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Sample records for range topological charge

  1. Comparison of topologies suitable for Capacitor Charging Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Maestri, S; Uicich, G; Benedetti, M; Cravero, JM

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a comparison between topologies suitable for capacitor charging systems. The topologies under evaluation are a flyback converter, a half-bridge series resonant converter and a full-bridge phase-shifted converter. The main features of these topologies are highlighted, which allows the proper topology selection according to the application requirements. Moreover, the performed analysis permits to characterize the operational range of the main components thus allowing their appropriate sizing and selection. Simulation results are provided.

  2. Charges and Electromagnetic Radiation as Topological Excitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfried Faber

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We discuss a model with stable topological solitons in Minkowski space with only three degrees of freedom, the rotational angles of a spatial Dreibein. This model has four types of solitons differing in two topological quantum numbers which we identify with electric charge and spin. The vacuum has a two-dimensional degeneracy leading to two types of massless excitations, characterised by a topological quantum number which could have a physical equivalent in the photon number.

  3. Charged topological solitons in zigzag graphene nanoribbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Sancho, M. P.; Brey, Luis

    2018-01-01

    Graphene nanoribbons with zigzag terminated edges have a magnetic ground state characterized by edge ferromagnetism and antiferromagnetic inter edge coupling. This broken symmetry state is degenerate in the spin orientation and we show that, associated with this degeneracy, the system has topological solitons. The solitons appear at the interface between degenerate ground states. These solitons are the relevant charge excitations in the system. When charge is added to the nanoribbon, the system energetically prefers to create magnetic domains and accommodate the extra electrons in the interface solitons rather than setting them in the conduction band.

  4. Topology Design for Directional Range Extension Networks with Antenna Blockage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Topology Design for Directional Range Extension Networks with Antenna Blockage Thomas Shake MIT Lincoln Laboratory shake@ll.mit.edu Abstract...associated electronics into small aircraft to perform such range extension. In particular, the paper examines trade-offs in network topology design...aircraft, and the topology characteristics of the aerial relay network. The analysis suggests that low-degree air topologies such as rings and strings

  5. Topological charge algebra of optical vortices in nonlinear interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhdanova, Alexandra A; Shutova, Mariia; Bahari, Aysan; Zhi, Miaochan; Sokolov, Alexei V

    2015-12-28

    We investigate the transfer of orbital angular momentum among multiple beams involved in a coherent Raman interaction. We use a liquid crystal light modulator to shape pump and Stokes beams into optical vortices with various integer values of topological charge, and cross them in a Raman-active crystal to produce multiple Stokes and anti-Stokes sidebands. We measure the resultant vortex charges using a tilted-lens technique. We verify that in every case the generated beams' topological charges obey a simple relationship, resulting from angular momentum conservation for created and annihilated photons, or equivalently, from phase-matching considerations for multiple interacting beams.

  6. Fractional quantization of charge and spin in topological quantum pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, Pasquale; Citro, Roberta

    2017-07-01

    Topological quantum pumps are topologically equivalent to the quantum Hall state: In these systems, the charge pumped during each pumping cycle is quantized and coincides with the Chern invariant. However, differently from quantum Hall insulators, quantum pumps can exhibit novel phenomena such as the fractional quantization of the charge transport, as a consequence of their distinctive symmetries in parameter space. Here, we report the analogous fractional quantization of the spin transport in a topological spin pump realized in a one-dimensional lattice via a periodically modulated Zeeman field. In the proposed model, which is a spinfull generalization of the Harper-Hofstadter model, the amount of spin current pumped during well-defined fractions of the pumping cycle is quantized as fractions of the spin Chern number. This fractional quantization of spin is topological, and is a direct consequence of the additional symmetries ensuing from the commensuration of the periodic field with the underlying lattice.

  7. The scaling dimension of low lying Dirac eigenmodes and of the topological charge density

    CERN Document Server

    Aubin, C.; Gottlieb, Steven; Gregory, E.B.; Heller, Urs M.; Hetrick, J.E.; Osborn, J.; Sugar, R.; Toussaint, D.; de Forcrand, Ph.; Jahn, Oliver

    2005-01-01

    As a quantitative measure of localization, the inverse participation ratio of low lying Dirac eigenmodes and topological charge density is calculated on quenched lattices over a wide range of lattice spacings and volumes. Since different topological objects (instantons, vortices, monopoles, and artifacts) have different co-dimension, scaling analysis provides information on the amount of each present and their correlation with the localization of low lying eigenmodes.

  8. Topological defects in mixtures of superconducting condensates with different charges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garaud, Julien; Babaev, Egor

    2014-06-01

    We investigate the topological defects in phenomenological models describing mixtures of charged condensates with commensurate electric charges. Such situations are expected to appear for example in liquid metallic deuterium. This is modeled by a multicomponent Ginzburg-Landau theory where the condensates are coupled to the same gauge field by different coupling constants whose ratio is a rational number. We also briefly discuss the case where electric charges are incommensurate. Flux quantization and finiteness of the energy per unit length dictate that the different condensates have different winding and thus different number of (fractional) vortices. Competing attractive and repulsive interactions lead to molecule-like bound states between fractional vortices. Such bound states have finite energy and carry integer flux quanta. These can be characterized by the CP1 topological invariant that motivates their denomination as skyrmions.

  9. Topological charge analysis of ultrafast single skyrmion creation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Gen; Li, Yufan; Kong, Lingyao; Lake, Roger K.; Chien, C. L.; Zang, Jiadong

    2016-05-01

    Magnetic skyrmions are topologically nontrivial spin textures of potential interest for future information storage applications, and for such purposes, the control and understanding of single skyrmion creation is required. A scheme is analyzed to create single Néel-type and Bloch-type skyrmions in helimagnetic thin films utilizing the dynamical excitations induced by the Oersted field and the spin transfer torque given by a vertically injected spin-polarized current. A topological charge analysis using a lattice version of the topological charge provides insight into the locally triggered transition from a trivial to a nontrivial topological spin texture of the Néel or Bloch type skyrmion. The topological protection of the magnetic skyrmion is determined by the symmetric Heisenberg exchange energy. The critical switching current density is ˜107A/cm 2 , which decreases with the easy-plane type uniaxial anisotropy and thermal fluctuations. The in-plane spin polarization of the injected current performs better than out-of-plane polarization, and it provides ultrafast switching times (within 100 ps) and reliable switching outcomes.

  10. Lateral phase drift of the topological charge density in stochastic optical fields

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roux, FS

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available complex way during free-space propagation. While the evolution of onedimensional topological charge densities can be described by a linear diffusion process, the evolution of two-dimensional topological charge densities exhibits some additional nonlinear...

  11. Few-cycle vortex wavepackets with tunable topological charge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunwald, R.; Bock, M.; Brunne, J.; Wallrabe, U.

    2014-02-01

    The control of the orbital angular momentum (OAM) of ultrashort laser pulses with highly compact, low-dispersion and flexible devices opens new prospects for momentum-sensitive applications in plasmonics, materials processing, biochemistry, microscopy or optical data transfer. We report on the generation of few-cycle vortex pulses of variable topological charge from a Ti:sapphire laser oscillator with novel types of thermally tunable reflective, spiral-phase micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS). The spatial and temporal properties of the pulses were characterized by a reconfigurable, nondiffracting Shack-Hartmann wavefront autocorrelator. The intensity propagation can be described by a Laguerre-Gaussian beam with slight distortions caused by the line of maximum phase step. The different topological charges were indicated by quantitatively comparing the lengths of measured transversal Poynting-vector components to corresponding numerical simulations.

  12. Chiral Topological Superconductors Enhanced by Long-Range Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viyuela, Oscar; Fu, Liang; Martin-Delgado, Miguel Angel

    2018-01-01

    We study the phase diagram and edge states of a two-dimensional p -wave superconductor with long-range hopping and pairing amplitudes. New topological phases and quasiparticles different from the usual short-range model are obtained. When both hopping and pairing terms decay with the same exponent, one of the topological chiral phases with propagating Majorana edge states gets significantly enhanced by long-range couplings. On the other hand, when the long-range pairing amplitude decays more slowly than the hopping, we discover new topological phases where propagating Majorana fermions at each edge pair nonlocally and become gapped even in the thermodynamic limit. Remarkably, these nonlocal edge states are still robust, remain separated from the bulk, and are localized at both edges at the same time. The inclusion of long-range effects is potentially applicable to recent experiments with magnetic impurities and islands in 2D superconductors.

  13. η' meson mass from topological charge density correlator in QCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukaya, H.; Aoki, S.; Cossu, G.; Hashimoto, S.; Kaneko, T.; Noaki, J.; Jlqcd Collaboration

    2015-12-01

    The flavor-singlet component of the η' meson is related to the topological structure of the SU(3) gauge field through the chiral anomaly. We perform a 2 +1 -flavor lattice QCD calculation and demonstrate that the two-point function of a gluonically defined topological charge density after a short Yang-Mills gradient flow contains the propagation of the η' meson, by showing that its mass in the chiral and continuum limit is consistent with the experimental value. The gluonic correlator does not suffer from the contamination of the pion contribution, and the clean signal is obtained at significantly lower numerical cost compared to the conventional method with the quark bilinear operators.

  14. Valence Topological Charge-Transfer Indices for Dipole Moments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Torrens

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available New valence topological charge-transfer indices are applied to the calculation of dipole moments. The algebraic and vector semisum charge-transfer indices are defined. The combination of the charge-transfer indices allows the estimation of the dipole moments. The model is generalized for molecules with heteroatoms. The ability of the indices for the description of the molecular charge distribution is established by comparing them with the dipole moments of a homologous series of phenyl alcohols. Linear and non-linear correlation models are obtained. The new charge-transfer indices improve the multivariable non-linear regression equations for the dipole moment. When comparing with previous results, the variance decreases 92%. No superposition of the corresponding Gk–Jk and GkV – JkV pairs is observed. This diminishes the risk of co-linearity. Inclusion of the oxygen atom in the p-electron system is beneficial for the description of the dipole moment, owing to either the role of the additional p orbitals provided by the heteroatom or the role of steric factors in the p-electron conjugation. Linear and non-linear correlations between the fractal dimension and various descriptors point not only to a homogeneous molecular structure but also to the ability to predict and tailor drug properties.

  15. Local topological charge analysis of electromagnetic vortex beam based on empirical mode decomposition

    CERN Document Server

    Hui, Xiaonan; Zhang, Weite; Jin, Xiaofeng; Chi, Hao; Zhang, Xianmin

    2015-01-01

    The topological charge of an electromagnetic vortex beam depends on its wavefront helicity. For mixed vortex beams composed of several different coaxial vortices, the topological charge spectrum can be obtained by Fourier transform. However, the vortex beam is generally divergent and imperfect. It makes it significant to investigate the local topological charges, especially in radio frequency regime. Fourier transform based methods are restrained by the uncertainty principle and cannot achieve high angular resolution and mode resolution simultaneously. In this letter, an analysis method for local topological charges of vortex beams is presented based on the empirical mode decomposition (EMD). From EMD, the intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) can be obtained to construct the bases of the electromagnetic wave, and each local topological charge can be respectively defined. With this method the local value achieves both high resolution of azimuth angle and topological charge, meanwhile the amplitudes of each OAM mode...

  16. Non-equilibration of topological charge and its effects

    CERN Document Server

    Bernard, Claude

    2016-01-01

    In QCD simulations at small lattice spacings, the topological charge Q evolves very slowly and, if this quantity is not properly equilibrated, we could get incorrect results for physical quantities, or incorrect estimates of their errors. We use the known relation between the dependence of masses and decay constants on the QCD vacuum angle theta and the squared topological charge Q^2 together with chiral perturbation theory results for the dependence of masses and decay constants on theta to estimate the size of these effects and suggest strategies for dealing with them. For the partially quenched case, we sketch an alternative derivation of the known $\\chi$PT results of Aoki and Fukaya, using the nonperturbatively correct chiral theory worked out by Golterman, Sharpe and Singleton, and by Sharpe and Shoresh. With the MILC collaboration's ensembles of lattices with four flavors of HISQ dynamical quarks, we measure the $Q^2$ dependence of masses and decay constants and compare to the $\\chi$PT forms. The observ...

  17. Fractal dimension of the topological charge density distribution in SU(2) lattice gluodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buividovich, P.V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics ITEP, Moscow (Russian Federation); Kalaydzhyan, T. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics ITEP, Moscow (Russian Federation); Polikarpov, M.I. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics ITEP, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2011-11-15

    We study the effect of cooling on the spatial distribution of the topological charge density in quenched SU(2) lattice gauge theory with overlap fermions. We show that as the gauge field configurations are cooled, the Hausdorff dimension of regions where the topological charge is localized gradually changes from d=2/3 towards the total space dimension. Hence the cooling procedure destroys some of the essential properties of the topological charge distribution. (orig.)

  18. Topology

    CERN Document Server

    Kuratowski, Kazimierz

    1966-01-01

    Topology, Volume I deals with topology and covers topics ranging from operations in logic and set theory to Cartesian products, mappings, and orderings. Cardinal and ordinal numbers are also discussed, along with topological, metric, and complete spaces. Great use is made of closure algebra. Comprised of three chapters, this volume begins with a discussion on general topological spaces as well as their specialized aspects, including regular, completely regular, and normal spaces. Fundamental notions such as base, subbase, cover, and continuous mapping, are considered, together with operations

  19. Disorder Effects in Charge Transport and Spin Response of Topological Insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lukas Zhonghua

    controlling the beam fluence we could tune bulk conductivity from p- (hole-like) to n-type (electron-like), crossing the Dirac point and back, while preserving the robust topological signatures of surface channels. We establish that at charge neutrality conductance has a two-dimensional (2D) character with a minimum value on the order of ten conductance quanta G=e 2 /h. From quantum interference contribution to 2D conductance we demonstrate in two systems, Bi2Te3 and Bi2Se 3, that at charge neutrality only two quantum channels corresponding to two topological surfaces are present. The charge neutrality point achieved using electron irradiation with long penetration range shows a route to intrinsic quantum transport of the topological states unconstrained by the bulk size.

  20. Maximum-Likelihood Approach to Topological Charge Fluctuations in Lattice Gauge Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Brower, R C; Fleming, G T; Lin, M F; Neil, E T; Osborn, J C; Rebbi, C; Rinaldi, E; Schaich, D; Schroeder, C; Voronov, G; Vranas, P; Weinberg, E; Witzel, O

    2014-01-01

    We present a novel technique for the determination of the topological susceptibility (related to the variance of the distribution of global topological charge) from lattice gauge theory simulations, based on maximum-likelihood analysis of the Markov-chain Monte Carlo time series. This technique is expected to be particularly useful in situations where relatively few tunneling events are observed. Restriction to a lattice subvolume on which topological charge is not quantized is explored, and may lead to further improvement when the global topology is poorly sampled. We test our proposed method on a set of lattice data, and compare it to traditional methods.

  1. Topological charge algebra of optical vortices in nonlinear interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shutova, Mariia; Zhdanova, Alexandra; Bahari, Aysan; Zhi, Miaochan; Sokolov, Alexei

    2016-05-01

    Optical vortices find their use in multiple areas of research and technology; in particular, they provide an opportunity to generate short-pulse spatially-structured optical beams, which can be used to study ultrafast processes. In our work, we explore interactions of femtosecond optical vortices in nonlinear crystals. We investigate the transfer of orbital angular momentum among multiple (applied and generated) beams involved in a coherent Raman interaction. We use a liquid crystal light modulator to shape the applied pump and Stokes beams into optical vortices with various integer values of topological charge, and cross them in a Raman-active crystal to produce multiple Stokes and anti-Stokes sidebands. We then examine the transfer of optical angular momentum into each sideband and find that it follows a certain law that can be derived from angular momentum conservation for created and annihilated photons, or equivalently, from phase-matching considerations for the interacting beams. Presenter is supported by the Herman F. Heep and Minnie Belle Heep Texas A&M University Endowed Fund administered by the Texas A&M Foundation

  2. Analysis of the topological charge of vortex beams using a hole wheel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emile, Olivier; Emile, Janine; Viaris de Lesegno, Bruno; Pruvost, Laurence; Brousseau, Christian

    2015-08-01

    The measurement of the topological charge of a vortex beam is demonstrated using the diffraction pattern produced by hole wheel. The resulting mandala-like interference pattern depends on the number of holes relatively to the topological charge. The interference at the centre of the pattern —bright or dark—enables us to determine the topological charge in a procedure when hole wheels with different number of holes are applied. This method is direct and wavelength independent. It does not require any image analysis and could find applications in classical telecommunications or quantum optics using twisted light.

  3. Detecting the topological charge of vortex beams using an annular triangle aperture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yongxin, Liu; Hua, Tao; Jixiong, Pu; Baida, Lü

    2011-10-01

    The Fraunhofer diffraction pattern of a vortex beam by an annular triangle aperture is analyzed theoretically and experimentally. It is found that the pattern of the far-field diffraction intensity distribution exhibits a triangular lattice array, which becomes much clearer with the increase of the ratio of the inner to the outer side of the annular triangle aperture. The number of spot points of any external side of the triangular lattice array minus one is just equal to the topological charge value of the measured optical vortex. For the vortex beam with negative topological charge, the triangular diffraction pattern after the annular triangle aperture will be rotated by 180° in relation to the case of the positive topological charge. Based on the above properties, we propose a simple and feasible method to determine the magnitude and sign of the topological charge of an optical vortex beam.

  4. Lateral diffusion of the topological charge density in stochastic optical fields

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roux, FS

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Stochastic (i.e. random and quasi-random) optical fields may contain distributions of optical vortices that are represented by non-uniform topological charge densities. Numerical simulations are used to investigate the evolution under free...

  5. Effects of defects and dephasing on charge and spin currents in two-dimensional topological insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dyke, John S.; Morr, Dirk K.

    2017-01-01

    Using the nonequilibrium Keldysh Green's function formalism, we investigate the effect of defects on the electronic structure and transport properties of two-dimensional topological insulators (TI). We demonstrate how the spatial flow of charge changes between the topologically protected edge and bulk states and show that elastically and inelastically scattering defects that preserve the time-reversal symmetry of the TI lead to qualitatively different effects on the TI's local electronic structure and its transport properties. Moreover, we show that the recently predicted ability to create highly spin-polarized currents by breaking the time-reversal symmetry of the TI via magnetic defects [J. S. Van Dyke and D. K. Morr, Phys. Rev. B 93, 081401 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevB.93.081401] is robust against the inclusion of a Rashba spin-orbit interaction and the effects of dephasing, and remains unaffected by changes over a wide range of the TI's parameters. We discuss how the sign of the induced spin currents changes under symmetry operations, such as reversal of bias and gate voltages, or spatial reflections. Finally, we show that the insight into the interplay between topology and symmetry of the magnetic defects can be employed for the creation of intriguing quantum phenomena, such as highly localized magnetic fields inside the TI.

  6. Charge and spin fractionalization in strongly correlated topological insulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolić, Predrag

    2013-01-16

    We construct an effective topological Landau-Ginzburg theory that describes general SU(2) incompressible quantum liquids of strongly correlated particles in two spatial dimensions. This theory characterizes the fractionalization of quasiparticle quantum numbers and statistics in relation to the topological ground-state symmetries, and generalizes the Chern-Simons, BF ('background field') and hierarchical effective gauge theories to an arbitrary representation of the SU(2) symmetry group. We mainly focus on fractional topological insulators with time-reversal symmetry, which are treated as SU(2) generalizations of the quantum Hall effect.

  7. Skyrmions with arbitrary topological charges in spinor Bose–Einstein condensates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora-Zamora, R.; Romero-Rochín, V.

    2018-02-01

    Topological Skyrmion defects with arbitrary topological charges are shown to appear in spinor F = 1 Bose–Einstein condensates, under the presence of external gauge or magnetic fields with cylindrical symmetry. We show that, depending on the magnetic field boundary conditions, the spin texture, at the planes perpendicular to the cylindrical axis, can be forced to show Skyrmions with topological charge zero, half-integer, or any desired arbitrary value between -1/2 and 1/2. Our findings are obtained by numerically solving the corresponding fully coupled Gross–Pitaevskii equations without any symmetry assumptions and by analyzing the Skyrmion topological charge. We study, both, polar 23Na and ferromagnetic 87Rb condensates.

  8. Topological signatures of medium range order in amorphous semiconductor models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treacy, M. M. J.; Voyles, P. M.; Gibson, J. M.

    2000-05-23

    The topological local cluster (or Schlaefli cluster) concept of Marians and Hobbs is used to detect topologically crystalline regions in models of disordered tetrahedral semiconductors. The authors present simple algorithms for detecting both Wells-type shortest circuits and O'Keeffe-type rings, which can be used to delineate alternative forms of the Schlaefli cluster in models.

  9. Tunable spin-charge conversion through topological phase transitions in zigzag nanoribbons

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Hang

    2016-06-29

    We study spin-orbit torques and charge pumping in magnetic quasi-one-dimensional zigzag nanoribbons with a hexagonal lattice, in the presence of large intrinsic spin-orbit coupling. Such a system experiences a topological phase transition from a trivial band insulator to a quantum spin Hall insulator by tuning of either the magnetization direction or the intrinsic spin-orbit coupling. We find that the spin-charge conversion efficiency (i.e., spin-orbit torque and charge pumping) is dramatically enhanced at the topological transition, displaying a substantial angular anisotropy.

  10. Electrostatics in the Surroundings of a Topologically Charged Black Hole in the Brane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Larrañaga

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We determine the expression for the electrostatic potential generated by a point charge held stationary in the topologically charged black hole spacetime arising from the Randall-Sundrum II braneworld model. We treat the static electric point charge as a linear perturbation on the black hole background and an expression for the electrostatic multipole solution is given: PACS: 04.70.-s, 04.50.Gh, 11.25.-w, 41.20.-q, 41.90.+e.

  11. Phase Fluctuations and the Absence of Topological Defects in Photo-excited Charge Ordered Nickelate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, W.S.; Chuang, Y.D.; Moore, R.G.; Zhu, Y.; Patthey, L.; Trigo, M.; Lu, D.H.; Kirchmann, P.S.; Krupin, O.; Yi, M.; Langner, M.; Huse, N.; Robinson, J.S.; Chen, Y.; Zhou, S.Y.; Coslovich, G.; Huber, B.; Reis, D.A.; Kaindl, R.A.; Schoenlein, R.W.; Doering, D.

