WorldWideScience

Sample records for rangeland ecol manage

  1. Adaptive management of rangeland systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Craig R.; Angeler, David G.; Fontaine, Joseph J.; Garmestani, Ahjond S.; Hart, Noelle M.; Pope, Kevin L.; Twidwell, Dirac

    2017-01-01

    Adaptive management is an approach to natural resource management that uses structured learning to reduce uncertainties for the improvement of management over time. The origins of adaptive management are linked to ideas of resilience theory and complex systems. Rangeland management is particularly well suited for the application of adaptive management, having sufficient controllability and reducible uncertainties. Adaptive management applies the tools of structured decision making and requires monitoring, evaluation, and adjustment of management. Adaptive governance, involving sharing of power and knowledge among relevant stakeholders, is often required to address conflict situations. Natural resource laws and regulations can present a barrier to adaptive management when requirements for legal certainty are met with environmental uncertainty. However, adaptive management is possible, as illustrated by two cases presented in this chapter. Despite challenges and limitations, when applied appropriately adaptive management leads to improved management through structured learning, and rangeland management is an area in which adaptive management shows promise and should be further explored.

  2. Collaborative adaptive rangeland management fosters management-science partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangelands of the western Great Plains of North America are complex social-ecological systems where management objectives for livestock production, grassland bird conservation and vegetation structure and composition converge. The Collaborative Adaptive Rangeland Management (CARM) experiment is a 10...

  3. Criteria and indicators for sustainable rangeland management

    Science.gov (United States)

    John E. Mitchell

    2010-01-01

    The concept of sustainable management encompasses ecological, economic, and social criteria and indicators (C&I) for monitoring and assessing the association between maintaining a healthy rangeland base and sustaining the well-being of communities and economies. During a series of meetings from 2001 to 2003, the Sustainable Rangelands Roundtable (SRR) developed...

  4. Using rangeland health assessment to inform successional management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangeland health assessment provides qualitative information on ecosystem attributes. Successional management is a conceptual framework that allows managers to link information gathered in rangeland health assessment to ecological processes that need to be repaired to allow vegetation to change in ...

  5. Increasing flexibility in rangeland management during drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    The extreme drought that began in 2011 and persists throughout the central and western US presents a challenge to sustainable rangeland management. Wyoming ranchers manage half of this drought-prone state and are at the forefront of this challenge. We examined Wyoming ranchers’ drought management st...

  6. Rehabilitation of cheatgrass-infested rangelands: management

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is the final part of a three part series specifically addressing lessons learned concerning the management of rehabilitated cheatgrass-infested rangelands. Steve Novak and Richard Mack reported in 2003 that they found no evidence of outcrossing in 2,000 cheatgrass seedlings from 60 North Americ...

  7. Management of Collective Rangelands in Rhamna (Morocco ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Rangelands are severely degraded in Morocco. This has stimulated public interventions to reduce the pressure on natural resources and promote sustainable management. In Rhamna, a region traditionally used for transhumance, such efforts have met with limited success because they have not taken into consideration ...

  8. Managing the livestock– Wildlife interface on rangelands

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Toit, Johan T.; Cross, Paul C.; Valeix, Marion

    2017-01-01

    On rangelands the livestock–wildlife interface is mostly characterized by management actions aimed at controlling problems associated with competition, disease, and depredation. Wildlife communities (especially the large vertebrate species) are typically incompatible with agricultural development because the opportunity costs of wildlife conservation are unaffordable except in arid and semi-arid regions. Ecological factors including the provision of supplementary food and water for livestock, together with the persecution of large predators, result in livestock replacing wildlife at biomass densities far exceeding those of indigenous ungulates. Diseases are difficult to eradicate from free-ranging wildlife populations and so veterinary controls usually focus on separating commercial livestock herds from wildlife. Persecution of large carnivores due to their depredation of livestock has caused the virtual eradication of apex predators from most rangelands. However, recent research points to a broad range of solutions to reduce conflict at the livestock–wildlife interface. Conserving wildlife bolsters the adaptive capacity of a rangeland by providing stakeholders with options for dealing with environmental change. This is contingent upon local communities being empowered to benefit directly from their wildlife resources within a management framework that integrates land-use sectors at the landscape scale. As rangelands undergo irreversible changes caused by species invasions and climate forcings, the future perspective favors a proactive shift in attitude towards the livestock–wildlife interface, from problem control to asset management.

  9. Incorporating plant mortality and recruitment into rangeland management and assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tony Svejcar; Jeremy James; Stuart Hardegree; Roger Sheley

    2014-01-01

    Rangeland management is largely focused on managing vegetation change. Objectives may include managing against change if the desired vegetation is in place, or attempting to create a shift in vegetation if the desired plant community is not present. There is a rich body of research documenting influences of disturbance and management on rangeland vegetation. However,...

  10. Sustainable rangeland management, economic growth, and a cautious role for the SRM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interest in the art and science of rangeland management increased dramatically during the 20th century and it was out of this interest that the profession of rangeland management was born. As public interest in rangeland management grew, so did the number, breadth, and depth of rangeland management ...

  11. Erosion rates from forests and rangelands following fuel management

    Science.gov (United States)

    William J. Elliot; Peter R. Robichaud; I. Sue Miller

    2007-01-01

    In both forest and rangelands, fuel reduction operations are now common practices. Mechanical thinning followed by prescribed fire is common in forests, while fire is frequently applied to rangelands. Studies at different scales (50 sq m to 389 ha) measure the erosion from fuel management. This presentation compares runoff and erosion from these studies. Plot size has...

  12. Managing climate change risks in rangeland systems [Chapter 15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linda A. Joyce; Nadine A. Marshall

    2017-01-01

    The management of rangelands has long involved adapting to climate variability to ensure that economic enterprises remain viable and ecosystems sustainable; climate change brings the potential for change that surpasses the experience of humans within rangeland systems. Adaptation will require an intentionality to address the effects of climate change. Knowledge of...

  13. Rangeland Rummy - a board game to support adaptive management of rangeland-based livestock systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrié, B; Jouven, M; Launay, F; Moreau, J-C; Moulin, C-H; Piquet, M; Taverne, M; Tchakérian, E; Thénard, V; Martin, G

    2015-01-01

    Rangeland-based livestock systems have to deal with the significant instability and uncertainty of the agricultural context (policy changes, volatility of input prices, etc.), and especially of the climatic context. Thus, they are particularly concerned by adaptive management strategies. To support the development of such strategies, we developed a board game including a computer model called "Rangeland Rummy". It is to be used by groups of farmers and agricultural consultants in the context of short workshops (about 3 h). Rangeland Rummy builds upon five types of material object: (i) a game board; (ii) a calendar stick indicating the starting date of the game board; (iii) sticks marked with the feed resources available for combinations of vegetation types and their management practices; (iv) cards to define animal groups and their feeding requirements throughout the year; (v) cards related to types of feed that can be attributed to animal groups throughout the year. Using these material objects, farmers collectively design a rangeland-based livestock system. This system is immediately evaluated using a computer model, i.e. a spreadsheet providing graphs and indicators providing information on, among other things, the extent to which quantitative and qualitative animal feeding requirements are covered across the year. Playing the game thus consists in collectively and iteratively designing and evaluating rangeland-based livestock systems, while confronting the players with new contextual challenges (e.g. interannual variability of weather, volatility of input prices) or new farmers' objectives (e.g. being self-sufficient for animal feeding). An example of application of Rangeland Rummy with 3 farmers in southern France is reported. Applications show that it tends to develop farmers' adaptive capacity by stimulating their discussions and the exchange of locally-relevant knowledge on management strategies and practices in rangeland-based livestock systems. Copyright

  14. Climate change effects on rangelands and rangeland management: Affirming the need for monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel W. Mccollum; John A. Tanaka; Jack A. Morgan; John E. Mitchell; William E. Fox; Kristie A. Maczko; Lori Hidinger; Clifford S. Duke; Urs P. Kreuter

    2017-01-01

    Uncertainty as to the extent and magnitude of changes in conditions that might occur due to climate change poses a problem for land and resource managers as they seek to adapt to changes and mitigate effects of climate variability. We illustrate using scenarios of projected future conditions on rangelands in the Northern Great Plains and Desert Southwest of the United...

  15. Land management implications for ecosystem services in a South African rangeland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petz, K.; Glenday, J.; Alkemade, J.R.M.

    2014-01-01

    In South Africa, restoration and sustainable management of historically overgrazed and degraded rangelands are promoted to increase biodiversity and ecosystem service provision. This study evaluates different land management scenarios in terms of ecosystem services in a South African rangeland, the

  16. Management of communal rangelands - the dialogue between science and indigenous knowledge: the case of the Eastern Cape

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dube, S

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Communal area rangeland resource users are an important part of the rangeland ecosystem; rangeland management policies and practice should, therefore, accommodate their socio-cultural practices and knowledge. Indigenous knowledge (IK) is often...

  17. Integrating a rangeland health assessment with successional management: A synergistic approach to EBIPM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qualitative Rangeland Health Assessments are extremely useful because they provide a relative indication of resource problems on rangelands. Additionally, theSuccessional Management framework identifies three primary causes of plantcommunity change, ecological processes, and factors that modify thes...

  18. Sound management may sequester methane in grazed rangeland ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Considering their contribution to global warming, the sources and sinks of methane (CH4) should be accounted when undertaking a greenhouse gas inventory for grazed rangeland ecosystems. The aim of this study was to evaluate the mitigation potential of current ecological management programs implement...

  19. Criterion V: Legal, institutional, and economic framework for rangeland conservation and sustainable management [Chapter 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonn E. Mitchell; Stan Hamiliton; Thomas Lustig; Kenneth Nelson; Tom Roberts; Brian Czech

    2010-01-01

    Laws, institutions, and economic policies play a large role in determining the sustainability of rangelands. They provide the basic framework from which many lasting decisions about rangeland management are made. The SRR has identified 10 primary indicators to assess how this framework influences the long-term health and productivity of rangeland in this country. The...

  20. Soil Properties and Plant Biomass Production in Natural Rangeland Management Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeu de Souza Werner

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Improper management of rangelands can cause land degradation and reduce the economic efficiency of livestock activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate soil properties and quantify plant biomass production in four natural rangeland management systems in the Santa Catarina Plateau (Planalto Catarinense of Brazil. The treatments, which included mowed natural rangeland (NR, burned natural rangeland (BR, natural rangeland improved through the introduction of plant species after harrowing (IH, and natural rangeland improved through the introduction of plant species after chisel plowing (IC, were evaluated in a Nitossolo Bruno (Nitisol. In the improved treatments, soil acidity was corrected, phosphate fertilizer was applied, and intercropped annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum, velvet grass (Holcus lanatus, and white clover (Trifolium repens were sown. Management systems with harrowed or chisel plowed soil showed improved soil physical properties; however, the effect decreased over time and values approached those of burned and mowed natural rangelands. Natural rangeland systems in the establishment phase had little influence on soil organic C. The mowed natural rangeland and improved natural rangeland exhibited greater production of grazing material, while burning the field decreased production and increased the proportion of weeds. Improvement of the natural rangelands increased leguminous biomass for pasture.

  1. Cattle-rangeland management practices and perceptions of pastoralists towards rangeland degradation in the Borana zone of southern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, T B; Snyman, H A; Smit, G N

    2007-03-01

    A survey was conducted in the Borana pastoral areas of southern Ethiopia to assess current livestock production systems, rangeland management practices and the perceptions of the pastoralists towards rangeland degradation. This information is considered vital to future pastoral development planning and interventions. Data were collected from a total of 20 villages that were identified from 5 peasant associations, namely Did Yabello, Moyatte, Did Harra, Dubuluk and Melbana. The average household size in the study area was 7.23. The majority of the pastoralists relied on both livestock and crop farming. The average livestock holding per household was 14 cattle, 10 goats, 6 sheep and 2 camels. Livestock holdings, with the exception of camels, has shown a declining trend over time. The two most important traditional rangeland management strategies adopted by the pastoralists included burning and mobility, but since 1974/75 burning has no longer been practised. With regard to mobility, the livestock herding falls in two categories, namely: home based and satellite herding. The former involves the herding of milking cows, calves and immature animals (2 years) further away from the encampments. Based on the pastoralists' perceptions, the major constraints on livestock production in descending order, were recurrent drought, feed and water scarcity, animal diseases, predators and communal land ownership. All the respondents considered the condition of the rangelands to have declined dramatically over time. In the past most development policies were based on equilibrium theories that opposed the communal use of the rangelands and traditional range management practices. The way in which the pastoral system affects the rangeland ecosystem functioning is contentious to this theory and the 'tragedy of the commons'. There was also a perceived problem of bush encroachment and the ban on traditional burning practices and recurrent droughts were seen as aggravating factors to this

  2. The rangeland management and soil health connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil health is defined as the capacity of soil to function and provide ecosystem services to society. The importance of managing for the improvement and maintenance of soil health transcends political boundaries, generations, societies and languages. The challenge of communicating soil health conc...

  3. Application of the Rangeland Hydrology and Erosion Model to Ecological Site Descriptions and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    The utility of Ecological Site Descriptions (ESDs) and State-and-Transition Models (STMs) concepts in guiding rangeland management hinges on their ability to accurately describe and predict community dynamics and the associated consequences. For many rangeland ecosystems, plant community dynamics ar...

  4. Bush encroachment dynamics and rangeland management implications in the Horn of Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangelands in the Horn of Africa have been undergoing a rapid shift from herbaceous to woody plant dominance in the past decades, threatening subsistence livestock herding and pastoral food security. Despite of significant rangeland management implications, quantification of the spatial extent of en...

  5. Rangelands management in Spanish Natura 2000 sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernando Gallego, A.; Tejera Gimeno, R.; Velázquez Saornil, J.; Núñez Martí, V.; Grande Vega, M.

    2009-04-01

    Spanish open oak woodlands have had multiple land uses such as firewood extraction and grazing through centuries. Consequently, 20% of the Spanish forest is coppice forest. This particular agrosilvopastoral system is well widespread in the southern and western part of the Iberian Peninsula. As a result of the implementation of Natura 2000 in Spain, many of these habitats have been included in this network listed as "Dehesas" with evergreen Quercus spp. (Sclerophyllous grazed forests -dehesas-). The main goal of Natura 2000 is assuring "favourable conservation status" of natural habitats and species within these areas (Habitats Directive 92/43/ECC). This is the case of the study area, "Dehesa Boyal" (Ávila), which management plan has been carried out in a public forest land. The current situation is a degraded coppice forest, Quercus pyrenaica and Q.ilex, with a shrub encroachment due to previous firewood extraction. Besides, problems such as soil compaction and lack of sexual have been observed presumably related with livestock (180 horses, 1100 goats, 900 sheeps and 190 cows distributed in different seasons). Livestock feed on the acorns and hedge young sprouts making them sprouting again. The shrub encroachment is far from "conservation status" required in Natura 2000. Furthermore, the livestock cannot be removed because it is an important part of this agrosilvopastoral system not only for the landscape but also for its economic importance to local owners. Management plans should consider all of these circumstances and propose an integrated approach. To achieve this goal, the area was accurately classified in age classes by "stands" (oak shrubland, low pole stages, coppice tall shrub and sapling) in each habitat, using Geographic Information Systems (G.I.S), remote sensing techniques and detailed field work. Then, the "conservation status" of each stand is classified in A (Favourable), B (Inconvenient) and C (Unfavourable conservation status) considering some

  6. Collaborative adaptive landscape management (CALM) in rangelands: Discussion of general principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    The management of rangeland landscapes involves broad spatial extents, mixed land ownership, and multiple resource objectives. Management outcomes depend on biophysical heterogeneity, highly variable weather conditions, land use legacies, and spatial processes such as wildlife movement, hydrological...

  7. Predictive Phenologic Modeling Using MODIS: A Tool for Rangeland Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisen, N. M.; Hepner, G.; Hadley, H.

    2007-12-01

    Grazing is the predominant land use activity in the rangelands of the Inter-Mountain West. Vegetation phenology affects the impact of grazing; new plant growth is especially palatable to grazing animals. Over time, preferential grazing gives less palatable plants an advantage in rooting depth and may alter the composition of plant species and lead to soil erosion. The benefits of using remote spectral imagery to predict the onset and advancement of the phenologic phases for expansive and/or inaccessible areas is recognized, however, the practical application of this technology has been limited. A time series of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) vegetation indices was analyzed to identify the temporal profile of the growing season for surface vegetation in the Upper Colorado River Basin (UCRB). Drivers to which the progression of phenologic transition dates are most responsive were explored. Using phenological parameters defined from the MODIS time series and relationships of the phenological transition dates to the drivers, a predictive phenological model specific to the environmental parameters of the UCRB was developed. This model can be implemented at various spatial extents and temporal windows as part of a rangeland management strategy.

  8. Institutional development for sustainable rangeland resource and ecosystem management in mountainous areas of northern Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Shikui; Lassoie, James; Shrestha, K K; Yan, Zhaoli; Sharma, Ekalabya; Pariya, D

    2009-02-01

    Rangelands represent one of the most important natural resources in mountainous regions of northern Nepal. However, a poor understanding of the social dimensions of rangeland use has limited their proper management and sustainable development, which represent major challenges for Nepal's resource managers. Institutional development is thought to be a viable solution to this problem and may ultimately lead to improved rangeland management in Nepal. Based on this hypothesis, a study was conduced in the Rasuwa district of northern Nepal to examine the effectiveness of institutional development at the local and national levels in mitigating the problems facing sustainable rangeland management by using an institutional analysis and development (IAD) framework. The information and data were mainly collected from different stakeholders, farmers, professionals and practitioners using a toolkit of participatory rural appraisal (PRA), workshops and literature review. It can be concluded from this case study that a number of institutional development efforts are needed to promote sustainable rangeland management in this region. First, local herders represent a repository of rich indigenous knowledge essential to sustaining sound rangeland management practices; hence, indigenous practices need to be integrated into modern technologies. Second, public services and technical support are currently unavailable or inaccessible to local herders; hence, research, development and extension interventions need to be initiated for marginalized pastoral communities. Third, rangeland institutions are incomplete and ill-organized, so institutional development of various organizations is necessary for promoting sustainable rangeland management. Fourth, the policies and governance necessary for promoting rangeland management are not well-designed; hence, governance reform and policy development need to be formulated through internal and external agencies and organizations.

  9. Rangeland management for multiple outcomes: Explicity integrating ecosystem services into management models

    Science.gov (United States)

    In recent decades, there has been increased interest in ecosystem services among landowners, and a growing diversity of stakeholders on rangelands. Given these changes, management cannot focus solely on maximizing ranch proceeds, but must also incorporate ecosystem service goals to sustain resources...

  10. The Role of Indigenous Ecological Knowledge in Managing Rangelands Sustainably in Northern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Ghorbani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Pastoralists' knowledge of adaptive rangeland management in Iran has long been only selectively analyzed and documented. This study attempts to rectify that by outlining the indigenous ecological knowledge of the pastoralists of Nariyan village in the Taleghan region of northern Iran, and by evaluating the influence of such knowledge on rangeland management. Local herd owners operate according to traditional herding practices; their knowledge of rangeland plants and principles of sustainable rangeland management is indigenous and is based on centuries of experience and observation. Their in-depth knowledge covers the medicinal properties of various local plant species and the palatability of the most salient forage species in terms of sustaining the sheep and goats that are their livelihood. This study investigates some of the traditional strategies of rangeland management used in the Taleghan region, the rationale and timing of livestock rotation in the rangelands, local landscape classification, and local know-how in animal husbandry, all of which are indispensable in contributing to the pastoralists' survival and maintenance of the local environment.

  11. Changes in vegetation structure and aboveground biomass in response to traditional rangeland management practices in Borana, southern Ethiopia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gilo, Bikila Negasa; Kelkay, Tessema Zewdu

    2017-01-01

    .... Sampling through random allocation of quadrats within replicated sample plots was undertaken in communally grazed areas, grazing enclosures and rangelands managed by prescribed fire for five years...

  12. The value of forage measurement information in rangeland management. [implementation of satellite data in range management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lietzke, K. R.

    1975-01-01

    An economic model and simulation are developed to estimate the potential social benefit arising from the use of alternative measurement systems in rangeland management. In order to estimate these benefits, it was necessary to model three separate systems: the range environment, the rangeland manager, and the information system which links the two. The rancher's decision-making behavior is modeled according to sound economic principles. Results indicate substantial potential benefits, particularly when used in assisting management of government-operated ranges; possible annual benefits in this area range from $20 to $46 million, depending upon the system capabilities assumed. Possible annual benefit in privately-managed stocker operations range from $2.8 to $49.5 million, depending upon where actual rancher capabilities lie and what system capabilities are assumed.

  13. Changes in Property Rights and Management of High-Elevation Rangelands in Bhutan: Implications for Sustainable Development of Herder Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karma Tenzing

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Property rights and management regimes for high-elevation rangelands in Bhutan have evolved over centuries in response to environmental, cultural, and political imperatives. The 2007 Land Act of Bhutan aims to redress historical inequities in property rights by redistributing grazing leases to local livestock owners in a process known as rangeland nationalization. This study explored 3 related issues: property rights and management regimes in 3 distinct high-elevation rangeland systems, herders' and government officials' perceptions of the proposed rangeland nationalization process, and the implications of rangeland nationalization for herder livelihoods and sustainable development. Qualitative research methods were adopted to capture the lived experiences of 151 livestock farmers, seminomadic herders, and government officials, including 40 individual interviews and 9 focus group discussions. The research revealed that herding in these high-elevation rangelands is governed by a complex combination of private, communal, and mixed property use rights regimes. Management regimes varied according to traditional rules, but development was limited because of lack of management rights. The rangeland nationalization process is expected to promote sustainable management of high-elevation rangelands by incentivizing provisioning and maintenance activities. However, the lack of clear implementation guidelines and a coherent replacement for traditional practices have created confusion and anxiety in herder communities. Providing tenure security and management rights in an equitable manner will be vital for fostering sustainable development for herder communities living in the high-elevation rangelands of Bhutan.

  14. Deriving empirical benchmarks from existing monitoring datasets for rangeland adaptive management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Under adaptive management, goals and decisions for managing rangeland resources are shaped by requirements like the Bureau of Land Management’s (BLM’s) Land Health Standards, which specify desired conditions. Without formalized, quantitative benchmarks for triggering management actions, adaptive man...

  15. Reorienting land degradation towards sustainable land management: linking sustainable livelihoods with ecosystem services in rangeland systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, M S; Stringer, L C; Dougill, A J; Perkins, J S; Atlhopheng, J R; Mulale, K; Favretto, N

    2015-03-15

    This paper identifies new ways of moving from land degradation towards sustainable land management through the development of economic mechanisms. It identifies new mechanisms to tackle land degradation based on retaining critical levels of natural capital whilst basing livelihoods on a wider range of ecosystem services. This is achieved through a case study analysis of the Kalahari rangelands in southwest Botswana. The paper first describes the socio-economic and ecological characteristics of the Kalahari rangelands and the types of land degradation taking place. It then focuses on bush encroachment as a way of exploring new economic instruments (e.g. Payments for Ecosystem Services) designed to enhance the flow of ecosystem services that support livelihoods in rangeland systems. It does this by evaluating the likely impacts of bush encroachment, one of the key forms of rangeland degradation, on a range of ecosystem services in three land tenure types (private fenced ranches, communal grazing areas and Wildlife Management Areas), before considering options for more sustainable land management in these systems. We argue that with adequate policy support, economic mechanisms could help reorient degraded rangelands towards more sustainable land management. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Vulnerability of amphibians to climate change: implications for rangeland management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karen E. Bagne; Deborah M. Finch; Megan M. Friggens

    2011-01-01

    Many amphibian populations have declined drastically in recent years due to a large number of factors including the emerging threat of climate change (Wake 2007). Rangelands provide important habitat for amphibians. In addition to natural wetlands, stock tanks and other artificial water catchments provide habitat for many amphibian species (Euliss et al. 2004).

  17. Effects of Management on Soil Carbon Pools in California Rangeland Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, W. L.; Ryals, R.; Lewis, D. J.; Creque, J.; Wacker, M.; Larson, S.

    2008-12-01

    Rangeland ecosystems managed for livestock production represent the largest land-use footprint globally, covering more than one-quarter of the world's land surface (Asner et al. 2004). In California, rangelands cover an estimated 17 million hectares or approximately 40% of the land area (FRAP 2003). These ecosystems have considerable potential to sequester carbon (C) in soil and offset greenhouse gas emissions through changes in land management practices. Climate policies and C markets may provide incentives for rangeland managers to pursue strategies that optimize soil C storage, yet we lack a thorough understanding of the effects of management on soil C pools in rangelands over time and space. We sampled soil C pools on rangelands in a 260 km2 region of Marin and Sonoma counties to determine if patterns in soil C storage exist with management. Replicate soil samples were collected from 35 fields that spanned the dominant soil orders, plant communities, and management practices in the region while controlling for slope and bioclimatic zone (n = 1050). Management practices included organic amendments, intensive (dairy) and extensive (other) grazing practices, and subsoiling. Soil C pools ranged from approximately 50 to 140 Mg C ha-1 to 1 m depth, with a mean of 99 ± 22 (sd) Mg C ha-1. Differences among sites were due primarily to C concentrations, which exhibited a much larger coefficient of variation than bulk density at all depths. There were no statistically significant differences among the dominant soil orders. Subsoiling appeared to significantly increase soil C content in the top 50 cm, even though subsoiling had only occurred for the first time the previous Nov. Organic amendments also appeared to greatly increase soil C pools, and was the dominant factor that distinguished soil C pools in intensive and extensive land uses. Our results indicate that management has the potential to significantly increase soil C pools. Future research will determine the

  18. Climate change and land management in the rangelands of central Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creutzburg, Megan K; Halofsky, Jessica E; Halofsky, Joshua S; Christopher, Treg A

    2015-01-01

    Climate change, along with exotic species, disturbances, and land use change, will likely have major impacts on sagebrush steppe ecosystems in the western U.S. over the next century. To effectively manage sagebrush steppe landscapes for long-term goals, managers need information about the interacting impacts of climate change, disturbances and land management on vegetation condition. Using a climate-informed state-and-transition model, we evaluated the potential impacts of climate change on rangeland condition in central Oregon and the effectiveness of multiple management strategies. Under three scenarios of climate change, we projected widespread shifts in potential vegetation types over the twenty-first century, with declining sagebrush steppe and expanding salt desert shrub likely by the end of the century. Many extreme fire years occurred under all climate change scenarios, triggering rapid vegetation shifts. Increasing wildfire under climate change resulted in expansion of exotic grasses but also decreased juniper encroachment relative to projections without climate change. Restoration treatments in warm-dry sagebrush steppe were ineffective in containing exotic grass, but juniper treatments in cool-moist sagebrush steppe substantially reduced the rate of juniper encroachment, particularly when prioritized early in the century. Overall, climate-related shifts dominated future vegetation patterns, making management for improved rangeland condition more difficult. Our approach allows researchers and managers to examine long-term trends and uncertainty in rangeland vegetation condition and test the effectiveness of alternative management actions under projected climate change.

  19. Could payments for environmental services improve rangeland management in Central Asia, West Asia and North Africa?:

    OpenAIRE

    Dutilly-Diane, Celine; McCarthy, Nancy; Turkelboom, Francis; Bruggeman, Adriana; Tiedemann, James; Street, Kenneth; Serra, Gianluca

    2007-01-01

    "Although several institutional and management approaches that address the degradation of the rangelands have been tested in the dry areas of Central and West Asia and North Africa (CWANA), impact has been limited. Nonetheless, the development of National Action Plans to combat desertification highlights the interest of governments to tackle this issue. Payment for Environmental Services (PES) may be a viable policy option, though, to date, most PES programs have focused on the management of ...

  20. The Integrated Rangeland Fire Management Strategy Actionable Science Plan: U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington D.C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Integrated Rangeland Fire Management Strategy Actionable Science Plan Team

    2016-01-01

    The Integrated Rangeland Fire Management Strategy (hereafter Strategy, DOI 2015) outlined the need for coordinated, science-based adaptive management to achieve long-term protection, conservation, and restoration of the sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) ecosystem. A key component of this management approach is the identification of knowledge gaps that limit...

  1. Relationship Between Forage Allowance and Grazing Efficiency in the Great Plains: Implications for Managing Rangelands for Both Livestock Production and Desired Ecosystem Goods and Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emergence of desired ecosystem goods and services from rangelands as a societal benefit and a potential income source for land managers has implications regarding the management of plant communities traditionally used primarily for livestock production. Contemporary decision-making on rangelands in ...

  2. Stakeholder Theory and Rangeland Management: The Importance of Ranch Income Dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, S.; Roche, L. M.; Elias, E.

    2016-12-01

    The California drought beginning in 2012 has been driven by reduced precipitation and record high temperatures. Hydrologic drought in the Southwest United States is projected to become the new climatology of the region. While ranchers are considered naturally adaptive, often adeptly altering management based upon conditions, the projected increased aridity may challenge rangeland management. Certain rancher characteristics are likely to impact how well ranchers adapt. Based on Stakeholder Theory (ST), we hypothesize that the extent to which ranchers are dependent on their ranches as a source of income would serve as a predictor of several key variables related to ranching adaptation and success. Data were obtained from 507 ranchers throughout the State of California via the Rangeland Decision-Making Survey implemented by University of California, Davis in 2010, just prior to the unprecedented California drought. Consistent with the ST urgency facet, results of linear regression analyses indicate the more dependent ranchers are on their ranches for their income, the more aware they are of USDA ranching initiatives (β = 0.19, p < .001) and state ranching initiatives (β = 0.10, p < .05). In addition, more dependent ranchers are more likely to use multiple and diverse sources of information about ranching (β = 0.18, p < .001), are more likely to realize the severity and extent of the most recent drought's impacts (β = 0.18, p < .001), and were more likely to have a drought management plan in place during the most recent drought (β = 0.18, p < .001). These findings are important in relation to both outreach/extension efforts and rangeland research. Outreach/extension efforts should take into account that people less dependent on their ranches are less aware of resources, as well as, less prepared to adapt to drought. Researchers should control for the extent to which ranchers are dependent on their ranches for income in order to ensure more accurate findings.

  3. Managing interior Northwest rangelands: the Oregon Range Evaluation Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas M. Quigley; H. Reed Sanderson; Arthur R. Tiedemann

    1989-01-01

    This report is a synthesis of results from an 11-year study of the effects of increasing intensities of range management strategies on herbage production, water resources, economics, and associated resources-such as wood fiber and recreation-in Grant County, Oregon. Four intensities of management were studied on Federal land (19 grazing allotments) ranging from no...

  4. Potential for using visual, auditory, and olfactory cues to manage foraging behaviour and spatial distribution of rangeland livestock

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper reviews the literature and reports on the current state of knowledge regarding the potential for managers to use visual (VC), auditory (AC), and olfactory (OC) cues to manage foraging behavior and spatial distribution of rangeland livestock. We present evidence that free-ranging livestock...

  5. Invasive rangeland plants in range and animal sciences and resources management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comprising about 50% of the world’s land surface, rangelands are an important ecological and economic resource. Rangeland plant communities are changing. Even though the composition of plant communities in rangeland changes continually through the process of succession, in more recent years this c...

  6. Rangeland management and fluvial geomorphology in northern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Brian W; Doyle, Martin W

    2014-06-01

    Researchers have independently documented the effects of land use on rivers and threats to river management institutions, but the relationship between changes in institutional context and river condition is not well described. This study assesses the connections between resource management institutions, land use, and rivers by integrating social science, geospatial analysis, and geomorphology. In particular, we measured hydraulic geometry, sediment size distributions, and estimated sediment yield for four rivers in northern Tanzania and conducted semistructured interviews that assessed corresponding resource management institutions. Communities managed rivers through both customary (traditional, nonstate) and government institutions, but the differences in the resource management policies and practices of the study rivers themselves were fairly subtle. Clearer differences were found at broader scales; the four watersheds exhibited substantial differences in land cover change and sediment yield associated with the location of settlements, roadways, and cultivation. Unexpectedly, these recent land use changes did not initiate a geomorphic response in rivers. The long history of grazing by domestic and wild ungulates may have influenced water and sediment supplies such that river channel dimensions are more resistant to changes in land use than other systems or have already adjusted to predominant changes in boundary conditions. This would suggest that not all rivers will have the anticipated responses to contemporary land use changes because of antecedent land use patterns; over long time scales (centuries to millennia), the presence of grazers may actually increase the ability of rivers to withstand changes in land use. Our findings point to a need for further interdisciplinary study of dryland rivers and their shifts between system states, especially in areas with a long history of grazing, relatively recent changes in land use, and a dynamic social and

  7. Rangeland management and fluvial geomorphology in northern Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Brian W.; Doyle, Martin W.

    2014-06-01

    Researchers have independently documented the effects of land use on rivers and threats to river management institutions, but the relationship between changes in institutional context and river condition is not well described. This study assesses the connections between resource management institutions, land use, and rivers by integrating social science, geospatial analysis, and geomorphology. In particular, we measured hydraulic geometry, sediment size distributions, and estimated sediment yield for four rivers in northern Tanzania and conducted semistructured interviews that assessed corresponding resource management institutions. Communities managed rivers through both customary (traditional, nonstate) and government institutions, but the differences in the resource management policies and practices of the study rivers themselves were fairly subtle. Clearer differences were found at broader scales; the four watersheds exhibited substantial differences in land-cover change and sediment yield associated with the location of settlements, roadways, and cultivation. Unexpectedly, these recent land-use changes did not initiate a geomorphic response in rivers. The long history of grazing by domestic and wild ungulates may have influenced water and sediment supplies such that river channel dimensions are more resistant to changes in land use than other systems or have already adjusted to predominant changes in boundary conditions. This would suggest that not all rivers will have the anticipated responses to contemporary land-use changes because of antecedent land-use patterns; over long time scales (centuries to millennia), the presence of grazers may actually increase the ability of rivers to withstand changes in land use. Our findings point to a need for further interdisciplinary study of dryland rivers and their shifts between system states, especially in areas with a long history of grazing, relatively recent changes in land use, and a dynamic social and

  8. RANGELAND SEQUESTRATION POTENTIAL ASSESSMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee Spangler; George F. Vance; Gerald E. Schuman; Justin D. Derner

    2012-03-31

    Rangelands occupy approximately half of the world's land area and store greater than 10% of the terrestrial biomass carbon and up to 30% of the global soil organic carbon. Although soil carbon sequestration rates are generally low on rangelands in comparison to croplands, increases in terrestrial carbon in rangelands resulting from management can account for significant carbon sequestration given the magnitude of this land resource. Despite the significance rangelands can play in carbon sequestration, our understanding remains limited. Researchers conducted a literature review to identify sustainably management practices that conserve existing rangeland carbon pools, as well as increase or restore carbon sequestration potentials for this type of ecosystem. The research team also reviewed the impact of grazing management on rangeland carbon dynamics, which are not well understood due to heterogeneity in grassland types. The literature review on the impact of grazing showed a wide variation of results, ranging from positive to negative to no response. On further review, the intensity of grazing appears to be a major factor in controlling rangeland soil organic carbon dynamics. In 2003, researchers conducted field sampling to assess the effect of several drought years during the period 1993-2002. Results suggested that drought can significantly impact rangeland soil organic carbon (SOC) levels, and therefore, carbon sequestration. Resampling was conducted in 2006; results again suggested that climatic conditions may have overridden management effects on SOC due to the ecological lag of the severe drought of 2002. Analysis of grazing practices during this research effort suggested that there are beneficial effects of light grazing compared to heavy grazing and non-grazing with respect to increased SOC and nitrogen contents. In general, carbon storage in rangelands also increases with increased precipitation, although researchers identified threshold levels of

  9. Bush encroachment control and risk management in semi-arid rangelands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukomska, Natalia; Quaas, Martin F; Baumgärtner, Stefan

    2014-12-01

    We study the role of bush encroachment control for a farmer's income and income risk in a stochastic ecological-economic model of grazing management in semi-arid rangelands. In particular, we study debushing as an instrument of risk management that complements the choice of an adaptive grazing management strategy for that sake. We show that debushing, while being a good practice for increasing the mean pasture productivity and thus expected income, also increases the farmer's income risk. The optimal extent of debushing for a risk-averse farmer is thus determined from balancing the positive and negative consequences of debushing on intertemporal and stochastic farm income. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The role of fire in managing for biological diversity on native rangelands of the Northern Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolyn Hull Sieg

    1997-01-01

    A strategy for using fire to manage for biological diversity on native rangelands in the Northern Great Plains incorporates an understanding of its past frequency, timing and intensity. Historically, lightning and humans were the major fire setters, and the role of fire varied both in space and time. A burning regime that includes fires at various intervals, seasons...

  11. Insights into the Carbon Sequestration Potential of Rangelands Through Measurement and Modeling of Differently Managed Pastures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, J. J.; Hartman, M.; Parton, W. J.; Silver, W. L.

    2014-12-01

    Poor management of rangelands has led to significant soil organic matter losses globally, and contributed to increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Restoring and increasing soil carbon (C) content in rangelands offers an opportunity to mitigate climate change while improving soil conditions and increasing forage production. Organic matter amendments are used to improve soil properties, but predicting the resulting changes in soil C is challenging due to the interactions between amendment characteristics, climate, and soil characteristics. We used data from 10 pasture-based dairies in California and the DayCent model to test the impact of long-term (>30 year) manure additions on soil C pools and fluxes. Soils were sampled from 26 fields which had solid, liquid, solid and liquid, or no manure additions. These field data and management information provided by the ranchers were used to model the effects of manure amends on soil C storage and loss. Soil C was significantly greater in manured fields than non-manured fields when corrected for clay content and slope. Fields with higher clay had more soil C, as did those with lower slopes, and these effects were large enough to confound the manuring effect. DayCent was able to accurately estimate total soil C when parameterized with field-specific management practices, averaging only a 10±1% difference between measurement and modeled values. Using generalized management histories for manured and non-manured fields, as would be used for regional-scale estimates, produced less accurate results with a 24±3% average difference between measurement and modeled values. Modeling alternate scenarios for each field suggested that manure amendment increased soil C and forage production by 0.6 Mg ha-1 y-1 and 0.3 Mg ha-1 y-1, respectively. Forecasting to 2100 showed that in manure-amended fields, soil C increased until 2080 before stabilization, mostly through gains in the pool with slow turnover. The "passive soil C" pool

  12. Biophysical characterization and management effects on semiarid rangeland observed from Landsat ETM+ data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Hongliang; Liang, Shunlin; McClaran, Mitchell P.; van Leeuwen, Willem J. D.; Drake, Sam; Marsh, Stuart E.; Thomson, Allison M.; Izaurralde, R Cesar C.; Rosenberg, Norman J.

    2005-01-20

    Semi-arid rangelands are very sensitive to global climatic change; studies of their biophysical attributes are crucial to understanding the dynamics of rangeland ecosystems under human disturbance. In the Santa Rita Experimental Range (SRER), Arizona, the vegetation has changed considerably and there have been many management activities applied. This study calculates seven surface variables: the enhanced vegetation index (EVI), the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), surface albedos (total shortwave, visible and near-infrared), leaf area index (LAI) and the fraction of photosynthetically active radiation absorbed by green vegetation (FPAR) from the Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+) data. Comparison with the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) vegetation index and albedo products indicate they agree well with our estimates from ETM+ while their LAI and FPAR are larger than ETM+. Human disturbance has significantly changed the cover types and biophysical conditions. Statistical tests indicate that surface albedos increased and FPAR decreased at all sites. The recovery will require more than 67 years, and is about 50% complete within 40 years at the higher elevation. Grass cover, vegetation indices, albedos and LAI recovered from cutting faster at the higher elevation. Woody plants, vegetation indices and LAI have recovered to their original characteristics after 65 years at the lower elevation. More studies are needed to examine the spectral characteristics of different ground components.

  13. Social processes promoting the adaptive capacity of rangeland managers to achieve resilience in the Karoo, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carien de Villiers, Ancois; Esler, Karen J; Knight, Andrew T

    2014-12-15

    There is a recognized need to find working examples of structures that transfer the abstract concept of resilience to practical action for land management. Holistic Management™ is a decision-making framework promoting an adaptive land management across semi-arid and arid rangelands. We determined if Holistic Management™ promoted adaptive capacity among land managers in comparison to conventional management approaches within the context of the Karoo rangeland, South Africa. An Adaptive Capacity Index was developed which quantified the extent to which practices of land managers were aligned with six key traits of adaptive capacity. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews with 20 self-defined Holistic Management™ land managers and 20 self-defined non-Holistic Management™ land managers. Social capital amongst land managers was explored using a social network analysis. Holistic Management™ land managers demonstrated higher adaptive capacity and greater participation in study groups. Holistic Management™ therefore appears to be a working example of a land management framework that promotes adaptive capacity of land managers in semi-arid to arid rangelands. Holistic Management™ may connect individual decision-makers to collective decision-making through social learning networks in the form of study groups. These study groups are thought to promote learning and innovation, which is key for implementing adaptive management. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. IDESSA: An Integrative Decision Support System for Sustainable Rangeland Management in Southern African Savannas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Hanna; Authmann, Christian; Dreber, Niels; Hess, Bastian; Kellner, Klaus; Morgenthal, Theunis; Nauss, Thomas; Seeger, Bernhard; Tsvuura, Zivanai; Wiegand, Kerstin

    2017-04-01

    Bush encroachment is a syndrome of land degradation that occurs in many savannas including those of southern Africa. The increase in density, cover or biomass of woody vegetation often has negative effects on a range of ecosystem functions and services, which are hardly reversible. However, despite its importance, neither the causes of bush encroachment, nor the consequences of different resource management strategies to combat or mitigate related shifts in savanna states are fully understood. The project "IDESSA" (An Integrative Decision Support System for Sustainable Rangeland Management in Southern African Savannas) aims to improve the understanding of the complex interplays between land use, climate patterns and vegetation dynamics and to implement an integrative monitoring and decision-support system for the sustainable management of different savanna types. For this purpose, IDESSA follows an innovative approach that integrates local knowledge, botanical surveys, remote-sensing and machine-learning based time-series of atmospheric and land-cover dynamics, spatially explicit simulation modeling and analytical database management. The integration of the heterogeneous data will be implemented in a user oriented database infrastructure and scientific workflow system. Accessible via web-based interfaces, this database and analysis system will allow scientists to manage and analyze monitoring data and scenario computations, as well as allow stakeholders (e. g. land users, policy makers) to retrieve current ecosystem information and seasonal outlooks. We present the concept of the project and show preliminary results of the realization steps towards the integrative savanna management and decision-support system.

  15. Climate change and land management impact rangeland condition and sage-grouse habitat in southeastern Oregon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan K. Creutzburg

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary pressures on sagebrush steppe from climate change, exotic species, wildfire, and land use change threaten rangeland species such as the greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus. To effectively manage sagebrush steppe landscapes for long-term goals, managers need information about the potential impacts of climate change, disturbances, and management activities. We integrated information from a dynamic global vegetation model, a sage-grouse habitat climate envelope model, and a state-and-transition simulation model to project broad-scale vegetation dynamics and potential sage-grouse habitat across 23.5 million acres in southeastern Oregon. We evaluated four climate scenarios, including continuing current climate and three scenarios of global climate change, and three management scenarios, including no management, current management and a sage-grouse habitat restoration scenario. All climate change scenarios projected expansion of moist shrub steppe and contraction of dry shrub steppe, but climate scenarios varied widely in the projected extent of xeric shrub steppe, where hot, dry summer conditions are unfavorable for sage-grouse. Wildfire increased by 26% over the century under current climate due to exotic grass encroachment, and by two- to four-fold across all climate change scenarios as extreme fire years became more frequent. Exotic grasses rapidly expanded in all scenarios as large areas of the landscape initially in semi-degraded condition converted to exotic-dominated systems. Due to the combination of exotic grass invasion, juniper encroachment, and climatic unsuitability for sage-grouse, projected sage-grouse habitat declined in the first several decades, but increased in area under the three climate change scenarios later in the century, as moist shrub steppe increased and rangeland condition improved. Management activities in the model were generally unsuccessful in controlling exotic grass invasion but were

  16. A systematic review of US rangeland science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangeland science aims to create knowledge to sustain rangeland social-ecological systems over the long term. Range science has made substantial progress on understanding ecological dynamics of rangeland systems and the management practices that sustain them, and these findings have been systematica...

  17. Comprehensive analysis of conventional land management in privately-owned rangelands of Extremadura (SW Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulido, Manuel; Herguido, Estela; Francisco Lavado Contador, Joaquín; Schnabel, Susanne; Gómez-Gutiérrez, Álvaro

    2017-04-01

    Extensive grazing is a key factor for the conservation of High Nature Value (HNV) farming systems such as woody rangelands (dehesas or montados) or grasslands (pastizales) in SW Europe. They have been created from clearing the former Mediterranean forest and have been subject to land use and management changes, particularly during recent decades. Environmental and economic consequences of those changes have been scarcely studied so far. In this study, the land management of 10 privately-owned farms (ranging from 200 to 1,000 ha in size) has been analysed from various perspectives: [1] environmental (soil quality, land degradation, tree regeneration, etc.), [2] economic (inputs, outputs, infrastructure and vehicles) and [3] sociodemographic (type of exploitation, generational relay, etc.). Data were obtained through field surveys, aerial image analysis and personal interviews with owners and shepherds. The results showed negative economic consequences (e.g. more expenses on food supply) on farms where soils are more degraded. Approximately 30% of the farms had negative economic balances, compensated by subsidy payments from the European Union. Furthermore, 50% of the samples do not have guaranteed the generational relay. The obtained information is relevant to evaluate the sustainability of these farming systems. However, a larger number of cases is still necessary in order to draw definitive conclusions. Keywords: Dehesas, Land management, Sustainability, Integrated approach

  18. Criterion I: Soil and water conservation on rangelands [Chapter 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael G. (Sherm) Karl; Paul T. Tueller; Gerald E. Schuman; Mark R. Vinson; James L. Fogg; Ronald W. Shafer; David A. Pyke; D. Terrance Booth; Steven J. Borchard; William G. Ypsilantis; Richard H. Barrett

    2010-01-01

    The Sustainable Rangelands Roundtable (SRR) has explicitly included conservation and maintenance of soil and water resources as a criterion of rangeland sustainability. Within the soil/water criterion, 10 indicators ­ five soil-based and five water-based - were developed through the expert opinions of rangeland scientists, rangeland management agency personnel, non-...

  19. Integrating management objectives and grazing strategies on semi-arid rangelands

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Rangelands account for almost half of Nebraska's 24 million acres. Much of these expansive natural resource areas are in the semi-arid climatic region of Nebraska...

  20. Effects of land use change and management on SOC and soil quality in Mediterranean rangelands areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parras-Alcántara, Luis; Lozano-García, Beatriz; Requejo, Ana; Zornoza, Raúl

    2017-04-01

    INTRODUCTION Rangelands in the Iberian Peninsula occupy more than 90,000 km2. These rangelands were created from the former Mediterranean oak forests, mainly composed of holm oak and cork oak (Quercus ilex rotundifolia and Quercus suber), by clear-cutting shrubs, removing selected trees and cultivating. These man-made landscapes are called 'dehesas' in Spain and 'montados' in Portugal. Between 1955 and 1981, more than 5,000 km2 of dehesas was converted from pastureland to cultivated land. This process has been accelerated since 1986 owing to subsidies from the European Common Agricultural Policy (Parras-Alcántara et al., 2015a). The role that natural rangelands play in the global carbon cycle is extremely important, accounting for 10-30% of the world's total soil organic carbon (SOC), in addition, SOC concentration is closely related to soil quality and vegetation productivity (Brevik, 2012). Therefore, to study the land use and management changes is important, particularly in Mediterranean soils, as they are characterized by low organic carbon content, furthermore, the continuous use of ploughing for grain production is the principal cause of soil degradation. Therefore, land use decisions and management systems can increase or decrease SOC content and stock (Corral-Fernández et al., 2013; Parras-Alcántara et al., 2014, 2015a and 2015b; Parras-Alcántara and Lozano-García, 2014) MATERIAL AND METHODS A field study was conducted to determine the land use change (Mediterranean evergreen oak woodland to olive grove and cereal, all of them managed under conventional tillage and under conservationist practices) effects on SOC stocks and the soil quality (Stratification Ratio) in Los Pedroches valley, southern Spain. RESULTS Results for the present study indicate that management practices had little effect on SOC storage in dehesas. The stratification ratio was >2 both under conventional tillage and under organic farming, so, soils under dehesa had high quality

  1. Object-based image analysis for scaling properties of rangeland ecosystems: Linking field and image data for management decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl, Jason William

    Management of semi-arid shrub-steppe ecosystems (i.e., rangelands) requires accurate information over large landscapes, and remote sensing is an attractive option for collecting such data. To successfully use remotely-sensed data in landscape-level rangeland management, questions as to the relevance of image data to landscape patterns and optimal scales of analysis must be addressed. Object-based image analysis (OBIA), which segments image pixels into homogeneous regions, or objects, has been suggested as a way to increase accuracy of remotely-sensed products, but little research has gone into how to determine sizes of image objects with regard to scaling of ecosystem properties. The purpose of my dissertation was to determine if OBIA could be used to generate observational scales to match ecological scales in rangelands and to explore the potential for OBIA to generate accurate and repeatable remote-sensing products for managers. The work presented here was conducted in southern Idaho's Snake River Plain region. By comparing OBIA segmentation of satellite imagery into successively coarser objects to pixel-based aggregation methods, I found that canonical correlations between field-collected and image data were similar at the finest scales, but higher for image segmentation as scale increased. I also detected scaling thresholds with image segmentation that were confirmed via semi-variograms of field data. This approach proved useful for evaluating the overall utility of an image to address an objective, and identifying scaling limits for analysis. I next used observations of percent bare-ground cover from 346 field sites to consider how hierarchies of image objects created through OBIA could be used to discover appropriate scales for analysis given a specific objective. Using a regression-based approach, I found that segmentation levels whose predictions of bare-ground cover had spatial dependence that most closely matched the spatial dependence of the field

  2. Drought and rangelands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droughts are common and occur regularly in Oklahoma. They’re the most costly natural hazard to the United States, and estimates show a $6-$8 billion annual loss to the nation’s farmers and rancher. With the current drought impacting Oklahoma, people managing rangelands are concerned with the short...

  3. RANGELAND DEGRADATION: EXTENT, IMPACTS, AND ALTERNATIVE RESTORATION TECHNIQUES IN THE RANGELANDS OF ETHIOPIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Mussa Abdulahi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Rangeland degradation remains a serious impediment to improve pastoral livelihoods in the lowlands of Ethiopia. This review paper presents an overview of the extent of rangeland degradation, explores its drivers, discusses the potential impacts of rangeland degradation and also suggests alternative rangeland restoration techniques. It is intended to serve as an exploratory tool for ensuing more detailed quantitative analyses to support policy and investment programs to address rangeland degradation in Ethiopia. The extent of rangeland degradation increases with time, and the productivity of rangelands are losing if not given due attention. The major drivers leading to rangeland degradation includes climate change, overgrazing, bush encroachment, population pressure, drought, and government policy, encroachment of rain fed agriculture and decline of traditional resource management institution. Degradation of rangeland has resulted in substantial declines in rangeland condition, water potential, soil status, and animal performance, livestock holding at the household level and community become destitute. Another consequence of rangeland degradation is linked to food insecurity, poverty to the extent of food aid, expansion of aridity and the need for alternative livelihood and income diversification. Moreover, it has increasingly become a threat to the pastoral production systems, and has contributed towards increases in poverty and tribal conflicts over grazing land and water resources. In spite of these impacts, the adoption of alternative restoration techniques in the country is highly insufficient. To address rangeland degradation problems, there is a strong need to substantially increase the investments and strengthen the policy support for sustainable land management.

  4. Two new mobile apps for rangeland inventory and monitoring by landowners and land managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangeland inventory and monitoring have been transformed during the past 10 years by a number of major innovations. This paper reviews the status of two new mobile apps (LandInfo and LandCover) that are part of a larger “Land-Potential Knowledge System” (LandPKS) that is being developed to capitaliz...

  5. Rangeland management and climate hazards in drylands: dust storms, desertification and the overgrazing debate

    OpenAIRE

    Middleton, N

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the theory and supporting evidence for links between desertification, drought and dust storms with a particular focus on studies undertaken in and around the Gobi Desert. Overgrazing of rangeland by pastoralists has been the most commonly cited cause of desertification in global drylands for more than 30 years, but the evidence supporting this link is not always convincing. Nonetheless, overgrazing, desertification and dust storms are frequently connected, regardless. Drou...

  6. Tackling 'the most avoided issue\\'*: communal rangeland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Facilitator training for communal rangeland management should include social skills, the social context of communal rangelands and novice facilitators should be supported by mentors. There is a need for greater financial support and law enforcement from the state in the area of communal grazing management. Keywords: ...

  7. A Dynamic Model of California's Hardwood Rangelands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard B. Standiford; Richard E. Howitt

    1991-01-01

    Low profitability of hardwood rangeland management, and oak tree harvesting for firewood markets and forage enhancement has led to concern about the long-term sustainability of the oak resource on rangelands. New markets for recreational hunting may give value to oaks for the habitat they provide for game species, and broaden the economic base for managers. A ranch...

  8. Ecological site-based assessments of wind and water erosion: informing accelerated soil erosion management in rangelands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Nicholas P.; Herrick, Jeffrey E.; Duniway, Michael C.

