Sample records for ranger vii lunar

  1. Mapping GPS multipath: a case study for the lunar laser ranger ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We investigate and attempt to map multipath as part of the site investigation for the installation of the timing antenna for lunar laser ranging applications at the Hartebeesthoek Radio Astronomy Observatory (HartRAO). A high-resolution wavelet power spectrum and a standard deviation parameter are used to map multipath ...

  2. Mapping GPS Multipath: a Case Study for the Lunar Laser Ranger ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cilence Munghemezulu

    We investigate and attempt to map multipath as part of the site investigation for the installation of the timing antenna for lunar laser ranging applications at the Hartebeesthoek Radio. Astronomy Observatory (HartRAO). A high-resolution wavelet power spectrum and a standard deviation parameter are used to map multipath ...

  3. Improved secondary oil recovery by controlled waterflooding-pilot demonstration: Ranger Zone, Fault Block VII, Wilmington Field. Phase IV. Quarterly report, April-June 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The project is an improved waterflood demonstration of alkaline water-flooding in a typical well flood pattern of the Ranger Zone of the Long Beach Unit portion of the Wilmington Field. A mixture of 0.4% sodium hydroxide and sodium silicate in fresh water containing 0.75 to 1.0% salt is being injected to improve oil recovery. The demonstration pattern in which D.O.E. participated involves the input of approximately 30,000 to 34,000 B/D water in 8 injection wells which surround 11 active producers in an area of 93 acres. Reservoir engineering studies have shown that the total area being affected by the injection in these 8 wells is much larger, being approximately 200 acres including areas situated both north and south. If the alkaline injection is successful, improved flood efficiency should occur as demonstrated by reduced water-oil ratios and increased oil recovery. Chemical injection continued in the quarter. A simple long term solution to the floc formed on mixing the dilute alkaline solution with the concentrated salt brine was not found. Alternating one week slug injection of soft water with alkali and then soft water with salt continued throughout the quarter. A four-hour soft water spacer with no chemicals was placed between the slugs. Injection and oil, water production data are presented. 7 figures, 1 table.

  4. Improved secondary oil recovery by controlled waterflooding-pilot demonstration: Ranger Zone, Fault Block VII, Wilmington Field. Phase IV. Quarterly report, January-March, 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The project is an improved waterflood demonstration of alkaline waterflooding in a typical well flood pattern of the Ranger Zone of the Long Beach Unit portion of the Wilmington Field. A mixture of 0.4% sodium hydroxide and sodium silicate in fresh water containing 0.75 to 1.0% salt is being injected to improve oil recovery. The demonstration pattern in which DOE participated involves the input of approximately 30,000 to 34,000 B/D water in 8 injection wells which surround 11 active producers in an area of 93 acres. Reservoir engineering studies have shown that the total area being affected by the injection in these 8 wells is much larger, being approximately 200 acres including areas situated both north and south. If the alkaline injection is successful, improved flood efficiency should occur as demonstrated by reduced water-oil ratios and increased oil recovery. Chemical injection continued in the quarter. A simple long term solution to the floc formed on mixing the dilute alkaline solution with the concentrated salt brine was not found. Alternating one week slug injection of soft water with alkali and then soft water with salt continued throughout the quarter. A four-hour soft water spacer with no chemicals was placed between the slugs. Injection data and graphs showing performance of the area are presented. 7 figures, 2 tables.

  5. Allegheny County Park Rangers Outreach (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Launched in June 2015, the Allegheny County Park Rangers program reached over 48,000 people in its first year. Park Rangers interact with residents of all ages and...

  6. Alkaline flood prediction studies, Ranger VII pilot, Wilmington Field, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, E.H.; Breit, V.S.


    The paper discusses: (1) The design of a simulator to model alkaline displacement mechanisms and the current state-of-the-art understanding of in-situ caustic consumption. (2) Assimilation of laboratory core flood and rock consumption data. Use of this data in 1-D and 2-D limited area simulations, and a 3-D model of the entire pilot project. (3) Simulation studies of alkaline flood behavior in a small 2-D area of the field for various concentrations, slug sizes, long term consumption functions and two relative permeability adjustment mechanisms. (4) Scale up of 2-D simulation results, and their use in a 271 acre 1.097 x 10/sup 6/m/sup 2/), 7 layered 3-D model of the pilot. (5) Comparison of 3-D simulator results with initial field alkaline flood performance. (6) Recommended additional application of the simulator methods developed in this pilot and in other alkaline floods. 10 refs.

  7. Alkaline flood prediction studies, Ranger VII pilot, Wilmington Field, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, E.H.; Breit, V.S.


    This paper discusses the design of a simulator to model alkaline displacement mechanisms, along with the current understanding of in-situ caustic consumption. Assimilation of laboratory coreflood and rock consumption data, and their use in one- and two-dimensional (1D and 2D) limited area simulations and in three-dimensional (3D) models of the entire pilot project are given. This paper also reports simulation studies of alkaline flood behavior in a small 2D area of a field for various concentrations, slug sizes, long-term consumption functions, and two relative-permeability adjustment mechanisms. The scale-up of 2D simulation results and their use in a 271-acre (1096.7-ha), seven-layered, 3D model of the pilot are also discussed and 3D simulator results are compared with initial field alkaline flood performance. Finally, recommended additional applications of the simulator methods developed in this pilot and in other alkaline floods are discussed.

  8. The History of the 2nd Ranger Company

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bond, Victor


    The purpose of this research project is to uncover the history of the 2nd Ranger Company and to determine the impact segregation had on the selection, training, and combat operations of the 2nd Ranger Company...

  9. 75th Ranger Regiment Nutrition Program (United States)


    Siple Medical Training Culinary Advisor Warfighter Nutrition Conference USUHS, Bethesda, MD 15 JULY 2008 Report Documentation Page Form...Performance Nutrition ◘ Sports Medicine ◘ Mental Toughness The RAW Program Team Approach: Commander’s Program! • Ranger Leaders • Culinary Overweight Fitness screening, staged training Previous Heat Injury Medical history and record screening Contributory Medical Issues Medical

  10. Of Power Rangers and V-Chips. (United States)

    Boyatzis, Chris J.


    Describes a study of the effects of violence on elementary students which used the television program Mighty Morphin Power Rangers, and found increased aggression which parents should be concerned about. Offers suggestions for parents and teachers, including taking action against violent programming, utilizing technology which bans unwanted…

  11. The Mighty Morphin Power Rangers: Teachers Voice Concern. (United States)

    Levin, Diane E.; Carlsson-Paige, Nancy


    Presents the results of a study exploring teachers' concerns and observations of how the "Power Rangers" television series affects children in their classrooms. Teachers' concerns focus on violence, aggressive play, confusion about fantasy and reality, obsessive involvement with the Power Rangers, and use of them as role models for…

  12. Learning about Real-Life Heroes: Forest Rangers. (United States)

    Afflerbach, Susan; Fonville, Beth


    Suggests that when children show interest in television superheroes, build on that interest in the classroom by introducing them to real-life heroes in the community. Using forest rangers as an example, offers a variety of activities, books, and resources that can introduce children to forest rangers and the work they do to protect forest…

  13. Factors Affecting Job Satisfaction Of Rangers In Yankari Game ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to identify the various factors affecting the job satisfaction level of rangers in Yankari Game Reserve, Bauchi, Nigeria. Data were collected using structured questionnaire comprising four facets: personal characteristics of the rangers, job satisfaction, motivation, and work environment. Data were ...

  14. Precise Orbit Determination of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter and inferred gravity field information (United States)

    Maier, A.; Baur, O.; Krauss, S.


    This contribution deals with Precise Orbit Determination of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, which is tracked with optical laser ranges in addition to radiometric Doppler range-rates and range observations. The optimum parameterization is assessed by overlap analysis tests that indicate the inner precision of the computed orbits. Information about the very long wavelengths of the lunar gravity field is inferred from the spacecraft positions. The NASA software packages GEODYN II and SOLVE were used for orbit determination and gravity field recovery [1].

  15. Haemophilus influenzae biotype VII.


    Gratten, M


    A hitherto unreported biotype of Haemophilus influenzae is described. The isolate is noncapsulate and fails to decarboxylate ornithine or hydrolyze urea but is a strong indole producer. Its frequency is low. It is suggested that this newly recognized biotype of H. influenzae be designated biotype VII.

  16. 75 FR 3195 - Ochoco National Forest, Lookout Mountain Ranger District; Oregon; Mill Creek; Allotment... (United States)


    ... Forest Service Ochoco National Forest, Lookout Mountain Ranger District; Oregon; Mill Creek; Allotment... Mountain Ranger District. These four allotments are: Cox, Craig, Mill Creek, and Old Dry Creek. The.... ADDRESSES: Send written comments to Bill Queen, District Ranger, Lookout Mountain District, Ochoco National...

  17. 75 FR 71666 - Bend/Ft. Rock Ranger District; Deschutes National Forest; Deschutes County, OR; West Bend... (United States)


    ... Forest Service Bend/Ft. Rock Ranger District; Deschutes National Forest; Deschutes County, OR; West Bend... Jeffries, District Ranger, Bend-Fort Rock Ranger District, Red Oaks Square, 1230 NE. Third Street, Suite A...-Fort Rock Ranger District, Red Oaks Square, 1230 NE. Third Street, Suite A-262, Bend, Oregon 97701...

  18. Lunar horticulture. (United States)

    Walkinshaw, C. H.


    Discussion of the role that lunar horticulture may fulfill in helping establish the life support system of an earth-independent lunar colony. Such a system is expected to be a hybrid between systems which depend on lunar horticulture and those which depend upon the chemical reclamation of metabolic waste and its resynthesis into nutrients and water. The feasibility of this approach has been established at several laboratories. Plants grow well under reduced pressures and with oxygen concentrations of less than 1% of the total pressure. The carbon dioxide collected from the lunar base personnel should provide sufficient gas pressure (approx. 100 mm Hg) for growing the plants.

  19. Mighty Morphin Power Ranger Play: Research and Reality. (United States)

    Crosser, Sandra


    Explores the question of whether or not Mighty Morphin Power Rangers-type aggressive play is developmentally appropriate for the early childhood classroom. Compares results from research in child development to the reality of television programming, highlighting the relationship between television violence and children's aggressive behavior. (AA)

  20. Lunar magnetism (United States)

    Hood, L. L.; Sonett, C. P.; Srnka, L. J.


    Aspects of lunar paleomagnetic and electromagnetic sounding results which appear inconsistent with the hypothesis that an ancient core dynamo was the dominant source of the observed crustal magnetism are discussed. Evidence is summarized involving a correlation between observed magnetic anomalies and ejecta blankets from impact events which indicates the possible importance of local mechanisms involving meteoroid impact processes in generating strong magnetic fields at the lunar surface. A reply is given to the latter argument which also presents recent evidence of a lunar iron core.

  1. Natural resources youth training program (NRYTP), resource rangers 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    In 2010, for a second year, the natural resources youth training program (NRYTP) was developed in northern Manitoba thanks to Manitoba Keewatinowi Okimakanak Inc. (MKO) and the collaboration of 42 sponsors. 16 aboriginal youth representing six northern communities took part in the five-week program located at the Egg Lake camp. The objective was to provide these resources rangers with knowledge and training in the most widespread resource sectors in northern Manitoba, including mining, forestry and hydropower. Trainers and experts provided by industry partners offered training sessions, hands-on work experience and other activities to help resource rangers to acquire a better understanding of the employability in this field in the northern region and the knowledge and skills the resource-based careers require. Life and professional skills training was given by the camp staff and local professionals. On-site elders and cultural events also allowed the integration of a northern Cree cultural component. Three staff members, a cook and elders assisted daily the resource rangers. Many improvements and refinements have been made since the success of the 2009 program, including the involvement of a larger number of communities, program contributors and program graduates. The program length has doubled and the number of jobs created has increased, important cultural aspects were introduced and the overall expenses were reduced.

  2. PeakRanger: A cloud-enabled peak caller for ChIP-seq data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grossman Robert


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP, coupled with massively parallel short-read sequencing (seq is used to probe chromatin dynamics. Although there are many algorithms to call peaks from ChIP-seq datasets, most are tuned either to handle punctate sites, such as transcriptional factor binding sites, or broad regions, such as histone modification marks; few can do both. Other algorithms are limited in their configurability, performance on large data sets, and ability to distinguish closely-spaced peaks. Results In this paper, we introduce PeakRanger, a peak caller software package that works equally well on punctate and broad sites, can resolve closely-spaced peaks, has excellent performance, and is easily customized. In addition, PeakRanger can be run in a parallel cloud computing environment to obtain extremely high performance on very large data sets. We present a series of benchmarks to evaluate PeakRanger against 10 other peak callers, and demonstrate the performance of PeakRanger on both real and synthetic data sets. We also present real world usages of PeakRanger, including peak-calling in the modENCODE project. Conclusions Compared to other peak callers tested, PeakRanger offers improved resolution in distinguishing extremely closely-spaced peaks. PeakRanger has above-average spatial accuracy in terms of identifying the precise location of binding events. PeakRanger also has excellent sensitivity and specificity in all benchmarks evaluated. In addition, PeakRanger offers significant improvements in run time when running on a single processor system, and very marked improvements when allowed to take advantage of the MapReduce parallel environment offered by a cloud computing resource. PeakRanger can be downloaded at the official site of modENCODE project:

  3. Lunar laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keaton, P.W.; Duke, M.B.


    An international research laboratory can be established on the Moon in the early years of the 21st Century. It can be built using the transportation system now envisioned by NASA, which includes a space station for Earth orbital logistics and orbital transfer vehicles for Earth-Moon transportation. A scientific laboratory on the Moon would permit extended surface and subsurface geological exploration; long-duration experiments defining the lunar environment and its modification by surface activity; new classes of observations in astronomy; space plasma and fundamental physics experiments; and lunar resource development. The discovery of a lunar source for propellants may reduce the cost of constructing large permanent facilities in space and enhance other space programs such as Mars exploration. 29 refs.

  4. 78 FR 38287 - Bitterroot National Forest, Darby Ranger District, Como Forest Health Project (United States)


    ... Forest Service Bitterroot National Forest, Darby Ranger District, Como Forest Health Project AGENCY: Forest Service. ACTION: Notice; Correction. SUMMARY: The Department of Agriculture (USDA), Forest Service, Bitterroot National Forest, Darby Ranger District published a document in the Federal Register of June 17...

  5. 78 FR 24717 - Crescent Ranger District; Deschutes National Forest; Klamath County, Oregon; Marsh Project... (United States)


    ... Forest Service Crescent Ranger District; Deschutes National Forest; Klamath County, Oregon; Marsh Project... statement (EIS) for a project called Marsh, in the southwestern portion of the Crescent Ranger District just... areas such as the Marsh project area provide to people. The focal point of the planning area is Big...

  6. 76 FR 315 - Sisters Ranger District; Deschutes National Forest; Oregon; Popper Vegetation Management Project (United States)


    ... Leader, Sisters Ranger District, Pine Street and Highway 20, POB 249, Sisters, Oregon 97759, or submit to... INFORMATION CONTACT: Michael Keown, Team Leader, Sisters Ranger District, Pine Street and Highway 20, POB 249... wildlife species and other ecological processes. These no treatment areas include nesting, roosting, and...

  7. Elimination of 1994 Gender Restriction: Will Earning the Ranger Tab Achieve Full Career Potential for Women? (United States)


    45 Excerpts from the Kotter Model...implementation of DADT and the DADT Repeal Act. The implementation guidance was delivered by the National Leadership to the forces through the Service Chiefs...enter the Regiment either through the Ranger Training Battlaion or after completion of Ranger School and serving in a key leadership position in a

  8. 75 FR 43138 - Ochoco National Forest, Lookout Mountain Ranger District; Oregon; Howard Elliot Johnson Fuels and... (United States)


    ... Forest Service Ochoco National Forest, Lookout Mountain Ranger District; Oregon; Howard Elliot Johnson...-acre Howard Elliot Johnson project area, which is approximately 23 miles east of Prineville, Oregon... Maurice Evans, Acting District Ranger, Lookout Mountain District, Ochoco National Forest, 3160 NE. Third...

  9. 77 FR 58354 - Bend-Fort Rock Ranger District; Oregon; Withdrawal of Notice for Preparation of an Environmental... (United States)


    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Bend-Fort Rock Ranger District; Oregon; Withdrawal of Notice for... Bend-Fort Rock Ranger District and FHWA are withdrawing their intent to prepare an Environmental Impact... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Amy Tinderholt, Project Leader, Bend- Fort Rock Ranger District, 63095...

  10. 76 FR 23273 - Bend/Ft. Rock Ranger District; Deschutes National Forest; Deschutes County, Oregon; Mt. Bachelor... (United States)


    ... Forest Service Bend/Ft. Rock Ranger District; Deschutes National Forest; Deschutes County, Oregon; Mt... Federal Register. ADDRESSES: Send written comments to Shane Jeffries, District Ranger, Bend-Fort Rock..., Recreation Team Leader, Bend-Fort Rock Ranger District, Red Oaks Square, 1230 NE Third Street Suite A-262...

  11. 77 FR 49775 - Beaverhead-Deerlodge National Forest, Wisdom and Wise River Ranger Districts; Montana; North and... (United States)


    ... Forest Service Beaverhead-Deerlodge National Forest, Wisdom and Wise River Ranger Districts; Montana..., Wisdom/Wise River District Ranger at (406) 689-3243 or via email at [email protected] . Individuals who... Official The Wisdom/Wise River District Ranger will be the responsible official. Nature of Decision To Be...

  12. Moon 101: Introducing Students to Lunar Science and Exploration (United States)

    Shaner, A. J.; Shipp, S. S.; Allen, J. S.; Kring, D. A.


    , students are asked a series of questions which help reinforce the lunar science concepts they should take away from the readings. Students then use their new knowledge of the Moon in the final section of Moon 101 where they are asked to characterize the geology of the region surrounding the Apollo 11 landing site. To do this, they conduct a survey of available lunar data, examining imagery from lunar missions as recent as the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter and as old as the Ranger missions of the 1960s. This allows students to explore the available datasets and identify the advantages and disadvantages of each. Pre/post test questions have also been developed to assess changes in student understanding of the formation and evolution of the Moon, and lunar exploration. Moon 101 is a framework for introducing students to lunar science, and can be followed up with student-driven research. Moon 101 can be easily modified to suit the needs of the students and the instructor. Because lunar science is an evolving field of study, the use of resources such as the PSRD allows Moon 101 to be flexible and to change as the lunar community re-discovers our celestial neighbor.

  13. Lunar Seismology (United States)

    Latham, Gary V.


    Summarizes major findings from the passive seismic experiment on the Moon with the Apollo seismic network illustrated in a map. Concludes that human beings may have discovered something very basic about the physics of planetary interiors because of the affirmation of the presence of a warm'' lunar interior. (CC)

  14. Factor VII-activating protease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramanathan, Ramshanker; Gram, Jørgen B; Sand, Niels Peter R


    : Factor VII-activating protease (FSAP) may regulate development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). We evaluated sex differences in FSAP measures and examined the association between FSAP and coronary artery calcification (CAC) in a middle-aged population. Participants were randomly selected citizens...

  15. Is that Gun for the Bears? The National Park Service Ranger as a Historically Contradictory Figure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice B Kelly Pennaz


    Full Text Available The “Yellowstone Model” of exclusionary, or fortress conservation, has spread widely across the globe since 1872. While in many other countries there has been a concomitant ever-increasing militarisation of park guards, the history of the United States (US Park Ranger offers an alternative narrative. This paper traces the complex history of the US Park ranger through time to show how the Ranger as an outward embodiment of state power has been contradicted by administrative and practical logics directing rangers to educate, welcome, and guide park visitors. Rangers' work as territorial enforcers, and as strong-arms of the state has been tempered and defined by multiple disciplining forces over time. Using a political ecology approach, this paper examines how shifting political economic contexts, shifts in park use and park visitors, and a changing national law enforcement milieu influenced how and in what ways National Park Rangers have performed law enforcement in US parks over the past 100 years. The paper concludes by laying out why comparisons between US National Park Rangers and park guards in other parts of the world may be troubled by a number of socioeconomic and political factors.

  16. Positivity VII (Zaanen Centennial Conference)

    CERN Document Server

    Pagter, Ben; Gaans, Onno; Veraar, Mark


    This book presents the proceedings of Positivity VII, held from 22-26 July 2013, in Leiden, the Netherlands. Positivity is the mathematical field concerned with ordered structures and their applications in the broadest sense of the word. A biyearly series of conferences is devoted to presenting the latest developments in this lively and growing discipline. The lectures at the conference covered a broad spectrum of topics, ranging from order-theoretic approaches to stochastic processes, positive solutions of evolution equations and positive operators on vector lattices, to order structures in the context of algebras of operators on Hilbert spaces. The contributions in the book reflect this variety and appeal to university researchers in functional analysis, operator theory, measure and integration theory and operator algebras. Positivity VII was also the Zaanen Centennial Conference to mark the 100th birth year of Adriaan Cornelis Zaanen, who held the chair of Analysis in Leiden for more than 25 years and was ...

  17. Highlights of Spanish Astrophysics VII (United States)

    Guirado, J. C.; Lara, L. M.; Quilis, V.; Gorgas, J.


    "Highlights of Astronomy and Astrophysics VII" contains the Proceedings of the biannual meeting of the Spanish Astronomical Society held in Valencia from July 9 to 13, 2012. Over 300 astronomer, both national and international researchers, attended to the conference covering a wide variety of astrophysical topics: Galaxies and Cosmology, The Milky Way and Its Components, Planetary Sciences, Solar Physics, Instrumentation and Computation, and Teaching and Outreach of Astronomy.

  18. Congenital deficiency of factor VII. (United States)

    Sikka, M; Gomber, S; Madan, N; Rusia, U; Sharma, S


    A case of congenital factor VII deficiency in a five-year-old child is reported. The patient, born of a non-consanguineous marriage, presented with repeated bouts of epistaxis since childhood. The prothrombin time (PT) was markedly prolonged with a normal bleeding time (BT), partial thromboplastin time with Kaolin (PTTK) and platelet count. The patient has been on follow up for the last four years and is doing apparently well.

  19. Electron-Muon Ranger: performance in the MICE Muon Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, D; Vankova-Kirilova, G.; Bertoni, R.; Bonesini, M.; Chignoli, F.; Mazza, R.; Palladino, V.; de Bari, A.; Cecchet, G.; Capponi, M.; Iaciofano, A.; Orestano, D.; Pastore, F.; Tortora, L.; Kuno, Y.; Sakamoto, H.; Ishimoto, S.; Filthaut, F.; Hansen, O.M.; Ramberger, S.; Vretenar, M.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Bene, P.; Blondel, A.; Cadoux, F.; Debieux, S.; Drielsma, F.; Graulich, J.S.; Husi, C.; Karadzhov, Y.; Masciocchi, F.; Nicola, L.; Messomo, E.Noah; Rothenfusser, K.; Sandstrom, R.; Wisting, H.; Charnley, G.; Collomb, N.; Gallagher, A.; Grant, A.; Griffiths, S.; Hartnett, T.; Martlew, B.; Moss, A.; Muir, A.; Mullacrane, I.; Oates, A.; Owens, P.; Stokes, G.; Warburton, P.; White, C.; Adams, D.; Barclay, P.; Bayliss, V.; Bradshaw, T.W.; Courthold, M.; Francis, V.; Fry, L.; Hayler, T.; Hills, M.; Lintern, A.; Macwaters, C.; Nichols, A.; Preece, R.; Ricciardi, S.; Rogers, C.; Stanley, T.; Tarrant, J.; Watson, S.; Wilson, A.; Bayes, R.; Nugent, J.C.; Soler, F.J.P.; Cooke, P.; Gamet, R.; Alekou, A.; Apollonio, M.; Barber, G.; Colling, D.; Dobbs, A.; Dornan, P.; Hunt, C.; Lagrange, J-B.; Long, K.; Martyniak, J.; Middleton, S.; Pasternak, J.; Santos, E.; Savidge, T.; Uchida, M.A.; Blackmore, V.J.; Carlisle, T.; Cobb, J.H.; Lau, W.; Rayner, M.A.; Tunnell, C.D.; Booth, C.N.; Hodgson, P.; Langlands, J.; Nicholson, R.; Overton, E.; Robinson, M.; Smith, P.J.; Dick, A.; Ronald, K.; Speirs, D.; Whyte, C.G.; Young, A.; Boyd, S.; Franchini, P.; Greis, J.; Pidcott, C.; Taylor, I.; Gardener, R.; Kyberd, P.; Littlefield, M.; Nebrensky, J.J.; Bross, A.D.; Fitzpatrick, T.; Leonova, M.; Moretti, A.; Neuffer, D.; Popovic, M.; Rubinov, P.; Rucinski, R.; Roberts, T.J.; Bowring, D.; DeMello, A.; Gourlay, S.; Li, D.; Prestemon, S.; Virostek, S.; Zisman, M.; Hanlet, P.; Kafka, G.; Kaplan, D.M.; Rajaram, D.; Snopok, P.; Torun, Y.; Blot, S.; Kim, Y.K.; Bravar, U.; Onel, Y.; Cremaldi, L.M.; Hart, T.L.; Luo, T.; Sanders, D.A.; Summers, D.J.; Cline, D.; Yang, X.; Coney, L.; Hanson, G.G.; Heidt, C.


    The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) will perform a detailed study of ionization cooling to evaluate the feasibility of the technique. To carry out this program, MICE requires an efficient particle-identification (PID) system to identify muons. The Electron-Muon Ranger (EMR) is a fully-active tracking-calorimeter that forms part of the PID system and tags muons that traverse the cooling channel without decaying. The detector is capable of identifying electrons with an efficiency of 98.6%, providing a purity for the MICE beam that exceeds 99.8%. The EMR also proved to be a powerful tool for the reconstruction of muon momenta in the range 100-280 MeV/$c$.

  20. Electron-Muon Ranger: performance in the MICE Muon Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, D.; Vankova-Kirilova, G.; Bertoni, R.; Bonesini, M.; Chignoli, F.; Mazza, R.; Palladino, V.; de Bari, A.; Cecchet, G.; Capponi, M.; Iaciofano, A.; Orestano, D.; Pastore, F.; Tortora, L.; Kuno, Y.; Sakamoto, H.; Ishimoto, S.; Filthaut, F.; Hansen, O.M.; Ramberger, S.; Vretenar, M.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Bene, P.; Blondel, A.; Cadoux, F.; Debieux, S.; Drielsma, F.; Graulich, J.S.; Husi, C.; Karadzhov, Y.; Masciocchi, F.; Nicola, L.; Messomo, E.Noah; Rothenfusser, K.; Sandstrom, R.; Wisting, H.; Charnley, G.; Collomb, N.; Gallagher, A.; Grant, A.; Griffiths, S.; Hartnett, T.; Martlew, B.; Moss, A.; Muir, A.; Mullacrane, I.; Oates, A.; Owens, P.; Stokes, G.; Warburton, P.; White, C.; Adams, D.; Barclay, P.; Bayliss, V.; Bradshaw, T.W.; Courthold, M.; Francis, V.; Fry, L.; Hayler, T.; Hills, M.; Lintern, A.; Macwaters, C.; Nichols, A.; Preece, R.; Ricciardi, S.; Rogers, C.; Stanley, T.; Tarrant, J.; Watson, S.; Wilson, A.; Bayes, R.; Nugent, J.C.; Soler, F.J.P.; Cooke, P.; Gamet, R.; Alekou, A.; Apollonio, M.; Barber, G.; Colling, D.; Dobbs, A.; Dornan, P.; Hunt, C.; Lagrange, J-B.; Long, K.; Martyniak, J.; Middleton, S.; Pasternak, J.; Santos, E.; Savidge, T.; Uchida, M.A.; Blackmore, V.J.; Carlisle, T.; Cobb, J.H.; Lau, W.; Rayner, M.A.; Tunnell, C.D.; Booth, C.N.; Hodgson, P.; Langlands, J.; Nicholson, R.; Overton, E.; Robinson, M.; Smith, P.J.; Dick, A.; Ronald, K.; Speirs, D.; Whyte, C.G.; Young, A.; Boyd, S.; Franchini, P.; Greis, J.; Pidcott, C.; Taylor, I.; Gardener, R.; Kyberd, P.; Littlefield, M.; Nebrensky, J.J.; Bross, A.D.; Fitzpatrick, T.; Leonova, M.; Moretti, A.; Neuffer, D.; Popovic, M.; Rubinov, P.; Rucinski, R.; Roberts, T.J.; Bowring, D.; DeMello, A.; Gourlay, S.; Li, D.; Prestemon, S.; Virostek, S.; Zisman, M.; Hanlet, P.; Kafka, G.; Kaplan, D.M.; Rajaram, D.; Snopok, P.; Torun, Y.; Blot, S.; Kim, Y.K.; Bravar, U.; Onel, Y.; Cremaldi, L.M.; Hart, T.L.; Luo, T.; Sanders, D.A.; Summers, D.J.; Cline, D.; Yang, X.; Coney, L.; Hanson, G.G.; Heidt, C.


    The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) will perform a detailed study of ionization cooling to evaluate the feasibility of the technique. To carry out this program, MICE requires an efficient particle-identification (PID) system to identify muons. The Electron-Muon Ranger (EMR) is a fully-active tracking-calorimeter that forms part of the PID system and tags muons that traverse the cooling channel without decaying. The detector is capable of identifying electrons with an efficiency of 98.6%, providing a purity for the MICE beam that exceeds 99.8%. The EMR also proved to be a powerful tool for the reconstruction of muon momenta in the range 100-280 MeV/$c$.

  1. 75 FR 48927 - Sierra National Forest, Bass Lake Ranger District, California, Fish Camp Project (United States)


    ... INFORMATION CONTACT: Mark Lemon, Interdisciplinary Team Leader, at Sierra National Forest, Bass Lake Ranger... sustain a fire) wildland urban intermix area, (3) increase the vigor and health of mixed conifer stands...

  2. Are ranger patrols effective in reducing poaching-related threats within protected areas? (United States)

    Moore, Jennnifer F.; Mulindahabi, Felix; Masozera, Michel K.; Nichols, James; Hines, James; Turikunkiko, Ezechiel; Oli, Madan K.


    Poaching is one of the greatest threats to wildlife conservation world-wide. However, the spatial and temporal patterns of poaching activities within protected areas, and the effectiveness of ranger patrols and ranger posts in mitigating these threats, are relatively unknown.We used 10 years (2006–2015) of ranger-based monitoring data and dynamic multi-season occupancy models to quantify poaching-related threats, to examine factors influencing the spatio-temporal dynamics of these threats and to test the efficiency of management actions to combat poaching in Nyungwe National Park (NNP), Rwanda.The probability of occurrence of poaching-related threats was highest at lower elevations (1,801–2,200 m), especially in areas that were close to roads and tourist trails; conversely, occurrence probability was lowest at high elevation sites (2,601–3,000 m), and near the park boundary and ranger posts. The number of ranger patrols substantially increased the probability that poaching-related threats disappear at a site if threats were originally present (i.e. probability of extinction of threats). Without ranger visits, the annual probability of extinction of poaching-related threats was an estimated 7%; this probability would increase to 20% and 57% with 20 and 50 ranger visits per year, respectively.Our results suggest that poaching-related threats can be effectively reduced in NNP by adding ranger posts in areas where they do not currently exist, and by increasing the number of patrols to sites where the probability of poaching activities is high.Synthesis and applications. Our application of dynamic occupancy models to predict the probability of presence of poaching-related threats is novel, and explicitly considers imperfect detection of illegal activities. Based on the modelled relationships, we identify areas that are most vulnerable to poaching, and offer insights regarding how ranger patrols can be optimally deployed to reduce poaching-related threats and

  3. Conservation′s Ambiguities: Rangers on the Periphery of the W Park, Burkina Faso


    Julie Poppe


    This article demonstrates the central role of ambiguity in the (re)production process of conservation practice. It argues that some current political economy as well as environmentality approaches to research conservation practice fail to capture the complexity of the lived experience of local conservationists. The article focuses on the multiple identities of rangers in interaction with other residents at the periphery of the W Park in Burkina Faso, as rangers are local conservationists who ...

  4. Park Rangers' Behaviors and Their Effects on Tourists and Tibetan Macaques (Macaca thibetana) at Mt. Huangshan, China. (United States)

    Usui, Rie; Sheeran, Lori K; Li, Jin-Hua; Sun, Lixing; Wang, Xi; Pritchard, Alexander J; DuVall-Lash, Alexander S; Wagner, R Steve


    Previous studies have reported the negative impacts of tourism on nonhuman primates (NHPs) and tourists and advocated the improvement of tourism management, yet what constitutes good quality management remains unclear. We explored whether rates of macaque aggression and self-directed behaviors (SDBs) differed under the supervision of two park ranger teams at the Valley of the Wild Monkeys (VWM) in Mt. Huangshan, Anhui Province, China. The two ranger teams provisioned and managed a group of macaques on an alternating monthly basis. Monkey, tourist and ranger behaviors were collected from August 16-September 30, 2012. Macaque aggression and SDB rates did not differ significantly under the management of the two teams. Overall, there was little intervention in tourist-macaque interactions by park rangers, and even when rangers discouraged tourists' undesirable behaviors, tourist interactions with monkeys persisted. Furthermore, only one or sometimes two park rangers managed monkeys and tourists, and rangers established dominance over the monkeys to control them. In order to effectively manage tourists and monkeys by a single park ranger, we recommend that rangers: (1) prohibit tourists from feeding; (2) move around the viewing platform more frequently; and (3) limit the number of tourists each visiting session.

  5. The Cossack Ranger II Seismograph, Research And Outreach Efforts. (United States)

    Husebye, E. S.; Fedorenko, Y. V.; Pilgaev, S. V.; Matveeva, T. S.


    geoscience disciplines. Another project novelety is that the seismographs (Cossack Ranger II) would be assembled in Bulgaria thus ensuring low prices and local maintenance skills. SENSES will also introduce electronic learning modules for instructions at school levels on earthquake risks and hazard mitigations. This appears to be a most efficient way of informing the public at large about various types of natural hazards. In this presentations, we give details on the geophoned based seismograph Codssack Ranger II, record analysis, seismic processing scheme in a high school environment and the most difficult part promote geoscience for high school students.

  6. Penalaran Proporsional Siswa Kelas VII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yandika Nugraha


    Full Text Available [Bahasa]: Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian kualitatif deskriptif yang bertujuan untuk mendeskripsikan karakteristik penalaran proporsional siswa. Subjek penelitian adalah siswa kelas VII SMP Negeri 1 Tasikmadu Kabupaten Karanganyar. Prosedur pemilihan subjek dengan cara purposive sampling. Pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan cara think aloud method. Validitas data menggunakan triangulasi waktu. Teknik analisis data dilakukan dengan cara: (1 mengelompokkan data dalam 2 kategori, kemudian mereduksi data yang tidak termasuk dalam 2 kategori tersebut, (2 menyajikan data dalam teks naratif, dan (3 menyimpulkan karakteristik penalaran proporsional siswa kemudian membandingkan subjek yang berada pada level yang sama. Berdasarkan penelitian yang dilakukan pada enam subjek siswa kelas VII SMP Negeri Tasikmadu, terdapat empat siswa yang sudah bisa bernalar kuantitatif yaitu mampu memanipulasi situasi perbandingan dengan menggunakan suatu bilangan dan dua siswa menggunakan perkalian silang tetapi tidak sepenuhnya memahami hubungan invarian dan kovarian. [English]: This descriptive qualitative research is aimed at describing the characteristics of students proportional reasoning. The subjects are the seventh grade students at SMP Negeri 1 Tasikmadu Karanganyar. The subjects are selected through purposive sampling methods. Data collection applies think aloud method. Time triangulation is used for data validation. Data is analyzed by: (1 classifying data in two categories then reducing them which do not belong to both categories, (2 presenting the data in narrative text, and (3 summarizing the characteristics of students proportional reasoning then comparing the subjects based on same level. The research shows that 4 of 6 students are able to reason quantitatively which mean that they can manipulate the proportional situation using number and the remaining students use cross product but they did not fully understand about the relation of invariant and

  7. Autonomous Navigation with Constrained Consistency for C-Ranger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shujing Zhang


    Full Text Available Autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs have become the most widely used tools for undertaking complex exploration tasks in marine environments. Their synthetic ability to carry out localization autonomously and build an environmental map concurrently, in other words, simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM, are considered to be pivotal requirements for AUVs to have truly autonomous navigation. However, the consistency problem of the SLAM system has been greatly ignored during the past decades. In this paper, a consistency constrained extended Kalman filter (EKF SLAM algorithm, applying the idea of local consistency, is proposed and applied to the autonomous navigation of the C-Ranger AUV, which is developed as our experimental platform. The concept of local consistency (LC is introduced after an explicit theoretical derivation of the EKF-SLAM system. Then, we present a locally consistency-constrained EKF-SLAM design, LC-EKF, in which the landmark estimates used for linearization are fixed at the beginning of each local time period, rather than evaluated at the latest landmark estimates. Finally, our proposed LC-EKF algorithm is experimentally verified, both in simulations and sea trials. The experimental results show that the LC-EKF performs well with regard to consistency, accuracy and computational efficiency.

  8. Lunar Surface Navigation Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To support extended lunar operations, precision localization and route mapping is required for planetary EVA, manned rovers and lunar surface mobility units. A...

  9. Lunar Sample Display Locations (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA provides a number of lunar samples for display at museums, planetariums, and scientific expositions around the world. Lunar displays are open to the public....

  10. Lunar Sample Atlas (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Sample Atlas provides pictures of the Apollo samples taken in the Lunar Sample Laboratory, full-color views of the samples in microscopic thin-sections,...

  11. Lunar Sample Compendium (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of the Lunar Sample Compendium is to inform scientists, astronauts and the public about the various lunar samples that have been returned from the Moon....


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This archive bundle includes data taken by the Lunar Dust Experiment (LDEX) instrument aboard the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) spacecraft....

  13. Lunar Orbiter Photo Gallery (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Orbiter Photo Gallery is an extensive collection of over 2,600 high- and moderate-resolution photographs produced by all five of the Lunar Orbiter...

  14. Russian Lunar Space Program (United States)

    Zelenyi, Lev; Petrukovich, Anatoly; Khartov, Victor V.; Dolgopolov, Vladimir; Mitrofanov, Igor; Martunov, M.; Lukianchikov, A.; Shevchenko, Vladislav

    Russia had a great number of “firsts” in Lunar Studies (first soft landing, first pictures of the dark side of the moon, first sample return, first rover). Now after a long break the focus of Russian Space Program is again aimed to the lunar science investigations. These investigations have two aims: 1) to get answers to a principal questions of lunar formation and evolution, search for volatiles and regions with subsurface lunar permafrost, studies of lunar dust, electrostatic fields and magnetic anomalies. 2) Preparation to Lunar Exploration stage and search for most promising sites for future lunar habitable scientific stations. First stage of Russian Lunar program during this decade of 2 Lunar includes launches Landers and one Lunar orbiter, discussed in a preceding talks. Further steps during the next decade are related, first of all, with the cryogenic lunar sample return from a certain locations, hear South (or North ) poles, which according to the analysis of orbital observations are enriched by the subsurface water ice inclusions. Next steps, which are planned now are transitional to the exploration stage: delivery of a “ heavy rover“ to the specific site (thoroughly investigated during previous stages), accomplishment of technological experiments on the mitigation of lunar dust and space radiation hazards, simple initial experiments on radioastronomy and cosmic ray studies. It is a long and complicated path to go and quite naturally Russia considers that all important steps on this way will be done in international partnership.

  15. 75 FR 14419 - Camp Tatiyee Land Exchange on the Lakeside Ranger District of the Apache-Sitgreaves National... (United States)


    ... National Forest (CNF); one 11.15 parcel to the Prescott National Forest (PNF); and five parcels totaling..., Safford, and Douglas Ranger Districts of the CNF; Bradshaw Ranger District of the PNF; Cave Creek, Tonto... the PNF, ASNFs and TNF and presented the ASNFs with their proposal for the Camp Tatiyee Land Exchange...

  16. Microprocessor realizations of range and range-rate filters in radar systems (United States)

    Fleischer, D.; Aronhime, P.


    This paper describes the implementation of digital radar range-rate filters on a microprocessor-based system. A range-rate filter processes a digitized noisy range signal to recover smoothed range data and its derivative, range rate. Two filter designs are implemented. Considerations aiding their efficient operation on an 8-bit microprocessor are discussed. The filters are subjected to a noisy range input signal of known variance, and the associated output signals are statistically analysed to determine noise-rejection characteristics. These results are compared to analytical predictions.

  17. Our Lunar Destiny: Creating a Lunar Economy (United States)

    Rohwer, Christopher J.


    "Our Lunar Destiny: Creating a Lunar Economy" supports a vision of people moving freely and economically between the earth and the Moon in an expansive space and lunar economy. It makes the economic case for the creation of a lunar space economy and projects the business plan that will make the venture an economic success. In addition, this paper argues that this vision can be created and sustained only by private enterprise and the legal right of private property in space and on the Moon. Finally, this paper advocates the use of lunar land grants as the key to unleashing the needed capital and the economic power of private enterprise in the creation of a 21st century lunar space economy. It is clear that the history of our United States economic system proves the value of private property rights in the creation of any new economy. It also teaches us that the successful development of new frontiers-those that provide economic opportunity for freedom-loving people-are frontiers that encourage, respect and protect the possession of private property and the fruits of labor and industry. Any new 21st century space and lunar economy should therefore be founded on this same principle.

  18. Extraction of Tc(VII) and Re(VII) on TRU resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerin, Nicolas; Riopel, Remi; Kramer-Tremblay, Sheila [Canadian Nuclear Laboratories (CNL), Chalk River, ON (Canada). Radiobiology and Health Branch; De Silva, Nimal; Cornett, Jack [Ottawa Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Earth and Environmental Sciences; Dai, Xiongxin [China Institute for Radiation Protection, Beijing (China)


    TRU resin can be used to rapidly and selectively extract Tc(VII) and Re(VII). The retention capacity curves of Tc(VII) and Re(VII) for HNO{sub 3}, HCl, H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} solutions were studied and prepared. Tc(VII) and Re(VII) were simultaneously extracted in 2 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and 1.5 M H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} and were effectively separated from Mo(VI) and Ru(III). Tc(VII) and Re(VII) remained strongly bonded to the resin even after washing using a large volume of 2 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} at a relatively high flow rate. Also, they were both completely eluted from the resin using 15 mL of near boiling water, an eluent directly compatible for ICP-MS instrument measurements.

  19. Orbital studies of lunar magnetism (United States)

    Mcleod, M. G.; Coleman, P. J., Jr.


    Limitations of present lunar magnetic maps are considered. Optimal processing of satellite derived magnetic anomaly data is also considered. Studies of coastal and core geomagnetism are discussed. Lunar remanent and induced lunar magnetization are included.

  20. Lunar based massdriver applications (United States)

    Ehresmann, Manfred; Gabrielli, Roland Atonius; Herdrich, Georg; Laufer, René


    The results of a lunar massdriver mission and system analysis are discussed and show a strong case for a permanent lunar settlement with a site near the lunar equator. A modular massdriver concept is introduced, which uses multiple acceleration modules to be able to launch large masses into a trajectory that is able to reach Earth. An orbital mechanics analysis concludes that the launch site will be in the Oceanus Procellarum a flat, Titanium rich lunar mare area. It is further shown that the bulk of massdriver components can be manufactured by collecting lunar minerals, which are broken down into its constituting elements. The mass to orbit transfer rates of massdriver case study are significant and can vary between 1.8 kt and 3.3 megatons per year depending on the available power. Thus a lunar massdriver would act as a catalyst for any space based activities and a game changer for the scale of feasible space projects.

  1. A lunar polar expedition. (United States)

    Dowling, Richard; Staehle, Robert L.; Svitek, Thomas

    This paper reviews issues related to a five-person expedition to the lunar north pole which primarily addresses site selection and the requirements for transportation, power, and life support. A one-year stay on the lunar surface is proposed based on available technology, and proposals are detailed for incorporating flight-proven systems, abort or rescue options, and the use of the base as the nucleus for subsequent operations. Specific details are given regarding lunar orbital data, the characteristics of the proposed base, power and consumables requirements, and equipment such as two-person lunar roving vehicles and space suits. During the expedition: (1) water is recycled; (2) Autolanders are used to deliver equipment; (3) two rovers are included in the mass budget; (4) the lunar surface is studied in detail. A polar lunar-base site offers the advantages of unobstructed astronomy, enhanced heat rejection, and the potential for reuse.

  2. 75 FR 16728 - Beaver Creek Landscape Management Project, Ashland Ranger District, Custer National Forest... (United States)


    ... the project area by managing for early development (post disturbance), mid development closed, mid... Forest Service Beaver Creek Landscape Management Project, Ashland Ranger District, Custer National Forest... disclose the effects of ] managing forest vegetation in a manner that increases resiliency of the Beaver...

  3. 78 FR 36163 - Bitterroot National Forest, Darby Ranger District, Como Forest Health Project (United States)


    ... Forest Service Bitterroot National Forest, Darby Ranger District, Como Forest Health Project AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of intent to prepare an environmental impact statement. SUMMARY: The USDA Forest Service, Bitterroot National Forest will prepare an environmental impact statement (EIS) to...

  4. 77 FR 18997 - Rim Lakes Forest Restoration Project; Apache-Sitgreavese National Forest, Black Mesa Ranger... (United States)


    ...] [FR Doc No: 2012-7527] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Rim Lakes Forest Restoration Project; Apache-Sitgreavese National Forest, Black Mesa Ranger District, Coconino County, AZ AGENCY: Forest.... Forest Service (FS) will prepare an environmental impact statement (EIS) on a proposed action to conduct...

  5. Conservation′s Ambiguities: Rangers on the Periphery of the W Park, Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Poppe


    Full Text Available This article demonstrates the central role of ambiguity in the (reproduction process of conservation practice. It argues that some current political economy as well as environmentality approaches to research conservation practice fail to capture the complexity of the lived experience of local conservationists. The article focuses on the multiple identities of rangers in interaction with other residents at the periphery of the W Park in Burkina Faso, as rangers are local conservationists who simultaneously submit to and produce conservation practices. Park rangers are village men who are recruited under the banner of community participation in conservation projects and state forestry. On a day-to-day basis, these rangers help the foresters with the management of the natural resources on the one hand, and guide tourists, especially in the hunting concessions, on the other. They occupy ambiguous positions at the crossroads of conservationist, state, political, economic, spiritual, social, and cultural practices, inherent to their conservation occupations at the lowest echelon, where residents have to transform conservation policies into practices. It is precisely this ambiguity that turns out to ensure the conservation implementation.

  6. 75 FR 10457 - Andrew Pickens Ranger District; South Carolina; AP Loblolly Pine Removal and Restoration Project (United States)


    ... The Andrew Pickens Ranger District proposes the following treatments: Regeneration Harvest, With... species (sprouts and seedlings) within 1-2 years after the initial post-harvest prescribed burn. These... manual and mechanical treatment. Woodlands are forests with relatively low tree densities of 25-60...

  7. Reassessment of Loblolly Pine Decline on the Oakmulgee Ranger District, Talladega National Forest, Alabama (United States)

    Nolan J. Hess; William J. Otroana; John P. Jones; Arthur J. Goddard; Charles H. Walkinshaw


    Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) decline has been a management concern on the Oakmulgee Ranger District since the 1960's. The symptoms include sparse crowns, reduced radial growth, deterioration of fine roots, decline, and mortality of loblolly pine by age 50.

  8. 78 FR 3879 - Ochoco National Forest, Paulina Ranger District; Oregon; Fox Canyon Cluster Allotment Management... (United States)


    ... Forest Service Ochoco National Forest, Paulina Ranger District; Oregon; Fox Canyon Cluster Allotment Management Plan Project EIS AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of intent to prepare an... Resource Management Plan (Forest Plan), as amended, and other applicable legal requirements within the...

  9. 75 FR 54085 - Divide Ranger District, Rio Grande National Forest; Colorado; Big Moose Vegetation Management... (United States)


    ... Doc No: 2010-22037] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Divide Ranger District, Rio Grande National Forest; Colorado; Big Moose Vegetation Management Project AGENCY: Forest Service, Rio Grande National Forest, USDA. ACTION: Corrected Notice of Intent to prepare an environmental impact statement...

  10. 75 FR 9388 - Prescott National Forest, Bradshaw Ranger District; Arizona; Bradshaw Vegetation Management Project (United States)


    ... Management Project AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of intent to prepare an environmental impact statement. SUMMARY: This project is a proposal to improve the health of fire adapted ecosystems while simultaneously reducing hazardous fuels on the Bradshaw Ranger District. The project area encompasses about 55...

  11. 76 FR 13344 - Beaver Creek Landscape Management Project, Ashland Ranger District, Custer National Forest... (United States)


    ... Forest Service Beaver Creek Landscape Management Project, Ashland Ranger District, Custer National Forest... Environmental Impact Statement for the Beaver Creek Landscape Management Project in the Federal Register (75 FR... Creek Landscape Management Project was published in the Federal Register on October 15, 2010 (75 FR...

  12. 76 FR 76689 - Cibola National Forest, Mount Taylor Ranger District, NM, Mount Taylor Combined Exploratory Drilling (United States)


    ... project area. The exploratory drilling in this area would be phased over the course of six years; 51 holes... drilling on the Cibola National Forest, Mount Taylor Ranger District. There are two areas identified for exploration; the Bajillos project area is approximately 2,894 acres and is located in T. 12 N, R. 8 W...

  13. 76 FR 67130 - Bridger-Teton National Forest; Big Piney Ranger District; Wyoming; Environmental Impact Statement... (United States)


    .... Approximately five percent of the project area is within the DFC 12 (Backcountry Big-game Hunting, Dispersed... Forest Service Bridger-Teton National Forest; Big Piney Ranger District; Wyoming; Environmental Impact... miles northwest of Big Piney, Wyoming, and is situated on the east side of the northern end of the...

  14. View invariant gesture recognition using the CSEMSwissRanger SR-2 camera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holte, Michael Boelstoft; Moeslund, Thomas B.; Fihl, Preben


    This paper introduces the use of range information acquired by a CSEM SwissRanger SR-2 camera for view invariant recognition of one and two arms gestures. The range data enables motion detection and 3D representation of gestures. Motion is detected by double difference range images and filtered...

  15. 75 FR 71668 - Cibota National Forest, Mount Taylor Ranger District, NM, Roca Honda Mine (United States)


    ... uranium mine at the Roca Honda claims. The purpose of the EIS is to evaluate the environmental impacts of... Forest Service Cibota National Forest, Mount Taylor Ranger District, NM, Roca Honda Mine AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of Intent to prepare an Environmental Impact Statement. SUMMARY: Roca Honda...

  16. 76 FR 22363 - Kaibab National Forest, Williams Ranger District; Arizona; Bill Williams Mountain Restoration... (United States)


    ... best available science, the Forest Supervisor will decide: Whether to select the proposed action or one... Forest Service Kaibab National Forest, Williams Ranger District; Arizona; Bill Williams Mountain Restoration Project AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of intent to prepare an environmental impact...

  17. 75 FR 44936 - Ochoco National Forest, Lookout Mountain Ranger District; Oregon; Howard Elliot Johnson Fuels and... (United States)


    ... [Federal Register Volume 75, Number 146 (Friday, July 30, 2010)] [Notices] [Page 44936] [FR Doc No: C1-2010-17803] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Ochoco National Forest, Lookout Mountain Ranger District; Oregon; Howard Elliot Johnson Fuels and Vegetation Management Project EIS Correction In...

  18. Lunar and interplanetary trajectories

    CERN Document Server

    Biesbroek, Robin


    This book provides readers with a clear description of the types of lunar and interplanetary trajectories, and how they influence satellite-system design. The description follows an engineering rather than a mathematical approach and includes many examples of lunar trajectories, based on real missions. It helps readers gain an understanding of the driving subsystems of interplanetary and lunar satellites. The tables and graphs showing features of trajectories make the book easy to understand. .