    2012-05-15

    The dynamics of an order parameter's amplitude and phase determines the collective behaviour of novel states emerging in complex materials. Time- and momentum-resolved pump-probe spectroscopy, by virtue of measuring material properties at atomic and electronic time scales out of equilibrium, can decouple entangled degrees of freedom by visualizing their corresponding dynamics in the time domain. Here we combine time-resolved femotosecond optical and resonant X-ray diffraction measurements on charge ordered La{sub 1.75}Sr{sub 0.25}NiO{sub 4} to reveal unforeseen photoinduced phase fluctuations of the charge order parameter. Such fluctuations preserve long-range order without creating topological defects, distinct from thermal phase fluctuations near the critical temperature in equilibrium. Importantly, relaxation of the phase fluctuations is found to be an order of magnitude slower than that of the order parameter's amplitude fluctuations, and thus limits charge order recovery. This new aspect of phase fluctuations provides a more holistic view of the phase's importance in ordering phenomena of quantum matter.

  12. Charge and Spin Transport in Spin-orbit Coupled and Topological Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Ndiaye, Papa Birame

    2017-10-31

    In the search for low power operation of microelectronic devices, spin-based solutions have attracted undeniable increasing interest due to their intrinsic magnetic nonvolatility. The ability to electrically manipulate the magnetic order using spin-orbit interaction, associated with the recent emergence of topological spintronics with its promise of highly efficient charge-to-spin conversion in solid state, offer alluring opportunities in terms of system design. Although the related technology is still at its infancy, this thesis intends to contribute to this engaging field by investigating the nature of the charge and spin transport in spin-orbit coupled and topological systems using quantum transport methods. We identified three promising building blocks for next-generation technology, three classes of systems that possibly enhance the spin and charge transport efficiency: (i)- topological insulators, (ii)- spin-orbit coupled magnonic systems, (iii)- topological magnetic textures (skyrmions and 3Q magnetic state). Chapter 2 reviews the basics and essential concepts used throughout the thesis: the spin-orbit coupling, the mathematical notion of topology and its importance in condensed matter physics, then topological magnetism and a zest of magnonics. In Chapter 3, we study the spin-orbit torques at the magnetized interfaces of 3D topological insulators. We demonstrated that their peculiar form, compared to other spin-orbit torques, have important repercussions in terms of magnetization reversal, charge pumping and anisotropic damping. In Chapter 4, we showed that the interplay between magnon current jm and magnetization m in homogeneous ferromagnets with Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) interaction, produces a field-like torque as well as a damping-like torque. These DM torques mediated by spin wave can tilt the imeaveraged magnetization direction and are similar to Rashba torques for electronic systems. Moreover, the DM torque is more efficient when magnons are

  13. Exploring 4D quantum Hall physics with a 2D topological charge pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohse, Michael; Schweizer, Christian; Price, Hannah M; Zilberberg, Oded; Bloch, Immanuel

    2018-01-03

    The discovery of topological states of matter has greatly improved our understanding of phase transitions in physical systems. Instead of being described by local order parameters, topological phases are described by global topological invariants and are therefore robust against perturbations. A prominent example is the two-dimensional (2D) integer quantum Hall effect: it is characterized by the first Chern number, which manifests in the quantized Hall response that is induced by an external electric field. Generalizing the quantum Hall effect to four-dimensional (4D) systems leads to the appearance of an additional quantized Hall response, but one that is nonlinear and described by a 4D topological invariant-the second Chern number. Here we report the observation of a bulk response with intrinsic 4D topology and demonstrate its quantization by measuring the associated second Chern number. By implementing a 2D topological charge pump using ultracold bosonic atoms in an angled optical superlattice, we realize a dynamical version of the 4D integer quantum Hall effect. Using a small cloud of atoms as a local probe, we fully characterize the nonlinear response of the system via in situ imaging and site-resolved band mapping. Our findings pave the way to experimentally probing higher-dimensional quantum Hall systems, in which additional strongly correlated topological phases, exotic collective excitations and boundary phenomena such as isolated Weyl fermions are predicted.

  14. Exploring 4D quantum Hall physics with a 2D topological charge pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohse, Michael; Schweizer, Christian; Price, Hannah M.; Zilberberg, Oded; Bloch, Immanuel

    2018-01-01

    The discovery of topological states of matter has greatly improved our understanding of phase transitions in physical systems. Instead of being described by local order parameters, topological phases are described by global topological invariants and are therefore robust against perturbations. A prominent example is the two-dimensional (2D) integer quantum Hall effect: it is characterized by the first Chern number, which manifests in the quantized Hall response that is induced by an external electric field. Generalizing the quantum Hall effect to four-dimensional (4D) systems leads to the appearance of an additional quantized Hall response, but one that is nonlinear and described by a 4D topological invariant—the second Chern number. Here we report the observation of a bulk response with intrinsic 4D topology and demonstrate its quantization by measuring the associated second Chern number. By implementing a 2D topological charge pump using ultracold bosonic atoms in an angled optical superlattice, we realize a dynamical version of the 4D integer quantum Hall effect. Using a small cloud of atoms as a local probe, we fully characterize the nonlinear response of the system via in situ imaging and site-resolved band mapping. Our findings pave the way to experimentally probing higher-dimensional quantum Hall systems, in which additional strongly correlated topological phases, exotic collective excitations and boundary phenomena such as isolated Weyl fermions are predicted.

  15. Dumping topological charges on neighbors: ice manifolds for colloids and vortices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisoli, Cristiano

    2014-11-01

    We investigate the recently reported analogies between pinned vortices in nano-structured superconductors or colloids in optical traps, and spin ice materials. It has been found experimentally and numerically that both colloids and vortices exhibit ice or quasi-ice manifolds. However, the frustration of colloids and vortices differs essentially from spin ice at the vertex level. We show that the effective vertex energetics of the colloidal/vortex systems is made identical to that of spin ice materials by the contribution of an emergent field associated to the topological charge of the vertex. The similarity extends to the local low-energy dynamics of the ice manifold, where the effect of geometric hard constraints can be subsumed into the spatial modulation of the emergent field, which mediates an entropic interaction between topological charges. There, as in spin ice materials, genuine ice manifolds enter a Coulomb phase, whereas quasi-ice manifolds posses a well defined screening length, provided by a plasma of embedded topological charges. We also show that such similarities break down in lattices of mixed coordination because of topological charge transfer between sub-latices. This opens interesting perspective for extensions beyond physics, to social and economical networks.

  16. Topological Transitions and Fractional Charges Induced by Strain and a Magnetic Field in Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efroni, Yonathan; Ilani, Shahal; Berg, Erez

    2017-10-01

    We show that carbon nanotubes (CNT) can be driven through a topological phase transition using either strain or a magnetic field. This can naturally lead to Jackiw-Rebbi soliton states carrying fractionalized charges, similar to those found in a domain wall in the Su-Schrieffer-Heeger model, in a setup with a spatially inhomogeneous strain and an axial field. Two types of fractionalized states can be formed at the interface between regions with different strain: a spin-charge separated state with integer charge and spin zero (or zero charge and spin ±ℏ/2 ), and a state with charge ±e /2 and spin ±ℏ/4 . The latter state requires spin-orbit coupling in the CNT. We show that in our setup, the precise quantization of the fractionalized interface charges is a consequence of the symmetry of the CNT under a combination of a spatial rotation by π and time reversal.

  17. Topology and shape optimization of induced-charge electro-osmotic micropumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Misha Marie; Okkels, Fridolin; Bazant, M. Z.

    2009-01-01

    For a dielectric solid surrounded by an electrolyte and positioned inside an externally biased parallel-plate capacitor, we study numerically how the resulting induced-charge electro-osmotic (ICEO) flow depends on the topology and shape of the dielectric solid. In particular, we extend existing...... the net induced electro-osmotic flow rate through the electrolytic capacitor in the direction parallel to the capacitor plates. Once found, the performance of the topology-optimized geometries has been validated by transferring them to conventional electrokinetic models not relying on the artificial...

  18. Engineering and Probing Topological Properties of Dirac Semimetal Films by Asymmetric Charge Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanova, John W; Barnes, Edwin; Park, Kyungwha

    2017-02-08

    Dirac semimetals (DSMs) have topologically robust three-dimensional Dirac (doubled Weyl) nodes with Fermi-arc states. In heterostructures involving DSMs, charge transfer occurs at the interfaces, which can be used to probe and control their bulk and surface topological properties through surface-bulk connectivity. Here we demonstrate that despite a band gap in DSM films, asymmetric charge transfer at the surface enables one to accurately identify locations of the Dirac-node projections from gapless band crossings and to examine and engineer properties of the topological Fermi-arc surface states connecting the projections, by simulating adatom-adsorbed DSM films using a first-principles method with an effective model. The positions of the Dirac-node projections are insensitive to charge transfer amount or slab thickness except for extremely thin films. By varying the amount of charge transfer, unique spin textures near the projections and a separation between the Fermi-arc states change, which can be observed by gating without adatoms.

  19. Topology

    CERN Document Server

    Hocking, John G

    1988-01-01

    ""As textbook and reference work, this is a valuable addition to the topological literature."" - Mathematical ReviewsDesigned as a text for a one-year first course in topology, this authoritative volume offers an excellent general treatment of the main ideas of topology. It includes a large number and variety of topics from classical topology as well as newer areas of research activity.There are four set-theoretic chapters, followed by four primarily algebraic chapters. Chapter I covers the fundamentals of topological and metrical spaces, mappings, compactness, product spaces, the Tychonoff t

  20. Topology

    CERN Document Server

    Lefschetz, Solomon

    1930-01-01

    Lefschetz's Topology was written in the period in between the beginning of topology, by Poincaré, and the establishment of algebraic topology as a well-formed subject, separate from point-set or geometric topology. At this time, Lefschetz had already proved his first fixed-point theorems. In some sense, the present book is a description of the broad subject of topology into which Lefschetz's theory of fixed points fits. Lefschetz takes the opportunity to describe some of the important applications of his theory, particularly in algebraic geometry, to problems such as counting intersections of

  1. Perfect optical vortex array with controllable diffraction order and topological charge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Shiyao; Wang, Tonglu; Gao, Chunqing

    2016-09-01

    We have demonstrated a holographic grating, the far-field diffraction pattern of which is a perfect optical vortex (POV) array. The diffraction order, as well as the topological charge of each spot in the array, is controllable. By setting different parameters when designing the hologram, the spot in different diffraction orders will be changed, resulting in the variance of the POV array. During the experiment, we uploaded holograms of different design on a phase-only spatial light modulator. We then observed POV arrays with different dimensions and topological charges using a CCD camera, which fit well with the simulation. This technique provides the possibility to generate multiple POVs simultaneously, and can be used in domains where multiple POVs are of high interest such as orbital angular momentum multiplexed fiber data transmission systems.

  2. Universal transport characteristics of multiple topological superconducting wires with large charging energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashuba, Oleksiy; Trauzettel, Bjoern [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik und Astrophysik, Universitaet Wuerzburg, 97074 Wuerzburg (Germany); Timm, Carsten [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, TU Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The system with multiple Majorana states coupled to the normal lead can potentially support the interaction between Majorana fermions and electrons. Such system can be implemented by several floating topological superconducting wires with large charging energy asymmetrically coupled to two normal leads. The analysis of the renormalization flow shows that there is a single fixed point - the strong coupling limit of isotropic antiferromagnetic Kondo model. The topological Kondo-like interaction leads also to the selective renormalization of the tunneling coefficients, strongly enhancing one component and suppressing others. Thus, charging energy crucially changes the transport properties of the system leading to the universal single-channel conductance independently from the values of the initial leads-wires coupling.

  3. Topology-Based Approach to Predict Relative Stabilities of Charged and Functionalized Fullerenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Díaz-Tendero, Sergio; Alcami, Manuel; Martin, Fernando

    2018-01-27

    Understanding the relationship between structure and stability is one of the fundamental aspects of fullerene chemistry, as the number of possible cage isomers is very large and complexity increases by orders of magnitude when chemical groups are attached to the fullerene cage. The well-established stability rules valid for neutral fullerenes do not apply to many charged or functionalized fullerenes. Here we present the theory, implementation and applications of two simple topology-based models that allow one to predict the relative stability of charged and functionalized fullerenes without the need for quantum chemistry calculations: (i) the charge stabilization index (CSI) model, based on the concepts of cage connectivity and frontier π orbitals, which offers a general framework for the relative stability of both positively and negatively charged fullerenes, as well as endohedral metallofullerenes, and (ii) the exohedral fullerene stabilization index (XSI) model, which incorporates all key factors governing the stability of exohedral fullerenes, namely, π delocalization, σ strain and steric hindrance between addends. Based exclusively on topological information, both models are powerful prescreening tools for predicting the most stable structures of a large number of charged and functionalized fullerenes. For easy use by fullerene chemists, both models have been implemented in the FullFun (for Fullerene Functionalization) software package, whose effectiveness and efficiency are demonstrated by some illustrative examples.

  4. Long-range interaction between heterogeneously charged membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jho, Y S; Brewster, R; Safran, S A; Pincus, P A

    2011-04-19

    Despite their neutrality, surfaces or membranes with equal amounts of positive and negative charge can exhibit long-range electrostatic interactions if the surface charge is heterogeneous; this can happen when the surface charges form finite-size domain structures. These domains can be formed in lipid membranes where the balance of the different ranges of strong but short-ranged hydrophobic interactions and longer-ranged electrostatic repulsion result in a finite, stable domain size. If the domain size is large enough, oppositely charged domains in two opposing surfaces or membranes can be strongly correlated by the electrostatic interactions; these correlations give rise to an attractive interaction of the two membranes or surfaces over separations on the order of the domain size. We use numerical simulations to demonstrate the existence of strong attractions at separations of tens of nanometers. Large line tensions result in larger domains but also increase the charge density within the domain. This promotes correlations and, as a result, increases the intermembrane attraction. On the other hand, increasing the salt concentration increases both the domain size and degree of domain anticorrelation, but the interactions are ultimately reduced due to increased screening. The result is a decrease in the net attraction as salt concentration is increased. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  5. When opposites repel: from metastability to extended chiral spin textures in spin ice with short-range topological-defect interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Udagawa, Masafumi; Jaubert, Ludovic D.C.; Castelnovo, Claudio; Moessner, Roderich

    2016-01-01

    We study the interplay of topological bottlenecks and energetic barriers to equilibration in a Coulomb spin liquid where a short-range energetic coupling between defects charged under an emergent gauge field supplements their entropic long-range Coulomb interaction. This work is motivated by the prevalence of memory effects observed across a wide range of geometrically frustrated magnetic materials, possibly including the spontaneous Hall effect observed in Pr2Ir2O7. Our model is canonical sp...

  6. NMR study of topological insulator Bi2Te3 in a wide temperature range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonenko, A. O.; Charnaya, E. V.; Nefedov, D. Yu.; Podorozhkin, D. Yu.; Uskov, A. V.; Bugaev, A. S.; Lee, M. K.; Chang, L. J.; Naumov, S. V.; Perevozchikova, Yu. A.; Chistyakov, V. V.; Huang, J. C. A.; Marchenkov, V. V.

    2017-12-01

    NMR studies of 125Te in the topological insulator bismuth telluride Bi2Te3 in a wide temperature range from room temperature to 12.5 K are performed. The pulsed NMR spectrometer Bruker Avance 400 is applied. The NMR spectra are obtained for the powder from Bi2Te3 single crystal and monocrystalline plates with the orientations c || B and c ⊥ B. At room temperature, the spectra consist of two lines related to two nonequivalent positions of tellurium nuclei Te1 and Te2. The parameters of the NMR frequency shift tensor are found from the powder spectrum. The temperature dependences of the spectra for the powder and plates with the orientation c ⊥ B agree with each other. The line shift with decreasing temperature is explained by the reduction of the Knight shift. The thermal activation energy of charge carriers is estimated. The spectra for the plates with the orientation c || B demonstrate peculiar behavior below 91 K. The spin-lattice relaxation time for the powder and monocrystalline plates with both orientations at room temperature is measured.

  7. Symmetry-protected topological phases of one-dimensional interacting fermions with spin-charge separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montorsi, Arianna; Dolcini, Fabrizio; Iotti, Rita C.; Rossi, Fausto

    2017-06-01

    The low energy behavior of a huge variety of one-dimensional interacting spinful fermionic systems exhibits spin-charge separation, described in the continuum limit by two sine-Gordon models decoupled in the charge and spin channels. Interaction is known to induce, besides the gapless Luttinger liquid phase, eight possible gapped phases, among which are the Mott, Haldane, charge-/spin-density, and bond-ordered wave insulators, and the Luther Emery liquid. Here we prove that some of these physically distinct phases have nontrivial topological properties, notably the presence of degenerate protected edge modes with fractionalized charge/spin. Moreover, we show that the eight gapped phases are in one-to-one correspondence with the symmetry-protected topological (SPT) phases classified by group cohomology theory in the presence of particle-hole symmetry P. The latter result is also exploited to characterize SPT phases by measurable nonlocal order parameters which follow the system evolution to the quantum phase transition. The implications on the appearance of exotic orders in the class of microscopic Hubbard Hamiltonians, possibly without P symmetry at higher energies, are discussed.

  8. Dirac spin-orbit torques and charge pumping at the surface of topological insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndiaye, Papa B.; Akosa, C. A.; Fischer, M. H.; Vaezi, A.; Kim, E.-A.; Manchon, A.

    2017-07-01

    We address the nature of spin-orbit torques at the magnetic surfaces of topological insulators using the linear-response theory. We find that the so-called Dirac torques in such systems possess a different symmetry compared to their Rashba counterpart, as well as a high anisotropy as a function of the magnetization direction. In particular, the damping torque vanishes when the magnetization lies in the plane of the topological-insulator surface. We also show that the Onsager reciprocal of the spin-orbit torque, the charge pumping, induces an enhanced anisotropic damping. Via a macrospin model, we numerically demonstrate that these features have important consequences in terms of magnetization switching.

  9. Dirac spin-orbit torques and charge pumping at the surface of topological insulators

    KAUST Repository

    Ndiaye, Papa Birame

    2017-07-07

    We address the nature of spin-orbit torques at the magnetic surfaces of topological insulators using the linear-response theory. We find that the so-called Dirac torques in such systems possess a different symmetry compared to their Rashba counterpart, as well as a high anisotropy as a function of the magnetization direction. In particular, the damping torque vanishes when the magnetization lies in the plane of the topological-insulator surface. We also show that the Onsager reciprocal of the spin-orbit torque, the charge pumping, induces an enhanced anisotropic damping. Via a macrospin model, we numerically demonstrate that these features have important consequences in terms of magnetization switching.

  10. Topology

    CERN Document Server

    Manetti, Marco

    2015-01-01

    This is an introductory textbook on general and algebraic topology, aimed at anyone with a basic knowledge of calculus and linear algebra. It provides full proofs and includes many examples and exercises. The covered topics include: set theory and cardinal arithmetic; axiom of choice and Zorn's lemma; topological spaces and continuous functions; connectedness and compactness; Alexandrov compactification; quotient topologies; countability and separation axioms; prebasis and Alexander's theorem; the Tychonoff theorem and paracompactness; complete metric spaces and function spaces; Baire spaces; homotopy of maps; the fundamental group; the van Kampen theorem; covering spaces; Brouwer and Borsuk's theorems; free groups and free product of groups; and basic category theory. While it is very concrete at the beginning, abstract concepts are gradually introduced. It is suitable for anyone needing a basic, comprehensive introduction to general and algebraic topology and its applications.

  11. Observation of the Dynamical Inversion of the Topological Charge of an Optical Vortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Terriza, Gabriel; Recolons, Jaume; Torres, Juan P.; Torner, Lluis; Wright, Ewan M.

    2001-07-01

    We report what is believed to be the first detailed experimental observation of the dynamic inversion of the topological charge of an optical vortex under free-space propagation. The vortex self-transformation occurs through continuous deformation of the noncanonical strength of the corresponding screw wave front dislocation, and is mediated by the occurrence of an extremely sharp turn in a Berry vortex trajectory, which observed at a Freund critical foliation appears as an edge-line dislocation orthogonal to the propagation direction, at a crucial point of the light evolution.

  12. Observation of the Dynamical Inversion of the Topological Charge of an Optical Vortex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molina-Terriza, Gabriel; Recolons, Jaume; Torres, Juan P.; Torner, Lluis; Wright, Ewan M.

    2001-07-09

    We report what is believed to be the first detailed experimental observation of the dynamic inversion of the topological charge of an optical vortex under free-space propagation. The vortex self-transformation occurs through continuous deformation of the noncanonical strength of the corresponding screw wave front dislocation, and is mediated by the occurrence of an extremely sharp turn in a Berry vortex trajectory, which observed at a Freund critical foliation appears as an edge-line dislocation orthogonal to the propagation direction, at a crucial point of the light evolution.

  13. Quasinormal modes of four-dimensional topological nonlinear charged Lifshitz black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becar, Ramon [Universidad Cato lica de Temuco, Departamento de Ciencias Matematicas y Fisicas, Temuco (Chile); Gonzalez, P.A. [Universidad Diego Portales, Facultad de Ingenieria, Santiago (Chile); Vasquez, Yerko [Universidad de La Serena, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, La Serena (Chile)

    2016-02-15

    We study scalar perturbations of four- dimensional topological nonlinear charged Lifshitz black holes with spherical and plane transverse sections, and we find numerically the quasinormal modes for scalar fields. Then we study the stability of these black holes under massive and massless scalar field perturbations. We focus our study on the dependence of the dynamical exponent, the nonlinear exponent, the angular momentum, and the mass of the scalar field in the modes. It is found that the modes are overdamped, depending strongly on the dynamical exponent and the angular momentum of the scalar field for a spherical transverse section. In contrast, for plane transverse sections the modes are always overdamped. (orig.)

  14. Edge insulating topological phases in a two-dimensional superconductor with long-range pairing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepori, L.; Giuliano, D.; Paganelli, S.

    2018-01-01

    We study the zero-temperature phase diagram of a two-dimensional square lattice loaded by spinless fermions, with nearest-neighbor hopping and algebraically decaying pairing. We find that for sufficiently long-range pairing, new phases occur, not continuously connected with any short-range phase and not belonging to the standard families of topological insulators/superconductors. These phases are signaled by the violation of the area law for the von Neumann entropy, by semi-integer Chern numbers, and by edge modes with nonzero mass. The latter feature results in the absence of single-fermion edge conductivity, present instead in the short-range limit. The definition of a bulk-topology and the presence of a bulk-boundary correspondence is suggested also for the long-range phases. Recent experimental proposals and advances open the possibility to probe the described long-range effects in near-future realistic setups.