    2014-01-01

    Accelerated soil erosion occurs when anthropogenic processes modify soil, vegetation or climatic conditions causing erosion rates at a location to exceed their natural variability. Identifying where and when accelerated erosion occurs is a critical first step toward its effective management. Here we explore how erosion assessments structured in the context of ecological sites (a land classification based on soils, landscape setting and ecological potential) and their vegetation states (plant assemblages that may change due to management) can inform systems for reducing accelerated soil erosion in rangelands. We evaluated aeolian horizontal sediment flux and fluvial sediment erosion rates for five ecological sites in southern New Mexico, USA, using monitoring data and rangeland-specific wind and water erosion models. Across the ecological sites, plots in shrub-encroached and shrub-dominated vegetation states were consistently susceptible to aeolian sediment flux and fluvial sediment erosion. Both processes were found to be highly variable for grassland and grass-succulent states across the ecological sites at the plot scale (0.25 Ha). We identify vegetation thresholds that define cover levels below which rapid (exponential) increases in aeolian sediment flux and fluvial sediment erosion occur across the ecological sites and vegetation states. Aeolian sediment flux and fluvial erosion in the study area can be effectively controlled when bare ground cover is 100 cm in length is less than ~35%. Land use and management activities that alter cover levels such that they cross thresholds, and/or drive vegetation state changes, may increase the susceptibility of areas to erosion. Land use impacts that are constrained within the range of natural variability should not result in accelerated soil erosion. Evaluating land condition against the erosion thresholds identified here will enable identification of areas susceptible to accelerated soil erosion and the development of

  9. Ecological site‐based assessments of wind and water erosion: informing accelerated soil erosion management in rangelands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Nicholas P; Herrick, Jeffrey E; Duniway, Michael C

    Accelerated soil erosion occurs when anthropogenic processes modify soil, vegetation, or climatic conditions causing erosion rates at a location to exceed their natural variability. Identifying where and when accelerated erosion occurs is a critical first step toward its effective management. Here we explored how erosion assessments structured in the context of ecological sites (a land classification based on soils, landscape setting, and ecological potential) and their vegetation states (plant assemblages that may change due to management) can inform systems for reducing accelerated soil erosion in rangelands. We evaluated aeolian horizontal sediment flux and fluvial sediment erosion rates for five ecological sites in southern New Mexico, USA, using monitoring data and rangeland-specific wind and water erosion models. Across the ecological sites, plots in shrub-encroached and shrub-dominated vegetation states were consistently susceptible to aeolian sediment flux and fluvial sediment erosion. Both processes were found to be highly variable for grassland and grass–succulent states across the ecological sites at the plot scale (0.25 ha). We identified vegetation thresholds that define cover levels below which rapid (exponential) increases in aeolian sediment flux and fluvial sediment erosion occur across the ecological sites and vegetation states. Aeolian sediment flux and fluvial erosion in the study area could be effectively controlled when bare ground cover was 100 cm in length was less than ∼35%. Land use and management activities that alter cover levels such that they cross thresholds, and/or drive vegetation state changes, may increase the susceptibility of areas to erosion. Land use impacts that are constrained within the range of natural variability should not result in accelerated soil erosion. Evaluating land condition against the erosion thresholds identified here will enable identification of areas susceptible to accelerated soil erosion and the

  10. Social and Economic Indicators of the Sustainable Rangelands Roundtable

    Science.gov (United States)

    John E. Mitchell; Daniel W. McCallum; Lewis E. Swanson; John Tanaka; Mark Brunson; Aaron Harp; L. Allen Torell; H. Theodore Heintz

    2006-01-01

    Social and economic systems provide a context and rationale for rangeland management. Sustaining rangeland ecosystems requires attention to the social and economic conditions that accompany the functioning of those systems. We present and discuss economic and social indicators for rangeland sustainability that have possible relevance in the United States. A brief...

  11. Indicators of rangeland health and functionality in the Intermountain West

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renee A. O' Brien; Curtis M. Johnson; Andrea M. Wilson; Van C. Elsbernd

    2003-01-01

    Rangelands comprise about 42 percent of the land area of the United States and provide vital land functions such as watershed, multiple-use, recreation, and other amenities. Currently, we do not know the status and trends of many of our nation's rangelands, and consistent protocols for describing rangeland system dynamics across land management agencies are...

  12. Development of a computerised rangelands resource information ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data on livestock inventory, rangelands resources, and status of land degradation were integrated to produce a computerised resource information system for Swaziland, which will assist in decision making for monitoring and management of rangelands resources; its application is demonstrated. The resource information ...

  13. The Vale rangeland rehabilitation program: an evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harold F. Heady

    1988-01-01

    This manuscript discusses the initiation, execution, and outcome of an 11-year (1962-1972) rangeland rehabilitation program in southeastern Oregon. Res. Bull. PNW-RB-070 (1977) is updated with 1986 measurements and evaluations of vegetational conditions, wildlife, recreational use, livestock grazing, and management of public rangelands. The mix of multiple uses has...

  14. Criterion II: Indicators for conservation and maintenance of plant and animal resources on rangelands (Chapter 3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linda A. Joyce; William Fox; Paul Geissler; Rodney Heitschmidt; Lori Hidinger; Duncan Patten; John Spence; Laurence L. Strong; Robert Unnasch; Robert A. Washington-Allen

    2010-01-01

    Five criteria were established by the Sustainable Rangelands Roundtable to be used to assess rangeland sustainability on a national scale. One of those criteria is the conservation and maintenance of plant and animal resources. Within this criterion, 10 indicators were developed through the expert opinions of rangeland scientists, rangeland management agency personnel...

  15. USDA internet tool to estimate runoff and soil loss on rangelands: rangelands hydrology and erosion model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangelands are the most dominant land cover type in the United States (770 million acres) with approximately 53% of the nation’s rangelands owned and managed by the private sector, while approximately 43% are managed by the federal government. Information on the type, extent, and spatial location of...

  16. Water development strategy as a driving force for sustained rangeland management by local communities in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamo, Etienne Tedonkeng

    2004-12-01

    Water is the major food component for the maintenance of animals. Although Africa is endowed with diverse agricultural environments, the survival of animals in Sahelian and sub-Sahelian Africa is threatened by the lack of water. Animals need water as an essential nutrient, a component of the body, and for conductive or evaporative cooling. Water needs are met mainly through drinking free water and to a lesser extent by utilising water that forms part of the feed. However during the long dry season, surface water resources dwindle and the water content of available forage decreases, thereby increasing the animals' demand for water. Consequently animals have to walk for long distances to obtain adequate forage and water, which in turn raises the demand for these resources. Water can be used to direct and regulate rangeland management in this open access environment, to maintain range resources and to improve their quality. Water development, which takes into consideration usable forage, despite some intra- or inter-annual variability, plays an important role and its spatial distribution will affect the grazing intensity of forage resources. Sound water development and management strategies integrating local communities in the decision-making will set up a firm basis for sustained range management in the free and open access environment of sub-Saharan Africa where lack of financial input, social and cultural habits and above all the environmental condition do not permit large scale fencing as in other parts of the world.

  17. Diverse Drought Spatiotemporal Trends, Diverse Etic-Emic Perceptions and Knowledge: Implications for Adaptive Capacity and Resource Management for Indigenous Maasai-Pastoralism in the Rangelands of Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Mwangi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the spatiotemporal distribution of drought in the Maasai rangelands of Kenya. The implications of this distribution, in concert with the documented existing and/or projected social and biophysical factors, on critical rangeland resources in Maasai-pastoralism are discussed using an integrated approach. Participatory interviews with the Maasai, retrieval from archives, and acquisition from instrument measurements provided data for the study. Empirical evidence of the current study reveals that drought occurrences in this rangeland have been recurrent, widespread, cyclic, sometimes temporally clustered, and have manifested with varying intensities across spatial, temporal, and, occasionally, social scales; and they have more intensity in lower than higher agroecological areas. An estimated 86% of drought occurrences in this rangeland, over the last three decades alone, were of major drought category. The 2000s, with four major drought events including two extreme droughts, are an important drought period. A strong consensus exists among the Maasai regarding observed drought events. In Maasai-pastoralism, the phenomenon called drought, pastoralist drought, is simultaneously multivariate and multiscalar: its perception comprises the simultaneous manifestation of cross-scale meteorological, socioeconomic, and environmental factors and processes, and their various combinations. The inherent simultaneous multivariate and scalar nature of the pastoralist drought distinguishes it from the conventional drought types, particularly the meteorological drought that predominantly guides drought and resource management in the rangelands of Kenya. In Maasai-pastoralism, the scarcely used (33% meteorological drought is construed as rainfall delay/failure across spatial and/or temporal scale, and never its reduced amount. Collectively, the current findings reveal that knowledge about drought affects the way the manifestation of this climatic

  18. Science framework for conservation and restoration of the sagebrush biome: Linking the Department of the Interior’s Integrated Rangeland Fire Management Strategy to long-term strategic conservation actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.C. Chambers; J.L. Beck; J.B. Bradford; J. Bybee; S. Campbell; J. Carlson; T.J. Christiansen; K.J. Clause; G. Collins; M.R. Crist; J.B. Dinkins; K.E. Doherty; F. Edwards; S. Espinosa; K.A. Griffin; P. Griffin; J.R. Haas; S.E. Hanser; D.W. Havlina; K.F. Henke; J.D. Hennig; L.A. Joyce; F.M. Kilkenny; S.M. Kulpa; L.L. Kurth; J.D. Maestas; M. Manning; K.E. Mayer; B.A. Mealor; C. McCarthy; M. Pellant; M.A. Perea; K.L. Prentice; D.A. Pyke; L.A. Wiechman; A. Wuenschel

    2017-01-01

    The Science Framework is intended to link the Department of the Interior’s Integrated Rangeland Fire Management Strategy with long-term strategic conservation actions in the sagebrush biome. The Science Framework provides a multiscale approach for prioritizing areas for management and determining effective management strategies within the sagebrush biome. The emphasis...

  19. Kansas rangelands : Their management based on a half century of research

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This bulletin report presents recommendations for range and range-livestock management based on experiments at Manhattan and Hays, augmented by applicable research...

  20. Rangeland ecosystem goods and services: Values and evaluation of opportunities for ranchers and land managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristie Maczko; John A. Tanaka; Robert Breckenridge; Lori Hidinger; H. Theodore Heintz; William E. Fox; Urs P. Kreuter; Clifford S. Duke; John E. Mitchell; Daniel W. McCollum

    2011-01-01

    Although the US Department of Agriculture's 2005 public commitment to use market-based incentives for environmental stewardship and cooperative conservation focused land managers' attention on the concept of ecosystem goods and services (EGS), this was not a new idea. Much earlier in the 20th century, Aldo Leopold embraced the value of open space, calling for...

  1. Rangelands of Central Asia: Proceedings of the Conference on Transformations, Issues, and Future Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald J. Bedunah; E. Durant McArthur; Maria Fernandez-Gimenez

    2006-01-01

    The 11 papers in this document address issues and needs in the development and stewardship of Central Asia rangelands, and identify directions for future work. With its vast rangelands and numerous pastoral populations, Central Asia is a region of increasing importance to rangeland scientists, managers, and pastoral development specialists. Five of the papers address...

  2. Criterion IV: Social and economic indicators of rangeland sustainability (Chapter 5)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel W. McCollum; Louis E. Swanson; John A. Tanaka; Mark W. Brunson; Aaron J. Harp; L. Allen Torell; H. Theodore Heintz

    2010-01-01

    Social and economic systems provide the context and rationale for rangeland management. Sustaining rangeland ecosystems requires attention to the social and economic conditions that accompany the functioning of those systems. We present and discuss economic and social indicators for rangeland sustainability. A brief conceptual basis for each indicator is offered,...

  3. Western juniper management: assessing strategies for improving greater sage-grouse habitat and rangeland productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzan, Shahla; Young, Derek J.N.; Dedrick, Allison G.; Hamilton, Mattew; Porse, Erik C.; Coates, Peter S.; Sampson, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    Western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis subsp. occidentalis) range expansion into sagebrush steppe ecosystems has affected both native wildlife and economic livelihoods across western North America. The potential listing of the greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) under the U.S. Endangered Species Act has spurred a decade of juniper removal efforts, yet limited research has evaluated program effectiveness. We used a multi-objective spatially explicit model to identify optimal juniper removal sites in Northeastern California across weighted goals for ecological (sage-grouse habitat) and economic (cattle forage production) benefits. We also extended the analysis through alternative case scenarios that tested the effects of coordination among federal agencies, budgetary constraints, and the use of fire as a juniper treatment method. We found that sage-grouse conservation and forage production goals are somewhat complementary, but the extent of complementary benefits strongly depends on spatial factors and management approaches. Certain management actions substantially increase achievable benefits, including agency coordination and the use of prescribed burns to remove juniper. Critically, our results indicate that juniper management strategies designed to increase cattle forage do not necessarily achieve measurable sage-grouse benefits, underscoring the need for program evaluation and monitoring.

  4. Rehabilitation of cheatgrass-infested rangelands: applications and practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    The challenges that land owners and resource managers face when trying to attempt applications and practices when attempting to rehabilitate rangelands infested with cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) are over-whelming. Simply purchasing seed and spreading it throughout the rangelands is doomed for failu...

  5. Session A2 Rangelands as dynamic systems — Biodiversity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Management of rangelands for animal products can reduce, maintain or even increase biodiversity. Loss of biodiversity of plants and animals can lead to decreased productivity and income generation from rangelands or can exacerbate the effects of climatic variability and concomitant increased risks for subsistence and ...

  6. Rangelands: Where Anthromes Meet Their Limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan F. Sayre

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Defining rangelands as anthromes enabled Ellis and Ramankutty (2008 to conclude that more than three-quarters of Earth’s land is anthropogenic; without rangelands, this figure would have been less than half. They classified all lands grazed by domestic livestock as rangelands, provided that human population densities were low; similar areas without livestock were excluded and classified instead as ‘wildlands’. This paper examines the empirical basis and conceptual assumptions of defining and categorizing rangelands in this fashion. Empirically, we conclude that a large proportion of rangelands, although used to varying degrees by domesticated livestock, are not altered significantly by this use, especially in arid, highly variable environments and in settings with long evolutionary histories of herbivory by wild animals. Even where changes have occurred, the dynamics and components of many rangelands remain structurally and functionally equivalent to those that preceded domestic livestock grazing or would be found in its absence. In much of Africa and Asia, grazing is so longstanding as to be inextricable from ‘natural’ or reference conditions for those sites. Thus, the extent of anthropogenic biomes is significantly overstated. Conceptually, rangelands reveal the dependence of the anthromes thesis on outdated assumptions of ecological climax and equilibrium. Coming to terms with rangelands—how they can be classified, understood, and managed sustainably—thus offers important lessons for understanding anthromes and the Anthropocene as a whole. At the root of these lessons, we argue, is not the question of human impacts on ecosystems but property relations among humans.

  7. Resource management in rangeland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adequate assessments of vast expanses of rangeland—a primary prerequisite to effective conservation planning—requires landscape-scale evaluations that accurately represent the resources (e.g., soil, vegetation, wildlife, water ), the structure and function of the resource-providing systems, and the ...

  8. Weather-centric rangeland revegetation planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardegree, Stuart P.; Abatzoglou, John T.; Brunson, Mark W.; Germino, Matthew; Hegewisch, Katherine C.; Moffet, Corey A.; Pilliod, David S.; Roundy, Bruce A.; Boehm, Alex R.; Meredith, Gwendwr R.

    2018-01-01

    Invasive annual weeds negatively impact ecosystem services and pose a major conservation threat on semiarid rangelands throughout the western United States. Rehabilitation of these rangelands is challenging due to interannual climate and subseasonal weather variability that impacts seed germination, seedling survival and establishment, annual weed dynamics, wildfire frequency, and soil stability. Rehabilitation and restoration outcomes could be improved by adopting a weather-centric approach that uses the full spectrum of available site-specific weather information from historical observations, seasonal climate forecasts, and climate-change projections. Climate data can be used retrospectively to interpret success or failure of past seedings by describing seasonal and longer-term patterns of environmental variability subsequent to planting. A more detailed evaluation of weather impacts on site conditions may yield more flexible adaptive-management strategies for rangeland restoration and rehabilitation, as well as provide estimates of transition probabilities between desirable and undesirable vegetation states. Skillful seasonal climate forecasts could greatly improve the cost efficiency of management treatments by limiting revegetation activities to time periods where forecasts suggest higher probabilities of successful seedling establishment. Climate-change projections are key to the application of current environmental models for development of mitigation and adaptation strategies and for management practices that require a multidecadal planning horizon. Adoption of new weather technology will require collaboration between land managers and revegetation specialists and modifications to the way we currently plan and conduct rangeland rehabilitation and restoration in the Intermountain West.

  9. Rehabilitation of Great Basin rangelands: an integrated approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disturbed rangelands present significant challenges to resource managers and land owners. In the Great Basin, exotic annual grasses have truncated secondary succession by outcompeting native perennial species for limited moisture and nutrients. An integrated approach to successfully control such inv...

  10. A fuzzy multi-objective linear programming approach for integrated sheep farming and wildlife in land management decisions: a case study in the Patagonian rangelands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metternicht, Graciela; Blanco, Paula; del Valle, Hector; Laterra, Pedro; Hardtke, Leonardo; Bouza, Pablo

    2015-04-01

    Wildlife is part of the Patagonian rangelands sheep farming environment, with the potential of providing extra revenue to livestock owners. As sheep farming became less profitable, farmers and ranchers could focus on sustainable wildlife harvesting. It has been argued that sustainable wildlife harvesting is ecologically one of the most rational forms of land use because of its potential to provide multiple products of high value, while reducing pressure on ecosystems. The guanaco (Lama guanicoe) is the most conspicuous wild ungulate of Patagonia. Guanaco ?bre, meat, pelts and hides are economically valuable and have the potential to be used within the present Patagonian context of production systems. Guanaco populations in South America, including Patagonia, have experienced a sustained decline. Causes for this decline are related to habitat alteration, competition for forage with sheep, and lack of reasonable management plans to develop livelihoods for ranchers. In this study we propose an approach to explicitly determinate optimal stocking rates based on trade-offs between guanaco density and livestock grazing intensity on rangelands. The focus of our research is on finding optimal sheep stocking rates at paddock level, to ensure the highest production outputs while: a) meeting requirements of sustainable conservation of guanacos over their minimum viable population; b) maximizing soil carbon sequestration, and c) minimizing soil erosion. In this way, determination of optimal stocking rate in rangelands becomes a multi-objective optimization problem that can be addressed using a Fuzzy Multi-Objective Linear Programming (MOLP) approach. Basically, this approach converts multi-objective problems into single-objective optimizations, by introducing a set of objective weights. Objectives are represented using fuzzy set theory and fuzzy memberships, enabling each objective function to adopt a value between 0 and 1. Each objective function indicates the satisfaction of

  11. Winter grazing decreases wildfire risk, severity, and behavior in semi-arid sagebrush rangelands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildfires are an ecological and economic risk for many semi-arid rangelands which has resulted in increased pressure for pre-suppression management of fuels. In rangelands, fuel management treatment options are limited by costs. We evaluated winter grazing as a tool to manage fuels and alter fire ...

  12. White-tailed deer distribution in response to patch burning on rangeland

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. G. Meek; S. M. Cooper; M. K. Owens; R. M. Cooper; A. L. Wappel

    2008-01-01

    Management of rangelands has changed substantially over the past few decades; today there is greater emphasis on wildlife management and increased interest in using natural disturbances such as fire to manage rangeland plant and animal communities. To determine the effect of prescribed fires on the distribution of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus...

  13. Future scenarios of impacts to ecosystem services on California rangelands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Kristin; Alvarez, Pelayo; Flint, Lorraine; Flint, Alan

    2014-01-01

    The 18 million acres of rangelands in the Central Valley of California provide multiple benefits or “ecosystem services” to people—including wildlife habitat, water supply, open space, recreation, and cultural resources. Most of this land is privately owned and managed for livestock production. These rangelands are vulnerable to land-use conversion and climate change. To help resource managers assess the impacts of land-use change and climate change, U.S. Geological Survey scientists and their cooperators developed scenarios to quantify and map changes to three main rangeland ecosystem services—wildlife habitat, water supply, and carbon sequestration. Project results will help prioritize strategies to conserve these rangelands and the ecosystem services that they provide.

  14. Managing Semi-Arid Rangelands for Carbon Storage: Grazing and Woody Encroachment Effects on Soil Carbon and Nitrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusuf, Hasen M; Treydte, Anna C; Sauerborn, Jauchim

    2015-01-01

    High grazing intensity and wide-spread woody encroachment may strongly alter soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) pools. However, the direction and quantity of these changes have rarely been quantified in East African savanna ecosystem. As shifts in soil C and N pools might further potentially influence climate change mitigation, we quantified and compared soil organic carbon (SOC) and total soil nitrogen (TSN) content in enclosures and communal grazing lands across varying woody cover i.e. woody encroachment levels. Estimated mean SOC and TSN stocks at 0-40 cm depth varied across grazing regimes and among woody encroachment levels. The open grazing land at the heavily encroached site on sandy loam soil contained the least SOC (30 ± 2.1 Mg ha-1) and TSN (5 ± 0.57 Mg ha-1) while the enclosure at the least encroached site on sandy clay soil had the greatest mean SOC (81.0 ± 10.6 Mg ha-1) and TSN (9.2 ± 1.48 Mg ha-1). Soil OC and TSN did not differ with grazing exclusion at heavily encroached sites, but were twice as high inside enclosure compared to open grazing soils at low encroached sites. Mean SOC and TSN in soils of 0-20 cm depth were up to 120% higher than that of the 21-40 cm soil layer. Soil OC was positively related to TSN, cation exchange capacity (CEC), but negatively related to sand content. Our results show that soil OC and TSN stocks are affected by grazing, but the magnitude is largely influenced by woody encroachment and soil texture. We suggest that improving the herbaceous layer cover through a reduction in grazing and woody encroachment restriction are the key strategies for reducing SOC and TSN losses and, hence, for climate change mitigation in semi-arid rangelands.

  15. Managing Semi-Arid Rangelands for Carbon Storage: Grazing and Woody Encroachment Effects on Soil Carbon and Nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusuf, Hasen M.; Treydte, Anna C.; Sauerborn, Jauchim

    2015-01-01

    High grazing intensity and wide-spread woody encroachment may strongly alter soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) pools. However, the direction and quantity of these changes have rarely been quantified in East African savanna ecosystem. As shifts in soil C and N pools might further potentially influence climate change mitigation, we quantified and compared soil organic carbon (SOC) and total soil nitrogen (TSN) content in enclosures and communal grazing lands across varying woody cover i.e. woody encroachment levels. Estimated mean SOC and TSN stocks at 0–40 cm depth varied across grazing regimes and among woody encroachment levels. The open grazing land at the heavily encroached site on sandy loam soil contained the least SOC (30 ± 2.1 Mg ha-1) and TSN (5 ± 0.57 Mg ha-1) while the enclosure at the least encroached site on sandy clay soil had the greatest mean SOC (81.0 ± 10.6 Mg ha-1) and TSN (9.2 ± 1.48 Mg ha-1). Soil OC and TSN did not differ with grazing exclusion at heavily encroached sites, but were twice as high inside enclosure compared to open grazing soils at low encroached sites. Mean SOC and TSN in soils of 0–20 cm depth were up to 120% higher than that of the 21–40 cm soil layer. Soil OC was positively related to TSN, cation exchange capacity (CEC), but negatively related to sand content. Our results show that soil OC and TSN stocks are affected by grazing, but the magnitude is largely influenced by woody encroachment and soil texture. We suggest that improving the herbaceous layer cover through a reduction in grazing and woody encroachment restriction are the key strategies for reducing SOC and TSN losses and, hence, for climate change mitigation in semi-arid rangelands. PMID:26461478

  16. Monitoring African savanna water use and water stress from local to regional scale: supporting rangeland management (pilot experience in Kruger National Park, South Africa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreu, Ana; Dube, Timothy; Nieto, Hector; González-Dugo, Maria P.; Hülsmann, Stephan

    2017-04-01

    Drought periods and erratic rainfall patterns across large parts of Africa result in water-limited environments like savannas, highly sensitive to land management practices and changes in climate. Over the Southern part of the continent, savannas are key productive landscapes supporting livestock, crops and rural livelihoods. Monitoring water use and the natural vegetation stress over these semi-arid complex ecosystems can support rangeland management, to maintain long-term productivity. However, the precision/resolution/accuracy of the information required for management will differ at each scale: farm-local (e.g. evaluating the effect of management practices, livestock densities, crop production and grazing), to watershed (e.g. evaluating the effect of fire, detection of vulnerable areas) and regional (e.g. early prediction of drought). To overcome these constrains, TIGER project 401 combines two approaches that take advantage of different conceptual and operational capabilities of Earth Observation data sources. Sentinel 2 high spatial (10 m) and temporal ( 5 days) resolution VIS/NIR images are used for a continuous monitoring of vegetation cover and unstressed evapotranspiration (ET - using Kc-FAO56 method). This methodology will provide the required resolution for farm-local scales, tracking separately the seasonal variations of each canopy layer growth (grass and trees). Meanwhile, lower spatial resolution (1 km) MODIS thermal data allow to determine a regional water stress index (ratio between actual ET, estimated using Two Source Energy Balance-TSEB, and potential ET), supporting the detection of vulnerable areas. The model framework was tested and validated over savanna-type experimental areas (Skukuza & Malopeni), and later applied over the whole Kruger National Park during 2015-2016.

  17. Pastoralism, land degradation and Carbon redistribution in rangelands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Nikolaus J.; Ali, Seid Mohammed

    2017-04-01

    Pastoralism is rarely viewed as a major future form of land use, because of well-documented cases of rangeland degradation, attributed to irrational overstocking, and the subsequent losses of ecosystem services. However, pastoralists were actually encouraged to settle and adopt such strategies, copied from rangelands with higher and more reliable rainfall. This curtailed mobility resulted in a shift from opportunistic and extensive land use to more intensive and settled forms of use, and promoted degradation of vegetation and soils and the ecosystem services they provided. However, pastoralists traditionally employed several techniques to manage rangeland resources. These practices, such as the use of seasonal grassland reserves and livestock mobility, influence vegetation composition, coverage and abundance in rangelands and preserved ecosystem services relevant for pastoralists. The traditional practices also offer tools for soil and vegetation protection and restoration, thereby contributing to the mitigation of climate change. However, various internal and external factors have curtailed traditional management practices and livestock mobility, breaking the co-evolved balance of vegetation, wildlife and land use, thus exposing rangeland to continued livestock pressure, which often leads to degradation. Rather than abandoning pastoralism as consequence of 20th century land degradation, the revitalisation of traditional practices and indigenous knowledge can be vital to secure sustainable livelihoods for millions of pastoralists and to maintain rangeland ecosystem services.

  18. The Colorado river delta (Mexico: ecological importance and management = O delta do rio Colorado (Mexico: importância ecológica e gerenciamento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Fermán Almada

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The Colorado river delta is a unique coastal system in the world, as it combines two important systems: the Colorado river and the Gulf of California. Consequently, the delta is dominated by bilateral interests, and influenced by administrative, political and natural processes, which involve the countries of the United States and Mexico. Located in the northern part of the Gulf of California, under a condition of natural isolation, a series of environmental attributeshave been developed (biotic and abiotic that are only observed in is region. In this work, the development of the bilateral political relations and the most important ecological characteristicsare presented, as well as the management instruments that have been developed for over 80 years. From these issues, the possible scenario for the region is defined, and the development of methodologies for monitoring the effects of these possible tendencies on the natural components of the delta is proposed.O delta do rio Colorado é uma zona costeira única em todo o mundo, porassociar dois importantes sistemas: o próprio rio Colorado e o Golfo da Califórnia. Conseqüentemente, o delta é dominado por interesses bi-nacionais e influenciado por processos administrativos, políticos e naturais, envolvendo os Estados Unidos e o México. Localizado no norte do Golfo da Califórnia, sob uma condição de isolamento natural,desenvolveu-se uma série de atributos ambientais (bióticos e abióticos que só podem ser vistos nessa região. Neste trabalho, são apresentados o desenvolvimento das relações políticas bilaterais e as características ecológicas mais importantes, bem como osmecanismos de gerenciamento que vêm sido desenvolvidos por mais de 80 anos. A partir dessas questões, é definido um cenário tendencial possível para a região, e o desenvolvimento de metodologias para o acompanhamento dos efeitos dessas possíveis tendências sobre os componentes naturais do delta é proposto.

  19. Rangeland Hydrology and Erosion Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nearing, Mark; Pierson, Fred; Hernandez, Mariano; Al-Hamdan, Osama; Weltz, Mark; Spaeth, Ken; Wei, Haiyan; Stone, Jeff

    2013-04-01

    Soil loss rates on rangelands are considered one of the few quantitative indicators for assessing rangeland health and conservation practice effectiveness. An erosion model to predict soil loss specific for rangeland applications has been needed for many years. Most erosion models were developed from croplands where the hydrologic and erosion processes are different, largely due to much higher levels of heterogeneity in soil and plant properties at the plot scale and the consolidated nature of the soils. The Rangeland Hydrology and Erosion Model (RHEM) was designed to fill that need. RHEM is an event-based model that estimates runoff, erosion, and sediment delivery rates and volumes at the spatial scale of the hillslope and the temporal scale of a single rainfall event. It represents erosion processes under normal and fire-impacted rangeland conditions, it adopts a new splash erosion and thin sheet-flow transport equation developed from rangeland data, and it links the model hydrologic and erosion parameters with rangeland plant communities by providing a new system of parameter estimation equations based on 204 plots at 49 rangeland sites distributed across 15 western U.S. states. Recent work on the model is focused on representing intra-storm dynamics, using stream-power as the driver for detachment by flow, and deriving parameters for after-fire conditions.

  20. Global view of remote sensing of rangelands: Evolution, applications, future pathways [Chapter 10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matt Reeves; Robert A. Washington-Allen; Jay Angerer; E. Raymond Hunt; Ranjani Wasantha Kulawardhana; Lalit Kumar; Tatiana Loboda; Thomas Loveland; Graciela Metternicht; R. Douglas. Ramsey

    2015-01-01

    The term "rangeland" is rather nebulous, and there is no single definition of rangeland that is universally accepted by land managers, scientists, or international bodies (Lund, 2007; Reeves and Mitchell, 2011). Dozens and possibly hundreds (Lund, 2007) of definitions and ideologies exist because various stakeholders often have unique objectives...

  1. Influences of recreation influence of forest and rangeland management on anadromous fish habitat in Western North America: influences of recreation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger N. Clark; Dave R. Gibbons; Gilbert B. Pauley

    1985-01-01

    Public and private lands in the United States are used by millions of people for recreational activities. Many of these activities occur in or near streams and coastal areas that produce various species of anadromous fish. A major concern of fishery managers is the possible adverse effect of recreational uses on fish habitat. Conversely, the management of fish habitats...

  2. Marketing Ecológico

    OpenAIRE

    Schoenmakers, Bart-Jan

    2012-01-01

    Atualmente, como as empresas devem ter uma grande responsabilidade com o meio ambiente, o marketing ecológico assume um importante papel dentro das organizações, ao determinar as necessidades, desejos e interesses dos mercados- alvos e atender às satisfações desejadas, de uma maneira mais eficaz e eficiente do que os concorrentes, preservando ou ampliando o bem estar dos consumidores e da sociedade.O marketing ecológico ou ambiental tem objetivos de: desenvolver produtos que equilibrem necess...

  3. 76 FR 36515 - Rangeland Allotment Management Planning on the Fall River and Oglala Geographic Areas, Pine Ridge...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-22

    ... century, and a prolonged drought period combined with the economic depression of the late 1920's and early... past 5-7 years, drought conditions have impacted plant vigor, canopy, and litter cover in most parts of... management strategies on natural ecosystems. This includes elements such as native and desirable nonnative...

  4. Whither the Rangeland?: Protection and conversion in California's Rangeland ecosystems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Richard Cameron

    Full Text Available Land use change in rangeland ecosystems is pervasive throughout the western United States with widespread ecological, social and economic implications. In California, rangeland habitats have high biodiversity value, provide significant habitat connectivity and form the foundation for a number of ecosystem services. To comprehensively assess the conservation status of these habitats, we analyzed the extent and drivers of habitat loss and the degree of protection against future loss across a 13.5 M ha study area in California. We analyzed rangeland conversion between 1984 and 2008 using time series GIS data and classified resulting land uses with aerial imagery. In total, over 195,000 hectares of rangeland habitats were converted during this period. The majority of conversions were to residential and associated commercial development (49% of the area converted, but agricultural intensification was surprisingly extensive and diverse (40% across six categories. Voluntary enrollment in an agricultural tax incentive program provided widespread protection from residential and commercial conversions across 37% of the remaining rangeland habitat extent (7.5 M ha, though this program did not protect rangeland from conversion to more intensive agricultural uses. Additionally, 24% of the remaining rangeland was protected by private conservation organizations or public agencies through land or easement ownership while 38% had no protection status at all. By developing a spatial method to analyze the drivers of loss and patterns of protection, this study demonstrates a novel approach to prioritize conservation strategies and implementation locations to avert habitat conversion. We propose that this approach can be used in other ecosystem types, and can serve as a regional conservation baseline assessment to focus strategies to effect widespread, cost-effective conservation solutions.

  5. Climate impacts on agriculture: Implications for forage and rangeland production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Thomson, Allison M.; Morgan, Jack; Fay, Philip; Polley, Wayne; Hatfield, Jerry L.

    2011-04-19

    Projections of temperature and precipitation patterns across the United States during the next 50 years anticipate a 1.5 to 2°C warming and a slight increase in precipitation as a result of global climate change. There have been relatively few studies of climate change impacts on pasture and rangeland (grazingland) species compared to those on crop species, despite the economic and ecological importance of the former. Here we review the literature on pastureland and rangeland species to rising CO2 and climate change (temperature, and precipitation) and discuss plant and management factors likely to influence pastureland and rangeland responses to change (e.g., community composition, plant competition, perennial growth habit, seasonal productivity, and management methods). Overall, the response of pasture species to increased [CO2] is consistent with the general response of C3 and C4 type vegetation, although significant exceptions exist. Both pastureland and rangeland species should exhibit an acceleration of metabolism and development due to earlier onset of spring green-up and longer growing seasons. However, in the studies reviewed here, C3 pasture species increased their photosynthetic rates by up to 40% while C4 species exhibited no increase in photosynthesis. In general, it is expected that increases in [CO2] and precipitation would enhance rangeland net primary production (NPP) while increased air temperatures would either increase or decrease NPP. Much of this uncertainty in response is due to uncertain future projections of precipitation, both globally and regionally. For example, if annual precipitation changes little or declines, rangeland plant response to warming temperatures and rising [CO2] may be neutral or may decline due to increased water stress. This review reveals the need for comprehensive studies of climate change impacts on the pasture ecosystem including grazing regimes, mutualistic relationships (e.g., plant roots-nematodes; N

  6. Simplifying ecological site verification, rangeland health assessments, and monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    During the past several decades, scientists and land managers in North America have increasingly recognized the importance of rangeland assessment relative to ecological potential based on soil and climate. The adoption of the site potential based “ecological site” system was recently formalized in ...

  7. Enhancing wind erosion monitoring and assessment for US rangelands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wind erosion is a major resource concern for rangeland managers because it can impact soil health, ecosystem structure and function, hydrologic processes, agricultural production and air quality. Despite its significance, little is known about which landscapes are eroding, by how much, and when. T...

  8. The challenge of integrated rangeland monitoring: synthesis address

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The utility of monitoring and its guiding principles will only work effectively where good environmental governance is practiced by users and producers affecting rangeland ecosystems. Keywords: adaptive management, complex, environmental governance, human impacts, multi-scale, socio-ecological. African Journal of ...

  9. Rangelands: Where anthromes meet their limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defining rangelands as anthromes enabled Ellis and Ramankutty (2008) to conclude that more than three-quarters of Earth’s land is anthropogenic; without rangelands, this figure would have been less than half. They classified all lands grazed by domestic livestock as rangelands, provided that human p...

  10. Sustainable rangelands ecosystem goods and services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristie Maczko; Lorie Hidinger

    2008-01-01

    The Sustainable Rangelands Roundtable (SRR) recognizes the unique contributions rangeland resources make to the nation's wellbeing. To communicate the importance of these commodity and amenity values, SRR participants developed this primer on rangeland ecosystem goods and services. It summarizes the history of the nation's relationship with and reliance upon...

  11. Scale effects on runoff and soil erosion in rangelands: observations and estimations with predictors of different availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runoff and erosion estimates are needed for rangeland management decisions and evaluation of ecosystem services derived from rangeland conservation practices. The information on the effect of scale on the runoff and erosion, and on the choice of runoff and erosion predictors, remains scarce. The obj...

  12. Multi-paddock grazing on rangelands: why the perceptual dichotomy between research results and rancher experience?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teague, Richard; Provenza, Fred; Kreuter, Urs; Steffens, Tim; Barnes, Matt

    2013-10-15

    Maintaining or enhancing the productive capacity and resilience of rangeland ecosystems is critical for the continued support of people who depend on them for their livelihoods, especially in the face of climatic change. This is also necessary for the continued delivery of ecosystem services derived from rangelands for the broader benefit of societies around the world. Multi-paddock grazing management has been recommended since the mid-20th century as an important tool to adaptively manage rangelands ecosystems to sustain productivity and improve animal management. Moreover, there is much anecdotal evidence from producers that, if applied appropriately, multi-paddock grazing can improve forage and livestock production. By contrast, recent reviews of published rangeland-based grazing systems studies have concluded that, in general, field trials show no superiority of vegetation or animal production in multi-paddock grazing relative to continuous yearlong stocking of single-paddock livestock production systems. Our goal is to provide a framework for rangeland management decisions that support the productivity and resiliency of rangelands and then to identify why different perceptions exist among rangeland managers who have effectively used multi-paddock grazing systems and research scientists who have studied them. First, we discuss the ecology of grazed ecosystems under free-ranging herbivores and under single-paddock fenced conditions. Second, we identify five principles underpinning the adaptive management actions used by successful grazing managers and the ecological, physiological, and behavioral framework they use to achieve desired conservation, production, and financial goals. Third, we examine adaptive management principles needed to successfully manage rangelands subjected to varying environmental conditions. Fourth, we describe the differences between the interpretation of results of grazing systems research reported in the scientific literature and the

  13. The Role of Rural Communities in Conservation of Rangelands in Mahneshan Township

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobra Karimi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the action of rangeland-depended livestock holders regarding rangeland conservation, including protection and rehabilitation activities and to analyse relevant influencing factors, using a mixed method of survey and case study. The data were collected through analysing existing documents, focus groups, semi-structured and structured interviews using questionnaires submitted to 204 rural livestock holders in the Mahneshan Township. The quantitative data were analysed using SPSS and AMOS software. According to the results farmers’ knowledge regarding the role, importance and factors affecting rangeland degradation was relatively high, however they had a low level of knowledge and action about mechanical conservation techniques. The action of livestock holders in terms of biological conservation activities and grazing management showed a positive and signifincat corrletaion with variables such as implementing of rangeland projects, their interaction with external institutions, participating in extension training courses, education level and irrigated and rainfed agricultural land size. Moreover, based on a path analysis, 37% of the variance of the farmers’ actions regarding the rangeland conservation was explained by the variables such as rangeland rehabilitation actions, farmers’ conservation knowledge, farmers’ interaction with natural resources experts, beekeeping, and participating in extension training courses. Promotional and extension activities and farmers’ interaction with experts have a positive effect in enhancing farmers’ knowledge and actions for sustainable rangeland use and conservation.

  14. Science framework for conservation and restoration of the sagebrush biome: Linking the Department of the Interior’s Integrated Rangeland Fire Management Strategy to long-term strategic conservation actions, Part 1. Science basis and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Jeanne C.; Beck, Jeffrey L.; Bradford, John B.; Bybee, Jared; Campbell, Steve; Carlson, John; Christiansen, Thomas J; Clause, Karen J.; Collins, Gail; Crist, Michele R.; Dinkins, Jonathan B.; Doherty, Kevin E; Edwards, Fred; Espinosa, Shawn; Griffin, Kathleen A.; Griffin, Paul; Haas, Jessica R.; Hanser, Steve; Havlina, Douglas W.; Henke, Kenneth F.; Hennig, Jacob D.; Joyce, Linda A; Kilkenny, Francis F.; Kulpa, Sarah M; Kurth, Laurie L; Maestas, Jeremy D; Manning, Mary; Mayer, Kenneth E.; Mealor, Brian A.; McCarthy, Clinton; Pellant, Mike; Perea, Marco A.; Prentice, Karen L.; Pyke, David A.; Wiechman , Lief A.; Wuenschel, Amarina

    2017-01-01

    The Science Framework is intended to link the Department of the Interior’s Integrated Rangeland Fire Management Strategy with long-term strategic conservation actions in the sagebrush biome. The Science Framework provides a multiscale approach for prioritizing areas for management and determining effective management strategies within the sagebrush biome. The emphasis is on sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) ecosystems and Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus). The approach provided in the Science Framework links sagebrush ecosystem resilience to disturbance and resistance to nonnative, invasive plant species to species habitat information based on the distribution and abundance of focal species. A geospatial process is presented that overlays information on ecosystem resilience and resistance, species habitats, and predominant threats and that can be used at the mid-scale to prioritize areas for management. A resilience and resistance habitat matrix is provided that can help decisionmakers evaluate risks and determine appropriate management strategies. Prioritized areas and management strategies can be refined by managers and stakeholders at the local scale based on higher resolution data and local knowledge. Decision tools are discussed for determining appropriate management actions for areas that are prioritized for management. Geospatial data, maps, and models are provided through the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) ScienceBase and Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Landscape Approach Data Portal. The Science Framework is intended to be adaptive and will be updated as additional data become available on other values and species at risk. It is anticipated that the Science Framework will be widely used to: (1) inform emerging strategies to conserve sagebrush ecosystems, sagebrush dependent species, and human uses of the sagebrush system, and (2) assist managers in prioritizing and planning on-the-ground restoration and mitigation actions across the sagebrush biome.

  15. Accelerating North American rangeland conservation with earth observation data and user driven web applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allred, B. W.; Naugle, D.; Donnelly, P.; Tack, J.; Jones, M. O.

    2016-12-01

    In 2010, the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) launched the Sage Grouse Initiative (SGI) to voluntarily reduce threats facing sage-grouse and rangelands on private lands. Over the past five years, SGI has matured into a primary catalyst for rangeland and wildlife conservation across the North American west, focusing on the shared vision of wildlife conservation through sustainable working landscapes and providing win-win solutions for producers, sage grouse, and 350 other sagebrush obligate species. SGI and its partners have invested a total of $750 million into rangeland and wildlife conservation. Moving forward, SGI continues to focus on rangeland conservation. Partnering with Google Earth Engine, SGI has developed outcome monitoring and conservation planning tools at continental scales. The SGI science team is currently developing assessment and monitoring algorithms of key conservation indicators. The SGI web application utilizes Google Earth Engine for user defined analysis and planning, putting the appropriate information directly into the hands of managers and conservationists.

  16. Earth observation for rangeland monitoring

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ramoelo, Abel

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available for the methodology is presented in Figure 1. Figure 1: Conceptual framework for the development of grass nutrient estimation models, using remote sensing at various scales Earth Observation for Rangeland Monitoring DR A RAMOELO, DR M CHO AND DR R MATHIEU CSIR... and canopy N conforms to the underlying geology (Figure 2). ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The authors would like to thank the Department of Science and Technology which contributed financially to this work through the grant ?Earth Observation Application Development...

  17. The Rangeland Hydrology and Erosion Model: A Dynamic Approach for Predicting Soil Loss on Rangelands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Mariano; Nearing, Mark A.; Al-Hamdan, Osama Z.; Pierson, Frederick B.; Armendariz, Gerardo; Weltz, Mark A.; Spaeth, Kenneth E.; Williams, C. Jason; Nouwakpo, Sayjro K.; Goodrich, David C.; Unkrich, Carl L.; Nichols, Mary H.; Holifield Collins, Chandra D.

    2017-11-01

    In this study, we present the improved Rangeland Hydrology and Erosion Model (RHEM V2.3), a process-based erosion prediction tool specific for rangeland application. The article provides the mathematical formulation of the model and parameter estimation equations. Model performance is assessed against data collected from 23 runoff and sediment events in a shrub-dominated semiarid watershed in Arizona, USA. To evaluate the model, two sets of primary model parameters were determined using the RHEM V2.3 and RHEM V1.0 parameter estimation equations. Testing of the parameters indicated that RHEM V2.3 parameter estimation equations provided a 76% improvement over RHEM V1.0 parameter estimation equations. Second, the RHEM V2.3 model was calibrated to measurements from the watershed. The parameters estimated by the new equations were within the lowest and highest values of the calibrated parameter set. These results suggest that the new parameter estimation equations can be applied for this environment to predict sediment yield at the hillslope scale. Furthermore, we also applied the RHEM V2.3 to demonstrate the response of the model as a function of foliar cover and ground cover for 124 data points across Arizona and New Mexico. The dependence of average sediment yield on surface ground cover was moderately stronger than that on foliar cover. These results demonstrate that RHEM V2.3 predicts runoff volume, peak runoff, and sediment yield with sufficient accuracy for broad application to assess and manage rangeland systems.

  18. Introduced and invasive species in novel rangeland ecosystems: friends or foes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belnap, Jayne; Ludwig, John A.; Wilcox, Bradford P.; Betancourt, Julio L.; Dean, W. Richard J.; Hoffmann, Benjamin D.; Milton, Sue J.

    2012-01-01

    Globally, new combinations of introduced and native plant and animal species have changed rangelands into novel ecosystems. Whereas many rangeland stakeholders (people who use or have an interest in rangelands) view intentional species introductions to improve forage and control erosion as beneficial, others focus on unintended costs, such as increased fire risk, loss of rangeland biodiversity, and threats to conservation efforts, specifically in nature reserves and parks. These conflicting views challenge all rangeland stakeholders, especially those making decisions on how best to manage novel ecosystems. To formulate a conceptual framework for decision making, we examined a wide range of novel ecosystems, created by intentional and unintentional introductions of nonnative species and land-use–facilitated spread of native ones. This framework simply divides decision making into two types: 1) straightforward–certain, and 2) complex–uncertain. We argue that management decisions to retain novel ecosystems are certain when goods and services provided by the system far outweigh the costs of restoration, for example in the case of intensively managed Cenchrus pastures. Decisions to return novel ecosystems to natural systems are also certain when the value of the system is low and restoration is easy and inexpensive as in the case of biocontrol of Opuntia infestations. In contrast, decisions whether to retain or restore novel ecosystems become complex and uncertain in cases where benefits are low and costs of control are high as, for example, in the case of stopping the expansion of Prosopis and Juniperus into semiarid rangelands. Decisions to retain or restore novel ecosystems are also complex and uncertain when, for example, nonnative Eucalyptus trees expand along natural streams, negatively affecting biodiversity, but also providing timber and honey. When decision making is complex and uncertain, we suggest that rangeland managers utilize cost–benefit analyses

  19. Remote sensing applications for monitoring rangeland vegetation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Remote sensing techniques hold considerable promise for the inventory and monitoring of natural resources on rangelands. A significant lack of information concerning basic spectral characteristics of range vegetation and soils has resulted in a lack of rangeland applications. The parameters of interest for range condition ...

  20. Current situation of rangelands in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alicia Melgoza-Castillo

    2006-01-01

    Rangelands are natural areas with certain characteristics that make them unsuitable for agriculture. They include several types of vegetation such as deserts, grasslands, shrubs, forests, and riparian areas. Cattle ranching, along with the products and services it engenders, is a prime activity that rangelands have traditionally supported.

  1. Applying animal behavior to arid rangeland mangement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livestock production is one of many demands placed on today’s arid rangelands. Therefore, understanding plant and animal biology and their effects on biotic and abiotic landscape components is fundamental if rangelands are to remain ecologically sustainable. One limiting factor to accomplishing posi...

  2. Fatores ecológicos associados à colonização e ao desenvolvimento de macrófitas aquáticas e desafios de manejo Ecological factors associated to aquatic macrophyte colonization and growth and management challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Thomaz

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available As macrófitas constituem-se em uma importante assembléia de ecossistemas aquáticos continentais, mas seu crescimento excessivo pode provocar danos aos usos múltiplos de alguns ambientes. Durante o processo de sucessão ecológica, a maioria dos ecossistemas aquáticos é colonizada, em diferentes graus, pela vegetação aquática. No entanto, explosões populacionais são usualmente decorrentes de ações antrópicas, como introduções de espécies exóticas e alterações de habitats. O conhecimento da ecologia e biologia das espécies de macrófitas que colonizam ecossistemas tropicais ainda é escasso. Entretanto, esse conhecimento é fundamental para a predição do desenvolvimento da vegetação aquática e para subsidiar as medidas de manejo, quando estas forem necessárias. Os métodos de controle e manejo são eficazes em pequenos ambientes e sua aplicação pode ser acompanhada por uma série de impactos ecológicos, nem sempre avaliados apropriadamente. O desenvolvimento de métodos com reduzidos impactos ambientais e que sejam eficientes em grandes ecossistemas é um desafio. Deve-se ainda considerar que, embora em algumas situações o manejo seja necessário no sentido de reduzir uma parcela das populações de macrófitas, em outras ele deveria ser utilizado para estimular a colonização e o incremento desta vegetação.The aquatic macrophytes have been considered an important community in freshwater ecosystems. However, their excessive colonization and growth usually cause serious impacts on multiple use of these ecosystems. Most aquatic environments are colonized at different degrees by aquatic plants in some phase of ecological succession. Nevertheless, massive growth is usually associated with anthropogenic actions such as introduction of alien species and habitats of alterations. Knowledge about ecology and biology of the species that colonize tropical ecosystems is still scarce. This knowledge is fundamental to predict

  3. Role of traditional enclosures on the diversity of herbaceous vegetation in a semi-arid rangeland, southern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Angassa, A.; Oba, G.; Treydte, A.C.; Weladji, R. B.

    2010-01-01

    Grazing management and seasonality strongly influence the recovery potential of herbaceous vegetation in semi-arid rangelands of southern Ethiopia after history of heavy grazing. We investigated effects of management (enclosures versus grazed landscapes), age of enclosures and seasonality related to rainfall (i.e., independent variables) on herbaceous biomass, grass basal cover, herbaceous species abundance, species richness and diversity in a savanna rangeland of southern Ethiopia. We furthe...

  4. Valuation of rangeland ecosystem services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gascoigne, W.R.

    2011-01-01

    Economic valuation lends itself well to the anthropocentric orientation of ecosystem services. An economic perspective on ecosystems portrays them as natural assets providing a flow of goods and services valuable to individuals and society collectively. A few examples include the purification of drinking water, reduced risk from flooding and other extreme events, pollination of agricultural crops, climate regulation, and recreation opportunities from plant and animal habitat maintenance, among many others. Once these goods and services are identified and quantified, they can be monetized to complete the valuation process. The monetization of ecosystem goods and services (in the form of dollars) provides a common metric that allows for cross-comparison of attributes and evaluation of differing ecological scenarios. Complicating the monetization process is the fact that most of these goods and services are public and non-market in nature; meaning they are non-rival and non-exclusive and are typically not sold in a traditional market setting where monetary values are revealed. Instead, one must employ non-market valuation techniques, with primary valuation methods typically being very time and resource consuming, intimidating to non-economists, and often impractical. For these reasons, benefit transfer methods have gained popularity. This methodology harnesses the primary collection results of existing studies to make inferences about the economic values of non-market goods and services at an alternative policy site (in place and/or in time). For instance, if a primary valuation study on oak reestablishment on rangelands in southern California yielded a value of $30 per-acre associated with water regulation, this result can be transferred, with some adjustments, to say something about the value of an acre of oaks on rangelands in northern portions of the state. The economic valuation of rangeland ecosystem services has many roles. Economic values may be used as input

  5. Incorporating grazing into an eco-hydrologic model: Simulating coupled human and natural systems in rangelands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, J. J.; Liu, M.; Tague, C.; Choate, J. S.; Evans, R. D.; Johnson, K. A.; Adam, J. C.

    2013-12-01

    Rangelands provide an opportunity to investigate the coupled feedbacks between human activities and natural ecosystems. These areas comprise at least one-third of the Earth's surface and provide ecological support for birds, insects, wildlife and agricultural animals including grazing lands for livestock. Capturing the interactions among water, carbon, and nitrogen cycles within the context of regional scale patterns of climate and management is important to understand interactions, responses, and feedbacks between rangeland systems and humans, as well as provide relevant information to stakeholders and policymakers. The overarching objective of this research is to understand the full consequences, intended and unintended, of human activities and climate over time in rangelands by incorporating dynamics related to rangeland management into an eco-hydrologic model that also incorporates biogeochemical and soil processes. Here we evaluate our model over ungrazed and grazed sites for different rangeland ecosystems. The Regional Hydro-ecologic Simulation System (RHESSys) is a process-based, watershed-scale model that couples water with carbon and nitrogen cycles. Climate, soil, vegetation, and management effects within the watershed are represented in a nested landscape hierarchy to account for heterogeneity and the lateral movement of water and nutrients. We incorporated a daily time-series of plant biomass loss from rangeland to represent grazing. The TRY Plant Trait Database was used to parameterize genera of shrubs and grasses in different rangeland types, such as tallgrass prairie, Intermountain West cold desert, and shortgrass steppe. In addition, other model parameters captured the reallocation of carbon and nutrients after grass defoliation. Initial simulations were conducted at the Curlew Valley site in northern Utah, a former International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme Desert Biome site. We found that grasses were most sensitive to model parameters affecting

  6. Multi-scale wind erosion monitoring and assessment for US rangelands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wind erosion is a major resource concern for rangeland managers. Although wind erosion is a naturally occurring process in many drylands, land use activities, and land management in particular, can accelerate wind-driven soil loss – impacting ecosystem dynamics and agricultural production, air quali...