  19. A comparison between high-low and low-low satellite-to-satellite tracking methods in lunar gravimetry (United States)

    Peterson, Erica; Fotopoulos, Georgia; Shum, C. K.; Zee, Robert E.; Arkani-Hamed, Jafar; Spencer, Henry

    Recent years have seen a rising interest in lunar exploration, and correspondingly also in lunar gravity-mapping, with launched missions such as Japan's SELENE, China's Chang'E, ESA's Smart-1, and NASA's LRO, and planned missions including Canada's Lunette, India's Chandryaan-1, and NASA's Grail. Lunar gravity maps can improve mission trajectory and orbit planning, and yield information about the lunar interior including crustal thickness, the location of mineral deposits, and the nature of the lunar mascons and their relationship to the lunar basins. Until recently, lunar gravity mapping was accomplished via Earth-based radio tracking of a satellite in lunar orbit, to measure the effects of gravitational perturbations on the satellite trajectory. As no radio contact was possible while the satellite passed around the far side of the moon, far side gravity maps were constructed by extrapolating the data obtained immediately before and after the satellite passed out of contact. The 1998 Lunar Prospector mission mapped the lunar gravity field in this manner, yielding a near-side map with 10-20 mGal sensitivity and a 50-100km 2-D spatial resolution, and a far-side map estimated at five to ten times worse. In addition, low accuracy far-side gravity modeling degrades lunar orbiters and causes significantly degraded lunar topography measurements using altimeters. The 2007 SELENE mission will provide the first full-sphere lunar gravity maps using satellite-to-satellite Doppler tracking (SST) and differential VLBI to measure range-rate differences between multiple satellites in lunar orbit, solving the far-side occlusion problem. Additionally, students in the Space Flight Laboratory at the University of Toronto Institute for Aerospace Studies are designing Lunette, a gravity-mapping ejectable subsatellite payload that will perform SST between two spacecraft in a 100km circular polar lunar orbit, known as "Low-Low SST." The SELENE mission is performing High-Low SST, between

  20. A lunar venture (United States)

    Lee, Joo Ahn; Trinh, Lu X.


    As the Earth's space station is in its final stages of design, the dream of a permanent manned space facility is now a reality. Despite this monumental achievement, however, man's quest to extend human habitation further out into space is far from being realized. The next logical step in space exploration must be the construction of a permanent lunar base. This lunar infrastucture can, in turn, be used as a staging ground for further exploration of the remote regions of the solar system. As outlined by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the lunar base program consists of three exploratory and implementation phases. In response to the technological and facility requirements of Phase 1 and 2 of this program, the Aerospace Vehicle Design Program of the University of Virgina (UVA) is proud to present a preliminary design for such a lunar infrastructure. This study is a comprehensive evaluation of the mission requirements as well as the design criteria for space vehicles and facilities. The UVA Lunar Venture is a dual system that consists of a lunar space station and a fleet of lunar landers/transporters. With such a design, it is demonstrated that all initial exploratory and construction requirements for the lunar base can be efficiently satisfied. Additionally, the need for such a dual system is justified both from a logistic and economic standpoint.

  1. Astronaut Edwin Aldrin egresses lunar module on lunar surface (United States)


    Astronaut Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., lunar module pilot, is photographed egressing the lunar module during the Apollo 11 extravehicular activity on the lunar surface. This picture was taken by Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, commander, with a 70mm lunar surface camera.

  2. Cleveland Bilingual Education Program: Title VII ESEA. (United States)

    Halasa, Ofelia

    This 1974-75 evaluation report of the Title VII Cleveland Bilingual Education Program discusses the degree to which process objectives were implemented and product objectives attained, and the impressions of project and school staff and parents. The goals of the bilingual program were to develop the ability to communicate and function in Spanish…

  3. Canine specific ELISA for coagulation factor VII

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Tom; Kjelgaard-Hansen, Mads; Tranholm, Mikael


    Canine coagulation factor VII (FVII) deficiency can be hereditary or acquired and may cause life threatening bleeding episodes if untreated. FVII procoagulant activity can be measured by FVII activity (FVII:C), but assays for measurement of canine specific FVII antigen (FVII:Ag) have not been...

  4. 29 CFR 1601.93 - Opinions-title VII. (United States)


    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Opinions-title VII. 1601.93 Section 1601.93 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION PROCEDURAL REGULATIONS Title VII Interpretations and Opinions by the Commission § 1601.93 Opinions—title VII. Only the following...

  5. Lunar Flashlight: Illuminating the Lunar South Pole (United States)

    Hayne, P. O.; Greenhagen,, B. T.; Paige, D. A.; Camacho, J. M.; Cohen, B. A.; Sellar, G.; Reiter, J.


    Recent reflectance data from LRO instruments suggest water ice and other volatiles may be present on the surface in lunar permanentlyshadowed regions, though the detection is not yet definitive. Understanding the composition, quantity, distribution, and form of water and other volatiles associated with lunar permanently shadowed regions (PSRs) is identified as a NASA Strategic Knowledge Gap (SKG) for Human Exploration. These polar volatile deposits are also scientifically interesting, having the potential to reveal important information about the delivery of water to the Earth- Moon system.

  6. Lunar Water Resource Demonstration (United States)

    Muscatello, Anthony C.


    In cooperation with the Canadian Space Agency, the Northern Centre for Advanced Technology, Inc., the Carnegie-Mellon University, JPL, and NEPTEC, NASA has undertaken the In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) project called RESOLVE. This project is a ground demonstration of a system that would be sent to explore permanently shadowed polar lunar craters, drill into the regolith, determine what volatiles are present, and quantify them in addition to recovering oxygen by hydrogen reduction. The Lunar Prospector has determined these craters contain enhanced hydrogen concentrations averaging about 0.1%. If the hydrogen is in the form of water, the water concentration would be around 1%, which would translate into billions of tons of water on the Moon, a tremendous resource. The Lunar Water Resource Demonstration (LWRD) is a part of RESOLVE designed to capture lunar water and hydrogen and quantify them as a backup to gas chromatography analysis. This presentation will briefly review the design of LWRD and some of the results of testing the subsystem. RESOLVE is to be integrated with the Scarab rover from CMIJ and the whole system demonstrated on Mauna Kea on Hawaii in November 2008. The implications of lunar water for Mars exploration are two-fold: 1) RESOLVE and LWRD could be used in a similar fashion on Mars to locate and quantify water resources, and 2) electrolysis of lunar water could provide large amounts of liquid oxygen in LEO, leading to lower costs for travel to Mars, in addition to being very useful at lunar outposts.

  7. High Precision Ranging and Range-Rate Measurements over Free-Space-Laser Communication Link (United States)

    Yang, Guangning; Lu, Wei; Krainak, Michael; Sun, Xiaoli


    We present a high-precision ranging and range-rate measurement system via an optical-ranging or combined ranging-communication link. A complete bench-top optical communication system was built. It included a ground terminal and a space terminal. Ranging and range rate tests were conducted in two configurations. In the communication configuration with 622 data rate, we achieved a two-way range-rate error of 2 microns/s, or a modified Allan deviation of 9 x 10 (exp -15) with 10 second averaging time. Ranging and range-rate as a function of Bit Error Rate of the communication link is reported. They are not sensitive to the link error rate. In the single-frequency amplitude modulation mode, we report a two-way range rate error of 0.8 microns/s, or a modified Allan deviation of 2.6 x 10 (exp -15) with 10 second averaging time. We identified the major noise sources in the current system as the transmitter modulation injected noise and receiver electronics generated noise. A new improved system will be constructed to further improve the system performance for both operating modes.

  8. Consolidated Lunar Atlas (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Consolidated Lunar Atlas is a collection of the best photographic images of the moon, including low-oblique photography, full-moon photography, and tabular and...

  9. Lunar Excavator Validation Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Energid Technologies proposes to create a tool for simulation-based verification of lunar excavator designs. Energid will combine the best of 1) automatic control...

  10. Lunar Health Monitor Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — During the Phase II Lunar Health Monitor program, Orbital Research will develop a second generation wearable sensor suite for astronaut physiologic monitoring. The...

  11. Technologies for Lunar Exploration (United States)

    Zacny, K.; Indyk, S.


    Honeybee Robotics, with its partners, developed numerous technologies for lunar exploration. Most of these technologies are at high TRL and have been designed for small landers, rovers, as well as astronauts. This abstract presents several of these technologies.

  12. Building Strategic Capabilities for Sustained Lunar Exploration (United States)

    Landgraf, M.; Hufenbach, B.; Houdou, B.


    We discuss a lunar exploration architecture that addresses the strategic objective of providing access to the lunar surface. This access enables the most exciting part of the lunar exploration: building a sustained infrastructure on the lunar surface.

  13. The Lunar Orbital Prospector (United States)

    Redd, Frank J.; Cantrell, James N.; McCurdy, Greg


    The establishment of lunar bases will not end the need for remote sensing of the lunar surface by orbiting platforms. Human and robotic surface exploration will necessarily be limited to some proximate distance from the support base. Near real-time, high-resolution, global characterization of the lunar surface by orbiting sensing systems will continue to be essential to the understanding of the Moon's geophysical structure and the location of exploitable minerals and deposits of raw materials. The Lunar Orbital Prospector (LOP) is an orbiting sensing platform capable of supporting a variety of modular sensing packages. Serviced by a lunar-based shuttle, the LOP will permit the exchange of instrument packages to meet evolving mission needs. The ability to recover, modify, and rotate sensing packages allows their reuse in varying combinations. Combining this flexibility with robust orbit modification capabilities and near real-time telemetry links provides considerable system responsiveness. Maintenance and modification of the LOP orbit are accomplished through use of an onboard propulsion system that burns lunar-supplied oxygen and aluminum. The relatively low performance of such a system is more than compensated for by the elimination of the need for Earth-supplied propellants. The LOP concept envisions a continuous expansion of capability through the incorporation of new instrument technologies and the addition of platforms.

  14. Chlorine in Lunar Basalts (United States)

    Barnes, J. J.; Anand, M.; Franchi, I. A.


    In the context of the lunar magma ocean (LMO) model, it is anticipated that chlorine (and other volatiles) should have been concentrated in the late-stage LMO residual melts (i.e., the dregs enriched in incompatible elements such as K, REEs, and P, collectively called KREEP, and in its primitive form - urKREEP, [1]), given its incompatibility in mafic minerals like olivine and pyroxene, which were the dominant phases that crystallized early in the cumulate pile of the LMO (e.g., [2]). When compared to chondritic meteorites and terrestrial rocks (e.g., [3-4]), lunar samples often display heavy chlorine isotope compositions [5-9]. Boyce et al. [8] found a correlation between delta Cl-37 (sub Ap) and bulk-rock incompatible trace elements (ITEs) in lunar basalts, and used this to propose that early degassing of Cl (likely as metal chlorides) from the LMO led to progressive enrichment in remaining LMO melt in Cl-37over Cl-35- the early degassing model. Barnes et al. [9] suggested that relatively late degassing of chlorine from urKREEP (to yield delta Cl-37 (sub urKREEP greater than +25 per mille) followed by variable mixing between KREEPy melts and mantle cumulates (characterized by delta Cl-370 per mille) could explain the majority of Cl isotope data from igneous lunar samples. In order to better understand the processes involved in giving rise to the heavy chlorine isotope compositions of lunar samples, we have performed an in situ study of chlorine isotopes and abundances of volatiles in lunar apatite from a diverse suite of lunar basalts spanning a range of geochemical types.

  15. RangerMaster{trademark}: Real-time pattern recognition software for in-field analysis of radiation sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, W.S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Ziemba, F.; Szluk, N. [Quantrad Sensor, Inc., Santa Clara, CA (United States)


    RangerMaster{trademark} is the embedded firmware for Quantrad Sensor`s integrated nuclear instrument package, the Ranger{trademark}. The Ranger{trademark}, which is both a gamma-ray and neutron detection system, was originally developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory for in situ surveys at the Plutonium Facility to confirm the presence of nuclear materials. The new RangerMaster{trademark} software expands the library of isotopes and simplifies the operation of the instrument by providing an easy mode suitable for untrained operators. The expanded library of the Ranger{trademark} now includes medical isotopes {sup 99}Tc, {sup 201}Tl, {sup 111}In, {sup 67}Ga, {sup 133}Xe, {sup 103}Pa, and {sup 131}I; industrial isotopes {sup 241}Am, {sup 57}Co, {sup 133}Ba, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 40}K, {sup 60}Co, {sup 232}Th, {sup 226}Ra, and {sup 207}Bi; and nuclear materials {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, {sup 233}U, and {sup 239}Pu. To accomplish isotopic identification, a simulated spectrum for each of the isotopes was generated using SYNTH. The SYNTH spectra formed the basis for the knowledge-based expert system and selection of the regions of interest that are used in the pattern recognition system. The knowledge-based pattern recognition system was tested against actual spectra under field conditions.

  16. Lunar Materials Handling System Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Materials Handling System (LMHS) is a method for transfer of bulk materials and products into and out of process equipment in support of lunar and Mars in...

  17. Lunar Materials Handling System Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Materials Handling System (LMHS) is a method for transfer of lunar soil into and out of process equipment in support of in situ resource utilization...

  18. Lunar Sulfur Capture System Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Sulfur Capture System (LSCS) is an innovative method to capture greater than 90 percent of sulfur gases evolved during thermal treatment of lunar soils....

  19. Lunar Sulfur Capture System Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Sulfur Capture System (LSCS) is an innovative method to recover sulfur compounds from lunar soil using sorbents derived primarily from in-situ resources....

  20. Lunar Alignments - Identification and Analysis (United States)

    González-García, A. César

    Lunar alignments are difficult to establish given the apparent lack of written accounts clearly pointing toward lunar alignments for individual temples. While some individual cases are reviewed and highlighted, the weight of the proof must fall on statistical sampling. Some definitions for the lunar alignments are provided in order to clarify the targets, and thus, some new tools are provided to try to test the lunar hypothesis in several cases, especially in megalithic astronomy.

  1. Lunar Crustal Stratigraphy (United States)

    McCallum, I. S.; O'Brien, H. E.


    Intense bombardment during the first 600 Ma of lunar history has rendered the task of reconstructing the stratigraphy of the lunar crust especially difficult. On a planetary scale, the distribution of lithologies around multi-ringed basins coupled with orbital geochemical data reveal that the lunar crust is heterogeneous both laterally and vertically. Ejecta from the large multi-ringed basins is exclusively of crustal origin since twenty five years of lunar sample study have failed to identify any unequivocal mantle samples. Given the most recent determination of crustal thickness, this implies an upper limit to the depth of excavation of around 60 km. In the younger multi-ringed basins (Orientale and Imbrium), the occurrence of anorthosites in inner rings is consistent with an anorthositic upper crust (Al2O3 = 26-28 wt.%). On the other hand, basin impact melts, most notably the low-K Fra Mauro (LKFM) composition associated with the Imbrium and Serenitatis basins, are distinctly more mafic with a composition corresponding to norite (Al2O3 ~ 20 wt.%). Cratering models suggest that such melts are generated at the lower to middle crustal depths (30 to 60 km). The paucity of unequivocal deep-seated crystalline plutonic rocks is also consistent with cratering models which suggest that unmelted rock fragments in ejecta blankets are most likely derived from the upper part of the crust. Consequently, the possibility exists that no crystalline lunar samples from deeper that ~30 km are present in the returned sample collection.

  2. Lunar Regolith Excavation Competition (United States)

    Liles, Cassandra


    The Lunar Regolith Excavation Competition is a new competition that needs graphics, logos, rules, as well as an arena. Although this is the first year of the competition, the competition is modeled after an existing competition, the Centennial Lunar Excavator Challenge. This competition however is aimed at college students. This makes the challenge identifying key aspects of the original competition and modeling them to fit into an easier task, and creating exciting advertisement that helps encourage participation. By using a youth focus group, young insight, as well as guiding advice from experts in the field, hopefully an arena can be designed and built, rules can be molded and created to fit, and alluring graphics can be printed to bring about a successful first year of the Lunar Regolith Excavation Competition.

  3. The Lunar Dust Pendulum (United States)

    Kuntz, Kip; Collier, Michael R.; Stubbs, Timothy J.; Farrell, William M.


    Shadowed regions on the lunar surface acquire a negative potential. In particular, shadowed craters can have a negative potential with respect to the surrounding lunar regolith in sunlight, especially near the terminator regions. Here we analyze the motion of a positively charged lnnar dust grain in the presence of a shadowed crater at a negative potential in vacuum. Previous models describing the transport of charged lunar dust close to the surface have typically been limited to one-dimensional motion in the vertical direction, e.g. electrostatic levitation; however. the electric fields in the vicinity of shadowed craters will also have significant components in the horizontal directions. We propose a model that includes both the horizontal and vertical motion of charged dust grains near shadowed craters. We show that the dust grains execute oscillatory trajectories and present an expression for the period of oscillation drawing an analogy to the motion of a pendulum.

  4. A lunar polar expedition (United States)

    Dowling, Richard; Staehle, Robert L.; Svitek, Tomas


    Advanced exploration and development in harsh environments require mastery of basic human survival skill. Expeditions into the lethal climates of Earth's polar regions offer useful lessons for tommorrow's lunar pioneers. In Arctic and Antarctic exploration, 'wintering over' was a crucial milestone. The ability to establish a supply base and survive months of polar cold and darkness made extensive travel and exploration possible. Because of the possibility of near-constant solar illumination, the lunar polar regions, unlike Earth's may offer the most hospitable site for habitation. The World Space Foundation is examining a scenario for establishing a five-person expeditionary team on the lunar north pole for one year. This paper is a status report on a point design addressing site selection, transportation, power, and life support requirements.

  5. Spatiotemporal trends of illegal activities from ranger-collected data in a Ugandan national park. (United States)

    Critchlow, R; Plumptre, A J; Driciru, M; Rwetsiba, A; Stokes, E J; Tumwesigye, C; Wanyama, F; Beale, C M


    Within protected areas, biodiversity loss is often a consequence of illegal resource use. Understanding the patterns and extent of illegal activities is therefore essential for effective law enforcement and prevention of biodiversity declines. We used extensive data, commonly collected by ranger patrols in many protected areas, and Bayesian hierarchical models to identify drivers, trends, and distribution of multiple illegal activities within the Queen Elizabeth Conservation Area (QECA), Uganda. Encroachment (e.g., by pastoralists with cattle) and poaching of noncommercial animals (e.g., snaring bushmeat) were the most prevalent illegal activities within the QECA. Illegal activities occurred in different areas of the QECA. Poaching of noncommercial animals was most widely distributed within the national park. Overall, ecological covariates, although significant, were not useful predictors for occurrence of illegal activities. Instead, the location of illegal activities in previous years was more important. There were significant increases in encroachment and noncommercial plant harvesting (nontimber products) during the study period (1999-2012). We also found significant spatiotemporal variation in the occurrence of all activities. Our results show the need to explicitly model ranger patrol effort to reduce biases from existing uncorrected or capture per unit effort analyses. Prioritization of ranger patrol strategies is needed to target illegal activities; these strategies are determined by protected area managers, and therefore changes at a site-level can be implemented quickly. These strategies should also be informed by the location of past occurrences of illegal activity: the most useful predictor of future events. However, because spatial and temporal changes in illegal activities occurred, regular patrols throughout the protected area, even in areas of low occurrence, are also required. © 2015 Society for Conservation Biology.

  6. Endogenous Lunar Volatiles (United States)

    McCubbin, F. M.; Liu, Y.; Barnes, J. J.; Boyce, J. W.; Day, J. M. D.; Elardo, S. M.; Hui, H.; Magna, T.; Ni, P.; Tartese, R.; hide


    The chapter will begin with an introduction that defines magmatic volatiles (e.g., H, F, Cl, S) versus geochemical volatiles (e.g., K, Rb, Zn). We will discuss our approach of understanding both types of volatiles in lunar samples and lay the ground work for how we will determine the overall volatile budget of the Moon. We will then discuss the importance of endogenous volatiles in shaping the "Newer Views of the Moon", specifically how endogenous volatiles feed forward into processes such as the origin of the Moon, magmatic differentiation, volcanism, and secondary processes during surface and crustal interactions. After the introduction, we will include a re-view/synthesis on the current state of 1) apatite compositions (volatile abundances and isotopic compositions); 2) nominally anhydrous mineral phases (moderately to highly volatile); 3) volatile (moderately to highly volatile) abundances in and isotopic compositions of lunar pyroclastic glass beads; 4) volatile (moderately to highly volatile) abundances in and isotopic compositions of lunar basalts; 5) volatile (moderately to highly volatile) abundances in and isotopic compositions of melt inclusions; and finally 6) experimental constraints on mineral-melt partitioning of moderately to highly volatile elements under lunar conditions. We anticipate that each section will summarize results since 2007 and focus on new results published since the 2015 Am Min review paper on lunar volatiles [9]. The next section will discuss how to use sample abundances of volatiles to understand the source region and potential caveats in estimating source abundances of volatiles. The following section will include our best estimates of volatile abundances and isotopic compositions (where permitted by available data) for each volatile element of interest in a number of important lunar reservoirs, including the crust, mantle, KREEP, and bulk Moon. The final section of the chapter will focus upon future work, outstanding questions

  7. The Lunar orbit paradox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomić Aleksandar S.


    Full Text Available Newton's formula for gravity force gives greather force intensity for atraction of the Moon by the Sun than atraction by the Earth. However, central body in lunar (primary orbit is the Earth. So appeared paradox which were ignored from competent specialist, because the most important problem, determination of lunar orbit, was inmediately solved sufficiently by mathematical ingeniosity - introducing the Sun as dominant body in the three body system by Delaunay, 1860. On this way the lunar orbit paradox were not canceled. Vujičić made a owerview of principles of mechanics in year 1998, in critical consideration. As an example for application of corrected procedure he was obtained gravity law in some different form, which gave possibility to cancel paradox of lunar orbit. The formula of Vujičić, with our small adaptation, content two type of acceleration - related to inertial mass and related to gravity mass. So appears carried information on the origin of the Moon, and paradox cancels.

  8. Lunar-A

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    point of a deep moonquake source. After releasing both the penetrators, the spacecraft will make a trajectory control manoeuver and will be injected onto a near-circular orbit whose altitude is about. 200 km from the lunar surface. The data gathered by the scientific instruments will be numerically compressed and stored in a.

  9. Indigenous lunar construction materials (United States)

    Rogers, Wayne P.; Sture, Stein


    The utilization of local resources for the construction and operation of a lunar base can significantly reduce the cost of transporting materials and supplies from Earth. The feasibility of processing lunar regolith to form construction materials and structural components is investigated. A preliminary review of potential processing methods such as sintering, hot-pressing, liquification, and cast basalt techniques, was completed. The processing method proposed is a variation on the cast basalt technique. It involves liquification of the regolith at 1200-1300 C, casting the liquid into a form, and controlled cooling. While the process temperature is higher than that for sintering or hot-pressing (1000-1100 C), this method is expected to yield a true engineering material with low variability in properties, high strength, and the potential to form large structural components. A scenario for this processing method was integrated with a design for a representative lunar base structure and potential construction techniques. The lunar shelter design is for a modular, segmented, pressurized, hemispherical dome which could serve as habitation and laboratory space. Based on this design, estimates of requirements for power, processing equipment, and construction equipment were made. This proposed combination of material processing method, structural design, and support requirements will help to establish the feasibility of lunar base construction using indigenous materials. Future work will refine the steps of the processing method. Specific areas where more information is needed are: furnace characteristics in vacuum; heat transfer during liquification; viscosity, pouring and forming behavior of molten regolith; design of high temperature forms; heat transfer during cooling; recrystallization of basalt; and refinement of estimates of elastic moduli, compressive and tensile strength, thermal expansion coefficient, thermal conductivity, and heat capacity. The preliminary

  10. Lunar exospheric argon modeling (United States)

    Grava, Cesare; Chaufray, J.-Y.; Retherford, K. D.; Gladstone, G. R.; Greathouse, T. K.; Hurley, D. M.; Hodges, R. R.; Bayless, A. J.; Cook, J. C.; Stern, S. A.


    Argon is one of the few known constituents of the lunar exosphere. The surface-based mass spectrometer Lunar Atmosphere Composition Experiment (LACE) deployed during the Apollo 17 mission first detected argon, and its study is among the subjects of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Lyman Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP) and Lunar Atmospheric and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) mission investigations. We performed a detailed Monte Carlo simulation of neutral atomic argon that we use to better understand its transport and storage across the lunar surface. We took into account several loss processes: ionization by solar photons, charge-exchange with solar protons, and cold trapping as computed by recent LRO/Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) mapping of Permanently Shaded Regions (PSRs). Recycling of photo-ions and solar radiation acceleration are also considered. We report that (i) contrary to previous assumptions, charge exchange is a loss process as efficient as photo-ionization, (ii) the PSR cold-trapping flux is comparable to the ionization flux (photo-ionization and charge-exchange), and (iii) solar radiation pressure has negligible effect on the argon density, as expected. We determine that the release of 2.6 × 1028 atoms on top of a pre-existing argon exosphere is required to explain the maximum amount of argon measured by LACE. The total number of atoms (1.0 × 1029) corresponds to ∼6700 kg of argon, 30% of which (∼1900 kg) may be stored in the cold traps after 120 days in the absence of space weathering processes. The required population is consistent with the amount of argon that can be released during a High Frequency Teleseismic (HFT) Event, i.e. a big, rare and localized moonquake, although we show that LACE could not distinguish between a localized and a global event. The density of argon measured at the time of LACE appears to have originated from no less than four such episodic events. Finally, we show that the extent of the PSRs that trap

  11. Frederik VII og folkets kærlighed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perlt, Michael; Vinding, Niels Valdemar


    I den turbulente tid mellem de to slesvigske krige drog kong Frederik VII under en rejse til Jylland i 1857 i procession op på højene i Jelling for at modtage folkets hyldest. På det historiske sted lod Frederik VII sig fejre som danskernes konge under en stor folkefest med bønder og deres familier...

  12. In silico dissection of Type VII Secretion System components across ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Feb 12, 2016 ... [Das C, Ghosh TS and Mande SS 2016 In silico dissection of Type VII Secretion System components across bacteria: New directions towards functional characterization. J. Biosci. 41 133–143] DOI 10.1007/s12038-016-9599-8. 1. Introduction. Type VII Secretion System (T7SS) was first identified in.

  13. Analysis of GRACE Range-rate Residuals with Emphasis on Reprocessed Star-Camera Datasets (United States)

    Goswami, S.; Flury, J.; Naeimi, M.; Bandikova, T.; Guerr, T. M.; Klinger, B.


    Since March 2002 the two GRACE satellites orbit the Earth at rela-tively low altitude. Determination of the gravity field of the Earth including itstemporal variations from the satellites' orbits and the inter-satellite measure-ments is the goal of the mission. Yet, the time-variable gravity signal has notbeen fully exploited. This can be seen better in the computed post-fit range-rateresiduals. The errors reflected in the range-rate residuals are due to the differ-ent sources as systematic errors, mismodelling errors and tone errors. Here, weanalyse the effect of three different star-camera data sets on the post-fit range-rate residuals. On the one hand, we consider the available attitude data andon other hand we take the two different data sets which has been reprocessedat Institute of Geodesy, Hannover and Institute of Theoretical Geodesy andSatellite Geodesy, TU Graz Austria respectively. Then the differences in therange-rate residuals computed from different attitude dataset are analyzed inthis study. Details will be given and results will be discussed.

  14. Property Status of Lunar Material (United States)

    Pop, V.

    Most of the lunar material in private hands is of meteoric origin, and its property sta- tus does not present many challenges. The intention of Applied Space Resources, Inc, to fly a commercial lunar sample return mission and to subsequently offer lunar ma- terial for sale, raises the issue of the legality of exploitation and private ownership of retrieved lunar material. Lunar samples have been returned in the past by means of the Apollo (US) and Luna (USSR) missions and, while most of the material re- mains government property and is used for scientific means, a small fraction has been transferred abroad and some has entered the private market. Apollo-collected moon- rocks have been offered, symbolically, to heads of States, and some foreign nations have subsequently transferred ownership to private individuals. The same, lunar ma- terial of Soviet provenience has entered the private market, this forming a valuable legal precedent for the lawfulness of sale of lunar material. Recently, plans were made public to award the Apollo astronauts with lunar rocks. While in the US there is a popular misconception that it is illegal to own lunar material, the truth lies elsewhere. As the Apollo samples are the property of the US government and a small fraction was stolen, lost, or misplaced, the US government intends to recover this material, unlawfully owned. In the same time, a significant number of individuals have been prosecuted for offering for sale fake lunar rocks. The present paper will analyse the different categories of lunar material according to its ownership status, and will as- sert that private property of lunar material is lawful, and lunar material that will be returned in the future will be able to enter the market without hindrances.

  15. Landscape-scale fire restoration on the big piney ranger district in the Ozark highlands of Arkansas (United States)

    John Andre; McRee Anderson; Douglas Zollner; Marie Melnechuk; Theo Witsell


    The Ozark-St. Francis National Forest, The Nature Conservancy (TNC), the Arkansas Natural Heritage Commission, Arkansas Forestry Commission, private landowners, and others are currently engaged in a collaborative project to restore the oak-hickory and pine-oak ecosystems of the Ozark Highlands on 60,000 acres of the Big Piney Ranger District. Frequent historical fires...

  16. Ranger© - An Affordable, Advanced, Next-Generation, Dual-Pol, X-Band Weather Radar (United States)

    Stedronsky, Richard


    The Enterprise Electronics Corporation (EEC) Ranger© system is a new generation, X-band (3 cm), Adaptive Polarization Doppler Weather Surveillance Radar that fills the gap between high-cost, high-power traditional radar systems and the passive ground station weather sensors. Developed in partnership with the University of Oklahoma Advanced Radar Research Center (ARRC), the system uses relatively low power solid-state transmitters and pulse compression technology to attain nearly the same performance capabilities of much more expensive traditional radar systems. The Ranger© also employs Adaptive Dual Polarization (ADP) techniques to allow Alternating or Simultaneous Dual Polarization capability with total control over the transmission polarization state using dual independent coherent transmitters. Ranger© has been designed using the very latest technology available in the industry and the technical and manufacturing experience gained through over four decades of successful radar system design and production at EEC. The entire Ranger© design concept emphasizes precision, stability, reliability, and value using proven solid state technology combined with the most advanced motion control system ever conceived for weather radar. Key applications include meteorology, hydrology, aviation, offshore oil/gas drilling, wind energy, and outdoor event situational awareness.

  17. 78 FR 33047 - Humboldt-Toiyabe National Forest, Carson Ranger District Mt. Rose Ski Tahoe-Atoma Area... (United States)


    ... Forest Service Humboldt-Toiyabe National Forest, Carson Ranger District Mt. Rose Ski Tahoe--Atoma Area... Ski Tahoe (Mt. Rose) to expand its lift and terrain network. The project is located approximately 12.... Fax to 775-355-5399. Please use a fax cover sheet and include ``Mt. Rose Ski Tahoe--Atoma Area EIS...

  18. 75 FR 71414 - Questa Ranger District, Carson National Forest; Taos County, NM; Taos Ski Valley's 2010 Master... (United States)


    ... Forest Service Questa Ranger District, Carson National Forest; Taos County, NM; Taos Ski Valley's 2010... prepare an environmental impact statement. SUMMARY: Taos Ski Valley (TSV) is a downhill ski area located... (Phase I) projects included in the Taos Ski Valley (TSV) 2010 Master Development Plan (MDP). These...

  19. 75 FR 21577 - Rogue River-Siskiyou National Forest, Powers Ranger District, Coos County, OR; Eden Ridge Timber... (United States)


    ... natural succession processes. The residual trees would have less competition for sunlight, water and soil... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Rogue River-Siskiyou National Forest, Powers Ranger... growth, crown development, vigor and overall stand health, improved root strength on residual trees...

  20. 76 FR 60451 - Questa Ranger District, Carson National Forest; Taos County, NM; Taos Ski Valley's 2010 Master... (United States)


    ... Forest Service Questa Ranger District, Carson National Forest; Taos County, NM; Taos Ski Valley's 2010... authorize several (Phase 1) projects included in the Taos Ski Valley (TSV) 2010 Master Development Plan (MDP... Service proposes to authorize under a separate SUP to John Cottam, the relocation of the Alpine Village...

  1. Snag densities in old-growth stands on the Gasquet Ranger District, Six Rivers National Forest, California (United States)

    Thomas M. Jimerson


    Baseline levels for densities of snags (standing dead trees) wered etermined in undisturbed old-growth stands on the Gasquet Ranger District. Six Riven National Forest, California. Snag species, number, diameter at breast height (d.b.h.), height, cavity type, cavity use, decay class, and snag origin were recorded on 317 plots over a 2-year period. The 2121 snags...

  2. "Viies aastaaeg" kui voolav ruum / Veronika Valk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Valk, Veronika, 1976-


    Arhitektuurivõistluse eesmärk oli leida Suure-Jaani tervisekeskusele sobivaim lahendus. 2015. aasta sügisel toimunud võistlusele laekus 12 tööd, millest hankija esitatud tingimusele vastas 11. Võitjaks osutus Arhitekt Musta ja Novarci ühistööna valminud kavand "Viies aastaaeg" (autorid: Ott Alver, Alvin Järving, Mari Rass, Gert Guriev, Liina Liis Pihu, Märten Peterson ja Reino Rass). Teise koha sai töö "Polüfoonia" (autorid: Urmo Mets, Kaur Talpsep, Kristiina Aasvee ja Lauri Eltermaa Kauss Arhitektuurist). Kolmanda koha sai töö "Akord" (autorid: Joel Kopli, Koit Ojaliiv ja Rene Sauemägi Amhold/Kuust)

  3. Lunar crane system (United States)

    Mikulas, Martin M., Jr.


    In many lunar construction scenarios, mechanical cranes in some form will be indispensible in moving large masses around with various degrees of fine positioning. While thorough experience exists in the use of terrestrial cranes new thinking is required about the design of cranes to be used in extraterrestrial construction. The primary driving force for this new thinking is the need to automate the crane system so that space cranes can be operated as telerobotic machines with a large number of automatic capabilities. This is true because in extraterrestrial construction human resources will need to be critically rationed. The design problems of mechanisms and control systems for a lunar crane must deal with at least two areas of performance. First, the automated crane must be capable of maneuvering a large mass, so that when the mass arrives at the target position there are only small vibrations. Secondly, any residue vibrations must be automatically damped out and a fine positioning must be achieved. For extraterrestrial use there are additional challenges to a crane design - for example, to design a crane system so that it can be transformed for other construction uses. This initial project in crane design does not address such additional issues, although they may be the subject of future CSC research. To date the Center has designed and analyzed many mechanisms. The fundamental problem of trade-offs between passively stabilizing the load and actively controlling the load by actuators was extensively studied. The capability of 3D dynamics modeling now exists for such studies. A scaled model of a lunar crane was set up and it has been most fruitful in providing basic understanding of lunar cranes. Due to an interesting scaling match-up, this scaled model exhibits the load vibration frequencies one would expect in the real lunar case. Using the analytical results achieved to date, a laboratory crane system is now being developed as a test bed for verifying a wide

  4. The Lunar Sample Compendium (United States)

    Meyer, Charles


    The Lunar Sample Compendium is a succinct summary of the data obtained from 40 years of study of Apollo and Luna samples of the Moon. Basic petrographic, chemical and age information is compiled, sample-by-sample, in the form of an advanced catalog in order to provide a basic description of each sample. The LSC can be found online using Google. The initial allocation of lunar samples was done sparingly, because it was realized that scientific techniques would improve over the years and new questions would be formulated. The LSC is important because it enables scientists to select samples within the context of the work that has already been done and facilitates better review of proposed allocations. It also provides back up material for public displays, captures information found only in abstracts, grey literature and curatorial databases and serves as a ready access to the now-vast scientific literature.

  5. Mobile continuous lunar excavation (United States)

    Paterson, John L.


    A novel approach to the concept of lunar mining and the use of in situ oxygen, metallics, and ceramics is presented. The EVA time required to set up, relocate, and maintain equipment, as well as the cost per pound of shipping the mining and processing equipment to the moon are considered. The proposed soil fracturing/loading mechanisms are all based loosely on using the Apollo Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV) Frame. All use motor driven tracks for mobility in the forward/reverse and left/right direction. All mechanisms employ the concept of rototillers which are attached to a gantry which, through the use of motor-driven lead screws, provide the rototillers with an up/down capability. A self-reactant excavator, a local mass enhanced excavator, and a soil reactant excavator are illustrated.

  6. International Lunar Decade Status (United States)

    Beldavs, VZ; Crisafulli, J.; Dunlop, D.; Foing, B.


    The International Lunar Decade is a global decadal event designed to provide a framework for strategically directed international cooperation for permanent return to the Moon. To be launched July 20, 2019, the 50th anniversary of the giant leap for mankind marked by Neil Armstrong's first step on the Moon, the ILD launch will include events around the world to celebrate space exploration, science, and the expansion of humanity into the Solar System. The ILD framework links lunar exploration and space sciences with the development of enabling technologies, infrastructure, means of financing, laws and policies aimed at lowering the costs and risks of venturing into space. Dramatically reduced costs will broaden the range of opportunities available in space and widen access to space for more states, companies and people worldwide. The ILD is intended to bring about the efflorescence of commercial business based on space resources from the Moon, asteroids, comets and other bodies in the Solar System.

  7. Lunar Core and Tides (United States)

    Williams, J. G.; Boggs, D. H.; Ratcliff, J. T.


    Variations in rotation and orientation of the Moon are sensitive to solid-body tidal dissipation, dissipation due to relative motion at the fluid-core/solid-mantle boundary, and tidal Love number k2 [1,2]. There is weaker sensitivity to flattening of the core-mantle boundary (CMB) [2,3,4] and fluid core moment of inertia [1]. Accurate Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR) measurements of the distance from observatories on the Earth to four retroreflector arrays on the Moon are sensitive to lunar rotation and orientation variations and tidal displacements. Past solutions using the LLR data have given results for dissipation due to solid-body tides and fluid core [1] plus Love number [1-5]. Detection of CMB flattening, which in the past has been marginal but improving [3,4,5], now seems significant. Direct detection of the core moment has not yet been achieved.

  8. Lunar Health Monitor (LHM) (United States)

    Lisy, Frederick J.


    Orbital Research, Inc., has developed a low-profile, wearable sensor suite for monitoring astronaut health in both intravehicular and extravehicular activities. The Lunar Health Monitor measures respiration, body temperature, electrocardiogram (EKG) heart rate, and other cardiac functions. Orbital Research's dry recording electrode is central to the innovation and can be incorporated into garments, eliminating the need for conductive pastes, adhesives, or gels. The patented dry recording electrode has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. The LHM is easily worn under flight gear or with civilian clothing, making the system completely versatile for applications where continuous physiological monitoring is needed. During Phase II, Orbital Research developed a second-generation LHM that allows sensor customization for specific monitoring applications and anatomical constraints. Evaluations included graded exercise tests, lunar mission task simulations, functional battery tests, and resting measures. The LHM represents the successful integration of sensors into a wearable platform to capture long-duration and ambulatory physiological markers.

  9. Adhesion of Lunar Dust (United States)

    Walton, Otis R.


    This paper reviews the physical characteristics of lunar dust and the effects of various fundamental forces acting on dust particles on surfaces in a lunar environment. There are transport forces and adhesion forces after contact. Mechanical forces (i.e., from rover wheels, astronaut boots and rocket engine blast) and static electric effects (from UV photo-ionization and/or tribo-electric charging) are likely to be the major contributors to the transport of dust particles. If fine regolith particles are deposited on a surface, then surface energy-related (e.g., van der Walls) adhesion forces and static-electric-image forces are likely to be the strongest contributors to adhesion. Some measurement techniques are offered to quantify the strength of adhesion forces. And finally some dust removal techniques are discussed.

  10. Lunar Laser Communication System (United States)


    gallium arsenide ( InGaAs ) quad- rant detector enables fast spatial acqui- sition and coarse tracking of the optical uplink. Transmit and receive...October–November 2013 month-long demonstration of the high-data-rate transmission from a lunar-orbiting satellite. The array of transmit apertures is...located above the array of receive apertures. This work is sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under U.S. Air Force

  11. First lunar outpost (United States)

    Andino, Aureo F.; Silva, Daniel; Ortiz, Nelson; Alvarez, Omar; Colon, Julio A.; Colon, Myrelle; Diaz, Alicia; Escobar, Xochiquetzal Y.; Garcia, Alberto; Gonzalez, Isabel C.


    Design and research efforts at the University of Puerto Rico have focused on the evaluation and refinement of the Habitability Criteria for a prolonged human presence in space during the last four years. Living quarters for a Mars mission and a third generation lunar base concept were proposed. This academic year, 1991-92, work on further refinement of the habitability criteria and design of partial gravity furniture was carried on. During the first semester, design alternatives for furniture necessary in a habitat design optimized for lunar and Martian environments were developed. Designs are based on recent research data from lunar and Mars gravity simulations, and current NASA standards. Artifacts will be submitted to NASA architects to be tested in KC-135 flights. Test findings will be submitted for incorporation in future updates to NASA habitat design standards. Second semester work was aimed at integrating these findings into the First Lunar Outpost (FLO), a mission scenario currently being considered by NASA. The mission consists of a manned return to the moon by crews of four astronauts for periods of 45 days. The major hardware components of the mission are as follows: (1) a Crew Module for the delivery of the crew and their supplies, and (2) the Habitat Module, which will arrive on the Moon unmanned. Our design efforts concentrated on this Habitat Module and on application of habitability criteria. Different geometries for the pressure vessel and their impact on the interior architecture were studied. Upon the selection of a geometry, a more detailed analysis of the interior design was performed, taking into consideration the reduced gravity, and the protection against radiation, micrometeorites, and the extreme temperature variation. A proposal for a FLO was submitted by the students, consisting essentially of a 24-feet (7.3 m.) by 35-feet (10.67 m) high vertical cylinder with work areas, crew quarters, galley, wardroom, leisure facilities, health

  12. Towards a lunar base programme (United States)

    Duke, M. B.; Mendell, W. W.; Roberts, B. B.


    When the requisite technlogy exists, the U.S. political process will inevitably include lunar surface activities as a major space objective. This article examines a manned lunar base in terms of three distinct functions: the scientific investigation of the moon and its environment; development of the capability to use lunar resources for beneficial purposes throughout the earth-moon system; and conduct of R and D leading to a self-sufficient and self-supporting manned lunar base. Three scenarios are outlined with respect to each possible function.

  13. Lunar rover navigation concepts (United States)

    Burke, James D.


    With regard to the navigation of mobile lunar vehicles on the surface, candidate techniques are reviewed and progress of simulations and experiments made up to now are described. Progress that can be made through precursor investigations on Earth is considered. In the early seventies the problem was examined in a series of relevant tests made in the California desert. Meanwhile, Apollo rovers made short exploratory sorties and robotic Lunokhods traveled over modest distances on the Moon. In these early missions some of the required methods were demonstrated. The navigation problem for a lunar traverse can be viewed in three parts: to determine the starting point with enough accuracy to enable the desired mission; to determine the event sequence required to reach the site of each traverse objective; and to redetermine actual positions enroute. The navigator's first tool is a map made from overhead imagery. The Moon was almost completely photographed at moderate resolution by spacecraft launched in the sixties, but that data set provides imprecise topographic and selenodetic information. Therefore, more advanced orbital missions are now proposed as part of a resumed lunar exploration program. With the mapping coverage expected from such orbiters, it will be possible to use a combination of visual landmark navigation and external radio and optical references (Earth and Sun) to achieve accurate surface navigation almost everywhere on the near side of the Moon. On the far side and in permanently dark polar areas, there are interesting exploration targets where additional techniques will have to be used.

  14. Case Study: Mobile Photovoltaic System at Bechler Meadows Ranger Station, Yellowstone National Park

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andy Walker


    The mobile PV/generator hybrid system deployed at Bechler Meadows provides a number of advantages. It reduces on-site air emissions from the generator. Batteries allow the generator to operate only at its rated power, reducing run-time and fuel consumption. Energy provided by the solar array reduces fuel consumption and run-time of the generator. The generator is off for most hours providing peace and quiet at the site. Maintenance trips from Mammoth Hot Springs to the remote site are reduced. The frequency of intrusive fuel deliveries to the pristine site is reduced. And the system gives rangers a chance to interpret Green Park values to the visiting public. As an added bonus, the system provides all these benefits at a lower cost than the basecase of using only a propane-fueled generator, reducing life cycle cost by about 26%.

  15. Case Study: Mobile Photovoltaic System at Bechler Meadows Ranger Station, Yellowstone National Park (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None


    The mobile PV/generator hybrid system deployed at Bechler Meadows provides a number of advantages. It reduces on-site air emissions from the generator. Batteries allow the generator to operate only at its rated power, reducing run-time and fuel consumption. Energy provided by the solar array reduces fuel consumption and run-time of the generator. The generator is off for most hours providing peace and quiet at the site. Maintenance trips from Mammoth Hot Springs to the remote site are reduced. The frequency of intrusive fuel deliveries to the pristine site is reduced. And the system gives rangers a chance to interpret Green Park values to the visiting public. As an added bonus, the system provides all these benefits at a lower cost than the basecase of using only a propane-fueled generator, reducing life cycle cost by about 26%.

  16. 29 CFR 1601.91 - Request for title VII interpretation or opinion. (United States)


    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Request for title VII interpretation or opinion. 1601.91... PROCEDURAL REGULATIONS Title VII Interpretations and Opinions by the Commission § 1601.91 Request for title VII interpretation or opinion. Any interested person desiring a written title VII interpretation or...

  17. Stark broadening parameter tables for F VI and Cl VII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrijević M.S.


    Full Text Available Using a semiclassical approach, we have calculated electron−, proton−, and He III−impact line widths and shifts for 2 F VI and 10 Cl VII multiplets as a function of temperature and perturber density.

  18. Compression Freezing Kinetics of Water to Ice VII (United States)

    Gleason, A. E.; Bolme, C. A.; Galtier, E.; Lee, H. J.; Granados, E.; Dolan, D. H.; Seagle, C. T.; Ao, T.; Ali, S.; Lazicki, A.; Swift, D.; Celliers, P.; Mao, W. L.


    Time-resolved x-ray diffraction (XRD) of compressed liquid water shows transformation to ice VII in 6 nsec, revealing crystallization rather than amorphous solidification during compression freezing. Application of classical nucleation theory indicates heterogeneous nucleation and one-dimensional (e.g., needlelike) growth. These first XRD data demonstrate rapid growth kinetics of ice VII with implications for fundamental physics of diffusion-mediated crystallization and thermodynamic modeling of collision or impact events on ice-rich planetary bodies.

  19. VII Congrés Internacional de Conflictologia i Pau


    Planell Estany, Josep A.


    Discurso del rector de la Universitat Oberta de Catalunya, Josep A. Planell, en el VII Congreso Internacional de Conflictología y Paz. Speech by the president of the Universitat Oberta de Catalunya, Josep A. Planell, at the 7th International Congress on Conflictology and Peace. Discurs del rector de la Universitat Oberta de Catalunya, Josep A. Planell, en el VII Congrés Internacional de Conflictologia i Pau.

  20. Lunar Regolith Particle Shape Analysis (United States)

    Kiekhaefer, Rebecca; Hardy, Sandra; Rickman, Douglas; Edmunson, Jennifer


    Future engineering of structures and equipment on the lunar surface requires significant understanding of particle characteristics of the lunar regolith. Nearly all sediment characteristics are influenced by particle shape; therefore a method of quantifying particle shape is useful both in lunar and terrestrial applications. We have created a method to quantify particle shape, specifically for lunar regolith, using image processing. Photomicrographs of thin sections of lunar core material were obtained under reflected light. Three photomicrographs were analyzed using ImageJ and MATLAB. From the image analysis measurements for area, perimeter, Feret diameter, orthogonal Feret diameter, Heywood factor, aspect ratio, sieve diameter, and sieve number were recorded. Probability distribution functions were created from the measurements of Heywood factor and aspect ratio.

  1. Diurnally-Varying Lunar Hydration (United States)

    Hendrix, A. R.; Hurley, D.; Retherford, K. D.; Mandt, K.; Greathouse, T. K.; Farrell, W. M.; Vilas, F.


    Dayside, non-polar lunar hydration signatures have been observed by a handful of instruments and present insights into the lunar water cycle. In this study, we utilize the unique measurements from the current Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) mission to study the phenomenon of diurnally-varying dayside lunar hydration. The Lyman Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP) onboard LRO senses a strong far-ultraviolet water absorption edge indicating hydration in small abundances in the permanently shadowed regions as well as on the lunar dayside. We report on diurnal variability in hydration in different terrain types. We investigate the importance of different sources of hydration, including solar wind bombardment and meteoroid bombardment, by observing trends during magnetotail and meteor stream crossings.

  2. Lunar Commercial Mining Logistics (United States)

    Kistler, Walter P.; Citron, Bob; Taylor, Thomas C.


    Innovative commercial logistics is required for supporting lunar resource recovery operations and assisting larger consortiums in lunar mining, base operations, camp consumables and the future commercial sales of propellant over the next 50 years. To assist in lowering overall development costs, ``reuse'' innovation is suggested in reusing modified LTS in-space hardware for use on the moon's surface, developing product lines for recovered gases, regolith construction materials, surface logistics services, and other services as they evolve, (Kistler, Citron and Taylor, 2005) Surface logistics architecture is designed to have sustainable growth over 50 years, financed by private sector partners and capable of cargo transportation in both directions in support of lunar development and resource recovery development. The author's perspective on the importance of logistics is based on five years experience at remote sites on Earth, where remote base supply chain logistics didn't always work, (Taylor, 1975a). The planning and control of the flow of goods and materials to and from the moon's surface may be the most complicated logistics challenges yet to be attempted. Affordability is tied to the innovation and ingenuity used to keep the transportation and surface operations costs as low as practical. Eleven innovations are proposed and discussed by an entrepreneurial commercial space startup team that has had success in introducing commercial space innovation and reducing the cost of space operations in the past. This logistics architecture offers NASA and other exploring nations a commercial alternative for non-essential cargo. Five transportation technologies and eleven surface innovations create the logistics transportation system discussed.

  3. Precambrian Lunar Volcanic Protolife

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack Green


    Full Text Available Five representative terrestrial analogs of lunar craters are detailed relevant to Precambrian fumarolic activity. Fumarolic fluids contain the ingredients for protolife. Energy sources to derive formaldehyde, amino acids and related compounds could be by flow charging, charge separation and volcanic shock. With no photodecomposition in shadow, most fumarolic fluids at 40 K would persist over geologically long time periods. Relatively abundant tungsten would permit creation of critical enzymes, Fischer-Tropsch reactions could form polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and soluble volcanic polyphosphates would enable assembly of nucleic acids. Fumarolic stimuli factors are described. Orbital and lander sensors specific to protolife exploration including combined Raman/laser-induced breakdown spectrocsopy are evaluated.

  4. Lunar architecture and urbanism (United States)

    Sherwood, Brent


    Human civilization and architecture have defined each other for over 5000 years on Earth. Even in the novel environment of space, persistent issues of human urbanism will eclipse, within a historically short time, the technical challenges of space settlement that dominate our current view. By adding modern topics in space engineering, planetology, life support, human factors, material invention, and conservation to their already renaissance array of expertise, urban designers can responsibly apply ancient, proven standards to the exciting new opportunities afforded by space. Inescapable facts about the Moon set real boundaries within which tenable lunar urbanism and its component architecture must eventually develop.

  5. NASA Lunar Impact Monitoring (United States)

    Suggs, Robert M.; Moser, D. E.


    The MSFC lunar impact monitoring program began in 2006 in support of environment definition for the Constellation (return to Moon) program. Work continued by the Meteoroid Environment Office after Constellation cancellation. Over 330 impacts have been recorded. A paper published in Icarus reported on the first 5 years of observations and 126 calibrated flashes. Icarus:; ArXiv: A NASA Technical Memorandum on flash locations is in press

  6. The latest GrazLGM lunar gravity field model: developments in the framework of project GRAZIL (United States)

    Klinger, B.; Wirnsberger, H.; Mayer-Gürr, T.; Krauss, S.


    Project GRAZIL aims at recovering a high-accurate lunar gravity field based on the measurements collected by the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission. In order to achieve this objective we perform dynamic precise orbit determination from radio science observations (Doppler range-rates) in combination with the analysis of inter-satellite Ka-band ranging (KBR) observations. For gravity field recovery, we apply an integral equation approach using short orbital arcs (1 hour).We present our latest lunar gravity field model, derived from data collected during primary (March 1 to May 29, 2012) and extended (August 30 to December 14, 2012) mission phase.The extended mission phase improved the resolution due to a lower average altitude (23 km) of the spacecraft. As a result, the latest gravity field shows improvements especially in the shorter wavelengths compared to its predecessor GrazLGM300c.In this contribution we focus on the stepwise improvements of our gravity field solutions, achieved by a refinement of our processing strategy (e.g. incorporation of non-gravitational accelerations, covariance estimation, inclusion of extended mission data) in conjunction with an increase of the spectral resolution. We validate our results against prior GrazLGM models and recent GRAIL models computed at NASA-GSFC and NASA-JPL.