  15. Study on efficiency of different topologies of magnetic coupled resonant wireless charging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, S.; Liu, Z. Z.; Hou, Y. J.; Zeng, H.; Yue, Z. K.; Liang, L. H.

    2017-11-01

    This paper analyses the relationship between the output power, the transmission efficiency and the frequency, load and coupling coefficient of the four kinds of magnetic coupled resonant wireless charging system topologies. Based on mutual inductance principle, four kinds of circuit models are established, and the expressions of output power and transmission efficiency of different structures are calculated. The difference between the two power characteristics and efficiency characteristics is compared by simulating the SS (series-series) and SP (series-parallel) type wireless charging systems. With the same parameters of circuit components, the SS structure is usually suitable for small load resistance. The SP structure can be applied to large load resistors, when the transmission efficiency of the system is required to keep high. If the operating frequency deviates from the system resonance frequency, the SS type system has higher transmission efficiency than the SP type system.

  16. Phase fluctuations and the absence of topological defects in a photo-excited charge-ordered nickelate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, W. S.; Chuang, Y. D.; Moore, R. G.; Zhu, Y.; Patthey, L.; Trigo, M.; Lu, D. H.; Kirchmann, P. S.; Krupin, O.; Yi, M.; Langner, M.; Huse, N.; Robinson, J. S.; Chen, Y.; Zhou, S. Y.; Coslovich, G.; Huber, B.; Reis, D. A.; Kaindl, R. A.; Schoenlein, R. W.; Doering, D.; Denes, P.; Schlotter, W. F.; Turner, J. J.; Johnson, S. L.; Först, M.; Sasagawa, T.; Kung, Y. F.; Sorini, A. P.; Kemper, A. F.; Moritz, B.; Devereaux, T. P.; Lee, D. -H.; Shen, Z. X.; Hussain, Z.

    2012-05-15

    The dynamics of an order parameter's amplitude and phase determines the collective behaviour of novel states emerging in complex materials. Time- and momentum-resolved pump-probe spectroscopy, by virtue of measuring material properties at atomic and electronic time scales out of equilibrium, can decouple entangled degrees of freedom by visualizing their corresponding dynamics in the time domain. Here we combine time-resolved femotosecond optical and resonant X-ray diffraction measurements on charge ordered La1.75Sr0.25NiO4 to reveal unforeseen photoinduced phase fluctuations of the charge order parameter. Such fluctuations preserve long-range order without creating topological defects, distinct from thermal phase fluctuations near the critical temperature in equilibrium. Importantly, relaxation of the phase fluctuations is found to be an order of magnitude slower than that of the order parameter's amplitude fluctuations, and thus limits charge order recovery. This new aspect of phase fluctuations provides a more holistic view of the phase's importance in ordering phenomena of quantum matter.

  17. Comments on central charge of topological sigma model with Calabi-Yau target space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugiyama, Katsuyuki E-mail: sugiyama@phys.h.kyoto-u.ac.jp

    2000-12-25

    We study a central charge Z of a one parameter family of Calabi-Yau d-fold embedded in CP{sup d+1}. For a d-fold case, we construct the Z concretely and analyze charge vectors of D-branes and intersection forms of associated cycles. We find the charges are described as some kinds of Mukai vectors. They are represented as products of Chern characters of coherent sheaves restricted on the Calabi-Yau hypersurfaces and square roots of A-roof genera of the d-folds. By combining results of the topological sigma model and the data of the CFT calculations in the Gepner model, we find that the Z is determined and is specified by a set of integers that labels boundary states in special classes where associated states are represented as tensor products of boundary states for constituent minimal models. The Z has a moduli parameter 't' that describes a deformation of a moduli space in the open string channel with B-type boundary conditions. Also monodromy matrices and homology cycles are investigated.

  18. Range and energetics of charge hopping in organic semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, Hassan; Zuo, Guangzheng; Kemerink, Martijn

    2017-12-01

    The recent upswing in attention for the thermoelectric properties of organic semiconductors (OSCs) adds urgency to the need for a quantitative description of the range and energetics of hopping transport in organic semiconductors under relevant circumstances, i.e., around room temperature (RT). In particular, the degree to which hops beyond the nearest neighbor must be accounted for at RT is still largely unknown. Here, measurements of charge and energy transport in doped OSCs are combined with analytical modeling to reach the univocal conclusion that variable-range hopping is the proper description in a large class of disordered OSC at RT. To obtain quantitative agreement with experiment, one needs to account for the modification of the density of states by ionized dopants. These Coulomb interactions give rise to a deep tail of trap states that is independent of the material's initial energetic disorder. Insertion of this effect into a classical Mott-type variable-range hopping model allows one to give a quantitative description of temperature-dependent conductivity and thermopower measurements on a wide range of disordered OSCs. In particular, the model explains the commonly observed quasiuniversal power-law relation between the Seebeck coefficient and the conductivity.

  19. Optical spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion in ultra-thin metasurfaces with arbitrary topological charges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouchard, Frédéric; De Leon, Israel; Schulz, Sebastian A.; Upham, Jeremy; Karimi, Ebrahim, E-mail: ekarimi@uottawa.ca [Department of Physics, University of Ottawa, 25 Templeton, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 6N5 Canada (Canada); Boyd, Robert W. [Department of Physics, University of Ottawa, 25 Templeton, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 6N5 Canada (Canada); Institute of Optics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States)

    2014-09-08

    Orbital angular momentum associated with the helical phase-front of optical beams provides an unbounded “space” for both classical and quantum communications. Among the different approaches to generate and manipulate orbital angular momentum states of light, coupling between spin and orbital angular momentum allows a faster manipulation of orbital angular momentum states because it depends on manipulating the polarisation state of light, which is simpler and generally faster than manipulating conventional orbital angular momentum generators. In this work, we design and fabricate an ultra-thin spin-to-orbital angular momentum converter, based on plasmonic nano-antennas and operating in the visible wavelength range that is capable of converting spin to an arbitrary value of orbital angular momentum ℓ. The nano-antennas are arranged in an array with a well-defined geometry in the transverse plane of the beam, possessing a specific integer or half-integer topological charge q. When a circularly polarised light beam traverses this metasurface, the output beam polarisation switches handedness and the orbital angular momentum changes in value by ℓ=±2qℏ per photon. We experimentally demonstrate ℓ values ranging from ±1 to ±25 with conversion efficiencies of 8.6% ± 0.4%. Our ultra-thin devices are integratable and thus suitable for applications in quantum communications, quantum computations, and nano-scale sensing.

  20. Topologically Protected Defect States in Open Photonic Systems with Non-Hermitian Charge-Conjugation and Parity-Time Symmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malzard, Simon; Poli, Charles; Schomerus, Henning

    2015-11-13

    We show that topologically protected defect states can exist in open (leaky or lossy) systems even when these systems are topologically trivial in the closed limit. The states appear from within the continuum, thus in the absence of a band gap, and are generated via exceptional points (a spectral transition that occurs in open wave and quantum systems with a generalized time-reversal symmetry), or via a degeneracy induced by charge-conjugation symmetry (which is related to the pole transition of Majorana zero modes). We demonstrate these findings for a leaking passive coupled-resonator optical waveguide with asymmmetric internal scattering, where the required symmetries (non-Hermitian versions of time-reversal symmetry, chirality, and charge conjugation) emerge dynamically.

  1. Topology of electron charge density for chemical bonds from valence bond theory: a probe of bonding types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lixian; Ying, Fuming; Wu, Wei; Hiberty, Philippe C; Shaik, Sason

    2009-01-01

    To characterize the nature of bonding we derive the topological properties of the electron charge density of a variety of bonds based on ab initio valence bond methods. The electron density and its associated Laplacian are partitioned into covalent, ionic, and resonance components in the valence bond spirit. The analysis provides a density-based signature of bonding types and reveals, along with the classical covalent and ionic bonds, the existence of two-electron bonds in which most of the bonding arises from the covalent-ionic resonance energy, so-called charge-shift bonds. As expected, the covalent component of the Laplacian at the bond critical point is found to be largely negative for classical covalent bonds. In contrast, for charge-shift bonds, the covalent part of the Laplacian is small or positive, in agreement with the weakly attractive or repulsive character of the covalent interaction in these bonds. On the other hand, the resonance component of the Laplacian is always negative or nearly zero, and it increases in absolute value with the charge-shift character of the bond, in agreement with the decrease of kinetic energy associated with covalent-ionic mixing. A new interpretation of the topology of the total density at the bond critical point is proposed to characterize covalent, ionic, and charge-shift bonding from the density point of view.

  2. Surface state charge dynamics of a high-mobility three-dimensional topological insulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Jason N; van Mechelen, J L M; Kuzmenko, Alexey B; van der Marel, Dirk; Brüne, Christoph; Novik, Elena G; Astakhov, Georgy V; Buhmann, Hartmut; Molenkamp, Laurens W

    2011-09-23

    We present a magneto-optical study of the three-dimensional topological insulator, strained HgTe, using a technique which capitalizes on advantages of time-domain spectroscopy to amplify the signal from the surface states. This measurement delivers valuable and precise information regarding the surface-state dispersion within <1 meV of the Fermi level. The technique is highly suitable for the pursuit of the topological magnetoelectric effect and axion electrodynamics.

  3. Spin-polarized charge transport in HgTe/CdTe quantum well topological insulator under a ferromagnetic metal strip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhenhua; Luo, Kun; Yu, Jiahan; Wu, Xiaobo; Lin, Liangzhong

    2018-02-01

    Electron tunneling through a single magnetic barrier in a HgTe topological insulator has been theoretically investigated. We find that the perpendicular magnetic field would not lead to spin-flip of the edge states due to the conservation of the angular moment. By tuning the magnetic field and the Fermi energy, the edge channels can be transited from switch-on states to switch-off states and the current from unpolarized states can be filtered to fully spin polarized states. These features offer us an efficient way to control charge/spin transport in a HgTe/CdTe quantum well, and pave a way to construct the nanoelectronic devices utilizing the topological edge states.

  4. Long-range entanglement is necessary for a topological storage of quantum information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Isaac H

    2013-08-23

    A general inequality between entanglement entropy and a number of topologically ordered states is derived, even without using the properties of the parent Hamiltonian or the formalism of topological quantum field theory. Given a quantum state |ψ], we obtain an upper bound on the number of distinct states that are locally indistinguishable from |ψ]. The upper bound is determined only by the entanglement entropy of some local subsystems. As an example, we show that log N≤2γ for a large class of topologically ordered systems on a torus, where N is the number of topologically protected states and γ is the constant subcorrection term of the entanglement entropy. We discuss applications to quantum many-body systems that do not have any low-energy topological quantum field theory description, as well as tradeoff bounds for general quantum error correcting codes.

  5. Charge ordering and long-range interactions in layered transition metal oxides

    OpenAIRE

    Stojkovic, Branko P.; Yu, Z. G.; Bishop, A. R.; Neto, A. H. Castro; Gronbech-Jensen, Niels

    1998-01-01

    We study the competition between long-range and short-range interactions among holes within the spin density wave picture of layered transition metal oxides. We focus on the problem of charge ordering and the charge phase diagram. We show that the main interactions are the long-range Coulomb interaction and a dipolar short-range interaction generated by the short-range antiferromagnetic fluctuations. We find four different phases depending on the strength of the dipolar interaction and the de...

  6. Molecular Doping the Topological Dirac Semimetal Na3Bi across the Charge Neutrality Point with F4-TCNQ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds, Mark T; Hellerstedt, Jack; O'Donnell, Kane M; Tadich, Anton; Fuhrer, Michael S

    2016-06-29

    We perform low-temperature transport and high-resolution photoelectron spectroscopy on 20 nm thin film topological Dirac semimetal Na3Bi grown by molecular beam epitaxy. We demonstrate efficient electron depletion ∼10(13) cm(-2) of Na3Bi via vacuum deposition of molecular F4-TCNQ without degrading the sample mobility. For samples with low as-grown n-type doping (1 × 10(12) cm(-2)), F4-TCNQ doping can achieve charge neutrality and even a net p-type doping. Photoelectron spectroscopy and density functional theory are utilized to investigate the behavior of F4-TCNQ on the Na3Bi surface.

  7. Long-range topological insulators and weakened bulk-boundary correspondence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepori, L.; Dell’Anna, L.

    2017-10-01

    We investigate the appearance of new types of insulators and superconductors in long-range (LR) fermionic quantum systems. These phases are not included in the famous ‘ten-fold way classification’ (TWC), valid in the short-range (SR) limit. This conclusion is obtained analysing at first specific one-dimensional models, in particular their phase diagrams and entanglement properties. The LR phases are signalled, for instance, by the violation of the area-law for the von Neumann entropy and by a corresponding peculiar entanglement spectrum (ES). Later on, the origin of the deviations from the TWC is investigated from a more general point of view and in any dimension, showing that it is related with the presence of divergences occurring in the spectrum, due to the LR couplings. A satisfying characterization for the LR phases can be achieved, at least for one-dimensional quantum systems, as well as the definition of a nontrivial topology for them, resulting in the presence of massive edge states, provided a careful evaluation of the LR contributions. Our results allows to infer, at least for one-dimensional models, the weakening of the bulk-boundary correspondence, due to the important correlations between bulk and edges, and consequently to clarify the nature of the massive edge states. The emergence of this peculiar edge structure is signalled again by the bulk ES. The stability of the LR phases against local disorder is also discussed, showing notably that this ingredient can even strengthen the effect of the LR couplings. Finally, we analyse the entanglement content of the paradigmatic LR Ising chain, inferring again important deviations from the SR regime, as well as the limitations of bulk-boundary (tensor-network based) approaches to classify LR spin models.

  8. Ultracold Atoms in a Square Lattice with Spin-Orbit Coupling: Charge Order, Superfluidity, and Topological Signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Peter; Shi, Hao; Zhang, Shiwei

    2017-12-01

    We present an ab initio, numerically exact study of attractive fermions in square lattices with Rashba spin-orbit coupling. The ground state of this system is a supersolid, with coexisting charge and superfluid order. The superfluid is composed of both singlet and triplet pairs induced by spin-orbit coupling. We perform large-scale calculations using the auxiliary-field quantum Monte Carlo method to provide the first full, quantitative description of the charge, spin, and pairing properties of the system. In addition to characterizing the exotic physics, our results will serve as essential high-accuracy benchmarks for the intense theoretical and especially experimental efforts in ultracold atoms to realize and understand an expanding variety of quantum Hall and topological superconductor systems.

  9. Efficient charge-spin conversion and magnetization switching through the Rashba effect at topological-insulator/Ag interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Shuyuan; Wang, Aizhu; Wang, Yi; Ramaswamy, Rajagopalan; Shen, Lei; Moon, Jisoo; Zhu, Dapeng; Yu, Jiawei; Oh, Seongshik; Feng, Yuanping; Yang, Hyunsoo

    2018-01-01

    We report the observation of efficient charge-to-spin conversion in the three-dimensional topological insulator (TI) B i2S e3 and Ag bilayer by the spin-torque ferromagnetic resonance technique. The spin-orbit-torque ratio in the B i2S e3/Ag /CoFeB heterostructure shows a significant enhancement as the Ag thickness increases to ˜2 nm and reaches a value of 0.5 for 5 nm Ag, which is ˜3 times higher than that of B i2S e3/CoFeB at room temperature. The observation reveals the interfacial effect of B i2S e3/Ag exceeds that of the topological surface states (TSSs) in the B i2S e3 layer and plays a dominant role in the charge-to-spin conversion in the B i2S e3/Ag /CoFeB system. Based on first-principles calculations, we attribute our observation to the large Rashba splitting bands which wrap the TSS band and have the same net spin polarization direction as the TSS of B i2S e3 . Subsequently, we demonstrate Rashba-induced magnetization switching in B i2S e3/Ag /Py with a low current density of 5.8 ×105A /c m2 .

  10. A comparative investigation of three PM-less MW power range wind generator topologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bratiloveanu, Catalin-Rauti; Traian Cosmin Anghelus, Dumitru; Boldea, I.

    2012-01-01

    heteropolar-rotor (standard) synchronous generators, especially for direct drives (very low speed) and multibrid (with single stage transmission (5/1-8/1 ratio)), new topologies have to be investigated to reduce initial costs and weights for high enough efficiency and energy annual yield. The present paper......, with sensitivity design inquires, the claw pole synchronous generator topology for a multibrid wind generator of 3 MW ,75rpm generator for a 15 rpm wind turbine with above 94 % efficiency for unity power factor (diode rectified output) for around 10 tons of copper and iron core materials. Though the case studies...

  11. Role of long- and short-range hydrophobic, hydrophilic and charged residues contact network in protein’s structural organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sengupta Dhriti

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The three-dimensional structure of a protein can be described as a graph where nodes represent residues and the strength of non-covalent interactions between them are edges. These protein contact networks can be separated into long and short-range interactions networks depending on the positions of amino acids in primary structure. Long-range interactions play a distinct role in determining the tertiary structure of a protein while short-range interactions could largely contribute to the secondary structure formations. In addition, physico chemical properties and the linear arrangement of amino acids of the primary structure of a protein determines its three dimensional structure. Here, we present an extensive analysis of protein contact subnetworks based on the London van der Waals interactions of amino acids at different length scales. We further subdivided those networks in hydrophobic, hydrophilic and charged residues networks and have tried to correlate their influence in the overall topology and organization of a protein. Results The largest connected component (LCC of long (LRN-, short (SRN- and all-range (ARN networks within proteins exhibit a transition behaviour when plotted against different interaction strengths of edges among amino acid nodes. While short-range networks having chain like structures exhibit highly cooperative transition; long- and all-range networks, which are more similar to each other, have non-chain like structures and show less cooperativity. Further, the hydrophobic residues subnetworks in long- and all-range networks have similar transition behaviours with all residues all-range networks, but the hydrophilic and charged residues networks don’t. While the nature of transitions of LCC’s sizes is same in SRNs for thermophiles and mesophiles, there exists a clear difference in LRNs. The presence of larger size of interconnected long-range interactions in thermophiles than mesophiles, even at

  12. Charge Fractionalization induced by parity anomaly in the chiral excitonic phase of topological surface state

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Rui; Erten, Onur; Wang, Baigeng; Xing, D. Y.

    2017-01-01

    Parity anomaly is a long-studied topic in high energy physics, which predicts that an infinitesimal mass term of Dirac fermion breaks the parity symmetry. In condensed matter physics, the parity anomaly results in the half-quantized anomalous Hall conductance in the Zeeman-doped topological surface state, which is characterized by Chern number $C = \\pm1/2$. Here, we propose a different realization of the parity anomaly by introducing a momentum-dependent mass of Dirac fermions, which is verif...

  13. Charge and spin transport in edge channels of a ν=0 quantum Hall system on the surface of topological insulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Takahiro; Furusaki, Akira; Nagaosa, Naoto

    2015-04-10

    Three-dimensional topological insulators of finite thickness can show the quantum Hall effect (QHE) at the filling factor ν=0 under an external magnetic field if there is a finite potential difference between the top and bottom surfaces. We calculate energy spectra of surface Weyl fermions in the ν=0 QHE and find that gapped edge states with helical spin structure are formed from Weyl fermions on the side surfaces under certain conditions. These edge channels account for the nonlocal charge transport in the ν=0 QHE which is observed in a recent experiment on (Bi_{1-x}Sb_{x})_{2}Te_{3} films. The edge channels also support spin transport due to the spin-momentum locking. We propose an experimental setup to observe various spintronics functions such as spin transport and spin conversion.

  14. An Efficient Topology for Wireless Power Transfer over a Wide Range of Loading Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianqing Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Although an inductive power transfer (IPT system can transfer power efficiently in full-load conditions, its efficiency obviously decreases in light-load conditions. To solve this problem, based on a two-coil IPT system with a series-series compensation topology, a single-ended primary-inductor converter is introduced at the secondary side. By adjusting the set effective value of the current in the primary coil, the converter input voltage changes to maintain the equivalent input resistance of the converter in an optimal condition. The system can then transfer the power efficiently with the wide load conditions. Moreover, the system operates at a constant resonance frequency with a high power factor. Both the simulation and experimentation of a prototype with a 10 W IPT system demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed topology for wireless power transfer.

  15. Long-Range Charge Order in the Extended Holstein-Hubbard Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyao, Tadahiro

    2016-10-01

    This study investigated the extended Holstein-Hubbard model at half-filling as a model for describing the interplay of electron-electron and electron-phonon couplings. When the electron-phonon and nearest-neighbor electron-electron interactions are strong, we prove the existence of long-range charge order in three or more dimensions at a sufficiently low temperature. As a result, we rigorously justify the phase competition between the antiferromagnetism and charge orders.

  16. A Multi-hop Topology Control Based on Inter-node Range Measurement for Wireless Sensor Networks Node Localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Husein ALASIRY

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In centralized range-based localization techniques, sufficiency of inter-node range information received by the base station strongly affects node position estimation results. Successful data aggregation is influenced by link stability of each connection of routes, especially in a multi-hop topology model. In general, measuring the inter-node range is only performed for position determination purposes. This research introduces the use of inter-node range measurement information for link selection in a multi-hop route composition in order to increase the rate of data aggregation. Due to irregularity problems of wireless media, two areas of node communication have been considered. The regular communication area is the area in which other nodes are able to perform symmetrical communication to the node without failure. The irregular area is the area in which other nodes are seldom able to communicate. Due to its instability, some existing methods tried to avoid the irregular area completely. The proposed method, named Virtual Boundaries (VBs prioritizes these areas. The regular communication area’s nodes have high priority to be selected as link vertices; however, when there is no link candidate inside this area, nodes within the irregular area will be selected with respect to their range to the parent node. This technique resulted in a more robust multi-hop topology that can reduce isolated node numbers and increase the percentage of data collected by the base station accordingly.