  7. Enhancing wind erosion monitoring and assessment for U.S. rangelands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Nicholas P.; Van Zee, Justin W.; Karl, Jason W.; Herrick, Jeffrey E.; Courtright, Ericha M.; Billings, Benjamin J.; Boyd, Robert C.; Chappell, Adrian; Duniway, Michael C.; Derner, Justin D.; Hand, Jenny L.; Kachergis, Emily; McCord, Sarah E.; Newingham, Beth A.; Pierson, Frederick B.; Steiner, Jean L.; Tatarko, John; Tedela, Negussie H.; Toledo, David; Van Pelt, R. Scott

    2017-01-01

    On the GroundWind erosion is a major resource concern for rangeland managers because it can impact soil health, ecosystem structure and function, hydrologic processes, agricultural production, and air quality.Despite its significance, little is known about which landscapes are eroding, by how much, and when.The National Wind Erosion Research Network was established in 2014 to develop tools for monitoring and assessing wind erosion and dust emissions across the United States.The Network, currently consisting of 13 sites, creates opportunities to enhance existing rangeland soil, vegetation, and air quality monitoring programs.Decision-support tools developed by the Network will improve the prediction and management of wind erosion across rangeland ecosystems.

  8. Rehabilitation of degraded rangelands: lessons learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    The introduction and subsequent invasion of cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) has had astronomical effects to Great Basin rangelands. Cheatgrass has truncated secondary succession by outcompeting native plant species for limited resources, thus building persistent seed banks that take advantage of condi...

  9. Rangeland Ecology Monitoring Data : 1967-2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The dataset describes rangeland monitoring results from the Hanksville, UT (USA) area. Monitoring results consist of canopy cover of plant species and functional...

  10. A review of concentrated flow erosion processes on rangelands: Fundamental understanding and knowledge gaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayjro K. Nouwakpo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Concentrated flow erosion processes are distinguished from splash and sheetflow processes in their enhanced ability to mobilize and transport large amounts of soil, water and dissolved elements. On rangelands, soil, nutrients and water are scarce and only narrow margins of resource losses are tolerable before crossing the sustainability threshold. In these ecosystems, concentrated flow processes are perceived as indicators of degradation and often warrant the implementation of mitigation strategies. Nevertheless, this negative perception of concentrated flow processes may conflict with the need to improve understanding of the role of these transport vessels in redistributing water, soil and nutrients along the rangeland hillslope. Vegetation influences the development and erosion of concentrated flowpaths and has been the primary factor used to control and mitigate erosion on rangelands. At the ecohydrologic level, vegetation and concentrated flow pathways are engaged in a feedback relationship, the understanding of which might help improve rangeland management and restoration strategies. In this paper, we review published literature on experimental and conceptual research pertaining to concentrated flow processes on rangelands to: (1 present the fundamental science underpinning concentrated flow erosion modeling in these landscapes, (2 discuss the influence of vegetation on these erosion processes, (3 evaluate the contribution of concentrated flow erosion to overall sediment budget and (4 identify knowledge gaps.

  11. The Rangeland Hydrology and Erosion Model: A dynamic approach for predicting soil loss on rangelands

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study we present the improved Rangeland Hydrology and Erosion Model (RHEM V2.3), a process-based erosion prediction tool specific for rangeland application. The article provides the mathematical formulation of the model and parameter estimation equations. Model performance is assessed agains...

  12. Problems in implementing improved range management on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focuses on sustainable resource development in the rangeland/livestock sector of the developing countries, with particular emphasis on North Africa. Stresses the need for a holistic approach to the use and management of the rangeland resources; Rangeland/livestock development in Africa is reviewed and lessons learnt ...

  13. Comparative Assessment of Goods and Services Provided by Grazing Regulation and Reforestation in Degraded Mediterranean Rangelands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papanastasis, Vasilios P.; Bautista, Susana; Chouvardas, Dimitrios; Mantzanas, Konstantinos; Papadimitriou, Maria; Garcia Mayor, Angeles; Koukioumi, Polina; Papaioannou, Athanasios; Vallejo, Ramon V.

    2017-01-01

    Several management actions are applied to restore ecosystem services in degraded Mediterranean rangelands, which range from adjusting the grazing pressure to the removal of grazers and pine plantations. Four such actions were assessed in Quercus coccifera L. shrublands in northern Greece: (i)

  14. The quantification of rangeland condition in a semi-arid grassland of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The degradation gradient technique was used to quantify rangeland .condition in areas ranging from poor, trampled areas close to watering points to well managed areas in a semi-arid. sweet grassland of southern Africa. Ecological values were linked to species by means of their individual positions on the degradation ...

  15. Towards a remote sensing based indicator of rangeland ecosystem resistance and resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding ecosystem resistance and resilience to disturbance and invasive species is critical to the sustainable management of rangeland systems. In this context, resistance refers to the inherent ability of an ecosystem to resist disturbance, while resilience refers to the capacity of an ecosys...

  16. Hardwood rangeland landowners in California from 1985 to 2004: production, ecosystem services, and permanence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn Huntsinger; Martin Johnson; Monica Stafford; Jeremy S. Fried

    2010-01-01

    A longitudinal study of California hardwood rangelands shows significant change in landowner characteristics and goals. Results of three studies spanning 1985 to 2004 were used to develop and evaluate a multiagency research and extension program known as the Integrated Hardwood Range Management Program. Program-sponsored education and research aimed at encouraging...

  17. Southern Idaho student "bug crews": Weeds, youth, and biocontrol in the rangelands of Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharlyn Gunderson-Izurieta; George P. Markin; Nan Reedy; Becky. Frieberg

    2009-01-01

    Biological control of noxious weeds is an effective and widespread method often used by rangeland managers in the western United States. However, once biological control agents, usually insects, are released onto public and private lands there are few, if any, programs to follow up and monitor the effectiveness of these agents. A technique being used by some...

  18. Response of native versus exotic plant guilds to cattle and elk herbivory in forested rangeland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burak K. Pekin; Michael J. Wisdom; Catherine G. Parks; Bryan A. Endress; Bridgett J. Naylor; Ralf Ohlemuller

    2015-01-01

    Questions: Are exotic plant species favoured by non-native ungulate herbivores and disadvantaged by native herbivores in forested rangelands? Do the impacts of ungulates on exotic vs native plants depend on forest management activities such as prescribed fire and stand thinning?Location: Northeastern Oregon, USA....

  19. Arguments for a major research focus on seeding establishment and recruitment on rangelands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding vegetation change is the basis for much of the rangeland management profession. Yet we know little about seedling ecology, from the standpoint of either reseeding or natural recruitment. We often view vegetation over long time horizons to allow changes to manifest themselves. If we lac...

  20. Managing Intermountain rangelands - improvement of range and wildlife habitats: proceedings; 1981 September 15-17; Twin Falls, ID; 1982 June 22-24; Elko, NV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen B. Monsen; Nancy Shaw

    1983-01-01

    The proceedings summarizes recent research and existing literature pertaining to the restoration and management of game and livestock ranges in the Intermountain Region. Improved plant materials and planting practices are emphasized. The series of 28 papers was presented at the Restoration of Range and Wildlife Habitat Training Sessions held in Twin Falls, Idaho,...

  1. Experimental warming, not grazing, decreases rangeland quality on the Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Julia A; Harte, John; Zhao, Xin-Quan

    2007-03-01

    cannot predict the combined effect of global changes and human activities from single-factor studies. Our findings suggest that the rangelands on the Tibetan Plateau, and the pastoralists who depend on them, may be vulnerable to future climate changes. Grazing can mitigate the negative warming effects on rangeland quality. For example, grazing management may be an important tool to keep warming-induced shrub expansion in check. Moreover, flexible and opportunistic grazing management will be required in a warmer future.

  2. Rangeland dynamics: investigating vegetation composition and structure of urban and exurban prairie dog habitat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopson, Rebecca; Meiman, Paul; Shannon, Graeme

    2015-01-01

    Rapid human population growth and habitat modification in the western United States has led to the formation of urban and exurban rangelands. Many of these rangelands are also home to populations of black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus). Our study aimed to compare the vegetation composition of an urban and exurban rangeland, and explore the role that prairie dogs play in these systems. The percent absolute canopy cover of graminoids (grasses and grass-likes), forbs, shrubs, litter, and bare ground were estimated at sampling areas located on and off prairie dog colonies at an urban and an exurban site. Herbaceous forage quality and quantity were determined on plant material collected from exclosure cages located on the colony during the entire growing season, while a relative estimate of prairie dog density was calculated using maximum counts. The exurban site had more litter and plant cover and less bare ground than the urban site. Graminoids were the dominant vegetation at the exurban plots. In contrast, mostly introduced forbs were found on the urban prairie dog colony. However, the forage quality and quantity tests demonstrated no difference between the two colonies. The relative prairie dog density was greater at the urban colony, which has the potential to drive greater vegetation utilization and reduced cover. Exurban rangeland showed lower levels of impact and retained all of the plant functional groups both on- and off-colony. These results suggest that activities of prairie dogs might further exacerbate the impacts of humans in fragmented urban rangeland habitats. Greater understanding of the drivers of these impacts and the spatial scales at which they occur are likely to prove valuable in the management and conservation of rangelands in and around urban areas.

  3. Effect of canopy cover and canopy background variables on spectral profiles of savanna rangeland bush encroachment species based on selected Acacia species (mellifera, tortilis, karroo) and Dichrostachys cinerea at Mokopane, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Munyati, C

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available possibilities for discriminating encroaching bush species in support of management of semi-arid savanna rangelands. As a preliminary step towards establishing a spectral library of common encroaching species on savanna rangelands, the effect of canopy leaf cover...

  4. Rehabilitation of cheatgrass-infested rangelands: concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    The introduction and subsequent invasion of cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) onto millions of acres of Intermountain West rangelands has caused astronomical changes to numerous ecosystems and the multiple uses that depend on healthy and functional ecosystems. This is the first part, of a 3-part series ...

  5. Role of traditional enclosures on the diversity of herbaceous vegetation in a semi-arid rangeland, southern Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Angassa, A.; Oba, G.; Treydte, A.C.; Weladji, R.B.

    2010-01-01

    Grazing management and seasonality strongly influence the recovery potential of herbaceous vegetation in semi-arid rangelands of southern Ethiopia after history of heavy grazing. We investigated effects of management (enclosures versus grazed landscapes), age of enclosures and seasonality related to

  6. Feeding goats on scrubby Mexican rangeland and pasteurization: influences on milk and artisan cheese quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilario, Mario Cuchillo; Puga, Claudia Delgadillo; Wrage, Nicole; Pérez-Gil R, Fernando

    2010-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of foraging on local scrubby rangeland versus stable feeding with high-protein concentrate as well as the compulsory pasteurization process on goats' milk and artisan soft cheese quality in terms of chemical composition and fatty acid profile. The results indicated that there were no significant differences in the energy, fat, or ash content of milk and cheese due to feeding; however, a significant influence of feeding on cheese protein and fatty acids in both milk and cheese was detected. Feeding on scrubby rangeland tended to increase the amounts of major polyunsaturated fatty acids in milk and cheese from goats. Pasteurization, which is mandatory in Mexico, did not alter the fatty acid concentrations in milk or cheese. Small goat-keepers using rangeland resources might claim better economical returns for products recognized as healthier. Further investigations to assure ecosystem sustainability of shrubby rangeland joined with economical evaluations and best animal management to avoid deleterious effects are recommended.

  7. The Role of Rangelands in Diversified Farming Systems: Innovations, Obstacles, and Opportunities in the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan F. Sayre

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Discussions of diversified farming systems (DFS rarely mention rangelands: the grasslands, shrublands, and savannas that make up roughly one-third of Earth's ice-free terrestrial area, including some 312 million ha of the United States. Although ranching has been criticized by environmentalists for decades, it is probably the most ecologically sustainable segment of the U.S. meat industry, and it exemplifies many of the defining characteristics of DFS: it relies on the functional diversity of natural ecological processes of plant and animal (reproduction at multiple scales, based on ecosystem services generated and regenerated on site rather than imported, often nonrenewable, inputs. Rangelands also provide other ecosystem services, including watershed, wildlife habitat, recreation, and tourism. Even where non-native or invasive plants have encroached on or replaced native species, rangelands retain unusually high levels of plant diversity compared with croplands or plantation forests. Innovations in management, marketing, incentives, and easement programs that augment ranch income, creative land tenure arrangements, and collaborations among ranchers all support diversification. Some obstacles include rapid landownership turnover, lack of accessible U.S. Department of Agriculture certified processing facilities, tenure uncertainty, fragmentation of rangelands, and low and variable income, especially relative to land costs. Taking advantage of rancher knowledge and stewardship, and aligning incentives with production of diverse goods and services, will support the sustainability of ranching and its associated public benefits. The creation of positive feedbacks between economic and ecological diversity should be the ultimate goal.

  8. Climatic and topographical factors affecting the vegetative carbon stock of rangelands in arid and semiarid regions of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhengchao, Ren; Huazhong, Zhu; Shi, Hua; Xiaoni, Liu

    2016-01-01

    Rangeland systems play an important role in ecological stabilization and the terrestrial carbon cycle in arid and semiarid regions. However, little is known about the vegetative carbon dynamics and climatic and topographical factors that affect vegetative carbon stock in these rangelands. Our goal was to assess vegetative carbon stock by examining meteorological data in conjunction with NDVI (normalized difference vegetation index) time series datasets from 2001–2012. An improved CASA (Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach) model was then applied to simulate the spatiotemporal dynamic variation of vegetative carbon stock, and analyze its response to climatic and topographical factors. We estimated the vegetative carbon stock of rangeland in Gansu province, China to be 4.4× 1014 gC, increasing linearly at an annual rate of 9.8×1011 gC. The mean vegetative carbon density of the whole rangeland was 136.5 gC m-2. Vegetative carbon density and total carbon varied temporally and spatially and were highly associated with temperature, precipitation and solar radiation. Vegetative carbon density reached the maximal value on elevation at 2500–3500 m, a slope of >30°and easterly aspect. The effect of precipitation, temperature and solar radiation on the vegetative carbon density of five rangeland types (desert and salinized meadow, steppe, alpine meadow, shrub and tussock, and marginal grassland in the forest) depends on the acquired quantity of water and heat for rangeland plants at all spatial scales. The results of this study provide new evidence for explaining spatiotemporal heterogeneity in vegetative carbon dynamics and responses to global change for rangeland vegetative carbon stock, and offer a theoretical and practical basis for grassland agriculture management in arid and semiarid regions.

  9. An Assessment of Productivity Patterns of Grass-Dominated Rangelands in the Hindu Kush Karakoram Region, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal Mueen Qamer

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Rangelands in the Hindu Kush Karakoram region provide a resource base for nomadic livestock grazing, which is one of the major traditional livelihood practices in the area. The present study assessed the spatiotemporal patterns and trends of rangelands using satellite remote-sensing time-series data. Moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS-based normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI data, collected at fortnightly intervals over 12 years (2001–2012, were used as a proxy for the vegetation conditions of the grasslands. The analysis revealed that rangeland productivity increased with increasing elevation up to the sub-alpine zone, which had a higher productivity than the moist temperate zone and humid sub-tropical zone. The high sub-alpine productivity was attributed to seasonal amplitude and the extended length of the growing season in the phenological cycle. In the temporal analysis of productivity, the majority of the area exhibited improvements in vegetation conditions, which were strongest in the humid sub-tropical zones and weakest in the alpine zones. The sub-alpine grasslands were found to be the most productive and heterogeneous habitat; however, the relatively strong negative temporal trend in productivity in this zone indicates ongoing degradation in these rangelands. Thus, special attention is needed for the sustainable management of rangelands in the sub-alpine zones of the Hindu Kush Karakoram region.

  10. Adaptive Rangeland Decision-Making and Coping with Drought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie M. Roche

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Grazinglands support the livelihoods of millions of people around the world, as well as supply critical ecosystem services. Communities reliant on rain-fed rangelands are potentially the most vulnerable to increasing climate variability given their dependence on highly climate-sensitive resources. Droughts, which are gradual natural hazards, pose substantial and recurrent economic and ecological stresses to these systems. This study examined management decision-making based on survey responses of 479 California ranchers to: (1 identify the types of drought strategies in-place across California’s rangelands and the operation variables driving strategy selection; and (2 examine how individual drought adaptation is enhanced by decision-making factors. Four types of in-place drought strategies were identified and ordered along a gradient of increasing intensity (number of practices used. Significant background variables driving strategy selection were operation experience with drought, type of livestock operation, grazing system, and land ownership types. Information resource networks, goal setting for sustainable natural resources, and management capacity all acted to enhance individual drought adaptation—defined here by active drought planning and the number of both reactive and proactive drought practices used. Overall, analyses revealed that flexibility in management is a key component of adapting to and coping with drought. Climate policy planning should take into account the diversity of strategies that have been developed by ranchers for multiple generations and within the context of their unique operations, as well as support these working landscapes via a range of adaptation and mitigation options to reduce vulnerability across all types of operations.

  11. Soil degradation in wooded rangelands of southwest Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnabel, S.; Lavado Contador, J. F.; Gómez Gutiérrez, Á.

    2009-04-01

    The paper presents a review on soil degradation studies carried out since 1990 in wooded rangelands in Extremadura. In the semiarid and subhumid parts of the south-western Iberian Peninsula open evergreen woodlands dominated by Quercus species are widespread (dehesas and montados). They are composed of grasslands with a varying degree of tree cover, ranging from treeless to more than 80 individuals per hectare. In some areas shrubs form a third component of the vegetation. Dehesas are subject to a complex exploitation system with agro-silvo-pastoral land use. The dominant soil degradation phenomena include different forms of water erosion and physical and biological degradation. Regarding soil erosion and surface hydrology, research has been carried out at different spatial scales. Sheetwash and overland flow were investigated along hillslopes and in microplots, whereas gully erosion and runoff production were monitored in small experimental catchments. Recently, physical and biological degradation has been studied in a large number of farms, representing the most important types of rangelands in the region of Extremadura. This included a rapid appraisal of degradation features, the determination of soil properties and a study on the distribution and activity of gullies. Soil degradation varies strongly with regard to the natural factors, but also with respect to land use and management. Sheetwash (interrill erosion) is the dominant process on hillslopes, with a mean soil loss rate of 0.63 t ha-1. However rainfall variation and land management, especially livestock density, produce changes in soil cover. With low to moderate livestock densities and during prolonged periods with low rainfall (droughts), the vegetation cover may be strongly reduced, provoking high soil losses, whereas during normal or humid periods interrill erosion is low. Excessive stocking rates may exacerbate sheetwash, producing severe soil degradation, regardless of rainfall conditions. In

  12. Range management visual impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce R. Brown; David Kissel

    1979-01-01

    Historical overgrazing of western public rangelands has resulted in the passage of the Public Rangeland Improvement Act of 1978. The main purpose of this Act is to improve unsatisfactory range conditions. A contributing factor to unfavorable range conditions is adverse visual impacts. These visual impacts can be identified in three categories of range management: range...

  13. Emerging issues and challenges in conservation of biodiversity in the rangelands of Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafari Kideghesho

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Tanzania rangelands are a stronghold for biodiversity harbouring a variety of animal and plant species of economic, ecological and socio-cultural importance. Efforts to protect these resources against destruction and loss have involved, among other things, setting aside some tracks of land as protected areas in the form of national parks, nature reserves, game reserves, game controlled and wildlife management areas. However, these areas and adjacent lands have long been subjected to a number of emerging issues and challenges, which complicate their management, thus putting the resources at risk of over exploitation and extinction. These issues and challenges include, among other things, government policies, failure of conservation (as a form of land use to compete effectively with alternative land uses, habitat degradation and blockage of wildlife corridors, overexploitation and illegal resource extraction, wildfires, human population growth, poverty, HIV/AIDS pandemic and human-wildlife conflicts. In this paper, we review the emerging issues and challenges in biodiversity conservation by drawing experience from different parts of Tanzania. The paper is based on the premise that, understanding of the issues and challenges underpinning the rangelands is a crucial step towards setting up of plausible objectives, strategies and plans that will improve and lead to effective management of these areas. We conclude by recommending some proactive measures that may enhance the sustainability of the rangeland resources for the benefit of the current and future generations.

  14. Structural and functional diversity in rangelands: integrating different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many rangelands exist as dynamic systems where structural and functional diversity of the community is a function of several interacting factors. Understanding the effects of these factors in rangelands requires an understanding of component functioning at different scales. Integrating the range of levels from ecophysiology ...

  15. Rangeland drought: Effects, restoration, and adaptation [Chap. 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah M. Finch; Rosemary L. Pendleton; Matt C. Reeves; Jeffrey E. Ott; Francis F. Kilkenny; Jack L. Butler; Jacqueline P. Ott; Jeremy R. Pinto; Paulette L. Ford; Justin B. Runyon; Mark A. Rumble; Stanley G. Kitchen

    2016-01-01

    Drought can have severe impacts on rangeland ecosystems in North America. For the purposes of this chapter, rangelands include natural grasslands, savannas, shrublands, many deserts, tundras, alpine communities, marshes, meadows, and woodlands. Drought impacts vary depending on the severity, frequency, duration, and aerial extent of the drought(s); how the land is...

  16. Improving access to livestock markets for sustainable rangeland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Productivity of rangelands in Kenya is affected by increasing crop farming especially in more fertile range areas. Among the key factors driving the encroachment of crops on rangelands are the changing opportunities brought about by markets. We hypothesize that the existing market inefficiencies characterizing livestock ...

  17. Rangeland monitoring reveals long-term plant responses to precipitation and grazing at the landscape scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munson, Seth M.; Duniway, Michael C.; Johanson, Jamin K.

    2015-01-01

    Managers of rangeland ecosystems require methods to track the condition of natural resources over large areas and long periods of time as they confront climate change and land use intensification. We demonstrate how rangeland monitoring results can be synthesized using ecological site concepts to understand how climate, site factors, and management actions affect long-term vegetation dynamics at the landscape-scale. Forty-six years of rangeland monitoring conducted by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) on the Colorado Plateau reveals variable responses of plant species cover to cool-season precipitation, land type (ecological site groups), and grazing intensity. Dominant C3 perennial grasses (Achnatherum hymenoides, Hesperostipa comata), which are essential to support wildlife and livestock on the Colorado Plateau, had responses to cool-season precipitation that were at least twice as large as the dominant C4 perennial grass (Pleuraphis jamesii) and woody vegetation. However, these C3 perennial grass responses to precipitation were reduced by nearly one-third on grassland ecological sites with fine- rather than coarse-textured soils, and there were no detectable C3 perennial grass responses to precipitation on ecological sites dominated by a dense-growing shrub, Coleogyne ramosissima. Heavy grazing intensity further reduced the responses of C3 perennial grasses to cool-season precipitation on ecological sites with coarse-textured soils and surprisingly reduced the responses of shrubs as well. By using ecological site groups to assess rangeland condition, we were able to improve our understanding of the long-term relationships between vegetation change and climate, land use, and site characteristics, which has important implications for developing landscape-scale monitoring strategies.

  18. An Integrated Social, Economic, and Ecologic Conceptual (ISEEC) framework for considering rangeland sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    William E. Fox; Daniel W. McCollum; John E. Mitchell; Louis E. Swanson; Urs P. Kreuter; John A. Tanaka; Gary R. Evans; H. Theodore Heintz; Robert P. Breckenridge; Paul H. Geissler

    2009-01-01

    Currently, there is no standard method to assess the complex systems in rangeland ecosystems. Decision makers need baselines to create a common language of current rangeland conditions and standards for continued rangeland assessment. The Sustainable Rangeland Roundtable (SRR), a group of private and public organizations and agencies, has created a forum to discuss...

  19. New Tools to Estimate Runoff, Soil Erosion, and Sustainability of Rangeland Plant Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangelands are the largest land cover type in the world. Degradation from mismanagement, desertification, and drought impact more than 50% of rangelands across the globe. The USDA Agricultural Research Service has been evaluating sustainability of rangeland for over 40-years by conducted rangeland r...

  20. Rangeland health assessment - The key to understanding and assessing rangeland soil health in the Northern Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    As the science related to soil and rangeland health evolves, so do their protocols and assessment methodologies. Rangeland health assessments consist of evaluating how well ecological processes such as the water cycle, energy flow and nutrient cycling are functioning at a site. Soil health is the ca...

  1. Rangeland dynamics in South Omo Zone of Southern Ethiopia: Assessment of rangeland condition in relation to altitude and Grazing types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terefe, A.; Ebro, A.; Tessema, Z.K.

    2010-01-01

    A study was undertaken in Hamer and Benna-Tsemay districts of the Southern Ethiopia with the objective to determine the condition of the rangelands for grazing animals as influenced by altitude and grazing types. The rangelands in each of the study districts were stratified based on altitude and

  2. Phenomapping of rangelands in South Africa using time series of RapidEye data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parplies, André; Dubovyk, Olena; Tewes, Andreas; Mund, Jan-Peter; Schellberg, Jürgen

    2016-12-01

    Phenomapping is an approach which allows the derivation of spatial patterns of vegetation phenology and rangeland productivity based on time series of vegetation indices. In our study, we propose a new spatial mapping approach which combines phenometrics derived from high resolution (HR) satellite time series with spatial logistic regression modeling to discriminate land management systems in rangelands. From the RapidEye time series for selected rangelands in South Africa, we calculated bi-weekly noise reduced Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) images. For the growing season of 2011⿿2012, we further derived principal phenology metrics such as start, end and length of growing season and related phenological variables such as amplitude, left derivative and small integral of the NDVI curve. We then mapped these phenometrics across two different tenure systems, communal and commercial, at the very detailed spatial resolution of 5 m. The result of a binary logistic regression (BLR) has shown that the amplitude and the left derivative of the NDVI curve were statistically significant. These indicators are useful to discriminate commercial from communal rangeland systems. We conclude that phenomapping combined with spatial modeling is a powerful tool that allows efficient aggregation of phenology and productivity metrics for spatially explicit analysis of the relationships of crop phenology with site conditions and management. This approach has particular potential for disaggregated and patchy environments such as in farming systems in semi-arid South Africa, where phenology varies considerably among and within years. Further, we see a strong perspective for phenomapping to support spatially explicit modelling of vegetation.

  3. Assessment of rangeland ecosystem conditions, Salt Creek watershed and Dugout Ranch, southeastern Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowker, M.A.; Miller, M.E.; Belote, R.T.

    2012-01-01

    Increasingly, dry rangelands are being valued for multiple services beyond their traditional value as a forage production system. Additional ecosystem services include the potential to store carbon in the soil and plant biomass. In addition, dust emissions from rangelands might be considered an ecosystem detriment, the opposite of an ecosystem service. Dust emitted may have far-reaching impacts, for example, reduction of local air quality, as well as altering regional water supplies through effects on snowpack. Using an extensive rangeland monitoring dataset in the greater Canyonlands region (Utah, USA), we developed a method to estimate indices of the provisioning of three ecosystem services (forage production, dust retention, C storage) and one ecosystem property (nativeness), taking into account both ecosystem type and alternative states within that ecosystem type. We also integrated these four indices into a multifunctionality index. Comparing the currently ungrazed Canyonlands National Park watersheds to the adjacent Dugout Ranch pastures, we found clearly higher multifunctionality was attained in the Park, and that this was primarily driven by greater C-storage and better dust retention. It is unlikely to maximize all benefits and minimize all detriments at the same time. Some goods and services may have synergistic interactions; for example, managing for carbon storage will increase plant and biocrust cover likely lowering dust emission. Likewise, some may have antagonistic interactions. For instance, if carbon is consumed as biomass for livestock production, then carbon storage may be reduced. Ultimately our goal should be to quantify the monetary consequences of specific land use practices for multiple ecosystem services and determine the best land use and adaptive management practices for attaining multiple ecosystem services, minimizing economic detriments, and maximizing economic benefits from multi-commodity rangelands. Our technique is the first step

  4. Introducing cattle grazing to a noxious weed-dominated rangeland shifts plant communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josh S. Davy

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Invasive weed species in California's rangelands can reduce herbaceous diversity, forage quality and wildlife habitat. Small-scale studies (5 acres or fewer have shown reductions of medusahead and yellow starthistle using prescribed grazing on rangelands, but little is published on the effects of pasture-scale (greater than 80 acres prescribed grazing on weed control and plant community responses. We report the results of a 6-year collaborative study of manager-applied prescribed grazing implemented on rangeland that had not been grazed for 4 years. Grazing reduced medusahead but did not alter yellow starthistle cover. Medusahead reductions were only seen in years that did not have significant late spring rainfall, suggesting that it is able to recover from heavy grazing if soil moisture is present. Later season grazing appears to have the potential to suppress medusahead in all years. In practice, however, such grazing is constrained by livestock drinking water availability and forage quality, which were limited even in years with late spring rainfall. Thus, we expect that grazing treatments under real-world constraints would reduce medusahead only in years with little late spring rainfall. After 10 years of grazing exclusion, the ungrazed plant communities began to shift, replacing medusahead with species that have little value, such as ripgut and red brome.

  5. Fodder Biomass Monitoring in Sahelian Rangelands Using Phenological Metrics from FAPAR Time Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdoul Aziz Diouf

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Timely monitoring of plant biomass is critical for the management of forage resources in Sahelian rangelands. The estimation of annual biomass production in the Sahel is based on a simple relationship between satellite annual Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI and in situ biomass data. This study proposes a new methodology using multi-linear models between phenological metrics from the SPOT-VEGETATION time series of Fraction of Absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation (FAPAR and in situ biomass. A model with three variables—large seasonal integral (LINTG, length of growing season, and end of season decreasing rate—performed best (MAE = 605 kg·DM/ha; R2 = 0.68 across Sahelian ecosystems in Senegal (data for the period 1999–2013. A model with annual maximum (PEAK and start date of season showed similar performances (MAE = 625 kg·DM/ha; R2 = 0.64, allowing a timely estimation of forage availability. The subdivision of the study area in ecoregions increased overall accuracy (MAE = 489.21 kg·DM/ha; R2 = 0.77, indicating that a relation between metrics and ecosystem properties exists. LINTG was the main explanatory variable for woody rangelands with high leaf biomass, whereas for areas dominated by herbaceous vegetation, it was the PEAK metric. The proposed approach outperformed the established biomass NDVI-based product (MAE = 818 kg·DM/ha and R2 = 0.51 and should improve the operational monitoring of forage resources in Sahelian rangelands.

  6. Transcending Landscapes: Working Across Scales and Levels in Pastoralist Rangeland Governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Lance W; Ontiri, Enoch; Alemu, Tsegaye; Moiko, Stephen S

    2017-08-01

    Landscape approaches can be subjected to mistakenly targeting a single "best" level of governance, and paying too little attention to the role that cross-scale and cross-level interactions play in governance. In rangeland settings, resources, patterns of use of those resources, and the institutions for managing the resources exist at multiple levels and scales. While the scholarship on commons offers some guidance on how to conceptualize governance in rangeland landscapes, some elements of commons scholarship-notably the "design principles" for effective governance of commons-do not seem to apply neatly to governance in pastoralist rangeland settings. This paper examines three cases where attempts have been made to foster effective landscape governance in such settings to consider how the materiality of commons influences the nature of cross-scale and cross-level interactions, and how these interactions affect governance. In all three cases, although external actors seemed to work appropriately and effectively at community and landscape levels, landscape governance mechanisms have been facing great challenges arising from relationships beyond the landscape, both vertically to higher levels of decision-making and horizontally to communities normally residing in other landscapes. The cases demonstrate that fostering effective landscape-level governance cannot be accomplished only through action at the landscape level; it is a task that must be pursued at multiple levels and in relation to the connections across scales and levels. The paper suggests elements of a conceptual framework for understanding cross-level and cross-scale elements of landscape governance, and offers suggestions for governance design in pastoralist rangeland settings.

  7. Transcending Landscapes: Working Across Scales and Levels in Pastoralist Rangeland Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Lance W.; Ontiri, Enoch; Alemu, Tsegaye; Moiko, Stephen S.

    2017-08-01

    Landscape approaches can be subjected to mistakenly targeting a single "best" level of governance, and paying too little attention to the role that cross-scale and cross-level interactions play in governance. In rangeland settings, resources, patterns of use of those resources, and the institutions for managing the resources exist at multiple levels and scales. While the scholarship on commons offers some guidance on how to conceptualize governance in rangeland landscapes, some elements of commons scholarship—notably the "design principles" for effective governance of commons—do not seem to apply neatly to governance in pastoralist rangeland settings. This paper examines three cases where attempts have been made to foster effective landscape governance in such settings to consider how the materiality of commons influences the nature of cross-scale and cross-level interactions, and how these interactions affect governance. In all three cases, although external actors seemed to work appropriately and effectively at community and landscape levels, landscape governance mechanisms have been facing great challenges arising from relationships beyond the landscape, both vertically to higher levels of decision-making and horizontally to communities normally residing in other landscapes. The cases demonstrate that fostering effective landscape-level governance cannot be accomplished only through action at the landscape level; it is a task that must be pursued at multiple levels and in relation to the connections across scales and levels. The paper suggests elements of a conceptual framework for understanding cross-level and cross-scale elements of landscape governance, and offers suggestions for governance design in pastoralist rangeland settings.

  8. Assessment of LANDSAT for rangeland mapping, Rush Valley, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridd, M. K.; Price, K. P.; Douglass, G. E.

    1984-01-01

    The feasibility of using LANDSAT MSS (multispectral scanner) data to identify and map cover types for rangeland, and to determine comparative condition of the ecotypes was assessed. A supporting objective is to assess the utility of various forms of aerial photography in the process. If rangelands can be efficiently mapped with Landsat data, as supported by appropriate aerial photography and field data, then uniform standards of cover classification and condition may be applied across the rangelands of the state. Further, a foundation may be established for long-term monitoring of range trend, using the same satellite system over time.

  9. 77 FR 11152 - Notice of Intent To Prepare a Revision to the Carson City District Resource Management Plan and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ... meeting times and addresses will be announced through the local news media, newsletters, mailings and the...; hydrology; public safety; law enforcement; fire ecology and management; forestry; rangeland management...

  10. Analysis of Vegetation Phytosociological Characteristics and Soil Physico-Chemical Conditions in Harishin Rangelands of Eastern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Haftay Hailu

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study is to analyse the phytodiversity, distribution, herb biomass and physico-chemical conditions of the vegetation system in the context of communal continuous open grazing and enclosed grazing management practices in the Harishin rangelands of Eastern Ethiopia. A total of 58 herbaceous species and 11 woody species were recorded in the study area. Analysis of Importance Value Index for two management practices was represented by different combinations of species with v...

  11. Geospatial datasets for assessing the effects of rangeland conditions on dissolved-solids yields in the Upper Colorado River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, Fred D; Flynn, Marilyn E.; Anning, David W.

    2015-01-01

    In 2009, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) developed a Spatially Referenced Regressions on Watershed Attributes (SPARROW) surface-water quality model for the Upper Colorado River Basin (UCRB) relating dissolved-solids sources and transport in the 1991 water year to upstream catchment characteristics. The SPARROW model focused on geologic and agricultural sources of dissolved solids in the UCRB and was calibrated using water-year 1991 dissolved-solids loads from 218 monitoring sites. A new UCRB SPARROW model is planned that will update the investigation of dissolved-solids sources and transport in the basin to circa 2010 conditions and will improve upon the 2009 model by incorporating more detailed information about agricultural-irrigation and rangeland-management practices, among other improvements. Geospatial datasets relating to circa 2010 rangeland conditions are required for the new UCRB SPARROW modeling effort. This study compiled geospatial datasets for the UCRB that relate to the biotic alterations and rangeland conditions of grazing, fire and other land disturbance, and vegetation type and cover. Datasets representing abiotic alterations of access control (off-highway vehicles) and sediment generation and transport in general, were also compiled. These geospatial datasets may be tested in the upcoming SPARROW model to better understand the potential contribution of rangelands to dissolved-solids loading in UCRB streams.

  12. Epistemologias ecológicas: delimitando um conceito

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Steil

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo delimita o conceito de epistemologias ecológicas, entendido como uma postura compreensiva que se pauta pelo reconhecimento da alteridade e da agência dos processos naturais, dos objetos e dos materiais. Autores contemporâneos de diferentes trajetórias disciplinares têm empreendido reflexões nesta direção e sugerem a emergência de um novo realismo ou ainda de um novo materialismo. É neste movimento que buscamos situar o conceito de epistemologias ecológicas. O adjetivo ecológico nos parece plausível na medida em que ele remete ao reposicionamento do humano numa rede de relações simétricas e reciprocamente determinadas. Neste sentido, as epistemologias ecológicas dão voz ao mundo, considerando a autonomia das coisas e da natureza em sua relação com o humano, sem recair nos determinismos culturalistas ou biológicos. Este artigo contextualiza as interfaces dos novos materialismos, que emergem na antropologia, na filosofia e nos estudos da ciência, com o campo ambiental. Este nos parece um caminho oportuno para compreender nosso lugar no mundo e o lugar do mundo em nós desde uma perspectiva ecológica, no sentido de uma ecologia do pensamento, da ação e do conhecimento.

  13. Restoring Degraded Rangelands in Jordan: Optimizing Mechanized Micro-Water Harvesting Technique Using Rangeland Hydrology and Erosion Model (RHEM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Continuous population growth, recent refugee movement and migration as well as boundary restrictions and their implications on the nomadic lifestyle are additive pressure on rangelands throughout the Middle East. In particular, overgrazing through increased livestock herds threatens the Jordanian ra...

  14. Revolutionary land use change in the 21st century: Is (rangeland) science relevant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrick, J.E.; Brown, J.R.; Bestelmeyer, B.T.; Andrews, S.S.; Baldi, G.; Davies, J.; Duniway, M.; Havstad, K.M.; Karl, J.W.; Karlen, D.L.; Peters, Debra P.C.; Quinton, J.N.; Riginos, C.; Shaver, P.L.; Steinaker, D.; Twomlow, S.

    2012-01-01

    Rapidly increasing demand for food, fiber, and fuel together with new technologies and the mobility of global capital are driving revolutionary changes in land use throughout the world. Efforts to increase land productivity include conversion of millions of hectares of rangelands to crop production, including many marginal lands with low resistance and resilience to degradation. Sustaining the productivity of these lands requires careful land use planning and innovative management systems. Historically, this responsibility has been left to agronomists and others with expertise in crop production. In this article, we argue that the revolutionary land use changes necessary to support national and global food security potentially make rangeland science more relevant now than ever. Maintaining and increasing relevance will require a revolutionary change in range science from a discipline that focuses on a particular land use or land cover to one that addresses the challenge of managing all lands that, at one time, were considered to be marginal for crop production. We propose four strategies to increase the relevance of rangeland science to global land management: 1) expand our awareness and understanding of local to global economic, social, and technological trends in order to anticipate and identify drivers and patterns of conversion; 2) emphasize empirical studies and modeling that anticipate the biophysical (ecosystem services) and societal consequences of large-scale changes in land cover and use; 3) significantly increase communication and collaboration with the disciplines and sectors of society currently responsible for managing the new land uses; and 4) develop and adopt a dynamic and flexible resilience-based land classification system and data-supported conceptual models (e.g., state-and-transition models) that represent all lands, regardless of use and the consequences of land conversion to various uses instead of changes in state or condition that are

  15. Environmental and ecological architects: Guidelines for the Chilean temperate rainforest management derived from the monito del monte (Dromiciops gliroides conservation Arquitectos ambientales y ecológicos: Pautas para la gestión ambiental del bosque templado lluvioso de Chile derivadas de la conservación del monito del monte (Dromiciops gliroides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FRANCISCO E FONTÚRBEL

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Land use change is one of the main biodiversity threats. Due to this change, natural habitats such as the South American temperate rainforests have been rapidly degraded, fragmented, and lost. Consequently, the management and conservation of the remaining forest is a priority and having an appropriate environmental policy is mandatory for this purpose. Conservation actions in the temperate rainforest have been addressed from an individual species perspective, giving less attention to the ecosystem level conservation. Moreover, conservation-related information has not reflected yet on environmental policy development. We used the case study of the monito del monte (Dromiciops gliroides to illustrate how our current ecological and conservation knowledge of a species could be used to generate a new environmental policy. Dromiciops gliroides is a forest-dependent species with an important ecological role and quite unique evolutionary status. In order to guarantee the persistence of D. gliroides, we propose two habitat management components to be incorporated in management plans: structure and connectivity. Structure refers to spatial arrangement and key structural elements that determine habitat quality and connectivity refers to functional connectivity at the landscape level. The conservation of the monito del monte might also contribute to the conservation of many other forest-dependent species. By conserving such species it will be possible to conserve the ecological interactions and the eco-evolutionary processes, which ultimately determine the conservation of the temperate rainforest.El cambio de uso de la tierra es una de las principales amenazas a la biodiversidad. Hábitats naturales como el bosque templado lluvioso de Sudamérica han sido degradados, fragmentados y eliminados rápidamente. En consecuencia, es prioritario el manejo y conservación de los remanentes, para lo que es necesario contar con una política ambiental acorde. Las

  16. Le phonographe Edison de l'Ecole polytechnique

    OpenAIRE

    Chamoux, Henri

    2012-01-01

    Parmi les instruments de laboratoire qui constituent la riche collection de l’Ecole polytechnique, le phonographe à cylindres de cire de Edison, construit entre les années 1893 et 1895, semble un intrus. La fonction même d’un phonographe en laboratoire est ambigüe. L’acoustique est une science, la musique un art, et dès le début, cette double appartenance, plus que ses imperfections, a rendu le phonographe suspect aux yeux de tous, scientifiques et musiciens. L’exemplaire de l’Ecole n’est pas...

  17. Alcances y limitaciones del concepto de huella ecológica

    OpenAIRE

    Higueras García, Esther

    2013-01-01

    Alcances y limitaciones del concepto de huella ecologica .- Antecedentes, Objetivo y definición de huella ecológica .- Cálculo de la huella ecológica .- Factores no recogidos por el indicador .- Reflexiones finales

  18. Une Exception Francaise: Les Grandes Ecoles (A French Exception: The Great Schools).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimmel, Alain

    1996-01-01

    Examines the role of exceptional schools in France that have produced famous personages such as Charles de Gaulle and Jean-Paul Sartre. The schools reviewed include L'Ecole Nationale d'Administration, L'Ecole Polytechnique, L'Ecole Normale Superieure, L'Ecole des Hautes Etudes Commerciales, Saint-Cyr, and L'Institut d'Etudes Politiques de Paris.…

  19. An Integrated Social, Economic, and Ecologic Conceptual (ISEEC) framework for considering rangeland sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, W.E.; McCollum, D.W.; Mitchell, J.E.; Swanson, L.E.; Kreuter, U.P.; Tanaka, J.A.; Evans, G.R.; Theodore, Heintz H.; Breckenridge, R.P.; Geissler, P.H.

    2009-01-01

    Currently, there is no standard method to assess the complex systems in rangeland ecosystems. Decision makers need baselines to create a common language of current rangeland conditions and standards for continued rangeland assessment. The Sustainable Rangeland Roundtable (SRR), a group of private and public organizations and agencies, has created a forum to discuss rangeland sustainability and assessment. The SRR has worked to integrate social, economic, and ecological disciplines related to rangelands and has identified a standard set of indicators that can be used to assess rangeland sustainability. As part of this process, SRR has developed a two-tiered conceptual framework from a systems perspective to study the validity of indicators and the relationships among them. The first tier categorizes rangeland characteristics into four states. The second tier defines processes affecting these states through time and space. The framework clearly shows that the processes affect and are affected by each other. ?? 2009 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  20. Very High Resolution Panoramic Photography to Improve Conventional Rangeland Monitoring 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangeland monitoring often includes repeat photographs as a basis for documentation and although photographic equipment and electronics have been evolving rapidly, basic rangeland photo monitoring methods have changed little over time. Ground based digital photography is underutilized, especially s...

  1. 77 FR 61021 - Notice of Intent To Prepare a Resource Management Plan Amendment and Associated Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-05

    ... Wilderness Areas Proximity of wilderness areas to major urban interface Protection of cultural and sensitive...: wilderness, rangeland management, fire, minerals and geology, forestry, recreation, archaeology, paleontology...

  2. The Rangeland Vegetation Simulator: A user-driven system for quantifying production, succession, disturbance and fuels in non-forest environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matt Reeves; Leonardo Frid

    2016-01-01

    Rangeland landscapes occupy roughly 662 million acres in the coterminous U.S. (Reeves and Mitchell 2011) and their vegetation responds quickly to climate and management, with high relative growth rates and inter-annual variability. Current national decision support systems in the U.S. such as the Interagency Fuels Treatment Decision Support System (IFT-DSS) require...

  3. Ecohydrologic impacts of rangeland fire on runoff and erosion: A literature synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick B. Pierson; C. Jason Williams

    2016-01-01

    Fire can dramatically influence rangeland hydrology and erosion by altering ecohydrologic relationships. This synthesis presents an ecohydrologic perspective on the effects of fire on rangeland runoff and erosion through a review of scientific literature spanning many decades. The objectives are: (1) to introduce rangeland hydrology and erosion concepts necessary for...

  4. Assessing the impacts of livestock production on biodiversity in rangeland ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alkemade, R.; Reid, R.S.; Berg, van den M.; Leeuw, de J.; Jeuken, M.

    2013-01-01

    Biodiversity in rangelands is decreasing, due to intense utilization for livestock production and conversion of rangeland into cropland; yet the outlook of rangeland biodiversity has not been considered in view of future global demand for food. Here we assess the impact of future livestock

  5. Ecologic, Economic, and Social Considerations for Rangeland Sustainability: An Integrated Conceptual Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel W. McCollum; H. Theodore Jr. Heintz; Aaron J. Harp; John A. Tanaka; Gary R. Evans; David Radloff; Louis E. Swanson; William E. III Fox; Michael G. Sherm Karl; John E. Mitchell

    2006-01-01

    Use and sustainability of rangelands are inherently linked to the health and sustainability of the land. They are also inherently linked to the social and economic infrastructures that complement and support those rangelands and rangeland uses. Ecological systems and processes provide the biological interactions underlying ecosystem health and viability. Social and...

  6. Application of rangeland health indicators on forested plots on the Fishlake National Forest, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggie G. Toone; Sara Goeking

    2017-01-01

    Typical indicators of rangeland health are used to describe health and functionality of a variety of rangeland ecosystems. Similar indicators may be applied to forested locations to examine ecological health at a local forest level. Four rangeland health indicators were adapted and applied to data compiled by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky...

  7. Grazing exclusion, substrate type, and drought frequency affect plant community structure in rangelands of the arid unpredictable Arabian Deserts

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Keblawy, Ali; El-Sheikh, Mohamed

    2017-04-01

    Grazing and drought can adversely affect the ecology and management of rangeland ecosystems. Several management actions have been applied to restore species diversity and community structure in degraded rangelands of the unpredictable arid environment. Protection from grazing is considered as a proper approach for restoration of degraded rangelands, but this depends on substrate type and sometime is hindered with water deficiency (drought). In this study, the effect of protection from grazing animals on species diversity and plant community structure was assessed after a dry and wet periods in both sandy and gravelly substrates in the Dubai Desert Conservation reserve (DDCR), United Arab Emirates. Two sites were selected during November 2012 on the two substrate types (fixed sandy flat and gravel plain) in the arid DDCR. An enclosure was established in each site. Plant community attributes (plant cover, density, frequency, species composition, and diversity indices) were assessed in a number of permanent plots laid inside and outside each enclosure during November 2012, April 2014 and April 2016. The results showed that protection improved clay content, but decreased the organic matters. Interestingly, the protection reduced the concentrations of most estimated nutrients, which could be attributed to the high turnover rate of nutrients associated grazing and low decomposition of accumulated dry plants of non-protected sites. Protection significantly increased all plant community attributes, but the only significant effect was for plant density. Plant density was almost twice greater inside than outside the enclosures. During the dry period, protection resulted in significantly greater deterioration in cover, density and all diversity indices in gravel, compared to sandy sites. Most of the grasses and shrubby plants had died in the gravel plains. However, plant community of the gravel plains was significantly restored after receiving considerable rainfalls. The

  8. Enclosing the commons: reasons for the adoption and adaptation of enclosures in the arid and semi-arid rangelands of Chepareria, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wairore, John N; Mureithi, Stephen M; Wasonga, Oliver V; Nyberg, Gert

    2015-01-01

    The adoption and adaptation of enclosures in the arid and semi-arid rangelands of sub-Saharan Africa is driven and sustained by a combination of factors. However, reviews indicate that these factors cannot be generalized, as they tend to be case specific. A study was therefore conducted to explore the history and reasons for enclosure establishment in Chepareria, a formerly degraded communal rangeland in north-western Kenya. While Vi-Agroforestry Organization accounting for 52.5 % was the main source of knowledge on enclosure establishment; it has now emerged that rangeland enclosures among the Pokot pastoral community existed prior to land management interventions by Vi- Agroforestry. Results indicated that there are three categories of enclosures which were established for boundary demarcation, provide grazing reserves, enable proper land management, facilitate crop cultivation in a pastoral setup and to curb land degradation. The role of self-trigger [accounting for most of the spontaneous enclosures (73.5 %)] indicates the continued establishment and expansion of areas under enclosure management as private land ownership accounting for 51.7 % of enclosure tenure continues to gain momentum in Chepareria. While rangeland enclosures in Chepareria were mainly established for boundary demarcation, to alleviate pasture scarcity and enable proper management of formerly degraded areas; they have facilitated land restoration and rehabilitation by increasing flexibility in land, fodder and livestock management amongst agro-pastoralists in Chepareria over the last three decades. To ensure that rehabilitated areas do not revert to their previously degraded state; technical interventions are needed to allow for a more intensive use of rangeland resources within enclosed areas.

  9. The potential of Sentinel-2 spectral configuration to assess rangeland quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramoelo, Abel; Cho, Moses; Mathieu, Renaud; Skidmore, Andrew K.

    2014-10-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) has embarked on the development of the Sentinel constellation. Sentinel-2 is intended to improve vegetation assessment at local to global scale. Rangeland quality assessment is crucial for planning and management of grazing areas. Well managed and improved grazing areas lead to higher livestock production, which is a pillar of the rural economy and livelihoods, especially in many parts of the African continent. Leaf nitrogen (N) is an indicator of rangeland quality, and is crucial for understanding ecosystem function and services. Today, estimation of leaf N is possible using field and imaging spectroscopy. However, a few studies based on commercially available multispectral imageries such as WorldView-2 and RapidEye have shown the potential of a red-edge band for accurately predicting and mapping leaf N at the broad landscape scale. Sentinel-2 has two red edge bands. The objective of this study was to investigate the utility of the spectral configuration of Sentinel-2 for estimating leaf N concentration in rangelands and savannas of Southern Africa. Grass canopy reflectance was measured using the FieldSpec 3, Analytical Spectral Device (ASD) in concert with leaf sample collections for leaf N chemical analysis. ASD reflectances were resampled to the spectral bands of Sentinel-2 using published spectral response functions. Random Forest (RF) technique was used to predict leaf N using all thirteen bands. Using leave-one-out cross validation, the RF model explained 90% of leaf N variation, with the root mean square error (RMSE) of 0.04 (6% of the mean). Interestingly, spectral bands centred at 705 nm (red edge) and two shortwave infrared centred at 2190 and 1610 nm were found to be the most important bands in predicting leaf N. These findings concur with previous studies based on spectroscopy, airborne hyperspectral or multispectral imagery, e.g. RapidEye, on the importance of shortwave infrared and red-edge reflectance in the

  10. EVALUATION AND MAPPING OF RANGELANDS DEGRADATION USING REMOTELY SENSED DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Ajorlo

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The empirical and scientifically documents prove that misuse of natural resource causes degradation in it. So natural resources conservation is important in approaching sustainable development aims. In current study, Landsat Thematic Mapper images and grazing gradient method have been used to map the extent and degree of rangeland degradation. In during ground-based data measuring, factors such as vegetation cover, litter, plant diversity, bare soil, and stone & gravels were estimated as biophysical indicators of degradation. The next stage, after geometric correction and doing some necessary pre-processing practices on the study area’s images; the best and suitable vegetation index has been selected to map rangeland degradation among the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI, and Perpendicular Vegetation Index (PVI. Then using suitable vegetation index and distance parameter was produced the rangelands degradation map. The results of ground-based data analysis reveal that there is a significant relation between increasing distance from critical points and plant diversity and also percentage of litter. Also there is significant relation between vegetation cover percent and distance from village, i.e. the vegetation cover percent increases by increasing distance from villages, while it wasn’t the same around the stock watering points. The result of analysis about bare soil and distance from critical point was the same to vegetation cover changes manner. Also there wasn’t significant relation between stones & gravels index and distance from critical points. The results of image processing show that, NDVI appears to be sensitive to vegetation changes along the grazing gradient and it can be suitable vegetation index to map rangeland degradation. The degradation map shows that there is high degradation around the critical points. These areas need urgent attention for soil conservation. Generally, it

  11. Spatial heterogeneity of aggregate stability and soil carbon in semi-arid rangeland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, S B; Herrick, J E; Wander, M M; Wright, S F

    2002-01-01

    To measure and manage for C sequestration in heterogeneous rangeland systems, we need to more fully understand spatial patterns of soil resources. Spatial distributions of aggregate stability and soil carbon were investigated in a semiarid rangeland in New Mexico, USA. Soil was analyzed from plant interspaces, black grama (Bouteloua eriopoda (Torr.) Torr.), and mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa Torr.) in a landscape-replicated study. Aggregate stability at the 250 microm scale, carbonate C, organic C and N, C:N ratio, and glomalin, were all highest under mesquite. Soil C:N ratio was the best predictor of aggregate stability. Estimates of metric tons of C per hectare in the top 10 cm were highly variable at patch and landscape scales, varying from 4.2 to 10.5 under mesquite and from 3.0 to 7.0 in interspaces. High variability of aggregate stability and soil C has important implications for C sequestration. We argue that this multi-scale soil heterogeneity must be considered when measuring and managing for C sequestration.

  12. Rangeland dynamics in South Omo Zone of Southern Ethiopia: Assessment of rangeland condition in relation to altitude and Grazing types

    OpenAIRE

    Terefe, A.; Ebro, A.; Tessema, Z.K.

    2010-01-01

    A study was undertaken in Hamer and Benna-Tsemay districts of the Southern Ethiopia with the objective to determine the condition of the rangelands for grazing animals as influenced by altitude and grazing types. The rangelands in each of the study districts were stratified based on altitude and grazing types. In the study districts, a total of 32, 3, 2, 7 and 29 species of grasses, legumes, sedges, other herbaceous plants and woody species were identified, respectively. The common and/or dom...

  13. Conciencia social y ecológica en el consumo

    OpenAIRE

    José Raúl Luyando Cuevas

    2016-01-01

    La presente investigación se propone utilizar una concepción diferente del consumo que ayude a amalgamar la principal corriente teórica con el paradigma de la sustentabilidad. A este nuevo enfoque lo denominamos consumo con conciencia social y ecológica. La pretensión es que se pueda utilizar para transitar hacia una producción más sosteni- ble en el corto plazo.

  14. Modeling vegetation heights from high resolution stereo aerial photography: an application for broad-scale rangeland monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillan, Jeffrey K.; Karl, Jason W.; Duniway, Michael; Elaksher, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Vertical vegetation structure in rangeland ecosystems can be a valuable indicator for assessing rangeland health and monitoring riparian areas, post-fire recovery, available forage for livestock, and wildlife habitat. Federal land management agencies are directed to monitor and manage rangelands at landscapes scales, but traditional field methods for measuring vegetation heights are often too costly and time consuming to apply at these broad scales. Most emerging remote sensing techniques capable of measuring surface and vegetation height (e.g., LiDAR or synthetic aperture radar) are often too expensive, and require specialized sensors. An alternative remote sensing approach that is potentially more practical for managers is to measure vegetation heights from digital stereo aerial photographs. As aerial photography is already commonly used for rangeland monitoring, acquiring it in stereo enables three-dimensional modeling and estimation of vegetation height. The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility and accuracy of estimating shrub heights from high-resolution (HR, 3-cm ground sampling distance) digital stereo-pair aerial images. Overlapping HR imagery was taken in March 2009 near Lake Mead, Nevada and 5-cm resolution digital surface models (DSMs) were created by photogrammetric methods (aerial triangulation, digital image matching) for twenty-six test plots. We compared the heights of individual shrubs and plot averages derived from the DSMs to field measurements. We found strong positive correlations between field and image measurements for several metrics. Individual shrub heights tended to be underestimated in the imagery, however, accuracy was higher for dense, compact shrubs compared with shrubs with thin branches. Plot averages of shrub height from DSMs were also strongly correlated to field measurements but consistently underestimated. Grasses and forbs were generally too small to be detected with the resolution of the DSMs. Estimates of

  15. Modeling vegetation heights from high resolution stereo aerial photography: an application for broad-scale rangeland monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillan, Jeffrey K; Karl, Jason W; Duniway, Michael; Elaksher, Ahmed

    2014-11-01

    Vertical vegetation structure in rangeland ecosystems can be a valuable indicator for assessing rangeland health and monitoring riparian areas, post-fire recovery, available forage for livestock, and wildlife habitat. Federal land management agencies are directed to monitor and manage rangelands at landscapes scales, but traditional field methods for measuring vegetation heights are often too costly and time consuming to apply at these broad scales. Most emerging remote sensing techniques capable of measuring surface and vegetation height (e.g., LiDAR or synthetic aperture radar) are often too expensive, and require specialized sensors. An alternative remote sensing approach that is potentially more practical for managers is to measure vegetation heights from digital stereo aerial photographs. As aerial photography is already commonly used for rangeland monitoring, acquiring it in stereo enables three-dimensional modeling and estimation of vegetation height. The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility and accuracy of estimating shrub heights from high-resolution (HR, 3-cm ground sampling distance) digital stereo-pair aerial images. Overlapping HR imagery was taken in March 2009 near Lake Mead, Nevada and 5-cm resolution digital surface models (DSMs) were created by photogrammetric methods (aerial triangulation, digital image matching) for twenty-six test plots. We compared the heights of individual shrubs and plot averages derived from the DSMs to field measurements. We found strong positive correlations between field and image measurements for several metrics. Individual shrub heights tended to be underestimated in the imagery, however, accuracy was higher for dense, compact shrubs compared with shrubs with thin branches. Plot averages of shrub height from DSMs were also strongly correlated to field measurements but consistently underestimated. Grasses and forbs were generally too small to be detected with the resolution of the DSMs. Estimates of

  16. Program of Research for Forests and Associated Rangelands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson S. Loftus; Joseph G. Massey; [Compilers

    1978-01-01

    This research plan for the Southern Region is a companion publication to the National Program of Research for Forests and Associated Rangelands. While the national program reflects both regional and national priorities, this plan provides details on forestry research matters concerning the South. For the reader's convenience, background information on development...

  17. Ecology and utilization of desert shrub rangelands in Iraq

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thalen, Derk Catharinus Peter

    1979-01-01

    When grazing is the accepted land use, vegetation is the key resource. The present study deals with the desert shrub rangelands of lraq, which contain the major characteristics of such an area, having been under grazing for many centuries. Emphasis is given to the ecology and utilization of the

  18. Parameterization of erodibility in the Rangeland Hydrology and Erosion Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    The magnitude of erosion from a hillslope is governed by the availability of sediment and connectivity of runoff and erosion processes. For undisturbed rangelands, sediment is primarily detached and transported by rainsplash and sheetflow (splash-sheet) processes in isolated bare batches, but sedime...

  19. 75 FR 8036 - Monitor-Hot Creek Rangeland Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ... Forest Service Monitor-Hot Creek Rangeland Project AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of intent...-Toiyabe National Forest will prepare an environmental impact statement (EIS) on a proposal to authorize..., Little Fish Lake, Monitor Complex, Saulsbury and Stone Cabin allotments have active term grazing permits...

  20. Impact of Rangeland Degradation on Soil Physical, Chemical

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In terms of impacts from soil compaction, Abdel-Megid et al, (1987) reported reduced water infiltration and aeration, while Van der westhuizen et al., (1999) found poor plant respiration and soil seed germination unless the soil crust is broken. Soil compaction also enhanced encroachment in eastern rangelands of Ethiopia ...

  1. Ranch business planning and resource monitoring for rangeland sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristie A. Maczko; John A. Tanaka; Michael Smith; Cindy Garretson-Weibel; Stanley F. Hamilton; John E. Mitchell; Gene Fults; Charles Stanley; Dick Loper; Larry D. Bryant; J. K. (Rooter) Brite

    2012-01-01

    Aligning a rancher's business plan goals with the capability of the ranch's rangeland resources improves the viability and sustainability of family ranches. Strategically monitoring the condition of soil, water, vegetation, wildlife, livestock production, and economics helps inform business plan goals. Business planning and resource monitoring help keep...

  2. Session A6 Rangelands as dynamic systems — Fragmentation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this symposium, we consider the effects of fragmentation of rangelands and ensuing loss of biological complexity for a variety of processes including behaviour and performance of large herbivores, responses of plant communities to herbivory, and functioning of human social and economic systems. We invite posters that ...

  3. Rangeland Ecosystem Services: Nature's Supply and Humans' Demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecosystem services are the benefits that society receives from nature and they include the regulation of climate, the pollination of crops, the provisioning of intellectual inspiration and recreational environment, as well as many essential goods such as food, fiber, and wood. Rangeland ecosystem se...

  4. Scale, heterogeneity and secondary production in tropical rangelands

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper will review our current understanding of scale-related effects on livestock production in tropical rangelands and herbivore-plant interactions at patch to landscape scales. We use published information and results from recent empirical studies in northern Australia and elsewhere to elucidate scale-related effects ...

  5. Livestock versus Wildlife Ranching in Kenyan Rangelands: A Case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Livestock versus Wildlife Ranching in Kenyan Rangelands: A Case Study of Laikipia District Ranches. ... The results reveal a web of interactive factors involving land tenur, livestock development, disease control, marketing and environmental conservation that need to be considered if the newly emerging mixed -livestock ...

  6. Post-wildfire regeneration of rangeland productivity and functionality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wildfires can have significant impacts on rangeland productivity and functionality causing substantial economic losses to affected farmers. In August 2011, such wildfires swept through the North West province of South Africa, destroying large areas of grazing and farm infrastructure. There is little information available on ...

  7. Botanical Criteria of Baharkish Rangeland in Quchan, Khorasan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    resolution of ecological problems such as biological conservation and natural ... agriculture, biology and pharmacy, this study set out to evaluate ..... Ghahreman, A (1979-1992).Colorful flora of Iran. Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands,. Tehran (In Persian). Ghahreman, A (1994). Plant systematics: cormophytes of ...

  8. Defining function in rangelands of the Peddie district, Eastern Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Surface soil conditions on the communal rangeland had higher organic carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus content. Following the analysis of satellite-derived vegetation indices, the commercial site had higher active green biomass (higher NDVI) and lower spatial diversity of near-infra red band (lower MSDI) than the ...

  9. Advances in modeling soil erosion after disturbance on rangelands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research has been undertaken to develop process based models that predict soil erosion rate after disturbance on rangelands. In these models soil detachment is predicted as a combination of multiple erosion processes, rain splash and thin sheet flow (splash and sheet) detachment and concentrated flo...

  10. Runoff and soil erosion from two rangeland sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Historically over 50 years of rainfall/runoff research using rainfall simulators has been conducted at various rangeland sites in the West, however these sites rarely have consecutive yearly measurements. This limits the understanding of dynamic annual conditions and the interactions of grazing, pla...

  11. Session A4 Rangelands as dynamic systems Desertification ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Session A4 Rangelands as dynamic systems Desertification: patterns and processes in Africa. M Timm Hoffman, Michael Darkoh. Abstract. The United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) makes special mention of the desertification problem in Africa. This session will provide an up to date overview of ...

  12. Yield Response of Mediterranean Rangelands under a Changing Climate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daliakopoulos, Ioannis N.; Panagea, Ioanna S.; Tsanis, Ioannis K.; Grillakis, Manolis G.; Koutroulis, Aristeidis G.; Hessel, Rudi; Mayor, Angeles G.; Ritsema, Coen J.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the Mediterranean rangelands degradation trends is a key element of mitigating their vulnerability and enhancing their resilience. Climate change and its inherent effects on mean temperature and the precipitation variability can regulate the magnitude, frequency and duration of

  13. Ecology and Conservation of Acacia senegal in the Rangelands ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ecology and conservation status of Acacia senegal in the rangelands of Luwero and Nakasongola Districts were assessed between November 2002 and February 2003. Sixty plots measuring 50 x 50 m were laid at 50 m intervals along six 1,000 m transects, and the diameter at breast height (DBH), of Acacia .fellegal trees ...

  14. Monitoring Insect and Disease Impacts on Rangeland Oaks in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedmund J. Swiecki; Elizabeth A. Bernhardt; Arnold Richard A.

    1991-01-01

    We developed methods to assess the impacts of diseases and arthropods on sapling and mature rangeland oaks, and applied these methods at 18 sample plot locations in northern California. The impact of arthropod damage was generally rated as minor. Leafy mistletoe (Phoradendron villosum) was found on 5 percent of the rated trees. There was a slight...

  15. Lessons from historical rangeland revegetation for today's restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce A. Roundy

    1999-01-01

    Rangeland revegetation in the Western United States historically was applied at a large scale for soil conservation and forage production purposes. Principles of revegetation that have developed over years of research include matching site potential and plant materials adaption, use of appropriate seedbed preparation and sowing techniques, and development of large...

  16. Sediment dynamics and sources in a grazed hardwood rangeland watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melvin R. George; Neil K. McDougald; Kenneth W. Tate; Royce Larsen

    2002-01-01

    From 1994 to 1998 we documented sediment transport dynamics and sources in a 137 ha grazed hardwood rangeland watershed on granitic soils at the San Joaquin Experimental Range in Madera County. Sediment transport for this watershed was determined by measuring total suspended solids, bedload and flow at an H-flume installed in 1994. Sediment movement as bedload is the...

  17. A review of climate change effects on terrestrial rangeland birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. M. Finch; K. E. Bagne; M. M. Friggens; D. M. Smith; K. M. Brodhead

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated existing literature on predicted and known climate change effects on terrestrial rangeland birds. We asked the following questions: 1) How does climate change affect birds? 2) How will birds respond to climate change? 3) Are species already responding? 4) How will habitats be impacted?

  18. Reshaping women's land rights on communal rangeland | Kleinbooi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper aims to contribute to the debates on communal rangelands and analyses the gendered dimension of land rights and land access in the rural areas of Namaqualand. The actual gender relations within rural communities and the emergence of strategies that are being pursued in communal land processes are ...

  19. Biosolids Effects in Chihuahuan Desert Rangelands: A Ten-Year Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B. Wester

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Arid and semiarid rangelands are suitable for responsible biosolids application. Topical application is critical to avoid soil and vegetation disturbance. Surface-applied biosolids have long-lasting effects in these ecosystems. We conducted a 10-year research program investigating effects of biosolids applied at rates from 0 to 90 dry Mg ha−1 on soil water infiltration; runoff and leachate water quality; soil erosion; forage production and quality; seedling establishment; plant physiological responses; nitrogen dynamics; biosolids decomposition; and grazing animal behavior and management. Biosolids increased soil water infiltration and reduced erosion. Effects on soil water quality were observed only at the highest application rates. Biosolids increased soil nitrate-nitrogen. Biosolids increased forage production and improved forage quality. Biosolids increased leaf area of grasses; photosynthetic rates were not necessarily increased by biosolids. Biosolids effects on plant establishment are expected only under moderately favorable conditions. Over an 82-mo exposure period, total organic carbon, nitrogen, and total and available phosphorus decreased and inorganic matter increased. Grazing animals spent more time grazing, ruminating, and resting in biosolids-treated areas; positive effects on average daily gain were observed during periods of higher rainfall. Our results suggest that annual biosolids application rates of up to 18 Mg ha−1 are appropriate for desert rangelands.

  20. Assessing the effects of woody plant traits on understory herbaceous cover in a semiarid rangeland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belay, Tamrat A; Moe, Stein R

    2015-07-01

    The ecological impact of woody plant encroachment in rangeland ecosystems has traditionally been evaluated based on correlation studies between densities of dissimilar woody plants and various ecosystem properties. However, ecosystem properties respond differently to woody plant encroachment because of variations in adaptation of co-occurring woody plants. The objective of this study is to predict the impact of woody plant encroachment on understory herbaceous cover based on analysis of key traits of woody plants. We conducted a vegetation survey in 4 savanna sites in southwestern Ethiopia and compared 9 different key traits of 19 co-occurring woody plants with understory herbaceous cover. Our results show that low understory herbaceous cover is associated with evergreen leaf phenology, shrubby growth form, smaller relative crown-base height and larger relative crown diameter. However, the N2-fixing ability and density of woody plants did not influence the understory herbaceous cover. This shows that traits of individual woody plants can predict the impact of woody plant encroachment on understory herbaceous cover better than density does. The finding improves our ability to accurately predict the impact of woody plant encroachment on various ecosystem properties in highly diverse savanna systems. This plant trait-based approach could be also used as an important management exercise to assess and predict the impact of encroaching woody species in several rangeland ecosystems.

  1. Climate change impacts on selected global rangeland ecosystem services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, Randall B; Conant, Richard T; Sircely, Jason; Thornton, Philip K; Herrero, Mario

    2018-03-01

    Rangelands are Earth's dominant land cover and are important providers of ecosystem services. Reliance on rangelands is projected to grow, thus understanding the sensitivity of rangelands to future climates is essential. We used a new ecosystem model of moderate complexity that allows, for the first time, to quantify global changes expected in rangelands under future climates. The mean global annual net primary production (NPP) may decline by 10 g C m -2  year -1 in 2050 under Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5, but herbaceous NPP is projected to increase slightly (i.e., average of 3 g C m -2  year -1 ). Responses vary substantially from place-to-place, with large increases in annual productivity projected in northern regions (e.g., a 21% increase in productivity in the US and Canada) and large declines in western Africa (-46% in sub-Saharan western Africa) and Australia (-17%). Soil organic carbon is projected to increase in Australia (9%), the Middle East (14%), and central Asia (16%) and decline in many African savannas (e.g., -18% in sub-Saharan western Africa). Livestock are projected to decline 7.5 to 9.6%, an economic loss of from $9.7 to $12.6 billion. Our results suggest that forage production in Africa is sensitive to changes in climate, which will have substantial impacts on the livelihoods of the more than 180 million people who raise livestock on those rangelands. Our approach and the simulation tool presented here offer considerable potential for forecasting future conditions, highlight regions of concern, and support analyses where costs and benefits of adaptations and policies may be quantified. Otherwise, the technical options and policy and enabling environment that are needed to facilitate widespread adaptation may be very difficult to elucidate. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Evaluating Structural and Functional Characteristics of Various Ecological Patches in Different Range Conditions (Case Study: Semi -Steppe Rangeland of Aghche-Isfahan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Jafari

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Rangeland condition assessment plays an important role in determining range health and applying appropriate management programs. This study aimed to evaluate the structure and function of a semi-steppe rangeland using Landscape Function Analysis technique (LFA in different land conditions in western Isfahan province, Iran. For this purpose, 4, 3 and 7 sites in different rangeland condition classes including very poor, poor, and moderate were selected respectively. In each site, a 30-meter transect was established and all kinds of patches and inter patches were identified and their lengths and widths were recorded. Also, in each ecological patch, 11 indicators of soil surface characteristics with three replications were measured, and their status was scored according to LFA method. The functionality indices of all the sites including soil stability, infiltration and nutrient cycling were measured. According to the statistical analysis results, most of the structural characteristics (number of patches, patch length, patch area index, landscape organization index and functional indices (infiltration, stability and nutrient cycling status varied significantly (α= 5% between rangeland sites with moderate and very poor condition. The changes of these structural and functional characteristics were not significant between range sites with moderate and poor, and also poor and very poor range conditions. According to the findings of this study, patch types' functionalities did not vary significantly in both rangeland sites with moderate and very poor conditions. The nutrient cycling index in patches formed by ‘forb, shrub and grass’ with poor range condition was significantly more than ‘forb’ and ‘grass’ patches. The study of range site functionality can assist managers in identifying possible ecological thresholds and prioritizing the sub-catchments and vegetation types for implementing range improvement practices.

  3. Vegetation restoration on degraded rangelands through the use of microcatchment and brush packs in the communal areas of the Eastern Cape

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lesoli, MS

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Rangeland degradation results in declining functional capacity, increased poverty, and food insecurity. Major changes in rangeland surface morphology and soil characteristics have a drastic effect on the primary productivity of the rangeland...

  4. El sector de los alimentos ecológicos: Regulación y etiquetado ecológico = The organic food sector: Regulation and ecological labeling

    OpenAIRE

    María Belén Aguirre García

    2016-01-01

    El sector de los alimentos ecológicos y la evolución de su normativa están experimentando continuos cambios y ampliaciones acordes con los flujos económicos y comerciales de nuestros días. El objetivo del artículo, desde una metodología descriptiva, es reflejar esta evolución, presentando la regulación vigente, que es exhaustiva y abarca ámbitos diversos: sistemas de producción agraria ecológica, control y certificación de operadores, comercialización y etiquetado de los alimentos ecológicos....

  5. Adopción y permanencia de la agricultura ecológica: razones y motivaciones de los agricultores ecológicos de Guasca y Anolaima

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Ramírez, Alex Mauricio

    2014-01-01

    Este texto es el resultado de una investigación realizada en fincas ecológicas ubicadas en los municipios de Guasca y Anolaima, tomando como referente teórico y metodológico la agroecología. Mediante un trabajo de campo se recolectó información etnográfica cualitativa y biofísica cuantitativa, con el propósito de evidenciar las razones y motivaciones de los agricultores ecológicos para optar y persistir con la agricultura ecológica como forma de trabajo. Desde una mirada crítica, se analizaro...

  6. Saneamiento ecológico en zonas rurales

    OpenAIRE

    Vargas Palomino, Katherine; EP. Ingeniería Ambiental, Facultad de Ingeniería y Arquitectura, Universidad Peruana Unión

    2016-01-01

    El saneamiento Ecológico (EcoSan), es un sistema ideal para zonas rurales, donde hay escasez de agua potable y carecen de un sistema de saneamiento. Es adaptable a cualquier condición geográfica y contribuye a la disminución de la contaminación del suelo mediante la aplicación de compost, producto elaborado a base del detritus humano, aportando nutrientes valiosos para el enriquecimiento del mismo. No causa daños al medioambiente, no requiere de agua, y si se realiza una buena administración ...

  7. Land use and soil organic matter in South Africa 1: A review on spatial variability and the influence of rangeland stock production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pearson N.S. Mnkeni

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Degradation of soil as a consequence of land use poses a threat to sustainable agriculture in South Africa, resulting in the need for a soil protection strategy and policy. Development of such a strategy and policy require cognisance of the extent and impact of soil degradation processes. One of the identified processes is the decline of soil organic matter, which also plays a central role in soil health or quality. The spatial variability of organic matter and the impact of grazing and burning under rangeland stock production are addressed in this first part of the review. Data from uncoordinated studies showed that South African soils have low organic matter levels. About 58% of soils contain less than 0.5% organic carbon and only 4% contain more than 2% organic carbon. Furthermore, there are large differences in organic matter content within and between soil forms, depending on climatic conditions, vegetative cover, topographical position and soil texture. A countrywide baseline study to quantify organic matter contents within and between soil forms is suggested for future reference. Degradation of rangeland because of overgrazing has resulted in significant losses of soil organic matter, mainly as a result of lower biomass production. The use of fire in rangeland management decreases soil organic matter because litter is destroyed by burning. Maintaining or increasing organic matter levels in degraded rangeland soils by preventing overgrazing and restricting burning could contribute to the restoration of degraded rangelands. This restoration is of the utmost importance because stock farming uses the majority of land in South Africa.

  8. Land Conversion Dynamics in the Borana Rangelands of Southern Ethiopia: An Integrated Assessment Using Remote Sensing Techniques and Field Survey Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Elias

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Conversion of rangelands into cultivated land is one of the main challenges affecting the management of rangelands in Ethiopia. In order to inform policy makers about trends in land-use conversion, this study examined the drivers, trends, and impacts of land conversions in five locations selected in the Borana rangelands of Southern Ethiopia. This study integrated survey interviews from agro-pastoralists, participatory appraisals, rainfall data, and remotely sensed satellite data from Landsat images taken in 1985 and 2011. Results indicate that there is a marked increase in cultivated land in some of the study sites while in the other sites there is a slight reduction. The bare lands increased in some parts of the study sites though there was slight recovery of grassland in some of the degraded areas. Settlement areas with permanent housing increased. Woodland vegetation decreased except on mountain escarpments where there were slight gains. The results further show that, during this period, bushland decreased while at the same time grassland increased. Shrub/grassland with seasonally flooded areas increased in the bottomlands. Inhabitants interviewed in the study areas perceived land use and land cover changes to be driven by interplay of recurrent drought, loss of pasture, food insecurity, and decline in income. Changes in policies that govern natural resources have influence the land use change in this area and the expansion of cultivation. Expansion of cultivation practices upon rangelands has resulting in significant loss of vegetation biomass and soil erosion, thereby precipitating rangeland degradation. The results provide comprehensive insights regarding the influence of internal and external drivers of land conversion that should be considered when making decisions for land use planning.

  9. Reflexões sobre o paradigma da economia ecológica para a gestão ambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Fuks

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo ressalta a ausência de conhecimento sobre a economia ecológica por parte do crescente número de profissionais formados em Gestão Ambiental. O autor realiza uma síntese dos princípios e fundamentos da economia ecológica, especialmente por meio das ideias de dois dos seus principais pensadores (Georgescu-Röegen e Boulding e indica porque conhecer as ideias principais dessa escola de pensamento é fundamental para profissionais de Gestão Ambiental. Argumenta-se que esses profissionais não podem prescindir da economia ecológica, sob pena de caírem na ilusão do mito da hipótese win-win e terem uma visão incompleta das dificuldades de estabelecermos uma sociedade sustentável.his study draws attention to lack of knowledge regarding Ecological Economics amongst the growing number of professionals graduating in the field of Environmental Management. The author offers a synthesis of the main principles of Ecological Economics, with particular focus on two of its main thinkers (N. Georgescu-Röegen e K. E. Boulding and indicates why such knowledge is of fundamental importance for Environmental Management. The paper argues that environmental managers cannot ignore Ecological Economics; else they may fall prey to the myth of the win-win hypothesis and thus have an incomplete perception of the difficulties involved in establishing a sustainable society.

  10. Range ecosystem management for natural areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report describes methods for managing range ecosystems in natural areas. Preserved natural areas on rangeland may, in a short time, be only those which received...

  11. Sustentabilidade Ecológica do Espeleoturismo na Serra da Bodoquena, Mato Grosso do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heros Santos Lobo

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Resumo O presente artigo apresenta uma análise da estrutura e produção do espeleoturismo na Serra da Bodoquena, sob o enfoque do ideário de ecoturismo e da sustentabilidade ecológica. A metodologia de pesquisa incluiu levantamentos documentais e de campo em cavidades naturais turísticas. As discussões apresentam aspectos técnico-metodológicos como caminhos viáveis para um espeleoturismo com princípios ecológicos e conservacionistas. Conclui-se que o espeleoturismo pode se firmar não somente como um segmento, mas também como uma nova forma de se fazer o turismo na Serra da Bodoquena. Para tanto, deve identificar novas possibilidades de procedimentos de gestão e manejo ambiental que possam ir além dos paradigmas e modelos vigentes. Palavras-chave: ecoturismo; espeleoturismo; gestão ambiental; Bonito-MS. Abstract This article presents the results of an analysis of the structure and production of speleotourism at Serra da Bodoquena, based on the precepts of ecotourism and ecological sustainability. The methodology included a survey of documents and fieldwork in natural cavities exploited for tourism. The discussion presents a technical-methodological approach for a speleotourism based on ecology and conservation. The study concludes that speleotourism can be established, not only as a specific market segment, but also as a new kind of tourism in the Serra da Bodoquena. Hence new opportunities for environmental management and control of impacts that may exist beyond the paradigms and current models should be identified. Keywords: ecotourism; speleotourism; environmental management; Bonito-MS. Resumen El presente artículo muestra un análisis de la estructura y producción del espeleoturismo en la Serra da Bodoquena, desde el enfoque de la ideología de ecoturismo y de la sostenibilidad ecológica. La metodología de investigación incluyó investigación documental y de campo en cuevas naturales turísticas. Las

  12. Forests, rangelands and climate change in Southern Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Naidoo, Sasha

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available should simultaneously achieve synergies with socio-economic benefits, climate change adaptation and biodiversity and ecosystem conservation. National adaptation priorities, as identified in national adaptation programme of action (NAPAs) and national... to countries to enhance technical capacity and financial capacity is also highlighted. It is essential to integrate key sectors in the adaptation of forests and rangelands to climate change through the development of holistic programmes that benefit...

  13. Analysis of Vegetation Phytosociological Characteristics and Soil Physico-Chemical Conditions in Harishin Rangelands of Eastern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haftay Hailu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to analyse the phytodiversity, distribution, herb biomass and physico-chemical conditions of the vegetation system in the context of communal continuous open grazing and enclosed grazing management practices in the Harishin rangelands of Eastern Ethiopia. A total of 58 herbaceous species and 11 woody species were recorded in the study area. Analysis of Importance Value Index for two management practices was represented by different combinations of species with varied dominance. The herbs’ diversity–dominance curve revealed a lognormal distribution in both managements practices. The overview of distribution patterns for most of the species layer showed contiguous growth and a clumped distribution pattern. Species diversity, richness, herb biomass, basal cover and soil physico-chemical attributes showed a distinct separation in relation to grazing management practices. Based on the findings, one can conclude that the establishment of enclosures has a positive impact in restoring rangeland vegetation diversity, distribution, in increasing herb productivity and in boosting soil fertility.

  14. Comparing soil aggregate stability at different grazing intensities (case study: Bardasiab rangeland, Fereidounshahr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mollaei

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Soil quality, aggregate stability and erosion sensibility are affected by different range management practices. This research aimed to evaluate the relationships between soil organic carbon, mean weight diameter (MWD and aggregate size distribution in the surface soil layer (0- 20 cm of various range sites with different grazing intensities (non, slightly and heavily grazed in Bardasiab rangeland, Feridounshahr, Isfahan province. Stratified random sampling method was used to collect soil samples along the established transects. Some physical and chemical properties of soil samples such as texture, electrical conductivity (EC, organic carbon (OC, MWD and sodium absorption ratio (SAR were measured in the soil laboratory. Simple linear regression and One-way ANOVA followed by the Fisher’s LSD test were used to analyze the data. Results of regression analysis showed that MWD and OC of the soil samples were significantly correlated ( α =1%, R 2 = 61.3 %. The soil MWD values of range sites with various grazing intensities were significantly different ( α =5%. Organic carbon was increased and SAR was decreased in the sites located inside exclosures, which lead to higher soil MWD. Aggregate size distribution among various sites were significantly different ( α =5% only for the aggregate smaller than 0.25 mm. Soil aggregates sizes between non-grazed and heavily grazed sites were also significantly different only for the size ranges of 4- 8 mm α =5%, ( and less than 0.25 mm α=1% (. In addition, macro aggregates increased and micro aggregates decreased in range sites with no or slight grazing intensity, respectively as these sites experienced low trampling and increased litter and organic carbons. Soil aggregate stability can therefore be used as an appropriate indicator for monitoring the impact of different management practices on rangeland soil quality and health.

  15. Assessing the impacts of livestock production on biodiversity in rangeland ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkemade, Rob; Reid, Robin S; van den Berg, Maurits; de Leeuw, Jan; Jeuken, Michel

    2013-12-24

    Biodiversity in rangelands is decreasing, due to intense utilization for livestock production and conversion of rangeland into cropland; yet the outlook of rangeland biodiversity has not been considered in view of future global demand for food. Here we assess the impact of future livestock production on the global rangelands area and their biodiversity. First we formalized existing knowledge about livestock grazing impacts on biodiversity, expressed in mean species abundance (MSA) of the original rangeland native species assemblages, through metaanalysis of peer-reviewed literature. MSA values, ranging from 1 in natural rangelands to 0.3 in man-made grasslands, were entered in the IMAGE-GLOBIO model. This model was used to assess the impact of change in food demand and livestock production on future rangeland biodiversity. The model revealed remarkable regional variation in impact on rangeland area and MSA between two agricultural production scenarios. The area of used rangelands slightly increases globally between 2000 and 2050 in the baseline scenario and reduces under a scenario of enhanced uptake of resource-efficient production technologies increasing production [high levels of agricultural knowledge, science, and technology (high-AKST)], particularly in Africa. Both scenarios suggest a global decrease in MSA for rangelands until 2050. The contribution of livestock grazing to MSA loss is, however, expected to diminish after 2030, in particular in Africa under the high-AKST scenario. Policies fostering agricultural intensification can reduce the overall pressure on rangeland biodiversity, but additional measures, addressing factors such as climate change and infrastructural development, are necessary to totally halt biodiversity loss.

  16. Circannual body reserve dynamics and metabolic profile changes in Romane ewes grazing on rangelands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-García, E; Gozzo de Figuereido, V; Foulquie, D; Jousserand, E; Autran, P; Camous, S; Tesniere, A; Bocquier, F; Jouven, M

    2014-01-01

    Throughout an entire year, 41 Romane ewes reared in an extensive rangeland were used to investigate temporal changes in body reserves (BRs) and profiles of related metabolites and metabolic hormones. Ewes were allocated to homogeneous groups according to BW and BCS and were distributed by parity (primiparous [PRIM], n = 21; multiparous [MULT], n = 20) and litter size (LSi; lambing singletons [SING], n = 21 or TWINS, n = 20). The feeding system was based on rotational grazing of rangeland paddocks and progressive supplementation with hay, silage, and barley at late pregnancy during the winter. Individual BW, BCS, plasma NEFA, β-hydroxybutyrate (β-OHB), glucose, insulin, leptin, and triiodothyronine (T3) were monitored at -56, -12, 8, 49, 76, 107, 156, 195, 216, 246, and 301 d relative to lambing. The BR mobilization was observed from late pregnancy to the end of suckling and varied as a function of the ewe energy balance but also because of transitions from fertilized to native rangeland paddocks and by supplementation. Contrarily, BR accretion occurred from weaning, during the dry-off, and until the start of the next pregnancy. Lipolysis was well reflected by NEFA, β-OHB, and T3 kinetics. Mean BW (but not mean BCS) was affected by parity (MULT > PRIM), whereas both BW and BCS were influenced by LSi (SING > TWINS) but only for MULT. The most drastic BW loss was observed during the mid-suckling period (49 d in milk [DIM]) in all ewes. The lack of effects of LSi in PRIM but not in MULT was also evident in the majority of blood plasma kinetics, which were affected (P MULT by TWINS; 99.91 vs 85.52 ng/dL) and during suckling (111.7 ± 4.18 ng/dL). Lamb BW was affected at birth and weaning by parity (MULT > PRIM) and LSi (SING > TWINS). Overall, temporal changes in BR were directly affected by the transition of physiological states and feeding levels, whereas individual responses were predetermined by parity. In MULT, the reactivity and magnitude of response was

  17. Rehabilitation of community-owned, mixed-use rangelands: Lessons from the Ewaso ecosystem in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Globally, 10-20% of arid and semi-arid rangelands have been classified as severely degraded (UNCCD 1994; MEA 2005), and in sub-Saharan Africa specifically, 70% of rangelands are considered moderately to severely degraded (Dregne 1992; UNCCD 1994). Given that these drylands make up 43% of Africa’s la...

  18. Plant/life form considerations in the rangeland hydrology and erosion model (RHEM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resilience of rangeland to erosion has largely been attributed to adequate plant cover; however, plant life/growth form, and individual species presence can have a dramatic effect on hydrologic and erosion dynamics on rangelands. Plant life/growth form refers to genetic tendency of a plant to grow i...

  19. Agricultural, Runoff, Erosion and Salinity (ARES) Database to Better Evaluate Rangeland State and Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangelands comprise approximately 40% of the earth’s surface and are the largest land cover type in the world. Degradation from mismanagement, desertification, and drought impact more than 50% of rangelands across the globe. The USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS) has been evaluating means of r...

  20. Earth stewardship on rangelands: Coping with ecological, economic, and political marginality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangelands encompass 30-40 percent of Earth's land surface and support 1-2 billion people. Their predominant use is extensive livestock production by pastoralists and ranchers. But rangelands are characterized by ecological, economic, and political marginality, and higher-value, more intensive land ...

  1. Hydrologic vulnerability of western US rangelands in the wake of woodland encroachment and increasing wildfire activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinyon and juniper woodlands have dramatically increased their range in the past 150 years and currently occupy more than 30 million ha of the western US. Range expansion has primarily occurred through encroachment into sagebrush rangelands. Woodland expansion and infill on western rangelands have a...

  2. California Hardwood Rangeland Use and Productivity Changes, and the Economics of Regional Livestock Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerald L. Horner; James H. Cothern

    1991-01-01

    Changes in the availability, productivity and cost of hardwood rangeland affects the production and location of range-fed livestock. The California Range Livestock Model (CRLM) was developed to determine the effect of proposed policies and alternative economic conditions on the range-fed livestock industry generally and hardwood rangeland in particular. Three possible...

  3. Climate change and North American rangelands: Assessment of mitigation and adaptation strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linda A. Joyce; David D. Briske; Joel R. Brown; H. Wayne Polley; Bruce A. McCarl; Derek W. Bailey

    2013-01-01

    Recent climatic trends and climate model projections indicate that climate change will modify rangeland ecosystem functions and the services and livelihoods that they provision. Recent history has demonstrated that climatic variability has a strong influence on both ecological and social components of rangeland systems and that these systems possess substantial...

  4. Discussion of submitted posters for Section 2.3 (Rangeland Germplasm Resources)

    Science.gov (United States)

    As part of the IX International Rangeland Congress held in Rosario, Argentina, a total of 70 posters from 17 countries were submitted to Section 2.3 (Rangeland Germplasm Resources). These posters documented research conducted in five major regions of the world: South America, North America, Africa...

  5. The geomorphic legacy of water and erosion control structures in a semiarid rangeland watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Mary H.; Magirl, Christopher S.; Sayre, N.F.; Shaw, Jeremy R.

    2017-01-01

    Control over water supply and distribution is critical for agriculture in drylands where manipulating surface runoff often serves the dual purpose of erosion control. However, little is known of the geomorphic impacts and legacy effects of rangeland water manipulation infrastructure, especially if not maintained. This study investigated the geomorphic impacts of structures such as earthen berms, water control gates, and stock tanks, in a semiarid rangeland in the southwestern USA that is responding to both regional channel incision that was initiated over a century ago, and a more recent land use change that involved cattle removal and abandonment of structures. The functional condition of remnant structures was inventoried, mapped, and assessed using aerial imagery and lidar data. Headcut initiation, scour, and channel incision associated with compromised lateral channel berms, concrete water control structures, floodplain water spreader berms, and stock tanks were identified as threats to floodplains and associated habitat. Almost half of 27 identified lateral channel berms (48%) have been breached and 15% have experienced lateral scour; 18% of 218 shorter water spreader berms have been breached and 17% have experienced lateral scour. A relatively small number of 117 stock tanks (6%) are identified as structurally compromised based on analysis of aerial imagery, although many currently do not provide consistent water supplies. In some cases, the onset of localized disturbance is recent enough that opportunities for mitigation can be identified to alter the potentially damaging erosion trajectories that are ultimately driven by regional geomorphic instability. Understanding the effects of prior land use and remnant structures on channel and floodplain morphologic condition is critical because both current land management and future land use options are constrained by inherited land use legacy effects.

  6. Session B1 Management for sustainable use — Rangeland auditing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adaptive frameworks which enhance sustainable strategic responses, and the state of art in scale dilemmas will be addressed. A hybrid session structure will be utilised: distilling wisdom from relevant posters; formal presentations; and stimulating structured debate. African Journal of Range & Forage Science 2003, 20(2): ...

  7. Namibia - Community-Based Rangeland and Livestock Management

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — This is a mixed methods impact evaluation that randomly assigned which geographic areas were eligible to receive the program. The quantitative data collection and...

  8. Adaptive management for complex communal rangelands in South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Policy that promotes adaptability and resilience, and is itself responsive to changing dynamics, should be sought. Complex systems modelling with an inclusive group of stakeholders holds potential for realising such policy. Keywords: non-linear systems, resilience, social–ecological systems, vulnerability. African Journal of ...

  9. Seventy-five years of vegetation treatments on public rangelands in the Great Basin of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilliod, David S.; Welty, Justin; Toevs, Gordon R.

    2017-01-01

    On the Ground Land treatments occurring over millions of hectares of public rangelands in the Great Basin over the last 75 years represent one of the largest vegetation manipulation and restoration efforts in the world.The ability to use legacy data from land treatments in adaptive management and ecological research has improved with the creation of the Land Treatment Digital Library (LTDL), a spatially explicit database of land treatments conducted by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management.The LTDL contains information on over 9,000 confirmed land treatments in the Great Basin, composed of seedings (58%), vegetation control treatments (24%), and other types of vegetation or soil manipulations (18%).The potential application of land treatment legacy data for adaptive management or as natural experiments for retrospective analyses of effects of land management actions on physical, hydrologic, and ecologic patterns and processes is considerable and just beginning to be realized.

  10. The positive relationships between plant coverage, species richness, and aboveground biomass are ubiquitous across plant growth forms in semi-steppe rangelands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanaei, Anvar; Ali, Arshad; Chahouki, Mohammad Ali Zare

    2018-01-01

    The positive relationships between biodiversity and aboveground biomass are important for biodiversity conservation and greater ecosystem functioning and services that humans depend on. However, the interaction effects of plant coverage and biodiversity on aboveground biomass across plant growth forms (shrubs, forbs and grasses) in natural rangelands are poorly studied. Here, we hypothesized that, while accounting for environmental factors and disturbance intensities, the positive relationships between plant coverage, biodiversity, and aboveground biomass are ubiquitous across plant growth forms in natural rangelands. We applied structural equation models (SEMs) using data from 735 quadrats across 35 study sites in semi-steppe rangelands in Iran. The combination of plant coverage and species richness rather than Shannon's diversity or species diversity (a latent variable of species richness and evenness) substantially enhance aboveground biomass across plant growth forms. In all selected SEMs, plant coverage had a strong positive direct effect on aboveground biomass (β = 0.72 for shrubs, 0.84 for forbs and 0.80 for grasses), followed by a positive effect of species richness (β = 0.26 for shrubs, 0.05 for forbs and 0.09 for grasses), and topographic factors. Disturbance intensity had a negative effect on plant coverage, whereas it had a variable effect on species richness across plant growth forms. Plant coverage had a strong positive total effect on aboveground biomass (β = 0.84 for shrubs, 0.88 for forbs, and 0.85 for grasses), followed by a positive effect of species richness, and a negative effect of disturbance intensity across plant growth forms. Our results shed light on the management of rangelands that is high plant coverage can significantly improve species richness and aboveground biomass across plant growth forms. We also found that high disturbance intensity due to heavy grazing has a strong negative effect on plant coverage rather than species

  11. Endemic shrubs in temperate arid and semiarid regions of northern China and their potentials for rangeland restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Jianmin; Yang, Hongxiao; Lu, Qi; Zhang, Xiaoyan

    2015-06-03

    Some endemic shrubs in arid and semiarid ecosystems are in danger of extinction, and yet they can play useful roles in maintaining or restoring these ecosystems, thus practical efforts are needed to conserve them. The shrubs Amygdalus pedunculata Pall., Amygdalus mongolica (Maxim.) Ricker and Ammopiptanthus mongolicus (Maxim. ex Kom.) Cheng f. are endemic species in arid and semiarid regions of northern China, where rangeland desertification is pronounced due to chronic overgrazing. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that these endemic shrubs have developed adaptations to arid and semiarid environments and could play critical roles as nurse species to initiate the process of rangeland recovery. Based on careful vegetation surveys, we analysed the niches of these species in relation to precipitation, temperature and habitats. All sampling plots were categorized by these endemics and sorted by the non-metric multidimensional scaling method. Species ratios of each life form and species co-occurrence rates with the endemics were also evaluated. Annual average temperature and annual precipitation were found to be the key factors determining vegetation diversity and distributions. Amygdalus pedunculata prefers low hills and sandy land in temperate semiarid regions. Amygdalus mongolica prefers gravel deserts of temperate semiarid regions. Ammopiptanthus mongolicus prefers sandy land of temperate arid regions. Communities of A. pedunculata have the highest diversity and the largest ratios of long-lived grass species, whereas those of A. mongolicus have the lowest diversity but the largest ratios of shrub species. Communities of A. mongolica are a transition between the first two community types. These findings demonstrate that our focal endemic shrubs have evolved adaptations to arid and semiarid conditions, thus they can be nurse plants to stabilize sand ground for vegetation restoration. We suggest that land managers begin using these shrub species to restore

  12. Biomass Productivity Dynamics Monitoring and its Drivers in Sahelian Croplands and Rangelands to Support Food Security Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroux, L.

    2015-12-01

    Since the Sahelian population livelihood relies mainly on agropastoral activities, accurate information on biomass productivity dynamics and the underlying drivers are needed to manage a wide range of issues such as food security. This study aims to contribute to a better understanding of these drivers in rangeland and cropland, both at the Sahel and local scales (an agropastoral site in South-West Niger). At the Sahel scale, the MODIS Land Cover product was used to extract cropland and rangeland pixels. By analyzing MODIS NDVI trends together with TRMM3B43 annual rainfall (2000-2010), we developed a new classification scheme allowing to identify areas of persistent decline/improvement in biomass productivity and to separate rainfall-driven dynamics from other factors. The results showed an overall increase of productivity in the rangeland, and both an improvement and a degradation in the cropland. We found strong evidence that the increase in biomass productivity was generally linked to increasing rainfall, while the decrease could be attributed chiefly to other factors exclusively or to a combination of both climate- and human-induced factors (see the attached Figure). At the Niger site scale, biomass trends have been put in relation with a set of potential drivers via a RandomForest model, to define which were the explanatory factors of the observed trends. The factor set covered 5 categories: climate, natural constraints, demography, physical accessibility and land cover changes. We highlighted that tiger bushes areas were particularly prone to pressure due to overgrazing and overexploitation of wood, while positive trends were mainly observed near rivers and in fossil valleys where new agricultural practices might have been promoted. The approach developped here could help to delineate areas with decrease in crop and grassland production and thus to assess the vulnerability of the population, but also to target zones with good potential for planning long

  13. IMPACT OF WOODY PLANTS SPECIES ON SOIL PHYSIO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES ALONG GRAZING GRADIENTS IN RANGELANDS OF EASTERN ETHIOPIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Mussa Abdulahi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the lowlands of arid and semiarid rangelands woody plants plays an important role in soil fertility maintenance, providing food, medicine, cosmetics, fodder, fuel wood and pesticides. A better understanding of the interaction of woody plants on their immediate environment is needed to guide optimum management of native vegetation in the production landscapes. However, the impact of woody plant species on soil properties remains poorly understood. This study evaluates the impact of two dominant woody plant species (A. senegal and B. aegyptica on soil physico-chemical properties along grazing gradients in rangelands of eastern Ethiopia. Six trees of each species were selected from light, moderate and heavy grazing sites.  Soil sample data at two depths (0-15 and 16-30 cm were collected from under and open areas of A. senegal and B. aegyptica from each grazing sites, and analysed for nutrient contents. The nutrient status of soil under both woody species was significantly higher especially with regard to soil organic matter (4.37%, total nitrogen (0.313%, and available phosphorus (11.62 than the open grassland with soil organic matter (3.82%, total nitrogen (0.246%, and available phosphorus (10.94 mg/Kg soil for A. Senegal. The soil organic matter (3.93%, total nitrogen (0.285%, available phosphorus (11.66 mg/Kg soil were significantly higher than open grassland with soil organic matter (3.52%, total nitrogen (0.218%, available phosphorus (10.73 mg/Kg soil for B. aegyptica. This was more pronounced in the top 15 cm of soil under A. senegal woody plant species and on the light and moderate grazing site. Therefore, this tree has a significant effect on soil fertility improvement in resource poor rangelands and as a result, it is important to retain scattered A. senegal and B. aegyptica plants in the lowlands of eastern Ethiopia.

  14. Estimación de la Huella Ecológica (HE) en instituciones educativas

    OpenAIRE

    Jaimes Gutiérrez,, Leslie

    2013-01-01

    El propósito de esta investigación es analizar información disponible sobre la Huella Ecológica (HE), sus ante- cedentes, su importancia y sus diversas metodologías de cálculo en organizaciones educativas. Esta recopilación presenta diversos enfoques y puntos de vista sobre la estimación de la Huella Ecológica como indicador de sostenibilidad y ecoeficiencia, además, presenta información detallada sobre la estimación de la Huella Ecoló- gica a nivel poblacional, empresarial e institucional y ...

  15. Rangeland degradation in savannas of South Africa: spatial patterns of soil and vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhage-Hofmann, Alexandra; Löffler, Jörg; du Preez, Chris; Kotzé, Elmarie; Weijers, Stef; Wundram, Dirk; Zacharias, Maximilan; Amelung, Wulf

    2017-04-01

    Extensive bush encroachment by Acacia mellifera and associated woody species at semi-arid and arid sites are the most notable forms of rangeland degradation in savannas of South Africa. Concerns are growing over the threat of suppression and loss of nutritious perennial grass species. Grazing and different rangeland management systems (communal and freehold) are considered to be of major importance for degradation, but the process of encroachment is not restricted to communal land. A vegetation change is mostly accompanied by changes in soil properties, where soils in savanna systems can profit from woody species due to litter fall, root distribution, shadow and animal resting time. Savannas are very heterogeneous systems with high spatial variation of patches with wood, herbaceous species and bare ground. We hypothesized that the spatial patterns of soil properties in South Africás rangelands are controlled by present or past vegetation, modulated by the tenure systems with higher rangeland degradation in communal areas. To test this, we sampled soils at communal and commercial land in the Kuruman area of South Africa with the following design: three farms per tenure system, 6 randomly chosen plots (100x100m) per farm, and 25 soil samples (0-10 cm) per plot, each in a 5x5m sampling area. At every sampling point, information of overlying vegetation was recorded (species or bare soil, canopy size, height). For each sampling area, if present, trees/ shrubs were sampled and their ages estimated through the counting of annual growth rings. For each plot, high resolution UAV aerial photos were taken to evaluate the extent of bush encroachment. Analyses involved main physical and chemical soil parameters and isotopic analyses. The results of a rough aerial image classification (grass, woody species, bare ground) revealed significant differences between the tenure systems with higher coverage of bare ground and shrubs at communal farms, and higher grass cover at

  16. Animal-habitat relationships in high altitude rangelands

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Navinder J.

    2008-01-01

    The papers of the thesis are not available in Munin: 1. Navinder J Singh, Nigel G Yoccoz, Nicolas Lecomte, Steeve D Côté and Joseph L Fox: «Scale and selection of habitat and resources: Tibetan argali in high altitude rangelands» (manuscript). Published version, Can. J. Zool. 88: 436-447 (2010), available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/Z10-015 2. Navinder J Singh, Christophe Bonenfant, Nigel G Yoccoz and Steeve D Côté: «Proximate and ultimate causes of sexual segregation in eurasian w...

  17. Ecological sites: Organizational tool for outcome-based land management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Managing for sustained ecosystem services from rangelands involves complex interactions among soils, plant communities, topography and the prevailing environmental conditions across different land forms from local patches to entire landscapes. This complexity has contributed to prior difficulties in...

  18. Exploring differences of soil quality as related to management in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    soil, vegetation and biodiversity) and productivity. Vegetation condition in ... Keywords: chemical properties; enzyme activity; land-use management; microbial biomass; rangeland degradation; soil degradation. African Journal of Range ...

  19. Ciudadanía ecológica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobson, Andrew

    2005-06-01

    de los otros dos tipos de ciudadanía. Este artículo explora el modo en que la ciudadanía ecológica completa la arquitectura general de la ciudadanía, antes de perfilar la importancia de la ciudadanía ecológica para el objetivo de lograr el desarrollo sostenible.

  20. The GEOGLAM Rangelands and Pasture Productivity Activity: Recent Progress and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerschman, J. P.; Held, A. A.; Donohue, R. J.; Renzullo, L. J.; Sims, N.; Kerblat, F.; Grundy, M.

    2015-12-01

    Rangelands and pastures cover about a third of the world's land area and support livestock production which represents ~40% of global agricultural gross domestic product. The global consumption of animal protein shows a clear increasing trend, driven by both total population and per capita income increases, putting a growing pressure on the sustainability of grazing lands worldwide. Despite their relevance, rangelands have received less attention than croplands regarding global monitoring of the resource productivity and condition. The Rangelands and Pasture Productivity (RaPP) activity is a component within the Global Agricultural Monitoring initiative established under the Group on Earth Observations (GEOGLAM) in 2013. GEOGLAM RaPP is aimed at providing the global community with the means to monitor the world's rangelands and pastures on a routine basis, and the capacity to produce animal protein in real-time, at global, regional and national levels. Since its launch two years ago GEOGLAM RAPP has made progress in the four implementation elements. These include: 1- the establishment of community of practice; 2- the development of a global monitoring system for rangeland condition; 3- the establishment of pilot sites in main rangeland systems for satellite data products validation and model testing; and 4- integration with livestock production models. Three international workshops have been held building the community of practice. A prototype monitoring system that provides global visualisations and querying capability of vegetation cover data and anomalies has been established. Pilot sites, mostly in areas with long records of field measurements of rangeland condition and productivity have been proposed for nine countries. The link to global livestock models, including physical and economic components, have been established. Future challenges for GEOGLAM RaPP have also been identified and include: better representation of the areas occupied by rangelands

  1. Potencial de nabizas e grelos na agricultura ecolóxica: uso das variedades locais

    OpenAIRE

    Lema Márquez, Margarita; Cartea González, María Elena; Soengas Fernández, María del Pilar; Velasco Pazos, Pablo; Francisco Candeira, Marta

    2010-01-01

    17 páginas, 2 figuras, 2 fotografias, 4 tablas.-- Comunicación oral presentada al III Congreso de agroecoloxía e agricultura ecolóxica en Galiza: Soberanía alimentaria e agricultura ecolóxica, propostas de acción; celebrado en Vigo (España) del 24 al 26 de Junio de 2010.

  2. Use of small UAVs in rangeland sediment source area mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Nikolaus J.; Kuhn, Brigitte; Krenz, Juliane

    2017-04-01

    The occurrence of severe erosion features in rangelands is often seen as a sign of high sediment delivery from those areas into nearby waterbodies. However, runoff, erosion and sediment transport are often patchy and discontinuous and thus assuming a direct link between erosion features and sediment delivery can lead to serious over predictions. So far, available data on the size of erosion features and the movement of sediment was limited by the resolution of Digital Elevation Models, soil and vegetation maps. Small UAVs offer the opportunity to quantify both the loss of surface material associated with erosion features, such as rills, gullies and badlands, as well as an estimate of the volume of depositional features between the site of erosion and nearby waterbodies. This study presents the acquisition and use of UAV-derived topographic information aimed at assessing the relevance of badland-type features in rangeland catchments of the Great Karoo region in South Africa. In particular, the feasility to assess volumes of erosion and sediment deposits, as well as the potential pathways from source to sink area, and the change of connectivity over time, are discussed.

  3. Forage seeding in rangelands increases production and prevents weed invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josh Davy

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Increasing forage productivity in the Sierra foothill rangelands would help sustain the livestock industry as land availability shrinks and lease rates rise, but hardly any studies have been done on forage selections. From 2009 to 2014, in one of the first long-term and replicated studies of seeding Northern California's Mediterranean annual rangeland, we compared the cover of 22 diverse forages to determine their establishment and survivability over time. Among the annual herbs, forage brassica (Brassica napus L. and chicory (Cichorium intybus L. proved viable options. Among the annual grasses, soft brome (Bromus hordeaceus and annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum performed well. However, these species will likely require frequent reseeding to maintain dominance. Long-term goals of sustained dominant cover (> 3 years are best achieved with perennial grasses. Perennial grasses that persisted with greater than 50% cover were Berber orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata, Flecha tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum and several varieties of hardinggrass (Phalaris aquatica L., Perla koleagrass, Holdfast, Advanced AT. In 2014, these successful perennials produced over three times more dry matter (pounds per acre than the unseeded control and also suppressed annual grasses and yellow starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis L. cover.

  4. Scales of snow depth variability in high elevation rangeland sagebrush

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedesche, Molly E.; Fassnacht, Steven R.; Meiman, Paul J.

    2017-09-01

    In high elevation semi-arid rangelands, sagebrush and other shrubs can affect transport and deposition of wind-blown snow, enabling the formation of snowdrifts. Datasets from three field experiments were used to investigate the scales of spatial variability of snow depth around big mountain sagebrush ( Artemisia tridentata Nutt.) at a high elevation plateau rangeland in North Park, Colorado, during the winters of 2002, 2003, and 2008. Data were collected at multiple resolutions (0.05 to 25 m) and extents (2 to 1000 m). Finer scale data were collected specifically for this study to examine the correlation between snow depth, sagebrush microtopography, the ground surface, and the snow surface, as well as the temporal consistency of snow depth patterns. Variograms were used to identify the spatial structure and the Moran's I statistic was used to determine the spatial correlation. Results show some temporal consistency in snow depth at several scales. Plot scale snow depth variability is partly a function of the nature of individual shrubs, as there is some correlation between the spatial structure of snow depth and sagebrush, as well as between the ground and snow depth. The optimal sampling resolution appears to be 25-cm, but over a large area, this would require a multitude of samples, and thus a random stratified approach is recommended with a fine measurement resolution of 5-cm.

  5. Effects of Soil Management Practices on Water Erosion under Natural Rainfall Conditions on a Humic Dystrudept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius Ferreira Chaves de Souza

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Water erosion is the main cause of soil degradation and is influenced by rainfall, soil, topography, land use, soil cover and management, and conservation practices. The objective of this study was to quantify water erosion in a Humic Dystrudept in two experiments. In experiment I, treatments consisted of different rates of fertilizer applied to the soil surface under no-tillage conditions. In experiment II, treatments consisted of a no-tillage in natural rangeland, burned natural rangeland and natural rangeland. Forage turnip, black beans, common vetch, and corn were used in rotation in the treatments with crops in the no-tillage during study period. The treatments with crops and the burned rangeland and natural rangeland were compared to a bare soil control, without cultivation and without fertilization. Increasing fertilization rates increased organic carbon content, soil resistance to disintegration, and the macropore volume of the soil, due to the increase in the dry mass of the crops, resulting in an important reduction in water erosion. The exponential model of the ŷ = ae-bx type satisfactorily described the reduction in water and soil losses in accordance with the increase in fertilization rate and also described the decrease in soil losses in accordance with the increase in dry mass of the crops. Water erosion occurred in the following increasing intensity: in natural rangeland, in cultivated natural rangeland, and in burned natural rangeland. Water erosion had less effect on water losses than on soil losses, regardless of the soil management practices.

  6. The value of milk in rangelands in Mandera County, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngugi, Keziah; Ertsen, Maurits

    2015-04-01

    Lack of water over expansive regions in Greater Horn of Africa created the rangelands and rangelands created pastoralism. Pastoralism involve keeping of large livestock herds and movement in search of resources, mainly water, pasture, medicine and wild foods. Several studies have been done in the last century and findings pointed at pastoralism being primitive and unsustainable. It has been predicted it would die in the last century but in the rangelands, pastoralism lives on and it is resilient. This study is based in Mandera, a pastoralism county in Kenya that neighbors Ethiopia to the North and Somalia to the East. The study sought to investigate contribution of milk to pastoralism resilience. Interviews were conducted in the field among the pastoralists, women groups, transporters, traders, government officials and consumers of milk. These information was corroborated with actual field investigations in the expansive rangelands of Mandera County. Pastoralists rarely slaughter or sell their livestock even when the animals waste away during droughts. This is because they have been through such cycles before and observed livestock make tremendous recovery when the right conditions were restored. Rangelands lack infrastructure, there are no roads, schools, telephone or hospitals. Pastoralists diet is comprised of rice, wheat and milk. It was established milk was the main source of income among pastoralists in Mandera County. From milk, the pastoralists make income that is used to purchase the other foodstuffs. Milk is available on daily basis in large quantities owing to the large number of livestock. Unfortunately, every pastoralist household produce copious amounts of milk, thus no local demand and transport infrastructure is nonexistent, making sale of milk a near impossible task. The findings showed the pastoralists have established unique routes through which milk reach the markets in urban centers where demand is high. Urbanization sustain pastoralism. These

  7. ECOLE DE RUGBY DE CERN / MEYRIN / ST-GENIS

    CERN Multimedia

    RUGBY CLUB

    2010-01-01

    La période de rentrée des classes coïncide également avec la reprise des activités sportives de nos enfants. L’Ecole de Rugby du CMSG Rugby Club, une des plus grandes de Suisse avec près d’une de licenciés de 6 à 18 ans, profite de cette période pour vous informer sur la réelle alternative que représente le Rugby. Pourquoi le rugby pour mon enfant ? Parce qu’il contribue à l’épanouissement harmonieux des enfants et des jeunes, ainsi qu’à la formation de leur personnalité. C’est même le ‘Sport Collectif par Excellence’ selon le Manuel des Castor Juniors ! Le rugby est un sport complet qui sollicite et développe les capacités motrices, intellectuelles, sociales et affectives de celui qui l’exerce. Le rugby...

  8. O marketing ecológico como vantagem competitiva Green marketing as a competitive advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Luís Stirbolov Motta

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A competição entre as organizações existe basicamente porque um ou mais players atuais ou potenciais, de um determinado setor econômico, percebem a oportunidade de melhorar sua posição (ou estabelecê-la ou se sentem pressionados por outro player, ou seja, os movimentos de uma empresa repercutem nas demais, numa relação de interdependência. Dessa forma, é constante a busca por alternativas que permitam o desenvolvimento empresarial. Este trabalho aponta um caminho que há algum tempo vem sendo percorrido por empresas, mas apenas nos últimos anos vem ganhando destaque nos meios de comunicação e na consciência dos indivíduos: a gerência de ações de marketing ecológico. A partir dos dados de uma pesquisa exploratória realizada na cidade de São Paulo e dos modelos de vantagem competitiva de Porter e de D'Aveni, pôde-se constatar que a prática de marketing ecológico pelas empresas pode constituir vantagem competitiva, não obstante o fato de esse fenômeno não ocorrer atualmente, pois tanto o conhecimento sobre as questões ambientais quanto as atitudes positivas em relação à preservação ambiental já estão presentes nos consumidores.Organizational competition exists because players or potential ones in an economic sector perceive an opportunity to improve or establish their position and may feel pressured by others. Therefore actions of one company have repercussions on the others, disclosing interdependence. As such, there is a constant pursuit for alternatives that foster company development. This article highlights the management of ecological marketing, an approach that companies have accompanied for some time and which only in recent years has attracted the attention of media and individuals. Based upon an exploratory survey made in the city of São Paulo as well as models of competitive advantage by Porter and D'Aveni, it was shown that green marketing may be of advantage. Although this is not a current practice

  9. 76 FR 5607 - Notice of Intent To Prepare a Resource Management Plan for the Rock Springs Field Office, Wyoming...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    ... Lyman, Wyoming. The meeting times and addresses will be announced through the local news media..., riparian and wetlands, soils, invasive and noxious weeds, rangeland management, fire ecology and management...

  10. 75 FR 77652 - Notice of Intent to Prepare a Resource Management Plan for the Battle Mountain District and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-13

    ... announced at least 15 days in advance through local media, newspapers, and the BLM Web site at: http://www..., hydrology, public safety, law enforcement, fire ecology and management, rangeland ] management, sociology...

  11. El sector de los alimentos ecológicos: Regulación y etiquetado ecológico = The organic food sector: Regulation and ecological labeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Belén Aguirre García

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available El sector de los alimentos ecológicos y la evolución de su normativa están experimentando continuos cambios y ampliaciones acordes con los flujos económicos y comerciales de nuestros días. El objetivo del artículo, desde una metodología descriptiva, es reflejar esta evolución, presentando la regulación vigente, que es exhaustiva y abarca ámbitos diversos: sistemas de producción agraria ecológica, control y certificación de operadores, comercialización y etiquetado de los alimentos ecológicos. Asimismo, se abordan las diferentes caracterizaciones en la actualidad del etiquetado de los alimentos ecológicos en Europa, en España y en las Comunidades Autónomas.   The organic food sector and the evolution of its regulations are undergoing continuous changes and extensions in line with the economic and commercial flows of our day. The objective of the article, from a descriptive methodology, is to reflect this evolution, presenting the current regulation, which is exhaustive and covers different areas: ecological agricultural production systems, operator control and certification, marketing and labeling of organic food. It also addresses the different characterizations of organic food labeling in Europe, Spain and the “Comunidades Autónomas”.

  12. Compilation of Studies Assessing Post Wildfire Seeding of Rangelands Worldwide, 1965-2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Mitigation of ecological damage caused by rangeland wildfires has historically been an issue restricted to the western United States. It has focused on conservation...

  13. Relevance of rangeland degradation in semiarid Northeastern South Africa to the nonequilibrium theory

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wessels, Konrad J

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available According to the nonequilibrium theory, livestock grazing has a limited effect on long-term vegetation productivity of semiarid rangelands, which is largely determined by rainfall. The communal lands in northeastern South Africa contain extensive...

  14. Assessment of USDA-NRCS rangeland conservation programs: recommendation for an evidence-based conservation platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briske, D D; Bestelmeyer, B T; Brown, J R; Brunson, M W; Thurow, T L; Tanaka, J A

    2017-01-01

    The Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP) was created in response to a request from the Office of Management and Budget that the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Natural Resource Conservation Service (USDA-NRCS) document the societal benefits anticipated to accrue from a major increase in conservation funding authorized by the 2002 Farm Bill. A comprehensive evaluation of the efficacy of rangeland conservation practices cost-shared with private landowners was unable to evaluate conservation benefits because outcomes were seldom documented. Four interrelated suppositions are presented to examine the causes underlying minimal documentation of conservations outcomes. These suppositions are (1) the benefits of conservation practices are considered a certainty so that documentation in not required, (2) there is minimal knowledge exchange between the USDA-NRCS and research organizations, (3) and a paucity of conservation-relevant science, as well as (4) inadequate technical support for land owners following implementation of conservation practices. We then follow with recommendations to overcome potential barriers to documentation of conservation outcomes identified for each supposition. Collectively, this assessment indicates that the existing conservation practice standards are insufficient to effectively administer large conservation investments on rangelands and that modification of these standards alone will not achieve the goals explicitly stated by CEAP. We recommend that USDA-NRCS modify its conservation programs around a more comprehensive and integrative platform that is capable of implementing evidence-based conservation. Collaborative monitoring organized around landowner-agency-scientist partnerships would represent the focal point of a Conservation Program Assessment Network (CPAN). The primary network objective would be to establish missing information feedback loops between conservation practices and their agricultural and environmental outcomes

  15. Monitoring Forage Production of California Rangeland Using Remote Sensing Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H.; Jin, Y.; Dahlgren, R. A.; O'Geen, A. T.; Roche, L. M.; Smith, A. M.; Flavell, D.

    2016-12-01

    Pastures and rangeland cover more than 10 million hectares in California's coastal and inland foothill regions, providing feeds to livestock and important ecosystem services. Forage production in California has a large year-to-year variation due to large inter-annual and seasonal variabilities in precipitation and temperature. It also varies spatially due to the variability in climate and soils. Our goal is to develop a robust and cost-effective tool to map the near-real-time and historical forage productivity in California using remote sensing observations from Landsat and MODIS satellites. We used a Monteith's eco-physiological plant growth theory: the aboveground net primary production (ANPP) is determined by (i) the absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (APAR) and the (ii) light use efficiency (LUE): ANPP = APAR * LUEmax * f(T) * f(SM), where LUEmax is the maximum LUE, and f(T) and f(SM) are the temperature and soil moisture constrains on LUE. APAR was estimated with Landsat and MODIS vegetation index (VI), and LUE was calibrated with a statewide point dataset of peak forage production measurements at 75 annual rangeland sites. A non-linear optimization was performed to derive maximum LUE and the parameters for temperature and soil moisture regulation on LUE by minimizing the differences between the estimated and measured ANPP. Our results showed the satellite-derived annual forage production estimates correlated well withcontemporaneous in-situ forage measurements and captured both the spatial and temporal productivity patterns of forage productivity well. This remote sensing algorithm can be further improved as new field measurements become available. This tool will have a great importance in maintaining a sustainable range industry by providing key knowledge for ranchers and the stakeholders to make managerial decisions.

  16. Soils as a Solution: The Potential of Rangelands to Contribute to Climate Change Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, W. L.; Ryals, R.; DeLonge, M. S.; Owen, J. J.

    2015-12-01

    The majority of soil-related climate change research has focused on describing the problem - estimating rates of carbon (C) losses and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from natural and managed ecosystems. More research is needed to explore potential solutions to climate change through mitigation and adaptation. Here we report on an integrated set of studies aimed at critically evaluating the biogeochemical potential of rangeland soils to help mitigate climate change, while improving the sustainability and productivity of food production systems. We explored direct effects through enhanced net primary production (NPP) and soil C sequestration, and indirect effects through diversion of high emitting sources to lower emitting organic matter dynamics. We used a combination of long- and short-term field experiments, modeling, laboratory assays, life cycle assessment (LCA), and meta-analyses in consultation with a diverse group of stakeholders from both the private and public sectors. We found that organic matter amendments held particularly strong potential. Compost amendments increased soil C storage by 0.5-1.0 Mg C ha-1 y-1 in surface soils over 5 y, and increased NPP and water holding capacity. We measured 1.0 Mg of new C ha-1 y-1 over 3 y. Long-term amendment of cattle manure increased surface soil C by 19.0±7.3 Mg C ha-1 relative to unmanured fields. However, field and modeling experiments suggested that manure amendments lead to large nitrous oxide emissions that eventually eliminated CO2e benefits, whereas compost amendments continued to benefit climate for decades longer. An LCA identified a broader range of climate impacts. When scaled to an area of 25% of California's rangelands, new C sequestered following compost amendments (21 million Mg CO2e) exceeded emissions from cattle (15 million Mg CO2e); diverting organics from waste streams to amendments led to additional GHG savings. In collaboration with our partners, our research contributed to the development of

  17. Plant species richness and shrub cover attenuate drought effects on ecosystem functioning across Patagonian rangelands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaitán, Juan J; Bran, Donaldo; Oliva, Gabriel; Maestre, Fernando T; Aguiar, Martín R; Jobbágy, Esteban; Buono, Gustavo; Ferrante, Daniela; Nakamatsu, Viviana; Ciari, Georgina; Salomone, Jorge; Massara, Virginia

    2014-10-01

    Drought is an increasingly common phenomenon in drylands as a consequence of climate change. We used 311 sites across a broad range of environmental conditions in Patagonian rangelands to evaluate how drought severity and temperature (abiotic factors) and vegetation structure (biotic factors) modulate the impact of a drought event on the annual integral of normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI-I), our surrogate of ecosystem functioning. We found that NDVI-I decreases were larger with both increasing drought severity and temperature. Plant species richness (SR) and shrub cover (SC) attenuated the effects of drought on NDVI-I. Grass cover did not affect the impacts of drought on NDVI-I. Our results suggest that warming and species loss, two important imprints of global environmental change, could increase the vulnerability of Patagonian ecosystems to drought. Therefore, maintaining SR through appropriate grazing management can attenuate the adverse effects of climate change on ecosystem functioning. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  18. Humedal urbano en Punta Arenas: Sustentabilidad del Proyecto Parque Ecológico Humedal Tres Puentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Inostroza Pino

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available El Humedal Tres Puentes, ubicado en la entrada norte de Punta Arenas, es un espacio relevante desde el punto de vista ecológico y hábitat de una numerosa avifauna, uno de los más importantes de la ciudad. Sin embargo el Humedal está seriamente amenazado, dado su ubicación sobre uno de los principales vectores de crecimiento de la ciudad de Punta Arenas, en terrenos que han adquirido plusvalía paulatinamente, bien por efecto de la obra pública del Estado o por el simple crecimiento vegetativo de la ciudad que incrementa los valores del suelo con su proximidad. Este trabajo, muestra parte del proyecto de conservación "Parque Ecológico y Humedal Tres Puentes", cuyo objetivo principal es el de salvaguardar esta importante área ecológica.

  19. Estimates of Global Rangeland Net Primary Productivity and its Consumption Based on Climate and Livestock Distribution Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asrar, G.; Wolf, J.; Rafique, R.; West, T. O.; Ogle, S. M.

    2016-12-01

    Rangelands play an important role in providing ecosystem services such as food, forage, and fuels in many parts of the world. The net primary productivity (NPP), a difference between CO2 fixed by plants and CO2 lost to autotrophic respiration, is a good indicator of the productivity of rangeland ecosystems, and their contribution to the cycling of carbon in the Earth system. In this study, we estimated the NPP of global rangelands, the consumption thereof by grazing livestock, and associated uncertainties, to better understand and quantify the contribution of rangelands to land-based carbon storage. We estimated rangeland NPP using mean annual precipitation data from Climate Research Unit (CRU), and a regression model based on global observations (Del Grosso et al., 2008). Spatial distributions of annual livestock consumption of rangeland NPP (Wolf et al., 2015) were combined with gridded annual rangeland NPP for the years 2000 - 2011. The uncertainty analysis of these estimates was conducted using a Monte Carlo approach. The rangeland NPP estimates with associated uncertainties were also compared with the total modeled GPP estimates obtained from vegetation dynamic model simulations. Our results showed that mean above-ground NPP of rangelands is 1017.5 MgC/km2, while mean below-ground NPP is 847.6 MgC/km2. The total rangeland NPP represents a significant portion of the total NPP of the terrestrial ecosystem. The livestock area requirements used to geographically distribute livestock spatially are based on optimal pasturage and are low relative to area requirements on less productive land. Even so, ca. 90% of annual livestock consumption of rangeland NPP were met with no adjustment of livestock distributions. Moreover, the results of this study allowed us to explicitly quantify the temporal and spatial variations of rangeland NPP under different climatic conditions. Uncertainty analysis was helpful in identifying the strength and weakness of the methods used to

  20. Modeling climate change effects on runoff and soil erosion in southeastern Arizona rangelands and implications for mitigation with rangeland conservation practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climate change is expected to impact runoff and soil erosion on rangelands in the southwestern United States. This study was done to evaluate the potential impacts of precipitation changes on soil erosion and surface runoff in southeastern Arizona using seven GCM models with three emission scenarios...

  1. Undergraduate range management exam: 1999-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Undergraduate Range Management Exam (URME) has been administered to undergraduate students at the Annual Meeting of the Society for Range Management since 1983, with students demonstrating their higher order learning skills and synthesis knowledge of the art and science of rangeland management. ...

  2. Strategies to reducing GHG emissions in semi-arid rangelands of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heriberto Díaz Solís

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available SESS (Simple Ecological Sustainability Simulator model was modified to evaluate 3 management strategies that could increase CO2 sequestration and reduce methane emissions in cow-calf production systems in semi-arid rangelands. The management strategies included (1 maintenance of a high and constant stocking rate (CONTROL, which is the most common current practice, (2 maintenance of a low and constant stocking rate (LOW SR and (3 adjustment of stocking rate before the beginning of each breeding season based on the amount of precipitation during the previous growing season (REPLA-PPT. The model was parameterized to represent a typical extensive (5 000 ha cow-calf production system in the northeastern portion of the Mexican state of Coahuila under an historical (1950 to 1994 precipitation regime, and compared carbon sequestration, methane emissions, animal performance and net profit resulting from each strategy. Results of the 45-year simulations indicated the REPLA-PPT stocking rate strategy had the greatest improvement of range condition, captured more CO2 in vegetation, had the lowest methane emissions, substantially improved mean body condition score and reduced annual mortality of cattle, compared to the constant stocking rate strategies. REPLA-PPT also showed the highest values for calves weaned, and kg weaned per ton of methane produced and highest long-term net profit. This suggests that adaptive management of extensive cow-calf production systems in semi-arid environments could increase carbon sequestration in soils and reduce methane emissions, while improving range production, maintaining animal production and giving the greatest long-term net profit.

  3. Performance and effects of land cover type on synthetic surface reflectance data and NDVI estimates for assessment and monitoring of semi-arid rangeland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olexa, Edward M.; Lawrence, Rick L

    2014-01-01

    Federal land management agencies provide stewardship over much of the rangelands in the arid andsemi-arid western United States, but they often lack data of the proper spatiotemporal resolution andextent needed to assess range conditions and monitor trends. Recent advances in the blending of com-plementary, remotely sensed data could provide public lands managers with the needed information.We applied the Spatial and Temporal Adaptive Reflectance Fusion Model (STARFM) to five Landsat TMand concurrent Terra MODIS scenes, and used pixel-based regression and difference image analyses toevaluate the quality of synthetic reflectance and NDVI products associated with semi-arid rangeland. Pre-dicted red reflectance data consistently demonstrated higher accuracy, less bias, and stronger correlationwith observed data than did analogous near-infrared (NIR) data. The accuracy of both bands tended todecline as the lag between base and prediction dates increased; however, mean absolute errors (MAE)were typically ≤10%. The quality of area-wide NDVI estimates was less consistent than either spectra lband, although the MAE of estimates predicted using early season base pairs were ≤10% throughout the growing season. Correlation between known and predicted NDVI values and agreement with the 1:1regression line tended to decline as the prediction lag increased. Further analyses of NDVI predictions,based on a 22 June base pair and stratified by land cover/land use (LCLU), revealed accurate estimates through the growing season; however, inter-class performance varied. This work demonstrates the successful application of the STARFM algorithm to semi-arid rangeland; however, we encourage evaluation of STARFM’s performance on a per product basis, stratified by LCLU, with attention given to the influence of base pair selection and the impact of the time lag.

  4. Where’s the beef? Predicting the effects of climate change on cattle production in western U.S. rangelands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sue Miller; Matt Reeves; Karen Bagne; John Tanaka

    2017-01-01

    Cattle production capacity on western rangelands is potentially vulnerable to climate change through impacts on the amount of forage, changes in vegetation type, heat stress, and year-to-year forage variability. The researchers in this study projected climate change effects to rangelands through 2100 and compared them to a present-day baseline to estimate vulnerability...

  5. Species richness has not increased after long-term protection from grazing on sagebrush, aspen and tall forb rangelands

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. A. Laycock; Dale Bartos; Keith Klement

    2001-01-01

    Recent conservation biology and environmental literature contains claims that livestock grazing has caused and continues to cause reduction in species diversity on Western rangelands, especially public rangelands. This paper present quantitative data on species richness (number of species) inside and outside 24 long-term exclosures; 8 exclosures in aspen vegetation in...

  6. The 2014 National Emission Inventory for Rangeland Fires ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biomass burning has been identified as an important contributor to the degradation of air quality because of its impact on ozone and particulate matter. One component of the biomass burning inventory, crop residue burning, has been poorly characterized in the National Emissions Inventory. In the 2011 NEI, Wildland fires, prescribed fires, and crop residue burning collectively were the largest source of PM2.5 This paper summarizes our 2014 NEI method to estimate crop residue burning emissions and grass/pasture burning emissions using remote sensing data and field information and literature-based, crop-specific emission factors. We will focus on both the post-harvest and pre-harvest burning that takes place with bluegrass, corn, cotton, rice, soybeans, sugarcane and wheat. Estimates for 2014 indicate that over the continental United States (CONUS), crop residue burning including all areas identified as Pasture/Grass, Grassland Herbaceous, and Pasture/Hay produced 64,994 short tons of PM2.5. This estimate compares with the 2011 NEI and 2008 NEI as follows: 2008: 49,653 short tons and 2011: 141,184 short tons. Note that in the previous two NEI’s rangeland burning was not well-defined and so the comparison is not exact. In addition, the entire database used to estimate this sector of emissions is available on EPA’s Clearinghouse for Inventories and Emission Factors (CHIEF http://www3.epa.gov/ttn/chief/index.html The National Emissions Inventory is developed on

  7. IsoBank workshop held at IsoEcol10 - University of Tokyo 2016

    OpenAIRE

    Hayden, Brian

    2016-01-01

    IsoBank is a repository for stable isotope values and relevant metadata. These slides were presented at a workshop held during IsoEcol10 to refine and design the IsoBank for the needs of a diverse group of researchers.

  8. Integrating remote sensing and conventional grazing/browsing models for modelling carrying capacity in southern African rangelands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adjorlolo, C.; Botha, J. O.; Mhangara, P.; Mutanga, O.; Odindi, J.

    2014-10-01

    Woody vegetation encroachment into grasslands or bush thickening, a global phenomenon, is transforming the Southern African grassland systems into savanna-like landscapes. Estimation of woody vegetation is important to rangeland scientists and land managers for assessing its impact on grass production and calculating its grazing and browsing capacity. Assessment of grazing and browsing components is often challenging because agro-ecological landscapes of this region are largely characterized by small scale and heterogeneous land-use-land-cover patterns. In this study, we investigated the utility of high spatial resolution remotely sensing data for modelling grazing and browsing capacity at landscape level. Woody tree density or Tree Equivalents (TE) and Total Leaf Mass (LMASS) data were derived using the Biomass Estimation for Canopy Volume (BECVOL) program. The Random Forest (RF) regression algorithm was assessed to establish relationships between these variables and vegetation indices (Simple Ratio and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index), calculated using the red and near infrared bands of SPOT5. The RF analysis predicted LMASS with R2 = 0.63 and a Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) of 1256 kg/ha compared to a mean of 2291kg/ha. TE was predicted with R2 = 0.55 and a RMSE = 1614 TE/ha compared to a mean of 3746 TE/ha. Next, spatial distribution maps of LMASS/ha and TE/ha were derived using separate RF regression models. The resultant maps were then used as input data into conventional grazing and browsing capacity models to calculate grazing and browsing capacity maps for the study area. This study provides a sound platform for integrating currently available and future remote sensing satellite data into rangeland carrying capacity modelling and monitoring.

  9. Assessing the Success of Postfire Reseeding in Semiarid Rangelands Using Terra MODIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fang; Weber, Keith T.; Scbnase, John L.

    2012-01-01

    Successful postfire reseeding efforts can aid rangeland ecosystem recovery by rapidly establishing a desired plant community and thereby reducing the likelihood of infestation by invasive plants. Although the success of postfire remediation is critical, few efforts have been made to leverage existing geospatial technologies to develop methodologies to assess reseeding success following a fire. In this study, Terra Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite data were used to improve the capacity to assess postfire reseeding rehabilitation efforts, with particular emphasis on the semiarid rangelands of Idaho. Analysis of MODIS data demonstrated a positive effect of reseeding on rangeland ecosystem recovery, as well as differences in vegetation between reseeded areas and burned areas where no reseeding had occurred (P,0.05). We conclude that MODIS provides useful data to assess the success of postfire reseeding.

  10. Biomass Increases Go under Cover: Woody Vegetation Dynamics in South African Rangelands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mograbi, Penelope J; Erasmus, Barend F N; Witkowski, E T F; Asner, Gregory P; Wessels, Konrad J; Mathieu, Renaud; Knapp, David E; Martin, Roberta E; Main, Russell

    2015-01-01

    Woody biomass dynamics are an expression of ecosystem function, yet biomass estimates do not provide information on the spatial distribution of woody vegetation within the vertical vegetation subcanopy. We demonstrate the ability of airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR) to measure aboveground biomass and subcanopy structure, as an explanatory tool to unravel vegetation dynamics in structurally heterogeneous landscapes. We sampled three communal rangelands in Bushbuckridge, South Africa, utilised by rural communities for fuelwood harvesting. Woody biomass estimates ranged between 9 Mg ha(-1) on gabbro geology sites to 27 Mg ha(-1) on granitic geology sites. Despite predictions of woodland depletion due to unsustainable fuelwood extraction in previous studies, biomass in all the communal rangelands increased between 2008 and 2012. Annual biomass productivity estimates (10-14% p.a.) were higher than previous estimates of 4% and likely a significant contributor to the previous underestimations of modelled biomass supply. We show that biomass increases are attributable to growth of vegetation wood extraction rangeland, 79% of the changes in the vertical vegetation subcanopy are gains in the 1-3 m height class. The higher the wood extraction pressure on the rangelands, the greater the biomass increases in the low height classes within the subcanopy, likely a strong resprouting response to intensive harvesting. Yet, fuelwood shortages are still occurring, as evidenced by the losses in the tall tree height class in the high extraction rangeland. Loss of large trees and gain in subcanopy shrubs could result in a structurally simple landscape with reduced functional capacity. This research demonstrates that intensive harvesting can, paradoxically, increase biomass and this has implications for the sustainability of ecosystem service provision. The structural implications of biomass increases in communal rangelands could be misinterpreted as woodland recovery in the

  11. Biomass Increases Go under Cover: Woody Vegetation Dynamics in South African Rangelands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penelope J Mograbi

    Full Text Available Woody biomass dynamics are an expression of ecosystem function, yet biomass estimates do not provide information on the spatial distribution of woody vegetation within the vertical vegetation subcanopy. We demonstrate the ability of airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR to measure aboveground biomass and subcanopy structure, as an explanatory tool to unravel vegetation dynamics in structurally heterogeneous landscapes. We sampled three communal rangelands in Bushbuckridge, South Africa, utilised by rural communities for fuelwood harvesting. Woody biomass estimates ranged between 9 Mg ha(-1 on gabbro geology sites to 27 Mg ha(-1 on granitic geology sites. Despite predictions of woodland depletion due to unsustainable fuelwood extraction in previous studies, biomass in all the communal rangelands increased between 2008 and 2012. Annual biomass productivity estimates (10-14% p.a. were higher than previous estimates of 4% and likely a significant contributor to the previous underestimations of modelled biomass supply. We show that biomass increases are attributable to growth of vegetation <5 m in height, and that, in the high wood extraction rangeland, 79% of the changes in the vertical vegetation subcanopy are gains in the 1-3 m height class. The higher the wood extraction pressure on the rangelands, the greater the biomass increases in the low height classes within the subcanopy, likely a strong resprouting response to intensive harvesting. Yet, fuelwood shortages are still occurring, as evidenced by the losses in the tall tree height class in the high extraction rangeland. Loss of large trees and gain in subcanopy shrubs could result in a structurally simple landscape with reduced functional capacity. This research demonstrates that intensive harvesting can, paradoxically, increase biomass and this has implications for the sustainability of ecosystem service provision. The structural implications of biomass increases in communal rangelands

  12. Carrying capacity in arid rangelands during droughts: the role of temporal and spatial thresholds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accatino, F; Ward, D; Wiegand, K; De Michele, C

    2017-02-01

    Assessing the carrying capacity is of primary importance in arid rangelands. This becomes even more important during droughts, when rangelands exhibit non-equilibrium dynamics, and the dynamics of livestock conditions and forage resource are decoupled. Carrying capacity is usually conceived as an equilibrium concept, that is, the consumer density that can co-exist in long-term equilibrium with the resource. As one of the first, here we address the concept of carrying capacity in systems, where there is no feedback between consumer and resource in a limited period of time. To this end, we developed an individual-based model describing the basic characteristics of a rangeland during a drought. The model represents a rangeland composed by a single water point and forage distributed all around, with livestock units moving from water to forage and vice versa, for eating and drinking. For each livestock unit we implemented an energy balance and we accounted for the gut-filling effect (i.e. only a limited amount of forage can be ingested per unit time). Our results showed that there is a temporal threshold above which livestock begin to experience energy deficit and burn fat reserves. We demonstrated that such a temporal threshold increases with the number of animals and decreases with the rangeland conditions (amount of forage). The temporal threshold corresponded to the time livestock take to consume all the forage within a certain distance from water, so that the livestock can return to water for drinking without spending more energy than they gain within a day. In this study, we highlight the importance of a time threshold in the assessment of carrying capacity in non-equilibrium conditions. Considering this time threshold could explain contrasting observations about the influence of livestock number on livestock conditions. In case of private rangelands, the herd size should be chosen so that the spatial threshold equals (or exceeds) the length of the drought.

  13. From Source to Sink: Carbon Sequestration and Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Potential of Using Composted Manure and Food Waste on California's Rangelands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara, S.; Silver, W. L.

    2016-12-01

    That anthropogenic climate change is irreversible, except in the case of sustained net removal of CO2 from the atmosphere, compels the scientific community to search for terrestrial carbon sinks. The soil is a promising sink: it currently stores more carbon than do the atmosphere and the vegetation combined, and most managed lands are degraded with respect to carbon. The application of compost to rangelands has been shown to enhance carbon uptake by soils, and the production of compost avoids greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from waste management. Though these two mitigation pathways have been well studied, emissions from the composting process - which should be quantified in order to estimate the net carbon sequestration achieved by applying compost to rangelands - have not. We present a novel approach to quantifying emissions from composting, which we have deployed in Marin County, CA: a micrometerological mass balance set up, using a system of gas and wind towers surrounding a series of composting windrow piles. Real-time greenhouse gas emissions (CO2, N2O, CH4) from the composting waste are measured by a laser spectrometer, and a system of sensors measure conditions within the pile, to identify biogeochemical drivers of those emissions. Understanding these drivers improves our knowledge of the processes governing the production of short-lived climate pollutants, and provides guidance to municipalities and states seeking to minimize their greenhouse gas emissions.

  14. Integrated climate/land use/hydrological change scenarios for assessing threats to ecosystem services on California rangelands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, K. B.; Flint, L. E.; Casey, C. F.; Alvarez, P.; Sleeter, B. M.; Sohl, T.

    2013-12-01

    In California there are over 18 million acres of rangelands in the Central Valley and the interior Coast Range, most of which are privately owned and managed for livestock production. Ranches provide extensive wildlife habitat and generate multiple ecosystem services that carry considerable market and non-market values. These rangelands are under pressure from urbanization and conversion to intensive agriculture, as well as from climate change that can alter the flow of these services. To understand the coupled and isolated impacts of land use and climate change on rangeland ecosystem services, we developed six spatially explicit (250 m) coupled climate/land use/hydrological change scenarios for the Central Valley and oak woodland regions of California consistent with three IPCC emission scenarios - A2, A1B and B1. Three land use land cover (LULC) change scenarios were each integrated with two downscaled global climate models (GCMs) (a warm, wet future and a hot, dry future) and related hydrologic data. We used these scenarios to quantify wildlife habitat, water supply (recharge potential and streamflow) and carbon sequestration on rangelands and to conduct an economic analysis associated with changes in these benefits. The USGS FOREcasting SCEnarios of land-use change model (FORE-SCE), which runs dynamically with downscaled GCM outputs, was used to generate maps of yearly LULC change for each scenario from 2006 to 2100. We used the USGS Basin Characterization Model (BCM), a regional water balance model, to generate change in runoff, recharge, and stream discharge based on land use change and climate change. Metrics derived from model outputs were generated at the landscape scale and for six case-study watersheds. At the landscape scale, over a quarter of the million acres set aside for conservation in the B1 scenario would otherwise be converted to agriculture in the A2 scenario, where temperatures increase by up to 4.5 °C compared to 1.3 °C in the B1 scenario

  15. Principios ecológicos en la gestión de los agrosistemas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Álvarez, A.

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Agroecology has as an objective the understanding of the key elements and processes that regulate the function of agrosystems, for their effective management in harmony with the environment. Plant protection has been focused on the concept of control, mainly utilizing chemical or biological arsenals, and more recently, the biotechnological. The application of ecological criteria in plant protection has allowed the implementation of the biofumigation processes, a technique based on the utilization of gases produced during the biodescomposition of organic matter to manage soilborne phytopathogenic organisms. It is hoped that future improvements in agriculture will consider the increasing worries related to the environment, the conservation of the natural resources, public health, and highlighting attention of the importance of agriculture in the elimination of poverty, as well as its contribution to the development of biofuels.La agroecología tiene como objetivo el conocimiento de los elementos y procesos claves en el funcionamiento de los agrosistemas, para su eficaz gestión en armonía con el ambiente. La protección vegetal ha sido enfocada tradicionalmente, bajo el concepto de lucha y control, utilizando arsenales químicos o biológicos y, en estos momentos, biotecnológicos. La aplicación de criterios ecológicos en protección vegetal ha permitido desarrollar procesos como la biofumigación, fundamentada en la utilización de los gases resultantes de la biodescomposición de la materia orgánica para el manejo de organismos patógenos de los vegetales. Es de esperar que el futuro de la agricultura muestre una mayor preocupación por el ambiente, la conservación de los recursos naturales, la salud de las personas y se destaque su contribución a la reducción de la pobreza, así como su aportación al desarrollo de los agrocombustibles.

  16. Development of the crop residue and rangeland burning in the ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biomass burning has been identified as an important contributor to the degradation of air quality because of its impact on ozone and particulate matter. One component of the biomass burning inventory, crop residue burning, has been poorly characterized in the National Emissions Inventory (NEI). In the 2011 NEI, wildland fires, prescribed fires, and crop residue burning collectively were the largest source of PM2.5. This paper summarizes our 2014 NEI method to estimate crop residue burning emissions and grass/pasture burning emissions using remote sensing data and field information and literature-based, crop-specific emission factors. We focus on both the postharvest and pre-harvest burning that takes place with bluegrass, corn, cotton, rice, soybeans, sugarcane and wheat. Estimates for 2014 indicate that over the continental United States (CONUS), crop residue burning excluding all areas identified as Pasture/Grass, Grassland Herbaceous, and Pasture/Hay occurred over approximately 1.5 million acres of land and produced 19,600 short tons of PM2.5. For areas identified as Pasture/Grass, Grassland Herbaceous, and Pasture/Hay, biomass burning emissions occurred over approximately 1.6 million acres of land and produced 30,000 short tons of PM2.5. This estimate compares with the 2011 NEI and 2008 NEI as follows: 2008: 49,650 short tons and 2011: 141,180 short tons. Note that in the previous two NEIs rangeland burning was not well defined and so the comparison is not e

  17. Fire impact on soil-water repellency and functioning of semi-arid croplands and rangelands: Implications for prescribed burnings and wildfires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavi, Ilan; Barkai, Daniel; Knoll, Yaakov M.; Glion, Hiam Abu; Katra, Itzhak; Brook, Anna; Zaady, Eli

    2017-03-01

    An unintended fire outbreak during summer 2015 in the semi-arid Israeli Negev resulted in the burning of extensive croplands and rangelands. The rangelands have been managed over the long term for occasional grazing, while the croplands have been utilized for rainfed wheat cropping. Yet, during the studied year, the croplands were left fallow, allowing the growth of herbaceous vegetation, which was harvested and baled for hay before the fire outbreak. The study objectives were to investigate the impacts of fire, land-use, and soil depth on water-repellency and on the status and dynamics of some of the most important organic and mineral soil resources. Additionally, we aimed to assess the severity of this fire outbreak. The soil-water repellency was studied by measuring the soil's water drop penetration time (WDPT) and critical surface tension (CST). A significant effect of fire on soil hydrophobicity was recorded, with a slight increase in mean WDPT and a slight decrease in mean CST in the burnt sites than in the non-burnt sites. Yet, soil hydrophobicity in the burnt lands was rather moderate and remained within the water repellency's lowest class. A significant effect of land-use on the means of WDPT and CST was also recorded, being eleven-fold greater and 7% smaller, respectively, in the rangelands than in the croplands. This is consistent with the almost eightfold greater mean above-ground biomass recorded in the non-burnt rangelands than in the non-burnt post-harvest croplands, revealing the positive relations between available fuel load and soil-water repellency. The effect of soil depth was significant for CST but not for WDPT. Overall, the gathered data suggest that fire severity was low to moderate. Fire was also found to significantly affect the organic carbon and ammonium-N were also studied, and generally showed higher values for the burnt lands. Overall, this study shows that the low- to moderate-fire severity only slightly increased the soil water

  18. Field soil aggregate stability kit for soil quality and rangeland health evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrick, J.E.; Whitford, W.G.; de Soyza, A. G.; Van Zee, J. W.; Havstad, K.M.; Seybold, C.A.; Walton, M.

    2001-01-01

    Soil aggregate stability is widely recognized as a key indicator of soil quality and rangeland health. However, few standard methods exist for quantifying soil stability in the field. A stability kit is described which can be inexpensively and easily assembled with minimal tools. It permits up to 18 samples to be evaluated in less than 10 min and eliminates the need for transportation, minimizing damage to soil structure. The kit consists of two 21??10.5??3.5 cm plastic boxes divided into eighteen 3.5??3.5 cm sections, eighteen 2.5-cm diameter sieves with 1.5-mm distance openings and a small spatula used for soil sampling. Soil samples are rated on a scale from one to six based on a combination of ocular observations of slaking during the first 5 min following immersion in distilled water, and the percent remaining on a 1.5-mm sieve after five dipping cycles at the end of the 5-min period. A laboratory comparison yielded a correlation between the stability class and percent aggregate stability based on oven dry weight remaining after treatment using a mechanical sieve. We have applied the method in a wide variety of agricultural and natural ecosystems throughout western North America, including northern Mexico, and have found that it is highly sensitive to differences in management and plant community composition. Although the field kit cannot replace the careful laboratory-based measurements of soil aggregate stability, it can clearly provide valuable information when these more intensive procedures are not possible.

  19. The role of nurse functional types in seedling recruitment dynamics of alternative states in rangelands

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Dardo R.; Cavallero, Laura

    2017-02-01

    functional traits should be considered in management and restoration plans for rangelands with different degradation levels, since they have a strong influence in the net outcome of plant-plant interactions and in the recruitment dynamics of arid ecosystems.

  20. A relação entre conhecimento ecológico, preocupação ecológica, afeto ecológico, normas subjetivas e o comportamento de compras verdes no setor de cosméticos

    OpenAIRE

    Helenita Rodrigues da Silva Tamashiro

    2012-01-01

    Pesquisas em que se procura investigar a relação entre os fatores ambientais e o comportamento dos consumidores são ainda embrionárias no Brasil, o que constitui uma oportunidade para estudos que relacionam o comportamento de compra dos consumidores com as questões ambientais. Nessa perspectiva, o objetivo da presente pesquisa foi verificar se existe correlação entre os construtos: conhecimento ecológico, afeto ecológico, preocupação ecológica, normas subjetivas e o comportamento de compras v...

  1. A novel protocol for assessment of aboveground biomass in rangeland environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mundava, C.; Schut, A.G.T.; Helmholtz, P.; Stovold, R.G.H.; Donald, G.; Lamb, D.W.

    2015-01-01

    Current methods to measure aboveground biomass (AGB) do not deliver adequate results in relation to the extent and spatial variability that characterise rangelands. An optimised protocol for the assessment ofAGBis presented that enables calibration and validation of remote-sensing imagery or plant

  2. Improving restoration of exotic annual grass-invaded rangelands through activated carbon seed enhancement technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cost-efficient strategies for revegetating annual grass-infested rangelands are limited. Restoration efforts typically comprise a combination of pre-emergent herbicide treatments and seeding to restore desired plant materials. However, practitioners struggle with applying herbicide at rates sufficie...

  3. Disaggregation of Soil Map Units for Improved Ecological Site Mapping in Rangelands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangeland soils are often mapped with soil map units consisting of associations, complexes, and undifferentiated groups composed of varied soil components. Because different components may be related to different ecological sites, the unmapped heterogeneity within map units limits the potential uses...

  4. Developing a parameterization approach of soil erodibility for the Rangeland Hydrology and Erosion Model (RHEM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil erodibility is a key factor for estimating soil erosion using physically based models. In this study, a new parameterization approach for estimating erodibility was developed for the Rangeland Hydrology and Erosion Model (RHEM). The approach uses empirical equations that were developed by apply...

  5. Mapping Erosion and Salinity Risk Categories Using GIS and the Rangeland Hydrology Erosion Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Up to fifteen percent of rangelands in the state of Utah in the United States are classified as being in severely eroding condition. Some of these degraded lands are located on saline, erodible soils of the Mancos Shale formation. This results in a disproportionate contribution of sediment, salinity...

  6. Framework for comparing ecosystem impacts of developing unconventional energy resources on western US rangelands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urs P. Kreuter; William E. Fox; John A. Tanaka; Kristie A. Maczko; Daniel W. McCollum; John E. Mitchell; Clifford S. Duke; Lori Hidinger

    2012-01-01

    More diverse sources of energy are needed for countries to progress toward energy independence and to meet future food production needs. The US Task Force on Strategic Unconventional Fuels concluded that to achieve this objective it is essential to develop a domestic unconventional fuels industry. Rangelands, which cover 50% to 70% of the earth's terrestrial...

  7. Salinity mobilization and transport from rangelands: assessment, recommendations, and knowledge gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of the salinity project is to improve the understanding of sources and transport mechanisms in rangeland catchments that deliver dissolved solids (salts) to streams within the Upper Colorado River Basin (UCRB) through a review of relevant literature on what is known about the impact of r...

  8. Developing a year-round objective measure of Colorado rangeland nutrient composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    A goal for any rangeland grazing operation is to attain an appropriate balance among available forage resources where forage nutrient composition and supplementation (i.e. if needed) meets daily nutritional demands of livestock. To accomplish this on a short-term basis, the producer needs to have in...

  9. Estimating climate change effects on net primary production of rangelands in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew C. Reeves; Adam L. Moreno; Karen E. Bagne; Steven W. Running

    2014-01-01

    The potential effects of climate change on net primary productivity (NPP) of U.S. rangelands were evaluated using estimated climate regimes from the A1B, A2 and B2 global change scenarios imposed on the biogeochemical cycling model, Biome-BGC from 2001 to 2100. Temperature, precipitation, vapor pressure deficit, day length, solar radiation, CO2 enrichment and nitrogen...

  10. Composted manure application promotes long-term invasion of semi-arid rangeland by Bromus tectorum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Composted organic matter derived from sewage treatment facilities or livestock manure from feedlots is often applied to rangelands of western North America to increase soil fertility, forage production, forage quality, and soil carbon (C) storage. This practice can have a number of undesirable side ...

  11. Dairy cattle on Norwegian alpine rangelands – grazing preferences and milk quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sickel, H; Abrahamsen, R K; Eldegard, K; Lunnan, T; Norderhaug, A; Petersen, M.A.; Sickel, M.; Steenhuisen, F.; Ohlson, M.

    2014-01-01

    The results from the study ‘Effects of vegetation and grazing preferences on the quality of alpine dairy products’ will be presented. The main objective of the project was to investigate the connections bet - ween alpine rangeland vegetation, landscape use and grazing preferences of free ranging

  12. Future of America's Forests and Rangelands: Update to the 2010 Resources Planning Act Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forest Service U.S. Department of Agriculture

    2016-01-01

    The Update to the 2010 Resources Planning Act (RPA) Assessment summarizes findings about the status, trends, and projected future of forests, rangelands, wildlife, biodiversity, water, outdoor recreation, and urban forests, as well as the effects of climate change upon these resources. Varying assumptions about population and economic growth, land use change, and...

  13. Session A5 Rangelands as dynamic systems Role of wildlife in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rangelands in southern Africa are increasingly being used for conservation, ecotourism, game farming and hunting. This impacts people's livelihoods and the state of natural resources. Complimentarity and competition between wildlife and domestic livestock can be explored. Theme: This session focuses on ecosystem ...

  14. Effects of climate change on rangeland vegetation in the northern Rockies [Chapter 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matt C. Reeves; Mary E. Manning; Jeff P. DiBenedetto; Kyle A. Palmquist; William K. Lauenroth; John B. Bradford; Daniel R. Schlaepfer

    2017-01-01

    A longer growing season with climate change is expected to increase net primary productivity of many rangeland types, especially those dominated by grasses, although responses will depend on local climate and soil conditions. Elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide may increase water use efficiency and productivity of some species. In many cases, increasing wildfire...

  15. Developing soil erodibility prediction equations for the Rangeland Hydrology and Erosion Model (RHEM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil erodibility is a key factor for estimating soil erosion using physically based models. In this study, a new parameterization approach for estimating erodibility was developed for the Rangeland Hydrology and Erosion Model (RHEM). The approach uses empirical equations that were developed by apply...

  16. Rangeland exclosures of northeastern Oregon: stories they tell (1936–2004).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles Grier Johnson

    2007-01-01

    Rangeland exclosures installed primarily in the 1960s, but with some from the 1940s, were resampled for changes in plant community structure and composition periodically from 1977 to 2004 on the Malheur, Umatilla, and Wallowa-Whitman National Forests in northeastern Oregon. They allow one to compare vegetation with all-ungulate exclusion (known historically as game...

  17. Utah lotus: North American legume for rangeland revegetation in southern Great Basin and Colorado Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utah lotus (Lotus utahensis Ottley) is a North American leguminous forb that may hold promise for rangeland revegetation in the western USA for diversifying planting mixtures, attracting pollinators, providing high quality forage, and expanding habitats for insects needed by sage grouse chicks. We ...

  18. Vulnerability of cattle production to climate change on U.S. rangelands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matt C. Reeves; Karen E. Bagne

    2016-01-01

    We examined multiple climate change effects on cattle production for U.S. rangelands to estimate relative change and identify sources of vulnerability among seven regions. Climate change effects to 2100 were projected from published models for four elements: forage quantity, vegetation type trajectory, heat stress, and forage variability. Departure of projections from...

  19. Orthorectification, mosaicking, and analysis of sub-decimeter resolution UAV imagery for rangeland monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) offer an attractive platform for acquiring imagery for rangeland monitoring. UAVs can be deployed quickly and repeatedly, and they can obtain sub-decimeter resolution imagery at lower image acquisition costs than with piloted aircraft. Low flying heights result in ima...

  20. Deforestation of "degraded" rangelands: The Argentine Chaco enters the next stage of the Anthropocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twenty years ago I completed my Master’s work in the Chaco forests of northern Argentina. The native forests are, in fact, rangelands. In addition to livestock grazing, there is timber extraction, wildlife harvest (think tegu lizard cowboy boots), and charcoal production. I took part in a project co...

  1. Climate-change adaptation on rangelands: Linking regional exposure with diverse adaptive capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    David D. Briske; Linda A. Joyce; H. Wayne Polley; Joel R. Brown; Klaus Wolter; Jack A. Morgan; Bruce A. McCarl; Derek W. Bailey

    2015-01-01

    The ecological consequences of climate change are predicted to vary greatly throughout US rangelands. Projections show warming and drying in the southern Great Plains and the Southwest, warmer and drier summers with reduced winter snowpack in the Northwest, and warmer and wetter conditions in the northern Great Plains. Primarily through their combined effects on soil...

  2. Comparison of different methods of image analysis for quantifying bare soil in rangelands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulido Fernández, M.; Lavado Contador, J. F.; Schnabel, S.; Gómez Gutiérrez, Á.

    2009-04-01

    Many authors emphasize the importance of vegetation in maintaining low levels of soil loss by means of its positive influence in reducing erosion. In some low-vegetated Mediterranean rangelands, especially those with high livestock densities, water erosion can ultimately lead to a partial or total loss of soils, particularly at the beginning of the rainy season, when the surface cover is reduced after the dry summer period. In relation with this, it is essential to develop accurate methods allowing the quantification of bare soil which, in turn, can inform about the influence of different livestock management alternatives over the land system. The main goal of this work is the comparison of the ability of various pixel-based as well as object-oriented methods of image classification for the quantification of bare soil at a fine spatial resolution. The study area is a farm located in a woody rangeland (dehesa) in SW Spain covering a surface area of 1,024 hectare. A three bands (RGB) orthophoto image with a pixel size of 0,4 metres was used, together with its brightness component, to compare the classification of bare soil vs covered soil by means of the following methods: unsupervised classification (k-means algorithm), supervised classification (maximum likelihood classification, minimum distance or nearest neighbour and Mahalanobis distance) and object oriented classification through a multiresolution segmentation. The results of classification were tested using 700 to 1000 points of field validation. Different combinations of image layers as well as validation algorithms were applied to assess for the better classification results. The best unsupervised classification was obtained from a combination of the RGB layers with the brightness component of the image. A total of 93.1 % of the field data were correctly classified and the Area Under the Curve (AUC) obtained with the ROC (Receiving Operating Characteristic) validation technique amounted to 0.91. With this

  3. La economía ecológica: una disciplina en busca de autor

    OpenAIRE

    Castiblanco R., Carmenza

    2008-01-01

    La Economía Ecológica emerge como una disciplina científica que integra elementos de la economía, ecología, termodinámica, ética y otras ciencias naturales y sociales para proveer una perspectiva integrada y biofísica de las interacciones que se entretejen entre economía y medio ambiente, desde una concepción pluralista y una metodología transdisciplinar. La Economía Ecológica considera la ‘caja negra’ de los procesos económicos, de los cuales la economía convencional no se ocupa: la term...

  4. Un modelo ecológico integrado para comprender la violencia contra las mujeres

    OpenAIRE

    Vives Cases, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    Este artículo fomenta la adopción general de un marco integrado ecológico para la comprensión de los orígenes de la violencia de género. La aproximación ecológica al maltrato conceptualiza la violencia como un fenómeno polifacético basado en la interacción entre factores personales, situacionales y socioculturales. A pesar de tratar los avances conceptuales de teóricos anteriores, este artículo va más allá de su trabajo en tres aspectos relevantes. En primer lugar, este artículo utiliza el ma...

  5. Use of local pastoral species to increase fodder production of the saline rangelands in southern Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tlili, Abderrazak; Tarhouni, Mohamed; Cardà, Artemi; Neffati, Mohamed

    2017-04-01

    Climate changes associated with multiple destructive human activities accelerate the degradation process of the natural rangelands around the world and especially the vulnerable areas such as the dryland ecosystems (Anaya-Romero et al., 2015; Eskandari et al., 2016; Muños Rojas et al., 2016; Vicente-Serrano et al., 2016). The vegetation cover and the biomass production of these ecosystems are decreasing and this is resulting in land degradation due to the soil erosion and changes in soil quality due to the abuse and misuse of the soil resources (Cerdà et al., 2016; Prosdocimi et al., 2016; Keesstra et al., 2016). To cope with such threats, it is necessary to develop some management techniques (restoration, plantation…) to enhance the biomass production and the carbon sequestration of the degraded rangelands (Muñoz-Rojas et al., 2016; Tarhouni et al., 2016). The valorization of saline water by planting pastoral halophyte species in salt-affected soils as well as the marginal areas are considered among the valuable tools to increase the rangeland production in dry areas. In this work, the ability of four plants (Atriplex halimus L. (Amaranthaceae), Atriplex mollis Desf. (Amaranthaceae), Lotus creticus L. (Fabaceae) and Cenchrus ciliaris L. (Poaceae)) to grow and to produce are tested under a field saline conditions (water and soil). Non-destructive method (Vegmeasure) is used to estimate the biomass production of these species. Chemical (crude protein, moisture and ash contents) and biochemical analyses (sugars, tannins and polyphenols contents) are also undertaken. Two years after plantation, the obtained results showed the ability of the four species to survive and to grow under high salinity degree. A strong positive correlation was obtained between the canopy cover and the dry biomass of the four studied species. Hence, the restoration of saline soils can be ensured by planting local halophytes. Acknowledgements. The research leading to these results has

  6. Redescubriendo El suelo: Su importancia ecológica y agrícola

    OpenAIRE

    Noé Manuel Montaño; Rosalva García Sánchez

    2016-01-01

    Redescubriendo el suelo: su importancia ecológica y agrícola es un libro muy completo, actualizado y sin duda será de consulta obligada para quienes hacen investigación edafológica y como material elemental para los cursos de pre- y posgrado de suelo y materias afines, tanto en México como en América Latina.

  7. Opportunities and obstacles for rangeland conservation in San Diego County, California, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen A. Farley

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Working landscapes such as rangelands are increasingly recognized as having high conservation value, providing a variety of ecosystem services, including food, fiber, habitat, recreation, open space, carbon storage, and water, in addition to a broad range of social benefits. However, conversion of rangelands to other land uses has been prevalent throughout the western United States, leading to greater attention in the conservation community to the importance of collaborating with private landowners. The level of interest in collaborative conservation among private landowners and the types of conservation programs they choose to participate in depend on the social, economic, and environmental context. We used GIS analysis and interviews with ranchers to evaluate rangeland conversion and participation in conservation programs among ranchers in San Diego County, California, USA, which is part of a biodiversity hotspot with high plant species richness and a large number of endemic and rare species. We found that > 25% of rangelands were converted to other uses, primarily urbanization, over the past 25 years while the area of public rangeland increased by 9%. Interviews revealed that ranchers in San Diego County have had limited involvement with most conservation programs, and a critical factor for nonparticipation was providing programs access to private land, along with other issues related to trust and social values. Among ranchers who had participated in conservation programs, the payment level and the agency or organization administering the program were key factors. Our results provide insight into factors influencing whether and when ranchers are likely to participate in conservation initiatives and illustrate that private and public land conservation are strongly linked and would be more effective if the two strategies were better integrated.

  8. La difusión de la agricultura ecológica en Europa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Gómez García

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se aborda el análisis de la evolución de la agricultura ecológica en Europa desde la perspectiva de la Teoría de Difusión de Innovaciones, con el fin de conocer las características del proceso y sus factores determinantes. Estimando los correspondientes modelos de difusión para datos de la extensión de la agricultura ecológica en los quince países pertenecientes a la UE, desde 1985 hasta 2002, se llega a la conclusión de que, en este contexto, la difusión de los cultivos ecológicos está determinada fundamentalmente por el efecto imitación. Además, parece existir evidencia de que los rasgos particulares del proceso en cada país dependen de ciertas características económicas del mismo relacionadas con la capacidad adquisitiva de los agentes, de la influencia, experiencia e imitación de los adoptantes en otros países del entorno, y del momento en el que se introdujo esta innovación.

  9. La difusión de la agricultura ecológica en Europa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Gómez García

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se aborda el análisis de la evolución de la agricultura ecológica en Europa desde la perspectiva de la Teoría de Difusión de Innovaciones, con el fin de conocer las características del proceso y sus factores determinantes. Estimando los correspondientes modelos de difusión para datos de la extensión de la agricultura ecológica en los quince países pertenecientes a la UE, desde 1985 hasta 2002, se llega a la conclusión de que, en este contexto, la difusión de los cultivos ecológicos está determinada fundamentalmente por el efecto imitación. Además, parece existir evidencia de que los rasgos particulares del proceso en cada país dependen de ciertas características económicas del mismo relacionadas con la capacidad adquisitiva de los agentes, de la influencia, experiencia e imitación de los adoptantes en otros países del entorno, y del momento en el que se introdujo esta innovación.

  10. Development of the crop residue and rangeland burning in the 2014 National Emissions Inventory using information from multiple sources

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This workbook contains all the activity data, emission factor data, and ancillary data used to compute crop residue burning and rangeland emissions for the 2014 NEI...

  11. Faecal near-IR spectroscopy to determine the nutritional value of diets consumed by beef cattle in east Mediterranean rangelands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landau, S Y; Dvash, L; Roudman, M; Muklada, H; Barkai, D; Yehuda, Y; Ungar, E D

    2016-02-01

    Rapid assessment of the nutritional quality of diets ingested by grazing animals is pivotal for successful cow-calf management in east Mediterranean rangelands, which receive unpredictable rainfall and are subject to hot-spells. Clipped vegetation samples are seldom representative of diets consumed, as cows locate and graze selectively. In contrast, faeces are easily sampled and their near-IR spectra contain information about nutrients and their utilization. However, a pre-requisite for successful faecal near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (FNIRS) is that the calibration database encompass the spectral variability of samples to be analyzed. Using confined beef cows in Northern and Southern Israel, we calibrated prediction equations based on individual pairs of known dietary attributes and the NIR spectra of associated faeces (n=125). Diets were composed of fresh-cut green fodder of monocots (wheat and barley), dicots (safflower and garden pea) and natural pasture collected at various phenological states over 2 consecutive years, and, optionally, supplements of barley grain and dried poultry litter. A total of 48 additional pairs of faeces and diets sourced from cows fed six complete mixed rations covering a wide range of energy and CP concentrations. Precision (linearity of calibration, R2cal, and of cross-validation, R2cv) and accuracy (standard error of cross-validation, SEcv) were criteria for calibration quality. The calibrations for dietary ash, CP, NDF and in vitro dry matter digestibility yielded R2cal values >0.87, R2cv of 0.81 to 0.89 and SEcv values of 16, 13, 39 and 31 g/kg dry matter, respectively. Equations for nutrient intake were of low quality, with the exception of CP. Evaluation of FNIRS predictions was carried out with grazing animals supplemented or not with poultry litter, and implementation of the method in one herd over 2 years is presented. The potential usefulness of equations was also established by calculating the Mahalanobis (H

  12. Satellite monitoring the rangeland degradation under the impacts of climatic and socio-economic changes over central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, K.; Zhang, L.; Dai, L.; Yan, D.

    2012-12-01

    Central Asia, encompassing the republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyz, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan and China's western Sinkiang, is a typical arid and semi-arid area. The climate in Central Asia is extreme arid, where summer is hot, cloudless and dry, and winter is moist and relatively warm in the south and cold and dry in the north. Rangeland, accounting for 46% of the entire area, is the main vegetation type in this area. Recent findings showed that climate change had caused unprecedented rangeland degradation in Central Asia over the past 30 years. Socio-economical change and environmental change due to the collapse of Soviet Union also accelerated rangeland degradation. Rangeland degradation adversely further deteriorated the environment. With the development of high resolution remote sensing images, an increasing attention has paid to study rangeland degradation in this area. However, previous investigations based on either Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) or Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data, has not integrate multi-resolution satellite data for investigating vegetation change and its response to climatic and socio-economic change . In this paper, we employed 30 years' remote sensing data, including both AVHRR ( 1982-2006) and MODIS (2000-2011) satellite data, and in-situ meteorological and social data (e.g. population, economic, and land use change data), to investigate rangeland degradation in the central Asia. We 1) analyzed the spatial-temporal variations of vegetation changes during the past 30 years, and 2) evaluated the roles of climatic and socio-economic factors as potential causes of observed vegetation changes. The results showed extensive area had statistically significant degradation trends (pSoviet Union, rangeland degradation was accelerated due to increased population and economic changes, but this degraded trend slowed down since the political system became relatively stable in 1991. These results

  13. A collaborative characterization of North American grasslands and rangelands: climate, ecohydrology and carbon sink-source dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrie, M. D.; Brunsell, N. A.; Vargas, R.; Collins, S. L.

    2013-12-01

    Grassland and rangeland ecoregions extend across the North American continent and exhibit diversity in climate, ecosystem services, and biophysical processes. In many grasslands and rangelands, the potential for reductions in ecosystem services and for large-scale ecosystem state change may increase under future climate scenarios. Climate change projections for North America vary, however, and the way changing climate will influence specific ecoregions is largely unknown. To better understand the regional effects of climate change on grasslands and rangelands, it is important to better understand the biophysical characteristics of these systems locally, and to identify the sensitivity of these characteristics to observed climate variation. In our study, we propose to use eddy covariance, soil moisture and precipitation data to identify how the grasslands and rangelands of North America differ in their responses to climate variability through time, with specific focus on the active growing season. Our primary goal is to determine the sensitivity of ecosystem Net Primary Productivity [NPP] to variation in temperature and precipitation patterns, and classify North American grasslands and rangelands by these sensitivities in addition to more standard climate and productivity variables. Our preliminary analyses in mesic, semiarid and arid grasslands in Kansas, Colorado and New Mexico show significant (P photosynthesis in spring and of senescense in the fall, grassland and rangeland ecosystems in Kansas (top and bottom left panels) and New Mexico (bottom right panel) display differing patterns of activity throughout the year.

  14. Wildlife habitats in managed rangelands—the Great Basin of southeastern Oregon: introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris Maser; Jack Ward. Thomas

    1983-01-01

    The need for a way by which rangeland managers can account for wildlife in land-use planning, in on-the-ground management actions, and in preparation of environmental impact statements is discussed. Principles of range-land-wildlife interactions and management are described along with management systems. The Great Basin of southeastern Oregon was selected as a well-...

  15. 78 FR 5834 - Notice of Intent To Prepare a Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement and Resource Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-28

    ... Resource Management Plan Amendment for the Roan Plateau, CO AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior... Statement (EIS) associated with the development of the Roan Plateau Resource Management Plan (RMP) Amendment... geology, air resources, wildlife and fisheries, rangeland management, forestry, outdoor recreation...

  16. Institutions and governance of communal rangelands in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... to guide policy formation, which must be flexible enough to accommodate collective management approaches that emphasise cooperation both within and between communities. Keywords: common property, land tenure, natural resource management, traditional leaders. African Journal of Range & Forage Science 2013, ...

  17. Determining termite diversity in arid Namibian rangelands – a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All meth ods, therefore, were required to maximize a species inventory. More termite taxa were found on the commercially managed than on the two communally managed farms. More taxa were found at the perceived high intensity land use site than at the low intensity land use site on the commercially managed farm, the ...

  18. Improving Rangeland Monitoring and Assessment: Integrating Remote Sensing, GIS, and Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Paul Breckenridge

    2007-05-01

    Creeping environmental changes are impacting some of the largest remaining intact parcels of sagebrush steppe ecosystems in the western United States, creating major problems for land managers. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL), located in southeastern Idaho, is part of the sagebrush steppe ecosystem, one of the largest ecosystems on the continent. Scientists at the INL and the University of Idaho have integrated existing field and remotely sensed data with geographic information systems technology to analyze how recent fires on the INL have influenced the current distribution of terrestrial vegetation. Three vegetation mapping and classification systems were used to evaluate the changes in vegetation caused by fires between 1994 and 2003. Approximately 24% of the sagebrush steppe community on the INL was altered by fire, mostly over a 5-year period. There were notable differences between methods, especially for juniper woodland and grasslands. The Anderson system (Anderson et al. 1996) was superior for representing the landscape because it includes playa/bare ground/disturbed area and sagebrush steppe on lava as vegetation categories. This study found that assessing existing data sets is useful for quantifying fire impacts and should be helpful in future fire and land use planning. The evaluation identified that data from remote sensing technologies is not currently of sufficient quality to assess the percentage of cover. To fill this need, an approach was designed using both helicopter and fixed wing unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and image processing software to evaluate six cover types on field plots located on the INL. The helicopter UAV provided the best system compared against field sampling, but is more dangerous and has spatial coverage limitations. It was reasonably accurate for dead shrubs and was very good in assessing percentage of bare ground, litter and grasses; accuracy for litter and shrubs is questionable. The fixed wing system proved to be

  19. Phenology-based, remote sensing of post-burn disturbance windows in rangelands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankeya, Joel B.; Wallace, Cynthia S.A.; Ravi, Sujith

    2013-01-01

    Wildland fire activity has increased in many parts of the world in recent decades. Ecological disturbance by fire can accelerate ecosystem degradation processes such as erosion due to combustion of vegetation that otherwise provides protective cover to the soil surface. This study employed a novel ecological indicator based on remote sensing of vegetation greenness dynamics (phenology) to estimate variability in the window of time between fire and the reemergence of green vegetation. The indicator was applied as a proxy for short-term, post-fire disturbance windows in rangelands; where a disturbance window is defined as the time required for an ecological or geomorphic process that is altered to return to pre-disturbance levels. We examined variability in the indicator determined for time series of MODIS and AVHRR NDVI remote sensing data for a database of ∼100 historical wildland fires, with associated post-fire reseeding treatments, that burned 1990–2003 in cold desert shrub steppe of the Great Basin and Columbia Plateau of the western USA. The indicator-based estimates of disturbance window length were examined relative to the day of the year that fires burned and seeding treatments to consider effects of contemporary variability in fire regime and management activities in this environment. A key finding was that contemporary changes of increased length of the annual fire season could have indirect effects on ecosystem degradation, as early season fires appeared to result in longer time that soils remained relatively bare of the protective cover of vegetation after fires. Also important was that reemergence of vegetation did not occur more quickly after fire in sites treated with post-fire seeding, which is a strategy commonly employed to accelerate post-fire vegetation recovery and stabilize soil. Future work with the indicator could examine other ecological factors that are dynamic in space and time following disturbance – such as nutrient cycling

  20. Woody plants and woody plant management: ecology, safety, environmental impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    James H. Miller

    2001-01-01

    Wise and effective woody plant management is an increasing necessity for many land uses and conservation practices, especially on forests and rangelands where native or exotic plants are affecting productivity, access, or critical habitat. Tools and approaches for managing woody plants have been under concerted development for the past 50 years, integrating mechanical...

  1. Biomass Increases Go under Cover: Woody Vegetation Dynamics in South African Rangelands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mograbi, Penelope J.; Knapp, David E.; Martin, Roberta E.; Main, Russell

    2015-01-01

    Woody biomass dynamics are an expression of ecosystem function, yet biomass estimates do not provide information on the spatial distribution of woody vegetation within the vertical vegetation subcanopy. We demonstrate the ability of airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR) to measure aboveground biomass and subcanopy structure, as an explanatory tool to unravel vegetation dynamics in structurally heterogeneous landscapes. We sampled three communal rangelands in Bushbuckridge, South Africa, utilised by rural communities for fuelwood harvesting. Woody biomass estimates ranged between 9 Mg ha-1 on gabbro geology sites to 27 Mg ha-1 on granitic geology sites. Despite predictions of woodland depletion due to unsustainable fuelwood extraction in previous studies, biomass in all the communal rangelands increased between 2008 and 2012. Annual biomass productivity estimates (10–14% p.a.) were higher than previous estimates of 4% and likely a significant contributor to the previous underestimations of modelled biomass supply. We show that biomass increases are attributable to growth of vegetation biomass increases in the low height classes within the subcanopy, likely a strong resprouting response to intensive harvesting. Yet, fuelwood shortages are still occurring, as evidenced by the losses in the tall tree height class in the high extraction rangeland. Loss of large trees and gain in subcanopy shrubs could result in a structurally simple landscape with reduced functional capacity. This research demonstrates that intensive harvesting can, paradoxically, increase biomass and this has implications for the sustainability of ecosystem service provision. The structural implications of biomass increases in communal rangelands could be misinterpreted as woodland recovery in the absence of three-dimensional, subcanopy information. PMID:25969985

  2. The ecological dimensions of vector-borne disease research and control Dimensões ecológicas do controle e gerenciamento de doenças transmitidas por vetores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett R. Ellis

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Alarming trends in the resurgence of vector-borne diseases are anticipated to continue unless more effective action is taken to address the variety of underlying causes. Social factors, anthropogenic environmental modifications and/or ecological changes appear to be the primary drivers. The ecological dimension of vector-borne disease research and management is a pervasive element because this issue is essentially an ecological problem with biophysical, social, and economic dimensions. However there is often a lack of clarity about the ecological dimension, the field of ecology (e.g. role, limitations, and related concepts pertinent to ecosystem approaches to health. An ecological perspective can provide foresight into the appropriateness of interventions, provide answers to unexpected vector control responses, and contribute to effective management solutions in an ever-changing environment. The aim of this paper is to explore the ecological dimension of vector-borne diseases and to provide further clarity about the role of "ecological thinking" in the development and implementation of vector control activities (i.e. ecosystem approaches to vector-borne diseases.A tendência alarmante em direção ao ressurgimento de doenças transmitidas por vetores continuará, a menos que ações eficazes sejam tomadas para controlar suas causas primárias. Fatores sociais, mudanças ambientais causadas pelo homem e/ou mudanças ecológicas são, aparentemente, a base do problema. A dimensão ecológica da pesquisa e do gerenciamento dessas doenças é um elemento difuso e constante, já que consiste, essencialmente, em um problema de caráter ecológico com dimensões biofísica, social e econômica. No entanto, há pouca discussão sobre a dimensão ecológica, sobre o campo da ecologia (p.ex.: seu papel e suas limitações e sobre os conceitos relacionados à abordagem ecossistêmica na saúde. Uma perspectiva ecológica poderá permitir uma an

  3. Humedal urbano en Punta Arenas: Sustentabilidad del Proyecto Parque Ecológico Humedal Tres Puentes

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Inostroza Pino

    2015-01-01

    El Humedal Tres Puentes, ubicado en la entrada norte de Punta Arenas, es un espacio relevante desde el punto de vista ecológico y hábitat de una numerosa avifauna, uno de los más importantes de la ciudad. Sin embargo el Humedal está seriamente amenazado, dado su ubicación sobre uno de los principales vectores de crecimiento de la ciudad de Punta Arenas, en terrenos que han adquirido plusvalía paulatinamente, bien por efecto de la obra pública del Estado o por el simple crecimiento vegetativo ...

  4. La perspectiva ecológica y la hipermediatización social

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Andrés Vizer; Helenice Carvalho

    2015-01-01

    La “ecología” de los medios no debe ser concebida como una especie de entorno que nos rodea y del cual somos el “centro”, sino como un sistema de producción, circulación y consumo en el cual son los individuos, en tanto consumidores y (re)alimentadores del sistema, los que conforman su “entorno”. Un abordaje ecológico de los medios tradicionales (radio, cine y televisión) introduce a los públicos consumidores como su entorno, y no al contrario (¿quién consume a quién?). Un entorno, un mercado...

  5. Huerto urbano ecológico "Baratxuri" en el barrio Buztintxuri de Pamplona

    OpenAIRE

    Duque Egaña, Irene

    2015-01-01

    En este proyecto fin de grado se establece una propuesta de diseño y zonificación de un huerto ecológico comunitario en el barrio pamplonés de Buztintxuri. Se trata del desarrollo del componente agronómico que conforma este proyecto, abordando la transformación de un solar en desuso con una superficie de 2300 m2 en un huerto comunitario participativo denominado “Baratxuri”. Para ello ha sido necesario conocer de primera mano los requisitos del vecindario y mediante reuniones establecer ...

  6. La cubierta ecológica como material de construcción

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neila, Javier

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The ecological roof is one with a cover of vegetation with a thin substratum and a layer of low level plants. This type of roof has many advantages including architectural, construction, environmental and aesthetic ad vantages. In order to determine the thermal behaviour of models with ecological roofs, simulations were performed on these and other types of construction in the two areas involved in the study: Maracaibo and Madrid. Five different roofs were created for the study, analysed in four ways: 1 with the building windows closed throughout the whole 24 hours, 2 with the windows closed during the day and open at night; 3 open 24 hours; 4 open during the day and closed at night. The simulation tool used in the study was the "Method of Interior Temperature Evolution Calculation" developed by Javier Neila. The results obtained show that the ecological roof reduces the heat transference in hot seasons, acting as exterior insulation, and preventing heat loss by radiation into space in winter.La cubierta ecológica es un tipo de cubierta vegetal con un substrato de poco espesor y una capa vegetal con plantas de bajo porte. Las ventajas de este tipo de cubierta, abarcan aspectos arquitectónicos, constructivos, medioambientales y estéticos. Para realizar estudios a través de modelos de ordenador con cubiertas ecológicas, primero se determinó el valor de conductividad térmica equivalente del substrato y capa vegetal, utilizando las ecuaciones de balance térmico, lo cual fue comprobado con un ensayo de laboratorio y, con estos resultados, se realizaron simulaciones térmicas en los espacios con cubiertas ecológicas comparándolos con sistemas constructivos de cubiertas utilizados en las dos zonas de estudio: Maracaibo y Madrid. Para el estudio se establecieron cinco alternativas de cubiertas, analizándose de cuatro maneras diferentes: 1 cerrada durante las 24 horas. 2 cerrada durante el día y abierta en la noche ; 3 abierta las 24 horas

  7. Turismo ecológico. Puesta en valor de la Cuenca del Salado

    OpenAIRE

    Bertoni, Marcela

    2002-01-01

    El presente aporte plantea la conceptualización del turismo ecológico, como modalidad del modelo de turismo alternativo, como una nueva modalidad turística que se caracteriza por compatibilizar la conservación de los recursos con su utilización turística recreativa a los fines de garantizar una experiencia recreativa de calidad. Por lo tanto, se realiza un reconocimiento de los recursos naturales, humedales, lagunas, ríos arroyos, sierras, áreas naturales protegidas y actividades deportivas, ...

  8. Posibilidades y límites del periodismo ecológico

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Schutze

    2015-01-01

    El autor en este artículo analiza los peligros y las posibilidades del periodismo dedicado a la defensa del ambiente al tiempo que cuenta su experiencia en Alemania, donde el Periodismo Ecológico tiene un amplio desarrollo. Los ecosistemas no se limitan a la naturaleza sino que incluyen al hombre con sus actividades. Si la destrucción del ambiente constituye una violación de las condiciones de vida de todas las personas y un saqueo al patrimonio común de toda la humanidad debe implantarse en ...

  9. Manejo ecológico en la hacienda Celia María

    OpenAIRE

    Méndez Venegas, Cirilo Moises

    2016-01-01

    La producción Ecológica de banano en la empresa” Celia María C.A, en condiciones de mejores condiciones de salubridad y seguridad al elemento humano , implementó la sustitución de agroquímico en la fertilización y en la protección del cultivo, manteniendo las condiciones naturales de la entomofauna y potenciación de microorganismos antagonistas Trichoderma, Bacillum,, bacterias fijadoras de nitrógeno, micorrizas de patógenos causante de la pudrición del sistema radicular de las planta...

  10. Leche ecológica en Asturias: una apuesta por la calidad

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez, Ana; Hernández, A.M.; Martínez, Beatriz

    2010-01-01

    La agricultura ecológica, denominada también agricultura biológica u orgánica, se define como un conjunto de técnicas agrarias que excluye el uso en la agricultura y la ganadería de productos químicos de síntesis, tales como fertilizantes, plaguicidas, antibióticos, etc., con el objetivo de preservar el medio ambiente, mantener o aumentar la fertilidad del suelo y proporcionar alimentos con todas sus propiedades naturales (Reglamento CE, nº 889/2008).

  11. Estudio de la influencia de factores ecológicos sobre comunidades marinas de algas

    OpenAIRE

    López Alcarria, Carolina

    2015-01-01

    Las algas utilizan distintas estrategias para adaptarse a los factores que condicionan el medio que las rodea. Dependiendo de las estrategias utilizadas se pueden clasificar en diferentes grupos funcionales. Los grupos funcionales descritos por Grime (1977) para las plantas sirven para clasificar las algas y para evaluar la calidad ecológica y de las aguas que bañan a estas comunidades. Se han estudiado distintas comunidades de algas marinas en Tabarca, Cabo de las Huertas y en Agua Amarga pa...

  12. Predictores de la conducta antisocial juvenil: un modelo ecológico

    OpenAIRE

    Frías-Armenta,Martha; López-Escobar, Amelia Eréndida; Díaz-Méndez,Sylvia Guadalupe

    2003-01-01

    Este estudio pone a prueba un modelo ecológico como marco teórico explicativo de la antisocialidad juvenil. 204 jóvenes mexicanos que cursaban la educación secundaria o preparatoria contestaron un cuestionario con preguntas acerca de la violencia intrafamiliar, su conducta antisocial, la ingesta de alcohol de sus madres, los problemas de conducta escolar, algunas características del ambiente familiar, escolar y del barrio y las actitudes acerca de la violencia. Los datos fueron analizados a t...

  13. Comprender la realidad sin representaciones: Affordances y psicología ecológica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Heras Escribano

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Frente al paradigma tradicional en ciencia cognitiva, donde la metáfora del ordenador es la imperante, la psicología ecológica se ofrece como la alternativa más potente en el futuro desarrollo de las investigaciones sobre el fenómeno de la cognición. Dentro de ella, la noción de affordance juega un papel fundamental, aunque el concepto no está exento de polémica.

  14. Indicador espacial del metabolismo urbano. Huella Ecológica de la ciudad de Tandil, Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Guerrero, Elsa Marcela; Guiñirgo, Fernando

    2008-01-01

    Además de problemas urbanos evidentes -contaminación, residuos, etc.-, existe un problema asociado a la propia dinámica del sistema urbano que es de interés: la apropiación creciente de ecosistemas productivos externos destinados a satisfacer los requerimientos del metabolismo urbano de la ciudad de Tandil, Argentina. Se emplea para su cálculo, la Huella Ecológica (HE) (Rees 1996a; Wackernagel 1996) que permite evaluar en términos espaciales –hectáreas- los requerimientos de alimentos, combus...

  15. ANALYSIS OF THE FACTORS AFFECTING EFFECTIVENESS OF RANGELAND-DEPENDENT DAIRY CATTLE FARMS IN ERZURUM PROVINCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdurrahman KARA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available With a special emphasis on the rangeland condition, factors affecting effectiveness of the farms were researched inthis study. Study area covers Erzurum Province, Turkey. Villages were purposively selected from those of whichrangeland conditions had been studied previously. Stratified sampling method was employed in determination of thesample size. Data were collected from the randomly selected farmers through face to face interviews, resulted in 99completed questionnaires. Collected data by structured questionnaires were of 2004-2005 production year. Farmswere studied under three farm size groups of 0-12, 12,1-25 and 25+ ha. In analysis of the data stepwise regressionand multiple linear and log-linear regression models were used. As farm success criteria, net product and grossmargin were calculated for every studied farm. According to the results, rangeland condition, stable type, number ofcattle, size of cultivated land, amount of labour per farm and small ruminant flock existence in the village andnumber of small ruminant were found to be the most important factors affecting farm effectiveness. It was concludedthat more robust and long-term studies should be conducted using a wider variation in rangeland condition toconfirm the study findings.

  16. Hospitality Management: Learning, Doing, Knowing

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher Muller

    2016-01-01

    Is there something distinct about the traditional Hospitality Management curriculum? First offered in 1893 at the Ecole Hoteliere Lausanne in Switzerland and launched in the United States at The School of Hotel Administration at Cornell University in 1922, has this course of study evolved over time to focus on both of Meyer's skills - originally based on technical skills but now transforming to emotional skills?

  17. Un marco conceptual y analítico para estimar la integridad ecológica a escala de paisaje

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez Sal, A.

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available A conceptual and analytical framework to assess ecological integrity at a landscape level. A concep tual and methodological approach for the ecological integrity analysis at landscape level is presented. The aim is providing a tool for land planning and nature conservation. With this purpose the meaning of integrity and related concepts are discussed, and a model to evaluate landscape integrity by a comprehensive scheme is proposed. The first index is based in metrics of landscape ecology theory (connectivity, cover of both conservation areas and human managed land, etc. to evaluate the different ecosystem fragments pattern. The second one, an ecosystems integrity index, is focused to evaluate remnants with a structure close to maturity and evaluates the mathematical distance to a reference hypothetical composition. Finally, the agricultural area is evaluated by a coherence index, with emphasis in ecological processes but also including the natural structures with conservation functions. These indexes are combined in a model that facilitates the joint consideration of their values and the comparison with theoretical scenarios. The model allows us to develop a concurrent management of relevant variables that usually are associated to different environmental qualities. Because of its characteristics and the intermediate scale of application, the model constitutes an important tool for matching ecosystem integrity and land planning. Both are actions and concept and relevant for nature conservation and landscape management, but in general independently considered.El trabajo constituye una aproximación conceptual y metodológica para el análisis de la integridad ecológica, como instrumento aplicable a la planificación del territorio y la conservación de la naturaleza a escala de paisaje. Con dicho fin se discuten las acepciones de integridad y conceptos próximos y se presenta un modelo de evaluación que considera la integridad del paisaje como

  18. A educação ambiental na crise ecológica contemporânea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Soler

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Nosso objetivo com essa reflexão é destacar e problematizar alguns dos principais conceitos que gravitam no campo da Educação Ambiental, como crise ecológica, sustentabilidade, desenvolvimento sustentável, pegada ecológica, entre outros, enfrentando o debate sobre os dois grandes campos teóricos que disputam a hegemonia política e ideológica do Pensamento Verde: o antropocentrismo e o não antropocentrismo e suas correntes. Igualmente, traremos ao debate as duas grandes divisões da EA: a convencional ou conservadora e a considerada progressista, com o fim de contribuir na compreensão dos valores que incidem na possibilidade de produção e reprodução da crise ecológica no Brasil e no mundo contemporâneo, sempre visando sua superação.

  19. Remote sensing and change detection in rangelands | Palmer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To most land managers, remote sensing has remained illusive, seldom allowing the manager to use it to its full potential. In contrast, the policy maker, backed by GIS laboratories and remote sensing specialists, is confronted by plausible scenarios of degradation and transformation. After intervening, he is seldom active long ...

  20. Efectos ecológicos del fenómeno ENOS en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yesid Carvajal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available El fenómeno ENOS, tiene un sustancial efecto sobre las variaciones del clima a nivel mundial; por lo tanto, no sorprende que sus efectos tengan un impacto ecológico y socioeconómico fuerte, alterando la seguridad alimentaria de los países a nivel mundial. Ante este panorama, es comprensible que haya despertado el mayor interés mundial, no sólo en los especialistas en meteorología y oceanografía sino también entre biólogos, ecólogos, físicos, matemáticos, agrónomos, hidrólogos, economistas, sociólogos y planificadores, entre otros. En el presente documento, se muestra algunos de los principales efectos ecológicos en Colombia durante las fases extremas cálida (El Niño y fría (La Niña, indicando que es una necesidad urgente, orientar la investigación en sus causas, consecuencias e impactos.

  1. Efectos distributivos de los tributos ecológicos. Apuntes metodológicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás J. López-Guzmán Guzmán

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es presentar una propuesta metodológica para realizar un correcto diseño de un tributo ecológico que evite que determinados grupos sean los más perjudicados con la introducción de una ecotasa. Las pautas metodológicas se centran en el análisis de la estructura básica de un tributo ambiental, la determinación de los grupos de referencia y el análisis de los efectos distributivos. El principal resultado es que la introducción de los tributos ambientales debe tener en cuenta el probable impacto negativo en determinados grupos, sobre todo cuando se grave la energía eléctrica. Por tanto, sería necesario que previo a la introducción de los tributos ecológicos se elaborasen estudios necesarios para evitar su impacto negativo o, en su caso, se abordasen en la misma regulación políticas de compensación y mitigación.

  2. La Tierra de Campos y sus bases ecológicas en el siglo XIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel VACA LORENZO

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Para cualquier historiador, la determinación y el conocimiento de los rasgos geográficos del espacio físico en que se asienta la sociedad, sujeto de su estudio, resulta casi un imperativo porque el espacio no sólo constituye el escenario de ubicación de esa sociedad, sino también y sobre todo porque posibilita los medios de subsistencia y de trabajo. Este enunciado genéricamente válido para cualquier etapa histórica lo es mucho más para épocas antiguas en que sociedades como la medieval, eminentemente agraria, poseían un grado de dependencia del medio natural bastante notable por su escaso desarrollo tecnológico. En estas sociedades de agricultura tradicional las potencialidades ecológicas siempre han jugado, como señala Peña Sánchez1, un papel importante, en cuanto que la actividad agraria y la consiguiente organización del espacio son de alguna manera el resultado de una adaptación fundamentalmente empírica a las condiciones ecológicas en función del desarrollo de las técnicas y de las finalidades económicas que se pretendan.

  3. Pegada ecológica de uma instituição do ensino superior portuguesa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Paixão

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available O equilíbrio entre a vida humana e o ambiente só é possível se, entre outros aspetos, a vivência dos seres humanos for realizada em simbiose ambiental, ou seja, da forma mais ecológica possível. De forma a constatar a existência dessa simbiose, criaram-se diversas ferramentas para avaliar a sustentabilidade, tal como a Pegada Ecológica (PE. O presente estudo tem como principal objetivo o cálculo da PE da Escola Superior de Tecnologia da Saúde de Coimbra (ESTeSC, comparando os valores obtidos com os dois estudos anteriormente efetuados com o mesmo âmbito. O questionário que foi disponibilizado à amostra foi adaptado do existente na plataforma www.myfootprint.org. Comparando os resultados obtidos com anos anteriores, é possível verificar que a PE da ESTeSC desde 2009 tem vindo a diminuir na generalidade dos grupos estudados. Apenas o grupo dos docentes aumentou a sua PE desde o ano de 2010, sendo que a média da ESTeSC no ano de 2011 foi de 4,8 hectares globais.

  4. High resolution mapping of soil organic carbon stocks using remote sensing variables in the semi-arid rangelands of eastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Waters, Cathy; Orgill, Susan; Gray, Jonathan; Cowie, Annette; Clark, Anthony; Liu, De Li

    2018-02-23

    Efficient and effective modelling methods to assess soil organic carbon (SOC) stock are central in understanding the global carbon cycle and informing related land management decisions. However, mapping SOC stocks in semi-arid rangelands is challenging due to the lack of data and poor spatial coverage. The use of remote sensing data to provide an indirect measurement of SOC to inform digital soil mapping has the potential to provide more reliable and cost-effective estimates of SOC compared with field-based, direct measurement. Despite this potential, the role of remote sensing data in improving the knowledge of soil information in semi-arid rangelands has not been fully explored. This study firstly investigated the use of high spatial resolution satellite data (seasonal fractional cover data; SFC) together with elevation, lithology, climatic data and observed soil data to map the spatial distribution of SOC at two soil depths (0-5cm and 0-30cm) in semi-arid rangelands of eastern Australia. Overall, model performance statistics showed that random forest (RF) and boosted regression trees (BRT) models performed better than support vector machine (SVM). The models obtained moderate results with R 2 of 0.32 for SOC stock at 0-5cm and 0.44 at 0-30cm, RMSE of 3.51MgCha -1 at 0-5cm and 9.16MgCha -1 at 0-30cm without considering SFC covariates. In contrast, by including SFC, the model accuracy for predicting SOC stock improved by 7.4-12.7% at 0-5cm, and by 2.8-5.9% at 0-30cm, highlighting the importance of including SFC to enhance the performance of the three modelling techniques. Furthermore, our models produced a more accurate and higher resolution digital SOC stock map compared with other available mapping products for the region. The data and high-resolution maps from this study can be used for future soil carbon assessment and monitoring. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Estudio de resistencias a biocidas y antibióticos en bacterias procedentes de alimentos ecológicos

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández-Fuentes, Miguel-Ángel

    2014-01-01

    [ES] Se ha estudiado la sensibilidad frente a antibióticos y biocidas de bacterias procedentes de alimentos ecológicos. En las cepas resistentes a varios biocidas y/o antibióticos se ha investigado la presencia de determinantes de resistencia . Se ha estudiado también el posible efecto sinérgico entre ambos tipos de compuestos en cepas bacterianas resistentes a biocidas y antibióticos. Los resultados obtenidos sugieren que los alimentos ecológicos pueden actuar como reservorio de bacteria...

  6. Propuestas para una segmentación estratégica del mercado ecológico

    OpenAIRE

    Vicente Molina, María Azucena; Mediano Serrano, Lucía

    2002-01-01

    [ES] La creciente concienciación medioambiental y la necesidad de atender a las nuevas demandas ecológicas del mercado, obligan a las empresas a desarrollar instrumentos de análisis para ahondar en su conocimiento. La segmentación de mercados es un instrumento analítico válido para inferir características diferenciales de los consumidores ecológicos y adecuar la estrategia de marketing a las preferencias de los segmentos detectados. En este trabajo analizamos las limitaciones de los criter...

  7. Amazônia socioambiental: sustentabilidade ecológica e diversidade social

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Lima

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available ESTE ARTIGO baseia-se no emprego de um conceito central do discurso ambientalista - o de sustentabilidade ecológica - para construir um quadro analítico da diversidade socioambiental da Amazônia contemporânea. O exercício consiste em um ordenamento geral de categorias sociais segundo seu comportamento ambiental. Este é o ponto de partida para uma análise dos fundamentos históricos, econômicos e culturais da sustentabilidade ecológica atribuída a cada segmento social. A análise mostra a complexidade da interação entre múltiplos fatores que explicam o comportamento ecológico particular de cada um dos seguintes segmentos sociais considerados: a povos indígenas de comércio esporádico, b povos indígenas de comércio recorrente, c povos indígenas dependentes da produção mercantil, d pequenos produtores "tradicionais", e latifúndios "tradicionais", f latifúndios recentes, g migrantes/ fronteira, h grandes projetos e i exploradores itinerantes. Com este exercício, alguns estereótipos consagrados são contrariados, como aqueles que relacionam baixa sustentabilidade ecológica com pobreza, ou alta sustentabilidade ecológica com identidade indígena. Concluímos mostrando a importância de prosseguir com análises de amplo espectro para entender a diversidade socioambiental da Amazônia.WITH ONE of the central concepts of environmental discourse - that of ecological sustainability - we analyse the social diversity of contemporary Amazonia, presenting classification of Amazonian social segments according to the degree of environmental sustainability of their productive activities. With no intention of covering all of Amazonian social diversity, we identify nine of its main segments: Indians of sporadic commerce, Indians of recurrent commerce, Indians dependent on mercantile production, traditional peasants, traditional ranchers, recently established ranchers, frontier migrants, large scale entrepreneurial projects, and itinerant

  8. Power and limitation of soil properties as predictors of rangeland health and ecosystem functioning in a Northern mixed-grass prairie[Abstract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil properties are thought to affect rangeland ecosystem functioning (e.g. primary productivity, hydrology), and thus soil variables that are consistently correlated with key ecosystem functions may be general indicators of rangeland health. We summarize results from several studies in mixed-grass...

  9. A spatial dynamic model to assess piospheric land degradation processes of SW Iberian rangelands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herguido Sevillano, Estela; Ibáñez, Javier; Francisco Lavado Contador, Joaquín; Pulido-Fernández, Manuel; Schnabel, Susanne

    2015-04-01

    Iberian open wooded rangelands (known as dehesas or montados) constitute valuable agro-silvo-pastoral systems traditionally considered as highly sustainable. Nevertheless, in the recent decades, those systems are undergoing changes of land use and management practices that compromise its sustainability. Some of those changes, as the rising construction of watering points and the high spatial fragmentation and livestock movement restriction associated to fencing, show an aggregated effect with livestock, producing an impact gradient over soil and vegetation. Soil compaction related to livestock pressure is higher around watering points, with bare soil halos and patches of scarce vegetation or nude soil developing with higher frequency in areas close to them. Using the freeware Dinamica EGO as environmental modeling platform, we have developed a theoretic spatial dynamic model that represents some of the processes of land degradation associated to livestock grazing in dehesa fenced enclosures. Spatial resolution is high since every cell in the model is a square unit area of 1 m2. We paid particular attention to the relationships between soil degradation by compaction (porosity), livestock pressure, rainfall, pasture growth and shrub cover and bare soil generation. The model considers pasture growth as related to soil compaction, measured by the pore space in the top 10 cm soil layer. Annual precipitation is randomly generated following a normal distribution. When annual precipitation and pore space increase, also does pasture growth. Besides, there is a feedback between pasture growth and pore space, given that pasture roots increases soil porosity. The cell utility for livestock function has been defined as an exponential function of the distance of a cell to watering points and the amount of pasture present in it. The closer the cell to a pond and the higher the amount of pasture, the higher is cell utility. The latter is modulated by a normal random variable to

  10. Parameterization of the Rangeland Hydrology and Erosion Model (RHEM) Using Dynamic Landsat-Based Foliar Cover Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kautz, M. A.; Holifield Collins, C.; Guertin, D. P.; Goodrich, D. C.; Van Leeuwen, W. J. D.

    2016-12-01

    Changes in watershed vegetative cover from natural and anthropogenic causes including, climatic fluctuation, wildfires and land management practices, can result in increased surface water runoff and erosion. Hydrologic models play an important role in the decision support process for managing these landscape alterations. However, model parameterization requires quantified measures of watershed biophysical condition to generate accurate results. These inputs are often obtained from nationally available land cover data sets that are static in terms of vegetation condition and phenology. Obtaining vegetative data for model input of sufficient spatiotemporal resolution for long-term, watershed-scale change analysis has been a challenge. The purpose of this research was to assess the implications of parameterizing the event-based, Rangeland Hydrology and Erosion Model (RHEM) with dynamic, remotely sensed foliar cover data. The study was conducted on a small, instrumented grassland watershed within the Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed surrounding Tombstone, Arizona. A time series of foliar cover rasters was produced by calibrating Landsat-based Soil-Adjusted Total Vegetation Index (SATVI) scenes with field transect measurements. Estimates of basal and litter cover were calculated using allometric relationships derived from the transect data. RHEM was parameterized using these remotely sensed inputs for all recorded runoff events from 1996-2014. Model performance was improved using the dynamic foliar cover compared to using a static, long-term mean foliar cover value. Significant (plitter cover. The integration of Landsat-based vegetative data into RHEM allows for modelling on a broadened spatiotemporal scale, resulting in improved landscape characterization and the ability to track watershed response to long-term vegetation changes.

  11. Tomate para indústria: biodiversidade e infra-estruturas ecológicas Processing tomato: biodiversity and ecological infra-structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Amaro

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho são apresentadas considerações teóricas respeitantes às funções ecológicas da biodiversidade e das infra-estruturas ecológicas e ao seu papel como potenciadores da acção dos inimigos naturais, nos ecossistemas agrários. É abordado o caso particular do ecossistema “tomate para indústria”, no Ribatejo. Nesta cultura, a praga-chave é a lagarta do tomate, que é acompanhada por um complexo de inimigos naturais, essencialmente, parasitóides. Este complexo de parasitóides foi monitorizado entre 2002 e 2004, no âmbito do projecto AGRO 189 - “Protecção integrada em tomate para indústria”, tendo-se verificado que é uma comunidade presente nos campos todos os anos e que pode exercer grande influência sobre as populações de lagarta do tomate. São referidas algumas observações realizadas no decorrer do trabalho de campo e relacionadas com a disponibilidade de infraestruturas ecológicas nos campos estudados, nomeadamente aspectos da dinâmica populacional das pragas e dos inimigos naturais e de biodiversidade do complexo de parasitóides. Partindo do pressuposto que os inimigos naturais e as pragas beneficiam diferenciadamente das infra-estruturas ecológicas, é discutida a possibilidade de manipulação dos ecossistemas agrários de modo a favorecer os auxiliares.In this study, we address the theory behind the ecological functions provided by biodiversity and ecological infra-structures, as well as their role in enhancing the performance of natural enemies, in agrarian ecosystems. This study focuses on the processing tomato agrarian ecosystem. In this crop, the key pest is the tomato fruitworm, which is followed by a complex of natural enemies, essentially parasitoids. This parasitoid complex has been monitored from 2002 to 2004 under the scope of the project AGRO 189 - “Integrated pest management in processing tomato”; it has been observed that this community is present in the field every year and

  12. ¿Ética ecológica o medioambiental? Ecological or environmental ethics?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Franco da Costa

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available La emergencia y la magnitud que los problemas ambientales han ganado en las tres ultimas décadas han posibilitado una gran producción científica acerca del tema de la ecología y el medio ambiente, principalmente en relación a como la humanidad se debe comportar delante de la naturaleza. Es frecuente en las ciencias sociales la utilización de los términos ecológico y medioambiental como sinónimos. Todavía, desde el punto de vista de la ética es necesario hacer distinciones debido a las concepciones teóricas que dan sostenibilidad a las discusiones, una vez que existen divergencias conceptuales fundamentales que deben ser aclaradas para que no se cometa el error de mezclar concepciones y teorías que son fundamentalmente distintas y deben dar la profundidad teórica que la problemática exige. Así, este trabajo se propone a aclarar las dos concepciones haciendo la distinción entre lo que debe ser tratado como ética medioambiental y ética ecológica, dando énfasis en este ultimo concepto y haciendo una recopilación de los principales autores que fundamentan esta corriente teórica, de forma a servir de texto orientador para quien necesite de estudiar la ética ecológica con profundidad, incluso dando soporte para estudios en áreas como la sociología y la economía.The urgency and magnitude of environmental problems over the last three decades has led to extensive scientific productivity around the subject of ecology and the environment, principally in relation to humankind's treatment of nature. In the social sciences, ecology and environment are often used as synonyms. However, from the point of view of ethics, it is necessary to make a distinction due to the theoretical concepts that lend sustainability to these discussions. Fundamental conceptual differences must be clarified in order to avoid confusing concepts and theories that are fundamentally distinct and provide the theoretical depth that the issue requires. As such

  13. Desenvolvimento sustentável: uma perspectiva econômico-ecológica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademar Ribeiro Romeiro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho é oferecer uma definição de desenvolvimento sustentável de uma perspectiva econômico-ecológica. Para tanto, foram analisadas inicialmente as condições históricas da formulação e a evolução do conceito de desenvolvimento sustentável, de suas origens como ecodesenvolvimento até sua nova apresentação como economia verde. Em seguida, foram avaliadas as premissas do conceito de sustentabilidade fraca que permite à economia ambiental neoclássica desconsiderar a realidade natural em suas formulações de políticas ambientais. Por sua vez, a análise dos fundamentos teóricos da economia ecológica possibilitou chegar a uma definição de sustentabilidade estritamente ecológica, condição necessária para a definição de desenvolvimento sustentável proposta. Finalmente, são analisados os problemas para atingir o crescimento zero sem gerar uma crise e para mudar as expectativas de consumo em sociedades de consumo. Uma definição sucinta de desenvolvimento sustentável é, então, proposta.This paper offers a definition of sustainable development in an ecological economics perspective. For this it begins with a historical analysis of the sustainable development concept from its origins as ecodevelopment to its present formulation as green economy. It follows an assessment of the weak sustainability concept premises which allows for the neoclassical environmental economics not to take into full account the natural reality in its environmental policies proposals. The analysis of the ecological economics theoretical foundations, in turn, has made it possible to conceive a strictly ecological definition of sustainability, a necessary condition for the sustainable development definition proposed. Finally, the paper deals with the problem of slowing down the economy to zero growth without causing a crisis and the problem of changing the consumption expectations in consumption societies. A definition of

  14. Valoração econômico­ecológica de recursos naturais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribeiro Romeiro Ademar

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho visa mostrar quais as soluções que têm sido propostas para superar o que se considera como limitações importantes dos processos de valoração ambiental correntemente em uso. Os pressupostos teóricos e os procedimentos metodológicos da valoração ambiental e da valoração econômico­ ecológica são confrontados. Procura­ se mostrar que os pressupostos teóricos da economia ambiental são simples e reducionistas: os agentes econômicos são capazes de avaliar individualmente o valor do meio ambiente, do mesmo modo como f azem com as demais mercadorias, o qual é visto como um provedor de bens e serviços cujo processo de «f abricação» pode ser tratado como uma «caixa preta» que não é necessário abr ir n o pr oces so de valoração. Per das irreversíveis não são consideradas r elevantes um a vez qu e é suposto que os recursos naturais são substituíveis por capital. Estas suposições tornam o processo de valoração ambiental bastante simples. Do ponto de vista da economia ecológica, entretanto, a consideração de pressupostos mais realistas sobre o comportamento e capacidade humana na avaliação de recursos naturais e a abertura da «caixa preta» da «fabricação» de bens e serviços ecossistêmicos – isto é, a melhor compreensão dos processos ecológicos dos quais resultam os valores dos recursos naturais ­ conduz a procedimentos metodológicos de valoração bem mais complexos.

  15. Predictores de la conducta antisocial juvenil: un modelo ecológico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Frías-Armenta

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio pone a prueba un modelo ecológico como marco teórico explicativo de la antisocialidad juvenil. 204 jóvenes mexicanos que cursaban la educación secundaria o preparatoria contestaron un cuestionario con preguntas acerca de la violencia intrafamiliar, su conducta antisocial, la ingesta de alcohol de sus madres, los problemas de conducta escolar, algunas características del ambiente familiar, escolar y del barrio y las actitudes acerca de la violencia. Los datos fueron analizados a través de un modelo estructural en el cual las variables investigadas constituyeron factores e índices que representaban a los niveles de la teoría ecológica. Los resultados mostraron que el microsistema tuvo un efecto directo en la conducta antisocial de los menores, el exosistema mostró un efecto también directo en el microsistema y por lo tanto uno indirecto en la conducta antisocial de los menores, y el macrosistema tuvo un efecto directo en el exosistema y uno indirecto en la antisocialidad de los jóvenes. Lo anterior parece respaldar el modelo ecológico, como explicación coherente de la conducta antisocial en los menores.The aim of this research was to test an ecological model as explanation of juvenile delinquency. 204 Mexican students of junior and high school answered a questionnaire containing questions about family violence, antisocial behavior, child abuse, mother and father alcohol consumption, as well as some family, school, and neighborhood environmental characteristics. Observed variables constituted factors and indexes that represented the ecological theory. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze data. Results showed that the microsystem had a direct effect on antisocial behavior of youths, the exosystem had also a direct effect on the microsystem and an indirect effect on antisocial behavior, while the macrosystem had a direct effect on the exosystem and an indirect effect on antisocial behavior. These results seem to

  16. Rangeland resilience and resistance: annual and perennial grass stable states

    Science.gov (United States)

    The concept of resilience, the ability to resist a shift to an alternative vegetation state, has become an important topic in range management. To quantify the degree to which a plant community is resilient, we experimentally manipulated communities dominated by either the invasive annual grass chea...

  17. Enhancing knowledge of rangeland ecological processes with benchmark ecological sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    A benchmark ecological site is one that has the greatest potential to yield data and information about ecological functions, processes, and the effects of management or climate changes on a broad area or critical ecological zone. A benchmark ecological site represents other similar sites in a major ...

  18. Effects of land cover change on rangeland vegetation in W ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Due to the rapid increase in population, land cover has changed in Benin. Because of this, the management approach adopted by most developing countries in Africa for biodiversity conservation was the development of protected areas. But these areas were located where poverty and insufficient employment opportunities ...

  19. Agroforestry potential of Acacia senegal in the rangelands of luwero ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Education, farm size, gender, occupation and ownership of domestic animals significantly influenced the local people's willingness to plant and manage A. se11egal trees. Therefore, local ... by the Buruli catena to the north and Lwampanga catena in the low-lying areas and valleys (Omoding, 1994, Parker et al., 1967). Hilly.

  20. Opportunities for Integrated Ecological Analysis across Inland Australia with Standardised Data from Ausplots Rangelands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg R Guerin

    Full Text Available Australian rangelands ecosystems cover 81% of the continent but are understudied and continental-scale research has been limited in part by a lack of precise data that are standardised between jurisdictions. We present a new dataset from AusPlots Rangelands that enables integrative rangelands analysis due to its geographic scope and standardised methodology. The method provides data on vegetation and soils, enabling comparison of a suite of metrics including fractional vegetation cover, basal area, and species richness, diversity, and composition. Cover estimates are robust and repeatable, allowing comparisons among environments and detection of modest change. The 442 field plots presented here span a rainfall gradient of 129-1437 mm Mean annual precipitation with varying seasonality. Vegetation measurements include vouchered vascular plant species, growth form, basal area, height, cover and substrate type from 1010 point intercepts as well as systematically recorded absences, which are useful for predictive modelling and validation of remote sensing applications. Leaf and soil samples are sampled for downstream chemical and genomic analysis. We overview the sampling of vegetation parameters and environments, applying the data to the question of how species abundance distributions (SADs vary over climatic gradients, a key question for the influence of environmental change on ecosystem processes. We found linear relationships between SAD shape and rainfall within grassland and shrubland communities, indicating more uneven abundance in deserts and suggesting relative abundance may shift as a consequence of climate change, resulting in altered diversity and ecosystem function. The standardised data of AusPlots enables such analyses at large spatial scales, and the testing of predictions through time with longitudinal sampling. In future, the AusPlots field program will be directed towards improving coverage of space, under-represented environments

  1. Opportunities for Integrated Ecological Analysis across Inland Australia with Standardised Data from Ausplots Rangelands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerin, Greg R; Sparrow, Ben; Tokmakoff, Andrew; Smyth, Anita; Leitch, Emrys; Baruch, Zdravko; Lowe, Andrew J

    2017-01-01

    Australian rangelands ecosystems cover 81% of the continent but are understudied and continental-scale research has been limited in part by a lack of precise data that are standardised between jurisdictions. We present a new dataset from AusPlots Rangelands that enables integrative rangelands analysis due to its geographic scope and standardised methodology. The method provides data on vegetation and soils, enabling comparison of a suite of metrics including fractional vegetation cover, basal area, and species richness, diversity, and composition. Cover estimates are robust and repeatable, allowing comparisons among environments and detection of modest change. The 442 field plots presented here span a rainfall gradient of 129-1437 mm Mean annual precipitation with varying seasonality. Vegetation measurements include vouchered vascular plant species, growth form, basal area, height, cover and substrate type from 1010 point intercepts as well as systematically recorded absences, which are useful for predictive modelling and validation of remote sensing applications. Leaf and soil samples are sampled for downstream chemical and genomic analysis. We overview the sampling of vegetation parameters and environments, applying the data to the question of how species abundance distributions (SADs) vary over climatic gradients, a key question for the influence of environmental change on ecosystem processes. We found linear relationships between SAD shape and rainfall within grassland and shrubland communities, indicating more uneven abundance in deserts and suggesting relative abundance may shift as a consequence of climate change, resulting in altered diversity and ecosystem function. The standardised data of AusPlots enables such analyses at large spatial scales, and the testing of predictions through time with longitudinal sampling. In future, the AusPlots field program will be directed towards improving coverage of space, under-represented environments, vegetation types

  2. Agricultura tradicional campesina: características ecológicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Róger Martínez Castillo

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available El sistema agroproductivo se determina por sus características culturales, socioeconómicas y políticas. La agroecología se basa en la experiencia campesina sobre la dimensión ecológica, alanalizar la apropiación del agroecosistema y sus formas de manejo, sabiduría, sustentabilidad y significados prácticos.Aunque hoy se reconoce que el campesino posee amplios conocimientos sobre entomología, botánica, suelos, agronomía, estos deben aunarse con tecnologías y prácticas agrícolas sustentables al entorno natural y social. El desarrollo convencional ignora y excluye deliberadamente el conocimiento tradicional campesino.

  3. Cultivos y alimentos trangénicos: una aproximación ecológica

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Castillo, Róger

    2016-01-01

    Se plantean los impactos sociales y ecológicos de la llamada revolución genética, cuya tecnología es utilizada para crear organismos genéticamente alterados, como solución a los problemas de la agricultura y el hambre mundial. Sin embargo, la comercialización de los cultivos transgénicos tienen un único fin: aumentar los mercados y beneficios privados. La gran amenaza para el ambiente y la biodiversidad que suponen los cultivos transgénicos, la mercantilización de la vida en forma de patentes...

  4. Hábitos de consumo de productos ecológicos alimenticios en Álava

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz de Cerio Aizpeolea, Uxue

    2015-01-01

    En los últimos años, los consumidores están tomando conciencia con respecto a su salud y a la necesidad de respetar el medio ambiente. Por ello, la tendencia de consumir productos ecológicos está aumentando, productos más sanos y saludables, no de forma habitual y constante debido a su mayor precio y a la falta de costumbre. Se está optando por el consumo de estos productos ya que las técnicas de cultivo o fabricación daña menos el medio ambiente y la salud y por tanto el mercado también está...

  5. Criando contextos ecológicos de desenvolvimento e direitos humanos para adolescentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Lazzaretti de Souza

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo descreve-se a aplicação do método de Inserção Ecológica em um programa de intervenção para educação em direitos humanos e protagonismo juvenil para adolescentes em situação de vulnerabilidade social. A criação de um microssistema constituído pelos participantes e pela equipe executora do programa resulta em mudanças positivas de comportamento e respeito às regras, entre outros. Estas transformações surgem em consonância com a proposta da Abordagem Bioecológica do Desenvolvimento Humano, sobre a influência do ambiente. Este estudo reforça a importância da aplicação dos resultados em políticas públicas e sociais.

  6. Tiempo y sucesión ecológica en Ramón Margalef

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    Vargas Abarzúa, Esteban

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we attempt to think about the time in the Margalef’s ecological succession theory. In the classical model of ecological succession, populations succeed each other. Each phases of that succession “as a temporary phase” is merely juxtaposed with the other. It is the clock time, time like “measure” of the clock. Time here is absolute, independent of the process like in Newton. This does not happen in the model of Margalef. He thinks the ecosystem like a process in which energy is transfer and information acumulated. Thus, in the dynamic process of ecosystem appears various phases determined by the intrinsic dynamics of the system. Each ecosystem has its own time.

    En este trabajo intentamos meditar la concepción de tiempo en la teoría de sucesión ecológica de Margalef. En un modelo clásico de sucesión ecológica, las poblaciones se suceden unas a otras. Cada fase de esa sucesión “en tanto fase temporal” está meramente yuxtapuesta a las demás fases. Es el tiempo cronométrico, el tiempo como “medida” del reloj. El tiempo es aquí algo absoluto, independiente del proceso como en Newton. Esto no ocurre en el modelo de Margalef. Él piensa el ecosistema como un proceso de transferencia de energía y acumulación de información. Por esto, en el proceso dinámico del ecosistema existen diversas fases determinadas por la dinámica intrínseca del sistema. Cada ecosistema posee así su tiempo propio.

  7. Las cubiertas ecológicas de tercera generación: un nuevo material constructivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbero, M.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In 1994, the first ecological roof in Spain was built as a result of a research process. The structure of the construction, the substrate, and the chosen plants have been modified since then, in order to make the environmental properties optimum and to adapt it to extreme climatic conditions such as Spanish dry summers and frosted winters. All these changes have been tested and the energetic attitude has been studied. The best result is represented by a third generation roof model, called as an ecological garden roof. The present article describes the results obtained from the previous research as well as the final process results.En 1994 se inició una investigación que dio como resultado la construcción de la primera cubierta ecológica en España. Desde ese momento se han realizado modificaciones en su estructura constructiva, en el sustrato empleado y en las plantas empleadas, con la intención de optimizar su comportamiento, adaptándola a las condiciones climáticas que se padecen de España. Todas estas modificaciones han sido ensayadas y se ha evaluado rigurosamente su comportamiento energético. El resultado ha culminado en un modelo de cubierta, ya de una tercera generación, denominada como cubierta ecológica jardín. En este artículo se muestran, tanto los resultados de la investigación previa, como los correspondientes a la fase final que culminó con ese nuevo modelo, considerado como un nuevo material constructivo, plenamente sostenible.

  8. TIPNIS y Amazonia: Contradicciones en la agenda ecológica de Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Calla Ortega

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:The ecological agenda of the government of Evo Morales shows great contradictions. In international meetings it presents itself as the radical defender of the environmental rights of the Latin American peoples. In its own country, it pursues developmentalist policies which are based on the extraction of natural resources. This policy is causing large conflicts within the country. The most striking has been over the construction of a highway through the national park of TIPNIS. The contradiction between its in-ternational position and internal policies, which are far less green, is causing severe damage to the credibility of the Morales government, within and outside the country.Resumen:La agenda ecológica del gobierno de Evo Morales demuestra grandes contradicciones. En los encuentros internacionales se presen-ta como un defensor radical de los derechos ecológicos de los pueblos latinoamericanos. En su propio país está persiguiendo un pro-yecto desarrollista basado en la extracción de recursos nacionales. Esta política está causando grandes conflictos dentro del país. La más llamativa ha sido sobre la construc-ción de una autopista por el parque nacional del TIPNIS. La contradicción entre su pos-tura internacional y una política mucho me-nos verde al interior está dañando aguda-mente la credibilidad del gobierno de Mora-les dentro y fuera del país.

  9. Trilha ecológica do Cavalo-Marinho: Ecoturismo em Barra Grande/PI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Geisa Pereira Barbosa

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Na comunidade Barra Grande, localidade do município de Cajueiro da Praia - PI existe uma trilha ecológica muito bem planejada pelos moradores locais da própria comunidade: A Trilha do Cavalo - Marinho. Essa trilha consiste em um passeio ecológico, onde se trabalham comutantemente o turismo, a sustentabilidade e a educação ambiental.  A área de estudo - a localidade Barra Grande - pertence à Área de Proteção Ambiental (APA do Delta do Parnaíba (APA do Delta do Parnaíba, que visa proteger os ecossistemas costeiros, localizados nos estados do Maranhão, Piauí e Ceará. A referente pesquisa tem como principal objetivo inter-relacionar o termo ecoturismo, educação ambiental, sustentabilidade, e a trilha do cavalo marinho, realizado na pequena localidade do Piauí, Barra Grande. A metodologia utilizada no trabalho em estudo foi pesquisa bibliográfica: constituída de um conjunto de obras escritas referente ao turismo, desenvolvimento sustentável, desenvolvimento local sustentável, meio ambiente e educação ambiental e pesquisa de campo não participativa: realizada para obtenção das informações sobre a situação da área de estudo e analisar os aspectos trabalhados pelos moradores tanto na questão de educação ambiental como da sustentabilidade.

  10. AHP 40: Review: TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE USE OF RANGELANDS IN NORTH-WEST CHINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilary Howes

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Based on the program of an international conference held in Lanzhou, China in 2008, Towards Sustainable Use of Rangelands in North-West China offers both an overview of the "extent of resource debasement in China's pastoral zones" and a range of practical solutions for their sustainable use (v. The contributors, a formidable array of academics and policymakers from Australia, Canada, China, the USA, and the Philippines, draw on the substantial body of Chinese-language literature on the topic, thereby helping to "unlock" valuable data previously unavailable to an English-speaking audience.

  11. WEPP Model applications for evaluations of best management practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. C. Flanagan; W. J. Elliott; J. R. Frankenberger; C. Huang

    2010-01-01

    The Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) model is a process-based erosion prediction technology for application to small watersheds and hillslope profiles, under agricultural, forested, rangeland, and other land management conditions. Developed by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) over the past 25 years, WEPP simulates many of the physical processes...

  12. La recherche d’un fondement absolu des mathématiques par l’Ecole combinatoire de C. F. Hindenburg (1741-1808)

    OpenAIRE

    Séguin, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Cari Friedrich Hindenburg (1741-1808), le fondateur de la « prétendue Ecole combinatoire » (Eugen Netto), est un personnage largement oublié aujourd’hui. Pourtant, le Dictionary of Scientific Biography lui consacre un article. Il est vrai que l’Ecole combinatoire eut un grand succès en Allemagne à la fin du 18ème siècle, mais seulement en Allemagne, puis elle tomba en discrédit.En fait, l’Ecole combinatoire ne se proposait rien moins que de fonder l’analyse — et si possible toutes les mathéma...

  13. La huella ecológica del cultivo del olivo en España y su aplicabilidad como indicador de agricultura sostenible

    OpenAIRE

    E. Hernández Laguna; F. López Bermúdez; F. Alonso Sarría; C. Conesa García; Álvarez Rogel, Y.

    2004-01-01

    El cultivo del olivo ocupa vastas superficies en las tierras mediterráneas constituyendo parte esencial de su paisaje. Es el principal cultivo arbóreo mediterráneo y de España, con grandes repercusiones ecológicas, socio-económicas y culturales. Con el objetivo de determinar la sostenibilidad ecológica del cultivo, y el riesgo de desertificación, se aplica el cálculo del indicador de huella ecológica (HE), se lo compara con la biocapacidad (BP) del olivar en el campo español y ...

  14. Evolving views of public land values and management of natural resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas M. Quigley

    2005-01-01

    In 2005, the USDA Forest Service celebrates its 100th birthday. For a century, this agency has been charged with managing much of the Nation's forests.and rangelands in the public interest. From its humble beginnings with a handful of employees and a clearly stated vision, today the agency's 35,000 employees are responsible for managing more than 190 million...

  15. The usefullness of ERTS-1 and supporting aircraft data for monitoring plant development in rangeland environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneggie, D. M.; Degloria, S. D.

    1972-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Preliminary analysis of ERTS-1 MSS imagery of annual and perennial rangeland in California yields the following observations: (1) Sufficient geomorphological detail can be resolved to differentiate upland and bottomland range sites in the foothill range areas. (2) Dry and green meadowland can be differentiated on MSS band 5. (3) Color composites prepared by NASA-Goddard were useful for locating perennial rangeland with varying amounts of herbaceous ground cover. (4) The ERTS-1 images received and interpreted cover nearly 50% of the state of California and show nearly two-thirds of the annual grassland type. (5) Satellite imagery obtained during the late summer season should be optimum for differentiating grassland from brushland and forested land. (6) The ERTS-1 imagery clearly shows areas which at one time were part of the annual grassland but which are now used for dry land farming (cropping of cereal grains). Similarly, the imagery show areas which have been converted from brushland to grassland.

  16. Multispectral Remote Sensing from Unmanned Aircraft: Image Processing Workflows and Applications for Rangeland Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Rango

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Using unmanned aircraft systems (UAS as remote sensing platforms offers the unique ability for repeated deployment for acquisition of high temporal resolution data at very high spatial resolution. Multispectral remote sensing applications from UAS are reported in the literature less commonly than applications using visible bands, although light-weight multispectral sensors for UAS are being used increasingly. . In this paper, we describe challenges and solutions associated with efficient processing of multispectral imagery to obtain orthorectified, radiometrically calibrated image mosaics for the purpose of rangeland vegetation classification. We developed automated batch processing methods for file conversion, band-to-band registration, radiometric correction, and orthorectification. An object-based image analysis approach was used to derive a species-level vegetation classification for the image mosaic with an overall accuracy of 87%. We obtained good correlations between: (1 ground and airborne spectral reflectance (R2 = 0.92; and (2 spectral reflectance derived from airborne and WorldView-2 satellite data for selected vegetation and soil targets. UAS-acquired multispectral imagery provides quality high resolution information for rangeland applications with the potential for upscaling the data to larger areas using high resolution satellite imagery.

  17. Estimating Rangeland Vegetation Frequency & Density Using Low-altitude Aerial Photographs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Royan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing and aerial photography are means of exploring, studying and estimating vegetation variables such as species frequency and density in forests and rangelands. Common remote sensing images usually offer general information about vegetation parameters. For detailed information about vegetation (e.g. estimation of vegetation density and/or frequency, larger scale images are needed. The present research was conducted to estimate the density of rangeland vegetation in Inche Boroon area, north of Gorgan city. Using aerial photographs acquired from digital camera mounted on a tittered balloon in different flight altitudes, density and frequency of the main shrub species of the studied region, Halocnemum strobilaceum, were estimated on photographs at different scales (from 1:50 – to 1:1000 and were compared with field measurements. Results showed no significant difference between the field and image estimation of density below 1:600 (heights lower than 75 m but at lower scales the difference was significant. No significant difference between field and image estimation of shrub frequency was also observed up to the scale of 1:1000. Due to the wider field of view of photographs at smaller scales, flight heights of 75 m and 130 m are thus suggested as the appropriate heights to estimate Halocnemum strobilaceum density and frequency respectively in the study area.

  18. An overview of the rangelands atmosphere hydrosphere biosphere interaction study experiment in northeastern Asia (RAISE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugita, Michiaki; Asanuma, Jun; Tsujimura, Maki; Mariko, Shigeru; Lu, Minjiao; Kimura, Fujio; Azzaya, Dolgorsuren; Adyasuren, Tsokhio

    2007-01-01

    SummaryIntensive observations, analysis and modeling within the framework of the rangelands atmosphere-hydrosphere-biosphere interaction study experiment in northeastern Asia (RAISE) project, have allowed investigations into the hydrologic cycle in the ecotone of forest-steppe, and its relation to atmosphere and ecosystem in the eastern part of Mongolia. In this region, changes in the climate have been reported and a market oriented economy was introduced recently, but their impact on the natural environment is still not well understood. In this RAISE special issue, the outcome is presented of the studies carried out by six groups within RAISE, namely: (1) Land-atmosphere interaction analysis, (2) ecosystem analysis and modeling, (3) hydrologic cycle analysis, (4) climatic modeling, (5) hydrologic modeling, and (6) integration. The results are organized in five relevant categories comprising (i) hydrologic cycle including precipitation, groundwater, and surface water, (ii) hydrologic cycle and ecosystem, (iii) surface-atmosphere interaction, (iv) effect of grazing activities on soils, plant ecosystem and surface fluxes, and (v) future prediction. Comparison with studies on rangelands in other parts of the world, and some future directions of studies still needed in this region are also summarized.

  19. Abandoned seasonal livestock migration reflected by plant functional traits: A case study in Kyrgyz rangelands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppe, Franziska; Zhusui Kyzy, Taalaigul; Usupbaev, Adilet; Schickoff, Udo

    2017-04-01

    At least 30% of Kyrgyz pasture areas are considered to be subject to vegetation and soil degradation. Since animal husbandry is the economic basis to sustain people's livelihoods, rangeland degradation presents a threat for the majority of the population. Recently, the usage of plant functional traits as a powerful tool for the characterization of vegetation dynamics in response to anthropogenic and natural disturbances has been put forward. Grazing is one of the most severe disturbances on vegetation, which concerns equally the loss of area and biomass. Because grazing is both depending on and affecting plant functional traits, important insights can be generated, based on this codependency. We hypothesized that the contrasting grazing intensity of summer and winter pastures is reflected by the chosen traits. We used traits such as plant height, flowering start, growth form as well as SLA (Specific Leaf Area) and LMA (Leaf Mass per Area). Based on former phytosociological classification of the main pasture types (summer and winter pastures), community structure and the traits of dominant plant species were analyzed. Our results showed that on winter pastures grazing decreased plant height and SLA and favored plants with an earlier flowering start as well as rosette plants and ascending plants. We conclude that the study of trait composition in relation to anthropogenic disturbances can provide important insights into the mechanism of plant response to grazing in high-altitude rangelands.

  20. Using activated carbon to limit herbicide effects to seeded bunchgrass when revegetating annual grass-invaded rangelands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revegetation of exotic annual grass-invaded rangelands is challenging as annuals rapidly reinvade after control treatments. The most effective control of exotic annual grass is usually achieved with pre-emergent herbicides, however, species seeded simultaneously with these herbicides will likely ex...

  1. Scientific background for soil monitoring on National Forests and Rangelands: workshop proceedings; April 29-30, 2008; Denver, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah Page-Dumroese; Daniel Neary; Carl Trettin

    2010-01-01

    This workshop was developed to determine the state-of-the-science for soil monitoring on National Forests and Rangelands. We asked international experts in the field of soil monitoring, soil monitoring indicators, and basic forest soil properties to describe the limits of our knowledge and the ongoing studies that are providing new information. This workshop and the...

  2. Small mammalian herbivores as mediators of plant community dynamics in the high-altitude arid rangelands of Trans-Himalaya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bagchi, S.; Namgail, T.; Ritchie, M.E.

    2006-01-01

    The high-altitude rangelands of the Trans-Himalaya represent a grazing ecosystem which has supported an indigenous pastoral community for millennia alongside a diverse assemblage of wild herbivores including burrowing mammals (pikas and voles). Pastoralists consider the small mammals to cause

  3. Estimating grass nutrients and biomass as an indicator of rangeland (forage) quality and quantity using remote sensing in Savanna ecosystems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ramoelo, Abel

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available and grass quantity, respectively. The objective of the study is to estimate and map leaf N and biomass as an indicator of rangeland quality and quantity using vegetation indices derived from one RapidEye image taken at peak productivity. The study...

  4. New Cropland on Former Rangeland and Lost Cropland from Urban Development: The “Replacement Land” Debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa A. Emili

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a land use/land cover change analysis method was developed to examine patterns of land use/land cover conversions of cropland to urban uses and conversions of rangeland to cropland uses in the United States (US Midwest region. We used the US 2001 and 2006 National Land Cover Datasets (NLCD for our spatial analyses of these conversion trends. Our analysis showed that the eastern part of the Midwest, like prior periods, continued to experience losses of cropland to urban expansion but at a much more rapid rate, as this was during an expansion phase of the US real estate construction cycle. The period showed a very small net loss of cropland as the loss was being balanced by gains in cropland at the expense of rangeland lost in the western part of the Midwest. We refer to this rangeland to cropland conversion as “replacement land”. We do not suggest by replacement that there is a signal in the system that interconnects the loss of a hectare of cropland to urban land by converting a hectare of rangeland to cropland, rather we highlight this spatial trend as it raises concerns about the environmental sustainability of agriculture in the western part of the region, as production is dependent on the use of irrigation and the already stressed High Plains aquifer.

  5. Effects of feral free-roaming horses on semi-arid rangeland ecosystems: an example from the sagebrush steppe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feral horses (Equus caballus) are viewed as a symbol of freedom and power; however, they are also a largely unmanaged, non-native grazer in North America, South America, and Australia. Information on their influence on vegetation and soil characteristics in semi-arid rangelands has been limited by ...

  6. Variation of terpenes in milk and cultured cream from Norwegian alpine rangeland-fed and in-door fed cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borge, Grethe Iren A; Sandberg, Ellen; Øyaas, Jorun; Abrahamsen, Roger K

    2016-05-15

    The terpene content of milk and cream made from milk obtained from cows fed indoors, and by early or late grazing, in alpine rangeland farms in Norway, were analysed for three consecutive years. The main terpenes identified and semi-quantified were the monoterpenes β-pinene, α-pinene, α-thujene, camphene, sabinene, δ-3-carene, d-limonene, γ-terpinene, camphor, β-citronellene, and the sesquiterpene β-caryophyllene. The average total terpene content increased five times during the alpine rangeland feeding period. The terpenes α-thujene, sabinene, γ-terpinene and β-citronellene were only detected in milk and cultured cream from the alpine rangeland feeding period and not in samples from the indoors feeding period. These four terpenes could be used, as indicators, to show that milk and cultured cream originate from the alpine rangeland feeding period. The terpenes did not influence the sensorial quality of the milk or the cultured cream. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Simulating soil moisture change in a semiarid rangeland watershed with a process-based water-balance model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard Evan Canfield; Vicente L. Lopes

    2000-01-01

    A process-based, simulation model for evaporation, soil water and streamflow (BROOK903) was used to estimate soil moisture change on a semiarid rangeland watershed in southeastern Arizona. A sensitivity analysis was performed to select parameters affecting ET and soil moisture for calibration. Automatic parameter calibration was performed using a procedure based on a...

  8. Expected net benefit of vaccinating rangeland sheep against bluetongue virus using a modified-live versus killed virus vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recurring outbreaks of bluetongue virus in large rangeland sheep flocks in the Intermountain West of the United States have prompted questions about the economic benefits and costs of vaccinating individual flocks against bluetongue disease. We use enterprise budgets and stochastic simulation to est...

  9. Symbiotic fungi that influence vigor, biomass and reproductive potential of native bunch grasses for remediation of degraded semiarid rangelands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerry R. Barrow; Mary E. Lucero; Isaac Reyes-Vera

    2008-01-01

    A steady decline of perennial bunch grasses in arid rangelands has resulted in losses of productivity and germplasm. Remediation is costly and rarely successful. Cryptic symbiotic fungi, structurally integrated with cells and organs of native plants cannot be separated from host plant tissue. However, they were successfully transferred from cell cultures of native...

  10. Common garden comparisons of reproductive, forage and weed suppression potential of rangeland rehabilitation grasses of the Great Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Common garden experiments are a means to remove environmental effects. Using 8 species of perennial rangeland grasses, we established a common garden (3 reps x28 plants = 84 plants/species). We found that ‘Hycrest’ crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum) and bluebunch wheatgrass (Pseudoroegneria sp...

  11. Evaluating the Effects of Government Policy and Drought from 1984 to 2009 on Rangeland in the Three Rivers Source Region of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingshui Lu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Three Rivers Source Region of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is a key area that has extensive impacts on much of the population and economy of China as well as several Southeast Asian countries. The rangeland in this area has undergone degradation, the driving factors of which have been extensively investigated in previous studies. However, the effect of policy on rangeland was not analyzed by subdividing the study period according to the timing of the rangeland policies. The role of dry conditions during the process of degradation has not been studied. Therefore, the period from 1984 to 2009 was subdivided into five periods according to the timing of the relevant government policies based on long-term field investigation. The mean annual normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI and its relationship to dry conditions, policy, temperature, precipitation, and moisture index were analyzed for the five periods. According to our analysis, dry conditions mainly occurred in non-vegetation-growing months, and they did not affect the status of the rangeland. The privatization of rangeland and livestock caused the number of livestock to increase, resulting in a decrease in the mean annual NDVI from 1984 to 1993. The policies of “Green-to-Grain” and eco-migration caused livestock numbers to decrease and the NDVI to increase after 1994. Physical factors such as temperature, precipitation, and moisture also affected the status of the rangeland. Increased temperature had positive effects on rangeland in most areas, but its effect was offset by increased numbers of livestock from 1984 to 1993. Precipitation had positive effects only in drier areas in which the precipitation in the vegetation-growing months was less than 400 mm. In general, the policies of “Green-to-Grain” and eco-migration improved the status of rangeland, and helped improve sustainable use of the rangeland. The methods used in this study could be applied to other case studies of

  12. Historical soil erosion rates in rangelands of SW Spain determined using botanical evidences and high resolution 3D data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnabel, Susanne; Rubio-Delgado, Judit; Gómez-Gutiérrez, Álvaro

    2014-05-01

    The estimation of medium-term sheet erosion rates represents still a challenge in areas with long land use history. In the present paper, a new methodology for estimating medium-term sheet erosion rates is presented and applied in a wooded rangeland (dehesa). This human-induced semi-natural ecosystem is widespread in SW Iberian Peninsula and is characterized by centuries of agrosilvopastoral land use, being livestock breeding the most important economic activity at present. Vast areas are covered by shallow and poor soils, pointing to a long history of soil erosion. Research carried out in a representative area with open plots revealed low soil loss rates and degradation studies showed high spatial variation related with land use intensity. Knowledge on past soil erosion rates and its relation with land use is necessary in order to understand present soil properties and also for giving adequate advice on land management. The present paper presents results of a pilot study on historical soil erosion in Mediterranean wooded rangelands. The methodology is based on the analysis of the morphology of tree stems, exposed roots and surface micro-topography using data obtained with a Terrestrial Laser Scanner. Specifically, botanical evidences were used to estimate the antecedent level of the soil surface. Afterwards, previous and current surfaces were confronted in order to obtain a volume of soil loss in the area influenced by the tree canopy, as well as for the open spaces. On the other hand, the age of the trees in the study area was estimated by means of an existing tree growth model. Finally, soil erosion rates were calculated using the volume of soil loss and the estimated age of every tree. The sampling was carried out in a farm in the Spanish province of Cáceres, with a two-layered vegetation, of grasses and scattered trees (Quercus ilex). Climate is Mediterranean with mean annual temperature of 160C and an annual rainfall of 620 mm. Soils are very shallow

  13. Cuidado ecológico: o significado para profissionais de um hospital geral Cuidado ecológico: el significado para profesionales de un hospital general Ecological care: meaning for health care professionals from a general hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marli Terezinha Stein Backes

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Compreender à luz do pensamento complexo, o significado do cuidado ecológico e como este vem sendo associado à prática de profissionais que trabalham em um hospital geral. MÉTODOS: Estudo descritivo de natureza qualitativa realizado com 15 profissionais que atuam em três diferentes setores: Serviço de Lavanderia, Serviço de Nutrição e uma Unidade de Internação. Os dados foram coletados por meio de um questionário semi-estruturado e submetidos à análise de conteúdo proposta por Bardin. RESULTADOS: As categorias encontradas foram: Significando o cuidado ecológico, Salientando a importância do cuidado ecológico para a prática profissional e Medidas preventivas em saúde associadas ao cuidado ecológico. CONCLUSÕES: O estudo evidenciou que existe uma preocupação geral, ainda que incipiente, a respeito da problemática ambiental. A preocupação principal está relacionada à separação, reciclagem e destino adequado do lixo, mesmo que alguns profissionais tenham sinalizado para a importância de medidas preventivas como a lavagem das mãos, utilização de produtos biodegradáveis, entre outros.OBJETIVO: Comprender a La luz del pensamiento complejo, el significado del cuidado ecológico y cómo éste viene siendo asociado a la práctica de profesionales que trabajan en un hospital general. MÉTODOS: Estudio descriptivo de naturaleza cualitativa realizado con 15 profesionales que actúan en tres diferentes sectores: Servicio de Lavandería, Servicio de Nutrición y una Unidad de Internamiento. Los datos fueron recolectados por medio de un cuestionario semi-estructurado y sometidos al análisis de contenido propuesto por Bardin. RESULTADOS: Las categorías encontradas fueron: Significando el cuidado ecológico, resaltando la importancia del cuidado ecológico para la práctica profesional y Medidas preventivas en salud asociadas al cuidado ecológico. CONCLUSIONES: El estudio evidenció que existe una preocupaci

  14. Future Rangeland Ecosystems in the Dryland Belt of Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Jiaguo

    2015-04-01

    One of the greatest challenges humans are facing is sustainably managing water and land resources under changing global environment. This issue is especially pertinent in dryland belt in Asia where freshwater is scarce and shared among many nations. The region is heavily dependent on the diminishing Himalayan glaciers and limited and changing precipitation patterns. With increasing climate variability and a regional warming trend water security issues are acute and if not properly addressed could affect regional stability and lead to international conflicts. Solutions to these urgent regional issues are lacking and further research efforts are needed. Adaptive strategies addressing the complex and multifaceted water resource issues in the region will require a co-design and co-delivery of knowledge specific to the region and must consider exogenous factors such as policies of neighbouring countries and changing precipitation patterns due to climate change. There is a need to determine and fund scientific research priorities and practical approaches co-developed by local stakeholders and scientists to change the region's paradigm to "science for society". This presentation will summarize the collective outcome from a focused group discussion at the international workshop on "Future Earth and Science for Society" to be held from February 25-27, 2015 at Michigan State University, including knowledge gaps, research priorities, a general framework and international collaborations to move forward to addressing the future of the dyrland belt of Asia.

  15. Sustentabilidade: mantra ou escolha moral? uma abordagem ecológico-econômica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clóvis Cavalcanti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Qual é o tamanho ótimo da escala econômica que a natureza pode admitir? A questão requer que se esteja falando de uma situação em que a economia seja vista como subsistema do ecossistema. É assim que a economia ecológica percebe a realidade e é nessa óptica que se configura o conceito de sustentabilidade ecológica. O impacto ambiental do crescimento sobre os recursos e sumidouros da natureza tem que ser contido dentro de limites. A noção usual de sustentabilidade, porém, dá a impressão de se ter convertido numa espécie de mantra da atualidade, sem maior compromisso. Mudanças no sistema econômico são inevitáveis como forma de adaptação às restrições que o processo econômico confronta. Cabe indagar o que é que se deseja sustentar e em que escala de tempo. À sociedade cumpre escolher a mudança a se fazer: uma escolha moral.What is the optimum scale of the economy compatible with nature? This question asks for consideration of the economy as a subsystem of the ecosystem. Ecological economics adopts that perspective permitting that the concept of environmental sustainability be established. This implies that the environmental impact of growth on the source and sink functions of nature be contained within limits. The usual notion of sustainability, however, gives the impression of having been transformed into a kind of today's mantra, without serious obligations. Changes in the economic system are unavoidable as a means of adaptation to the restrictions that the economic process encounters. This requires knowing what it is to be sustained and in within which time scale. The duty of choosing the changes to be made must be ascribed to society: a moral choice.

  16. Dimensiones ecológicas de la familia: La situación social de los niños

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Réjean Tessier

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available El artículo trata de la situación social de las familias y los niños. El autor usa el paradigma ecológico que intenta comprender el comportamiento como la resultante de un intercambio mutuo y recíproco entre el organismo y el medio. Partiendo de datos estadísticos de la OMS y UNICEF trata de demostrar las consecuencias posibles de ciertas situaciones sociales y del contexto demográfico sobre las oportunidades de desarrollo de los niños. Se destaca la importancia de los diferentes niveles de las dimensiones ecológicas de la familia y se alerta sobre los efectos nocivos que tienen en los niños la pobreza extrema y las condiciones familiares de gran adversidad.

  17. Metabolismo urbano y apropiación de excedentes ecológicos. De la estepa a la arquitectura burguesa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Inostroza Pino

    2015-03-01

    Esta relación entre sociedad y naturaleza, dejó profundas huellas de organización y complejidad en Punta Arenas, conectada metabólicamente con las formas de explotación territorial y apropiación de la estepa. El coirón patagónico y la arquitectura burguesa, principio y fin de la misma cadena productiva, corresponden a las fases inicial y terminal de un proceso de apropiación social de los excedentes ecológicos. Como flujo metabólico, el excedente es ecológico en su origen y social en su evolución.

  18. Custos de formalização institucional de Sistemas Agroindustriais Familiares de Base Ecológica - SAFES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Gazolla

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi mensurar quanto e quais são os custos de produção de sistemas agroindustriais familiares que possuem a agricultura ecológica como base de reprodução social. Neste sentido, foram relacionados, sempre comparativamente, indicadores de desempenho econômico das situações de formalidade e informalidade institucional das experiências investigadas. As perguntas que guiaram a pesquisa foram: quanto e quais são os custos para viabilizar um sistema agroindustrial ecológico nas situações de formalidade e informalidade institucional? Haveria diferenças monetárias significativas? Dentro disso, qual seria o custo da certificação orgânica? A pesquisa foi desenvolvida na Regional da EMATER de Frederico Westphalen/RS, onde foram investigadas doze iniciativas, utilizando-se do aporte teórico-metodológico de avaliação econômica dos sistemas de produção. De maneira geral, os resultados evidenciam que os sistemas agroindustriais familiares ecológicos possuem menores custos de produção em situação de informalidade por um lado e, de outro, que seu valor agregado e renda agroindustrial também se elevam quando estes não seguem as legislações agroalimentares emanadas do Estado, em diferentes níveis territoriais.

  19. Mapping and modelling trade-offs and synergies between grazing intensity and ecosystem services in rangelands using global-scale datasets and models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petz, K.; Alkemade, J.R.M.; Bakkenes, M.; Schulp, C.J.E.; van der Velde, M.; Leemans, R.

    2014-01-01

    Vast areas of rangelands across the world are grazed with increasing intensity, but interactions between livestock production, biodiversity and other ecosystem services are poorly studied. This study explicitly determines trade-offs and synergies between ecosystem services and livestock grazing

  20. Site Productivity and Plant Size Explain the Response of Annual Species to Grazing Exclusion in a Mediterranean Semi-Arid Rangeland

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yagil Osem; Avi Perevolotsky; Jaime Kigel

    2004-01-01

    1 The response of an annual plant community to protection from grazing as a function of variation in site productivity was studied in a semi-arid Mediterranean rangeland in Israel over 4 years (1996-99...

  1. Grazing Effect on Diversity of Annual Plant Communities in a Semi-Arid Rangeland: Interactions with Small-Scale Spatial and Temporal Variation in Primary Productivity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yagil Osem; Avi Perevolotsky; Jaime Kigel

    2002-01-01

    1 The interactive effect of grazing and small-scale variation in primary productivity on the diversity of an annual plant community was studied in a semiarid Mediterranean rangeland in Israel over 4 years...

  2. Advances in Predicting Soil Erosion After Fire Using the Rangeland Hydrology and Erosion Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hamdan, Osama Z.; Pierson, Frederick B.; Nearing, Mark A.; Williams, C. Jason; Hernandez, Mariano; Boll, Jan; Nouwakpo, Sayjro; Weltz, Mark A.; Spaeth, Kenneth E.

    2017-04-01

    The magnitude of erosion from a hillslope is governed by the availability of sediment and connectivity of overland flow and erosion processes. For undisturbed conditions, sediment is mainly detached and transported by rainsplash and sheetflow (splash-sheet) processes in bare batches, but sediment generally only travels a short distance before deposition. On recently disturbed sites (e.g., after fire), bare ground is more extensive and runoff and erosion rates are higher relative to undisturbed conditions. Increased erosion following disturbance occurs largely due to a shift from splash-sheet to concentrated-flow-dominated processes. On long-disturbed sites (e.g., after woody plant encroachment), years of soil loss can limit sediment availability and soil erosion. In contrast, recently burned landscapes typically have ample sediment available and generate high erosion rates. This presentation highlights recent advancements in hillslope erosion prediction by the Rangeland Hydrology and Erosion Model (RHEM) that accommodate recently burned conditions. The RHEM tool is a process-based model that was developed specifically for predicting hillslope runoff and erosion on rangeland ecosystems. The advancements presented here include development of empirical equations to predict erodibility parameters for conditions in which erosion by concentrated flow processes is limited (by runoff or sediment availability) and an erodibility parameter for conditions in which erosion by concentrated flow processes is the dominant erosion mechanism and sediment is amply available (burned conditions). The data used for developing and evaluating the erodibility parameter equations were obtained from rainfall simulation databases maintained by the USDA-Agricultural Research Service. The data span undisturbed, long-disturbed, and recently burned conditions. For undisturbed and long-disturbed conditions, a regression analysis was applied to derive the relationship between splash

  3. Sahelian rangeland response to changes in rainfall over two decades in the Gourma region, Mali

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiernaux, Pierre; Mougin, Eric; Diarra, Lassine; Soumaguel, Nogmana; Lavenu, François; Tracol, Yann; Diawara, Mamadou

    2009-08-01

    SummaryTwenty-five rangeland sites were monitored over two decades (1984-2006) first to assess the impact of the 1983-1984 droughts on fodder resources, then to better understand ecosystem functioning and dynamics. Sites are sampled along the south-north bioclimatic gradient in Gourma (Mali), within three main edaphic situations: sandy, loamy-clay and shallow soils. In addition, three levels of grazing pressure where systematically sampled within sandy soils. Located at the northern edge of the area reached by the West African monsoon, the Gourma gradient has recorded extremes in inter-annual variations of rainfall and resulting variations in vegetation growth. Following rainfall variability, inter-annual variability of herbaceous yield increases as climate gets dryer with latitudes at least on the sandy soils sites. Local redistribution of rainfall explains the high patchiness of herbaceous vegetation, especially on shallow soils. Yet spatial heterogeneity of the vegetation does not buffer between year yield variability that increases with spatial heterogeneity. At short term, livestock grazing during the wet season affects plant growth and thus yield in direction and proportions that vary with the timing and intensity of grazing. In the longer term, grazing also impinges upon species composition in many ways. Hence, long histories of heavy grazing promote either long cycle annuals refused by livestock or else short cycle good quality feed species. Primary production is maintained or even increased in the case of refusal such as Sida cordifolia, and is lessened in the case of short cycle species such as Zornia glochidiata. These behaviours explain that the yield anomalies calculated for the rangelands on sandy soils relative to the yield of site less grazed under similar climate tend to be negative in northern Sahel where the scenario of short cycle species dominates, while yield anomalies are close to nil in centre Sahel and slightly positive in South Sahel where

  4. Corredor ecológico Llanganates-Sangay: Un acercamiento hacia su manejo y funcionalidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorki Ríos Alvear

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available El Corredor Ecológico Llanganates Sangay (CELS es considerado un refugio emblemático de flora y fauna, debido a su estratégica ubicación geográfica que alberga variedad de microcuencas, hábitats y paisajes. Debido a la reciente conformación del CELS existe escasez de información acerca de su composición y funcionamiento, por lo que consideramos imperante la necesidad de generar estudios específicos de cada taxa, para determinar el uso de los corredores para la dispersión de fauna y disponibilidad de recursos que permitan identificar áreas de uso y refugio, así como los requerimientos mínimos de hábitat que garanticen la presencia de cada especie en particular. El fortalecimiento y creación de biocorredores constituyen alternativas para transformar las actividades productivas extractivas por prácticas de mejoramiento ambiental, que permitan incentivar acciones de turismo y conservación en las zonas de amortiguamiento de las áreas protegidas, éste debe ser el desafío del CELS.

  5. La perspectiva ecológica y la hipermediatización social

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Andrés Vizer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La “ecología” de los medios no debe ser concebida como una especie de entorno que nos rodea y del cual somos el “centro”, sino como un sistema de producción, circulación y consumo en el cual son los individuos, en tanto consumidores y (realimentadores del sistema, los que conforman su “entorno”. Un abordaje ecológico de los medios tradicionales (radio, cine y televisión introduce a los públicos consumidores como su entorno, y no al contrario (¿quién consume a quién?. Un entorno, un mercado que a través de prácticas de consumo realimenta al sistema de medios. Por otro lado, en los sistemas digitales, todos somos parte de él, no hay entorno externo, y cada acto de consumo es igualmente un acto de circulación y de producción. Para conocer la incidencia profunda de un dispositivo técnico (sea hard o soft, debemos indagar sobre las múltiples dimensiones interligadas e interactivas dentro del ambiente en el que opera: poder, resistencias, tiempo y espacio, socialidades, lenguajes, símbolos.

  6. Un estudio ecológico sobre tuberculosis en un municipio de Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molina Serpa Ivette

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Se aplica un estudio ecológico para analizar la incidencia de tuberculosis en el municipio Marianao de la provincia Ciudad de La Habana de la República de Cuba en el período 1995-2000. Se realiza una caracterización de tal incidencia, se identifican patrones de distribución espacial y se determina la relación existente entre los niveles de incidencia de tuberculosis y factores del medio ambiente socioeconómico. La unidad espacial considerada son los 29 barrios del municipio Marianao. Entre otros resultados se identifica un patrón de barrios con tasas altas en la región central del municipio. Las tasas de incidencia se hallan significativamente asociadas de forma directa con el porcentaje de familias con problemas disfuncionales y con el porcentaje de población con determinados niveles de hacinamiento, y de manera inversa con la densidad poblacional, y no se encuentran significativamente asociadas ni con los niveles de educación, ni con el estado de la vivienda predominantes en el barrio.

  7. Un estudio ecológico sobre tuberculosis en un municipio de Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivette Molina Serpa

    Full Text Available Se aplica un estudio ecológico para analizar la incidencia de tuberculosis en el municipio Marianao de la provincia Ciudad de La Habana de la República de Cuba en el período 1995-2000. Se realiza una caracterización de tal incidencia, se identifican patrones de distribución espacial y se determina la relación existente entre los niveles de incidencia de tuberculosis y factores del medio ambiente socioeconómico. La unidad espacial considerada son los 29 barrios del municipio Marianao. Entre otros resultados se identifica un patrón de barrios con tasas altas en la región central del municipio. Las tasas de incidencia se hallan significativamente asociadas de forma directa con el porcentaje de familias con problemas disfuncionales y con el porcentaje de población con determinados niveles de hacinamiento, y de manera inversa con la densidad poblacional, y no se encuentran significativamente asociadas ni con los niveles de educación, ni con el estado de la vivienda predominantes en el barrio.

  8. Managing the unexpected in prescribed fire and fire use operations: a workshop on the High Reliability Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul (tech. ed.) Keller

    2004-01-01

    Fire management, and forest and rangeland fuels management, over the past century have altered the wildland fire situation dramatically, thus also altering the institutional approach to how to deal with the changing landscape. Also, climate change, extended drought, increased insect and disease outbreaks, and invasions of exotic plant species have added complications...

  9. The influence of land use and cover changes on the pastoral rangeland systems of southern Ethiopia : how much woody cover is enough?

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed, Hasen Yusuf

    2014-01-01

    The Borana rangelands in southern Ethiopia are facing deterioration caused by intensification of grazing and woody plant encroachment, resulting in marked reductions in pastoral production. This process affects the food security and livelihoods of the Borana pastoral people negatively. Woody plant encroachment might result in an increase in carbon (C) storage in these rangelands, which represents an important aspect for climate change mitigation potentials. However, it is unclear how much C i...

  10. Enclosing the commons: reasons for the adoption and adaptation of enclosures in the arid and semi-arid rangelands of Chepareria, Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Wairore, John N; Stephen M. Mureithi; Wasonga, Oliver V; Nyberg, Gert

    2015-01-01

    The adoption and adaptation of enclosures in the arid and semi-arid rangelands of sub-Saharan Africa is driven and sustained by a combination of factors. However, reviews indicate that these factors cannot be generalized, as they tend to be case specific. A study was therefore conducted to explore the history and reasons for enclosure establishment in Chepareria, a formerly degraded communal rangeland in north-western Kenya. While Vi-Agroforestry Organization accounting for 52.5?% was the mai...

  11. Environmental factors governing population dynamics of rangeland grasshoppers: The first application of GIS and remote sensing to acridology in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latchininsky, Alexandre Vsevolodovich

    Grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Acrididae) are pests of rangeland and crops in temperate Eurasia (Siberia) where landscapes are dominated by short-grass vegetation and have many common features with the prairies of the Great Plains of North America. The zone of economic importance of grasshoppers in Siberia is localized in its southern part between 50° and 55°N and 68° and 132°E. In particular, grasshopper infestations are concentrated in close proximity to Lake Baikal, the world's deepest lake, holding one-fifth of the Earth's total fresh water supply. From a biodiversity perspective, Lake Baikal is unparalleled because >80% of its 1,085 plant and 1,550 animal species are endemic. Broad-scale pesticide applications in the zone close to the Baikal ecosystem can seriously aggravate the hazards of environmental pollution, with potentially catastrophic consequences on a vast scale. Specific composition and density of grasshopper communities were studied over a variety of habitats. Of about 50 local grasshopper species, two gomphocerines, Aeropus sibiricus and Chorthippus albomarginatus, dominated grasshopper communities in dry and mesic habitats, respectively. These species accounted for the most of the crop damage during recent outbreaks in the 1990s requiring large-scale insecticidal control. Annual fluctuations of grasshopper infestations appeared to track changes in air temperature and summer precipitation, but only a synthetic "Aridity index" was statistically significant. Spatial distribution of historic grasshopper infestations was studied using GIS (ERDAS IMAGINERTM) and remote sensing (Landsat TM satellite imagery) and was found to be significantly clumped. The highest grasshopper densities were associated with dry grasslands in transitional zones between foothills and valleys characterized by a particular elevation (600--650 m), soil type (sod-forest, or pararendzina), amount of April--October precipitation (250 mm) and degree of grazing (moderate

  12. Influences of forest and rangeland management on salmonid fishes and their habitats

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Meehan, William R

    1991-01-01

    Contents : Stream ecosystems - Salmonid distributions and life histories - Habitat requirements of salmonids in streams - Natural processes - Timber harvesting, silvicultrue and watershed processes - Forest...

  13. Factors controlling gully erosion at different spatial and temporal scales in rangelands of SW Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Gutiérrez, Á.; Schnabel, S.; Lavado Contador, J. F.; Pulido Fernández, M.

    2009-04-01

    Gully erosion has been recognized as an important soil degradation process in rangelands of SW Spain. However, little is known about gullying processes at different spatial and temporal scales in these areas. Three different approaches were used in this paper to analyze the factors determining gully erosion intensity and rates at different spatial and temporal scales in rangelands of SW Spain. The first approach was based on the monitoring of a permanent valley bottom gully and continuous measurement of rainfall and discharge during the period 2001-2007 in the Parapuños experimental basin. Parapuños is a small catchment (99.5 ha) representative of dehesa land use, with an undulated topography and Mediterranean climate. Gully erosion volume was obtained by means of 28 fixed cross sections measured with a frequency of 6 months. Discharge and rainfall were monitored using a water depth probe installed in a weir at the outlet of the catchment and 6 tipping bucket rain gauges, respectively. The second approach was based on analyzing the development of the same permanent gully located in Parapuños using six series of aerial ortophotographs for the period 1945-2006. This methodology allowed to relate gully evolution with land use and vegetation cover changes. Finally, a relatively new data mining technique, called Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines (MARS), was applied to construct a model capable of predicting the location of gullies at the regional scale. A large database composed of 36 independent variables related to topography, lithology, soils, rainfall, land use and vegetation cover was used. This statistical technique allowed to determine the importance of the variables involved. This database was gathered in 46 farms representative of rangelands of SW Spain in Extremadura, covering a surface area of 35,459 ha. Farms were quite diverse although their main characteristics were undulating landforms, acid rocks (schists, greywackes and granites), and

  14. Unmanned Aircraft Systems Used over Western U.S. Rangelands to Characterize Terrestrial Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rango, A.

    2015-12-01

    New remote sensing methods to quantify terrestrial ecosystems have developed rapidly over the past 10 years. New platforms with improved aeronautical capabilities have become known as Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS). In addition to the new aircraft, sensors are becoming smaller and some can fit into limited payload bays. The miniaturization process is well underway, but much remains to be done. Rather than using a wide variety of sensors, a limited number of instruments is recommended. At the moment we fly 2-3 instruments (digital SLR camera, 6-band multispectral camera, and single video camera). Our flights are primarily over low population density western U.S. rangeland with objectives to assess rangeland health, active erosion, vegetation change, phenology, livestock movement, and vegetation type consumed by grazing animals. All of our UAS flights are made using a serpentine flight path with overlapping images at an altitude of 700 ft (215 m). This altitude allows hyperspatial imagery with a resolution of 5-15 cm depending upon the sensor being used, and it allows determination of vegetation type based on the plant structure and vegetation geometries, or by multispectral analysis. In addition to advances in aircraft and sensor technology, image processing software has become more sophisticated. Future development is necessary, and we can expect improvement in sensors, aircraft, data collection, and application to terrestrial ecosystems. Of 17 ARS research laboratories across the country four laboratories are interested in future UAS applications and another 13 already have at least one UAS. In 2015 the Federal Aviation Administration proposed a framework of recommendations that would allow routine use of certain small UAS (those weighing less than 55 lb (25 kg)). Although these new regulations will provide increased flexibility in how flights are made, other operations will still require the use of a Certificate of Authorization.

  15. Hospitality Management: Learning, Doing, Knowing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Muller

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Is there something distinct about the traditional Hospitality Management curriculum? First offered in 1893 at the Ecole Hoteliere Lausanne in Switzerland and launched in the United States at The School of Hotel Administration at Cornell University in 1922, has this course of study evolved over time to focus on both of Meyer's skills - originally based on technical skills but now transforming to emotional skills?

  16. Sismos a l'Ecole : a Seismic Educational Network (FRANCE) linked with Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenguer, J.; Le Puth, J.; Courboulex, F.; Zodmi, B.; Boneff, M.

    2007-12-01

    Ahead of the quick evolution of our society, in which scientific information has to be accurately understood by a great majority, the promotion of a responsible behaviour coming from educated and trained citizens has become a priority. One of the roles of school is to enable children to understand sciences, these same sciences that were long ago the prerogative of scientific laboratories. The educational network SISMOS à l\\'"Ecole is an example of a project structured on the knowledge of seismic risks through a scientific and technological approach. It develops a teaching method leading to an approach towards the knowledge of natural disasters. The original and innovating feature of this educational network is to enable students to set up a seismograph in their school. The recorded signals - coming from a regional or a worldwide seismic activity - feed an on- line database, which is in fact a real research centre for seismic resources as well as a starting point for educational and scientific activities. The network, that numbers about thirty stations set up in France, in its overseas departments and territories, and in a couple of French schools abroad, is based upon an experience initiated in the French Riviera ten years ago or so. The achievement of the program has from then on gone beyond the simple purpose of conveying seismic data that research and monitoring centres could have recorded. Thanks to the use of scientific measures, students become involved and get into complex notions revolving around geophysics and geosciences. Developing simple tools, setting up concrete experiments combined with an investigate reasoning makes it easier to build up a quality scientific culture as well as an education of citizens to risks.

  17. How could herd mobility be used to manage resources and livestock ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pastoralists in Namaqualand, South Africa, use herd mobility to manage livestock and rangeland resources. However, their socioeconomic conditions and ecological landscapes are changing and we explore the options that are available for pastoralists to respond to these changes. This paper presents five possible ...

  18. Climate change impacts on future carbon stores and management of warm deserts of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michell L. Thomey; Paulette L. Ford; Matthew C. Reeves; Deborah M. Finch; Marcy E. Litvak; Scott L. Collins

    2014-01-01

    Reducing atmospheric CO2 through enhanced terrestrial carbon storage may help slow or reverse the rate of global climate change. However, information on how climate change in the Southwest might affect the balance between CO2 uptake and loss on semiarid rangelands is not easily accessible to land managers.

  19. Integrated surface management for pipeline construction: The Mid-America Pipeline Company Four Corners Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria L. Sonett

    1999-01-01

    Integrated surface management techniques for pipeline construction through arid and semi-arid rangeland ecosystems are presented in a case history of a 412-mile pipeline construction project in New Mexico. Planning, implementation and monitoring for restoration of surface hydrology, soil stabilization, soil cover, and plant species succession are discussed. Planning...

  20. Wildfire management in the U.S. Forest Service: a brief history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geoffrey H. Donovan; Thomas C. Brown

    2005-01-01

    Forest and rangeland fire was once a common land management tool. Native Americans as well as early settlers and prospectors used fire for various purposes. But as the country gradually filled with more settlers, and as forest resources became more precious, fire began to be viewed as more of a problem than a tool.

  1. Seedbed preparation influence on morphometric characteristics of perennial grasses of a semi-arid rangeland in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Opiyo, Francis EO; Ekaya, Wellington N; Nyariki, Dickson M; Mureithi, Stephen Mwangi

    2011-01-01

    Semi-arid rangelands in Kenya are an important source of forage for both domestic and wild animals. However, indigenous perennial grasses notably Cenchrus ciliaris (African foxtail grass), Eragrostis superba (Maasai love grass) and Enteropogon macrostachyus (Bush rye grass) are disappearing at an alarming rate. Efforts to re-introduce them through restoration programs have often yielded little success. This can partly be attributed to failure of topsoil to capture and store scarce water to me...

  2. Sustainability of organic and conventional beef cattle farms in SW Spanish rangelands (‘dehesas’): a comparative study

    OpenAIRE

    Escribano, A.J.; Mesias, F.J.; Gaspar, P.; M. Escribano; Pulido, F.

    2012-01-01

    Organic production in Spain has increased substantially in recent years due to several factors, such as the growing interest of the European Union towards preserving sensitive ecosystems; the potential role of organic production in the socio-economic development of rural areas and the growing consumers' demand for safer and higher quality foods. Within this framework, this paper analyzes the beef sector of SW Spanish rangelands (dehesas). These are traditional systems characteristic of the Ib...

  3. Adaptation of herders to droughts and privatization of rangeland-use rights in the arid Alxa Left Banner of Inner Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chengcheng; Li, Wenjun; Fan, Mingming

    2013-09-15

    Residents of arid areas have developed their own adaptive strategies and adaptive capability to cope with an unstable environment that experiences frequent droughts. These strategies and this capability are based on traditional practices that developed from a profound understanding of their environment, but both the strategies and the capability have been affected by institutional change. Specifically, rangeland-use rights in the Alxa Left Banner were privatized in 1996, and the implementation of this policy decreased the ability of local herders to use traditional solutions. In this paper, we describe the change in their adaptive capability after implementation of this policy. Traditionally, local knowledge of the heterogeneity of resources and of key resources based on a deep understanding of the local environment, combined with tight social relationships, let herders use three traditional grazing strategies (seasonal migration, long-distance migration, and raising a diversity of livestock species) to mitigate the impacts of drought. But privatization has nearly eliminated their ability to rely on these traditional strategies and has weakened the forms of social and other capital that supported these strategies and provided a high adaptive capability. We argue that this institutional change has adversely affected traditional practices and undermined the adaptive capability of herders. Consequently, managers of the Alxa Left Banner must find ways to restore the various forms of capital to restore the herders' adaptive capability, particularly given the growing need to account for future climate change. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Changing perceptions of watershed management from a retrospective viewpoint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel G. Neary

    2000-01-01

    Watershed management, an ancient concept, was defined in Vedic texts from India that date from 1,000 B.C. This concept has been an integral part of forest and rangeland management in North America throughout the 20th century, but its scope has broadened significantly. Although the Forest Reserve Act of 1891 created the reserves that were to become the core of the...

  5. Wildlife habitats in managed rangelands—the Great Basin of southeastern Oregon: the relationship of terrestrial vertebrates to plant communities and structural conditions (Part 1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris Maser; Jack Ward Thomas; Ralph G. Anderson

    1984-01-01

    The relationships of terrestrial vertebrates to plant communities, structural conditions, and special habitats in the Great Basin of southeastern Oregon are described. The importance of habitat components to wildlife and the predictability of management activities on wildlife are examined in terms of managed rangelands. The paper does not provide guidelines but rather...

  6. Wildlife habitats in managed rangelands—the Great Basin of southeastern Oregon: the relationship of terrestrial vertebrates to plant communities and structural conditions (Part 2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris Maser; Jack Ward Thomas; Ralph G. Anderson

    1984-01-01

    The relationships of terrestrial vertebrates to plant communities, structural conditions, and special habitats in the Great Basin of southeastern Oregon are described in a series of appendices. The importance of habitat components to wildlife and the predictability of management activities on wildlife are examined in terms of managed rangelands. ...

  7. Evaulation of perennial pepperweed (Lepidium latifolium) management in a seasonal wetland in San Francisco Estuary prior to restoration of tidal hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbicide applications have shown potential for control and management of invasive perennial pepperweed (Lepidium latifolium) in rangelands and tidal wetlands. However, reported efficacy of management methods varies widely, and the effects of more recently labeled aquatic herbicides on non-target ve...

  8. La huella ecológica del cultivo del olivo en España y su aplicabilidad como indicador de agricultura sostenible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Hernández Laguna

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available El cultivo del olivo ocupa vastas superficies en las tierras mediterráneas constituyendo parte esencial de su paisaje. Es el principal cultivo arbóreo mediterráneo y de España, con grandes repercusiones ecológicas, socio-económicas y culturales. Con el objetivo de determinar la sostenibilidad ecológica del cultivo, y el riesgo de desertificación, se aplica el cálculo del indicador de huella ecológica (HE, se lo compara con la biocapacidad (BP del olivar en el campo español y se determina si existe déficit ecológico (DE. Además de estos indicadores, se calculan para dos tecnologías de cultivo: el laboreo con suelo desnudo y el no laboreo, hallándose que la huella ecológica discrimina bien ambas técnicas de cultivo.

  9. Implicancias ecológicas de la priorización económica en el paisaje cultural. Determinante de orden y sustentabilidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Subercaseaux-Ugarte

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available La aproximación sistémica y la transdisciplinariedad son fundamentales para tratar la situación ecológica-territorial actual. El paisaje cultural corresponde a un objeto de estudio epistemológicamente adecuado ante la problemática de la sustentabilidad. La racionalidad económica prioriza la maximización del lucro económico frente al diseño del paisaje cultural (dimensión económica. Se definen 16 principios propios del determinante de orden económico, donde se identifican sus efectos en la estructura del paisaje y las consecuencias ecológicas. Sucede una disminución de la conectividad y de la diversidad ecológica del paisaje cultural, de su potencial de resiliencia y restauración, un desacoplamiento entre la autopoiesis y la adaptación, y así una disminución de su adaptabilidad ecológica. Esto finalmente genera una insustentabilidad de los servicios ecológicos vitales para nuestra sociedad.

  10. Bioma cerrado, fragmentação florestal e relações ecológicas com a avifauna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Senna Corrêa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O Bioma Cerrado ocupa grande parte do Brasil central. Destaca-se por apresentar formações savânicas e grande diversidade de aves. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo levantar informações teóricas sobre alguns aspectos ecológicos envolvendo a fragmentação no Bioma Cerrado associada à distribuição de aves. O processo de fragmentação observado nas formações florestais do Cerrado gerou uma série de distúrbios que afetou a distribuição, estabelecimento e comportamento das aves silvestres. A fragmentação influencia diretamente na distribuição dos diversos grupos de aves. Os grupos generalistas, conseguem se deslocar pela matriz antropizada. Já os grupos dependentes de ambientes florestais, dependem de atributos mais complexos de recursos alimentares e condições especiais, para que seu deslocamento seja viabilizado. Por outro lado, a configuração da paisagem, sua estrutura espacial e os graus de conectividade, podem servir como estratégias para propiciar o deslocamento de alguns grupos, dispersores de sementes. Observa-se dessa forma a importância e relevância da presença de corredores ecológicos na conexão de fragmentos, como estratégias essenciais para manutenção do fluxo gênico, da dinâmica ecológica e da manutenção de remanescentes florestais.

  11. 19, rue de la Sorbonne : L'Ecole [des chartes], ses bâtiments, sa décoration

    OpenAIRE

    Hottin, Christian

    1997-01-01

    Cet article a été publié dans l'ouvrage : L'Ecole des chartes, Histoire de l'école depuis 1821, Paris, G. Klopp, 1997, 326 p., p. 142-148.; Monographie sur l'école des chartes et ses bâtiments actuels du 19 rue de la Sorbonne : histoire de l'installation de l'école dans ses nouveaux locaux en 1897, les commandes de peintures (peinture marouflée du Louis Dumoulin pour la salle de cours, projets abandonnés), les commandes de sculptures (buste de Jules Quicherat) et les monuments épigraphiques (...

  12. El Medio Ecológico en Colombia para la Cría del Ganado Ovino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez César A.

    1968-09-01

    Full Text Available A solicitud del Ministerio de Agricultura, el Consejo de la Facultad de Agronomía de Medellín autorizó al autor para integrar la Comisión nombrada por dicho Ministerio para visitar sus granjas ovinas y las regiones vecinas a ellas, potencialmente aptas para la cría de esta clase de ganado. Esta visita tuvo por objeto evaluar los resultados de la campaña ovina, en sus diferentes aspectos técnicos y administrativos. Al autor correspondió el aspecto ecológico del estudio.

  13. Psicologia e meio ambiente: estudo preliminar sobre as relações psicossocio-ecológicas do desenvolvimento

    OpenAIRE

    Norma da Luz Ferrarini Zandoná

    1997-01-01

    O presente artigo visa refletir o papel da psicologia no atual cenário de preocupação científica em buscar um paradigma capaz de lidar de forma interativa com as questões de âmbito biológico, psicológico, social e ecológico que, em conjunto, estabelecem o que vem a ser meio ambiente, desenvolvimento e relações humanas. "O desenvolvimento deve ser do homem todo e de todos os homens" (Paulo VI)

  14. Turgot (y la fisiocracia como pre-texto para una economía ecológica?).

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez , Carlos Guillermo

    2011-01-01

    La base de este artículo fue preparado como guión de una conferencia ofrecida en el ciclo de actividades "Los pensadores del fin del Milenio" organizado por la Facultad de Ciencias Humanas y Económicas de la Universidad Nacional. El subtítulo referido en principio a Turgot, podría generalizarse a la Fisiocracia como antecesora de la actual Economía Ecológica , justamente tomando como argumento la crítica de Marx frente a esta primera gran escuela del pensamiento económico: ausencia de una teo...

  15. El modelo ecológico de Bronfrenbrenner como marco teórico de la psicooncología

    OpenAIRE

    Torrico Linares, Esperanza; Santín Vilariño, Carmen; Andrés Villas, Montserrat; Menéndez Álvarez-Dardet, Susana; López López, Mª José

    2002-01-01

    La Psicooncología es una disciplina reciente que carece de un marco teórico propio. En su lugar se ha ido nutriendo de otras disciplinas de la Psicología como la Psicopatología o la Psicología de la Salud. Nosotros planteamos en nuestro trabajo que una alternativa válida para afrontar el tratamiento y sobre todo la investigación con pacientes oncológicos podría ser el Modelo Ecológico de Bronfrenbrenner. Este modelo nos permite evaluar e intervenir en todas aqu...

  16. El modelo ecológico de Bronfrenbrenner como marco teórico de la Psicooncología

    OpenAIRE

    Torrico Linares, María Esperanza; Santín Vilariño, María Carmen; Andrés Villas, Montserrat; Menéndez Álvarez-Dardet, Susana; López López, María Josefa

    2002-01-01

    La Psicooncología es una disciplina reciente que carece de un marco teórico propio. En su lugar se ha ido nutriendo de otras disciplinas de la Psicología como la Psicopatología o la Psicología de la Salud. Nosotros planteamos en nuestro trabajo que una alternativa válida para afrontar el tratamiento y sobre todo la investigación con pacientes oncológicos podría ser el Modelo Ecológico de Bronfrenbrenner. Este modelo nos permite evaluar e intervenir en todas aquellas variables que inciden dire...

  17. Fertilización y conservación de las praderas en manejo ecológico

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez, Antonio; Martínez, Adela

    2011-01-01

    La producción ecológica de rumiantes ha de estar basada en los forrajes conseguidos de forma eficiente en la propia explotación, siendo las praderas el elemento esencial debido a su potencial de producción, facilidad de manejo, bajos costes de aprovechamiento (principalmente cuando se realiza a diente por los animales) y a las buenas condiciones edafoclimáticas que, en general, presenta Asturias para estos cultivos. La fertilización de las praderas se señala a menudo como uno de los proble...

  18. Nueva especie del genero Buenoa Kirkaldy (Hemiptera, notonectidae con clave para especies y notas ecológicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padilla Gil Dora N.

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available Se incluyen las especies del género Buenoa encontradas en el Departamento de Cundinamarca con un rango altitudinal entre
    los 1728 y 3000 m.s.n.m. y descipción de la especie Buenoa cucunubensis n. sp., además clave para determinar especies y algunos datos ecológicos.Four species of genus Buenoa are recorded from Cundinamarca province in Colombia, Buenos cucunubensis nov. spec. is
    described. Also included are key to males, data on distribution and ecological information.

  19. Agrofloresta como ferramenta de autonomia : a percepção do agricultor familiar de base ecológica

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos Abrahão Cardoso

    2012-01-01

    Os desdobramentos e o avanço efetivo da aprendizagem, e da técnica, sobre o potencial de aplicação das ferramentas da agricultura de base ecológica, conjugando reais interesses entre as interfaces de produção de alimentos, conservação da biodiversidade e recursos naturais, revela o importante papel que desempenha a agricultura familiar neste contexto de gestão. A amostragem para este trabalho contemplou especificamente a utilização de uma das ferramentas disponíveis, como tecnologia apropriad...

  20. La intensificación de la ganadería y su impacto ecológico-social

    OpenAIRE

    Otero, Gabriel; Vittone, Juan Sebastián; Arias, Norma M.; Monje, Ariel; Galli, Ignacio

    2007-01-01

    El sistema de invernada intensiva ecológica que nos ocupa, como todos los trabajos desarrollados en ganadería en la Estación Experimental de Concepción del Uruguay fue estudiado con un enfoque sistémico. La reacción de la ganadería frente al avance impresionante de la agricultura (especialmente soja), con la pérdida de millones de hectáreas de pastoreo, fue intensificar el sistema de producción. La intensificación es un cambio en la relación entre los factores primarios de la produc...

  1. Estudio Ecológico de Cambios en el Paisaje del Parque Regional de la Cuenca Alta del Manzanares (Madrid)

    OpenAIRE

    Escribano López, Álvaro

    2010-01-01

    El presente estudio se encuentra enmarcado dentro de la denominada Ecología del Paisaje, la cual se diferencia de la ecología tradicional por tener en consideración al patrón espacial (Turner y Gardner, 1990; Allen y Hoekstra, 1992). Como su propio nombre indica, la Ecología del Paisaje estudia al propio Paisaje, entendido éste como un conjunto de ecosistemas que interaccionan entre sí. Con mayor precisión, el Paisaje es un nivel de organización de los sistemas ecológicos superior al ecosiste...

  2. Factores que determinan la resiliencia socio-ecológica para la alta montaña andina

    OpenAIRE

    Daza, Samir Joaqui; Universidad del Cauca; Figueroa Casas, Apolinar; Universidad del Cauca

    2014-01-01

    El presente artículo de revisión está enmarcado en el desarrollo de una tesis doctoral en Ciencias Ambientales. Analiza los procesos tradiciona­les de gestión y planificación que han tenido un enfoque disciplinar para enfrentar problemáticas ambientales como el cambio climático en la alta montaña andina cuyo propósito se ha centrado en el manejo o mitigación de los impactos ambientales generados por las actividades antrópicas. Sin embargo, el deterioro ecológico aumenta debido a que las bases...

  3. Factores que determinan la resiliencia socio-ecológica para la alta montaña andina

    OpenAIRE

    Samir Joaqui Daza; Apolinar Figueroa Casas

    2014-01-01

    El presente artículo de revisión está enmarcado en el desarrollo de una tesis doctoral en Ciencias Ambientales. Analiza los procesos tradicionales de gestión y planificación que han tenido un enfoque disciplinar para enfrentar problemáticas ambientales como el cambio climático en la alta montaña andina cuyo propósito se ha centrado en el manejo o mitigación de los impactos ambientales generados por las actividades antrópicas. Sin embargo, el deterioro ecológico aumenta debido a que las bases ...

  4. Observaciones ecológicas en la Isla de Salamanca (Depto. del Magdalena, Colombia Observaciones ecológicas en la Isla de Salamanca (Depto. del Magdalena, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schnetter Marie-Luise

    1969-06-01

    Grundwasser nicht bis an die Oberfläche steigt. Die oberen Bodenschichten sind dann salzarm, haben aber auch in der Regenzeit nur einen geringen Wassergehalt. An der untersuchten Stelle war der Boden in Grundwassernähe nicht mehr durchwurzelt.  Die meisten der im Trockenbusch wachsenden Arten werfen im Laufe der Trockenzeit ihre Blätter ab. Der Wassergehalt von Arten mit derben Blättern wie Prosopis juliflora und Pithecellobium spec. liegt etwas unter 70% und schwankt nur geringfügig. Pereskia colombiana, die sukkulente Blätter mit einem Wassergehalt von etwa 90% hat, verliert ihre Blätter schon am Ende der Regenzeit. Die Halophyten Batis und Sesuvium haben sukkulente, immergrüne Blätter. Bei beiden Arten ist der Wassergehalt der Blätter in der Regenzeit höher als in der Trockenzeit. Der Wassergehalt der derben immergrünen Blätter von Laguncularia racemosa, einer Mangrovenpflanze, zeigt keine von der Jahreszeit abhängigen Schwankungen.  Es wurde das Längenwachstum von Batis maritima, die in einer feuchten Zone wuchsen, mit dem von Pflanzen eines trockenen Standorts verglichen.  In der Trockenzeit war das Wachstum an beiden Stellen beeinträchtigt, jedoch an dem trockenen Standort stärker als an dem feuchten.  An einer Stelle, an der zwei Jahre zuvor Ableger von Lemaireocereus griseus gepflanzt worden waren, die inzwischen untersehiedlich gut wuchsen, wurde der Salzgehalt des Bodens bestimmt. Er war an Orten, an denen die Kakteen besonders gut gediehen waren, nicht eindeutig niedriger als an anderen Stellen, an denen das Wachstum schlechter gewesen war.  Neben dem Salzgehalt spielt wahrscheinlich die Bodenstruktur eine wichtige Rolle für die Vegetationsentwicklung in diesem Gebiet. Desde agosto de 1965 hasta junio de 1967 se realizaron estudios ecológicos en la Isla de Salamanca. La región mencionada esta situada en la Costa Atlántica de Colombia, entre las ciudades de Ciénaga y Barranquilla, y es limitada por el Mar Caribe en el norte y la Ci

  5. Soil organic carbon erosion and its subsequent fate in the Karoo rangeland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krenz, Juliane; Greenwood, Philip; Kuhn, Brigitte; Heckrath, Goswin; Foster, Ian; Boardman, John; Meadows, Michael; Kuhn, Nikolaus

    2016-04-01

    The rangelands of the Great Karoo region in South Africa have experienced a number of environmental changes. With the settling of European farmers in the second half of the 18th century, agricultural activities increased, leading to overgrazing and probably representing a trigger to land degradation. Ongoing land-use change and shifting rainfall patterns resulted in the development of badlands on foot slopes of upland areas, and complex gully systems in valley bottoms. Many dams and small reservoirs have been constructed to provide drinking water for cattle or to facilitate irrigation during dry periods, as a consequence of agricultural intensification. Most of the dams soon in-filled with sediment and many were eventually breached. Such a process offers the potential to use these breached dams as an environmental archive to analyse land use changes as well as carbon (C) erosion and deposition during the last ca. 100 years. In this ongoing project, a combination of analytical methods that include drone imagery, landscape mapping and sediment analysis have been employed to determine whether land degradation in the Karoo has resulted in the reversion from a net sink of C to a net source of C. Firstly, drone imagery will be used to produce a high-resolution digital elevation model for areas especially prone to erosion and for determining the volume calculation of eroded sediment in the catchment area. Secondly, sediment deposits from the same silted-up reservoir were analysed for varying physicochemical parameters, in order to analyse and reconstruct erosional and depositional patterns. Total Carbon (TC) content was recorded and the sharp decrease in total C content with decreasing depth suggests that land degradation during and after post-European settlement probably led to accelerated erosion of the then relatively fertile surface soils. This presumably resulted in the rapid in-filling of reservoirs with carbon-rich surface material which is found at the base of

  6. Using a dynamic model to assess trends in land degradation by water erosion in Spanish Rangelands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez, Javier; Francisco Lavado-Contador, Joaquín; Schnabel, Susanne; Pulido-Fernández, Manuel; Martínez Valderrama, Jaime

    2014-05-01

    This work presents a model aimed at evaluating land degradation by water erosion in dehesas and montados of the Iberian Peninsula, that constitute valuable rangelands in the area. A multidisciplinary dynamic model was built including weather, biophysical and economic variables that reflect the main causes and processes affecting sheet erosion on hillsides of the study areas. The model has two main and two derived purposes: Purpose 1: Assessing the risk of degradation that a land-use system is running. Derived purpose 1: Early warning about land-use systems that are particularly threatened by degradation. Purpose 2: Assessing the degree to which different factors would hasten degradation if they changed from the typical values they show at present. Derived purpose 2: Evaluating the role of human activities on degradation. Model variables and parameters have been calibrated for a typical open woodland rangeland (dehesa or montado) defined along 22 working units selected from 10 representative farms and distributed throughout the Spanish region of Extremadura. The model is the basis for a straightforward assessment methodology which is summarized by the three following points: i) The risk of losing a given amount of soil before a given number of years was specifically estimated as the percentage of 1000 simulations where such a loss occurs, being the simulations run under randomly-generated scenarios of rainfall amount and intensity and meat and supplemental feed market prices; ii) Statistics about the length of time that a given amount of soil takes to be lost were calculated over 1000 stochastic simulations run until year 1000, thereby ensuring that such amount of soil has been lost in all of the simulations, i.e. the total risk is 100%; iii) Exogenous factors potentially affecting degradation, mainly climatic and economic, were ranked in order of importance by means of a sensitivity analysis. Particularly remarkable in terms of model performance is the major role

  7. A lógica da reprodução social da agricultura familiar de base ecológica no Rio Grande do Sul - Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Uriartt, Ari Henrique

    2016-01-01

    Para atinxir o seu obxectivo principal de caracterizar a lóxica da reprodución social da agricultura familiar de base ecolóxica, en termos de economía ecolóxica e da economía solidaria no estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, esta Tese de Doutoramento desenvolve a súa argumentación a partir de tres eixos principais. No primeiro eixo están os casos de agricultores familiares de base ecolóxica de diferentes orixes étnicas e culturais e a súa relación cos seus consumidores a partir dun modelo ...

  8. O psicólogo ecológico no contexto institucional: uma experiência com meninas vítimas de violência

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarissa De Antoni

    Full Text Available Este ensaio consiste em um relato da experiência de trabalho de um psicólogo ecológico em uma instituição para meninas vítimas de violência, embasada no Modelo Ecológico de Desenvolvimento Humano. É discutida a integração da prática com a teoria, envolvendo desde aspectos relacionados ao cotidiano da instituição e da história de vida das meninas, até a influência cultural e social dos sistemas ecológicos. Os resultados mostraram que a integração destes aspectos levaram à melhoria da qualidade do trabalho dos profissionais e da vida das meninas atendidas.

  9. Gestión integral del agua desde un enfoque social hacia una economía ecológica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de los Ángeles Gil Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El modelo de economía ecológica es un sistema abierto que distingue las interrelaciones entre el sistema económico y el ecológico. En ese sentido, es integral, pues considera aspectos moneta - rios, sociales y ambientales. En lo que respecta al estudio de la disminución en la disponibilidad de agua, este modelo presenta una alternativa, pues daría cuenta de aquellos aspectos relaciona - dos con la gestión integral del agua que apunta a la participación de la sociedad como una opción alterna. El objetivo de este trabajo es mostrar la relación entre la economía ecológica y la gestión integral del agua, tomando en consideración que para ambas el aspecto social es significativo.

  10. Science Framework for the Conservation and Restoration Strategy of the Department of the Interior, Secretarial Order 3336: Using resilience and resistance concepts to assess threats to sagebrush ecosystems and sage-grouse, prioritize conservation and restoration actions, and inform management strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanne C. Chambers; Jeffrey L. Beck; Steve Campbell; John Carlson; Thomas J. Christiansen; Karen J. Clause; Michele R. Crist; Jonathan B. Dinkins; Kevin E. Doherty; Shawn Espinosa; Kathleen A. Griffin; Steven E. Hanser; Douglas W. Havlina; Kenneth F. Henke; Jacob D. Hennig; Laurie L. Kurth; Jeremy D. Maestas; Mary Manning; Kenneth E. Mayer; Brian A. Mealor; Clinton McCarthy; Mike Pellant; Marco A. Perea; Karen L. Prentice; David A. Pyke; Lief A. Wiechman; Amarina Wuenschel

    2016-01-01

    The Science Framework for the Conservation and Restoration Strategy of the Department of the Interior, Secretarial Order 3336 (SO 3336), Rangeland Fire Prevention, Management and Restoration, provides a strategic, multiscale approach for prioritizing areas for management and determining effective management strategies across the sagebrush biome. The emphasis of this...

  11. Estrutura espacial e processos ecológicos: o estudo da fragmentação dos habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Laranjeira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo revê a relação entre alguns conceitos e pressupostos fundamentais para a atual investigação ecológica e biogeográfica que, desde meados de 1980, se tem vindo a centrar no estudo do regime e dos efeitos das perturbações ambientais, naturais e antrópicas, sobre espécies e comunidades biológicas. Salienta-se a afirmação crescente da Ecologia da Paisagem, disciplina que enfatiza a importância da heterogeneidade espacial e das relações recíprocas entre os padrões espaciais da paisagem e os processos ecológicos, sobretudo no contexto de uma perturbação como a da fragmentação dos habitats. A base conceptual e os resultados dos principais modelos de simulação espacial e dos estudos empíricos que permitem destrinçar a importância da perda do habitat relativamente à configuração espacial do habitat são sintetizados e discutidos.

  12. Planificación y gestión del turismo ecológico en el Medio Atlas oriental de Marruecos

    OpenAIRE

    López Lara, Enrique; Posada Simeón, Carlos; Miranda Bonilla, José; Tribak, Abdellatif; Laaouane, Mohamed

    2007-01-01

    La diversificació dels productes turístics al Marroc es revela com un dels principis bàsics per a l'impuls i el creixement econòmic del país, segons el document Estrategia del desarrollo turístico.Visión 2.010. Actualment, el Marroc presenta una oferta polaritzada en el turisme convencional (sol i platja, desert, ciutats imperials?). El turisme ecològic és una de les possibles alternatives donada la diversitat dels paisatges i dels recursos ecològics del país. En aquest article...

  13. Planificación y gestión del turismo ecológico en el Medio Atlas oriental de Marruecos

    OpenAIRE

    López Lara, Enrique Javier; Posada Simeón, José Carlos; Miranda Bonilla, Jose; Tribak, Abdellatif; Laaouane, Mohamed

    2007-01-01

    La diversificación de los productos turísticos en Marruecos se revela como uno de los principios básicos para el impulso y el crecimiento económico del país, según el documento Estrategia del desarrollo turístico. Visión 2.010. Actualmente Marruecos presenta una oferta polarizada en el turismo convencional (sol y playa, desierto, ciudades imperiales). El turismo ecológico es una de las posibles alternativas dada la diversidad de los paisajes y de los recursos ecológicos del país. En este ...

  14. Territorializando la producción ecológica: acciones colectivas y políticas públicas en Andalucía

    OpenAIRE

    Lozano Cabedo, Carmen; Aguilar Criado, Encarnación

    2010-01-01

    Este trabajo analiza una experiencia de territorialización de la producción ecológica en la comarca de la Sierra de Segura (Andalucía, España) y plantea la posibilidad de hablar de un SIAL “Agricultura ecológica-Sierra de Segura”. De una forma más concreta, estudia cómo se han desarrollado diversas estrategias colectivas para dotar de arraigo a esta actividad y para vincular esta certificación genérica a las características naturales, pero también socioculturales de la zona. En este trabajo ...

  15. La resiliencia en el individuo con una conducta adictiva según la Teoría Ecológica de Sistemas

    OpenAIRE

    Payá Úbeda, Rocío

    2014-01-01

    Con esta investigación se pretende vincular la importancia de las redes sociales y el entorno socio-familiar con el proceso de resiliencia por el que pasa una persona con dependencia a una sustancia o hábito. Todo ello se trabaja desde la Teoría Ecológica de Sistemas, la Teoría de las Redes Sociales y el Modelo Ecológico-Transaccional de Resiliencia. Destacando la importancia de la resiliencia en el proceso de recuperación de estas personas puesto que, supone el área de intervención social qu...

  16. Análisis de la racionalidad ecológica en agricultores hortícolas de La Plata, Argentina.

    OpenAIRE

    Gargoloff, Natalia Agustina; Abbona, Esteban Andres; Sarandón, Santiago Javier

    2010-01-01

    La existencia de una racionalidad ecológica implícita en el manejo de los recursos naturales em agricultores tradicionales, ha permitido la sustentabilidad de los agroecosistemas. Comprender la racionalidad ecológica en agricultores con características diferentes a la agricultura tradicional, podría contribuir a avanzar hacia una agricultura sustentable. Sin embargo, esto no es sencillo debido a la propia complejidad del término y la ausencia de una metodología que permita abordarla. En este ...

  17. Superando los límites medioambientales de la empresa: Un estudio experimental del efecto del posicionamiento ecológico en la actitud hacia la marca

    OpenAIRE

    Hartmann, Patrick; Forcada Sainz, Francisco Javier; Apaolaza Ibáñez, Vanesa

    2004-01-01

    Ponencia presentada y defendida en el XI Congreso Internacional de la Asociación de Dirección y Economía de la Empresa (AEDEM), celebrado en París en septiembre de 2002. [ES] La reducción del impacto medioambiental de un producto o de su proceso de fabricación no necesariamente constituye una limitación a la actividad empresarial, sino puede, asimismo, representar una oportunidad estratégica en el marco de una gestión de marcas ecológica. El posicionamiento ecológico se presenta como un...

  18. El uso de bacterias fijadoras de nitrógeno en Agricultura Ecológica. Una alternativa a la fertilización nitrogenada inorgánica

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández Fernández, María Teresa; García Izquierdo, Carlos; Pascual, J. A.; Hernández, Mª del Mar

    2005-01-01

    La biofertilización nitrogenada constituye una interesante alternativa al empleo de los fertilizantes minerales tradicionales en una agricultura moderna como la agricultura ecológica. El empleo de bacterias fijadoras de nitrógeno representa una gran oportunidad para la agricultura ecológica.

  19. Pastoralism and wildlife: historical and current perspectives in the East African rangelands of Kenya and Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lankester, F; Davis, A

    2016-11-01

    The relationship between pastoralists, their livestock, wildlife and the rangelands of East Africa is multi-directional, complex and long-standing. The tumultuous events of the past century, however, have rewritten the nature of this relationship, reshaping the landscapes that were created, and relied upon, by both pastoralists and wildlife. Presently, much of the interaction between wildlife and pastoralists takes place in and around protected areas, the most contentious occurring in pastoral lands surrounding national parks. In conservation terminology these areas are called buffer zones. In the past century buffer zones have been shaped by, and contributed to, restrictive conservation policies, expropriation of land, efforts to include communities in conservation, both positive and negative wildlife/livestock interactions, and political tensions. In this review paper, the authors outline the history that shaped the current relationship between pastoralists, livestock and wildlife in buffer zones in East Africa and highlight some of the broader issues that pastoralists (and pastoralism as an effective livelihood strategy) now face. Finally, they consider some of the sustainable and equitable practices that could be implemented to improve livelihoods and benefit wildlife and pastoralism alike.

  20. BITES RATE ON NATIVE VEGETATION BY TRASHUMANCE GOATS GRAZING IN MOUNTAIN RANGELAND IN NUDO MIXTECO, MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.J. Franco-Guerra

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to determine the habits of grazing-browsing by the rate of bites and rate of consumption in the dry matter (MS of the diet of goats under transhumance grazing in mountain rangelands of Nudo Mixteco, being the natural vegetation in the different strata. Six animals of different age and sex were randomly chosen. Direct observation of grazing method was used to determine the rate of bites/min and the rate of consumption by layers. Analyzes of variance was performed and the Tukey test was used for mean comparison test was used (HSD Tukey (α, 0.05. The values of both variables were small, which may be due to the great diversity of plants and their varied morphology which induces the goat won on the one hand to spend more time in the choice of food becoming more selective and on the other, to carry out bites smaller in those plants whose leaf surface is of the type megafilia or in those woody whose leaves are very small (microphilia 2.25 cm2 to 20.25 cm2.

  1. Using optical-microwave synergy for estimating surface energy fluxes over semi-arid rangeland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troufleau, D.; Vidal, A.; Beaudoin, A.; Moran, M. S.; Weltz, M. A.; Goodrich, D. C.; Washburn, J.; Rahman, A. F.

    1994-01-01

    First results of the Walnut Gulch '92 (Arizona, U.S.) experiment concerning the combined use of radar backscattering (ERS-1) and thermal infrared (LANDSAT TM (Thematic Mapper)) data to estimate surface sensible heat flux are reported. The first step investigates the potential use of ERS-1 SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) images for surface soil moisture monitoring of the watershed using five calibrated images acquired during the year 1992 (dry to wet conditions). Results show that despite the typical low level of biomass of semi arid rangeland, an attenuation of the soil backscatter (up to 2 dB) can occur during the rainy season mainly due to the vegetation characteristics. A statistical relationship is then used to retrieve the volumetric surface soil moisture from ERS-1 backscattering (sensitivity of 0.23 dB/% moisture) with a resulting root mean square error of 1.3% of soil moisture. In a second step a semi empirical approach based on energy balance relates soil temperatures to this estimated surface soil moisture. Vegetation temperature is then deduced from soil temperatures and LANDSAT TM composite temperature in order to estimate sensible heat flux according to a two layer type model providing an RMSE of 29 W/sq m.

  2. Intervención en el alojamiento con criterios ecológicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Gómez Muñoz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen Las evidencias del impacto sobre el medio ambiente asociado al funcionamiento de las ciudades hacen que sea urgente proponer medidas que reduzcan este consumo y mejoren la eficiencia del metabolismo urbano. La existencia de límites en la disponibilidad de recursos materiales y energéticos, plantea actualmente un reto importante al ser humano: ¿son posibles otras formas de organización más adecuadas a esta condición de limitación? Para dar respuesta, resulta fundamental conocer cómo interactuarán nuestros sistemas urbanos en un modelo económico de continuo desarrollo, con la población que alojan, y si podrán adaptarse a la capacidad de carga limitada del Planeta, evitando futuras situaciones de colapso anunciadas desde distintos ámbitos científicos. En ese contexto, la tesis formula un método de análisis del alojamiento que, mediante la evaluación a largo plazo, permita proponer medidas de intervención para reducir el consumo de recursos asociado a su funcionamiento. Partiendo de un enfoque ecológico para definir el alojamiento como una parte fundamental del sistema urbano, que está compuesta por tres elementos: habitantes, viviendas y recursos naturales; por tanto, para reducir los impactos asociados al alojamiento es necesario tener en cuenta la diferente naturaleza de estos elementos y el carácter dinámico de las relaciones que se producen entre ellos. Abstract Evidence of the impact on the environment associated with the operation of cities make it urgent to propose measures to reduce energy consumption and improve the efficiency of urban metabolism. The limited availability of materials and energy resources currently poses a significant challenge to human beings: are more appropriate forms of organization for this limitation possible? In response, it is essential to know how our urban systems with the population they host will interact in an economic model of continuous development and whether they can adapt to

  3. Valor ambiental em uma perspectiva heterodoxa institucional-ecológica: an institutional-ecological heterodox perspective Environmental value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício de Carvalho Amazona

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho discute a perspectiva de valoração ambiental a partir de fundamentos heterodoxos, numa abordagem aqui denominada institucional-ecológica. Inicia-se pela identificação das principais limitações da abordagem neoclássica e suas correspondentes proposições de valoração, particularmente tendo-se em vista o desafio posto pelo critério de Desenvolvimento Sustentável. Em seguida, busca resgatar princípios propositivos de abordagens heterodoxas, particularmente nas formulações do campo teórico institucionalista e do campo teórico da economia ecológica, como elementos de potencial integração analítica para a constituição de uma conceituação heterodoxa de valores ambientais. Por fim, o trabalho propõe, a partir de uma discussão sobre o processo de formação e internalização dos valores ambientais e desse potencial de integração analítica, bases de constituição de uma abordagem institucional-ecológica para interpretação da valoração ambiental e, dentro dessa perspectiva, discute ao final qual o escopo de aplicação dos métodos de valoração correntemente utilizados pela Economia Ambiental Neoclássica.This article discusses an environmental valuation perspective, based on heterodox foundations, in an approach here called institutional-ecological. First, it is identified the main limits of neoclassical approach and its corresponding valuation propositions, specially having in mind the challenge placed by Sustainable Development criteria. After, it seeks to bring up propositive principles from heterodox approaches, particularly from formulations in the institutionalist field and ecological economics field. These are considered elements potentially able to analytical integration for the constitution of a heterodox framework for environmental values. Finally, based on a discussion on the process of environmental values constitution and internalization and on the so claimed analytical integration

  4. Knowing for controlling: ecological effects of invasive vertebrates in Tierra del Fuego Conocer para controlar: efectos ecológicos de vertebrados invasores en Tierra del Fuego

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLAUDIA A SILVA

    2008-03-01

    freshwater systems, vegetation, soil and ground nesting birds. Regarding management, interactions between invaders must be considered. Whether the TDF archipelago is especially vulnerable to biological invasions remains to be proven, however, future introductions should be carefully weighedEl archipiélago de Tierra del Fuego (TDF ha sido reconocido como parte de los últimos lugares del planeta que aún pueden considerarse silvestres. Sin embargo, esta condición puede verse amenazada por el gran número de especies invasoras presentes en el archipiélago. Estas especies pueden tener efectos significativos sobre la ecología del sistema invadido, tanto a nivel genético como poblacional, comunitario y ecosistémico. El objetivo de este estudio es, mediante una revisión bibliográfica, sistematizar la información acerca del impacto ecológico que estas especies tienen sobre el archipiélago de TDF y detectar vacíos de información, para orientar la investigación futura y planes efectivos de manejo de estas especies. Restringimos nuestra revisión a invasores vertebrados no marinos. Determinamos cuáles especies han invadido TDF, describimos sus impactos sobre el archipiélago y evaluamos sus impactos potenciales, ésto último mendiante una revisión de los impactos que estas especies han tenido en otras zonas geográficas. Nuestros resultados indican que, al menos, nueve especies de vertebrados (Salmo trutta, Salvelinus fontinalis, Oncorhynchus mykiss, Castor canadensis, Ondatra zibethicus, Oryctolagus cuniculus, Pseudalopex griseus, Mustela vison y Sus scrofa cuentan con poblaciones silvestres establecidas, lejanas a zonas pobladas en TDF. Solo para cinco de éstas existe evidencia científica sobre sus impactos ecológicos en el área, siendo el castor americano (Castor canadensis la especie que acapara la mayor cantidad de estudios. Estos resultados contrastan con el reconocimiento, tanto en TDF como a nivel mundial, del potencial de estas especies de provocar

  5. Estudios ecológicos en salud ambiental: más allá de la epidemiología

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis C. Blanco-Becerra

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Los estudios ecológicos se caracterizan por tener como unidad de análisis a las poblaciones, y constituyen una fuente importante y frecuente de información comprobada en salud ambiental. En esta revisión se resumen los fundamentos de los estudios ecológicos, partiendo de la premisa de que es posible hacerlos con métodos cuantitativos, cualitativos o mixtos. Se presenta la lógica que subyace a su diseño, y su papel en la exploración de la causalidad, las variables y las categorías de análisis, los principales diseños y las técnicas de recolección de datos. Igualmente, se dan ejemplos de estudios ecológicos llevados a cabo en América Latina, y se discuten algunos de los problemas metodológicos frecuentes y las posibles vías para abordarlos. Por último, se resalta la relevancia de los estudios ecológicos cuantitativos y cualitativos en salud ambiental como una forma de superar el individualismo conceptual y metodológico hegemónico, que resulta insuficiente para el estudio de la salud en las poblaciones.

  6. Aspectos da fenologia e ecologia de Hedychium coronarium (Zingiberaceae) na estação ecológica do Tripuí, Ouro Preto-MG

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Santos, S.B; Pedralli, G; Meyer, S.T

    2005-01-01

    ... regiões do Brasil, inclusive na Estação Ecológica do Tripuí (EET), Ouro Preto-MG. As macrófitas invasoras ocasionam efeitos negativos sobre a biodiversidade regional e, portanto, requerem estudos sobre sua fenologia e ecologia como...

  7. Propuesta de caudal ecológico en la cuenca del Río Ayuquila-Armería en el Occidente de México

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Demetrio Meza-Rodríguez; Luis Manuel Martínez-Rivera; Norman Mercado-Silva; Diego García de Jalón-Lastra; Miguel Marchamalo-Sacristán; Celia De la Mora-Orozco

    2017-01-01

    ... a través de la Norma Mexicana NMX-AA-159-SCFI-2012, que establece el procedimiento para la determinación del caudal ecológico. La cuenca del Río Ayuquila-Armería, uno de los más importantes ríos del occidente...

  8. Recruitment and Workplace Integration of Men and Women Engineers in France: The Case of EPF Ecole D'ingénieurs Graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevanovic, Biljana

    2014-01-01

    Based on "First Job" surveys conducted six months after graduation among graduates from 2000 to 2007 and semi-structured interviews, this paper examines the recruitment and workplace integration of women and men graduates from EPF Ecole d'Ingenieurs. The study's findings show that women engineering graduates from EPF generally have more…

  9. A promoção de saúde na perspectiva social ecológica - doi:10.5020/18061230.2008.p151

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís Branquinho Oliveira Fragelli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: O presente trabalho teve por objetivo identificar e analisar as principais publicações que tiveram como base teórica o modelo ecológico aplicado ao contexto de promoção de saúde. Método: Efetuou-se uma busca sobre o tema em nível nacional e internacional nas bases de dados virtuais Scielo, Highwire press e Medline dos artigos publicados no período de maio de 2000 a maio de 2007. As palavras-chave utilizadas foram social ecologia, abordagem ecológica e perspectiva ecológica e seus correspondentes na língua inglesa. Resultados: Os resultados apontam que o modelo é utilizado em estudos teóricos e empíricos, com predomínio de publicações no âmbito internacional. Os trabalhos foram selecionados e agrupados segundo a data de sua publicação, ao tipo de estudo, quanto a origem e a temática de relevância. Conclusão: No período pesquisado, as publicações sobre a temática da perspectiva social-ecológica foram predominantemente internacionais, com apenas um artigo publicado no Brasil, evidenciando a necessidade de estudo e conhecimento do mesmo pela área de saúde.

  10. Utilization of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles for Rangeland Resources Monitoring in a Changing Regulatory Environment (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rango, A.; Vivoni, E. R.; Browning, D. M.; Anderson, C.; Laliberte, A. S.

    2013-12-01

    now been acquired at Jornada. Most of our UAV flights have taken place over rangelands or watersheds in the western U.S. These flights have been successful used for classification of vegetation cover and type, measuring gaps between vegetation patches, identifing locations of potentially erosive soil, deriving digital elevation models, and monitoring plant phenology.. These measurements can be directly compared to more costly and time-intensive traditional techniques used in rangeland health determinations. New UAVs are becoming available with increased sensor payload capacity. At Jornada we have concentrated on flying at low altitudes (~215 m) to acquire hyperspatial resolutions with digital cameras of about 5-6 cm. We also fly a six band multispectral camera with spatial resolution of ~ 13 cm. We have recently acquired a larger Bat-4 UAV to go with the Bat-3 UAV. The major improvement associated with this upgrade is an increase in sensor payload from 1.4 kg to 14 kg. We are surveying the type of sensors that we could add to best increase our information content.

  11. Survey of Beaver-related Restoration Practices in Rangeland Streams of the Western USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilliod, David S.; Rohde, Ashley T.; Charnley, Susan; Davee, Rachael R.; Dunham, Jason B.; Gosnell, Hannah; Grant, Gordon E.; Hausner, Mark B.; Huntington, Justin L.; Nash, Caroline

    2018-01-01

    Poor condition of many streams and concerns about future droughts in the arid and semi-arid western USA have motivated novel restoration strategies aimed at accelerating recovery and increasing water resources. Translocation of beavers into formerly occupied habitats, restoration activities encouraging beaver recolonization, and instream structures mimicking the effects of beaver dams are restoration alternatives that have recently gained popularity because of their potential socioeconomic and ecological benefits. However, beaver dams and dam-like structures also harbor a history of social conflict. Hence, we identified a need to assess the use of beaver-related restoration projects in western rangelands to increase awareness and accountability, and identify gaps in scientific knowledge. We inventoried 97 projects implemented by 32 organizations, most in the last 10 years. We found that beaver-related stream restoration projects undertaken mostly involved the relocation of nuisance beavers. The most common goal was to store water, either with beaver dams or artificial structures. Beavers were often moved without regard to genetics, disease, or potential conflicts with nearby landowners. Few projects included post-implementation monitoring or planned for longer term issues, such as what happens when beavers abandon a site or when beaver dams or structures breach. Human dimensions were rarely considered and water rights and other issues were mostly unresolved or addressed through ad-hoc agreements. We conclude that the practice and implementation of beaver-related restoration has outpaced research on its efficacy and best practices. Further scientific research is necessary, especially research that informs the establishment of clear guidelines for best practices.

  12. A mudança de paradigma em sociologia urbana: do paradigma ecológico ao socioespacial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Pizzolatto Konzen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2178-4582.2011v45n1p79 O artigo discute a mudança do paradigma ecológico ao socioespacial na so ciologia urbana, ocorrida nos países centrais do capitalismo ao longo das décadas de 1970 e 1980. Os dois paradigmas são descritos em suas feições principais, ao que se segue uma análise específica das obras dos três autores que lideraram a mudança de paradigma: Henri Lefebvre, Manuel Castells e David Harvey. A análise referencia-se teoricamente na contribuição de Thomas Kuhn à sociologia do conhecimento.

  13. Forro ecológico de resíduos agroindustriais para galpões avícolas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cesar Machado Cravo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A avicultura brasileira é uma atividade econômica com expressiva participação no agronegócio brasileiro, porém o setor se depara com desafios, entre esses, destaca-se o estresse térmico dos animais provocado pelas variações climáticas. Dentro desse contexto, este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar as propriedades térmicas de um forro ecológico de baixa densidade a base de partículas de resíduos agroindustriais (casca de amendoim e fibra de coco verde aglutinadas com resina poliuretana bi-componente à base de óleo de mamona e avaliar seu desempenho quando aplicado como forro em galpões avícolas. Os resultados obtidos demonstram a eficiência do material quando aplicado como forro em aviários.

  14. Suicídio e trabalho em metrópoles brasileiras : um estudo ecológico

    OpenAIRE

    Ceccon,Roger Flores; Meneghel, Stela Nazareth; Tavares,Juliana Petri; Lautert,Liana

    2014-01-01

    O objetivo deste estudo foi relacionar a mortalidade por suicídio com indicadores de saúde e trabalho em seis metrópoles brasileiras: Porto Alegre, Recife, Salvador, Belo Horizonte, Rio de Janeiro e São Paulo. Estudo ecológico, cujo desfecho é o coeficiente de mortalidade por suicídio na série histórica de 2002 a 2010, e as variáveis independentes são os indicadores de atividade laboral e de sofrimento mental. Realizou-se associação estatística por meio do teste de Correlação de Pearson e as ...

  15. Participación ciudadana en el ordenamiento ecológico local: Juárez, Chihuahua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Córdova Bojórquez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar la participación ciudadana en el proceso de planeación del ordenamiento ecológico en Juárez, Chihuahua. Esto es mediante la evaluación de las capacidades de los actores sociales para establecer los criterios que llevaron a conformar las unidades de gestión ambiental y establecer la política ambiental. Los resultados indican que los talleres participativos son una herramienta efectiva para establecer un diálogo reflexivo sobre problemáticas comunes en donde los diferentes actores tienen la misma oportunidad para externar sus ideas y propuestas.

  16. Desarrollo desigual y combinado y crisis ecológica Uneven and combined development and ecological crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James O'Connor

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Las formas de desarrollo desigual y combinado impactan directamente en los procesos de contaminación y agotamiento de los recursos naturales en la sociedad globalizada. Los países del Sur no poseen instituciones capaces de ofrecer resistencia a los procesos socioeconómicos de acumulación del capital, tanto a escala regional como global, y padecen los grandes efectos de la crisis ecológica contemporánea.The forms of combined and unequal development directly impact on the processes of contamination and exhaustion of natural resources in the globalized society. The countries in the South do not have institutions capable of resisting the socio-economic processes of capital accumulation, both at regional and global scale, and suffer the great effects of contemporary ecologic crisis.

  17. Suicídio e trabalho em metrópoles brasileiras: um estudo ecológico

    OpenAIRE

    Roger Flores Ceccon; Stela Nazareth Meneghel; Juliana Petri Tavares; Liana Lautert

    2014-01-01

    O objetivo deste estudo foi relacionar a mortalidade por suicídio com indicadores de saúde e trabalho em seis metrópoles brasileiras: Porto Alegre, Recife, Salvador, Belo Horizonte, Rio de Janeiro e São Paulo. Estudo ecológico, cujo desfecho é o coeficiente de mortalidade por suicídio na série histórica de 2002 a 2010, e as variáveis independentes são os indicadores de atividade laboral e de sofrimento mental. Realizou-se associação estatística por meio do teste de Correlação de Pearson e as ...

  18. Book Review: Molecular approaches in natural resource conservation and management.Landscape Ecol 27:467–468.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin M. Potter

    2012-01-01

    The first rule of intelligent tinkering, Aldo Leopold famously noted, is to keep all the wheels and cogs. Rodney Honeycutt, David Hillis, and John Bickham take the analogy a step further: Not only are conservation biologists like car mechanics trying to keep an engine running, but they are aware of the existence—let alone the function—of only a small percentage of the...

  19. Morphological and molecular characterization of an uninucleated cyst-producing Entamoeba spp. in captured Rangeland goats in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Habsi, Khalid; Yang, Rongchang; Ryan, Una; Jacobson, Caroline; Miller, David W

    2017-02-15

    Uninucleated Entamoeba cysts measuring 7.3×7.7μm were detected in faecal samples collected from wild Rangeland goats (Capra hircus) after arrival at a commercial goat depot near Geraldton, Western Australia at a prevalence of 6.4% (8/125). Sequences were obtained at the 18S rRNA (n=8) and actin (n=5) loci following PCR amplification. At the 18S locus, phylogenetic analysis grouped the isolates closest with an E. bovis isolate (FN666250) from a sheep from Sweden with 99% similarity. At the actin locus, no E. bovis sequences were available, and the isolates shared 94.0% genetic similarity with E. suis from a pig in Western Japan. This is the first report to describe the morphology and molecular characterisation of Entamoeba from Rangeland goats in Western Australia and the first study to produce actin sequences from E. bovis-like Entamoeba sp. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Pastoralism versus Agriculturalism-How Do Altered Land-Use Forms Affect the Spread of Invasive Plants in the Degraded Mutara Rangelands of North-Eastern Rwanda?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wronski, Torsten; Bariyanga, Jean Damascene; Sun, Ping; Plath, Martin; Apio, Ann

    2017-05-12

    Lantana camara L. (Verbenaceae) originates from tropical Central and South America and has become invasive in about 50 countries. It causes problems when invading rangelands due to its toxicity to livestock and its tendency to form dense, monotonous thickets. Its invasiveness can partly be explained by the high tannin content largely protecting the species from being browsed, its tolerance to a wide range of environmental conditions, as well as its general preference for anthropogenically disturbed habitats. The dispersal of L. camara is facilitated by birds and other animals consuming its drupes (endozoochory), and so both wild and domestic ungulates could contribute to its spread. In our study, we investigated the distribution of L. camara in the Mutara rangelands of north-eastern Rwanda, an area that faced dramatic landscape changes in recent decades. We assessed 23 ecological factors and factors related to land-use and conservation-political history. Major effects on the local abundance of L. camara were found in that the relative canopy cover of L. camara was negatively correlated with the occurrence of other shrubs (suggesting competition for space and nutrients), while encounter rates of houses, 'living fences' (Euphorbia tirucalli L.) and cattle tracks were positively correlated with L. camara cover. Hence, the spread of non-native L. camara in the Mutara rangelands appears to be linked to landscape alterations arising from the transformation of rangelands supporting traditional pastoralist communities to other agricultural land-use forms.