  7. Orbit Determination for the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Using an Extended Kalman Filter (United States)

    Slojkowski, Steven; Lowe, Jonathan; Woodburn, James


    Since launch, the FDF has performed daily OD for LRO using the Goddard Trajectory Determination System (GTDS). GTDS is a batch least-squares (BLS) estimator. The tracking data arc for OD is 36 hours. Current operational OD uses 200 x 200 lunar gravity, solid lunar tides, solar radiation pressure (SRP) using a spherical spacecraft area model, and point mass gravity for the Earth, Sun, and Jupiter. LRO tracking data consists of range and range-rate measurements from: Universal Space Network (USN) stations in Sweden, Germany, Australia, and Hawaii. A NASA antenna at White Sands, New Mexico (WS1S). NASA Deep Space Network (DSN) stations. DSN data was sparse and not included in this study. Tracking is predominantly (50) from WS1S. The OD accuracy requirements are: Definitive ephemeris accuracy of 500 meters total position root-mean-squared (RMS) and18 meters radial RMS. Predicted orbit accuracy less than 800 meters root sum squared (RSS) over an 84-hour prediction span.

  8. Orbit Determination for the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Using an Extended Kalman Filter (United States)

    Slojkowski, Steven; Lowe, Jonathan; Woodburn, James


    Orbit determination (OD) analysis results are presented for the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) using a commercially available Extended Kalman Filter, Analytical Graphics' Orbit Determination Tool Kit (ODTK). Process noise models for lunar gravity and solar radiation pressure (SRP) are described and OD results employing the models are presented. Definitive accuracy using ODTK meets mission requirements and is better than that achieved using the operational LRO OD tool, the Goddard Trajectory Determination System (GTDS). Results demonstrate that a Vasicek stochastic model produces better estimates of the coefficient of solar radiation pressure than a Gauss-Markov model, and prediction accuracy using a Vasicek model meets mission requirements over the analysis span. Modeling the effect of antenna motion on range-rate tracking considerably improves residuals and filter-smoother consistency. Inclusion of off-axis SRP process noise and generalized process noise improves filter performance for both definitive and predicted accuracy. Definitive accuracy from the smoother is better than achieved using GTDS and is close to that achieved by precision OD methods used to generate definitive science orbits. Use of a multi-plate dynamic spacecraft area model with ODTK's force model plugin capability provides additional improvements in predicted accuracy.

  9. Unmanned in situ experiment on lunar resources (United States)

    Iwata, Tsutomu; Ohuchi, Hideo

    A robotic experiment on lunar materials in the context of lunar base and lunar resources utilization is designed. A mobile robotic laboratory is sent to the lunar surface by an H-2 rocket to perform exploration for resources and experimental processing/handling of the surface materials.

  10. Hydrogen Distribution in the Lunar Polar Regions (United States)

    Sanin, A. B.; Mitrofanov, I. G.; Litvak, M. L.; Bakhtin, B. N.; Bodnarik, J. G.; Boynton, W. V.; Chin, G.; Evans, L. G.; Harshmann, K.; Fedosov, F.; hide


    We present a method of conversion of the lunar neutron counting rate measured by the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND) instrument collimated neutron detectors, to water equivalent hydrogen (WEH) in the top approximately 1 m layer of lunar regolith. Polar maps of the Moon’s inferred hydrogen abundance are presented and discussed.

  11. Six-Month Results From the Initial Randomized Study of the Ranger Paclitaxel-Coated Balloon in the Femoropopliteal Segment. (United States)

    Bausback, Yvonne; Willfort-Ehringer, Andrea; Sievert, Horst; Geist, Volker; Lichtenberg, Michael; Del Giudice, Costantino; Sauguet, Antoine; Diaz-Cartelle, Juan; Marx, Claudia; Ströbel, Armin; Schult, Ingolf; Scheinert, Dierk


    To evaluate the performance of the Ranger paclitaxel-coated balloon vs uncoated balloon angioplasty for femoropopliteal lesions. Between January 2014 and October 2015, the prospective, randomized RANGER SFA study ( identifier NCT02013193) enrolled 105 patients with symptomatic lower limb ischemia (Rutherford category 2-4) and stenotic lesions in the nonstented femoropopliteal segment at 10 European centers. Seventy-one patients (mean age 68±8 years; 53 men) were enrolled in the Ranger drug-coated balloon (DCB) arm and 34 patients (mean age 67±9 years; 23 men) were assigned to the control group. Six-month analysis included angiographic late lumen loss and safety and clinical outcomes assessments. Baseline characteristics of the DCB and control groups were similar, as were lesion lengths (68±46 vs 60±48 mm; p=0.731), severity of calcification (p=0.236), and the prevalence of occlusions (34% vs 34%; p>0.999). At 6 months, late lumen loss was significantly less for the DCB group vs controls (-0.16±0.99 vs 0.76±1.4; p=0.002). The DCB group had significantly greater freedom from binary restenosis (92% vs 64%; p=0.005) and primary patency rates (87% vs 60%; p=0.014). Target lesion revascularization rates were 5.6% in the DCB group and 12% in the control group (p=0.475). No target limb amputations or device-related deaths occurred in either group. Six-month results suggest that Ranger DCB treatment effectively inhibited restenosis in symptomatic femoropopliteal disease, resulting in improved vessel patency and a low revascularization rate in the short term compared with uncoated balloon angioplasty.

  12. Monitoring species of mammals using track collection by rangers in the Tilarán mountain range, Costa Rica


    Arévalo, J. Edgardo; Méndez, Yoryineth; Vargas, Sergio


    Although monitoring of animal populations for informed decision making is fundamental for the conservation and management of biodiversity, monitoring programs are not widely implemented. In addition, monitoring plans often represent an economic burden for many conservation organizations. Here we report on the monitoring of five focal species of mammals in the Tilarán mountain range, Costa Rica. We used a participatory approach in which trained rangers of four institutions conducted trail surv...

  13. Pressurized Lunar Rover (PLR) (United States)

    Creel, Kenneth; Frampton, Jeffrey; Honaker, David; McClure, Kerry; Zeinali, Mazyar; Bhardwaj, Manoj; Bulsara, Vatsal; Kokan, David; Shariff, Shaun; Svarverud, Eric

    The objective of this project was to design a manned pressurized lunar rover (PLR) for long-range transportation and for exploration of the lunar surface. The vehicle must be capable of operating on a 14-day mission, traveling within a radius of 500 km during a lunar day or within a 50-km radius during a lunar night. The vehicle must accommodate a nominal crew of four, support two 28-hour EVA's, and in case of emergency, support a crew of six when near the lunar base. A nominal speed of ten km/hr and capability of towing a trailer with a mass of two mt are required. Two preliminary designs have been developed by two independent student teams. The PLR 1 design proposes a seven meter long cylindrical main vehicle and a trailer which houses the power and heat rejection systems. The main vehicle carries the astronauts, life support systems, navigation and communication systems, lighting, robotic arms, tools, and equipment for exploratory experiments. The rover uses a simple mobility system with six wheels on the main vehicle and two on the trailer. The nonpressurized trailer contains a modular radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) supplying 6.5 kW continuous power. A secondary energy storage for short-term peak power needs is provided by a bank of lithium-sulfur dioxide batteries. The life support system is partly a regenerative system with air and hygiene water being recycled. A layer of water inside the composite shell surrounds the command center allowing the center to be used as a safe haven during solar flares. The PLR 1 has a total mass of 6197 kg. It has a top speed of 18 km/hr and is capable of towing three metric tons, in addition to the RTG trailer. The PLR 2 configuration consists of two four-meter diameter, cylindrical hulls which are passively connected by a flexible passageway, resulting in the overall vehicle length of 11 m. The vehicle is driven by eight independently suspended wheels. The dual-cylinder concept allows articulated as well as double

  14. Year 3 LUNAR Annual Report to the NASA Lunar Science Institute


    Burns, Jack; Lazio, Joseph


    The Lunar University Network for Astrophysics Research (LUNAR) is a team of researchers and students at leading universities, NASA centers, and federal research laboratories undertaking investigations aimed at using the Moon as a platform for space science. LUNAR research includes Lunar Interior Physics & Gravitation using Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR), Low Frequency Cosmology and Astrophysics (LFCA), Planetary Science and the Lunar Ionosphere, Radio Heliophysics, and Exploration Science. The LUN...

  15. Lunar resources: possibilities for utilization (United States)

    Shevchenko, Vladislav

    Introduction: With the current advanced orbiters sent to the Moon by the United States, Europe, Japan, China, and India, we are opening a new era of lunar studies. The International Academy of Aeronautics (IAA) has begun a study on opportunities and challenges of developing and using space mineral resources (SRM). This study will be the first international interdisciplinary assessment of the technology, economics and legal aspects of using space mineral resources for the benefit of humanity. The IAA has approved a broad outline of areas that the study will cover including type, location and extent of space mineral resources on the Moon, asteroids and others. It will be studied current technical state of the art in the identification, recovery and use of SRM in space and on the Earth that identifies all required technical processes and systems, and that makes recommendations for specific technology developments that should be addressed near term at the system and subsystem level to make possible prospecting, mineral extraction, beneficiation, transport, delivery and use of SMR. Particular attention will be dedicated to study the transportation and retrieval options available for SRM. Lunar polar volatile: ROSCOSMOS places a high priority on studying lunar polar volatiles, and has outlined a few goals related to the study of such volatiles. Over the course of several years, NASA’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter scanned the Moon’s South Pole using its Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND - IKI Russia) to measure how much hydrogen is trapped within the lunar soil. Areas exhibiting suppressed neutron activity indicate where hydrogen atoms are concentrated most, strongly suggesting the presence of water molecules. Current survey of the Moon’s polar regions integrated geospatial data for topography, temperature, and hydrogen abundances from Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, Chandrayaan-1, and Lunar Prospector to identify several landing sites near both the North and

  16. Lunar Magmatic Volatiles (United States)

    Nekvasil, H.; McCubbin, F. M.; Lindsley, D. H.


    Samples returned from the Apollo Missions prompted a variety of experimental investigations (e.g., [1-4]) which form the basis of our current understanding of lunar compositional evolution. The observed low abundances of solidus temperature-suppressing volatiles justified volatile-free experiments. However, the low-pressure nature of the samples makes it unlikely that volatiles were retained during magma ascent and eruption. In an effort to re-assess the lunar mantle volatile budget, we are focusing on the mineral apatite because of its incorporation of F, Cl, and OH as essential structural constituents and its greater ability to retain such volatiles relative to melt. Apatite grains analyzed from magnesian- and alkali-suite rocks (14161,7111, 14161,7269 and 14161,7264), KREEPy impact melt rocks associated with magnesian- and alkali-suite rocks (14161,7233; 14161,7110; 14161,7062; 12033,634-25; SaU 169-4), and mare basalts (79195; 12037,224; 74246; 12023,147,1; 10084; LAP 02205; LAP 03632; NWA 2977) by electron microprobe using the technique of [5,6] show two distinct compositional groups. Apatite from the mare basalts analyzed are primarily mixtures of fluor- "missing component" (OH?) apatite with low Cl abundance, while that from the magnesian- and alkali-suite rocks are fluor-chlor mixtures. Apatite/basaltic melt partition coefficients for F, Cl, and H2O from the data of [7] provide first estimates of magmatic volatile abundances in lunar magmas. They suggest that magmatic water may have been more abundant than F and Cl at the stage of apatite crystallization in mare basalts. In contrast, at this stage, the magmas that produced the Mg-and alkali suite minerals were F- and Cl-dominated. These results have wide-reaching implications regarding the chemical and physical evolution of the Moon and therefore, the next generation of experimental investigations. [1] Walker et al. 1973 EPSL 20, 325-336. [2] Walker et al. 1975 GCA 39, 1219-1235. [3] Longhi 1992 GCA 69

  17. Pressurized lunar rover (United States)

    Creel, Kenneth; Frampton, Jeffrey; Honaker, David; McClure, Kerry; Zeinali, Mazyar


    The pressurized lunar rover (PLR) consists of a 7 m long, 3 m diameter cylindrical main vehicle and a trailer which houses the power and heat rejection systems. The main vehicle carries the astronauts, life support systems, navigation and communication systems, directional lighting, cameras, and equipment for exploratory experiments. The PLR shell is constructed of a layered carbon-fiber/foam composite. The rover has six 1.5 m diameter wheels on the main body and two 1.5 m diameter wheels on the trailer. The wheels are constructed of composites and flex to increase traction and shock absorption. The wheels are each attached to a double A-arm aluminum suspension, which allows each wheel 1 m of vertical motion. In conjunction with a 0.75 m ground clearance, the suspension aids the rover in negotiating the uneven lunar terrain. The 15 N-m torque brushless electric motors are mounted with harmonic drive units inside each of the wheels. The rover is steered by electrically varying the speeds of the wheels on either side of the rover. The PLR trailer contains a radiosotope thermoelectric generator providing 6.7 kW. A secondary back-up energy storage system for short-term high-power needs is provided by a bank of batteries. The trailer can be detached to facilitate docking of the main body with the lunar base via an airlock located in the rear of the PLR. The airlock is also used for EVA operation during missions. Life support is a partly regenerative system with air and hygiene water being recycled. A layer of water inside the composite shell surrounds the command center. The water absorbs any damaging radiation, allowing the command center to be used as a safe haven during solar flares. Guidance, navigation, and control are supplied by a strapdown inertial measurement unit that works with the on-board computer. Star mappers provide periodic error correction.

  18. VII International Congress of Engineering Physics (United States)


    In the frame of the fortieth anniversary celebration of the Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana and the Physics Engineering career, the Division of Basic Science and Engineering and its Departments organized the "VII International Congress of Physics Engineering". The Congress was held from 24 to 28 November 2014 in Mexico City, Mexico. This congress is the first of its type in Latin America, and because of its international character, it gathers experts on physics engineering from Mexico and all over the globe. Since 1999, this event has shown research, articles, projects, technological developments and vanguard scientists. These activities aim to spread, promote, and share the knowledge of Physics Engineering. The topics of the Congress were: • Renewable energies engineering • Materials technology • Nanotechnology • Medical physics • Educational physics engineering • Nuclear engineering • High precision instrumentation • Atmospheric physics • Optical engineering • Physics history • Acoustics This event integrates lectures on top trending topics with pre-congress workshops, which are given by recognized scientists with an outstanding academic record. The lectures and workshops allow the exchange of experiences, and create and strengthen research networks. The Congress also encourages professional mobility among all universities and research centres from all countries. CIIF2014 Organizing and Editorial Committee Dr. Ernesto Rodrigo Vázquez Cerón Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana - Azcapotzalco Dr. Luis Enrique Noreña Franco Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana - Azcapotzalco Dr. Alberto Rubio Ponce Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana - Azcapotzalco Dr. Óscar Olvera Neria Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana - Azcapotzalco Professor Jaime Granados Samaniego Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana - Azcapotzalco Dr. Roberto Tito Hern

  19. The lunar dynamo. (United States)

    Weiss, Benjamin P; Tikoo, Sonia M


    The inductive generation of magnetic fields in fluid planetary interiors is known as the dynamo process. Although the Moon today has no global magnetic field, it has been known since the Apollo era that the lunar rocks and crust are magnetized. Until recently, it was unclear whether this magnetization was the product of a core dynamo or fields generated externally to the Moon. New laboratory and spacecraft measurements strongly indicate that much of this magnetization is the product of an ancient core dynamo. The dynamo field persisted from at least 4.25 to 3.56 billion years ago (Ga), with an intensity reaching that of the present Earth. The field then declined by at least an order of magnitude by ∼3.3 Ga. The mechanisms for sustaining such an intense and long-lived dynamo are uncertain but may include mechanical stirring by the mantle and core crystallization. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  20. Early lunar magnetism (United States)

    Banerjee, S. K.; Mellema, J. P.


    A new method (Shaw, 1974) for investigating paleointensity (the ancient magnetic field) was applied to three subsamples of a single, 1-m homogeneous clast from a recrystallized boulder of lunar breccia. Several dating methods established 4 billion years as the age of boulder assembly. Results indicate that the strength of the ambient magnetic field at the Taurus-Littrow region of the moon was about 0.4 oersted at 4 billion years ago. Values as high as 1.2 oersted have been reported (Collison et al., 1973). The required fields are approximately 10,000 times greater than present interplanetary or solar flare fields. It is suggested that this large field could have arisen from a pre-main sequence T-Tauri sun.

  1. Lunar Soil Particle Separator Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Soil Particle Separator (LSPS) is an innovative method to beneficiate soil prior to in-situ resource utilization (ISRU). The LSPS improves ISRU oxygen...

  2. Lunar Soil Particle Separator Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Soil Particle Separator (LSPS) is an innovative method to beneficiate soil prior to in-situ resource utilization (ISRU). The LSPS can improve ISRU oxygen...

  3. Google Moon Lunar Mapping Data (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A collection of lunar maps and charts. This tool is an exciting new way to explore the story of the Apollo missions, still the only time mankind has set foot on...

  4. Excavation costs for lunar materials (United States)

    Carrier, W. D., III


    A lunar strip mining system is presented which is capable of excavating and transporting 3 million metric tons of ore per year to a central processing plant on the moon's surface. The mining system would grow from a single front-end loader in the first year, to a fleet of ten haulers in the 30th year. Lunar personnel requirements would consist of a single individual, whose primary function would be to perform maintenance. All of the mining equipment would either operate automatically or by remote control from earth. The projected cost for the lunar mining system is approximately $12 to $37 per ton of ore over the life of the mine, an important part of the overall economics of exploiting lunar resources.

  5. The enigma of lunar magnetism (United States)

    Hood, L. L.


    Current understandings of the nature and probable origin of lunar magnetism are surveyed. Results of examinations of returned lunar samples are discussed which reveal the main carrier of the observed natural remanent magnetization to be iron, occasionally alloyed with nickel and cobalt, but do not distinguish between thermoremanent and shock remanent origins, and surface magnetometer data is presented, which indicates small-scale magnetic fields with a wide range of field intensities implying localized, near-surface sources. A detailed examination is presented of orbital magnetometer and charged particle data concerning the geologic nature and origin of magnetic anomaly sources and the directional properties of the magnetization, which exhibit a random distribution except for a depletion in the north-south direction. A lunar magnetization survey with global coverage provided by a polar orbiting satellite is suggested as a means of placing stronger constraints on the origin of lunar crustal magnetization.

  6. Lunar Organic Waste Reformer Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Organic Waste Reformer (LOWR) utilizes high temperature steam reformation to convert all plastic, paper, and human waste materials into useful gases. In...

  7. Lunar Water Resource Demonstration (LWRD) (United States)

    Muscatello, Anthony C.


    Lunar Water Resource Demonstration (LWRD) is part of RESOLVE (Regolith and Environment Science & Oxygen and Lunar Volatile Extraction). RESOLVE is an ISRU ground demonstration: (1) A rover to explore a permanently shadowed crater at the south or north pole of the Moon (2) Drill core samples down to 1 meter (3) Heat the core samples to 150C (4) Analyze gases and capture water and/or hydrogen evolved (5) Use hydrogen reduction to extract oxygen from regolith

  8. Newly diagnosed congenital factor VII deficiency and utilization of recombinant activated factor VII (NovoSeven®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartosh NS


    Full Text Available Nicole S Bartosh, Tara Tomlin, Christian Cable, Kathleen HalkaDepartment of Internal Medicine, Division of Medical Oncology, Scott and White Healthcare and Texas A and M Health Science Center College of Medicine, Temple, TX, USAAbstract: This case report presents a newly diagnosed congenital factor VII deficiency treated with recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa. Congenital factor VII deficiency is a rare autosomal-recessive bleeding disorder that occurs in fewer than 1/500,000 persons. Its presentation can vary from epistaxis to hemarthroses and severe central nervous system bleeding, and correlates poorly with factor VII levels. Our patient had not had a significant hemostatic challenge prior to his presentation and therefore never had any symptomatology suggestive of this disease. He was treated with rFVIIa, and was able to undergo repair of his fractures without bleeding.Case report: A 19-year-old African-American male presented to the emergency room after an altercation that resulted in significant trauma. He sustained bilateral mandibular angle fractures and orbital floor fractures, requiring urgent surgical correction. On initial evaluation, he was noted to have a prolonged prothrombin time of 40.1 seconds, with an International Normalized Ratio of 4.0, a normal activated partial thromboplastin time of 29.9 seconds, and a platelet count of 241. After receiving vitamin K and fresh frozen plasma, he was taken to the operating room for a temporary rigid maxillomandibular fixation. A 1:1 mixing study with normal plasma corrected the prothrombin time (decreasing from 40.7 to 14.7 seconds and a factor VII assay revealed 5% of the normal factor VII level. The patient was diagnosed with congenital factor VII deficiency. Due to his coagulopathy and the extensive surgical correction needed, rFVIIa was administered and surgery was accomplished without hemorrhagic sequelae.Conclusion: This case report and review describes a rare congenital

  9. Autonomous Navigation Based on SEIF with Consistency Constraint for C-Ranger AUV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Shen


    Full Text Available An autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV has to solve two essential problems in underwater environment, namely, localization and mapping. SLAM is one novel solution to estimate locations and maps simultaneously based on motion models and sensor measurements. Sparse extended information filter (SEIF is an effective algorithm to reduce storage and computational costs of large-scale maps in the SLAM problem. However, there exists the inconsistency in the SEIF since the rank of the observability matrix of linearized error-state model in SLAM system is higher than that of the nonlinear SLAM system. By analyzing the consistency of the SEIF-based SLAM from the perspective of observability, a SLAM based on SEIF with consistency constraint (SEIF-CC SLAM is developed to improve the estimator’s consistency. The proposed algorithm uses the first-ever available estimates to calculate SEIF Jacobians for each of the state variables, called the First Estimates Jacobian (FEJ. Then, the linearized error-state model can keep the same observability as the underlying nonlinear SLAM system. The capability of autonomous navigation with the proposed algorithm is validated through simulations experiments and sea trials for a C-Ranger AUV. Experimental results show that the proposed SEIF-CC SLAM algorithm yields more consistent and accurate estimates compared with the SEIF-based SLAM.

  10. Altair Lunar Lander Development Status: Enabling Human Lunar Exploration (United States)

    Laurini, Kathleen C.; Connolly, John F.


    As a critical part of the NASA Constellation Program lunar transportation architecture, the Altair lunar lander will return humans to the moon and enable a sustained program of lunar exploration. The Altair is to deliver up to four crew to the surface of the moon and return them to low lunar orbit at the completion of their mission. Altair will also be used to deliver large cargo elements to the lunar surface, enabling the buildup of an outpost. The Altair Project initialized its design using a minimum functionality approach that identified critical functionality required to meet a minimum set of Altair requirements. The Altair team then performed several analysis cycles using risk-informed design to selectively add back components and functionality to increase the vehicles safety and reliability. The analysis cycle results were captured in a reference Altair design. This design was reviewed at the Constellation Lunar Capabilities Concept Review, a Mission Concept Review, where key driving requirements were confirmed and the Altair Project was given authorization to begin Phase A project formulation. A key objective of Phase A is to revisit the Altair vehicle configuration, to better optimize it to complete its broad range of crew and cargo delivery missions. Industry was invited to partner with NASA early in the design to provide their insights regarding Altair configuration and key engineering challenges. A blended NASA-industry team will continue to refine the lander configuration and mature the vehicle design over the next few years. This paper will update the international community on the status of the Altair Project as it addresses the challenges of project formulation, including optimizing a vehicle configuration based on the work of the NASA Altair Project team, industry inputs and the plans going forward in designing the Altair lunar lander.

  11. Stark broadening parameter tables for O VII and Mg XI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrijević M.S.


    Full Text Available By using the semiclassical-perturbation formalism, we have calculated electron-, proton-, and He III-impact line widths and shifts for 14 O VII multiplets and 18 Mg XI multiplets, of importance for research, diagnostic and modeling of various astrophysical, laser produced, fusion and laboratory plasmas. For O VII calculations were performed for temperature range from 100,000 K to 2,000,000 K. and perturber densities (1017cm−3 - 1023cm−3. For Mg XI calculations were performed for temperature range from 500,000 K to 5,000,000 K. and perturber densities 1018cm−3 - 1024cm−3.

  12. The lupus band: do the autoantibodies target collagen VII? (United States)

    Alahlafi, A M; Wordsworth, P; Wojnarowska, F


    Circulating autoantibodies directed against basement membrane zone (BMZ) components from patients with bullous pemphigoid and epidermolysis bullosa acquisita have been used to identify their target antigen in the skin and to confirm pathogenicity. Although the pattern of immunofluorescence in those diseases is similar to the lupus band, little is known about the origin and pathogenesis of the lupus band. Identifying the binding sites of the lupus band could provide a clue to the nature of the autoantigen that stimulates autoantibody formation in the skin of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and might provide valuable insight into the factors that influence the localization and pathogenicity of the lupus band. To investigate the relation between the lupus band and the main BMZ components and to identify the target epitopes of autoantibodies deposited in the skin of patients with SLE. Colocalization of the main components of the skin BMZ in nonlesional SLE skin with the lupus band was investigated using conventional immunofluorescence and confocal laser scanning microscopy. The effect of collagenase and pepsin on the expression of the lupus band was correlated with the differential sensitivity of these proteases on the collagenous and noncollagenous (NC) domains of collagen VII. Reactivity of sera from patients with SLE to a complete recombinant human NC1 domain of type VII collagen was then investigated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Near complete colocalization of the lupus band with collagen VII was found in this study, and chemical degradation of the skin attenuated the expression of the lupus band. Collectively, the NC1 domain of collagen VII was suggested as the target antigen of the lupus band, but none of the sera from patients with SLE reacted with recombinant NC1 domain-coated ELISA plates. Alternative explanations for the results of the colocalization of the lupus band with collagen VII are discussed. The lupus band

  13. Lunar-A mission: Outline and current status

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India) Keywords. Lunar-A; penetrator; lunar exploration; lunar interior; lunar seismology; heat flow. Abstract. The scientific objective of the Lunar-A,Japanese Penetrator Mission,is to explore the lunar interior by seismic and heat-flow experiments.Two penetrators containing ...

  14. Lunar Meteorites: A Global Geochemical Dataset (United States)

    Zeigler, R. A.; Joy, K. H.; Arai, T.; Gross, J.; Korotev, R. L.; McCubbin, F. M.


    To date, the world's meteorite collections contain over 260 lunar meteorite stones representing at least 120 different lunar meteorites. Additionally, there are 20-30 as yet unnamed stones currently in the process of being classified. Collectively these lunar meteorites likely represent 40-50 distinct sampling locations from random locations on the Moon. Although the exact provenance of each individual lunar meteorite is unknown, collectively the lunar meteorites represent the best global average of the lunar crust. The Apollo sites are all within or near the Procellarum KREEP Terrane (PKT), thus lithologies from the PKT are overrepresented in the Apollo sample suite. Nearly all of the lithologies present in the Apollo sample suite are found within the lunar meteorites (high-Ti basalts are a notable exception), and the lunar meteorites contain several lithologies not present in the Apollo sample suite (e.g., magnesian anorthosite). This chapter will not be a sample-by-sample summary of each individual lunar meteorite. Rather, the chapter will summarize the different types of lunar meteorites and their relative abundances, comparing and contrasting the lunar meteorite sample suite with the Apollo sample suite. This chapter will act as one of the introductory chapters to the volume, introducing lunar samples in general and setting the stage for more detailed discussions in later more specialized chapters. The chapter will begin with a description of how lunar meteorites are ejected from the Moon, how deep samples are being excavated from, what the likely pairing relationships are among the lunar meteorite samples, and how the lunar meteorites can help to constrain the impactor flux in the inner solar system. There will be a discussion of the biases inherent to the lunar meteorite sample suite in terms of underrepresented lithologies or regions of the Moon, and an examination of the contamination and limitations of lunar meteorites due to terrestrial weathering. The

  15. Lunar Industry & Research Base Concept (United States)

    Lysenko, J.; Kaliapin, M.; Osinovyy, G.


    Currently, all main space industry players, such as Europe, USA, Russia, China, etc., are looking back again at the idea of Moon exploration building there a manned lunar base. Alongside with other world spacefaring nations, Yuzhnoye State Design Office with its long-time development experience, technological and intellectual potential, organized its own conceptual work on development of the Lunar Industry & Research Base. In the frames of conceptual project "Lunar Industrial & Research Base" were formed its appearance, preliminary configuration and infrastructure at different stages of operation, trajectory and flight scheme to the Moon, as well as terms of the project's realization, and main technical characteristics of the systems under development, such as space transportation system for crew and cargo delivery to lunar surface and return to Earth, standardized designs of lunar modules, lunar surface vehicles, etc. The "Lunar Industrial & Research Base" project's preliminary risk assessment has shown a high value of its overall risk due to the lack of reliable information about the Moon, technical risks, long-term development of its elements, very high financial costs and dependence on state support. This points to the fact that it is reasonable to create such a global project in cooperation with other countries. International cooperation will expand the capabilities of any nation, reduce risks and increase the success probability of automated or manned space missions. It is necessary to create and bring into operation practical mechanisms for long-term space exploration on a global scale. One of the ways to do this is to create a multinational agency which would include both state enterprises and private companies.

  16. Lunar Surface Solar Electric Power System Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a concentrated photovoltaic electric power system for lunar operations called C-Lite Lunar. The novel technology produces a near-term solar array system...

  17. Dust Mitigation for the Lunar Surface Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The lunar surface is, to a large extent, covered with a dust layer several meters thick. Known as lunar regolith, it has been produced by meteorite impacts since the...

  18. Dust Mitigation for the Lunar Surface Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The lunar surface is to a large extent covered with a dust layer several meters thick. Known as lunar regolith, it poses a hazard in the form of dust clouds being...

  19. Lunar stone saw (United States)

    Clark, Tom; Croker, Todd; Hines, Ken; Knight, Mike; Walton, Todd


    This project addresses the problem of cutting lunar stones into blocks to be used to construct shelters to protect personnel and equipment from harmful solar radiation. This plant will manufacture 6 in x 1 ft x 2 ft blocks and will be located near the south pole to allow it to be in the shade at all times. This design uses a computer controlled robot, a boulder handler that uses hydraulics for movement, a computer system that used 3-D vision to determine the size of boulders, a polycrystalline diamond tipped saw blade that utilizes radiation for cooling, and a solar tower to collect solar energy. Only two electric motors are used in this plant because of the heavy weight of electric motors and the problem of cooling them. These two motors will be cooled by thermoelectric cooling. All other motors and actuators are to be hydraulic. The architectural design for the building as well as the conceptual design of the machines for cutting the blocks are described.

  20. Kasuperest viidi viis last ja algatati kriminaalmenetlus piinamises / Rasmus Rekand

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rekand, Rasmus


    Lugu asenduskodu teenust pakkuvast perekonnast, kelle hoole all oli lisaks pere enda 3 lapsele 6 võõrast last ning kuidas lastega mittehakkama saamine viis olukorrani, kus lapsed viidi kasupere juurest ära ja lisaks algatati uurimine keelatud võtete kasutamise kohta kasvatamistegevuses

  1. Viis armastuslugu suurel ekraanil / Tristan Priimägi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Priimägi, Tristan, 1976-


    Viis näidet filmiajaloost, kus režissööri ja staari vahel on tunded : Roger Vadim ja Tema Naised, Werner Herzog ja Klaus Kinski, Federico Fellini ja Anita Ekberg, Quentin Tarantino ja Uma Thurman, Rainer Werner Fassbinder ja Mr/Mrs X

  2. Recombinant-activated factor VII in the paediatric cardiac surgery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    V Agarwal, KE Okonta, PS Lal. Abstract. Background: The control of excessive bleeding after paediatric cardiac surgery can be challenging. This may make the use of recombinant-activated factor VII (rFVIIa) in preventing this excessive bleeding, after adopted conventional methods have failed, desirable. Our aim is to ...

  3. In silico dissection of Type VII Secretion System components across ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Type VII Secretion System (T7SS) is one of the factors involved in virulence of Mycobacteriun tuberculosis H37Rv. Numerous research efforts have been made in the last decade towards characterizing the components of this secretion system. An extensive genome-wide analysis through compilation of isolated information ...

  4. Viis aastakümmet raamatukogunduse radadel / Anne Veinberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Veinberg, Anne


    Arvustus: Kikas, Konrad. Verba volant, scripta manent : viis aastakümmet raamatukogunduse ja infoteaduse radadel = Verba volant, scripta manent : five decades on the field of librarianship and information science. - Tallinn : Tallinna Tehnikaülikooli Kirjastus, 2008. - 366 lk. : ill. portr. - (Tallinna Tehnikaülikooli Raamatukogu töid. A ; 5)

  5. Photosynthetic pigments of oceanic Chlorophyta belonging to prasinophytes clade VII. (United States)

    Lopes Dos Santos, Adriana; Gourvil, Priscillia; Rodríguez, Francisco; Garrido, José Luis; Vaulot, Daniel


    The ecological importance and diversity of pico/nanoplanktonic algae remains poorly studied in marine waters, in part because many are tiny and without distinctive morphological features. Amongst green algae, Mamiellophyceae such as Micromonas or Bathycoccus are dominant in coastal waters while prasinophytes clade VII, yet not formerly described, appear to be major players in open oceanic waters. The pigment composition of 14 strains representative of different subclades of clade VII was analyzed using a method that improves the separation of loroxanthin and neoxanthin. All the prasinophytes clade VII analyzed here showed a pigment composition similar to that previously reported for RCC287 corresponding to pigment group prasino-2A. However, we detected in addition astaxanthin for which it is the first report in prasinophytes. Among the strains analyzed, the pigment signature is qualitatively similar within subclades A and B. By contrast, RCC3402 from subclade C (Picocystis) lacks loroxanthin, astaxanthin, and antheraxanthin but contains alloxanthin, diatoxanthin, and monadoxanthin that are usually found in diatoms or cryptophytes. For subclades A and B, loroxanthin was lowest at highest light irradiance suggesting a light-harvesting role of this pigment in clade VII as in Tetraselmis. © 2015 Phycological Society of America.

  6. A quantum inspired model of radar range and range-rate measurements with applications to weak value measurements (United States)

    Escalante, George


    Weak Value Measurements (WVMs) with pre- and post-selected quantum mechanical ensembles were proposed by Aharonov, Albert, and Vaidman in 1988 and have found numerous applications in both theoretical and applied physics. In the field of precision metrology, WVM techniques have been demonstrated and proven valuable as a means to shift, amplify, and detect signals and to make precise measurements of small effects in both quantum and classical systems, including: particle spin, the Spin-Hall effect of light, optical beam deflections, frequency shifts, field gradients, and many others. In principal, WVM amplification techniques are also possible in radar and could be a valuable tool for precision measurements. However, relatively limited research has been done in this area. This article presents a quantum-inspired model of radar range and range-rate measurements of arbitrary strength, including standard and pre- and post-selected measurements. The model is used to extend WVM amplification theory to radar, with the receive filter performing the post-selection role. It is shown that the description of range and range-rate measurements based on the quantum-mechanical measurement model and formalism produces the same results as the conventional approach used in radar based on signal processing and filtering of the reflected signal at the radar receiver. Numerical simulation results using simple point scatterrer configurations are presented, applying the quantum-inspired model of radar range and range-rate measurements that occur in the weak measurement regime. Potential applications and benefits of the quantum inspired approach to radar measurements are presented, including improved range and Doppler measurement resolution.

  7. Energy Efficiency, Water Efficiency, and Renewable Energy Site Assessment: San Juan National Forest - Dolores Ranger District, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kandt, Alicen J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kiatreungwattana, Kosol [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)


    This report summarizes the results from an energy efficiency, water efficiency, and renewable energy site assessment of the Dolores Ranger District in the San Juan National Forest in Colorado. A team led by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) conducted the assessment with United States Forest Service (USFS) personnel on August 16-17, 2016, as part of ongoing efforts by USFS to reduce energy and water use and implement renewable energy technologies. The assessment is approximately an American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers Level 2 audit and meets Energy Independence and Security Act requirements.

  8. An Investigation of the Ranger V-770-8 Engine Installation for the Edo XOSE-1 Airplane I : Cooling (United States)

    Emmons, M. Arnold; Conway, Robert N.


    Engine temperature data and cooling correlating analyses of the engine and oil cooler are presented in connection with an investigation of the cowling and cooling of the ranger V-770-8 engine installation in the Edo XOSE-1 airplane. Three types of baffles were installed in the course of the tests: the conventional, the turbulent-flow, and the NACA diffuser baffles. Each of the types was of merit in cooling a different region on the cylinder. Incorporation of the best features of the three types into one baffle, a method which appears to be feasible, would provide improvements in cylinder cooling.

  9. Lunar Outpost and its construction scenario (United States)

    Iwata, Tsutomu; Nakamura, Tetsuya; Yuzawa, Yoshinori; Horie, Michihiko; Amagata, Raita; Honda, Tetsuya

    A Lunar Outpost (LO) is a man-tended frontier facility that Japan may construct on the lunar mare in around 2010. The objective of the Lunar Outpost is to perform various experiments such as observation, material procesing, life science missions during the shorttime period. It will be a demonstration project for the permanently manned Lunar Base (LB). The Lunar Outpost has three major missions. The primary misssion to be a precursor of the manned Lunar Base. The secondary mission is to verify technologies required for the manned Lunar Base. The tertiary mission is to conduct experiments including lunar resource utilizations and adaptability of human beings to the lunar environment. The period of LO operations will be limited to three years. The first year is a construction phases and covers five lunar landings. The second and third years are the man-tended operational phase in which experiments and observation will be conducted on the lunar surface. There will be a total of nine lunar landings; three cargo landings and six passenger landings. Three crew members will stay at the LO for tend days for each passenger landing. The system structure and functions of the subsystems are described. A configuration of the LO which satisfies the missions and systems requirements is proposed. The configuration consists of a Habitation Module, a Laboratory/Logistics Module, an Electric Module, and a Rover with Airlock. A construction scenario is written to transport and integrate these elements.

  10. Lunar flyby transfers between libration point orbits (United States)

    Qi, Yi; Xu, Shijie; Qi, Rui


    Lunar flyby or lunar gravity assist is a classical technique to change the energy and trajectory of space vehicle in space mission. In this paper, lunar flyby transfers between Sun-Earth/Moon libration point orbits with different energies are investigated in the Sun-Earth-Moon restricted four-body problem. Distinguished by behaviours before and after lunar flyby, classification of lunar flyby orbits is defined and studied. Research indicates that junction point of special regions of four types of lunar flyby orbits denotes the perilune of lunar flyby transfer between libration point orbits. Based on those special perilunes, retrograde and prograde lunar flyby transfers are discussed in detail, respectively. The mean energy level transition distribution is proposed and applied to analyse the influence of phase angle and eccentricity on lunar flyby transfers. The phase space is divided into normal and chaotic intervals based on the topology pattern of transfers. A continuation strategy of lunar flyby transfer in the bicircular model is presented. Numerical examples show that compared with the single-impulse transfers based on patched invariant manifolds, lunar flyby transfers are more energy efficient. Finally, lunar flyby transfers are further extended to the realistic models.

  11. Quadrinhos nacionais no ciberespaço: uma análise de Combo Ranger nos âmbitos digital e impresso


    SANTOS, Roberto Elísio dos; Corrêa,Victor Wanderley


    O presente artigo trata das estratégias adotadas para a criação das histórias em quadrinhos para a internet, e tem como objeto de estudo Combo Rangers. As semelhanças e diferenças entre sua versão impressa e a virtual são analisadas neste texto. A escolha dessa história se deve por Combo Rangers ter sido a história em quadrinhos brasileira pioneira a ser realizada em ambas as maneiras, impressa, e vendida em bancas e livrarias, e disponibilizada no ambiente virtual, com acesso gratuito. Th...

  12. Plasma factor VII-activating protease is increased by oral contraceptives and induces factor VII activation in-vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sidelmann, Johannes J; Skouby, Sven O; Kluft, Cornelis


    Oral contraceptive (OC) use influences the hemostatic system significantly and is a risk factor for development of cardiovascular disease. Factor VII-activating protease (FSAP) has potential effects on hemostasis. The 1601GA genotype of the 1601G/A polymorphism in the FSAP gene expresses a FSAP...

  13. International Collaboration in Lunar Exploration (United States)

    Morris, K. Bruce; Horack, John M.; Nall, Mark; Leahy, Bart. D.


    The U.S. Vision for Space Exploration commits the United States to return astronauts to the moon by 2020 using the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle and Ares V Cargo Launch Vehicle. Like the Apollo program of the 1960s and 1970s, this effort will require preliminary reconnaissance in the form of robotic landers and probes. Unlike Apollo, some of the data NASA will rely upon to select landing sites and conduct science will be based on international missions as well, including SMART-1, SELENE, and Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO). Opportunities for international cooperation on the moon also lie in developing lunar exploration technologies. The European Space Agency's SMART-1 orbiter (Figure 1) is making the first comprehensive inventory of key chemical elements in the lunar surface. It is also investigating the impact theory of the moon's formation.'

  14. Lunar Base Heat Pump (United States)

    Walker, D.; Fischbach, D.; Tetreault, R.


    The objective of this project was to investigate the feasibility of constructing a heat pump suitable for use as a heat rejection device in applications such as a lunar base. In this situation, direct heat rejection through the use of radiators is not possible at a temperature suitable for lde support systems. Initial analysis of a heat pump of this type called for a temperature lift of approximately 378 deg. K, which is considerably higher than is commonly called for in HVAC and refrigeration applications where heat pumps are most often employed. Also because of the variation of the rejection temperature (from 100 to 381 deg. K), extreme flexibility in the configuration and operation of the heat pump is required. A three-stage compression cycle using a refrigerant such as CFC-11 or HCFC-123 was formulated with operation possible with one, two or three stages of compression. Also, to meet the redundancy requirements, compression was divided up over multiple compressors in each stage. A control scheme was devised that allowed these multiple compressors to be operated as required so that the heat pump could perform with variable heat loads and rejection conditions. A prototype heat pump was designed and constructed to investigate the key elements of the high-lift heat pump concept. Control software was written and implemented in the prototype to allow fully automatic operation. The heat pump was capable of operation over a wide range of rejection temperatures and cooling loads, while maintaining cooling water temperature well within the required specification of 40 deg. C +/- 1.7 deg. C. This performance was verified through testing.

  15. Manufacturing High-Fidelity Lunar Agglutinate Simulants (United States)

    Gutafson, R. J.; Edmunson, J. E.; Rickman, D. L.


    The lunar regolith is very different from many naturally occurring material on Earth because it forms in the unique, impact-dominated environment of the lunar surface. Lunar regolith is composed of five basic particle types: mineral fragments, pristine crystalline rock fragments, breccia fragments, glasses of various kinds, and agglutinates (glass-bonded aggregates). Agglutinates are abundant in the lunar regolith, especially in mature regoliths where they can be the dominant component.This presentation will discuss the technical feasibility of manufacturing-simulated agglutinate particles that match many of the unique properties of lunar agglutinates.

  16. Economic geology of lunar Helium-3 (United States)

    Schmitt, Harrison H.


    Economic geology evaluation of lunar He-3 should answer the question: Can lunar He-3 be sold on Earth with sufficient profit margins and low enough risk to attract capital investment in the enterprise. Concepts that relate to economic geology of recovering He-3 from the lunar maria are not new to human experience. A parametric cost and technology evaluation scheme, based on existing and future data, is required to qualitatively and quantitatively assess the comprehensive economic feasibility and return on investment of He-3 recovery from the lunar maria. There are also many political issues which must be considered as a result of nuclear fusion and lunar mining.

  17. Geopolymers from lunar and Martian soil simulants (United States)

    Alexiadis, Alessio; Alberini, Federico; Meyer, Marit E.


    This work discusses the geopolymerization of lunar dust simulant JSC LUNAR-1A and Martian dust simulant JSC MARS-1A. The geopolymerization of JSC LUNAR-1A occurs easily and produces a hard, rock-like, material. The geopolymerization of JSC MARS-1A requires milling to reduce the particle size. Tests were carried out to measure, for both JSC LUNAR-1A and JSC MARS-1A geopolymers, the maximum compressive and flexural strengths. In the case of the lunar simulant, these are higher than those of conventional cements. In the case of the Martian simulant, they are close to those of common building bricks.

  18. Lunar surface structural concepts and construction studies (United States)

    Mikulas, Martin

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: lunar surface structures construction research areas; lunar crane related disciplines; shortcomings of typical mobile crane in lunar base applications; candidate crane cable suspension systems; NIST six-cable suspension crane; numerical example of natural frequency; the incorporation of two new features for improved performance of the counter-balanced actively-controlled lunar crane; lunar crane pendulum mechanics; simulation results; 1/6 scale lunar crane testbed using GE robot for global manipulation; basic deployable truss approaches; bi-pantograph elevator platform; comparison of elevator platforms; perspective of bi-pantograph beam; bi-pantograph synchronously deployable tower/beam; lunar module off-loading concept; module off-loader concept packaged; starburst deployable precision reflector; 3-ring reflector deployment scheme; cross-section of packaged starburst reflector; and focal point and thickness packaging considerations.

  19. International partnership in lunar missions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Electric catapult launchers on lunar surface. The low gravity and hard vacuum on the Moon's surface is, however, a very great advantage from space transportation considerations for the return flight to Earth. Space vehicles could leave the. Moon without burning any fuel at all. A horizontal launching track like those used on ...

  20. Mobile Lunar Laser Ranging Station (United States)

    Intellect, 1977


    Harlan Smith, chairman of the University of Texas's Astronomy Department, discusses a mobile lunar laser ranging station which could help determine the exact rates of movement between continents and help geophysicists understand earthquakes. He also discusses its application for studying fundamental concepts of cosmology and physics. (Editor/RK)

  1. Settlement-Compatible Lunar Transporation (United States)

    Morgenthaler, G.

    Over the past few years we have published papers in this forum identifying, characterizing and advocating settlement-compatible transportation architectures for Mars. In the present paper, we do the same for the Moon and show evolutionary potentials for growth of lunar architectures into Mars architectures of the types discussed in our previous papers. The essence of a settlement-compatible architecture is that it yields a low recurring transportation cost and that the elements of the architecture are enduring, i.e., fully reusable with lifetimes on the order of Earth-based capital investments. Our previous papers have shown that extension of human habitation to other bodies in our Solar System is probably unaffordable with any other approach. The design of a settlement-compatible architecture begins with Earth launch. In our prior papers, we simply identified the Earth launch option as a fully reusable system with roughly Shuttle (or Atlas 5 or Delta 4 or Sea Launch or Ariane 5) capability, i.e. about 20 metric t. to low Earth orbit and a payload bay of dimensions about 5 m diameter x 15 to 20 m length. This is what the commercial market needs; this is where the traffic demand is; this is approximately the design point for a next-generation (after Shuttle) reusable launch vehicle. We continue in that vein for the present paper. Human mission advocates may argue it isn't big enough; that they need 80 metric t. payload to orbit. We answer that to achieve our cost criteria, there isn't much of a choice, and that the savings in launch cost will far outweigh the added expense for on-orbit assembly. Lunar transportation is considerably less demanding than Mars transportation. The main difference is in trip time. Because lunar trips are short, the crew habitat can be small, a la the Apollo Command Module, and the propulsion system to move it is also small by comparison. We analyze and depict a lunar transportation system based on crew elements adapted from the

  2. Mangostanaxanthone VII, a new cytotoxic xanthone from Garcinia mangostana. (United States)

    Ibrahim, Sabrin R M; Mohamed, Gamal A; Elfaky, Mahmoud A; Zayed, Mohamed F; El-Kholy, Amal A; Abdelmageed, Osama H; Ross, Samir A


    Garcinia mangostana L. (the queen of fruits, mangosteen, family Guttiferae) is a wealthy source of xanthones. The CHCl3 soluble fraction of the air-dried pericarps of G. mangostana provided a new xanthone: mangostanaxanthone VII (5), along with four known xanthones: mangostanaxanthones I (1) and II (2), gartanin (3) and γ-mangostin (4). The structural verification of these metabolites was achieved by different spectral techniques, including UV, IR, 1D and 2D NMR and HRESIMS. The new metabolite was assessed for cytotoxic potential, using sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay towards the A549 and MCF-7 cancer cell lines. Moreover, its antimicrobial effects were evaluated against various bacterial and fungal strains, using agar disc diffusion assay. Mangostanaxanthone VII showed moderate cytotoxic activity against the A549 and MCF7 cell lines with IC50s 26.1 and 34.8 μM, respectively, compared with doxorubicin (0.74 and 0.41 μM, respectively).

  3. Association of factor VII protein concentration with lifestyle factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladbjerg, E-M; Møller, L; Jespersen, J


    Several studies have demonstrated that changes in fasting levels of factor VII coagulant activity (FVII:C), a thrombotic risk marker, are due to changes in FVII protein concentrations (FVII:Ag). Consequently, studies on FVII now often include measurements of FVII:Ag. The present cross-sectional s......Several studies have demonstrated that changes in fasting levels of factor VII coagulant activity (FVII:C), a thrombotic risk marker, are due to changes in FVII protein concentrations (FVII:Ag). Consequently, studies on FVII now often include measurements of FVII:Ag. The present cross....... These results suggest that blood lipids are major determinants of FVII:Ag, but that other lifestyle factors such as insulin, BMI and physical activity can also influence FVII:Ag. Furthermore, the association between FVII:Ag and bleeding time suggests an effect of FVII or the FVII pathway on primary haemostasis...

  4. Lunar Dust Analysis Package - LDAP (United States)

    Chalkley, S. A.; Richter, L.; Goepel, M.; Sovago, M.; Pike, W. T.; Yang, S.; Rodenburg, J.; Claus, D.


    The Lunar Dust Analysis package (L-DAP) is a suite of payloads which have been designed to operate in synergy with each other at the Lunar Surface. The benefits of combining these payloads in a single package allow very precise measurements of a particular regolith sample. At the same time the integration allows mass savings since common resources are shared and this also means that interfaces with the Lander are simplified significantly leading to benefits of integration and development of the overall mission. Lunar Dust represents a real hazard for lunar exploration due to its invasive, fine microscopic structure and toxic properties. However it is also valuable resource which could be exploited for future exploration if the characteristics and chemical composition is well known. Scientifically, the regolith provides an insight into the moon formation process and there are areas on the Moon which have never been ex-plored before. For example the Lunar South Pole Aitken Basin is the oldest and largest on the moon, providing excavated deep crust which has not been found on the previous lunar landing missions. The SEA-led team has been designing a compact package, known as LDAP, which will provide key data on the lunar dust properties. The intention is for this package to be part of the payload suite deployed on the ESA Lunar Lander Mission in 2018. The LDAP has a centralised power and data electronics, including front end electronics for the detectors as well as sample handling subsystem for the following set of internal instruments : • Optical Microscope - with a 1μm resolution to provide context of the regolith samples • Raman and LIBS spectrographic instrumentation providing quantification of mineral and elemental composition information of the soil at close to grain scale. This includes the capability to detect (and measure abundance of) crystalline and adsorbed volatile phases, from their Raman signature. The LIBS equipment will also allow chemical

  5. Lunar Geoscience: Key Questions for Future Lunar Exploration (United States)

    Head, James


    Lunar Geoscience: Key Questions for Future Lunar Exploration James W. Head, Department of Geological Sciences, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912 USA. (Invited paper/solicited talk for EGU 2014 PS2.3 Lunar session, Bernard H. Foing, Convener EGU PS2.3) The last several decades of intensive robotic exploration of the Moon has built on early Apollo and Luna exploration to provide fundamental knowledge of Earth's satellite and an excellent perspective on the most well-documented planetary body other than Earth. This new planetological perspective has raised substantial new questions about the nature of the origin of the Moon, its early differentiation and bombardment history, its internal thermal evolution, the production of its secondary crust as exemplified by the lunar maria, and tertiary crust as potentially seen in steep-sided domes and impact melt differentiates, the abundance of interior volatiles and their role in volcanic eruptions, and the abundance of surface volatiles and their concentration in polar regions. On the basis of this new information, a series of specific outstanding geoscience questions can be identified that can serve as guides for future human and robotic exploration. These include: 1) What is the nature and abundance of impact melt seas and what rock types do they produce upon differentiation and solidification? 2) Where are lunar mantle samples located on the lunar surface and what processes are responsible for placing them there? 3) What processes are responsible for producing the silica-rich viscous domes, such as those seen at Gruithuisen? 4) What are the volatile species involved in the emplacement of lunar pyroclastic deposits and what clues do they provide about deep magmatic volatiles and shallow volatile formation processes? 5) How do we account for the differing characteristics of regional dark mantling pyroclastic deposits? 6) When did mare basalt volcanism begin (earliest cryptmaria) and how and where is it manifested? 7

  6. Vena porta thrombosis in patient with inherited factor VII deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klovaite, Jolanta; Friis-Hansen, Lennart Jan; Larsen, Fin S


    Most clotting factor VII (FVII)-deficient patients suffer from bleeding episodes and occasionally thromboembolic complications after surgical interventions or replacement therapy. However, thromboses without apparent triggering factors may occur as well. We report a case of a pregnant woman...... vein with well expressed portosystemic collaterals, heterozygosity for three common polymorphisms in FVII gene, associated with reduction in plasma FVII levels, and no other factors predisposing to thrombosis....