  17. Topological charged black holes in massive gravity's rainbow and their thermodynamical analysis through various approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.H. Hendi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Violation of Lorentz invariancy in the high energy quantum gravity motivates one to consider an energy dependent spacetime with massive deformation of standard general relativity. In this paper, we take into account an energy dependent metric in the context of a massive gravity model to obtain exact solutions. We investigate the geometry of black hole solutions and also calculate the conserved and thermodynamic quantities, which are fully reproduced by the analysis performed with the standard techniques. After examining the validity of the first law of thermodynamics, we conduct a study regarding the effects of different parameters on thermal stability of the solutions. In addition, we employ the relation between cosmological constant and thermodynamical pressure to study the possibility of phase transition. Interestingly, we will show that for the specific configuration considered in this paper, van der Waals like behavior is observed for different topology. In other words, for flat and hyperbolic horizons, similar to spherical horizon, a second order phase transition and van der Waals like behavior are observed. Furthermore, we use geometrical method to construct phase space and study phase transition and bound points for these black holes. Finally, we obtain critical values in extended phase space through the use of a new method.

  18. Topological charged black holes in massive gravity's rainbow and their thermodynamical analysis through various approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendi, S. H.; Eslam Panah, B.; Panahiyan, S.

    2017-06-01

    Violation of Lorentz invariancy in the high energy quantum gravity motivates one to consider an energy dependent spacetime with massive deformation of standard general relativity. In this paper, we take into account an energy dependent metric in the context of a massive gravity model to obtain exact solutions. We investigate the geometry of black hole solutions and also calculate the conserved and thermodynamic quantities, which are fully reproduced by the analysis performed with the standard techniques. After examining the validity of the first law of thermodynamics, we conduct a study regarding the effects of different parameters on thermal stability of the solutions. In addition, we employ the relation between cosmological constant and thermodynamical pressure to study the possibility of phase transition. Interestingly, we will show that for the specific configuration considered in this paper, van der Waals like behavior is observed for different topology. In other words, for flat and hyperbolic horizons, similar to spherical horizon, a second order phase transition and van der Waals like behavior are observed. Furthermore, we use geometrical method to construct phase space and study phase transition and bound points for these black holes. Finally, we obtain critical values in extended phase space through the use of a new method.

  19. Charge Ordering and Long-Range Interactions in Layered Transition Metal Oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stojkovic, B.P.; Yu, Z.G.; Bishop, A.R.; Gro/nbech-Jensen, N. [Theoretical Division and Center for Nonlinear Studies, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Neto, A.H. [Department of Physics, University of California, Riverside, California 92521 (United States)

    1999-06-01

    We study the competition between long-range and short-range interactions among holes within a continuum formulation of the spin density wave picture of layered transition metal oxides. We focus on the problem of charge ordering and the charge phase diagram. The main interactions are the long-range Coulomb interaction and a magnetic dipolar short-range interaction generated by short-range antiferromagnetic fluctuations. Four different phases depending on the strength of the dipolar interaction and the density of holes exist: Wigner crystal, diagonal stripes, horizontal-vertical stripes (loops). and a glassy-clumped phase. The effect of temperature, disorder, and lattice effects on these phases are discussed. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

  20. Generation of optical vortices with controllable topological charges and polarization patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ching-Han; Fuh, Andy Ying-Guey

    2017-02-01

    We present a simple and flexible method of generating various vectorial vortex beams (VVBs) based on the scheme of double modulations from a single liquid crystal spatial light modulator (SLM). In this configuration, a half-wave plate (HWP) placed in front of the SLM is first used to control the weights of linear polarization components of incident light. Then, we respectively encode two orbital angular momentum (OAM) eigenstates displayed on each half of the SLM onto each of the linear components of light. This yields the generation of VVB fields spanned by a pair of linearly polarized OAM eigenstates. In order to convert polarization bases from the linear pair into another orthogonal pair, a quarter-wave plate (QWP) placed behind the SLM is used. This enables us to generate VVBs spanned by any pair of orthogonally polarized OAM eigenstates. Generally, the light states of polarization (SOP) can be presented as a geodesic path located on the plane perpendicular to the axis connecting the pair of bases used on the Poincaré sphere. The light property is adjustable depending on both slow axes of HWP and QWP, as well as via computer generated holograms. To validate generated beams, two measurement procedures are subsequently applied. First, Stokes polarimetry is used to measure the light SOP over the transverse plane. Next, a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor is used to measure the OAM charge. Both the simulated and experimental results are shown to be in a good qualitative agreement. In addition, both polarization patterns and OAM charges can be controlled independently using the proposed method.

  1. Experimental Verification of Van Vleck Nature of Long-Range Ferromagnetic Order in Vanadium-Doped Three-Dimensional Topological Insulator Sb2Te3

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Experimental Verification of Van Vleck Nature of Long-Range Ferromagnetic Order in Vanadium-Doped Three-Dimensional Topological Insulator Sb2Te3...spectroscopy (EELS) measurements that the long range ferromagnetic (FM) order in vanadium (V)-doped topological insulator Sb2Te3 has the nature of van...Vleck-type ferromagnetism . The positions and the relative amplitudes of two core-level peaks (L3 and L2) of the V EELS spectrum show unambiguous change

  2. Generic methodology for driving range estimation of electric vehicle with on-road charging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shekhar, A.; Prasanth, V.; Bauer, P.; Bolech, M.

    2015-01-01

    An analytical estimation of driving range of electric vehicles (EVs) with contactIess on-road charging system is presented in this paper. Inductive power transfer (IPT) systems with different configurations (static, dynamic), power levels and road coverage have different (and non-linear) impact on

  3. Topological properties of hydrogen bonds and covalent bonds from charge densities obtained by the maximum entropy method (MEM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netzel, Jeanette; van Smaalen, Sander

    2009-10-01

    Charge densities have been determined by the Maximum Entropy Method (MEM) from the high-resolution, low-temperature (T approximately 20 K) X-ray diffraction data of six different crystals of amino acids and peptides. A comparison of dynamic deformation densities of the MEM with static and dynamic deformation densities of multipole models shows that the MEM may lead to a better description of the electron density in hydrogen bonds in cases where the multipole model has been restricted to isotropic displacement parameters and low-order multipoles (l(max) = 1) for the H atoms. Topological properties at bond critical points (BCPs) are found to depend systematically on the bond length, but with different functions for covalent C-C, C-N and C-O bonds, and for hydrogen bonds together with covalent C-H and N-H bonds. Similar dependencies are known for AIM properties derived from static multipole densities. The ratio of potential and kinetic energy densities |V(BCP)|/G(BCP) is successfully used for a classification of hydrogen bonds according to their distance d(H...O) between the H atom and the acceptor atom. The classification based on MEM densities coincides with the usual classification of hydrogen bonds as strong, intermediate and weak [Jeffrey (1997). An Introduction to Hydrogen Bonding. Oxford University Press]. MEM and procrystal densities lead to similar values of the densities at the BCPs of hydrogen bonds, but differences are shown to prevail, such that it is found that only the true charge density, represented by MEM densities, the multipole model or some other method can lead to the correct characterization of chemical bonding. Our results do not confirm suggestions in the literature that the promolecule density might be sufficient for a characterization of hydrogen bonds.

  4. Measurement of topological muonic branching ratios of charmed hadrons produced in neutrino-induced charged-current interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Kayis-Topaksu, A; Van Dantzig, R; De Jong, M; Oldeman, R G C; Güler, M; Köse, U; Tolun, P; Catanesi, M G; Muciaccia, M T; Winter, Klaus; Van de Vyver, B; Vilain, P; Wilquet, G; Saitta, B; Di Capua, E; Ogawa, S; Shibuya, H; Hristova, I R; Kawamura, T; Kolev, D; Meinhard, H; Panman, J; Rozanov, A; Tsenov, R V; Uiterwijk, J W E; Zucchelli, P; Goldberg, J; Chikawa, M; Song, J S; Yoon, C S; Kodama, K; Ushida, N; Aoki, S; Hara, T; Delbar, T; Favart, D; Grégoire, G; Kalinin, S; Makhlyoueva, I V; Artamonov, A V; Gorbunov, P; Khovanskii, V D; Shamanov, V V; Tsukerman, I; Bruski, N; Frekers, D; Hoshino, K; Kawada, J; Komatsu, M; Myanishi, M; Nakamura, M; Nakano, T; Narita, K; Niu, K; Niwa, K; Nonaka, N; Sato, O; Toshito, T; Buontempo, S; Cocco, A G; D'Ambrosio, N; De Lellis, G; De Rosa, G; Di Capua, F; Fiorillo, G; Marotta, A; Messina, M; Migliozzi, P; Scotto-Lavina, L; Strolin, P; Tioukov, V; Okusawa, T; Dore, U; Loverre, P F; Ludovici, L; Rosa, G; Santacesaria, R; Satta, A; Spada, F R; Barbuto, E; Bozza, C; Grella, G; Romano, G; Sirignano, C; Sorrentino, S; Sato, Y; Tezuka, I

    2005-01-01

    From 1994 to 1997, the emulsion target of the CHORUS detector was exposed to the wideband neutrino beam of the CERN SPS. In total about 100 000 charged-current neutrino interactions were located in the nuclear emulsion target and fully reconstructed. From this sample of events based on the data acquired by new automatic scanning systems, 2013 charm-decay events were selected by a pattern recognition program. They were confirmed as decays through visual inspection. Based on these events, the effective branching ratio of charmed particles into muons was determined to be Bμ = [7.3 ± 0.8 (stat) ± 0.2 (syst)] × 10âˆ'2. In addition, the muonic branching ratios are presented for dominating charm decay topologies. Normalization of the muonic decays to chargedcurrent interactions provides _μâˆ'μ+/_cc = [3.16 ± 0.34 (stat) ± 0.09 (syst)] × 10âˆ'3. Selecting only events with visible energy greater than 30 GeV gives a value of Bμ that is less affected by the charm production threshold ...

  5. Exclusive Muon-Neutrino Charged Current Muon Plus Any Number of Protons Topologies In ArgoNeuT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Partyka, Kinga Anna [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Neutrinos remain among the least understood fundamental particles even after decades of study. As we enter the precision era o f neutrino measurements bigger and more sophisticated detectors have emerged. The leading candidate among them is a Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber (LArTPC ) detector technology due to its bubble-like chamber imaging, superb background rejection and scalability. I t is a perfect candidate that w ill aim to answer the remaining questions of the nature o f neutrino and perhaps our existence. Studying neutrinos with a detector that employs detection via beautiful images o f neutrino interactions can be both illuminating and surprising. The analysis presented here takes the full advantage of the LArTPC power by exploiting the first topological analysis of charged current muon neutrino p + N p , muon and any number of protons, interactions with the ArgoNeuT LArTPC experiment on an argon target. The results presented here are the first that address the proton multiplicity at the vertex and the proton kinematics. This study also addresses the importance o f nuclear effects in neutrino interactions. Furthermore, the developed here reconstruction techniques present a significant step forward for this technology and can be employed in the future LArTPC detectors.

  6. Clapeyron equation and phase equilibrium properties in higher dimensional charged topological dilaton AdS black holes with a nonlinear source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Huai-Fan; Zhao, Hui-Hua; Zhang, Li-Chun; Zhao, Ren [Shanxi Datong University, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Datong (China); Shanxi Datong University, Department of Physics, Datong (China)

    2017-05-15

    Using Maxwell's equal area law, we discuss the phase transition of higher dimensional charged topological dilaton AdS black hole with a nonlinear source. The coexisting region of the two phases is found and we depict the coexistence region in the P-v diagrams. The two-phase equilibrium curves in the P-T diagrams are plotted, and we take the first order approximation of volume v in the calculation. To better compare with a general thermodynamic system, the Clapeyron equation is derived for a higher dimensional charged topological black hole with a nonlinear source. The latent heat of an isothermal phase transition is investigated. We also study the effect of the parameters of the black hole on the region of two-phase coexistence. The results show that the black hole may go through a small-large phase transition similar to those of usual non-gravity thermodynamic systems. (orig.)

  7. Clapeyron equation and phase equilibrium properties in higher dimensional charged topological dilaton AdS black holes with a nonlinear source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huai-Fan; Zhao, Hui-Hua; Zhang, Li-Chun; Zhao, Ren

    2017-05-01

    Using Maxwell's equal area law, we discuss the phase transition of higher dimensional charged topological dilaton AdS black hole with a nonlinear source. The coexisting region of the two phases is found and we depict the coexistence region in the P- v diagrams. The two-phase equilibrium curves in the P- T diagrams are plotted, and we take the first order approximation of volume v in the calculation. To better compare with a general thermodynamic system, the Clapeyron equation is derived for a higher dimensional charged topological black hole with a nonlinear source. The latent heat of an isothermal phase transition is investigated. We also study the effect of the parameters of the black hole on the region of two-phase coexistence. The results show that the black hole may go through a small-large phase transition similar to those of usual non-gravity thermodynamic systems.

  8. High Dynamic Range X-Ray Detector Pixel Architectures Utilizing Charge Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Joel T.; Shanks, Katherine S.; Philipp, Hugh T.; Becker, Julian; Chamberlain, Darol; Purohit, Prafull; Tate, Mark W.; Gruner, Sol M.

    2017-04-01

    Several charge integrating CMOS pixel front ends utilizing charge removal techniques have been fabricated to extend dynamic range for X-ray diffraction applications at synchrotron sourcesand X-ray free electron lasers (XFELs). The pixels described herein build on the mixed mode pixel array detector (MM-PAD) framework, developed previously by our group to perform high dynamic range imaging. These new pixels boast several orders of magnitude improvement in maximum flux over the MM-PAD, which is capable of measuring a sustained flux in excess of 108 X-rays/pixel/s while maintaining sensitivity to smaller signals, down to single X-rays. To extend dynamic range, charge is removed from the integration node of the frontend amplifier without interrupting integration. The number of times this process occurs is recorded by a digital counter in the pixel. The parameter limiting full well is, thereby, shifted from the size of an integration capacitor to the depth of a digital counter. The result is similar to that achieved by counting pixel array detectors, but the integrators presented here are designed to tolerate a sustained flux > 1011 X-rays/pixel/s. Pixel front-end linearity was evaluated by direct current injection and results are presented. A small-scale readout ASIC utilizing these pixel architectures has been fabricated and the use of these architectures to increase single X-ray pulse dynamic range at XFELs is discussed briefly.

  9. Charge ordering and long-range interactions in layered transitionmetal oxides: a quasiclassical continuum study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stojkovic, Branko P.; Yu, Z.G.; Chernyshev, A.L.; Bishop, A.R.; Neto, A.H. Castro; Gronbech-Jensen, Niels

    1999-12-01

    The competition between long-range and short-range interactions among holes moving in an antiferromagnet (AF), is studied within a model derived from the spin density wave picture of layered transition metal oxides. A novel numerical approach is developed which allows one to solve the problem at finite hole densities in very large systems (of order hundreds of lattice spacings), albeit in a quasiclassical limit, and to correctly incorporate the long-range part of the Coulomb interaction. The focus is on the problem of charge ordering and the charge-phase diagram: at low temperatures four different phases are found, depending on the strength of the magnetic (dipolar) interaction generated by the spin-wave exchange, and the density of holes. The four phases are the Wigner crystal, diagonal shapes, a grid phase (horizontal-vertical stripe loops) and a glassy-clumped phase. In the presence of both in-plane and out-of-plane charged impurities the stripe ordering is suppressed, although finite stripe segments persist.At finite temperatures multiscale (intermittency) dynamics is found, reminiscent of that in glasses. The dynamics of stripe melting and its implications for experiments is discussed.

  10. Charge ordering and long-range interactions in layered transition metal oxides: A quasiclassical continuum study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stojkovic, Branko P. [Theoretical Division and Center for Nonlinear Studies, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Yu, Z. G. [Department of Chemistry, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); Chernyshev, A. L. [Department of Physics, University of California, Riverside, California 92521 (United States); Bishop, A. R. [Theoretical Division and Center for Nonlinear Studies, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Castro Neto, A. H. [Department of Physics, University of California, Riverside, California 92521 (United States); Groenbech-Jensen, Niels [Department of Applied Science, University of California, Davis, California 95616 and NERSC, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2000-08-15

    The competition between long-range and short-range interactions among holes moving in an antiferromagnet (AF) is studied within a model derived from the spin-density-wave picture of layered transition metal oxides.A novel numerical approach is developed that allows one to solve the problem at finite hole densities in very large systems (of the order of hundreds of lattice spacings), albeit in a quasiclassical limit, and to correctly incorporate the long-range part of the Coulomb interaction. The focus is on the problem of charge ordering and the charge phase diagram: at low temperatures four different phases are found, depending on the strength of the magnetic (dipolar) interaction generated by the spin-wave exchange and the density of holes. The four phases are the Wigner crystal, diagonal stripes, a grid phase (horizontal-vertical stripe loops), and a glassy-clumped phase. In the presence of both in-plane and out-of-plane charged impurities the stripe ordering is suppressed, although finite stripe segments persist. At finite temperatures multiscale (intermittency) dynamics is found, reminiscent of that in glasses. The dynamics of stripe melting and its implications for experiments is discussed. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  11. Correlation of Disorder and Charge Transport in a Range of Indacenodithiophene-Based Semiconducting Polymers

    KAUST Repository

    Nikolka, Mark

    2017-12-13

    Over the past 25 years, various design motifs have emerged for the development of organic semiconductors for demanding applications in flexible organic light emitting diode display backplanes or even printed organic logic. Due to their large area uniformity paired with high charge carrier mobilities, conjugated polymers have attracted increasing attention in this respect. However, the performances delivered by current generation conjugated polymers still fall short of many industrial requirements demanding devices with ideal transistor characteristics and higher mobilities. The discovery of conjugated polymers with low energetic disorder, such as the indacenodithiophene-based polymer indacenodithiophene-co-benzothiadiazole, represent an exciting opportunity to breach this chasm if these materials can be further optimized while maintaining their low disorder. Here, it is shown how both the charge transport properties as well as the energetic disorder are affected by tuning the molecular structure of a large range of indacenodithiophene-based semiconducting polymer derivatives. This study allows to understand better the interplay between molecular design and structure of the polymer backbone and the degree of energetic disorder that governs the charge transport properties in thin polymer films.

  12. An approximate analytical solution of the Bethe equation for charged particles in the radiotherapeutic energy range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, David Robert; Warren, Daniel R; Partridge, Mike

    2017-08-29

    Charged particles such as protons and carbon ions are an increasingly important tool in radiotherapy. There are however unresolved physics issues impeding optimal implementation, including estimation of dose deposition in non-homogeneous tissue, an essential aspect of treatment optimization. Monte Carlo (MC) methods can be employed to estimate radiation profile, and whilst powerful, these are computationally expensive, limiting practicality. In this work, we start from fundamental physics in the form of the Bethe equation to yield a novel approximate analytical solution for particle range, energy and linear energy transfer (LET). The solution is given in terms of the exponential integral function with relativistic co-ordinate transform, allowing application at radiotherapeutic energy levels (50-350 MeV protons, 100-600 Mev/a.m.u carbon ions). Model results agreed closely for protons and carbon-ions (mean error within ≈1%) of literature values. Agreement was high along particle track, with some discrepancy manifesting at track-end. The model presented has applications within a charged particle radiotherapy optimization framework as a rapid method for dose and LET estimation, capable of accounting for heterogeneity in electron density and ionization potential.

  13. PrimaDORAC: A Free Web Interface for the Assignment of Partial Charges, Chemical Topology, and Bonded Parameters in Organic or Drug Molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procacci, Piero

    2017-06-26

    We present PrimaDORAC, a simple and freely accessible web interface for generating the topology and the parameter files of organic or drug molecules to be used in molecular mechanics or molecular dynamics calculations. The interface relies on our in-house FORTRAN90 parser, working on the recently released Generalized Amber Force Field parameter set (GAFF2). AM1/BCC charges are computed using the Public Domain MOPAC7 program and the bond charge corrections (BCC) reported in Jakalian, A.; Jack, D. B.; Bayly, C. I.; J. Comp. Chem., 2002, 23, 1623-1641. The interface has been tested on about 52,000 compounds (identified with a CAS registry number) taken from the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Open Database. PrimaDORAC has been found to be very reliable, producing GAFF2 minimized structures bearing a mean root square displacement of about 0.01-0.02 nm with respect to the original CORINA-generated 3D NCI structures. As a demonstrative example, we release the full topology and parameter files, along with the AM1/BCC-GAFF2 computed in vacuo IR spectrum, for some recently discovered PARP/MCL1 inhibitors. The web interface and parser, including the sources, are part of the ORAC code (Procacci, P.; J. Chem. Inf. , 2016, 56, 1117-1121), distributed under the General Public License at www.chim.unifi.it/orac.

  14. Topology essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Milewski, Emil G

    2013-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Topology includes an overview of elementary set theory, relations and functions, ordinals and cardinals, topological spaces, continuous functions, metric spaces and normed spaces, co

  15. Economic Viability Study of an On-Road Wireless Charging System with a Generic Driving Range Estimation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Shekhar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The economic viability of on-road wireless charging of electric vehicles (EVs strongly depends on the choice of the inductive power transfer (IPT system configuration (static or dynamic charging, charging power level and the percentage of road coverage of dynamic charging. In this paper, a case study is carried out to determine the expected investment costs involved in installing the on-road charging infrastructure for an electric bus fleet. Firstly, a generic methodology is described to determine the driving range of any EV (including electric buses with any gross mass and frontal area. A dynamic power consumption model is developed for the EV, taking into account the rolling friction, acceleration, deceleration, aerodynamic drag, regenerative braking and Li-ion battery behavior. Based on the simulation results, the linear dependence of the battery state of charge (SoC on the distance traveled is proven. Further, the impact of different IPT system parameters on driving range is incorporated. Economic implications of a combination of different IPT system parameters are explored for achieving the required driving range of 400 km, and the cost optimized solution is presented for the case study of an electric bus fleet. It is shown that the choice of charging power level and road coverage are interrelated in the economic context. The economic viability of reducing the capacity of the on-board battery as a trade-off between higher transport efficiency and larger on-road charging infrastructure is presented. Finally, important considerations, like the number of average running buses, scheduled stoppage time and on-board battery size, that make on-road charging an attractive option are explored. The cost break-up of various system components of the on-road charging scheme is estimated, and the final project cost and parameters are summarized. The specific cost of the wireless on-road charging system is found to be more expensive than the conventional

  16. Design and development of repetitive capacitor charging power supply based on series-parallel resonant converter topology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Ankur; Nagesh, K V; Kolge, Tanmay; Chakravarthy, D P

    2011-04-01

    LCL resonant converter based repetitive capacitor charging power supply (CCPS) is designed and developed in the division. The LCL converter acts as a constant current source when switching frequency is equal to the resonant frequency. When both resonant inductors' values of LCL converter are same, it results in inherent zero current switching (ZCS) in switches. In this paper, ac analysis with fundamental frequency approximation of LCL resonant tank circuit, frequency dependent of current gain converter followed by design, development, simulation, and practical result is described. Effect of change in switching frequency and resonant frequency and change in resonant inductors ratio on CCPS will be discussed. An efficient CCPS of average output power of 1.2 kJ/s, output voltage 3 kV, and 300 Hz repetition rate is developed in the division. The performance of this CCPS has been evaluated in the laboratory by charging several values of load capacitance at various repetition rates. These results indicate that this design is very feasible for use in capacitor-charging applications. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  17. Delta: a charge sensitive front-end amplifier with switched gain for low noise, large dynamic range silicon detector readout

    CERN Document Server

    Aspell, P; Bloch, P; Jarron, P; Löfstedt, B; Reynaud, S; Tabbers, P

    2001-01-01

    The design and results of a radiation hard switched gain charge amplifier optimised for a large dynamic range and large input capacitance are described. The peaking time is 25 ns, dynamic ranges are 0.1 - 50 minimum ionizing particles (MIPs) (high gain) and 1 - 400 MIPs (low gain), signal to noise (S/N) > 10 for Cin < 56pF and radiation tolerance to10 Mrads(Si) and 4x10**13 n/cm**2.

  18. Topological charged black holes in massive gravity's rainbow and their thermodynamical analysis through various approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendi, S.H., E-mail: hendi@shirazu.ac.ir [Physics Department and Biruni Observatory, College of Sciences, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71454 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics of Maragha (RIAAM), P.O. Box 55134-441, Maragha (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Eslam Panah, B. [Physics Department and Biruni Observatory, College of Sciences, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71454 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Panahiyan, S. [Physics Department and Biruni Observatory, College of Sciences, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71454 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Physics Department, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran 19839 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-06-10

    Violation of Lorentz invariancy in the high energy quantum gravity motivates one to consider an energy dependent spacetime with massive deformation of standard general relativity. In this paper, we take into account an energy dependent metric in the context of a massive gravity model to obtain exact solutions. We investigate the geometry of black hole solutions and also calculate the conserved and thermodynamic quantities, which are fully reproduced by the analysis performed with the standard techniques. After examining the validity of the first law of thermodynamics, we conduct a study regarding the effects of different parameters on thermal stability of the solutions. In addition, we employ the relation between cosmological constant and thermodynamical pressure to study the possibility of phase transition. Interestingly, we will show that for the specific configuration considered in this paper, van der Waals like behavior is observed for different topology. In other words, for flat and hyperbolic horizons, similar to spherical horizon, a second order phase transition and van der Waals like behavior are observed. Furthermore, we use geometrical method to construct phase space and study phase transition and bound points for these black holes. Finally, we obtain critical values in extended phase space through the use of a new method.

  19. Direct observation of ultrafast long-range charge separation at polymer–fullerene heterojunctions

    KAUST Repository

    Provencher, Françoise

    2014-07-01

    In polymeric semiconductors, charge carriers are polarons, which means that the excess charge deforms the molecular structure of the polymer chain that hosts it. This results in distinctive signatures in the vibrational modes of the polymer. Here, we probe polaron photogeneration dynamics at polymer:fullerene heterojunctions by monitoring its time-resolved resonance-Raman spectrum following ultrafast photoexcitation. We conclude that polarons emerge within 300 fs. Surprisingly, further structural evolution on ≤50-ps timescales is modest, indicating that the polymer conformation hosting nascent polarons is not significantly different from that near equilibrium. We interpret this as suggestive that charges are free from their mutual Coulomb potential because we would expect rich vibrational dynamics associated with charge-pair relaxation. We address current debates on the photocarrier generation mechanism at molecular heterojunctions, and our work is, to our knowledge, the first direct probe of molecular conformation dynamics during this fundamentally important process in these materials. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  20. Cross-talk between topological defects in different fields revealed by nematic microfluidics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giomi, Luca; Kos, Žiga; Ravnik, Miha; Sengupta, Anupam

    2017-07-18

    Topological defects are singularities in material fields that play a vital role across a range of systems: from cosmic microwave background polarization to superconductors and biological materials. Although topological defects and their mutual interactions have been extensively studied, little is known about the interplay between defects in different fields-especially when they coevolve-within the same physical system. Here, using nematic microfluidics, we study the cross-talk of topological defects in two different material fields-the velocity field and the molecular orientational field. Specifically, we generate hydrodynamic stagnation points of different topological charges at the center of star-shaped microfluidic junctions, which then interact with emergent topological defects in the orientational field of the nematic director. We combine experiments and analytical and numerical calculations to show that a hydrodynamic singularity of a given topological charge can nucleate a nematic defect of equal topological charge and corroborate this by creating [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], and [Formula: see text] topological defects in four-, six-, and eight-arm junctions. Our work is an attempt toward understanding materials that are governed by distinctly multifield topology, where disparate topology-carrying fields are coupled and concertedly determine the material properties and response.

  1. Lightning-induced extensive charge sheets provide long range electrostatic thunderstorm detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, A J; Harrison, R G

    2013-07-26

    By combining electrostatic measurements of lightning-induced electrostatic field changes with radio frequency lightning location, some field changes from exceptionally distant lightning events are apparent which are inconsistent with the usual inverse cube of distance. Furthermore, by using two measurement sites, a transition zone can be identified beyond which the electric field response reverses polarity. For these severe lightning events, we infer a horizontally extensive charge sheet above a thunderstorm, consistent with a mesospheric halo of several hundred kilometers' extent.

  2. Colloquium: Topological band theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansil, A.; Lin, Hsin; Das, Tanmoy

    2016-04-01

    The first-principles band theory paradigm has been a key player not only in the process of discovering new classes of topologically interesting materials, but also for identifying salient characteristics of topological states, enabling direct and sharpened confrontation between theory and experiment. This review begins by discussing underpinnings of the topological band theory, which involve a layer of analysis and interpretation for assessing topological properties of band structures beyond the standard band theory construct. Methods for evaluating topological invariants are delineated, including crystals without inversion symmetry and interacting systems. The extent to which theoretically predicted properties and protections of topological states have been verified experimentally is discussed, including work on topological crystalline insulators, disorder and interaction driven topological insulators (TIs), topological superconductors, Weyl semimetal phases, and topological phase transitions. Successful strategies for new materials discovery process are outlined. A comprehensive survey of currently predicted 2D and 3D topological materials is provided. This includes binary, ternary, and quaternary compounds, transition metal and f -electron materials, Weyl and 3D Dirac semimetals, complex oxides, organometallics, skutterudites, and antiperovskites. Also included is the emerging area of 2D atomically thin films beyond graphene of various elements and their alloys, functional thin films, multilayer systems, and ultrathin films of 3D TIs, all of which hold exciting promise of wide-ranging applications. This Colloquium concludes by giving a perspective on research directions where further work will broadly benefit the topological materials field.

  3. Charged Domain Walls

    OpenAIRE

    Campanelli, L.; Cea, P.; Fogli, G. L.; Tedesco, L.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we investigate Charged Domain Walls (CDW's), topological defects that acquire surface charge density $Q$ induced by fermion states localized on the walls. The presence of an electric and magnetic field on the walls is also discussed. We find a relation in which the value of the surface charge density $Q$ is connected with the existence of such topological defects.

  4. Estimation of individual binding energies in some dimers involving multiple hydrogen bonds using topological properties of electron charge density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, A.; Habibi Khorassani, S. M.; Delarami, H.

    2009-11-01

    Individual hydrogen bond (HB) energies have been estimated in several systems involving multiple HBs such as adenine-thymine and guanine-cytosine using electron charge densities calculated at X⋯H hydrogen bond critical points (HBCPs) by atoms in molecules (AIM) method at B3LYP/6-311++G ∗∗ and MP2/6-311++G ∗∗ levels. A symmetrical system with two identical H bonds has been selected to search for simple relations between ρHBCP and individual EHB. Correlation coefficient between EHB and ρHBCP in the base of linear, quadratic, and exponential equations are acceptable and equal to 0.95. The estimated individual binding energies EHB are in good agreement with the results of atom-replacement approach and natural bond orbital analysis (NBO). The EHB values estimated from ρ values at H⋯X BCP are in satisfactory agreement with the main geometrical parameter H⋯X. With respect to the obtained individual binding energies, the strength of a HB depends on the substituent and the cooperative effects of other HBs.

  5. Long-range corrected DFT calculations of charge-transfer integrals in model metal-free phthalocyanine complexes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikolajczyk, M. M.; Zalesny, R.; Czyznikowska, Z.; Toman, Petr; Leszczynski, J.; Bartkowiak, W.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 9 (2011), s. 2143-2149 ISSN 1610-2940 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP205/10/2280; GA MŠk MEB051010 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : charge-transfer integral * density functional theory * long-range corrected functionals Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.797, year: 2011

  6. Genetic neural network modeling of the selective inhibition of the intermediate-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channel by some triarylmethanes using topological charge indexes descriptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, Julio; Garriga, Miguel; Fernández, Michael

    2005-11-01

    Selective inhibition of the intermediate-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channel ( IK Ca) by some clotrimazole analogs has been successfully modeled using topological charge indexes (TCI) and genetic neural networks (GNNs). A neural network monitoring scheme evidenced a highly non-linear dependence between the IK Ca blocking activity and TCI descriptors. Suitable subsets of descriptors were selected by means of genetic algorithm. Bayesian regularization was implemented in the network training function with the aim of assuring good generalization qualities to the predictors. GNNs were able to yield a reliable predictor that explained about 97% data variance with good predictive ability. On the contrary, the best multivariate linear equation with descriptors selected by linear genetic search, only explained about 60%. In spite of when using the descriptors from the linear equations to train neural networks yielded higher fitted models, such networks were very unstable and had relative low predictive ability. However, the best GNN BRANN 2 had a Q 2 of LOO of cross-validation equal to 0.901 and at the same time exhibited outstanding stability when calculating 80 randomly constructed training/test sets partitions. Our model suggested that structural fragments of size three and seven have relevant influence on the inhibitory potency of the studied IK Ca channel blockers. Furthermore, inhibitors were well distributed regarding its activity levels in a Kohonen self-organizing map (KSOM) built using the inputs of the best neural network predictor.

  7. Topological susceptibility from slabs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bietenholz, Wolfgang [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A.P. 70-543, Distrito Federal, C.P. 04510 (Mexico); Forcrand, Philippe de [Institute for Theoretical Physics, ETH Zürich,CH-8093 Zürich (Switzerland); CERN, Physics Department, TH Unit, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Gerber, Urs [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A.P. 70-543, Distrito Federal, C.P. 04510 (Mexico); Instituto de Física y Matemáticas, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo,Edificio C-3, Apdo. Postal 2-82, Morelia, Michoacán, C.P. 58040 (Mexico)

    2015-12-14

    In quantum field theories with topological sectors, a non-perturbative quantity of interest is the topological susceptibility χ{sub t}. In principle it seems straightforward to measure χ{sub t} by means of Monte Carlo simulations. However, for local update algorithms and fine lattice spacings, this tends to be difficult, since the Monte Carlo history rarely changes the topological sector. Here we test a method to measure χ{sub t} even if data from only one sector are available. It is based on the topological charges in sub-volumes, which we denote as slabs. Assuming a Gaussian distribution of these charges, this method enables the evaluation of χ{sub t}, as we demonstrate with numerical results for non-linear σ-models.

  8. Topological Susceptibility from Slabs

    CERN Document Server

    Bietenholz, Wolfgang; Gerber, Urs

    2015-01-01

    In quantum field theories with topological sectors, a non-perturbative quantity of interest is the topological susceptibility chi_t. In principle it seems straightforward to measure chi_t by means of Monte Carlo simulations. However, for local update algorithms and fine lattice spacings, this tends to be difficult, since the Monte Carlo history rarely changes the topological sector. Here we test a method to measure chi_t even if data from only one sector are available. It is based on the topological charges in sub-volumes, which we denote as slabs. Assuming a Gaussian distribution of these charges, this method enables the evaluation of chi_t, as we demonstrate with numerical results for non-linear sigma-models.

  9. Variable-range electron hopping, conductivity cross-over and space-charge relaxation in C60Br6

    OpenAIRE

    Manesh, Zachariah; Romanini, Michela; Zygouri, Panagiota; Gournis, Dimitrios; Tamarit Mur, José Luis; Barrio Casado, María del; Macovez, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Dielectric spectroscopy is employed to probe the frequency-dependent conductivity and dipolar dielectric response of solid C60Br6. Below approximately 215 K, charge conduction is electronic and well described by Mott's variable-range polaron hopping model, with effective hopping activation energy Ea varying between 0.12 eV at 125 K and 0.16 eV at 220 K, and most probable hopping range varying between 100 and 125% of the decay length of the localized polaron's wavefunction. Above 215 K a new c...

  10. Architecture, Drawing, Topology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meldgaard, Morten

    This book presents contributions of drawing and text along with their many relationalities from ontology to history and vice versa in a range of reflections on architecture, drawing and topology. We hope to thereby indicate the potential of the theme in understanding not only the architecture...... the intricate issues of the imagination and the moving ratio in the topological culture, over urban topology, diagrammatisation, mediality and dynamics of transduction in the contemporary artificial environment....

  11. Charge density research: from inorganic and molecular materials to proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Lecomte, Claude; Aubert, Emmanuel; Legrand, Vincent; Porcher, Florence; Pillet, Sébastien; Guillot, Benoît; Jelsch, Christian

    2005-01-01

    International audience; This paper intends to present applications of experimental charge density research in physics, chemistry and biology. It describes briefly most methods for modelling the charge density and calculating and analyzing derived properties (electrostatic potential, topological properties). These methods are illustrated through examples ranging from material science and coordination chemistry to biocrystallography, like the estimation of electrostatic energy in a zeolite-like...

  12. Long-range correlations and charge transport properties of DNA sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-liang; Ren, Yi; Xie, Qiong-tao; Deng, Chao-sheng; Xu, Hui

    2010-04-01

    By using Hurst's analysis and transfer approach, the rescaled range functions and Hurst exponents of human chromosome 22 and enterobacteria phage lambda DNA sequences are investigated and the transmission coefficients, Landauer resistances and Lyapunov coefficients of finite segments based on above genomic DNA sequences are calculated. In a comparison with quasiperiodic and random artificial DNA sequences, we find that λ-DNA exhibits anticorrelation behavior characterized by a Hurst exponent 0.5range correlation properties to some extent but the correlations are not strong enough to maintain the scale invariance properties.

  13. Long-range correlations and charge transport properties of DNA sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Xiaoliang, E-mail: xlliucsu@yahoo.com.c [College of Physical Science and Technology and College of Metallurgical Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Ren, Yi [College of Physical Science and Technology and College of Metallurgical Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Xie, Qiong-tao [Key Laboratory of Low Dimensional Quantum Structures and Quantum Control of Ministry of Education (Hunan Normal University), Changsha 410081 (China); Deng, Chao-sheng; Xu, Hui [College of Physical Science and Technology and College of Metallurgical Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China)

    2010-04-26

    By using Hurst's analysis and transfer approach, the rescaled range functions and Hurst exponents of human chromosome 22 and enterobacteria phage lambda DNA sequences are investigated and the transmission coefficients, Landauer resistances and Lyapunov coefficients of finite segments based on above genomic DNA sequences are calculated. In a comparison with quasiperiodic and random artificial DNA sequences, we find that lambda-DNA exhibits anticorrelation behavior characterized by a Hurst exponent 0.5range correlation properties to some extent but the correlations are not strong enough to maintain the scale invariance properties.

  14. Long-Range Charge Transport in Adenine-Stacked RNA:DNA Hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuanhui; Artés, Juan M; Hihath, Joshua

    2016-01-27

    An extremely important biological component, RNA:DNA can also be used to design nanoscale structures such as molecular wires. The conductance of single adenine-stacked RNA:DNA hybrids is rapidly and reproducibly measured using the break junction approach. The conductance decreases slightly over a large range of molecular lengths, suggesting that RNA:DNA can be used as an oligonucleotide wire. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. General topology

    CERN Document Server

    Willard, Stephen

    2004-01-01

    Among the best available reference introductions to general topology, this volume is appropriate for advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate students. Its treatment encompasses two broad areas of topology: ""continuous topology,"" represented by sections on convergence, compactness, metrization and complete metric spaces, uniform spaces, and function spaces; and ""geometric topology,"" covered by nine sections on connectivity properties, topological characterization theorems, and homotopy theory. Many standard spaces are introduced in the related problems that accompany each section (340

  16. Universal experimental test for the role of free charge carriers in the thermal Casimir effect within a micrometer separation range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bimonte, G.; Klimchitskaya, G. L.; Mostepanenko, V. M.

    2017-05-01

    We propose a universal experiment to measure the differential Casimir force between a Au-coated sphere and two halves of a structured plate covered with a P-doped Si overlayer. The concentration of free charge carriers in the overlayer is chosen slightly below the critical one, for which the phase transition from dielectric to metal occurs. One half of the structured plate is insulating, while the second half is made of gold. For the former we consider two structures, one consisting of bulk high-resistivity Si and the other of a layer of SiO 2 followed by bulk high-resistivity Si. The differential Casimir force is computed within the Lifshitz theory using four approaches that have been proposed in the literature to account for the role of free charge carriers in metallic and dielectric materials interacting with quantum fluctuations. According to these approaches, Au at low frequencies is described by either the Drude or the plasma model, whereas the free charge carriers in dielectric materials at room temperature are either taken into account or disregarded. It is shown that the values of differential Casimir forces, computed in the micrometer separation range using these four approaches, are widely distinct from each other and can be easily discriminated experimentally. It is shown that for all approaches the thermal component of the differential Casimir force is sufficiently large for direct observation. The possible errors and uncertainties in the proposed experiment are estimated and its importance for the theory of quantum fluctuations is discussed.

  17. A quark model calculation for the short-range contribution in the pion double charge exchange reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou Bingsong; Jiang Huanqing (Institute of Theoretical Physics and Institute of High Energy Physcis, Academia Sinica, Beijing (CN))

    1989-10-01

    A quark model calculation for the short-range contribution in the pion double charge exchange (DCX) reaction is presented. In the framework of this new model the angular distributions of {sup 18}O({pi}{sup +},{pi}{sup {minus}}){sup 18}Ne(g.s.) at low energies are calculated and compared with the experimental data. It is found that this model can explain the anomalous'' increasing behavior for the DCX reaction around 50 MeV quite well.

  18. Topological susceptibility from the overlap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Del Debbio, Luigi; Pica, Claudio

    2003-01-01

    The chiral symmetry at finite lattice spacing of Ginsparg-Wilson fermionic actions constrains the renormalization of the lattice operators; in particular, the topological susceptibility does not require any renormalization, when using a fermionic estimator to define the topological charge. Theref...

  19. A DFT study on the correlation between topology and Bader charges: Part V, on the correlation between interatomic distances and Bader charges in the structures of TinOm compounds - A comment on the ;charge and size concept; in crystal chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Horst P.

    2017-05-01

    The analysis of structures in crystal chemistry is mainly based on geometric parameters such as distances, coordination numbers and connectivity of polyhedral constituents. We thereby venture to define sizes and even charges of ions based on a large data set of distances, and we compile them in tables of radii. In turn we allocate charges by comparison of such ;sizes;. Quantum chemical approaches offer a direct path to such an analysis by presenting electron densities, force constants, energies etc. In this paper we present the results of DFT calculations combined with a Bader analysis of the electron densities, and we compare the results of charge allocation by both approaches in the series of Ti-O compounds where already the geometric description seems to drum home the information. We point out that a comparison of distances alone can be misleading in the attempt to localize different charges of ions. The pattern of distances and seeming sizes is severely influenced by the topology of catenation of coordination polyhedra.

  20. Economic viability study of an on-road wireless charging system with a generic driving range estimation method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shekhar, A.; Prasanth, V.; Bauer, P.; Bolech, M.

    2016-01-01

    The economic viability of on-road wireless charging of electric vehicles (EVs) strongly depends on the choice of the inductive power transfer (IPT) system configuration (static or dynamic charging), charging power level and the percentage of road coverage of dynamic charging. In this paper, a case

  1. Economic Viability Study of an On-Road Wireless Charging System with a Generic Driving Range Estimation Method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shekhar, A.; Prasanth, V.; Bauer, P.; Bolech, M.

    2016-01-01

    The economic viability of on-road wireless charging of electric vehicles (EVs) strongly depends on the choice of the inductive power transfer (IPT) system configuration (static or dynamic charging), charging power level and the percentage of road coverage of dynamic charging. In this paper, a case

  2. Topological and non inertial effects on the interband light absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Moises; Filgueiras, Cleverson; Brandão, Julio; Moraes, Fernando

    2018-02-01

    In this work, we investigate the combined influence of the nontrivial topology introduced by a disclination and non inertial effects due to rotation, in the energy levels and the wave functions of a noninteracting electron gas confined to a two-dimensional pseudoharmonic quantum dot, under the influence of an external uniform magnetic field. The exact solutions for energy eigenvalues and wave functions are computed as functions of the applied magnetic field strength, the disclination topological charge, magnetic quantum number and the rotation speed of the sample. We investigate the modifications on the light interband absorption coefficient and absorption threshold frequency. We observe novel features in the system, including a range of magnetic field without corresponding absorption phenomena, which is due to a tripartite term of the Hamiltonian, involving magnetic field, the topological charge of the defect and the rotation frequency.

  3. Concentrating colloids with electric field gradients. II. Phase transitions and crystal buckling of long-ranged repulsive charged spheres in an electric bottle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leunissen, M.E.; van Blaaderen, A.

    2008-01-01

    We explored the usefulness of electric field gradients for the manipulation of the particle concentration in suspensions of charged colloids, which have long-ranged repulsive interactions. In particular, we studied the compression obtained by ``negative'' dielectrophoresis, which drives the

  4. Machine learning topological states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Dong-Ling; Li, Xiaopeng; Das Sarma, S.

    2017-11-01

    Artificial neural networks and machine learning have now reached a new era after several decades of improvement where applications are to explode in many fields of science, industry, and technology. Here, we use artificial neural networks to study an intriguing phenomenon in quantum physics—the topological phases of matter. We find that certain topological states, either symmetry-protected or with intrinsic topological order, can be represented with classical artificial neural networks. This is demonstrated by using three concrete spin systems, the one-dimensional (1D) symmetry-protected topological cluster state and the 2D and 3D toric code states with intrinsic topological orders. For all three cases, we show rigorously that the topological ground states can be represented by short-range neural networks in an exact and efficient fashion—the required number of hidden neurons is as small as the number of physical spins and the number of parameters scales only linearly with the system size. For the 2D toric-code model, we find that the proposed short-range neural networks can describe the excited states with Abelian anyons and their nontrivial mutual statistics as well. In addition, by using reinforcement learning we show that neural networks are capable of finding the topological ground states of nonintegrable Hamiltonians with strong interactions and studying their topological phase transitions. Our results demonstrate explicitly the exceptional power of neural networks in describing topological quantum states, and at the same time provide valuable guidance to machine learning of topological phases in generic lattice models.

  5. Topological insulators and topological superconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Bernevig, Andrei B

    2013-01-01

    This graduate-level textbook is the first pedagogical synthesis of the field of topological insulators and superconductors, one of the most exciting areas of research in condensed matter physics. Presenting the latest developments, while providing all the calculations necessary for a self-contained and complete description of the discipline, it is ideal for graduate students and researchers preparing to work in this area, and it will be an essential reference both within and outside the classroom. The book begins with simple concepts such as Berry phases, Dirac fermions, Hall conductance and its link to topology, and the Hofstadter problem of lattice electrons in a magnetic field. It moves on to explain topological phases of matter such as Chern insulators, two- and three-dimensional topological insulators, and Majorana p-wave wires. Additionally, the book covers zero modes on vortices in topological superconductors, time-reversal topological superconductors, and topological responses/field theory and topolo...

  6. Signatures of topological superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Yang

    2017-07-19

    The prediction and experimental discovery of topological insulators brought the importance of topology in condensed matter physics into the limelight. Topology hence acts as a new dimension along which more and more new states of matter start to emerge. One of these topological states of matter, namely topological superconductors, comes into the focus because of their gapless excitations. These gapless excitations, especially in one dimensional topological superconductors, are Majorana zero modes localized at the ends of the superconductor and exhibit exotic nonabelian statistics, which can be potentially applied to fault-tolerant quantum computation. Given their highly interesting physical properties and potential applications to quantum computation, both theorists and experimentalists spend great efforts to realize topological supercondoctors and to detect Majoranas. In two projects within this thesis, we investigate the properties of Majorana zero modes in realistic materials which are absent in simple theoretical models. We find that the superconducting proximity effect, an essential ingredient in all existing platforms for topological superconductors, plays a significant role in determining the localization property of the Majoranas. Strong proximity coupling between the normal system and the superconducting substrate can lead to strongly localized Majoranas, which can explain the observation in a recent experiment. Motivated by experiments in Molenkamp's group, we also look at realistic quantum spin Hall Josephson junctions, in which charge puddles acting as magnetic impurities are coupled to the helical edge states. We find that with this setup, the junction generically realizes an exotic 8π periodic Josephson effect, which is absent in a pristine Josephson junction. In another two projects, we propose more pronounced signatures of Majoranas that are accessible with current experimental techniques. The first one is a transport measurement, which uses

  7. Nonequilibrium green function approach to elastic and inelastic spin-charge transport in topological insulator-based heterostructures and magnetic tunnel junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahfouzi, Farzad

    ferromagnet (FM). I show that this could be due to the existence of Rashba spin-orbit coupling (SOC) at the interface of the FM and insulator. Assuming that the measured signals are quantum mechanical effect where a solution to the time dependent Schrodinger equation is required, I use Keldysh Green function formalism to introduce a "multi-photon" approach which takes into account the effects of time-dependent term exactly up to scatterings from a finite number of photons. We then proceed to find the corresponding Green function numerically using a recursive method which allows us to increase the size of the system significantly. We also implement other approximations such as adiabatic and rotating frame approaches and compared them with our approach. In Chapter 4, I investigate the spin and charge pumping from a precessing magnetization attached to the edge of a 2-dimensional topological insulator (2DTI). We show that, in this system a huge spin current (or voltage signal if the FM covers only one edge) can be pumped for very small cone angles of the precessing FM (proportional to the intensity of the applied microwave). In Chapter 5 I present the third project in this field of research, where, I investigated the pumping from FM attached to a 3-dimensional TI. Spin-transfer torque: Presented in Chapter 6, in this work I investigate the torque induced by a flow of spin-polarized current into a FM and check the condition in which it can cause the magnetization to flip. Motivated by recent experimental developments in the field, here I consider systems with strong SOC such as TIs within a magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) heterostructure. In the theoretical part I show the correct way (as opposed to the conventional approach used in some theoretical works which suffers from violation of the gauge invariance) to calculate linear-response torque to the external applied voltage and for the numerical calculation I adopted a parallelized adaptive integration algorithm in order to take

  8. Topological Methods for Visualization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berres, Anne Sabine [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United Stat

    2016-04-07

    This slide presentation describes basic topological concepts, including topological spaces, homeomorphisms, homotopy, betti numbers. Scalar field topology explores finding topological features and scalar field visualization, and vector field topology explores finding topological features and vector field visualization.

  9. Charge-collection efficiency of single-crystal CVD diamond detector for low-energy charged particles with energies ranging from 100 keV to 2 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Yuki, E-mail: sato.yuki@jaea.go.jp [Collaborative Laboratories for Advanced Decommissioning Science (CLADS), Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2–4 Shirane Shirakata, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Murakami, Hiroyuki [RIKEN Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science, RIKEN, 2–1Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Shimaoka, Takehiro; Tsubota, Masakatsu; Kaneko, Junichi H. [Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, N13, W8, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan)

    2016-10-21

    The performance of a diamond detector created from a single-crystal diamond grown by chemical vapor deposition was studied for application in detecting charged particles having energies ranging from 100 keV to 2 MeV. Energy peaks of different low-energy ions were clearly observed. However, we observed that the pulse height for individual incident ions decreases with increasing atomic number of the ions. We estimated the charge collection efficiency of the generated charge carriers by the incident charged particles. The charge collection efficiencies are 97.0 ± 0.7% for 2 MeV helium-ions (He{sup +}). On the other hand, compared with that of He{sup +}, silicon-ions (Si{sup +}) and gold-ions (Au{sup 3+}) show low charge collection efficiency: 70.6 ± 2.2% and 29.5 ± 4.2% for 2 MeV-Si{sup +} and 2 MeV-Au{sup 3+}, respectively. We also found that the charge collection efficiency decreases as the generated charge density inside the diamond crystal increases.

  10. Design, synthesis, and photophysical studies of a porphyrin-fullerene dyad with parachute topology; Charge recombination in the Marcus inverted region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuster, D.I.; Cheng, P.; Jarovski, P.D.; Guldi, D.M.; Luo, C.P.; Echegoyen, L.; Pyo, S.; Holzwarth, A.R.; Williams, R.M.

    2004-01-01

    As part of a continuing investigation of the topological control of intramolecular electron transfer (ET) in donor-acceptor systems, a symmetrical parachute-shaped octaethylporphyrin-fullerene dyad has been synthesized. A symmetrical strap, attached to ortho positions of phenyl groups at opposing

  11. Data and material of the Safe-Range-Inventory: An assistance tool helping to improve the charging infrastructure for electric vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbon, Claus-Christian; Gebauer, Fabian

    2017-10-01

    The Safe-Range-Inventory (SRI) was constructed in order to help public authorities to improve the charging infrastructures for electric vehicles [1; 10.1016/j.trf.2017.04.011]. Specifically, the impact of fast (vs slow) charging stations on people's range anxiety was examined. Ninety-seven electric vehicle users from Germany (81 male; Mage=46.3 years, SD=12.1) were recruited to participate in the experimental design. Statistical analyses were conducted using ANOVA for repeated measures to test for interaction effects of available charging stations and remaining range with the dependent variable range anxiety. The full data set is publicly available via https://osf.io/bveyw/ (Carbon and Gebauer, 2017) [2].

  12. Asymptotic topology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dranishnikov, A N [Steklov Mathematical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation)

    2000-12-31

    In this paper we study the similarity between local topology and its global analogue, so-called asymptotic topology. In the asymptotic case, the notions of dimension, cohomological dimension, and absolute extensor are introduced and some basic facts about them are proved. The Higson corona functor establishing a connection between macro- and micro-topology is considered. A relationship between problems of general asymptotic topology and the Novikov conjecture on higher signatures is discussed. Some new results concerning the Novikov conjecture and other related conjectures are presented.

  13. Beginning topology

    CERN Document Server

    Goodman, Sue E

    2009-01-01

    Beginning Topology is designed to give undergraduate students a broad notion of the scope of topology in areas of point-set, geometric, combinatorial, differential, and algebraic topology, including an introduction to knot theory. A primary goal is to expose students to some recent research and to get them actively involved in learning. Exercises and open-ended projects are placed throughout the text, making it adaptable to seminar-style classes. The book starts with a chapter introducing the basic concepts of point-set topology, with examples chosen to captivate students' imaginations while i

  14. Dirac-surface-state-dominated spin to charge current conversion in the topological insulator (Bi0.22Sb0.78)2Te3 films at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, J. B. S.; Alves Santos, O.; Holanda, J.; Loreto, R. P.; de Araujo, C. I. L.; Chang, Cui-Zu; Moodera, J. S.; Azevedo, A.; Rezende, S. M.

    2017-11-01

    We report the spin-to-charge current conversion in an intrinsic topological insulator (TI) (Bi0.22Sb0.78) 2T e3 film at room temperature. The spin currents are generated in a thin layer of permalloy (Py) by two different processes, the spin pumping effect (SPE) and the spin Seebeck effect (SSE). In the first, we use microwave-driven ferromagnetic resonance of the Py film to generate a SPE spin current that is injected into the TI (Bi0.22Sb0.78) 2T e3 layer in direct contact with Py. In the second, we use the SSE in the longitudinal configuration in Py without contamination by the anomalous Nernst effect, which was made possible with a thin NiO layer between the Py and (Bi0.22Sb0.78) 2T e3 layers. The spin-to-charge current conversion is dominated by the TI surface states and is attributed to the inverse Edelstein effect (IEE), which is made possible by the spin-momentum locking in the electron Fermi contours due to the Rashba field. The measurements by the two techniques yield very similar values for the IEE parameter, which are larger than the reported values in the previous studies on topological insulators.

  15. Topological phases and transport properties of screened interacting quantum wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Hengyi, E-mail: hengyi.xu@njnu.edu.cn [School of Physics and Technology, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Xiong, Ye [School of Physics and Technology, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Wang, Jun [Department of Physics, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China)

    2016-10-14

    We study theoretically the effects of long-range and on-site Coulomb interactions on the topological phases and transport properties of spin–orbit-coupled quasi-one-dimensional quantum wires imposed on a s-wave superconductor. The distributions of the electrostatic potential and charge density are calculated self-consistently within the Hartree approximation. Due to the finite width of the wires and charge repulsion, the potential and density distribute inhomogeneously in the transverse direction and tend to accumulate along the lateral edges where the hard-wall confinement is assumed. This result has profound effects on the topological phases and the differential conductance of the interacting quantum wires and their hybrid junctions with superconductors. Coulomb interactions renormalize the gate voltage and alter the topological phases strongly by enhancing the topological regimes and producing jagged boundaries. Moreover, the multicritical points connecting different topological phases are modified remarkably in striking contrast to the predictions of the two-band model. We further suggest the possible non-magnetic topological phase transitions manipulated externally with the aid of long-range interactions. Finally, the transport properties of normal–superconductor junctions are further examined, in particular, the impacts of Coulomb interactions on the zero-bias peaks related to the Majorana fermions and near zero-energy peaks. - Highlights: • A model of the screened Coulomb interactions in Majorana wires is proposed. • The interacting topological phase diagrams in multiband quantum wires are revealed. • The Majorana fermions in interacting multiband quantum wires are investigated.

  16. Floquet topological insulators for sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury, Romain; Khanikaev, Alexander B; Alù, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    The unique conduction properties of condensed matter systems with topological order have recently inspired a quest for the similar effects in classical wave phenomena. Acoustic topological insulators, in particular, hold the promise to revolutionize our ability to control sound, allowing for large isolation in the bulk and broadband one-way transport along their edges, with topological immunity against structural defects and disorder. So far, these fascinating properties have been obtained relying on moving media, which may introduce noise and absorption losses, hindering the practical potential of topological acoustics. Here we overcome these limitations by modulating in time the acoustic properties of a lattice of resonators, introducing the concept of acoustic Floquet topological insulators. We show that acoustic waves provide a fertile ground to apply the anomalous physics of Floquet topological insulators, and demonstrate their relevance for a wide range of acoustic applications, including broadband acoustic isolation and topologically protected, nonreciprocal acoustic emitters. PMID:27312175

  17. Charge carrier scattering on the short-range potential of the crystal lattice defects in ZnCdTe, ZnHgSe and ZnHgTe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malyk, Orest P., E-mail: omalyk@mail.lviv.u [Semiconductor Electronics Department, Lviv Polytechnic National University, Bandera Street 12, 79013 Lviv (Ukraine)

    2009-12-15

    The processes of the charge carrier scattering on the short-range potential caused by interaction with polar and nonpolar optical phonons, piezoelectric and acoustic phonons, static strain, neutral and ionized impurities in Zn{sub x}Cd{sub 1-x}Te (0<=x<=1), Zn{sub x}Hg{sub 1-x}Se (0.02<=x<=1) and Zn{sub x}Hg{sub 1-x}Te (x=0.15) are considered. The temperature dependences of the charge carrier mobility in temperature range 4.2-360 K are calculated.

  18. Topological fields

    CERN Document Server

    Warner, S

    1989-01-01

    Aimed at those acquainted with basic point-set topology and algebra, this text goes up to the frontiers of current research in topological fields (more precisely, topological rings that algebraically are fields).The reader is given enough background to tackle the current literature without undue additional preparation. Many results not in the text (and many illustrations by example of theorems in the text) are included among the exercises. Sufficient hints for the solution of the exercises are offered so that solving them does not become a major research effort for the reader. A comprehensive bibliography completes the volume.

  19. Topological insulators

    CERN Document Server

    Franz, Marcel

    2013-01-01

    Topological Insulators, volume six in the Contemporary Concepts of Condensed Matter Series, describes the recent revolution in condensed matter physics that occurred in our understanding of crystalline solids. The book chronicles the work done worldwide that led to these discoveries and provides the reader with a comprehensive overview of the field. Starting in 2004, theorists began to explore the effect of topology on the physics of band insulators, a field previously considered well understood. However, the inclusion of topology brings key new elements into this old field. Whereas it was

  20. Toric topology

    CERN Document Server

    Buchstaber, Victor M

    2015-01-01

    This book is about toric topology, a new area of mathematics that emerged at the end of the 1990s on the border of equivariant topology, algebraic and symplectic geometry, combinatorics, and commutative algebra. It has quickly grown into a very active area with many links to other areas of mathematics, and continues to attract experts from different fields. The key players in toric topology are moment-angle manifolds, a class of manifolds with torus actions defined in combinatorial terms. Construction of moment-angle manifolds relates to combinatorial geometry and algebraic geometry of toric v

  1. Topological Manifolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pąk Karol

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Let us recall that a topological space M is a topological manifold if M is second-countable Hausdorff and locally Euclidean, i.e. each point has a neighborhood that is homeomorphic to an open ball of E n for some n. However, if we would like to consider a topological manifold with a boundary, we have to extend this definition. Therefore, we introduce here the concept of a locally Euclidean space that covers both cases (with and without a boundary, i.e. where each point has a neighborhood that is homeomorphic to a closed ball of En for some n.

  2. Differential topology

    CERN Document Server

    Mukherjee, Amiya

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a systematic and comprehensive account of the theory of differentiable manifolds and provides the necessary background for the use of fundamental differential topology tools. The text includes, in particular, the earlier works of Stephen Smale, for which he was awarded the Fields Medal. Explicitly, the topics covered are Thom transversality, Morse theory, theory of handle presentation, h-cobordism theorem, and the generalised Poincaré conjecture. The material is the outcome of lectures and seminars on various aspects of differentiable manifolds and differential topology given over the years at the Indian Statistical Institute in Calcutta, and at other universities throughout India. The book will appeal to graduate students and researchers interested in these topics. An elementary knowledge of linear algebra, general topology, multivariate calculus, analysis, and algebraic topology is recommended.

  3. Neutrosophic Topology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan Karatas

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we redefine the neutrosophic set operations and, by using them, we introduce neutrosophic topology and investigate some related properties such as neutrosophic closure, neutrosophic closure, neutrosophic interior, neutrosophic exterior, neutrosophic boundary and neutrosophic subspace.

  4. Topological Polaritons

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Karzig, Torsten; Bardyn, Charles-Edouard; Lindner, Netanel H; Refael, Gil

    2015-01-01

    ....” Taken separately, the underlying photons and excitons are topologically trivial. Combined appropriately, however, they give rise to nontrivial polaritonic bands with chiral edge modes allowing for unidirectional polariton propagation...

  5. Topological Polaritons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torsten Karzig

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between light and matter can give rise to novel topological states. This principle was recently exemplified in Floquet topological insulators, where classical light was used to induce a topological electronic band structure. Here, in contrast, we show that mixing single photons with excitons can result in new topological polaritonic states—or “topolaritons.” Taken separately, the underlying photons and excitons are topologically trivial. Combined appropriately, however, they give rise to nontrivial polaritonic bands with chiral edge modes allowing for unidirectional polariton propagation. The main ingredient in our construction is an exciton-photon coupling with a phase that winds in momentum space. We demonstrate how this winding emerges from the finite-momentum mixing between s-type and p-type bands in the electronic system and an applied Zeeman field. We discuss the requirements for obtaining a sizable topological gap in the polariton spectrum and propose practical ways to realize topolaritons in semiconductor quantum wells and monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides.

  6. The impact of long-range electron-hole interaction on the charge separation yield of molecular photocells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemati Aram, Tahereh; Ernzerhof, Matthias; Asgari, Asghar; Mayou, Didier

    2017-01-01

    We discuss the effects of charge carrier interaction and recombination on the operation of molecular photocells. Molecular photocells are devices where the energy conversion process takes place in a single molecular donor-acceptor complex attached to electrodes. Our investigation is based on the quantum scattering theory, in particular on the Lippmann-Schwinger equation; this minimizes the complexity of the problem while providing useful and non-trivial insight into the mechanism governing photocell operation. In this study, both exciton pair creation and dissociation are treated in the energy domain, and therefore there is access to detailed spectral information, which can be used as a framework to interpret the charge separation yield. We demonstrate that the charge carrier separation is a complex process that is affected by different parameters, such as the strength of the electron-hole interaction and the non-radiative recombination rate. Our analysis helps to optimize the charge separation process and the energy transfer in organic solar cells and in molecular photocells.

  7. Architecture, Drawing, Topology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book presents contributions of drawing and text along with their many relationalities from ontology to history and vice versa in a range of reflections on architecture, drawing and topology. We hope to thereby indicate the potential of the theme in understanding not only the architecture...... of today, but – perhaps most importantly – also creating and producing architecture that is contemporaneous and reacts to the radical changes of the physical world which surrounds us in the increasingly artificial measures of new materialities and understandings thereof. The contributions range from...... the intricate issues of the imagination and the moving ratio in the topological culture, over urban topology, diagrammatisation, mediality and dynamics of transduction in the contemporary artificial environment....

  8. Measurement of the muon neutrino inclusive charged-current cross section in the energy range of 1-3 GeV with the T2K INGRID detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, K.; Andreopoulos, C.; Antonova, M.; Aoki, S.; Ariga, A.; Assylbekov, S.; Autiero, D.; Barbi, M.; Barker, G. J.; Barr, G.; Bartet-Friburg, P.; Batkiewicz, M.; Bay, F.; Berardi, V.; Berkman, S.; Bhadra, S.; Blondel, A.; Bolognesi, S.; Bordoni, S.; Boyd, S. B.; Brailsford, D.; Bravar, A.; Bronner, C.; Calland, R. G.; Cao, S.; Caravaca Rodríguez, J.; Cartwright, S. L.; Castillo, R.; Catanesi, M. G.; Cervera, A.; Cherdack, D.; Chikuma, N.; Christodoulou, G.; Clifton, A.; Coleman, J.; Collazuol, G.; Cremonesi, L.; Dabrowska, A.; De Rosa, G.; Dealtry, T.; Dennis, S. R.; Densham, C.; Dewhurst, D.; Di Lodovico, F.; Di Luise, S.; Dolan, S.; Drapier, O.; Duffy, K.; Dumarchez, J.; Dytman, S.; Dziewiecki, M.; Emery-Schrenk, S.; Ereditato, A.; Feusels, T.; Finch, A. J.; Fiorentini, G. A.; Friend, M.; Fujii, Y.; Fukuda, D.; Fukuda, Y.; Furmanski, A. P.; Galymov, V.; Garcia, A.; Giffin, S.; Giganti, C.; Gilje, K.; Gonin, M.; Grant, N.; Hadley, D. R.; Haegel, L.; Haigh, M. D.; Hamilton, P.; Hansen, D.; Hara, T.; Hartz, M.; Hasegawa, T.; Hastings, N. C.; Hayashino, T.; Hayato, Y.; Helmer, R. L.; Hierholzer, M.; Hillairet, A.; Himmel, A.; Hiraki, T.; Hirota, S.; Holeczek, J.; Horikawa, S.; Hosomi, F.; Huang, K.; Ichikawa, A. K.; Ieki, K.; Ikeda, M.; Imber, J.; Insler, J.; Intonti, R. A.; Irvine, T. J.; Ishida, T.; Ishii, T.; Iwai, E.; Iwamoto, K.; Izmaylov, A.; Jacob, A.; Jamieson, B.; Jiang, M.; Johnson, S.; Jo, J. H.; Jonsson, P.; Jung, C. K.; Kabirnezhad, M.; Kaboth, A. C.; Kajita, T.; Kakuno, H.; Kameda, J.; Karlen, D.; Karpikov, I.; Katori, T.; Kearns, E.; Khabibullin, M.; Khotjantsev, A.; Kielczewska, D.; Kikawa, T.; Kim, H.; Kim, J.; King, S.; Kisiel, J.; Kobayashi, T.; Koch, L.; Koga, T.; Konaka, A.; Kondo, K.; Kopylov, A.; Kormos, L. L.; Korzenev, A.; Koshio, Y.; Kropp, W.; Kudenko, Y.; Kurjata, R.; Kutter, T.; Lagoda, J.; Lamont, I.; Larkin, E.; Laveder, M.; Lawe, M.; Lazos, M.; Lindner, T.; Liptak, Z. J.; Litchfield, R. P.; Longhin, A.; Lopez, J. P.; Ludovici, L.; Lu, X.; Magaletti, L.; Mahn, K.; Malek, M.; Manly, S.; Marino, A. D.; Marteau, J.; Martin, J. F.; Martins, P.; Martynenko, S.; Maruyama, T.; Matveev, V.; Mavrokoridis, K.; Ma, W. Y.; Mazzucato, E.; McCarthy, M.; McCauley, N.; McFarland, K. S.; McGrew, C.; Mefodiev, A.; Mezzetto, M.; Mijakowski, P.; Miller, C. A.; Minamino, A.; Mineev, O.; Mine, S.; Missert, A.; Miura, M.; Moriyama, S.; Mueller, Th. A.; Murphy, S.; Myslik, J.; Nakadaira, T.; Nakahata, M.; Nakamura, K. G.; Nakamura, K.; Nakamura, K. D.; Nakayama, S.; Nakaya, T.; Nakayoshi, K.; Nantais, C.; Nielsen, C.; Nirkko, M.; Nishikawa, K.; Nishimura, Y.; Nowak, J.; O'Keeffe, H. M.; Ohta, R.; Okumura, K.; Okusawa, T.; Oryszczak, W.; Oser, S. M.; Ovsyannikova, T.; Owen, R. A.; Oyama, Y.; Palladino, V.; Palomino, J. L.; Paolone, V.; Payne, D.; Perkin, J. D.; Petrov, Y.; Pickard, L.; Pickering, L.; Pinzon Guerra, E. S.; Pistillo, C.; Popov, B.; Posiadala-Zezula, M.; Poutissou, J.-M.; Poutissou, R.; Przewlocki, P.; Quilain, B.; Radicioni, E.; Ratoff, P. N.; Ravonel, M.; Rayner, M. A. M.; Redij, A.; Reinherz-Aronis, E.; Riccio, C.; Rojas, P.; Rondio, E.; Roth, S.; Rubbia, A.; Rychter, A.; Sacco, R.; Sakashita, K.; Sánchez, F.; Sato, F.; Scantamburlo, E.; Scholberg, K.; Schoppmann, S.; Schwehr, J. D.; Scott, M.; Seiya, Y.; Sekiguchi, T.; Sekiya, H.; Sgalaberna, D.; Shah, R.; Shaikhiev, A.; Shaker, F.; Shaw, D.; Shiozawa, M.; Shirahige, T.; Short, S.; Smy, M.; Sobczyk, J. T.; Sorel, M.; Southwell, L.; Stamoulis, P.; Steinmann, J.; Stewart, T.; Suda, Y.; Suvorov, S.; Suzuki, A.; Suzuki, K.; Suzuki, S. Y.; Suzuki, Y.; Tacik, R.; Tada, M.; Takahashi, S.; Takeda, A.; Takeuchi, Y.; Tanaka, H. K.; Tanaka, H. A.; Terhorst, D.; Terri, R.; Thompson, L. F.; Tobayama, S.; Toki, W.; Tomura, T.; Touramanis, C.; Tsukamoto, T.; Tzanov, M.; Uchida, Y.; Vacheret, A.; Vagins, M.; Vallari, Z.; Vasseur, G.; Wachala, T.; Wakamatsu, K.; Walter, C. W.; Wark, D.; Warzycha, W.; Wascko, M. O.; Weber, A.; Wendell, R.; Wilkes, R. J.; Wilking, M. J.; Wilkinson, C.; Wilson, J. R.; Wilson, R. J.; Yamada, Y.; Yamamoto, K.; Yamamoto, M.; Yanagisawa, C.; Yano, T.; Yen, S.; Yershov, N.; Yokoyama, M.; Yoo, J.; Yoshida, K.; Yuan, T.; Yu, M.; Zalewska, A.; Zalipska, J.; Zambelli, L.; Zaremba, K.; Ziembicki, M.; Zimmerman, E. D.; Zito, M.; Żmuda, J.; T2K Collaboration

    2016-04-01

    We report a measurement of the νμ-nucleus inclusive charged-current cross section (=σc c ) on iron using data from the INGRID detector exposed to the J-PARC neutrino beam. The detector consists of 14 modules in total, which are spread over a range of off-axis angles from 0° to 1.1°. The variation in the neutrino energy spectrum as a function of the off-axis angle, combined with event topology information, is used to calculate this cross section as a function of neutrino energy. The cross section is measured to be σc c(1.1 GeV )=1.10 ±0.15 (1 0-38 cm2/nucleon) , σc c(2.0 GeV )=2.07 ±0.27 (1 0-38 cm2/nucleon) , and σc c(3.3 GeV )=2.29 ±0.45 (1 0-38 cm2/nucleon), at energies of 1.1, 2.0, and 3.3 GeV, respectively. These results are consistent with the cross section calculated by the neutrino interaction generators currently used by T2K. More importantly, the method described here opens up a new way to determine the energy dependence of neutrino-nucleus cross sections.

  9. Overpotential-induced lability of the electronic overlap factor in long-range electrochemical electron transfer: charge and distance dependence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornyshev, A. A.; Kuznetsov, A. M.; Nielsen, Jens Ulrik

    2000-01-01

    Long-distance electrochemical electron transfer exhibits approximately exponential dependence on the electron transfer distance. On the basis of a jellium model of the metal surface we show that the slope of the logarithm of the current vs. the transfer distance also depends strongly...... on the electrode charge. The slope is smaller the more negative the charge density due to enhanced extension of the surface electronic density profile on the solution side, and thereby better electronic overlap with the reacting molecule. The effect is sensitive to the bulk electron density of the metal...... and the localization of the electronic state at the molecular reactant site. Effects similar to these have been observed experimentally and could be common for electronically light metals....

  10. Interplay of sequence, topology and termini charge in determining the stability of the aggregates of GNNQQNY mutants: a molecular dynamics study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alka Srivastava

    Full Text Available This study explores the stabilities of single sheet parallel systems of three sequence variants of 1GNNQQNY7, N2D, N2S and N6D, with variations in aggregate size (5-8 and termini charge (charged or neutral. The aggregates were simulated at 300 and 330 K. These mutations decrease amyloid formation in the yeast prion protein Sup35. The present study finds that these mutations cause instability even in the peptide context. The protonation status of termini is found to be a key determinant of stabilities; other determinants are sequence, position of mutation and aggregate size. All systems with charged termini are unstable, whereas both stable and unstable systems are found when the termini are neutral. When termini are charged, the largest stable aggregate for the N2S and N6D systems has 3 to 4 peptides whereas N2D mutation supports oligomers of larger size (5-and 6-mers as well. Mutation at 2nd position (N2S and N2D results in fewer H-bonds at the mutated as well as neighboring (Gly1/Gln4 positions. However, no such effect is found if mutation is at 6th position (N6D. The effect of Asn→Asp mutation depends on the position and termini charge: it is more destabilizing at the 2nd position than at the 6th in case of neutral termini, however, the opposite is true in case of charged termini. Appearance of twist in stable systems and in smaller aggregates formed in unstable systems suggests that twist is integral to amyloid arrangement. Disorder, dissociation or rearrangement of peptides, disintegration or collapse of aggregates and formation of amorphous aggregates observed in these simulations are likely to occur during the early stages of aggregation also. The smaller aggregates formed due to such events have a variety of arrangements of peptides. This suggests polymorphic nature of oligomers and presence of a heterogeneous mixture of oligomers during early stages of aggregation.

  11. Topological rings

    CERN Document Server

    Warner, S

    1993-01-01

    This text brings the reader to the frontiers of current research in topological rings. The exercises illustrate many results and theorems while a comprehensive bibliography is also included. The book is aimed at those readers acquainted with some very basic point-set topology and algebra, as normally presented in semester courses at the beginning graduate level or even at the advanced undergraduate level. Familiarity with Hausdorff, metric, compact and locally compact spaces and basic properties of continuous functions, also with groups, rings, fields, vector spaces and modules, and with Zorn''s Lemma, is also expected.

  12. Pseudoperiodic topology

    CERN Document Server

    Arnold, Vladimir; Zorich, Anton

    1999-01-01

    This volume offers an account of the present state of the art in pseudoperiodic topology-a young branch of mathematics, born at the boundary between the ergodic theory of dynamical systems, topology, and number theory. Related topics include the theory of algorithms, convex integer polyhedra, Morse inequalities, real algebraic geometry, statistical physics, and algebraic number theory. The book contains many new results. Most of the articles contain brief surveys on the topics, making the volume accessible to a broad audience. From the Preface by V.I. Arnold: "The authors … have done much to s

  13. Measurements of double differential charged particle emission cross sections and development of a wide range charged particles spectrometer for ten`s MeV neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nauchi, Yasushi; Baba, Mamoru; Kiyosumi, Takehide [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Engineering] [and others

    1997-03-01

    We measured (n,xp), (n,xd) cross sections of C and Al for En=64.3 MeV neutrons at the {sup 7}Li(p,n) neutron sources facility at TIARA (Takasaki Establishment, JAERI) by using a conventional SSD-NaI telescope placed in the air. They show characteristic energy and angular dependence in high energy regions. In order to extend the measurements to low energy protons and {alpha} particles, a new spectrometer consisting of low pressure gas counters and BaF{sub 2} scintillators is now under development. A low threshold for low energy {alpha} particles will be achieved by using the gas counters. The particle identification over a wide energy range will be achieved by combining the {Delta}E-E method for low energy particles with the pulse shape discrimination (PSD) method of BaF{sub 2} for high energy particles. (author)

  14. Restoring the azimuthal symmetry of lateral distributions of charged particles in the range of the KASCADE-Grande experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sima, O., E-mail: Octavian.Sima@kit.ed [Department of Physics, University of Bucharest, Bucharest (Romania); Rebel, H.; Haungs, A. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology - Campus North, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Karlsruhe (Germany); Toma, G. [National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest (Romania); Manailescu, C.; Morariu, C. [Department of Physics, University of Bucharest, Bucharest (Romania); Arteaga, J.C. [Universidad Michoacana, Morelia (Mexico); Bekk, K. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology - Campus North, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Karlsruhe (Germany); Bertaina, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica Generale dell' Universita di Torino (Italy); Bluemer, J. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology - Campus North, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Karlsruhe (Germany); Karlsruhe Institute of Technology - Campus South, Institut fuerExperimentelle Kernphysik, Karlsruhe (Germany); Bozdog, H. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology - Campus North, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Karlsruhe (Germany); Brancus, I.M. [National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest (Romania); Chiavassa, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica Generale dell' Universita di Torino (Italy); Cosavella, F. [Max-Planck Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Souza, V. de [Universidade Sao Paolo, Sao Paolo (Brazil); Doll, P.; Engel, R. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology - Campus North, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Karlsruhe (Germany); Finger, M. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology - Campus South, Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik, Karlsruhe (Germany); Glasstetter, R. [Bergische Universitaet Wuppertal, Fachbereich Physik, Wuppertal (Germany); Grupen, C. [Universitaet Siegen, Experimentelle Teilchenphysik, Siegen (Germany)

    2011-05-11

    The reconstruction of Extensive Air Showers (EAS) observed by particle detectors at the ground is based on the characteristics of observables like the lateral particle density and the arrival times. The lateral densities, inferred for different EAS components from detector data, are usually parameterised by applying various lateral distribution functions (LDFs). The LDFs are used in turn for evaluating quantities like the total number of particles or the density at particular radial distances. Typical expressions for LDFs anticipate azimuthal symmetry of the density around the shower axis. The deviations of the lateral particle density from this assumption arising from various reasons are smoothed out in the case of compact arrays like KASCADE, but not in the case of arrays like Grande, which only sample a smaller part of the azimuthal variation. KASCADE-Grande, an extension of the former KASCADE experiment, is a multi-component Extensive Air Shower (EAS) experiment located at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Campus North), Germany. The lateral distributions of charged particles are deduced from the basic information provided by the Grande scintillators - the energy deposits - first in the observation plane, then in the intrinsic shower plane. In all steps azimuthal dependences should be taken into account. As the energy deposit in the scintillators is dependent on the angles of incidence of the particles, azimuthal dependences are already involved in the first step: the conversion from the energy deposits to the charged particle density. This is done by using the Lateral Energy Correction Function (LECF) that evaluates the mean energy deposited by a charged particle taking into account the contribution of other particles (e.g. photons) to the energy deposit. By using a very fast procedure for the evaluation of the energy deposited by various particles we prepared realistic LECFs depending on the angle of incidence of the shower and on the radial and

  15. Topological Aspects of Quantum Chromodynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooft, G. 't

    2000-01-01

    Absolute confinement of its color charges is a natural property of gauge theories such as quantum chromodynamics. On the one hand, it can be attributed to the existence of color-magnetic monopoles, a topological feature of the theory, but one can also maintain that all non-Abelian gauge theories

  16. Charge-transfer excitations in low-gap systems under the influence of solvation and conformational disorder: Exploring range-separation tuning

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Queiroz, Thiago B.; Kümmel, Stephan

    2014-08-01

    Charge transfer excitations play a prominent role in the fields of molecular electronics and light harvesting. At the same time they have developed a reputation for being hard to predict with time-dependent density functional theory, which is the otherwise predominant method for calculating molecular structure and excitations. Recently, it has been demonstrated that range-separated hybrid functionals, in particular with an "optimally tuned" range separation parameter, describe charge-transfer excitations reliably for different molecules. Many of these studies focused on molecules in vacuum. Here we investigate the influence of solvation on the electronic excitations of thiophene oligomers, i.e., paradigm low gap systems. We take into account bulk solvation using a continuum solvation model and geometrical distortions from molecular dynamics. From our study, three main findings emerge. First, geometrical distortions increase absorption energies by about 0.5 eV for the longer thiophene oligomers. Second, combining optimal tuning of the range separation parameter with a continuum solvation method is not straightforward and has to be approached with great care. Third, optimally tuned range-separated hybrids without a short-range exchange component tend to inherit undesirable characteristics of semi-local functionals: with increasing system size the range separation parameter takes a smaller value, leading to a functional of effectively more semi-local nature and thus not accurately capturing, e.g., the saturation of the optical gap with increasing system size.

  17. Topology optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendsøe, Martin P.; Sigmund, Ole

    2007-01-01

    Taking as a starting point a design case for a compliant mechanism (a force inverter), the fundamental elements of topology optimization are described. The basis for the developments is a FEM format for this design problem and emphasis is given to the parameterization of design as a raster image...

  18. RNA topology

    OpenAIRE

    Frank-Kamenetskii, Maxim D.

    2013-01-01

    A new variety on non-coding RNA has been discovered by several groups: circular RNA (circRNA). This discovery raises intriguing questions about the possibility of the existence of knotted RNA molecules and the existence of a new class of enzymes changing RNA topology, RNA topoisomerases.

  19. ALGEBRAIC TOPOLOGY

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    TOPOLOGY. Allen Hatcher. October 2004 Volume 9 Number 10. GENERAL ARTICLES. 10 Taylor the Sailor. V Radhakrishnan. 19 Twisted Winged Endoparasitoids. An Enigma for Entomologists. Alpana Mazumdar. 25 Xanthan - A Versatile Gum. Anil Lachke. 34 From Natural Numbers to Numbers and. Curves in Nature - II.

  20. Aperiodic topological order in the domain configurations of functional materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Fei-Ting; Cheong, Sang-Wook

    2017-03-01

    In numerous functional materials, such as steels, ferroelectrics and magnets, new functionalities can be achieved through the engineering of the domain structures, which are associated with the ordering of certain parameters within the material. The recent progress in technologies that enable imaging at atomic-scale spatial resolution has transformed our understanding of domain topology, revealing that, along with simple stripe-like or irregularly shaped domains, intriguing vortex-type topological domain configurations also exist. In this Review, we present a new classification scheme of 'Zm Zn domains with Zl vortices' for 2D macroscopic domain structures with m directional variants and n translational antiphases. This classification, together with the concepts of topological protection and topological charge conservation, can be applied to a wide range of materials, such as multiferroics, improper ferroelectrics, layered transition metal dichalcogenides and magnetic superconductors, as we discuss using selected examples. The resulting topological considerations provide a new basis for the understanding of the formation, kinetics, manipulation and property optimization of domains and domain boundaries in functional materials.

  1. Landau theory of topological defects in multiferroic hexagonal manganites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Artyukhin, Sergey; Delaney, Kris T.; Spaldin, Nicola A.; Mostovoy, Maxim

    2014-01-01

    Topological defects in ordered states with spontaneously broken symmetry often have unusual physical properties, such as fractional electric charge or a quantized magnetic field flux, originating from their non-trivial topology. Coupled topological defects in systems with several coexisting orders

  2. Optical properties of topological insulator nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siroki, Gleb; Lee, Derek; Haynes, Peter; Giannini, Vincenzo

    Topological insulators are materials that have metallic surface states protected by time-reversal symmetry. Such states are delocalised over the surface and are immune to non-magnetic defects and impurities. Building on previous work we have studied the interaction of light with topological insulator nanoparticles. Our main finding is that the occupied surface states can lead to charge density oscillations akin to plasmons in metallic nanoparticles. Furthermore, these oscillations can couple to phonons forming a previously unreported excitation. Because the states are localised at the surface a small number of them is enough to change the absorption spectrum of a particle containing many thousands of atoms. We are going to show how the effect can be adjusted by varying the particle's size and shape. Furthermore, we will discuss the robustness of the effect in the presence of disorder. In conclusion, topological nanoparticles can be used as a highly-tunable building block to create a metamaterial operating in THz range. This may be interesting for plasmonics and metamaterials communities as well as researchers working on cavity electrodynamics and quantum information. G.S. was supported through a studentship in the Centre for Doctoral Training on Theory and Simulation of Materials at Imperial College London funded by EPSRC Grant No. EP/L015579/1. V.G. acknowledges support of Leverhulme Trust.

  3. The effect of topology, charge and magnetic field on the arrangement of FePt nanomagnets on bacterial S-layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Queitsch, Ute; Schultz, Ludwig; Rellinghaus, Bernd [IFW Dresden (Germany); Blueher, Anja; Mertig, Michael [MBZ, University of Technology Dresden (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Gas phase preparation has proven to allow for the preparation of L1{sub 0}-ordered FePt nanoparticles by in-flight annealing prior to the particle deposition. The regular arrangement of the statistically arriving particles has been shown to be accomplished by depositing onto bacterial surface layers (S-layers) of Bacillus sphaericus NCTC 9602 exhibiting p4 symmetry and a lattice constant of 12.5 nm. Aiming at improving the regularity of the particle arrangement we have explored the nature of the interaction between the particles and their affinity sites on the S-layers. Therefore, we have systematically varied both the particle size and charge. Upon adapting the particle size to the size of the template features we observe a pronounced improvement of the regularity. Varying the particle charge resulted only in a minor effect. Hence apparently, the observed affinity originates from topographical effects rather than from electrostatical interactions. In addition, the degree of agglomeration becomes important at high particle densities. Here, applying an in-plane magnetic field during the particle deposition is observed to result in a pronounced decrease of agglomeration and subsequently in an improvement of the regularity at high particle densities.

  4. Delta a charge sensitive front-end amplifier with switched gain for low-noise, large dynamic range silicon detector readout

    CERN Document Server

    Aspell, P; Bloch, P; Jarron, Pierre; Löfstedt, B; Reynaud, S; Tabbers, P

    2001-01-01

    The design and results of a radiation hard switched gain charge amplifier optimised for a large dynamic range and large input capacitance are described. The peaking time is 25 ns, dynamic ranges are 0.1-50 minimum ionising particles (MIPs) (high gain) and 1-400 MIPs (low gain), signal to noise (S/N)>10 for C/sub m/<56 pF and radiation tolerance to 10 Mrads(Si) and 4*10/sup 13/ n cm/sup -2/. (5 refs).

  5. Challenging Adiabatic Time-dependent Density Functional Theory with a Hubbard Dimer: The Case of Time-Resolved Long-Range Charge Transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Fuks, Johanna I

    2014-01-01

    We explore an asymmetric two-fermion Hubbard dimer to test the accuracy of the adiabatic approximation of time-dependent density functional theory in modelling time-resolved charge transfer. We show that the model shares essential features of a ground state long-range molecule in real-space, and by applying a resonant field we show that the model also reproduces essential traits of the CT dynamics. The simplicity of the model allows us to propagate with an "adiabatically-exact" approximation, i.e. one that uses the exact ground-state exchange-correlation functional, and compare with the exact propagation. This allows us to study the impact of the time-dependent charge-transfer step feature in the exact correlation potential of real molecules on the resulting dynamics. Tuning the parameters of the dimer allows a study both of charge-transfer between open-shell fragments and between closed-shell fragments. We find that the adiabatically-exact functional is unable to properly transfer charge, even in situations ...

  6. Assessment of charge-transfer excitations with time-dependent, range-separated density functional theory based on long-range MP2 and multiconfigurational self- consistent field wave functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegård, Erik D.; Jensen, Hans Jørgen Aagaard; Knecht, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Charge transfer excitations can be described within Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory (TD-DFT), not only by means of the Coulomb Attenuated Method (CAM) but also with a combination of wave function theory and TD-DFT based on range separation. The latter approach enables a rigorous formulat......Charge transfer excitations can be described within Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory (TD-DFT), not only by means of the Coulomb Attenuated Method (CAM) but also with a combination of wave function theory and TD-DFT based on range separation. The latter approach enables a rigorous...... formulation of multi-determinantal TD-DFT schemes where excitation classes, which are absent in conventional TD-DFT spectra (like for example double excitations), can be addressed. This paper investigates the combination of both the long-range Multi-Configuration Self-Consistent Field (MCSCF) and Second Order...... Polarization Propagator Approximation (SOPPA) ansätze with a short-range DFT (srDFT) description. We find that the combinations of SOPPA or MCSCF with TD-DFT yield better results than could be expected from the pure wave function schemes. For the Time-Dependent MCSCF short-range DFT ansatz (TD...

  7. Long-range behavior of noncovalent bonds. Neutral and charged H-bonds, pnicogen, chalcogen, and halogen bonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepal, Binod; Scheiner, Steve

    2015-07-01

    Ab initio calculations show the drop in interaction energy with bond stretch ΔR can be fit to a common power n, in the functional form ΔR-n. This exponent is smaller for charged H-bonds, as compared to neutral systems, where n varies in the order pnicogen bond. The decay is slowest for the electrostatic term, followed by induction and then by dispersion. The halogen bond has the greatest sensitivity to bond stretching in terms of all three components. The values of the exponent n are smaller for electrostatic energy than would be expected if it arose purely as a result of classical multipole interactions, such as dipole-dipole for the neutral systems. The exponents are larger when the fitting is done with respect to intermolecular distance R, rather than to its stretch relative to equilibrium length, although still not precisely matching what might be expected on classical grounds.

  8. Charge-leveling and proper treatment of long-range electrostatics in all-atom molecular dynamics at constant pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Jason A; Shen, Jana K

    2012-11-14

    Recent development of constant pH molecular dynamics (CpHMD) methods has offered promise for adding pH-stat in molecular dynamics simulations. However, until now the working pH molecular dynamics (pHMD) implementations are dependent in part or whole on implicit-solvent models. Here we show that proper treatment of long-range electrostatics and maintaining charge neutrality of the system are critical for extending the continuous pHMD framework to the all-atom representation. The former is achieved here by adding forces to titration coordinates due to long-range electrostatics based on the generalized reaction field method, while the latter is made possible by a charge-leveling technique that couples proton titration with simultaneous ionization or neutralization of a co-ion in solution. We test the new method using the pH-replica-exchange CpHMD simulations of a series of aliphatic dicarboxylic acids with varying carbon chain length. The average absolute deviation from the experimental pK(a) values is merely 0.18 units. The results show that accounting for the forces due to extended electrostatics removes the large random noise in propagating titration coordinates, while maintaining charge neutrality of the system improves the accuracy in the calculated electrostatic interaction between ionizable sites. Thus, we believe that the way is paved for realizing pH-controlled all-atom molecular dynamics in the near future.

  9. Homotopical topology

    CERN Document Server

    Fomenko, Anatoly

    2016-01-01

    This classic text of the renowned Moscow mathematical school equips the aspiring mathematician with a solid grounding in the core of topology, from a homotopical perspective. Its comprehensiveness and depth of treatment are unmatched among topology textbooks: in addition to covering the basics—the fundamental notions and constructions of homotopy theory, covering spaces and the fundamental group, CW complexes, homology and cohomology, homological algebra—the book treats essential advanced topics, such as obstruction theory, characteristic classes, Steenrod squares, K-theory and cobordism theory, and, with distinctive thoroughness and lucidity, spectral sequences. The organization of the material around the major achievements of the golden era of topology—the Adams conjecture, Bott periodicity, the Hirzebruch–Riemann–Roch theorem, the Atiyah–Singer index theorem, to name a few—paints a clear picture of the canon of the subject. Grassmannians, loop spaces, and classical groups play a central role ...

  10. A Combined State of Charge Estimation Method for Lithium-Ion Batteries Used in a Wide Ambient Temperature Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Feng

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Ambient temperature is a significant factor that influences the characteristics of lithium-ion batteries, which can produce adverse effects on state of charge (SOC estimation. In this paper, an integrated SOC algorithm that combines an advanced ampere-hour counting (Adv Ah method and multistate open-circuit voltage (multi OCV method, denoted as “Adv Ah + multi OCV”, is proposed. Ah counting is a simple and general method for estimating SOC. However, the available capacity and coulombic efficiency in this method are influenced by the operating states of batteries, such as temperature and current, thereby causing SOC estimation errors. To address this problem, an enhanced Ah counting method that can alter the available capacity and coulombic efficiency according to temperature is proposed during the SOC calculation. Moreover, the battery SOCs between different temperatures can be mutually converted in accordance with the capacity loss. To compensate for the accumulating errors in Ah counting caused by the low precision of current sensors and lack of accurate initial SOC, the OCV method is used for calibration and as a complement. Given the variation of available capacities at different temperatures, rated/non-rated OCV–SOCs are established to estimate the initial SOCs in accordance with the Ah counting SOCs. Two dynamic tests, namely, constant- and alternated-temperature tests, are employed to verify the combined method at different temperatures. The results indicate that our method can provide effective and accurate SOC estimation at different ambient temperatures.

  11. PACE3 a large dynamic range analog memory front-end ASIC assembly for the charge readout of silicon sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Aspell, P; Bialas, W; Bloch, P; Dupanloup, M; Go A; Kloukinas, K; Manthos, N; Moraes, D; Morrissey, Q; Peisert, Anna; Reynaud, S; Sidiropoulos, G; Tcheremoukhine, A; Vichoudis, P

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the architecture of PACE3 and the key design parameters for a large dynamic range front-end amplification and low noise analog memory. Measured results from PACE3 are presented characterizing the chip's performance in terms of gain, pulse shaping characteristics, noise, power consumption and radiation tolerance with respect to total ionizing dose and robustness to single event upsets (SEU).

  12. Time-dependent spin and charge transport in Floquet topological insulator based on graphene nanoribbons with proximity induced spin-orbit coupling from transition metal dichalcogenides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, Bogdan; Chen, Son-Hsien; Nikolic, Branislav

    The investigation of time-resolved phenomena in nanodevices is a topical research subject. To this end, an efficient algorithm, based on time-dependent nonequilibrium Green's functions (TDNEGF) was recently developed in Ref.. This approach converts the TDNEGF equations into an initial-value problem for the reduced density matrix (RDO) and auxiliary quantities. Moreover, since the RDO is propagated, all information on dynamics is accessible at each time step without extra effort. In this study, we employ the algorithm of Ref. to investigate spin and charge transport in graphene nanoribbons (GNR), with proximity induced spin-orbit coupling (SOC) from transition metal dichalcogenides underneath the ribbon, which are irradiated by circularly polarized light and attached to Fermi liquid reservoirs via semi-infinite ideal GNR leads. The usage of such leads bypasses ambiguities in defining the nonequilibrium occupations of the Floquet states, while discretization of the lead self-energies by a fitting procedure describes the system-lead coupling as reflectionless. We also compare long-time limit of TDNEGF algorithm with Floquet-NEGF approach of Ref.. NSF Grant No. ECCS 1566074.

  13. Equivariant topological quantum field theory and symmetry protected topological phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapustin, Anton [Division of Physics, California Institute of Technology,1200 E California Blvd, Pasadena, CA, 91125 (United States); Turzillo, Alex [Simons Center for Geometry and Physics, State University of New York,Stony Brook, NY, 11794 (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Short-Range Entangled topological phases of matter are closely related to Topological Quantum Field Theory. We use this connection to classify Symmetry Protected Topological phases in low dimensions, including the case when the symmetry involves time-reversal. To accomplish this, we generalize Turaev’s description of equivariant TQFT to the unoriented case. We show that invertible unoriented equivariant TQFTs in one or fewer spatial dimensions are classified by twisted group cohomology, in agreement with the proposal of Chen, Gu, Liu and Wen. We also show that invertible oriented equivariant TQFTs in spatial dimension two or fewer are classified by ordinary group cohomology.

  14. Fractional Effective Charges and Misner-Wheeler Charge without Charge Effect in Metamaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Smolyaninov

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Transformation optics enables engineering of the effective topology and dimensionality of the optical space in metamaterials. Nonlinear optics of such metamaterials may mimic Kaluza-Klein theories having one or more kinds of effective charges. As a result, novel photon blockade devices may be realized. Here we demonstrate that an electromagnetic wormhole may be designed, which connects two points of such an optical space and changes its effective topological connectivity. Electromagnetic field configurations, which exhibit fractional effective charges, appear as a result of such topology change. Moreover, such effects as Misner-Wheeler “charge without charge” may be replicated.

  15. Topological Aspects of Information Retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egghe, Leo; Rousseau, Ronald

    1998-01-01

    Discusses topological aspects of theoretical information retrieval, including retrieval topology; similarity topology; pseudo-metric topology; document spaces as topological spaces; Boolean information retrieval as a subsystem of any topological system; and proofs of theorems. (LRW)

  16. Long-range two-particle correlations of strange hadrons with charged particles in pPb and PbPb collisions at LHC energies

    CERN Document Server

    Khachatryan, Vardan; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Fabjan, Christian; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hartl, Christian; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Kiesenhofer, Wolfgang; Knünz, Valentin; Krammer, Manfred; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Mikulec, Ivan; Rabady, Dinyar; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Herbert; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Taurok, Anton; Treberer-Treberspurg, Wolfgang; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Alderweireldt, Sara; Bansal, Monika; Bansal, Sunil; Cornelis, Tom; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Knutsson, Albert; Luyckx, Sten; Ochesanu, Silvia; Rougny, Romain; Van De Klundert, Merijn; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Blekman, Freya; Blyweert, Stijn; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Daci, Nadir; Heracleous, Natalie; Keaveney, James; Lowette, Steven; Maes, Michael; Olbrechts, Annik; Python, Quentin; Strom, Derek; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Villella, Ilaria; Caillol, Cécile; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Dobur, Didar; Favart, Laurent; Gay, Arnaud; Grebenyuk, Anastasia; Léonard, Alexandre; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Perniè, Luca; Reis, Thomas; Seva, Tomislav; Thomas, Laurent; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Wang, Jian; Zenoni, Florian; Adler, Volker; Beernaert, Kelly; Benucci, Leonardo; Cimmino, Anna; Costantini, Silvia; Crucy, Shannon; Dildick, Sven; Fagot, Alexis; Garcia, Guillaume; Mccartin, Joseph; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Salva Diblen, Sinem; Sigamani, Michael; Strobbe, Nadja; Thyssen, Filip; Tytgat, Michael; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Beluffi, Camille; Bruno, Giacomo; Castello, Roberto; Caudron, Adrien; Ceard, Ludivine; Da Silveira, Gustavo Gil; Delaere, Christophe; Du Pree, Tristan; Favart, Denis; Forthomme, Laurent; Giammanco, Andrea; Hollar, Jonathan; Jafari, Abideh; Jez, Pavel; Komm, Matthias; Lemaitre, Vincent; Nuttens, Claude; Pagano, Davide; Perrini, Lucia; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Popov, Andrey; Quertenmont, Loic; Selvaggi, Michele; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Beliy, Nikita; Caebergs, Thierry; Daubie, Evelyne; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Alves, Gilvan; Brito, Lucas; Correa Martins Junior, Marcos; Dos Reis Martins, Thiago; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Pol, Maria Elena; Carvalho, Wagner; Chinellato, Jose; Custódio, Analu; Melo Da Costa, Eliza; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Malbouisson, Helena; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santaolalla, Javier; Santoro, Alberto; Sznajder, Andre; Tonelli Manganote, Edmilson José; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; Dogra, Sunil; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Mercadante, Pedro G; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Aleksandrov, Aleksandar; Genchev, Vladimir; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Marinov, Andrey; Piperov, Stefan; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Tcholakov, Vanio; Vutova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Glushkov, Ivan; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Kozhuharov, Venelin; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Chen, Mingshui; Du, Ran; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Plestina, Roko; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Zheng; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Ban, Yong; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Wang, Dayong; Zhang, Linlin; Zou, Wei; Avila, Carlos; Chaparro Sierra, Luisa Fernanda; Florez, Carlos; Gomez, Juan Pablo; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Polic, Dunja; Puljak, Ivica; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Kadija, Kreso; Luetic, Jelena; Mekterovic, Darko; Sudic, Lucija; Attikis, Alexandros; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Bodlak, Martin; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Assran, Yasser; Ellithi Kamel, Ali; Mahmoud, Mohammed; Radi, Amr; Kadastik, Mario; Murumaa, Marion; Raidal, Martti; Tiko, Andres; Eerola, Paula; Fedi, Giacomo; Voutilainen, Mikko; Härkönen, Jaakko; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Kortelainen, Matti J; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Peltola, Timo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Wendland, Lauri; Talvitie, Joonas; Tuuva, Tuure; Besancon, Marc; Couderc, Fabrice; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Favaro, Carlotta; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Locci, Elizabeth; Malcles, Julie; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Titov, Maksym; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Busson, Philippe; Charlot, Claude; Dahms, Torsten; Dalchenko, Mykhailo; Dobrzynski, Ludwik; Filipovic, Nicolas; Florent, Alice; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Mastrolorenzo, Luca; Miné, Philippe; Mironov, Camelia; Naranjo, Ivo Nicolas; Nguyen, Matthew; Ochando, Christophe; Paganini, Pascal; Regnard, Simon; Salerno, Roberto; Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; Sirois, Yves; Veelken, Christian; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Zabi, Alexandre; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Aubin, Alexandre; Bloch, Daniel; Brom, Jean-Marie; Chabert, Eric Christian; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Goetzmann, Christophe; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Van Hove, Pierre; Gadrat, Sébastien; Beauceron, Stephanie; Beaupere, Nicolas; Boudoul, Gaelle; Bouvier, Elvire; Brochet, Sébastien; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Chasserat, Julien; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fan, Jiawei; Fay, Jean; Gascon, Susan; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Ille, Bernard; Kurca, Tibor; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Perries, Stephane; Ruiz Alvarez, José David; Sabes, David; Sgandurra, Louis; Sordini, Viola; Vander Donckt, Muriel; Verdier, Patrice; Viret, Sébastien; Xiao, Hong; Tsamalaidze, Zviad; Autermann, Christian; Beranek, Sarah; Bontenackels, Michael; Edelhoff, Matthias; Feld, Lutz; Hindrichs, Otto; Klein, Katja; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Perieanu, Adrian; Raupach, Frank; Sammet, Jan; Schael, Stefan; Weber, Hendrik; Wittmer, Bruno; Zhukov, Valery; Ata, Metin; Brodski, Michael; Dietz-Laursonn, Erik; Duchardt, Deborah; Erdmann, Martin; Fischer, Robert; Güth, Andreas; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heidemann, Carsten; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Klingebiel, Dennis; Knutzen, Simon; Kreuzer, Peter; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Millet, Philipp; Olschewski, Mark; Padeken, Klaas; Papacz, Paul; Reithler, Hans; Schmitz, Stefan Antonius; Sonnenschein, Lars; Teyssier, Daniel; Thüer, Sebastian; Weber, Martin; Cherepanov, Vladimir; Erdogan, Yusuf; Flügge, Günter; Geenen, Heiko; Geisler, Matthias; Haj Ahmad, Wael; Heister, Arno; Hoehle, Felix; Kargoll, Bastian; Kress, Thomas; Kuessel, Yvonne; Künsken, Andreas; Lingemann, Joschka; Nowack, Andreas; Nugent, Ian Michael; Perchalla, Lars; Pooth, Oliver; Stahl, Achim; Asin, Ivan; Bartosik, Nazar; Behr, Joerg; Behrenhoff, Wolf; Behrens, Ulf; Bell, Alan James; Bergholz, Matthias; Bethani, Agni; Borras, Kerstin; Burgmeier, Armin; Cakir, Altan; Calligaris, Luigi; Campbell, Alan; Choudhury, Somnath; Costanza, Francesco; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Dooling, Samantha; Dorland, Tyler; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Eichhorn, Thomas; Flucke, Gero; Garay Garcia, Jasone; Geiser, Achim; Gunnellini, Paolo; Hauk, Johannes; Hempel, Maria; Horton, Dean; Jung, Hannes; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Kasemann, Matthias; Katsas, Panagiotis; Kieseler, Jan; Kleinwort, Claus; Krücker, Dirk; Lange, Wolfgang; Leonard, Jessica; Lipka, Katerina; Lobanov, Artur; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Lutz, Benjamin; Mankel, Rainer; Marfin, Ihar; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mittag, Gregor; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Naumann-Emme, Sebastian; Nayak, Aruna; Novgorodova, Olga; Ntomari, Eleni; Perrey, Hanno; Pitzl, Daniel; Placakyte, Ringaile; Raspereza, Alexei; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro M; Roland, Benoit; Ron, Elias; Sahin, Mehmet Özgür; Salfeld-Nebgen, Jakob; Saxena, Pooja; Schmidt, Ringo; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Schröder, Matthias; Seitz, Claudia; Spannagel, Simon; Vargas Trevino, Andrea Del Rocio; Walsh, Roberval; Wissing, Christoph; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Blobel, Volker; Centis Vignali, Matteo; Draeger, Arne-Rasmus; Erfle, Joachim; Garutti, Erika; Goebel, Kristin; Görner, Martin; Haller, Johannes; Hoffmann, Malte; Höing, Rebekka Sophie; Kirschenmann, Henning; Klanner, Robert; Kogler, Roman; Lange, Jörn; Lapsien, Tobias; Lenz, Teresa; Marchesini, Ivan; Ott, Jochen; Peiffer, Thomas; Pietsch, Niklas; Poehlsen, Jennifer; Pöhlsen, Thomas; Rathjens, Denis; Sander, Christian; Schettler, Hannes; Schleper, Peter; Schlieckau, Eike; Schmidt, Alexander; Seidel, Markus; Sola, Valentina; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Troendle, Daniel; Usai, Emanuele; Vanelderen, Lukas; Vanhoefer, Annika; Barth, Christian; Baus, Colin; Berger, Joram; Böser, Christian; Butz, Erik; Chwalek, Thorsten; De Boer, Wim; Descroix, Alexis; Dierlamm, Alexander; Feindt, Michael; Frensch, Felix; Giffels, Manuel; Hartmann, Frank; Hauth, Thomas; Husemann, Ulrich; Katkov, Igor; Kornmayer, Andreas; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Lobelle Pardo, Patricia; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Müller, Thomas; Nürnberg, Andreas; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Ratnikov, Fedor; Röcker, Steffen; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Ulrich, Ralf; Wagner-Kuhr, Jeannine; Wayand, Stefan; Weiler, Thomas; Wolf, Roger; Anagnostou, Georgios; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Giakoumopoulou, Viktoria Athina; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Markou, Athanasios; Markou, Christos; Psallidas, Andreas; Topsis-Giotis, Iasonas; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Saoulidou, Niki; Stiliaris, Efstathios; Aslanoglou, Xenofon; Evangelou, Ioannis; Flouris, Giannis; Foudas, Costas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Paradas, Evangelos; Bencze, Gyorgy; Hajdu, Csaba; Hidas, Pàl; Horvath, Dezso; Sikler, Ferenc; Veszpremi, Viktor; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Zsigmond, Anna Julia; Beni, Noemi; Czellar, Sandor; Karancsi, János; Molnar, Jozsef; Palinkas, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Swain, Sanjay Kumar; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Gupta, Ruchi; Bhawandeep, Bhawandeep; Kalsi, Amandeep Kaur; Kaur, Manjit; Kumar, Ramandeep; Mittal, Monika; Nishu, Nishu; Singh, Jasbir; Kumar, Ashok; Kumar, Arun; Ahuja, Sudha; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Kumar, Ajay; Malhotra, Shivali; Naimuddin, Md; Ranjan, Kirti; Sharma, Varun; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Chatterjee, Kalyanmoy; Dutta, Suchandra; Gomber, Bhawna; Jain, Sandhya; Jain, Shilpi; Khurana, Raman; Modak, Atanu; Mukherjee, Swagata; Roy, Debarati; Sarkar, Subir; Sharan, Manoj; Abdulsalam, Abdulla; Dutta, Dipanwita; Kailas, Swaminathan; Kumar, Vineet; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Topkar, Anita; Aziz, Tariq; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Bhowmik, Sandeep; Chatterjee, Rajdeep Mohan; Dewanjee, Ram Krishna; Dugad, Shashikant; Ganguly, Sanmay; Ghosh, Saranya; Guchait, Monoranjan; Gurtu, Atul; Kole, Gouranga; Kumar, Sanjeev; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Parida, Bibhuti; Sudhakar, Katta; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Behnamian, Hadi; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Fahim, Ali; Goldouzian, Reza; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Naseri, Mohsen; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Rezaei Hosseinabadi, Ferdos; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Felcini, Marta; Grunewald, Martin; Abbrescia, Marcello; Barbone, Lucia; Calabria, Cesare; Chhibra, Simranjit Singh; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Radogna, Raffaella; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Silvestris, Lucia; Singh, Gurpreet; Venditti, Rosamaria; Zito, Giuseppe; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Benvenuti, Alberto; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Brigliadori, Luca; Campanini, Renato; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Codispoti, Giuseppe; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Grandi, Claudio; Guiducci, Luigi; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Perrotta, Andrea; Primavera, Federica; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gian Piero; Tosi, Nicolò; Travaglini, Riccardo; Albergo, Sebastiano; Cappello, Gigi; Chiorboli, Massimiliano; Costa, Salvatore; Giordano, Ferdinando; Potenza, Renato; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Gallo, Elisabetta; Gonzi, Sandro; Gori, Valentina; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Tropiano, Antonio; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Ferretti, Roberta; Ferro, Fabrizio; Lo Vetere, Maurizio; Robutti, Enrico; Tosi, Silvano; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Fiorendi, Sara; Gennai, Simone; Gerosa, Raffaele; Ghezzi, Alessio; Govoni, Pietro; Lucchini, Marco Toliman; Malvezzi, Sandra; Manzoni, Riccardo Andrea; Martelli, Arabella; Marzocchi, Badder; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Ragazzi, Stefano; Redaelli, Nicola; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Buontempo, Salvatore; Cavallo, Nicola; Di Guida, Salvatore; Fabozzi, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Lista, Luca; Meola, Sabino; Merola, Mario; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Bellato, Marco; Biasotto, Massimo; Branca, Antonio; Carlin, Roberto; Checchia, Paolo; Dall'Osso, Martino; Dorigo, Tommaso; Fanzago, Federica; Galanti, Mario; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Gasparini, Ugo; Giubilato, Piero; Gozzelino, Andrea; Kanishchev, Konstantin; Lacaprara, Stefano; Margoni, Martino; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Pazzini, Jacopo; Pozzobon, Nicola; Ronchese, Paolo; Simonetto, Franco; Torassa, Ezio; Tosi, Mia; Zotto, Pierluigi; Zucchetta, Alberto; Gabusi, Michele; Ratti, Sergio P; Re, Valerio; Riccardi, Cristina; Salvini, Paola; Vitulo, Paolo; Biasini, Maurizio; Bilei, Gian Mario; Ciangottini, Diego; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Menichelli, Mauro; Romeo, Francesco; Saha, