful domestication of guinea fowl is their low fertility rate.We studied the effects of semi-confinement on the fertility rates of helmeted guinea fowl by comparing egg ...

  2. Mitochondrial DNA variation of Nigerian domestic helmeted guinea fowl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeola, Adeniyi C; Ommeh, Sheila C; Murphy, Robert W; Wu, Shi-Fang; Peng, Min-Sheng; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2015-10-01

    We analyzed genetic diversity of 215 mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop sequences from seven populations of domesticated helmeted guinea fowl (Numida meleagris) in Nigeria and compared that with results of samples collected in Kenya (n = 4) and China (n = 22). In total, 241 sequences were assigned to 22 distinct haplotypes. Haplotype diversity in Nigeria was 0.693 ± 0.022. The network grouped most matrilines into two main haplogroups: A and B. There was an absence of a geographic signal, and two haplotypes dominated across all locations with the exception of the Kebbi population in the northwest of the country; AMOVA also confirmed this observation (FST  = 0.035). The low genetic diversity may be a result of recent domestication, whereas the lack of maternal genetic structure likely suggests the extensive genetic intermixing within the country. Additionally, the differentiation of the Kebbi population may be due to a certain demographic history and/or artificial selection that shaped its haplotype profile. The current data do not permit us to make further conclusions; therefore, more research evidence from genetics and archaeology is still required. © 2015 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  3. Physical and chemical properties of meat from scavenging chickens and helmeted guinea fowls in response to age and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musundire, M T; Halimani, T E; Chimonyo, M

    2017-08-01

    1. The effects of age and sex on body weight, carcass traits, physical and chemical properties of breast muscle from chickens and helmeted guinea fowls managed under village free-range conditions were assessed in random samples of 48 guinea fowls and 48 chickens obtained from local markets. 2. Guinea fowls had higher body weight, hot carcass weight, cold dressed weight and breast weight than chickens. 3. Guinea fowls had more dry matter, protein and less fat than chickens. Ash content did not differ between guinea fowls and chickens. Protein and fat increased, whereas dry matter and ash decreased with age (P Chicken meat was lighter, less red and more yellow than guinea fowl meat. Cooking loss was higher in guinea fowls, male and grower birds than chickens, females and adult birds, respectively. Shear force was affected by age, as mature birds had a higher value than growers. 5. Guinea fowl carcasses contained more meat that was leaner, higher in protein and redder compared with chicken meat. As age increased the meat increased in protein and fat content and shear force, whereas colour became darker, redder and yellower.

  4. Detection of rotavirus VP7 gene in helmeted guinea fowls and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Guinea fowls (Numidea meleagris) and Japanese quails (Coturnix corturnix japonica) serve as source of income to the rural house-hold where they are raised in backyards. A total of 100 fecal samples from Guinea fowls (50) and Japanese quails (50) from different locations in Ogun state were collected and analyzed using ...

  5. Population status, feeding ecology and activity pattern of helmeted ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tedi

    2013-01-07

    breasted guinea fowl, helmeted guinea fowl, plumed guinea fowl, crested guinea fowl and vulturine guinea fowl. Crowe (2000), used a simple classification of Numida meleagris involve-ing nine well- marked subspecies, which ...

  6. Vaccination with Trypanosoma rangeli induces resistance of guinea pigs to virulent Trypanosoma cruzi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, B; Moretti, E; Fretes, R

    2014-01-15

    Chagas' disease, endemic in Latin America, is spread in natural environments through animal reservoirs, including marsupials, mice and guinea pigs. Farms breeding guinea pigs for food are located in some Latin-American countries with consequent risk of digestive infection. The aim of this work was to study the effect of vaccination with Trypanosoma rangeli in guinea pigs challenged with Trypanosoma cruzi. Animals were vaccinated with fixated epimastigotes of T. rangeli, emulsified with saponin. Controls received only PBS. Before being challenged with T. cruzi, parasitemia, survival rates and histological studies were performed. The vaccinated guinea pigs revealed significantly lower parasitemia than controls (pguinea pigs and dogs. The development of vaccines for use in animals, like domestic dogs and guinea pigs in captivity, opens up new opportunities for preventive tools, and could reduce the risk of infection with T. cruzi in the community. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Sports helmets now and in the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Andrew Stuart; Andersen, Thor Einar; Bahr, Roald; Greenwald, Richard; Kleiven, Svein; Turner, Michael; Varese, Massimo; McCrory, Paul

    2011-12-01

    The paper reports on a symposium on sports helmets and presents a synthesis of information and opinion from a range of presenters and disciplines. A review of the literature shows that helmets play an important role in head injury prevention and control. Helmets have been shown to be very efficacious and effective in a range of sports and in preventing specific head injury risks, especially moderate to severe head injury. The symposium emphasised the importance of helmet standards and the need for further development. There are calls for helmets that address the needs of competitive (elite) athletes separate to helmets for recreational athletes. Deficiencies in the evidence base for head injury risks and helmet efficacy and effectiveness were identified in some sports. Issues in designing helmets that are suitable to prevent severe head injuries and concussion were discussed and explained from biomechanical and engineering perspectives. The need to evaluate helmet performance in oblique impacts and incorporate this into standards was covered in a number of presentations. There are emerging opportunities with in-helmet technology to improve impact performance or to measure impact exposure. In-helmet technology as it matures may provide critical information on the severity of the impact, the location of the injured athlete, for example, snowboarder, and assist in the retrieval and immediate, as well as the long-term medical management of the athlete. It was identified that athletes, families and sports organisations can benefit from access to information on helmet performance. The importance of selecting the appropriate-sized helmet and ensuring that the helmet and visor were adjusted and restrained optimally was emphasised. The translation pathway from the science to new and better helmets is the development of appropriate helmet standards and the requirement for only helmets to be used that are certified to those standards.

  8. Effect of production system (barn and free range) and slaughter age on some production traits of guinea fowl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamak, U S; Sarica, M; Boz, M A; Ucar, A

    2018-01-01

    A total of 200 guinea fowl was reared in either barn or free-range systems and slaughtered at 14, 16, or 18 wk of age in order to determine the effects of production system on live weight, feed consumption, and some carcass and slaughter traits. Production system had a significant effect on live weight until 14 wk of age. Live weights were similar between free-range and indoor production systems at 16 (1,150 g vs. 1,152 g) and 18 (1,196 g vs. 1,203 g) wk of age. Guinea fowl reared in a free-range system consumed more feed (7,693 g vs. 6,983 g), and guinea fowl reared in a barn had better feed conversion ratio (5.80 vs. 6.43) (P slaughter age did not affect the dressing percentage. Guinea fowl reared in a free-range system had significantly less abdominal fat (P < 0.05). © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  9. Environmental change and fire in the Owen Stanley Ranges, Papua New Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, Geoffrey

    2009-11-01

    Kosipe, an upland valley at 2000 m altitude in the Owen Stanley Ranges of southeastern New Guinea, is known for the discovery of large stone waisted blades dated to 31 400 cal a BP. The purpose of these tools and the nature of occupation are unknown. The altitude is too high for most food crops today and may have stood close to the treeline during the last glaciation. Three pollen and charcoal diagrams from a large swamp in the Kosipe Valley provide a record of swamp and dryland changes for more than 50 000 years. There have been considerable fluctuations in vegetation on the slopes and on the swamp which reflect both environmental change and anthropogenic influences. A gymnosperm-rich forest at the base is replaced by mountain forest dominated by Nothofagus about 42 000 years ago. Fire first becomes apparent across the swamp around 40 000 years ago but is not common during the time when subalpine herbs reach their best representation. Tree fern-rich grasslands form a mosaic with montane forest in a near-treeline environment. The Pleistocene-Holocene boundary is marked by a decline in Nothofagus and increase in lower montane mixed forest taxa. Charcoal increases before this time and the swamp vegetation becomes more grass-rich. Charcoal is at its maximum through the last 3000 years possibly reflecting climate variability as well as sedentary occupation and agriculture on the swamp margin. Supplementary pollen diagrams from two higher altitude sites support the evidence from the Kosipe Swamp cores. Charcoal, local catchment erosion and increases in disturbance taxa become more widespread in the last 5000 years at these sites, suggesting that local settlement at Kosipe may have lagged behind general landscape use by populations from lower altitudes.

  10. Health assessment of free-ranging and captive Matschie's tree kangaroos (Dendrolagus matschiei) in Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, Erika K; Watson, Patricia; Dabek, Lisa

    2012-03-01

    Medical evaluations were performed on free-ranging and captive Matschie's tree kangaroos (Dendrolagus matschiei) in Papua New Guinea. The health assessment included physical examination, morphometrics, cloacal swab; and blood, hair, and feces collection. Radio-collars were placed on free-ranging tree kangaroos to determine home range and forest habitat use. The free-ranging tree kangaroos were lightly anesthetized with tiletamine/zolazepam for the data collection. A total of nine free-ranging and seven captive tree kangaroos were evaluated; medical samples were collected from six and five animals, respectively. Results of physical examination, anesthetic monitoring, serum vitamin, mineral, trace nutrient, and electrolytes, whole blood heavy metal analysis, mycobacterial screening, and fecal examinations are presented. Free-ranging tree kangaroos had significantly lower values for beta carotene, copper, selenium, molybdenum, lead, and arsenic and significantly higher values for vitamin E than captive individuals. Cloacal swabs were all negative for Mycobacterium avium via polymerase chain reaction. Some free-ranging and captive individuals had positive coprologic exams revealing Eimeria spp. oocysts and strongyle spp. type ova. These are the first medical and anesthetic data published on Matschie's tree kangaroos from Papua New Guinea.

  11. Motorcycle helmet use laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) encourages States to enact legislation that requires all motorcycle riders to wear helmets. Motorcycle helmets provide the best protection from head injury for motorcyclists involved in traff...

  12. Helmets: conventional to cueing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedillo, Michael R.; Dixon, Sharon A.

    2003-09-01

    Aviation helmets have always served as an interface between technology and flyers. The functional evolution of helmets continued with the advent of radio when helmets were modified to accept communication components and later, oxygen masks. As development matured, interest in safety increased as evident in more robust designs. Designing helmets became a balance between adding new capabilities and reducing the helmet's weight. As the research community better defined acceptable limits of weight-tolerances with tools such as the "Knox Box" criteria, system developers added and subtracted technologies while remaining within these limits. With most helmet-mounted technologies being independent of each other, the level of precision in mounting these technologies was not as significant a concern as it is today. The attachment of new components was acceptable as long as the components served their purpose. However this independent concept has become obsolete with the dawn of modern helmet mounted displays. These complex systems are interrelated and demand precision in their attachment to the helmet. The helmets' role now extends beyond serving as a means to mount the technologies to the head, but is now instrumental in critical visual alignment of complex night vision and missile cueing technologies. These new technologies demand a level of helmet fit and component alignment previously not seen in past helmet designs. This paper presents some of the design, integration and logistical issues gleaned during the development of the Joint Helmet Mounted Cueing System (JHMCS) to include the application of head-track technologies in forensic investigations.

  13. Bike Racing Helmet

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    In 1985, the U.S. Cycling Federation ruled that all racing bikers must wear helmets that meet American National Safety Institute Standards. Existing helmets were hot and heavy. Jim Gentes, president of Giro Sport Design, Inc. turned to Raymond Hicks an aerodynamicist at Ames Research Center for a design for a cool, lightweight helmet. Hicks created an aerodynamic helmet shape using technology from a NACA airfoil section. Air vents make the air flow laminar and reduce drag. Since 1986, Giro helmets have evolved and expanded. One was worn by the 1989 Tour de France winner.

  14. Population status, feeding ecology and activity pattern of helmeted ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study documents the population status, feeding ecology and activity pattern of helmeted guinea fowl (Numida meleagris) in Abijata-Shalla Lakes National Park. Data were collected in 2011 during the dry and wet seasons. Direct observation including focal observation and scan sampling methods were used to collect ...

  15. Population status, feeding ecology and activity pattern of helmeted ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tedi

    2013-01-07

    Jan 7, 2013 ... This study documents the population status, feeding ecology and activity pattern of helmeted guinea fowl (Numida meleagris) in Abijata-Shalla Lakes National Park. Data were collected in 2011 during the dry and wet seasons. Direct observation including focal observation and scan sampling methods were.

  16. Avian poxvirus in a free-range juvenile speckled (rock pigeon (Columba guinea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dauda G. Bwala

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A flightless wild juvenile rock pigeon (Columba guinea with pox-like lesions was picked up on the premises of the Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Onderstepoort. The pigeon was housed overnight for possible treatment the following day but died before any other intervention could be instituted. At necropsy, coalescing masses of yellowish nodular cutaneous tumour-like lesions principally on the featherless areas were noticed on the dead pigeon’s head as well as the beak. Histological examination of the sampled skin lesions revealed multifocal areas of hypertrophic and hyperplastic epidermal epithelial cells with eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies (Bollinger bodies. Extract from the lesion was processed and inoculated on the chorioallantoic membranes (CAM of 11-day-old embryonated chicken eggs and this produced pocks on one of the CAM at day 7 post-inoculation. Electron microscopy confirmed the presence of poxvirus in the CAM with the pock lesions.

  17. Crash helmets for moped riders.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordzij, P.C. & Paar, H.G.

    1975-01-01

    Research has been done into the requirements for crash helmets for moped drivers not only in relation to their comfort but also to their protection. It is stated that any helmet is better than no helmet.

  18. Helmet use among competitive cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runyan, C W; Earp, J A; Reese, R P

    1991-01-01

    The United States Cycling Federation (USCF) decision in 1986 to mandate helmet use in all sponsored races marked a major initiative in cycling safety. Confirming earlier reports about the effectiveness of helmets in preventing injuries, this study also examines the attitudes of 554 USCF members toward the policy and about helmet use in both racing and nonracing situations. Although 64% of the racers reported some hardshell helmet use in training before the policy, 80% used helmets in training after the ruling. Most cyclists favored the USCF policy, although only 19% favored requiring helmet use in all cycling situations. Attitudes about helmet policy and actual use by racers were inconsistent; large percentages of those opposing mandatory helmet use in racing (51%) and in training (76%) used helmets themselves. We suggest possibilities for incremental expansion of helmet use requirements for all riders.

  19. Simulation and flight trials of a simple helmet-mounted sight system incorporating an optical helmet tracking system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Steven J.

    1999-07-01

    British Aerospace (BAe) have been involved in a number of Helmet Mounted Display programs over some twenty years. The continuing trials around the globe are indicative of the growing interest in Helmet Mounted Displays and recognition that today's Helmet Systems technology is becoming 'fit for purpose.' In 1997 BAe initiated a series of Simulation and Flight Trials of the latest Helmet System Technology for combat fixed wing aircraft. The focus of the R&D is to evaluate the Helmet System as an integrated part of the aircraft weapon system by establishing quantitative measures of operational performance. The comparison between different levels of sophistication of both aircraft integration and helmet capability in terms of the resultant operational performance will provide hard evidence to ensure that appropriate levels of Helmet System technology are matched to different platform capability. The basis of the 1997 trial was an assessment of the operational effectiveness of a simple Helmet Mounted Sight (HMS) system in short range air-to-air combat applicable to high off-boresight missiles such as ASRAAM and was carried out in a BAe Hawk 200 against Hawk target aircraft. Although Helmet Mounted Sights have been flight-tested in the past, the available information has generally been limited to the integration aspects and a qualitative assessment of the technology and less attention was paid towards a quantification of the system operational effectiveness. The 1997 program produced a strong foundation for assessing the cost-benefit of various capabilities of Helmet System planned for subsequent trials. The Flight Trial aircraft incorporated the Pilkington Optronics-Kentron GuardianTM Helmet Mounted Sight System and of particular interest, the Helmet System included the latest Optical Helmet Tracking System technology. The trials included an assessment of the Helmet System technology and specifically, the integration aspects and performance of the Optical Helmet

  20. External characterization of four indegenous helmeted guine fowl ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The physical charactersstics of 338 indigenous helmeted guinea fowls at 28 and 52 weeks of age were described. Four main colour types or varieties recognised were Ash (Lavender), Black, Pearl (Grey) and pure White. Body weights averaged 1.15 ± 0.03kg and l.34 ± 0.05kg at 28 and 52 weeks of age respectively for the ...

  1. Advanced Extravehicular Helmet Assembly Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The current NASA spacesuit community is focusing on utilizing a 13" hemispherical helmet for the next generation of extravehicular activity spacesuits. This helmet...

  2. Protective Capacity of Ice Hockey Helmets against Different Impact Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, J Michio; Post, Andrew; Hoshizaki, T Blaine; Gilchrist, Michael D

    2016-12-01

    In ice hockey, concussions can occur as a result of many different types of impact events, however hockey helmets are certified using a single injury scenario, involving drop tests to a rigid surface. The purpose of this study is to measure the protective capacity of ice hockey helmets for different impact events in ice hockey. A helmeted and unhelmeted Hybrid III headform were impacted simulating falls, elbow, shoulder and puck impacts in ice hockey. Linear and rotational acceleration and maximum principal strain (MPS) were measured. A comparison of helmeted and unhelmeted impacts found significant differences existed in most conditions (p  0.05). Impacts to the ice hockey helmet tested resulted in acceleration levels below reported ranges of concussion and TBI for falls up to 5 m/s, elbow collisions, and low velocity puck impacts but not for shoulder collisions or high velocity puck impacts and falls. The helmet tested reduced MPS below reported ranges of concussion and TBI for falls up to 5 m/s but not for the other impact events across all velocities and locations. This suggests that the ice hockey helmet tested is unable to reduce engineering parameters below reported ranges of concussion and TBI for impact conditions which do not represent a drop against a rigid surface.

  3. Helmet-Mounted Displays (HMD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Helmet-Mounted Display labis responsible for monocular HMD day display evaluations; monocular HMD night vision performance processes; binocular HMD day display...

  4. Helmets for skiing and snowboarding: who is using them and why.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenerty, Lynne; Thibault-Halman, Ginette; Bruce, Beth S; Landry, Jacob; Young, Julian; Walling, Simon; Clarke, David B

    2013-03-01

    In Canada, winter sports injuries are responsible for significant health care burden, with estimates of $400 million in direct and indirect annual health care costs. For ski-related injuries, helmets have been shown to provide significant protection. Current common practice in Canada, including the Province of Nova Scotia, is to leave the decision of whether to wear a helmet to the individual. The purposes of this study were to document skiers' and snowboarders' use of helmets and to isolate factors associated with helmet use and nonuse. A mixed methods approach was used to collect data during a 2-month period at the province's three ski hills. Naturalistic observations documented helmet use and falls, whereas interviews identified factors influencing helmet use or nonuse. Helmets were used by most skiers (74%) and snowboarders (72%); the use varied significantly between ski hills, ranging from 69% to 79%. Females were more likely to wear helmets compare with males (80% vs. 70%). The highest rates of use were found among 4-year-old to 12-year-old children, with helmet use declining as age increases. Qualitative data revealed that helmet users were most influenced by the protective benefits of helmets (77%), personal choice (46%), family (44%), and rules (44%), while non-helmet users cited personal choice (29%), comfort (26%), rules (14%), and cost (11%) as reasons for nonuse. More than 25% of skiers and snowboarders remain at increased risk of a serious brain injury by not wearing a helmet. Changes in regulations may be required to ensure widespread use of helmets on ski hills. Prognostic study, level II.

  5. Injury outcome among helmeted and non-helmeted motorcycle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The rate of helmet use was significantly higher among motorcyclists than among passengers (p=0.004). History of alcohol consumption prior to the accident was reported in 212 (32.4%) patients. The rate of helmet use was significantly low among alcohol consumers compared with non-alcohol consumers (p=0.011). Lack of ...

  6. Motorcycle helmet use in Rhode Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltorai, Adam E M; Daniels, Alan H; Hayda, Roman A; Adams, Charles A; Cosgrove, G Rees; Born, Christopher T

    2013-12-03

    Motorcycle crashes are a major public health concern and place economic stresses on the health care system. Helmets have been shown to reduce both motorcycle-related fatalities and head injuries. Universal motorcycle helmet laws in other states have shown to be effective at increasing helmet use. The current Rhode Island motorcycle helmet law does not require every motorcycle rider to wear a helmet. Given the number of deaths and injuries that could be prevented, public health efforts to increase helmet use through education and legislation should be considered for review.

  7. Head injuries in helmeted child bicyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimard, G.; Nolan, T.; Carlin, J. B.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the characteristics and the severity of head and facial injuries to helmeted child bicyclists, and whether the helmet contributed to the injury, and to study factors related to bicycle accidents. DESIGN: Retrospective review of two case series. Children sustaining head injury while not wearing helmets were studied as a form of reference group. SETTING: Large paediatric teaching hospital. SUBJECTS: 34 helmeted child bicyclists and 155 non-helmeted bicyclists, aged 5-14 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Number of injuries, type of injuries, injury severity score, deaths, and accident circumstances. RESULTS: 79% of the head injuries of the helmeted child group were mild and two thirds of these had facial injuries. Children in the helmet group were in a greater proportion of bike-car collisions than the no helmet group and at least 15% of the helmets were lost on impact. There were no injuries secondary to the helmet. CONCLUSIONS: Most of the head injuries sustained by the helmeted children were of mild severity and there was no evidence to suggest that the helmet contributed to injury. Nevertheless, consideration should be given to designing a facial protector for the bicycle helmet and to improvement of the fastening device. PMID:9345988

  8. Histogenesis of the stomach of helmeted guinea fowl ( Numida ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The 27th day of embryonic develoment of the primordial proventriculus showed an organized glandular lobules, central cavity and prominent muscle layer while the ventriculus showed the presence of cuticle, simple tubular glands, loose connective tissues of the lamina propria and muscle layer. This study has shown that ...

  9. 3D assessment of damaged bicycle helmets and corresponding craniomaxillo-mandibular skull injuries: A feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Baar, Gustaaf J C; Ruslin, Muhammad; van Eijnatten, Maureen; Sándor, George K; Forouzanfar, Tymour; Wolff, Jan

    2017-12-01

    In the Netherlands, cyclists continue to outnumber other road users in injuries and deaths. The wearing of bicycle helmets is not mandatory in the Netherlands even though research has shown that wearing bicycle helmets can reduce head and brain injuries by up to 88%. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of using 3D technology to evaluate bicycle-related head injuries and helmet protection. Three patients who had been involved in a bicycle accident while wearing a helmet were subjected to multi-detector row computed tomography (MDCT) imaging after trauma. The helmets were separately scanned using the same MDCT scanner with tube voltages ranging from 80kVp to 140kVp and tube currents ranging from 10mAs to 300mAs in order to determine the best image acquisition parameters for helmets. The acquired helmet images were converted into virtual 3D surface hence Standard Tessellation Language (STL) models and merged with MDCT-derived STL models of the patients' skulls. Finally, all skull fractures and corresponding helmet damage were visualized and related. Imaging bicycle helmets on an MDCT scanner proved to be feasible using a tube voltage of 120kVp and a tube current of 120mAs. Merging the resulting STL models of the patients' skull and helmet allowed the overall damage sustained by both skull and helmet to be related. Our proposed 3D method of assessing bicycle helmet damage and corresponding head injuries could offer valuable information for the development and design of safer bicycle helmets. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Integral Face Shield Concept for Firefighter's Helmet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeles, F.; Hansberry, E.; Himel, V.

    1982-01-01

    Stowable face shield could be made integral part of helmet worn by firefighters. Shield, made from same tough clear plastic as removable face shields presently used, would be pivoted at temples to slide up inside helmet when not needed. Stowable face shield, being stored in helmet, is always available, ready for use, and is protected when not being used.

  11. Barriers to bicycle helmet use in young children in an urban elementary school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Samuel R; Palombaro, Kerstin M; Black, Jill D

    2014-05-01

    Traumatic brain injury is a leading cause of death in bicycle crashes. The factors associated with bicycle helmet use in young children with diverse ethnic and socioeconomic backgrounds have not been studied. The purpose of this study was to identify barriers to helmet use in young children in an urban elementary school. Qualitative content analysis with semistructured interviews, observational field notes, and artifacts. Urban elementary school. Seventeen students whose age ranged from 5 to 7 years and whose ethnic background was identified as African American (14) or Caucasian (3). Children participated in a brain safety fair that included presentations and activities. Semistructured, pre- and postexperience interviews were completed. Observations of the students participating in the activities and reflective art projects from the students were collected. The analysis found the following barriers to helmet use: (a) lack of access to a helmet, (b) poor fit of helmets due to hairstyles, and (c) lack of knowledge regarding helmet use. The present study suggests that the issue of helmet design and comfort for younger children with variable hairstyles needs to be addressed in order to increase helmet use in this population.

  12. Bicycle helmet use among American children, 1994.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacks, J. J.; Kresnow, M.; Houston, B.; Russell, J.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate ownership and use of bicycle helmets among children in the US in 1994. METHODS: As part of a 1994 national telephone survey of 5,238 randomly dialed households, adult respondents reported data on bicycle helmet ownership and helmet use among 1,645 child bicyclists. Data were weighted to provide national estimates. RESULTS: It is estimated that 72.7% of children 5-14 year olds ride bicycles, that is, 27.7 million child bicyclists. Of the bicyclists, 50.2% have a helmet and 25.0% reportedly always wore their helmet when cycling. Reported helmet ownership and use increased with income and educational level and decreased with age. Among regions of the US, those with the highest proportion of states with helmet use laws in 1994 also had the highest proportion of helmet use among children. Among child bicyclists who had been seen by a health care provider in the preceding 12 months, 43.9% of those counseled to wear a bicycle helmet were reported to comply compared with 19.1% of those seen by a provider but not so counseled (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: To meet the year 2000 objective of 50% of bicyclists wearing helmets, use among American children will have to double. Concerted and increased efforts to promote the wearing of bicycle helmets are necessary. PMID:9346104

  13. Effects of helmet laws and education campaigns on helmet use in young skiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burtscher, Martin; Ruedl, Gerhard; Nachbauer, Werner

    2013-11-01

    Helmet-compulsory laws for young skiers, accompanied by educational campaigns, have recently been implemented in several countries. However, data regarding compliance to these interventions during adolescence are scarce. In 2011, a questionnaire survey was performed among 10- to 16-year-old students in 62 Austrian secondary schools. A total of 2655 questionnaires were completed by 1376 males and 1279 females. Helmet use was reported in 99% of 10- to 15-year-old skiers (for whom helmets are mandatory) and in 91% of 16-year-old skiers (for whom helmets are not mandatory). Compliance with helmet laws, which were accompanied by educational campaigns, was very high among adolescent skiers. Nevertheless, helmet use decreased slightly during adolescence, and this decrease was particularly pronounced when helmet use was no longer mandatory. Sophisticated multifaceted interventions may have the potential to increase the use of ski helmets among individuals who refuse to wear helmets.

  14. Helmets: Metallurgical and Ballistic Investigation of Fifty Captured German Helmets

    Science.gov (United States)

    1944-06-28

    crown. Two inch long strips were cut from the sides and crown of four additional helmets and hardness readings were taken. on thmo to check the vide...the austenitizing temperature for a sufficient length of time to completely harden upon quenching. In addition , t slight variations in furnace...Date of Manifacture of No. of Headbands Headbands Metal Used for Headbands 1937 1 aluminum 1939 2 aluminum 19 9 3 aluminum 194 3 aluminum 19)40 19 steel

  15. Development of a helmet/helmet-display-unit alignment tool (HAT) for the Apache helmet and display unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, William; Statz, Jonathan; Estes, Victor; Booms, Shawn; Martin, John S.; Harding, Thomas

    2015-05-01

    Project Manager (PM) Apache Block III contacted the U.S. Army Aeromedical Research Laboratory (USAARL), Fort Rucker, Alabama, requesting assistance to evaluate and find solutions to a government-developed Helmet Display Unit (HDU) device called the Mock HDU for helmet alignment of the Apache Advanced Integrated Helmet (AAIH). The AAIH is a modified Head Gear Unit No. 56 for Personnel (HGU-56/P) to replace the current Integrated Helmet and Sighting System (IHADSS). The current flashlight-based HDU simulator for helmet/HDU alignment was no longer in production or available. Proper helmet/HDU alignment is critical to position the right eye in the small HDU eye box to obtain image alignment and full field of view (FOV). The initial approach of the PM to developing a helmet/HDU fitting device (Mock HDU) was to duplicate the optical characteristics of the current tactical HDU using less complex optics. However, the results produced questionable alignment, FOV, and distortion issues, with cost and development time overruns. After evaluating the Mock HDU, USAARL proposed a cost effective, less complex optical design called the Helmet/HDU Alignment Tool (HAT). This paper will show the development, components, and evaluations of the HAT compared to the current flashlight HDU simulator device. The laboratory evaluations included FOV measurements and alignment accuracies compared to tactical HDUs. The Apache helmet fitter technicians and Apache pilots compared the HAT to the current flashlight based HDU and ranked the HAT superior.

  16. Risk-taking behavior in skiing among helmet wearers and nonwearers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ružić, Lana; Tudor, Anton

    2011-12-01

    To examine differences in on-the-snow ski behavior between helmet wearers and nonwearers. The data were collected using a survey. Several tourist agencies helped in administrating the survey to the skiers during the 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 seasons. The survey consisted of multiple-choice questions. The subjects were asked to choose answers most suitable for their skiing style and preferred skiing technique, volume of off-piste skiing, readiness to use time measuring systems on the slopes, and group-skiing preferences, such as leading the group, beside the group, away from the group, etc. The Risk Index was then calculated for each subject. The answers of 710 skiers (mean age 35.5, range 16-81 years) were analyzed. The predictive power for risk-taking behavior was tested for gender, age, educational level, level of skiing, years of skiing, and helmet usage. Younger age, male gender, higher skiing level, and helmet usage were used as independent predictors for the overall Risk Index (Power [1-β err prob] = 0.942). Significantly higher risk was assessed for the male helmet wearers while the results were not significant for the female helmet wearers. The male occasional helmet wearers were found to be the most prone to risky behavior. In female nonhelmet wearers, there was a significant decrease in risk-taking behavior with age but this was not true for female helmet wearers. For males under 35 years of age, helmet use is one of the factors influencing risk-taking on the slopes. This is demonstrated for occasional helmet wearers in particular. Copyright © 2011 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. [Attitudes of winter sport participants toward ski helmet mandatory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruedl, G; Kopp, M; Hotter, B; Ledochowski, L; Burtscher, M

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine attitudes of winter sport participants toward a ski helmet mandatory. In total, 959 persons who had to estimate statements regarding ski helmet and helmet mandatory with the aid of a five level Likert scale were interviewed. About 85 % of interviewed persons totally agreed that a ski helmet reduces head injury risk although only 64 % are wearing a ski helmet. Significant more helmet wearers and females compared to non-wearers and males totally agreed that all winter sport participants should wear ski helmets on slopes as well as that all children on slopes should wear a ski helmet. Also, significant more helmet wearers and females compared to non-wearers and males totally agreed that a ski helmet mandatory for all people has to be recommended as well as that a ski helmet mandatory for children under 16 years has to be recommended. However, the acceptance for a helmet mandatory for all people as well as for children was significantly lower compared to recommendations for helmet use irrespective of helmet use or gender. Therefore, we conclude that preventive helmet campaigns possibly attain a higher acceptance leading to a higher helmet use compared to a helmet mandatory. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Helmets for Motorcyclists a No Brainer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... was published in the June issue of the journal Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery . "Our study demonstrates the negative impact of weakened motorcycle helmet laws leading to decreased helmet use," study lead author Dr. Nicholas Adams said in a journal news release. He is with the Michigan State ...

  19. The guinea-pig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Maibach, H I; Anjo, M D

    1980-01-01

    was 2.4% (s.d. = 0.5; n = 3) and 31.4% (s.d. = 9.1; n = 3) of the applied dose respectively, similar to published human absorption data. Testosterone was absorbed to a greater extent in guinea-pigs (34.9% +/- 5.4; n = 5) than man. A thioglycollate based depilatory cream significantly increased the skin...... absorption of testosterone, while the absorption velocity was unaltered. Two analytical methods were compared, direct counting versus wet ashing; results were in the same range for the three compounds. Two methods of quantifying skin absorption were compared; urine recovery corrected for incomplete urinary...

  20. Children's bicycle helmet use and injuries in Hillsborough County, Florida before and after helmet legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liller, K D; Nearns, J; Cabrera, M; Joly, B; Noland, V; McDermott, R

    2003-06-01

    The purpose of this research was to explore the changes in children's bicycle helmet use and motor vehicle bicycle related injuries in Hillsborough County, Florida before and after passage of the Florida's bicycle helmet law for children under the age of 16. The results show a significant increase in bicycle helmet use among children, ages 5-13, in the post-law years compared with the pre-law years. Also, there has been a significant decline in the rates of bicycle related motor vehicle injuries among children in the post-law years compared with the pre-law years. Although there have been complementary educational and outreach activities in the county to support helmet use, it appears that the greatest increase in use occurred after the passage of the helmet law. It is recommended that educational efforts continue to sustain helmet use rates and decreases in injuries.

  1. [Comfort and noise level in infants with helmet interface].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, A; Alvarez Fernández, P; Rey Galán, C; Álvarez Mendiola, P; Álvarez Blanco, S; Vivanco Allende, A

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate comfort and noise intensity using the COMFORT scale in infants who receive respiratory support with a helmet interface. An observational descriptive study was conducted on all infants (1 to 12 months of age) admitted to a PICU from November 1st 2013 to March 31st 2014 and who received non-invasive ventilation with a helmet interface. Tolerance to the interface was assessed by use of the COMFORT scale. The intensity of the noise to which the infants were exposed was measured with a TES1350A HIBOK 412 sound-level meter. Three measurements were made every day. Twenty seven patients with bronchiolitis (median age: 54 days; range: 10 to 256) were included. Median COMFORT score in the first day was 21 points (14 - 28). An increase in patient comfort was found with a gradual decrease in the scores, with a maximum reduction of 22% from the first hours (score of 22) to the fifth day (score of 18). The minimum sound intensity registered was 42dB, and the maximum was 78dB. Background noise intensity was associated with noise intensity in the helmet. No differences were observed in COMFORT score and noise intensity between ventilator devices. Helmet interface was well tolerated by infants. COMFORT score results are an indicator that infants were comfortable or very comfortable. The measured noise intensity was in the safe range permitted by World Health Organization. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Motorcycle helmet effectiveness in reducing head, face and brain injuries by state and helmet law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Cody S; Thomas, Andrea M; Singleton, Michael; Gaichas, Anna M; Smith, Tracy J; Smith, Gary A; Peng, Justin; Bauer, Michael J; Qu, Ming; Yeager, Denise; Kerns, Timothy; Burch, Cynthia; Cook, Lawrence J

    2016-12-01

    Despite evidence that motorcycle helmets reduce morbidity and mortality, helmet laws and rates of helmet use vary by state in the U.S. We pooled data from eleven states: five with universal laws requiring all motorcyclists to wear a helmet, and six with partial laws requiring only a subset of motorcyclists to wear a helmet. Data were combined in the Crash Outcome Data Evaluation System's General Use Model and included motorcycle crash records probabilistically linked to emergency department and inpatient discharges for years 2005-2008. Medical outcomes were compared between partial and universal helmet law settings. We estimated adjusted relative risks (RR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) for head, facial, traumatic brain, and moderate to severe head/facial injuries associated with helmet use within each helmet law setting using generalized log-binomial regression. Reported helmet use was higher in universal law states (88 % vs. 42 %). Median charges, adjusted for inflation and differences in state-incomes, were higher in partial law states (emergency department $1987 vs. $1443; inpatient $31,506 vs. $25,949). Injuries to the head and face, including traumatic brain injuries, were more common in partial law states. Effectiveness estimates of helmet use were higher in partial law states (adjusted-RR (CI) of head injury: 2.1 (1.9-2.2) partial law single vehicle; 1.4 (1.2, 1.6) universal law single vehicle; 1.8 (1.6-2.0) partial law multi-vehicle; 1.2 (1.1-1.4) universal law multi-vehicle). Medical charges and rates of head, facial, and brain injuries among motorcyclists were lower in universal law states. Helmets were effective in reducing injury in both helmet law settings; lower effectiveness estimates were observed in universal law states.

  3. Power Measurements for Microvision, Inc., Aircrew Integrated Helmet System Scanning Laser Helmet-Mounted Display

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rash, Clarence

    2002-01-01

    ...) technology based on scanning lasers. Under this program, Microvision, Inc., Bothell, Washington, has developed a scanning laser HMD prototype for use with the Aircrew Integrated Helmet System (AIHS...

  4. Cervical Spine Alignment in Helmeted Skiers and Snowboarders With Suspected Head and Neck Injuries: Comparison of Lateral C-spine Radiographs Before and After Helmet Removal and Implications for Ski Patrol Transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Jared; Rust, David A

    2017-09-01

    Current protocols for spine immobilization of the injured skier/snowboarder have not been scientifically validated. Observing changes in spine alignment during common rescue scenarios will help strengthen recommendations for rescue guidelines. Twenty-eight healthy volunteers (18 men, 10 women) age 47±17 (range 20-73) (mean ±SD with range) underwent a mock rescue in which candidate patrollers completing an Outdoor Emergency Care course performed spine immobilization and back boarding in 3 scenarios: 1) Ski helmet on, no c-collar; 2) helmet on, with c-collar; and 3) helmet removed, with c-collar. After each scenario, a lateral radiograph was taken of the cervical spine to observe for changes in alignment. Compared with the control group (helmet on, no collar), we observed 9 degrees of increased overall (occiput-C7) cervical extension in the helmet on, with collar group (P Ski helmet removal and c-collar application each leads to increased extension of the cervical spine. In the absence of other clinical factors, our recommendation is that helmets should be left in place and c-collars not routinely applied during ski patrol rescue. Copyright © 2017 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Cockpit to helmet optical wireless link: prototype hardware demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, M. A.; White, H. J.; Aldridge, N. B.; Lam, J.; Atkinson, R.

    2009-09-01

    This paper describes recent progress in developing a wireless optical link between the fuselage of a cockpit and an aviation helmet. Such a link is desired to replace the physical umbilical cable existing in current cockpit systems, for reasons of potential bandwidth, immunity to EM interference, and freedom from physical constraints within the cockpit. The link concept consists of multiple transmitters embedded in the cockpit fuselage, each sending video (or symbology) data out in a cone of light over free space, which is detected by an array of receivers positioned on the helmet - the data is then sent to the eyepieces or visor of the pilot (after any intermediate processing). The design is such that one of these links is always maintained throughout possible movement of the head. In a recent proof-of-principle demonstration we showed uncompressed, 100 Mbps video data streamed live from the fuselage of a cockpit simulator to an angled cluster of silicon-based receivers mounted on the helmet, via a pair of ~1 Watt free-space lasers operating at 810 nm. Fast Ethernet media converters were used here for convenience and cost. The bespoke optical and electrical link components were developed in close collaboration with suppliers. The system performance arises from: the high dynamic range of the receivers (up to 25 dB), which are equipped with optical antennae to magnify the optical gain; the high power of the lasers; and the switching electronics used to control the signal path on the helmet. Future potential improvements to the technology are discussed, with an indication of wireless link requirements for relevant BAE Systems applications.

  6. Federally mandating motorcycle helmets in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltorai, Adam E M; Simon, Chad; Choi, Ariel; Hsia, Katie; Born, Christopher T; Daniels, Alan H

    2016-03-09

    Motorcycle helmets reduce both motorcycle-related fatalities and head injuries. Motorcycle crashes are a major public health concern which place economic stress on the U.S. healthcare system. Although statewide universal motorcycle helmet laws effectively increase helmet use, most state helmet laws do not require every motorcycle rider to wear a helmet. Herein, we propose and outline the solution of implementing federal motorcycle helmet law, while addressing potential counterarguments. The decision to ride a motorcycle without a helmet has consequences that affect more than just the motorcyclist. In an effort to prevent unnecessary healthcare costs, injuries, and deaths, public health efforts to increase helmet use through education and legislation should be strongly considered. Helmet use on motorcycles fits squarely within the purview of the federal government public health and economic considerations.

  7. The Bicycle Helmet Attitudes Scale: Using the Health Belief Model to Predict Helmet Use among Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Thomas P.; Ross, Lisa Thomson; Rahman, Annalise; Cataldo, Shayla

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study examined bicycle helmet attitudes and practices of college undergraduates and developed the Bicycle Helmet Attitudes Scale, which was guided by the Health Belief Model (HBM; Rosenstock, 1974, in Becker MH, ed. "The Health Belief Model and Personal Health Behavior". Thorofare, NJ: Charles B. Slack; 1974:328-335) to predict…

  8. Ski patrollers: Reluctant role models for helmet use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Bruce; Gervais, Jack T.; Heard, Kennon; Valley, Morgan; Lowenstein, Steven R.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Ski helmets reduce the risk of traumatic brain injury (TBI), but usage rates are low. Ski patrollers could serve as role models for helmet use, but little is known about their practices and beliefs. Design A written survey was distributed to ski patrollers attending continuing education conferences. Questions addressed helmet use rates; prior TBI experiences; perceptions of helmet risks and benefits; and willingness to serve as safety role models for the public. To assess predictors of helmet use, odds ratios were calculated, after adjusting for skiing experience. Subjects Ninety-three ski patrollers participated. Main Outcome Self-reported helmet use of 100% while patrolling. Results Helmet use was 23% (95% CI 15–32%). Common reasons for non-use included impaired hearing (35%) and discomfort (29%). Most patrollers believed helmets prevent injuries (90%; 95% CI 84–96%) and that they are safety role models (92%; 95% CI 86–98%). However, many believed helmets encourage recklessness (39%; 95% CI 29–49%) and increase injury risks (16%; 95% CI 7–25%). Three factors predicted 100% helmet use: perceived protection from exposure (OR = 9.68; 95% CI 3.14–29.82) or cold (OR = 5.68; 95% CI 1.27–25.42); and belief that role modeling is an advantage of helmets (OR = 4.06; 95% CI 1.29–12.83). Patrollers who believed helmets encourage recklessness were 8 times less likely to wear helmets (OR = 0.13; 95% CI 0.03–0.58). Conclusions Ski patrollers know helmets reduce serious injury and believe they are role models for the public, but most do not wear helmets regularly. To increase helmet use, manufacturers should address hearing- and comfort-related factors. Education programs should address the belief that helmets encourage recklessness and stress role modeling as a professional responsibility. PMID:19225971

  9. Helmet Impact Tests with a Modified ACES II Headrest

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Perry, Chris

    1999-01-01

    .... A series of vertical drops with a Helmet Drop Tower (HDT) facility and an instrumented head form were conducted using the HGU-55/P flight helmet, a current ACES II headrest, and samples of two types of foam...

  10. Effect of Filters on the Noise Generated by Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Delivered via a Helmet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Hernández-Molina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the problems that the delivery of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP via a helmet poses is the generation of noise. The objective of our study was to assess the effect that the use of filter has on sound pressure levels generated by the delivery of positive airway pressure at different gas flow rates. Materials and Methods: Sound pressure levels generated by neonatal helmet CPAP delivery were measured at different gas flows (20, 30, and 40 l/min with and without a breathing filter. Noise intensity was measured by installing microphones in the inner ear of dummy heads wearing helmets. Results: The sound pressure level increased by 38% at a gas flow of 40 l/min, as compared to a gas flow of 20 l/min {74 dBA [interquartile range (IQR 2,2] vs 52 dBA (IQR 5,9, respectively}. Using the breathing filter as a diffuser has a variety of effects on sound pressure levels according to the gas flow rate. Conclusion: The intensity of the noise generated by helmet delivery of positive airway pressure depends on the type of helmet used, gas flow, and use or not of a diffuser filter. Breathing filters with gas flows over 30 l/min might not be recommended since they would not attenuate but will rather amplify sound pressure.

  11. Public bike sharing in New York City: helmet use behavior patterns at 25 Citi Bike™ stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basch, Corey H; Ethan, Danna; Zybert, Patricia; Afzaal, Sarah; Spillane, Michael; Basch, Charles E

    2015-06-01

    Urban public bicycle sharing programs are on the rise in the United States. Launched in 2013, NYC's public bicycle share program, Citi Bike™ is the fastest growing program of its kind in the nation, with nearly 100,000 members and more than 330 docking stations across Manhattan and Brooklyn. The purpose of this study was to assess helmet use behavior among Citi Bike™ riders at 25 of the busiest docking stations. The 25 Citi Bike™ Stations varied greatly in terms of usage: total number of cyclists (N = 96-342), commute versus recreation (22.9-79.5% commute time riders), weekday versus weekend (6.0-49.0% weekend riders). Helmet use ranged between 2.9 and 29.2% across sites (median = 7.5 %). A total of 4,919 cyclists were observed, of whom 545 (11.1%) were wearing helmets. Incoming cyclists were more likely to wear helmets than outgoing cyclists (11.0 vs 5.9%, p = .000). NYC's bike share program endorses helmet use, but relies on education to encourage it. Our data confirm that, to date, this strategy has not been successful.

  12. Observational study of helmet use among children skiing and snowboarding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Lynn; Shaha, Steven; Lillis, Kathleen

    2008-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to observe the use of helmets among school-age children while skiing and snowboarding and to determine factors that influenced helmet use in children. This was a prospective observational study. Children estimated to be school age (5-17 years of age) were observed at a Western New York area ski resort as they entered ski areas. Data collected included estimated age, helmet use, sex, sport, and whether the children were accompanied by adults or other children or were alone. During February 2005, a total of 1472 children were observed. Thirty-seven percent wore a helmet. Helmets were worn by 42% of skiers and 32% of snowboarders. Sixty percent of children wore helmets when observed with an adult, compared with 28% when observed with other children. Those children on beginner slopes (47%) were more likely to wear helmets than those on intermediate slopes (34%). There was no difference in helmet use among males and females. Despite recommendations for children to wear helmets while participating in winter sports, about a third of the children observed wore a helmet. Children skiing, younger children, and children on beginner slopes were more likely to wear helmets. Future studies are needed to determine if the use of helmets would decrease the incidence of head injuries while skiing and snowboarding.

  13. Observation of motorcycle helmet use rates in Michigan after partial repeal of the universal motorcycle helmet law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Lisa; Bingham, C Raymond; Flannagan, Carol A; Carter, Patrick M; Almani, Farideh; Cicchino, Jessica B

    2016-10-01

    Motorcycle crashes result in a significant health burden, including many fatal injuries and serious non-fatal head injuries. Helmets are highly effective in preventing such trauma, and jurisdictions that require helmet use of all motorcyclists have higher rates of helmet use and lower rates of head injuries among motorcyclists. The current study examines helmet use and characteristics of helmeted operators and their riding conditions in Michigan, following a weakening of the state's universal motorcycle helmet use law in April 2012. Data on police-reported crashes occurring during 2012-14 and from a stratified roadside observational survey undertaken in Southeast Michigan during May-September 2014 were used to estimate statewide helmet use rates. Observed helmet use was more common among operators of sports motorcycles, on freeways, and in the morning, and least common among operators of cruisers, on minor arterials, and in the afternoon. The rate of helmet use across the state was estimated at 75%, adjusted for roadway type, motorcycle class, and time of day. Similarly, the helmet use rate found from examination of crash records was 73%. In the observation survey, 47% of operators wore jackets, 94% wore long pants, 54% wore boots, and 80% wore gloves. Protective clothing of jackets and gloves was most often worn by sport motorcycle operators and long pants and boots most often by riders of touring motorcycles. Findings highlight the much lower rate of helmet use in Michigan compared with states that have a universal helmet use law, although the rate is higher than observed in many states with partial helmet laws. Targeted interventions aimed at specific groups of motorcyclists and situations where helmet use rates are particularly low should be considered to increase helmet use. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of repealing the motorcycle helmet law in Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hothem, Zachary; Simon, Robert; Barnes, Wesley; Mohammad, Azmath; Sevak, Shruti; Ziegler, Kathryn; Iacco, Anthony; Janczyk, Randy

    2017-09-01

    In 2012, Michigan repealed its universal helmet law. Our study assessed the clinical impact of this repeal. Our trauma database was queried retrospectively for 2 motorcycle riding seasons before and 3 seasons after repeal. On-scene death data was obtained from the Medical Examiner. Helmet use in hospitalized patients decreased after the helmet law repeal. Non-helmeted patients had a significant increased rate of head injury. Non-helmeted patients were more likely to die during hospitalization. While, helmet use and drugs/alcohol status significantly affected the risk for head injury, only drug/alcohol had a significant effect on overall mortality. Following helmet law repeal, helmet use has decreased. Helmet status and drug/alcohol use was found to significantly increase risk of head injury. Although overall mortality was only affected by drug/alcohol use, non-helmeted patients did have a higher inpatient mortality. These findings deserve furthermore study and may provide a basis for reinstating the universal helmet law. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Helmet use among cyclists in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basch, Corey H; Zagnit, Emily A; Rajan, Sonali; Ethan, Danna; Basch, Charles E

    2014-10-01

    Lack of helmet use while bicycling can have deleterious effects on health. Despite evidence that helmets can greatly reduce the risk of head injury, the prevalence of helmet use among riders, including those in urban bicycle-share programs, has been shown to be very low. Building upon the authors' previous work, this study's aim was to assess prevalence of helmet use among cyclists riding on widely used New York City (NYC) bike lanes. Across a 2-month period, cyclists were filmed in five NYC locations with bike lanes. Filming took place at two separate time periods (recreation and commute) at each location. Helmet use was coded for each cyclist. A total of 1,921 riders were observed across 10 h. Overall, half (50.0 %) of all riders were observed wearing a helmet. Rates of using a helmet were consistent across all five locations. In addition, only 21.7 % of Citi Bike users and 15.3 % of other bicycle rentals were observed wearing helmets while cycling. The prevalence of helmet use was significantly higher among males than females (z = 4.48, p < .001). Cyclists observed during the recreational time period were also less likely than those observed during the commuting time period to be wearing a helmet (z = 7.17, p < .001). The results of this study contribute to the growing literature about cyclist helmet use in urban areas.

  16. Compliance of proper safety helmet usage in motorcyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulanthayan, S; Umar, R S; Hariza, H A; Nasir, M T; Harwant, S

    2000-03-01

    Motorcyclists make up the largest group of fatalities on Malaysian roads, majority succumbing to head injuries despite the compulsory safety helmet laws in the country. One possible reason for this high fatality is improper usage of safety helmets. This study examines the compliance of proper safety helmet use in motorcyclists in a typical Malaysian town. Five hundred motorcyclists were studied. Only 54.4% of motorcyclists used helmets properly, 21.4% used them improperly; and 24.2% did not wear helmets. Six variables were found to be significant in improper safety helmet use. They were age, gender, race, formal education level, prior accident experience and type of license held. Marital status and riding experience were not significant. Efforts promoting proper use of safety helmets should focus on the young, male, less formally educated, unlicensed rider, who has had a prior accident.

  17. Factors associated with child passenger motorcycle helmet use in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merali, Hasan S; Bachani, Abdulgafoor M

    2017-07-10

    This study examines factors associated with child passenger helmet use in five Cambodian provinces. We performed an analysis of periodic roadside observations of helmet use over a four-year period. A total of 62,039 child passengers 12 years of age and younger met inclusion criteria and were included in the analysis. Overall, 1369 (2.1%) of child passengers were observed to be wearing a helmet. Most significantly, children were six times more likely to wear a helmet if the driver was wearing a helmet (OR 6.2; 95% CI 5.1-7.5). In addition, the odds of helmet use were noted to be significantly different depending on province, day of the week, time of day and number of passengers on the motorcycle. This study highlights the extremely low rate of child passenger helmet use in Cambodia, and provides priorities for interventions and enforcement to ensure all children are protected from head injury.

  18. TransNewGuinea.org: An Online Database of New Guinea Languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhill, Simon J

    2015-01-01

    The island of New Guinea has the world's highest linguistic diversity, with more than 900 languages divided into at least 23 distinct language families. This diversity includes the world's third largest language family: Trans-New Guinea. However, the region is one of the world's least well studied, and primary data is scattered across a wide range of publications and more often then not hidden in unpublished "gray" literature. The lack of primary research data on the New Guinea languages has been a major impediment to our understanding of these languages, and the history of the peoples in New Guinea. TransNewGuinea.org aims to collect data about these languages and place them online in a consistent format. This database will enable future research into the New Guinea languages with both traditional comparative linguistic methods and novel cutting-edge computational techniques. The long-term aim is to shed light into the prehistory of the peoples of New Guinea, and to understand why there is such major diversity in their languages.

  19. Survey of helmet influences of female pillions in New Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Selma; Arora, Sumant; Peipert, John; Sagar, Sushma; Crandall, Marie; Swaroop, Mamta

    2013-09-01

    In India, female motorized two-wheeler users involved in road traffic accidents account for 70,000 injuries and fatalities annually. Despite federal helmet laws, New Delhi exempted female pillion riders (backseat passengers) from mandatory helmet usage in response to religious and cultural opposition. This study attempts to elucidate factors influencing female pillion riders' helmet usage, hypothesizing religious-based opposition and poor understanding of helmet efficacy. A cross-section of female pillion riders in five areas of New Delhi were approached by trained surveyors. Surveys were self-completed (n = 52) or completed with assistance (n = 243). Demographics, helmet use habits, opinions, and media influence data were collected. Data were analyzed using χ(2), Fisher exact test, and multivariable logistic regression. Of 305 women surveyed, 69.8% were Hindus (n = 213), 10.8% Muslims (n = 33), and 10.4% Sikhs (n = 32). More Muslim (33.3%, P = 0.001) and Sikh (25%, P = 0.04) women opposed mandatory helmet use compared with Hindu women (10.6%). There were 66 women who self-reported helmet use, with one woman (Sikh) who abstained from helmets for religious practices (0.9%). The most common reason for helmet disuse was discomfort (n = 40, 36.7%). Most respondents reported media positively influenced helmet use (57.7%). Despite arguments of infringement on religious rights, women pillions ride without helmets for comfort and appearance purposes primarily. Furthermore, though significantly fewer Sikh and Muslim women support mandatory helmet laws, supporters remain a clear majority in both groups. Most women report media outlets as influential on helmet use, principally television, suggesting that mass media campaigns may improve helmet compliance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Helmets, injuries and cultural definitions: motorcycle injury in urban Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, P; Bradshaw, Y S; Lamsudin, R; Kasniyah, N; Costello, C

    1996-03-01

    This paper examines motorcycle helmet use and injuries in a developing country with a helmet law. Data were collected by systematic street observations and interviews with motorcyclists and supplemented with motorcycle injury data from a 1 month study of all patients coming to emergency departments in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Observations show that 89% of motorcycle drivers (N = 9242) wore helmets; only 20% of the passengers (N = 3541) did. However, only 55% of the drivers wore helmets correctly (e.g. with chin strap buckled). Differences in time and place were noted in interviews when motorcyclists reported wearing helmets least at night and when no police were around; various reasons for not wearing helmets included physical discomfort and absence of police surveillance. Data from emergency departments found that motorcycles were involved in 64% of all traffic accident injuries, comprising 33% of total trauma patients presenting to emergency departments. Injury Severity Scores were calculated for the 26% of motorcycle injuries which were admitted to the hospital, with 60% having scores of 1-8, 27% 9-15, and 9% > 15. We conclude that although motorcycle drivers appear to comply with the motorcycle helmet law, it is a "token compliance." Less than 50% of riders were maximally protected by helmets and very little safety consciousness was found among drivers. Suggestions for improving helmet use that take cultural definitions of wearing helmets into account are presented for future research.

  1. Joint helmet-mounted cueing system (JHMCS) helmet qualification testing requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orf, Garry W.

    1998-08-01

    The Joint Helmet-Mounted Cueing System (JHMCS) program will provide capability to cue high off-boresight (HOBS) weapons to the operator's line of sight and to confirm weapon sensor LOS for the US Air Force and US Navy (USN) aircrew. This capability will ensure the USAF and USN pilots a first shot opportunity. The JHMCS incorporates an ejection-compatible helmet-mounted display system that will be installed on F- 15, F-16, F/A-18, and F-22 aircraft. The JHMCS includes a flight helmet with display optics, miniature cathode ray tube, magnetic receiver unit, miniature camera, automatic brightness control sensor, and microcontroller. The flight helmet for JHMCS is based on the new lightweight HGU-55A/P. This paper describes the requirements for the helmet qualification tests including: windblast, ejection tower, hanging harness, centrifuge, mass properties, energy attenuation and penetration resistance, noise attenuation, visor characteristics, compatibility demonstration, sled/in- flight ejection, water survival, standard conditions and environment. The test objective, success criteria, equipment configuration, and data collection requirements for each test is discussed.

  2. SAFETY ALERT: Electrical insulation defect on safety helmets

    CERN Multimedia

    HSE Unit

    2013-01-01

    Contrarily to the information provided until 31 May 2013, some “Euro Protection” safety helmets do not respect any of the requirements for electrical insulation.   This alert concerns the safety helmets identified under the following SCEM numbers: 50.43.30.050.4 white 50.43.30.060.2 yellow 50.43.30.070.0 blue This amounts up to several hundreds of helmets on the CERN site. People who need to wear an electrically insulated safety helmet for their activities, must from now on acquire a duly insulated item to be found on the CERN store under the following SCEM numbers: 50.43.30.210.6: Petzl Vertex ST Helmet (without vent) 50.43.30.300.1: IDRA Helmet with a visor for electrical work As for the people who do not need to wear an electrically insulated helmet for their activities, they can continue working with the aforementioned helmets. For your information, please take note of the maximum use limit of each helmet: “Euro Protection” Safety Helme...

  3. More Helmets Fewer Deaths: Motorcycle Helmet Legislation Impacts Traumatic Brain Injury-Related Mortality in Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Ahmed; Jokar, Tahereh Orouji; Rhee, Peter; Ibraheem, Kareem; Kulvatunyou, Narong; Anderson, Kathryn Tinsley; Gries, Lynn; Roward, Zachary Thomas; Joseph, Bellal

    2017-06-01

    The aim of our study was to assess the impact of helmet legislations on the incidence and the mortality rate of motorcycle collision (MCC)-related traumatic brain injury (TBI) in young adult trauma patients. A 1-year (2011) retrospective analysis was performed of all patients under 21 years old with trauma-related hospitalization using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample database (representing 20% of all in-patient admissions). Patients with MCC were identified using E-codes. States were classified into three groups based on helmet legislations: universal age helmet legislation, factor of 2.15 (β coefficient: 2.15; 95% confidence interval: 0.91-10.18; P = 0.04). States with age-restricted helmet legislations have a higher rate of traumatic brain injury and mortality compared with states with universal helmet legislations. Establishing universal helmet legislations across the states may provide a potential preventive strategy against traumatic brain injury.

  4. Performance of different PEEP valves and helmet outlets at increasing gas flow rates: a bench top study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isgrò, S; Zanella, A; Giani, M; Abd El Aziz El Sayed Deab, S; Pesenti, A; Patroniti, N

    2012-10-01

    Aim of the paper was to assess the performance of different expiratory valves and the resistance of helmet outlet ports at increasing gas flow rates. A gas flow-meter was connected to 10 different expiratory peep valves: 1 water-seal valve, 4 precalibrated fixed PEEP valves and 5 adjustable PEEP valves. Three new valves of each brand, set at different pressure levels (5-7.5-10-12.5-15 cmH(2)O, if available), were tested at increasing gas flow rates (from 30 to 150 L/min). We measured the pressure generated just before the valves. Three different helmets sealed on a mock head were connected at the inlet port with a gas flow-meter while the outlet was left clear. We measured the pressure generated inside the helmet (due to the flow-resistance of the outlet port) at increasing gas flow rates. Adjustable valves showed a variable degree flow-dependency (increasing difference between the measured and the expected pressure at increasing flow rates), while pre-calibrated valves revealed a flow-independent behavior. Water seal valve showed low degree flow-dependency. The pressures generated by the outlet port of the tested helmets ranged from 0.02 to 2.29 cmH(2)O at the highest gas flow rate. Adjustable PEEP valves are not suggested for continuous-flow CPAP systems as their flow-dependency can lead to pressures higher than expected. Precalibrated and water seal valves exhibit the best performance. Different helmet outlet ports do not significantly affect the pressure generated during helmet CPAP. In order to avoid iatrogenic complications gas flow and pressure delivered during helmet CPAP must always be monitored.

  5. Design of integrated and microminiaturized multifunctional helmet controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Chengbin; Wu, Liying; Zhang, Jian

    2002-08-01

    Along with the rapid development of wearable computer and multi-medium technology, many units need to be mounted on the helmet such as micro display, camera, voice input and output components, even some devices for safety and security purpose. If these units and components are controlled by the wearable computer directly, it would make the interface between helmet and wearable computer complicated. The better way is to add a controller to the helmet, then the wearable computer only need to interface with the controller. The helmet controller controls all of the functional components of helmet. Of cause, it should be noticed that the dimensions of the components must be small since the volume of helmet for the controller is very limited. The core of the helmet controller we designed is composed of a digital signal processor (DSP) and field programmable logical array (FPGA). The DSP carries out the function of encoding, decoding, compression, encryption, synthesis, and filtering of image and voice signals. FPGA drives and controls a micro display, controls the functional components, as well. All of these reduced the amount of elements, enlarged the integration level, which realized the helmet controller microminiaturization.

  6. Finite element modelling of helmeted head impact under frontal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Finite element models of the head and helmet were used to study contact forces during frontal impact of the head with a rigid surface. The finite element model of the head consists of skin, skull, cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF), brain, tentorium and falx. The finite element model of the helmet consists of shell and foam.

  7. How motorcycle helmets affect trauma mortality: Clinical and policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jwo-Leun; Chen, Tzu-Chun; Huang, Hung-Chang; Chen, Ray-Jade

    2017-08-18

    Motorcycles are the most popular vehicles in Taiwan, where more than 14.8 million motorcycles (1 motorcycle per 1.6 people) are in service. Despite the mandatory helmet law passed in 1997, less than 80% of motorcyclists in Taiwan wear helmets. The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of using motorcycle helmets on fatality rates. A clinical data set including 2,868 trauma patients was analyzed; the cross-sectional registration database was administered by a university medical center in Central Taiwan. A path analysis framework and multiple logistic regressions were used to estimate the marginal effect of helmet use on mortality. Using a helmet did not directly reduce the mortality rate but rather indirectly reduced the mortality rate through intervening variables such as the severity of head injuries, number of craniotomies, and complications during therapeutic processes. Wearing a helmet can reduce the fatality rate by 1.3%, the rate of severe head injury by 34.5%, the craniotomy rate by 7.8%, and the rate of complications during therapeutic processes by 1.5%. These rates comprise 33.3% of the mortality rate for people who do not wear helmets, 67.3% of the severe head injury rate, 60.0% of the craniotomy rate, and 12.2% of the rate of complications during therapeutic processes. Wearing a helmet and trauma system designation are crucial factors that reduce the fatality rate.

  8. 49 CFR 571.218 - Standard No. 218; Motorcycle helmets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard No. 218; Motorcycle helmets. 571.218 Section 571.218 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY... Motor Vehicle Safety Standards § 571.218 Standard No. 218; Motorcycle helmets. S1. Scope. This standard...

  9. Helmet use and associated factors among motorcyclists in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    opperwjj

    third of countries rate the enforcement of helmet laws as 'good' (8 or above on a scale of 0 to 10), showing that this critical component of road traffic safety remains neglected”. (WHO, 2013a, p.18). There is a need to better understand the status of helmet use and associated factors among motorcyclists in ASEAN, which can ...

  10. Passengers' attitudes and behaviour towards motorcycle helmet use ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Head injuries are a leading cause of death and morbidity among motorcycle users. The use of crash helmet is the most successful approach to preventing injury among motorcycle users. The purpose of this study was to examine the attitudes, knowledge, and behavior of motorcycle passengers to helmet use in Ilorin ...

  11. Utilisation of security helmets for two-wheeled vehicle riders.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijbers, J.J.W.

    1990-01-01

    This report deals with safety helmets of two- wheeled vehicles in the European Community. Recommendations are described regarding. (1) the improvement of the safety of drivers /passengers of two- wheelers by the use of a helmet, subsequently recommendations on the raise of the positive effect of the

  12. Finite element modelling of helmeted head impact under frontal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Finite element models of the head and helmet were used to study contact forces during frontal impact of the head with a rigid surface. The finite element model of the head consists of skin, skull, cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF), brain, tentorium and falx. The finite element model of the helmet consists of shell and foam liner.

  13. Motorcycle helmet use in Calicut, India: User behaviors, attitudes, and perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karuppanagounder, Krishnamurthy; Vijayan, Arjun V

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study include assessing the motorcycle helmet use pattern in Calicut, India, and analyzing the factors influencing helmet use including motorcyclists' perceptions. Field observational studies at 15 locations were conducted to determine the helmet use rate among motorcyclists and pillion passengers. A structured questionnaire interview survey was conducted with 709 motorcyclists to evaluate the users' perceptions and opinions regarding the use of motorcycle helmets. There was a considerable difference in the level of motorcycle helmet use observed between the locations within and outside the city limits, where different levels of helmet law enforcement were exercised. The helmet use was observed at a maximum of 89% within the city and a minimum of 23% in some locations outside the city. The decreasing percentage of helmet use while moving toward the locations outside the city was confirmed statistically through t tests (t = 1.771, df = 13, P < .05). It was found that only 42% of users revealed that helmets are comfortable and 42% expressed that helmets affect hearing ability. It is important to note that 57% of users are of the opinion that there is no need to use a helmet if you drive slowly and carefully. The price of the helmet was not a deterrent for helmet use. In addition, it was observed that only 45% of helmets used by the motorist were standard helmets with an Indian Standards Institute (ISI) mark. The widely varying helmet use pattern observed in the study area may be attributed due to the users' behaviors; that is, using a helmet only when the helmet law is strictly enforced rather than using a helmet as a protective device. Further, some of the problems and beliefs associated with helmet use prevent motorcyclists from using a helmet. Hence, the road safety of motorcyclists can be improved only through addressing the identified measures comprehensively.

  14. Guinea pig maximization test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    1985-01-01

    Guinea pig maximization tests (GPMT) with chlorocresol were performed to ascertain whether the sensitization rate was affected by minor changes in the Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) emulsion used. Three types of emulsion were evaluated: the oil phase was mixed with propylene glycol, saline...

  15. Helmet-Mounted Display Design Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Richard L.; Greeley, Kevin W.

    1997-01-01

    Helmet Mounted Displays (HMDs) present flight, navigation, and weapon information in the pilot's line of sight. The HMD was developed to allow the pilot to retain aircraft and weapon information while looking off boresight. This document reviews current state of the art in HMDs and presents a design guide for the HMD engineer in identifying several critical HMD issues: symbol stabilization, inadequate definitions, undefined symbol drive laws, helmet considerations, and Field Of View (FOV) vs. resolution tradeoff requirements. In particular, display latency is a key issue for HMDs. In addition to requiring further experimental studies, it impacts the definition and control law issues. Symbol stabilization is also critical. In the case of the Apache helicopter, the lack of compensation for pilot head motion creates excessive workload during hovering and Nap Of the Earth (NOE) flight. This translates into excessive training requirements. There is no agreed upon set of definitions or descriptions for how HMD symbols are driven to compensate for pilot head motion. A set of definitions is proposed to address this. There are several specific areas where simulation and flight experiments are needed: development of hover and NOE symbologies which compensate for pilot head movement; display latency and sampling, and the tradeoff between FOV, sensor resolution and symbology.

  16. Ballistic Characterization Of A Typical Military Steel Helmet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Ali Maher

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study the ballistic limit of a steel helmet against a FMJ 919 mm caliber bullet is estimated. The helmet model is the typical polish helmet wz.31.The helmet material showed high strength low alloy steel material of 0.28 carbon content and 9.125 kgm2 areal density. The tensile test according to ASTM E8 showed a tensile strength of 1236.4 MPa .The average hardness value was about HV550. First shooting experiment has been executed using a 9 mm pistol based on 350 ms muzzle velocity at 5m against the simply supported helmet complete penetrations rose in this test were in the form of cracks on the helmet surface and partial penetrations were in the form of craters on the surface whose largest diameter and depth were 43 mm and 20.2 mm consequently .The second experiment was on a rifled gun arrangement 13 bullets of 919 mm caliber were shot on the examined simply supported steel helmet at a zero obliquity angle at different velocities to determine the ballistic limit velocity V50 according to MIL-STD-662F. Three major outcomes were revealed 1 the value V50 which found to be about 390 ms is higher than the one found in literature 360 ms German steel helmet model 1A1. 2 The smallest the standard deviation of the mixed results zone data the most accurate the ballistic limit is. 3Similar to the performance of blunt-ended projectiles impacting overmatching targets tD near 11 or larger It was found that the dominating failure mode of the steel helmet stuck by a hemispherical-nose projectile was plugging mode despite of having tD ratio of about 19 undermatching.

  17. Differential protective effects of motorcycle helmets against head injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, Michael D

    2017-05-19

    Although numerous observational studies have demonstrated a protective effect of motorcycle helmets against head injury, the degree of protection against specific head injury types remains unclear. Experimental biomechanics studies involving cadavers, animals, and computer models have established that head injuries have varying etiologies. This retrospective cross-sectional study compared helmet protection against skull fracture, cerebral contusion, intracranial hemorrhage, and cerebral concussion in a consecutive series of motorcycle operators involved in recent traffic crashes in Kentucky. Police collision reports linked to hospital inpatient and emergency department (ED) claims were analyzed for the period 2008 to 2012. Motorcycle operators with known helmet use who were not killed at the crash scene were included in the study. Helmet use was ascertained from the police report. Skull fracture, cerebral contusion, intracranial hemorrhage, and cerebral concussion were identified from International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes on the claims records. The relative risks of each type of head injury for helmeted versus unprotected operators were estimated using generalized estimating equations. Helmets offer substantial protection against skull fracture (relative risk [RR] = 0.31, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.23, 0.34), cerebral contusion (RR = 0.29, 95% CI, 0.16, 0.53), and intracranial hemorrhage (RR = 0.47, 95% CI, 0.35, 0.63). The findings pertaining to uncomplicated concussion (RR = 0.80, 95% CI, 0.64, 1.01) were inconclusive. A modest protective effect (20% risk reduction) was suggested by the relative risk estimate, but the 95% confidence interval included the null value. Motorcycle helmets were associated with a 69% reduction in skull fractures, 71% reduction in cerebral contusion, and 53% reduction in intracranial hemorrhage. This study finds that current motorcycle helmets do not protect equally against

  18. A descriptive study of bicycle helmet use in Montreal, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenier, Tara; Deckelbaum, Dan L; Boulva, Kerianne; Drudi, Laura; Feyz, Mitra; Rodrigue, Nathalie; Tze, Nancy; Fata, Paola; Khwaja, Kosar; Chughtai, Talat; Razek, Tarek

    2013-09-17

    The purpose of this study was to describe bicycle helmet use among Montreal cyclists as a step towards injury prevention programming. Using a cross-sectional study design, cyclists were observed during 60-minute periods at 22 locations on the island of Montreal. There were 1-3 observation periods per location. Observations took place between August 16 and October 31, 2011. Standard statistical methods were used, unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence interval were calculated. A total of 4,789 cyclists were observed. The helmet-wearing proportion of all cyclists observed was 46% (95% CI 44-47). Women had a higher helmet-wearing proportion than men (50%, 95% CI 47-52 vs. 44%, 95% CI 42-45, respectively). Youth had the highest helmet-wearing proportion (73%, 95% CI 64-81), while young adults had the lowest (34%, 95% CI 30-37). Visible minorities were observed wearing a helmet 29% (95% CI 25-34) of the time compared to Caucasians, 47% (95% CI 46-49). BIXI (bike sharing program) riders were observed wearing a helmet 12% (95% CI 10-15) of the time compared to riders with their own bike, 51% (95% CI 49-52). Although above the national average, bicycle helmet use in Montreal is still considerably low given that the majority of cyclists do not wear a helmet. Injury Prevention Programs could target the entire cyclist population, but special attention may be warranted in specific groups such as young men, visible minorities, BIXI riders, and those riding in tourist areas. Additionally, a collaborative enterprise with the bicycle sharing system BIXI Montreal™ could prove to be fruitful in addressing the availability of bike helmets for BIXI riders.

  19. Employee perception of a mandated helmet policy at Vail Resorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Christopher B; Brownson, Mark R; Levy, Brent J; Valley, Morgan A; Evans, Bruce; Lowenstein, Steven R

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure support for a mandated helmet policy among resort employees along with the impact of such a policy on job satisfaction, and additionally, to measure the prevalence of barriers to helmet use among this population. In all, 728 Vail Resort employees were surveyed regarding their opinions on the helmet policy and on general helmet use. The majority of the 728 employees surveyed (66.5%; 95% CI: 63% to 70%) agreed with the helmet policy. Only 18% (95% CI: 16% to 21%) reported a negative effect on job satisfaction. Older employees (>25 years old) were more likely to disagree with the policy (odds ratio [OR] 3.1; 95% CI: 2.2 to 4.3) and report a negative effect on job satisfaction (OR 4.8; 95% CI: 3.0 to 7.6). Skiers were much more likely than snowboarders to report a negative effect on job satisfaction (OR 9.8; 95% CI: 5.2 to 18.1). Among resort employees, ski patrollers were more likely to disagree with the mandate (OR 9.8; 95% CI: 6.8 to 13.9) and report a negative effect on job satisfaction (OR 13.2; 95% CI: 8.3 to 21.). Forty-three percent of participants (95% CI: 39% to 46%) agreed with the statement that wearing a helmet encourages reckless behavior whereas 51.0% (95% CI: 47% to 54%) believed that wearing a helmet limits sensory perception. A mandatory helmet use policy was supported by most resort employees. However, ski patrollers and older, more experienced employees were more likely to report a negative effect on job satisfaction. Barriers to helmet use continue to persist in the ski industry and represent a target for further educational efforts. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. A history of helmet mounted displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, Bob; Melzer, James

    2015-05-01

    In more than 40 years of development, the Helmet-Mounted Display (HMD) has become a key part of the equipment for fixed and rotary wing pilots and ground soldiers, proving to be a force multiplier and reducing user workload. Rockwell Collins has been a key player in the development of modern HMD technology and is currently fielding major HMDs supporting pilots around the world including the Joint Hemet Mounted Cueing System (JHMCS) and Strike Eye. This paper will outline the history of HMDs over the last 40 years for fixed wing, rotorcraft and soldiers and discuss Rockwell Collins' role. We will discuss the development and testing required for introduction of HMDs into the modern pilot environment. Within the paper we will point out some of the misconceptions, facts and legends of HMDS.

  1. Effect of Hypergravity Stress on Gaseous Exchange and Survival of Young and Old Guinea Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muradian, Kh. K.; Timchenko, A. N.

    Hypergravity tolerance decreases in aging Guinea pigs, the range being lower than in other studied species of laboratory mammals - mice, hamsters, and rats. Moreover, for the gaseous exchange rate and body temperature, the decline during the stress is not characteristic for Guinea pigs of both age groups, in contrast to other species. In general, hypergravity tolerance of Guinea pigs could be more appropriate experimental models.

  2. Evaluation of Dynamic Response and Brain Deformation Metrics for a Helmeted and Non-Helmeted Hybrid III Headform Using a Monorail Centric/Non-Centric Protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Nishizaki, Kyle; Marino, Wayne; Hoshizaki, Thomas Blaine; et al, ...

    2014-01-01

    Head injuries, and concussion in particular, have become a source of interest in the sport of ice hockey. This study proposes a monorail test methodology combined with a finite element method to evaluate ice hockey helmets in a centric/non-centric protocol with performance metrics more closely associated with risk of concussion. Two conditions were tested using the protocol: (a) helmeted versus no helmet, and (b) vinyl nitrile lined hockey helmet versus expanded polypropylene lined hockey hel...

  3. Joint helmet-mounted cueing system accuracy testing using celestial references

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marticello, Daniel N., Jr.; Spillman, Mark S.

    1999-07-01

    The Joint Helmet-Mounted Cueing System (JHMCS) incorporates a man-mounted, ejection-compatible helmet-mounted display system, with the capability to cue and verify cueing of high off-axis sensors and weapons, on U.S. Air Force and U.S. Navy single-seat and two-seat fighter aircraft. Program requirements call for the JHMCS to meet a certain level of pointing accuracy. Pointing accuracy is defined as how close the JHMCS computed line of sight (LOS) is to the actual LOS of the pilot. In order to test the pointing accuracy of JHMCS throughout the pilot's range of motion, truth data had to be established sat various azimuths and elevations. Surveyed ground locations do not provide the ability to test at different helmet elevations. Airborne targets do not provide the measurement precision needed to validate system accuracy. Therefore, celestial bodies (stars), whose locations are precisely known for a given time and date at a specific location, will serve as truth data for LOS accuracy testing. This paper addresses the theory, planning, and status of JHMCS accuracy testing utilizing celestial bodies as reference points.

  4. Head injury mechanisms in helmet-protected motorcyclists: prospective multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, M; Otte, D; Lehmann, U; Chinn, B; Schuller, E; Doyle, D; Sturrock, K; Krettek, C

    2001-11-01

    In a prospective study, three research groups at Hannover (H) and Munich (M) in Germany and Glasgow (G) in the United Kingdom collected data from motorcycle crashes between July 1996 and July 1998 to investigate head injury mechanisms in helmet-protected motorcyclists. The head lesions of motorcyclists with Abbreviated Injury Score-Head (AISHead) 2+ injuries and/or helmet impact were classified into direct force effect (DFE) and indirect force effect (IFE) lesions. The effecting forces and the force consequences were analyzed in detail. Two-hundred twenty-six motorcyclists (H, n = 115; M, n = 56; and G, n = 55) were included. Collision opponents were cars (57.8%), trucks (8.0%), pedestrians (2.3%), bicycles (1.4%), two-wheel motor vehicles (0.8%), and others (4.2%). In 25.4% no other moving object was involved. The mean impact speed was 55 km/h (range, 0-120 km/h) and correlated with AISHead. Seventy-six (33%) motorcyclists had no head injury, 21% (n = 48) AISHead 1, and 46% (n = 103) AISHead 2+. Four hundred nine head lesions were further classified: 36.9% DFE and 63.1% IFE. Lesions included 20.5% bone, 51.3% brain, and 28.1% skin. The most frequent brain lesions were subdural hematomas (22.4%, n = 47) and subarachnoid hematomas (25.2%, n = 53). Lesions of skin or bone were mainly DFE lesions, whereas brain lesions were mostly IFE lesions. A modification of the design of the helmet shell may have a preventative effect on DFE lesions, which are caused by a high amount of direct force transfer. Acceleration or deceleration forces induce IFE lesions, particularly rotation, which is an important and underestimated factor. The reduction of the effecting forces and the kinetic consequences should be a goal for future motorcycle helmet generations.

  5. The Effects of Motorcycle Helmet Legislation on Craniomaxillofacial Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Nicholas S; Newbury, Patrick A; Eichhorn, Mitchell G; Davis, Alan T; Mann, Robert J; Polley, John W; Girotto, John A

    2017-06-01

    Motorcycle helmet legislation has been a contentious topic for over a half-century. Benefits of helmet use in motorcycle trauma patients are well documented. In 2012, Michigan repealed its universal motorcycle helmet law in favor of a partial helmet law. The authors describe the early clinical effects on facial injuries throughout Michigan. Retrospective data from the Michigan Trauma Quality Improvement Program trauma database were evaluated. Included were 4643 motorcycle trauma patients presenting to 29 Level I and II trauma centers throughout Michigan 3 years before and after the law repeal (2009 to 2014). Demographics, external cause of injury codes, International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision diagnosis codes, and injury details were gathered. The proportion of unhelmeted trauma patients increased from 20 percent to 44 percent. Compared with helmeted trauma patients, unhelmeted patients were nearly twice as likely to sustain craniomaxillofacial injuries (relative risk, 1.90), including fractures (relative risk, 2.02) and soft-tissue injuries (relative risk, 1.94). Unhelmeted patients had a lower Glasgow Coma Scale score and higher Injury Severity Scores. Patients presenting after helmet law repeal were more likely to sustain craniomaxillofacial injuries (relative risk, 1.46), including fractures (relative risk, 1.28) and soft-tissue injuries (relative risk, 1.56). No significant differences were observed for age, sex, Injury Severity Score, or Glasgow Coma Scale score (p > 0.05). This study highlights the significant negative impact of relaxed motorcycle helmet laws leading to an increase in craniomaxillofacial injuries. The authors urge state and national legislators to reestablish universal motorcycle helmet laws.

  6. Re-conservationrestoration treatment of a prehistoric helmet

    OpenAIRE

    Lovrić, Josipa

    2015-01-01

    The article describes the conservation and restoration treatment of a prehistoric helmet that arrived at the Zadar Museum of Archaeology as an item exchanged with the museum in Ancona back at a time before World War II. It describes all phases of work with a brief overview of corrosion changes that occurred over time during which the helmet was stored. Recommendations are given for its preservation.

  7. What Color Helmet? Reforming Security Council Peacekeeping Mandates

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-08-01

    in its internal affairs. UNOGIL observers ensured that personn el, arms, an d materials were not inftltrated across Lebanese borders. The mission...a general peace agreement between the government of Mozambique and the Resistencia Nacional Mocambicana (RENAMO) that ended 1 4 years of civil war...Engineers units serving as Green Helmets may make available to the White Helmets the personnel and material needed to build water purification

  8. Correlates and Barriers Associated with Motorcycle Helmet Use in Wa, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akaateba, Millicent Awialie; Yakubu, Ibrahim; Akanbang, Bernard Afiik Akanpabadai

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the correlates and barriers to helmet use among motorcycle riders in Wa, a motorcycle-predominant town in Ghana. An additional objective was to determine the association between helmet use and riders' knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs toward helmets. Cross-sectional surveys including both observation of helmet use and interviews were conducted among motorcycle riders at 6 randomly selected fuel stations and 4 motorcycle service centers within and outside the Central Business District of Wa. Questions covered riders' sociodemographic and riding characteristics, helmet use, reasons for use or nonuse of helmets, and knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about helmets. Analyses were based on frequencies and testing of strength of association using adjusted odds ratios (with 95% confidence intervals) in binary logistic regression. The prevalence of helmet use among the 271 sampled riders was 46% (95% confidence interval [CI], 40.2-52.0). Gender, age, marital status, and occupation were significant sociodemographic correlates of helmet use in Wa. Compared to currently married riders, unmarried riders were 5 times less likely to use a helmet. No significant association existed between riders' educational attainment and helmet use. Helmet use was also positively correlated with helmet ownership and license holding. The leading reasons stated for helmet nonuse among nonusers were not traveling a long distance and helmets block vision and hearing. Protection from injury, legal requirement, and coping with the police for fear of being accosted for helmet nonuse were identified as common reasons for helmet use. Positive attitudes and beliefs were also significantly correlated with helmet use. Despite the existence of a legislation mandating the use of helmets on all roads as well as the high level of awareness among riders on this legislation and the benefits of helmets, the incidence of helmet use among motorists continue to be low in Wa

  9. Attitude and opinion of neurosurgeons concerning protective bicycle-helmet use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Carla S; Zweckberger, Klaus; Schick, Uta; Unterberg, Andreas W

    2010-05-01

    Wearing protective helmets decreases the risk of incurring traumatic brain injury (TBI) in bicycle accidents. In 2007, the German Neurosurgical Society advocated compulsory use of bicycle helmets. Although neurosurgeons are the specialists who primarily treat patients with TBI in Europe, the distribution of helmet users among neurosurgeons (NS), as well as factors that influence the decision to wear helmets and whether professional knowledge or experience in TBI influences the use or attitude concerning bicycle helmets, remains unclear. A total of 55 neurosurgical departments in Germany, Austria, and Switzerland were contacted and asked to answer anonymous questionnaires concerning helmet use and TBI experience. To compare the neurosurgical attitude with that of a "non-neurosurgical, non-TBI-educated" control group, people of the general public (PUB) were interviewed. A total of 465 NS and 546 PUB returned questionnaires, with 49.7% of the NS and 44.5% of PUB indicated that they wear helmets while bicycling. Trauma experience did effect the personal decision of whether to wear bicycle helmets. Support of compulsory use was influenced by TBI experience. Furthermore, the incidence of helmet use in children was correlated to actual helmet use and disposition of their parents to make helmet use compulsory. NS and PUB behaved in similar ways. Only half wear protective helmets, while the others show cognitive dissonant behavior. With respect to compulsory helmet use, NS are also split in half. Experience with TBI and trauma education has effects. However, education alone does not suffice in promoting the use of bicycle helmets.

  10. Measuring compliance with Viet Nam's mandatory motorcycle helmet legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Ha Trong; Passmore, Jonathon; Cuong, Pham Viet; Nguyen, Nam Phuong

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this roadside observational study was to monitor helmet wearing among motorcycle riders and passengers in three provinces (Yen Bai, Da Nang and Binh Duong) in the Socialist Republic of Viet Nam, before and after a mandatory helmet law took effect on 15 December 2007. A total of 665,428 motorcycle riders and passengers were observed between November 2007 and February 2011 at 45 randomly selected sites covering the entire road network. Across all locations and time periods, correct helmet wearing averaged 40.1% before the law and 92.5% after; however, there were significant differences between time points and locations. The Viet Nam Government's decision to require all motorcycle riders and passengers to wear helmets has been thoroughly implemented nation wide and the results show that high wearing has been sustained. Further study is required on how high helmet wearing has and will translate into a reduction in motorcycle head injuries; however, Viet Nam's motorcycle helmet legislation should be seen as an important policy example for other low- and middle-income countries with a high utilization of motorcycles for personal transport.

  11. Does law enforcement awareness affect motorcycle helmet use? evidence from urban cities in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiwattanakulpaisarn, Piyapong; Kanitpong, Kunnawee; Ponboon, Sattrawut; Boontob, Nuttapong; Aniwattakulchai, Pakorn; Samranjit, Supattra

    2013-09-01

    Although helmet use has been compulsory for motorcycle drivers and passengers in Thailand since the enactment of the Helmet Act in 1994, recent surveys show that the prevalence of helmet usage remains low, particularly among passengers. This paper has sought to explore motorcyclists' awareness of helmet law enforcement in Thailand and examine whether it affects their helmet use behaviour. A total of 2,429 drivers and 1,328 passengers in urban cities nationwide were interviewed in 2009, and the data were analysed using a multivariate ordered logit regression technique. About 60% of the drivers and only 28% of the passengers reported that they always wore a motorcycle helmet. Apart from basic demographics (i.e. age and gender) and riding frequency, our analysis reveals that the awareness of helmet law enforcement was among the contributing factors influencing the use of motorcycle helmets in Thailand. Regardless of riding position, the prevalence of helmet use tended to be greater among those frequently observing the police's checkpoints for helmet wearing and those perceiving the high risk of being caught for non-helmet use. However, the use of helmets appeared to be lower among drivers who perceived the checkpoints to take place at the same times and locations, which were likely predicted. For motorcycle passengers, it was found that the low prevalence of helmet use was potentially attributable to the absence of knowledge on the compulsory helmet law for passengers and the perception that the law was not enforced by the police. Thus, if motorcycle helmet use in Thailand is to be increased, considerable efforts need to be given to increasing the perceived risk of apprehension for non-helmet use (e.g. more police presence and random scheduling of enforcement activities), improving the awareness of the existing helmet law for passengers, and ensuring that helmet wearing by passengers is more strictly enforced.

  12. Exercise enclosures for guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Cyndi

    2009-11-01

    Exercise and exploration are important to the health and happiness of guinea pigs. Laboratory housing does not always provide the space necessary for such opportunities. This article presents an inexpensive, versatile option for an enclosed exercise area for the laboratory guinea pig.

  13. Children's bicycle helmet attitudes and use. Association with parental rules. The Pediatric Practice Research Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, P A; Binns, H J; Christoffel, K K

    1996-12-01

    Previous studies have assessed the attitudes of parents and children toward bicycle helmet ownership and use in various settings, but they have not addressed the role of parental rules in promoting bicycle helmet use by children. To further explore the attitudes of parents and children at pediatric practices toward bicycle helmet ownership and use by children and to assess the role of parental rules in promoting bicycle helmet use by children. One hundred sixty-nine 5- to 14-year-old children who owned bicycles and their parents were surveyed during well-child visits at 5 general pediatric practices in the Chicago, Ill, area. One hundred twenty-nine families were represented. Of the children, 60% were aged 5 to 9 years, and 50% were girls. Forty-eight children (28%) reported helmet ownership. Of the helmet owners, 21 (45%) reported helmet use; thus, the overall percentage of helmet use was 12%. Helmet ownership by children was significantly (P parental characteristics: educational level, race, perceived effectiveness of bicycle helmets, seat belt use, and parental helmet ownership. The most common reasons parents gave for lack of helmet ownership by children were "never thought about purchasing" a helmet (35%), "never got around to purchasing" a helmet (29%), "child wouldn't wear it anyway" (26%), and the bicycle helmet was "too expensive" (16%). Only 33% of the parents reported hearing about helmets from their children's pediatrician, but 40% of these parents regarded pediatricians as their most important information source. Of the children who did not own helmets, 64% said they would wear a bicycle helmet if they had one, a more frequent comment for 5- to 9-year-old children than 10- to 14-year-old children (76% vs 49%, P parents had a strict rule about wearing helmets were more likely to always wear their helmets than helmet owners whose parents had a partial rule or no rule (88% vs 19%, P Parental rules are associated with bicycle helmet use by children

  14. Age Does Not Affect the Material Properties of Expanded Polystyrene Liners in Field-Used Bicycle Helmets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeker, Shannon G; Bonin, Stephanie J; DeMarco, Alyssa L; Good, Craig A; Siegmund, Gunter P

    2016-04-01

    Bicycle helmet foam liners absorb energy during impacts. Our goal was to determine if the impact attenuation properties of expanded polystyrene (EPS) foam used in bicycle helmets change with age. Foam cores were extracted from 63 used and unused bicycle helmets from ten different models spanning an age range of 2-20 yrs. All cores were impact tested at a bulk strain rate of 195 s(-1). Six dependent variables were determined from the stress-strain curve derived from each impact (yield strain, yield stress, elastic modulus, plateau slope, energy at 65% compression, and stress at 65% compression), and a general linear model was used to assess the effect of age on each dependent variable with density as a covariate. Age did not affect any of the dependent variables; however, greater foam density, which varied from 58 to 100 kg/m(3), generated significant increases in all of the dependent variables except for yield strain. Higher density foam cores also exhibited lower strains at which densification began to occur, tended to stay within the plateau region of the stress-strain curve, and were not compressed as much compared with the lower density cores. Based on these data, the impact attenuation properties of EPS foam in field-used bicycle helmets do not degrade with the age.

  15. Measurement of Hybrid III Head Impact Kinematics Using an Accelerometer and Gyroscope System in Ice Hockey Helmets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Mari A; Kang, Yun Seok; Maltese, Matthew R; Bolte, John H; Arbogast, Kristy B

    2015-08-01

    Helmet-based instrumentation is used to study the biomechanics of concussion. The most extensively used systems estimate rotational acceleration from linear acceleration, but new instrumentation measures rotational velocity using gyroscopes, potentially reducing error. This study compared kinematics from an accelerometer and gyroscope-containing system to reference measures. A Hybrid III (HIII) adult male anthropometric test device head and neck was fit with two helmet brands, each instrumented with gForce Tracker (GFT) sensor systems in four locations. Helmets were impacted at various speeds and directions. Regression relationships between GFT-measured and reference peak kinematics were quantified, and influence of impact direction, sensor location, and helmet brand was evaluated. The relationship between the sensor output and the reference acceleration/velocity experienced by the head was strong. Coefficients of determination for data stratified by individual impact directions ranged from 0.77 to 0.99 for peak linear acceleration and from 0.78 to 1.0 for peak rotational velocity. For the data from all impact directions combined, coefficients of determination ranged from 0.60 to 0.80 for peak resultant linear acceleration and 0.83 to 0.91 for peak resultant rotational velocity. As expected, raw peak resultant linear acceleration measures exhibited large percent differences from reference measures. Adjustment using regressions resulted in average absolute errors of 10-15% if regression adjustments were done by impact direction or 25-40% if regressions incorporating data from all impact directions were used. Average absolute percent differences in raw peak resultant rotational velocity were much lower, around 10-15%. It is important to define system accuracy for a particular helmet brand, sensor location, and impact direction in order to interpret real-world data.

  16. High School Football Players Use Their Helmets to Tackle Other Players Despite Knowing the Risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuriyama, Andrew M; Nakatsuka, Austin S; Yamamoto, Loren G

    2017-03-01

    There is greater attention to head-related injuries and concussions in American football. The helmet's structural safety and the way that football players use their helmets are important in preventing head injuries. Current strategies include penalizing players for high-risk behavior such as leading with their helmet or hitting an opposing player above the shoulder. Passive strategies include helmet modification to better protect the head of the players or to change the playing style of the players. Hawai'i high school varsity football players were surveyed to determine how they use their helmets and how a new helmet design would affect their style of play. One hundred seventy-seven surveys were completed; 79% said that they used their helmet to hit an opposing player during a tackle and 46% said they made this contact intentionally. When asked about modifying helmets with a soft material on the outside, 48% said they thought putting a soft cover over a regular helmet would protect their head better. However, many participants said that putting a soft cover over their regular helmet was a bad idea for various reasons. Most young football players use their helmets to block or tackle despite being taught they would be penalized or potentially injured if they did so. By gaining a better understanding of why and how players use their helmets and how they would respond to new helmet designs, steps can be taken to reduce head injuries for all levels of play.

  17. Evaluation of a bicycle helmet safety program for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusimano, Michael D; Faress, Ahmed; Luong, Wilson P; Lockhart, Sally; Amin, Khizer; Garland, Rhonda J; Russell, Kelly

    2013-09-01

    Helmets have been shown to decrease the risk of brain injury; however, helmets must be worn correctly and fit well in order to be effective. The objective of this study is to determine whether kindergarten-aged children could learn and retain appropriate helmet wearing technique through an educational bicycle safety program. Retrospective analysis of scores in questionnaires administered before and after an educational intervention to kindergarten students four to six years of age. The study took place in Prince Edward Island, Canada. A Wilcoxon Sign-Rank Test was used to determine if there was a significant overall increase in knowledge; McNemar chi-square tests were used to determine if there was an increase in knowledge for individual questions. There was significant improvement in pre-test to immediate post-tests scores and pre-test to delay post-test scores when the results were stratified by age, sex, bike riding status, and helmet wearing status (p<0.001 for all comparisons). In particular, correct responses for the questions regarding appropriate helmet distances from the eyes increased from 38.9% in the pre-test to above 90% in the post-tests (p<0.001). Correct responses for the question pertaining to appropriate fitting of helmet straps increased from 71.7% pre-test to above 90% in the post-tests (p<0.001). There was improved knowledge of appropriate helmet-wearing technique among kindergarten-aged children as a result of the educational intervention, and knowledge gains were retained for at least one month.

  18. Behavioral responses of deafened guinea pigs to intracochlear electrical stimulation: a new rapid psychophysical procedure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agterberg, M.J.H.; Versnel, H.

    2014-01-01

    In auditory research the guinea pig is often preferred above rats and mice because of the easily accessible cochlea and because the frequency range of its hearing is more comparable to that of humans. Studies of the guinea-pig auditory system primarily apply histological and electrophysiological

  19. A Novel and High Performance System for Enhancing Speech in Helmet Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a highly innovative system for enhancing speech in helmet. First, we propose to apply a circular array with 8 microphones that are inside the helmet. In...

  20. Pilot Study of adolescent attitudes regarding Ski or Snowboard Helmet use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Andrew R.; Brooks, M. Alison

    2010-01-01

    Introduction The number of head injuries from skiing and snowboarding accidents is increasing among adolescents. Ski helmets reduce the risk of head injury. This study explored adolescent attitudes regarding helmet use. Methods This pilot study included 11 high school students participating in a 1-hour focus group. Results There was agreement that head injury is unlikely compared to other injuries, and use of helmets is determined by level of difficulty of the activity. Peer use makes personal use more acceptable and likely. Helmet cost is a minor barrier. Personal experience with a head injury increases use. Mandatory helmet use was viewed positively by most of the subjects. Conclusions This pilot study suggests that, similar to bicycle helmet promotion programs, ski and snowboard helmet campaigns should focus on delivering a positive image of helmet use and peer acceptance. PMID:20942297

  1. Observational study of compliance with Queensland bicycle helmet laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debnath, Ashim Kumar; Haworth, Narelle; Schramm, Amy; Williamson, Amy

    2016-12-01

    Mandatory bicycle helmet laws have been found to increase helmet wearing rates in Australia and internationally. However, much of the research on factors influencing compliance with the Australian helmet laws is dated or focuses on commuters and city areas only. To address this gap, video recordings of bicycle riders were undertaken at 17 sites across Queensland, Australia, representing a mixture of on- and off-road locations, speed limits and regions. Helmet status was able to be determined for 98% of riders observed. The level of compliance with the laws was very high, with 98.3% of the more than 27,000 riders observed wearing helmets. Riders riding on roads were less compliant than those riding on bicycle paths, but no significant differences were observed between the school-holiday and school-term periods. Among the on-road riders, boys were less compliant than girls and overall children were less compliant than adults. Higher compliance levels were found for group riders, road bike riders, lycra-clad riders, during morning hours, and on 50km/h or lower speed limit roads. While the overall level of compliance was very high, certain subgroups were identified as a possible focus for interventions to further improve the compliance level, for example children (particularly boys) riding mountain bikes away from groups during the afternoon hours on 60km/h roads. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Psychological determinants of motorcycle helmet use among young adults in Cambodia

    OpenAIRE

    Brijs, Kris; Brijs, Tom; Socheata, Sann; TRINH, Tu Anh; Wets, Geert; Ruiter, Rob

    2014-01-01

    Cambodian accident statistics show that motivating motorcyclists to make proper use of a safety helmet is a top priority for road safety policy makers. Yet, currently there is no insight whatsoever in the psychological precursors of helmet use in Cambodia. As such, it remains unclear which variables to target by interventions aimed at promoting the use of safety helmets. Therefore, this study adopted a socio-cognitive perspective towards the examination of helmet use in a sample of Cambodian ...

  3. Testing the risk compensation hypothesis for safety helmets in alpine skiing and snowboarding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Michael D; Buller, David B; Andersen, Peter A; Walkosz, Barbara J; Voeks, Jennifer H; Dignan, Mark B; Cutter, Gary R

    2007-06-01

    The prevalence of helmet use by alpine skiers and snowboarders was estimated and self-reports on risk taking were assessed to test for potential risk compensation when using helmets in these sports. Skiers and snowboarders were observed and interviewed at 34 resorts in the western United States and Canada. Respondents were 1779 adult skiers and snowboarders in the 2003 ski season. Observations of helmet use and questions about perceived speed and degree of challenge when not wearing a helmet (helmet wearers) or in previous ski seasons (non-helmet wearers). Helmet wearers reported that they skied/snowboarded at slower speeds (OR = 0.64, p<0.05) and challenged themselves less (OR = 0.76, p<0.05) than non-helmet wearers. Adoption of safety helmets in 2003 (23%) continued to increase over 2002 (OR = 0.46, p<0.05) and 2001 (OR = 0.84, p<0.05). No evidence of risk compensation among helmet wearers was found. Decisions to wear helmets may be part of a risk reduction orientation. Helmet use continues to trend upwards but adoption may be slowing.

  4. A Thermal Test System for Helmet Cooling Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun Fitzgerald

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the primary causes of discomfort to both irregular and elite cyclists is heat entrapment by a helmet resulting in overheating and excessive sweating of the head. To accurately assess the cooling effectiveness of bicycle helmets, a heated plastic thermal headform has been developed. The construction consists of a 3D-printed headform of low thermal conductivity with an internal layer of high thermal mass that is heated to a constant uniform temperature by an electrical heating element. Testing is conducted in a wind tunnel where the heater power remains constant and the resulting surface temperature distribution is directly measured by 36 K-type thermocouples embedded within the surface of the head in conjunction with a thermal imaging camera. Using this new test system, four bicycle helmets were studied in order to measure their cooling abilities and to identify ‘hot spots’ where cooling performance is poor.

  5. Helmet-induced headache among Danish military personnel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahmani, Zakia; Kochanek, Aneta; Astrup, Jesper Johnsen

    2017-01-01

    AIMS: External compression headache is defined as a headache caused by an external physical compression applied on the head. It affects about 4% of the general population; however, certain populations (e.g. construction workers and military personnel) with particular needs of headwear or helmet...... are at higher risk of developing this type of headache. External compression headache is poorly studied in relation to specific populations. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and pattern of helmet-induced external compression headache among Danish military personnel of the Northern Jutland region...... in Denmark. METHODS: Data acquisition was based on a custom-made questionnaire delivered to volunteers who used helmets in the Danish military service and who agreed to participate in this study. The military of the Northern Jutland region of Denmark facilitated recruitment of the participants...

  6. Nano-Composite Foam Sensor System in Football Helmets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrell, A Jake; Christensen, William F; Seeley, Matthew K; Bowden, Anton E; Fullwood, David T

    2017-12-01

    American football has both the highest rate of concussion incidences as well as the highest number of concussions of all contact sports due to both the number of athletes and nature of the sport. Recent research has linked concussions with long term health complications such as chronic traumatic encephalopathy and early onset Alzheimer's. Understanding the mechanical characteristics of concussive impacts is critical to help protect athletes from these debilitating diseases and is now possible using helmet-based sensor systems. To date, real time on-field measurement of head impacts has been almost exclusively measured by devices that rely on accelerometers or gyroscopes attached to the player's helmet, or embedded in a mouth guard. These systems monitor motion of the head or helmet, but do not directly measure impact energy. This paper evaluates the accuracy of a novel, multifunctional foam-based sensor that replaces a portion of the helmet foam to measure impact. All modified helmets were tested using a National Operating Committee Standards for Athletic Equipment-style drop tower with a total of 24 drop tests (4 locations with 6 impact energies). The impacts were evaluated using a headform, instrumented with a tri-axial accelerometer, mounted to a Hybrid III neck assembly. The resultant accelerations were evaluated for both the peak acceleration and the severity indices. These data were then compared to the voltage response from multiple Nano Composite Foam sensors located throughout the helmet. The foam sensor system proved to be accurate in measuring both the HIC and Gadd severity index, as well as peak acceleration while also providing additional details that were previously difficult to obtain, such as impact energy.

  7. Helmet-induced headache among Danish military personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, Zakia; Kochanek, Aneta; Astrup, Jesper Johnsen; Poulsen, Jeppe Nørgaard; Gazerani, Parisa

    2017-12-01

    External compression headache is defined as a headache caused by an external physical compression applied on the head. It affects about 4% of the general population; however, certain populations (e.g. construction workers and military personnel) with particular needs of headwear or helmet are at higher risk of developing this type of headache. External compression headache is poorly studied in relation to specific populations. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and pattern of helmet-induced external compression headache among Danish military personnel of the Northern Jutland region in Denmark. Data acquisition was based on a custom-made questionnaire delivered to volunteers who used helmets in the Danish military service and who agreed to participate in this study. The military of the Northern Jutland region of Denmark facilitated recruitment of the participants. The questionnaires were delivered on paper and the collected (anonymous) answers (total 279) were used for further analysis. About 30% of the study participants reported headache in relation to wearing a military helmet. Headache was defined as a pressing pain predominantly in the front of the head with an average intensity of 4 on a visual analogue scale of 0 (no pain) to 10 (worst pain imaginable). It was also found that helmets with different designs influenced both the occurrence of headache and its characteristics. This study is the first to demonstrate the prevalence and pattern of compression headache among military personnel in North Jutland, Denmark. The findings of this study call for further attention to helmet-induced external compression headache and strategies to minimize the burden.

  8. MICROORGANISMS ASSOCIATED WITH COMMERCIAL MOTORCYCLE HELMETS IN LAGOS METROPOLIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aniekpeno Elijah

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms associated with commercial motorcycle helmets were investigated in the commercial city of Lagos, Nigeria. 300 motorcycle helmets were randomly collected from different commercial motor cyclists in two densely populated areas of Lagos: Yaba College of Technology (YABATECH and Lagos University Teaching Hospital (LUTH main gates respectively. Two sterile swabs moistened with sterile water were rotated over the inner surface of each helmet and cultured on MacConkey Agar and Nutrient Agar for bacterial growth and Sabouraud Dextrose Agar for fungi growth. The plates for bacteria growth were incubated aerobically at 37 ºC for 48 h, while plates for fungi at 28 ºC for 2 weeks. Biochemical tests were used to identify bacteria; while, cultural characteristics were used for fungi identification. The microorganisms consistently common to the samples investigated in the two locations were similar and included (with respective frequency of occurrence for both location: Staphylococcus aureus (80%; 7%, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (75%; 12%, Staphylococcus epidermis (60%; 8%, Enterobacter aerogenes (52%; 27%, Escherichia coli (40%; 13%, Bacillus spp (37%; 10%, Aspergillus spp (82%; 7%, Candida spp (55%; 22%, Rhizopus spp (40%; 27%, and Penicilium spp (35%; 12%. The motorcycle helmets collected at YABATECH had higher microbial colonization than LUTH irrespective of the isolates. This trend was similar for bacterial and fungi. Results showed that helmets could serve as vehicles for transmission of pathogens. Good hygiene practice (GHP and regular cleaning of motor cycle helmets with sterilants is strongly advocated in order to reduce the incidence of microbial transmission and its associated infection.

  9. Correlates of Helmet Use Among Recreation and Transportation Bicyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Anna K; Salvo, Deborah; Kohl Iii, Harold W

    2016-12-01

    Helmet use prevents injury and mortality if a bicyclist is in a collision while riding. This cross-sectional study sought to identify domain-specific (recreation versus transportation) correlates of helmet use among U.S. adult bicyclists, using nationally representative data from 2012. This analysis, conducted in 2015-2016, utilized data from the 2012 National Survey of Bicyclist and Pedestrian Attitudes and Behaviors, administered for the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Bivariate logistic regressions identified sociodemographic, behavioral, and environmental correlates of helmet use among U.S. adult bicyclists. Backwards elimination procedures selected final multivariate models for bicyclists' helmet use in both domains. Among recreation cyclists, helmet use was significantly associated with income ($30,000-$75,000, OR=1.79, 95% CI=1.04, 3.10; ≥$75,000, OR=2.34, 95% CI=1.38, 3.97), safety training (OR=2.94, 95% CI=1.46, 5.93), not riding at dark (OR=1.92, 95% CI=1.24, 2.98), feeling threatened while riding (OR=2.24, 95% CI=1.12, 4.45), and using bike lanes/paths (OR=2.04, 95% CI=1.42, 2.93). Helmet use among transportation riders was significantly associated with education (less than high school, OR=2.45, 95% CI=1.13, 5.32; post-high school, OR=3.55, 95% CI=1.96, 6.42), income ($30,000-$75,000, OR=2.11, 95% CI=1.17, 3.8; ≥$75,000, OR=2.33, 95% CI=1.26, 4.27), unemployment (OR=0.29, 95% CI=0.11, 0.76), not using electronics while riding (OR=2.3, 95% CI=1.41, 3.75), safety training (OR=3.19, 95% CI=1.44, 7.07), and injury while riding within the past 2 years (OR=2.81, 95% CI=1.14, 6.94). Correlates of helmet use among bicyclists are domain specific. Although confirmatory longitudinal studies are needed, findings suggest that interventions to increase bicyclists' helmet use consider riding domain. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Modeling and Optimization of Airbag Helmets for Preventing Head Injuries in Bicycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt, Mehmet; Laksari, Kaveh; Kuo, Calvin; Grant, Gerald A; Camarillo, David B

    2017-04-01

    Bicycling is the leading cause of sports-related traumatic brain injury. Most of the current bike helmets are made of expanded polystyrene (EPS) foam and ultimately designed to prevent blunt trauma, e.g., skull fracture. However, these helmets have limited effectiveness in preventing brain injuries. With the availability of high-rate micro-electrical-mechanical systems sensors and high energy density batteries, a new class of helmets, i.e., expandable helmets, can sense an impending collision and expand to protect the head. By allowing softer liner medium and larger helmet sizes, this novel approach in helmet design provides the opportunity to achieve much lower acceleration levels during collision and may reduce the risk of brain injury. In this study, we first develop theoretical frameworks to investigate impact dynamics of current EPS helmets and airbag helmets-as a form of expandable helmet design. We compared our theoretical models with anthropomorphic test dummy drop test experiments. Peak accelerations obtained from these experiments with airbag helmets achieve up to an 8-fold reduction in the risk of concussion compared to standard EPS helmets. Furthermore, we construct an optimization framework for airbag helmets to minimize concussion and severe head injury risks at different impact velocities, while avoiding excessive deformation and bottoming-out. An optimized airbag helmet with 0.12 m thickness at 72 ± 8 kPa reduces the head injury criterion (HIC) value to 190 ± 25 at 6.2 m/s head impact velocity compared to a HIC of 1300 with a standard EPS helmet. Based on a correlation with previously reported HIC values in the literature, this airbag helmet design substantially reduces the risks of severe head injury up to 9 m/s.

  11. The Influence of Friction Between Football Helmet and Jersey Materials on Force: A Consideration for Sport Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Anthony M; Claiborne, Tina L; Thompson, Gregory B; Todaro, Stacey

    2016-09-01

    The pocketing effect of helmet padding helps to dissipate forces experienced by the head, but if the player's helmet remains stationary in an opponent's shoulder pads, the compressive force on the cervical spine may increase. To (1) measure the coefficient of static friction between different football helmet finishes and football jersey fabrics and (2) calculate the potential amount of force on a player's helmet due to the amount of friction present. Cross-sectional study. Laboratory. Helmets with different finishes and different football jersey fabrics. The coefficient of friction was determined for 2 helmet samples (glossy and matte), 3 football jerseys (collegiate, high school, and youth), and 3 types of jersey numbers (silkscreened, sublimated, and stitched on) using the TAPPI T 815 standard method. These measurements determined which helmet-to-helmet, helmet-to-jersey number, and helmet-to-jersey material combination resulted in the least amount of static friction. The glossy helmet versus glossy helmet combination produced a greater amount of static friction than the other 2 helmet combinations (P = .013). The glossy helmet versus collegiate jersey combination produced a greater amount of static friction than the other helmet-to-jersey material combinations (P < .01). The glossy helmet versus silkscreened numbers combination produced a greater amount of static friction than the other helmet-to-jersey number combinations (P < .01). The force of static friction experienced during collisions can be clinically relevant. Conditions with higher coefficients of static friction result in greater forces. In this study, the highest coefficient of friction (glossy helmet versus silkscreened number) could increase the forces on the player's helmet by 3553.88 N when compared with other helmet-to-jersey combinations. Our results indicate that the makeup of helmet and uniform materials may affect sport safety.

  12. Helmets for preventing head and facial injuries in bicyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, D C; Rivara, F P; Thompson, R

    2000-01-01

    Each year, in the United states, approximately 900 persons die from injuries due to bicycle crashes and over 500,000 persons are treated in emergency departments. Head injury is by far the greatest risk posed to bicyclists, comprising one-third of emergency department visits, two-thirds of hospital admissions, and three-fourths of deaths. Facial injuries to cyclists occur at a rate nearly identical to that of head injuries. Although it makes inherent sense that helmets would be protective against head injury, establishing the real-world effectiveness of helmets is important. A number of case-control studies have been conducted demonstrating the effectiveness of bicycle helmets. Because of the magnitude of the problem and the potential effectiveness of bicycle helmets, the objective of this review is to determine whether bicycle helmets reduce head, brain and facial injury for bicyclists of all ages involved in a bicycle crash or fall. To determine whether bicycle helmets reduce head, brain and facial injury for bicyclists of all ages involved in a bicycle crash or fall. We searched The Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Sport, ERIC, NTIS, Expanded Academic Index, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Occupational Safety and Health, and Dissertations Abstracts. We checked reference lists of past reviews and review articles, studies from government agencies in the United States, Europe and Australia, and contacted colleagues from the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention, World Injury Network, CDC funded Injury Control and Research Centers, and staff in injury research agencies around the world. Controlled studies that evaluated the effect of helmet use in a population of bicyclists who had experienced a crash. We required that studies have complete outcome ascertainment, accurate exposure measurement, appropriate selection of the comparison group and elimination or control of factors such as selection bias, observation bias and confounding

  13. The effect of an optimised helmet fit on neck load and neck pain during military helicopter flights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Oord, Marieke H. A. H.; Steinman, Yuval; Sluiter, Judith K.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.

    2012-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to improve the helmet fit of military helicopter aircrew members and evaluate its effect on the experienced helmet stability (helmet gliding), neck load, neck pain, hot spots (pressure points), irritation/distraction, and overall helmet comfort during night

  14. An Evaluation of the Compressive Properties of Helmet Pads Pre- and Post-Shock Wave Overpressure Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-14

    OVERPRESSURE WOUNDS AND INJURIES IMPACT STATIC TESTS PADS(CUSHIONS) TEST AND EVALUATION TRAUMA...HELMET PADS HEAD(ANATOMY) TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY HELMETS SHOCK TUBES ACH(ADVANCED COMBAT HELMET) U.S...Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1997. [5] W. C. Moss and M. J. King, "Impact response of US Army and National Football League helmet pad

  15. Head impact velocities in FIS World Cup snowboarders and freestyle skiers: Do real-life impacts exceed helmet testing standards?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenstrup, Sophie E; Mok, Kam-Ming; McIntosh, Andrew S; Bahr, Roald; Krosshaug, Tron

    2018-01-01

    Prior to the 2013-2014 season, the International Ski Federation (FIS) increased the helmet testing speed from a minimum requirement of 5.4 to 6.8 m/s for alpine downhill, super-G and giant slalom and for freestyle ski cross, but not for the other freestyle disciplines or snowboarding. Whether this increased testing speed reflects impact velocities in real head injury situations on snow is unclear. We therefore investigated the injury mechanisms and gross head impact biomechanics in four real head injury situations among World Cup (WC) snowboard and freestyle athletes and compared these with helmet homologation laboratory test requirements. The helmets in the four cases complied with at least European Standards (EN) 1077 (Class B) or American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) F2040. We analysed four head injury videos from the FIS Injury Surveillance System throughout eight WC seasons (2006-2014) in detail. We used motion analysis software to digitize the helmet's trajectory and estimated the head's kinematics in two dimensions, including directly preimpact and postimpact. All four impacts were to the occiput. In the four cases, the normal-to-slope preimpact velocity ranged from 7.0(±SD 0.2) m/s to 10.5±0.5 m/s and the normal-to-slope velocity change ranged from 8.4±0.6 m/s to 11.7±0.7 m/s. The sagittal plane helmet angular velocity estimates indicated a large change in angular velocity (25.0±2.9 rad/s to 49.1±0.3 rad/s). The estimated normal-to-slope preimpact velocity was higher than the current strictest helmet testing rule of 6.8 m/s in all four cases. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  16. Risk compensation: a male phenomenon? Results from a controlled intervention trial promoting helmet use among cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messiah, Antoine; Constant, Aymery; Contrand, Benjamin; Felonneau, Marie-Line; Lagarde, Emmanuel

    2012-05-01

    Prevention tools are challenged by risky behaviors that follow their adoption. Speed increase following helmet use adoption was analyzed among bicyclists enrolled in a controlled intervention trial. Speed and helmet use were assessed by video (2621 recordings, 587 participants). Speeds were similar among helmeted and nonhelmeted female cyclists (16.5 km/h and 16.1 km/h, respectively) but not among male cyclists (helmeted: 19.2 km/h, nonhelmeted: 16.8 km/h). Risk compensation, observed only among male cyclists, was moderate, thus unlikely to offset helmet preventive efficacy.

  17. An ecologically relevant guinea pig model of fetal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellinger, S A; Lucas, D; Kleven, G A

    2015-04-15

    The laboratory guinea pig, Cavia porcellus, shares with humans many similarities during pregnancy and prenatal development, including precocial offspring and social dependence. These similarities suggest the guinea pig as a promising model of fetal behavioral development as well. Using innovative methods of behavioral acclimation, fetal offspring of female IAF hairless guinea pigs time mated to NIH multicolored Hartley males were observed longitudinally without restraint using noninvasive ultrasound at weekly intervals across the 10 week gestation. To ensure that the ultrasound procedure did not cause significant stress, salivary cortisol was collected both before and after each observation. Measures of fetal spontaneous movement and behavioral state were quantified from video recordings from week 3 through the last week before birth. Results from prenatal quantification of Interlimb Movement Synchrony and state organization reveal guinea pig fetal development to be strikingly similar to that previously reported for other rodents and preterm human infants. Salivary cortisol readings taken before and after sonography did not differ at any observation time point. These results suggest this model holds translational promise for studying the prenatal mechanisms of neurobehavioral development, including those that may result from adverse events. Because the guinea pig is a highly social mammal with a wide range of socially oriented vocalizations, this model may also have utility for studying the prenatal origins and trajectories of developmental disabilities with social-emotional components, such as autism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The Effect of Eggshell Thickness on the Hatchability of Guinea Fowl and Pheasants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    US Yamak

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Successful incubation affects the number of healthy chicks in all poultry species. This study examined the effect of eggshell thickness on the hatching rates of guinea fowl and pheasant eggs. In total, 964 guinea fowl and 1,728 pheasant eggs were used in the study. Eggshell thickness was measured directly with an ultrasound gauge. Thicknesses ranged between 0.27-0.47 mm in guinea fowl and 0.24-0.49 mm in pheasant eggs. Incubation periods were 28 days for guinea fowl and 25 days for pheasant eggs. At the end of the incubation period, unhatched eggs were broken to identify the causes of embryonic mortality. Eggs were classified as thin-, medium- and thick-shelled, and hatching rates were calculated as a function of eggshell thickness. Differences in hatching rates of guinea fowl and pheasant eggs with different shell thicknesses were not statistically significant (p>0.05.

  19. Do helmets worn for hurling fail to protect the ear? Identification of an emerging injury pattern.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Martin-Smith, James D

    2012-12-01

    Hurling is an Irish national game of stick and ball known for its ferocity, played by 190 000 players. Facial injuries were common but have been significantly reduced by legislation enforcing compulsory helmet wearing. Current standard helmets worn by hurlers do not offer protection to the external ear. Here we describe an emerging pattern of ear injuries and demonstrate the risk of external ear injuries in hurlers complying with current helmet safety standards. A 6-month retrospective analysis was carried out of patients attending Cork University Hospital (CUH) with ear lacerations sustained while hurling. Patient notes were reviewed and helmet manufacturers were interviewed. Seven patients were identified, all of whom sustained complex through ear lacerations while wearing helmets complying with current safety standards. Current helmet design fails to protect the external ear placing it at an increased risk of injury, a potential solution is to include ear protection in the helmet design.

  20. Solutions to helmet-mounted display visual correction compatibility issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rash, Clarence E.; Kalich, Melvyn E.; van de Pol, Corina

    2002-08-01

    To meet the goal of 24-hour, all-weather operation, U.S. Army aviation uses a number of imaging sensor systems on its aircraft. Imagery provided by these systems is presented on helmet-mounted displays (HMDs). Fielded systems include the Integrated Helmet Display Sighting System (IHADSS) used on the AH-64 Apache. Proposed future HMD systems such as the Helmet Integrated Display Sighting System (HIDSS) and the Microvision, Inc., Aircrew Integrated Helmet System (AIHS) scanning laser system are possible choices for the Army's RAH-66 Comanche helicopter. Ever present in current and future HMD systems is the incompatibility problem between the design-limited physical eye relief of the HMD and the need to provide for the integration of laser and nuclear, biological and chemical (NBC) protection, as well as the need to address the changing optical and vision requirements of the aging aviator. This paper defines the compatibility issue, reviews past efforts to solve this problem (e.g., contact lenses, NBC masks, optical inserts, etc.), and identifies emerging techniques (e.g., refractive surgery, adaptive optics, etc.) that require investigation.

  1. The effects of dynamic friction in oblique motorcycle helmet impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonugli, Enrique

    The purpose of this study was to determine the frictional properties between the exterior surface of a motorcycle helmet and 'typical' roadway surfaces. These values were compared to abrasive papers currently recommended by government helmet safety standards and widely used by researchers in the field of oblique motorcycle helmet impacts. A guided freefall test fixture was utilized to obtain nominal impact velocities of 5, 7 and 9 m/s. The impacting surfaces were mounted to an angled anvil to simulate off-centered oblique collision. Head accelerations and impact forces were measured for each test. Analysis of the normal and tangential forces imparted to the contact surface indicated that the frictional properties of abrasive papers differ from asphalt and cement in magnitude, duration and onset. Reduction in head acceleration, both linear and angular, were observed when asphalt and cement were used as the impacting surface. Roofing shingle was determined to be a more suitable material to simulate 'typical' roadway surfaces however, this may not be ideal for use in a controlled laboratory setting. In a laboratory setting, the author recommends cement as a best-fit material to simulate roadway surface for use in oblique motorcycle helmet impacts since this material displayed characteristics that closely resemble asphalt and is currently used as a roadway construction material.

  2. The Cyclists Helmet Study in Juba, Southern Sudan, 2006 | Atem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Juba has a poor road network and few public transport options, with an increasing number of people riding motorised or non-motorised cycles This study seeks to characterise the cyclists (including helmet wearing) and to use the findings to make recommendations to the concerned authorities. The study found that most of ...

  3. Parents' decision for helmet therapy ion infants with skull deformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, R.M. van; Til, J.A. van; Groothuis-Oudshoorn, C.G.M.; Hoir, M.P. L; Boere-Boonekamp, M.M.; IJzerman, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Helmet therapy is regularly prescribed in infants with positional skull deformation. Evidence on the effectiveness is lacking, which complicates decision making. This study aims to assess the relation between parents’ decision for treatment of skull deformation in their infant and their

  4. 77 FR 48105 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Motorcycle Helmets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-13

    ... legitimate certification labels. The final rule further required that the size label state the helmet size in... Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Final rule; grant of petition for reconsideration. SUMMARY: This document responds to a petition for reconsideration of a final rule issued by this agency on May 13, 2011. The final...

  5. Southern Sudan Medical Journal vol 3. no 4 Editorial: Helmets ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ann Burgess

    Editorial: Helmets reduce death and brain injury in motorcycle and pushbike accidents. We at SSMJ are delighted to see that the GOSS is taking the subject of road safety seriously (1) and that Road Safety Awareness Week is taking place as we write this. We hope that this will lead to future enforceable legislation ...

  6. The Impact of Wearing Ballistic Helmets on Sound Localization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    on its inside surface. The ALF apparatus is housed within an anechoic chamber. The subject stood on a platform in the center of this sphere. The...of the helmet on the head (Figure 1). The experimenter then directed the subject from the control room , where the fitting took place, into ALF

  7. Hyperstereopsis in helmet-mounted NVDs: slope perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Geoffrey W.; Flanagan, Patrick; Gibbs, Peter

    2007-04-01

    Modern helmet-mounted night vision devices, such as the Thales TopOwl helmet, project imagery from intensifiers mounted on the sides of the helmet onto the helmet faceplate. This produces a situation of hyperstereopsis in which binocular disparities are magnified. This has the potential to distort the perception of slope in depth (an important cue to landing), because the slope cue provided by binocular disparity conflicts with veridical cues to slope, such as texture gradients and motion parallax. In the experiments, eight observers viewed sparse and dense textured surfaces tilted in depth under three viewing conditions: normal stereo hyper-stereo (4 times magnification), and hypostereo (1/4 magnification). The surfaces were either stationary, or rotated slowly around a central vertical axis. Stimuli were projected at 6 metres to minimise conflict between accommodation and convergence, and stereo viewing was provided by a Z-screen and passive polarised glasses. Observers matched perceived visual slope using a small tilt table set by hand. We found that slope estimates were distorted by hyperstereopsis, but to a much lesser degree than predicted by disparity magnification. The distortion was almost completely eliminated when motion parallax was present.

  8. Parents’ decision for helmet therapy in infants with skull deformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijk, Renske; van Til, Janine Astrid; Groothuis-Oudshoorn, Catharina Gerarda Maria; L'Hoir, Monique P.; Boere-Boonekamp, Magdalena M.; IJzerman, Maarten Joost

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Helmet therapy is regularly prescribed in infants with positional skull deformation. Evidence on the effectiveness is lacking, which complicates decision making. This study aims to assess the relation between parents’ decision for treatment of skull deformation in their infant and their

  9. The Cyclists Helmet Study in Juba, Southern Sudan, 2006

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ann Burgess

    Abstract. Juba has a poor road network and few public transport options, with an increasing number of people riding motorised or non-motorised cycles This study seeks to characterise the cyclists (including helmet wearing) and to use the findings to make recommendations to the concerned authorities. The study found that ...

  10. Crude protein requirements of guinea fowl keets ( Numida meliagris ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Guinea fowl of both sexes were fed from 0 to 8 weeks on protein level ranging from 18 to 26% using constant energy concertration of 3000 kilocalories/kg diet. At the end of th experimental period, keets on 24 and 26% potein levels with liveweights of 854 and 867.3g respectively were significantly heavier than keets on the ...

  11. Helmet Use Among Personal Bicycle Riders and Bike Share Users in Vancouver, BC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanotto, Moreno; Winters, Meghan L

    2017-10-01

    Public bike share users have low prevalence of helmet use, and few public bike share systems make helmets available. In summer 2016, a public bike share system launched in Vancouver, BC. Each bicycle is equipped with a free helmet, in response to BC's all-ages compulsory helmet law. This study assessed the prevalence of helmet use among adult cyclists on personal and public bicycles in Vancouver. A survey of adult cyclists (age estimated at ≥16 years) at five screen line sites and at 15 public bike share docking stations was conducted. Observations were made on fair weather days in 2016. Observers recorded the gender of the rider, bicycle type, helmet use, and helmet type. In 2016, multivariable logistic regression was used to calculate the odds of helmet use by personal and trip characteristics. Observers conducted 87.5 hours of observation and recorded 11,101 cyclists. They observed 10,704 (96.4%) cyclists on personal bicycles and 397 (3.6%) public bicycle users. Overall, the prevalence of helmet use was 78.1% (n=8,670/11,101), higher for personal bicycle riders (78.6%, n=8,416/10,704) than bike share users (64.0%, n=254/397). Helmet use was associated with gender, bicycle facility type, and day and time of travel. In a city with all-ages helmet legislation, helmet use is high but differs across infrastructure types and cyclist characteristics. Bike share systems could increase helmet use by providing complementary helmets coupled with supportive measures. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A comparison of observed and self-reported helmet use and associated factors among motorcyclists in Hyderabad city, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadhwaniya, S; Gupta, S; Mitra, S; Tetali, S; Josyula, L K; Gururaj, G; Hyder, A A

    2017-03-01

    India has a high burden of fatal road traffic injuries (RTIs). A large proportion of fatal RTIs in India are among motorcyclists. The overall goal of this study is to assess and compare observed and self-reported prevalence of helmet use; and to identify factors associated with helmet use and over-reporting in Hyderabad city, India. Roadside knowledge, attitude and practice interviews. Six rounds of roadside interviews were conducted with motorcyclists (drivers and pillion riders) between July 2011 and August 2013 using a structured tool developed for this study. Observations on helmet use were recorded and respondents were also asked if they 'always wear a helmet'. Prevalence of helmet use was calculated and a paired t-test was used to compare observed and self-reported helmet use proportions. Unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios were calculated to identify factors associated with helmet use and over-reporting. A total of 4872 respondents participated in the roadside interview. The response rate was 94.4%. The overall observed helmet use was 34.5% and 44.5% of respondents reported that they 'always wear a helmet'. As the observed helmet use increased, the over-reporting of helmet use was found to decrease. However, factors associated with observed and self-reported helmet use are similar. Male gender, youth (≤24 years), a lower level of education and non-ownership of helmet were associated with a higher risk of not wearing helmets. Male gender, youth (≤24 years), no schooling, riding a lower engine capacity motorcycle and using a motorcycle for purposes other than travelling to school/work were associated with over-reporting of helmet use. Self-reports provide an overestimate of helmet use that lessens as actual helmet use increases. Interviews also allow identification of factors associated with helmet use. Increasing helmet ownership and enhanced enforcement may help increase helmet use. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights

  13. New Setting of Neurally Adjusted Ventilatory Assist during Noninvasive Ventilation through a Helmet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cammarota, Gianmaria; Longhini, Federico; Perucca, Raffaella; Ronco, Chiara; Colombo, Davide; Messina, Antonio; Vaschetto, Rosanna; Navalesi, Paolo

    2016-12-01

    Compared to pneumatically controlled pressure support (PSP), neurally adjusted ventilatory assist (NAVA) was proved to improve patient-ventilator interactions, while not affecting comfort, diaphragm electrical activity (EAdi), and arterial blood gases (ABGs). This study compares neurally controlled pressure support (PSN) with PSP and NAVA, delivered through two different helmets, in hypoxemic patients receiving noninvasive ventilation for prevention of extubation failure. Fifteen patients underwent three (PSP, NAVA, and PSN) 30-min trials in random order with both helmets. Positive end-expiratory pressure was always set at 10 cm H2O. In PSP, the inspiratory support was set at 10 cm H2O above positive end-expiratory pressure. NAVA was adjusted to match peak EAdi (EAdipeak) during PSP. In PSN, the NAVA level was set at maximum matching the pressure delivered during PSP by limiting the upper pressure. The authors assessed patient comfort, EAdipeak, rates of pressurization (i.e., airway pressure-time product [PTP] of the first 300 and 500 ms after the initiation of patient effort, indexed to the ideal pressure-time products), and measured ABGs. PSN significantly increased comfort to (median [25 to 75% interquartile range]) 8 [7 to 8] and 9 [8 to 9] with standard and new helmets, respectively, as opposed to both PSP (5 [5 to 6] and 7 [6 to 7]) and NAVA (6 [5 to 7] and 7 [6 to 8]; P < 0.01 for all comparisons). Regardless of the interface, PSN also decreased EAdipeak (P < 0.01), while increasing PTP of the first 300 ms from the onset of patient effort, indexed to the ideal PTP (P < 0.01) and PTP of the first 500 ms from the onset of patient effort, indexed to the ideal PTP (P < 0.001). ABGs were not different among trials. When delivering noninvasive ventilation by helmet, compared to PSP and NAVA, PSN improves comfort and patient-ventilator interactions, while not ABGs. (Anesthesiology 2016; 125:1181-9).

  14. Temperature Preference in IAF Hairless and Hartley Guinea Pigs (Cavia porcellus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleven, Gale A; Joshi, Prianca

    2016-03-01

    The Hairless strain of guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) is the result of a spontaneous recessive mutation first identified at the Institute Armand Frappier (IAF) in 1978. Despite the longstanding availability of this strain, little is known about its thermoregulatory behavior. The aim of this study was to determine temperature preference in Hartley and Hairless guinea pigs by observing each strain in a ring-shaped apparatus containing a nonlinear temperature gradient. Temperatures were maintained by separately controlled heating mats lining the apparatus. Set point temperatures ranged from 24 to 38 °C. Guinea pigs (Hartley female, Hairless female, and Hairless male guinea pigs; n = 8 each group) were placed either singly or in pairs at 1 of the 8 randomized starting points within the apparatus. Subjects were observed for 30 min and coded for location within the temperature gradient by both frequency and duration. When placed singly in the apparatus, all 3 groups spent more time in the 30 °C zones. However, when placed as pairs with a cagemate, Hartley female guinea pigs spent more time in the cooler range of temperatures from 24 to 30 °C, whereas Hairless guinea pigs preferred a range of 30 to 38 °C. These results confirm a temperature preference of 30 ± 2 °C for both Hartley and Hairless guinea pigs when singly housed. However, data from the paired housing condition suggest that context plays an important role in thermoregulatory behavior.

  15. Temperature Preference in IAF Hairless and Hartley Guinea Pigs (Cavia porcellus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleven, Gale A; Joshi, Prianca

    2016-01-01

    The Hairless strain of guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) is the result of a spontaneous recessive mutation first identified at the Institute Armand Frappier (IAF) in 1978. Despite the longstanding availability of this strain, little is known about its thermoregulatory behavior. The aim of this study was to determine temperature preference in Hartley and Hairless guinea pigs by observing each strain in a ring-shaped apparatus containing a nonlinear temperature gradient. Temperatures were maintained by separately controlled heating mats lining the apparatus. Set point temperatures ranged from 24 to 38 °C. Guinea pigs (Hartley female, Hairless female, and Hairless male guinea pigs; n = 8 each group) were placed either singly or in pairs at 1 of the 8 randomized starting points within the apparatus. Subjects were observed for 30 min and coded for location within the temperature gradient by both frequency and duration. When placed singly in the apparatus, all 3 groups spent more time in the 30 °C zones. However, when placed as pairs with a cagemate, Hartley female guinea pigs spent more time in the cooler range of temperatures from 24 to 30 °C, whereas Hairless guinea pigs preferred a range of 30 to 38 °C. These results confirm a temperature preference of 30 ± 2 °C for both Hartley and Hairless guinea pigs when singly housed. However, data from the paired housing condition suggest that context plays an important role in thermoregulatory behavior. PMID:27025807

  16. Photo-oxidative degradation of motorcycle helmets in Hanoi, Vietnam: A prospective preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramli, Roszalina; Che Man, Zuraidah; Nordin, Rifqah; Abdul Karim, Fadzlina; Rashdi, Muhd Fazlynizam; Oxley, Jennie; Viet Cuong, Pham

    2016-09-01

    Vietnamese spend hours travelling on the road using their motorcycles. Their helmets are exposed continuously to sunlight and rain. The objectives of this study were to determine the association between the effect of photo-oxidative degradation (POD) of the outer shells and helmet age on helmet damage. The micro-structural change of the outer shell was also investigated. This was a prospective, cross sectional study recruiting injured motorcyclists from Hanoi, Vietnam hospital. The participants were interviewed by a trained researcher. The participants' helmets were collected post-crash. Initially, the helmets were examined for their type and external characteristics. A 3 cm × 3 cm cut was made on the helmet in the impacted and non-impacted areas (control). These areas were investigated for evidence of POD and presence of micro-cracks and material disintegration. 50 participants were enrolled. Sources of information included questionnaire and laboratory analyses. The helmet factors of interest were age of the helmet, exposure of helmet to sunlight and rain (duration/day) and history of previous impact. Laboratory analyses included Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR) for degradation and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for micro-structural examination. Majority of the helmets was the open-face type, 40 (80.0%). 31 (62.0%) helmets aged less than three years (LTY) and 19 (38.0%) were three years old or more (MTY). 19 (61.3%) of the LTY helmets and 12 (63.2%) MTY helmets showed evidence of POD. The duration of helmet exposure to sunlight was between 93 to 6570 hours (mean 2347.74 hours; SD 1733.39). The SEM showed 15 helmets (30%) with micro-fractures, 21 helmets (42.0%) with material disintegration. Prolonged uv exposure to the ABS helmets resulted in changes in the helmet material in the form of material disintegration and microcracks and this association was statistically significant (p = 0.03). POD occurs due to routine exposure to the ultraviolet light

  17. Associations between drug use and motorcycle helmet use in fatal crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossheim, Matthew E; Wilson, Fernando; Suzuki, Sumihiro; Rodriguez, Mayra; Walters, Scott; Thombs, Dennis L

    2014-01-01

    Helmet use reduces mortality risk for motorcyclists, regardless of drug and alcohol use. However, the association between drug use and motorcycle helmet utilization is not well known. This study examines the relationship between drug use and motorcycle helmet use among fatally injured motorcycle riders. Using data from the 2005-2009 Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS), we examined the association between drug use and motorcycle helmet use in a multivariable logistic regression analysis of 9861 fatally injured motorcycle riders in the United States. For fatally injured motorcycle riders, use of alcohol, marijuana, or other drugs was associated with increased odds of not wearing a motorcycle helmet, controlling for the effects of state motorcycle helmet laws and other confounding variables. Predicted probabilities indicate that helmet use substantially decreases among fatally injured riders mixing alcohol with marijuana and other drugs. Furthermore, the likelihood of helmet use between marijuana-only users and other drug users is virtually the same across all blood alcohol content (BAC) levels. This study provides evidence that alcohol, marijuana, and other drug use is associated with not wearing a motorcycle helmet in fatal motorcycle crashes. There is a clear need for additional prevention and intervention efforts that seek to change helmet and drug use norms among motorcycle riders.

  18. Impact response of US Army and National Football League helmet pad systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moss, W C; King, M J

    2011-02-18

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory [LLNL] was tasked to compare the impact response of NFL helmet pad systems and U.S. Army pad systems compatible with an Advanced Combat Helmet [ACH] at impact velocities up to 20 ft/s. This was a one-year study funded by the U.S. Army and JIEDDO. The Army/JIEDDO point of contact is COL R. Todd Dombroski, DO, JIEDDO Surgeon. LLNL was chosen by committee to perform the research based on prior published computational studies of the mechanical response of helmets and skulls to blast. Our collaborators include the U.S. Army Aeromedical Research Laboratory [USAARL] (a DoD laboratory responsible for impact testing helmets), Team Wendy and Oregon Aero (current and former ACH pad manufacturers), Riddell and Xenith (NFL pad manufacturers), and d3o (general purpose sports pad manufacturer). The manufacturer-supplied pad systems that were studied are shown in the figure below. The first two are the Army systems, which are bilayer foam pads with both hard and soft foam and a water-resistant airtight wrapper (Team Wendy) or a water-resistant airtight coating (Oregon Aero). The next two are NFL pad systems. The Xenith system consists of a thin foam pad and a hollow air-filled cylinder that elastically buckles under load. The Riddell system is a bilayer foam pad that is encased in an inflatable airbag with relief channels to neighboring pads in the helmet. The inflatable airbag is for comfort and provides no enhancement to impact mitigation. The d3o system consists of a rate-sensitive homogeneous dense foam. LLNL performed experiments to characterize the material properties of the individual foam materials and the response of the complete pad systems, to obtain parameters needed for the simulations. LLNL also performed X-ray CT scans of an ACH helmet shell that were used to construct a geometrically accurate computational model of the helmet. Two complementary sets of simulations were performed. The first set of simulations reproduced the

  19. Motorcycle helmet use in Mar del Plata, Argentina: prevalence and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledesma, Rubén D; López, Soledad S; Tosi, Jeremías; Poó, Fernando M

    2015-01-01

    Injuries resulting from motorcycle crashes constitute a growing problem in Argentina and other Latin American countries. The problem is aggravated because helmet use is not widespread. This observational study analysed the prevalence of helmet use and related factors in a city in Argentina. The sample consisted of 2542 observations of motorcyclists. The results show an incidence of helmet use of 69.8% for drives and 43.4% for passengers. Helmet use was greater among women. Environmental and temporal conditions were related with the rate of helmet use. The findings indicate a considerable increase in helmet use with respect to prior years, providing evidence in favour of government policies. However, the number of motorcycles in circulation has tripled in the past five years, and therefore, the public health impact of injuries due to motorcycle crashes persists.

  20. Camouflage design and head measurement characteristic of Indonesian armoured vehicle helmet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sya'bana, Yukhi Mustaqim Kusuma; Sanjaya, K. H.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper discussed camouflage design helmet for armored vehicles with comparing head measurement of Indonesian anthropometric. Design process conduct with considering of design aspects involves function, materials, operational, technology, user, and appearance (camouflage). As an application of Indonesian National Army that qualifies factors needs: safety, comfort, practical and service. MIL-H-44099A Military Specification: Helmet, Ground Troops And Parachutists is minimum limitation standard of military helmet production. Head measurement for product design process guide is presented. Model simulation and helmet measurement using the design for ego and design for more types ergonomics concept. Appearance shape concept is engaging camouflage towards background and environment to deceive enemy viewpoint. Helmet prototype has tested ergonomically to an Indonesian National Army soldier and stated that the helmet size is a comfort and fitted on the head when in use.

  1. Cycle helmets and the prevention of injuries. Recommendations for competitive sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, D C; Patterson, M Q

    1998-04-01

    The scientific evidence that bicycle helmets protect against head, brain and facial injuries has been well established by 5 well designed case-control studies. Additional evidence of helmet effectiveness has been provided from time series studies in Australia and the US. Bicycle helmets of all types that meet various national and international standards provide substantial protection for cyclists of all ages who are involved in a bicycle crash. This protection extends to crashes from a variety of causes (such as falls and collisions with fixed and moving objects) and includes crashes involving motor vehicles. Helmet use reduces the risk of head injury by 85%, brain injury by 88% and severe brain injury by at least 75%. Helmets should be worn by all riders whether the cyclist is a recreational rider or a serious competitor engaged in training or race competition. The International Cycling Federation (ICF) should make the use of helmets compulsory in all sanctioned races.

  2. Guinea Worm in a Frog

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-03-09

    Dr. Mark Eberhard, a retired parasitologist and CDC guest researcher, discusses Guinea worm infection in a wild-caught frog.  Created: 3/9/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 3/9/2017.

  3. An Analysis of Eye Movements with Helmet Mounted Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-27

    Kalich, M., Lang, G., King , R., and Noback, R., 2009, “Perceptual and Cognitive Effects Due to Operational Factors”, appears in Helmet-Mounted...Robert Wildsunas, J. Lynn Caldwell, Melvyn Kalich, Gregory Lang, Ronal King , and Robert Noback. “Perceptual and Cognitive Effects Due to Operational...2005. Smith, Suzanne D. (2005) Super Cobra (AH-1Z) Human Vibration Evaluation. AFRL-HE-WP- TR-2005-0114, Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright

  4. Weathering Tests on Protective Helmets Approved to Australian Standard as 1698 (For Vehicle Users).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-01

    wiped off and a reasonable gloss restored. The crowns of the helmets were affected most but the whole test area showed some evidence of weatherina...The polycarbonate helmets still had a good closs. * .R.P.: Glass fibre reinforced plastic. [4! ir .. . . . . . . . .. . . - The Standards Association...of te helmets. Neithor the depth of pervetration nor the sizes of the holes were measured. Deformation of the polycarbonate shells was ductile and

  5. The influence of ski helmets on sound perception and sound localisation on the ski slope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lana Ružić

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of the study was to investigate whether a ski helmet interferes with the sound localization and the time of sound perception in the frontal plane. Material and Methods: Twenty-three participants (age 30.7±10.2 were tested on the slope in 2 conditions, with and without wearing the ski helmet, by 6 different spatially distributed sound stimuli per each condition. Each of the subjects had to react when hearing the sound as soon as possible and to signalize the correct side of the sound arrival. Results: The results showed a significant difference in the ability to localize the specific ski sounds; 72.5±15.6% of correct answers without a helmet vs. 61.3±16.2% with a helmet (p < 0.01. However, the performance on this test did not depend on whether they were used to wearing a helmet (p = 0.89. In identifying the timing, at which the sound was firstly perceived, the results were also in favor of the subjects not wearing a helmet. The subjects reported hearing the ski sound clues at 73.4±5.56 m without a helmet vs. 60.29±6.34 m with a helmet (p < 0.001. In that case the results did depend on previously used helmets (p < 0.05, meaning that that regular usage of helmets might help to diminish the attenuation of the sound identification that occurs because of the helmets. Conclusions: Ski helmets might limit the ability of a skier to localize the direction of the sounds of danger and might interfere with the moment, in which the sound is firstly heard.

  6. Importance of the Bicycle Helmet Design and Material for the Outcome in Bicycle Accidents

    OpenAIRE

    Fahlstedt, Madelen; Halldin, Peter; Kleiven, Svein

    2014-01-01

    In Sweden the most common traffic group that needs to be hospitalized due to injury is cyclists where head injuries are the most common severe injuries. According to current standards, the performance of a helmet is only tested against radial impact which is not commonly seen in real accidents. Some studies about helmet design have been published but those helmets have been tested for only a few loading conditions. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to use finite element models to evalu...

  7. Helmet use is associated with safer bicycling behaviors and reduced hospital resource use following injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webman, Rachel; Dultz, Linda A; Simon, Ronald J; Todd, S Rob; Slaughter, Dekeya; Jacko, Sally; Bholat, Omar; Wall, Stephen; Wilson, Chad; Levine, Deborah A; Roe, Matthew; Pachter, H Leon; Frangos, Spiros G

    2013-11-01

    While the efficacy of helmet use in the prevention of head injury is well described, helmet use as it relates to bicyclists' behaviors and hospital resource use following injury is less defined. The objective of this study was to compare the demographics, behaviors, hospital workups, and outcomes of bicyclists based on helmet use. This study was a subset analysis of a 2.5-year prospective cohort study of vulnerable roadway users conducted at Bellevue Hospital Center, a New York City Level 1 trauma center. All bicyclists with known helmet status were included. Demographics, insurance type, traffic law compliance, alcohol use, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score, initial imaging studies, Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) score, Injury Severity Score (ISS), admission status, length of stay, disposition, and mortality were assessed. Information was obtained primarily from patients; witnesses and first responders provided additional information. Of 374 patients, 113 (30.2%) were wearing helmets. White bicyclists were more likely to wear helmets; black bicyclists were less likely (p = 0.037). Patients with private insurance were more likely to wear helmets, those with Medicaid or no insurance were less likely (p = 0.027). Helmeted bicyclists were more likely to ride with the flow of traffic (97.2%) and within bike lanes (83.7%) (p < 0.001 and p = 0.013, respectively). Nonhelmeted bicyclists were more likely to ride against traffic flow (p = 0.003). There were no statistically significant differences in mean GCS score, AIS score, and mean ISS for helmeted versus nonhelmeted bicyclists. Nonhelmeted patients were more likely to have head computed tomographic scans (p = 0.049) and to be admitted (p = 0.030). Helmet use is an indicator of safe riding practices, although most injured bicyclists do not wear them. In this study, helmet use was associated with lower likelihood of head CTs and admission, leading to less hospital resource use. Injured riders failing to wear helmets should

  8. Helmet-mounted uncooled FPA camera for buried object detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, John L.; Duvoisin, Herbert A., III; Wiltsey, George

    1997-08-01

    Software neural nets hosted on a parallel processor can analyze input from an IR imager to evaluate the likelihood of a buried object. However, it is only recently that low weight, staring LWIR sensors have become available in uncooled formats at sensitivities that provide enough information for useful man-portable helmet mounted applications. The images from the IR are presented to a human user through a see-through display after processing and highlighting by a neural net housed in a fanny-pack. This paper describes the phenomenology of buried object detection in the infrared, the neural net based image processing, the helmet mounted IR sensor and the ergonomics of mounting a sensor to head gear. The maturing and commercialization of uncooled focal plane arrays and high density electronics enables lightweight, low cost, small camera packages that can be integrated with hard hats and military helmets. The head gear described has a noise equivalent delta temperature (NEDT) of less than 50 milliKelvin, consumes less than 10 watts and weighs about 1.5 kilograms.

  9. Laminated helmet materials characterization by terahertz kinetics spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Anis; Rahman, Aunik K.

    2015-05-01

    High speed acquisition of reflected terahertz energy constitutes a kinetics spectrum that is an effective tool for layered materials' deformation characterization under ballistic impact. Here we describe utilizing the kinetics spectrum for quantifying a deformation event due to impact in material used for Soldier's helmet. The same technique may be utilized for real-time assessment of trauma by measuring the helmet wore by athletes. The deformation of a laminated material (e.g., a helmet) is dependent on the nature of impact and projectile; thus can uniquely characterize the impact condition leading to a diagnostic procedure based on the energy received by an athlete during an impact. We outline the calibration process for a given material under ballistic impact and then utilize the calibration for extracting physical parameters from the measured kinetics spectrum. Measured kinetics spectra are used to outline the method and rationale for extending the concept to a diagnosis tool. In particular, captured kinetics spectra from multilayered plates subjected to ballistic hit under experimental conditions by high speed digital acquisition system. An algorithm was devised to extract deformation and deformation velocity from which the energy received on the skull was estimated via laws of nonrelativistic motion. This energy is assumed to be related to actual injury conditions, thus forming a basis for determining whether the hit would cause concussion, trauma, or stigma. Such quantification may be used for diagnosing a Soldier's trauma condition in the field or that of an athlete's.

  10. Capabilities of Helmets for Preventing Head Injuries Induced by Ballistic Impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.V. Balandin

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The limiting performance of ballistically loaded helmets designed to reduce head injuries is studied analytically. The projectile does not penetrate the helmet. This analysis evaluates the absolute minimum of the peak displacement of the helmet shell relative to the head, provided that criteria measuring the severity of head injuries lie within prescribed limits. Rather than optimize a specific design configuration, e.g. a viscoelastic foam liner, characteristics of a time-dependent force representing the helmet liner are calculated. The formulation reduces the limiting performance analysis to an optimal control problem.

  11. Neck muscle strain when wearing helmet and NVG during acceleration on a trampoline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sovelius, Roope; Oksa, Juha; Rintala, Harri; Huhtala, Heini; Siitonen, Simo

    2008-02-01

    The helmet-mounted equipment worn by military pilots increases the weight of the helmet system and shifts its center of gravity, increasing the loads on neck structures, especially during acceleration. The aim of this study was to determine neck muscle strain with different head-loads during trampoline-induced G loads (0 to +4 G). Under three conditions [no helmet, helmet, helmet with night vision goggles (NVG)], 14 subjects performed trampoline exercises including basic, hand-and-knee, and back bouncing. EMG activity was measured for the sternocleidomastoid (SCM), cervical erector spinae (CES), trapezoid (TRA), and thoracic erector spinae (TES) muscles. Muscle strain was determined as a percentage of maximal voluntary contraction (%MVC). For the three exercises combined, the following significant changes were found: compared to control, the helmet increased muscle strain by 18%, 28%, and 18% in the SCM, CES, and TRA, respectively; NVG produced a further increase of 11% in the SCM and 6% in the CES. During back bouncing, the helmet increased muscle strain by 14% in the SCM and 19% in the CES, and NVG further increased this strain by 14% in the SCM. Hand-and-knee bouncing loaded extensors: the helmet caused increases of 46% in the CES and 29% in the TES, while NVG produced a further 13% increase in CES activation. Helmet weight alone had a large effect on muscular workload. The additional frontal weight of the NVG caused a further increase in the activity of cervical muscles that were already subjected to high strain.

  12. Factors Influencing Helmet Use, Head Injury, and Hospitalization Among Children Involved in Skateboarding and Snowboarding Accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghian, Homa; Nguyen, Brian; Huynh, Nhan; Rouch, Joshua; Lee, Steven L; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad

    2017-01-01

    Up to 75% of skateboarders and snowboarders admitted to the hospital sustain head injuries. It is unclear why not all children and teenagers wear helmets while snowboarding and skateboarding given the protection they afford. To report on the prevalence of, and factors associated with, skateboarding and snowboarding in injured children and to explore factors that influence helmet use, head injury, and hospitalization in this sample. A cross-sectional study of skateboard- and snowboard-associated injuries from 2003 to 2012 among individuals younger than age 18 years using National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) data from approximately 100 hospitals. Helmet use, head injury, and hospitalization. Of 1742 patients in the study, 852 (48.9%) and 890 (51.1%) were skateboarders and snowboarders, respectively. Overall, 907 (52.1%) did not use helmets, and 704 (40.4%) sustained head injuries. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that age, race/ethnicity, location of boarding, and engaging in skateboarding influenced helmet use. Sex, race/ethnicity, helmet use, and skateboarding predicted head injury. Age, sex, skateboarding, and head injury predicted hospital admission. Statistically significant differences exist in helmet use, head injury, and hospitalization rates between skateboarders and snowboarders. Our findings suggest that injury prevention and outreach programs are needed to increase helmet use and reduce the risk of head injury and hospitalization in skateboarders and other at-risk groups. Further studies are needed to clarify the association between race/ethnicity and helmet use among skateboarders and snowboarders.

  13. Helmet Use Amongst Equestrians: Harnessing Social and Attitudinal Factors Revealed in Online Forums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Haigh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Equestrian activities pose significant head injury risks to participants. Yet, helmet use is not mandatory in Australia outside of selected competitions. Awareness of technical countermeasures and the dangers of equestrian activities has not resulted in widespread adoption of simple precautionary behaviors like helmet use. Until the use of helmets whilst riding horses is legislated in Australia, there is an urgent need to improve voluntary use. To design effective injury prevention interventions, the factors affecting helmet use must first be understood. To add to current understandings of these factors, we examined the ways horse riders discussed helmet use by analyzing 103 posts on two helmet use related threads from two different Australian equestrian forums. We found evidence of social influence on helmet use behaviors as well as three attitudes that contributed towards stated helmet use that we termed: “I Can Control Risk”, “It Does Not Feel Right” and “Accidents Happen”. Whilst we confirm barriers identified in previous literature, we also identify their ability to support helmet use. This suggests challenging but potentially useful complexity in the relationship between risk perception, protective knowledge, attitudes, decision-making and behavior. Whilst this complexity is largely due to the involvement of interspecies relationships through which safety, risk and trust are distributed; our findings about harnessing the potential of barriers could be extended to other high risk activities.

  14. The effect of helmets on motorcycle outcomes in a level I trauma center in Connecticut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiznia, Daniel H; Kim, Chang-Yeon; Dai, Feng; Goel, Alex; Leslie, Michael P

    2016-08-17

    The State of Connecticut has a partial motorcycle helmet law, which has been linked to one of the lowest helmet compliance rates in the Northeast. We examine the clinical and financial impact of low motorcycle helmet use in the State of Connecticut. A retrospective cohort study comparing the outcomes between helmeted and nonhelmeted motorcycle crash victims over a 12.5-year period, from July 2, 2002, to December 31, 2013. All patients who were admitted to the hospital after a motorcycle crash were included in the study. Patients were stratified into helmeted and nonhelmeted cohorts. Group differences were compared using t-test or Wilcoxon rank test for continuous variables and chi-square test for dichotomous outcomes. Regression models were created to evaluate predictors of helmet use, alcohol and drugs as confounding variables, and factors that influenced hospital costs. The registry included 986 eligible patients. Of this group, 335 (34%) were helmeted and 651 (66%) were nonhelmeted. Overall, nonhelmeted patients had a worse clinical presentation, with lower Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS; P motorcycle crash. These outcomes remained consistent even after controlling for age and alcohol and drug use. The medical and financial impact of Connecticut's partial helmet law should be carefully evaluated to petition for increased education and enforcement of helmet use.

  15. Understanding reasons for non-compliance in motorcycle helmet use among adolescents in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germeni, E; Lionis, C; Davou, B; Petridou, E Th

    2009-02-01

    To explore attitudes towards two-wheel motorized vehicle (TWMV) helmet use among adolescents in a country with poor legal compliance. Self-administered questionnaires were completed by 523 high school students to define the sample of a qualitative study; thereafter, the Health Belief Model (HBM) was applied in 12 focus groups comprising 70 students. Three randomly selected public secondary schools in middle-income areas of Athens, Greece. Students reporting frequent helmet use were characterized by a high perceived threat of a TWMV-related injury, which seemed to be associated with both prior experience of an injury and receiving information on helmet wearing from "significant others." Students reporting helmet non-use were characterized by a low threat perception, possibly attributable to adolescent egocentrism and accompanying feelings of invulnerability or to lack of knowledge and experience in risk identification. A sharp contrast was noted regarding the most important perceived benefit of helmet use, expressed among users as "protection in the case of a road crash" and among non-users as "avoiding tickets from traffic police". Main barriers to helmet use, as identified by non-users, included: low perceived efficacy of helmets; peer pressure; lack of appropriate information on helmet use; high helmet cost; lack of convenience; vision and hearing disturbance; and style reasons. When social norms of low compliance to safety laws prevail, qualitative research can assist in developing tailored educational interventions targeting behavior modification among adolescents.

  16. Does listening to music with an audio ski helmet impair reaction time to peripheral stimuli?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruedl, G; Pocecco, E; Wolf, M; Schöpf, S; Burtscher, M; Kopp, M

    2012-12-01

    With the recent worldwide increase in ski helmet use, new market trends are developing, including audio helmets for listening to music while skiing or snowboarding. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether listening to music with an audio ski helmet impairs reaction time to peripheral stimuli. A within-subjects design study using the Compensatory-Tracking-Test was performed on 65 subjects (36 males and 29 females) who had a mean age of 23.3 ± 3.9 years. Using repeated measures analysis of variance, we found significant differences in reaction times between the 4 test conditions (p=0.039). The lowest mean reaction time (± SE) was measured for helmet use while listening to music (507.9 ± 13.2 ms), which was not different from helmet use alone (514.6 ± 12.5 ms) (p=0.528). However, compared to helmet use while listening to music, reaction time was significantly longer for helmet and ski goggles used together (535.8 ± 14.2 ms, p=0.005), with a similar trend for helmet and ski goggles used together while listening to music (526.9 ± 13.8 ms) (p=0.094). In conclusion, listening to music with an audio ski helmet did not increase mean reaction time to peripheral stimuli in a laboratory setting. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Protective capacity of an ice hockey goaltender helmet for three events associated with concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, J Michio; Hoshizaki, T Blaine; Gilchrist, Michael D

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the protective capacity of an ice hockey goaltender helmet for three concussive impact events. A helmeted and unhelmeted headform was used to test three common impact events in ice hockey (fall, puck impacts and shoulder collisions). Peak linear acceleration, rotational acceleration and rotational velocity as well as maximum principal strain and von Mises stress were measured for each impact condition. The results demonstrated the tested ice hockey goaltender helmet was well designed to manage fall and puck impacts but does not consistently protect against shoulder collisions and an opportunity may exist to improve helmet designs to better protect goaltenders from shoulder collisions.

  18. Critical testing for helmet-mounted displays: a tracking system accuracy test for the joint helmet mounted cueing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, Adam P.

    2012-06-01

    Helmet mounted displays have not been supported with adequate methods and materials to validate and verify the performance of the underlying tracking systems when tested in a simulated or operational environment. Like most electronic systems on aircraft, HMDs evolve over the lifecycle of the system due to requirements changes or diminishing manufacturing sources. Hardware and software bugs are often introduced as the design evolves and it is necessary to revalidate a systems performance attributes over the course of these design changes. An on-aircraft test has been developed and refined to address this testing gap for the Joint Helmet Mounted Cueing System (JHMCS) on F-16 aircraft. This test can be readily ported to other aircraft systems which employ the JHMCS, and has already been ported to the F-18. Additionally, this test method could provide an added value in the testing of any HMD that requires accurate cueing, whether used on fixed or rotary wing aircraft.

  19. Macrocnemis gracilis, a new genus and species of Idiocnemidinae (Zygoptera: Platycnemididae) from Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theischinger, G; Gassmann, D; Richards, S J

    2015-07-27

    A new genus and species belonging to the damselfly subfamily Idiocnemidinae from Papua New Guinea, Macrocnemis gracilis gen. nov. sp. nov. is described and illustrated. It is the largest known member of the Papuan idiocnemidine radiation, and its affinities to existing genera remain unclear. The new taxon is currently known with certainty only from small streams flowing through mid-montane rainforest in the Hindenburg Range of Papua New Guinea's rugged central cordillera.

  20. Achieving all-age helmet use compliance for snow sports: strategic use of education, legislation and enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenerty, Lynne; Heatley, Jennifer; Young, Julian; Thibault-Halman, Ginette; Kureshi, Nelofar; Bruce, Beth S; Walling, Simon; Clarke, David B

    2016-06-01

    Nova Scotia is the first jurisdiction in the world to mandate ski and snowboard helmet use for all ages at ski hills in the province. This study represents a longitudinal examination of the effects of social marketing, educational campaigns and the introduction of helmet legislation on all-age snow sport helmet use in Nova Scotia. A baseline observational study was conducted to establish the threshold of ski and snowboarding helmet use. Based on focus groups and interviews, a social marketing campaign was designed and implemented to address factors influencing helmet use. A prelegislation observational study assessed the effects of social marketing and educational promotion on helmet use. After all-age snow sport helmet legislation was enacted and enforced, a postlegislation observational study was conducted to determine helmet use prevalence. Baseline data revealed that 74% of skiers and snowboarders were using helmets, of which 80% were females and 70% were males. Helmet use was high in children (96%), but decreased with increasing age. Following educational and social marketing campaigns, overall helmet use increased to 90%. After helmet legislation was enacted, 100% compliance was observed at ski hills in Nova Scotia. Results from this study demonstrate that a multifaceted approach, including education, legislation and enforcement, was effective in achieving full helmet compliance among all ages of skiers and snowboarders. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  1. Head injury patterns in helmeted and non-helmeted cyclists admitted to a London Major Trauma Centre with serious head injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna E Forbes

    Full Text Available Cycle use across London and the UK has increased considerably over the last 10 years. With this there has been an increased interest in cycle safety and injury prevention. Head injuries are an important cause of mortality and morbidity in cyclists. This study aimed to ascertain the frequency of different head injury types in cyclists and whether wearing a bicycle helmet affords protection against specific types of head injury.A retrospective observational study of all cyclists older than 16 years admitted to a London Major Trauma Centre between 1st January 2011 and 31st December 2015 was completed. A cohort of patients who had serious head injury was identified (n = 129. Of these, data on helmet use was available for 97. Comparison was made between type of injury frequency in helmeted and non-helmeted cyclists within this group of patients who suffered serious head injury.Helmet use was shown to be protective against intracranial injury in general (OR 0.2, CI 0.07-0.55, p = 0.002. A protective effect against subdural haematoma was demonstrated (OR 0.14, CI 0.03-0.72, p = 0.02. Wearing a helmet was also protective against skull fractures (OR 0.12, CI 0.04-0.39, p<0.0001 but not any other specific extracranial injuries. This suggests that bicycle helmets are protective against those injuries caused by direct impact to the head. Further research is required to clarify their role against injuries caused by shearing forces.In a largely urban environment, the use of cycle helmets appears to be protective for certain types of serious intra and extracranial head injuries. This may help to inform future helmet design.

  2. Perceptions regarding helmet use: a cross-sectional survey of female pillions in Karachi, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Maryam; Siddiqui, Selma Marie; Khan, Uzma Rahim; Swaroop, Mamta

    2017-05-01

    In 2011, road traffic injury-associated fatalities among motorized two-wheeler (MTW) pillion riders (backseat two-wheeler passengers) rose 30% in Karachi. Despite mandatory helmet laws, helmet use fell 20% the same year. This study aims to identify opinions of female pillions on helmet usage and whether various forms of media influence their self-perception. Trained surveyors, using a survey tool used in similar studies in South Asia, conducted random, man-on-the-street interviews of 400 women in four areas of Karachi. Data pertaining to demographics, opinions on helmet laws, media influences, and helmet usage were collected. Data were analyzed in SAS 9.3 using chi-squared or Fisher's exact tests. Of the 400 women, 98.8% (n = 394) reported never wearing a helmet while riding on a MTW as a pillion rider. Women with a postsecondary or higher (US ninth grade) education level were more likely to be aware of helmet laws (38.6%) than women with lower education levels (24.6%, P = 0.005). Most women (82.4%, n = 329) supported mandatory laws and 97% (n = 289) recognized that disability was the more likely to result than death in event of a traumatic brain injury. Nearly all (98.5%, n = 394) stated that they would use a helmet if they were men, regardless of age, education level, or employment status. Television news was the most influential media form (83.7%, n = 334), with most women finding it effective because of its informative nature (91.3%, n = 303). Most Pakistani women do not personally use helmets when riding MTWs, yet most believe helmet use should be legally required for MTW riders and drivers. These data show that media outlets such as television can be used as a platform to educate the public about helmet usage, which may lead to improved helmet compliance among female MTW pillions in Pakistan. Furthermore, investigations into improved helmet comfort and appearance by collaborating with helmet manufacturers may have a positive impact on helmet use

  3. Numerical Study of Head/Helmet Interaction Due to Blast Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    for the foam pads properties. The helmet shell is made of Ultra-High-Molecular-weight polyethylene fibers . It is made of 0/90º plies of...C., Tan V., Lee H., 2008, “Ballistic Impact of a KEVLAR Helmet: Experimental and Simulations”, International Journal of Impact Engineering, 35, pp

  4. Do crash helmets retain their position on the head in case of an impact ?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beusenberg, M.C.

    1989-01-01

    This report gives the description and results of three sled tests with each four dummy heads, to record the behaviour of the head and neck of the dummy and the helmet in case of a simulated accident. The simulated accident resulted in a motions of the head, neck and helmet owing to the effects of

  5. The Theory of Planned Behavior and Helmet Use among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Lisa Thomson; Ross, Thomas P.; Farber, Sarah; Davidson, Caroline; Trevino, Meredith; Hawkins, Ashley

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To assess undergraduate helmet use attitudes and behaviors in accordance with the theory of planned behavior (TPB). We predicted helmet wearers and nonwearers would differ on our subscales. Methods: Participants (N = 414, 69% female, 84% white) completed a survey. Results: Principal component analysis and reliability analysis guided…

  6. Legislation and research in The Netherlands in the field of traffic safety regarding seat belts and crash helmets.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampen, L.T.B. van & Edelman, A.

    1979-01-01

    Legislation on seat belts and crash helmets has been introduced since 1975. Safety belts are used by 50-75% of car drivers and passengers. Crash helmets are used by virtually all motorcyclists and moped riders. Fatalities have been reduced due to the use of seat belts by 60%, and due to the helmets

  7. Cognitive considerations for helmet-mounted display design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Gregory; Rash, Clarence E.

    2010-04-01

    Helmet-mounted displays (HMDs) are designed as a tool to increase performance. To achieve this, there must be an accurate transfer of information from the HMD to the user. Ideally, an HMD would be designed to accommodate the abilities and limitations of users' cognitive processes. It is not enough for the information (whether visual, auditory, or tactual) to be displayed; the information must be perceived, attended, remembered, and organized in a way that guides appropriate decision-making, judgment, and action. Following a general overview, specific subtopics of cognition, including perception, attention, memory, knowledge, decision-making, and problem solving are explored within the context of HMDs.

  8. Verification Fit Test of Three Size Infantry Helmet

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    polycarbonate helmet shell w/suspension system of the designated size. Each shell had 13 numbered probe holes as depicted in Fig-lO. The stand-off was checked...total of 43 sub readings due to approximating the 12.7mm stand-off on the first day. A 12.7.-m thick, small "stop" placed in the crown of the shell...averaged about, lO.2mm, but even this small difference could be accounted for if the shrinkage of the polycarbonate plastic wastaken into consideration

  9. Guinea Pigs: Versatile Animals for the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman, Charles R.

    1977-01-01

    Guinea pigs are presented as versatile classroom animals. Suggestions for animal behavior and genetics studies are given. Also included is information concerning sex determination and the breeding of guinea pigs, and hints on keeping these animals in the classroom. References and illustrations complete the article. (MA)

  10. Severe allergic reactions to guinea pig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaw Jeffrey L

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Allergic sensitization and reactions to guinea pig (Cavia porcellus have been well documented in laboratory animal handlers, primarily manifesting as rhinitis, conjunctivitis, and asthma. Severe allergic reactions, however, are rare. Methods We report two patients with severe allergic reactions following non-occupational exposure to guinea pigs. The first patient, an 11-year-old female, developed ocular, nasal, skin and laryngeal edema symptoms immediately after handling a guinea pig. The second patient, a 24-year-old female, developed symptoms of isolated laryngeal edema after cleaning a guinea pig cage. Percutaneous skin testing, RAST, ELISA and ELISA inhibition testing with guinea pig extract were performed. Results Both patients had IgE-mediated allergy to guinea pig confirmed by ELISA and either RAST or skin testing. ELISA inhibition studies confirmed the specificity of the IgE reactivity to guinea pig. Conclusion Severe IgE-mediated reactions can occur following non-occupational guinea pig exposure. Physicians should be aware of this possibility.

  11. Rates of motorcycle helmet use and reasons for non-use among adults and children in Luang Prabang, Lao People's Democratic Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Michelle C; Measelle, Jeffrey R; Dwyer, Jessica L; Taylor, Yvonne K; Mobasser, Arian; Strong, Theresa M; Werner, Susanne; Ouansavanh, Siamphone; Mounmingkham, Amphone; Kasuavang, Mai; Sittiphone, Dalika; Phoumesy, Khamhak; Sysaythong, Keo; Khantysavath, Khauphan; Bounnaphone, Somchit; Vilaysom, Amphone; Touvachao, Sengchanh; Mounmeuangxam, Siviengxam; Souralay, Somchittana; Lianosay, Baoher; Lia, Thongher; Spector, Jonathan M

    2015-09-28

    Motorcycles make up 81 % of the total vehicle population and 74 % of road traffic deaths in Lao PDR. Helmets reduce the risk and severity of injuries resulting from motorcycle accidents by 72 %. Although Lao law mandates motorcycle helmet use among drivers and passengers, the prevalence of helmet use in Luang Prabang, Lao PDR is unknown. This project aimed to measure the prevalence of motorcycle helmet use among riders (i.e., drivers and passengers) in Luang Prabang. An observational survey in Luang Prabang was conducted in February 2015 to measure the prevalence of motorcycle helmet use among drivers and passengers. Additionally, non-helmet wearing riders were surveyed to identify the reasons for helmet non-use. Of 1632 motorcycle riders observed, only 16.2 % wore helmets. Approximately 29 % of adults wore helmets while less than 1 % of all children wore helmets. When surveyed about attitudes towards helmet use, the majority of adult drivers indicated that they did not like how adult helmets feel or made them look. Additionally, almost half of motorcyclists who did not own child helmets reported that their child was too young to wear a helmet. Our finding that children wear helmets at significantly lower rates compared to adults is consistent with findings from neighboring countries in Southeast Asia. Results of this study have implications for public health campaigns targeting helmet use, especially among children.

  12. Behavioral responses of deafened guinea pigs to intracochlear electrical stimulation: a new rapid psychophysical procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agterberg, Martijn J H; Versnel, Huib

    2014-07-01

    In auditory research the guinea pig is often preferred above rats and mice because of the easily accessible cochlea and because the frequency range of its hearing is more comparable to that of humans. Studies of the guinea-pig auditory system primarily apply histological and electrophysiological measures. Behavioral animal paradigms, in particular in combination with these histological and electrophysiological methods, are necessary in the development of new therapeutic interventions. However, the guinea pig is not considered an attractive animal for behavioral experiments. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to develop a behavioral task suitable for guinea pigs, that can be utilized in cochlear-implant related research. Guinea pigs were trained in a modified shuttle-box in which a stream of air was used as unconditioned stimulus (UCS). A stream of air was preferred over conventionally used methods as electric foot-shocks since it produces less stress, which is a confounding factor in behavioral experiments. Hearing guinea pigs were trained to respond to acoustic stimuli. They responded correctly within only five sessions of ten minutes. The animals maintained their performance four weeks after the right cochlea was implanted with an electrode array. After systemic deafening, the animals responded in the first session immediately to intracochlear electrical stimulation. These responses were not affected by daily chronic electrical stimulation (CES). In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that guinea pigs can be trained relatively fast to respond to acoustic stimuli, and that the training has a lasting effect, which generalizes to intracochlear electrical stimulation after deafening. Furthermore, it demonstrates that bilaterally deafened guinea pigs with substantial (∼50%) loss of spiral ganglion cells (SGCs), detect intracochlear electrical stimulation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Quick-disconnect harness system for helmet-mounted displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bapu, P. T.; Aulds, M. J.; Fuchs, Steven P.; McCormick, David M.

    1992-10-01

    We have designed a pilot's harness-mounted, high voltage quick-disconnect connectors with 62 pins, to transmit voltages up to 13.5 kV and video signals with 70 MHz bandwidth, for a binocular helmet-mounted display system. It connects and disconnects with power off, and disconnects 'hot' without pilot intervention and without producing external sparks or exposing hot embers to the explosive cockpit environment. We have implemented a procedure in which the high voltage pins disconnect inside a hermetically-sealed unit before the physical separation of the connector. The 'hot' separation triggers a crowbar circuit in the high voltage power supplies for additional protection. Conductor locations and shields are designed to reduce capacitance in the circuit and avoid crosstalk among adjacent circuits. The quick- disconnect connector and wiring harness are human-engineered to ensure pilot safety and mobility. The connector backshell is equipped with two hybrid video amplifiers to improve the clarity of the video signals. Shielded wires and coaxial cables are molded as a multi-layered ribbon for maximum flexibility between the pilot's harness and helmet. Stiff cabling is provided between the quick-disconnect connector and the aircraft console to control behavior during seat ejection. The components of the system have been successfully tested for safety, performance, ergonomic considerations, and reliability.

  14. Development and manufacture of visor for helmet-mounted display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krevor, David H.; McNelly, Gregg; Skubon, John; Speirs, Robert

    2004-01-01

    The manufacturing design and process development for the Visor for the JHMCS (Joint Helmet Mounted Cueing System) are discussed. The JHMCS system is a Helmet Mounted Display (HMD) system currently flying on the F-15, F-16 and F/A-18 aircraft. The Visor manufacturing processes are essential to both system performance and economy. The Visor functions both as the system optical combiner and personal protective equipment for the pilot. The Visor material is optical polycarbonate. For a military HMD system, the mechanical and environmental properties of the Visor are as necessary as the optical properties. The visor must meet stringent dimensional requirements to assure adequate system optical performance. Injection molding can provide dimensional fidelity to the requirements, if done properly. Concurrent design of the visor and the tool (i.e., the injection mold) is essential. The concurrent design necessarily considers manufacturing operations and the use environment of the Visor. Computer modeling of the molding process is a necessary input to the mold design. With proper attention to product design and tool development, it is possible to improve upon published standard dimensional tolerances for molded polycarbonate articles.

  15. Helmet-mounted pilot night vision systems: Human factors issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Sandra G.; Brickner, Michael S.

    1989-01-01

    Helmet-mounted displays of infrared imagery (forward-looking infrared (FLIR)) allow helicopter pilots to perform low level missions at night and in low visibility. However, pilots experience high visual and cognitive workload during these missions, and their performance capabilities may be reduced. Human factors problems inherent in existing systems stem from three primary sources: the nature of thermal imagery; the characteristics of specific FLIR systems; and the difficulty of using FLIR system for flying and/or visually acquiring and tracking objects in the environment. The pilot night vision system (PNVS) in the Apache AH-64 provides a monochrome, 30 by 40 deg helmet-mounted display of infrared imagery. Thermal imagery is inferior to television imagery in both resolution and contrast ratio. Gray shades represent temperatures differences rather than brightness variability, and images undergo significant changes over time. The limited field of view, displacement of the sensor from the pilot's eye position, and monocular presentation of a bright FLIR image (while the other eye remains dark-adapted) are all potential sources of disorientation, limitations in depth and distance estimation, sensations of apparent motion, and difficulties in target and obstacle detection. Insufficient information about human perceptual and performance limitations restrains the ability of human factors specialists to provide significantly improved specifications, training programs, or alternative designs. Additional research is required to determine the most critical problem areas and to propose solutions that consider the human as well as the development of technology.

  16. Bicycle helmet use and non-use - recently published research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uibel, Stefanie; Müller, Daniel; Klingelhoefer, Doris; Groneberg, David A

    2012-05-25

    Bicycle traumata are very common and especially neurologic complications lead to disability and death in all stages of the life. This review assembles the most recent findings concerning research in the field of bicycle traumata combined with the factor of bicycle helmet use. The area of bicycle trauma research is by nature multidisciplinary and relevant not only for physicians but also for experts with educational, engineering, judicial, rehabilitative or public health functions. Due to this plurality of global publications and special subjects, short time reviews help to detect recent research directions and provide also information from neighbour disciplines for researchers. It can be stated that to date, that although a huge amount of research has been conducted in this area more studies are needed to evaluate and improve special conditions and needs in different regions, ages, nationalities and to create successful prevention programs of severe head and face injuries while cycling.Focus was explicit the bicycle helmet use, wherefore sledding, ski and snowboard studies were excluded and only one study concerning electric bicycles remained due to similar motion structures within this review. The considered studies were all published between January 2010 and August 2011 and were identified via the online databases Medline PubMed and ISI Web of Science.

  17. On the western fringe of baboon distribution: mitochondrial D-loop diversity of Guinea Baboons (Papio papio Desmarest, 1820 (Primates: Cercopithecidae in Coastal Guinea-Bissau, western Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J. Ferreira da Silva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Like many primate species in West Africa, habitat loss and intensive hunting are threatening the poorly studied Guinea Baboon (Papio papio. These factors contributed to a significant population contraction during the last 30 years. Our study presents genetic diversity estimates for the Guinea Baboon based on a 391 base pair fragment of the mitochondrial DNA D-loop hypervariable region I. We used non-invasively collected genetic samples from two locations in Guinea-Bissau: Cufada Lagoons Natural Park and Cantanhez Forest National Park. Although most sampling was opportunistic, we observed and collected samples from two dames (social units. Among the 25 sequences obtained, we found seven closely related mtDNA haplotypes and one highly different haplotype. The presence of this divergent haplotype suggests a contact area between genetically differentiated populations in Cufada Lagoons Natural Park, or dispersal of individuals. The samples gathered from both regions share two of the most common haplotypes in different frequencies, but also exhibit unique haplotypes. No significant genetic differentiation was found between social units from both regions, possibly due to common ancestral origin or frequent dispersal between sampling locations. The presence of different maternal lineages in the same social unit and a higher percentage of variation within social units suggest historical female-biased dispersal for Guinea-Bissau Baboons. We further compared mitochondrial genetic diversity of Guinea and Hamadryas Baboons. We found lower haplotype, nucleotide and theta diversity for Guinea Baboons, which points to different demographic histories of these species. This work supports the need for additional genetic studies within the full Guinea Baboon range.

  18. The effect of an optimised helmet fit on neck load and neck pain during military helicopter flights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Oord, Marieke H A H; Steinman, Yuval; Sluiter, Judith K; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W

    2012-09-01

    The main purpose of this study was to improve the helmet fit of military helicopter aircrew members and evaluate its effect on the experienced helmet stability (helmet gliding), neck load, neck pain, hot spots (pressure points), irritation/distraction, and overall helmet comfort during night flights. A within-subject design was used over a three-month period that consisted of two consecutive interventions of optimising the fit of the aircrew's helmets: 1) a new helmet fit using a renewed protocol and 2) replacement of a thermoplastic inner liner with a viscoelastic foam inner liner. A total of 18 pilots and loadmasters rated the outcome measures using the Visual Analogue Scales immediately after their night flights, for three night flights in total per measurement period. The optimised helmet fit resulted in a significant decrease in the experienced helmet gliding, neck load and pressure points, a decrease trend in the experienced neck pain and irritation/distraction, and a significant increase in the experienced overall helmet comfort during flight. These results demonstrate the importance of achieving an optimised helmet fit for military helicopter aircrew and that an optimised helmet fit might have implications for both health and safety concerns. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  19. 9 CFR 113.38 - Guinea pig safety test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Guinea pig safety test. 113.38 Section... Standard Procedures § 113.38 Guinea pig safety test. The guinea pig safety test provided in this section... be injected either intramuscularly or subcutaneously into each of two guinea pigs and the animals...

  20. Experimental aerosolized guinea pig-adapted Zaire ebolavirus (variant: Mayinga) causes lethal pneumonia in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twenhafel, N A; Shaia, C I; Bunton, T E; Shamblin, J D; Wollen, S E; Pitt, L M; Sizemore, D R; Ogg, M M; Johnston, S C

    2015-01-01

    Eight guinea pigs were aerosolized with guinea pig-adapted Zaire ebolavirus (variant: Mayinga) and developed lethal interstitial pneumonia that was distinct from lesions described in guinea pigs challenged subcutaneously, nonhuman primates challenged by the aerosol route, and natural infection in humans. Guinea pigs succumbed with significant pathologic changes primarily restricted to the lungs. Intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies were observed in many alveolar macrophages. Perivasculitis was noted within the lungs. These changes are unlike those of documented subcutaneously challenged guinea pigs and aerosolized filoviral infections in nonhuman primates and human cases. Similar to findings in subcutaneously challenged guinea pigs, there were only mild lesions in the liver and spleen. To our knowledge, this is the first report of aerosol challenge of guinea pigs with guinea pig-adapted Zaire ebolavirus (variant: Mayinga). Before choosing this model for use in aerosolized ebolavirus studies, scientists and pathologists should be aware that aerosolized guinea pig-adapted Zaire ebolavirus (variant: Mayinga) causes lethal pneumonia in guinea pigs. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. Sound localization with an army helmet worn in combination with an in-ear advanced communications system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Sharon M; Boyne, Stephen; Roesler-Mulroney, Heidi

    2009-01-01

    Conventional hearing protection devices result in decrements mainly in the ability to distinguish front from rearward sound sources. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of wearing an earplug with advanced communications capability, in combination with an army helmet, on horizontal plane speaker identification. Ten normal-hearing male subjects were tested in a semi-reverberant sound proof booth under eight conditions defined by combinations of two levels of ear occlusion (unoccluded and occluded by the earplug) and four levels of the helmet (head bare and fitted with the helmet modified to give no, partial and full ear coverage). Percent correct speaker identification was assessed using a horizontal array of eight loudspeakers surrounding the subject at one meter. These were positioned close to the midline and interaural axes of the head, at ear level. The stimulus was a 75-dB SPL, 300-ms broadband white noise. Both degree of ear coverage and ear occlusion significantly determined outcome. Overall percent correct ranged from 93.6% (bareheaded) to 79.7% (full ear coverage) with the ears unoccluded, and from 83.4%-77.5% with ear occlusion. Both variables affected the prevalence of mirror image confusions for positions 30 degrees apart in front and back of the interaural axis. With ear occlusion, front given back errors were more likely than back given front errors, increasing with degree of ear coverage to 49% and 25.4%, respectively. These errors also increased with ear coverage with the ears unoccluded, but were similar. Both degree of ear coverage and ear occlusion significantly impacted horizontal plane speaker identification, particularly for sources close to the interaural axis. However, overall percent correct was higher than observed in a previous study with conventional and level-dependent hearing protection devices, using the same array.

  2. Motorcycle helmet use and the risk of head, neck, and fatal injury: Revisiting the Hurt Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Thomas M; Troszak, Lara; Ouellet, James V; Erhardt, Taryn; Smith, Gordon S; Tsai, Bor-Wen

    2016-06-01

    Most studies find strong evidence that motorcycle helmets protect against injury, but a small number of controversial studies have reported a positive association between helmet use and neck injury. The most commonly cited paper is that of Goldstein (1986). Goldstein obtained and reanalyzed data from the Hurt Study, a prospective, on-scene investigation of 900 motorcycle collisions in the city of Los Angeles. The Goldstein results have been adopted by the anti-helmet community to justify resistance to compulsory motorcycle helmet use on the grounds that helmets may cause neck injuries due to their mass. In the current study, we replicated Goldstein's models to understand how he obtained his unexpected results, and we then applied modern statistical methods to estimate the association of motorcycle helmet use with head injury, fatal injury, and neck injury among collision-involved motorcyclists. We found Goldstein's analysis to be critically flawed due to improper data imputation, modeling of extremely sparse data, and misinterpretation of model coefficients. Our new analysis showed that motorcycle helmets were associated with markedly lower risk of head injury (RR 0.40, 95% CI 0.31-0.52) and fatal injury (RR 0.44, 95% CI 0.26-0.74) and with moderately lower but statistically significant risk of neck injury (RR 0.63, 95% CI 0.40-0.99), after controlling for multiple potential confounders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The influence of ski helmets on sound perception and sound localisation on the ski slope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ružić, Lana; Tudor, Anton; Radman, Ivan; Kasović, Mario; Cigrovski, Vjekoslav

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate whether a ski helmet interferes with the sound localization and the time of sound perception in the frontal plane. Twenty-three participants (age 30.7±10.2) were tested on the slope in 2 conditions, with and without wearing the ski helmet, by 6 different spatially distributed sound stimuli per each condition. Each of the subjects had to react when hearing the sound as soon as possible and to signalize the correct side of the sound arrival. The results showed a significant difference in the ability to localize the specific ski sounds; 72.5±15.6% of correct answers without a helmet vs. 61.3±16.2% with a helmet (p ski sound clues at 73.4±5.56 m without a helmet vs. 60.29±6.34 m with a helmet (p Ski helmets might limit the ability of a skier to localize the direction of the sounds of danger and might interfere with the moment, in which the sound is firstly heard. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  4. Increased patterns of risky behaviours among helmet wearers in skiing and snowboarding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Cynthia J; Carlson, Scott R

    2015-02-01

    There has been an ongoing debate as to whether wearing helmets in skiing and snowboarding increases the risk tolerance of participants. To investigate the roles of demographic and personality variables, and helmet usage in predicting risk taking behaviours in a cross-sectional sample of intermediate and proficient skiers and snowboarders. Risk taking in skiing was measured using a validated 10-item self-report measure which was designated as the outcome variable in a three step hierarchical regression. Independent predictors included age, sex, education, sport, ability, helmet usage, and personality traits that have been associated with risk taking: impulsivity and sensation seeking. In the final regression model, helmet use significantly predicted variance in risk taking (standardized β=.10, p=.024), and the relationship remained after accounting for variance due to demographic variables and general trait measures. The partial relationship between risk taking and sex, ability, impulsivity, and sensation seeking were also significant (psnowboarders, and after accounting for these factors, helmet use was a significant predictor of risk taking. The relationship between helmet use and risk taking was modest suggesting that the costs of increased risk taking is not likely to outweigh the protective benefits of a helmet. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Helmet-Wearing Practices and Barriers in Toronto Bike-Share Users: a Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Steven Marc; Adamson, Matthew; Cleiman, Paula; Arenovich, Tamara; Oleksak, Karolina; Mohabir, Ishmael Michael; Ta, Robert; Reiter, Kimberley

    2016-01-01

    Helmet use among bike-share users is low. We sought to characterize helmet-use patterns, barriers to helmet use, and cycling safety practices among bike-share users in Toronto. A standardized survey of public bike-share program (PBSP) users at semi-random distribution of PBSP stations was undertaken. By maintaining a ratio of one helmet-wearer (HW): two non-helmet-wearers (NHW) per survey period, we controlled for location, day, time, and weather. Surveys were completed on 545 (180 HW, 365 NHW) unique users at 48/80 PBSP locations, from November 2012 to August 2013. More females wore helmets (F: 41.1%, M: 30.9%, p=0.0423). NHWs were slightly younger than HWs (NHW mean age 34.4 years vs HW 37.3, p=0.0018). The groups did not differ by employment status, education, or income. Helmet ownership was lower among NHWs (NHW: 62.4% vs HW: 99.4%, pbike ownership (NHW: 65.8%, vs HW: 78.3%, p=0.0026). NHWs were less likely to always wear a helmet on personal bikes (NHW: 22.2% vs HW: 66.7%, pbikes. As Toronto cyclists who do not wear helmets on PBSP generally do not wear helmets on their personal bikes, interventions to increase helmet use should target both personal and bike-share users. Legislating helmet use and provision of rental helmets could improve helmet use among bike-share users, but our results suggest some risk of reduced cycling with legislation.

  6. Trends in bicycle helmet use in Ottawa from 1988 to 1991.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushman, R; Pless, R; Hope, D; Jenkins, C

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence rates of helmet use by cyclists in Ottawa in September 1991 and to compare them with the rates in a baseline survey conducted in September 1988. DESIGN: Observational survey. SUBJECTS: A total of 3252 cyclists (commuters, recreational cyclists and students in primary, secondary and postsecondary schools) were observed. In the baseline study 1963 such cyclists had been surveyed. RESULTS: In 1991, 1056 (32.5%) of the cyclists were observed wearing helmets. After the samples were standardized for varying size across the cyclist groups the total helmet use was found to have increased from 10.7% in 1988 to 32.2% in 1991. The highest increase in the rate of helmet use was found among the commuters (from 17.9% in 1988 to 44.6% in 1991); the rate had increased from 14.3% to 31.1% among the recreational cyclists and from 1.9% to 21.0% among the students. All of the trends were statistically significant (p less than 0.0001). When the student population was subdivided the rate of helmet use was found to be 25% among the elementary school children, 17% among the secondary school students and 20.2% among the postsecondary school students. CONCLUSIONS: The use of bicycle helmets in Ottawa has increased dramatically. Our experience, as well as evidence from other centres, indicates that specific interventions such as media coverage, bulk-buying projects in schools and discount coupons can accelerate the rate of helmet adoption. Although less than half of cyclists are wearing helmets the trend has acquired considerable momentum, and major gains are expected in the next few years. Nevertheless, resistance among young adults and the cost of helmets for low-income groups may be problems. These challenges call for the refinement of future promotional strategies. PMID:1571869

  7. Effect of wearing a ski helmet on perception and localization of sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruedl, G; Kopp, M; Burtscher, M; Zorowka, P; Weichbold, V; Stephan, K; Koci, V; Seebacher, J

    2014-07-01

    Helmet use on ski slopes has steadily increased worldwide over the past years. A common reason reported for helmet non-use, however, is impaired hearing. Therefore, an intra-subject design study was conducted to compare hearing thresholds and sound source localization of 21 adults with normal hearing in an anechoic chamber when wearing a ski helmet and ski goggles or wearing a ski cap and ski goggles to the condition head bare. Hearing thresholds while wearing a ski helmet (6.8 ± 1.6 dB HL) and ski cap (5.5 ± 1.6 dB HL) were significantly different (p = 0.030, d = 0.44). Compared to head bare (2.5 ± 1.2 dB HL), a significant difference was found for the ski helmet only (p = 0.040, d = 1.57). Regarding sound source localization, correct scores in the condition head bare (90%) showed a highly significant difference compared with those of condition cap (65%) and helmet (58%), respectively (p 2.5). Compared to the ski cap, wearing the helmet significantly reduced correct scores (p = 0.020, d = 0.59) irrespective of the tested sound pressure levels. In conclusion, wearing a ski helmet impairs hearing to a small though significantly greater extent compared with a cap, the degree, however, being less than what is termed as a hearing impairment. Compared to the condition head bare, wearing a ski cap or a ski helmet significantly reduced one's ability of sound source localization. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Preventive Effects of Safety Helmets on Traumatic Brain Injury after Work-Related Falls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Chul Kim

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Work-related traumatic brain injury (TBI caused by falls is a catastrophic event that leads to disabilities and high socio-medical costs. This study aimed to measure the magnitude of the preventive effect of safety helmets on clinical outcomes and to compare the effect across different heights of fall. Methods: We collected a nationwide, prospective database of work-related injury patients who visited the 10 emergency departments between July 2010 and October 2012. All of the adult patients who experienced work-related fall injuries were eligible, excluding cases with unknown safety helmet use and height of fall. Primary and secondary endpoints were intracranial injury and in-hospital mortality. We calculated adjusted odds ratios (AORs of safety helmet use and height of fall for study outcomes, and adjusted for any potential confounders. Results: A total of 1298 patients who suffered from work-related fall injuries were enrolled. The industrial or construction area was the most common place of fall injury occurrence, and 45.0% were wearing safety helmets at the time of fall injuries. The safety helmet group was less likely to have intracranial injury comparing with the no safety helmet group (the adjusted odds ratios (ORs (95% confidence interval (CI: 0.42 (0.24–0.73, however, there was no statistical difference of in-hospital mortality between two groups (the adjusted ORs (95% CI: 0.83 (0.34–2.03. In the interaction analysis, preventive effects of safety helmet on intracranial injury were significant within 4 m height of fall. Conclusions: A safety helmet is associated with prevention of intracranial injury resulting from work-related fall and the effect is preserved within 4 m height of fall. Therefore, wearing a safety helmet can be an intervention for protecting fall-related intracranial injury in the workplace.

  9. Preventive Effects of Safety Helmets on Traumatic Brain Injury after Work-Related Falls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang Chul; Ro, Young Sun; Shin, Sang Do; Kim, Joo Yeong

    2016-10-29

    Work-related traumatic brain injury (TBI) caused by falls is a catastrophic event that leads to disabilities and high socio-medical costs. This study aimed to measure the magnitude of the preventive effect of safety helmets on clinical outcomes and to compare the effect across different heights of fall. We collected a nationwide, prospective database of work-related injury patients who visited the 10 emergency departments between July 2010 and October 2012. All of the adult patients who experienced work-related fall injuries were eligible, excluding cases with unknown safety helmet use and height of fall. Primary and secondary endpoints were intracranial injury and in-hospital mortality. We calculated adjusted odds ratios (AORs) of safety helmet use and height of fall for study outcomes, and adjusted for any potential confounders. A total of 1298 patients who suffered from work-related fall injuries were enrolled. The industrial or construction area was the most common place of fall injury occurrence, and 45.0% were wearing safety helmets at the time of fall injuries. The safety helmet group was less likely to have intracranial injury comparing with the no safety helmet group (the adjusted odds ratios (ORs) (95% confidence interval (CI)): 0.42 (0.24-0.73)), however, there was no statistical difference of in-hospital mortality between two groups (the adjusted ORs (95% CI): 0.83 (0.34-2.03). In the interaction analysis, preventive effects of safety helmet on intracranial injury were significant within 4 m height of fall. A safety helmet is associated with prevention of intracranial injury resulting from work-related fall and the effect is preserved within 4 m height of fall. Therefore, wearing a safety helmet can be an intervention for protecting fall-related intracranial injury in the workplace.

  10. Ergonomic and usability ratings of helmets and head-mounted personal protective equipment in industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godwin, Alison A; Eger, Tammy R

    2014-01-01

    Anecdotal evidence from industry suggests that those working as arborists prefer to use minimal brim style, climbing helmets rather than traditional forestry helmets. In the mining industry, workers prefer wireless, LED cap lamps. Workers cite better comfort, better ability to see their work and better ventilation as reasons to use those helmets and cap lamps. Safety personnel in the industry would like to base future helmet decisions and requirements on a complete understanding of the ergonomic and safety issues of all available head-borne equipment. Previous research has found that helmet design, head load and head/neck posture can influence the amount of neck discomfort experienced by users. Specific features of helmets and head-mounted personal protective equipment (PPE) in various industries have been changing to reflect ergonomic design principles. A series of three studies were conducted to evaluate usability and preference of new style cap lamps and helmet brims. PARTICIPANTS (n=10-16) were recruited primarily from undergraduate students, and each study represents a different group of novice participants. Two different courses that included a tunnel were used in the first two studies to evaluate cap lamp styles and wireless cap lamps, while a simulated arborist task was used in the final study to evaluate helmet brim. Measures of ergonomic and discomfort questionnaires were analysed for this paper. The first cap lamp study was able to conclude that LED lamps are preferred over incandescent lamps, while the second study demonstrated that users prefer a multi-directional beam, and adjustability features of the cap lamp. In the final study, participants who must perform extreme overhead tasks prefer a helmet with a minimal brim. Additional research is warranted to determine whether actual, industry workers demonstrate the same preferences for these PPE items.

  11. FEM Analysis of Glass/Epoxy Composite Based Industrial Safety Helmet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, Khushi; Bajpai, Pramendra Kumar

    2017-08-01

    Recently, the use of fiber reinforced polymer in every field of engineering (automobile, industry and aerospace) and medical has increased due to its distinctive mechanical properties. The fiber based polymer composites are more popular because these have high strength, light in weight, low cost and easily available. In the present work, the finite element analysis (FEA) of glass/epoxy composite based industrial safety helmet has been performed using solid-works simulation software. The modeling results show that glass fiber reinforced epoxy composite can be used as a material for fabrication of industrial safety helmet which has good mechanical properties than the existing helmet material.

  12. For ASTM F-08: Protective Capacity of Ice Hockey Player Helmets against Puck Impacts

    OpenAIRE

    Rousseau, Philippe; Hoshizaki, Thomas Blaine; Gilchrist, M. D.

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have assessed the ability of hockey helmets to protect against falls and collisions, yet none have addressed the injury risk associated with puck impacts. Thus, the purpose of this study was to document the capacity of a typical vinyl nitrile ice hockey helmet to reduce head accelerations and brain deformation caused by a puck impact. A bare and a helmeted Hybrid III male 50th percentile headform was struck with a puck three times to the forehead at 17, 23, 29, 35, and 41 m/s usi...

  13. Charting the neglected West: The social system of Guinea baboons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Julia; Kopp, Gisela H; Dal Pesco, Federica; Goffe, Adeelia; Hammerschmidt, Kurt; Kalbitzer, Urs; Klapproth, Matthias; Maciej, Peter; Ndao, Ibrahima; Patzelt, Annika; Zinner, Dietmar

    2017-01-01

    Primate social systems are remarkably diverse, and thus play a central role in understanding social evolution, including the biological origin of human societies. Although baboons have been prominently featured in this context, historically little was known about the westernmost member of the genus, the Guinea baboon (Papio papio). Here, we summarize the findings from the first years of observations at the field site CRP Simenti in the Niokolo Koba National Park in Senegal. Guinea baboons reveal a nested multi-level social organization, with reproductive units comprising one "primary" male, one to several females, young, and occasionally "secondary" males at the base of the society. Three to five units form "parties," which team up with other parties to form a "gang." Different gangs have largely overlapping home ranges and agonistic interactions between different parties or gangs are rare. Some but not all strongly socially bonded males are highly related, and population genetic and behavioral evidence indicate female-biased dispersal. Females play an important role in intersexual bond formation and maintenance, and female tenure length varies between a few weeks to several years. While the social organization resembles that of hamadryas baboons (P. hamadryas), the social structure differs considerably, specifically in terms of low male aggressiveness and female freedom. Despite substantial differences in social organization and social structure, the acoustic structure of Guinea baboon vocalizations does not differ substantially from that of other baboon taxa. With its multi-level organization, stable bonds between males and females, as well as a high-degree of male-male cooperation and tolerance, Guinea baboons constitute an intriguing model for reconstructing human social evolution. © 2017 American Association of Physical Anthropologists.

  14. Helmet-Cam: tool for assessing miners' respirable dust exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecala, A B; Reed, W R; Joy, G J; Westmoreland, S C; O'Brien, A D

    2013-09-01

    Video technology coupled with datalogging exposure monitors have been used to evaluate worker exposure to different types of contaminants. However, previous application of this technology used a stationary video camera to record the worker's activity while the worker wore some type of contaminant monitor. These techniques are not applicable to mobile workers in the mining industry because of their need to move around the operation while performing their duties. The Helmet-Cam is a recently developed exposure assessment tool that integrates a person-wearable video recorder with a datalogging dust monitor. These are worn by the miner in a backpack, safety belt or safety vest to identify areas or job tasks of elevated exposure. After a miner performs his or her job while wearing the unit, the video and dust exposure data files are downloaded to a computer and then merged together through a NIOSH-developed computer software program called Enhanced Video Analysis of Dust Exposure (EVADE). By providing synchronized playback of the merged video footage and dust exposure data, the EVADE software allows for the assessment and identification of key work areas and processes, as well as work tasks that significantly impact a worker's personal respirable dust exposure. The Helmet-Cam technology has been tested at a number of metal/nonmetal mining operations and has proven to be a valuable assessment tool. Mining companies wishing to use this technique can purchase a commercially available video camera and an instantaneous dust monitor to obtain the necessary data, and the NIOSH-developed EVADE software will be available for download at no cost on the NIOSH website.

  15. Offsetting or Enhancing Behavior: An Empirical Analysis of Motorcycle Helmet Safety Legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jonathan M

    2015-10-01

    This study uses state-level panel data from a 33-year period to test the hypotheses of offsetting and enhancing behavior with regards to motorcycle helmet legislation. Results presented in this article find no evidence of offsetting behavior and are consistent with the presence of enhancing behavior. State motorcycle helmet laws are estimated to reduce motorcycle crashes by 18.4% to 31.9%. In the absence of any behavioral adaptations among motorcyclists mandatory helmet laws are not expected to have any significant impact on motorcycle crash rates. The estimated motorcycle crash reductions do not appear to be driven by omitted variable bias or nonclassical measurement error in reported crashes. Overall, the results strongly suggest that mandatory helmet laws yield significant changes in motorcycle mobility in the form of reduced risk taking and/or decreased utilization. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  16. The damping of off-central impact for selected industrial safety helmets used in Poland

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Korycki, Ryszard

    2002-01-01

    .... Parameters characterizing the protection properties of off-central impacted industrial helmets are chosen and the test stands used in the Central Institute for Labour Protection to test those parameters are presented...

  17. Thermal perception of ventilation changes in full-face motorcycle helmets: subject and manikin study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bogerd, Cornelis P; Rossi, René M; Brühwiler, Paul A

    2011-01-01

    We report the effects of full-face motorcycle helmet ventilation systems on heat, airflow, noise, and comfort perception for ventilation changes on the scalp. Eight subjects (aged 28.0 ± 5.4 years...

  18. Finite element analysis of the effectiveness of bicycle helmets in head impacts against roads

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    OIKAWA, Shoko; NAKADATE, Hiromichi; ZHANG, Yuelin; UENO, Takahiro; AOMURA, Shigeru; MATSUI, Yasuhiro

    2017-01-01

    ...% of cyclist fatalities in 2015 (ITARDA, 2016). The purpose of this study is to estimate head injuries for cyclists and quantify the effectiveness of a bicycle helmet by performing finite element (FE...

  19. Microphone Array Signal Processing and Active Noise Control for the In-Helmet Speech Communication Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — For in-helmet voice communication, the currently used Communication-Cap-based Audio (CCA) systems have a number of recognized logistical issues and inconveniences...

  20. Experimental investigations on the cooling of a motorcycle helmet with phase change material (PCM)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fok S.C; Tan F.L; Sua C.C

    2011-01-01

    .... This paper examines the use of phase change material (PCM) to cool a motorcycle helmet and presents the experimental investigations on the influences of the simulated solar radiation, wind speed, and heat generation rate on the cooling system...

  1. Papua New Guinea Tsunami, July 17, 1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — On the evening of Friday July 17, 1998, a magnitude Ms 7.1 earthquake occurred near the northwest coast Papua New Guinea 850 km (510 miles ) northwest of Port...

  2. null Lamington, Papua New Guinea Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dormant stratovolcano in Papua New Guinea suddenly exploded in 1951. Nu?es ardentes (glowing avalanches) shot down the mountain at 100 km per hour, devastated...

  3. Assessing the potential for bias in direct observation of adult commuter cycling and helmet use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, John D; Zaccaro, Heather N; Roffenbender, Jason S; Baig, Sabeeh A; Graves, Megan E; Hauler, Katherine J; Hussain, Aamir N; Mulroy, Faith E

    2015-02-01

    Bicycling and helmet surveillance, research, and programme evaluation depend on accurate measurement by direct observation, but it is unclear whether weather and other exogenous factors introduce bias into observed counts of cyclists and helmet use. To address this issue, a time series was created of cyclists observed at two observation points in Washington, DC, at peak commuting times and locations between September 2012 and February 2013. Using multiple linear regression with Newey-West SEs to account for possible serial correlation, the association between various factors and cyclist counts and helmet use was investigated. The number of cyclists observed per 1 h session was significantly associated with predicted daily high temperature, chance of rain, and actual rain. Additionally, fewer cyclists were observed on Fridays. Helmet use was significantly lower during evening commutes than morning and also lower on Fridays. Helmet use was not associated with weather variables. Controlling for observable cyclists characteristics weakened the association between helmet use and the time of day and day of the week, but it did not eliminate that association. Direct observation to measure commuter cycling trends or evaluate interventions should control for weather and day of week. Measurement of helmet use is unlikely to be meaningfully biased by weather factors, but time of day and day of week should be taken into account. Failing to control for these factors could lead to significant bias in assessments of the level of, and trends in, commuter cycling and helmet use. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  4. Degradation of Auditory Localization Performance Due to Helmet Ear Coverage: The Effects of Normal Acoustic Reverberation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    two ear) cues that dominate sound localization do not distinguish the front and rear hemispheres. The two binaural cues relied on are interaural...121 (5), 3094–3094. Shinn-Cunningham, B. G.; Kopčo, N.; Martin, T. J. Localizing Nearby Sound Sources in a Classroom: Binaural Room Impulse...Helmet on sound localization tasks. The PASGT has greater coverage over the ears. However, these helmets also differ in their suspension systems

  5. The Current Practices in Injury Prevention and Safety Helmet Use in an Air Force Medical Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-05-01

    PA) or a Medical Doctor (M.D.). Doctor of Osteopathy (D.O.), or Registered Nurse (R.N.). Safety helmet For the purpose of this study, the safety...10 bike helmet saves this country $30 in direct health costs, and an additional $365 in societal costs. In fact, if 85 percent of all child bicyclists...waiting room poster, Adult and Child Preventive Care timelines, and the pocket-sized Personal Health Guide and Child Health Guide to stimulate

  6. Effects of Variable Helmet Weight on Human Response to -Gx Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    began experiencing discomfort and pain when wearing 3.5 lb helmets at 10 G seat accelerations. While overall neck loads demonstrated little or no...711 HPW/RHPA) from 1989 through 2001 evaluated the effects of variable helmet inertial properties on the biodynamic response of male and female...wore a standard HBU lap belt. The restraint straps were pre-tensioned at the shoulder and the lap attachment points to 20 ± 5 lbs prior to each test

  7. Using Structural Equation Modeling and the Behavioral Sciences Theories in Predicting Helmet Use

    OpenAIRE

    Kamarudin Ambak; Rozmi Ismail; Riza Atiq Abdullah; Muhamad Nazri Borhan

    2011-01-01

    In Malaysia, according to road accidents data statistics motorcycle users contributes more than 50% of fatalities in traffic accidents, and the major cause due to head injuries. One strategy that can be used to reduce the severity of head injuries is by proper USAge of helmet. Although the safety helmet is the best protective equipment to prevents head injury, majority motorcycle user did not use or did not fasten properly. In understanding this problem, the behavioral sciences theory and eng...

  8. Smart army helmet: a glance in what soldier helmets can become in the near future by integrating present technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancur, J. Alejandro; Osorio-Gómez, Gilberto; Mejía, Alejandro; Rodriguez, Carlos A.

    2014-05-01

    Nowadays, technologies like improved reality systems, sensing systems and communication systems, are moving forward with a high rate. This situation is very convenient for military groups that are trying to access modern technologies. According to that, it is very feasible to propose the development of electronic devices that increase the possibilities for soldiers to be alive during an armed conflict, providing them with information that can bring strategic benefits on the combat field, which is the main goal of this research. Therefore, it is proposed in this paper the early design stages of a smart army helmet, focusing in their low cost production; however, all the electronics stages specified here are proposed as prototypes.

  9. The ototoxic effect of boric acid solutions applied into the middle ear of guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oztürkcan, Sedat; Dündar, Riza; Katilmis, Hüseyin; Ilknur, Ali Ekber; Aktaş, Sinem; Haciömeroğlu, Senem

    2009-05-01

    This study analyzed the ototoxic effects of boric acid solutions. Boric acid solutions have been used as otologic preparations for many years. Boric acid is commonly found in solutions prepared with alcohol or distilled water but can also be found in a powder form. These preparations are used for both their antiseptic and acidic qualities in external and middle ear infections. We investigated the ototoxic effect of boric acid solutions on guinea pigs. We are unaware of any similar, previously published study of this subject in English. The study was conducted on 28 young albino guinea pigs. Prior to application of the boric acid solution under general anesthesia, an Auditory Brainstem Response (ABRs) test was applied to the right ear of the guinea pigs. Following the test, a perforation was created on the tympanic membrane of the right ear of each guinea pig and small gelfoam pieces were inserted into the perforated area. Test solutions were administered to the middle ear for 10 days by means of a transcanal route. Fifteen days after inserting the gelfoams in all of the guinea pigs, we anasthesized the guinea pigs and removed the gelfoams from the perforated region of the ear and then performed an ABRs on each guinea pig. The ABRs were within the normal range before the applications. After the application, no significant changes were detected in the ABRs thresholds in neither the saline group nor the group administered boric acid and distilled water solution; however, significant changes were detected in the ABRs thresholds of the Gentamicine and boric acid and alcohol solution groups. We believe that a 4% boric acid solution prepared with distilled water can be a more reliable preparation than a 4% boric acid solution prepared with alcohol.

  10. Severe allergic reactions to guinea pig

    OpenAIRE

    Zacharisen, Michael C; Levy, Michael B; Shaw, Jeffrey L; Kurup, Viswanath P

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Allergic sensitization and reactions to guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) have been well documented in laboratory animal handlers, primarily manifesting as rhinitis, conjunctivitis, and asthma. Severe allergic reactions, however, are rare. Methods We report two patients with severe allergic reactions following non-occupational exposure to guinea pigs. The first patient, an 11-year-old female, developed ocular, nasal, skin and laryngeal edema symptoms immediately after handling ...

  11. Experimental investigations on the cooling of a motorcycle helmet with phase change material (PCM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fok S.C.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The thermal comfort of motorcycle helmet during hot weather is important as it can affect the physiological and psychological condition of the rider. This paper examines the use of phase change material (PCM to cool a motorcycle helmet and presents the experimental investigations on the influences of the simulated solar radiation, wind speed, and heat generation rate on the cooling system. The result shows that the PCM-cooled helmet is able to prolong the thermal comfort period compared to a normal helmet. The findings also indicate that the heat generation from the head is the predominant factor that will affect the PCM melting time. Simulated solar radiation and ram-air due to vehicle motion under adiabatic condition can have very little influences on the PCM melting time. The results suggested that the helmet usage time would be influenced by the amount of heat generated from the head. Some major design considerations based on these findings have been included. Although this investigation focuses on the cooling of a motorcyclist helmet, the findings would also be useful for the development of PCM-cooling systems in other applications.

  12. Aerodynamics of cyclist posture, bicycle and helmet characteristics in time trial stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabroux, Vincent; Barelle, Caroline; Favier, Daniel

    2012-07-01

    The present work is focused on the aerodynamic study of different parameters, including both the posture of a cyclist's upper limbs and the saddle position, in time trial (TT) stages. The aerodynamic influence of a TT helmet large visor is also quantified as a function of the helmet inclination. Experiments conducted in a wind tunnel on nine professional cyclists provided drag force and frontal area measurements to determine the drag force coefficient. Data statistical analysis clearly shows that the hands positioning on shifters and the elbows joined together are significantly reducing the cyclist drag force. Concerning the saddle position, the drag force is shown to be significantly increased (about 3%) when the saddle is raised. The usual helmet inclination appears to be the inclination value minimizing the drag force. Moreover, the addition of a large visor on the helmet is shown to provide a drag coefficient reduction as a function of the helmet inclination. Present results indicate that variations in the TT cyclist posture, the saddle position and the helmet visor can produce a significant gain in time (up to 2.2%) during stages.

  13. [Dermophytes and guinea pigs : An underestimated danger?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupsch, C; Berlin, M; Gräser, Y

    2017-10-01

    For several years, an increasing number of human infections, mainly affecting children, with the zoophilic dermatophyte Trichophyton benhamiae has been observed. It is predominantly transmitted by pet guinea pigs. The prevalence of the dermatophyte on guinea pigs which are for sale in pet shops is unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze the frequency of T. benhamiae on symptomatic and asymptomatic guinea pigs from pet shops in Berlin. We sampled 59 guinea pigs from 15 pet shops using toothbrushes (MacKenzie brush technique) and FLOQswabs™ and analyzed the material for the presence of T. benhamiae with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and culture. We detected T. benhamiae on more than 90% of the guinea pigs; 9% of which showed visible tinea symptoms. The majority was identified as asymptomatic carriers of the dermatophyte. Pet shop guinea pigs have a high risk of being carriers of T. benhamiae, which can be transmitted to humans via physical contact, even though there is no visible infection in most cases. It is therefore recommended to have newly purchased animals examined by a veterinarian.

  14. CFD modeling of the underwash effect of military helmets as a possible mechanism for blast-induced traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarvghad-Moghaddam, Hesam; Rezaei, Asghar; Ziejewski, Mariusz; Karami, Ghodrat

    2017-01-01

    Underwash occurs as the incoming shockwaves enter the helmet subspace and develop a high pressure region at the opposite side of the head. The mechanism leading to the underwash is yet not well understood. To investigate this effect, the turbulent, supersonic flow of compressible air approaching the head-helmet assembly from different directions was studied through computational fluid dynamics simulations. The effects of different incident overpressures and helmet gap size on the underwash incidence were further evaluated. The backflow-induced pressure from the air traveling outside of the helmet on the outflow from the helmet, as well as the momentum change in the backside curve of the helmet were postulated as the main reasons for this effect. Side shockwaves predicted the highest underwash overpressures. The increase rate of the underwash reduced with increasing the incident shockwave intensity.

  15. Helmet use in winter sport activities--attitude and opinion of neurosurgeons and non-traumatic-brain-injury-educated persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Carla S; Zweckberger, Klaus; Schick, Uta; Unterberg, Andreas W

    2011-01-01

    During the last winter season, some fatal sport injuries with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) prompted major discussions about protective helmet use. Although ski helmets reportedly lead to a 60% decrease of risk to incur TBI, little is known about the distribution of helmet users and which factors are crucial for the decision to wear a helmet. Especially, it is unknown whether knowledge or experience concerning TBI in winter sports influences the use of helmets, as well as the attitude and opinion of people. Since treatment of TBI is a major field in neurosurgery, 55 neurosurgical departments (NS) in Germany, Switzerland and Austria were addressed and asked to answer anonymous questionnaires. A "non-trauma-educated" control cohort (NTP) was interviewed in ski resorts in Austria as well as sports equipment stores in Germany. Questionnaires were returned by 465 NS and 546 NTP. Half of NS and NTP wore helmets in winter sports. Although some interviewees showed cognitive dissonant behaviour, experience in TBI after ski or snowboard accidents significantly affected the decision to wear helmets. After the fatal ski accidents, and increased media coverage 15.4% NS and 13.2% NTP bought their helmet. Furthermore, incidence of helmet use in children was correlated with the actual use and disposition of their parents to make the use of helmet compulsory. This study indicates that brain-trauma education affects ones attitude and opinion concerning protective helmet use in winter sports. However, without neglecting educational measures, emotional arguments should be added in the promotion of helmets to make them a popular integral part of winter sport outfits.

  16. A Test Bed to Examine Helmet Fit and Retention and Biomechanical Measures of Head and Neck Injury in Simulated Impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Henry Y; Knowles, Brooklynn M; Dennison, Christopher R

    2017-09-21

    Conventional wisdom and the language in international helmet testing and certification standards suggest that appropriate helmet fit and retention during an impact are important factors in protecting the helmet wearer from impact-induced injury. This manuscript aims to investigate impact-induced injury mechanisms in different helmet fit scenarios through analysis of simulated helmeted impacts with an anthropometric test device (ATD), an array of headform acceleration transducers and neck force/moment transducers, a dual high speed camera system, and helmet-fit force sensors developed in our research group based on Bragg gratings in optical fiber. To simulate impacts, an instrumented headform and flexible neck fall along a linear guide rail onto an anvil. The test bed allows simulation of head impact at speeds up to 8.3 m/s, onto impact surfaces that are both flat and angled. The headform is fit with a crash helmet and several fit scenarios can be simulated by making context specific adjustments to the helmet position index and/or helmet size. To quantify helmet retention, the movement of the helmet on the head is quantified using post-hoc image analysis. To quantify head and neck injury potential, biomechanical measures based on headform acceleration and neck force/moment are measured. These biomechanical measures, through comparison with established human tolerance curves, can estimate the risk of severe life threatening and/or mild diffuse brain injury and osteoligamentous neck injury. To our knowledge, the presented test-bed is the first developed specifically to assess biomechanical effects on head and neck injury relative to helmet fit and retention.

  17. Drepanosticta machadoi spec. nov. from New Guinea (Odonata: Platystictidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theischinger, G; Richards, S J

    2014-09-22

    Drepanosticta machadoi sp. nov. (Holotype ♂: Dablin Creek, Hindenburg Range) from Papua New Guinea is described. The new species is a predominantly black damselfly, the male with four pale/bright pattern elements on each side of the synthorax, dorsum of segments 9 and 10 largely bright blue, and a uniquely shaped posterior lobe of the pronotum which is a wide-angled fork with rather straight, narrow finger-like prongs. It is referred to the Drepanosticta conica group of species and a key to the males of the D. conica group is provided.

  18. Determinants of helmet use behaviour among employed motorcycle riders in Yazd, Iran based on theory of planned behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mehri; Saeed, Mazloomy Mahmoodabad Seyed; Ali, Morowatisharifabad Mohammad; Haidar, Nadrian

    2011-09-01

    This paper reports on predictors of helmet use behaviour, using variables based on the theory of planned behaviour model among the employed motorcycle riders in Yazd-Iran, in an attempt to identify influential factors that may be addressed through intervention efforts. In 2007, a cluster random sample of 130 employed motorcycle riders in the city of Yazd in central Iran, participated in the study. Appropriate instruments were designed to measure the variables of interest (attitude, subjective norms, perceived behaviour control, intention along with helmet use behaviour). Reliability and validity of the instruments were examined and approved. The statistical analysis of the data included descriptive statistics, bivariate correlations, and multiple regression. Based on the results, 56 out of all the respondents (43.1%) had history of accident by motorcycle. Of these motorcycle riders only 10.7% were wearing their helmet at the time of their accident. Intention and perceived behavioural control showed a significant relationship with helmet use behaviour and perceived behaviour control was the strongest predictor of helmet use intention, followed by subjective norms, and attitude. It was found that that helmet use rate among motorcycle riders was very low. The findings of present study provide a preliminary support for the TPB model as an effective framework for examining helmet use in motorcycle riders. Understanding motorcycle rider's thoughts, feelings and beliefs about helmet use behaviour can assist intervention specialists to develop and implement effective programs in order to promote helmet use among motorcycle riders. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Understanding how a sport-helmet protects the head from closed injury by virtual impact tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yunhua; Liang, Zhaoyang

    2017-01-01

    Understanding how a helmet protects the head, especially the soft brain tissues, is the prerequisite for improving helmet design. Intracranial pressure and stresses/strains in the brain tissues are the direct indicators of traumatic brain injury and they can be used to measure helmet performance. In this study, the effects of helmet design parameters such as the helmet shell stiffness, liner compliance and thickness on the brain injury indicators were investigated by virtual impact tests. A finite element head model (FEHM) was first constructed from medical images; a personally-fitted helmet made of composite material and foam was virtually prototyped using geometric information extracted from the FEHM; a helmet-head finite element model was then assembled. Virtual impact tests were conducted using the resulting helmet-head model. The obtained results suggested that, if the helmet shell already has adequate strength to resist excessive deformation and fracture, further increasing shell stiffness and strength would not considerably reduce intracranial pressure and brain strains; to reach the maximum protection with the available materials, the key is to effectively use the second stage in the stress-strain history of the liner foam material.

  20. Influence of adult role modeling on child/adolescent helmet use in recreational sledging: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruedl, Gerhard; Pocecco, Elena; Raas, Christoph; Blauth, Michael; Brucker, Peter U; Burtscher, Martin; Kopp, Martin

    2016-04-01

    During recreational sledging (tobogganing), the head represents the most frequent injured body region with approximately one-third of all sledging injuries among children and adolescents. Whether children are wearing a helmet or not might be influenced on parental encouragement and role modeling of helmet use. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of adult helmet use on child/adolescent helmet use in recreational sledging. More than 500 adults sitting together with another adult or child/adolescent on a two-seater sledge were interviewed during two winter seasons at the bottom of six sledging tracks on demographics, mean frequency of sledging per season, self-estimated skill level, risk-taking behavior, and the use of a helmet. Total helmet use of all observed persons was 41.0 %. Helmet use among interviewed adults significantly increased with increasing age up to 45 years, frequency of sledging, and skill level, respectively. Helmet use of interviewed adults was 46.5 % if a child/adolescent was sitting on the same sledge and 29.8 % (odds ratios (OR): 2.1, 95 % confidence intervals (CI): 1.4-2.9, p educational campaigns on helmet use are urgently needed for tobogganists.

  1. Helmet use among users of the Citi Bike bicycle-sharing program: a pilot study in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basch, Corey H; Ethan, Danna; Rajan, Sonali; Samayoa-Kozlowsky, Sandra; Basch, Charles E

    2014-06-01

    The use of bicycle helmets to prevent or reduce serious head injuries is well established. However, it is unclear how to effectively promote helmet use, particularly in the context of bicycle-sharing programs. The need to determine rates of helmet use specifically among users of bicycle-sharing programs and understand if certain characteristics, such as time of day, affect helmet use, is imperative if effective promotion and/or legislative efforts addressing helmet use are to be developed. We estimated the prevalence of helmet use among a sample of Citi Bike program users in New York City. A total of 1,054 cyclists were observed over 44 h and across the 22 busiest Citi Bike locations. Overall, 85.3% (95% CI 82.2, 88.4%) of the cyclists observed did not wear a helmet. Rates of helmet non-use were also consistent whether cyclists were entering or leaving the docking station, among cyclists using the Citi Bikes earlier versus later in the day, and among cyclists using the Citi Bikes on weekends versus weekdays. Improved understanding about factors that facilitate and hinder helmet use is needed to help reduce head injury risk among users of bicycle sharing programs.

  2. Non-legislative interventions for the promotion of cycle helmet wearing by children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Rachel; Kendrick, Denise; Mulvaney, Caroline; Coleman, Tim; Royal, Simon

    2011-11-09

    Helmets reduce bicycle-related head injuries, particularly in single vehicle crashes and those where the head strikes the ground. We aimed to identify non-legislative interventions for promoting helmet use among children, so future interventions can be designed on a firm evidence base. To assess the effectiveness of non-legislative interventions in increasing helmet use among children; to identify possible reasons for differences in effectiveness of interventions; to evaluate effectiveness with respect to social group; to identify adverse consequences of interventions. We searched the following databases: Cochrane Injuries Group Specialised Register; the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); MEDLINE; EMBASE; PsycINFO (Ovid); PsycEXTRA (Ovid); CINAHL (EBSCO); ISI Web of Science: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED); Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI); Conference Proceedings Citation Index-Science (CPCI-S); and PubMed from inception to April 2009; TRANSPORT to 2007; and manually searched other sources of data. We included RCTs and CBAs. Studies included participants aged 0 to 18 years, described interventions promoting helmet use not requiring enactment of legislation and reported observed helmet wearing, self reported helmet ownership or self reported helmet wearing. Two independent review authors selected studies for inclusion and extracted data. We used random-effects models to estimate pooled odds ratios (ORs) (with 95% confidence interval (CI)). We explored heterogeneity with subgroup analyses. We included 29 studies in the review, 21 of which were included in at least one meta-analysis. Non-legislative interventions increased observed helmet wearing (11 studies: OR 2.08, 95% CI 1.29 to 3.34). The effect was most marked amongst community-based interventions (four studies: OR 4.30, 95% 2.24 to 8.25) and those providing free helmets (two studies: OR 4.35, 95% CI 2.13 to 8.89). Significant effects were also found amongst school

  3. Short-term toxicity studies with triphenyltin compounds in rats and guinea-pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschuuren, H.G.; Kroes, R.; Vink, H.H.; Esch, G.J. van

    1966-01-01

    Short-term toxicity studies have been carried out in rats and guinea-pigs fed diets containing triphenyltin acetate (TPTA), triphenyltin hydroxide (TPTH) or triethyltin hydroxide (TETH) for 90 days at levels ranging from 0 to 50 ppm. The lowest dietary levels found to retard growth in rats and

  4. Differential susceptibility of rats and guinea pigs to the ototoxic effects of ethyl benzene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cappaert, NLM; Klis, SFL; Muijser, H; Kulig, BM; Ravensberg, LC; Smoorenburg, GF

    2002-01-01

    The present study was designed to compare the ototoxic effects of volatile ethyl benzene in guinea pigs and rats. Rats showed deteriorated auditory thresholds in the mid-frequency range, based on electrocochleography, after 550-ppm ethyl benzene (8 h/day, 5 days). Outer hair cell (OHC) loss was

  5. New and noteworthy bird records from the Mt. Wilhelm elevational gradient, Papua New Guinea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marki, Petter Zahl; Sam, Katerina; Koane, Bonny

    2016-01-01

    The elevational gradient of Mt. Wilhelm, the highest peak in Papua New Guinea, represents one of the best-surveyed elevational gradients in the Indo-Pacific region. Based on field work undertaken in 2013 and 2015, we report range extensions, new elevational records and add 24 species to the list...

  6. Applying the health action process approach to bicycle helmet use and evaluating a social marketing campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl, Florian M; Smith, Jennifer; Piedt, Shannon; Turcotte, Kate; Pike, Ian

    2017-08-05

    Bicycle injuries are of concern in Canada. Since helmet use was mandated in 1996 in the province of British Columbia, Canada, use has increased and head injuries have decreased. Despite the law, many cyclists do not wear a helmet. Health action process approach (HAPA) model explains intention and behaviour with self-efficacy, risk perception, outcome expectancies and planning constructs. The present study examines the impact of a social marketing campaign on HAPA constructs in the context of bicycle helmet use. A questionnaire was administered to identify factors determining helmet use. Intention to obey the law, and perceived risk of being caught if not obeying the law were included as additional constructs. Path analysis was used to extract the strongest influences on intention and behaviour. The social marketing campaign was evaluated through t-test comparisons after propensity score matching and generalised linear modelling (GLM) were applied to adjust for the same covariates. 400 cyclists aged 25-54 years completed the questionnaire. Self-efficacy and Intention were most predictive of intention to wear a helmet, which, moderated by planning, strongly predicted behaviour. Perceived risk and outcome expectancies had no significant impact on intention. GLM showed that exposure to the campaign was significantly associated with higher values in self-efficacy, intention and bicycle helmet use. Self-efficacy and planning are important points of action for promoting helmet use. Social marketing campaigns that remind people of appropriate preventive action have an impact on behaviour. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  7. The impact of helmet use on outcomes after a motorcycle crash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khor, Desmond; Inaba, Kenji; Aiolfi, Alberto; Delapena, Samantha; Benjamin, Elizabeth; Matsushima, Kazuhide; Strumwasser, Aaron M; Demetriades, Demetrios

    2017-05-01

    Helmet use in a motorcycle collision has been shown to reduce head injury and death. Its protective effect on the cervical spine (C-spine), however, remains unclear. The objective of this study was to explore the relationship between helmet use and C-spine injuries. Retrospective National Trauma Data Bank (NTDB) study. All motorcycle collisions between 2007 and 2014 involving either a driver or passenger were included. Data collected included demographics, vital signs, Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS), Injury Severity Score (ISS) and specific injuries. The primary outcome was the prevalence of C-spine injuries. Secondary outcomes included were overall mortality, ventilation days, intensive care unit length of stay (LOS), total hospital LOS, and in-hospital complications. A total of 270,525 patients were included. Helmets were worn by 57.6% of motorcyclists. The non-helmeted group was found to have a higher incidence of head injury with head AIS>2 (27.6% vs 14.8%, p2 (3.2% vs 2.6%, pfactor against mortality (OR=0.832, 95% CI 0.781-0.887, p<0.001). Although statistically significant in univariate analysis, helmet use was not associated with C-spine injuries after adjusting for relevant covariates. However, helmet use reduced the risk of severe head injuries by almost 50% (OR=0.488, 95% CI 0.475-0.500, p<0.001). Helmet use reduces the risk of head injury and death among motorcyclists; however, no association with C-spine injuries could be detected. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Using a helmet-mounted display computer simulation model to evaluate the luminance requirements for symbology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Thomas H.; Martin, John S.; Rash, Clarence E.

    2005-05-01

    As the Army increases its reliance upon and continues to develop helmet mounted displays (HMDs) or head-up displays (HUDs), it is paramount that displays are developed that meet the operational needs of the warfighter. During the development cycle, questions always arise concerning the operational requirements of the HMD. These include questions concerning luminance, contrast, color and resolution. To provide intelligent answers to these operational questions, a method has been devised to evaluate these issues. Integral to this method is an HMD simulation model that was previously presented at this meeting. The model is continually undergoing improvements with additional features and improved accuracy. The model allows for the simulation of see-through images with overlaid symbology. In this study, symbology was overlaid over eight natural images, one uniform field, and one artificial background composed of moderate to high spatial frequencies. Observers graded the quality of symbology on a scale of 1 to 7, with 7 representing symbology of high contrast and excellent quality. In all, observers graded 200 images (20 images per background scene). These images ranged from an average Michaelson contrast value of about 0.09 to 0.93. We found, as have others, that the complexity of the backgrounds greatly affected the observer"s rating. The simulated images were analyzed and statistical correlates were developed that could relate to the observer"s ratings. Metrics were developed that could help predict the luminance requirements for HMD or HUD symbology.

  9. Development of a Guinea Pig Lung Deposition Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    receptors in guinea- pig lung and heart . European Journal of Pharmacology 181:51-58. Guyton, A.C. (1947). Measurement of respiratory volumes of laboratory...Development of a Guinea Pig Lung Deposition Model Distribution Statement A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. January...4 Figure 2. Particle deposition in the lung of the guinea pig via endotracheal breathing

  10. The impact of mandatory helmet law on the outcome of maxillo facial trauma: a comparative study in kerala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usha, M; Ravindran, V; Soumithran, C S; Ravindran Nair, K S

    2014-06-01

    Motorcyclists comprise the majority of road-traffic victims in low and middle income countries,and consequently, the majority of the road-traffic victims globally. Simple measures can be taken to make safer on the roads, which include enforcement of safety measures like seat belt and helmets. The compulsory Helmet law was enforced in Kerala on 18/06/07. Resistance to legislation on motorcycle helmets still coexists world wide with debate on the effectiveness of helmets. In an attempt to analyze the protective effect of helmets on facial injuries a comparative study was conducted in Government Dental College, Calicut, which is a major trauma centre in northern Kerala. Data for the present study was obtained from the patients who have reported to the Emergency Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Government Dental College, Calicut, for a period of 6 months immediately after the implementation of strict helmet rule in Kerala. For the study all patients with a history of nonfatal motor cycle accident sustaining facial injuries were included. The results were compared with the study conducted in the same institution in the pre law period. The study demonstrates the protective effect of motorcycle helmets in decreasing the morbidity of maxillofacial trauma.There was a marked decrease in incidence of motorcycle-related injuries, remarkable increase in helmet usage and better outcome in helmeted individuals in the post law period. Road traffic injury control is a public health problem. Health and medical professionals have an ethical responsibility to educate and arrange for the safety of individuals. Helmets are effective in preventing or reducing the severity of motorcycle-related injuries and in a developing country like India, enforced mandatory motor cycle helmet law is potentially one of the most cost effective interventions available.

  11. A DESCRIPTIVE STUDY OF PATTERN OF FATAL HEAD INJURY IN HELMETED AND NONHELMETED VICTIMS OF TWO WHEELER ACCIDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Sheeju

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Motor vehicle crashes are a major cause of fatality all over the world. By 2020, motor vehicle injury is projected to become the third leading contributor to the global burden of disease in the world. Motor cyclists are about 25 times more likely than car occupants to die in Road Traffic Accidents. Data on the incidence and types of crashes is required to guide safety policy. Knowledge of how injuries are caused and of what type they are of valuable instrument for identifying interventions and monitoring the effectiveness of intervention. The present study was done to find out the factors that contribute for motor cycle crashes and to study the injury pattern seen in helmeted and non-helmeted victims. MATERIAL AND METHODS Victims of two wheeler accidents brought for autopsy in a Govt. Medical College were studied from October 2010 to August 2011. Two wheelers include motor cycles, scooters and mopeds. Bicycles were excluded from the study. Accidents include all types; against all types of vehicles running on the road, collision with any object, surface or any animal or fall from vehicle. The details of the accident were collected in a printed proforma from relative/witnesses and from police officials. The injuries were entered in the specific columns of proforma. Data was analysed with MS Excel. RESULTS Death due to head injury is more in non-helmeted (52.5% compared to helmeted drivers (43.8 % whereas injury to chest and abdomen and limbs are more in helmeted. Combination of injuries (Head+Chest+Abdomen predominated in helmeted drivers (18.8% compared to 5% in non-helmeted drivers. Spinal injuries were more in helmeted than in non-helmeted. CONCLUSION The pattern of head injury was analysed in detail in helmeted and non-helmeted drivers. This will help in detailing of pattern of head injury in both groups.

  12. HElmet therapy Assessment in infants with Deformed Skulls (HEADS: protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Wijk Renske M

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In The Netherlands, helmet therapy is a commonly used treatment in infants with skull deformation (deformational plagiocephaly or deformational brachycephaly. However, evidence of the effectiveness of this treatment remains lacking. The HEADS study (HElmet therapy Assessment in Deformed Skulls aims to determine the effects and costs of helmet therapy compared to no helmet therapy in infants with moderate to severe skull deformation. Methods/design Pragmatic randomised controlled trial (RCT nested in a cohort study. The cohort study included infants with a positional preference and/or skull deformation at two to four months (first assessment. At 5 months of age, all children were assessed again and infants meeting the criteria for helmet therapy were asked to participate in the RCT. Participants were randomly allocated to either helmet therapy or no helmet therapy. Parents of eligible infants that do not agree with enrolment in the RCT were invited to stay enrolled for follow up in a non-randomisedrandomised controlled trial (nRCT; they were then free to make the decision to start helmet therapy or not. Follow-up assessments took place at 8, 12 and 24 months of age. The main outcome will be head shape at 24 months that is measured using plagiocephalometry. Secondary outcomes will be satisfaction of parents and professionals with the appearance of the child, parental concerns about the future, anxiety level and satisfaction with the treatment, motor development and quality of life of the infant. Finally, compliance and costs will also be determined. Discussion HEADS will be the first study presenting data from an RCT on the effectiveness of helmet therapy. Outcomes will be important for affected children and their parents, health care professionals and future treatment policies. Our findings are likely to influence the reimbursement policies of health insurance companies. Besides these health outcomes, we will be able to

  13. Canadian parents' attitudes and beliefs about bicycle helmet legislation in provinces with and without legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkin, P C; Degroot, J; Macpherson, A; Fuselli, P; Macarthur, C

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this study was to survey Canadian parents on their attitudes and beliefs about bicycle helmet legislation and to compare responses from parents living in provinces with and without legislation. A national survey of 1002 parents of children aged under 18 years was conducted. Chi-square tests were used to compare responses from the surveyed parents in the different jurisdictions. Responses from parents living in provinces with legislation (n = 640) and without legislation (n = 362) were as follows: concern for injury (63% vs. 68%, nonsignificant [NS]); believe helmets are effective (98% vs. 98%, NS); child always wears a helmet (74% vs. 69%, NS); support legislation for children (95% vs. 83%, p legislation for all ages (85% vs. 75%, p legislation decreases the amount of time their child bicycles (5% vs. 8%, NS). Parents are highly supportive of bicycle helmet legislation in Canada. They believe that bicycle helmets are effective and that legislation does not decrease the amount of time a child spends bicycling. There was also a high level of support for legislation across all ages, and for police enforcement.

  14. Vitamin C deficiency in weanling guinea pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykkesfeldt, Jens; Trueba, Gilberto Perez; Poulsen, Henrik E.

    2007-01-01

    Neonates are particularly susceptible to malnutrition due to their limited reserves of micronutrients and their rapid growth. In the present study, we examined the effect of vitamin C deficiency on markers of oxidative stress in plasma, liver and brain of weanling guinea pigs. Vitamin C deficiency...... increased, while protein oxidation decreased (P¼0003). The results show that the selective preservation of brain ascorbate and induction of DNA repair in vitamin C-deficient weanling guinea pigs is not sufficient to prevent oxidative damage. Vitamin C deficiency may therefore be particularly adverse during...

  15. Neck pain among fighter pilots after the introduction of the JHMCS helmet and NVG in their environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Britt; Torp-Svendsen, J; Toft, Palle

    2011-01-01

    Neck pain is a common complaint among fighter pilots. With implementation of the joint helmet mounted cuing system (JHMCS), the strain on the pilot's neck has increased.......Neck pain is a common complaint among fighter pilots. With implementation of the joint helmet mounted cuing system (JHMCS), the strain on the pilot's neck has increased....

  16. Effectiveness of mask and helmet interfaces to deliver noninvasive ventilation in a human model of resistive breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racca, Fabrizio; Appendini, Lorenzo; Gregoretti, Cesare; Stra, Elisa; Patessio, Antonio; Donner, Claudio F; Ranieri, V Marco

    2005-10-01

    The helmet, a transparent latex-free polyvinyl chloride cylinder linked by a metallic ring to a soft collar that seals the helmet around the neck, has been recently proposed as an effective alternative to conventional face mask to deliver pressure support ventilation (PSV) during noninvasive ventilation in patients with acute respiratory failure. We tested the hypothesis that mechanical characteristics of the helmet (large internal volume and high compliance) might impair patient-ventilator interactions compared with standard face mask. Breathing pattern, CO(2) clearance, indexes of inspiratory muscle effort and patient-ventilator asynchrony, and dyspnea were measured at different levels of PSV delivered by face mask and helmet in six healthy volunteers before (load-off) and after (load-on) application of a linear resistor. During load-off, no differences in breathing pattern and inspiratory muscle effort were found. During load-on, the use of helmet to deliver pressure support increased inspiratory muscle effort and patient-ventilator asynchrony, worsened CO(2) clearance, and increased dyspnea compared with standard face mask. Autocycled breaths accounted for 12 and 25% of the total minute ventilation and for 10 and 23% of the total inspiratory muscle effort during mask and helmet PSV, respectively. We conclude that PSV delivered by helmet interface is less effective in unloading inspiratory muscles compared with PSV delivered by standard face mask. Other ventilatory assist modes should be tested to exploit to the most the potential benefits offered by the helmet.

  17. Lack of effect of ivermectin on prepatent guinea-worm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Issaka-Tinorgah, A.; Magnussen, P.; Bloch, P.

    1994-01-01

    The effect of ivermectin on prepatent guinea-worm was tested in a single-blind placebo-controlled trial; 400 adults were randomly allocated to a single dose of ivermectin (150 µg/kg) or placebo. Fifty-four of the 385 participants who were followed for 15 months developed a total of 69 emergent...... guinea-worms. There was no significant differencein the proportion of persons with emergent guinea-worms between the 2 treatment groups; 58% appeared in males. 80% of emergent guinea-worms were located below the knee. Migration of guinea-worms in the tissues was not affected. It is concluded...

  18. The burden of motorcycle-related neuro-trauma in Ireland and associated helmet usage.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, R K J

    2009-04-01

    Motorcycles represent less than 2% of the licensed vehicles but motorcyclists account for 12% of road deaths in Ireland. The British Road Safety Authority has introduced the Sharp programme, which hopes to save 50 lives in the U.K. each year alone by helping riders to choose the best-fitting and safest helmets. We evaluated the pattern of head injuries sustained by motorcyclists referred to the two neurosurgical centres Beaumont Hospital and Cork University Hospital in Ireland and ascertained if the new SHARP guidelines could be of benefit in reducing the burden of motorcycle related neurotrauma and disability in Ireland. Despite Ireland having mandatory helmet laws almost a quarter of our motorcyclists with traumatic brain injury were unhelmeted. A significant reduction in mortality and morbidity is predicted if all motorcyclists in Ireland were to wear helmets that satisfied the SHARP criteria.

  19. Helmet "tang" from the Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York City, United States. Features of Construction, Design and Operational Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid A. Bobrov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses iron helmet (No. 36.25.115, which is stored in the Metropolitan Museum of art (New York City, United States. For the first time this helmet was published and analyzed by American scientists G. C. Stone and D.G. Alexander. The analysis showed that the Bowl was made by Turkish masters of the XVII century and backplate and the hoop is added to the helmet in 1781–1782 D.G. Alexander speculated that the helmet belonged to the Warrior of the Crimean Khanate. Dating the helmet does not raise objections. However, the attribution of a helmet requires some clarification. Analysis of the design of the helmet and decoration revealed that backplate, hoop and Aventail from iron rings added to Bowl in 1781–1782, were manufactured by Circassian craftsmen living in the Northern Caucasus or in Crimea. For the decoration of the helmet has been used typical Circassian ornaments: "sieve", cherkessian floral pattern, geometric shapes, triangular in shape, "gear", etc. During Assembly of the helmet were applied characteristic of Circassian gunsmiths technological solutions: using as a basis the bowl old-style helmet, tapered Finial with a ring for a decorative plume, hoop with four plates, ringed with aventail lip to protect the forehead, etc. In Circassia similar headgear worn were known as tang (from the Arabic. "Taj", i.e., the "Crown". In the XVII–XVIII centuries. they willingly purchased representatives of Crimean Tatar nobility. Similar in design and system design helmets Circassian production belonged to the highest aristocracy of the Crimean Khanate, are stored in Museum and private collections in Poland, Turkey and the United States. The inscription "Bekmurun" on the hoop from the Metropolitan helmet suggests that it was manufactured on request of Kabardian Bekmur princely heir (Bekmurziny, which moved from Circassia in Crimea, 1737. The popularity of tang type helmets among the aristocracy of North Caucasus and Crimea were due not

  20. Spectrum of acute clinical characteristics of diagnosed concussions in college athletes wearing instrumented helmets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duhaime, Ann-Christine; Beckwith, Jonathan G.; Maerlender, Arthur C.; McAllister, Thomas W.; Crisco, Joseph J.; Duma, Stefan M.; Brolinson, P. Gunnar; Rowson, Steven; Flashman, Laura A.; Chu, Jeffrey J.; Greenwald, Richard M.

    2013-01-01

    Object Concussive head injuries have received much attention in the medical and public arenas, as concerns have been raised about the potential short- and long-term consequences of injuries sustained in sports and other activities. While many student athletes have required evaluation after concussion, the exact definition of concussion has varied among disciplines and over time. The authors used data gathered as part of a multiinstitutional longitudinal study of the biomechanics of head impacts in helmeted collegiate athletes to characterize what signs, symptoms, and clinical histories were used to designate players as having sustained concussions. Methods Players on 3 college football teams and 4 ice hockey teams (male and female) wore helmets instrumented with Head Impact Telemetry (HIT) technology during practices and games over 2–4 seasons of play. Preseason clinical screening batteries assessed baseline cognition and reported symptoms. If a concussion was diagnosed by the team medical staff, basic descriptive information was collected at presentation, and concussed players were reevaluated serially. The specific symptoms or findings associated with the diagnosis of acute concussion, relation to specific impact events, timing of symptom onset and diagnosis, and recorded biomechanical parameters were analyzed. Results Data were collected from 450 athletes with 486,594 recorded head impacts. Forty-eight separate concussions were diagnosed in 44 individual players. Mental clouding, headache, and dizziness were the most common presenting symptoms. Thirty-one diagnosed cases were associated with an identified impact event; in 17 cases no specific impact event was identified. Onset of symptoms was immediate in 24 players, delayed in 11, and unspecified in 13. In 8 cases the diagnosis was made immediately after a head impact, but in most cases the diagnosis was delayed (median 17 hours). One diagnosed concussion involved a 30-second loss of consciousness; all other

  1. Spectrum of acute clinical characteristics of diagnosed concussions in college athletes wearing instrumented helmets: clinical article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duhaime, Ann-Christine; Beckwith, Jonathan G; Maerlender, Arthur C; McAllister, Thomas W; Crisco, Joseph J; Duma, Stefan M; Brolinson, P Gunnar; Rowson, Steven; Flashman, Laura A; Chu, Jeffrey J; Greenwald, Richard M

    2012-12-01

    Concussive head injuries have received much attention in the medical and public arenas, as concerns have been raised about the potential short- and long-term consequences of injuries sustained in sports and other activities. While many student athletes have required evaluation after concussion, the exact definition of concussion has varied among disciplines and over time. The authors used data gathered as part of a multiinstitutional longitudinal study of the biomechanics of head impacts in helmeted collegiate athletes to characterize what signs, symptoms, and clinical histories were used to designate players as having sustained concussions. Players on 3 college football teams and 4 ice hockey teams (male and female) wore helmets instrumented with Head Impact Telemetry (HIT) technology during practices and games over 2-4 seasons of play. Preseason clinical screening batteries assessed baseline cognition and reported symptoms. If a concussion was diagnosed by the team medical staff, basic descriptive information was collected at presentation, and concussed players were reevaluated serially. The specific symptoms or findings associated with the diagnosis of acute concussion, relation to specific impact events, timing of symptom onset and diagnosis, and recorded biomechanical parameters were analyzed. Data were collected from 450 athletes with 486,594 recorded head impacts. Forty-eight separate concussions were diagnosed in 44 individual players. Mental clouding, headache, and dizziness were the most common presenting symptoms. Thirty-one diagnosed cases were associated with an identified impact event; in 17 cases no specific impact event was identified. Onset of symptoms was immediate in 24 players, delayed in 11, and unspecified in 13. In 8 cases the diagnosis was made immediately after a head impact, but in most cases the diagnosis was delayed (median 17 hours). One diagnosed concussion involved a 30-second loss of consciousness; all other players retained

  2. Impact of helmet use on traumatic brain injury from road traffic accidents in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Saksham; Klaric, Katherine; Sam, Nang; Din, Vuthy; Juschkewitz, Tina; Iv, Vycheth; Shrime, Mark G; Park, Kee B

    2018-01-02

    Rapid urbanization and motorization without corresponding increases in helmet usage have made traumatic brain injury due to road traffic accidents a major public health crisis in Cambodia. This analysis was conducted to quantify the impact of helmets on severity of injury, neurosurgical indication, and functional outcomes at discharge for motorcycle operators who required hospitalization for a traumatic brain injury following a road traffic accident in Cambodia. The medical records of 491 motorcycle operators who presented to a major tertiary care center in Cambodia with traumatic brain injury were retrospectively analyzed using multivariate logistic regression. The most common injuries at presentation were contusions (47.0%), epidural hematomas (30.1%), subdural hematomas (27.9%), subarachnoid hemorrhages (12.4%), skull fractures (21.4%), and facial fractures (18.5%). Moderate-to-severe loss of consciousness was present in 36.3% of patients. Not wearing a helmet was associated with an odds ratio of 2.20 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.15-4.22) for presenting with moderate to severe loss of consciousness compared to helmeted patients. Craniotomy or craniectomy was indicated for evacuation of hematoma in 20.0% of cases, and nonhelmeted patients had 3.21-fold higher odds of requiring neurosurgical intervention (95% CI, 1.25-8.27). Furthermore, lack of helmet usage was associated with 2.72-fold higher odds of discharge with functional deficits (95% CI, 1.14-6.49). In total, 30.1% of patients were discharged with severe functional deficits. Helmets demonstrate a protective effect and may be an effective public health intervention to significantly reduce the burden of traumatic brain injury in Cambodia and other developing countries with increasing rates of motorization across the world.

  3. Effect of Helmet Use on Traumatic Brain Injuries and Other Head Injuries in Alpine Sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailly, Nicolas; Laporte, Jean-Dominique; Afquir, Sanae; Masson, Catherine; Donnadieu, Thierry; Delay, Jean-Baptiste; Arnoux, Pierre-Jean

    2018-01-31

    Sport helmet effectiveness in preventing traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been repeatedly questioned. This study assesses the effect of helmet use on risk of TBI and other types of head injury (OTHI) in alpine sports. From 2012 to 2014, data on the injured population were collected by physicians in on-mountain clinics in 30 French ski resorts, and interviews were conducted on the slope to sample a noninjured control population. Two sets of cases (1425 participants with TBI and 1386 with OTHI) were compared with 2 sets of controls (2145 participants without injury and 40,288 with an injury to a body part other than the head). The effect of helmet use on the risk of TBI and OTHI was evaluated with a multivariate logistic regression adjusted for age, sex, sport, skill level, crash type, and crash location. Using participants without injury as control, we found that helmet wearers were less likely to sustain any head injury (odds ratio [OR] TBI = 0.65; OR OTHI = 0.42). When considering participants with an injury to another body part as control, the risk of OTHI was lower among helmet wearers (OR OTHI : 0.61). However, no significant effect was found for the risk of TBI. Participants with low skill levels, those aged 50 years, snowboarders, and those involved in collision and in snowpark accidents were at higher risk of head injury. This study confirms the effectiveness of helmets in protecting users from head injuries but questions their effects on TBI, especially concussion. Copyright © 2017 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Long-Term Effects of Education and Legislation Enforcement on All-Age Bicycle Helmet Use: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huybers, Sherry; Fenerty, Lynne; Kureshi, Nelofar; Thibault-Halman, Ginette; LeBlanc, John C; Clarke, David B; Walling, Simon

    2017-02-01

    Bicycle-related injuries are a leading cause of child and youth hospitalizations in Canada. The use of helmets while bicycling reduces the risk of brain injuries. This study investigated the long-term effect of legislation coupled with enforcement to improve helmet use rates. We conducted a longitudinal observational study of helmet use at 9, 11, and 14 years after bicycle helmet legislation was enacted. Data were compared to baseline observations collected after legislation was passed in 1997. A comprehensive enforcement and educational diversion program, Operation Headway-Noggin Knowledge (OP-NK), was developed and implemented in partnership with regional police during the study period. Helmet use was sustained throughout the post-legislation period, from 75.3 % in the year legislation was enacted to 94.2 % 14 years post-legislation. The increase in helmet use was seen among all age groups and genders. Helmet legislation was not associated with changes in bicycle ridership over the study years. OP-NK was associated with improved enforcement efforts as evidenced by the number of tickets issued to noncompliant bicycle riders. This observational study spans a 16-year study period extending from pre-legislation to 14 years post all-age bicycle helmet legislation. Our study results demonstrate that a comprehensive approach that couples education and awareness with ongoing enforcement of helmet legislation is associated with long-term sustained helmet use rates. The diversion program described herein is listed among best practices by the Public Health Agency of Canada.

  5. Evaluation of Aircraft Ejection Seat Safety When Using Advanced Helmet Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-09

    No. DODIG‑2015‑090 M A R C H 9 , 2 0 1 5 Evaluation of Aircraft Ejection Seat Safety When Using Advanced Helmet Sensors Report Documentation Page...DATES COVERED 00-00-2015 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Evaluation of Aircraft Ejection Seat Safety When Using Advanced Helmet Sensors...Defense F r a u d , W a s t e & A b u s e DODIG-2015-090 (Project No. D2014-DT0TAD-0002.000) │ i Results in Brief Evaluation of Aircraft Ejection Seat

  6. Analysis and Design of Phase Change Thermal Control for Light Emitting Diode (LED) Spacesuit Helmet Lights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bue, Grant C.; Nguyen, Hiep X.; Keller, John R.

    2010-01-01

    LED Helmet Extravehicular Activity Helmet Interchangeable Portable (LEHIP) lights for the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) have been built and tested and are currently being used on the International Space Station. A design is presented of the passive thermal control system consisting of a chamber filled with aluminum foam and wax. A thermal math model of LEHIP was built and correlated by test to show that the thermal design maintains electronic components within hot and cold limits for a 7 hour spacewalk in the most extreme EVA average environments, and do not pose a hazard to the crew or to components of the EMU.

  7. Color Helmet-Mounted Display System for In-Flight Simulation on the RASCAL Research Helicopter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Tim; Barnhart, Warren; Sawyer, Kevin; Aiken, Edwin W. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    A high performance color helmet mounted display (HMD) system for in-flight simulation and research has been developed for the Rotorcraft Aircrew Systems Concepts Laboratory (RASCAL). The display system consists of a programmable display generator, a display electronics unit, a head tracker, and the helmet with display optics. The system provides a maximum of 1024 x 1280 resolution, a 4:1 contrast ratio, and a brightness of 1100fL utilizing currently available technologies. This paper describes the major features and components of the system. Also discussed are the measured performance of the system and the design techniques that allowed the development of a full color HMD.

  8. Investigating helmet promotion for cyclists: results from a randomised study with observation of behaviour, using a semi-automatic video system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aymery Constant

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Half of fatal injuries among bicyclists are head injuries. While helmet use is likely to provide protection, their use often remains rare. We assessed the influence of strategies for promotion of helmet use with direct observation of behaviour by a semi-automatic video system. METHODS: We performed a single-centre randomised controlled study, with 4 balanced randomisation groups. Participants were non-helmet users, aged 18-75 years, recruited at a loan facility in the city of Bordeaux, France. After completing a questionnaire investigating their attitudes towards road safety and helmet use, participants were randomly assigned to three groups with the provision of "helmet only", "helmet and information" or "information only", and to a fourth control group. Bikes were labelled with a colour code designed to enable observation of helmet use by participants while cycling, using a 7-spot semi-automatic video system located in the city. A total of 1557 participants were included in the study. RESULTS: Between October 15th 2009 and September 28th 2010, 2621 cyclists' movements, made by 587 participants, were captured by the video system. Participants seen at least once with a helmet amounted to 6.6% of all observed participants, with higher rates in the two groups that received a helmet at baseline. The likelihood of observed helmet use was significantly increased among participants of the "helmet only" group (OR = 7.73 [2.09-28.5] and this impact faded within six months following the intervention. No effect of information delivery was found. CONCLUSION: Providing a helmet may be of value, but will not be sufficient to achieve high rates of helmet wearing among adult cyclists. Integrated and repeated prevention programmes will be needed, including free provision of helmets, but also information on the protective effect of helmets and strategies to increase peer and parental pressure.

  9. Investigating helmet promotion for cyclists: results from a randomised study with observation of behaviour, using a semi-automatic video system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constant, Aymery; Messiah, Antoine; Felonneau, Marie-Line; Lagarde, Emmanuel

    2012-01-01

    Half of fatal injuries among bicyclists are head injuries. While helmet use is likely to provide protection, their use often remains rare. We assessed the influence of strategies for promotion of helmet use with direct observation of behaviour by a semi-automatic video system. We performed a single-centre randomised controlled study, with 4 balanced randomisation groups. Participants were non-helmet users, aged 18-75 years, recruited at a loan facility in the city of Bordeaux, France. After completing a questionnaire investigating their attitudes towards road safety and helmet use, participants were randomly assigned to three groups with the provision of "helmet only", "helmet and information" or "information only", and to a fourth control group. Bikes were labelled with a colour code designed to enable observation of helmet use by participants while cycling, using a 7-spot semi-automatic video system located in the city. A total of 1557 participants were included in the study. Between October 15th 2009 and September 28th 2010, 2621 cyclists' movements, made by 587 participants, were captured by the video system. Participants seen at least once with a helmet amounted to 6.6% of all observed participants, with higher rates in the two groups that received a helmet at baseline. The likelihood of observed helmet use was significantly increased among participants of the "helmet only" group (OR = 7.73 [2.09-28.5]) and this impact faded within six months following the intervention. No effect of information delivery was found. Providing a helmet may be of value, but will not be sufficient to achieve high rates of helmet wearing among adult cyclists. Integrated and repeated prevention programmes will be needed, including free provision of helmets, but also information on the protective effect of helmets and strategies to increase peer and parental pressure.

  10. Reptiles and Batrachians from New Guinea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lidth de Jeude, van Th.W.

    1897-01-01

    The following Reptiles and Batrachians were collected in N. E. New Guinea, in the neighbourhood of Astrolabe bay, by Mr. Kunzmann, one of the collectors of Mr. J. R. H. Neervoort van de Poll, and now make part of the collections of the Leyden Museum.

  11. Piraatlus Guinea lahes ja Nigeerias / Eero Tepp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tepp, Eero

    2013-01-01

    Guinea lahes lokkava piraatluse põhjused ja tegurid, mis seda soodustavad: seaduselüngad, looduslikud tingimused, ebapädev korrakaitse, poliitiline olustik, kultuuriline vastuvõetavus, majanduslik tasuvus. Sõjalised ja mittesõjalised meetmetest, mida rakendatakse piraatlusevastases võitluses

  12. On the New-Guinea Mammals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jentink, F.A.

    1907-01-01

    New-Guinea has been called by A. R. Wallace the greatest terra incognita that still remains for the naturalist to explore, and the only region where altogether new and unimagined forms of life may perhaps be found. This he wrote in 1869 and we now living in 1906 can, as a matter of fact, underline

  13. The Phytogeography of New Guinea Solanum (Solanaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Symon, D.E.

    1986-01-01

    The Solanaceae, of which Solanum is the type species, comprise a southern hemisphere family. A general biogeographical introduction is given, with an account of plate tectonics and a discussion of Wallace’s Line and the geographic history of New Guinea. The widely accepted sections of Solanum are

  14. African Journals Online: Papua New Guinea

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Pakistan, Palau, Palestine, State of, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Qatar, Romania, Russian Federation, Rwanda, Saint Bartelemey, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, San Marino, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia ...

  15. ECG telemetry in conscious guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppert, Sabine; Vormberge, Thomas; Igl, Bernd-Wolfgang; Hoffmann, Michael

    2016-01-01

    During preclinical drug development, monitoring of the electrocardiogram (ECG) is an important part of cardiac safety assessment. To detect potential pro-arrhythmic liabilities of a drug candidate and for internal decision-making during early stage drug development an in vivo model in small animals with translatability to human cardiac function is required. Over the last years, modifications/improvements regarding animal housing, ECG electrode placement, and data evaluation have been introduced into an established model for ECG recordings using telemetry in conscious, freely moving guinea pigs. Pharmacological validation using selected reference compounds affecting different mechanisms relevant for cardiac electrophysiology (quinidine, flecainide, atenolol, dl-sotalol, dofetilide, nifedipine, moxifloxacin) was conducted and findings were compared with results obtained in telemetered Beagle dogs. Under standardized conditions, reliable ECG data with low variability allowing largely automated evaluation were obtained from the telemetered guinea pig model. The model is sensitive to compounds blocking cardiac sodium channels, hERG K(+) channels and calcium channels, and appears to be even more sensitive to β-blockers as observed in dogs at rest. QT interval correction according to Bazett and Sarma appears to be appropriate methods in conscious guinea pigs. Overall, the telemetered guinea pig is a suitable model for the conduct of early stage preclinical ECG assessment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Mesothelium of Reissner's membrane in guinea pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvortrup, K; Rostgaard, Jørgen

    1990-01-01

    The mesothelial cells of Reissner's membrane in guinea pigs were found to be connected by junctional complexes. No cell discontinuities or gaps were observed by scanning or transmission electron microscopy. These results are not in accordance with previous studies. They were achieved by in vivo v...

  17. Rhizocephala from New Guinea : II. Peltogastridae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschma, H.

    1955-01-01

    Among the hermit crabs collected by Dr. L. D. Brongersma, Dr. L. B. Holthuis, and Dr. M. Boeseman on the reef of Biak Island near New Guinea 1) there are five specimens bearing the Peltogastrid parasites dealt with in the present paper. They belong to previously described species but present some

  18. Low barometric pressure aggravates neuropathic pain in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Jun; Itano, Yuya; Funakubo, Megumi; Mizoguchi, Hiroyuki; Itoh, Mariko; Mori, Rarami

    2011-10-03

    Several clinical studies have demonstrated a consistent relationship between changes in meteorological factors, particularly barometric pressure, and pain intensity in subjects with chronic pain. We have previously demonstrated that exposure to artificially low barometric pressure (LP) intensifies pain-related behaviors in rats with neuropathic pain. In the present study, guinea pigs with unilateral L5 spinal nerve ligation (SNL) were placed in a pressure-controlled chamber and subjected to LP of 10 or 27hPa below the ambient pressure. The SNL surgery led to increased hindpaw withdrawal frequencies to 34-, 59-, and 239-mN von Frey filaments (VFFs). When the SNL animals were subjected to both LP exposures consecutively, the hindpaw withdrawal frequencies further increased; the effect was most significant when the animals were exposed to LP 27hPa below ambient pressure. In contrast, no change was seen in a group of sham-operated control animals. These results indicate that fluctuations in LP within the range of natural weather patterns can potentiate neuropathic pain in guinea pigs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Examination of factors associated with use rates after transition from a universal to partial motorcycle helmet use law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Brendan J; Barrette, Timothy P; Morden, Jeffery; Savolainen, Peter T; Gates, Timothy J

    2017-01-02

    Motorcycle riders account for a disproportionately high number of traffic injuries and fatalities compared to occupants of other vehicle types. Though research has demonstrated the benefits of helmet use in preventing serious and fatal injuries in the event of a crash, helmet use has remained relatively stable in the United States, where the most recent national estimates show a 64% use rate. Use rates have been markedly lower among those states that do not have a universal helmet law for all riders. In 2012, the state of Michigan repealed its longstanding mandatory helmet use law. In order to gain insights as to the effects of this legislative change, a study was conducted to examine short-term changes in helmet use and identify factors associated with use rates. A statewide direct observation survey was conducted 1 year after the transition from a universal helmet law to a partial helmet law. A random parameters logistic regression model was estimated to identify motorcyclist, roadway, and environmental characteristics associated with helmet use. This modeling framework accounts for both intravehicle correlation (between riders and passengers on the same motorcycle) as well as unobserved heterogeneity across riders due to important unobserved factors. Helmet use was shown to vary across demographic segments of the motorcyclist population. Use rates were higher among Caucasian riders, as well as among those age 60 and above. No significant difference was observed between male and female riders. Use was also found to vary geographically, temporally, and with respect to various environmental characteristics. Geographically, helmet use rates tended to be correlated with historical restraint use trends, which may be reflective of riding environment and general differences in the riding population. To this end, rates were also highly variable based upon the type of motorcycle and whether the motorcyclist was wearing high-visibility gear. The study results demonstrate

  20. Methodology to determine skull bone and brain responses from ballistic helmet-to-head contact loading using experiments and finite element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintar, Frank A; Philippens, Mat M G M; Zhang, JiangYue; Yoganandan, Narayan

    2013-11-01

    The objective of the study was to obtain helmet-to-head contact forces from experiments, use a human head finite element model to determine regional responses, and compare outputs to skull fracture and brain injury thresholds. Tests were conducted using two types of helmets (A and B) fitted to a head-form. Seven load cells were used on the head-form back face to measure helmet-to-head contact forces. Projectiles were fired in frontal, left, right, and rear directions. Three tests were conducted with each helmet in each direction. Individual and summated force- and impulse-histories were obtained. Force-histories were inputted to the human head-helmet finite element model. Pulse durations were approximately 4 ms. One-third force and impulse were from the central load cell. 0.2% strain and 40 MPa stress limits were not exceeded for helmet-A. For helmet-B, strains exceeded in left, right, and rear; pressures exceeded in bilateral directions; volume of elements exceeding 0.2% strains correlated with the central load cell forces. For helmet-A, volumes exceeding brain pressure threshold were: 5-93%. All elements crossed the pressure limit for helmet-B. For both helmets, no brain elements exceeded peak principal strain limit. These findings advance our understanding of skull and brain biomechanics from helmet-head contact forces. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Protective effects of pentoxifylline and nimodipine on acoustic trauma in Guinea pig cochlea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansu, Leyla; Ozkarakas, Haluk; Efendi, Husnu; Okar, Imer

    2011-08-01

    To examine the protective effects of the vasodilator and hemorheologically active drug pentoxifylline and the calcium channel blocker nimodipine on the cochlea after acoustic overexposure in guinea pigs. Eighteen guinea pigs were used. The animals were divided into 5 groups: 1) control, 2) acoustic trauma, 3) nimodipine plus acoustic trauma, 4) pentoxifylline plus acoustic trauma, and 5) pentoxifylline plus nimodipine plus acoustic trauma. Nimodipine was given to the guinea pigs 3 mg/kg intraperitoneally in a single dose; pentoxifylline was given 150 mg/kg in a single dose intraperitoneally. A gunnery range was used to create acoustic trauma. The auditory brainstem response of each guinea pig was determined first; then, the animals were killed, and their cochleas were examined under an electron microscope. In the acoustic trauma group, negative auditory brainstem response potentials were seen as was well-adjusted cellular damage to the organ of Corti. In the pentoxifylline group, near-normal auditory brainstem response recordings and organ of Corti histologic findings were found. Organ of Corti damage was seen in the pentoxifylline plus nimodipine plus acoustic trauma group. We determined that pentoxifylline was highly protective against noise, but nimodipine was not. Also, pentoxifylline and nimodipine, when used together, increased damage to the organ of Corti.

  2. Three new species of Oreophryne (Anura, Microhylidae from Papua New Guinea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Kraus

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available I describe three new species of the diverse microhylid frog genus Oreophryne from Papua New Guinea. Two of these occur in two isolated mountain ranges along the northern coast of Papua New Guinea; the third is from Rossel Island in the very southeasternmost part of the country. All three are the first Oreophryne known from these areas to have a cartilaginous connection between the procoracoid and scapula, a feature usually seen in species far to the west or from the central cordillera of New Guinea. Each of the new species also differs from the many other Papuan Oreophryne in a variety of other morphological, color-pattern, and call features. Advertisement-call data for Oreophryne species from the north-coast region suggest that they represent only two of the several call types seen in regions further south, consistent with the relatively recent derivation of these northern regions as accreted island-arc systems. The distinctively different, whinnying, call type of the new species from Rossel Island occurs among other Oreophryne from southeastern Papua New Guinea but has been unreported elsewhere, raising the possibility that it may characterize a clade endemic to that region.

  3. Chloroquine is grossly overdosed and overused but well tolerated in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ursing, Johan; Kofoed, Poul-Erik; Rodrigues, Amabelia

    2009-01-01

    High chloroquine doses are commonly prescribed in Guinea-Bissau. Double dose chloroquine has been shown to be more efficacious (92% efficacy) than the standard dose (80% efficacy). However, chloroquine is toxic when overdosed and it is not known if the high doses prescribed in Guinea-Bissau are t......High chloroquine doses are commonly prescribed in Guinea-Bissau. Double dose chloroquine has been shown to be more efficacious (92% efficacy) than the standard dose (80% efficacy). However, chloroquine is toxic when overdosed and it is not known if the high doses prescribed in Guinea.......6 mgkg(-1) each. These were taken unsupervised for median of 5 days. Forty percent of the study children had chloroquine concentrations in the same range as those found in a previous study in which double the normal dose (50mgkg(-1)) of chloroquine was taken. Only 3/102 children had P. falciparum...... prescribed to children without parasitaemia. Use of high dose CQ is concurrent with an exceptionally low prevalence of chloroquine resistant P. falciparum....

  4. Head, neck, and body coupling in reconstructions of helmeted head impacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, R. de; Cappon, H.J.; Beusenberg, C.M.; Shewchenko, N.; Newman, J.A.

    2001-01-01

    A mathematical modeling study is conducted to investigate neck coupling in helmeted head impacts. The main objective of the study is to provide direction for the experimental reconstruction of American football player impacts. Head responses are compared in MADYMO simulations of various impact

  5. The effect of a helmet on cognitive performance is, at worst, marginal: A controlled laboratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogerd, C.P.; Walker, I.; Brühwiler, P.A.; Rossi, R.M.

    2014-01-01

    The present study looked at the effect of a helmet on cognitive performance under demanding conditions, so that small effects would become more detectible. Nineteen participants underwent 30min of continuous visual vigilance, tracking, and auditory vigilance (VTT+AVT), while seated in a warm

  6. Impact of Helmet Use on Severity of Epidural Hematomas in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Saksham; Iv, Vycheth; Sam, Nang; Vuthy, Din; Klaric, Katherine; Shrime, Mark G; Park, Kee B

    2017-04-01

    Traumatic brain injury is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, often necessitating neurosurgical intervention to evacuate intracranial bleeding. Since the early 2000s, Cambodia has been undergoing a rapid increase in motorcycle transit and in road traffic accidents, but the prevalence of helmet usage remains low. Epidural hematomas are severe traumatic brain injuries that can necessitate neurosurgical intervention. This is a retrospective cohort study of patients with epidural hematoma secondary to motorcycle accidents who presented to a major national tertiary care center in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, between November 2013 and March 2016. All patients were diagnosed with computed tomography of the head. In this cohort, 21.6% of patients in motorcycle accidents presented with epidural hematoma and 89.1% of patients were men, 47.6% were intoxicated, and were 87.8% were not wearing helmets at the moment of impact. Not wearing a helmet was associated with a 6.90-fold increase in odds of presenting with a moderate-to-severe Glasgow coma scale score and a 3.76-fold increase in odds of requiring craniotomy or craniectomy for evacuation of hematoma. Male sex was also associated with increased odds of higher clinical severity at presentation and indication for craniotomy or craniectomy, and alcohol intoxication at the time of accident was not associated with either. Helmet usage is protective in reducing the severity of presentation and need for neurosurgical intervention for patients with epidural hematoma secondary to motorcycle accidents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Optimal helmet use and adjustments with respect to neck load: The experience of military helicopter aircrew

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Oord, Marieke H. A. H.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.; Sluiter, Judith K.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: One solution to prevent flight-related neck pain in military helicopter pilots is to initiate ergonomic improvements in the equipment used by the pilots and loadmasters. The aim of the present study was to identify factors that may be important for optimizing helmet use and adjustments

  8. Effect of Filters on the Noise Generated by Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Delivered via a Helmet

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ricardo Hernández-Molina; Francisco Fernández-Zacarías; Isabel Benavente-Fernández; Gema Jiménez-Gómez; Simón Lubián-López

    2017-01-01

    ...) via a helmet poses is the generation of noise. The objective of our study was to assess the effect that the use of filter has on sound pressure levels generated by the delivery of positive airway pressure at different gas flow...

  9. Helmet Versus Active Repositioning for Plagiocephaly: A Three-Dimensional Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lipira, A.B.; Gordon, S.; Darvann, Tron Andre

    2010-01-01

    ). The greatest difference was localized to the occipital region. CONCLUSIONS: Whole-head 3D asymmetry analysis is capable of rigorously quantifying the relative efficacy of the 2 common treatments of DP. Orthotic helmets provide statistically superior improvement in head symmetry compared with active...

  10. 42 CFR 84.1136 - Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum requirements. 84.1136 Section 84.1136 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE...

  11. 42 CFR 84.1139 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. 84.1139 Section 84.1139 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF...

  12. A Decision Analysis Framework for Evaluation of Helmet Mounted Display Alternatives for Fighter Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-26

    flown on F-16, AV-8B, Tornado 1990s TopSight/TopNight Thales Avionics Fielded on Mirage and Rafale 1990s Joint Helmet Mounted Cuing System (JHMCS...reliability, a decreasing categorical value function can be used since there is no intermediate gradation between location types (Figure 27). 84 Figure

  13. HOPE: Helmet Optimization in Europe. Final report of Working Group 2: Traffic psychology.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shinar, D. Bogerd, C.P. Chliaoutakis, J. Cavallo, V. Crundall, D. Dias, J. Haworth, N. Holt, N. Houtenbos, M. Kuklane, K. Lajunen, T. Morandi, A. Oron-Gilad, T. Orsi, C. Papadakaki, M. Parkkari, K. Rus, D. Saplioglu, M. Tzamalouka, G. Valero-Mora, P. Walker, I. Wardlow, M. & Weber, T.

    2015-01-01

    The HOPES workgroup of Traffic Psychology is concerned with the social, behavioral, and perceptual aspects that are associated with use and non-use of bicycle helmets, in their various forms and under various cycling conditions. The objectives of WG2 are to (1) share current knowledge among the

  14. A series of student design projects for improving and modernizing safety helmets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beurden, van K.M.M. (Karin); Boer, de J. (Johannes); Stilma, M. (Margot); Teeuw, W.B. (Wouter)

    2014-01-01

    The Saxion Research Centre for Design and Technology employs many students during research projects. This paper discusses a series of student design projects on safety helmets in the Safety@Work project. At construction sites workers are required to wear personal protective equipment during their

  15. Efficacy of visor and helmet for blast protection assessed using a computational head model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, D.; Cronin, D. S.

    2017-11-01

    Head injury resulting from blast exposure has been identified as a challenge that may be addressed, in part, through improved protective systems. Existing detailed head models validated for blast loading were applied to investigate the influence of helmet visor configuration, liner properties, and shell material stiffness. Response metrics including head acceleration and intracranial pressures (ICPs) generated in brain tissue during primary blast exposure were used to assess and compare helmet configurations. The addition of a visor was found to reduce peak head acceleration and positive ICPs. However, negative ICPs associated with a potential for injury were increased when a visor and a foam liner were present. In general, the foam liner material was found to be more significant in affecting the negative ICP response than positive ICP or acceleration. Shell stiffness was found to have relatively small effects on either metric. A strap suspension system, modeled as an air gap between the head and helmet, was more effective in reducing response metrics compared to a foam liner. In cases with a foam liner, lower-density foam offered a greater reduction of negative ICPs. The models demonstrated the "underwash" effect in cases where no foam liner was present; however, the reflected pressures generated between the helmet and head did not translate to significant ICPs in adjacent tissue, when compared to peak ICPs from initial blast wave interaction. This study demonstrated that the efficacy of head protection can be expressed in terms of load transmission pathways when assessed with a detailed computational model.

  16. HOPE: Helmet Optimization in Europe. The final report of COST Action TU1101.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogerd, C.P. Annaheim, S. Halldin, P. Houtenbos, M. Otte, D. Shinar, D. Walker, I. & Willinger, R.

    2015-01-01

    The primary purpose of COST Action TU1101 was to stimulate collaboration and networking amongst European scientists working in the field of bicycle helmet safety and improvement. By gathering together in a single, collective Action, researchers can improve the collection and dissemination of data

  17. The effect of the Swedish bicycle helmet law for children: an interrupted time series study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonander, Carl; Nilson, Finn; Andersson, Ragnar

    2014-12-01

    Previous population-based research has shown that bicycle helmet laws can reduce head injury rates among cyclists. According to deterrence theory, such laws are mainly effective if there is a high likelihood of being apprehended. In this study, we investigated the effect of the Swedish helmet law for children under the age of 15, a population that cannot be fined. An interrupted time series design was used. Monthly inpatient data on injured cyclists from 1998-2012, stratified by age (0-14, 15+), sex, and injury diagnosis, was obtained from the National Patient Register. The main outcome measure was the proportion of head injury admissions per month. Intervention effect estimates were obtained using generalized autoregressive moving average (GARMA) models. Pre-legislation trend and seasonality was adjusted for, and differences-in-differences estimation was obtained using adults as a non-equivalent control group. There was a statistically significant intervention effect among male children, where the proportion of head injuries dropped by 7.8 percentage points. There was no evidence of an intervention effect on the proportion of head injuries among female children. According to hospital admission data, the bicycle helmet law appears to have had an effect only on male children. This study, while quasi-experimental and thus not strictly generalizable, can contribute to increased knowledge regarding the effects of bicycle helmet laws. Copyright © 2014 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Aerodynamic study of time-trial helmets in cycling racing using CFD analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaumont, F; Taiar, R; Polidori, G; Trenchard, H; Grappe, F

    2018-01-23

    The aerodynamic drag of three different time-trial cycling helmets was analyzed numerically for two different cyclist head positions. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) methods were used to investigate the detailed airflow patterns around the cyclist for a constant velocity of 15 m/s without wind. The CFD simulations have focused on the aerodynamic drag effects in terms of wall shear stress maps and pressure coefficient distributions on the cyclist/helmet system. For a given head position, the helmet shape, by itself, obtained a weak effect on a cyclist's aerodynamic performance (aerodynamic performance; the maximum difference between both positions being about 6.4%. CFD results have also shown that both helmet shape and head position significantly influence drag forces, pressure and wall shear stress distributions on the whole cyclist's body due to the change in the near-wake behavior and in location of corresponding separation and attachment areas around the cyclist. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The motivational safety helmet : Redesign suggestions improving the intrinsic motivation of construction site workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beldman, T. (Teunis); Boer, de J. (Johannes); Lemmens, P. (Pim); Stilma, M. (Margot)

    2014-01-01

    In reaction to the lack of intrinsic motivation of construction site workers, to wear their safety helmets at all times, a series of research projects studied causes and possible solutions. Goal is to gain an inspirational discussion to get the design onto the next level. This paper describes a

  20. Hollow glass microsphere-epoxy composite material for helmet application to reduce impact energy due to collision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutikno, Berata, Wajan; Wijanarko, Wahyu

    2017-06-01

    Helmet is used as a safety gear to prevent the impact energy from a collision, due to a motorcycle accident, from injuring the rider's head. Manufacturing of a light weighted helmet with a high absorption of impact energy, is much expected because it could increase the rider's safety and mobility. Meanwhile there are composites, which are made from two or more materials that have different characteristics, that will give a better mechanical properties compared to its original constituent material. In this research, a particular composite which is consist of 84% epoxy as its matrix and 16% Hollow Glass Microsphere (HGM) as its reinforce, is simulated by finite element method. The three-dimensional open-faced helmet model has an initial thickness of 4 mm, diameter of 87.57 mm, height 114 mm and foam thickness 20 mm. The experiment simulation is conducted according to the SNI 1811-2007 (Standar Nasional Indonesia) regulations. The penetration and absorption test instruments model are prepared also referring to the stated regulations, which are a three-dimensional head piece as the helmet holder, a 3 kg sharp pendulum, a 5 kg helmet weigh and a runway. The simulation concluded that the helmet with an 8 mm thickness has fulfilled the SNI 1811 - 2007 provisions, which stated that penetration should not happen on the lid of the helmet and the impact absorption forwarded by the helmet to the rider's head should not exceed 2000 kgf. The maximum stress and deformation are 15.44 Mpa and 8.28E-4 mm respectively. As for the impact energy forwarded by the helmet is only 460 kgf.

  1. The cochleogram of the guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linss, Volker; Linss, Werner; Emmerich, Edeltraut; Richter, Frank

    2007-04-01

    The cochleogram is an important tool to relate properties of the cochlea (e.g. hair cell loss, damaged hair cells) to their position in the cochlear turns, to calculate the average hair cell density, and to measure the length of the whole cochlea. In this work different methods of plotting cochleograms are compared. We suggest that a sector-wise division of the cochlea for counting a cochleogram has advantages over line diagrams that provide a higher spatial resolution but might lead to misinterpretations of the degree of missing hair cells. The scanning electron microscopic analysis of 171 guinea pig cochleas revealed a mean basilar membrane length of 16.4 +/- 1.4 mm (mean +/- standard deviation) with sector lengths of 6.9, 4.2, 3.2, and 1.9 mm, thus adding relevant information to the morphology of the guinea pig cochlea.

  2. in northern Guinea Savannah of Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In field trials conducted at Samaru (11 11 07 36'E) in 2003 and 2004 wet seasons in Northern Guinea Savannah of Nigeria, Variety B301 and derivatives of its crosses with IT84S 2246-4 (IT90K-59 and IT90K-76 did not support Alectra emergence. Varieties IT89KD-245-1 and IT89KD 245, both of which are derivatives of ...

  3. FOOD SECURITY IN PAPUA NEW GUINEA

    OpenAIRE

    Omot, Norah

    2012-01-01

    The food security situation in Papua New Guinea (PNG) is discussed. PNG is a nation blessed with natural resources but continues to face development and environmental challenges with implications on food security. While the country may be secured in terms of food production and quantity, there are concerns on the nutritional aspects. Short term threats, aggravated by climate change and other challenges such as increasing food prices are major concerns. Lessons learnt on efforts to address thr...

  4. Spontaneous reproductive pathology in female guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga-Parga, Tamara; La Perle, Krista M D; Newman, Shelley J

    2016-11-01

    Reproductive pathology of domestic guinea pigs is underreported to date. To provide a comprehensive review of uterine disease in guinea pigs, we performed a retrospective study of the pathology archives of the University of Tennessee, College of Veterinary Medicine. By histology, 13 of 37 uterine lesions in 23 animals were neoplastic; the other 24 nonneoplastic lesions included cystic endometrial hyperplasia (16 of 24), endometrial hemorrhage (3 of 24), pyometra (2 of 24), polyp (2 of 24), and mucometra (1 of 24). The most common guinea pig uterine neoplasms were uterine leiomyomas (6 of 13), followed by adenomas (3 of 13) and leiomyosarcomas (1 of 13). Other neoplasms included anaplastic tumors of unknown origin (2 of 13) and choriocarcinoma (1 of 13). Both anaplastic tumors and the choriocarcinoma were positive for vimentin. The choriocarcinoma was positive for HSD83B1, indicating a trophoblastic origin and its final diagnosis. All were negative for cytokeratin and smooth muscle. In multiple animals, more than 1 tumor or lesion was reported. Estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor expression was nearly 100% in uterine neoplasms. Nearly all animals for which data were available had cystic rete ovarii (18 of 19); the animal with no cystic rete ovarii had paraovarian cysts. In our study, female pet guinea pigs had a tendency to develop cystic endometrial hyperplasia and uterine neoplasia. Factors for the development of these lesions could be cystic rete ovarii, hormone dysregulation, and/or age. Other factors could contribute to the development of uterine lesions. As in other species, early ovariohysterectomy could decrease the prevalence of uterine lesions. © 2016 The Author(s).

  5. Comparative observation of protective effects of earplug and barrel on auditory organs of guinea pigs exposed to experimental blast underpressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao-jun; Zhu, Pei-fang; Liu, Zhao-hua; Wang, Zheng-guo; Yang, Cheng; Chen, Hai-bin; Ning, Xin; Zhou, Ji-hong; Chen, Jian

    2006-08-01

    To explore the protective effects of earplug and barrel on auditory organs of guinea pigs exposed to experimental blast underpressure (BUP). The hearing thresholds of the guinea pigs were assessed with auditory brainstem responses (ABR). The traumatic levels of tympanic membrane and ossicular chain were observed under stereo-microscope. The rate of outer hair cells (OHCs) loss was analyzed using a light microscope. The changes of guinea pigs protected with barrel and earplug were compared with those of the control group without any protection. An important ABR threshold shift of the guinea pigs without any protection was detected from 8h to 14d after being exposed to BUP with a peak ranging from -64.5 kPa to -69.3 kPa ( Pearplug had lower ABR threshold and total OHCs loss rate compared with the animals without any protection (Pearplug (Pearplug and barrel have protective effects against BUP-induced trauma on auditory organs of the guinea pigs and the protective effects of barrel are better than those of earplug.

  6. Fungal colonization of sago starch in Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhill, A R; Shipton, W A; Blaney, B J; Warner, J M

    2007-11-01

    Sago starch is an important source of dietary carbohydrates in lowland Papua New Guinea. Over the past 30 years there have been sporadic reports of severe illness following consumption of sago starch. A common assumption is that fungal metabolites might be associated with the illness, leading to the need for a more thorough investigation of the mycoflora of sago starch. Sago starch was collected from areas of high sago consumption in Papua New Guinea for fungal analysis (69 samples). Storage methods and duration were recorded at the time of collection and pH on arrival at the laboratory. Yeasts were isolated from all samples except two, ranging from 1.2 x 10(3) to 8.3 x 10(7) cfu/g. Moulds were isolated from 65 of the 69 samples, ranging from 1.0 x 10(2) to 3.0 x 10(6) cfu/g. Of 44 samples tested for ergosterol content, 42 samples showed the presence of fungal biomass. Statistical analyses indicated that sago starch stored for greater than five weeks yielded significantly higher ergosterol content and higher numbers of moulds than sago stored for less than five weeks. The method of storage was also shown to influence mould numbers with storage in natural woven fibre containers returning significantly greater numbers than present in other storage methods tested. Potentially mycotoxigenic genera of moulds including Aspergillus and Penicillium were commonly isolated from sago starch, and as such storage factors that influence the growth of these and other filamentous fungi might contribute to the safety of traditional sago starch in PNG.

  7. Exocelina baliem sp. n., the only known pond species of New Guinea Exocelina Broun, 1886 (Coleoptera, Dytiscidae, Copelatinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Shaverdo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Exocelina baliem sp. n. is described from the Baliem Valley in the Central Mountain Range of New Guinea (Papua Province, Indonesia.striolate elytra, different structure and setation of the male and female genitalia and tarsomeres, and inhabiting swampy ponds, the new species differs from all known New Guinea species, which have smooth elytra and are stream associated. It forms a monophyletic group with the Australian E. ferruginea (Sharp, 1882 and New Caledonian E. inexspectata Wewalka, Balke & Hendrich, 2010, based on shape of the paramere and structure of the male tarsi. Habitus, protarsomeres, and male and female genitalia are illustrated, comparing some structures with E. ferruginea and two New Guinea stream species. We briefly discuss the biogeographic relevance of this discovery.

  8. Exocelina baliem sp. n., the only known pond species of New Guinea Exocelina Broun, 1886 (Coleoptera, Dytiscidae, Copelatinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaverdo, Helena V; Hendrich, Lars; Balke, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Exocelina baliem sp. n. is described from the Baliem Valley in the Central Mountain Range of New Guinea (Papua Province, Indonesia). Having striolate elytra, different structure and setation of the male and female genitalia and tarsomeres, and inhabiting swampy ponds, the new species differs from all known New Guinea species, which have smooth elytra and are stream associated. It forms a monophyletic group with the Australian Exocelina ferruginea (Sharp, 1882) and New Caledonian Exocelina inexspectata Wewalka, Balke & Hendrich, 2010, based on shape of the paramere and structure of the male tarsi. Habitus, protarsomeres, and male and female genitalia are illustrated, comparing some structures with Exocelina ferruginea and two New Guinea stream species. We briefly discuss the biogeographic relevance of this discovery.

  9. Effect of ultrasound on transdermal drug delivery to rats and guinea pigs.

    OpenAIRE

    Levy, D; Kost, J.; Meshulam, Y; Langer, R

    1989-01-01

    The effect of therapeutic range ultrasound (1 MHz) on skin permeation of D-mannitol, a highly polar sugar alcohol, inulin, a high molecular weight polysaccharide and physostigmine, a lipophilic anticholinesterase drug was studied in rats and guinea pigs. D-Mannitol and inulin are totally and rapidly excreted, once they have penetrated through the skin into the blood stream, permitting direct in vivo monitoring. For evaluating skin penetration of physostigmine the decrease of whole blood choli...

  10. A nonlinear filter-bank model of the guinea-pig cochlear nerve: Rate responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, Christian J.; O'Mard, Lowel P.; Lopez-Poveda, Enrique A.; Meddis, Ray

    2003-06-01

    The aim of this study is to produce a functional model of the auditory nerve (AN) response of the guinea-pig that reproduces a wide range of important responses to auditory stimulation. The model is intended for use as an input to larger scale models of auditory processing in the brain-stem. A dual-resonance nonlinear filter architecture is used to reproduce the mechanical tuning of the cochlea. Transduction to the activity on the AN is accomplished with a recently proposed model of the inner-hair-cell. Together, these models have been shown to be able to reproduce the response of high-, medium-, and low-spontaneous rate fibers from the guinea-pig AN at high best frequencies (BFs). In this study we generate parameters that allow us to fit the AN model to data from a wide range of BFs. By varying the characteristics of the mechanical filtering as a function of the BF it was possible to reproduce the BF dependence of frequency-threshold tuning curves, AN rate-intensity functions at and away from BF, compression of the basilar membrane at BF as inferred from AN responses, and AN iso-intensity functions. The model is a convenient computational tool for the simulation of the range of nonlinear tuning and rate-responses found across the length of the guinea-pig cochlear nerve.

  11. Helmet legislation and admissions to hospital for cycling related head injuries in Canadian provinces and territories: interrupted time series analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsay, Tim; Turgeon, Alexis F; Zarychanski, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association between helmet legislation and admissions to hospital for cycling related head injuries among young people and adults in Canada. Design Interrupted time series analysis using data from the National Trauma Registry Minimum Data Set. Setting Canadian provinces and territories; between 1994 and 2003, six of 10 provinces implemented helmet legislation. Participants All admissions (n=66 716) to acute care hospitals in Canada owing to cycling related injury between 1994 and 2008. Main outcome measure Rate of admissions to hospital for cycling related head injuries before and after the implementation of provincial helmet legislation. Results Between 1994 and 2008, 66 716 hospital admissions were for cycling related injuries in Canada. Between 1994 and 2003, the rate of head injuries among young people decreased by 54.0% (95% confidence interval 48.2% to 59.8%) in provinces with helmet legislation compared with 33.1% (23.3% to 42.9%) in provinces and territories without legislation. Among adults, the rate of head injuries decreased by 26.0% (16.0% to 36.3%) in provinces with legislation but remained constant in provinces and territories without legislation. After taking baseline trends into consideration, however, we were unable to detect an independent effect of legislation on the rate of hospital admissions for cycling related head injuries. Conclusions Reductions in the rates of admissions to hospital for cycling related head injuries were greater in provinces with helmet legislation, but injury rates were already decreasing before the implementation of legislation and the rate of decline was not appreciably altered on introduction of legislation. While helmets reduce the risk of head injuries and we encourage their use, in the Canadian context of existing safety campaigns, improvements to the cycling infrastructure, and the passive uptake of helmets, the incremental contribution of provincial helmet legislation to reduce

  12. Spectacle lens compensation in the pigmented guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howlett, Marcus H C; McFadden, Sally A

    2009-01-01

    When a young growing eye wears a negative or positive spectacle lens, the eye compensates for the imposed defocus by accelerating or slowing its elongation rate so that the eye becomes emmetropic with the lens in place. Such spectacle lens compensation has been shown in chicks, tree-shrews, marmosets and rhesus monkeys. We have developed a model of emmetropisation using the guinea pig in order to establish a rapid and easy mammalian model. Guinea pigs were raised with a +4D, +2D, 0D (plano), -2D or -4D lens worn in front of one eye for 10 days or a +4D on one eye and a 0D on the fellow eye for 5 days or no lens on either eye (littermate controls). Refractive error and ocular distances were measured at the end of these periods. The difference in refractive error between the eyes was linearly related to the lens-power worn. A significant compensatory response to a +4D lens occurred after only 5 days and near full compensation occurred after 10 days when the effective imposed refractive error was between 0D and 8D of hyperopia. Eyes wearing plano lenses were slightly more myopic than their fellow eyes (-1.7D) but showed no difference in ocular length. Relative to the plano group, plus and minus lenses induced relative hyperopic or myopic differences between the two eyes, inhibited or accelerated their ocular growth, and expanded or decreased the relative thickness of the choroid, respectively. In individual animals, the difference between the eyes in vitreous chamber depth and choroid thickness reached +/-100 and +/-40microm, respectively, and was significantly correlated with the induced refractive differences. Although eyes responded differentially to plus and minus lenses, the plus lenses generally corrected the hyperopia present in these young animals. The effective refractive error induced by the lenses ranged between -2D of myopic defocus to +10D of hyperopic defocus with the lens in place, and compensation was highly linear between 0D and 8D of effective

  13. Motorcycle helmet type and the risk of head injury and neck injury during motorcycle collisions in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erhardt, Taryn; Rice, Thomas; Troszak, Lara; Zhu, Motao

    2016-01-01

    The use of novelty motorcycle helmets is often prompted by beliefs that wearing a standard helmet can contribute to neck injury during traffic collisions. The goal of this analysis was to examine the association between helmet type and neck injury risk and the association between helmet type and head injury. Data were collected during the investigation of motorcycle collisions of any injury severity by the California Highway Patrol (CHP) and 83 local law enforcement agencies in California between June 2012 and July 2013. We estimated head injury and neck injury risk ratios from data on 7051 collision-involved motorcyclists using log-binomial regression. Helmet type was strongly associated with head injury occurrence but was not associated with the occurrence of neck injury. Rider age, rider alcohol use, and motorcycle speed were strong, positive predictors of both head and neck injury. Interventions to improve motorcycle helmet choice and to counteract misplaced concerns surrounding neck injury risk are likely to lead to reductions in head injury, brain injury, and death. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Helmet use and risk of head injuries in alpine skiers and snowboarders: changes after an interval of one decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulheim, Steinar; Ekeland, Arne; Holme, Ingar; Bahr, Roald

    2017-01-01

    In a previous study, we concluded that a safety helmet can reduce the risk for head injury by 60%. Other studies reported similar effects, resulting in a general recommendation to wear a helmet while skiing or snowboarding. To determine the effect of the expected increased helmet wear on the risk of head injury one decade after the recommendation. Ski patrols reported injury cases in major Norwegian alpine ski resorts. Injury type, helmet use and other risk factors were recorded. A multiple logistic regression analysis was used to assess the relation between individual risk factors and the risk of head injuries by comparing head injured skiers (cases) with skiers and snowboarders who reported other injuries (controls). Helmet use was associated with improved odds for head injuries (OR: 0.45, 95% CI 0.34 to 0.60; pskiing helmet. This may be due to new skiing trends in the alpine resorts. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  15. Nonuse of bicycle helmets and risk of fatal head injury: a proportional mortality, case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persaud, Navindra; Coleman, Emily; Zwolakowski, Dorothy; Lauwers, Bert; Cass, Dan

    2012-11-20

    The effectiveness of helmets at preventing cycling fatalities, a leading cause of death among young adults worldwide, is controversial, and safety regulations for cycling vary by jurisdiction. We sought to determine whether nonuse of helmets is associated with an increased risk of fatal head injury. We used a case-control design involving 129 fatalities using data from a coroner's review of cycling deaths in Ontario, Canada, between 2006 and 2010. We defined cases as cyclists who died as a result of head injuries; we defined controls as cyclists who died as a result of other injuries. The exposure variable was nonuse of a bicycle helmet. Not wearing a helmet while cycling was associated with an increased risk of dying as a result of sustaining a head injury (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 3.1, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.3-7.3). We saw the same relationship when we excluded people younger than 18 years from the analysis (adjusted OR 3.5, 95% CI 1.4-8.5) and when we used a more stringent case definition (i.e., only a head injury with no other substantial injuries; adjusted OR 3.6, 95% CI 1.2-10.2). Not wearing a helmet while cycling is associated with an increased risk of sustaining a fatal head injury. Policy changes and educational programs that increase the use of helmets while cycling may prevent deaths.

  16. Nonuse of bicycle helmets and risk of fatal head injury: a proportional mortality, case–control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persaud, Navindra; Coleman, Emily; Zwolakowski, Dorothy; Lauwers, Bert; Cass, Dan

    2012-01-01

    Background: The effectiveness of helmets at preventing cycling fatalities, a leading cause of death among young adults worldwide, is controversial, and safety regulations for cycling vary by jurisdiction. We sought to determine whether nonuse of helmets is associated with an increased risk of fatal head injury. Methods: We used a case–control design involving 129 fatalities using data from a coroner’s review of cycling deaths in Ontario, Canada, between 2006 and 2010. We defined cases as cyclists who died as a result of head injuries; we defined controls as cyclists who died as a result of other injuries. The exposure variable was nonuse of a bicycle helmet. Results: Not wearing a helmet while cycling was associated with an increased risk of dying as a result of sustaining a head injury (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 3.1, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.3–7.3). We saw the same relationship when we excluded people younger than 18 years from the analysis (adjusted OR 3.5, 95% CI 1.4–8.5) and when we used a more stringent case definition (i.e., only a head injury with no other substantial injuries; adjusted OR 3.6, 95% CI 1.2–10.2). Interpretation: Not wearing a helmet while cycling is associated with an increased risk of sustaining a fatal head injury. Policy changes and educational programs that increase the use of helmets while cycling may prevent deaths. PMID:23071369

  17. An integrated helmet and neck support (iHANS) for racing car drivers: a biomechanical feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, James A; Withnall, Christopher; Wonnacott, Michael

    2012-10-01

    A new form of head and neck protection for racing car drivers is examined. The concept is one whereby the helmet portion of the system is attached, by way of a quick release clamp, to a collar-like platform which is supported on the driver's shoulders. The collar, which encircles the back and sides of the driver's neck, is held in place by way of the on-board restraint belts. The interior of the helmet portion of the assembly is large enough to provide adequate volitional head motion. The overall objective of the design is to remove the helmet from the wearer's head and thereby to mitigate the deleterious features of helmet wearing such as neck fatigue, poor ventilation and aerodynamic buffeting. Just as importantly, by transferring the weight of the helmet and all attendant reaction forces associated with inertial and impact loads to the shoulder complex (instead of to the neck), reduced head and neck injury probability should be achievable. This paper describes the concept development and the evolution of various prototype designs. Prototypes have been evaluated on track and sled tested in accordance with contemporary head neck restraint systems practice. Also discussed is a series of direct impact tests. In addition, low mass high velocity ballistic tests have been conducted and are reviewed herein. It is concluded that this new concept indeed does address most of the drawbacks of the customary helmet and that it generally can reduce the probability of head and neck injury.

  18. The helminth community of Helmeted Guineafowls, Numida meleagris (Linnaeus, 1758, in the north of Limpopo Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Junker

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The helminths of 15 Helmeted Guineafowls were collected in the north of Limpopo Province, South Africa. A total of 11 cestode, ten nematode and a single acanthocephalan species were present. Species richness ranged from 8 to 16 species per host, and nine core and nine secondary species accounted for 40.9% of the component parasite community. The remaining 18.2% comprised satellite species. Core species represented 91% of all the worms present. Individual intensities ranged from 66 to 2 724 per host and overdispersion was pronounced. There were no significant differences regarding the abundance and species richness between male and female hosts. The number of component species and overall abundance did not differ significantly between juvenile and adult hosts, but Cyrnea parroti was significantly more abundant, and the prevalence of Hadjelia truncata was higher in young birds than in adults. In contrast, Gongylonema congolense and Porogynia paronai were absent in juveniles, but had a prevalence of 60% and 70%, respectively, in adults. Pairwise Spearman's rank correlation yielded one positive and 10 negative significant species correlations. A single trematode, Dicrocoelium macrostomum, was collected from five of nine guineafowls, but was not included in the helminth community study.

  19. Hatching And Brooding Of Guinea Fowl ( Numida meleagris galeata ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 164 candled fertile guinea fowl eggs were selected from the College farm and were randomly assigned to two treatment group consisting seven local hens and six guinea fowl hens. Effects of these replacement on hatchability, embryonic mortality, mean incubation time and weaned/keet mortality were investigated.

  20. Phytoplankton from some Lakes on Mt Wilhelm, East New Guinea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomasson, Kuno

    1967-01-01

    Although the Indonesian Archipelago is phycologically rather well-known, information about the freshwater algae in New Guinea is very scanty. There are only a few papers, e.g. by Bernard (1910) and Cholnoky (1963), but these give only a glimpse of the phycocoenoses of the New Guinea lakes,

  1. A 2-D guinea pig lung proteome map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinea pigs represent an important model for a number of infectious and non-infectious pulmonary diseases. The guinea pig genome has recently been sequenced to full coverage, opening up new research avenues using genomics, transcriptomics and proteomics techniques in this species. In order to furth...

  2. Heterogeneous infectiousness in guinea pigs experimentally infected with Trypanosoma cruzi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Neyra, Ricardo; Borrini Mayorí, Katty; Salazar Sánchez, Renzo; Ancca Suarez, Jenny; Xie, Sherrie; Náquira Velarde, Cesar; Levy, Michael Z

    2016-02-01

    Guinea pigs are important reservoirs of Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative parasite of Chagas disease, and in the Southern Cone of South America, transmission is mediated mainly by the vector Triatoma infestans. Interestingly, colonies of Triatoma infestans captured from guinea pig corrals sporadically have infection prevalence rates above 80%. Such high values are not consistent with the relatively short 7-8 week parasitemic period that has been reported for guinea pigs in the literature. We experimentally measured the infectious periods of a group of T. cruzi-infected guinea pigs by performing xenodiagnosis and direct microscopy each week for one year. Another group of infected guinea pigs received only direct microscopy to control for the effect that inoculation by triatomine saliva may have on parasitemia in the host. We observed infectious periods longer than those previously reported in a number of guinea pigs from both the xenodiagnosis and control groups. While some guinea pigs were infectious for a short time, other "super-shedders" were parasitemic up to 22 weeks after infection, and/or positive by xenodiagnosis for a year after infection. This heterogeneity in infectiousness has strong implications for T. cruzi transmission dynamics and control, as super-shedder guinea pigs may play a disproportionate role in pathogen spread. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Sustainable Children Investment In Guinea Pig Production And Its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted specifically to identify the level of children investment in guinea pigs production, the major sources of fund for the children, the methods of communication between the children and their source of information; and to determine their level of performance in guinea pig production. Implications for ...

  4. Extraction and application of dyestuffs from the leaves of guinea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research work is aimed at assessing the dyeing and colouring potentials of ethanol extracts from the leaves of guinea corn and the skin of onion. It is intended to apply the purified dye extracts on textile, drink and food. The leaves of guinea corn (Sorghum bicolor) and the skin of onion (Allium cepa) were collected, ...

  5. Epidemiological evidence of listeriosis in guinea pigs fed with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Listeria monocytogenes is a bacterium that infects livestock and humans. We report the first outbreak of invasive listeriosis caused by L. monocytogenes in a guinea pig breeding colony. Eighty to 100% mortality rate was recorded in the colony of 80 guinea pigs within four weeks outbreak. On epidemiologic investigation ...

  6. Estimating runoff and soil moisture deficit in guinea savannah region ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Estimating runoff and soil moisture deficit in guinea savannah region of Nigeria using water balance method. ... The estimation ofrunoff and soil moisture deficit in Guinea Savannah region using semi arid model based on soil water balance technique (SAMBA) was carried out. The input to the SAMBA model are daily rainfall ...

  7. WWF Kikori Catchment Developmental Project, Papua New Guinea orchid survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clements, M.A.; Harris, W.K.

    2002-01-01

    The World Wildlife Fund (Kikori Catchment Developmental Project, Papua New Guinea) has commenced field surveys of the Orchidaceae in the Lake Kutabu and Mt Bosavi areas of Papua New Guinea. The main purpose of the survey is to get a more accurate assessment of the orchids in the region. In a

  8. The Guinea Pigs of a Problem-Based Learning Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Sarasvathie; McKenna, Sioux

    2016-01-01

    Participants in a study on learning the clinical aspects of medicine in a problem-based learning (PBL) curriculum repeatedly referred to themselves as "Guinea pigs" at the mercy of a curriculum experiment. This article interrogates and problematises the "Guinea pig" identity ascribed to and assumed by the first cohort of…

  9. Piper (Piperaceae) in New Guinea: the climbing species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gardner, R.O.

    2012-01-01

    Sixteen climbing Piper species are accepted for New Guinea. The three endemics, P. arfakianum, P. subcanirameum and P. versteegii, are fully described. Eight taxa of unclear circumscription are noted. A new variety of P. macropiper, endemic to Morobe Province of Papua New Guinea, is described. The

  10. Crossed Looks: Globalisations and Curriculum in Guinea-Bissau

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Rui; dos Santos, Júlio Gonçalves; Pacheco, José Augusto

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on education in Guinea-Bissau in the context of globalisations, examining the concept of globalisation and its relation to education and the curriculum. It focuses on the relatively neglected area of national education policies in Guinea-Bissau, comparing differences and common points of interference/influence of multilateral…

  11. Briti eliit üritas kukutada Ekvatoriaal-Guinea valitsust

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Ekvatoriaal-Guineas ja Zimbabwes on vahistatud kümneid inimesi, keda süüdistatakse riigipöördekatses Ekvatoriaal-Guineas. Suurbritannia endise peaministri Margaret Thatcher'i poega Mark Thatcher'it süüdistatakse riigipöördekatse rahastamisele kaasaaitamises

  12. First records in Guinea Bissau of Adamawa Turtle Dove Streptopelia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There are no confirmed records of the Adamawa Turtle Dove Streptopelia hypopyrrha in north-eastern Guinea Bissau and there is very little information available on the biology of the species. Eight individuals of the Adamawa Turtle Dove were identified from the game bags of sport hunters in north-eastern Guinea Bissau, ...

  13. Evaluation of ejection safety for the joint helmet-mounted cueing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnaba, James M.; Kirk, William K.

    1999-07-01

    Aircrew safety is paramount in the design of a helmet-mounted display (HMD). For the tactical aircrew, ensuring a successful ejection presents significant design challenges. The Joint Helmet Mounted Cueing System (JHMCS) Integrated Product Team (IPT) has been evaluating Vision Systems International's HMD design for aircrew protection in this environment. The JHMCS IPT has developed a set of test objectives in concert with acquisition reform to demonstrate ejection compatibility of the JHMCS. This testing series will be discussed, and will include windblast, ejection tower, and sled and in-flight ejection testing, findings and design impacts. JHMCS performance parameters evaluated include structural integrity, facial and head protection, neck tensile loads, ejection seat and crew equipment compatibility, and mechanical functionality. The design environment for the JHMCS currently is both small and large, male and female aircrew withstanding a successful 450-knot ejection in any of four current USAF & USN tactical aircraft platforms.

  14. Assessing Zika virus replication and the development of Zika-specific antibodies after a mid-gestation viral challenge in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierle, Craig J; Fernández-Alarcón, Claudia; Hernandez-Alvarado, Nelmary; Zabeli, Jason C; Janus, Bradley C; Putri, Dira S; Schleiss, Mark R

    2017-01-01

    Primary Zika virus (ZIKV) infections that occur during pregnancy can cause spontaneous abortion and profoundly disrupt fetal development. While the full range of developmental abnormalities associated with congenital Zika syndrome is not yet known, severe cases of the syndrome can present with microcephaly, extensive neurologic and ocular damage, and pronounced joint malformations. Animal models that accurately recapitulate congenital Zika syndrome are urgently needed for vaccine development and for the study of ZIKV pathogenesis. As guinea pigs have successfully been used to model transplacental infections by cytomegalovirus, syphilis, and Listeria monocytogenes, we sought to test whether ZIKV could productively infect guinea pigs and whether viral transmission with attendant fetal pathology would occur after a mid-gestation viral challenge. We found that guinea pig cells supported ZIKV replication in vitro. Experimental infection of non-pregnant animals did not result in overt disease but low-level, detectable viremia was observed. When pregnant guinea pigs were challenged with ZIKV at between 18 and 21 days gestational age, ZIKV was not detected in maternal or pup blood, plasma, or tissues and no significant differences in maternal weight gain or pup size were observed following challenge. Nonetheless, a robust antibody response against ZIKV was detected in both the pups and dams. These results suggest that, while guinea pigs can model aspects of the immune response to ZIKV infection during pregnancy, naturally circulating ZIKV strains are not pathogenic during the pregnancy of immunocompetent guinea pigs and do not interfere with normal pup development.

  15. Assessing Zika virus replication and the development of Zika-specific antibodies after a mid-gestation viral challenge in guinea pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig J Bierle

    Full Text Available Primary Zika virus (ZIKV infections that occur during pregnancy can cause spontaneous abortion and profoundly disrupt fetal development. While the full range of developmental abnormalities associated with congenital Zika syndrome is not yet known, severe cases of the syndrome can present with microcephaly, extensive neurologic and ocular damage, and pronounced joint malformations. Animal models that accurately recapitulate congenital Zika syndrome are urgently needed for vaccine development and for the study of ZIKV pathogenesis. As guinea pigs have successfully been used to model transplacental infections by cytomegalovirus, syphilis, and Listeria monocytogenes, we sought to test whether ZIKV could productively infect guinea pigs and whether viral transmission with attendant fetal pathology would occur after a mid-gestation viral challenge. We found that guinea pig cells supported ZIKV replication in vitro. Experimental infection of non-pregnant animals did not result in overt disease but low-level, detectable viremia was observed. When pregnant guinea pigs were challenged with ZIKV at between 18 and 21 days gestational age, ZIKV was not detected in maternal or pup blood, plasma, or tissues and no significant differences in maternal weight gain or pup size were observed following challenge. Nonetheless, a robust antibody response against ZIKV was detected in both the pups and dams. These results suggest that, while guinea pigs can model aspects of the immune response to ZIKV infection during pregnancy, naturally circulating ZIKV strains are not pathogenic during the pregnancy of immunocompetent guinea pigs and do not interfere with normal pup development.

  16. Similarities and differences between on-scalp and conventional in-helmet magnetoencephalography recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Lau M; Oostenveld, Robert; Pfeiffer, Christoph; Ruffieux, Silvia; Jousmäki, Veikko; Hämäläinen, Matti; Schneiderman, Justin F; Lundqvist, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    The development of new magnetic sensor technologies that promise sensitivities approaching that of conventional MEG technology while operating at far lower operating temperatures has catalysed the growing field of on-scalp MEG. The feasibility of on-scalp MEG has been demonstrated via benchmarking of new sensor technologies performing neuromagnetic recordings in close proximity to the head surface against state-of-the-art in-helmet MEG sensor technology. However, earlier work has provided little information about how these two approaches compare, or about the reliability of observed differences. Herein, we present such a comparison, based on recordings of the N20m component of the somatosensory evoked field as elicited by electric median nerve stimulation. As expected from the proximity differences between the on-scalp and in-helmet sensors, the magnitude of the N20m activation as recorded with the on-scalp sensor was higher than that of the in-helmet sensors. The dipole pattern of the on-scalp recordings was also more spatially confined than that of the conventional recordings. Our results furthermore revealed unexpected temporal differences in the peak of the N20m component. An analysis protocol was therefore developed for assessing the reliability of this observed difference. We used this protocol to examine our findings in terms of differences in sensor sensitivity between the two types of MEG recordings. The measurements and subsequent analysis raised attention to the fact that great care has to be taken in measuring the field close to the zero-line crossing of the dipolar field, since it is heavily dependent on the orientation of sensors. Taken together, our findings provide reliable evidence that on-scalp and in-helmet sensors measure neural sources in mostly similar ways.

  17. Alcohol consumption, helmet use and head trauma in cycling collisions in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsi, Chiara; Ferraro, Ottavia E; Montomoli, Cristina; Otte, Dietmar; Morandi, Anna

    2014-04-01

    Cycling, being easy, inexpensive and healthy, is becoming one of the most popular means of transport. Cyclists, however, are among the most vulnerable road users in traffic collisions. The aims of this study were to establish which cyclist and cycling accident characteristics are associated with alcohol consumption and helmet use in Germany and to identify risk factors related to head trauma sustained in cycling accidents. The source used for the present analysis was the database of the German in-depth accident study (GIDAS). All cyclists who had been involved in a road accident between 2000 and 2010 and submitted to an alcohol test were selected. Logistic regression analyses were carried out to evaluate various aspects: alcohol consumption, helmet use, head trauma, and cyclist/accident characteristics. Female riders were less likely to have consumed alcohol (OR=0.23, 95% CI: 0.08-0.66); cyclists who did not wear a helmet were more likely to have consumed alcohol (OR=2.41, 95% CI: 1.08-5.38); cyclists who were not responsible for the collision were less likely to have consumed alcohol than those who were partially responsible for the accident (OR=0.22, 95% CI: 0.08-0.61). Cyclists involved in collisions with another vehicle, motorised or not, had a lower risk of suffering a head injury compared with those involved in single-vehicle accidents (OR=0.27, 95% CI: 0.12-0.62, and OR=0.08, 95% CI: 0.03-0.22, respectively). The prevention or limiting of alcohol consumption among cyclists and the corresponding testing of cyclists must be improved. Training initiatives on helmet protection should be encouraged. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Similarities and differences between on-scalp and conventional in-helmet magnetoencephalography recordings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lau M Andersen

    Full Text Available The development of new magnetic sensor technologies that promise sensitivities approaching that of conventional MEG technology while operating at far lower operating temperatures has catalysed the growing field of on-scalp MEG. The feasibility of on-scalp MEG has been demonstrated via benchmarking of new sensor technologies performing neuromagnetic recordings in close proximity to the head surface against state-of-the-art in-helmet MEG sensor technology. However, earlier work has provided little information about how these two approaches compare, or about the reliability of observed differences. Herein, we present such a comparison, based on recordings of the N20m component of the somatosensory evoked field as elicited by electric median nerve stimulation. As expected from the proximity differences between the on-scalp and in-helmet sensors, the magnitude of the N20m activation as recorded with the on-scalp sensor was higher than that of the in-helmet sensors. The dipole pattern of the on-scalp recordings was also more spatially confined than that of the conventional recordings. Our results furthermore revealed unexpected temporal differences in the peak of the N20m component. An analysis protocol was therefore developed for assessing the reliability of this observed difference. We used this protocol to examine our findings in terms of differences in sensor sensitivity between the two types of MEG recordings. The measurements and subsequent analysis raised attention to the fact that great care has to be taken in measuring the field close to the zero-line crossing of the dipolar field, since it is heavily dependent on the orientation of sensors. Taken together, our findings provide reliable evidence that on-scalp and in-helmet sensors measure neural sources in mostly similar ways.

  19. Filial attachment and its disruption: insights from the guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, Michael B

    2014-12-01

    Guinea pigs are precocial rodents that show evidence of a selective attachment to the mother who, in turn, exhibits little active maternal care. Effects of separation in guinea pigs are, therefore, more likely to reflect the disruption of attachment than the removal of, or alterations in, patterns of maternal care. Here, effects in guinea pigs of the presence or absence of the mother on psychobiological endpoints and of maternal separation on depressive-like behavior are reviewed. It is argued that results with guinea pigs often align more closely with those of nonhuman primates than those of laboratory rats and mice, and that the guinea pig offers a valuable translational model for studies of the consequences of attachment and its disruption. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. The effect of motorcycle helmet type, components and fixation status on facial injury in Klang Valley, Malaysia: a case control study

    OpenAIRE

    Ramli, Roszalina; Oxley, Jennifer; Hillard, Peter; Mohd Sadullah, Ahmad Farhan; McClure, Roderick

    2014-01-01

    Background The effectiveness of helmets in reducing the risk of severe head injury in motorcyclists who were involved in a crash is well established. There is limited evidence however, regarding the extent to which helmets protect riders from facial injuries. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of helmet type, components and fixation status on the risk of facial injuries among Malaysian motorcyclists. Method 755 injured motorcyclists were recruited over a 12-month period i...

  1. Production and nutrition of irrigated Tanzania guinea grass in response to nitrogen fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Celuta Machado Viana

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of nitrogen (N fertilization in the four seasons of the year on forage production, nitrate (NO3 in the sap, total N in the forage and relative chlorophyll index (SPAD reading in the leaves of irrigated Panicum maximum cv. Tanzania grass, establishing their critical ranges. In addition, we evaluated the ability to predict forage production based on NO3 in the sap, total N in the forage and relative chlorophyll index. The soil in the experimental area was classified as an Oxisol (Red-Yellow Latosol with a clayey texture. Annual rates of N (0, 200, 400 and 800 kg ha-1 in the form of urea were the treatments tested. Irrigation was performed through a conventional spray system. The NO3 content in the sap and the relative chlorophyll index were measured in leaves using a portable meter with NO3 selective electrode and the SPAD-502 portable chlorophyll meter device, respectively. Tanzania guinea grass was very responsive to N fertilization, except in the winter. The critical ranges of the SPAD reading proved to be more adequate for monitoring the nutritional state of N of Tanzania guinea grass in the different seasons of the year than the NO3content in the sap and the total N content in the dry matter. Use of the chlorophyll meter is more advantageous than the use of the portable meter with an nitrate selective electrode for predicting the nutritional status of Tanzania guinea grass.

  2. Failure Analysis Results and Corrective Actions Implemented for the EMU 3011 Water in the Helmet Mishap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, John; Metselaar, Carol; Peyton, Barbara; Rector, Tony; Rossato, Robert; Macias, Brian; Weigel, Dana; Holder, Don

    2015-01-01

    During EVA (Extravehicular Activity) No. 23 aboard the ISS (International Space Station) on 07/16/2013 water entered the EMU (Extravehicular Mobility Unit) helmet resulting in the termination of the EVA (Extravehicular Activity) approximately 1-hour after it began. It was estimated that 1.5-L of water had migrated up the ventilation loop into the helmet, adversely impacting the astronauts hearing, vision and verbal communication. Subsequent on-board testing and ground-based TT and E (Test, Tear-down and Evaluation) of the affected EMU hardware components led to the determination that the proximate cause of the mishap was blockage of all water separator drum holes with a mixture of silica and silicates. The blockages caused a failure of the water separator function which resulted in EMU cooling water spilling into the ventilation loop, around the circulating fan, and ultimately pushing into the helmet. The root cause of the failure was determined to be ground-processing short-comings of the ALCLR (Airlock Cooling Loop Recovery) Ion Filter Beds which led to various levels of contaminants being introduced into the Filters before they left the ground. Those contaminants were thereafter introduced into the EMU hardware on-orbit during ALCLR scrubbing operations. This paper summarizes the failure analysis results along with identified process, hardware and operational corrective actions that were implemented as a result of findings from this investigation.

  3. Helmets and Mouth Guards: The Role of Personal Equipment in Preventing Sport-Related Concussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daneshvar, Daniel H.; Baugh, Christine M.; Nowinski, Christopher J.; McKee, Ann C.; Stern, Robert A.; Cantu, Robert C.

    2010-01-01

    Every year, millions of athletes in the United States experience concussions. With athletes at all levels of play getting bigger, faster, and stronger, it has been suggested that newer technologies may provide an opportunity to reduce the risk and severity of these all too frequent injuries. Although helmets have been shown to decrease the rate of catastrophic head injuries, and mouth guards have decreased the risk of dental and oral injuries, the protective effect of helmets and mouth guards on concussions has not been conclusively demonstrated. In this review, the current literature pertaining to the effect that equipment has on concussions is evaluated. Understanding the role that this equipment plays in preventing concussions is complicated by many factors, such as selection bias in non-randomized studies, variations in playing style, and risk compensation in sports with mandatory protective equipment. At this point, there is little evidence supporting the use of specific helmets or mouth guards to prevent concussions outside of specific sports such as cycling, skiing, and snowboarding. Improving coach and player education about proper concussion management, encouraging neck strengthening exercises, and minimizing high-risk impacts may provide a more fruitful avenue to reduce concussions in sports. PMID:21074089

  4. Unilateral flank ovariohysterectomy in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozanska, D; Rozanski, P; Orzelski, M; Chlebicka, N; Putowska, K

    2016-11-01

    To describe a simple, minimally invasive method of ovariohysterectomy via a unilateral flank approach in guinea pigs, for use in routine desexing of healthy female guinea pigs or treatment of ovarian cysts. The subjects of this retrospective study were 41 client-owned guinea pigs submitted for routine desexing or treatment of ovarian cysts. They included 16 healthy female guinea pigs aged 8-12 months (Group 1), and 15 females aged from 9 months to 3 years (Group 2), and 10 females aged from 3 to 7 years (Group 3) with different-sized ovarian cysts. Prior to surgery, the animals received clinical examination, blood testing (complete blood count and serum biochemistry profile) and examination of the abdomen using ultrasonography, to assess the condition of the reproductive tract and ensure the guinea pigs were fit for surgery. Ovariohysterectomy was performed via a unilateral flank incision made close to the erector spinae muscle starting approximately 1 cm caudal to the last rib. Both ovaries, uterine horns, and the uterine cervix were localised, ligated, and dissected through this unilateral retroperitoneal incision. Ovariohysterectomy was successfully completed via a single flank incision in 38/41 (93%) guinea pigs. Three guinea pigs with ovarian cysts from Group 3, which were >6 years old died during surgery due to circulatory and respiratory failure under anaesthesia. In the remaining 38 cases, surgery proceeded without complications. A further two guinea pigs from Group 3 were reluctant to move or eat for the first 3 days after surgery but recovered after provision of supportive care. All 38 animals fully recovered and wound healing was normal. This is the first report of ovariohysterectomy via a unilateral flank incision in guinea pigs. This approach is a simple, minimally invasive and safe alternative to the midline or bilateral flank approaches currently used for surgery of the reproductive tract in guinea pigs.

  5. Schistosoma mansoni: the cutaneous response to cercarial challenge in naive guinea pigs and guinea pigs vaccinated with highly irradiated cercariae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearce, E.J.; McLaren, D.J.

    1986-10-01

    Naive guinea pigs and guinea pigs vaccinated 4 weeks previously with highly irradiated cercariae were challenged percutaneously with normal cercariae. Skin samples from the challenge site were then harvested at varying times to provide histological, quantitative and ultrastructural data on the respective cellular responses to cercarial invasion.

  6. Photoaffinity labelling of nucleoside-transport proteins in plasma membranes isolated from rat and guinea-pig liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, J S; Young, J D

    1984-06-01

    Nitrobenzylthioinosine (NBMPR) was employed as a probe of the nucleoside transporters from rat and guinea-pig liver. Purified liver plasma membranes prepared on self-generating Percoll density gradients exhibited 16-fold (rat) and 10-fold (guinea pig) higher [3H]NBMPR-binding activities than in crude liver homogenates (3.69 and 14.7 pmol/mg of protein for rat and guinea-pig liver membranes respectively, and 0.23 and 1.47 pmol/mg of protein for crude liver homogenates respectively). Binding to membranes from both species was saturable (apparent Kd 0.14 and 0.63 nM for rat and guinea-pig membranes respectively) and inhibited by uridine, adenosine, nitrobenzylthioguanosine (NBTGR) and dilazep. Uridine was an apparent competitive inhibitor of high-affinity NBMPR binding to rat membranes (apparent Ki 1.5 mM). There was a marked species difference with respect to dipyridamole inhibition of NBMPR binding (50% inhibition at 0.2 and greater than 100 microM for guinea-pig and rat respectively). These results are consistent with a role of NBMPR-binding proteins in liver nucleoside transport. Exposure of rat and guinea pig membranes to high-intensity u.v. light in the presence of [3H]NBMPR resulted in the selective radio-labelling of membrane proteins which migrated on sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide gels with apparent Mr values in the same range as that of the human erythrocyte nucleoside transporter (45 000-66 000). Covalent labelling of these proteins was abolished when photolysis was performed in the presence of non-radio-active NBTGR as competing ligand.

  7. Taxonomy Icon Data: Guinea baboon [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Guinea baboon Papio papio Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/Primate Papio_papio_L.png Papio_papi...o_NL.png Papio_papio_S.png Papio_papio_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Papio+papi...o&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Papio+papio&t=NL http://bioscien...cedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Papio+papio&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Papio+papio&t=NS ...

  8. Area Handbook for Guinea. Second Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Recherches et de Documentation. 1962. Okpaku, Joseph. "Les Ballets Africains Sont Belles: Guineas National Ensemble in San Francisco," Journal of the New...I’Entreprise Nationale de Tabacs et Allumettes," Canadian Journal of African Studies [Montreal]. II, No. 1, Spring 1968, 81-96. Roberts, Stephen H...viatjon; c^äfifä^rativ^ft; cnnJVM^rii; uiMwr^iiipipy~ meirt; vill ^»»): 2. «, 41. 57. 74. 10ft-104. 117. 247-248; and the marketpkw, 104; and poBtiai

  9. The Effect of Various Types of Motorcycle Helmets on Cervical Spine Injury in Head Injury Patients: A Multicenter Study in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Mau-Roung; Chu, Shu-Fen; Tsai, Shin-Han; Bai, Chyi-Huey; Chiu, Wen-Ta

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. The relationship between cervical spine injury (CSI) and helmet in head injury (HI) patients following motorcycle crashes is crucial. Controversy still exists; therefore we evaluated the effect of various types of helmets on CSI in HI patients following motorcycle crashes and researched the mechanism of this effect. Patients and Methods. A total of 5225 patients of motorcycle crashes between 2000 and 2009 were extracted from the Head Injury Registry in Taiwan. These patients were divided into case and control groups according to the presence of concomitant CSI. Helmet use and types were separately compared between the two groups and the odds ratio of CSI was obtained by using multiple logistic regression analysis. Results. We observed that 173 (3.3%) of the HI patients were associated with CSI. The HI patients using a helmet (odds ratio (OR) = 0.31, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.19−0.49), full-coverage helmet (0.19, 0.10−0.36), and partial-coverage helmet (0.35, 0.21−0.56) exhibited a significantly decreased rate of CSI compared with those without a helmet. Conclusion. Wearing full-coverage and partial-coverage helmets significantly reduced the risk of CSI among HI patients following motorcycle crashes. This effect may be due to the smooth surface and hard padding materials of helmet. PMID:25705663

  10. Comparison of Three Different Helmet Bolus Device for Total Scalp Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Young Min; Kim, Jong Sik; Hong, Chae Seon; Ju, Sang Gyu; Park, Ju Young; Park, Su Yeon [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    This study evaluated the usefulness of Helmet bolus device using Bolx-II, paraffin wax, solid thermoplastic material in total scalp irradiation. Using Rando phantom, we applied Bolx-II (Action Products, USA), paraffin wax (Densply, USA), solid thermoplastic material (Med-Tec, USA) on the whole scalp to make helmet bolus device. Computed tomography (GE, Ultra Light Speed16) images were acquired at 5 mm thickness. Then, we set up the optimum treatment plan and analyzed the variation in density of each bolus (Philips, Pinnacle). To evaluate the dose distribution, Dose-homogeneity index (DHI, D{sub 90}/D{sub 10}) and Conformity index (CI, V{sub 95}/TV) of Clinical Target Volume (CTV) using Dose-Volume Histogram (DVH) and V{sub 20},V{sub 30} of normal brain tissues. we assessed the efficiency of production process by measuring total time taken to produce. Thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) were used to verify the accuracy. Density variation value of Bolx-II, paraffin wax, solid thermoplastic material turned out to be 0.952{+-}0.13 g/cm{sup 3}, 0.842{+-}0.17 g/cm{sup 3}, 0.908{+-}0.24 g/cm{sup 3}, respectively. The DHI and CI of each helmet bolus device which used Bolx-II, paraffin wax, solid thermoplastic material were 0.89, 0.85, 0.77 and 0.86, 0.78, 0.74, respectively. The result of Bolx-II was the best. V{sub 20} and V{sub 30} of brain tissues were 11.50%, 10.80%, 10.07% and 7.62%, 7.40%, 7.31%, respectively. It took 30, 120, 90 minutes to produce. The measured TLD results were within {+-}7% of the planned values. The application of helmet bolus which used Bolx-II during total scalp irradiation not only improves homogeneity and conformity of Clinical Target Volume but also takes short time and the production method is simple. Thus, the helmet bolus which used Bolx-II is considered to be useful for the clinical trials.

  11. Investigation of the optimal detector arrangement for the helmet-chin PET – A simulation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Abdella M., E-mail: abdellanur@gmail.com; Tashima, Hideaki; Yoshida, Eiji; Yamaya, Taiga, E-mail: yamaya.taiga@qst.go.jp

    2017-06-21

    High sensitivity and high spatial resolution dedicated brain PET scanners are in high demand for early diagnosis of neurodegenerative diseases and studies of brain functions. To meet the demand, we have proposed the helmet-chin PET geometry which has a helmet detector and a chin detector. Our first prototype scanner used 54 4-layer depth-of-interaction (DOI) detectors. The helmet detector of the scanner had three detector rings with different radii arranged on a surface of a hemisphere (with a radius of 126.5 mm) and a top cover detector. Therefore, in this study, for our next development, we propose a spherical arrangement, in which the central axis of each detector points toward the center of the hemisphere, and we optimize the size of the detector crystal block to be arranged on the helmet detector. We simulate the spherical arrangement with the optimized crystal block size and compare its imaging performance with the multi-ring arrangement, which has a similar detector arrangement to that of our first prototype. We conduct Monte Carlo simulation to model the scanners having the 4-layer DOI detectors which consist of LYSO crystals. A dead space of 2 mm is assumed on each side of the crystal blocks such as for wrapping. The size of the crystal block is varied from 4×4 mm{sup 2} to 54×54 mm{sup 2} while fixing the thickness of the crystal block to 20 mm. We find that the crystal block sized at 42×42 mm{sup 2} has the highest sensitivity for a hemispherical phantom. The comparison of the two arrangements with the optimized crystal blocks show that, for the same number of crystal blocks, the spherical arrangement has 17% higher sensitivity for the hemispherical phantom than the multi-ring arrangement. We conclude that the helmet-chin PET with the spherical arrangement constructed from the crystal block sized at 42×42×20 mm{sup 3} has better imaging performance especially at the upper part of the brain compared to the multi-ring arrangement while keeping similar

  12. The effect of helmets on the risk of head and neck injuries among skiers and snowboarders: a meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Kelly; Christie, Josh; Hagel, Brent E.

    2010-01-01

    Background The prevention of head injuries in alpine activities has focused on helmets. However, no systematic review has examined the effect of helmets on head and neck injuries among skiers and snowboarders. Methods We searched electronic databases, conference proceedings and reference lists using a combination of the key words “head injury or head trauma,” “helmet” and “skiing or snowboarding.” We included studies that used a control group; compared skiers or snowboarders with and without helmets; and measured at least one objectively quantified outcome (e.g., head injury, and neck or cervical injury). Results We included 10 case–control, 1 case–control/case-crossover and 1 cohort study in our analysis. The pooled odds ratio (OR) indicated that skiers and snowboarders with a helmet were significantly less likely than those without a helmet to have a head injury (OR 0.65, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.55–0.79). The result was similar for studies that used controls without an injury (OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.36–0.92), those that used controls with an injury other than a head or neck injury (OR 0.63, 95% CI 0.52–0.80) and studies that included children under the age of 13 years (OR 0.41, 95% CI 0.27–0.59). Helmets were not associated with an increased risk of neck injury (OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.72–1.09). Interpretation Our findings show that helmets reduce the risk of head injury among skiers and snowboarders with no evidence of an increased risk of neck injury. PMID:20123800

  13. Outcome analysis after helmet therapy using 3D photogrammetry in patients with deformational plagiocephaly: the role of root mean square.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddam, Mahsa Bidgoli; Brown, Trevor M; Clausen, April; DaSilva, Trevor; Ho, Emily; Forrest, Christopher R

    2014-02-01

    Deformational plagiocephaly (DP) is a multifactorial non-synostotic cranial deformity with a reported incidence as high as 1 in 7 infants in North America. Treatment options have focused on non-operative interventions including head repositioning and the use of an orthotic helmet device. Previous studies have used linear and two dimensional outcome measures to assess changes in cranial symmetry after helmet therapy. Our objective was to demonstrate improvement in head shape after treatment with a cranial molding helmet by using Root Mean Square (RMS), a measure unique to 3D photogrammetry, which takes into account both changes in volume and shape over time. Three dimensional photographs were obtained before and after molding helmet treatment in 40 infants (4-10 months old) with deformational plagiocephaly. Anatomical reference planes and measurements were recorded using the 3dMD Vultus(®) analysis software. RMS was used to quantify symmetry by superimposing left and right quadrants and calculating the mean value of aggregate distances between surfaces. Over 95% of the patients demonstrated an improvement in symmetry with helmet therapy. Furthermore, when the sample of infants was divided into two treatment subgroups, a statistically significant correlation was found between the age at the beginning of treatment and the change in the RMS value. When helmet therapy was started before 7 months of age a greater improvement in symmetry was seen. This work represents application of the technique of RMS analysis to demonstrate the efficacy of treatment of deformational plagiocephaly with a cranial molding helmet. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Investigation of spatial resolution improvement by use of a mouth-insert detector in the helmet PET scanner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Abdella M; Tashima, Hideaki; Yamaya, Taiga

    2017-10-06

    The dominant factor limiting the intrinsic spatial resolution of a positron emission tomography (PET) system is the size of the crystal elements in the detector. To increase sensitivity and achieve high spatial resolution, it is essential to use advanced depth-of-interaction (DOI) detectors and arrange them close to the subject. The DOI detectors help maintain high spatial resolution by mitigating the parallax error caused by the thickness of the scintillator near the peripheral regions of the field-of-view. As an optimal geometry for a brain PET scanner, with high sensitivity and spatial resolution, we proposed and developed the helmet-chin PET scanner using 54 four-layered DOI detectors consisting of a 16 × 16 × 4 array of GSOZ scintillator crystals with dimensions of 2.8 × 2.8 × 7.5 mm(3). All the detectors used in the helmet-chin PET scanner had the same spatial resolution. In this study, we conducted a feasibility study of a new add-on detector arrangement for the helmet PET scanner by replacing the chin detector with a segmented crystal cube, having high spatial resolution in all directions, which can be placed inside the mouth. The crystal cube (which we have named the mouth-insert detector) has an array of 20 × 20 × 20 LYSO crystal segments with dimensions of 1 × 1 × 1 mm(3). Thus, the scanner is formed by the combination of the helmet and mouth-insert detectors, and is referred to as the helmet-mouth-insert PET scanner. The results show that the helmet-mouth-insert PET scanner has comparable sensitivity and improved spatial resolution near the center of the hemisphere, compared to the helmet-chin PET scanner.

  15. 76 FR 28131 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Motorcycle Helmets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... misinterpretation of the test requirements. This final rule narrows the specified velocity tolerance ranges for the... Conditions). \\17\\ The program can be found at http://www.nhtsa.gov/DOT/NHTSA/Communication%20&%20Consumer...

  16. Parasitic zoonoses in Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, I L

    2005-03-01

    Relatively few species of zoonotic parasites have been recorded in humans in Papua New Guinea. A greater number of potentially zoonotic species, mostly nematodes, occur in animals but are yet to be reported from humans. Protozoa is the best represented group of those infecting man, with Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium parvum, Cyclospora cayetanesis, Toxoplasma gondii, Sarcocystis spp., Entamoeba polecki, Balantidium coli and, possibly, Blastocystis hominis. The only zoonotic helminths infecting humans include the trematode Paragonimus westermani, the cestodes Hymenolepis nana, H. diminuta and the sparganum larva of Spirometra erinacea, and the nematodes Trichinella papuae and Angiostrongylus cantonensis and, possibly, Ascaris suum. Other groups represented are Acanthocephala (Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus)), insects (Chrysomya bezziana, Cimex sp., Ctenocephalides spp.), and mites (Leptotrombidium spp. and, possibly Sarcoptes scabiei, and Demodex sp.). One leech (Phytobdella lineata) may also be considered as being zoonotic. The paucity of zoonotic parasite species can be attributed to long historical isolation of the island of New Guinea and its people, and the absence until recent times of large placental mammals other than pig and dog. Some zoonotic helminths have entered the country with recent importation of domestic animals, in spite of quarantine regulations, and a few more (two cestodes, one nematode and one tick) are poised to enter from neighbouring countries, given the opportunity. Improvement in water supplies, human hygiene and sanitation would reduce the prevalence of many of these parasites, and thorough cooking of meat would lessen the risk of infection by some others.

  17. Blood profiles in unanesthetized and anesthetized guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Wendy R; Johnston, Matthew S; Higgins, Sarah; Izzo, Angelo A; Kendall, Lon V

    2016-01-01

    The guinea pig is a common animal model that is used in biomedical research to study a variety of systems, including hormonal and immunological responses, pulmonary physiology, corticosteroid response and others. However, because guinea pigs are evolutionarily a prey species, they do not readily show behavioral signs of disease, which can make it difficult to detect illness in a laboratory setting. Minimally invasive blood tests, such as complete blood counts and plasma biochemistry assays, are useful in both human and veterinary medicine as an initial diagnostic technique to rule in or rule out systemic illness. In guinea pigs, phlebotomy for such tests often requires that the animals be anesthetized first. The authors evaluated hematological and plasma biochemical effects of two anesthetic agents that are commonly used with guinea pigs in a research setting: isoflurane and a combination of ketamine and xylazine. Hematological and plasma biochemical parameters were significantly different when guinea pigs were under either anesthetic, compared to when they were unanesthetized. Plasma proteins, liver enzymes, white blood cells and red blood cells appeared to be significantly altered by both anesthetics, and hematological and plasma biochemical differences were greater when guinea pigs were anesthetized with the combination of ketamine and xylazine than when they were anesthetized with isoflurane. Overall these results indicate that both anesthetics can significantly influence hematological and plasma biochemical parameters in guinea pigs.

  18. High Prevalence of Antibodies against the Bacterium Treponema pallidum in Senegalese Guinea Baboons (Papio papio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knauf, Sascha; Barnett, Ulrike; Maciej, Peter; Klapproth, Matthias; Ndao, Ibrahima; Frischmann, Sieghard; Fischer, Julia; Zinner, Dietmar; Liu, Hsi

    2015-01-01

    The bacterium Treponema pallidum is known to cause syphilis (ssp. pallidum), yaws (ssp. pertenue), and endemic syphilis (ssp. endemicum) in humans. Nonhuman primates have also been reported to be infected with the bacterium with equally versatile clinical manifestations, from severe skin ulcerations to asymptomatic. At present all simian strains are closely related to human yaws-causing strains, an important consideration for yaws eradication. We tested clinically healthy Guinea baboons (Papio papio) at Parc National Niokolo Koba in south eastern Senegal for the presence of anti-T. pallidum antibodies. Since T. pallidum infection in this species was identified 50 years ago, and there has been no attempt to treat non-human primates for infection, it was hypothesized that a large number of West African baboons are still infected with simian strains of the yaws-bacterium. All animals were without clinical signs of treponematoses, but 18 of 20 (90%) baboons tested positive for antibodies against T. pallidum based on treponemal tests. Yet, Guinea baboons seem to develop no clinical symptoms, though it must be assumed that infection is chronic or comparable to the latent stage in human yaws infection. The non-active character is supported by the low anti-T. pallidum serum titers in Guinea baboons (median = 1:2,560) versus serum titers that are found in genital-ulcerated olive baboons with active infection in Tanzania (range of medians among the groups of initial, moderate, and severe infected animals = 1:15,360 to 1:2.097e+7). Our findings provide evidence for simian infection with T. pallidum in wild Senegalese baboons. Potentially, Guinea baboons in West Africa serve as a natural reservoir for human infection, as the West African simian strain has been shown to cause sustainable yaws infection when inoculated into humans. The present study pinpoints an area where further research is needed to support the currently on-going second WHO led yaws eradication campaign with

  19. Association between head injury and helmet use in alpine skiers: cohort study from a Swiss level 1 trauma center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baschera, Dominik; Hasler, Rebecca M; Taugwalder, David; Exadaktylos, Aristomenis; Raabe, Andreas

    2015-04-15

    The association between helmet use during alpine skiing and incidence and severity of head injuries was analyzed. All patients admitted to a level 1 trauma center for traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) sustained from skiing accidents during the seasons 2000-2001 and 2010-2011 were eligible. Primary outcome was the association between helmet use and severity of TBI measured by Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), computed tomography (CT) results, and necessity of neurosurgical intervention. Of 1362 patients injured during alpine skiing, 245 (18%) sustained TBI and were included. TBI was fatal in 3%. Head injury was in 76% minor (Glasgow Coma Scale, 13-15), 6% moderate, and 14% severe. Number and percentage of TBI patients showed no significant trend over the investigated seasons. Forty-five percent of the 245 patients had pathological CT findings and 26% of these required neurosurgical intervention. Helmet use increased from 0% in 2000-2001 to 71% in 2010-2011 (palpine skiers. Logistic regression analysis showed no significant difference in TBI with regard to helmet use, but increased risk for off-piste skiers. The limited protection of helmets and dangers of skiing off-piste should be targeted by prevention programs.

  20. Prevalence and evolution of helmet use in motorcycle riders in an Argentine city (Mar del Plata, 2006-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremías David Tosi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Traffic collisions involving motorcyclists are a growing problem in low and middle income countries. Helmet use is the foremost protective measure for this group of road users, however many riders do not wear them. The objective of the present study is to report the changes in helmet use during the period 2006-2014 in an Argentine city and discover associated factors for the year 2014. The sample includes more than 6,900 observations of motorcyclists carried out during the years 2006 (n=962, 2008 (n=977, 2012 (n=2,542, and 2014 (n=2,466. The data indicates a progressive increase in helmet use over time, but differences due to gender and type of rider remain. Factors associated to helmet use in motorcycle drivers during 2014 were: passenger helmet use, motorcycle type, license plate use and gender. Although the results are positive, it is necessary to be attentive to the negative consequences of the growing fleet of motorcycles.

  1. The prevalence and predictors of helmet use by skiers and snowboarders at ski areas in western North America in 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buller, David B; Andersen, Peter A; Walkosz, Barbara J; Scott, Michael D; Cutter, Gary R; Dignan, Mark B; Voeks, Jenifer H

    2003-11-01

    Helmets may protect the heads of skiers and snowboarders. The prevalence of helmet use by these groups was estimated. Helmet use was observed in face-to-face surveys (N = 2,978) on sun protection at 28 ski areas in Alaska, California, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, New Mexico, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and British Columbia (0.7% refusal rate) from January to April 2001. Helmets were worn by 12.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 11.0-13.3) of the sample. Use was highest among guests who skied or snowboarded more frequently (fourth quartile vs. first quartile, odds ratio [OR] = 11.998 [95% CI, 6.774-21.251]; third vs. first, OR = 5.556 [95% CI, 3.119-9.896]; second vs. first, OR = 2.186 [95% CI, 1.162-4.112]), were experts (OR = 3.326 [95% CI, 1.297-8.528]), used snowboards (OR = 2.301 [95% CI, 1.731-3.058]), and were more educated (college graduate, OR = 2.167 [95% CI, 1.271-3.695]; some college, OR = 1.969 [95% CI, 1.130-3.431]). Helmet use was generally low but may be high enough by experts, snowboarders, and in the central Rocky Mountains to produce a norm stimulating further adoption.

  2. Joint Service Aircrew Mask (JSAM) - Tactical Aircraft (TA) A/P22P-14A Respirator Assembly (V)3: Noise Attenuation and Speech Intelligibility Performance with Double Hearing Protection, HGU-55A/P JHMCS Flight Helmet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    use, or sell any patented invention that may relate to them. This report was cleared for public release by the 88th Air Base Wing Public Affairs...V)3, CEP, and EAR Classic™ sizing matrix Subject ID# Gender HGU- 55A/P JHMCS Helmet Helmet Liner (inch) Earcup Spacers (centered behind...matrix for speech intelligibility Subject Gender HGU- 55A/P JHMCS Helmet Helmet Liner (") Earcup Spacers (centered behind both earcups

  3. Ebola virus transmission in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Gary; Qiu, Xiangguo; Richardson, Jason S; Cutts, Todd; Collignon, Brad; Gren, Jason; Aviles, Jenna; Embury-Hyatt, Carissa; Kobinger, Gary P

    2015-01-15

    Ebola virus (EBOV) transmission is currently poorly characterized and is thought to occur primarily by direct contact with infectious material; however transmission from swine to nonhuman primates via the respiratory tract has been documented. To establish an EBOV transmission model for performing studies with statistical significance, groups of six guinea pigs (gps) were challenged intranasally (i.n.) or intraperitoneally (i.p.) with 10,000 times the 50% lethal dose (LD50) of gp-adapted EBOV, and naive gps were then introduced as cage mates for contact exposure at 1 day postinfection (p.i.). The animals were monitored for survival and clinical signs of disease and quantitated for virus shedding postexposure. Changes in the duration of contact of naive gps with infected animals were evaluated for their impact on transmission efficiency. Transmission was more efficient from i.n.- than from i.p.-challenged gps, with 17% versus 83% of naive gps surviving exposure, respectively. Virus shedding was detected beginning at 3 days p.i. from both i.n.- and i.p.-challenged animals. Contact duration positively correlated with transmission efficiency, and the abrogation of direct contact between infected and naive animals through the erection of a steel mesh was effective at stopping virus spread, provided that infectious animal bedding was absent from the cages. Histopathological and immunohistochemical findings show that i.n.-infected gps display enhanced lung pathology and EBOV antigen in the trachea, which supports increased virus transmission from these animals. The results suggest that i.n.-challenged gps are more infectious to naive animals than their systemically infected counterparts and that transmission occurs through direct contact with infectious materials, including those transported through air movement over short distances. Ebola is generally thought to be spread between humans though infectious bodily fluids. However, a study has shown that Ebola can be spread

  4. Methodology to determine skull bone and brain responses from ballistic helmet-to-head contact loading using experiments and finite element analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pintar, F.A.; Philippens, M.M.G.M.; Zhang, J.; Yoganandan, N.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the study was to obtain helmet-to-head contact forces from experiments, use a human head finite element model to determine regional responses, and compare outputs to skull fracture and brain injury thresholds. Tests were conducted using two types of helmets (A and B) fitted to a

  5. Critical notes on New Guinea plants described by A. Gilli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenis, van C.G.G.J.

    1982-01-01

    Two new genera and nineteen new species of Dicotyledons from Papua New Guinea collected and described by A. Gilli (1980) have been examined by specialists. These families are Begoniaceae, Cruciferae, Elaeocarpaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Hypericaceae, Leguminosae, Rosaceae, Rubiaceae, Saxifragaceae, and

  6. The genus Freycinetia (Pandanaceae) in New Guinea (Part 4)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huynh, Kim-Lang

    2002-01-01

    Seventeen new species of Freycinetia Gaudich. are described from groups of islands of New Guinea: Freycinetia admiraltiensis, F. amoena, F. formosula, F. granulata, F. lanceolata, F. nakanaiensis, F. novobritannica (Bismarck Archipelago), F. relegata, F. rossellana (Louisiade Archipelago), F.

  7. Diaphragm morphology of guinea pig (Cavia porcellus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessa, Thais Borges; da Fonseca, Erika T; de Abreu, Dilayla Kelly; Rodrigues, Marcio Nogueira; Bertassoli, Bruno Machado; de Oliveira e Silva, Fernanda Menezes; Ambrósio, Carlos Eduardo

    2013-03-01

    The diaphragm is the main respiratory muscle. Along with other respiratory muscles, the diaphragm is responsible for the muscular contraction that generates the respiratory cycle and, as a consequence, the gaseous interchanges in the lungs. Guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus Linnaeus 1758) are largely used as experimental animals in many biology applications due to their easy management, low cost, and docile behavior. As the diaphragm exerts important effects on lung physiology and function, this study aimed at investigating the morphological characteristics of the muscle, through macroscopic, microscopic, and scanning electron microscopy to add reference data for future studies. We observed a "U"-shaped tendineous center and its morphology was similar to other mammals. These results cooperate with the descriptive and comparative anatomy of mammals, besides can be used as control data for areas of surgery and stem cells. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Bicycling injury hospitalisation rates in Canadian jurisdictions: analyses examining associations with helmet legislation and mode share

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teschke, Kay; Koehoorn, Mieke; Shen, Hui; Dennis, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to calculate exposure-based bicycling hospitalisation rates in Canadian jurisdictions with different helmet legislation and bicycling mode shares, and to examine whether the rates were related to these differences. Methods Administrative data on hospital stays for bicycling injuries to 10 body region groups and national survey data on bicycling trips were used to calculate hospitalisation rates. Rates were calculated for 44 sex, age and jurisdiction strata for all injury causes and 22 age and jurisdiction strata for traffic-related injury causes. Inferential analyses examined associations between hospitalisation rates and sex, age group, helmet legislation and bicycling mode share. Results In Canada, over the study period 2006–2011, there was an average of 3690 hospitalisations per year and an estimated 593 million annual trips by bicycle among people 12 years of age and older, for a cycling hospitalisation rate of 622 per 100 million trips (95% CI 611 to 633). Hospitalisation rates varied substantially across the jurisdiction, age and sex strata, but only two characteristics explained this variability. For all injury causes, sex was associated with hospitalisation rates; females had rates consistently lower than males. For traffic-related injury causes, higher cycling mode share was consistently associated with lower hospitalisation rates. Helmet legislation was not associated with hospitalisation rates for brain, head, scalp, skull, face or neck injuries. Conclusions These results suggest that transportation and health policymakers who aim to reduce bicycling injury rates in the population should focus on factors related to increased cycling mode share and female cycling choices. Bicycling routes designed to be physically separated from traffic or along quiet streets fit both these criteria and are associated with lower relative risks of injury. PMID:26525719

  9. Peat in the mountains of New Guinea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.S. Hope

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Peatlands are common in montane areas above 1,000 m in New Guinea and become extensive above 3,000 m in the subalpine zone. In the montane mires, swamp forests and grass or sedge fens predominate on swampy valley bottoms. These mires may be 4–8 m in depth and up to 30,000 years in age. In Papua New Guinea (PNG there is about 2,250 km2 of montane peatland, and Papua Province (the Indonesian western half of the island probably contains much more. Above 3,000 m, peat soils form under blanket bog on slopes as well as on valley floors. Vegetation types include cushion bog, grass bog and sedge fen. Typical peat depths are 0.5‒1 m on slopes, but valley floors and hollows contain up to 10 m of peat. The estimated total extent of mountain peatland is 14,800 km2 with 5,965 km2 in PNG and about 8,800 km2 in Papua Province. The stratigraphy, age structure and vegetation histories of 45 peatland or organic limnic sites above 750 m have been investigated since 1965. These record major vegetation shifts at 28,000, 17,000‒14,000 and 9,000 years ago and a variable history of human disturbance from 14,000 years ago with extensive clearance by the mid-Holocene at some sites. While montane peatlands were important agricultural centres in the Holocene, the introduction of new dryland crops has resulted in the abandonment of some peatlands in the last few centuries. Despite several decades of research, detailed knowledge of the mountain peatlands is poor and this is an obstacle to scientific management.

  10. Trace eyeblink conditioning in decerebrate guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotani, Sadaharu; Kawahara, Shigenori; Kirino, Yutaka

    2003-04-01

    We investigated the trace eyeblink conditioning in decerebrate guinea pigs to elucidate the possible role of the cerebellum and brainstem in this hippocampus-dependent task. A 350-ms tone conditioned stimulus was paired with a 100-ms periorbital shock unconditioned stimulus with a trace interval of either 0, 100, 250 or 500 ms. Decerebrate animals readily acquired the conditioned response with a trace interval of 0 or 100 ms. Even in the paradigm with a 500-ms trace interval, which is known to depend critically on the hippocampus in all animal species examined, the decerebrate guinea pigs acquired the conditioned response, which had adaptive timing as well as in the other paradigms with a shorter trace interval. However, it took many more trials to learn in the 500-ms trace paradigm than in the shorter trace interval paradigms, and the conditioned response expression was unstable from trial to trial. When decerebrate animals were conditioned step by step with a trace interval of 100, 250 and 500 ms, sequentially, they easily acquired the adaptive conditioned response to a 500-ms trace interval. However, the frequency of conditioned responses decreased after the trace interval was shifted from 250 ms to 500 ms, which was not observed after the shift from 100 ms to 250 ms. These results suggest that the cerebellum and brainstem could maintain the 'trace' of the conditioned stimulus and associate it with the unconditioned stimulus even in the 500-ms trace paradigm, but that the forebrain might be required for facilitating and stabilizing the association.

  11. Shortage of vaccines during a yellow fever outbreak in Guinea.

    OpenAIRE

    Nathan, N; Barry, M; Van Herp, M.; Zeller, H

    2001-01-01

    A yellow fever epidemic erupted in Guinea in September, 2000. From Sept 4, 2000, to Jan 7, 2001, 688 instances of the disease and 225 deaths were reported. The diagnosis was laboratory confirmed by IgM detection in more than 40 patients. A mass vaccination campaign was limited by insufficient international stocks. After the epidemic in Guinea, the International Coordinating Group on Vaccine Provision for Epidemic Meningitis Control decided that 2 million doses of 17D yellow fever vaccine, bei...

  12. Ozone-Induced Hypertussive Responses in Rabbits and Guinea Pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Clay, Emlyn; Patacchini, Riccardo; Trevisani, Marcello; Preti, Delia; Bran?, Maria Pia; Spina, Domenico; Page, Clive

    2016-01-01

    Cough remains a major unmet clinical need, and preclinical animal models are not predictive for new antitussive agents. We have investigated the mechanisms and pharmacological sensitivity of ozone-induced hypertussive responses in rabbits and guinea pigs. Ozone induced a significant increase in cough frequency and a decrease in time to first cough to inhaled citric acid in both conscious guinea pigs and rabbits. This response was inhibited by the established antitussive drugs codeine and levo...

  13. Systems engineering in a joint program environment: the joint helmet-mounted cueing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Donald F.

    1999-07-01

    The Joint Helmet Mounted Cueing System (JHMCS) is a design program involving two airframe companies (Boeing and Lockheed Martin), two services (USAF and USN) and four aircraft platforms: the F-22, the F-16, the F/A-18 and the F-15. Developing equipment requirements for the combined operational and environmental needs of these diverse communities is a significant challenge. In addition, the team is geographically dispersed which presented challenges in communication and coordination. This paper details the lessons learned in producing a cost-effective design within a short development schedule and makes recommendations for future development programs.

  14. A helmet mounted display to adapt the telerobotic environment to human vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharp, Gregory; Liu, Andrew; Yamashita, Hitomi; Stark, Lawrence

    1990-01-01

    A Helmet Mounted Display system has been developed. It provides the capability to display stereo images with the viewpoint tied to subjects' head orientation. The type of display might be useful in a telerobotic environment provided the correct operating parameters are known. The effects of update frequency were tested using a 3D tracking task. The effects of blur were tested using both tracking and pick-and-place tasks. For both, researchers found that operator performance can be degraded if the correct parameters are not used. Researchers are also using the display to explore the use of head movements as part of gaze as subjects search their visual field for target objects.

  15. Analysis of baseball-to-helmet impacts in major league baseball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athiviraham, Aravind; Bartsch, Adam; Mageswaran, Prasath; Benzel, Edward C; Perse, Brian; Jones, Morgan H; Schickendantz, Mark

    2012-12-01

    In Major League Baseball (MLB), helmet hit-by-pitch (H-HBP) incidents are a leading cause of concussion. However, not all H-HBPs result in diagnosed concussion. This study was designed to (1) quantify batter concussion risk as a function of H-HBP pitch velocity, time duration batter spent on the ground post-H-HBP, first responder assessment time duration, and number of days missed post-H-HBP and (2) estimate H-HBP impact locations on the helmet with respect to current National Operating Committee on Standards for Athletic Equipment (NOCSAE) helmet test standards and correlate impact locations with concussion diagnosis. Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. A retrospective case-control study of 18 MLB players with H-HBP incidents in the 2009 and 2010 seasons was undertaken. A database was compiled via quantitative and qualitative analysis using video coverage obtained from MLB. Quantitative factors included batter concussion diagnosis, pitch velocity, number of days missed post-H-HBP, time duration batter spent on the ground post-H-HBP, and first responder assessment time duration. The H-HBP impact location was among several qualitative factors developed via video analysis of each H-HBP from 4 raters. In our study, 9 players (50%) were diagnosed with concussion. Concussion diagnoses were more frequent for posterior versus anterior impacts. The majority of H-HBP impact locations were different from those in the current NOCSAE standard tests. First responders took an average of approximately 65 seconds (time to reach batter plus assessment time) to decide on batter removal/return to play. The 25% logistic regression concussion risk threshold for pitch velocity and days missed was 86.2 mph and 1.3 days, respectively. The number of days missed after H-HBP showed a significant correlation (P = .02) among concussed and nonconcussed batters. In professional baseball H-HBP incidents, first responders should (1) be aware of pitch velocity in excess of 86 mph and (2) be

  16. An Analysis of Technology-Related Distracted Biking Behaviors and Helmet Use Among Cyclists in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethan, Danna; Basch, Corey H; Johnson, Glen D; Hammond, Rodney; Chow, Ching Man; Varsos, Victoria

    2016-02-01

    Bicycling is becoming an increasingly utilized mode of transportation in New York City. Technology-related distracted bicycling and helmet use are behaviors that can impact bike safety. The aims of this study were twofold: (1) to determine rates and types of technology-related distracted behaviors among bicyclists in the borough of Manhattan in New York City; and (2) to assess the rate of bicycle helmet use among these cyclists. Bicyclists in five popular riding areas in Manhattan were observed for a total of 50 h using a digital video camera during summer months in 2014. Videos were coded and enumerated for the total number and gender of cyclists, type of bicycle, number wearing headphones/earbuds and/or using a mobile phone, and whether the cyclist was wearing a helmet. Almost 25,000 cyclists were observed across the five selected locations (n = 24,861). Riders were almost four times more likely not to wear a helmet on rental bikes as compared with non-rentals (Citi Bike(®) OR 3.8; 95% CI 2.5, 5.9: other rental OR 3.8; 95% CI 3.0, 4.9). Significantly increased odds of not wearing a helmet were observed for females relative to males (OR 1.4; 95% CI 1.1, 1.8) across varied times and locations. Overall, rates of technology-related distraction were low, with headphone use being most prevalent. Males were more likely to wear headphones/earbuds (OR 2.0; 95% CI 1.4, 2.9), as were cyclists on Citi Bikes relative to other rental bikes (OR 2.2; 95% CI 1.3, 3.6). Findings from this study contribute to the growing literature on distracted biking and helmet use among bike share program riders and other cyclists and can inform policymakers and program planners aiming to improve bicycle safety in urban settings.

  17. Experimental infections of mice and guinea pigs with Haemophilus parasuis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozumi, T; Hiramune, T; Kobayashi, K

    1982-01-01

    The pathogenicity of Haemophilus parasuis for mice and guinea pigs was examined. Mice were inoculated intraperitoneally with 2 X 10(7) to 2 X 10(9) organisms suspended in saline or in broth containing fresh yeast extract. Most of them survived after inoculation. Death occurred only in mice inoculated with 2 X 10(9) organisms suspended in broth. The recovery rate of H. parasuis from all the dead mice varied from 28.9% of the brains to 71.4% of the lungs. There were no lesions observed in any mouse, except one. Guinea pigs were inoculated intraperitoneally with 1 X 10(8) to 1.6 X 10(10) organisms suspended in saline. Many of them died after showing septicemia and serofibrinous serositis, which were associated with purulent leptomeningitis or meningoencephalitis in some of them. H. parasuis was recovered abundantly from many organs, including the brain, in the guinea pigs. It was also recovered from guinea pigs inoculated with 1.8 X 10(9) organisms by various routes. Serositis was observed in guinea pigs inoculated intramuscularly or intrapulmonarily. These results suggested that guinea pigs might be available for investigation of the pathogenicity of H. parasuis.

  18. HELMET en pediatría: Características de aplicación, confort y ruido

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez Fernández, Paloma

    2014-01-01

    En la actualidad, existen pocos estudios sobre la interfase tipo helmet en el área pediátrica y como hemos podido comprobar debido a su eficacia, flexibilidad y su posible capacidad para proporcionar confort al paciente, la convierten en opción cada vez más frecuente en las UCI. La interfase helmet mejora la situación del paciente en un periodo corto de tiempo puesto que se produce una respuesta clínica en la primera hora, reduciéndose la dificultad respiratoria o bien, en caso contrario, ...

  19. Immune Response in Male Guinea Pigs Infected with the Guinea Pig Inclusion Conjunctivitis Agent of Chlamydia Psittaci

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    in male guinea pigs after primary and challenge inoculation (Experiment 2) ................................... 34 8. Immunoblot of plasma anti-GPIC IgG...in male guinea pig (7907) after primary and 150 day challenge ................................ 36 9. Immunoblot of plasma anti-GPIC IgG in male...response to lipopolysaccharide was fairly strong also. In contrast, an antibody response to the 40 kDa major outer mambrane protein (MOMP) was often

  20. Spontaneous fermentation of traditional sago starch in Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhill, A R; Shipton, W A; Blaney, B J; Brock, I J; Kupz, A; Warner, J M

    2009-04-01

    Sago starch is an important dietary carbohydrate in lowland Papua New Guinea (PNG). An investigation was conducted to determine whether microbes play a role in its preservation using traditional methods. In 12 stored sago samples collected from PNG villages, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were present (> or = 3.6 x 10(4)cfu/g) and pH ranged from 6.8 to 4.2. Acetic and propionic acids were detected in all samples, while butyric, lactic and valeric acids were present in six or more. In freshly prepared sago, held in sealed containers in the laboratory at 30 degrees C, spontaneous fermentation by endogenous microflora of sago starch was observed. This was evident by increasing concentrations of acetic, butyric and lactic acids over 4 weeks, and pH reducing from 4.9 to 3.1: both LAB and yeasts were involved. Survival of potential bacterial pathogens was monitored by seeding sago starch with approximately 10(4)/g of selected organisms. Numbers of Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus fell to 10(2)/g). Fermentation appeared to increase the storability and safety of the product.

  1. Pharmacokinetics and Paw Withdrawal Pressure in Female Guinea Pigs (Cavia porcellus) Treated with Sustained-Release Buprenorphine and Buprenorphine Hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Brian J; Wegenast, Daniel J; Hansen, Ryan J; Hess, Ann M; Kendall, Lon V

    2016-11-01

    Providing appropriate analgesia is essential in minimizing pain and maintaining optimal animal care and welfare in laboratory animals. Guinea pigs are common animal models in biomedical research, often requiring analgesic support. Here we evaluated the pharmacokinetics and efficacy of a sustained-release formulation of buprenorphine (Bup-SR) in this species. Guinea pigs (n = 7 each group) received either Bup-HCl (0.05 mg/kg BID for 3 d) or Bup-SR (0.3 mg/kg once). Plasma collection and measurement of paw-withdrawal pressure (PWP) was conducted at 0, 1, 3, 6, 12, 26, 48, and 72 h after treatment. Plasma levels of Bup-HCl peaked at 2331 pg/mL at 1 h after administration and declined to 165 pg/mL by 12 h. Plasma concentrations of Bup-SR peaked at 1344 pg/mL at 26 h after administration and declined to 429 pg/mL by 48 h. The PWP of the Bup-HCltreated guinea pigs peaked at 674 g at 1 h and declined to 402 g at 6 h, whereas that of Bup-SRtreated guinea pigs at 1 h was 361 g, 555 g at 6 h (significantly higher than that after Bup-HCl), and peaked at 680 g at 12 h. The PWP of both treatments was similar from 24 to 72 h and ranged from 348 to 450 g. The plasma concentration and PWP showed good correlation. These results suggest that Bup-SR provides consistent analgesia equivalent to that of Bup-HCl for a prolonged period of time and that Bup-SR is an alternative method of analgesia in guinea pigs.

  2. Concussion Characteristics in High School Football by Helmet Age/Recondition Status, Manufacturer, and Model: 2008-2009 Through 2012-2013 Academic Years in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Christy L; McKenzie, Lara B; Ferketich, Amy K; Andridge, Rebecca; Xiang, Huiyun; Comstock, R Dawn

    2016-06-01

    Football helmets used by high school athletes in the United States should meet the National Operating Committee on Standards for Athletic Equipment performance standards. Despite differences in interior padding and exterior shells, all football helmets should provide comparable protection against concussions. Yet, debate continues on whether differences in the rates or severity of concussions exist based on helmet age/recondition status, manufacturer, or model. To investigate whether high school football concussion characteristics varied by helmet age/recondition status, manufacturer, and model. Descriptive epidemiological study. High school football concussion and helmet data were collected from academic years 2008-2009 through 2012-2013 as part of the National High School Sports-Related Injury Surveillance Study. The certified athletic trainers of participating schools submitted athlete-exposure (AE) and injury information weekly. Participating schools reported 2900 football concussions during 3,528,790 AEs for an overall rate of 8.2 concussions per 10,000 AEs. Concussion rates significantly increased from 2008-2009 through 2012-2013 overall (P = .006) as well as in competition (P = .027) and practice (P = .023). Characteristics of concussed football players (ie, mean number of symptoms, specific concussion symptoms, symptom resolution time, and time until return to play) were similar among players wearing new helmets when compared with reconditioned helmets. Fewer players wearing an old/not reconditioned helmet had concussion symptoms resolve within 1 day compared with players wearing a new helmet. Despite differences in the manufacturers and models of helmets worn by all high school football players compared with players who sustained a concussion, the mean number of concussion symptoms, specific concussion symptoms, symptom resolution time, and time until return to play were similar for concussions sustained by football players wearing the most common helmet

  3. Potential see-through performance deficits in U.S. Army developmental helmet-mounted displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Thomas H.; Rash, Clarence E.

    2004-09-01

    The U.S. Army has several helmet-mounted displays (HMDs) under development, all with unique characteristics and designs. For example, the now cancelled RAH-66 Comanche HIDSS (Helmet Integrated Display Sighting System) uses miniature liquid crystal displays as sources, and Microvision, Inc., of Bothel, Washington, is developing several prototype HMDs for the Army that incorporate a scanning laser or lasers as their source. Gone are new HMD designs that use cathode ray tubes (CRTs) as sources. A potential problem for see-through displays lies in the fact that the MTF (modulation transfer function) of flat panel displays is characterized by a good high-spatial frequency response. Although this seems counterintuitive, this high frequency response may impact the see-through detection and identification of high-spatial frequency targets because of visual masking and/or spatial frequency adaptation. A similar problem exists with the HMDs being developed by Microvision, Inc., where a high-spatial frequency noise pattern is present due to the inclusion of a diffractive exit pupil expander. Simple blurring of the HMD imagery would reduce this potential problem. In an earlier investigation, we found that a little blurring of flat panel displays does not affect small letter acuity even near threshold. Thus, it is possible to reduce the potential for see-through deficits while still maintaining maximum HMD fidelity.

  4. Acceleration-based methodology to assess the blast mitigation performance of explosive ordnance disposal helmets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionne, J. P.; Levine, J.; Makris, A.

    2017-07-01

    To design the next generation of blast mitigation helmets that offer increasing levels of protection against explosive devices, manufacturers must be able to rely on appropriate test methodologies and human surrogates that will differentiate the performance level of various helmet solutions and ensure user safety. Ideally, such test methodologies and associated injury thresholds should be based on widely accepted injury criteria relevant within the context of blast. Unfortunately, even though significant research has taken place over the last decade in the area of blast neurotrauma, there currently exists no agreement in terms of injury mechanisms for blast-induced traumatic brain injury. In absence of such widely accepted test methods and injury criteria, the current study presents a specific blast test methodology focusing on explosive ordnance disposal protective equipment, involving the readily available Hybrid III mannequin, initially developed for the automotive industry. The unlikely applicability of the associated brain injury criteria (based on both linear and rotational head acceleration) is discussed in the context of blast. Test results encompassing a large number of blast configurations and personal protective equipment are presented, emphasizing the possibility to develop useful correlations between blast parameters, such as the scaled distance, and mannequin engineering measurements (head acceleration). Suggestions are put forward for a practical standardized blast testing methodology taking into account limitations in the applicability of acceleration-based injury criteria as well as the inherent variability in blast testing results.

  5. Bicycle helmet use and non-use – recently published research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uibel Stefanie

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Bicycle traumata are very common and especially neurologic complications lead to disability and death in all stages of the life. This review assembles the most recent findings concerning research in the field of bicycle traumata combined with the factor of bicycle helmet use. The area of bicycle trauma research is by nature multidisciplinary and relevant not only for physicians but also for experts with educational, engineering, judicial, rehabilitative or public health functions. Due to this plurality of global publications and special subjects, short time reviews help to detect recent research directions and provide also information from neighbour disciplines for researchers. It can be stated that to date, that although a huge amount of research has been conducted in this area more studies are needed to evaluate and improve special conditions and needs in different regions, ages, nationalities and to create successful prevention programs of severe head and face injuries while cycling. Focus was explicit the bicycle helmet use, wherefore sledding, ski and snowboard studies were excluded and only one study concerning electric bicycles remained due to similar motion structures within this review. The considered studies were all published between January 2010 and August 2011 and were identified via the online databases Medline PubMed and ISI Web of Science.

  6. Improved communications and hearing protection in helmet systems: the communications earplug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, John A; Kimball, Kent A; Mozo, Ben T; Murphy, Barbara A

    2003-06-01

    Despite significant advances in hearing protection and compliance with protective standards, military personnel are still subject to noise-induced hearing loss in many combat and combat support operations. Although the Army has experienced a decrease of some 15% in primary hearing loss disability cases since 1986, a fiscal year 2000 report documents a 27.5% increase in audiograms, which demonstrated significant threshold shifts in assessed personnel (N = 841/1,077). Compensation for noise-induced hearing loss disability for the Army alone exceeded $180 million in 1998. Thus, communications and hearing protection remain critical issues for personnel involved in Army operations. Aircraft, ground vehicles, and weapons produce noise levels in excess of the limits defined in current hearing conservation standards. Performance of most helmets, improved over the years, remains marginal with regard to speech intelligibility. Furthermore, these helmets do not provide adequate hearing protection. The communications earplug, which consists of a high-quality earphone coupled with an earplug protector, provides the needed extra protection. It weighs less than 15 g and is comfortable when worn over extended periods. It is considered highly acceptable by seasoned Army aviators and crewmembers.

  7. Prevalence of fur mites (Chirodiscoides caviae) in pet guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) in southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Ovidio, Dario; Santoro, Domenico

    2014-04-01

    Chirodiscoides caviae is the most common fur mite affecting guinea pigs; infestation is generally asymptomatic. No studies have been published on the prevalence of such mites in guinea pigs in southern Italy. We sought to evaluate the prevalence and the clinical signs of C. caviae infestation in guinea pigs in southern Italy. Clinical records of guinea pigs evaluated from August 2012 to July 2013 were retrospectively searched. In this retrospective matched case-control study, records of guinea pigs with evidence of C. caviae infestation were selected. The prevalence of C. caviae infestation was evaluated and exposure variables were assessed among guinea pigs with and without infestation using stepwise conditional logistic regression. Guinea pigs seen during the same time period, but without a diagnosis of C. caviae, were included as control animals. The prevalence of C. caviae was 32% (42 of 131); 66.6% of affected guinea pigs (28 of 42) originated from pet shops, whereas 28% (14 of 42) were privately owned. Thirty-one guinea pigs (73.8%) were asymptomatic, whereas 11 (26.1%) showed clinical signs (pruritus, alopecia, erythema and scaling). The most frequently affected area was the lumbosacral region (38 of 42). Guinea pigs in pet shops were more likely to be affected by C. caviae than owned guinea pigs (odds ratio, 5.12; 95% confidence interval, 2.32-11.29; P guinea pigs in southern Italy. Chirodiscoides mites should be sought in guinea pigs, particularly in animals coming from pet shops. © 2014 ESVD and ACVD.

  8. Idiocnemis schorri sp. nov., a new damselfly species from southern Papua New Guinea (Odonata: Platycnemididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassmann, Dirk; Richards, Stephen J; Polhemus, Dan A

    2016-09-29

    Idiocnemis schorri sp. nov. is described from the Hindenburg and Muller Ranges and the Kikori River Basin of southern Papua New Guinea. The new species differs from all congeners by, among other characters, a unique colour pattern on the thorax. Characters of males and females are illustrated and compared to those of similar species from the Idiocnemis bidentata group. The new species is found along small, shallow rainforest streams and is currently known only from the Trans-Fly Foreland and Papuan Gulf Foreland areas of endemism.

  9. Thermal Conductivity of Papua New Guinea Balsa Wood Measured using the Needle Probe Procedure

    OpenAIRE

    Nathan James Kotlarewski; Barbara Ozarska; Benson K. Gusamo

    2014-01-01

    A study was undertaken with the aim to determine thermal properties of balsa wood grown in plantations in Papua New Guinea. Thermal conductivity values were measured using the needle probe procedure according to ASTM D5334 (2008). The mean thermal conductivity results of balsa were in the range of 0.0381 W/mK to 0.0665 W/mK, similar to other materials currently used as insulators in the construction industry. A balsa sample with a density of 113 kg m3 had the lowest thermal conductivity value...

  10. Simultaneous quantification of monoamine neurotransmitters and their biogenic metabolites intracellularly and extracellularly in primary neuronal cell cultures and in sub-regions of guinea pig brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou-Pedersen, Anne Marie Voigt; Hansen, Stine Normann; Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille

    2016-01-01

    of intracellular and extracellular amounts of monoamine neurotransmitters and their metabolites in guinea pig frontal cortex and hippocampal primary neuronal cell cultures. Noradrenaline, dopamine and serotonin were found to be in a range from 0.31 to 1.7 pmol per 2 million cells intracellularly, but only...... the biogenic metabolites could be detected extracellularly. Distinct differences in monoamine concentrations were observed when comparing concentrations in guinea pig frontal cortex and cerebellum tissue with higher amounts of dopamine and its metabolites, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid and homovanillic acid...... in frontal cortex, as compared to cerebellum. The chemical turnover in frontal cortex tissue of guinea pig was for serotonin successfully predicted from the turnover observed in the frontal cortex cell culture. In conclusion, the present analytical method shows high precision, accuracy and sensitivity...

  11. Pests, diseases and crop protection practices in the smallholder sweetpotato production system of the highlands of Papua New Guinea

    OpenAIRE

    Gurr, Geoff M.; Liu, Jian; Johnson, Anne C.; Woruba, Deane N.; Kirchhof, Gunnar; Fujinuma, Ryosuke; Sirabis, William; Jeffery, Yapo; Akkinapally, Ramakrishna

    2016-01-01

    Sweetpotato (Ipomea batatans) is a food crop of global significance. The storage roots and foliage of crop are attacked by a wide range of pests and diseases. Whilst these are generally well controlled in developed countries using approaches such as clean planting material and monitoring with pheromone traps to guide insecticide use, research into methods suitable for developing countries has lagged. In Papua New Guinea (PNG), sweetpotato is grown extensively as a subsistence crop and commerc...

  12. [Renal pleomorphic sarcoma in four guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankel, Julia; Hewicker-Trautwein, Marion; Warschau, Martina; Thöle, Anna Milena; Fehr, Michael

    2017-10-17

    Renal tumours apparently are rare not only in cats and dogs, but also in guinea pigs and can be difficult to diagnose. The aim of this study is to describe the clinical, pathological and immunohistochemical findings in guinea pigs with renal tumours. Furthermore, the symptoms, diagnostic possibilities and therapy are compared with renal tumours in other small animals, including cats and dogs. During a period of 4 years and 4 months the data of guinea pigs that had been presented in the clinic were retrospectively analysed. The analysis comprised guinea pigs that underwent a macroscopical and histopathological postmortem examination, and were diagnosed to have a renal neoplasm. Four guinea pigs had a renal tumour. The percentage of renal neoplasms in relation to the overall necropsied carcasses and the number of organs originating from guinea pigs was 4.7 % and the percentage of renal neoplasms in relation to the overall diagnosed tumours of the abdominal and pelvic cavities was 30.7 %. Histology and immunohistochemistry revealed the presence of renal pleomorphic sarcomas in all four cases. In two of the four guinea pigs, the classical triad, as described for cats and dogs with renal tumours (weight loss, abdominal mass and haematuria), was observed. During clinical examination, a prominent, apparently painful abdominal mass in the region of the kidneys was palpable in all four cases. Applying radiography, the suspected diagnosis of a mass in the area of the kidney was confirmed in three cases, and in two animals the renal origin of the masses was determined by ultrasound examination. Because a renal neoplasm is a pain-inducing disease with a high risk of metastases in domestic animals, a prompt nephrectomy should be performed when azotaemia is absent.

  13. Seasonal and sex-specific variations in haematological parameters in 4 to 5.5-month-old infants in Guinea-Bissau, West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bæk, Ole; Jensen, Kristoffer Jarlov; Andersen, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated seasonal and sex-specific variations in the haematological parameters and established reference ranges for these parameters in healthy 4 to 5.5-month-old infants in Guinea-Bissau. Methods: Within a randomised trial of early measles vaccination, over a period of ...

  14. Noise Attenuation of the HGU-56/P Aircrew Integrated Helmet System When Worn with the Combat Vehicle Crewman Hood (BALACLAVA)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Robinette, Martin

    2003-01-01

    .... Army rotary-wing aircraft crewmembers. The ability of any helmet to attenuate environmental noise depends on an adequate seal between the earcup and the user's head. Any object (e.g., eyeglass frames) or practice (e.g., loose chin strap...

  15. 42 CFR 84.1135 - Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, hoods, helmets, and mouthpieces; fit; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, hoods, helmets, and mouthpieces; fit; minimum requirements. 84.1135 Section 84.1135 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED...

  16. Head injury resulting from scooter accidents in Rome: Differences before and after implementing a universal helmet law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. La Torre (Giuseppe); E.F. van Beeck (Ed); G. Bertazzoni (Giuliano); W. Ricciardi

    2007-01-01

    textabstractObjectives: To estimate the incidence rates and related determinants of head injuries before and after the implementation of a new universal helmet law in Italy. Methods: The investigation took place in the Emergency Room of the Accident and Emergency Department, Teaching Hospital

  17. Comparison of Cocoa Beans from China, Indonesia and Papua New Guinea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenglin Gu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A survey on five kinds of cocoa beans from new cocoa planting countries was conducted to analyze each kind’s basic quality. The average bean weight and butter content of Hainan cocoa beans were the lowest, at less than 1.1 g, and 39.24% to 43.44%, respectively. Cocoa beans from Indonesia where shown to be about 8.0% and 9.0% higher in average bean weight and butter content, respectively, than that of Papua New Guinea and about 20.0% and 25.0% higher in average bean weight and butter content than Chinese dried beans, respectively. The average total polyphenolic content ranged from 81.22 mg/10 g to 301.01 mg/10 g. The Hainan 2011 sample had the highest total polyphenolic content, followed by the unfermented sample from Indonesia and the Papua New Guinea sample. The polyphenolic levels found in the Hainan 2010 sample were 123.61 mg/10 g and lower than the other three samples, but the Indonesian fermented sample had the lowest total polyphenolic content of 81.22 mg/10 g. The average total amino acid content ranged from 11.58 g/100 g to 18.17 g/100 g. The total amino acid content was the highest in the Indonesian unfermented sample, followed by the Hainan 2011 sample and the Papua New Guinea sample. The levels found in the Hainan 2010 sample were lower; the Indonesian fermented sample had the lowest total amino acid content.

  18. Evaluation of Ebola Virus Countermeasures in Guinea Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzi, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Ebola virus (EBOV) pathology in humans remains incompletely understood; therefore, a number of rodent and nonhuman primate (NHP) models have been established to study the disease caused by this virus. While the macaque model most accurately recapitulates human disease, rodent models, which display only certain aspects of human disease but are more cost-effective, are widely used for initial screens during EBOV countermeasure development. In particular, mice and guinea pigs were among the first species used for the efficacy testing of EBOV vaccines and therapeutics. While mice have low predictive value, guinea pigs have proven to be a more reliable predictor for the evaluation of countermeasures in NHPs. In addition, guinea pigs are larger in size compared to mice, allowing for more frequent collection of blood samples at larger volumes. However, guinea pigs have the disadvantage that there is only a limited pool of immunological tools available to characterize host responses to vaccination, treatment and infection. In this chapter, the efficacy testing of an EBOV vaccine and a therapeutic in the guinea pig model are described.

  19. A guinea pig model of Zika virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Mukesh; Krause, Keeton K; Azouz, Francine; Nakano, Eileen; Nerurkar, Vivek R

    2017-04-11

    Animal models are critical to understand disease and to develop countermeasures for the ongoing epidemic of Zika virus (ZIKV). Here we report that immunocompetent guinea pigs are susceptible to infection by a contemporary American strain of ZIKV. Dunkin-Hartley guinea pigs were inoculated with 10 6 plaque-forming units of ZIKV via subcutaneous route and clinical signs were observed. Viremia, viral load in the tissues, anti-ZIKV neutralizing antibody titer, and protein levels of multiple cytokine and chemokines were analyzed using qRT-PCR, plaque assay, plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) and multiplex immunoassay. Upon subcutaneous inoculation with PRVABC59 strain of ZIKV, guinea pigs demonstrated clinical signs of infection characterized by fever, lethargy, hunched back, ruffled fur, and decrease in mobility. ZIKV was detected in the whole blood and serum using qRT-PCR and plaque assay. Anti-ZIKV neutralizing antibody was detected in the infected animals using PRNT. ZIKV infection resulted in a dramatic increase in protein levels of multiple cytokines, chemokines and growth factors in the serum. ZIKV replication was observed in spleen and brain, with the highest viral load in the brain. This data demonstrate that after subcutaneous inoculation, the contemporary ZIKV strain is neurotropic in guinea pigs. The guinea pig model described here recapitulates various clinical features and viral kinetics observed in ZIKV-infected patients, and therefore may serve as a model to study ZIKV pathogenesis, including pregnancy outcomes and for evaluation of vaccines and therapeutics.

  20. Check list of the Melastomataceae of Equatorial Guinea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geerinck, Daniel

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available A chec klist of the Melastomataceae of Equatorial Guinea is presented with 57 taxa. Three species were accepted based only on literature records, their distribution área strongly suggests their presence in Equatorial Guinea. Six species are known from Annobón, 23 from Bioko and 49 from Río Muni. Best-represented genera are Memecylon (10, Calvoa (10 and Tristemma (7. Twenty-six taxa are newly recorded for the country. Heterotis obamae Lejoly & Lisowski is set in synonymy with the previously described Heterotis arenaria Jacq.-Fél.Se presenta el catálogo florístico de la familia Melastomataceae en Guinea Ecuatorial. Se recogen un total de 57 táxones. Tres especies fueron aceptadas teniendo en cuenta solamente la literatura. Su distribución sugiere que su presencia en Guinea Ecuatorial es muy probable. En Annobón están presentes 6 especies, 23 en Bioko y 49 en Río Muni. Los géneros mejor representados son Memecylon (10 especies, Calvoa (10 y Tristemma (7.Veintiséis táxones son citados por primera vez en Guinea Ecuatorial. Se propone Heterotis obamae Lejoly & Lisowski como sinónimo de Heterotis arenaria Jacq.-Fél.

  1. The effect of motorcycle helmet type, components and fixation status on facial injury in Klang Valley, Malaysia: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramli, Roszalina; Oxley, Jennifer; Hillard, Peter; Mohd Sadullah, Ahmad Farhan; McClure, Roderick

    2014-08-03

    The effectiveness of helmets in reducing the risk of severe head injury in motorcyclists who were involved in a crash is well established. There is limited evidence however, regarding the extent to which helmets protect riders from facial injuries. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of helmet type, components and fixation status on the risk of facial injuries among Malaysian motorcyclists. 755 injured motorcyclists were recruited over a 12-month period in 2010-2011 in southern Klang Valley, Malaysia in this case control study. Of the 755 injured motorcyclists, 391 participants (51.8%) sustained facial injuries (cases) while 364 (48.2%) participants were without facial injury (control). The outcomes of interest were facial injury and location of facial injury (i.e. upper, middle and lower face injuries). A binary logistic regression was conducted to examine the association between helmet characteristics and the outcomes, taking into account potential confounders such as age, riding position, alcohol and illicit substance use, type of colliding vehicle and type of collision. Helmet fixation was defined as the position of the helmet during the crash whether it was still secured on the head or had been dislodged. Helmet fixation was shown to have a greater effect on facial injury outcome than helmet type. Increased odds of adverse outcome was observed for the non-fixed helmet compared to the fixed helmet with adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 2.10 (95% CI 1.41- 3.13) for facial injury; AOR = 6.64 (95% CI 3.71-11.91) for upper face injury; AOR = 5.36 (95% CI 3.05-9.44) for middle face injury; and AOR = 2.00 (95% CI 1.22-3.26) for lower face injury. Motorcyclists with visor damage were shown with AOR = 5.48 (95% CI 1.46-20.57) to have facial injuries compared to those with an undamaged visor. A helmet of any type that is properly worn and remains fixed on the head throughout a crash will provide some form of protection against facial injury. Visor damage

  2. Use of a Guinea pig-specific transcriptome array for evaluation of protective immunity against genital chlamydial infection following intranasal vaccination in Guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wali, Shradha; Gupta, Rishein; Veselenak, Ronald L; Li, Yansong; Yu, Jieh-Juen; Murthy, Ashlesh K; Cap, Andrew P; Guentzel, M Neal; Chambers, James P; Zhong, Guangming; Rank, Roger G; Pyles, Richard B; Arulanandam, Bernard P

    2014-01-01

    Guinea pigs have been used as a second animal model to validate putative anti-chlamydial vaccine candidates tested in mice. However, the lack of guinea pig-specific reagents has limited the utility of this animal model in Chlamydia sp. vaccine studies. Using a novel guinea pig-specific transcriptome array, we determined correlates of protection in guinea pigs vaccinated with Chlamydia caviae (C. caviae) via the intranasal route, previously reported by us and others to provide robust antigen specific immunity against subsequent intravaginal challenge. C. caviae vaccinated guinea pigs resolved genital infection by day 3 post challenge. In contrast, mock vaccinated animals continued to shed viable Chlamydia up to day 18 post challenge. Importantly, at day 80 post challenge, vaccinated guinea pigs experienced significantly reduced genital pathology - a sequelae of genital chlamydial infections, in comparison to mock vaccinated guinea pigs. Sera from vaccinated guinea pigs displayed antigen specific IgG responses and increased IgG1 and IgG2 titers capable of neutralizing GPIC in vitro. Th1-cellular/inflammatory immune genes and Th2-humoral associated genes were also found to be elevated in vaccinated guinea pigs at day 3 post-challenge and correlated with early clearance of the bacterium. Overall, this study provides the first evidence of guinea pig-specific genes involved in anti-chlamydial vaccination and illustrates the enhancement of the utility of this animal model in chlamydial pathogenesis.

  3. 9 CFR 3.36 - Primary enclosures used to transport live guinea pigs and hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... live guinea pigs and hamsters. 3.36 Section 3.36 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH..., Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Guinea Pigs and Hamsters Transportation Standards § 3.36 Primary enclosures used to transport live guinea pigs and hamsters. No person subject to the Animal Welfare...

  4. Non-terminal blood sampling techniques in Guinea pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birck, Malene Muusfeldt; Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille; Lindblad, Maiken Marie

    2014-01-01

    of guinea pigs are slightly different from other rodent models, hence modulation of sampling techniques to accommodate for species-specific differences, e.g., compared to mice and rats, are necessary to obtain sufficient and high quality samples. As both long and short term in vivo studies often require...... repeated blood sampling the choice of technique should be well considered in order to reduce stress and discomfort in the animals but also to ensure survival as well as compliance with requirements of sample size and accessibility. Venous blood samples can be obtained at a number of sites in guinea pigs e.......g., the saphenous and jugular veins, each technique containing both advantages and disadvantages(4,5). Here, we present four different blood sampling techniques for either conscious or anaesthetized guinea pigs. The procedures are all non-terminal procedures provided that sample volumes and number of samples do...

  5. Jejuno-jejunal intussusception in a guinea pig (Cavia porcellus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetzer, Tara J; Mans, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    An approximately four-year-old male castrated guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) was presented for painful defecation with a 24-hour history of hyporexia and intermittent episodes of rolling behavior. Upon presentation the patient was quiet, alert, and responsive, and mildly hypothermic. Abdominal palpation revealed an approximately 2-cm long oblong mass within the caudal abdomen. Abdominal radiographs revealed gastric dilation without volvulus and a peritoneal mass effect. The patient was euthanized following gastric reflux of brown malodorous fluid from his nares and oral cavity. A necropsy was performed and revealed a jejuno-jejunal intussusception causing mechanical gastrointestinal ileus, and gastric dilatation without volvulus. While non-obstructive gastrointestinal stasis is common and obstructive ileus is uncommon in guinea pigs, this report shows that intestinal intussusception is a differential in guinea pigs with ileus and gastric dilatation.

  6. Jejuno-jejunal intussusception in a guinea pig (Cavia porcellus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara J. Fetzer

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available An approximately four-year-old male castrated guinea pig (Cavia porcellus was presented for painful defecation with a 24-hour history of hyporexia and intermittent episodes of rolling behavior. Upon presentation the patient was quiet, alert, and responsive, and mildly hypothermic. Abdominal palpation revealed an approximately 2-cm long oblong mass within the caudal abdomen. Abdominal radiographs revealed gastric dilation without volvulus and a peritoneal mass effect. The patient was euthanized following gastric reflux of brown malodorous fluid from his nares and oral cavity. A necropsy was performed and revealed a jejuno-jejunal intussusception causing mechanical gastrointestinal ileus, and gastric dilatation without volvulus. While non-obstructive gastrointestinal stasis is common and obstructive ileus is uncommon in guinea pigs, this report shows that intestinal intussusception is a differential in guinea pigs with ileus and gastric dilatation.

  7. Logistics of Guinea worm disease eradication in South Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Alexander H; Becknell, Steven; Withers, P Craig; Ruiz-Tiben, Ernesto; Hopkins, Donald R; Stobbelaar, David; Makoy, Samuel Yibi

    2014-03-01

    From 2006 to 2012, the South Sudan Guinea Worm Eradication Program reduced new Guinea worm disease (dracunculiasis) cases by over 90%, despite substantial programmatic challenges. Program logistics have played a key role in program achievements to date. The program uses disease surveillance and program performance data and integrated technical-logistical staffing to maintain flexible and effective logistical support for active community-based surveillance and intervention delivery in thousands of remote communities. Lessons learned from logistical design and management can resonate across similar complex surveillance and public health intervention delivery programs, such as mass drug administration for the control of neglected tropical diseases and other disease eradication programs. Logistical challenges in various public health scenarios and the pivotal contribution of logistics to Guinea worm case reductions in South Sudan underscore the need for additional inquiry into the role of logistics in public health programming in low-income countries.

  8. Scolopendromorpha of New Guinea and adjacent islands (Myriapoda, Chilopoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schileyko, Arkady A; Stoev, Pavel E

    2016-08-04

    The centipede fauna of the second largest island in the world, New Guinea, and its adjacent islands, is poorly known, with most information deriving from the first half of the 20th century. Here we present new data on the order Scolopendromorpha based on material collected in the area in the last 40 years, mainly by Bulgarian and Latvian zoologists. The collections comprise eleven species of six genera and three families. The diagnosis of Cryptops (Trigonocryptops) is emended in the light of the recent findings. The old and doubtful record of Scolopendra multidens Newport, 1844 from New Guinea is referred to S. subspinipes Leach, 1815 and the species is here excluded from the present day list of New Guinean scolopendromorphs. Cryptops nepalensis Lewis, 1999 is here recorded from New Guinea for the first time. An annotated list and an identification key to the scolopendromorphs of the studied region are presented.

  9. Logistics of Guinea Worm Disease Eradication in South Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Alexander H.; Becknell, Steven; Withers, P. Craig; Ruiz-Tiben, Ernesto; Hopkins, Donald R.; Stobbelaar, David; Makoy, Samuel Yibi

    2014-01-01

    From 2006 to 2012, the South Sudan Guinea Worm Eradication Program reduced new Guinea worm disease (dracunculiasis) cases by over 90%, despite substantial programmatic challenges. Program logistics have played a key role in program achievements to date. The program uses disease surveillance and program performance data and integrated technical–logistical staffing to maintain flexible and effective logistical support for active community-based surveillance and intervention delivery in thousands of remote communities. Lessons learned from logistical design and management can resonate across similar complex surveillance and public health intervention delivery programs, such as mass drug administration for the control of neglected tropical diseases and other disease eradication programs. Logistical challenges in various public health scenarios and the pivotal contribution of logistics to Guinea worm case reductions in South Sudan underscore the need for additional inquiry into the role of logistics in public health programming in low-income countries. PMID:24445199

  10. Comparison of the sensitivities of the Buehler test and the guinea pig maximization test for predictive testing of contact allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frankild, S; Vølund, A; Wahlberg, J E

    2001-01-01

    International test guidelines, such as the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) guideline #406, recommend 2 guinea pig methods for testing of the contact allergenic potential of chemicals: the Guinea Pig Maximization Test (GPMT) and the Buehler test. Previous comparisons...... between the methods suggested that the Buehler test was less sensitive than the GPMT although modified Buehler test protocols were used. Parallel GPMT and Buehler tests were conducted according to OECD guideline #406 using a multiple-dose design and test results were analysed using a standard logistic...... dose-response model. To compare the sensitivity of the 2 test procedures the test conditions were kept identical and the following chemicals with a range of sensitization potentials were tested: chloraniline, chlorhexidine, eugenol, formaldehyde, mercaptobenzothiazole and neomycin sulphate...

  11. Education, employment and practice: Midwifery graduates in Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moores, Alison; Puawe, Paula; Buasi, Nancy; West, Florence; Samor, Mary K; Joseph, Nina; Rumsey, Michele; Dawson, Angela; Homer, Caroline S E

    2016-10-01

    Papua New Guinea has a very high maternal mortality rate (773/100,000), low rates of supervised births and a critical shortage of skilled midwives. A midwifery education initiative commenced in 2012, funded by the Australian Government and led by the National Department of Health. One specific objective of the initiative was to improve the standard of clinical teaching and practice in four schools of midwifery. There were 394 midwives educated over the 4 year period (2012-2015) representing half of all midwives in Papua New Guinea. A study was undertaken to describe the educational programme, employment, practices and experiences of graduates who studied midwifery in 2012 and 2013 as part of the initiative. the aim of this paper is to explore the education, employment and practice of newly graduated midwives in Papua New Guinea. a mixed methods descriptive study design was used. Surveys and focus groups were used to gather data. Ethical approval was granted by the relevant Human Research Ethics Committees. all midwifery graduates in 2012 and 2013 from the four midwifery schools in Papua New Guinea were included in the study and almost 80% were contacted. nearly 90% of graduates were working as midwives, with an additional 3% working as midwifery or nursing educators. This study discovered that graduates exhibited increased skills acquisition and confidence, leadership in maternal and newborn care services and a marked improvement in the provision of respectful care to women. The graduates faced challenges to implement evidence based care with barriers including the lack of appropriate resources and differences of opinion with senior staff. factors affecting the quality of midwifery education will need to be addressed if Papua New Guinea is to continue to improve the status of maternal and newborn health. Specifically, the length of the midwifery education, the quality of clinical practice and the exposure to rural and remote area practice need addressing in many

  12. Market potential for guinea fowl (Numidia meleagris) products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madzimure, James; Saina, Happyson; Ngorora, Grace P K

    2011-12-01

    The survey evaluated the market potential for guinea fowl (GF; Numidia meleagris) products in the city of Harare, Zimbabwe. Questionnaires were administered to traders/producers (n = 17), retailers (n = 12), cafeteria industry (n = 33) and consumers (n = 1,680) to establish their perceptions on guinea fowl products. The average household size was 6 ± 2. Each trader sold 10 ± 6.30 keets (mean ± standard error), 33 ± 15.05 growers, 20 ± 12.69 breeders and 20 ± 10.1 crates of 30 eggs per month. Each household consumed 2.5 ± 1.39 kg of GF meat and 3 ± 0.65 dozens of GF eggs per month. Retailers purchased 52 ± 44.42 crates of GF eggs and 41 ± 30.50/kg of GF meat whilst cafeteria purchased 33.6 ± 14 crates of GF eggs and 65.5 ± 33.52 kg of GF meat per month. Growers for breeding were the major product for sale by traders (94.1%) at a price of US$7.50 ± 1.74/bird. Different industries were offering different prices for guinea fowl products because of their scarcity on the market. The mean purchase price per crate of 30 guinea fowl eggs sold to the retail and cafeteria were US$3.00 ± 0.58 and US$4.50 ± 0.50, respectively. The mean purchase prices for GF meat was lower (P marketing of guinea fowl products included poor supply due to the absence of good road networks to connect source areas and the market, perishability of dressed chickens due to power cuts and poor publicity. Overall, the study showed that there is greater market potential for guinea fowl products and farmers can channel their products through traders, cafeteria and retail industries.

  13. The neurosurgeon as baseball fan and inventor: Walter Dandy and the batter's helmet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewster, Ryan; Bi, Wenya Linda; Smith, Timothy R; Gormley, William B; Dunn, Ian F; Laws, Edward R

    2015-07-01

    Baseball maintains one of the highest impact injury rates in all athletics. A principal causative factor is the "beanball," referring to a pitch thrown directly at a batter's head. Frequent morbidities elicited demand for the development of protective gear development in the 20th century. In this setting, Dr. Walter Dandy was commissioned to design a "protective cap" in 1941. His invention became widely adopted by professional baseball and inspired subsequent generations of batting helmets. As a baseball aficionado since his youth, Walter Dandy identified a natural partnership between baseball and medical practice for the reduction of beaning-related brain injuries. This history further supports the unique position of neurosurgeons to leverage clinical insights, inform innovation, and expand service to society.

  14. Ocular Responses To Monocular And Binocular Helmet-Mounted Display Configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffitt, Kirk W.

    1989-09-01

    Ocular vergence and visual-accommodation data were collected. in a preliminary investigation involving simulated monocular and binocular helmet-mounted display (HMD) configurations with varying scenic backgrounds and attentional instructions. A binocular eyetracking system was used to objectively measure vergence and accommodation. Photographic slides aligned and positioned at optical infinity were used to simulate HMD symbology and out-of-the-cockpit scenery. The accuracy of ocular vergence and the relative distance of visual accommodation were affected by the HMD configuration (binocular, monocular, one-eye-occluded), the content of the scenic background (clouds or mountains), the focus of attention (symbology or background), and the ocular characteristics of the observer (distance of the dark-vergence and -focus).

  15. Leucocyte profile and offspring production of guinea pig (Cavia cobaya given Anredera cordifolia leaf extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Wijayanti

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine leucocyte and offspring production of guinea pig (Cavia cobaya giving Anredera cordifolia leaf extract. Materials used were female 16 heads of guinea pig with body weight of 425g. The treatments were an extract of A. cordifolia leaf at doses of 0, 10, 50 and 90 mg/head, designated as T0, T1, T2 and T3, respectively. A. cordifolia leaf extract was administered orally from 10 days prepartum to 10 days postpartum. Blood was taken at 10 days prepartum and 10 days postpartum. Total birth of the offspring was observed. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance and if there was effect of treatment, then continued with Duncan multiple range test and Chi-Square test for fetal production between the given A. cordifolia leaf extract and control. The result showed that there was no significant difference for 10 days prepartum after addition of A cordifolia leaf extract treatment. The postpartum treated showed a total 50 mg/head level increaed for monocytes than that of level 0, 10 and 90 mg/head. Ten days postpartum treatment showed the total increase for leucocyte and monocytes total were 50 and 90 mg/head, respectively compared to 10 mg/head level. Total lymphocyte of 90 mg/head increased compared to level 10 and 50 mg/head. The highest total neutrophil as found at level of 50 mg/head which increased compared to the level of 0 and 10 mg/head. ProvisioningA. cordifolialeaf extract at doses level of 50 and 90 mg/head could increase litter size (P<0.05; χ2=9.267 and decreased offspring mortality (P<0.05; χ2=6.4. In conclusion, by giving 50 mg/head A. cordifolia leaf extract could increase leucocyte profile and offspring production of guinea pig.

  16. Coordination of the health policy dialogue process in Guinea: pre- and post-Ebola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ade, Nadege; Réne, Adzodo; Khalifa, Mara; Babila, Kevin Ousman; Monono, Martin Ekeke; Tarcisse, Elongo; Nabyonga-Orem, Juliet

    2016-07-18

    Policy dialogue can be defined as an iterative process that involves a broad range of stakeholders discussing a particular issue with a concrete purpose in mind. Policy dialogue in health is increasingly being recognised by health stakeholders in developing countries, as an important process or mechanism for improving collaboration and harmonization in health and for developing comprehensive and evidence-based health sector strategies and plans. It is with this perspective in mind that Guinea, in 2013, started a policy dialogue process, engaging a plethora of actors to revise the country's national health policy and develop a new national health development plan (2015-2024). This study examines the coordination of the policy dialogue process in developing these key strategic governance documents of the Guinean health sector from the actors' perspective. A qualitative case study approach was undertaken, comprising of interviews with key stakeholders who participated in the policy dialogue process. A review of the literature informed the development of a conceptual framework and the data collection survey questionnaire. The results were analysed both inductively and deductively. A total of 22 out of 32 individuals were interviewed. The results suggest both areas of strengths and weaknesses in the coordination of the policy dialogue process in Guinea. The aspects of good coordination observed were the iterative nature of the dialogue and the availability of neutral and well-experienced facilitators. Weak coordination was perceived through the unavailability of supporting documentation, time and financial constraints experienced during the dialogue process. The onset of the Ebola epidemic in Guinea impacted on coordination dynamics by causing a slowdown of its activities and then its virtual halt. The findings herein highlight the need for policy dialogue coordination structures to have the necessary administrative and institutional support to facilitate their

  17. Profile and reintegration experience of Ebola survivors in Guinea: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delamou, Alexandre; Camara, Bienvenu Salim; Kolie, Jean Pe; Guemou, Achille Diona; Haba, Nyankoye Yves; Marquez, Shannon; Beavogui, Abdoul Habib; Delvaux, Therese; van Griensven, Johan

    2017-03-01

    To describe the experience of Guinean Ebola virus disease (EVD) survivors in Guinea, up to ten months after discharge from the Ebola treatment unit. Cross-sectional study using a standardised semistructured questionnaire among survivors from Conakry and Coyah districts in 2015 in Guinea. We used proportions, mean (standard deviation) and median (interquartile range) to summarise the variables. The McNemar chi-square test was used to compare proportions. The 121 EVD survivors interviewed had a median reintegration time from discharge of 18 weeks (IQR: 14-32 weeks). Most survivors were aged 15-44 years (87.6%) with secondary to higher level of education (68.6%), and 25.6% were healthcare workers. The majority reported a lower socio-economic status (90%), a less favourable work situation (79%) and psychological status (60%). About 31% reported physical health problems. Most survivors reported lower levels of reintegration with friends and at work place (72%) and lower acceptance by others in general (71%) in the period after the EVD as compared to the period before the EVD. Only 55 survivors (45.5%) were involved in one or more activities of the EVD response: participation in clinical studies on the EVD (44 survivors, 36.4%), community sensitisation (28 survivors, 23.1%) or work in Ebola treatment and/or transit centres (23 survivors, 21.7%). There is a need for a long-term follow-up of EVD survivors in Guinea and more efforts to support their social, professional and economic reintegration, especially in rural areas. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. X-ray, synchrotron, and neutron diffraction analysis of Roman cavalry parade helmet fragment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smrcok, L' . [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dubravska cesta 9, 84536 Bratislava (Slovakia); Petrik, I. [Geological Institute, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dubravska cesta 9, 84005 Bratislava (Slovakia); Langer, V. [Environmental Inorganic Chemistry, Chalmers University of Technology, 412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Filinchuk, Y. [Swiss-Norwegian Beam Lines, European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, BP-220, 38043 Grenoble CEDEX (France); Beran, P. [Nuclear Physics Institute ASCR v.v.i. and Research Centre Rez Ltd., 25068 Rez (Czech Republic)

    2010-10-15

    A partially corroded fragment of the neck guard of a Roman cavalry helmet excavated in the former military camp of Gerulata, a part of the Limes Romanus on the River Danube, was analysed by laboratory X-ray, synchrotron and neutron powder diffraction. The approximate phase composition determined by the neutron diffraction of the bulk, 82% (wt) of the copper alloy phase, 12 % (wt) of cuprite and 6% of nantokite indicate a significant degree of corrosion of the artefact. Elemental EDX analysis of cleaned surface showed that the chemical composition of the original alloy is 78 to 82 % (wt) of Cu and 21.4 to 16.5 % of Zn with minute amounts of Sn, Si and S. High contents of Cu and Zn with the negligible amount of Sn showed that the body of the helmet was made of brass and not of bronze as expected before. The amount of zinc in the copper alloy calculated from the refined lattice parameter agrees fairly well with the value determined by EDX. The most abundant phase in the synchrotron powder diffraction pattern of the corrosion products scrapped from the artefact is cuprite, but presence of atacamite, malachite, brochantite, nantokite, mixed Cu-Zn hydroxyl carbonates and probably also of simonkolleite (Zn{sub 5}(OH){sub 8}Cl{sub 2}.H{sub 2}O) have been detected. In contrast, the X-ray pattern taken directly from the surface of the artefact is dominated by atacamite with some traces of malachite and quartz. Because the penetration depth of laboratory X-rays is in order of tens of microns, the phase analysis based only on a diffraction pattern taken from a surface can lead to erroneous conclusions concerning the phase composition of the patina. (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  19. Flight performance using a hyperstereo helmet-mounted display: post-flight debriefing questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalich, Melvyn E.; Rash, Clarence E.; Harding, Thomas H.; Jennings, Sion; Craig, Gregory; Stuart, Geoffrey W.

    2009-05-01

    Helmet-mounted display (HMD) designs have faced persistent head-supported mass and center of mass (CM) problems, especially HMD designs like night vision goggles (NVG) that utilize image intensification (I2) sensors mounted forward in front of the user's eyes. Relocating I2 sensors from the front to the sides of the helmet, at or below the transverse plane through the user's head CM, can resolve most of the CM problems. However, the resulting increase in the separation between the two I2 channels effectively increases the user's interpupillary distance (IPD). This HMD design is referred to as a hyperstero design and introduces the phenomenon of hyperstereopsis, a type of visual distortion where stereoscopic depth perception is exaggerated, particularly at distances under 200 feet (~60 meters). The presence of hyperstereopsis has been a concern regarding implementation of hyperstereo HMDs for rotary-wing aircraft. To address this concern, a flight study was conducted to assess the impact of hyperstereopsis on aircraft handling proficiency and pilot acceptance. Three rated aviators with differing levels of I2 and hyperstereo HMD experience conducted a series of flights that concentrated on low-level maneuvers over a two-week period. Initial and final flights were flown with a standard issue I2 device and a production hyperstereo design HMD. Interim flights were flown only with the hyperstereo HMD. Two aviators accumulated 8 hours of flight time with the hyperstereo HMD, while the third accumulated 6.9 hours. This paper presents data collected via written questionnaires completed by the aviators during the post-flight debriefings. These data are compared to questionnaire data from a previous flight investigation in which aviators in a copilot capacity, hands not on the flight controls, accumulated 8 flight hours of flight time using a hyperstereo HMD.

  20. Potassium transport across guinea pig distal colon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rechkemmer, G.; Halm, D.R.; Frizzell, R.A.

    1986-03-05

    Active absorption and secretion of K was studied by measuring bidirectional /sup 42/K fluxes across short-circuited guinea pig distal colon. Tissues were pretreated with mucosal (m) and serosal (s) indomethacin (1 ..mu..M) and amiloride (0.1 mM, m) to suppress spontaneous, electrogenic Cl secretion and Na absorption. Under these conditions, the short-circuit current (I/sub sc/) was 0.4 ..mu..eq/cm/sup 2/h while electroneutral K absorption was 2.8 ..mu..eq/cm/sup 2/h. Epinephrine (5 ..mu..M, s) stimulated electrogenic K secretion, reducing net K absorption to 1.3 ..mu..eq/cm/sup 2/h. Bumetanide (0.1 mM, s) abolished this K secretion and restored K absorption to control values, suggesting mechanistic similarities between K and Cl secretion. K absorption was inhibited 40% by the gastric H/K ATPase inhibitor, omeprazole (0.1 mM, m), and was abolished by ouabain (0.1 mM, m). Neutral K absorption does not appear to be mediated by an apical membrane Na/K pump since: the effect of mucosal ouabain on K absorption does not require the presence of mucosal or serosal Na, unidirectional Na fluxes are not influenced by mucosal ouabain, and K absorption is not affected when Na absorption is abolished by amiloride. Net K transport is determined by the balance between electroneutral K absorption and electrogenic K secretion. The ouabain sensitivity of K absorption suggests that colonic H/K ATPase differs from its gastric counterpart.

  1. Kathon biocide: manifestation of delayed contact dermatitis in guinea pigs is dependent on the concentration for induction and challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, P K; Baldwin, R C; Parsons, R D; Moss, J N; Stiratelli, R; Smith, J M; Hayes, A W

    1983-11-01

    The potential of Kathon biocide, an aqueous solution containing, as active ingredients (a.i.), a mixture of 5-chloro-2-methyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one and 2-methyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one (14.4% a.i.), to produce delayed contact dermatitis, a sensitization response, was evaluated in outbred Hartley guinea pigs by a modified Buehler's occluded epicutaneous patch technique. The relationship of the response as a function of induction/elicitation concentrations was investigated. Groups of guinea pigs received 9 induction doses of the biocide, 3 times a week, at concentrations ranging from 25-2000 ppm a.i. These guinea pigs were challenged with the biocide at concentrations ranging from 20-2000 ppm a.i., and the application sites were scored for erythema 24 and 48 h after the challenge. The incidence of delayed contact dermatitis in induced guinea pigs was dependent on both the induction and challenge concentrations. The EC50 (concentration at which delayed contact dermatitis was seen in 50% of the population) for induction at a challenge concentration of 2000 ppm a.i., a nonirritating concentration, was estimated to be 88 ppm a.i. with a slope of 3.47 probits/unit log concentration. The EC50 for elicitation at an induction concentration of 1000 ppm a.i. was estimated to be 429 ppm a.i. with a slope of 2.74 probits/unit log concentration. These data demonstrate that for Kathon biocide, there is an induction/elicitation concentration dependency for delayed contact dermatitis response, and there is a "no response concentration" zone where the biocide can be used without concern for clinically significant delayed contact dermatitis. In comparison with a previous study, these data also suggest that the number of induction doses may be an important factor in demonstrating the sensitization potential of a chemical.

  2. Prolonged exposure of guinea pigs to sulfuric acid aerosol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, M.D.; Hendricks, R.H.; Gunn, F.D.; Critchlow, J.

    1958-01-01

    Guinea pigs were exposed to 1 to 4 mg/m/sup 3/, or sometimes 21 to 26 mg/m/sup 3/ acid aerosol with fine (0.59 ..mu..m), medium (0.93 ..mu..m), medium coarse (3.58 ..mu..m) or coarse (4.28 ..mu..m) particle sizes continuously for 18 to 139 days. Accidental overexposure killed 21 of 45. No guinea pigs were killed by chronic treatments. In fact, histopathological examination revealed only minor and reversible changes.

  3. The monitoring of foodhandlers in Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuurkamp, G J; Bulungol, P K; Kereu, R K

    1990-06-01

    In early 1987 guidelines were re-enforced for pre-employment medicals and 6-monthly health checks on foodhandlers in the Ok Tedi mining project in Papua New Guinea. The health monitoring program was stepped up as a result of two typhoid cases imported from the highlands and catering subcontractors failing to comply with the necessary pre-placement medicals for foodhandlers. Highlanders made up 28% (49/174) of the Ok Tedi catering department's workforce in 1987. The initial screen of 155 foodhandlers and 85 non-foodhandlers in February 1987 showed 6-7% of each group asymptomatically harbouring Salmonella spp. or Shigella spp. A second survey of 160 foodhandlers in August, including private fast-food establishments, detected only one Shigella boydii infection at a local fast-food-takeaway shop. Salmonella typhi was not detected in foodhandlers but was isolated from two non-foodhandlers recently returned from the highlands; in one case this resulted in a contact becoming infected at Tabubil. Infected persons were treated accordingly and foodhandlers were relieved of catering duties until follow-up cultures proved negative. Helminth infections were detected in 38% (309/811) of the stool samples examined. The low prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides (2.5%) and Trichuris trichiura (1.1%) acquired locally, and a significant difference compared with outside groups supports the view that these species have recently been introduced to the North Fly (Ok Tedi) region. The majority of all Ascaris and Trichuris infections detected (61% and 73%, respectively) were found in highlanders, infection rates ranging from 3 to 15% depending on province of origin. Infections were treated accordingly to prevent possible transmission via food.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Comparative pharmacokinetics of aminoglycoside antibiotics in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, M; Parravicini, L; Assael, B M; Cavanna, G; Radwanski, E; Symchowicz, S

    1982-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of netilmicin, gentamicin, and tobramycin in plasma and in perilymph of guinea pigs were studied after a single intravenous injection of 40 mg/kg. Detailed pharmacokinetic analysis of the plasma drug concentration-time data up to 36 h after the intravenous dose revealed that the pharmacokinetics of the aminoglycoside antibiotics can be best described as a three-compartment open model. The disposition half-lives (t1/2) in plasma of the three antibiotics were comparable and within the following ranges: t1/2 alpha of 0.09 to 0.16 h; t1/2 beta of 0.88 to 1.01 h; and t1/2 gamma of 7.87 to 8.29 h. The volume of distribution in the central compartment and the total body clearance of netilmicin (294 ml/kg, 5.74 ml/min per kg) were greater than those of gentamicin (160 ml/kg, 3.40 ml/min per kg) and tobramycin (204 ml/kg, 4.63 ml/min per kg). Pharmacokinetic analysis of the perilymph drug concentration-time data indicated that all three antibiotics penetrated the perilymph readily, but netilmicin cleared from the perilymph compartment faster than gentamicin and tobramycin. The maximum perilymph drug concentrations were 4.17, 8.05, and 6.78 micrograms/ml and occurred at 1, 2, and 4 h for netilmicin, gentamicin, and tobramycin, respectively. The ratio of area under the curve of perilymph to plasma was lowest for netilmicin (0.27), followed by gentamicin (0.39) and tobramycin (0.57). These results suggest that the differences in pharmacokinetics and concentrations of netilmicin in the perilymph may account for less ototoxic liability of netilmicin compared with gentamicin and tobramycin. PMID:7159067

  5. [Gunshot wounds of the head in soldiers wearing military helmets-- general aspects and experiments and observations on the biomechanics and wound morphology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missliwetz, J; Wieser, I

    1989-01-01

    With respect to wound ballistics, the situation is different if the person wearing a military helmet suffers head injuries from a bullet. The mechanisms of injury were investigated in four experimental series and supplemented by a case history. The study showed surprising results: in the majority of cases, the helmet does not protect the wearer, but instead intensifies the damage caused by the bullet. The reasons for this phenomena are changes in the stability of the projectile and deformation of or damage to the bullet. All of these mechanisms result in the bullet striking the tissue with higher energy. In this investigation, Kevlar helmets were also tested, which are not penetrated by 9 X 19 mm parabellum bullets. Even so, however, severe injuries of the skull and brain can occur because the projectile causes intensified impressions on the skull under the helmet and, in addition, an acceleration of the head.

  6. North Caucasian helmets from the Crimean Tatar Nobility from the Museum of Topkapi Palace (Istanbul, Turkey. Design Features, Design and Combat Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid A. Bobrov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the helmets of the Crimean Tatar nobility stored in the Museum of Topkapi Palace (Istanbul, Republic of Turkey. Based on the analysis of design and system design determined that hats were made of Circassian masters of the XVIII century. Helmet No. 1/810 in shape of the dome relates to the type of bevel. Forged a gilded crown complemented by ornamented Hoop, pads, conical pommel, and ringed barmitsa Persian type. In Cherkessia similar hats were known as Tang (from the Arab. "the Taj", i.e. "crown". It is most likely that the owner of the helmet was the last Noureddine Crimean khanate, Bahadir Giray (1789-1792 was the son of MuminGirei (?-1747 and grandson of Khan Saadet Giray IV (1717-1724. Helmet No. 1/812по the shape of a dome refers to the type of conal. Forged iron gilded crown complemented by ornamented Hoop, plates and funnel-shaped topping. Dome placed on the manufacture date of the helmet – "1180 of the Hijra" (i.e., 1766-1767 in the Gregorian calendar, as well as the inscription: "Owner Sultan Ali", "Muhammad Giray", "Mansour". Helmet No. 1/811по the shape of a dome refers to the type of cylindrical. Faceted iron supplemented gilt crown ornamented Hoop, conical pommel and Aventail Persian type. On the front of hats placed the inscription, "Sultan Mohammed Ibn AdilGiray". This suggests that the owner of the helmet could be the son of Nureddin (1718, serasker Budjaka and Editcol (1727-1728 Adil Ibn Selim I Giray or seraskier EditcolAdil Ibn Selim III Giray (1766-1767. In the framework of the interdisciplinary research were made copies of these helmets, which have become the object of scientific experiments aimed at the study of the functional properties of the considered hats. According to the results of the experimental tests it was found that all three of the helmet provide very reliable protection of the head and neck of the warrior from the cutting and cut-and-cutting blows of the enemy. The saber blade

  7. Cartilage Degeneration, Subchondral Mineral and Meniscal Mineral Densities in Hartley and Strain 13 Guinea Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yubo; Scannell, Brian P; Honeycutt, Patrick R; Mauerhan, David R; H, James Norton; Hanley, Edward N

    2015-01-01

    Osteoarthritis is a joint disease involved in articular cartilage, subchondral bone, meniscus and synovial membrane. This study sought to examine cartilage degeneration, subchondral bone mineral density (BMD) and meniscal mineral density (MD) in male Hartley, female Hartley and female strain 13 guinea pigs to determine the association of cartilage degeneration with subchondral BMD and meniscal MD. Cartilage degeneration, subchondral BMD and meniscal MD in 12 months old guinea pigs were examined with histochemistry, X-ray densitometry and calcium analysis. We found that male Hartley guinea pigs had more severe cartilage degeneration, subchondral BMD and meniscal MD than female Hartley guinea pigs, but not female strain 13 guinea pigs. Female strain 13 guinea pigs had more severe cartilage degeneration and higher subchondral BMD, but not meniscal MD, than female Hartley guinea pigs. These findings indicate that higher subchondral BMD, not meniscal MD, is associated with more severe cartilage degeneration in the guinea pigs and suggest that abnormal subchondral BMD may be a therapeutic target for OA treatment. These findings also indicate that the pathogenesis of OA in the male guinea pigs and female guinea pigs are different. Female strain 13 guinea pig may be used to study female gender-specific pathogenesis of OA.

  8. High Prevalence of Antibodies against the Bacterium Treponema pallidum in Senegalese Guinea Baboons (Papio papio.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sascha Knauf

    Full Text Available The bacterium Treponema pallidum is known to cause syphilis (ssp. pallidum, yaws (ssp. pertenue, and endemic syphilis (ssp. endemicum in humans. Nonhuman primates have also been reported to be infected with the bacterium with equally versatile clinical manifestations, from severe skin ulcerations to asymptomatic. At present all simian strains are closely related to human yaws-causing strains, an important consideration for yaws eradication. We tested clinically healthy Guinea baboons (Papio papio at Parc National Niokolo Koba in south eastern Senegal for the presence of anti-T. pallidum antibodies. Since T. pallidum infection in this species was identified 50 years ago, and there has been no attempt to treat non-human primates for infection, it was hypothesized that a large number of West African baboons are still infected with simian strains of the yaws-bacterium. All animals were without clinical signs of treponematoses, but 18 of 20 (90% baboons tested positive for antibodies against T. pallidum based on treponemal tests. Yet, Guinea baboons seem to develop no clinical symptoms, though it must be assumed that infection is chronic or comparable to the latent stage in human yaws infection. The non-active character is supported by the low anti-T. pallidum serum titers in Guinea baboons (median = 1:2,560 versus serum titers that are found in genital-ulcerated olive baboons with active infection in Tanzania (range of medians among the groups of initial, moderate, and severe infected animals = 1:15,360 to 1:2.097e+7. Our findings provide evidence for simian infection with T. pallidum in wild Senegalese baboons. Potentially, Guinea baboons in West Africa serve as a natural reservoir for human infection, as the West African simian strain has been shown to cause sustainable yaws infection when inoculated into humans. The present study pinpoints an area where further research is needed to support the currently on-going second WHO led yaws eradication

  9. The emergence and current performance of a health research system: lessons from Guinea Bissau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kok Maarten O

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about how health research systems (HRS in low-income countries emerge and evolve over time, and how this process relates to their performance. Understanding how HRSs emerge is important for the development of well functioning National Health Research Systems (NHRS. The aim of this study was to assess how the HRS in Guinea Bissau has emerged and evolved over time and how the present system functions. Methods We used a qualitative case-study methodology to explore the emergence and current performance of the HRS, using the NHRS framework. We reviewed documents and carried out 39 in-depth interviews, ranging from health research to policy and practice stakeholders. Using an iterative approach, we undertook a thematic analysis of the data. Results The research practices in Guinea Bissau led to the emergence of a HRS with both local and international links and strong dependencies on international partners and donors. The post-colonial, volatile and resource-dependent context, changes in donor policies, training of local researchers and nature of the research findings influenced how the HRS evolved. Research priorities have mostly been set by 'expatriate' researchers and focused on understanding and reducing child mortality. Research funding is almost exclusively provided by foreign donors and international agencies. The training of Guinean researchers started in the mid-nineties and has since reinforced the links with the health system, broadened the research agenda and enhanced local use of research. While some studies have made an important contribution to global health, the use of research within Guinea Bissau has been constrained by the weak and donor dependent health system, volatile government, top-down policies of international agencies, and the controversial nature of some of the research findings. Conclusions In Guinea Bissau a de facto 'system' of research has emerged through research practices and co

  10. Economcis of cattle fattening with crop residues in Northern Guinea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to investigate the economics of Cattle fattening with crop residues in Northern Guinea Savannah Ecological Zone of Nigeria, Data were collected from 100 respondents between January to December, 1999 using simple random sampling technique. Interview method was employed. The data were ...

  11. Plague in Guinea Pigs and Its Prevention by Subunit Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quenee, Lauriane E.; Ciletti, Nancy; Berube, Bryan; Krausz, Thomas; Elli, Derek; Hermanas, Timothy; Schneewind, Olaf

    2011-01-01

    Human pneumonic plague is a devastating and transmissible disease for which a Food and Drug Administration–approved vaccine is not available. Suitable animal models may be adopted as a surrogate for human plague to fulfill regulatory requirements for vaccine efficacy testing. To develop an alternative to pneumonic plague in nonhuman primates, we explored guinea pigs as a model system. On intranasal instillation of a fully virulent strain, Yersinia pestis CO92, guinea pigs developed lethal lung infections with hemorrhagic necrosis, massive bacterial replication in the respiratory system, and blood-borne dissemination to other organ systems. Expression of the Y. pestis F1 capsule was not required for the development of pulmonary infection; however, the capsule seemed to be important for the establishment of bubonic plague. The mean lethal dose (MLD) for pneumonic plague in guinea pigs was estimated to be 1000 colony-forming units. Immunization of guinea pigs with the recombinant forms of LcrV, a protein that resides at the tip of Yersinia type III secretion needles, or F1 capsule generated robust humoral immune responses. Whereas LcrV immunization resulted in partial protection against pneumonic plague challenge with 250 MLD Y. pestis CO92, immunization with recombinant F1 did not. rV10, a vaccine variant lacking LcrV residues 271-300, elicited protection against pneumonic plague, which seemed to be based on conformational antibodies directed against LcrV. PMID:21406168

  12. Contraction Of Isolated Guinea Pig Ileum By Tephrosia vogelii Extract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An investigation was carried out on the isolated guinea pig ileum, using the crude methanolic leaf extract of Tephrosia vogelii Hook. f., and with the aim of determining its effects on contraction of intestinal smooth muscle. Modified Magnus technique was employed in setting up the tissue. Acetylcholine (ACh), histamine and ...

  13. Virus and Vaccine with the Immune Responses of Guinea Fowls

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    ABSTRACT. The interference of Infectious bursal disease (IBD) virus and vaccine with the immune response of the grey brested guinea fowl (Numida meleagridis galeata palas) to Newcastle desease (ND) “LaSota” vaccine was studied using hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test for detection of ND virus antibody and agar.

  14. Evaluation of community-based surveillance for Guinea worm, South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-08-03

    Aug 3, 2012 ... are at risk but the 14-45 year age group is most affected because of their greater mobility. [4]. ... 95% of global dracunculiasis. Methods and Materials: We used the Students field guide for surveillance evaluation to assess ... Surveillance Evaluation Student Guide [5] in selected endemic guinea worm areas.

  15. Reflections on the Fiftieth Reunion of the Guinea Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loud, Oliver

    1988-01-01

    A member of the original faculty of the experimental Ohio State University Laboratory High School reflects at a fiftieth reunion of the first graduating class. Students were used as guinea pigs to determine the effects of providing teenagers with liberating, interesting, and customized education from university faculty. (SM)

  16. Guinea pig ductus arteriosus. II - Irreversible closure after birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, F. S.; Cooke, P. H.

    1972-01-01

    To investigate the mechanism underlying irreversibility of ductal closure after birth, studies were undertaken to determine the exact time course for the onset of irreversible closure of the guinea pig ductus arteriosus. Parallel studies of the reactivity of ductal smooth muscle to oxygen and studies of the postpartum cellular changes within the vessel were also carried out.

  17. Cytological Determination Of The Estrus Cycle In Guinea Pigs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cytologic study was carried out to determine the Estrus cycle in 5 female guinea pigs of reproductive age, for a period of 28 days in the Animal House of the College of Medicine, University of Nigeria, Enugu Campus, Enugu. Vaginal smears were collected from the animals and made on clean grease-free slides, fixed in ...

  18. Spontaneous cyclic embryonic movements in humans and guinea pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Felt, R.H.; Mulder, E.J.; Lüchinger, A.M.; van Kan, C.M.; Taverne, M.A.; de Vries, J.I.P.

    2012-01-01

    Motility assessment before birth can be used to evaluate the integrity of the nervous system. Sideways bending (SB) of head and/or rump, the earliest embryonic motility in both humans and guinea pigs, can be visualized sonographically. We know from other species that early embryonic motility is

  19. Field calibration of alfisol soil in Guinea Savannahof Northern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... for calibration of capacitance probe (Diviner2000) for use in alfisol soil in Northern Guinea Savanna of Nigeria. Changes in the resonant frequency of the circuit depend on changes in the capacitance of the soil-access tube system. Keywords: Capacitance probe, Diviner 2000, volumetric water contents,scale frequency.

  20. Wages in Guinea. WageIndicator survey 2012

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besamusca, J.; Tijdens, K.; Ngeh Tingum, E.; Diallo, H.

    2013-01-01

    This WageIndicator Data Report presents the results of the face-to-face survey on wages and working conditions in Guinea, conducted between the 13th of September and 2nd of October 2012. In total 1,962 persons were interviewed, the majority in urban areas. More male than female workers were

  1. Good Order at Sea in the Gulf of Guinea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordby, Johannes Riber; Lindskov Jacobsen, Katja

    In this chapter, we first outline the maritime security situation in the Gulf of Guinea region at present. It is examined in the context of Good Order at Sea. Second, we describe the most recent maritime security initiative launched during the Yaoundé Summit in 2013. During the summit, West and C...

  2. Guinea: Background and Relations with the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-22

    21 Security Assistance and Counter-Narcotics Cooperation ... cooperation programs. ECOWAS and the AU, both of which have policies against accepting non-constitutional changes of power, condemned the coup and...des Membres du Gouvernement de Kabiné Komara,” January 14, 2009. 33 BBC News Online, “Troops Crawl After Guinea Attack,” July 24, 2009; United Nations

  3. The genus Cotula (Asteraceae) in New Guinea. Sertulum Papuanum 21

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Royen, van P.; Lloyd, D.

    1975-01-01

    In the course of studying the Asteraceae for a proposed Alpine Flora of New Guinea the first author selected the genus Cotula for this separate paper as it showed some variability that was not easily explained. While working on this, Dr. Lloyd’s paper on the genus in the New Zealand Journal of

  4. Further notes on the spiders of New Guinea I (Argyopidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chrysanthus, Fr.

    1971-01-01

    In this paper several collections of spiders are dealt with, originating from New Guinea, Bismarck Arch., Solomon Is., and from islands of the Great Barrier Reef and in the Coral Sea. Descriptions, figures and/or remarks are given of the following species: Argyope aemula (Walckenaer), A. aetherea

  5. Eudynamis Minima, an apparently new Cuckoo from Southwestern New Guinea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oort, van E.D.

    1911-01-01

    Only an adult male of this apparently new form of the genus Eudynamis has been collected near Bivak Island, in the Noord River, Southwestern New Guinea, at 9 January 1910 by the members of the last Lorentz-expedition to the snowy mountains. (Coll. Lorentz n°. 508). The plumage is black, glossed with

  6. Nutrient deficiencies of agricultural crops in Papua New Guinea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartemink, A.E.; Bourke, R.M.

    2000-01-01

    In Papua New Guinea the population is growing faster than the area under cultivation. As a result, land use is being intensified and soil nutrient depletion may occur, resulting in nutrient deficiencies of agricultural crops. This paper reviews nutrient deficiencies in the agricultural crops of

  7. Evaluation of community-based surveillance for Guinea worm, South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Guinea worm disease (dracunculiasis) is an ancient parasitic disease and is set to be the next disease eradicated from the world and the first to be overcome without a vaccine or treatment. South Sudan and Ghana account for more than 95% of global dracunculiasis. Methods and Materials: We used the ...

  8. Folk Opera: Stories Crossing Borders in Papua New Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haseman, B.; Baldwin, A.; Linthwaite, H.

    2014-01-01

    The Life Drama project is a drama-based sexual health promotion project, developed by a cross-cultural research team in Papua New Guinea (PNG) over the past four years. Recognising the limitations of established theatre-in-education and theatre-for-development approaches when working across cultures, the research team explored ways of tapping into…

  9. Changing pattern of malaria in Bissau, Guinea Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigues, Amabelia; Schellenberg, Joanna Armstrong; Kofoed, Poul-Erik

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the epidemiology of malaria in Guinea-Bissau, in view of the fact that more funds are available now for malaria control in the country. METHODS: From May 2003 to May 2004, surveillance for malaria was conducted among children less than 5 years of age at three health centres...

  10. Guinea worm disease and its persistence in some rural communities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies were carried out in six villages of Ogun State, Nigeria, from January to December 2004 to identify the reasons for the persistence of guinea worm disease in spite of eradication measures. Pre-tested structured questionnaires were administered to 250 head of households in the endemic villages to assess their ...

  11. Prevalence and awareness of diabetes in Guinea: findings from a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims: The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of diabetes, and to assess its awareness and related risk factors among adult Guineans. Methods: A population-based cross-sectional survey was conducted on 1 100 adults (46.6% women) aged 35–64 years from Lower Guinea, during September to ...

  12. Plague in Guinea pigs and its prevention by subunit vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quenee, Lauriane E; Ciletti, Nancy; Berube, Bryan; Krausz, Thomas; Elli, Derek; Hermanas, Timothy; Schneewind, Olaf

    2011-04-01

    Human pneumonic plague is a devastating and transmissible disease for which a Food and Drug Administration-approved vaccine is not available. Suitable animal models may be adopted as a surrogate for human plague to fulfill regulatory requirements for vaccine efficacy testing. To develop an alternative to pneumonic plague in nonhuman primates, we explored guinea pigs as a model system. On intranasal instillation of a fully virulent strain, Yersinia pestis CO92, guinea pigs developed lethal lung infections with hemorrhagic necrosis, massive bacterial replication in the respiratory system, and blood-borne dissemination to other organ systems. Expression of the Y. pestis F1 capsule was not required for the development of pulmonary infection; however, the capsule seemed to be important for the establishment of bubonic plague. The mean lethal dose (MLD) for pneumonic plague in guinea pigs was estimated to be 1000 colony-forming units. Immunization of guinea pigs with the recombinant forms of LcrV, a protein that resides at the tip of Yersinia type III secretion needles, or F1 capsule generated robust humoral immune responses. Whereas LcrV immunization resulted in partial protection against pneumonic plague challenge with 250 MLD Y. pestis CO92, immunization with recombinant F1 did not. rV10, a vaccine variant lacking LcrV residues 271-300, elicited protection against pneumonic plague, which seemed to be based on conformational antibodies directed against LcrV. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A new cavernicolous freshwater crab from New Guinea (Crustacea Decapoda)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holthuis, L.B.

    1980-01-01

    Through the kindness of Mr. Philip Chapman of Culford, Bury St. Edmunds, Suffolk, it was made possible for me to examine a male and a female of a species of cavernicolous crab from the Western Highlands of Papua New Guinea, collected there by Mr. N. Plumley. The species proved to be new to science

  14. Economics of Soybean Production Technology in the Guinea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the economics of soybean production technology in the Guinea Savanna of Nigeria within the framework of small scale farming households using rain-fed soybean production technology, The study measured the rate of compliance with the recommended package, profitability of, as well as the technical ...

  15. Remuneration disparities in Oceania: Papua New Guinea and Solomon Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marai, Leo; Kewibu, Vincent; Kinkin, Elly; Peter Peniop, John; Salini, Christian; Kofana, Genesis

    2010-10-01

    This paper explores the impact of remuneration differences on workers in the Solomon Islands and Papua New Guinea. In these countries remunerative differences are linked to government policy (in Papua New Guinea) and job contracts (in the Solomon Islands), and have impacted on industrial relations in both settings (strike action). A total of N = 350 professionals (n = 60 expatriates) from 54 organizations in aid, government, higher education and industry (mean response rate = 36%) responded to an organizational survey form. Remuneration ratios between international and local respondents based on the World Bank's index of purchasing power parity approached 9:1. In both sites staff compared pay and benefits (remuneration) packages: Internationally remunerated staff rated their ability higher than their local counterparts did; locally remunerated groups reported more injustice in remuneration, were more demotivated by the gaps, and were more likely to be thinking about leaving the organization. In-country workshops of N = 40 largely local stakeholders from aid and community organizations plus government ministries considered the survey's findings and recommended: in Solomon Islands, (a) introducing a policy of localization, (b) establishing a remuneration commission (already existent in Papua New Guinea), and (c) reducing the remunerative gap; in Papua New Guinea, (d) reversing the post-Independence "dual pay system" (currently official policy), (e) instituting pay-for-performance, and (f) ensuring the existent localization policy is applied to recruitment, selection, and staff career planning and management.

  16. Piper (Piperaceae) in New Guinea: the non-climbing species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gardner, R.O.

    2003-01-01

    A taxonomic account is given of six Piper species of New Guinea: P. bolanicum spec. nov., P. gibbil­imbum, P. recessum spec. nov., P. subbullatum, P. triangulare and P. wabagense. These small shrubby trees are best represented in secondary growth and forest at 1300–2500 m altitude, with P.

  17. Improved Method for Culturing Guinea-Pig Macrophage Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, J.

    1982-01-01

    Proper nutrients and periodic changes in culture medium maintain cell viability for a longer period. New method uses a thioglycolate solution, instead of mineral oil, to induce macrophage cells in guinea pigs and also uses an increased percent of fetal-calf bovine serum in cultivation medium. Macrophage cells play significant roles in the body's healing and defense systems.

  18. Guinea vulture sanctuary a first in Africa | Anon | Vulture News

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Guinea vulture sanctuary a first in Africa. Anon. Abstract. No Abstract. Vulture News Vol. 56 () 2007: pp.86-87. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors ...

  19. Novel avian coronavirus and fulminating disease in guinea fowl, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liais, Etienne; Croville, Guillaume; Mariette, Jérôme; Delverdier, Maxence; Lucas, Marie-Noëlle; Klopp, Christophe; Lluch, Jérôme; Donnadieu, Cécile; Guy, James S; Corrand, Léni; Ducatez, Mariette F; Guérin, Jean-Luc

    2014-01-01

    For decades, French guinea fowl have been affected by fulminating enteritis of unclear origin. By using metagenomics, we identified a novel avian gammacoronavirus associated with this disease that is distantly related to turkey coronaviruses. Fatal respiratory diseases in humans have recently been caused by coronaviruses of animal origin.

  20. Extract On Acid Induced Corneal Burn In Guinea Pigs

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cucumber is the edible fruit of the cucumber plant, Cucumis Sativus. Cucumber is used for skin treatment and natural beautification. It is called a cool fruit which effect is believed to bring relief to the eyes in summer. Thirty six guinea pigs between ages 17-20weeks and weight 0.4-0.7kg had their cornea induced with acid ...

  1. Maritime Security and Capacity Building in The Gulf of Guinea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Katja Lindskov

    2017-01-01

    It is widely acknowledged that maritime security in the Gulf of Guinea is a highly complex phenomenon, involving a variety issues (legal deficiencies, inadequate military equipment, and challenges like corruption, political unrest, youth unemployment etc.) as well as a multiplicity of external...

  2. Notes on New Guinea Rubiaceae. Versteegia and Maschalodesme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ridsdale, C.E.; Bakhuizen van den Brink, R.C.; Koek-Noorman, J.

    1972-01-01

    Within the rain forests of New Guinea there are many small pachycaul treelets belonging to the Rubiaceae. Generally these are rare in occurrence and poorly represented in the herbarium, due in part to the problem of protecting rami- or cauliflorous flowers and fruits during routine processing and

  3. The species of Stegonotus (Serpentes, Colubridae) in Papua New Guinea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mcdowell, S.B.

    1972-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Currently, New Guinea Stegonotus with 17 scales at midbody and divided subcaudals are identified as S. modestus. But this will not account for the disparity in dentition within "S. modestus", nor the colour differences even at one locality, nor that in East and West Sepik Districts

  4. The Differential Effects of a Selective Kappa-Opioid Receptor Agonist, U50488, in Guinea Pig Heart Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Feng Hung

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The differential effects of a selective kappa- (κ- opioid receptor agonist, U50488, were elucidated by monitoring the contraction of isolated guinea pig atrial and ventricular muscles. In electrically driven left atria, U50488 in nanomolar concentration range decreased the contractile force. Norbinaltorphimine (norBNI, a selective κ-receptor antagonist, and pertussis toxin (PTX abolished the negative inotropic effect of U50488. In contrast, the inhibitory effect was not affected by the pretreatment of atropine or propranolol. Even though U50488 exerted a negative inotropic effect in the left atrium, it did not affect the contractile force of the right atrium and ventricles paced at 2 Hz. Similarly, the beating rate of the spontaneously beating right atrium was also unaffected by U50488. These results indicate that the activation of κ-opioid receptors can only produce negative inotropic effect in left atria via activation of PTX-sensitive G protein in guinea pigs. The absence of negative inotropic effects in right atria and ventricles suggests that there may be a greater distribution of functional κ-opioid receptors in guinea pig left atria than in right atria and ventricles, and the distribution of the receptors may be species-specific.

  5. Petroleum service projects in the Gulf of Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ken-Worgu, Kenneth Chukwumeka

    2011-07-01

    The goal of this record of study is to examine the major facets involved in managing several petroleum service projects located in three different countries in the Gulf of Guinea simultaneously, while effectively engaging in business development activities for the Oil and Industrial Services Group (OIS). This work also furnishes adequate background on related subject matters to enable understanding of the projects presented. The petroleum services sector is the back bone of the oil and gas industry. Services companies are vital to the success of all petroleum and energy producers in the USA, the Gulf of Guinea and the world. There is a need and demand for these service companies because they play various roles such as logistics, drilling, construction, dredging, pipe laying, procurement, food supply, human resource supply, etc. The Gulf of Guinea comprises of countries from west and central Africa. This project was limited to Nigeria, Equatorial Guinea and Cameroon. This area holds the largest petroleum reserves in Africa and plays a vital role in the global supply of petroleum. The Oil and Industrial Services Group (OIS), plans to establish herself as one of the leading petroleum service companies in this gulf. To manage this expansion, I have taken the role of Gulf of Guinea manager to apply my background as a petroleum engineer as well as my business skills to build a successful division of the company. This work provides a record of study of the management of services, projects and contracts carried out by the OIS group in the gulf of Guinea. The following are the specific projects in the Gulf of Guinea that I participated in: Managing delivering, maintenance and marketing of offshore vessels, Offshore pipe laying project, Integrated pipeline maintenance project, Development a petroleum technical training facilities, Agbami pipe insulation project, Engineering lift project and Capital budgeting analysis for potential investments. The details of the specific

  6. Electrically-evoked frequency-following response (EFFR) in the auditory brainstem of guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wenxin; Ding, Xiuyong; Zhang, Ruxiang; Chen, Jing; Zhang, Daoxing; Wu, Xihong

    2014-01-01

    It is still a difficult clinical issue to decide whether a patient is a suitable candidate for a cochlear implant and to plan postoperative rehabilitation, especially for some special cases, such as auditory neuropathy. A partial solution to these problems is to preoperatively evaluate the functional integrity of the auditory neural pathways. For evaluating the strength of phase-locking of auditory neurons, which was not reflected in previous methods using electrically evoked auditory brainstem response (EABR), a new method for recording phase-locking related auditory responses to electrical stimulation, called the electrically evoked frequency-following response (EFFR), was developed and evaluated using guinea pigs. The main objective was to assess feasibility of the method by testing whether the recorded signals reflected auditory neural responses or artifacts. The results showed the following: 1) the recorded signals were evoked by neuron responses rather than by artifact; 2) responses evoked by periodic signals were significantly higher than those evoked by the white noise; 3) the latency of the responses fell in the expected range; 4) the responses decreased significantly after death of the guinea pigs; and 5) the responses decreased significantly when the animal was replaced by an electrical resistance. All of these results suggest the method was valid. Recording obtained using complex tones with a missing fundamental component and using pure tones with various frequencies were consistent with those obtained using acoustic stimulation in previous studies.

  7. Efficacy comparison of scopolamine (SCP) and diazepam (DZ) against soman-induced lethality in guinea pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, L.W.; Gennings, C.; Carter, W.H.; Anderson, D.R.; Lennox, W.J.

    1994-12-31

    Diazepam (DZ) and scopolamine (SCP) are known to be beneficial when each is used in combination with atropine (AT) + oxime therapy against intoxication by soman, but the efficacy of each might be expected to vary with the dosage of AT. Thus, the therapeutic efficacy of SCP (5 doses; 0 - 0.86 mg/kg) versus DZ (5 doses; 0 - 5 mg/kg), when used in conjunction with AT (3 doses; 0.5 - S mg/kg) + 2-PAM (25 mg/kg) therapy, was tested in groups of pyridostigmine pretreated guinea pigs exposed to 1.6, 2.0, 2.5 or 3.2 LD5Os of soman. Response surface methodology was employed to describe the relationship between lethality and the AT/DZ or AT/SCP dosages. Results show that within the indicated dose ranges used, the efficacy of SCP is not dependent on the presence of AT, whereas AT is needed for DZ to maintain the lowest probability of death. These findings suggest that in guinea pigs SCP could supplement AT or replace DZ as therapy against nerve agent intoxication.

  8. Efficacy comparison of scopolamine and diazepam against soman-induced debilitation in guinea pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, D.R.; Gennings, C.; Carter, W.H.; Harris, L.W.; Lennox, W.J.

    1994-12-31

    The efficacy of diazepam (DZ) and scopolamine (SCP), in combination with atropine (ATR) + oxime therapy, against soman-induced seizure/convulsive activity and associated brain damage has been demonstrated, but the efficacy of each against the incapacitating effects of soman has not been addressed. Thus, the therapeutic efficacies of SCP (5 doses; 0-0.86 mg/kg) and DZ (5 doses; 0-5 mg/kg), when each was used in conjunction with ATR (3 doses; 0.5-8 mg/kg) + 2-PAM (25 mg/kg) therapy, were compared in groups of pyridostigmine pretreated guinea pigs exposed to 1.6, 2.0, 2.5, or 3.2 LD5Os of soman. Response surface methodology was employed to describe the relationship between soman-induced incapacitation and the ATR/DZ or ATRISCP dosages. Incapacitation was measured by toxicity scores assigned by three graders to test animals at 60 min postsoman. Results show that as the dosage of SCP increased, the mean toxicity scores decreased. Also, within the indicated dose ranges used, the efficacy of SCP was not dependent on the presence of ATR. In contrast, ATR alone was found to be more effective than when combined with DZ at any dose, and indicates that DZ might be temporarily contributing to soman-induced incapacitation. These findings suggest that in guinea pigs, SCP could replace ATR or DZ, or both, as therapy against soman-induced incapacitation.

  9. Genetic diversity and population structure of the Guinea pig (Cavia porcellus, Rodentia, caviidae in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Burgos-Paz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to establish the genetic diversity and population structure of three guinea pig lines, from seven production zones located in Nariño, southwest Colombia. A total of 384 individuals were genotyped with six microsatellite markers. The measurement of intrapopulation diversity revealed allelic richness ranging from 3.0 to 6.56, and observed heterozygosity (Ho from 0.33 to 0.60, with a deficit in heterozygous individuals. Although statistically significant (p < 0.05, genetic differentiation between population pairs was found to be low. Genetic distance, as well as clustering of guinea-pig lines and populations, coincided with the historical and geographical distribution of the populations. Likewise, high genetic identity between improved and native lines was established. An analysis of group probabilistic assignment revealed that each line should not be considered as a genetically homogeneous group. The findings corroborate the absorption of native genetic material into the improved line introduced into Colombia from Peru. It is necessary to establish conservation programs for native-line individuals in Nariño, and control genealogical and production records in order to reduce the inbreeding values in the populations.

  10. The temporal representation of speech in a nonlinear model of the guinea pig cochlea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Stephen D.; Sumner, Christian J.; O'Mard, Lowel P.; Meddis, Ray

    2004-12-01

    The temporal representation of speechlike stimuli in the auditory-nerve output of a guinea pig cochlea model is described. The model consists of a bank of dual resonance nonlinear filters that simulate the vibratory response of the basilar membrane followed by a model of the inner hair cell/auditory nerve complex. The model is evaluated by comparing its output with published physiological auditory nerve data in response to single and double vowels. The evaluation includes analyses of individual fibers, as well as ensemble responses over a wide range of best frequencies. In all cases the model response closely follows the patterns in the physiological data, particularly the tendency for the temporal firing pattern of each fiber to represent the frequency of a nearby formant of the speech sound. In the model this behavior is largely a consequence of filter shapes; nonlinear filtering has only a small contribution at low frequencies. The guinea pig cochlear model produces a useful simulation of the measured physiological response to simple speech sounds and is therefore suitable for use in more advanced applications including attempts to generalize these principles to the response of human auditory system, both normal and impaired. .

  11. Color Helmet Mounted Display System with Real Time Computer Generated and Video Imagery for In-Flight Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Kevin; Jacobsen, Robert; Aiken, Edwin W. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    NASA Ames Research Center and the US Army are developing the Rotorcraft Aircrew Systems Concepts Airborne Laboratory (RASCAL) using a Sikorsky UH-60 helicopter for the purpose of flight systems research. A primary use of the RASCAL is in-flight simulation for which the visual scene will use computer generated imagery and synthetic vision. This research is made possible in part to a full color wide field of view Helmet Mounted Display (HMD) system that provides high performance color imagery suitable for daytime operations in a flight-rated package. This paper describes the design and performance characteristics of the HMD system. Emphasis is placed on the design specifications, testing, and integration into the aircraft of Kaiser Electronics' RASCAL HMD system that was designed and built under contract for NASA. The optical performance and design of the Helmet mounted display unit will be discussed as well as the unique capabilities provided by the system's Programmable Display Generator (PDG).

  12. Intrabiliary pressure changes produced by narcotic drugs and inhalation anesthetics in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arguelles, J E; Franatovic, Y; Romo-Salas, F; Aldrete, J A

    1979-01-01

    The effects of narcotic agents and two inhalation anesthetics on intrabiliary pressure (IBP) were measured before and after morphine (0.2 mg/kg), meperidine (2 mg/kg), fentanyl (0.002 mg/kg), or pentazocine (1 mg/kg) given intramuscularly to guinea pigs, and after halothane (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, or 2.0 MAC) or enflurane (same range of MAC) administered by inhalation. All narcotics except pentazocine significantly increase IBP, the increases ranging from 85.7% for meperidine to 143.4% for fentanyl. Pentazocine had no effect on IBP. Peak IBP increases occurred between 9 and 18 minutes after administration. The elevation of IBP produced by narcotics was reversed by atropine (0.05 mg/kg). No statistically significant alterations of IBP were noted during halothane or enflurane anesthesia.

  13. Modeling Of A Monocular, Full-Color, Laser-Scanning, Helmet-Mounted Display for Aviator Situational Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-27

    image on the left and 52% for the image on right. Color Contrast Thus far, all of the modeling has been performed with white light. Changing the...depicts four simulations each with different colored symbology. The white symbology in the image was judged a “++” in Figure A2-4 for the same...USAARL Report No. 2017-10 Modeling of a Monocular, Full- Color , Laser- Scanning, Helmet-Mounted Display for Aviator Situational Awareness By Thomas

  14. Failure Analysis Results and Corrective Actions Implemented for the Extravehicular Mobility Unit 3011 Water in the Helmet Mishap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, John; Metselaar, Carol; Peyton, Barbara; Rector, Tony; Rossato, Robert; Macias, Brian; Weigel, Dana; Holder, Don

    2015-01-01

    Water entered the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) helmet during extravehicular activity (EVA) no. 23 aboard the International Space Station on July 16, 2013, resulting in the termination of the EVA approximately 1 hour after it began. It was estimated that 1.5 liters of water had migrated up the ventilation loop into the helmet, adversely impacting the astronaut's hearing, vision, and verbal communication. Subsequent on-board testing and ground-based test, tear-down, and evaluation of the affected EMU hardware components determined that the proximate cause of the mishap was blockage of all water separator drum holes with a mixture of silica and silicates. The blockages caused a failure of the water separator degassing function, which resulted in EMU cooling water spilling into the ventilation loop, migrating around the circulating fan, and ultimately pushing into the helmet. The root cause of the failure was determined to be ground-processing shortcomings of the Airlock Cooling Loop Recovery (ALCLR) Ion Filter Beds, which led to various levels of contaminants being introduced into the filters before they left the ground. Those contaminants were thereafter introduced into the EMU hardware on-orbit during ALCLR scrubbing operations. This paper summarizes the failure analysis results along with identified process, hardware, and operational corrective actions that were implemented as a result of findings from this investigation.

  15. Effects of external helmet accessories on biomechanical measures of head injury risk: An ATD study using the HYBRIDIII headform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butz, Robert C; Knowles, Brooklynn M; Newman, James A; Dennison, Christopher R

    2015-11-05

    Competitive cycling is a popular activity in North America for which injuries to the head account for the majority of hospitalizations and fatalities. In cycling, use of helmet accessories (e.g. cameras) has become widespread. As a consequence, standards organizations and the popular media are discussing the role these accessories could play in altering helmet efficacy and head injury risk. We conducted impacts to a helmeted anthropomorphic headform, with and without camera accessories, at speeds of 4m/s and 6m/s, and measured head accelerations, forces on the head-form skull, and used the Simulated Injury Monitor to estimate brain tissue strain. The presence of the camera reduced peak linear head acceleration (51% - 4m/s impacts, 61% - 6m/s, p0.05) as were velocities (77%, p0.05) in 6m/s impacts with the camera accessory. Based on CSDM-25 for 4m/s tests, the risk of severe concussion was reduced (p0.05) from 18% (no camera) to 58% (camera). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Recognition of modified conditioning sounds by competitively trained guinea pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisayuki eOjima

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The guinea pig (GP is an often-used species in hearing research. However, behavioral studies are rare, especially in the context of sound recognition, because of difficulties in training these animals. We examined sound recognition in a social competitive setting in order to examine whether this setting could be used as an easy model. Two starved GPs were placed in the same training arena and compelled to compete for food after hearing a conditioning sound (CS, which was a repeat of almost identical sound segments. Through a two-week intensive training, animals were trained to demonstrate a set of distinct behaviors solely to the CS. Then, each of them was subjected to generalization tests for recognition of sounds that had been modified from the CS in spectral, fine temporal and tempo (i.e., intersegment interval, ISI dimensions. Results showed that they discriminated between the CS and band-rejected test sounds but had no preference for a particular frequency range for the recognition. In contrast, sounds modified in the fine temporal domain were largely perceived to be in the same category as the CS, except for the test sound generated by fully reversing the CS in time. Animals also discriminated sounds played at different tempos. Test sounds with ISIs shorter than that of the multi-segment CS were discriminated from the CS, while test sounds with ISIs longer than that of the CS segments were not. For the shorter ISIs, most animals initiated apparently positive food-access behavior as they did in response to the CS, but discontinued it during the sound-on period probably because of later recognition of tempo. Interestingly, the population range and mean of the delay time before animals initiated the food-access behavior were very similar among different ISI test sounds. This study, for the first time, demonstrates a wide aspect of sound discrimination abilities of the GP and will provide a way to examine tempo perception mechanisms using this

  17. Elevated Extravascular Lung Water Index (ELWI) as a Predictor of Failure of Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Via Helmet (Helmet-CPAP) in Patients With Acute Respiratory Failure After Major Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redondo Calvo, Francisco Javier; Bejarano Ramirez, Natalia; Uña Orejon, Rafael; Villazala Garcia, Ruben; Yuste Peña, Ana Sofia; Belda, Francisco Javier

    2015-11-01

    NIV is increasingly used for prevention and treatment of respiratory complications and failure. Some of them are admitted to the PACU with advanced hemodynamic monitors which allow quantification of Extravascular Lung Water (EVLW) by transpulmonary thermodilution technique (TPTD) and Pulmonary Vascular Permeability (PVP) providing information on lung edema. The objective of this study was to ascertain if EVLW Index and PVP Index may predict failure (intubation) or success (non-intubation) in patients developing acute respiratory failure (ARF) in the postoperative period following major abdominal surgery, where the first line of treatment was non-invasive continuous positive airway pressure via a helmet. Hemodynamic variables, EVLWI and PVPI were monitored with a transpulmonary thermodilution hemodynamic monitor device (PiCCO™) before and after the application of CPAP. Avoidance of intubation was observed in 66% of patients with Helmet-CPAP. In these patients after the first hour of application of CPAP, PaO2/FiO2 ratio significantly increased (303.33±65.2 vs. 141.6±14.6, P<.01). Before starting Helmet-CPAP values of EVLWI and PVPI were significantly lower in non-intubated patients (EVLWI 8.6±1.08 vs. 11.8±0.99ml/kg IBW, P<.01 and PVPI 1.7±0.56 vs. 3.0±0.88, P<.01). An optimal cut-off value for EVLWI was established at 9.5, and at 2.45 for PVPI (sensitivity of 0.7; specificity of 0.9, P<.01). In this type of patient the physiological parameters that predict the failure of Helmet-CPAP with the greatest accuracy were the value of the EVLWI and PVPI before Helmet-CPAP institution and the PaO2/FiO2 ratio and the respiratory rate after one hour of CPAP. Copyright © 2014 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  18. Tectonic and magmatic evolution of the Bismarck Sea, Papua New Guinea: Review and new synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Mook; Ruellan, Etienne

    The Bismarck Sea, located north of Papua New Guinea and just south of the equator, formed during the final stages of a long, complex geological development of the Melanesian Borderland, which resulted from Cenozoic convergence between the Australian and Pacific-Caroline Plates and the opening of back-arc basins. The sea, which straddles two oppositely facing trenches, the inactive Manus trench and the active New Britain trench, covers two basins, the New Guinea Basin to the west and the Manus Basin to the east. These basins are separated by the shallow Willaumez-Manus Rise, trending roughly from WNW to ESE. The origin of these major structural units and their relationship with the present-day zone of major seismicity along the Bismarck Sea Seismic Lineation remains unclear. A detailed examination of geophysical and geochemical data, combined with geologic and geodetic information from surrounding regions, attests that the Bismarck Sea went through some rather unusual events of back-arc development beginning in the middle Pliocene. Around 3.5 Ma, the northern tip of New Guinea came into contact with the Finisterre-Huon Range. The event triggered a back-arc opening that eventually divided the Bismarck seafloor into North and South Bismarck Plates. The rapid opening also caused an upwelling of anomalously hot upper mantle beneath the Bismarck Sea. A large volcanic outflow during this period may have contributed to the formation of the rise west of Manus Island. Both the North and South Bismarck Plates interacted with surrounding plates, and small and large changes may have occurred throughout their history. A sudden shift in local plate motion, perhaps caused by locking such as plate collision, may have caused the overlying lithosphere to decouple from the mantle upwelling. The Willaumez-Manus Rise was probably created under such circumstances when a large volume of rising magma leaked out along a strike-slip plate boundary linking the spreading centers in the New

  19. A method for determining 4-aminopyridine in plasma: pharmacokinetics in anaesthetized guinea pigs after intravenous administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capacio, B R; Byers, C E; Matthews, R L; Chang, F C

    1996-01-01

    An HPLC assay has been developed to measure 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) in guinea pig plasma. For the assay, all plasma samples (50 microL) were microfiltered following the addition of an internal standard (3,4-diaminopyridine). Filtrates (10 microL) were directly injected into a spherical silica column (100 x 2.1 mm; 5 microns); detection was achieved at 266 nm. Standard curves had correlation coefficients ranging from 0.9923 to 0.9992 and coefficients of variation expressed as a percentage (% CV) of below 8%. Precision was expressed as between-day and within-day variability of five test sample concentrations. Between-day % CV ranged from 4.0 to 6.5%. Within-day % CV ranged from 3.6 to 6.9%. Accuracy was assessed by examining expected within-day test sample concentrations against calculated concentrations; per cent errors were all below 10%. Stability studies demonstrated % CV below 5% after repeated freezing. The method was employed to study the pharmacokinetics of 4-AP after intravenous administration to anaesthetized guinea pigs. Serial blood samples (150 microL) were collected at predetermined time intervals up to 4 h post-4-AP (2 mg/kg, i.v.) administration. 4-AP demonstrated a biexponential decline in the plasma-concentration curve as a function of time indicating a two compartment model for this drug. Selected mean pharmacokinetic parameter estimates were alpha-half-life, 0.37 min; beta-half-life (biological half-life) for terminal slope, 109 min; and volume of distribution at steady state, 1036.18 mL/kg. 4-AP was found to rapidly and extensively partition into a peripheral tissue compartment and demonstrated a relatively long biological half-life. The findings from the current pharmacokinetic experiments support the pharmacology of 4-AP in its role for reversing saxitoxin (STX)- and tetrodotoxin (TTX)-induced diaphragmatic failure in terms of onset of action and duration of effect in anaesthetized guinea pigs.

  20. The determination of biperiden in plasma using gas chromatography mass spectrometry: pharmacokinetics after intramuscular administration to guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capacio, B R; Caro, S T; Smith, J R; Byers, C E

    2002-02-01

    A gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) method has been developed for the analysis of the biperiden from plasma. The method utilizes 290 microl of plasma and a simple hexane extraction/clean-up procedure. Standard curves were linear over the range of 1.9-250 ng/mL. The range of correlation coefficients for the individual standard curves was 0.9984-0.9999; the largest coefficient of variation expressed as a percentage (% CV) was 11.5%. Precision and accuracy were examined by assessing between-day and within-day variability. For between-day precision, the % CVs ranged from 2.86 to 5.17%. Accuracy as expressed by percentage error ranging from -2.16 to 5.83%. The study for within-day precision demonstrated % CVs from 0.95 to 5.55% with accuracy from -3.37 to 2.45%. Applicability of the method was demonstrated by examining the pharmacokinetics of intramuscular (i.m.) biperiden as an anticonvulsant treatment in a guinea pig model for organophosphate (OP)-induced seizure activity. Mean pharmacokinetic parameter estimates were similar to literature values; selected mean pharmacokinetic parameter estimates were: apparent volume of distribution, 13.9 L/kg; half-life of elimination, 93 min; time to maximal plasma concentration, 27.4 min; and maximal plasma concentration, 32.22 eta g/mL. The time to maximal plasma concentration was found to be similar to the onset time for terminating OP-induced seizure activity in guinea pigs receiving biperiden as an anticonvulsant treatment. The studies indicate that the method affords the required precision, accuracy and sensitivity to assay biperiden at the doses utilized for these pharmacokinetic studies after i.m. administration to guinea pigs. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Abbreviations used: AChE Acetylcholinesterase AUC area under the curve OP organophosphate 2‐PAM pralidoxime chloride PYR pyridostigmine

  1. The Economic Impact of Helmet Use on Motorcycle Accidents: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of the Literature from the Past 20 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chang-Yeon; Wiznia, Daniel H; Averbukh, Leon; Dai, Feng; Leslie, Michael P

    2015-01-01

    The incidence and cost of motorcycle accidents are projected to increase. Motorcycle helmets are accepted as an effective strategy for reducing the morbidity and therefore the cost of motorcycle accidents. Despite this, states have continued to repeal helmet laws in the past 20 years. In addition, variations in the methodologies and outcomes of published reports have contributed to uncertainty regarding the health care dollars saved due to motorcycle helmet use. The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to clarify the economic impact of motorcycle helmet use. Our primary source was Medline. Search terms included "motorcycle," "motorbike," "motorcycle helmet," "head protective devices," and "cost and cost analysis." The review only included articles that were primary studies, written in English, evaluations of periods after 1994, and published in a peer-reviewed journal. Two independent authors extracted data using predefined data fields. Meta-analysis was done using the R-metafor package. Twelve papers met the criteria for inclusion. Meta-analysis demonstrated that nonhelmeted patients required $12,239 more in hospital costs per patient. Nonhelmeted patients also required more postdischarge care and were more likely to use publicly funded insurance. Studies also found lower injury severity and better hospital course in the helmeted population. Study limitations included selection bias, unclear statistical assumptions, lack of precision measures, confounding variables, and lack of standardization to a common year. Meta-analysis demonstrated an I2 of 67%, attributing a significant proportion of outcome variation to study differences. Motorcycle helmet use reduces morbidity and contributes to significant health care cost savings. Continuing antihelmet legislation will impose a substantial economic burden to the health care system, the government, and the public.

  2. From Dalek half balls to Daft Punk helmets: Mimetic fandom and the crafting of replicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt Hills

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Mimetic fandom is a surprisingly understudied mode of (culturally masculinized fan activity in which fans research and craft replica props. Mimetic fandom can be considered as (inauthentic and (immaterial, combining noncommercial status with grassroots marketing or brand reinforcement as well as fusing an emphasis on material artifacts with Web 2.0 collective intelligence. Simply analyzing mimetic fandom as part of fannish material culture fails to adequately assess the nonmaterial aspects of this collaborative creativity. Two fan cultures are taken as case studies: Dalek building groups and Daft Punk helmet constructors. These diverse cases indicate that mimetic fandom has a presence and significance that moves across media fandoms and is not restricted to the science fiction, fantasy, and horror followings with which it is most often associated. Mimetic fandom may be theorized as an oscillatory activity that confuses binaries and constructions of (academic/fan authenticity. This fan practice desires and pursues a kind of ontological bridging or unity—from text to reality—that is either absent or less dominant in many other fan activities such as cosplay, screen-used prop collecting, and geographical pilgrimage. Fan studies may benefit from reassessing the place of mimesis, especially in order to theorize fan practices that are less clearly transformative in character.

  3. Daylight luminance requirements for full-color, see-through, helmet-mounted display systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Thomas H.; Rash, Clarence E.

    2017-05-01

    When color is implemented in helmet-mounted displays (HMDs) that are eyes-out, see-through displays, visual perception issues become an increased concern. A major confound with HMDs is their inherent see-through (transparent) property. The result is color in the displayed image that combines with color from the outside (or in-cockpit) world, producing an image with additive color. As luminance of the HMD imagery is reduced, the color separation between the HMD imagery and the background is also reduced. It is because of this additive effect that luminance contrast is so vitally important in developing HMD standards for color symbology. As a result, this paper identifies luminance requirements for full-color HMDs based upon two lines of investigation. The first is based on a study of white symbology against natural static backgrounds, where the quality of symbology was judged to be a function of not only the background luminance but also of the background complexity as well. The second is based on an evaluation of the complexity inherent in natural backgrounds and from this investigation, a predictive curve was found that describes the complexity of natural backgrounds as a function of ambient luminance.

  4. Thermal performance curves under daily thermal fluctuation: A study in helmeted water toad tadpoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartheld, José L; Artacho, Paulina; Bacigalupe, Leonardo

    2017-12-01

    Most research in physiological ecology has focused on the effects of mean changes in temperature under the classic "hot vs cold" acclimation treatment; however, current evidence suggests that an increment in both the mean and variance of temperature could act synergistically to amplify the negative effects of global temperature increase and how it would affect fitness and performance-related traits in ectothermic organisms. We assessed the effects of acclimation to daily variance of temperature on thermal performance curves of swimming speed in helmeted water toad tadpoles (Calyptocephalella gayi). Acclimation treatments were 20°C ± 0.1 SD (constant) and 20°C ± 1.5 SD (fluctuating). We draw two key findings: first, tadpoles exposed to daily temperature fluctuation had reduced maximal performance (Zmax), and flattened thermal performance curves, thus supporting the "vertical shift or faster-slower" hypothesis, and suggesting that overall swimming performance would be lower through an examination of temperatures under more realistic and ecologically-relevant fluctuating regimens; second, there was significant interindividual variation in performance traits by means of significant repeatability estimates. Our present results suggest that the widespread use of constant acclimation temperatures in laboratory experiments to estimate thermal performance curves (TPCs) may lead to an overestimation of actual organismal performance. We encourage the use of temperature fluctuation acclimation treatments to better understand the variability of physiological traits, which predict ecological and evolutionary responses to global change. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Helmet-mounted acoustic array for hostile fire detection and localization in an urban environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, Michael V.

    2008-04-01

    The detection and localization of hostile weapons firing has been demonstrated successfully with acoustic sensor arrays on unattended ground sensors (UGS), ground-vehicles, and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). Some of the more mature systems have demonstrated significant capabilities and provide direct support to ongoing counter-sniper operations. The Army Research Laboratory (ARL) is conducting research and development for a helmet-mounted system to acoustically detect and localize small arms firing, or other events such as RPG, mortars, and explosions, as well as other non-transient signatures. Since today's soldier is quickly being asked to take on more and more reconnaissance, surveillance, & target acquisition (RSTA) functions, sensor augmentation enables him to become a mobile and networked sensor node on the complex and dynamic battlefield. Having a body-worn threat detection and localization capability for events that pose an immediate danger to the soldiers around him can significantly enhance their survivability and lethality, as well as enable him to provide and use situational awareness clues on the networked battlefield. This paper addresses some of the difficulties encountered by an acoustic system in an urban environment. Complex reverberation, multipath, diffraction, and signature masking by building structures makes this a very harsh environment for robust detection and classification of shockwaves and muzzle blasts. Multifunctional acoustic detection arrays can provide persistent surveillance and enhanced situational awareness for every soldier.

  6. Optical quality and impact resistance comparisons of 2 football helmet faceshields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Kathryn R; Zimmerman, Aaron; Grzybowski, Deborah M; McLaughlin, William R; Katz, Steven E; Pfriem, Dale B; Good, Gregory W

    2008-08-01

    Currently there is no standard that specifically addresses the optical and impact performance of football protective faceshields. This study compared the impact resistance and optical quality between 2 popular football faceshields. Testing was performed only on new faceshields. To test impact resistance, baseballs were propelled at the faceshields with velocities up to 66.4 m/sec. Structural integrity was evaluated after each impact. Ten visors from each of 2 companies underwent a single impact at various velocities. Two visors from each company were impacted 3 times to evaluate the effects of repeated blows. Additional visors were conditioned to -10 degrees C and impacted once. Additionally, prismatic power, refractive power, haze, visible light, and ultraviolet (UV) transmittance, and optical distortion were measured to evaluate optical quality. All testing was done with faceshields mounted to facemask and, when appropriate, to a helmet. None of these new faceshields fractured even with impact velocities up to 66.4 m/sec. With regard to optical quality, both protectors met the optical requirements for the standards of faceshields for selected sports (ASTM F803-2003). Both faceshields tested should protect football players from anticipated impacts while providing adequate optical quality for satisfactory visual performance.

  7. A Helmet Mounted Display Application For The Space Station Freedom Extravehicular Mobility Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tritsch, Constance L.

    1989-09-01

    The routine extravehicular activity (EVA) performed from the U.S. Space Station Freedom will require the astronaut to access large amounts of information during the EVA, especially for intensive EVA scenarios such as satellite servicing and emergency or contingent operations. As a result, NASA is presently designing a helmet mounted display (HMD) into the Freedom Station extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) to aid the EVA astronaut. The HMD allows the astronaut to view a virtual image behind a transparent combiner located conveniently above his or her primary field of view (FOV). This HMD system can be voice-driven for "hands-free" operation. NASA is currently exploring four HMD approaches. Two designs utilize cathode ray tubes (CRT's), while the other two use backlit liquid crystal displays (LCD's). Furthermore, two of these designs use purely conventional optics, while the other two employ conventional and holographic optics. A discussion of these designs and some key design issues, such as image source, FOV, exit pupil versus non-pupil-forming systems, monocular versus binocular and biocular viewing, degree of image overlap, and the use of holographic optical elements (HOE's), will be provided in this paper.

  8. CPAP by helmet for treatment of acute respiratory failure after pediatric liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiusolo, F; Fanelli, V; Ciofi Degli Atti, M L; Conti, G; Tortora, F; Pariante, R; Ravà, L; Grimaldi, C; de Ville de Goyet, J; Picardo, S

    2018-02-01

    ARF after pediatric liver transplantation accounts for high rate of morbidity and mortality associated with this procedure. The role of CPAP in postoperative period is still unknown. The aim of the study was to describe current practice and risk factors associated with the application of helmet CPAP. In this retrospective observational cohort study, 119 recipients were divided into two groups based on indication to CPAP after extubation. Perioperative variables were studied, and determinants of CPAP application were analyzed in a multivariate logistic model. Sixty patients (60/114) developed ARF and were included in the CPAP group. No differences were found between the two groups for primary disease, graft type, and blood product transfused. At multivariate analysis, weight 148 mL/kg (OR = 4.0; 95% CI = 1.6-10.1; P = .004) were the main determinants of CPAP application. In the CPAP group, five patients (8.4%) needed reintubation. Pediatric liver recipients with lower weight, higher need of inotropes/vasopressors, higher positive fluid balance after surgery, and lower PaO 2 /FiO 2 before extubation were at higher odds of developing ARF needing CPAP application. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Coatings manufactured using magnetron sputtering technology to protect against infrared radiation for use in firefighter helmets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fejdyś Marzena

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to test the usefulness of magnetron sputtering technology to produce coatings on selected elements of a firefighter’s helmet to protect against infrared radiation (PN-EN 171 standard. The scope of research includes testing the deposition produced via magnetron sputtering of metallic and ceramic coatings on plastics, which are used to manufacture the components comprising the personal protection equipment used by firefighters. The UV-VIS, NIR used to research the permeation coefficients and reflections for light and infrared light and the emission spectrometry with ICP-AES used for the quantitative analysis of elements in metallic and ceramic coatings. Microstructural and micro-analytical testing of the coatings were performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Measurements of the chemical compositions were conducted using energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS. The hardnesss of the coatings were tested using a indentation method, and the coating thicknesses were tested using a ellipsometry method.

  10. Streptococcus caviae sp. nov., isolated from guinea pig faecal samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palakawong Na Ayudthaya, Susakul; Hilderink, Loes J; Oost, John van der; Vos, Willem M de; Plugge, Caroline M

    2017-05-01

    A novel cellobiose-degrading and lactate-producing bacterium, strain Cavy grass 6T, was isolated from faecal samples of guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus). Cells of the strain were ovalshaped, non-motile, non-spore-forming, Gram-stain-positive and facultatively anaerobic. The strain gr at 25-40 °C (optimum 37 °C) and pH 4.5-9.5 (optimum 8.0). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain Cavy grass 6T belongs to the genus Streptococcus with its closest relative being Streptococcus devriesei CCUG 47155T with only 96.5 % similarity. Comparing strain Cavy grass 6T and Streptococcus devriesei CCUG 47155T, average nucleotide identity and level of digital DNA-DNA hybridization dDDH were only 86.9 and 33.3 %, respectively. Housekeeping genes groEL and gyrA were different between strain Cavy grass 6T and other streptococci. The G+C content of strain Cavy grass 6T was 42.6±0.3 mol%. The major (>10 %) cellular fatty acids of strain Cavy grass 6T were C16:0, C20 : 1ω9c and summed feature 8 (C18 : 1ω7c and/or C18 : 1ω6c). Strain Cavy grass 6T ferment a range of plant mono- and disaccharides as well as polymeric carbohydrates, including cellobiose, dulcitol, d-glucose, maltose, raffinose, sucrose, l-sorbose, trehalose, inulin and dried grass extract, to lactate, formate, acetate and ethanol. Based on phylogenetic and physiological characteristics, Cavy grass 6T can be distinguished from other members of the genus Streptococcus. Therefore, a novel species of the genus Streptococcus, family Streptococcaceae, order Lactobacillales is proposed, Streptococcuscaviae sp. nov. (type strain Cavy grass 6T=TISTR 2371T=DSM 102819T).

  11. Intramuscular diazepam pharmacokinetics in soman-exposed guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capacio, B R; Whalley, C E; Byers, C E; McDonough, J H

    2001-12-01

    Intramuscular (i.m.) diazepam is included by the US military as an anticonvulsant in the standard therapeutic regimen for organophosphorus nerve agent intoxication. In this study we investigated the pharmacokinetics of diazepam after i.m. administration while monitoring pharmacodynamic (electroencephalogram, EEG) data in soman-exposed guinea pigs. Prior to experiments the animals were surgically implanted with EEG leads to monitor seizure activity. For the study, animals were administered pyridostigmine (0.026 mg x kg(-1) i.m.) 30 min prior to soman (56 microg x kg(-1), 2 x LD50; subcutaneously, s.c.), which was followed in 1 min by atropine sulfate (2 mg x kg(-1) i.m.) and pralidoxime chloride (25 mg x kg(-1) i.m.). All animals receiving this regimen developed seizure activity. Diazepam (10 mg x kg(-1) i.m.) was administered 5 min after onset of seizure activity. Based on EEG data, animals were categorized as either seizure terminated or not terminated at 30 min after diazepam. Serial blood samples were obtained from each animal. Diazepam (10 mg x kg(-1) i.m.) terminated seizure activity in 52% of the animals within 30 min. The pharmacokinetics were characterized by a one-compartment model with first-order absorption and elimination. The maximum plasma concentrations (Cmax) were 991 and 839 ng x ml(-1) for seizure terminated and not terminated, respectively. Mean plasma concentrations of diazepam were significantly different (P < 0.05) for seizure terminated vs not terminated groups at 30 min. The plasma Cmax in seizure-terminated animals in this study is similar to the minimum range of plasma diazepam (200-800 ng x ml(-1)) reported to suppress seizure activity in humans. It has been reported in an earlier study that the minimum effective i.m. dose (0.1 mg x kg(-1)) required to prevent soman-induced convulsions in Rhesus monkeys produces a mean Cmax of 50 ng x ml(-1) for diazepam. The data from our current study suggest that a higher dose (and corresponding Cmax

  12. Binocular interactions in the guinea pig's visual-evoked potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ates, Kahraman; Demirtas, Serdar; Goksoy, Cuneyt

    2006-12-13

    In this study, binocular interaction in guinea pigs is evaluated using bioelectrical activities. A difference potential, as evidence of an interaction, is calculated by subtracting the sum of visual-evoked potentials recorded by left and right monocular visual stimulations from the potential recorded by binocular stimulation. A negative monophasic wave with an average amplitude of 15.1 microV and an average latency of 106 ms is observed in the difference potential. This finding implies that the P100 is the main guinea pig visual-evoked potential wave that is affected by binocular interaction. Binocular interaction is also observed in the waves N75 and N140, although with a smaller amplitude. No interaction is observed in the segments of P55 and P200 waves.

  13. Men's behavior surrounding use of contraceptives in Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldé, Mamadou Diouldé; Diallo, Boubacar Alpha; Compaoré, Rachidatou; Bah, Abdoul Karim; Ali, Moazzam; Kabra, Rita; Kouanda, Seni

    2016-11-01

    To analyze the sociocultural determinants that influence the attitude and practices of men toward contraceptive use in Guinea. A sequential, mixed methods, qualitative and quantitative study was carried out in two regions of Guinea with a low rate of contraceptive prevalence, and in the capital city of Conakry. A total of 1170 people (men and women) were interviewed. Findings showed a positive perception of family planning overall, but reluctance to use modern contraception. The reasons for non-use of contraceptive methods were primarily the hope of having many children and religious prohibition associated with customs. Making decisions on contraceptive use within a couple represents a major cause of misunderstanding between spouses. Communication within a couple on the use of contraception is quickly declined by men. The findings demonstrate the need to develop communication strategies within a couple to improve the use of contraceptives. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of extracellular calcium and sodium on depolarization-induced automaticity in guinea pig papillary muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzung, B G

    1975-07-01

    Regenerative discharge of action potentials is induced in mammalian papillary muscles by passage of small depolarizing currents. In this paper, the effects of various extracellular calcium and sodium concentrations and of tetrodotoxin on this phenomenon were studied in guinea pig papillary muscles in a sucrose gap chamber. Phase 4 diastolic depolarization was found to be associated with an increase in membrane resistance. The slope of phase 4 depolarization was decreased by reductions in extracellular calcium or sodium concentration. The range of maximum diastolic potentials and the thresholds from which regenerative potentials arose were reduced, especially at the positive limit of potentials, by a reduction in either ion. It was concluded that both calcium and sodium influence diastolic depolarization and participate in the regenerative action potentials of depolarization-induced ventricular automaticity.

  15. Masculinity, mental health and Violence in Papua New Guinea, Vanuatu, Fiji and Kiribati.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Graham

    2007-09-01

    This paper presents the findings of a four country study conducted by the Foundation for the Peoples of the South Pacific-International through its affiliates in Fiji Vanuatu, Papua New Guinea and Kiribati to demonstrate the linkage between young men, mental health and violence in the Pacific. The findings common among the four studies arise from the sociocultural and economic transitions occurring across the Pacific Region, where recent years have shown that the Pacific lifestyle has become increasingly stressful and violent. Limited opportunity to participate in the modern lifestyle and its economy has led to personal mental stress, social exclusion, unemployment and the growth of a subgroup of disaffected young people, who resort to a range of means to acquire their daily needs and, among whom, the norms that govern the use of violence differ from those of the general community.

  16. Antimicrobial, antitumor and antileishmania screening of medicinal plants from Guinea-Bissau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, P M; Martins, E S; Kayser, O; Bindseil, K U; Siems, K; Seemann, A; Frevert, J

    1999-07-01

    Following an ethnobotanical search carried out in Guinea-Bissau, eighteen extracts derived from sixteen medicinal species were screened for antimicrobial, antitumor and antileishmania activity. Significant antitumor activity was found for Holarrhena floribunda against KB (squamous carcinoma), SK-Mel 28 (melanoma), A 549 (lung carcinoma) and MDA-MB 231 (mamma carcinoma) cell lines, with corresponding IC50 values of 7.9, 9.0, 3.4 and 9.9 micrograms/ml. Khaya senegalensis and Anthostema senegalense exhibited a significant activity against Leishmania donovani with IC50 values of 9.8 and 9.1 micrograms/ml, respectively. Most of the extracts showed week or moderate antibacterial and antifungal activity, with MIC values in the range 0.25-1.0 mg/ml. Active extracts were submitted to bioassay-guided fractionation, and the IC50 and MIC of the active fractions were determined.

  17. Antispasmodic Activity of Fractions and Cynaropicrin from Cynara scolymus on Guinea-Pig Ileum

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Emendörfer, Fernanda; Emendörfer, Fabiane; Bellato, Fernanda; Noldin, Vânia Floriani; Cechinel-Filho, Valdir; Yunes, Rosendo Augusto; Monache, Franco Delle; Cardozo, Alcíbia Maia

    2005-01-01

    This study describes the antispasmodic activity of some fractions and cynaropicrin, a sesquiterpene lactone from Cynara scolymus, cultivated in Brazil, against guinea-pig ileum contracted by acetylcholine...

  18. Beam-Beam Simulations with GUINEA-PIG

    CERN Document Server

    Schulte, Daniel

    1998-01-01

    While the bunches in a linear collider cross only once, due to their small size they experience a strong beam-beam effect. GUINEA-PIG is a code to simulate the impact of this effect on luminosity and back ground. A short overview of the program is given with examples of its application to the back ground strudies for TESLA, the top quark threshold scan and a possible luminosity monitor, as well as some results for CLIC.

  19. Seasonal variation in child mortality in rural Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bibi Uhre; Byberg, Stine; Aaby, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: In many African countries, child mortality is higher in the rainy season than in the dry season. We investigated the effect of season on child mortality by time periods, sex and age in rural Guinea-Bissau. Methods: Bandim health project follows children under-five in a health...... effects were estimated in strata defined by time periods with different frequency of vaccination campaigns, sex and age (

  20. Child health and mortality in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kovsted, Jens Anders; Pörtner, Claus Christian; Tarp, Finn

    2002-01-01

    This paper studies factors that influence child health in Bissau, the capital of Guinea-Bissau. This environment is characterised by high infant mortality, but not by malnutrition. We show that although maternal education is important in determining child health and mortality this effect diminishes...... or disappears when health knowledge is introduced as an explanatory variable. It emerges that health knowledge has large and positive effects on both child mortality and health when instrumented for to capture endogeneity...

  1. Climate change analysis for guinea conakry with homogenized daily dataset

    OpenAIRE

    Aziz Barry, Abdoul

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis, Guinea's 12 weather stations daily minimum and daily maximum temperatures and daily precipitation data have been carefully quality controlled using the RClimdex-ExtraQC routines. These routines contain suitable tools to quality control single time series. The values identified as potentially erroneous have been carefully scrutinized and a subjective decision has been made to validate, correct or set them to missing. The resulted dataset free of any kind of suspicious data reco...

  2. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of 4-aminopyridine in awake guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capacio, B R; Chang, F C; Spriggs, D; Byers, C E; Matthews, R L; Benton, B J

    1997-08-01

    The selective blockade of potassium channels on excitable membranes by 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) leads to facilitation of neurotransmitter release at a wide variety of synapses. This compound has been shown to be efficacious against lethality induced by saxitoxin (STX) and tetrodotoxin (TTX) in guinea pigs. To characterize the actions of 4-AP in guinea pigs we have investigated its pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics following a 2 mg/kg, intramuscular (im) dose in awake chronically instrumented (IN) animals. Animals were chronically instrumented for electrophysiologic recordings of diaphragmatic electromyogram (DEMG), lead II electrocardiogram (ECGII) and electrocorticogram (ECoG). Also, PK studies were carried out in uninstrumented (UN) guinea pigs. Blood and electrophysiologic data were collected at predetermined time intervals up to 4 hours post 4-AP administration. High performance liquid chromatography was used to determine plasma 4-AP concentrations. For IN and UN animals, plasma concentration-time data best fit a one-compartment model, and PK parameter estimates were similar for both groups. Peak plasma levels were found to occur between 16 and 17 min, and the half-lives of elimination were 65 and 71 min for IN and UN animals respectively. Heart and respiratory rates were elevated as early as 5 and 15 min respectively in response to 4-AP administration. The duration of action was approximately 1-1.5 half-lives of elimination beyond peak plasma levels. Maximum ECoG responses were observed between 12-15 min after 4-AP injection; some residual drug effects were still apparent at 240 min. The difference between the heart and respiratory rates and ECoG profiles suggests that these different physiological systems respond with varying degrees of sensitivity to plasma 4-AP concentrations. The stimulation of these systems is consistent with the action of 4-AP in reversing STX- and TTX-induced cardiorespiratory depression and decreased ECoG power in guinea pigs.

  3. Cost and Return Analysis of Ginger Production in the Guinea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The result shows that the total cost of cultivating a hectare of ginger in the area is ı677572.5, with a gross return of ı1,382,482. Also a returns cost ratio of 2.04:1 was obtained. This implies that ginger farming in the guinea savannah of Nigeria will attract 2.04 times the capital investment of the farmer. Among the various inputs ...

  4. Macrorhabdus ornithogaster in ostrich, rhea, canary, zebra finch, free range chicken, turkey, guinea-fowl, columbina pigeon, toucan, chuckar partridge and experimental infection in chicken, japanese quail and mice Macrorhabdus ornithogaster em avestruzes, ema, canário, mandarim, galinha, peru, galinha da Angola, pombo doméstico, rolinha, tucano, perdiz de chuckar e infecção experimental em galinha, codorna e camundongo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.R.S. Martins

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Since 2000, Macrorhabdus ornithogaster "megabacteriosis" has been diagnosed in the avian diseases laboratory in a diversity of avian species and varied spectrum of disease. The disease in some species (chickens, turkeys, guinea fowls was clinically characterized by emaciation, prostration, loss of appetite, cachexia and death, with a typically chronic course. A more acute disease was observed in finches (canary-Serinus and zebra-Taeniopygia and budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus. The large rod shaped organism, visible from 100 times magnification, with and without staining, could be detected in sick and also in reasonably normal individuals of some species, such as chickens, turkeys, quails and pigeons. In rheas (Rhea americana, ostriches (Struthio camelus, canaries, zebra-finches, guinea-fowl (Numida meleagris and budgerigars. The disease was severe, causing to up to 100% mortality. The infection could be detected in some species along with other infectious or disease problems, such as endoparasites (helminths, coccidia and ectoparasitism (order Mallophaga or/and order Acarina. The cultivation of M. ornithogaster was successfully achieved in solid and liquid media, originated from chickens (four isolates, guinea fowl (1 isolate, chuckar partridge (1 isolate and canary (1 isolate. A very interesting finding at microscopy was motility of M. ornithogaster, as detected both in cultures obtained on agar for pathogenic fungi and passaged into thioglycolate broth, as well as on samples observed in wet preparations from in vivo. Differences in colony aspects were noted among the isolates. Experimental infections were attempted in chicken and japanese quail, using a chicken isolate, allowing the detection of the organism in the proventriculus and liver in apparently normal birds. One chicken isolate was injected intraperitoneally in Balb/c mice and resulted in 100% mortality.Desde 2000, diversos casos de infecção e doença por Macrorhabdus

  5. Finite element simulations of the head-brain responses to the top impacts of a construction helmet: Effects of the neck and body mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, John Z; Pan, Christopher S; Wimer, Bryan M; Rosen, Charles L

    2017-01-01

    Traumatic brain injuries are among the most common severely disabling injuries in the United States. Construction helmets are considered essential personal protective equipment for reducing traumatic brain injury risks at work sites. In this study, we proposed a practical finite element modeling approach that would be suitable for engineers to optimize construction helmet design. The finite element model includes all essential anatomical structures of a human head (i.e. skin, scalp, skull, cerebrospinal fluid, brain, medulla, spinal cord, cervical vertebrae, and discs) and all major engineering components of a construction helmet (i.e. shell and suspension system). The head finite element model has been calibrated using the experimental data in the literature. It is technically difficult to precisely account for the effects of the neck and body mass on the dynamic responses, because the finite element model does not include the entire human body. An approximation approach has been developed to account for the effects of the neck and body mass on the dynamic responses of the head-brain. Using the proposed model, we have calculated the responses of the head-brain during a top impact when wearing a construction helmet. The proposed modeling approach would provide a tool to improve the helmet design on a biomechanical basis.

  6. Impact of Helmet Use on Injury and Financial Burden of Motorcycle and Moped Crashes in Hawai'i: Analysis of a Linked Statewide Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galanis, Daniel J; Castel, Nikki A; Wong, Linda L; Steinemann, Susan

    2016-12-01

    Helmet use reduces injury severity, disability, hospital length of stay, and hospital charges in motorcycle riders. The public absorbs billions of dollars annually in hospital charges for unhelmeted, uninsured motorcycle riders. We sought to quantify, on a statewide level, the healthcare burden of unhelmeted motorcycle and moped riders. We examined 1,965 emergency medical service (EMS) reports from motorcycle and moped crashes in Hawai'i between 2007-2009. EMS records were linked to hospital medical records to assess associations between vehicle type, helmet use, medical charges, diagnoses, and final disposition. Unhelmeted riders of either type of vehicle suffered more head injuries, especially skull fractures (adjusted odds ratio (OR) of 4.48, P motorcycle and moped riders, with a significant (P = .006) difference between helmeted ($27,176) and unhelmeted ($40,217) motorcycle riders. Unhelmeted riders were twice as likely to self-pay (19.3%, versus 9.8% of helmeted riders), and more likely to have Medicaid or a similar income-qualifying insurance plan (13.5% versus 5.0%, respectively). Protective associations with helmet use are stronger among motorcyclists than moped riders, suggesting the protective effect is augmented in higher speed crashes. The public financial burden is higher from unhelmeted riders who sustain more severe injuries and are less likely to be insured.

  7. New genus of diminutive microhylid frogs from Papua New Guinea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Kraus

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A new genus of diminutive (10.1-11.3 mm microhylid frogs is described from New Guinea that is unique in its combination ofonly seven presacral vertebrae, a reduced phalangeal formula that leaves the first fingers and first toes as vestigial nubs, and reduction of the prepollex and prehallux to single elements. Relationships to other genera are unknown, but overall similarity suggests some relationship to Cophixalus, although that genus also differs in some muscle characters and likely remains paraphyletic. The new genus contains two species, which are among the smallest known frogs in the world. Their miniaturization may be related to their inhabiting leaf litter, exploitation of which may for small size. The new genus is currently known only from one mountaintop in the southeasternmost portion of New Guinea and another on a nearby island. This region is part of the East Papuan Composite Terrane and, should this lineage prove endemic to that region, it may suggest that it originated prior to that geological unit’s docking with mainland New Guinea at 23–29 MY.

  8. Meniscal ossification in spontaneous osteoarthritis in the guinea-pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapadia, R D; Badger, A M; Levin, J M; Swift, B; Bhattacharyya, A; Dodds, R A; Coatney, R W; Lark, M W

    2000-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ossification state of the meniscus in the guinea-pig stifle joint using micro-computerized tomography. Hind limbs from six (N=12) and 24 (N=11) month-old male Hartley guinea-pigs were removed and the joints were imaged using high resolution micro-computerized tomography. The ossified volume of the medial and lateral menisci from both groups of animals was quantified. Ossification of both the medial and lateral menisci of the both the 6- and 24-month-old animals was observed. In both age groups, the ossified region of the medial meniscus was significantly larger than the lateral meniscus. In addition, there is a significant increase in ossified volume of the medial meniscus between 6 and 24 months of age. There is a significant amount of ossification of the menisci in the male Hartley guinea-pig, with the medial compartment showing more bone than the lateral. In addition, as the animals age, there is an increase in ossification within the medial compartment. Bone remodeling and cartilage degeneration is evident in the medial compartment within these animals as they age. It is possible that the increased ossification of the medial meniscus could alter the joint biomechanics and, in part, stimulate this medial compartment joint destruction. Copyright 2000 OsteoArthritis Research Society International.

  9. Studies of guinea pig immunoglobulin isotype, idiotype and antiidiotype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tirrell, S.M.

    1988-01-01

    Immunization of Guinea pigs with diphtheria toxoid generated antibodies of the IgG class that were capable of neutralizing native toxin in vivo. Sera from these animals were used to affinity purify idiotypic antibodies (AB1). AB1 vaccines derived from the IgG1 class and from F(ab{prime}){sub 2} of IgG1 + IgG2 (IgG1/2) classes were effective in inducing a syngeneic anti-idiotype (AB2) response. Animals immunized with AB1 consisting of both IgG1/2 did not elicit a detectable AB2 response. Binding of homologous {sup 125}I-F(ab{prime}){sub 2} (AB1) to the antiidiotype was inhibited 90% in the presence of DT.F(ab{prime}){sub 2} derived from preimmune serum or had no inhibitory effects on the idiotype-antiidiotype interactions. Two groups of outbred guinea pigs were vaccinated with alum absorbed F(ab{prime}){sub 2} of anti-idiotype IgG1/2 (AB2). Of the ten animals inoculated with AB2, three tested positive by RIA against {sup 125}I-DT. Two of the RIA positive sera contained antibodies that neutralized diphtheria toxin in a rabbit intracutaneous assay. Purification of guinea pig IgG by protein A-Sepharose affinity chromatography resulted in the separation of three distinct IgG populations.

  10. Guinea pigs as an animal model for sciatic nerve injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malik Abu Rafee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The overwhelming use of rat models in nerve regeneration studies is likely to induce skewness in treatment outcomes. To address the problem, this study was conducted in 8 adult guinea pigs of either sex to investigate the suitability of guinea pig as an alternative model for nerve regeneration studies. A crush injury was inflicted to the sciatic nerve of the left limb, which led to significant decrease in the pain perception and neurorecovery up to the 4th weak. Lengthening of foot print and shortening of toe spread were observed in the paw after nerve injury. A 3.49 ± 0.35 fold increase in expression of neuropilin 1 (NRP1 gene and 2.09 ± 0.51 fold increase in neuropilin 2 (NRP2 gene were recorded 1 week after nerve injury as compared to the normal nerve. Ratios of gastrocnemius muscle weight and volume of the experimental limb to control limb showed more than 50% decrease on the 30th day. Histopathologically, vacuolated appearance of the nerve was observed with presence of degenerated myelin debris in digestion chambers. Gastrocnemius muscle also showed degenerative changes. Scanning electron microscopy revealed loose and rough arrangement of connective tissue fibrils and presence of large spherical globules in crushed sciatic nerve. The findings suggest that guinea pigs could be used as an alternative animal model for nerve regeneration studies and might be preferred over rats due to their cooperative nature while recording different parameters.

  11. Check-list of the Piperaceae of Equatorial Guinea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fero, Maximiliano

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available A check-list of the Piperaceae from Equatorial Guinea is presented, with 13 species. Three species are known from Annobón, 13 species from Bioko and 5 species from Río Muni. The best represented genus is Peperomia, with 10 species. The other two genera. Piper and Pothomorphe, are represented by two and one species, respectively. Additionally, bibliographic references on Piperaceae of Equatorial Guinea (223 records have been gathered and revised. Peperomia mollera and Piper capense are recorded as new to Río Muni.Se presenta el catálogo florístico de la familia Piperaceae para Guinea Ecuatorial, en el que se recogen un total de 13 especies englobadas en tres géneros. En Annobón están presentes tres especies, 13 en Bioko y cinco en Río Muni. Peperomia es el género mejor representado, con 10 especies. Los otros dos géneros, Pothomorphe y Piper, están representados por una y dos especies, respectivamente. Se han recopilado y revisado las referencias bibliográficas previas para la zona hasta un total de 223 citas. Peperomia mollera y Piper capense se citan por primera vez para Río Muni.

  12. Establishment, Culture, and Characterization of Guinea Pig Fetal Fibroblast Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davood Mehrabani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Establishment of Guinea pig fetal fibroblast cells and their biological evaluation before and after cryopreservation were the main purposes of this study. After determination of the proper age of pregnancy by ultrasonography, 30 days old fetuses of Guinea pigs were recovered. Their skins were cut into small pieces (1 mm2 and were cultured. When reaching 80–90% confluence, the cells were passaged. Cells of the second and eighth passages were cultured in 24-well plates (4×104 cells/well for 6 days and three wells per day were counted. The average cell counts at each time point were then plotted against time and the population doubling time (PDT was determined. Then, vials of cells (2×106 cells/mL were cryopreserved for 1 month and after thawing, the cell viability was evaluated. The PDT of the second passage was about 23 h and for the eighth passage was about 30 h. The viability of the cultures was 95% in the second passage and 74.5% in the eighth passage. It was shown that the Guinea pig fetal fibroblast cell culture can be established using the adherent culture method while, after freezing, the viability indices of these cells were favorable.

  13. On the morality of Guinea-pig recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdman, Mikhail

    2010-07-01

    ABSTRACT Can it be wrong to conduct medical research on human subjects even with their informed consent and even when the transaction between the subjects and researchers is expected to be mutually beneficial? This question is especially pressing today in light of the rise of a semi-professional class of 'guinea pigs'- human research subjects that sell researchers a right of access to their bodies in exchange for money. Can these exchanges be morally problematic even when they are consensual and mutually beneficial? I argue that there are two general kinds of concern one can have about such transactions - concerns about the nature of what is sold and concerns about the conditions in which the selling occurs. The former involves worries about degradation and the possible wrongness of selling a right of access to one's body. These worries, I argue, are not very serious. The latter involves worries about coercion, exploitation, and undue influence - about how, by virtue of their ignorance, impulsiveness, or desperation, guinea pigs can be taken advantage of by medical researchers. These worries are quite serious but I argue that, at least in cases where the exchange between guinea pigs and researchers is consensual and mutually beneficial, they do not raise insurmountable moral problems.

  14. A Passerine Bird's evolution corroborates the geologic history of the island of New Guinea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristy Deiner

    Full Text Available New Guinea is a biologically diverse island, with a unique geologic history and topography that has likely played a role in the evolution of species. Few island-wide studies, however, have examined the phylogeographic history of lowland species. The objective of this study was to examine patterns of phylogeographic variation of a common and widespread New Guinean bird species (Colluricincla megarhyncha. Specifically, we test the mechanisms hypothesized to cause geographic and genetic variation (e.g., vicariance, isolation by distance and founder-effect with dispersal. To accomplish this, we surveyed three regions of the mitochondrial genome and a nuclear intron and assessed differences among 23 of the 30 described subspecies from throughout their range. We found support for eight highly divergent lineages within C. megarhyncha. Genetic lineages were found within continuous lowland habitat or on smaller islands, but all individuals within clades were not necessarily structured by predicted biogeographic barriers. There was some evidence of isolation by distance and potential founder-effects. Mitochondrial DNA sequence divergence among lineages was at a level often observed among different species or even genera of birds (5-11%, suggesting lineages within regions have been isolated for long periods of time. When topographical barriers were associated with divergence patterns, the estimated divergence date for the clade coincided with the estimated time of barrier formation. We also found that dispersal distance and range size are positively correlated across lineages. Evidence from this research suggests that different phylogeographic mechanisms concurrently structure lineages of C. megarhyncha and are not mutually exclusive. These lineages are a result of evolutionary forces acting at different temporal and spatial scales concordant with New Guinea's geological history.

  15. An HPLC method for the determination of granisetron in guinea pig plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capacio, B R; Byers, C E; Jackson, T K; Matthews, R L

    1993-01-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method for the determination of granisetron (GRN) in guinea pig plasma has been developed. Guinea pig plasma spiked with GRN was microfiltered, and the recovered filtrate was directly injected onto the column without any further cleanup procedures. Separation was achieved on a spherical silica column and GRN was detected at 305 nm. Approximately 800-900 injections were made without any evidence of column deterioration. For the standard curves, correlation coefficients ranged from 0.9978-0.9999, and the percent standard deviation (%SD) from the mean area under the curve (AUC) was calculated to be less than 10% for all concentrations, except for the lowest concentration (0.325 ng/microL, 11.3%). Between-day and within-day coefficients of variation (%CV) ranged from 4.9 to 9.5% and 3.6 to 7.6%, respectively. Percent errors for within-day test plasma samples were not greater than 8.2% of the expected concentration for all samples except for 1.125 ng/microL (-14.6%). The limit of sensitivity was found to be 0.019 ng/microL. Estimated recovery of GRN in the microfiltrate was calculated to be 58-59% and 78-81% in plasma and water, respectively. Stability studies indicated that repeated refrigeration and warming (for six days) of microfiltered GRN plasma samples produced no changes in GRN concentrations from day to day. However, microfiltered GRN plasma samples that were repeatedly frozen and thawed demonstrated erratic concentration changes from day to day. The precision, accuracy, and small sample requirements of this method indicate its utility for pharmacokinetic studies in small animals where sample volume may be restrictive.

  16. Interstitial cells of Cajal and Auerbach's plexus. A scanning electron microscopical study of guinea-pig small intestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Harry; Thuneberg, Lars

    1991-01-01

    Anatomy, interstitial cells of Cajal, myenteric plexus, small intestine, guinea-pig, scanning electron microscopy......Anatomy, interstitial cells of Cajal, myenteric plexus, small intestine, guinea-pig, scanning electron microscopy...

  17. Effects of three helmet-mounted display symbologies on unusual attitude recognition and recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercoline, William R; Self, Brian P; Matthews, Roger S J

    2002-11-01

    Helmet-mounted displays (HMDs) allow pilots to view aircraft instrument information while looking to the side, away from the aircraft centerline axis. In that situation, pilots may lose attitude awareness and thus develop spatial disorientation. A secondary concern is the possible effects of visual conflict between the apparent motion of traditional, nose-referenced flight symbology and the off-axis view of the outside world. Alternative symbologies will provide improved attitude awareness for HMDs when compared with the conventional inside-out symbology now used with head-up displays (HUDs), if the HUD symbology is used on a HMD. The 9 pilots were presented 48 randomly arranged unusual attitude conditions on a HMD. The three symbologies included: 1) the inside-out representation now used with fixed HUDs, which features a moving horizon and pitch ladder; 2) an outside-in display that depicts a moving aircraft relative to a fixed horizon; and 3) an inside-out novel symbology termed the grapefruit' display (GD). The background scene contained a mix of either a front view orientation or a side view one. Conditions were randomized within and across subjects. Subjective preferences were collected after the completion of all tasks. Analysis of variance repeated measures design revealed that stick input for the GD was significantly faster with fewer roll reversal errors than either of the other two. The time to recover to straight and level was significantly shorter for the front view orientation than the side view. Of the nine pilots, eight preferred the GD symbology as a method of presenting attitude information on the HMD. Results suggest the current HUD symbology is not the best way of displaying attitude information on the HMD. Given the conditions of this study, the best way of presenting the pilot with attitude information on the HMD is with the GD symbology.

  18. The innate immunity of guinea pigs against highly pathogenic avian influenza virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kun; Xu, Wei Wei; Zhang, Zhaowei; Liu, Jing; Li, Jing; Sun, Lijuan; Sun, Weiyang; Jiao, Peirong; Sang, Xiaoyu; Ren, Zhiguang; Yu, Zhijun; Li, Yuanguo; Feng, Na; Wang, Tiecheng; Wang, Hualei; Yang, Songtao; Zhao, Yongkun; Zhang, Xuemei; Wilker, Peter R; Liu, WenJun; Liao, Ming; Chen, Hualan; Gao, Yuwei; Xia, Xianzhu

    2017-05-02

    H5N1 avian influenza viruses are a major pandemic concern. In contrast to the highly virulent phenotype of H5N1 in humans and many animal models, guinea pigs do not typically display signs of severe disease in response to H5N1 virus infection. Here, proteomic and transcriptional profiling were applied to identify host factors that account for the observed attenuation of A/Tiger/Harbin/01/2002 (H5N1) virulence in guinea pigs. RIG-I and numerous interferon stimulated genes were among host proteins with altered expression in guinea pig lungs during H5N1 infection. Overexpression of RIG-I or the RIG-I adaptor protein MAVS in guinea pig cell lines inhibited H5N1 replication. Endogenous GBP-1 expression was required for RIG-I mediated inhibition of viral replication upstream of the activity of MAVS. Furthermore, we show that guinea pig complement is involved in viral clearance, the regulation of inflammation, and cellular apoptosis during influenza virus infection of guinea pigs. This work uncovers features of the guinea pig innate immune response to influenza that may render guinea pigs resistant to highly pathogenic influenza viruses.

  19. Cartilage interposition in ossiculoplasty with hydroxylapatite prostheses - A histological study in the guinea pig

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, AGW; Verheul, J; Albers, FWJ; Segenhout, HM; Rosowski, JJ; Merchant, SN

    2000-01-01

    In this experimental animal study, a cartilage disc was interposed between a synthetic middle ear prosthesis and the tympanic membrane of guinea pigs to investigate its effect on the extrusion process of the implant. Two groups of guinea pigs were studied. One group consisted of animals in which the

  20. Cartilage interposition in ossiculoplasty with hydroxylapatite prostheses : A histopathologic study in the guinea pig

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, AGW; Verheul, J; Albers, FWJ; Segenhout, HM

    In this experimental animal study, a cartilage disk was interposed between a synthetic middle ear prosthesis and the tympanic membrane in guinea pigs to investigate its effect on the extrusion process of the implant. Two groups of guinea pigs were studied. One group consisted of animals in which the