  7. Early lunar geology and geophysics (United States)

    Garrick-Bethell, Ian


    Despite a number of human and robotic missions to the Moon, there are still important unanswered questions about its early evolution, and how it came to be the object we observe today. Here we use observational, experimental, and theoretical techniques to examine three important events that took place early in lunar history and have left a lasting signature. The first event is the formation of the largest basin on the Moon, the South Pole-Aitken Basin. We develop a systematic method to define the previously unknown boundaries of this degraded structure and quantify its gross shape. We also combine a number of remote sensing data sets to constrain the origin of heat producing elements in its interior. The second event we examine is the evolution of the lunar orbit, and the coupling between the Moon's early geophysical properties and the growth of orbital eccentricity. We use analytical models for tidal deformations and orbit evolution to show that the shape of the Moon suggests its early orbit was highly eccentric. However, we are also able to explain the presently high eccentricity entirely by traditional, secular tidal growth while the early Moon was hot. The third event we examine is the magnetization of lunar samples. We perform extensive paleomagnetic measurements of an ancient, deep-seated lunar sample, and determine that a long-lived magnetic field like that of a core dynamo is the most plausible explanation for its magnetic remanence. In sum, the earliest portion of lunar history has been largely obscured by later geologic events, but a great deal can still be learned from this formative epoch. (Copies available exclusively from MIT Libraries, Rm. 14-0551, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307. Ph. 617-253-5668; Fax 617-253-1690.)


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This is the final report of the work performed under the LANL contract on neutron cross section evaluations for ENDF/B-VII (April 2005-May 2006). The purpose of the contract was to ensure seamless integration of the LANL neutron cross section evaluations in the new ENDF/B-VII library. The following work was performed: (1) LANL evaluated data files submitted for inclusion in ENDF/B-VII were checked and, when necessary, formal formatting errors were corrected. As a consequence, ENDF checking codes, run on all LANL files, do not report any errors that would rise concern. (2) LANL dosimetry evaluations for {sup 191}Ir and {sup 193}Ir were completed to match ENDF requirements for the general purpose library suitable for transport calculations. A set of covariances for both isotopes is included in the ENDF files. (3) Library of fission products was assembled and successfully tested with ENDF checking codes, processed with NJOY-99.125 and simple MCNP calculations. (4) KALMAN code has been integrated with the EMPIRE system to allow estimation of covariances based on the combination of measurements and model calculations. Covariances were produced for 155,157-Gd and also for 6 remaining isotopes of Gd.

  9. Design and Construction of Manned Lunar Base (United States)

    Li, Zhijie


    Building manned lunar base is one of the core aims of human lunar exploration project, which is also an important way to carry out the exploitation and utilization of lunar in situ resources. The most important part of manned lunar base is the design and construction of living habitation and many factors should be considered including science objective and site selection. Through investigating and research, the scientific goals of manned lunar base should be status and characteristics ascertainment of lunar available in situ resources, then developing necessary scientific experiments and utilization of lunar in situ resources by using special environment conditions of lunar surface. The site selection strategy of manned lunar base should rely on scientific goals according to special lunar surface environment and engineering capacity constraints, meanwhile, consulting the landing sites of foreign unmanned and manned lunar exploration, and choosing different typical regions of lunar surface and analyzing the landform and physiognomy, reachability, thermal environment, sunlight condition, micro meteoroids protection and utilization of in situ resources, after these steps, a logical lunar living habitation site should be confirmed. This paper brings out and compares three kinds of configurations with fabricating processes of manned lunar base, including rigid module, flexible and construction module manned lunar base. 1.The rigid habitation module is usually made by metal materials. The design and fabrication may consult the experience of space station, hence with mature technique. Because this configuration cannot be folded or deployed, which not only afford limit working and living room for astronauts, but also needs repetitious cargo transit between earth and moon for lunar base extending. 2. The flexible module habitation can be folded in fairing while launching. When deploying on moon, the configuration can be inflatable or mechanically-deployed, which means under

  10. The ESA Lunar Lander and the search for Lunar Volatiles (United States)

    Morse, A. D.; Barber, S. J.; Pillinger, J. M.; Sheridan, S.; Wright, I. P.; Gibson, E. K.; Merrifield, J. A.; Waltham, N. R.; Waugh, L. J.; Pillinger, C. T.


    Following the Apollo era the moon was considered a volatile poor body. Samples collected from the Apollo missions contained only ppm levels of water formed by the interaction of the solar wind with the lunar regolith [1]. However more recent orbiter observations have indicated that water may exist as water ice in cold polar regions buried within craters at concentrations of a few wt. % [2]. Infrared images from M3 on Chandrayaan-1 have been interpreted as showing the presence of hydrated surface minerals with the ongoing hydroxyl/water process feeding cold polar traps. This has been supported by observation of ephemeral features termed "space dew" [3]. Meanwhile laboratory studies indicate that water could be present in appreciable quantities in lunar rocks [4] and could also have a cometary source [5]. The presence of sufficient quantities of volatiles could provide a resource which would simplify logistics for long term lunar missions. The European Space Agency (ESA's Directorate of Human Spaceflight and Operations) have provisionally scheduled a robotic mission to demonstrate key technologies to enable later human exploration. Planned for launch in 2018, the primary aim is for precise automated landing, with hazard avoidance, in zones which are almost constantly illuminated (e.g. at the edge of the Shackleton crater at the lunar south pole). These regions would enable the solar powered Lander to survive for long periods > 6 months, but require accurate navigation to within 200m. Although landing in an illuminated area, these regions are close to permanently shadowed volatile rich regions and the analysis of volatiles is a major science objective of the mission. The straw man payload includes provision for a Lunar Volatile and Resources Analysis Package (LVRAP). The authors have been commissioned by ESA to conduct an evaluation of possible technologies to be included in L-VRAP which can be included within the Lander payload. Scientific aims are to demonstrate the

  11. Global lunar-surface mapping experiment using the Lunar Imager/Spectrometer on SELENE

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Haruyama, Junichi; Matsunaga, Tsuneo; Ohtake, Makiko; Morota, Tomokatsu; Honda, Chikatoshi; Yokota, Yasuhiro; Torii, Masaya; Ogawa, Yoshiko


    .... Japan will launch the lunar polar orbiter SELENE (Kaguya) (Kato et al., 2007) in 2007 as the first mission of the Japanese long-term lunar exploration program and acquire data for scientific knowledge and possible utilization of the Moon...

  12. Fundamental Problems of Lunar Research, Technical Solutions, and Priority Lunar Regions for Research (United States)

    Ivanov, M. A.; Basilevsky, A. T.; Bricheva, S. S.; Guseva, E. N.; Demidov, N. E.; Zakharova, M.; Krasil'nikov, S. S.


    In this article, we discuss four fundamental scientific problems of lunar research: (1) lunar chronology, (2) the internal structure of the Moon, (3) the lunar polar regions, and (4) lunar volcanism. After formulating the scientific problems and their components, we proceed to outlining a list of technical solutions and priority lunar regions for research. Solving the listed problems requires investigations on the lunar surface using lunar rovers, which can deliver a set of analytical equipment to places where geological conditions are known from a detailed analysis of orbital information. The most critical research methods, which can answer some of the key questions, are analysis of local geological conditions from panoramic photographs, determination of the chemical, isotopic, and mineral composition of the soil, and deep seismic sounding. A preliminary list is given of lunar regions with high scientific priority.

  13. Various problems in lunar habitat construction scenarios (United States)

    Nitta, Keiji; Ohtsubo, Koji; Oguchi, Mitsuo; Ohya, Haruhiko; Kanbe, Seiichiro; Ashida, Akira; Sano, Kenichi


    Many papers describing the lunar base construction have been published previously. Lunar base has been considered to be a useful facility to conduct future scientific programs and to get new nuclear energy resource, namely 3He, for defending the environmental collapse on Earth and also to develop lunar resources such as oxygen and nitrogen for extending human activities in space more economically. The scale of the lunar base and the construction methods adopted are determined by the scenario of a lunar utilization program but constrained by the availability of the established space transportation technologies. As indicated in the scenarios described in papers regarding lunar base construction, the first steps of lunar missions are the investigation of lunar itself for conducting scientific research and for surveying the lunar base construction sites, the second steps are the outpost construction for conducting man-tended missions, for more precise scientific research and studying the lunar base construction methods, and third steps are the construction of a permanent base and the expansion of this lunar base for exploiting lunar resources. The missions within the first and second steps are all possible using the ferry (OTV) similar to the service and command modules of Apollo Spacecraft because all necessary weights to be landed on the lunar surface for these missions seem to be under the equivalent weight of the Apollo Lunar Lander. On the other hand, the permanent facilities constructed on the lunar surface in the third step requires larger quantities of construction materials to be transported from Earth, and a new ferry (advanced OTV) having higher transportation ability, at least above 6 times, compared with Apollo Service and Command Modules, are to be developed. The largest problems in the permament lunar base construction are related to the food production facilities, 30-40 m 2 plant cultivation area per person are required for providing the nutrition

  14. Lunar Cold Trap Contamination by Landing Vehicles (United States)

    Shipley, Scott T.; Metzger, Philip T.; Lane, John E.


    Tools have been developed to model and simulate the effects of lunar landing vehicles on the lunar environment (Metzger, 2011), mostly addressing the effects of regolith erosion by rocket plumes and the fate of the ejected lunar soil particles (Metzger, 2010). These tools are being applied at KSC to predict ejecta from the upcoming Google Lunar X-Prize Landers and how they may damage the historic Apollo landing sites. The emerging interest in lunar mining poses a threat of contamination to pristine craters at the lunar poles, which act as "cold traps" for water and may harbor other valuable minerals Crider and Vondrak (2002). The KSC Granular Mechanics and Regolith Operations Lab tools have been expanded to address the probability for contamination of these pristine "cold trap" craters.

  15. A lunar dust simulant: CLDS-i (United States)

    Tang, Hong; Li, Xiongyao; Zhang, Sensen; Wang, Shijie; Liu, Jianzhong; Li, Shijie; Li, Yang; Wu, Yanxue


    Lunar dust can make serious damage to the spacecrafts, space suits, and health of astronauts, which is one of the most important problems faced in lunar exploration. In the case of rare lunar dust sample, CLDS-i with high similarity to the real lunar dust is an important objective for studying dust protection and dust toxicity. The CLDS-i developed by the Institute of Geochemistry Chinese Academy Sciences contains ∼75 vol% glass and a little nanophase metal iron (np-Fe0), and with a median particle size about 500 nm. The CLDS-i particles also have complicated shape and sharp edges. These properties are similar to those of lunar dust, and make the CLDS-i can be applied to many fields such as the scientific researches, the treatment technology and toxicological study of lunar dust.

  16. Lunar domes properties and formation processes

    CERN Document Server

    Lena, Raffaello; Phillips, Jim; Chiocchetta, Maria Teresa


    Lunar domes are structures of volcanic origin which are usually difficult to observe due to their low heights. The Lunar Domes Handbook is a reference work on these elusive features. It provides a collection of images for a large number of lunar domes, including telescopic images acquired with advanced but still moderately intricate amateur equipment as well as recent orbital spacecraft images. Different methods for determining the morphometric properties of lunar domes (diameter, height, flank slope, edifice volume) from image data or orbital topographic data are discussed. Additionally, multispectral and hyperspectral image data are examined, providing insights into the composition of the dome material. Several classification schemes for lunar domes are described, including an approach based on the determined morphometric quantities and spectral analyses. Furthermore, the book provides a description of geophysical models of lunar domes, which yield information about the properties of the lava from which the...

  17. The role of Title VII funding in academic general pediatrics fellowships and leadership. (United States)

    DeWitt, Thomas G; Cheng, Tina L


    Since 1979, the Health Resources and Services Administration, Bureau of Health Professionals Title VII, Section 747 (Title VII) programs have been critical to both fellowship and leadership training in academic general pediatrics. Title VII-funded faculty development programs and targeted contract funding have played an important role in training pediatric academic generalist faculty, supporting individual fellowship programs, defining the core elements of such programs, and expanding faculty development to include leadership training. As the major continuing source of external funding for these programs, Title VII has produced documented successful outcomes in all areas in terms of both numbers and accomplishments of trainees. Title VII-funded fellows, as well as the leaders trained, have formed and extended the field of general pediatrics, ultimately improving the health of children, especially in underserved and vulnerable populations.This article is part of a theme issue of Academic Medicine on the Title VII health professions training programs.

  18. Anticancer Activity of the Antimicrobial Peptide Scolopendrasin VII Derived from the Centipede, Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans. (United States)

    Lee, Joon Ha; Kim, In-Woo; Kim, Sang-Hee; Kim, Mi-Ae; Yun, Eun-Young; Nam, Sung-Hee; Ahn, Mi-Young; Kang, Dongchul; Hwang, Jae Sam


    Previously, we performed de novo RNA sequencing of Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans using high-throughput sequencing technology and identified several antimicrobial peptide candidates. Among them, a cationic antimicrobial peptide, scolopendrasin VII, was selected based on its physicochemical properties, such as length, charge, and isoelectric point. Here, we assessed the anticancer activities of scolopendrasin VII against U937 and Jurkat leukemia cell lines. The results showed that scolopendrasin VII decreased the viability of the leukemia cells in MTS assays. Furthermore, flow cytometric analysis and acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining revealed that scolopendrasin VII induced necrosis in the leukemia cells. Scolopendrasin VII-induced necrosis was mediated by specific interaction with phosphatidylserine, which is enriched in the membrane of cancer cells. Taken together, these data indicated that scolopendrasin VII induced necrotic cell death in leukemia cells, probably through interaction with phosphatidylserine. The results provide a useful anticancer peptide candidate and an efficient strategy for new anticancer peptide development.

  19. Diagnostic pitfalls in a young Romanian ranger with an acute psychotic episode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagy EE


    Full Text Available Elöd Ernö Nagy,1,2 Attila Rácz,3 Edit Urbán,4 Gabriella Terhes,4 Timea Berki,5 Emöke Horváth,6 Anca M Georgescu,7 Iringó E Zaharia-Kézdi71Department of Pharmaceutical Biochemistry, University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Târgu-Mureş, 2Laboratory of Medical Analysis, Mures Clinical County Hospital, 3II. Psychiatry Clinic, Mures Clinical County Hospital, Târgu Mureş, Romania; 4Faculty of Medicine, Institute of Clinical Microbiology, University of Szeged, Szeged, 5Faculty of Medicine, Institute of Immunology and Biotechnology, University of Pécs, Pécs, Hungary; 6Department of Pathology, 7I. Clinic of Infectious Disease, University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Târgu Mureş, RomaniaAbstract: The identification and distinction of the pathological conditions underlying acute psychosis are often challenging. We present the case of a 35-year-old ranger who had no history of acute or chronic infectious disease or any previous neuropsychiatric symptoms. He arrived at the Psychiatry Clinic and was admitted as an emergency case, displaying bizarre behavior, hallucinations, paranoid ideation, and delusional faults. These symptoms had first appeared 7 days earlier. An objective examination revealed abnormalities of behavior, anxiety, visual hallucinations, choreiform, and tic-like facial movements. After the administration of neuroleptic and antidepressant treatment, he showed an initial improvement, but on day 10 entered into a severe catatonic state with signs of meningeal irritation and was transferred to the intensive care unit. An electroencephalogram showed diffuse irritative changes, raising the possibility of encephalitis. Taking into consideration the overt occupational risk, Borrelia antibody tests were prescribed and highly positive immunoglobulin (IgM and IgG titers were obtained from serum, along with IgG and antibody index positivity in cerebrospinal fluid. In parallel, anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antibodies and a whole

  20. Astronaut Edwin Aldrin walks on lunar surface near leg of Lunar Module (United States)


    Astronaut Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., lunar module pilot, walks on the Moon near a leg of the Lunar Module during Apollo 11 extravehicular activity. Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, Apollo 11 commander, took this photograph with a 70mm lunar surface camera. The astronauts footprints are clearly visible in the foreground.

  1. Infrared Lunar Laser Ranging at Calern : Impact on Lunar Dynamics (United States)

    Viswanathan, Vishnu; Fienga, Agnes; Manche, Herve; Gastineau, Mickael; Courde, Clement; Torre, Jean Marie; Exertier, Pierre; Laskar, Jacques


    Introduction: Since 2015, in addition to the traditional green (532nm), infrared (1064nm) has been the preferred wavelength for lunar laser ranging at the Calern lunar laser ranging (LLR) site in France. Due to the better atmospheric transmission of IR with respect to Green, nearly 3 times the number of normal points have been obtained in IR than in Green [1]. Dataset: In our study, in addition to the historical data obtained from various other LLR sites, we include the recent IR normal points obtained from Calern over the 1 year time span (2015-2016), constituting about 4.2% of data spread over 46 years of LLR. Near even distribution of data provided by IR on both the spatial and temporal domain, helps us to improve constraints on the internal structure of the Moon modeled within the planetary ephemeris : INPOP [2]. Data reduction: IERS recommended models have been used in the data reduction software GINS (GRGS,CNES) [3]. Constraints provided by GRAIL [4], on the Lunar gravitational potential and Love numbers have been taken into account in the least-square fit procedure. Earth orientation parameters from KEOF series have been used as per a recent study [5]. Results: New estimates on the dynamical parameters of the lunar core will be presented. Acknowledgements: We thank the lunar laser ranging observers at Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur, France, McDonald Observatory, Texas, Haleakala Observatory, Hawaii, and Apache Point Observatory in New Mexico for providing LLR observations that made this study possible. The research described in this abstract was carried out at Geoazur-CNRS, France, as a part of a PhD thesis funded by Observatoire de Paris and French Ministry of Education and Research. References: [1] Clement C. et al. (2016) submitted to A&A [2] Fienga A. et al. (2015) Celest Mech Dyn Astr, 123: 325. doi:10.1007/s10569-015-9639-y [3] Viswanathan V. et al. (2015) EGU, Abstract 18, 13995 [4] Konopliv A. S. et al. (2013) J. Geophys. Res. Planets, 118, 1415

  2. The Lunar Prospector Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (United States)

    Feldman, W. C.; Binder, A. B.; Hubbard, G. S.; McMurry, R. E., Jr.; Miller, M. C.; Prettyman, T. H.


    The third mission in the NASA Discovery series is Lunar Prospector. It is scheduled for launch on 9 October, 1997 into a circular, 100 km altitude lunar polar orbit. The nominal mission lifetime is one year. One of the five components of its experimental payload is a gamma-ray spectrometer (GRS), whose primary scientific objective is to provide global maps of the lunar elemental composition to depths of 20 cm. Scientifically discriminating results are expected for Fe, Ti, U, Th, K, Si, O, and perhaps Al, Ca, and Mg. In combination with a separate neutron spectrometer, also included on Lunar Prospector, a secondary objective of GRS is to search for, and determine the abundance of water ice to depths of 50 cm within permanently shaded craters at the lunar poles. Both experiments will also be used to search for, and determine the abundance of hydrogen implanted by the solar wind into lunar regolith to depths of 50 cm, thereby providing maps of regolith maturity. All Lunar Prospector experiments will be mounted at the ends of three, 1.9-m long booms that define the spin-plane of the satellite. The Lunar Prospector spin axis will be perpendicular to the lunar orbital plane and be flipped by 180deg half way through the mission.

  3. Production of Synthetic Lunar Simulants Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Zybek Advanced Products has proven the ability to produce industrial quantities of lunar simulant materials, including glass, agglutinate and melt breccias. These...

  4. Electrical power integration for lunar operations (United States)

    Woodcock, Gordon


    Electrical power for future lunar operations is expected to range from a few kilowatts for an early human outpost to many megawatts for industrial operations in the 21st century. All electrical power must be imported as chemical, solar, nuclear, or directed energy. The slow rotation of the Moon and consequent long lunar night impose severe mass penalties on solar systems needing night delivery from storage. The cost of power depends on the cost of the power systems the cost of its transportation to the Moon, operating cost, and, of course, the life of the power system. The economic feasibility of some proposed lunar ventures depends in part on the cost of power. This paper explores power integration issues, costs, and affordability in the context of the following representative lunar ventures: (1) early human outpost (10 kWe); (2) early permanent lunar base, including experimental ISMU activities (100 kWe); (3) lunar oxygen production serving an evolved lunar base (500 kWe); (4) lunar base production of specialized high-value products for use on Earth (5 kWe); and (5) lunar mining and production of helium-3 (500 kWe). The schema of the paper is to project likely costs of power alternatives (including integration factors) in these power ranges, to select the most economic, to determine power cost contribution to the product or activities, to estimate whether the power cost is economically acceptable, and, finally, to offer suggestions for reaching acceptability where cost problems exist.

  5. Lunar material resources: An overview (United States)

    Carter, James L.


    The analysis of returned lunar samples and a comparison of the physical and chemical processes operating on the Moon and on the Earth provide a basis for predicting both the possible types of material resources (especially minerals and rocks) and the physical characteristics of ore deposits potentially available on the Moon. The lack of free water on the Moon eliminates the classes of ore deposits that are most exploitable on Earth; namely, (1) hydrothermal, (2) secondary mobilization and enrichment, (3) precipitation from a body of water, and (4) placer. The types of lunar materials available for exploitation are whole rocks and their contained minerals, regolith, fumarolic and vapor deposits, and nonlunar materials, including solar wind implantations. Early exploitation of lunar material resources will be primarily the use of regolith materials for bulk shielding; the extraction from regolith fines of igneous minerals such as plagioclase feldspars and ilmenite for the production of oxygen, structural metals, and water; and possibly the separation from regolith fines of solar-wind-implanted volatiles. The only element, compound, or mineral, that by itself has been identified as having the economic potential for mining, processing, and return to Earth is helium-3.

  6. Lunar Landing Operational Risk Model (United States)

    Mattenberger, Chris; Putney, Blake; Rust, Randy; Derkowski, Brian


    Characterizing the risk of spacecraft goes beyond simply modeling equipment reliability. Some portions of the mission require complex interactions between system elements that can lead to failure without an actual hardware fault. Landing risk is currently the least characterized aspect of the Altair lunar lander and appears to result from complex temporal interactions between pilot, sensors, surface characteristics and vehicle capabilities rather than hardware failures. The Lunar Landing Operational Risk Model (LLORM) seeks to provide rapid and flexible quantitative insight into the risks driving the landing event and to gauge sensitivities of the vehicle to changes in system configuration and mission operations. The LLORM takes a Monte Carlo based approach to estimate the operational risk of the Lunar Landing Event and calculates estimates of the risk of Loss of Mission (LOM) - Abort Required and is Successful, Loss of Crew (LOC) - Vehicle Crashes or Cannot Reach Orbit, and Success. The LLORM is meant to be used during the conceptual design phase to inform decision makers transparently of the reliability impacts of design decisions, to identify areas of the design which may require additional robustness, and to aid in the development and flow-down of requirements.

  7. Development of a lunar infrastructure (United States)

    Burke, J. D.

    If humans are to reside continuously and productively on the Moon, they must be surrounded and supported there by an infrastructure having some attributes of the support systems that have made advanced civilization possible on Earth. Building this lunar infrastructure will, in a sense, be an investment. Creating it will require large resources from Earth, but once it exists it can do much to limit the further demands of a lunar base for Earthside support. What is needed for a viable lunar infrastructure? This question can be approached from two directions. The first is to examine history, which is essentially a record of growing information structures among humans on Earth (tribes, agriculture, specialization of work, education, ethics, arts and sciences, cities and states, technology). The second approach is much less secure but may provide useful insights: it is to examine the minimal needs of a small human community - not just for physical survival but for a stable existence with a net product output. This paper presents a summary, based on present knowledge of the Moon and of the likely functions of a human community there, of some of these infrastructure requirements, and also discusses possible ways to proceed toward meeting early infrastructure needs.

  8. Uudised : Baltimaade suurim, XII "Jazzkaar". VII rahvusvaheline koorifestival. Leipzigis improviseeriti edukalt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae


    23.-29. apr. toimuvast festivalist "Jazzkaar 2001". VII rahvusvahelisest koorifestivalist "Tallinn "2001". 6. ja 7. apr. Leipzigis toimunud V rahvusvahelisest improvisatsioonikonkursist, kus osalesid ka eesti interpreedid

  9. Immune reactivity to type VII collagen: implications for gene therapy of recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa. (United States)

    Pendaries, V; Gasc, G; Titeux, M; Leroux, C; Vitezica, Z G; Mejía, J E; Décha, A; Loiseau, P; Bodemer, C; Prost-Squarcioni, C; Hovnanian, A


    Recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (RDEB) is a severe genodermatosis caused by loss-of-function mutations in COL7A1 encoding type VII collagen, the component of anchoring fibrils. As exogenous type VII collagen may elicit a deleterious immune response in RDEB patients during upcoming clinical trials of gene therapies or protein replacement therapies, we developed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISPOT) assays to analyze B- and T-cell responses, to the full-length type VII collagen. The ELISA was highly sensitive and specific when tested against sera from 41 patients with epidermolysis bullosa acquisita (EBA), and the IFN-gamma ELISPOT detected a cellular response that correlated with ongoing EBA manifestations. Both tests were next applied to assess the risk of an immune response to type VII collagen in seven RDEB patients with a range of type VII collagen expression profiles. Immune responses against type VII collagen were dependent on the expression of type VII collagen protein, and consequently on the nature and position of the respective COL7A1 mutations. These immunologic tests will be helpful for the selection of RDEB patients for future clinical trials aiming at restoring type VII collagen expression, and in monitoring their immune response to type VII collagen after treatment.

  10. Lithium preferentially inhibits adenylyl cyclase V and VII isoforms. (United States)

    Mann, Liad; Heldman, Eliahu; Shaltiel, Galit; Belmaker, R H; Agam, Galila


    Lithium ions' inhibition of adenylyl cyclase (AC) has not been previously studied for the newly discovered AC isoforms. COS7 cells were transfected with each of the nine membrane-bound AC isoforms cDNAs with or without D1- or D2-dopamine receptor cDNA. AC activity was measured as [3H]cAMP accumulation in cells pre-incubated with [3H]adenine followed by incubation with phosphodiesterase inhibitors together with either the D1 agonist SKF-82958 alone, or forskolin, in the presence or absence of the D2 agonist quinpirole. At 1 mm or 2 mm lithium inhibited only AC-V activity when the enzyme was stimulated by forskolin, a direct activator of AC. Lithium inhibited AC-V (by 50%), AC-VII (by 40%) and AC-II (by 25%) when stimulated via the D1 receptors, but did not affect the Ca2+-activated isoforms when stimulated by the Ca2+ ionophore A23187. Quinpirole inhibits AC via the Gi protein. Lithium did not affect quinpirole-inhibited FSK-activated AC-V activity nor did it affect superactivated AC-V or AC-I following the removal of quinpirole. The data suggest interference of lithium with transduction pathways mediated via AC-V or AC-VII; only the active conformation of these AC isoforms is inhibited by lithium; the inhibitory effect of lithium is abolished when the enzyme is superactivated. The marked inhibition of AC-V and AC-VII by lithium suggests that these two isoforms may be involved in mediating the mood-stabilizing effect of lithium.

  11. Abnormal deposition of type VII collagen in Kindler syndrome. (United States)

    Wiebe, C B; Larjava, H S


    Kindler syndrome is an extremely rare genetic disorder with features of epidermolysis bullosa and poikiloderma congenitale. Approximately 70 cases have been documented in the past 50 years, but only a few investigations of the basement membrane components have been done on these patients. The aim of this study was to examine the components of the basement membrane zone in search of the pathobiological defect(s) responsible for the clinical findings from a female 16-year-old patient diagnosed with Kindler syndrome. This patient also suffered from advanced early-onset periodontal disease. Biopsies were taken from inflamed gingiva and noninflamed oral mucosa as part of periodontal treatment. The basement membrane zone was examined using immunofluorescence microscopy to bullous pemphigoid antigens 1 and 2, collagen types IV and VII, laminins-1 and -5, and integrins alpha3beta1 and alpha6beta4. The biopsies studied revealed blistering with trauma above the level of lamina densa based on distribution of type IV collagen and laminin-1 at the blister floor. In the noninflamed mucosa, discontinuous areas of the basement membrane zone were found. Expression of the basement membrane zone components and the integrins studied appeared otherwise normal with the exception of type VII collagen which was found in abnormal locations deep in the connective tissue stroma. Our results suggest that Kindler syndrome is associated with abnormalities in the construction of the basement membrane, especially in the expression of type VII collagen. These alterations are likely to play a role as etiological factors leading to blister formation and early onset periodontal disease.

  12. Pengembangan Vaksin Inaktif Tetelo Genotipe VII Isolat Lokal pada Kondisi Laboratorium. (DEVELOPMENT OF TETELO INACTIVATED VACCINE GENOTYPE VII LOCAL ISOLATE IN LABORATORY CONDITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risa Indriani


    Full Text Available Tetelo/Newcastle disease (ND inactive vaccine of genotipe VII virus local isolate have been developedin laboratory condition and compared with commercial ND vaccine. A total of 200 commercial layer chickenat 4 weeks age were divided into four groups, that were (1 vaccinated with ND genotype VII Indonesia/GTT/11, (2 vaccinated with commercial ND vaccine genotype VII, (3 vaccinated with commercial genotypeVI and (4 unvaccinated as control group. After two weeks post vaccination, 10 chicken from each groupwere sellected randomly and challenged with 105 EID50 per 0,1 mL of ND virus genotype VII Indonesian/GTT/11 by intramuscular. Chicken were observed, and swab were collected from oropharyngeal and cloacaat 2, 5, 7, 12 and 14 days post challenge. The result of this study showed inactived vaccine genotype VIIIndonesia/GTT/11 can induced a good antibody titer response to vaccinated chicken with mean titer 7.30log2 and CI 6.3 to 7.8, while commercial ND vaccine genotipe VII was 5.30 log2 with CI 3.8-6.7, andcommercial genotype VI was 4.8 log2 with CI 4.1-5.4. The level of protection which determined by noclinical signs, mortality and viral shedding showed 100% protection in chicken vaccinated with Indonesia/GTT/11 and commercial genotype VII were 100%, compared with control chicken, and vaccined commercialND vaccine genotype VII, compared with control chicken. While in chicken vaccinated commercial NDvaccine genotype VI showed viral shedding on day two post challenge, but there were no clinical sign andmortality. Based on this results, Indonesia/GTT/11 genotype VII ND vaccine could be used as an alternativeND vaccine to protect chicken from infection of ND virus genotype VII in the field.

  13. Imagining Ferdinand VII, a Catholic and felon King


    Gregorio Alonso


    The public image of King Ferdinand VII (1784-1833) was built through a process of exaltation and sacralization as a result of the Napoleonic invasion of the Iberian Peninsula that started in the fall of 1807. This article tackles the mechanisms put in place in order to achieve such a target. It also unravels the ways in which wide sectors of the Catholic clergy collaborated in the identification of the King’s image with that of the Spanish nation in danger. The text also sheds light on the Am...

  14. Feasibility Study on Lunar and Mars Exploration (United States)

    Mori, Hidehiko; Takazawa, Yoshisada; Kaneko, Yutaka; Kawazoe, Takeshi; Takano, Yutaka; Namura, Eijiro


    This technical memorandum summarizes the results of an in-house study on lunar and Mars drone explorations - observation, landing and mobile explorations and sample returns for lunar and Mars respectively. So far, lunar and planet explorations have been primarily performed by the United States and the Soviet Union. ISAS and ESA have also contributed to some extent. The main purpose has been scientific exploration. There are some arguments that lunar and planet explorations should be performed for scientific purposes and the exploitation of them is not necessary. However, most scientific research involve the existence and survival of humankind, so it is not the fact that they cannot be organized from the side of exploitation. Especially, if NASDA makes approaches to lunar and Mars exploration, it should inevitably embrace exploitation plans. In this preface we provide the outline of lunar and Mars exploitation scenarios set up as a premise of the review on lunar and Mars unmanned exploration plans. Various reviews have been performed on whether the Moon or Mars would allow for human activities or survival. Among them, He mill, the solar powered satellite material mill and construction project of relay station to Mars as well as Mars teraforming plan have important issues. These projects have not yet become feasible because their expected investments are too large to make them practical. However, the present time seems the most appropriate to get with lunar and Mars exploitation projects under international cooperation since the realization of a space station is imminent and the international cooperation is being created with the participation of Russia. The international space station project will be continued until the year 2015. The post project has not yet been decided. Therefore, we expect that Japan would propose two successive projects, one is to construct an orbital service station combining manned abilities of the station and orbital service system and the

  15. Robotic Lunar Landers For Science And Exploration (United States)

    Cohen, B. A.; Bassler, J. A.; Morse, B. J.; Reed, C. L. B.


    NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory have been conducting mission studies and performing risk reduction activities for NASA s robotic lunar lander flight projects. In 2005, the Robotic Lunar Exploration Program Mission #2 (RLEP-2) was selected as an ESMD precursor robotic lander mission to demonstrate precision landing and determine if there was water ice at the lunar poles; however, this project was canceled. Since 2008, the team has been supporting SMD designing small lunar robotic landers for science missions, primarily to establish anchor nodes of the International Lunar Network (ILN), a network of lunar geophysical nodes. Additional mission studies have been conducted to support other objectives of the lunar science community. This paper describes the current status of the MSFC/APL robotic lunar mission studies and risk reduction efforts including high pressure propulsion system testing, structure and mechanism development and testing, long cycle time battery testing, combined GN&C and avionics testing, and two autonomous lander test articles.

  16. Armstrong practices in Lunar Module simulator (United States)


    Neil A. Armstrong, Commander for the Apollo 11 Moon-landing mission, practices for the historic event in a Lunar Module simulator in the Flight Crew Training building at KSC. Accompanying Armstrong on the Moon flight will be Command Module Pilot Michael Collins and Lunar Module Pilot Edwin E. Aldrin Jr.

  17. Nanophase Fe 0 in lunar soils

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The agglutinitic glass is a quenched product of silicate melts, also produced by micrometeorite impacts on lunar soils. Reduction by solar wind hydrogen in agglutinitic melts may have produced immiscible droplets that solidified as globules. The exact mechanism of formation of such Fe0 globules in lunar soils remains ...

  18. International Lunar Network (ILN) Anchor Nodes (United States)

    Cohen, Barbara A.


    This slide presentation reviews the United States' contribution to the International Lunar Network (ILN) project, the Anchor Nodes project. The ILN is an initiative of 9 national space agencies to establish a set of robotic geophysical monitoring stations on the surface of the Moon. The project is aimed at furthering the understanding of the lunar composition, and interior structure.

  19. The radiance of lunar objects near opposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diggelen, Johannes van

    The radiance of lunar objects at phase angles |g| < 5 ° has been measured on plates taken at the Kirkwood and Yerkes Observatories during the lunar eclipse of 18 November 1956. The measurements have been combined on a uniform scale of brightness by comparison with photoelectric determinations of the

  20. Interleukin VII Receptor Gene Polymorphism in Multiple Sclerosis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Ahmadzadeh Raji


    Full Text Available Introduction: Multiple Sclerosis is a chronic disease of central nervous system. Disease is more common in young adults and females and causes neurologic symptoms and signs. Cytokine IL-7 is a 25– kDa glycoprotein that has an important role in Lymphopoiesis. Interleukin VII receptor gene has been identified to be associated with multiple sclerosis, so its assessment is important. Methods: We investigated 60 Iranian patients with clinically definite MS and 60 normal healthy controls with negative family history for MS. After blood sampling, DNA was extracted from the whole blood, then we used 2 sets of primers for promoter and exon 4 of IL-VII gene. These fragments were amplified by PCR technique and early screening was performed by SSCP technic in the presence of control samples. Then different patterns with control samples were sent for DNA sequencing. Results: We observed one SNP in promoter. Most of the alleles of the patients were homozygote. There were two 2 SNPs and two sequence variations in exon 4 as P.H165H and P.V138I, which has been submitted in European Bioinformatics Institute under the access number of FR863587. Conclusion: Further studies on control group will be required to reveal the effects of these SNPs on the ILVII-R α protein and they can probably be useed as a biomarker for early diagnosis of MS.

  1. Characterization of a Myosin VII MyTH/FERM domain (United States)

    Moen, Rebecca J.; Johnsrud, Daniel O.; Thomas, David D.; Titus, Margaret A.


    A group of closely related myosins are characterized by the presence of at least one MyTH/FERM (myosin talin homology 4; band 4.1, ezrin, radixin, moesin) domain in their C-terminal tails. This domain interacts with a variety of binding partners, and mutations in either the MyTH4 or FERM domains of myosin VII and XV result in deafness, highlighting the functional importance of each domain. The N-terminal MyTH/FERM region of Dictyostelium myosin VII (M7) has been isolated as a first step toward gaining insight into the function of this domain and its interaction with binding partners. The M7 MyTH4/FERM domain (MF1) binds to both actin and microtubules in vitro, with dissociation constants of 13.7 and 1.7 μM, respectively. Gel filtration and UV spectroscopy reveal that MF1 exists as a monomer in solution and forms a well-folded, compact conformation with a high degree of secondary structure. These results indicate that MF1 forms an integrated structural domain that serves to couple actin filaments and microtubules in specific regions of the cytoskeleton. PMID:21875595

  2. Mucopolysaccharidosis type VII in a German Shepherd Dog. (United States)

    Silverstein Dombrowski, Deborah C; Carmichael, K Paige; Wang, Ping; O'Malley, Thomas M; Haskins, Mark E; Giger, Urs


    A 12-week-old male German Shepherd Dog was evaluated because of a 3-week history of a progressive inability to ambulate. Clinical and laboratory findings included skeletal deformities, corneal cloudiness, cytoplasmic granules in the neutrophils and lymphocytes of blood and CSF and glycosaminoglycans in a urine sample (detected via a toluidine blue spot test). Enzyme activity and DNA analyses confirmed mucopolysaccharidosis type VII as a result of severe beta-glucuronidase deficiency; this condition had been identified in a mixed-breed dog (likely of German Shepherd Dog descent) that was reported 20 years earlier and caused by the same missense mutation. Because of the progressive nature of this disease, the puppy was euthanatized and all tissues examined contained evidence of lysosomal storage leading to marked cellular distention. Mucopolysaccharidosis type VII is only one of many hereditary lysosomal storage diseases identified in companion animals. It is important that clinicians recognize the typical signs of lysosomal storage diseases and are aware of the cytologic and urinary screening tests for mucopolysaccharidosis disorders. Furthermore, there are specific blood enzyme and DNA-based tests to distinguish the forms of mucopolysaccharidosis in affected and carrier animals.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Arfiyanti


    Full Text Available The kind of this research is classroom action reseach (CAS. This research was conducted to 34 student in the VII.D class of SMP. The aim of this research is to describe understanding concept of set through mind mapping. The data collected is the result of observation, mind mapping and finals tes of the cycle. There are six indicators to decide sub topic, keyword, color design, supporting data and material of sets in assessing mind mapping. The result of mind mapping shows that students can produce picture and write the keywords, Supporting data in the form of notation and Venn diagram. Students comprehended sets concept and finished contextual problem by using Venn diagram. Jenis penelitian ini adalah Penelitian Tindakan Kelas (PTK. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan pada kelas VII. D SMP berjumlah 34 siswa. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mendiskripsikan peningkatkan pemahaman konsep himpunan melalui mind mapping. Data yang dikumpulkan yaitu data observasi, hasil mind mapping dan tes akhir siklus. Penilaian mind mapping ada enam indikator yaitu menentukan sub topik, menentukan cabang sub topik, kata kunci, desain warna, data pendukung, dan materi himpunan. Berdasarkan hasil mind mapping menunjukkan siswa telah menghasilkan gambar dengan menuliskan kata kunci, data pendukung berupa notasi dan diagram Venn. Siswa memahami konsep himpunan dan menyelesaikan masalah kontekstual dengan diagram Venn.

  4. The Lunar Mapping and Modeling Project (United States)

    Noble, S. K.; Nall, M. E.; French, R. A.; Muery, K. G.


    The Lunar Mapping and Modeling Project (LMMP) has been created to manage the development of a suite of lunar mapping and modeling products that support the Constellation Program (CxP) and other lunar exploration activities, including the planning, design, development, test and operations associated with lunar sortie missions, crewed and robotic operations on the surface, and the establishment of a lunar outpost. The information provided through LMMP will assist CxP in: planning tasks in the areas of landing site evaluation and selection, design and placement of landers and other stationary assets, design of rovers and other mobile assets, developing terrain-relative navigation (TRN) capabilities, and assessment and planning of science traverses. The project draws on expertise from several NASA and non-NASA organizations (MSFC, ARC, GSFC, JPL, CRREL - US Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, and the USGS). LMMP will utilize data predominately from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, but also historical and international lunar mission data (e.g. Apollo, Lunar Orbiter, Kaguya, Chandrayaan-1), as available and appropriate, to meet Constellation’s data needs. LMMP will provide access to this data through a single intuitive and easy to use NASA portal that transparently accesses appropriately sanctioned portions of the widely dispersed and distributed collections of lunar data, products and tools. Two visualization systems are being developed, a web-based system called Lunar Mapper, and a desktop client, ILIADS, which will be downloadable from the LMMP portal. LMMP will provide such products as local and regional imagery and DEMs, hazard assessment maps, lighting and gravity models, and resource maps. We are working closely with the LRO team to prevent duplication of efforts and to ensure the highest quality data products. While Constellation is our primary customer, LMMP is striving to be as useful as possible to the lunar science community, the lunar

  5. A long-lived lunar core dynamo. (United States)

    Shea, Erin K; Weiss, Benjamin P; Cassata, William S; Shuster, David L; Tikoo, Sonia M; Gattacceca, Jérôme; Grove, Timothy L; Fuller, Michael D


    Paleomagnetic measurements indicate that a core dynamo probably existed on the Moon 4.2 billion years ago. However, the subsequent history of the lunar core dynamo is unknown. Here we report paleomagnetic, petrologic, and (40)Ar/(39)Ar thermochronometry measurements on the 3.7-billion-year-old mare basalt sample 10020. This sample contains a high-coercivity magnetization acquired in a stable field of at least ~12 microteslas. These data extend the known lifetime of the lunar dynamo by 500 million years. Such a long-lived lunar dynamo probably required a power source other than thermochemical convection from secular cooling of the lunar interior. The inferred strong intensity of the lunar paleofield presents a challenge to current dynamo theory.

  6. Transfer of terrestrial technology for lunar mining (United States)

    Hall, Robert A.; Green, Patricia A.

    The functions, operational procedures, and major items of equipment that comprise the terrestrial mining process are characterized. These data are used to synthesize a similar activity on the lunar surface. Functions, operations, and types of equipment that can be suitably transferred to lunar operation are identified. Shortfalls, enhancements, and technology development needs are described. The lunar mining process and what is required to adapt terrestrial equipment are highlighted. It is concluded that translation of terrestrial mining equipment and operational processes to perform similar functions on the lunar surface is practical. Adequate attention must be given to the harsh environment and logistical constraints of the lunar setting. By using earth-based equipment as a forcing function, near- and long-term benefits are derived (i.e., improved terrestrial mining in the near term vis-a-vis commercial production of helium-3 in the long term.

  7. Global small-scale lunar cartography (United States)

    Lipskiy, Y. N.; Pskovskiy, Y. P.; Rodionova, Z. F.; Shevchenko, V. V.; Chikmachev, V. I.; Volchkova, L. I.


    The primary sources information for compiling this map were the photographs of the visible hemisphere obtained by earth-based observatories, the Luna 3 and Zond 3 pictures, and a small number of Lunar Orbiter pictures. The primary content of the complete lunar map is the surface relief and its tonal characteristics. In preparing the map, particular attention was devoted to the variety of lunar relief forms. The color spectrum of the map was selected not only for the natural coloring of the lunar surface, but also with the objective of achieving maximum expressiveness. A lunar globe to scale 1:10 million was prepared along with the preparation of the map. The scale of the globe, half that of the map, led to some selection and generalization of the relief forms. The globe permits maintaining simultaneously geometric similarity of contours, exact proportions of areas, and identical scales in all directions. The globe was prepared in both the Latin and Russian languages.

  8. Imagining Ferdinand VII, a Catholic and felon King | Imaginando a Fernando VII, rey católico y felón

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gregorio Alonso


    The public image of King Ferdinand VII (1784-1833) was built through a process of exaltation and sacralization as a result of the Napoleonic invasion of the Iberian Peninsula that started in the fall of 1807...

  9. Superconductor lunar telescopes --Abstract only (United States)

    Chen, P. C.; Pitts, R.; Shore, S.; Oliversen, R.; Stolarik, J.; Segal, K.; Hojaji, H.


    We propose a new type of telescope designed specifically for the lunar environment of high vacuum and low temperature. Large area UV-Visible-IR telescope arrays can be built with ultra-light-weight replica optics. High T(sub c) superconductors provide support, steering, and positioning. Advantages of this approach are light-weight payload compatible with existing launch vehicles, configurable large area optical arrays, no excavation or heavy construction, and frictionless electronically controlled mechanisms. We have built a prototype and will be demonstarting some of its working characteristics.

  10. Mineral chemistry of lunar samples. (United States)

    Keil, K; Prinz, M; Bunch, T E


    Glass spherules, glass fragments, augite, ferroaugite, titanaugite, pyroxmangite, pigeonite, hypersthene, plagioclase, potassium feldspar, maskelynite, olivine, silica, ilmenite, TiO(2), "ferropseudobrookite," spinel, ulvöspinel, native iron, nickel-iron, troilite, and chlorapatite were analyzed with the electron microprobe. There are no indications of large-scale chemical differentiation, chemical weathering, or hydrous minerals. Contributions of meteoritic material to lunar surface rocks are small. Rocks with igneous textures originated from a melt that crystallized at or near the surface, and oxygen fugacities have been low. Shock features indicate that at least some surface material is impact-produced.

  11. A Correlation Study of the Minnesota Teacher Attitude Inventory and Kerlinger's ES-VII. (United States)

    Padgett, Harry G.

    The Minnesota Teacher Attitude Inventory (MTAI) and Kerlinger's ES-VII are instruments which examine both the individual's general educational philosophy and his ideas of practice. A study was designed to investigate (1) the common variance in the Difference score of the 150-item MTAI and the D score of Kerlinger's 30-item ES-VII with respect to…

  12. Aristóteles y las series causales infinitas en Física VII y VIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Ross


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to show that we have at least two different arguments that prove the First Motor's existence. Even though there are coincidences between Physics VII 1 and VIII 5, their arguments are not identical. Physics VII argue the impossibility of an infinite movement in a finite time and VIII 5 the necessity of a "principal" cause.

  13. 20 CFR Appendix Vii to Subpart C... - “Old-Law” Contribution and Benefit Base (United States)


    ... Appendix VII to Subpart C of Part 404 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Computing Primary Insurance Amounts Pt. 404, Subpt. C, App. VII... appendix IV). This is the contribution and benefit base that would have been effective under the Social...

  14. Underuse of Title VII Funding for Indian Education in Arizona, Nevada, and Utah (United States)

    West Comprehensive Center at WestEd, 2015


    Title VII provides funding for the education of American Indian/Alaska Native students based on a formula grant available to school districts, charter schools, and local education agencies (LEAs). This report explores why some eligible schools and districts do not apply for federal Title VII, potentially resulting in American Indian/Alaska Native…

  15. 77 FR 5396 - Recordkeeping and Reporting Requirements Under Title VII, the ADA, and GINA (United States)


    ... GINA protects job applicants, current and former employees, labor union members, and apprentices and... more employees, employment agencies, labor unions, and joint labor-management training programs, as... recordkeeping requirements under title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (Title VII) and the Americans with...

  16. Visual lunar and planetary astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Abel, Paul G


    With the advent of CCDs and webcams, the focus of amateur astronomy has to some extent shifted from science to art. The object of many amateur astronomers is now to produce “stunning images” that, although beautiful, are not intended to have scientific merit. Paul Abel has been addressing this issue by promoting visual astronomy wherever possible – at talks to astronomical societies, in articles for popular science magazines, and on BBC TV’s The Sky at Night.   Visual Lunar and Planetary Astronomy is a comprehensive modern treatment of visual lunar and planetary astronomy, showing that even in the age of space telescopes and interplanetary probes it is still possible to contribute scientifically with no more than a moderately priced commercially made astronomical telescope.   It is believed that imaging and photography is somehow more objective and more accurate than the eye, and this has led to a peculiar “crisis of faith” in the human visual system and its amazing processing power. But by anal...

  17. New Technology Lunar Astronomy Mission (United States)

    Chen, P. C.; Oliversen, R. J.; Barry, R. K.; Romeo, R.; Pitts, R.; Ma, K. B.


    A scientifically productive Moon-based observatory can be established in the near term (3-5 years) by robotic spacecraft. Such a project is affordable even taking into account NASA's currently very tight budget. In fact the estimated cost of a lunar telescope is sufficiently low that it can be financed by private industry, foundations, or wealthy individuals. The key factor is imaginative use of new technologies and new materials. Since the Apollo era, many new areas of space technology have been developed in the US by NASA, the military, academic and industry sectors, ESA, Japan, and others. These include ultralite optics, radiation tolerant detectors, precision telescope drives incorporating high temperature superconductors, smart materials, active optics, dust and thermal control structures, subminiature spectrometers, tiny radio transmitters and receivers, small rockets, innovative fuel saving trajectories, and small precision landers. The combination of these elements makes possible a lunar observatory capable of front line astrophysical research in UV-Vis-IR imaging, spectrometry, and optical interferometry, at a per unit cost comparable to that of Small Explorer (SMEX) class missions. We describe work in progress at NASA GSFC and elsewhere, applications to other space projects, and spinoff benefits to ground-based astronomy, industry, and education.

  18. Lunar Dust Separation for Toxicology Studies (United States)

    Cooper, Bonnie L.; McKay, D. S.; Riofrio, L. M.; Taylor, L. A.; Gonzalex, C. P.


    During the Apollo missions, crewmembers were briefly exposed to dust in the lunar module, brought in after extravehicular activity. When the lunar ascent module returned to micro-gravity, the dust that had settled on the floor now floated into the air, causing eye discomfort and occasional respiratory symptoms. Because our goal is to set an exposure standard for 6 months of episodic exposure to lunar dust for crew on the lunar surface, these brief exposures of a few days are not conclusive. Based on experience with industrial minerals such as sandblasting quartz, an exposure of several months may cause serious damage, while a short exposure may cause none. The detailed characteristics of sub-micrometer lunar dust are only poorly known, and this is the size range of particles that are of greatest concern. We have developed a method for extracting respirable dust (<2.5 micron) from Apollo lunar soils. This method meets stringent requirements that the soil must be kept dry, exposed only to pure nitrogen, and must conserve and recover the maximum amount of both respirable dust and coarser soil. In addition, we have developed a method for grinding coarser lunar soil to produce sufficient respirable soil for animal toxicity testing while preserving the freshly exposed grain surfaces in a pristine state.

  19. Modeling Respiratory Toxicity of Authentic Lunar Dust (United States)

    Santana, Patricia A.; James, John T.; Lam, Chiu-Wing


    The lunar expeditions of the Apollo operations from the 60 s and early 70 s have generated awareness about lunar dust exposures and their implication towards future lunar explorations. Critical analyses on the reports from the Apollo crew members suggest that lunar dust is a mild respiratory and ocular irritant. Currently, NASA s space toxicology group is functioning with the Lunar Airborne Dust Toxicity Assessment Group (LADTAG) and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) to investigate and examine toxic effects to the respiratory system of rats in order to establish permissible exposure levels (PELs) for human exposure to lunar dust. In collaboration with the space toxicology group, LADTAG and NIOSH the goal of the present research is to analyze dose-response curves from rat exposures seven and twenty-eight days after intrapharyngeal instillations, and model the response using BenchMark Dose Software (BMDS) from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Via this analysis, the relative toxicities of three types of Apollo 14 lunar dust samples and two control dust samples, titanium dioxide (TiO2) and quartz will be determined. This will be executed for several toxicity endpoints such as cell counts and biochemical markers in bronchoaveolar lavage fluid (BALF) harvested from the rats.

  20. Coagulation factor VII, serum-triglycerides and the R/Q353 polymorphism: Differences between older men and women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mennen, L.I.; Maat, M.P.M. de; Schouten, E.G.; Kluft, C.; Jong, P.T.V.M. de; Hofman, A.; Grobbee, D.E.


    Coagulation factor VII activity (FVII:C) is a risk indicator for cardiovascular disease. It is related to serum-triglycerides and the R/Q353 polymorphism (alleles R and Q) in the gene coding for factor VII is strongly associated with factor VU[. The association of serum-triglycerides with factor VII

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  8. Bringing You the Moon: Lunar Education Efforts of the Center for Lunar Science and Education (United States)

    Shaner, A. J.; Shupla, C.; Shipp, S.; Allen, J.; Kring, D. A.; Halligan, E.; LaConte, K.


    The Center for Lunar Science and Exploration (CLSE), a collaboration between the Lunar and Planetary Institute and NASA's Johnson Space Center, is one of seven member teams of the NASA Lunar Science Institute. In addition to research and exploration activities, the CLSE team is deeply invested in education and public outreach. Overarching goals of CLSE education are to strengthen the future science workforce, attract and retain students in STEM disciplines, and develop advocates for lunar exploration. The team's efforts have resulted in a variety of programs and products, including the creation of a variety of Lunar Traveling Exhibits and the High School Lunar Research Project, featured at

  9. The Lunar Transit Telescope (LTT) - An early lunar-based science and engineering mission (United States)

    Mcgraw, John T.


    The Sentinel, the soft-landed lunar telescope of the LTT project, is described. The Sentinel is a two-meter telescope with virtually no moving parts which accomplishes an imaging survey of the sky over almost five octaves of the electromagnetic spectrum from the ultraviolet into the infrared, with an angular resolution better than 0.1 arsec/pixel. The Sentinel will incorporate innovative techniques of interest for future lunar-based telescopes and will return significant engineering data which can be incorporated into future lunar missions. The discussion covers thermal mapping of the Sentinel, measurement of the cosmic ray flux, lunar dust, micrometeoroid flux, the lunar atmosphere, and lunar regolith stability and seismic activity.

  10. A Case of Aplasia Cutis Congenita, Type VII (United States)

    Lee, Joung Sun; Lee, Jee Bum; Kim, Seong Jin; Won, Young Ho


    Aplasia cutis congenita (ACC) is a rare congenital defect in which localized or widespread areas of the skin are absent at birth. In the majority of cases, it is limited to the scalp especially on the vertex although other areas of the body may also be involved. Other congenital malformations can be associated with ACC. We present herein the case of a new born male with unilateral absence of skin on the extensor surface of the right lower leg. There was no associated malformation or skin disease such as blistering or nail abnormailty. According to the classification outlined by Frieden, the condition was diagnosed as type VII aplasia cutis congenita. The treatment of this large ulcer was conservative, wet dressing and prophylactic topical antibiotics. On follow up after 2 years showed that the patient was nearly cured of the ulcer and had only minimal scar formation. PMID:27303163

  11. Respiratory Toxicity of Lunar Highland Dust (United States)

    James, John T.; Lam, Chiu-wing; Wallace, William T.


    Lunar dust exposures occurred during the Apollo missions while the crew was on the lunar surface and especially when microgravity conditions were attained during rendezvous in lunar orbit. Crews reported that the dust was irritating to the eyes and in some cases respiratory symptoms were elicited. NASA s vision for lunar exploration includes stays of 6 months on the lunar surface hence the health effects of periodic exposure to lunar dust need to be assessed. NASA has performed this assessment with a series of in vitro and in vivo tests on authentic lunar dust. Our approach is to "calibrate" the intrinsic toxicity of lunar dust by comparison to a nontoxic dust (TiO2) and a highly toxic dust (quartz) using intratrachael instillation of the dusts in mice. A battery of indices of toxicity is assessed at various time points after the instillations. Cultures of selected cells are exposed to test dusts to assess the adverse effects on the cells. Finally, chemical systems are used to assess the nature of the reactivity of various dusts and to determine the persistence of reactivity under various environmental conditions that are relevant to a space habitat. Similar systems are used to assess the dissolution of the dust. From these studies we will be able to set a defensible inhalation exposure standard for aged dust and predict whether we need a separate standard for reactive dust. Presently-available data suggest that aged lunar highland dust is slightly toxic, that it can adversely affect cultured cells, and that the surface reactivity induced by grinding the dust persists for a few hours after activation.

  12. ILEWG report and discussion on Lunar Science and Exploration (United States)

    Foing, Bernard


    The EGU PS2.2 session "Lunar Science and Exploration" will include oral papers and posters, and a series of discussions. Members of ILEWG International Lunar Exploration Working Group will debate: - Recent lunar results: geochemistry, geophysics in the context of open - Celebrating the lunar legacy of pioneers Gerhard Neukum, Colin Pillinger and Manfred Fuchs planetary science and exploration - Latest results from LADEE and Chang'e 3/4 - Synthesis of results from SMART-1, Kaguya, Chang-E1 and Chang-E2, Chandrayaan-1, Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter and LCROSS impactor, Artemis and GRAIL - Goals and Status of missions under preparation: orbiters, Luna-Glob, Google Lunar X Prize, Luna Resurs, Chang'E 5, Future landers, Lunar sample return - Precursor missions, instruments and investigations for landers, rovers, sample return, and human cis-lunar activities and human lunar sorties - Preparation: databases, instruments, terrestrial field campaigns - The future international lunar exploration programme towards ILEWG roadmap of a global robotic village and permanent international lunar base - The proposals for an International Lunar Decade and International Lunar Research Parks - Strategic Knowledge Gaps, and key science Goals relevant to Human Lunar Global Exploration Lunar science and exploration are developing further with new and exciting missions being developed by China, the US, Japan, India, Russia, Korea and Europe, and with the perspective of robotic and human exploration. The session will include invited and contributed talks as well as a panel discussion and interactive posters with short oral introduction.

  13. Lunar Impact Flash Locations from NASA's Lunar Impact Monitoring Program (United States)

    Moser, D. E.; Suggs, R. M.; Kupferschmidt, L.; Feldman, J.


    Meteoroids are small, natural bodies traveling through space, fragments from comets, asteroids, and impact debris from planets. Unlike the Earth, which has an atmosphere that slows, ablates, and disintegrates most meteoroids before they reach the ground, the Moon has little-to-no atmosphere to prevent meteoroids from impacting the lunar surface. Upon impact, the meteoroid's kinetic energy is partitioned into crater excavation, seismic wave production, and the generation of a debris plume. A flash of light associated with the plume is detectable by instruments on Earth. Following the initial observation of a probable Taurid impact flash on the Moon in November 2005,1 the NASA Meteoroid Environment Office (MEO) began a routine monitoring program to observe the Moon for meteoroid impact flashes in early 2006, resulting in the observation of over 330 impacts to date. The main objective of the MEO is to characterize the meteoroid environment for application to spacecraft engineering and operations. The Lunar Impact Monitoring Program provides information about the meteoroid flux in near-Earth space in a size range-tens of grams to a few kilograms-difficult to measure with statistical significance by other means. A bright impact flash detected by the program in March 2013 brought into focus the importance of determining the impact flash location. Prior to this time, the location was estimated to the nearest half-degree by visually comparing the impact imagery to maps of the Moon. Better accuracy was not needed because meteoroid flux calculations did not require high-accuracy impact locations. But such a bright event was thought to have produced a fresh crater detectable from lunar orbit by the NASA spacecraft Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO). The idea of linking the observation of an impact flash with its crater was an appealing one, as it would validate NASA photometric calculations and crater scaling laws developed from hypervelocity gun testing. This idea was

  14. Lunar roving vehicle thermal control system. (United States)

    Elliott, R. G.; Paoletti, C. J.; Britt, M. A.


    A thermal control system was incorporated into the Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV) to maintain temperature sensitive components within appropriate temperature limits during the translunar transportation phase, lunar surface operation, and quiescent periods between lunar traverses. This paper describes the thermal control system and discusses its thermal characteristics during all phases of operation. The basic concept is a passive system which stores internally generated energy during operation with subsequent radiation to space. The external environments are regulated by selected radiative surface finishes. Multi-layer insulation blankets, space radiators, flexible thermal straps, and fusible mass heat sinks were designed to control the temperatures of the electronic components.

  15. Robotic Lunar Landers for Science and Exploration (United States)

    Cohen, B. A.; Bassler, J. A.; Hammond, M. S.; Harris, D. W.; Hill, L. A.; Kirby, K. W.; Morse, B. J.; Mulac, B. D.; Reed, C. L. B.


    The Moon provides an important window into the early history of the Earth, containing information about planetary composition, magmatic evolution, surface bombardment, and exposure to the space environment. Robotic lunar landers to achieve science goals and to provide precursor technology development and site characterization are an important part of program balance within NASA s Science Mission Directorate (SMD) and Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD). A Robotic Lunar Lan-der mission complements SMD's initiatives to build a robust lunar science community through R&A lines and increases international participation in NASA's robotic exploration of the Moon.

  16. Zinnia Germination and Lunar Soil Amendment (United States)

    Reese, Laura


    Germination testing was performed to determine the best method for germinating zinnias. This method will be used to attempt to germinate the zinnia seeds produced in space. It was found that seed shape may be critically important in determining whether a seed will germinate or not. The ability of compost and worm castings to remediate lunar regolith simulant for plant growth was tested. It was found that neither treatment effectively improves plant growth in lunar regolith simulant. A potential method of improving lunar regolith simulant by mixing it with arcillite was discovered.

  17. Growing pioneer plants for a lunar base (United States)

    Kozyrovska, N. O.; Lutvynenko, T. L.; Korniichuk, O. S.; Kovalchuk, M. V.; Voznyuk, T. M.; Kononuchenko, O.; Zaetz, I.; Rogutskyy, I. S.; Mytrokhyn, O. V.; Mashkovska, S. P.; Foing, B. H.; Kordyum, V. A.

    A precursory scenario of cultivating the first plants in a lunar greenhouse was elaborated in frames of a conceptual study to grow plants for a permanently manned lunar base. A prototype plant growth system represents an ornamental plant Tagetes patula L. for growing in a lunar rock anorthosite as a substrate. Microbial community anticipated to be in use to support a growth and development of the plant in a substrate of low bioavailability and provide an acceptable growth and blossoming of T. patula under growth limiting conditions.

  18. Payload Design for the Lunar Flashlight Mission (United States)

    Cohen, B. A.; Hayne, P. O.; Greenhagen, B. T.; Paige, D. A.; Camacho, J. M.; Crabtree, K.; Paine, C.; Sellar, G.


    Recent reflectance data from LRO (Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter) instruments suggest water ice and other volatiles may be present on the surface in lunar permanently shadowed regions, though the detection is not yet definitive. Understanding the composition, quantity, distribution, and form of water and other volatiles associated with lunar permanently shadowed regions (PSRs) is identified as a NASA Strategic Knowledge Gap (SKG). These polar volatile deposits are also scientifically interesting, having the potential to reveal important information about the delivery of water to the Earth-Moon system.

  19. Correlation of Lunar South Polar Epithermal Neutron Maps: Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector and Lunar Prospector Neutron Detector (United States)

    McClanahan, Timothy P.; Mitrofanov, I. G.; Boynton, W. V.; Sagdeev, R.; Trombka, J. I.; Starr, R. D.; Evans, L. G.; Litvak, M. L.; Chin, G.; Garvin, J.; hide


    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter's (LRO), Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND) was developed to refine the lunar surface hydrogen (H) measurements generated by the Lunar Prospector Neutron Spectrometer. LPNS measurements indicated a approx.4,6% decrease in polar epithermal fluxes equivalent to (1.5+/-0,8)% H concentration and are direct geochemical evidence indicating water /high H at the poles. Given the similar operational and instrumental objectives of the LEND and LPNS systems, an important science analysis step for LEND is to test correlation with existing research including LPNS measurements. In this analysis, we compare corrected low altitude epithermal rate data from LPNS available via NASA's Planetary Data System (PDS) with calibrated LEND epithermal maps using a cross-correlation technique

  20. Building an Economical and Sustainable Lunar Infrastructure to Enable Lunar Industrialization (United States)

    Zuniga, Allison F.; Turner, Mark; Rasky, Daniel; Loucks, Mike; Carrico, John; Policastri, Daniel


    A new concept study was initiated to examine the architecture needed to gradually develop an economical, evolvable and sustainable lunar infrastructure using a public/private partnerships approach. This approach would establish partnership agreements between NASA and industry teams to develop a lunar infrastructure system that would be mutually beneficial. This approach would also require NASA and its industry partners to share costs in the development phase and then transfer operation of these infrastructure services back to its industry owners in the execution phase. These infrastructure services may include but are not limited to the following: lunar cargo transportation, power stations, communication towers and satellites, autonomous rover operations, landing pads and resource extraction operations. The public/private partnerships approach used in this study leveraged best practices from NASA's Commercial Orbital Transportation Services (COTS) program which introduced an innovative and economical approach for partnering with industry to develop commercial cargo services to the International Space Station. This program was planned together with the ISS Commercial Resupply Services (CRS) contracts which was responsible for initiating commercial cargo delivery services to the ISS for the first time. The public/private partnerships approach undertaken in the COTS program proved to be very successful in dramatically reducing development costs for these ISS cargo delivery services as well as substantially reducing operational costs. To continue on this successful path towards installing economical infrastructure services for LEO and beyond, this new study, named Lunar COTS (Commercial Operations and Transport Services), was conducted to examine extending the NASA COTS model to cis-lunar space and the lunar surface. The goals of the Lunar COTS concept are to: 1) develop and demonstrate affordable and commercial cis-lunar and surface capabilities, such as lunar cargo

  1. Thermophysical properties of lunar media. II - Heat transfer within the lunar surface layer (United States)

    Cremers, C. J.


    Heat transfer within the lunar surface layer depends on several thermophysical properties of the lunar regolith, including the thermal conductivity, the specific heat, the thermal diffusivity, and the thermal parameter. Results of property measurements on simulated lunar materials are presented where appropriate as well as measurements made on the actual samples themselves. The variation of temperature on the moon with depth is considered, taking into account various times of the lunar day. The daily variation in temperature drops to about 1 deg at a depth of only 0.172 meters. The steady temperature on the moon below this depth is 225 K.

  2. Radiation exposure to the orbiting lunar station and lunar surface related to reusable nuclear shuttle operations (United States)

    Hutchinson, P. I.


    The radiation environment created by the Reusable Nuclear Vehicle (RNS) in performing its normal mission functions while in the lunar vicinity and the impact of that environment on the Orbiting Lunar Station (OLS) and/or the lunar surface are examined. Lunar surface exposures from the operating reactor were evaluated for both the arrival and departure burns and while there is little probability that manned bases would lie along the paths in which measurable exposures would be recorded, the analyses do indicate the need to consider this possibility in planning such operations. Conclusions supported by the analyses and recommended operational constraints for the RNS are presented.

  3. Experimental comparison of performances of Mega Acer Kit, Ranger and ThermoSens according to flow rates and distances. (United States)

    Seo, Hong Ju; Kim, Sang Hun; An, Tae Hun; Kim, Dong Joon


    We experimentally investigated the fluid warming performances of three warmers with different technology, according to flow rates and distances. We used the following intravenous fluid warmers: Mega Acer Kit (Group M, n = 8), Ranger (group R, n = 8), and ThermoSens (group T, n = 8). Fluids that had been stored in the operating room over the previous 24 h were delivered at sequent flow rates of from 440 mL/h up to 2500 mL/h through preheated warming devices. The fluid temperatures were recorded at the inlet point, 76-cm proximal (Pout1) and 166-cm distal outlet points (Pout2) every 1 min for 10 min. We repeated each test eight times. The delivered fluid temperature [mean (95% confidence interval)] was significantly higher in group M than group R and T at flow rates up to 650 mL/h with the highest value at 440 mL/h [34.30 (33.35-35.24)°C] (P flow rates over 1140 mL/h at Pout1 [36.67 (36.62-36.73)°C and 37.85 (37.52-38.17)°C at 2500 mL/h, respectively] (P flow rates for each device (P flow rates. Furthermore, the device performance is more effective with shorter extension lines.

  4. FPGA Implementation of an Amplitude-Modulated Continuous-Wave Ultrasonic Ranger Using Restructured Phase-Locking Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sumathi


    Full Text Available An accurate ultrasonic range finder employing Sliding Discrete Fourier Transform (SDFT based restructured phase-locked loop (RPLL, which is an improved version of the recently proposed integrated phase-locking scheme (IPLL, has been expounded. This range finder principally utilizes amplitude-modulated ultrasonic waves assisted by an infrared (IR pilot signal. The phase shift between the envelope of the reference IR pilot signal and that of the received ultrasonic signal is proportional to the range. The extracted envelopes are filtered by SDFT without introducing any additional phase shift. A new RPLL is described in which the phase error is driven to zero using the quadrature signal derived from the SDFT. Further, the quadrature signal is reinforced by another cosine signal derived from a lookup table (LUT. The pulse frequency of the numerically controlled oscillator (NCO is extremely accurate, enabling fine tuning of the SDFT and RPLL also improves the lock time for the 50 Hz input signal to 0.04 s. The percentage phase error for the range 0.6 m to 6 m is about 0.2%. The VHDL codes generated for the various signal processing steps were downloaded into a Cyclone FPGA chip around which the ultrasonic ranger had been built.

  5. The effect of neonatal gene therapy on skeletal manifestations in mucopolysaccharidosis VII dogs after a decade. (United States)

    Xing, Elizabeth M; Knox, Van W; O'Donnell, Patricia A; Sikura, Tracey; Liu, Yuli; Wu, Susan; Casal, Margret L; Haskins, Mark E; Ponder, Katherine P


    Mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) VII is a lysosomal storage disease due to deficient activity of β-glucuronidase (GUSB), and results in glycosaminoglycan accumulation. Skeletal manifestations include bone dysplasia, degenerative joint disease, and growth retardation. One gene therapy approach for MPS VII involves neonatal intravenous injection of a gamma retroviral vector expressing GUSB, which results in stable expression in liver and secretion of enzyme into blood at levels predicted to be similar or higher to enzyme replacement therapy. The goal of this study was to evaluate the long-term effect of neonatal gene therapy on skeletal manifestations in MPS VII dogs. Treated MPS VII dogs could walk throughout their lives, while untreated MPS VII dogs could not stand beyond 6 months and were dead by 2 years. Luxation of the coxofemoral joint and the patella, dysplasia of the acetabulum and supracondylar ridge, deep erosions of the distal femur, and synovial hyperplasia were reduced, and the quality of articular bone was improved in treated dogs at 6 to 11 years of age compared with untreated MPS VII dogs at 2 years or less. However, treated dogs continued to have osteophyte formation, cartilage abnormalities, and an abnormal gait. Enzyme activity was found near synovial blood vessels, and there was 2% as much GUSB activity in synovial fluid as in serum. We conclude that neonatal gene therapy reduces skeletal abnormalities in MPS VII dogs, but clinically-relevant abnormalities remain. Enzyme replacement therapy will probably have similar limitations long-term. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The Effect of Neonatal Gene Therapy on Skeletal Manifestations in Mucopolysaccharidosis VII Dogs after a Decade (United States)

    Xing, Elizabeth M.; Knox, Van W.; O'Donnell, Patricia A.; Sikura, Tracey; Liu, Yuli; Wu, Susan; Casal, Margret L.; Haskins, Mark E.; Ponder, Katherine P.


    Mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) VII is a lysosomal storage disease due to deficient activity of β-glucuronidase (GUSB), and results in glycosaminoglycan accumulation. Skeletal manifestations include bone dysplasia, degenerative joint disease, and growth retardation. One gene therapy approach for MPS VII involves neonatal intravenous injection of a gamma retroviral vector expressing GUSB, which results in stable expression in liver and secretion of enzyme into blood at levels predicted to be similar or higher to enzyme replacement therapy. The goal of this study was to evaluate the long-term effect of neonatal gene therapy on skeletal manifestations in MPS VII dogs. Treated MPS VII dogs could walk throughout their lives, while untreated MPS VII dogs could not stand beyond 6 months and were dead by 2 years. Luxation of the coxofemoral joint and the patella, dysplasia of the acetabulum and supracondylar ridge, deep erosions of the distal femur, and synovial hyperplasia were reduced, and the quality of articular bone was improved in treated dogs at 6 to 11 years of age compared with untreated MPS VII dogs at 2 years or less. However, treated dogs continued to have osteophyte formation, cartilage abnormalities, and an abnormal gait. Enzyme activity was found near synovial blood vessels, and there was 2% as much GUSB activity in synovial fluid as in serum. We conclude that neonatal gene therapy reduces skeletal abnormalities in MPS VII dogs, but clinically-relevant abnormalities remain. Enzyme replacement therapy will probably have similar limitations long-term. PMID:23628461

  7. The impact of Title VII on general and pediatric dental education and training. (United States)

    Ng, Man Wai; Glassman, Paul; Crall, James


    The authors describe the impact of the Title VII, Section 747 Training in Primary Care Medicine and Dentistry (Title VII) grant program on the development, growth, and expansion of general and pediatric dentistry residency programs in the United States. They first briefly review the legislative history of the Title VII program as it pertains to dental education, followed by a historical overview of dental education in the United States, including a description of the differences between dental and medical education and the routes to professional practice. The authors then present an extensive assessment of the role of the Title VII grant program in building general and pediatric dental training capacity, diversifying the dental workforce, providing outreach and service to underserved and vulnerable populations, stimulating innovations in dental education, and engaging collaborative and interdisciplinary training with medicine. Finally, the authors call for broadening the scope of the Title VII program to allow for predoctoral training (dental student education) and faculty development in general and pediatric dentistry. In doing so, the Title VII program can more effectively address current and future challenges in dental education, dentist workforce, and disparities in oral health and access to care.This article is part of a theme issue of Academic Medicine on the Title VII health professions training programs.

  8. Tissue Factor–Factor VII Complex as a Key Regulator of Ovarian Cancer Phenotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiro Koizume


    Full Text Available Tissue factor (TF is an integral membrane protein widely expressed in normal human cells. Blood coagulation factor VII (fVII is a key enzyme in the extrinsic coagulation cascade that is predominantly secreted by hepatocytes and released into the bloodstream. The TF–fVII complex is aberrantly expressed on the surface of cancer cells, including ovarian cancer cells. This procoagulant complex can initiate intracellular signaling mechanisms, resulting in malignant phenotypes. Cancer tissues are chronically exposed to hypoxia. TF and fVII can be induced in response to hypoxia in ovarian cancer cells at the gene expression level, leading to the autonomous production of the TF–fVII complex. Here, we discuss the roles of the TF–fVII complex in the induction of malignant phenotypes in ovarian cancer cells. The hypoxic nature of ovarian cancer tissues and the roles of TF expression in endometriosis are discussed. Arguments will be extended to potential strategies to treat ovarian cancers based on our current knowledge of TF–fVII function.

  9. Lunam 2000 (Lunar Atmosphere Mission) (United States)

    Barbieri, Cesare; Fornasier, Sonia; Lazzarin, Monica; Marchi, Simone; Rampazzi, Francesca; Verani, Stefano; Cremonese, Gabriele; Ragazzoni, Roberto; Dolci, Mauro; Benn, Chris R.; Mendillo, Michael; Baumgardner, Jeff; Chakrabarti, Supriya; Wilson, Jody

    LUNAM 2000 is a small mission dedicated to the coronagraphic imaging in the Na yellow doublet and to UV spectroscopy in the range 2800-3400 Å of the lunar atmosphere. These studies are possible only from Space. The scientific return of LUNAM 2000 has a wider appeal for the study of transient atmospheres of other celestial bodies, in particular of Mercury. The mission is in low Earth-orbit (about 350 km); a sun-synchronous or other orbits are under investigation. The payload has very small weight, dimensions and power requests, and is essentially made with off-the-shelf components. It can be built and launched in less than 3 years from the approval. This time frame nicely overlaps that of the European technological Mission SMART 1 and can greatly add to its scientific return. Furthermore, LUNAM 2000 can give very important information to define a mission to Mercury such as Bepi Colombo.

  10. Radioactivity in returned lunar materials (United States)


    The H-3, Ar-37, and Ar-39 radioactivities were measured at several depths in the large documented lunar rocks 14321 and 15555. The comparison of the Ar-37 activities from similar locations in rocks 12002, 14321, and 15555 gives direct measures of the amount of Ar-37 produced by the 2 November 1969 and 24 January 1971 solar flares. The tritium contents in the documented rocks decreased with increasing depths. The solar flare intensity averaged over 30 years obtained from the tritium depth dependence was approximately the same as the flare intensity averaged over 1000 years obtained from the Ar-37 measurements. Radioactivities in two Apollo 15 soil samples, H-3 in several Surveyor 3 samples, and tritium and radon weepage were also measured.

  11. Lunar Regolith Stabilization for Excavation Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — During lunar exploration, regolith is both the major available resource and a substantial obstacle in establishing a long-term presence. The fine surface dust is...

  12. Energy management study for lunar oxygen production (United States)

    Fazzolare, R. A.; Wong-Swanson, B. G.


    Energy management opportunities in the process of hydrogen reduction of ilmenite for lunar oxygen production are being investigated. An optimal energy system to supply the power requirements for the process will be determined.

  13. Regenerable Lunar Airborne Dust Filter Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Effective methods are needed to control pervasive Lunar Dust within spacecraft and surface habitations. Once inside, airborne transmission is the primary mode of...

  14. Production of Lunar Oxygen Through Vacuum Pyrolysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Matchett, John


    .... The vacuum pyrolysis method of oxygen production from lunar regolith presents a viable option for in situ propellant production because of its simple operation involving limited resources from earth...

  15. Life Sciences Implications of Lunar Surface Operations (United States)

    Chappell, Steven P.; Norcross, Jason R.; Abercromby, Andrew F.; Gernhardt, Michael L.


    The purpose of this report is to document preliminary, predicted, life sciences implications of expected operational concepts for lunar surface extravehicular activity (EVA). Algorithms developed through simulation and testing in lunar analog environments were used to predict crew metabolic rates and ground reaction forces experienced during lunar EVA. Subsequently, the total metabolic energy consumption, the daily bone load stimulus, total oxygen needed, and other variables were calculated and provided to Human Research Program and Exploration Systems Mission Directorate stakeholders. To provide context to the modeling, the report includes an overview of some scenarios that have been considered. Concise descriptions of the analog testing and development of the algorithms are also provided. This document may be updated to remain current with evolving lunar or other planetary surface operations, assumptions and concepts, and to provide additional data and analyses collected during the ongoing analog research program.

  16. Lunar Wireless Power Transfer Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freid, Sheldon [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Mercury, NV (United States); Popovic, Zoya [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Beckett, David R. [Independent Consultant; Anderson, Scott R. [Independent Consultant; Mann, Diana [Independent Consultant; Walker, Stuart [Independent Consultant


    This study examines the feasibility of a multi-kilowatt wireless radio frequency (RF) power system to transfer power between lunar base facilities. Initial analyses, show that wireless power transfer (WPT) systems can be more efficient and less expensive than traditional wired approaches for certain lunar and terrestrial applications. The study includes evaluations of the fundamental limitations of lunar WPT systems, the interrelationships of possible operational parameters, and a baseline design approach for a notionial system that could be used in the near future to power remote facilities at a lunar base. Our notional system includes state-of-the-art photovoltaics (PVs), high-efficiency microwave transmitters, low-mass large-aperture high-power transmit antennas, high-efficiency large-area rectenna receiving arrays, and reconfigurable DC combining circuitry.

  17. Lunar In-Situ Volatile Extraction Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A method of extracting volatile resources from the Lunar regolith is proposed to reduce the launch mass and cost of bringing such resources from the Earth to enable...

  18. High-Fidelity Lunar Dust Simulant Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The severity of the lunar dust problems encountered during the Apollo missions were consistently underestimated by ground tests, illustrating the need to develop...

  19. Strength and compressibility of returned lunar soil. (United States)

    Carrier, W. D., III; Bromwell, L. G.; Martin, R. T.


    Two oedometer and three direct shear tests have been performed in vacuum on a 200 g sample of lunar soil from Apollo 12 (12001, 119). The compressibility data have been used to calculate bulk density and shear wave velocity versus depth on the lunar surface. The shear wave velocity was found to increase approximately with the one-fourth power of the depth, and the results suggest that the Apollo 14 Active Seismic Experiment may not have detected the Fra Mauro formation at a depth of 8.5 m, but only naturally consolidated lunar soil. The shear data indicate that the strength of the lunar soil sample is about 65% that of a ground basalt simulant at the same void ratio.

  20. A Framework for Lunar Surface Science Exploration (United States)

    Eppler, D.; Bleacher, J.; Bell, E.; Cohen, B.; Deans, M.; Evans, C.; Graff, T.; Head, J.; Helper, M.; Hodges, K.; Hurtado, J.; Klaus, K.; Kring, D.; Schmitt, H.; Skinner, J.; Spudis, P.; Tewksbury, B.; Young, K.; Yingst, A.


    Successful lunar science will be dependent on mission concept, mobility, robotic/human assets, crew training, field tools, and IT assets. To achieve good science return, element integration must be considered at the start of any exploration program.

  1. Apollo 17 Astronaut Harrison Schmitt Collects Lunar Rock Samples (United States)


    In this Apollo 17 onboard photo, Lunar Module pilot Harrison H. Schmitt collects rock samples from a huge boulder near the Valley of Tourus-Littrow on the lunar surface. The seventh and last manned lunar landing and return to Earth mission, the Apollo 17, carrying a crew of three astronauts: Schmitt; Mission Commander Eugene A. Cernan; and Command Module pilot Ronald E. Evans, lifted off on December 7, 1972 from the Kennedy Space Flight Center (KSC). Scientific objectives of the Apollo 17 mission included geological surveying and sampling of materials and surface features in a preselected area of the Taurus-Littrow region, deploying and activating surface experiments, and conducting in-flight experiments and photographic tasks during lunar orbit and transearth coast (TEC). These objectives included: Deployed experiments such as the Apollo lunar surface experiment package (ALSEP) with a Heat Flow experiment, Lunar seismic profiling (LSP), Lunar surface gravimeter (LSG), Lunar atmospheric composition experiment (LACE) and Lunar ejecta and meteorites (LEAM). The mission also included Lunar Sampling and Lunar orbital experiments. Biomedical experiments included the Biostack II Experiment and the BIOCORE experiment. The mission marked the longest Apollo mission, 504 hours, and the longest lunar surface stay time, 75 hours, which allowed the astronauts to conduct an extensive geological investigation. They collected 257 pounds (117 kilograms) of lunar samples with the use of the Marshall Space Flight Center designed Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV). The mission ended on December 19, 1972

  2. Planetary science and resource utilization at a lunar outpost - Chemical analytical facility requirements (United States)

    Taylor, Lawrence A.


    Unresolved issues of lunar geology are reviewed and the role of a lunar outpost in helping to address them is considered. Plans for in situ resource utilization of lunar materials are examined. Concepts for a lunar outpost are described.

  3. Human safety in the lunar environment (United States)

    Lewis, Robert H.


    Any attempt to establish a continuously staffed base or permanent settlement on the Moon must safely meet the challenges posed by the Moon's surface environment. This environment is drastically different from the Earth's, and radiation and meteoroids are significant hazards to human safety. These dangers may be mitigated through the use of underground habitats, the piling up of lunar materials as shielding, and the use of teleoperated devices for surface operations. The lunar environment is detailed along with concepts for survival.

  4. Material capture by double lunar gravity assist (United States)

    Ross, D. J.


    The equations yielding the performance of a single lunar flyby in removing incoming hyperbolic excess velocity to capture payloads on interplanetary trajectories are briefly derived. The impossibility of using a single lunar flyby to capture a body entering the earth-moon system with a hyperbolic velocity in excess of about 1.9 km/s is discussed, and a method of using a double flyby of the moon to significantly improve this performance is developed. The equations for achieving a double lunar flyby are derived by solving the orbital equations and Lambert's problem both for the incoming trajectory in the plane of the moon's orbit and for arbitrary declination. For the in-plane case it is shown that the maximum removable hyperbolic excess velocity is 2.2687 km/s. For the inclined case, it is shown that the use of a double lunar flyby allows capture for declinations in excess of 54 degrees, and that for declinations less than 38 degrees the double lunar flyby offers better performance than the single lunar flyby.

  5. Astronaut Edwin Aldrin on Lunar Surface (United States)


    Carrying astronauts Neil A. Armstrong and Edwin E. Aldrin, Jr., the Lunar Module (LM) 'Eagle' was the first crewed vehicle to land on the Moon. The LM landed on the moon's surface on July 20, 1969 in the region known as Mare Tranquilitatis (the Sea of Tranquility). Meanwhile, astronaut Michael Collins piloted the command module in a parking orbit around the moon. This photo is of Edwin Aldrin walking on the lunar surface. Neil Armstrong, who took the photograph, can be seen reflected in Aldrin's helmet visor. Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface. As he stepped off the LM, Armstrong proclaimed, 'That's one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind'. He was followed by Edwin (Buzz) Aldrin, describing the lunar surface as magnificent desolation. The Apollo 11 mission launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida on July 16, 1969 via a Saturn V launch vehicle, and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. The Saturn V vehicle was developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under the direction of Dr. Wernher von Braun. The 3-man crew aboard the flight consisted of Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module pilot. During a 2½ hour surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material which was returned to Earth for analysis. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

  6. Astronaut Edwin Aldrin Egresses From Lunar Module (United States)


    Carrying astronauts Neil A. Armstrong and Edwin E. Aldrin, Jr., the Lunar Module (LM) 'Eagle' was the first crewed vehicle to land on the Moon. The LM landed on the moon's surface on July 20, 1969 in the region known as Mare Tranquilitatis (the Sea of Tranquility). Shown here is Aldrin Jr. making his exit from the LM to the lunar surface. Armstrong, who was already on the surface, took this photograph. The Apollo 11 mission launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida via a Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. The Saturn V vehicle was developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under the direction of Dr. Wernher von Braun. The 3-man crew aboard the flight consisted of astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module pilot. Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface. As he stepped off the LM, Armstrong proclaimed, 'That's one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind'. He was followed by Edwin (Buzz) Aldrin, describing the lunar surface as magnificent desolation. During a 2½ hour surface exploration the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material which was returned to Earth for analysis. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

  7. Extraction of Water from Lunar Permafrost (United States)

    Ethridge, Edwin C.; Kaukler, William


    Remote sensing indicates the presence of hydrogen rich regions associated with the lunar poles. The logical hypothesis is that there is cryogenically trapped water ice located in craters at the lunar poles. Some of the craters have been in permanent darkness for a billion years. The presence of water at the poles as well as other scientific advantages of a polar base, have influenced NASA plans for the lunar outpost. The lunar outpost has water and oxygen requirements on the order of 1 ton per year scaling up to as much as 5 tons per year. Microwave heating of the frozen permafrost has unique advantages for water extraction. Proof of principle experiments have successfully demonstrated that microwaves will couple to the cryogenic soil in a vacuum and the sublimed water vapor can be successfully captured on a cold trap. Dielectric property measurements of lunar soil simulant have been measured. Microwave absorption and attenuation in lunar soil simulant has been correlated with measured dielectric properties. Future work will be discussed.

  8. Sulfur 'Concrete' for Lunar Applications - Environmental Considerations (United States)

    Grugel, R. N.


    Commercial use of sulfur concrete on Earth is well established, particularly in corrosive, e.g., acid and salt, environments. Having found troilite (FeS) on the Moon raises the question of using extracted sulfur as a lunar construction material, an attractive alternative to conventional concrete as it does not require water. For the purpose of this Technical Memorandum, it is assumed that lunar ore is mined, refined, and the raw sulfur processed with appropriate lunar regolith to form, for example, bricks. With this stipulation, it is then noted that the viability of sulfur concrete in a lunar environment, which is characterized by lack of an atmosphere and extreme temperatures, is not well understood. The work presented here evaluates two sets of small sulfur concrete samples that have been prepared using JSC-1 lunar simulant as an aggregate addition. One set was subjected to extended periods in high vacuum to evaluate sublimation issues, and the other was cycled between room and liquid nitrogen temperatures to investigate their subsequent mechanical integrity. Results are presented from both investigations, discussed, and put into the context of the lunar environment.

  9. Distribution of Amino Acids in Lunar Regolith (United States)

    Elsila, J. E.; Callahan, M. P.; Glavin, D. P.; Dworkin, J. P.; Noble, S. K.; Gibson, E. K., Jr.


    One of the most eagerly studied questions upon initial return of lunar samples was whether significant amounts of organic compounds, including amino acids, were present. Analyses during the 1970s produced only tentative and inconclusive identifications of indigenous amino acids. Those analyses were hampered by analytical difficulties including relative insensitivity to certain compounds, the inability to separate chiral enantiomers, and the lack of compound-specific isotopic measurements, which made it impossible to determine whether the detected amino acids were indigenous to the lunar samples or the results of contamination. Numerous advances have been made in instrumentation and methodology for amino acid characterization in extraterrestrial samples in the intervening years, yet the origin of amino acids in lunar regolith samples has been revisited only once for a single lunar sample, (3) and remains unclear. Here, we present initial data from the analyses of amino acid abundances in 12 lunar regolith samples. We discuss these abundances in the context of four potential amino acid sources: (1) terrestrial biological contamination; (2) contamination from lunar module (LM) exhaust; (3) derivation from solar windimplanted precursors; and (4) exogenous delivery from meteorites.

  10. Low-Energy Ballistic Transfers to Lunar Halo Orbits (United States)

    Parker, Jeffrey S.


    Recent lunar missions have begun to take advantage of the benefits of low-energy ballistic transfers between the Earth and the Moon rather than implementing conventional Hohmann-like lunar transfers. Both Artemis and GRAIL plan to implement low-energy lunar transfers in the next few years. This paper explores the characteristics and potential applications of many different families of low-energy ballistic lunar transfers. The transfers presented here begin from a wide variety of different orbits at the Earth and follow several different distinct pathways to the Moon. This paper characterizes these pathways to identify desirable low-energy lunar transfers for future lunar missions.

  11. Plume Mitigation: Soil Erosion and Lunar Prospecting Sensor Project (United States)

    Metzger, Philip T.


    Demonstrate feasibility of the simplest, lowest-mass method of measuring density of a cloud of lunar soil ejected by rocket exhaust, using new math techniques with a small baseline laser/camera system. Focus is on exploring the erosion process that occurs when the exhaust plume of a lunar rocket impacts the regolith. Also, predicting the behavior of the lunar soil that would be blasted from a lunar landing/launch site shall assist in better design and protection of any future lunar settlement from scouring of structures and equipment. NASA is gathering experimental data to improve soil erosion models and understand how lunar particles enter the plume flow.

  12. Lunar Dust Environment and Plasma Package for Lunar Lander - Definition Study (United States)

    Laifr, J.; Auster, U.; Bale, S. D.; Delory, G. T.; Devoto, P.; Farrell, W. M.; Glassmeier, K.; Guicking, L.; Halekas, J. S.; Hellinger, P.; Hercik, D.; Horanyi, M.; Kataria, D.; Kozacek, Z.; Mazelle, C. X.; Omura, Y.; Owen, C. J.; Pavelka, R.; Plaschke, F.; Rucker, H. O.; Saito, Y.; Sternovsky, Z.; Stverak, S.; Travnicek, P. M.; Turin, P.; Vana, P.


    Dust, the charged lunar surface, and the ambient plasma form a closely coupled system. The lunar surface is permanently under the influence of charging effects such as UV radiation or energetic solar wind and magnetospheric particles. The surface charging effects result in strong local electric fields which in turn may lead to mobilization and transport of charged dust particles. Furthermore, the environment can become even more complex in the presence of local crustal magnetic anomalies or due to sunlight/shadow transitions. A detail understanding of these phenomena and their dependence on external influences is a key point for future robotic and human lunar exploration and requires an appropriately tuned instrumentation for in-situ measurements. Here we present results from the concept and design phase A - a study of the Lunar Dust Environment and Plasma Package (L-DEPP), which has been proposed as one of model instrument payloads for the planned Lunar Lander mission of the European Space Agency. Focus is held on scientific objectives and return of the mission with respect to environmental and mission technology constraints and requirements. L-DEPP is proposed to consist of the following instruments: ELDA - Electrostatic Lunar Dust Analyser, LPM - Langmuir Probe and Magnetometer, LRU - Broadband radio receiver and electric field antennae and LEIA - Lunar Electron and Ion Analyser. In addition to the dust and plasma measurements the RADIO experiment will provide a site survey testing for future radio astronomy observations. Lunar Dust Environment and Plasma Package CAD Model

  13. Summary of the results from the lunar orbiter laser altimeter after seven years in lunar orbit (United States)

    Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Mazarico, Erwan; Lemoine, Frank G.; Head, James W., III; Lucey, Paul G.; Aharonson, Oded; Robinson, Mark S.; Sun, Xiaoli; Torrence, Mark H.; Barker, Michael K.; Oberst, Juergen; Duxbury, Thomas C.; Mao, Dandan; Barnouin, Olivier S.; Jha, Kopal; Rowlands, David D.; Goossens, Sander; Baker, David; Bauer, Sven; Gläser, Philipp; Lemelin, Myriam; Rosenburg, Margaret; Sori, Michael M.; Whitten, Jennifer; Mcclanahan, Timothy


    In June 2009 the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) spacecraft was launched to the Moon. The payload consists of 7 science instruments selected to characterize sites for future robotic and human missions. Among them, the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) was designed to obtain altimetry, surface roughness, and reflectance measurements. The primary phase of lunar exploration lasted one year, following a 3-month commissioning phase. On completion of its exploration objectives, the LRO mission transitioned to a science mission. After 7 years in lunar orbit, the LOLA instrument continues to map the lunar surface. The LOLA dataset is one of the foundational datasets acquired by the various LRO instruments. LOLA provided a high-accuracy global geodetic reference frame to which past, present and future lunar observations can be referenced. It also obtained high-resolution and accurate global topography that were used to determine regions in permanent shadow at the lunar poles. LOLA further contributed to the study of polar volatiles through its unique measurement of surface brightness at zero phase, which revealed anomalies in several polar craters that may indicate the presence of water ice. In this paper, we describe the many LOLA accomplishments to date and its contribution to lunar and planetary science.

  14. A Fractal Model for the Capacitance of Lunar Dust and Lunar Dust Aggregates (United States)

    Collier, Michael R.; Stubbs, Timothy J.; Keller, John W.; Farrell, William M.; Marshall, John; Richard, Denis Thomas


    Lunar dust grains and dust aggregates exhibit clumping, with an uneven mass distribution, as well as features that span many spatial scales. It has been observed that these aggregates display an almost fractal repetition of geometry with scale. Furthermore, lunar dust grains typically have sharp protrusions and jagged features that result from the lack of aeolian weathering (as opposed to space weathering) on the Moon. A perfectly spherical geometry, frequently used as a model for lunar dust grains, has none of these characteristics (although a sphere may be a reasonable proxy for the very smallest grains and some glasses). We present a fractal model for a lunar dust grain or aggregate of grains that reproduces (1) the irregular clumpy nature of lunar dust, (2) the presence of sharp points, and (3) dust features that span multiple scale lengths. We calculate the capacitance of the fractal lunar dust analytically assuming fixed dust mass (i.e. volume) for an arbitrary number of fractal levels and compare the capacitance to that of a non-fractal object with the same volume, surface area, and characteristic width. The fractal capacitance is larger than that of the equivalent non-fractal object suggesting that for a given potential, electrostatic forces on lunar dust grains and aggregates are greater than one might infer from assuming dust grains are sphericaL Consequently, electrostatic transport of lunar dust grains, for example lofting, appears more plausible than might be inferred by calculations based on less realistic assumptions about dust shape and associated capacitance.

  15. Biological and phylogenetic characterization of a genotype VII Newcastle disease virus from Venezuela: Efficacy of vaccination (United States)

    Here we describe the characterization a virulent genotype VII Newcastle disease virus (NDV) from Venezuela and evaluate the efficacy of heterologous genotype commercial vaccination under field and controlled rearing conditions. Biological pathotyping and molecular analysis were applied. Results sh...

  16. Use of recombinant activated factor VII in a case of severe postpartum haemorrhage. (United States)

    Verre, M; Bossio, F; Mammone, A; Piccirillo, M; Tancioni, F; Varano, M


    We describe the case of a 24 year old woman, affected by haemorrhagic shock due to post-partum uterine atony, who underwent an emergency hysterectomy with persistent postoperative bleeding, successfully treated with recombinant activated factor VII (Novoseven).

  17. Viis raamatutäit poola näidendeid / Riina Mägi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mägi, Riina, 1957-


    Tõlkija Hendrik Lindepuult ilmus viies tõlkekogumik poola dramaturgia tippteoseid tutvustavast sarjast. Seekord said kaante vahele Tadeusz Rozewiczi näidendid "Valge abielu", "Lõks" ja "Vana naine haub"

  18. Prevalence of collagen VII-specific autoantibodies in patients with autoimmune and inflammatory diseases


    Licarete Emilia; Ganz Susanne; Recknagel Martin J; Di Zenzo Giovanni; Hashimoto Takashi; Hertl Michael; Zambruno Giovanna; Hundorfean Gheorghe; Mudter Jonas; Neurath Markus F; Bruckner-Tuderman Leena; Sitaru Cassian


    Abstract Background Autoimmunity to collagen VII is typically associated with the skin blistering disease epidermolysis bullosa acquisita (EBA), but also occurs occasionally in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus or inflammatory bowel disease. The aim of our present study was to develop an accurate immunoassay for assessing the presence of autoantibodies against collagen VII in large cohorts of patients and healthy donors. Methods Based on in silico antigenic analysis and previous wetl...

  19. Histopathologic changes of the ear in canine models of mucopolysaccharidosis types I and VII. (United States)

    Hordeaux, J; Deniaud, J; Bemelmans, I; Bertrand, L; Moreau, S; Amiaud, J; Wyers, M; Cherel, Y; Colle, M-A


    Mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) types I and VII are inborn errors of metabolism caused by mutation of enzymes involved in glycosaminoglycan catabolism, which leads to intralysosomal accumulation of glycosaminoglycans. In children, severe forms of MPS I and VII are characterized by somatic and neurologic manifestations, including a poorly understood hearing loss. The purpose of this study is to describe the age-related histopathologic changes of the ear in spontaneous canine models of MPS I and VII. Pathologic changes in the ear were assessed in MPS I and VII dogs ranging from 1.6 to 9.3 months of age. Paraffin-embedded sections of the whole ear and Epon-embedded semithin sections of the cochlea were examined. The following lesions were blindly scored in the middle and inner ear: inflammation, cells vacuolization, thickening of osseous and membranous structures, perivascular vacuolated macrophages infiltration, and bone resorption. All dogs had lysosomal storage within cells of tympanic membrane, ossicles, tympanic bone and mucosa, cochlear bone, spiral ligament, limbus, and stria vascularis. The MPS I dogs mainly had progressive cochlear lesions. The MPS VII dogs had severe and early middle ear lesions, including chronic otitis media and bone resorption. The MPS I dog only partially recapitulates the pathology seen in humans; specifically, the dog model lacks inflammatory middle ear disease. In contrast, the MPS VII dog has severe inflammatory middle ear disease similar to that reported in the human. In conclusion, the canine MPS VII model appears to be a good model to study MPS VII-related deafness.

  20. The Trigeminal (V) and Facial (VII) Cranial Nerves: Head and Face Sensation and Movement


    Sanders, Richard D


    There are close functional and anatomical relationships between cranial nerves V and VII in both their sensory and motor divisions. Sensation on the face is innervated by the trigeminal nerves (V) as are the muscles of mastication, but the muscles of facial expression are innervated mainly by the facial nerve (VII) as is the sensation of taste. This article briefly reviews the anatomy of these cranial nerves, disorders of these nerves that are of particular importance to psychiatry, and some ...

  1. The Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) on NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) mission (United States)

    Riris, H.; Cavanaugh, J.; Sun, X.; Liiva, P.; Rodriguez, M.; Neuman, G.


    The Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) instrument [1-3] on NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) mission, launched on June 18th, 2009, from Kennedy Space Center, Florida, will provide a precise global lunar topographic map using laser altimetry. LOLA will assist in the selection of landing sites on the Moon for future robotic and human exploration missions and will attempt to detect the presence of water ice on or near the surface, which is one of the objectives of NASA's Exploration Program. Our present knowledge of the topography of the Moon is inadequate for determining safe landing areas for NASA's future lunar exploration missions. Only those locations, surveyed by the Apollo missions, are known with enough detail. Knowledge of the position and characteristics of the topographic features on the scale of a lunar lander are crucial for selecting safe landing sites. Our present knowledge of the rest of the lunar surface is at approximately 1 km kilometer level and in many areas, such as the lunar far side, is on the order of many kilometers. LOLA aims to rectify that and provide a precise map of the lunar surface on both the far and near side of the moon. LOLA uses short (6 ns) pulses from a single laser through a Diffractive Optical Element (DOE) to produce a five-beam pattern that illuminates the lunar surface. For each beam, LOLA measures the time of flight (range), pulse spreading (surface roughness), and transmit/return energy (surface reflectance). LOLA will produce a high-resolution global topographic model and global geodetic framework that enables precise targeting, safe landing, and surface mobility to carry out exploratory activities. In addition, it will characterize the polar illumination environment, and image permanently shadowed regions of the lunar surface to identify possible locations of surface ice crystals in shadowed polar craters.

  2. Lunar transportation scenarios utilising the Space Elevator. (United States)

    Engel, Kilian A


    The Space Elevator (SE) concept has begun to receive an increasing amount of attention within the space community over the past couple of years and is no longer widely dismissed as pure science fiction. In light of the renewed interest in a, possibly sustained, human presence on the Moon and the fact that transportation and logistics form the bottleneck of many conceivable lunar missions, it is interesting to investigate what role the SE could eventually play in implementing an efficient Earth to Moon transportation system. The elevator allows vehicles to ascend from Earth and be injected into a trans-lunar trajectory without the use of chemical thrusters, thus eliminating gravity loss, aerodynamic loss and the need of high thrust multistage launch systems. Such a system therefore promises substantial savings of propellant and structural mass and could greatly increase the efficiency of Earth to Moon transportation. This paper analyzes different elevator-based trans-lunar transportation scenarios and characterizes them in terms of a number of benchmark figures. The transportation scenarios include direct elevator-launched trans-lunar trajectories, elevator launched trajectories via L1 and L2, as well as launch from an Earth-based elevator and subsequent rendezvous with lunar elevators placed either on the near or on the far side of the Moon. The benchmark figures by which the different transfer options are characterized and evaluated include release radius (RR), required delta v, transfer times as well as other factors such as accessibility of different lunar latitudes, frequency of launch opportunities and mission complexity. The performances of the different lunar transfer options are compared with each other as well as with the performance of conventional mission concepts, represented by Apollo. c2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Chandratika


    Full Text Available Penting untuk dilakukan penelitian mengenai gangguan cemas pada mahasiswa kedokteran karena tingginya tingkat stres mahasiswa terutama pada tahun pertama perkuliahan. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui prevalensi dan perbedaan skor  gangguan  cemas  pada mahasiswa  semester  I dan  VII serta untuk  mengetahui perbedaan skor gangguan cemas antara mahasiswa laki-laki dan perempuan di Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Udayana. Desain penelitian ini adalah cross sectional analitik. Pengambilan sampel dilakukan secara random sampling. Sampel mengisi identitas, kuesioner L-MMPI, kuesioner Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HARS. Kemudian dihitung prevalensi gangguan cemas tiap kelompok serta data dianalisis menggunakan uji t-independen. Terdapat 15 orang (25,0% mahasiswa semester I dan 7 orang (11,7% mahasiswa semester VII yang mengalami gangguan cemas. Dari hasil uji t-independen antara skor gangguan cemas mahasiswa semester I dan VII diperoleh nilai p = 0,001 (<0,05. Sedangkan diperoleh p = 0,080 antara mahasiswa laki-laki dan perempuan pada semester I dan p = 0,744 antara mahasiswa laki-laki dan perempuan pada semester VII. Prevalensi gangguan cemas pada mahasiswa semester I yaitu 25,0% sedangkan 11,7% pada mahasiswa semester VII. Terdapat perbedaan bermakna antara skor gangguan cemas mahasiswa semester I dan VII. Tidak ditemukan perbedaan bermakna skor gangguan cemas antara laki-laki dan perempuan.   

  4. Detection of type VII collagen autoantibodies before onset of bullous systemic lupus erythematosus (United States)

    Grabell, Daniel A.; Matthews, Loderick A.; Yancey, Kim B.; Chong, Benjamin F.


    Importance Anti-type VII collagen autoantibodies are often detectable in patients with bullous systemic lupus erythematosus (BSLE); however their timing of appearance preceding onset of disease is unknown. Observations We report the case of a 50-year-old female with a history of systemic lupus erythematosus who presented with vesicles and bullae around her lips, trunk, axillae, arms, and thighs. Histologic analysis as well as immunofluorescence and immunoblot studies confirmed the diagnosis of BSLE. Immunoblotting and ELISA studies of the patient’s serum obtained three months prior to the onset of BSLE showed presence of anti-type VII collagen autoantibodies. Levels of anti-type VII collagen IgG increased after bullous lesions appeared. Within one month after initiating dapsone and increasing the dose of prednisone, skin lesions promptly resolved. A year after onset of BSLE, her anti-type VII collagen IgG decreased below levels observed prior to the inception of her bullous lesions. Conclusions and Relevance This study shows that anti-type VII collagen autoantibodies can precede the clinical appearance of BSLE. The subsequent increase and decrease in the levels of circulating anti-type VII collagen autoantibodies, which mirrored skin disease activity, support a potential role in their initiation of disease. PMID:25671758

  5. Quantifying Elements of a Lunar Economy Based on Resource Needs (United States)

    Greenblatt, J. B.


    We model a simplified lunar economy from human life support, Earth materials consumption, and energy and propulsion requirement estimates, constrained by lunar elemental abundances; estimate likely imports/exports and "gross interplanetary product."

  6. Lunar All-Terrain Utility Vehicle for EVA Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ProtoInnovations, LLC proposes to develop a new type of planetary rover called a Lunar All-terrain Utility Vehicle ("Lunar ATV") to assist extra-vehicular activities...

  7. Autonomous Utility Connector for Lunar Surface Systems Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Lunar dust has been identified as a significant and present challenge in future exploration missions. The interlocking, angular nature of Lunar dust and its broad...

  8. Flywheel Energy Storage for Lunar Rovers & Other Small Spacecraft Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA continues to be interested in returning to the Lunar surface. The Lunar surface is a harsh and unforgiving environment. Perhaps most challenging is the drastic...

  9. Contaminant Robust System for Oxygen Production from Lunar Regolith Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The necessity of oxygen for consumption by human inhabitants on the lunar surface is readily apparent. NASA is pursuing several ways to generate oxygen from lunar...

  10. Leveraging Virtual Reality for the Benefit of Lunar Exploration (United States)

    McCandless, R. S.; Burke, E. D.; McGinley, V. T.


    Virtual reality (VR) and related technologies will assist scientists with lunar exploration and public engagement. We will present the future exponential impact of VR on lunar activities over the coming decades.

  11. Terrestrial and Lunar Geological Terminology for Non-Geoscientists (United States)

    Schrader, Christian M.


    This slide presentation reviews several geologic concepts applicable to lunar geology with particular interest in creating lunar regolith simulant. Fundamental ways in which the Moon differs from the Earth. Concepts that are described in detail are: minerals, glass, and rocks.

  12. Manufacture of Lunar Regolith Simulants (United States)

    Rickman, D. L.; Wilson, S. A.; Stoeser, D. B.; Weinstein, M. A.; Edmunson, J. E.


    The manufacture of lunar regolith simulants can use many technologies unfamiliar to the aerospace industry. Many of these technologies are extensively used in the mining industry. Rock crushing, grinding, process control as a function of particle size, as well as other essential concepts are explained here. Notes are provided on special considerations necessary, given the unusual nature of the desired final product. For example, wet grinding, which is an industry norm, can alter the behavior of simulant materials. As the geologic materials used for simulants can contain minerals such as quartz and pyrite, guidance is provided regarding concepts, risks, measurement, and handling. Extractive metallurgy can be used to produce high-grade components for subsequent manufacture, reducing the compromises inherent in using just rock. Several of the components needed in simulants such as glasses, agglutinates, and breccias are simply not available or not reasonably matched by existing terrestrial resources. Therefore, techniques to produce these in useful quantities were developed and used. Included in this list is the synthesis of specific minerals. The manufacture of two simulants, NU-LHT-1M and NU-LHT-2M, is covered in detail.

  13. Lunar astronomical observatories - Design studies (United States)

    Johnson, Stewart W.; Burns, Jack O.; Chua, Koon Meng; Duric, Nebojsa; Gerstle, Walter H.


    The best location in the inner solar system for the grand observatories of the 21st century may be the moon. A multidisciplinary team including university students and faculty in engineering, astronomy, physics, and geology, and engineers from industry is investigating the moon as a site for astronomical observatories and is doing conceptual and preliminary designs for these future observatories. Studies encompass lunar facilities for radio astronomy and astronomy at optical, ultraviolet, and infrared wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum. Although there are significant engineering challenges in design and construction on the moon, the rewards for astronomy can be great, such as detection and study of earth-like planets orbiting nearby stars, and the task for engineers promises to stimulate advances in analysis and design, materials and structures, automation and robotics, foundations, and controls. Fabricating structures in the reduced-gravity environment of the moon will be easier than in the zero-gravity environment of earth orbit, as Apollo and space-shuttle missions have revealed. Construction of observatories on the moon can be adapted from techniques developed on the earth, with the advantage that the moon's weaker gravitational pull makes it possible to build larger devices than are practical on earth.

  14. Technetium (VII) fixation in synthetic oxides under aerobic conditions; Fijacion de tecnecio (VII) en oxidos sinteticos en condiciones aerobicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arizpe M, L. G. [Instituto Tecnologico de Toluca, Av. Tecnologico s/n, Fraccionamiento La Virgen, 52149 Metepec, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Badillo A, V. E., E-mail: [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)


    The retention of fission products as the technetium in different materials to observe the behavior of anionic species, present in the spent fuel, is of vital importance in the evaluation of the safety of a radioactive waste storage. The radionuclide {sup 99}Tc is one of the fission products of long half life of 2.11 X 10{sup 5} years, which could be liberated in the underground waters that surround to a geologic warehouse of high level wastes, in the chemical form TcO{sub 4}{sup -}, which prevails in aerated solutions since is extremely soluble. In this work was evaluated the use of synthetic oxides as potential adsorbents of the radioactive technetium and to study the importance of the superficial properties of these solids in the radionuclide migration. Two synthetic oxides were studied, the titanium and aluminium oxide. The results demonstrate that the retention of Tc (VII) under aerobic conditions of the solution is worthless in the interval of studied ph of 4 at 9 for both solids; however when the ph of the solution diminishes to ph values of 3, important kD are obtained in the case of the titanium oxide, what shows the importance of the surface properties of these oxides to interpret the radionuclide retention. (Author)

  15. Experimental Fractional Crystallization of the Lunar Magma Ocean (United States)

    Rapp, J. F.; Draper, D. S.


    The current paradigm for lunar evolution is of crystallization of a global scale magma ocean, giving rise to the anorthositic crust and mafic cumulate interior. It is thought that all other lunar rocks have arisen from this differentiated interior. However, until recently this paradigm has remained untested experimentally. Presented here are the first experimental results of fractional crystallization of a Lunar Magma Ocean (LMO) using the Taylor Whole Moon (TWM) bulk lunar composition [1].

  16. Seismometer reading from impact made by Lunar Module ascent stage (United States)


    The seismometer reading from the impact made by the Lunar Module ascent stage when it struck the lunar surface. The impact was registered by the Passive Seismic Experiment Package (PSEP) which was deployed on the Moon by the Apollo 12 astronauts. The Lunar module's ascent stage was jettisoned and sent toward impact on the Moon after Astronauts Charles Conrad Jr. and Alan L. Bean returned to lunar orbit and rejoined Astronaut Richard F. Gordon Jr., in the Command/Service Modules.

  17. Isotope fractionation of cadmium in lunar material (United States)

    Schediwy, S.; Rosman, K. J. R.; de Laeter, J. R.


    The double spike technique has been used to measure the isotope fractionation and elemental abundance of Cd in nine lunar samples, the Brownfield meteorite and the Columbia River Basalt BCR-1, by thermal ionisation mass spectrometry. Lunar soil samples give a tightly grouped set of positive isotope fractionation values of between + 0.42% and + 0.50% per mass unit. Positive isotope fractionation implies that the heavy isotopes are enhanced with respect to those of the Laboratory Standard. A vesicular mare basalt gave zero isotope fractionation, indicating that the Cd isotopic composition of the Moon is identical to that of the Earth. A sample of orange glass from the Taurus-Littrow region gave a negative isotope fractionation of - 0.23 ± 0.06% per mass unit, presumably as a result of redeposition of Cd from the Cd-rich vapour cloud associated with volcanism. Cadmium is by far the heaviest element to show isotope fractionation effects in lunar samples. The volatile nature of Cd is of importance in explaining these isotope fractionation results. Although a number of mechanisms have been postulated to be the cause of isotope fractionation of certain elements in lunar soils, we believe that the most likely mechanisms are ion and particle bombardment of the lunar surface.

  18. Lunar base - A stepping stone to Mars (United States)

    Duke, M. B.; Mendell, W. W.; Roberts, B. B.


    Basic elements of technology and programmatic development are identified that appear relevant to the Case for Mars, starting from a base on the moon. The moon is a logical stepping stone toward human exploration of Mars because a lunar base can provide the first test of human ability to use the resources of another planetary body to provide basic materials for life support. A lunar base can provide the first long-term test of human capability to work and live in a reduced (but not zero) gravity field. A lunar base requires creation of the elements of a space transportation system that will be necessary to deliver large payloads to Mars and the space operations capability and experience necessary to carry out a Mars habitation program efficiently and with high reliability. A lunar base is feasible for the first decade of the 21st Century. Scenarios have been studied that provide advanced capability by 2015 within budget levels that are less than historical U.S. space expenditures (Apollo). Early return on the investment in terms of knowledge, practical experience and lunar products are important in gaining momentum for an expanded human exploration of the solar system and the eventual colonization of Mars.

  19. Lunar and Meteorite Sample Disk for Educators (United States)

    Foxworth, Suzanne; Luckey, M.; McInturff, B.; Allen, J.; Kascak, A.


    NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) has the unique responsibility to curate NASA's extraterrestrial samples from past and future missions. Curation includes documentation, preservation, preparation and distribution of samples for research, education and public outreach. Between 1969 and 1972 six Apollo missions brought back 382 kilograms of lunar rocks, core and regolith samples, from the lunar surface. JSC also curates meteorites collected from a US cooperative effort among NASA, the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the Smithsonian Institution that funds expeditions to Antarctica. The meteorites that are collected include rocks from Moon, Mars, and many asteroids including Vesta. The sample disks for educational use include these different samples. Active relevant learning has always been important to teachers and the Lunar and Meteorite Sample Disk Program provides this active style of learning for students and the general public. The Lunar and Meteorite Sample Disks permit students to conduct investigations comparable to actual scientists. The Lunar Sample Disk contains 6 samples; Basalt, Breccia, Highland Regolith, Anorthosite, Mare Regolith and Orange Soil. The Meteorite Sample Disk contains 6 samples; Chondrite L3, Chondrite H5, Carbonaceous Chondrite, Basaltic Achondrite, Iron and Stony-Iron. Teachers are given different activities that adhere to their standards with the disks. During a Sample Disk Certification Workshop, teachers participate in the activities as students gain insight into the history, formation and geologic processes of the moon, asteroids and meteorites.

  20. Lunar surface exploration using mobile robots (United States)

    Nishida, Shin-Ichiro; Wakabayashi, Sachiko


    A lunar exploration architecture study is being carried out by space agencies. JAXA is carrying out research and development of a mobile robot (rover) to be deployed on the lunar surface for exploration and outpost construction. The main target areas for outpost construction and lunar exploration are mountainous zones. The moon's surface is covered by regolith. Achieving a steady traversal of such irregular terrain constitutes the major technical problem for rovers. A newly developed lightweight crawler mechanism can effectively traverse such irregular terrain because of its low contact force with the ground. This fact was determined on the basis of the mass and expected payload of the rover. This paper describes a plan for Japanese lunar surface exploration using mobile robots, and presents the results of testing and analysis needed in their development. This paper also gives an overview of the lunar exploration robot to be deployed in the SELENE follow-on mission, and the composition of its mobility, navigation, and control systems.

  1. Reorientation of the early lunar pole (United States)

    Takahashi, Futoshi; Tsunakawa, Hideo; Shimizu, Hisayoshi; Shibuya, Hidetoshi; Matsushima, Masaki


    Palaeomagnetic measurements suggest that an active core dynamo operated on the Moon from 4.2 to 3.56 billion years ago. Since the Apollo era, many magnetic anomalies have been observed on the Moon. The magnetization of the lunar crust in some of these regions could preserve the signature of an early dipolar magnetic field generated by a core dynamo. Thus, the magnetic anomalies may yield information about the position of the palaeomagnetic pole during the time that the dynamo operated. Here we present a comprehensive survey of magnetic anomalies on the lunar surface using magnetometer data obtained by the Lunar Prospector and Kaguya lunar orbiters. We extract magnetization vectors from 24 magnetic anomalies using an iterative inversion method and derive the palaeomagnetic poles. We find that the north poles, as well as the antipodal south poles, cluster in two distinct locations: one near the present rotation axis and the other at mid-latitude. The clustering is consistent with a dipole-dominated magnetic field generated in the lunar core by a dynamo that was reversing, much like that of Earth. Furthermore, the two pole clusters imply that the Moon experienced a polar wander event during its ancient history due to the reorientation of the Moon with respect to its spin axis by 45°-60°.

  2. Design of a lunar oxygen production plant (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Ramalingam


    To achieve permanent human presence and activity on the moon, oxygen is required for both life support and propulsion. Lunar oxygen production using resources existing on the moon will reduce or eliminate the need to transport liquid oxygen from earth. In addition, the co-products of oxygen production will provide metals, structural ceramics, and other volatile compounds. This will enable development of even greater self-sufficiency as the lunar outpost evolves. Ilmenite is the most abundant metal-oxide mineral in the lunar regolith. A process involving the reaction of ilmenite with hydrogen at 1000 C to produce water, followed by the electrolysis of this water to provide oxygen and recycle the hydrogen has been explored. The objective of this 1990 Summer Faculty Project was to design a lunar oxygen-production plant to provide 5 metric tons of liquid oxygen per year from lunar soil. The results of this study describe the size and mass of the equipment, the power needs, feedstock quantity and the engineering details of the plant.

  3. Lunar Solar Origins Exploration (LunaSOX) (United States)

    Cooper, John F.; King, Joseph H.; Papitashvili, Natasha; Lipatov, Alexander S.; Sittler, Edward C.; Hartle, Richard E.


    The Moon offers a unique vantage point from which to investigate the Sun and its interaction via the solar wind magnetic fields, plasma, and energetic particles with the geospace system including the Moon itself. The lunar surface and exosphere provide in part a record of solar coronal plasma material input and resultant space weathering over billions of years. The structure and dynamics of solar wind interactions with the Moon provide an accessible near-Earth laboratory environment for study of general solar wind interactions with the vast multitude of airless asteroidal bodies of the inner solar system. Spacecraft in lunar orbit have the often simultaneous opportunity, except when in the Earth's magnetosphere, to make in-situ compositional measurements of the solar wind plasma and to carry out remote observations from the Moon of the solar corona, potentially enabled by lunar limb occultation of the solar disk. The LunaSOX project at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center is addressing these heliophysical science objectives from and of the Moon with support from NASA's Lunar Advanced Science and Exploration Research (LASER) program: (1) specify history of solar wind parameters at and sunward of the Moon through enhanced access ( to legacy and operational mission data products from the Apollo era to the present, (2) model field and plasma interactions with the lunar surface, exosphere, and wake, as constrained by the available data, through hybrid kinetic code simulations, and (3) advance mission concepts for heliophysics from and of the Moon.

  4. Delayed hypertrophic differentiation of epiphyseal chondrocytes contributes to failed secondary ossification in mucopolysaccharidosis VII dogs. (United States)

    Peck, Sun H; O'Donnell, Philip J M; Kang, Jennifer L; Malhotra, Neil R; Dodge, George R; Pacifici, Maurizio; Shore, Eileen M; Haskins, Mark E; Smith, Lachlan J


    Mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) VII is a lysosomal storage disorder characterized by deficient β-glucuronidase activity, which leads to the accumulation of incompletely degraded glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). MPS VII patients present with severe skeletal abnormalities, which are particularly prevalent in the spine. Incomplete cartilage-to-bone conversion in MPS VII vertebrae during postnatal development is associated with progressive spinal deformity and spinal cord compression. The objectives of this study were to determine the earliest postnatal developmental stage at which vertebral bone disease manifests in MPS VII and to identify the underlying cellular basis of impaired cartilage-to-bone conversion, using the naturally-occurring canine model. Control and MPS VII dogs were euthanized at 9 and 14 days-of-age, and vertebral secondary ossification centers analyzed using micro-computed tomography, histology, qPCR, and protein immunoblotting. Imaging studies and mRNA analysis of bone formation markers established that secondary ossification commences between 9 and 14 days in control animals, but not in MPS VII animals. mRNA analysis of differentiation markers revealed that MPS VII epiphyseal chondrocytes are unable to successfully transition from proliferation to hypertrophy during this critical developmental window. Immunoblotting demonstrated abnormal persistence of Sox9 protein in MPS VII cells between 9 and 14 days-of-age, and biochemical assays revealed abnormally high intra and extracellular GAG content in MPS VII epiphyseal cartilage at as early as 9 days-of-age. In contrast, assessment of vertebral growth plates and primary ossification centers revealed no significant abnormalities at either age. The results of this study establish that failed vertebral bone formation in MPS VII can be traced to the failure of epiphyseal chondrocytes to undergo hypertrophic differentiation at the appropriate developmental stage, and suggest that aberrant processing of Sox9 protein

  5. Carbon as the dominant light element in the lunar core

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenstra, E.S.; Lin, Y.; Rai, N.; Jansen, M.; van Westrenen, W.


    Geophysical and geochemical observations point to the presence of a light element in the lunar core, but the exact abundance and type of light element are poorly constrained. Accurate constraints on lunar core composition are vital for models of lunar core dynamo onset and demise, core formation

  6. Immune Alterations in Rats Exposed to Airborne Lunar Dust (United States)

    Crucian, Brian; Quiriarte, Heather; Nelman, Mayra; Lam, Chiu-wing; James, John T.; Sams, Clarence


    The lunar surface is covered by a layer of fine, reactive dust. Very little is known regarding the toxicity of lunar dust on human physiology. This study assessed the toxicity of airborne lunar dust exposure in rats on pulmonary and systemic immune parameters.

  7. Astronaut Neil Armstrong participates in lunar surface siumlation training (United States)


    Astronaut Neil Armstrong, wearing an Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), participates in lunar surface siumlation training on April 18, 1969 in bldg 9, Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC). Armstrong is prime crew commander of the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission. Here, he is opening a sample return container. At the right is the Modular Equipment Stowage Assembly (MESA) and the Lunar Module Mockup.

  8. Astronaut Neil Armstrong participates in lunar surface simulation training (United States)


    Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, wearing an Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), participates in lunar surface simulation training on April 18, 1969 in bldg 9, Manned Spacecraft Center. Armstrong is the prime crew commander of the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission. Here, he is standing on Lunar Module mockup foot pad preparing to ascend steps.

  9. Apollo 16 Lunar Module 'Orion' at the Descartes landing site (United States)


    The Apollo 16 Lunar Module 'Orion' is part of the lunar scene at the Descartes landing site, as seen in the reproduction taken from a color television transmission made by the color TV camera mounted on the Lunar Roving Vehicle. Note the U.S. flag deployed on the left. This picture was made during the second Apollo 16 extravehicular activity (EVA-2).

  10. Dietary changes in fasting levels of factor VII coagulant activity (FVII:C) are accompanied by changes in factor VII protein and other vitamin K-dependent proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladbjerg, Else-Marie; Tholstrup, T; Marckmann, P


    The mechanisms behind dietary effects on fasting coagulant activity of factor VII (FVII:C) are not clarified. In the present study of 15 young volunteers, two experimental diets differing in composition of saturated fatty acids (C18:0 [diet S] or C12:0 + C14:0 [diet ML]) were served for 3 weeks...

  11. Tests of Gravity Using Lunar Laser Ranging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen M. Merkowitz


    Full Text Available Lunar laser ranging (LLR has been a workhorse for testing general relativity over the past four decades. The three retroreflector arrays put on the Moon by the Apollo astronauts and the French built arrays on the Soviet Lunokhod rovers continue to be useful targets, and have provided the most stringent tests of the Strong Equivalence Principle and the time variation of Newton’s gravitational constant. The relatively new ranging system at the Apache Point 3.5 meter telescope now routinely makes millimeter level range measurements. Incredibly, it has taken 40 years for ground station technology to advance to the point where characteristics of the lunar retroreflectors are limiting the precision of the range measurements. In this article, we review the gravitational science and technology of lunar laser ranging and discuss prospects for the future.

  12. A synthesis of lunar highlands compositional data (United States)

    Korotev, R. L.; Haskin, L. A.; Lindstrom, M. M.


    Based on compositions of lunar soils and endogeneous highland rocks and mineral phase relationships, a composition for the non-KREEP, mafic portion of the lunar highlands is determined through the use of a mixing model. It is found that the most common materials making up the surface highlands appear to be ferroan anorthosite (FAN) and a material of olivine norite composition (HON, highlands olivine norite) in roughly equal proportions. It is also found that the composition of HON is similar to that of the residual liquid from crystallization of FAN and that the proportion of FAN to HON at the lunar surface appears to be much higher than the phase relations allow for the extent of evolution of HON from a primitive plagioclase-saturated liquid. This is seen as implying an excess of FAN in the upper highlands.

  13. The Skylab lunar multispectral scanner data (United States)

    Seeger, C. R.; Potter, A. E.


    Skylab S-192 multispectral scanner data, in 12 bands covering wavelengths from 0.41 to 2.3 microns, have been investigated to identify and classify geologic units of the lunar surface. Seventeen spectral cluster classes have been identified, seven in the highlands, seven in the maria, and three of which occur in both or in border regions. This finding may be roughly indicative of the relative heterogeneity of these regions. It implies that there is as much heterogeneity in the highlands as in the maria. This work extends the spectral and aerial coverage of similar studies of the lunar surface and provides useful data for comparison for most of the lunar near side.

  14. The lunar eclipse over Merritt Island, Fla. (United States)


    Traveling west to east, the full moon, viewed from Merritt Island, Fla., at 10:35 p.m. EST, moves into the Earth's shadow during a lunar eclipse. Eclipses occur when the Sun, Earth and Moon line up. They are rare because the Moon usually passes above or below the imaginary line connecting Earth and the Sun. The Earth casts a shadow that the Moon can pass through when it does, it is called a lunar eclipse. They can only occur when the moon is 'full.' During a total lunar eclipse the Moon takes on a dark red color because it is being lighted slightly by sunlight passing through the Earth's atmosphere and this light has the blue component preferentially scattered out (this is also why the sky appears blue from the surface of the Earth), leaving faint reddish light to illuminate the Moon during the eclipse.

  15. The Open Gateway: Lunar Exploration in 2050 (United States)

    Lawrence, S.; Neal, C.


    The Moon, with its fundamental science questions and abundant, potentially useful re-sources, is the most viable destination for near-term future human and robotic exploration. Given what we have learned since Apollo, the lunar frontier now presents an entirely new paradigm for planetary exploration. The Lunar Exploration Roadmap [1], which was jointly developed by engineers, planetary scientists, commercial entities, and policymakers, is the cohesive strategic plan for using the Moon and its resources to enable the exploration of all other destinations within the Solar system by leveraging incremental, affordable investments in cislunar infrastructure. Here, we summarize the Lunar Exploration Roadmap, and describe the immense benefits that will arise from its successful implementation.

  16. Lunar Radio Telescopes: A Staged Approach for Lunar Science, Heliophysics, Astrobiology, Cosmology, and Exploration (United States)

    Lazio, Joseph; Bowman, Judd D.; Burns, Jack O.; Farrell, W. M.; Jones, D. L.; Kasper, J. C.; MacDowall, R. J.; Stewart, K. P.; Weiler, K.


    Observations with radio telescopes address key problems in cosmology, astrobiology, heliophysics, and planetary science including the first light in the Universe (Cosmic Dawn), magnetic fields of extrasolar planets, particle acceleration mechanisms, and the lunar ionosphere. The Moon is a unique science platform because it allows access to radio frequencies that do not penetrate the Earth's ionosphere and because its far side is shielded from intense terrestrial emissions. The instrument packages and infrastructure needed for radio telescopes can be transported and deployed as part of Exploration activities, and the resulting science measurements may inform Exploration (e.g., measurements of lunar surface charging). An illustrative roadmap for the staged deployment of lunar radio telescopes

  17. Building an Economical and Sustainable Lunar Infrastructure to Enable Lunar Science and Space Commerce (United States)

    Zuniga, Allison; Turner, Mark; Rasky, Dan


    A new concept study was initiated to examine the framework needed to gradually develop an economical and sustainable lunar infrastructure using a public private partnerships approach. This approach would establish partnership agreements between NASA and industry teams to develop cis-lunar and surface capabilities for mutual benefit while sharing cost and risk in the development phase and then allowing for transfer of operation of these infrastructure services back to its industry owners in the execution phase. These infrastructure services may include but are not limited to the following: lunar cargo transportation, power stations, energy storage devices, communication relay satellites, local communication towers, and surface mobility operations.

  18. Providing culturally competent care: residents in HRSA Title VII funded residency programs feel better prepared. (United States)

    Green, Alexander R; Betancourt, Joseph R; Park, Elyse R; Greer, Joseph A; Donahue, Elizabeth J; Weissman, Joel S


    The Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) funds primary care residency programs through its Title VII training grants, with a goal of ensuring a well-prepared, culturally competent physician workforce. The authors sought to determine whether primary care residents in Title VII-funded training programs feel better prepared than those in nonfunded programs to provide care to culturally diverse patients. The authors analyzed data from a national mailed survey of senior resident physicians conducted in 2003-2004. Of 1,467 randomly selected family medicine, internal medicine, and pediatrics residents, 866 responded--403 in Title VII-funded programs and 463 in nonfunded programs (response rate = 59%). The survey included 28 Likert-response questions about residents' preparedness and perceived skills to provide cross-cultural care, sociodemographics, and residency characteristics. Residents in Title VII-funded programs were more likely than others to report being prepared to provide cross-cultural care across all 8 measures (odds ratio [OR] = 1.54-2.61, P experience related to cross-cultural care (e.g., role models, cross-cultural training, and attitudes of attending physicians) accounted for many of the differences in self-reported preparedness and skills. Senior residents in HRSA Title VII-funded primary care residency training programs feel better prepared than others to provide culturally competent care. This may be partially explained by better cross-cultural training experiences in HRSA Title VII-funded programs.This article is part of a theme issue of Academic Medicine on the Title VII health professions training programs.

  19. LROC Advances in Lunar Science (United States)

    Robinson, M. S.


    Since entering orbit in 2009 the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) has acquired over 700,000 Wide Angle Camera (WAC) and Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) images of the Moon. This new image collection is fueling research into the origin and evolution of the Moon. NAC images revealed a volcanic complex 35 x 25 km (60N, 100E), between Compton and Belkovich craters (CB). The CB terrain sports volcanic domes and irregular depressed areas (caldera-like collapses). The volcanic complex corresponds to an area of high-silica content (Diviner) and high Th (Lunar Prospector). A low density of impact craters on the CB complex indicates a relatively young age. The LROC team mapped over 150 volcanic domes and 90 volcanic cones in the Marius Hills (MH), many of which were not previously identified. Morphology and compositional estimates (Diviner) indicate that MH domes are silica poor, and are products of low-effusion mare lavas. Impact melt deposits are observed with Copernican impact craters (>10 km) on exterior ejecta, the rim, inner wall, and crater floors. Preserved impact melt flow deposits are observed around small craters (25 km diam.), and estimated melt volumes exceed predictions. At these diameters the amount of melt predicted is small, and melt that is produced is expected to be ejected from the crater. However, we observe well-defined impact melt deposits on the floor of highland craters down to 200 m diameter. A globally distributed population of previously undetected contractional structures were discovered. Their crisp appearance and associated impact crater populations show that they are young landforms (<1 Ga). NAC images also revealed small extensional troughs. Crosscutting relations with small-diameter craters and depths as shallow as 1 m indicate ages <50 Ma. These features place bounds on the amount of global radial contraction and the level of compressional stress in the crust. WAC temporal coverage of the poles allowed quantification of highly

  20. MSFC Robotic Lunar Lander Testbed and Current Status of the International Lunar Network (ILN) Anchor Nodes Mission (United States)

    Cohen, Barbara; Bassler, Julie; Harris, Danny; Morse, Brian; Reed, Cheryl; Kirby, Karen; Eng, Douglas


    The lunar lander robotic exploration testbed at Marshall Spaceflight Center provides a test environment for robotic lander test articles, components and algorithms to reduce the risk on the airless body designs during lunar landing. Also included is a chart comparing the two different types of Anchor nodes for the International Lunar Network (ILN): Solar/Battery and the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope generator (ARSG.)

  1. Strategi Peningkatan Kualitas Pelayanan Jasa Transportasi Kereta Api (Studi Pada PT. Kereta Api Indonesia (Persero) Dearah Operasi VII Madiun)


    Tri Juliyanto, Ilham


    : Quality Improvement Strategy Railway Transportation Services (Studi pada PT. Kereta Api Indonesia (Persero) Daerah Operasi VII Madiun). This research intended to discover the strategic which applied by PT. KAI DAOP VII Madiun for increasing the quality of service in train transportation, supporting factor and inhibiting factor strategic in increase of quality of service of PT. KAI DAOP VII Madiun. In this research, uses descriptive research with qualitative approach and use analysis method ...

  2. Apollo Lunar Sample Photograph Digitization Project Update (United States)

    Todd, N. S.; Lofgren, G. E.


    This is an update of the progress of a 4-year data restoration project effort funded by the LASER program to digitize photographs of the Apollo lunar rock samples and create high resolution digital images and undertaken by the Astromaterials Acquisition and Curation Office at JSC [1]. The project is currently in its last year of funding. We also provide an update on the derived products that make use of the digitized photos including the Lunar Sample Catalog and Photo Database[2], Apollo Sample data files for GoogleMoon[3].

  3. Lunar Flashlight: Illuminating the Moon's South Pole (United States)

    Hayne, P. O.; Cohen, B. A.; Greenhagen, B. T.; Paige, D. A.; Camacho, J. M.; Sellar, R. G.; Reiter, J.


    Recent reflectance data from LRO instruments suggest water ice and other volatiles may be present on the surface in lunar permanently shadowed regions, though the detection is not yet definitive. Understanding the composition, quantity, distribution, and form of water and other volatiles associated with lunar permanently shadowed regions (PSRs) is identified as a NASA Strategic Knowledge Gap (SKG) for Human Exploration. These polar volatile deposits are also scientifically interesting, having the potential to reveal important information about the delivery of water to the Earth-Moon system.

  4. Lunar magnetism and an early cold moon (United States)

    Strangway, D. W.; Sharpe, H. A.


    Models of lunar magnetism have involved dynamo action in a fluid core in an early hot moon; an early cold moon magnetized some time before 4 billion years ago, which has subsequently heated up; and local field sources which, in some models, are related to impact. The present work examines the second possibility and shows that, provided the moon contained a few percent of metallic iron and was exposed to an extra-lunar field of about 10 or 20 oersted while much of it was still below the Curie point of iron, a restricted class of thermal evolution models, which satisfy the known constraints, can be derived.

  5. Analysis of lunar samples for carbon compounds. (United States)

    Kvenvolden, K. A.


    Description of one approach to the analysis for carbon compounds in lunar materials from the Apollo 11 mission. The sequential scheme followed generally accepted organic geochemical practices, but was unusual in its application to a single sample. The procedures of the scheme were designed to minimize handling of the solids and extracts or hydrolysates. The solid lunar sample was retained in all steps of the sequential analysis in the vessel in which it was originally placed. Centrifugation was used to separate solid and liquid phases after extraction or refluxing. Liquids were recovered from solids by decantation.

  6. Scientific investigations at a lunar base. (United States)

    Duke, M B; Mendell, W W


    Scientific investigations to be carried out at a lunar base can have significant impact on the location, extent, and complexity of lunar surface facilities. Among the potential research activities to be carried out are: (1) Lunar Science: Studies of the origin and history of the Moon and early solar system, based on lunar field investigations, operation of networks of seismic and other instruments, and collection and analysis of materials; (2) Space Plasma Physics: Studies of the time variation of the charged particles of the solar wind, solar flares and cosmic rays that impact the Moon as it moves in and out of the magnetotail of the Earth; (3) Astronomy: Utilizing the lunar environment and stability of the surface to emplace arrays of astronomical instruments across the electromagnetic spectrum to improve spectral and spatial resolution by several orders of magnitude beyond the Hubble Space Telescope and other space observatories; (4) Fundamental physics and chemistry: Research that takes advantage of the lunar environment, such as high vacuum, low magnetic field, and thermal properties to carry out new investigations in chemistry and physics. This includes material sciences and applications; (5) Life Sciences: Experiments, such as those that require extreme isolation, highly sterile conditions, or very low natural background of organic materials may be possible; and (6) Lunar environmental science: Because many of the experiments proposed for the lunar surface depend on the special environment of the Moon, it will be necessary to understand the mechanisms that are active and which determine the major aspects of that environment, particularly the maintenance of high-vacuum conditions. From a large range of experiments, investigations and facilities that have been suggested, three specific classes of investigations are described in greater detail to show how site selection and base complexity may be affected: (1) Extended geological investigation of a complex

  7. Scientific investigations at a lunar base (United States)

    Duke, Michael B.; Mendell, Wendell W.

    Scientific investigations to be carried out at a lunar base can have significant impact on the location, extent, and complexity of lunar surface facilities. Among the potential research activities to be carried out are: (1) Lunar Science: Studies of the origin and history of the Moon and early solar system, based on lunar field investigations, operation of networks of seismic and other instruments, and collection and analysis of materials; (2) Space Plasma Physics: Studies of the time variation of the charged particles of the solar wind, solar flares and cosmic rays that impact the Moon as it moves in and out of the magnetotail of the Earth; (3) Astronomy: Utilizing the lunar environment and stability of the surface to emplace arrays of astronomical instruments across the electromagnetic spectrum to improve spectral and spatial resolution by several orders of magnitude beyond the Hubble Space Telescope and other space observatories; (4) Fundamental physics and chemistry: Research that takes advantage of the lunar environment, such as high vacuum, low magnetic field, and thermal properties to carry out new investigations in chemistry and physics. This includes material sciences and applications; (5) Life Sciences: Experiments, such as those that require extreme isolation, highly sterile conditions, or very low natural background of organic materials may be possible; and (6) Lunar environmental science: Because many of the experiments proposed for the lunar surface depend on the special environment of the Moon, it will be necessary to understand the mechanisms that are active and which determine the major aspects of that environment, particularly the maintenance of high-vacuum conditions. From a large range of experiments, investigations and facilities that have been suggested, three specific classes of investigations are described in greater detail to show how site selection and base complexity may be affected: (1) Extended geological investigation of a complex

  8. Scientific investigations at a lunar base (United States)

    Duke, M. B.; Mendell, W. W.


    Scientific investigations to be carried out at a lunar base can have significant impact on the location, extent, and complexity of lunar surface facilities. Among the potential research activities to be carried out are: (1) Lunar Science: Studies of the origin and history of the Moon and early solar system, based on lunar field investigations, operation of networks of seismic and other instruments, and collection and analysis of materials; (2) Space Plasma Physics: Studies of the time variation of the charged particles of the solar wind, solar flares and cosmic rays that impact the Moon as it moves in and out of the magnetotail of the Earth; (3) Astronomy: Utilizing the lunar environment and stability of the surface to emplace arrays of astronomical instruments across the electromagnetic spectrum to improve spectral and spatial resolution by several orders of magnitude beyond the Hubble Space Telescope and other space observatories; (4) Fundamental physics and chemistry: Research that takes advantage of the lunar environment, such as high vacuum, low magnetic field, and thermal properties to carry out new investigations in chemistry and physics. This includes material sciences and applications; (5) Life Sciences: Experiments, such as those that require extreme isolation, highly sterile conditions, or very low natural background of organic materials may be possible; and (6) Lunar environmental science: Because many of the experiments proposed for the lunar surface depend on the special environment of the Moon, it will be necessary to understand the mechanisms that are active and which determine the major aspects of that environment, particularly the maintenance of high-vacuum conditions. From a large range of experiments, investigations and facilities that have been suggested, three specific classes of investigations are described in greater detail to show how site selection and base complexity may be affected: (1) Extended geological investigation of a complex

  9. Lunar Navigator - A Miniature, Fully Autonomous, Lunar Navigation, Surveyor, and Range Finder System Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Microcosm proposes to design and develop a fully autonomous Lunar Navigator based on our MicroMak miniature star sensor and a gravity gradiometer similar to one on a...

  10. Building an Economical and Sustainable Lunar Infrastructure to Enable Lunar Science and Space Commerce (United States)

    Zuniga, A. F.; Turner, M. F.; Rasky, D. J.


    A new concept study was initiated to examine and analyze architecture concepts for an economical and sustainable lunar infrastructure system that can extend the life, functionality, and distance traveled of surface mobility missions.

  11. Lunar Navigator - A Miniature, Fully Autonomous, Lunar Navigation, Surveyor, and Range Finder System Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Microcosm will use existing hardware and software from related programs to create a prototype Lunar Navigation Sensor (LNS) early in Phase II, such that most of the...

  12. Multi-state autonomous drilling for lunar exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Chongbin


    Full Text Available Due to the lack of information of subsurface lunar regolith stratification which varies along depth, the drilling device may encounter lunar soil and lunar rock randomly in the drilling process. To meet the load safety requirements of unmanned sampling mission under limited orbital resources, the control strategy of autonomous drilling should adapt to the indeterminable lunar environments. Based on the analysis of two types of typical drilling media (i.e., lunar soil and lunar rock, this paper proposes a multi-state control strategy for autonomous lunar drilling. To represent the working circumstances in the lunar subsurface and reduce the complexity of the control algorithm, lunar drilling process was categorized into three drilling states: the interface detection, initiation of drilling parameters for recognition and drilling medium recognition. Support vector machine (SVM and continuous wavelet transform were employed for the online recognition of drilling media and interface, respectively. Finite state machine was utilized to control the transition among different drilling states. To verify the effectiveness of the multi-state control strategy, drilling experiments were implemented with multi-layered drilling media constructed by lunar soil simulant and lunar rock simulant. The results reveal that the multi-state control method is capable of detecting drilling state variation and adjusting drilling parameters timely under vibration interferences. The multi-state control method provides a feasible reference for the control of extraterrestrial autonomous drilling.

  13. Research on lunar materials. [optical, chemical, and electrical properties (United States)

    Gold, T.


    Abstracts of 14 research reports relating to investigations of lunar samples are presented. The principal topics covered include: (1) optical properties of surface and core samples; (2) chemical composition of the surface layers of lunar grains: Auger electron spectroscopy of lunar soil and ground rock samples; (3) high frequency electrical properties of lunar soil and rock samples and their relevance for the interpretation of lunar radar observations; (4) the electrostatic dust transport process; (5) secondary electron emission characteristics of lunar soil samples and their relevance to the dust transportation process; (6) grain size distribution in surface soil and core samples; and (7) the optical and chemical effects of simulated solar wind (2keV proton and a particle radiation) on lunar material.

  14. The International Lunar Network (ILN) Anchor Nodes Mission Update (United States)

    Cohen, B. A.; Bassler, J. A.; McDougal, J. M.; Harris, D. W.; Hill, L.; Hammond, M. S.; Morse, B. J.; Reed, C. L. B.; Kirby, K. W.; Morgan, T. H.


    NASA s Science Mission Directorate (SMD) established the Lunar Quest Program (LQP) to accomplish lunar science objectives embodied in the National Academies report The Scientific Context for Exploration of the Moon (2007) and the NASA Advisory Council-sponsored Workshop on Science Associated with the Lunar Exploration Architecture (2007). A major element of LQP's lunar flight projects is the International Lunar Network (ILN), a network of small geophysical nodes on the lunar surface. NASA plans to provide the first two stations around 2014 and a second pair in the 2016-2017 timeframe. International involvement to provide additional stations will build up the network so that 8-10 nodes could be simultaneously operating. This flight project complements SMD's initiatives to build a robust lunar science community through R&A lines and increases international participation in NASA's robotic exploration of the moon.

  15. Heterogeneity in lunar anorthosite meteorites: implications for the lunar magma ocean model. (United States)

    Russell, Sara S; Joy, Katherine H; Jeffries, Teresa E; Consolmagno, Guy J; Kearsley, Anton


    The lunar magma ocean model is a well-established theory of the early evolution of the Moon. By this model, the Moon was initially largely molten and the anorthositic crust that now covers much of the lunar surface directly crystallized from this enormous magma source. We are undertaking a study of the geochemical characteristics of anorthosites from lunar meteorites to test this model. Rare earth and other element abundances have been measured in situ in relict anorthosite clasts from two feldspathic lunar meteorites: Dhofar 908 and Dhofar 081. The rare earth elements were present in abundances of approximately 0.1 to approximately 10× chondritic (CI) abundance. Every plagioclase exhibited a positive Eu-anomaly, with Eu abundances of up to approximately 20×CI. Calculations of the melt in equilibrium with anorthite show that it apparently crystallized from a magma that was unfractionated with respect to rare earth elements and ranged in abundance from 8 to 80×CI. Comparisons of our data with other lunar meteorites and Apollo samples suggest that there is notable heterogeneity in the trace element abundances of lunar anorthosites, suggesting these samples did not all crystallize from a common magma source. Compositional and isotopic data from other authors also suggest that lunar anorthosites are chemically heterogeneous and have a wide range of ages. These observations may support other models of crust formation on the Moon or suggest that there are complexities in the lunar magma ocean scenario to allow for multiple generations of anorthosite formation. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  16. NASA's International Lunar Network Anchor Nodes and Robotic Lunar Lander Project Update (United States)

    Cohen, Barbara A.; Bassler, Julie A.; Ballard, Benjamin; Chavers, Greg; Eng, Doug S.; Hammond, Monica S.; Hill, Larry A.; Harris, Danny W.; Hollaway, Todd A.; Kubota, Sanae; hide


    NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory have been conducting mission studies and performing risk reduction activities for NASA's robotic lunar lander flight projects. Additional mission studies have been conducted to support other objectives of the lunar science and exploration community and extensive risk reduction design and testing has been performed to advance the design of the lander system and reduce development risk for flight projects.

  17. Technetium (VII) Co-precipitation with Framework Aluminosilicates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harsh, James B. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Dickson, Johnbull Otah [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Pierce, Eric M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bargar, John [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)


    Technetium-99 (99Tc), a long-lived radionuclide, is one of the most widespread contaminants within the Hanford subsurface. At some depths, it is only extractable with strong acids, suggesting incorporation into a solid phase. We hypothesized that Tc may have coprecipitated with feldspathoid aluminosilicates under waste tanks that had leaked caustic solutions into the vadose zone. Our objectives were to determine if Tc could be incorporated into the feldspathoids cancrinite and sodalite and under what conditions coprecipitation could occur. Our hypothesis was that sodalite was more likely to incorporate and retain Tc. Our approach was to use known methods of feldspathoid formation in solutions resembling those in Hanford waste tanks contacting sediments in terms of major ion (Na, NO3, OH, Al(OH)4, and Si(OH)4 concentrations. In some cases, Al and Si were supplied from zeolite. We used perrhenate (ReO4) as a surrogate for pertechnetate (TcO4) to avoid the radioactivity. The major findings of this study were 1) ReO4 could be incorporated into either sodalite or cancrinite but the concentration in the solid was < 1% of the competing ion Cl, NO3, or NO2. 2) The small amount of ReO4 incorporated was not exchangeable with NO3 or NO2. 3) In sodalite, NO3 was highly preferred over ReO4 but significant Re-sodalite was formed when the mole fraction in solution (Re/Re+N) exceeded 0.8. 4) A nonlinear relation between the unit cell parameter and amount of Re incorporated suggested that a separate Re-sodalite phase was formed rather than a solid solution. 5) We determined that sodalite preference for sodalite in the presence of different anions increased with the ionic size of the competing anion: Cl < CO3 < NO3 < SO4 < MnO4 < WO4 and significant incorporation did not occur unless the difference in anion radii was less than 12%. 6) Re(VII) was not significantly reduced to Re(IV) under the conditions of this experiment and Re appeared to be a good surrogate for Tc under oxidizing

  18. Can Fractional Crystallization of a Lunar Magma Ocean Produce the Lunar Crust? (United States)

    Rapp, Jennifer F.; Draper, David S.


    New techniques enable the study of Apollo samples and lunar meteorites in unprecedented detail, and recent orbital spectral data reveal more about the lunar farside than ever before, raising new questions about the supposed simplicity of lunar geology. Nevertheless, crystallization of a global-scale magma ocean remains the best model to account for known lunar lithologies. Crystallization of a lunar magma ocean (LMO) is modeled to proceed by two end-member processes - fractional crystallization from (mostly) the bottom up, or initial equilibrium crystallization as the magma is vigorously convecting and crystals remain entrained, followed by crystal settling and a final period of fractional crystallization [1]. Physical models of magma viscosity and convection at this scale suggest that both processes are possible. We have been carrying out high-fidelity experimental simulations of LMO crystallization using two bulk compositions that can be regarded as end-members in the likely relevant range: Taylor Whole Moon (TWM) [2] and Lunar Primitive Upper Mantle (LPUM) [3]. TWM is enriched in refractory elements by 1.5 times relative to Earth, whereas LPUM is similar to the terrestrial primitive upper mantle, with adjustments made for the depletion of volatile alkalis observed on the Moon. Here we extend our earlier equilibrium-crystallization experiments [4] with runs simulating full fractional crystallization

  19. Lunar regolith stratigraphy analysis based on the simulation of lunar penetrating radar signals (United States)

    Lai, Jialong; Xu, Yi; Zhang, Xiaoping; Tang, Zesheng


    The thickness of lunar regolith is an important index of evaluating the quantity of lunar resources such as 3He and relative geologic ages. Lunar penetrating radar (LPR) experiment of Chang'E-3 mission provided an opportunity of in situ lunar subsurface structure measurement in the northern mare imbrium area. However, prior work on analyzing LPR data obtained quite different conclusions of lunar regolith structure mainly because of the missing of clear interface reflectors in radar image. In this paper, we utilized finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method and three models of regolith structures with different rock density, number of layers, shapes of interfaces, and etc. to simulate the LPR signals for the interpretation of radar image. The simulation results demonstrate that the scattering signals caused by numerous buried rocks in the regolith can mask the horizontal reflectors, and the die-out of radar echo does not indicate the bottom of lunar regolith layer and data processing such as migration method could recover some of the subsurface information but also result in fake signals. Based on analysis of simulation results, we conclude that LPR results uncover the subsurface layered structure containing the rework zone with multiple ejecta blankets of small crater, the ejecta blanket of Chang'E-3 crater, and the transition zone and estimate the thickness of the detected layer is about 3.25 m.

  20. Physical properties of lunar craters (United States)

    Joshi, Maitri P.; Bhatt, Kushal P.; Jain, Rajmal


    The surface of the Moon is highly cratered due to impacts of meteorites, asteroids, comets and other celestial objects. The origin, size, structure, age and composition vary among craters. We study a total of 339 craters observed by the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC). Out of these 339 craters, 214 craters are known (named craters included in the IAU Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature) and 125 craters are unknown (craters that are not named and objects that are absent in the IAU Gazetteer). We employ images taken by LROC at the North and South Poles and near side of the Moon. We report for the first time the study of unknown craters, while we also review the study of known craters conducted earlier by previous researchers. Our study is focused on measurements of diameter, depth, latitude and longitude of each crater for both known and unknown craters. The diameter measurements are based on considering the Moon to be a spherical body. The LROC website also provides a plot which enables us to measure the depth and diameter. We found that out of 214 known craters, 161 craters follow a linear relationship between depth (d) and diameter (D), but 53 craters do not follow this linear relationship. We study physical dimensions of these 53 craters and found that either the depth does not change significantly with diameter or the depths are extremely high relative to diameter (conical). Similarly, out of 125 unknown craters, 78 craters follow the linear relationship between depth (d) and diameter (D) but 47 craters do not follow the linear relationship. We propose that the craters following the scaling law of depth and diameter, also popularly known as the linear relationship between d and D, are formed by the impact of meteorites having heavy metals with larger dimension, while those with larger diameter but less depth are formed by meteorites/celestial objects having low density material but larger diameter. The craters with very high depth and with very small

  1. Microwave Extraction of Lunar Water for Rocket Fuel (United States)

    Ethridge, Edwin C.; Donahue, Benjamin; Kaukler, William


    Nearly 50% of the lunar surface is oxygen, present as oxides in silicate rocks and soil. Methods for reduction of these oxides could liberate the oxygen. Remote sensing has provided evidence of significant quantities of hydrogen possibly indicating hundreds of millions of metric tons, MT, of water at the lunar poles. If the presence of lunar water is verified, water is likely to be the first in situ resource exploited for human exploration and for LOX-H2 rocket fuel. In-Situ lunar resources offer unique advantages for space operations. Each unit of product produced on the lunar surface represents 6 units that need not to be launched into LEO. Previous studies have indicated the economic advantage of LOX for space tugs from LEO to GEO. Use of lunar derived LOX in a reusable lunar lander would greatly reduce the LEO mass required for a given payload to the moon. And Lunar LOX transported to L2 has unique advantages for a Mars mission. Several methods exist for extraction of oxygen from the soil. But, extraction of lunar water has several significant advantages. Microwave heating of lunar permafrost has additional important advantages for water extraction. Microwaves penetrate and heat from within not just at the surface and excavation is not required. Proof of concept experiments using a moon in a bottle concept have demonstrated that microwave processing of cryogenic lunar permafrost simulant in a vacuum rapidly and efficiently extracts water by sublimation. A prototype lunar water extraction rover was built and tested for heating of simulant. Microwave power was very efficiently delivered into a simulated lunar soil. Microwave dielectric properties (complex electric permittivity and magnetic permeability) of lunar regolith simulant, JSC-1A, were measured down to cryogenic temperatures and above room temperature. The microwave penetration has been correlated with the measured dielectric properties. Since the microwave penetration depth is a function of temperature

  2. Process to create simulated lunar agglutinate particles (United States)

    Gustafson, Robert J. (Inventor); Gustafson, Marty A. (Inventor); White, Brant C. (Inventor)


    A method of creating simulated agglutinate particles by applying a heat source sufficient to partially melt a raw material is provided. The raw material is preferably any lunar soil simulant, crushed mineral, mixture of crushed minerals, or similar material, and the heat source creates localized heating of the raw material.

  3. Energy conversion evolution at lunar polar sites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lunar polar environments have many advantages from the standpoint of energy supply to robotic and human surface bases.Sunlight is nearly continuous and always horizontal at peaks of perpetual light,while waste heat rejection is aided by the existence of cold,permanently shadowed regions nearby.In this paper a ...

  4. Nanophase Fe0 in lunar soils

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    micrometeorites continue to pound and pulverize its surface and modify its regolith. The average grain size of the surficial material of the moon is about 50µm. The dust produced by the impacts is extremely fine and the grain-size distribution of the submillimeter fraction of the lunar regolith is skewed towards the finest end.

  5. Modeling PPP Economic Benefits for Lunar ISRU (United States)

    Blair, B.


    A new tool is needed for selecting the PPP strategy that could maximize the rate of lunar commercialization by attracting private capital into the development of critical infrastructure and robust capability. A PPP model under development for NASA-ESO will be described.

  6. Energy conversion evolution at lunar polar sites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    growing capabilities at a polar base site. One essential requirement will be exca- vation and moving of regolith, for example to pile lunar material on top of a habitat for radia- tion shielding and thermal control. Bringing solar- derived energy into ...

  7. Moonstruck how lunar cycles affect life

    CERN Document Server

    Naylor, Ernest


    Throughout history, the influence of the full Moon on humans and animals has featured in folklore and myths. Yet it has become increasingly apparent that many organisms really are influenced indirectly, and in some cases directly, by the lunar cycle. Breeding behaviour among some marine animals has been demonstrated to be controlled by internal circalunar biological clocks, to the point where lunar-daily and lunar-monthly patterns of Moon-generated tides are embedded in their genes. Yet, intriguingly, Moon-related behaviours are also found in dry land and fresh water species living far beyond the influence of any tides. In Moonstruck, Ernest Naylor dismisses the myths concerning the influence of the Moon, but shows through a range of fascinating examples the remarkable real effects that we are now finding through science. He suggests that since the advent of evolution on Earth, which occurred shortly after the formation of the Moon, animals evolved adaptations to the lunar cycle, and considers whether, if Moo...

  8. Association between lunar phase and sleep characteristics. (United States)

    Turányi, Csilla Zita; Rónai, Katalin Zsuzsanna; Zoller, Rezső; Véber, Orsolya; Czira, Mária Eszter; Újszászi, Ákos; László, Gergely; Szentkirályi, András; Dunai, Andrea; Lindner, Anett; Szőcs, Julianna Luca; Becze, Ádám; Kelemen, Andrea; Lendvai, Zsófia; Molnar, Miklos Z; Mucsi, István; Novák, Márta


    Popular belief holds that the lunar cycle affects human physiology, behavior, and health, including sleep. To date, only a few and conflicting analyses have been published about the association between lunar phases and sleep. Our aim was to analyze the relationship between lunar phases and sleep characteristics. In this retrospective, cross-sectional analysis, data from 319 patients who had been referred for sleep study were included. Individuals with apnea-hypopnea index ≥ 15/h were excluded. Socio-demographic parameters were recorded. All participants underwent one-night standard polysomnography. Associations between lunar cycle (new moon, full moon and alternate moon) and sleep parameters were examined in unadjusted and adjusted models. Fifty-seven percent of patients were males. Mean age for men was 45 ± 14 years and 51 ± 12 years for women. In total, 224 persons had their sleep study done during alternate moon, 47 during full moon, and 48 during new moon. Full moon was associated with lower sleep efficiency [median (%) (IQR): new moon 82 (18), full moon 74 (19), alternate moon 82 (15); P moon 9 (9), full moon 6 (4), alternate moon 11 (9); P moon 98 (74), full moon 137 (152), alternate moon 97 (76); P moon. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. "International regime for advancing lunar development" (United States)

    Beldavs, VZ


    A specific concern regarding the Moon Treaty is the provision for sharing the wealth gained from space with developing countries that have not invested and taken risks in making possible space materials utilization. Article 11, par. 7 states "The main purposes of the international regime to be established shall include: (a) The orderly and safe development of the natural resources of the moon; (b) The rational management of those resources; (c) The expansion of opportunities in the use of those resources; (d) An equitable sharing by all States Parties in the benefits derived from those resources, whereby the interests and needs of the developing countries, as well as the efforts of those countries which have contributed either directly or indirectly to the exploration of the moon, shall be given special consideration." Whether the Moon Treaty in its present form or modified to be acceptable to more parties or the Moon Treaty is ignored, the language of Article 11, paragraph 7 can be used to construct an international regime for lunar development that can meet the requirements of commercial business as well as of states that provide support for lunar development as well as developing countries that may have played a modest role in making lunar development possible. This paper will consider options for constructing an international regime for lunar development.

  10. Towards the Next International Lunar Decade (United States)

    Beldavs, Vidvuds


    The idea of an International Lunar Decade (ILD) germinated in work underway in the International Lunar Working Group (ILEWG) coordinated by ESA starting before 2000. Envisioned was an International Geophysical Year (IGY) inspired global collaborative undertaking to better understand the Moon, its origins and resources as a step towards lunar development and possible human settlement. By 2006 the ILD idea had evolved sufficiently that the ILEWG endorsed it and endorsement was also received from COSPAR [1] The Planetary Society under the leadership of Louis Friedman championed the ILD idea, received a grant from the Secure World Foundation to promote it at various conferences as well as to the United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (COPUOS). Friedman made a presentation about ILD to COPUOS in February, 2007 [2]. Despite positive interest in the idea no member state of COPUOS chose to promote it. The ILD agenda was adopted by ILEWG and largely fulfilled by the member space agencies in the decade from 2007-2014, but without UN endorsement as a global initiative. In 2013 an idea for an International Lunar Decade took hold among a group of space activists that included ideas for an International Lunar Research Park [3], an International Lunar Geophysical Year and other elements including an article published by V. Beldavs in the Space Review on January 14, 2014 [4]. These various thought streams were brought to focus at the conference "The Next Giant Leap: Leveraging Lunar Assets for Sustainable Pathways to Space", November 9-13, 2014 in Hawaii that resulted in the International Lunar Decade Declaration [3] and the formation of the working group (ILDWG) to promote implementation of ILD. In 2015 numerous organizations and influential persons were approached and informed about the idea of a framework for international collaboration sustained over a decade to gain an understanding of the Moon and its resources and to develop the technologies and

  11. Lunar tide contribution to thermosphere weather

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, J.T.; Forbes, J.M.; Zhang, C.H.; Doornbos, E.N.; Bruinsma, S.L.


    As the utilization of low-Earth orbit increases, so does the need for improved ephemeris predictions and thus more accurate density models. In this paper we quantify the density variability of the thermosphere attributable to the lunar gravitational tide, a potentially predictable component of

  12. Manned in Situ Confirmation of Lunar Ice (United States)

    Gerené, S. P. B.; Hummeling, R. W. J.; Ockels, W. J.

    A study is performed to investigate the feasibility of a manned expedition to the Moon using the European Ariane-5 launcher. The primary objective of this lunar mission is to confirm the presence of water at the South-Pole craters. It is believed that these permanently shadowed craters contain water in the form of ice. Secondary objective is to perform lunar surface science and making a first step towards a lunar outpost. Early results show that a minimum of two Ariane-5 launches is required. In this `two Ariane' scenario the first launch will bring a Lunar Landing Vehicle (LLV) into low lunar orbit. The second will launch two astronauts in a Crew Transfer Vehicle into a rendez- vous trajectory with the LLV. Arrived at the Moon, the astronauts will enter the LLV, undock from the CTV and land at the designated site located near the rim of the South-Pole Shackleton crater. The transfer strategy for both spacecraft will be the so-called direct transfer, taking about four days. At arrival the LLV will start mapping the landing site at a ground resolution of one meter. As a consequence of the polar orbit, the CTV has to arrive fourteen days later and surface operations can take about twelve days, accumulating in a total mission-duration of 36 days. 32 days for the CTV and 22 days for the LLV. In case a `two Ariane' flight does not posses sufficient capabilities also a `three Ariane' scenario is developed, in which the LLV is split-up into two stages and launched separately. These two will dock at the Moon forming a descent stage and an ascent stage. The third launch will be a CTV. During surface operations, astronauts will set up a solar power unit, install the sample retrieval system and carry out surface science. Samples of the crater floor will be retrieved by means of a probe or robot guided along a cable suspended over the crater rim. Also, this paper shows the way in which European astronauts can be brought to the Moon for other future missions, like the

  13. Feasibility of lunar Helium-3 mining (United States)

    Kleinschneider, Andreas; Van Overstraeten, Dmitry; Van der Reijnst, Roy; Van Hoorn, Niels; Lamers, Marvin; Hubert, Laurent; Dijk, Bert; Blangé, Joey; Hogeveen, Joel; De Boer, Lennaert; Noomen, Ron

    With fossil fuels running out and global energy demand increasing, the need for alternative energy sources is apparent. Nuclear fusion using Helium-3 may be a solution. Helium-3 is a rare isotope on Earth, but it is abundant on the Moon. Throughout the space community lunar Helium-3 is often cited as a major reason to return to the Moon. Despite the potential of lunar Helium-3 mining, little research has been conducted on a full end-to-end mission. This abstract presents the results of a feasibility study conducted by students from Delft University of Technology. The goal of the study was to assess whether a continuous end-to-end mission to mine Helium-3 on the Moon and return it to Earth is a viable option for the future energy market. The set requirements for the representative end-to-end mission were to provide 10% of the global energy demand in the year 2040. The mission elements have been selected with multiple trade-offs among both conservative and novel concepts. A mission architecture with multiple decoupled elements for each transportation segment (LEO, transfer, lunar surface) was found to be the best option. It was found that the most critical element is the lunar mining operation itself. To supply 10% of the global energy demand in 2040, 200 tons of Helium-3 would be required per year. The resulting regolith mining rate would be 630 tons per second, based on an optimistic concentration of 20 ppb Helium-3 in lunar regolith. Between 1,700 to 2,000 Helium-3 mining vehicles would be required, if using University of Wisconsin’s Mark III miner. The required heating power, if mining both day and night, would add up to 39 GW. The resulting power system mass for the lunar operations would be in the order of 60,000 to 200,000 tons. A fleet of three lunar ascent/descent vehicles and 22 continuous-thrust vehicles for orbit transfer would be required. The costs of the mission elements have been spread out over expected lifetimes. The resulting profits from Helium

  14. The science of the lunar poles (United States)

    Lucey, P. G.


    It was the great geochemist Harold Urey who first called attention to peculiar conditions at the poles of the Moon where the very small inclination of the lunar spin axis with respect to the sun causes craters and other depressions to be permanently shaded from sunlight allowing very low temperatures. Urey suggested that the expected low temperature surfaces could cold trap and collect any vapors that might transiently pass through the lunar environment. Urey's notion has led to studies of the poles as a new research area in lunar science. The conditions and science of the poles are utterly unlike those of the familiar Moon of Neil Armstrong, and the study of the poles is similar to our understanding of the Moon itself at the dawn of the space age, with possibilities outweighing current understanding. Broadly, we can treat the poles as a dynamic system of input, transport, trapping, and loss. Volatile sources range from continuous, including solar wind, the Earth's polar fountain and micrometeorites, to episodic, including comets and wet asteroids, to nearly unique events including late lunar outgassing and passage through giant molecular clouds. The lunar exosphere transports volatiles to the poles, complicated by major perturbances to the atmosphere by volatile-rich sources. Trapping includes cold trapping, but also in situ creation of more refractory species such as organics, clathrates and water-bearing minerals, as well as sequester by regolith overturn or burial by larger impacts. Finally, volatiles are lost to space by ionization and sweeping. Spacecraft results have greatly added to the understanding of the polar system. Temperatures have been precisely measured by LRO, and thermal models now allow determination of temperature over the long evolution of the lunar orbit, and show very significant changes in temperature and temperature distribution with time and depth. Polar topography is revealed in detail by Selene and LRO laser altimeters while direct

  15. Global silicate mineralogy of the Moon from the Diviner lunar radiometer. (United States)

    Greenhagen, Benjamin T; Lucey, Paul G; Wyatt, Michael B; Glotch, Timothy D; Allen, Carlton C; Arnold, Jessica A; Bandfield, Joshua L; Bowles, Neil E; Donaldson Hanna, Kerri L; Hayne, Paul O; Song, Eugenie; Thomas, Ian R; Paige, David A


    We obtained direct global measurements of the lunar surface using multispectral thermal emission mapping with the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment. Most lunar terrains have spectral signatures that are consistent with known lunar anorthosite and basalt compositions. However, the data have also revealed the presence of highly evolved, silica-rich lunar soils in kilometer-scale and larger exposures, expanded the compositional range of the anorthosites that dominate the lunar crust, and shown that pristine lunar mantle is not exposed at the lunar surface at the kilometer scale. Together, these observations provide compelling evidence that the Moon is a complex body that has experienced a diverse set of igneous processes.

  16. The effect of Simvastatin upon serum pseudocholinesterase and plasmatic factor VII. (United States)

    Zdrenghea, D; Bodizs, G; Predescu, D; Oprea, M; Zdrenghea, M


    The statins have a moderate lowering effect upon triglycerides, one hypothesis suggesting an inhibitory effect upon liver VLDL synthesis. Because VLDL synthesis is related to other hepatic protein synthesis we studied the effect of Simvastatin upon serum cholinesterase activity and factor VII activity, which are also synthetized at hepatic level. 39 patients with ischaemic heart disease, proved by coronarography and moderate hypercholesterolaemia received for two months 20 mg Simvastatin (Zocor). The value of total Co, LDLCo, HDLCo, triglycerides, serum cholinesterase activity and factor VII activity were determined before and after treatment, by standard methods. Triglycerides were, together with total Co, significantly lowered during the two months treatment with Simvastatin, but the values of serum cholinesterase and factor VII activity were not significantly modified. This suggests that moderate doses of Simvastatin do not depress liver protein synthesis. Simvastatin does not lower the triglycerides level through depression of liver protein syntesis, other mechanisms being probably involved.

  17. Cross-reactivity of autoantibodies from patients with epidermolysis bullosa acquisita with murine collagen VII. (United States)

    Csorba, Kinga; Sesarman, Alina; Oswald, Eva; Feldrihan, Vasile; Fritsch, Anja; Hashimoto, Takashi; Sitaru, Cassian


    The pathomechanism of antibody-mediated tissue damage in autoimmune diseases can be best studied in experimental models by passively transferring specific autoantibodies into animals. The reproduction of the disease in animals depends on several factors, including the cross-reactivity of patient autoantibodies with the animal tissue. Here, we show that autoantibodies from patients with epidermolysis bullosa acquisita (EBA), a subepidermal autoimmune blistering disease, recognize multiple epitopes on murine collagen VII. Indirect immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that EBA patients' IgG cross-reacts with mouse skin. Overlapping, recombinant fragments of murine collagen VII were used to characterize the reactivity of EBA sera and to map the epitopes on the murine antigen by ELISA and immunoblotting. The patients' autoantibody binding to murine collagen VII triggered pathogenic events as demonstrated by a complement fixing and an ex vivo granulocyte-dependent dermal-epidermal separation assay. These findings should greatly facilitate the development of improved disease models and novel therapeutic strategies.

  18. A Dynamic Fountain Model for Lunar Dust (United States)

    Stubbs, T. J.; Vondrak, R. R.; Farrell, W. M.


    During the Apollo era of exploration it was discovered that sunlight was scattered at the terminators giving rise to horizon glow and streamers above the lunar surface. This was observed from the dark side of the Moon during sunset and sunrise by both surface landers and astronauts in orbit. These observations were quite unexpected, as the Moon was thought to be a pristine environment with a negligible atmosphere or exosphere. Subsequent investigations have shown that the sunlight was most likely scattered by electrostatically charged dust grains originating from the surface. It has since been demonstrated that this dust population could have serious implications for astronomical observations from the lunar surface. The lunar surface is electrostatically charged by the Moon s large-scale interaction with the local plasma environment and the photoemission of electrons due to solar ultra-violet (UV) light and X-rays. The like-charged surface and dust grains then act to repel each other, such that under certain conditions the dust grains are lifted above the surface. We present a dynamic fountain model which can explain how sub-micron dust is able to reach altitudes of up to approximately 100 km above the lunar surface. Previous static dust levitation models are most applicable to the heavier micron-sized grains in close proximity proximity to the surface, but they cannot explain the presence of extremely light grains at high altitudes. If we relax the static constraint applied to previous models, and instead assume that the grains are in constant motion (under the action of dynamic forces), a new picture emerges for the behavior of sub-micron lunar dust.

  19. Modeling Insights into the Lunar Exosphere (United States)

    Hurley, D.; Feldman, P. D.; Retherford, K. D.; Cook, J.; Stern, S. A.


    In addition to Apollo data from the 1970s and ground-based observations, recent data from the Lyman Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP) onboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) are revealing the structure and variability of the lunar exosphere. LAMP has detected helium in the lunar exosphere having many sources of variability. We use a Monte Carlo model to interpret variability in the observations of helium in the lunar exosphere from LAMP. Some of the variability stems from a time-varying source rate. Because the helium in the lunar exosphere predominately derives from the solar wind, we investigate the timescale of transport from release on the dayside to the nightside where it is observed. The model computes transport times for various assumptions about the energy distribution during the initial release and the effects of subsequent surface interactions on the ballistic transport. Owing to the changing geometry of the LRO orbit, spatial gradients also factor into the variability of the observations. We study the expected column density of helium as a function of latitude and longitude using surface temperatures measured by Diviner. The spatial distribution resulting from model runs is strongly influenced by the surface temperature and the assumed thermalization parameter. These dependencies can be used to extract information about the surface interactions. We compare model latitude and longitude dependences to LAMP and Apollo data. Finally, using upstream solar wind measurements and the position of LRO, we calculate the model time-varying helium exosphere of the Moon for comparison with LAMP data obtained in January, June, and July of 2012, including three passages of the Moon through Earth's magnetotail.

  20. Beam-powered lunar rover design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dagle, J.E.; Coomes, E.P.; Antoniak, Z.I.; Bamberger, J.A.; Bates, J.M.; Chiu, M.A.; Dodge, R.E.; Wise, J.A.


    Manned exploration of our nearest neighbors in the solar systems is the primary goal of the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). An integral part of any manned lunar or planetary outpost will be a system for manned excursions over the surface of the planet. This report presents a preliminary design for a lunar rover capable of supporting four astronauts on long-duration excursions across the lunar landscape. The distinguishing feature of this rover design is that power is provided to rover via a laser beam from an independent orbiting power satellite. This system design provides very high power availability with minimal mass on the rover vehicle. With this abundance of power, and with a relatively small power-system mass contained in the rover, the vehicle can perform an impressive suite of mission-related activity. The rover might be used as the first outpost for the lunar surface (i.e., a mobile base). A mobile base has the advantage of providing extensive mission activities without the expense of establishing a fixed base. This concept has been referred to as Rove First.'' A manned over, powered through a laser beam, has been designed for travel on the lunar surface for round-trip distances in the range of 1000 km, although the actual distance traveled is not crucial since the propulsion system does not rely on energy storage. The life support system can support a 4-person crew for up to 30 days, and ample power is available for mission-related activities. The 8000-kg rover has 30 kW of continuous power available via a laser transmitter located at the Earth-moon L1 libration point, about 50,000 km above the surface of the moon. This rover, which is designed to operate in either day or night conditions, has the flexibility to perform a variety of power-intensive missions. 24 refs.

  1. Beam-powered lunar rover design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dagle, J.E.; Coomes, E.P.; Antoniak, Z.I.; Bamberger, J.A.; Bates, J.M.; Chiu, M.A.; Dodge, R.E.; Wise, J.A.


    Manned exploration of our nearest neighbors in the solar systems is the primary goal of the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). An integral part of any manned lunar or planetary outpost will be a system for manned excursions over the surface of the planet. This report presents a preliminary design for a lunar rover capable of supporting four astronauts on long-duration excursions across the lunar landscape. The distinguishing feature of this rover design is that power is provided to rover via a laser beam from an independent orbiting power satellite. This system design provides very high power availability with minimal mass on the rover vehicle. With this abundance of power, and with a relatively small power-system mass contained in the rover, the vehicle can perform an impressive suite of mission-related activity. The rover might be used as the first outpost for the lunar surface (i.e., a mobile base). A mobile base has the advantage of providing extensive mission activities without the expense of establishing a fixed base. This concept has been referred to as ``Rove First.`` A manned over, powered through a laser beam, has been designed for travel on the lunar surface for round-trip distances in the range of 1000 km, although the actual distance traveled is not crucial since the propulsion system does not rely on energy storage. The life support system can support a 4-person crew for up to 30 days, and ample power is available for mission-related activities. The 8000-kg rover has 30 kW of continuous power available via a laser transmitter located at the Earth-moon L1 libration point, about 50,000 km above the surface of the moon. This rover, which is designed to operate in either day or night conditions, has the flexibility to perform a variety of power-intensive missions. 24 refs.

  2. Cooling Rates of Lunar Volcanic Glass Beads (United States)

    Hui, Hejiu; Hess, Kai-Uwe; Zhang, Youxue; Peslier, Anne; Lange, Rebecca; Dingwell, Donald; Neal, Clive


    It is widely accepted that the Apollo 15 green and Apollo 17 orange glass beads are of volcanic origin. The diffusion profiles of volatiles in these glass beads are believed to be due to degassing during eruption (Saal et al., 2008). The degree of degassing depends on the initial temperature and cooling rate. Therefore, the estimations of volatiles in parental magmas of lunar pyroclastic deposits depend on melt cooling rates. Furthermore, lunar glass beads may have cooled in volcanic environments on the moon. Therefore, the cooling rates may be used to assess the atmospheric condition in an early moon, when volcanic activities were common. The cooling rates of glasses can be inferred from direct heat capacity measurements on the glasses themselves (Wilding et al., 1995, 1996a,b). This method does not require knowledge of glass cooling environments and has been applied to calculate the cooling rates of natural silicate glasses formed in different terrestrial environments. We have carried out heat capacity measurements on hand-picked lunar glass beads using a Netzsch DSC 404C Pegasus differential scanning calorimeter at University of Munich. Our preliminary results suggest that the cooling rate of Apollo 17 orange glass beads may be 12 K/min, based on the correlation between temperature of the heat capacity curve peak in the glass transition range and glass cooling rate. The results imply that the parental magmas of lunar pyroclastic deposits may have contained more water initially than the early estimations (Saal et al., 2008), which used higher cooling rates, 60-180 K/min in the modeling. Furthermore, lunar volcanic glass beads could have been cooled in a hot gaseous medium released from volcanic eruptions, not during free flight. Therefore, our results may shed light on atmospheric condition in an early moon.

  3. Ocular toxicity of authentic lunar dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyers Valerie E


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dust exposure is a well-known occupational hazard for terrestrial workers and astronauts alike and will continue to be a concern as humankind pursues exploration and habitation of objects beyond Earth. Humankind’s limited exploration experience with the Apollo Program indicates that exposure to dust will be unavoidable. Therefore, NASA must assess potential toxicity and recommend appropriate mitigation measures to ensure that explorers are adequately protected. Visual acuity is critical during exploration activities and operations aboard spacecraft. Therefore, the present research was performed to ascertain the ocular toxicity of authentic lunar dust. Methods Small (mean particle diameter = 2.9 ± 1.0 μm, reactive lunar dust particles were produced by grinding bulk dust under ultrapure nitrogen conditions. Chemical reactivity and cytotoxicity testing were performed using the commercially available EpiOcularTM assay. Subsequent in vivo Draize testing utilized a larger size fraction of unground lunar dust that is more relevant to ocular exposures (particles Results In vitro testing indicated minimal irritancy potential based on the time required to reduce cell viability by 50% (ET50. Follow-up testing using the Draize standard protocol confirmed that the lunar dust was minimally irritating. Minor irritation of the upper eyelids was noted at the 1-hour observation point, but these effects resolved within 24 hours. In addition, no corneal scratching was observed using fluorescein stain. Conclusions Low-titanium mare lunar dust is minimally irritating to the eyes and is considered a nuisance dust for ocular exposure. No special precautions are recommended to protect against ocular exposures, but fully shielded goggles may be used if dust becomes a nuisance.

  4. Lunar Base Thermoelectric Power Station Study (United States)

    Determan, William; Frye, Patrick; Mondt, Jack; Fleurial, Jean-Pierre; Johnson, Ken; Stapfer, Gerhard; Brooks, Michael; Heshmatpour, Ben


    Under NASA's Project Prometheus, the Nuclear Space Power Systems Program, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne, and Teledyne Energy Systems have teamed with a number of universities, under the Segmented Thermoelectric Multicouple Converter (STMC) Task, to develop the next generation of advanced thermoelectric converters for space reactor power systems. Work on the STMC converter assembly has progressed to the point where the lower temperature stage of the segmented multicouple converter assembly is ready for laboratory testing, and promising candidates for the upper stage materials have been identified and their properties are being characterized. One aspect of the program involves mission application studies to help define the potential benefits from the use of these STMC technologies for designated NASA missions such as a lunar base power station where kilowatts of power would be required to maintain a permanent manned presence on the surface of the moon. A modular 50 kWe thermoelectric power station concept was developed to address a specific set of requirements developed for this particular mission concept. Previous lunar lander concepts had proposed the use of lunar regolith as in-situ radiation shielding material for a reactor power station with a one kilometer exclusion zone radius to minimize astronaut radiation dose rate levels. In the present concept, we will examine the benefits and requirements for a hermetically-sealed reactor thermoelectric power station module suspended within a man-made lunar surface cavity. The concept appears to maximize the shielding capabilities of the lunar regolith while minimizing its handling requirements. Both thermal and nuclear radiation levels from operation of the station, at its 100-m exclusion zone radius, were evaluated and found to be acceptable. Site preparation activities are reviewed as well as transport issues for this concept. The goal of the study was to review the entire life cycle of the

  5. Relativistic timescale analysis suggests lunar theory revision (United States)

    Deines, Steven D.; Williams, Carol A.


    The SI second of the atomic clock was calibrated to match the Ephemeris Time (ET) second in a mutual four year effort between the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) and the United States Naval Observatory (USNO). The ephemeris time is 'clocked' by observing the elapsed time it takes the Moon to cross two positions (usually occultation of stars relative to a position on Earth) and dividing that time span into the predicted seconds according to the lunar equations of motion. The last revision of the equations of motion was the Improved Lunar Ephemeris (ILE), which was based on E. W. Brown's lunar theory. Brown classically derived the lunar equations from a purely Newtonian gravity with no relativistic compensations. However, ET is very theory dependent and is affected by relativity, which was not included in the ILE. To investigate the relativistic effects, a new, noninertial metric for a gravitated, translationally accelerated and rotating reference frame has three sets of contributions, namely (1) Earth's velocity, (2) the static solar gravity field and (3) the centripetal acceleration from Earth's orbit. This last term can be characterized as a pseudogravitational acceleration. This metric predicts a time dilation calculated to be -0.787481 seconds in one year. The effect of this dilation would make the ET timescale run slower than had been originally determined. Interestingly, this value is within 2 percent of the average leap second insertion rate, which is the result of the divergence between International Atomic Time (TAI) and Earth's rotational time called Universal Time (UT or UTI). Because the predictions themselves are significant, regardless of the comparison to TAI and UT, the authors will be rederiving the lunar ephemeris model in the manner of Brown with the relativistic time dilation effects from the new metric to determine a revised, relativistic ephemeris timescale that could be used to determine UT free of leap second adjustments.

  6. Studies in matter antimatter separation and in the origin of lunar magnetism (United States)

    Barker, W. A.; Greeley, R.; Parkin, C.; Aggarwal, H.; Schultz, P.


    A progress report, covering lunar and planetary research is introduced. Data cover lunar ionospheric models, lunar and planetary geology, and lunar magnetism. Wind tunnel simulations of Mars aeolian problems and a comparative study of basaltic analogs of Lunar and Martial volcanic features was discussed.

  7. Wavelengths and energy levels of Xe VII and Xe VIII obtained by collision-based spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, M.O. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Theoretical Physics; Gonzalez, A.M. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT), Madrid (Spain). Inst. de Investigacion Basica; Hallin, R. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Theoretical Physics; Heijkenskjoeld, F. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Theoretical Physics; Hutton, R. [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Physics; Langereis, A. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Theoretical Physics; Nystroem, B. [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Physics; O`Sullivan, G. [University Coll., Dublin (Ireland). Dept. of Physics; Waennstroem, A. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Theoretical Physics


    The Xe VII and Xe VIII spectra have been investigated by collision-based spectroscopy. The radiation emitted following electron capture by 10q keV Xe{sup q+} ions (q = 6-8) impinging on a He (Ar) gas target has, with some exceptions, been recorded in the 350-8000 (1200-2500) A wavelength region. The xenon ions were provided by the Uppsala University ECR ion source. Many of the observed, previously unreported spectral lines have been identified. In total, nine new energy levels of Xe VII and Xe VIII have been established, of which two are tentative. The analysis was supported by Hartree-Fock calculations. (orig.).

  8. Dove sta andando l'analisi musicale? Riflessioni sul VII EuroMac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Baroni


    Full Text Available Come tutti i lettori della Rivista ormai sapranno, si è svolto a Roma dal 29 settembre al 2 ottobre di quest’anno, presso il Conservatorio di S. Cecilia, il settimo convegno europeo di analisi musicale (VII European Music Analysis Conference ossia VII EuroMac. Nel convegno, organizzato dal GATM e diretto da Giorgio Sanguinetti, sono state presentate 197 relazioni e svolti otto laboratori. Tutti i materiali sono stati riassunti in un volume (Programme and Abstract Book, Iter Edizioni di Subiaco curato da Egidio Pozzi e Antonio Cascelli.

  9. Developing a new controllable lunar dust simulant: BHLD20 (United States)

    Sun, Hao; Yi, Min; Shen, Zhigang; Zhang, Xiaojing; Ma, Shulin


    Identifying and eliminating the negative effects of lunar dust are of great importance for future lunar exploration. Since the available lunar samples are limited, developing terrestrial lunar dust simulant becomes critical for the study of lunar dust problem. In this work, beyond the three existing lunar dust simulants: JSC-1Avf, NU-LHT-1D, and CLDS-i, we developed a new high-fidelity lunar dust simulant named as BHLD20. And we concluded a methodology that soil and dust simulants can be produced by variations in portions of the overall procedure, whereby the properties of the products can be controlled by adjusting the feedstock preparation and heating process. The key ingredients of our innovative preparation route include: (1) plagioclase, used as a major material in preparing all kinds of lunar dust simulants; (2) a muffle furnace, applied to expediently enrich the glass phase in feedstock, with the production of some composite particles; (3) a one-step sand-milling technique, employed for mass pulverization without wasting feedstock; and (4) a particle dispersant, utilized to prevent the agglomeration in lunar dust simulant and retain the real particle size. Research activities in the development of BHLD20 can help solve the lunar dust problem.

  10. Evaluating the High School Lunar Research Projects Program (United States)

    Shaner, A. J.; Shupla, C.; Shipp, S.; Allen, J.; Kring, D. A.


    The Center for Lunar Science and Exploration (CLSE), a collaboration between the Lunar and Planetary Institute and NASA s Johnson Space Center, is one of seven member teams of the NASA Lunar Science Institute (NLSI). In addition to research and exploration activities, the CLSE team is deeply invested in education and outreach. In support of NASA s and NLSI s objective to train the next generation of scientists, CLSE s High School Lunar Research Projects program is a conduit through which high school students can actively participate in lunar science and learn about pathways into scientific careers. The objectives of the program are to enhance 1) student views of the nature of science; 2) student attitudes toward science and science careers; and 3) student knowledge of lunar science. In its first three years, approximately 168 students and 28 teachers from across the United States have participated in the program. Before beginning their research, students undertake Moon 101, a guided-inquiry activity designed to familiarize them with lunar science and exploration. Following Moon 101, and guided by a lunar scientist mentor, teams choose a research topic, ask their own research question, and design their own research approach to direct their investigation. At the conclusion of their research, teams present their results to a panel of lunar scientists. This panel selects four posters to be presented at the annual Lunar Science Forum held at NASA Ames. The top scoring team travels to the forum to present their research in person.

  11. Pulmonary Toxicity Studies of Lunar Dusts in Rodents (United States)

    Lam, Chiu-wing; James, John T.


    NASA will build an outpost on the lunar surface for long-duration human habitation and research. The surface of the Moon is covered by a layer of fine, reactive dust, and the living quarters in the lunar outpost are expected to be contaminated by lunar dust. Because the toxicity of lunar dust is not known, NASA has tasked its toxicology laboratory to evaluate the risk of exposure to the dust and to establish safe exposure limits for astronauts working in the lunar habitat. Studies of the pulmonary toxicity of a dust are generally done first in rodents by intratracheal/intrapharyngeal instillation. This toxicity screening test is then followed by an inhalation study, which requires much more of the test dust and is labor intensive. Preliminary results obtained by examining lung lavage fluid from dust-treated mice show that lunar dust was somewhat toxic (more toxic than TiO2, but less than quartz dust). More extensive studies are in progress to further examine lung lavage fluid for biomarkers of toxicity and lung tissues for histopathological lesions in rodents exposed to aged and activated (ground) lunar dust samples. In these studies, reference dusts (TiO2 and quartz) of known toxicities and have industrial exposure limits will be studied in parallel so the relative toxicity of lunar dust can be determined. The results from the instillation studies will be useful for choosing exposure concentrations for the animal inhalation study. The animal inhalation exposure will be conducted with lunar dust simulant prior to the study with the lunar dust. The experiment with the simulate will ensure that the study techniques used with actual lunar dust will be successful. The results of instillation and inhalation studies will reveal the toxicological risk of exposures and are essential for setting exposure limits on lunar dust for astronauts living in the lunar habitat.

  12. Rare Earth Element Partitioning in Lunar Minerals: An Experimental Study (United States)

    McIntosh, E. C.; Rapp, J. F.; Draper, D. S.


    The partitioning behavior of rare earth elements (REE) between minerals and melts is widely used to interpret the petrogenesis and geologic context of terrestrial and extra-terrestrial samples. REE are important tools for modelling the evolution of the lunar interior. The ubiquitous negative Eu anomaly in lunar basalts is one of the main lines of evidence to support the lunar magma ocean (LMO) hypothesis, by which the plagioclase-rich lunar highlands were formed as a flotation crust during differentiation of a global-scale magma ocean. The separation of plagioclase from the mafic cumulates is thought to be the source of the Eu depletion, as Eu is very compatible in plagioclase. Lunar basalts and volcanic glasses are commonly depleted in light REEs (LREE), and more enriched in heavy REEs (HREE). However, there is very little experimental data available on REE partitioning between lunar minerals and melts. In order to interpret the source of these distinctive REE patterns, and to model lunar petrogenetic processes, REE partition coefficients (D) between lunar minerals and melts are needed at conditions relevant to lunar processes. New data on D(sub REE) for plagioclase, and pyroxenes are now available, but there is limited available data for olivine/melt D(sub REE), particularly at pressures higher than 1 bar, and in Fe-rich and reduced compositions - all conditions relevant to the lunar mantle. Based on terrestrial data, REE are highly incompatible in olivine (i.e. D much less than 1), however olivine is the predominant mineral in the lunar interior, so it is important to understand whether it is capable of storing even small amounts of REE, and how the REEs might be fractionatied, in order to understand the trace element budget of the lunar interior. This abstract presents results from high-pressure and temperature experiments investigating REE partitioning between olivine and melt in a composition relevant to lunar magmatism.

  13. Contact activation and factor VII after the use of an activated prothrombin complex concentrate (FEIBA) in hemophiliacs with inhibitors. (United States)

    Mariani, G; Bouma, B N; Mazzucconi, M G; Avvisati, G; Di Nucci, G D; Corrao, D; Mandelli, F


    Administration of a brand of activated prothrombin complex concentrate (FEIBA) to hemophiliacs with high-titre inhibitor to factor VIII, induced a shortening of the prothrombin time and thrombotest clotting time. This effect stems partly from the presence in the concentrate of high amounts of activated factor VII (alpha-VII a) which indeed after the infusion, were detected in the plasma of Hemophiliacs. The attained levels of factor alpha-VII a were shown to be proportional to the dose of concentrate administered. This form of activated factor VII was not generated as a result of activation of the contact activation mechanism, since after the infusion of the concentrate no changes were detected in the components of this system. The infused factor VII was indeed present in an activated form and this was further substantiated by the infusion of the concentrate in factor VII deficient patients. These observations suggest that factor alpha-VII a is not generated in vivo and thus is of exogenous origin. The clinical effect may well be due to the presence of this form of activated factor VII; in this context the alternative pathway involving factors IX and X should be implicated.

  14. 40 CFR Appendix Vii to Part 266 - Health-Based Limits for Exclusion of Waste-Derived Residues* (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Health-Based Limits for Exclusion of Waste-Derived Residues* VII Appendix VII to Part 266 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...-Based Limits for Exclusion of Waste-Derived Residues* Metals—TCLP Extract Concentration Limits...

  15. Dietary effects on coagulation factor VII vary across genotypes of the R/Q353 polymorphism in elderly people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mennen, L.I.; Maat, M.P.M. de; Schouten, E.G.; Kluft, C.; Witteman, J.C.M.; Hofman, A.; Grobbee, D.E.


    The objective of this study was to evaluate the association of factor VII with dietary factors while also considering the R/Q353 polymorphism. Nutrition is an important determinant of coagulation factor VII, which is also genetically determined by the R/Q353 polymorphism. High levels of coagulation

  16. ESEA Title VII Bilingual/Bicultural Education Program; Programa de Educacion Bilingue/Bicultural 1975-1976. (United States)

    Milwaukee Public Schools, WI. Dept. of Educational Research and Program Assessment.

    This is the annual evaluation report of the Title VII components of the Milwaukee Bilingual/Bicultural Education Program funded by Title I and Title VII of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1967 and the Milwaukee Public Schools. The results of the 1975-76 assessment of pupil progress toward achievement of the program's academic and…

  17. Effects of different progestin regimens in hormone replacement therapy on blood coagulation factor VII and tissue factor pathway inhibitor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladbjerg, E-M; Skouby, S O.; Andersen, L F


    BACKGROUND: Long-term hormone replacement therapy (HRT) reduces cardiovascular risk, but an early increased risk was reported in women with coronary heart disease. In such women the arterial intima can express tissue factor, and changes in coagulation factor VII (factor VII) and tissue factor...

  18. Antimicrobial peptide scolopendrasin VII, derived from the centipede Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans, stimulates macrophage chemotaxis via formyl peptide receptor 1. (United States)

    Park, Yoo Jung; Lee, Ha Young; Jung, Young Su; Park, Joon Seong; Hwang, Jae Sam; Bae, Yoe-Sik


    In this study, we report that one of the antimicrobial peptides scolopendrasin VII, derived from Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans, stimulates actin polymerization and the subsequent chemotactic migration of macrophages through the activation of ERK and protein kinase B (Akt) activity. The scolopendrasin VII-induced chemotactic migration of macrophages is inhibited by the formyl peptide receptor 1 (FPR1) antagonist cyclosporine H. We also found that scolopendrasin VII stimulate the chemotactic migration of FPR1-transfected RBL-2H3 cells, but not that of vector-transfected cells; moreover, scolopendrasin VII directly binds to FPR1. Our findings therefore suggest that the antimicrobial peptide scolopendrasin VII, derived from Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans, stimulates macrophages, resulting in chemotactic migration via FPR1 signaling, and the peptide can be useful in the study of FPR1-related biological responses.

  19. Volatiles in High-K Lunar Basalts (United States)

    Barnes, Jessica J.; McCubbin, Francis M.; Messenger, Scott R.; Nguyen, Ann; Boyce, Jeremy


    Chlorine is an unusual isotopic system, being essentially unfractionated ((delta)Cl-37 approximately 0 per mille ) between bulk terrestrial samples and chondritic meteorites and yet showing large variations in lunar (approximately -4 to +81 per mille), martian, and vestan (HED) samples. Among lunar samples, the volatile-bearing mineral apatite (Ca5(PO4)3[F,Cl,OH]) has been studied for volatiles in K-, REE-, and P (KREEP), very high potassium (VHK), low-Ti and high-Ti basalts, as well as samples from the lunar highlands. These studies revealed a positive correlation between in-situ (delta)Cl-37 measurements and bulk incompatible trace elements (ITEs) and ratios. Such trends were interpreted to originate from Cl isotopic fractionation during the degassing of metal chlorides during or shortly after the differentiation of the Moon via a magma ocean. In this study, we investigate the volatile inventories of a group of samples for which new-era volatile data have yet to be reported - the high-K (greater than 2000 ppm bulk K2O), high-Ti, trace element-rich mare basalts. We used isotope imaging on the Cameca NanoSIMS 50L at JSC to obtain the Cl isotopic composition [((Cl-37/(35)Clsample/C-37l/(35)Clstandard)-1)×1000, to get a value in per thousand (per mille)] which ranges from approximately -2.7 +/- 2 per mille to +16.1 +/- 2 per mille (2sigma), as well as volatile abundances (F & Cl) of apatite in samples 10017, 10024 & 10049. Simply following prior models, as lunar rocks with high bulk-rock abundances of ITEs we might expect the high-K, high-Ti basalts to contain apatite characterized by heavily fractionated (delta)Cl-37 values, i.e., Cl obtained from mixing between unfractionated mantle Cl (approximately 0 per mille) and the urKREEP reservoir (possibly fractionated to greater than +25 per mille.). However, the data obtained for the studied samples do not conform to either the early degassing or mixing models. Existing petrogentic models for the origin of the high

  20. Flexible control techniques for a lunar base (United States)

    Kraus, Thomas W.


    The fundamental elements found in every terrestrial control system can be employed in all lunar applications. These elements include sensors which measure physical properties, controllers which acquire sensor data and calculate a control response, and actuators which apply the control output to the process. The unique characteristics of the lunar environment will certainly require the development of new control system technology. However, weightlessness, harsh atmospheric conditions, temperature extremes, and radiation hazards will most significantly impact the design of sensors and actuators. The controller and associated control algorithms, which are the most complex element of any control system, can be derived in their entirety from existing technology. Lunar process control applications -- ranging from small-scale research projects to full-scale processing plants -- will benefit greatly from the controller advances being developed today. In particular, new software technology aimed at commercial process monitoring and control applications will almost completely eliminate the need for custom programs and the lengthy development and testing cycle they require. The applicability of existing industrial software to lunar applications has other significant advantages in addition to cost and quality. This software is designed to run on standard hardware platforms and takes advantage of existing LAN and telecommunications technology. Further, in order to exploit the existing commercial market, the software is being designed to be implemented by users of all skill levels -- typically users who are familiar with their process, but not necessarily with software or control theory. This means that specialized technical support personnel will not need to be on-hand, and the associated costs are eliminated. Finally, the latest industrial software designed for the commercial market is extremely flexible, in order to fit the requirements of many types of processing

  1. Lunar surface reflectance by LALT aboard KAGUYA (United States)

    Noda, H.; Araki, H.; Ishihara, Y.; Tazawa, S.; Sasaki, S.; Kawano, N.


    The Laser Altimeter (LALT) aboard Japanese lunar explorer KAGUYA (SELENE) is a ranging instrument which measures the distance between the satellite and the lunar surface with accuracy of 1 m by detecting the timing delay of the reflected laser light. The main science goal of the LALT is to obtain the lunar global topographic data including polar regions for the study of the origin and the evolution of the Moon [1]. Besides, the LALT is equipped with an intensity monitor of the returned pulses. The intensity of the returned pulses contains information concerning surface roughness and reflectance of the footprints, which will contribute to the study of the lunar surface maturity and age. The reflectance at LALT wavelength (1064nm) is sensitive to the surface maturity and composition. The data should be particularly important at lunar polar regions where camera instruments should suffer from phase angle effects in the surface reflectance and moreover cannot obtain reflectance data at the permanently shadowed area. The normal operation of the LALT began on 30th, December 2007 after two months’ commissioning phase. Before the end of the normal operation phase in October 2008, the LALT measured more than 10 million range data. Unfortunately, due to the laser power decrease and also possible smaller surface reflectance than the expected value before launch (15 % at 1 micro meter), the return pulse intensity during the nominal mission phase is so small that they are not reliable enough to discuss the surface property. During the extended mission phase, which started November 2008, the satellite altitude decreased to 50 km. Due to the malfunction of the reaction wheel and high-voltage instruments were shutdown, the observation was suspended until 11th of February, 2009. LALT successfully resumed observation on 12th February and continued observation until the controlled crash of KAGUYA onto the Moon on 10th of June, 2009. Thanks to the lower orbit during this phase, the

  2. Walking Wheel Design for Lunar Rove-Rand and Its Application Simulation Based on Virtual Lunar Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Yibing


    Full Text Available The lunar rover design is the key problem of planet exploration. It is extraordinarily important for researchers to fully understand the lunar terrain and propose the reasonable lunar rover. In this paper, one new type of walking wheel modeled on impeller is presented based on vehicle terramechanics. The passive earth pressure of soil mechanics put forward by C. A. Coulomb is employed to obtain the wheel traction force. Some kinematics simulations are conducted for lunar rover model. Besides, this paper presents how to model lunar landing terrain containing typical statistic characteristic including craters and boulders; then, the second step is to construct basal lunar surface by using Brown Fractal Motion and the next is to add craters and boulders by means of known diameter algorithm and Random-create Diameter Algorithm. By means of importing 2D plain of lunar surface into UG, 3D parasolid is modeled and finally imported to ADAMS, which is available for lunar rover kinematics and dynamics simulation. Lastly, based on power spectrum curve of lunar terrain, the spectral characteristic of three different lunar terrain roughness is educed by using reverse engineering algorithm. Simulation results demonstrated the frequency of vibration mechanics properties of different roughness surfaces.

  3. Fabien Desage, David Guéranger, La politique confisquée. Sociologie des réformes et des institutions intercommunales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène Reigner


    Full Text Available « L’intercommunalité comme la démocratie sont des affaires trop sérieuses pour être laissées aux seuls élus. » (p.229. Le ton est donné et c’est toute la thèse des auteurs, Fabien Desage et David Guéranger, qui est synthétisée là. Ces derniers se placent sur le registre de l’intervention pour dénoncer l’absence de publicité qui caractérise selon eux le fonctionnement politique de gouvernements intercommunaux « invisibles ». Pour ce faire, ils mutualisent dans cet ouvrage leurs travaux de rec...

  4. Preliminary definition of a lunar landing and launch facility (Complex 39L) (United States)

    Matthews, H. Dennis; Jenson, Eric B.; Linsley, Jerald N.


    A preliminary definition of a lunar landing and launch facility has been formulated. A permanently manned lunar base and a baseline lunar module are assumed. The major features of the facility are specified and major design areas are described.

  5. The International Lunar Network (ILN) and the US Anchor Nodes Mission (United States)

    Cohen, Barbara A.; Bessler, J. A.; Harris, D. W.; Hill, L.; Hammond, M. S.; McDougal, J. M.; Morse, B. J.; Red, C. L. B.; Kirby, K. W.


    This presentation reviews the International Lunar Network (ILN) mission, a cooperative effort designed to coordinate individual lunar landers in a geophysical network on the lunar surface. The presentation also includes information on the geophysical network, mission operations, and recent accomplishments.

  6. The Lunar Occultation Observer (LOCO) -- A Nuclear Astrophysics All-Sky Survey Mission Concept (United States)

    Miller, R. S.; Bonamente, M.; Burgess, J. M.; Jenke, P.; Lawrence, D. J.; O'Brien, S.; Orr, M. R.; Paciesas, W. S.; Young, C. A.


    The Lunar Occultation Observer (LOCO) is a new γ-ray astrophysics mission concept expected to have unprecedented sensitivity in the nuclear regime. Operating in lunar orbit, LOCO will utilize lunar occultation imaging to survey and probe the cosmos.

  7. Alkaline Waterflooding Demonstration Project, Ranger Zone, Long Beach Unit, Wilmington Field, California. Fourth annual report, June 1979-May 1980. Volume 1. Body of report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmichael, J.D.


    Comparative core flood testing of preserved Ranger Zone core rock samples was completed; the past year's results were discouraging. In contrast, Ranger sand pack alkaline flood tests gave encouraging results. New insights were gained on in-situ alkaline consumption. Dehydration of sodium orthosilicate water-produced water-crude oil systems does not appear to create any operational problems. The alkaline injection facilities were completed and placed in operation on March 27, 1980. The preflush injection, which was composed of 11.5 million barrels of softened fresh water with an average 0.96% of salt, was completed at that time. The total preflush amounted to approximately 10 pore volume percent. The 0.4% sodium orthosilicate-1.0% salt-soft fresh water injection started at the end of the preflush. A loss of injectivity began at the same time as alkaline injection, which is attributed to divalent ions in the salt brine. Salt was removed temporarily from the system on May 30, 1980. No injection wells were redrilled during the year. Other than plug back of one injector and one producer because of bad liners and repair of one injection well with an inner liner, well work was routine and minor in nature. Dual injection strings were transferred from one well to another. One of the injection wells whose injectivity was damaged by the alkaline-salt injection was successfully stimulated. The pilot was self certified under the tertiary incentive program and cost recoupments obtained. Preparations are underway for making the alkaline flood simulator performance prediction for the pilot. Laboratory testing is actively underway in an attempt to quickly find a remedy for the floc formation that occurs on mixing the salt brine and dilute alkaline solution. Volume 1 describes the activities for this period. Volumes 2 and 3 contain appendices.

  8. Lunar Dust and Lunar Simulant Activation, Monitoring, Solution and Cellular Toxicity Properties (United States)

    Jeevarajan, A.S.; Wallace, W.T.


    During the Apollo missions, many undesirable situations were encountered that must be mitigated prior to returning humans to the moon. Lunar dust (that part of the lunar regolith less than 20 m in diameter) was found to produce several problems with astronaut s suits and helmets, mechanical seals and equipment, and could have conceivably produced harmful physiological effects for the astronauts. For instance, the abrasive nature of the dust was found to cause malfunctions of various joints and seals of the spacecraft and suits. Additionally, though efforts were made to exclude lunar dust from the cabin of the lunar module, a significant amount of material nonetheless found its way inside. With the loss of gravity correlated with ascent of the lunar module from the lunar surface to rendezvous with the command module, much of the major portions of the contaminating soil and dust began to float, irritating the astronaut s eyes and being inhaled into their lungs. Our goal has been to understand some of the properties of lunar dust that could lead to possible hazards for humans. Due to the lack of an atmosphere, there is nothing to protect the lunar soil from ultraviolet radiation, solar wind, and meteorite impacts. These processes could all serve to activate the soil, or produce reactive surface species. In order to understand the possible toxic effects of the reactive dust, it is necessary to reactivate the dust, as samples returned during the Apollo missions were exposed to the atmosphere of the Earth. We have used grinding and UV exposure to mimic some of the processes occurring on the Moon. The level of activation has been monitored using two methods: fluorescence spectroscopy and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR). These techniques allow the monitoring of hydroxyl radical production in solution. We have found that grinding of lunar dust produces 2-3 times the concentration of hydroxyl radicals as lunar simulant and 10 times that of quartz. Exposure

  9. Coesite and stishovite in a shocked lunar meteorite, Asuka-881757, and impact events in lunar surface (United States)

    Ohtani, E.; Ozawa, S.; Miyahara, M.; Ito, Y.; Mikouchi, T.; Kimura, M.; Arai, T.; Sato, K.; Hiraga, K.


    Microcrystals of coesite and stishovite were discovered as inclusions in amorphous silica grains in shocked melt pockets of a lunar meteorite Asuka-881757 by micro-Raman spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy, electron back-scatter diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy. These high-pressure polymorphs of SiO2 in amorphous silica indicate that the meteorite experienced an equilibrium shock-pressure of at least 8–30 GPa. Secondary quartz grains are also observed in separate amorphous silica grains in the meteorite. The estimated age reported by the 39Ar/40Ar chronology indicates that the source basalt of this meteorite was impacted at 3,800 Ma ago, time of lunar cataclysm; i.e., the heavy bombardment in the lunar surface. Observation of coesite and stishovite formed in the lunar breccias suggests that high-pressure impact metamorphism and formation of high-pressure minerals are common phenomena in brecciated lunar surface altered by the heavy meteoritic bombardment. PMID:21187434

  10. Observations of Sodium in the Lunar Atmosphere during International Lunar Atmosphere Week, 1995 (United States)

    Sprague, A. L.; Hunten, D. M.; Kozlowski, R. W. H.; Grosse, F. A.; Hill, R. E.; Morris, R. L.


    We report results of a part of an organized effort of five observing groups to simultaneously observe sodium in the lunar atmosphere. International Lunar Atmosphere Week spanned the week of September 15-22, 1995. Of the seven nights, we experienced four nights with good viewing conditions. We used the Mt. Lemmon Lunar Coronagraph (MLLC) and DARRK spectrograph. Both are especially designed for lunar atmospheric measurements from the surface extending to an altitude of approximately 1 lunar radius or ∼1700 km (860 km geopotential height). Emission rates for Na were compatible with those previously reported for relatively large phase angles (96° to 129°) with the average total of D2 and D1 emission rate ∼6.9 kRayleigh. A thermal component was observed only on the night of September 17, when the solar zenith angle at the limb was only 6°. We observed a factor of ∼2 greater column abundances over the north pole than over the sunlit equatorial limb on September 18 while on September 19, the equatorial bright limb column abundance was a factor of ∼5 higher than the north polar. Apparent geopotential scale heights varied from 279 to 435 km, indicating an extended atmosphere. If the scale heights are represented by a temperature, values are 985 to 1470 K. The data set appears to support the idea that the dominant source during this period was meteoritic impact volatilization.

  11. Detection of the lunar body tide by the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter. (United States)

    Mazarico, Erwan; Barker, Michael K; Neumann, Gregory A; Zuber, Maria T; Smith, David E


    The Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter instrument onboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft collected more than 5 billion measurements in the nominal 50 km orbit over ∼10,000 orbits. The data precision, geodetic accuracy, and spatial distribution enable two-dimensional crossovers to be used to infer relative radial position corrections between tracks to better than ∼1 m. We use nearly 500,000 altimetric crossovers to separate remaining high-frequency spacecraft trajectory errors from the periodic radial surface tidal deformation. The unusual sampling of the lunar body tide from polar lunar orbit limits the size of the typical differential signal expected at ground track intersections to ∼10 cm. Nevertheless, we reliably detect the topographic tidal signal and estimate the associated Love number h2 to be 0.0371 ± 0.0033, which is consistent with but lower than recent results from lunar laser ranging. Altimetric data are used to create radial constraints on the tidal deformationThe body tide amplitude is estimated from the crossover dataThe estimated Love number is consistent with previous estimates but more precise.

  12. Lunar laser ranging: a continuing legacy of the apollo program. (United States)

    Dickey, J O; Bender, P L; Faller, J E; Newhall, X X; Ricklefs, R L; Ries, J G; Shelus, P J; Veillet, C; Whipple, A L; Wiant, J R; Williams, J G; Yoder, C F


    On 21 July 1969, during the first manned lunar mission, Apollo 11, the first retroreflector array was placed on the moon, enabling highly accurate measurements of the Earthmoon separation by means of laser ranging. Lunar laser ranging (LLR) turns the Earthmoon system into a laboratory for a broad range of investigations, including astronomy, lunar science, gravitational physics, geodesy, and geodynamics. Contributions from LLR include the three-orders-of-magnitude improvement in accuracy in the lunar ephemeris, a several-orders-of-magnitude improvement in the measurement of the variations in the moon's rotation, and the verification of the principle of equivalence for massive bodies with unprecedented accuracy. Lunar laser ranging analysis has provided measurements of the Earth's precession, the moon's tidal acceleration, and lunar rotational dissipation. These scientific results, current technological developments, and prospects for the future are discussed here.

  13. The Apollo Expericence Lessons Learned for Constellation Lunar Dust Management (United States)

    Wagner, Sandra


    Lunar dust will present significant challenges to NASA's Lunar Exploration Missions. The challenges can be overcome by using best practices in system engineering design. For successful lunar surface missions, all systems that come into contact with lunar dust must consider the effects throughout the entire design process. Interfaces between all these systems with other systems also must be considered. Incorporating dust management into Concept of Operations and Requirements development are the best place to begin to mitigate the risks presented by lunar dust. However, that is only the beginning. To be successful, every person who works on NASA's Constellation lunar missions must be mindful of this problem. Success will also require fiscal responsibility. NASA must learn from Apollo the root cause of problems caused by dust, and then find the most cost-effective solutions to address each challenge. This will require a combination of common sense existing technologies and promising, innovative technical solutions

  14. Lunar magnetic permeability, magnetic fields, and electrical conductivity temperature (United States)

    Parkin, C. W.


    In the time period 1969-1972 a total of five magnetometers were deployed on the lunar surface during four Apollo missions. Data from these instruments, along with simultaneous measurements from other experiments on the moon and in lunar orbit, were used to study properties of the lunar interior and the lunar environment. The principal scientific results from analyses of the magnetic field data are discussed. The results are presented in the following main categories: (1) lunar electrical conductivity, temperature, and structure; (2) lunar magnetic permeability, iron abundance, and core size limits; (3) the local remnant magnetic fields, their interaction with the solar wind, and a thermoelectric generator model for their origin. Relevant publications and presented papers are listed.

  15. Coexistence of Factor VII Deficiency and Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia in Two Siblings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hortensia De la Corte-Rodriguez


    Full Text Available We present the case of two patients aged 12 years and 7 years who were referred to our hospital for factor VII deficiency inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern, who had suffered from previous multiple joint haemarthroses. They presented with fine motor symptoms and difficulty in walking. During physical examination we observed neurological symptoms (general hypotonia, muscular hypotrophy, exaggerated tendon reflexes, pes cavus, and spastic gait. Given that the symptoms were not justified by the deficiency of coagulation factor VII and on suspicion of hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP, tests were carried out. Findings from the tests confirmed the diagnosis of HSP (axonal degeneration of the central motor pathway and pyramidal tracts, further complicated by mixed neuropathy. This disease was also inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern with no direct genetic association with factor VII deficiency. Neurological symptoms had gone unnoticed due to a history of multiple joint haemarthrosis; musculoskeletal examination led to a satisfactory differential diagnosis. Haematological prophylaxis was commenced with rFVIIa at 30 mcg/kg, three days per week. A rehabilitation programme was prescribed so that the patient could remain independent for as long as possible, based on orthosis, physiotherapy, and occupational therapy. Response to treatment is currently satisfactory and no new bleeding has presented. As far as we are aware, the coexistence of these two diseases (factor VII deficiency and HSP has not been previously reported in the literature.

  16. Contribution of coagulation factor VII R353Q polymorphism to the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hanan Azzam


    Dec 5, 2016 ... a b s t r a c t. Background: Elevated factor VII (FVII) level is a risk factor for thromboembolic disorders. It was reported that the FVII R353Q polymorphism is associated with variation in plasma FVII levels, where Q allele car- ..... and von Willebrand factor: the CHARGE (Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research.





    2014 Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis pengaruh kualitas sistem dan informasi terhadap kepuasan pemakai sistem ERP pada PT Telkom Divre VII Makassar. Pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan menggunakan kuesioner yang diberikan kepada 132 responden sebagai pengguna sistem ERP. Data diolah dengan menggunakan analisis regresi berganda. Temuan penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kualitas sistem memiliki pengaruh positif terhadap ...

  18. Strangers No More: All Workers are Entitled to "Just Cause" Protection under Title VII. (United States)

    Blumrosen, Alfred W.


    Examines the work of administrative agencies and courts in processing discrimination claims under Title VII (equal employment opportunity) of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, concluding that the common law rule of employer discretion has been superseded by the principle of just cause in personnel decisions. (MF)

  19. Factor VII-activating protease : Unraveling the release and regulation of dead cell nuclear damps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marsman, G.


    Upon inflammation, uncleared dying cells are an important source of pro-inflammatory damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). Major DAMPs are histones and double-stranded DNA, which together form chromatin. Factor VII-activating protease (FSAP) is activated upon contact with dead cells, and its

  20. Presidendi teenetemärgi pälvis viis spordiinimest

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae


    Vt. ka Linnaleht : Tartu 7. veebr., lk. 7. Eesti riigile osutatud teenete eest pälvisid president Toomas Hendrik Ilveselt teenetemärgi viis spordieluga seotud inimest: jalgpallikoondise ekstreenerid Jelle Goes ja Arno Pijpers, kergejõustikutreener Vésteinn Hafsteinsson, sõudetreener Tatjana Jaanson ning spordielu edendaja Nora Kutti. Juuresoleval fotol Jelle Goes

  1. Investigating the air oxidation of V(II) ions in a vanadium redox flow battery (United States)

    Ngamsai, Kittima; Arpornwichanop, Amornchai


    The air oxidation of vanadium (V(II)) ions in a negative electrolyte reservoir is a major side reaction in a vanadium redox flow battery (VRB), which leads to electrolyte imbalance and self-discharge of the system during long-term operation. In this study, an 80% charged negative electrolyte solution is employed to investigate the mechanism and influential factors of the reaction in a negative-electrolyte reservoir. The results show that the air oxidation of V(II) ions occurs at the air-electrolyte solution interface area and leads to a concentration gradient of vanadium ions in the electrolyte solution and to the diffusion of V(II) and V(III) ions. The effect of the ratio of the electrolyte volume to the air-electrolyte solution interface area and the concentrations of vanadium and sulfuric acid in an electrolyte solution is investigated. A higher ratio of electrolyte volume to the air-electrolyte solution interface area results in a slower oxidation reaction rate. The high concentrations of vanadium and sulfuric acid solution also retard the air oxidation of V(II) ions. This information can be utilized to design an appropriate electrolyte reservoir for the VRB system and to prepare suitable ingredients for the electrolyte solution.

  2. 78 FR 36011 - Region VII Regulatory Fairness Board; Federal Regulatory Enforcement Fairness Hearing (United States)


    ... ADMINISTRATION Region VII Regulatory Fairness Board; Federal Regulatory Enforcement Fairness Hearing AGENCY: U.S... Business Regulatory Fairness Board. SUMMARY: The (SBA) Office of the National Ombudsman is issuing this notice to announce the location, date and time of the Regional Small Business Regulatory Fairness hearing...

  3. Last Hired, First Fired Seniority, Layoffs, and Title VII: Questions of Liability and Remedy (United States)

    Joseph, Ellen R.


    The severe economic downturn since the fall of 1973 has focused attention on the consequences of layoffs for the groups intended by Congress to benefit from the employment opportunity policies of Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Layoffs have disproportionately affected minority or women employees. (LBH)

  4. Page 1 396 R. D. Desai and (Miss) W. M. Vakil (VII) and its alcoholic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    (VII) and its alcoholic solution gave a red coloration with ferric chloride. (yield 42 per cent). (Found: C, 647; H, 46; CH, Os requires C, 65.0;. H, 4.5 per cent). The sodium bicarbonate solution, on acidification, gave an acid which is described below. Hydrolysis of methyl 2:4-dihydroxy-3-benzoyl-5-acetylbenzoate to 2:4-.

  5. Eesti lavastus "Põrgu wärk" võitis Balti teatrifestivalil viis auhinda

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae


    Balti teatrifestivalil "OmaDraama 2006" nähtud etendustest said viis auhinda eestlased - Mart Kivastik näidendi "Põrgu Wärk" eest, Hendrik Toompere lavastuse eest, Harriet Toompere naisosatäitmise eest, Jan Uuspõld Wiiralti kehastamise eest ning Margus Prangel Tuglase osa eest

  6. "Põrgu wärk" võitis Balti teatrifestivalil viis auhinda

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae


    Balti teatrifestivalil "OmaDraama 2006" nähtud etendustest said viis auhinda eestlased - Mart Kivastik näidendi "Põrgu Wärk" eest, Hendrik Toompere lavastuse eest, Harriet Toompere naisosatäitmise eest, Jan Uuspõld Wiiralti kehastamise eest ning Margus Prangel Tuglase osa eest. Ka teistest festivalil auhinnasaajatest

  7. Three-dimensional ultrasonography for visualization of muscular anomalies in type VI and VII radial polydactyly. (United States)

    Saito, Susumu; Ueda, Maho; Takahashi, Natsuko; Kawakatsu, Motohisa; Suzuki, Shigehiko


    To describe a technique and its clinical applications of three-dimensional ultrasonography to type VI and VII radial polydactyly for identification of potential muscular anomalies. Ultrasonographic examinations were performed at an out-patient department without sedation or an operative room prior to surgery. The palm was scanned in the transverse direction using a 18-MHz linear transducer under speed regulation at 3 mm/s. Sequential images acquired at 0.2 mm intervals were converted into volume data. After validation of the technique, patients with a radial polydactyly in association with triphalangism (type VII) or with polydactylies of metacarpal duplication (type VI) were included for the examination. Five hands of five patients, one with type VI and four with type VII, were included the study. All the patients were male and the ages at examination ranged from 7 months to 2 years. Of the five patients, four examinations were performed at an out-patient department without sedation and one was under anesthesia just prior to surgery. The muscular abnormalities identified were mal-positions of the thenar muscles in a type VI case and a deficiency of the abductor pollicis brevis muscle in a type VII case with a delta phalanx in the ulnar part. Three-dimensional ultrasound technique could be an aid to plan strategies in radial polydactyly if intrinsic muscular anomalies are suspected to be involved.

  8. Fernando VII against the journalists. Litigations by the State Lawsuit Commission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Sánchez Hita


    Full Text Available This paper deals with the documents associated to the litigations against editors and journalists stored in the State Lawsuit Commission (Madrid, Spain. These files illustrate the persecution of those who tried to create a pro-constitutional public opinion, the aspects which were received as important affronts by Fernando VII and the defendants’ strategies to be penalized as less as possible.

  9. Vittorio De Sica viis meistritööd / Aare Ermel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ermel, Aare, 1957-2013


    DVD-st "Vittorio De Sica Masterpiece Collection", kus on peal itaalia filmirežissööri Vittorio De Sica viis teost: "Jalgratavargad" ("Ladri di biciclette", 1948), "Ime Milanos" ("Miraclo a milano", 1951), "Umberto D." (1952), "Eile täna, homme" ("Ieri, oggi, domani", 1963), "Ajatu filmikunst" ("Cinema senza tempo: Cosi e la vita", 2001)

  10. Plasma fibrinogen and factor VII concentrations in adults after prenatal exposure to famine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roseboom, T. J.; van der Meulen, J. H.; Ravelli, A. C.; Osmond, C.; Barker, D. J.; Bleker, O. P.


    To assess the effect of maternal malnutrition during different stages of gestation on plasma concentrations of fibrinogen and factor VII, we investigated 725 people, aged 50 years, born around the time of the Dutch famine 1944-5. After adjustment for sex, plasma fibrinogen concentrations differed by

  11. Hormone therapy affects plasma measures of factor VII-activating protease in younger postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiasen, Jørn Sidelmann; Skouby, S.O.; Vitzthum, F.


    Objectives Current reviews indicate that hormone therapy (HT) has a protective role in coronary heart disease (CHD) in younger postmenopausal women, whereas HT contributes to CHD in older women Factor VII-activating protease (FSAP) is a serine protease that accumulates in unstable atherosclerotic...

  12. Factor VII-activating protease in patients with acute deep venous thrombosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sidelmann, Johannes J; Vitzthum, Frank; Funding, Eva


    Factor VII-activating protease (FSAP) is involved in haemostasis and inflammation. FSAP cleaves single chain urokinase-type plasminogen activator (scu-PA). The 1601GA genotype of the 1601G/A polymorphism in the FSAP gene leads to the expression of a FSAP variant with reduced ability to activate scu...

  13. Synthesis and characterization of 18F-labeled active site inhibited factor VII (ASIS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erlandsson, Maria; Nielsen, Carsten Haagen; Jeppesen, Troels Elmer


    Activated factor VII blocked in the active site with Phe-Phe-Arg-chloromethyl ketone (active site inhibited factor VII (ASIS)) is a 50-kDa protein that binds with high affinity to its receptor, tissue factor (TF). TF is a transmembrane glycoprotein that plays an important role in, for example......, thrombosis, metastasis, tumor growth, and tumor angiogenesis. The aim of this study was to develop an 18F-labeled ASIS derivative to assess TF expression in tumors. Active site inhibited factor VII was labeled using N-succinimidyl-4-[18F]fluorobenzoate, and the [18F]ASIS was purified on a PD-10 desalting...... column. The radiochemical yield was 25 ± 6%, the radiochemical purity was >97%, and the pseudospecific radioactivity was 35 ± 9 GBq/µmol. The binding efficacy was evaluated in pull-down experiments, which monitored the binding of unlabeled ASIS and [18F]ASIS to TF and to a specific anti-factor VII...

  14. Association of protein Z and factor VII gene polymorphisms with risk ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Protein Z (PZ) and factor (F) VII are two important factors in the clotting pathway which have similar structure, linked function and nearby gene sites. The aims of this study were to investigate whether the common variants of PZ and FVII genes are associated with the risk of cerebral hemorrhage (CH) and to explore ...

  15. What history tells us VII. Twenty-five years ago: the production of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Nov 13, 2006 ... Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 31; Issue 5. What history tells us VII. Twenty-five years ago: the production of mouse embryonic stem cells. Michel Morange. Series Volume 31 Issue 5 December 2006 pp 537-541. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  16. Contribution of coagulation factor VII R353Q polymorphism to the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim of the study: Is to investigate the contribution of factor VII R353Q gene polymorphism to the risk of thrombotic disorders development (venous and arterial) in a group of Egyptian patients. Subjects and methods: This study was conducted on 310 subjects: 110 acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients, 108 deep venous ...

  17. Dos Idiomas, Un Mundo. Dual Language Project. Title VII Biennial Evaluation Report, 1995-97. (United States)

    Ernest, Harishini M.; Gonzalez, Rosa M.

    This is an evaluation of the first 2 years of a 5-year comprehensive Bilingual Education grant funded by Title VII Part A of the Improving America's Schools Act of 1994 in the Austin Independent School District (AISD) (Texas). The grant awarded to the AISD funds a program of Developmental Bilingual Education at two elementary schools where more…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Bagus Putrayasa


    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mendeskripsikan: (1 pembelajaran menulis paragraf deskripsi dengan model mind mapping pada siswa kelas VII SMP Laboratorium Undiksha Singaraja, (2 kemampuan siswa kelas VII SMP Laboratorium Undiksha Singaraja dalam pembelajaran menulis paragraf deskripsi dengan mind mapping. Rancangan yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah penelitian deskriptif kualitatif. Yang menjadi subjek dalam penelitian ini adalah guru dan siswa kelas VII SMP Laboratorium Undiksha. Objek dalam penelitian ini adalah pembelajaran paragraf deskripsi dengan model mind mapping. Metode yang digunakan untuk mengumpulkan data adalah metode observasi dan metode tes. Data yang terkumpul dianalisis dengan metode analisis deskriptif kualitatif dan deskriptif kuantitatif. Hasilnya menunjukkan bahwa (1 Pembelajaran menulis paragraf deskripsi dengan model mind mapping yang dilakukan guru sudah sesuai dengan teori yang ada. (2 Kemampuan siswa kelas VII SMP Laboratorium Undiksha dalam menulis paragraf deskripsi tergolong baik. Skor yang diperoleh adalah 78,13. Walaupun skor yang diperoleh sudah mencapai kategori baik, tampaknya kinerja guru perlu ditingkatkan lagi dengan memberikan latihan-latihan yang lebih intensif, baik dalam membuat mind mapping maupun pengembangannya menjadi paragraf, sehingga tercapai hasil yang maksimal.

  19. Apollo Lunar Sample Photographs: Digitizing the Moon Rock Collection (United States)

    Lofgren, Gary E.; Todd, Nancy S.; Runco, S. K.; Stefanov, W. L.


    The Acquisition and Curation Office at JSC has undertaken a 4-year data restoration project effort for the lunar science community funded by the LASER program (Lunar Advanced Science and Exploration Research) to digitize photographs of the Apollo lunar rock samples and create high resolution digital images. These sample photographs are not easily accessible outside of JSC, and currently exist only on degradable film in the Curation Data Storage Facility

  20. Lunar Cycle Influences Spontaneous Delivery in Cows. (United States)

    Yonezawa, Tomohiro; Uchida, Mona; Tomioka, Michiko; Matsuki, Naoaki


    There is a popular belief that the lunar cycle influences spontaneous delivery in both humans and cattle. To assess this relationship, we investigated the synodic distribution of spontaneous deliveries in domestic Holstein cows. We used retrospective data from 428 spontaneous, full-term deliveries within a three-year period derived from the calving records of a private farm in Hokkaido, Japan. Spontaneous birth frequency increased uniformly from the new moon to the full moon phase and decreased until the waning crescent phase. There was a statistically significant peak between the waxing gibbous and full moon phases compared with those between the last quarter and the waning crescent. These changes were clearly observed in deliveries among multiparous cows, whereas they were not evident in deliveries among nulliparous cows. These data suggest the utility of dairy cows as models for bio-meteorological studies, and indicate that monitoring lunar phases may facilitate comprehensive understanding of parturition.

  1. Structure and Evolution of the Lunar Interior (United States)

    Andrews-Hanna, J. C.; Weber, R. C.; Ishihara, Y.; Kamata, S.; Keane, J.; Kiefer, W. S.; Matsuyama, I.; Siegler, M.; Warren, P.


    Early in its evolution, the Moon underwent a magma ocean phase leading to its differentiation into a feldspathic crust, cumulate mantle, and iron core. However, far from the simplest view of a uniform plagioclase flotation crust, the present-day crust of the Moon varies greatly in thickness, composition, and physical properties. Recent significant improvements in both data and analysis techniques have yielded fundamental advances in our understanding of the structure and evolution of the lunar interior. The structure of the crust is revealed by gravity, topography, magnetics, seismic, radar, electromagnetic, and VNIR remote sensing data. The mantle structure of the Moon is revealed primarily by seismic and laser ranging data. Together, this data paints a picture of a Moon that is heterogeneous in all directions and across all scales, whose structure is a result of its unique formation, differentiation, and subsequent evolution. This brief review highlights a small number of recent advances in our understanding of lunar structure.

  2. Dissolution chemistry of Minnesota Lunar Simulant (United States)

    Oglesby, James P.; Lindsay, Willard L.; Sadeh, Willy Z.


    Dissolution studies of Minnesota Lunar Simulant (MLS), a prepared finely ground basalt, were conducted to measure solution species, to assess the levels of plant nutrients and toxic elements, and to identify minerals controlling these levels. Many of the plant nutrients in the MLS solution (Mg, S, K, Ca, Cl, Mo, P, B, Ni, and Cu) are found to be in concentrations acceptable for plant growth. Nitrogen and manganese, however, are found to be deficient, and extractable iron and zinc are marginal after 150 d. The solution concentrations of metals are several orders of magnitude below levels that are toxic to plants. Aluminum hydroxide, calcite, and clinoenstatite are found to be the most likely mineral controls for aluminum, calcium, and magnesium, respectively. Many of the methods employed can be used to study actual lunar regolith.

  3. Concepts for an export oriented lunar colony (United States)

    Miller, Kent L.


    A model of a lunar domestic economy is presented which consists of 12 sectors, trading 21 goods and services. Material flow for operations and investments are balanced to minimize shortages and surpluses. Prices are formed by targeting a 15-35% return on assets for industry and a 15% after expenses income for labour. From this data, accounting statements, a 14 × 14 cash flow input/output matrix (consisting of 11 industrial sectors, labour, foreign trade and finance), and macroeconomic analyses are prepared which illuminate the most important links in the lunar economy. From this model conclusions are drawn regarding the matter of how best to lay the basis for sustainable colony growth and prosperity.

  4. Lunar solar-power system: Commerical power (United States)

    Criswell, David R.


    The proposed Lunar Solar-Power (LSP) System collects solar power on the moon. The power is converted to beams of microwaves and transmitted to fields of microwave receivers (rectennas) on Earth that provide electric power to local and regional power grids. LSP can provide abundant and low cost energy to Earth to sustain several centuries of economic development on Earth and in space. The LSP power is independent of the biosphere (global warming, weather, and climate changes), independent of reserves of terrestrial non-renewable and renewable power, and is low in total costs compared to other large scale power systems. Efficient utilization of the moon as a platform for solar collectors/power transmitters and as a source of building materials is key to the development and emplacement of the LSP System. LSP development costs can be significantly reduced by the establishment of a manned lunar base.

  5. Interior design of the lunar outpost (United States)

    Kennedy, Kriss J.


    This paper is part of an ongoing study on the interior design of a lunar outpost habitat facility. The concept presented represents the work done up to and including August 1989. This concept is part of NASA's ongoing effort to explore alternative options for planet surface systems habitation. Results of a volume analog study to determine the required pressurized volume are presented along with an internal layout of the habitat facility. The concept presented in this paper is a constructible lunar habitat that provides a living and working environment for a crew of 12. It is a 16-m diameter spherical pneumatic structure which contains 2145 cubic meters of volume. Five levels of living and working areas make up the 742 sq m of floor space. A 2-m vertical circulation shaft at the center allows for transfer of crew and equipment.

  6. Prevalence of collagen VII-specific autoantibodies in patients with autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. (United States)

    Licarete, Emilia; Ganz, Susanne; Recknagel, Martin J; Di Zenzo, Giovanni; Hashimoto, Takashi; Hertl, Michael; Zambruno, Giovanna; Hundorfean, Gheorghe; Mudter, Jonas; Neurath, Markus F; Bruckner-Tuderman, Leena; Sitaru, Cassian


    Autoimmunity to collagen VII is typically associated with the skin blistering disease epidermolysis bullosa acquisita (EBA), but also occurs occasionally in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus or inflammatory bowel disease. The aim of our present study was to develop an accurate immunoassay for assessing the presence of autoantibodies against collagen VII in large cohorts of patients and healthy donors. Based on in silico antigenic analysis and previous wetlab epitope mapping data, we designed a chimeric collagen VII construct containing all collagen VII epitopes with higher antigenicity. ELISA was performed with sera from patients with EBA (n = 50), Crohn's disease (CD, n = 50), ulcerative colitis (UC, n = 50), bullous pemphigoid (BP, n = 76), and pemphigus vulgaris (PV, n = 42) and healthy donors (n = 245). By ELISA, the receiver operating characteristics analysis yielded an area under the curve of 0.98 (95% CI: 0.9638-1.005), allowing to set the cut-off at 0.32 OD at a calculated specificity of 98% and a sensitivity of 94%. Running the optimized test showed that serum IgG autoantibodies from 47 EBA (94%; 95% CI: 87.41%-100%), 2 CD (4%; 95% CI: 0%-9.43%), 8 UC (16%; 95% CI: 5.8%-26%), 2 BP (2.63%; 95% CI: 0%-6.23%), and 4 PV (9.52%; 95% CI: 0%-18.4%) patients as well as from 4 (1.63%; 95% CI: 0%-3.21%) healthy donors reacted with the chimeric protein. Further analysis revealed that in 34%, 37%, 16% and 100% of sera autoantibodies of IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4 isotype, respectively, recognized the recombinant autoantigen. Using a chimeric protein, we developed a new sensitive and specific ELISA to detect collagen specific antibodies. Our results show a low prevalence of collagen VII-specific autoantibodies in inflammatory bowel disease, pemphigus and bullous pemphigoid. Furthermore, we show that the autoimmune response against collagen VII is dominated by IgG4 autoantibodies. The new immunoassay should prove a useful tool for clinical and translational

  7. Prevalence of collagen VII-specific autoantibodies in patients with autoimmune and inflammatory diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Licarete Emilia


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Autoimmunity to collagen VII is typically associated with the skin blistering disease epidermolysis bullosa acquisita (EBA, but also occurs occasionally in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus or inflammatory bowel disease. The aim of our present study was to develop an accurate immunoassay for assessing the presence of autoantibodies against collagen VII in large cohorts of patients and healthy donors. Methods Based on in silico antigenic analysis and previous wetlab epitope mapping data, we designed a chimeric collagen VII construct containing all collagen VII epitopes with higher antigenicity. ELISA was performed with sera from patients with EBA (n = 50, Crohn's disease (CD, n = 50, ulcerative colitis (UC, n = 50, bullous pemphigoid (BP, n = 76, and pemphigus vulgaris (PV, n = 42 and healthy donors (n = 245. Results By ELISA, the receiver operating characteristics analysis yielded an area under the curve of 0.98 (95% CI: 0.9638-1.005, allowing to set the cut-off at 0.32 OD at a calculated specificity of 98% and a sensitivity of 94%. Running the optimized test showed that serum IgG autoantibodies from 47 EBA (94%; 95% CI: 87.41%-100%, 2 CD (4%; 95% CI: 0%-9.43%, 8 UC (16%; 95% CI: 5.8%-26%, 2 BP (2.63%; 95% CI: 0%-6.23%, and 4 PV (9.52%; 95% CI: 0%-18.4% patients as well as from 4 (1.63%; 95% CI: 0%-3.21% healthy donors reacted with the chimeric protein. Further analysis revealed that in 34%, 37%, 16% and 100% of sera autoantibodies of IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4 isotype, respectively, recognized the recombinant autoantigen. Conclusions Using a chimeric protein, we developed a new sensitive and specific ELISA to detect collagen specific antibodies. Our results show a low prevalence of collagen VII-specific autoantibodies in inflammatory bowel disease, pemphigus and bullous pemphigoid. Furthermore, we show that the autoimmune response against collagen VII is dominated by IgG4 autoantibodies. The new immunoassay should

  8. Cytological studies of lunar treated tissue cultures (United States)

    Halliwell, R. S.


    An electron microscopic study was made of botanical materials, particularly pine tissues, treated with lunar materials collected by Apollo 12 quarantine mission. Results show unusual structural changes within several of the treated tissues. The bodies, as yet unidentified, resemble virus particles observed within infected plant cells. Although the size and shape of the structures are comparable to rod shaped virus particles such as Tobacco mosaic, the numerical distribution, affinity for stains, and intercellular location are different.

  9. Scientific Return of a Lunar Elevator


    Eubanks, T.M.; Radley, C. F.


    The concept of a space elevator dates back to Tsilokovsky, but they are not commonly considered in near-term plans for space exploration, perhaps because a terrestrial elevator would not be possible without considerable improvements in tether material. A Lunar Space Elevator (LSE), however, can be built with current technology using commercially available tether polymers. This paper considers missions leading to infrastructure capable of shortening the time, lowering the cost and enhancing th...

  10. Lunar Cycle Influences Spontaneous Delivery in Cows


    Yonezawa, Tomohiro; Uchida, Mona; Tomioka, Michiko; Matsuki, Naoaki


    There is a popular belief that the lunar cycle influences spontaneous delivery in both humans and cattle. To assess this relationship, we investigated the synodic distribution of spontaneous deliveries in domestic Holstein cows. We used retrospective data from 428 spontaneous, full-term deliveries within a three-year period derived from the calving records of a private farm in Hokkaido, Japan. Spontaneous birth frequency increased uniformly from the new moon to the full moon phase and decreas...

  11. Lunar Surface Properties from Diviner Eclipse Observations (United States)

    Hayne, Paul; Paige, David; Greenhagen, Benjamin; Bandfield, Joshua; Siegler, Matthew; Lucey, Paul


    The thermal behavior of planetary bodies can reveal information about fundamental processes shaping their surfaces and interiors. Diviner [1] has been mapping the Moon's diurnal temperatures since the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) arrived in 2009, yielding new insights into regolith formation [2, 3], the distribution of volatiles [4, 5], lunar volcanism [6, 7, 8], and impact processes [9]. The Moon's cooling during eclipse provides complementary information on the physical properties of the uppermost surface layer, which can be used to further investigate these and other processes. We used data from Diviner's seven thermal infrared spectral channels to measure surface temperatures before, during and after the 8 Oct., 2014 eclipse. In its standard nadir-pushbroom mode, Diviner maps surface temperatures in a ~6-km swath with a spatial resolution of ~250 m. Using Diviner's independent scanning capability [11], we also targeted two regions of interest on sequential orbits to create a time series of thermal observations: 1) Kepler crater (-38°E, 8°N) and 2) an unnamed nighttime "cold spot" (-33.3°E, 3°N). Pre-eclipse surface temperatures in these regions were ~380 K. As a relatively young Copernican-aged impact crater, Kepler was selected to investigate the abundance and size distribution of rocks in the ejecta and interior. Lunar nighttime "cold spots" are anomalous features around very young impact craters, extending for up to hundreds of crater radii, notable for their low temperatures in the Diviner nighttime data [9]. Although their origins are not fully explained, they are likely the result of in-situ disruption and decompression of regolith during the impact process. The selected cold spot (one of hundreds or even thousands on the lunar surface) was located with good viewing ge- ometry from LRO, and had a diameter of ~10 km surrounding a crater contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  12. Terrestrial analogues for lunar impact melt flows (United States)

    Neish, C. D.; Hamilton, C. W.; Hughes, S. S.; Nawotniak, S. Kobs; Garry, W. B.; Skok, J. R.; Elphic, R. C.; Schaefer, E.; Carter, L. M.; Bandfield, J. L.; Osinski, G. R.; Lim, D.; Heldmann, J. L.


    Lunar impact melt deposits have unique physical properties. They have among the highest observed radar returns at S-Band (12.6 cm wavelength), implying that they are rough at the decimeter scale. However, they are also observed in high-resolution optical imagery to be quite smooth at the meter scale. These characteristics distinguish them from well-studied terrestrial analogues, such as Hawaiian pāhoehoe and ´a´ā lava flows. The morphology of impact melt deposits can be related to their emplacement conditions, so understanding the origin of these unique surface properties will help to inform us as to the circumstances under which they were formed. In this work, we seek to find a terrestrial analogue for well-preserved lunar impact melt flows by examining fresh lava flows on Earth. We compare the radar return and high-resolution topographic variations of impact melt flows to terrestrial lava flows with a range of surface textures. The lava flows examined in this work range from smooth Hawaiian pāhoehoe to transitional basaltic flows at Craters of the Moon (COTM) National Monument and Preserve in Idaho to rubbly and spiny pāhoehoe-like flows at the recent eruption at Holuhraun in Iceland. The physical properties of lunar impact melt flows appear to differ from those of all the terrestrial lava flows studied in this work. This may be due to (a) differences in post-emplacement modification processes or (b) fundamental differences in the surface texture of the melt flows due to the melts' unique emplacement and/or cooling environment. Information about the surface properties of lunar impact melt deposits will be critical for future landed missions that wish to sample these materials.

  13. Lunar Regolith Excavation Student Competition Design (United States)

    Nething, Julia


    The Surface Systems team is working to learn about lunar regolith and how we can use it as a source of air, water, and fuel for spacecrafts. However, excavation of this valuable regolith is difficult because the robot has to conform to many specifications (mass limit, efficiency level, etc.). NASA has therefore decided to include college students and companies in the search to create the best robot by making it into a competition.

  14. Lunar Expandable Mobile Modular Base (LEMMB)




    This work speaks about the possibility to build a Lunar Base Habitat. Some of the technologies proposed are not completely yet available they are in developing state. Many aspects have been covered, from the type of launcher which mainly dictates the masses, dimensions constraints; to the use of inflatable structures which could be adopted to increase the habitat volume while contemporary decreasing the total habitat mass. Others important aspects analyzed are a new appro...

  15. Teleoperated Modular Robots for Lunar Operations (United States)

    Globus, Al; Hornby, Greg; Larchev, Greg; Hancher, Matt; Cannon, Howard; Lohn, Jason


    Solar system exploration is currently carried out by special purpose robots exquisitely designed for the anticipated tasks. However, all contingencies for in situ resource utilization (ISRU), human habitat preparation, and exploration will be difficult to anticipate. Furthermore, developing the necessary special purpose mechanisms for deployment and other capabilities is difficult and error prone. For example, the Galileo high gain antenna never opened, severely restricting the quantity of data returned by the spacecraft. Also, deployment hardware is used only once. To address these problems, we are developing teleoperated modular robots for lunar missions, including operations in transit from Earth. Teleoperation of lunar systems from Earth involves a three second speed-of-light delay, but experiment suggests that interactive operations are feasible.' Modular robots typically consist of many identical modules that pass power and data between them and can be reconfigured for different tasks providing great flexibility, inherent redundancy and graceful degradation as modules fail. Our design features a number of different hub, link, and joint modules to simplify the individual modules, lower structure cost, and provide specialized capabilities. Modular robots are well suited for space applications because of their extreme flexibility, inherent redundancy, high-density packing, and opportunities for mass production. Simple structural modules can be manufactured from lunar regolith in situ using molds or directed solar sintering. Software to direct and control modular robots is difficult to develop. We have used genetic algorithms to evolve both the morphology and control system for walking modular robots3 We are currently using evolvable system technology to evolve controllers for modular robots in the ISS glove box. Development of lunar modular robots will require software and physical simulators, including regolith simulation, to enable design and test of robot

  16. Architectural considerations for lunar long duration habitat (United States)

    Bahrami, Payam

    The future of space exploration science and technology is expected to move toward long duration missions. During this long duration missions the most important factor to success will be the habitation system, the place that crew will live and work. The broad range of future space exploration, new advances in technology and increasing demand for space travel and space tourism will create great opportunities for architects to use their special abilities and skills in the realm of space. The lunar habitat is defined as a multidisciplinary task and cannot be considered an independent project from the main module. Therefore, habitability will become the most important aspect of future human exploration. A successful design strategy should integrate architecture, structure and other disciplines and should bring in elements such as psychological and physiological factors, human interfaces, and privacy. The current research provides "Habitat Architectural Design System (HADS)" in order to evaluate lunar habitat concepts based on habitability, functional optimization, and human factors. HADS helps to promote parametric studied and evaluation of habitat concepts. It will provide a guideline dependent upon mission objectives to standardize architectural needs within the engineering applications and scientific demands. The significance of this research is the process of developing lunar habitat concepts using an architectural system to evaluate the quality of each concept via habitability aspects. This process can be employed during the early stage of design development and is flexible enough to be adjusted by different parameters according to the objectives of lunar mission, limitations, and cost. It also emphasizes the importance of architecture involvement in space projects, especially habitats.

  17. Linear Covariance Analysis for a Lunar Lander (United States)

    Jang, Jiann-Woei; Bhatt, Sagar; Fritz, Matthew; Woffinden, David; May, Darryl; Braden, Ellen; Hannan, Michael


    A next-generation lunar lander Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GNC) system, which includes a state-of-the-art optical sensor suite, is proposed in a concept design cycle. The design goal is to allow the lander to softly land within the prescribed landing precision. The achievement of this precision landing requirement depends on proper selection of the sensor suite. In this paper, a robust sensor selection procedure is demonstrated using a Linear Covariance (LinCov) analysis tool developed by Draper.

  18. Synchronized Lunar Pole Impact Plume Sample Return Trajectory Design (United States)

    Genova, Anthony L.; Foster, Cyrus; Colaprete, Tony


    The presented trajectory design enables two maneuverable spacecraft launched onto the same trans-lunar injection trajectory to coordinate a steep impact of a lunar pole and subsequent sample return of the ejecta plume to Earth. To demonstrate this concept, the impactor is assumed to use the LCROSS missions trajectory and spacecraft architecture, thus the permanently-shadowed Cabeus crater on the lunar south pole is assumed as the impact site. The sample-return spacecraft is assumed to be a CubeSat that requires a complimentary trajectory design that avoids lunar impact after passing through the ejecta plume to enable sample-return to Earth via atmospheric entry.

  19. A Survey of Ballistic Transfers to Low Lunar Orbit (United States)

    Parker, Jeffrey S.; Anderson, Rodney L.; Peterson, Andrew


    A simple strategy is identified to generate ballistic transfers between the Earth and Moon, i.e., transfers that perform two maneuvers: a trans-lunar injection maneuver to depart the Earth and a Lunar Orbit Insertion maneuver to insert into orbit at the Moon. This strategy is used to survey the performance of numerous transfers between varying Earth parking orbits and varying low lunar target orbits. The transfers surveyed include short 3-6 day direct transfers, longer 3-4 month low energy transfers, and variants that include Earth phasing orbits and/or lunar flybys.

  20. Remote detection of widespread indigenous water in lunar pyroclastic deposits (United States)

    Milliken, Ralph E.; Li, Shuai


    Laboratory analyses of lunar samples provide a direct means to identify indigenous volatiles and have been used to argue for the presence of Earth-like water content in the lunar interior. Some volatile elements, however, have been interpreted as evidence for a bulk lunar mantle that is dry. Here we demonstrate that, for a number of lunar pyroclastic deposits, near-infrared reflectance spectra acquired by the Moon Mineralogy Mapper instrument onboard the Chandrayaan-1 orbiter exhibit absorptions consistent with enhanced OH- and/or H2O-bearing materials. These enhancements suggest a widespread occurrence of water in pyroclastic materials sourced from the deep lunar interior, and thus an indigenous origin. Water abundances of up to 150 ppm are estimated for large pyroclastic deposits, with localized values of about 300 to 400 ppm at potential vent areas. Enhanced water content associated with lunar pyroclastic deposits and the large areal extent, widespread distribution and variable chemistry of these deposits on the lunar surface are consistent with significant water in the bulk lunar mantle. We therefore suggest that water-bearing volcanic glasses from Apollo landing sites are not anomalous, and volatile loss during pyroclastic eruptions may represent a significant pathway for the transport of water to the lunar surface.

  1. Scalable Lunar Surface Networks and Adaptive Orbit Access Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Innovative network architecture, protocols, and algorithms are proposed for both lunar surface networks and orbit access networks. Firstly, an overlaying...

  2. Astronaut Harrison Schmitt collects lunar rake samples during EVA (United States)


    Scientist-Astronaut Harrison H. Schmitt collects lunar rake samples at Station 1 during the first Apollo 17 extravehicular activity (EVA-1) at the Taurus-Littrow landing site. This picture was taken by Astronatu Eugene Cernan, Apollo 17 commander. Schmitt is the lunar module pilot. The lunar rake, An Apollo lunar geology hand tool, is used to collect discrete samples of rocks and rock chips ranging in size from one-half inch (1.3 cm) to one inch (2.5 cm).


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — LUNAR TERRAIN AND ALBEDO RECONSTRUCTION FROM APOLLO IMAGERY ARA V NEFIAN*, TAEMIN KIM, MICHAEL BROXTON, AND ZACH MORATTO Abstract. Generating accurate three...

  4. Numerical Simulation of Rocket Exhaust Interaction with Lunar Soil Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Rocket plume impingement may cause significant damage and contaminate co-landed spacecraft and surrounding habitat structures during Lunar landing operations. Under...

  5. Lunar Soil Erosion Physics for Landing Rockets on the Moon (United States)

    Clegg, Ryan N.; Metzger, Philip T.; Huff, Stephen; Roberson, Luke B.


    To develop a lunar outpost, we must understand the blowing of soil during launch and landing of the new Altair Lander. For example, the Apollo 12 Lunar Module landed approximately 165 meters from the deactivated Surveyor Ill spacecraft, scouring its surfaces and creating numerous tiny pits. Based on simulations and video analysis from the Apollo missions, blowing lunar soil particles have velocities up to 2000 m/s at low ejection angles relative to the horizon, reach an apogee higher than the orbiting Command and Service Module, and travel nearly the circumference of the Moon [1-3]. The low ejection angle and high velocity are concerns for the lunar outpost.

  6. Numerical Simulation of Rocket Exhaust Interaction with Lunar Soil Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Rocket plume impingement can cause significant damage and contaminate co-landing spacecraft and surrounding habitat structures during lunar landing operations. CFDRC...

  7. Lunar cartography with the Apollo 17 ALSE radar imagery (United States)

    Tiernan, M.; Roth, L.; Thompson, T. W.; Elachi, C.; Brown, W. E., Jr.


    Lunar position differences between thirteen craters in Mare Serenitatis were computed from VHF radar-imagery obtained by the Lunar Sounder instrument flown on the Apollo 17 command module. The radar-derived position differences agree with those obtained by conventional photogrammetric reductions of Apollo metric photography. This demonstrates the feasibility of using the Apollo Lunar Sounder data to determine the positions of lunar features along the Apollo 17 orbital tracks. This will be particularly useful for western limb and farside areas, where no Apollo metric camera pictures are available.

  8. Lunar eclipses: Probing the atmosphere of an inhabited planet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muñoz A. García


    Full Text Available The Moon's brightness during a lunar eclipse is indicative of the composition, cloudiness and aerosol loading of the Earth's atmosphere. The idea of using lunar eclipse observations to characterize the Earth's atmosphere is not new, but the interest raised by the prospects of discovering Earth-like exoplanets transiting their host stars has brought renewed attention to the method. We review some recent efforts made in the prediction and interpretation of lunar eclipses. We also comment on the contribution of the lunar eclipse theory to the refractive theory of planetary transits.

  9. Erosive Wear Characterization of Materials for Lunar Construction (United States)

    Mpagazehe, Jeremiah N.; Street, Kenneth W., Jr.; Delgado, Irebert R.; Higgs, C. Fred, III


    NASA s Apollo missions revealed that exhaust from the retrorockets of landing spacecraft may act to significantly accelerate lunar dust on the surface of the Moon. A recent study by Immer et al. (C. Immer, P.T. Metzger, P.E. Hintze, A. Nick, and R. Horan, Apollo 12 Lunar Module exhaust plume impingement on Lunar Surveyor III, Icarus, Vol. 211, pp. 1089-1102, 2011) investigated coupons returned to Earth from the Surveyor III lunar probe which were subjected to lunar dust impingement by the Apollo 12 Lunar Module landing. Their study revealed that even with indirect impingement, the spacecraft sustained erosive damage from the fast-moving lunar dust particles. In this work, results are presented from a series of erosive wear experiments performed on 6061 Aluminum using the JSC-1AF lunar dust simulant. Optical profilometry was used to investigate the surface after the erosion process. It was found that even short durations of lunar dust simulant impacting at low velocities produced substantial changes in the surface.

  10. Experimental reduction of lunar mare soil and volcanic glass (United States)

    Allen, Carlton C.; Morris, Richard V.; Mckay, David S.


    We have reduced high-titanium lunar mare soil and iron-rich lunar volcanic glass with hydrogen at temperatures of 900-1100 C. Ilmenite is the most reactive phase in the soil, exhibiting rapid and complete reduction at all temperatures. Ferrous iron in the glass is extensively reduced concurrent with partial crystallization. In both samples pyroxene and olivine undergo partial reduction along with chemical and mineralogical modifications. High-temperature reduction provides insight into the optical and chemical effects of lunar soil maturation, and places constraints on models of that process. Mare soil and volcanic glass are attractive feedstocks for lunar oxygen production, with achievable yields of 2-5 wt%.

  11. Conceptual design of a lunar oxygen pilot plant Lunar Base Systems Study (LBSS) task 4.2 (United States)


    The primary objective was to develop conceptual designs of two pilot plants to produce oxygen from lunar materials. A lunar pilot plant will be used to generate engineering data necessary to support an optimum design of a larger scale production plant. Lunar oxygen would be of primary value as spacecraft propellant oxidizer. In addition, lunar oxygen would be useful for servicing nonregenerative fuel cell power systems, providing requirements for life support, and to make up oxygen losses from leakage and airlock cycling. Thirteen different lunar oxygen production methods are described. Hydrogen reduction of ilmenite and extraction of solar-wind hydrogen from bulk lunar soil were selected for conceptual design studies. Trades and sensitivity analyses were performed with these models.

  12. Inflatable habitation for the lunar base (United States)

    Roberts, M.


    Inflatable structures have a number of advantages over rigid modules in providing habitation at a lunar base. Some of these advantages are packaging efficiency, convenience of expansion, flexibility, and psychological benefit to the inhabitants. The relatively small, rigid cylinders fitted to the payload compartment of a launch vehicle are not as efficient volumetrically as a collapsible structure that fits into the same space when packaged, but when deployed is much larger. Pressurized volume is a valuable resource. By providing that resource efficiently, in large units, labor intensive external expansion (such as adding additional modules to the existing base) can be minimized. The expansive interior in an inflatable would facilitate rearrangement of the interior to suite the evolving needs of the base. This large, continuous volume would also relieve claustrophobia, enhancing habitability and improving morale. The purpose of this paper is to explore some of the aspects of inflatable habitat design, including structural, architectural, and environmental considerations. As a specific case, the conceptual design of an inflatable lunar habitat, developed for the Lunar Base Systems Study at the Johnson Space Center, is described.

  13. A Selenological History of Lunar Poetics (United States)

    von Chamier-Waite, C. T.


    The Moon. Centuries of human inquiry have engaged this mysterious object. The Moon embodies history, philosophy, cosmology, and passions; the nature of love, persecution, and our capacity for the sublime. This review considers a body of research on lunar poetics done for a series of artworks by the author. It will look at a few select writings that have profoundly influenced our epistemological, ontological, and poetic knowledge of the universe with the Moon as a central theme. Centered in the early seventeenth century at the time of Kepler and Galileo, this query follows the tendrils of lunar influences in both the sciences and literature that emanate from these two figures, forwards and backwards in time. Science, politics, theology, and the arts intertwine in this investigation. The works reviewed link the philosophy of Aristotle and the poetry of Lucian of Samosata to findings by Leonardo Da Vinci, Copernicus, Jules Verne, and others. The chosen philosophers have been selected because of their significant contributions to selenology and lunar poetics, and each of the figures reviewed have the honor of a namesake crater upon the Moon.

  14. Extracting Quantitative Data from Lunar Soil Spectra (United States)

    Noble, S. K.; Pieters, C. M.; Hiroi, T.


    Using the modified Gaussian model (MGM) developed by Sunshine et al. [1] we compared the spectral properties of the Lunar Soil Characterization Consortium (LSCC) suite of lunar soils [2,3] with their petrologic and chemical compositions to obtain quantitative data. Our initial work on Apollo 17 soils [4] suggested that useful compositional data could be elicited from high quality soil spectra. We are now able to expand upon those results with the full suite of LSCC soils that allows us to explore a much wider range of compositions and maturity states. The model is shown to be sensitive to pyroxene abundance and can evaluate the relative portion of high-Ca and low-Ca pyroxenes in the soils. In addition, the dataset has provided unexpected insights into the nature and causes of absorption bands in lunar soils. For example, it was found that two distinct absorption bands are required in the 1.2 m region of the spectrum. Neither of these bands can be attributed to plagioclase or agglutinates, but both appear to be largely due to pyroxene.

  15. Lunar and Mars Exploration: The Autonomy Factor (United States)

    Rando, Cynthia M.; Schuh, Susan V.


    Long duration space flight crews have relied heavily on almost constant communication with ground control mission support. Ground control teams provide vehicle status and system monitoring, while offering near real time support for specific tasks, emergencies, and ensuring crew health and well being. With extended exploration goals to lunar and Mars outposts, real time communication with ground control teams and the ground s ability to conduct mission monitoring will be very limited compared to the resources provided to current International Space Station (ISS) crews. An operational shift toward more autonomy and a heavier reliance on the crew to monitor their vehicle and operations will be required for these future missions. NASA s future exploration endeavors and the subsequent increased autonomy will require a shift in crew skill composition, i.e. engineer, doctor, mission specialist etc. and lead to new training challenges and mission scenarios. Specifically, operational and design changes will be necessary in many areas including: Habitat Infrastructure and Support Systems, Crew Composition, Training, Procedures and Mission Planning. This paper will specifically address how to apply ISS lessons learned to further use ISS as a test bed to address decreased amounts of ground support to achieve full autonomous operations for lunar and Mars missions. Understanding these lessons learned and applying them to current operations will help to address the future impacts of increased crew autonomy for the lunar and Mars outposts and pave the way for success in increasingly longer mission durations.

  16. Concept of the lunar power system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Criswell, D.R.; Waldron, R.D.


    It is asserted that the development of efficient solar power systems is dependent on their placement in GEO (SPS) or on the moon (LPS). Conventional large scale power sources (fission, coal, hydrocarbons) will eventually be depleted and pose unacceptably high environmental risks. Fusion power plants will need an infrastructure that cannot yet be envisioned. Terrestrial solar, biomass and wind energy plants require large land areas and massive quantities of materials to achieve significant outputs. Orbiting SPS stations offer greater energy output/mass ratios than available on earth. The receiving rectenna would be of nearly the same mass of a large coal-burning power plant. Lunar materials could be used to build the SPS, or power plants on the moon. Lunar and terrestrial rotations would require relays in space to maintain a continuous power stream. The lunar soil, a good dielectric, could be made into a glass or ceramic to support solar cells in arrays covering 10,000 sq km. Finally, actual system features, as well as the necessity of planning for long payoff times in financing, are discussed. 36 references.

  17. Bioaugmentation in growing plants for lunar bases (United States)

    Zaets, I.; Burlak, O.; Rogutskyy, I.; Vasilenko, A.; Mytrokhyn, O.; Lukashov, D.; Foing, B.; Kozyrovska, N.


    Microorganisms may be a key element in a precursory scenario of growing pioneer plants for extraterrestrial exploration. They can be used for plant inoculation to leach nutritional elements from regolith, to alleviate lunar stressors, as well as to decompose both lunar rocks and the plant straw in order to form a protosoil. Bioleaching capacities of both French marigold (Tagetes patula L.) and the associated bacteria in contact with a lunar rock simulant (terrestrial anorthosite) were examined using the model plant-bacteria microcosms under controlled conditions. Marigold accumulated K, Na, Fe, Zn, Ni, and Cr at higher concentrations in anorthosite compared to the podzol soil. Plants inoculated with the consortium of well-defined species of bacteria accumulated higher levels of K, Mg, and Mn, but lower levels of Ni, Cr, Zn, Na, Ca, Fe, which exist at higher levels in anorthosite. Bacteria also affected the Са/Mg and Fe/Mn ratios in the biomass of marigold grown on anorthosite. Despite their growth retardation, the inoculated plants had 15% higher weight on anorthosite than noninoculated plants. The data suggest that the bacteria supplied basic macro-and microelements to the model plant.

  18. Relativistic tests with lunar laser ranging (United States)

    Hofmann, F.; Müller, J.


    This paper presents the recent version of the lunar laser ranging (LLR) analysis model at the Institut für Erdmessung (IfE), Leibniz Universität Hannover and highlights a few tests of Einstein’s theory of gravitation using LLR data. Investigations related to a possible temporal variation of the gravitational constant, the equivalence principle, the PPN parameters β and γ as well as the geodetic precession were carried out. The LLR analysis model was updated by gravitational effects of the Sun and planets with the Moon as extended body. The higher-order gravitational interaction between Earth and Moon as well as effects of the solid Earth tides on the lunar motion were refined. The basis for the modeled lunar rotation is now a 2-layer core/mantle model according to the DE430 ephemeris. The validity of Einstein’s theory was studied using this updated analysis model and an LLR data set from 1970 to January 2015. Within the estimated accuracies, no deviations from Einstein’s theory are detected. A relative temporal variation of the gravitational constant is estimated as \\dot{G}/G_0=(7.1+/-7.6)×10-14~yr-1 , the test of the equivalence principle gives Δ(m_g/m_i)EM=(-3+/-5)×10-14 and the Nordtvedt parameter \


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Raw, uncalibrated housekeeping and scientific data collected from the Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND) aboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter.


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Calibrated or converted housekeeping and scientific data collected from the Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector aboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter.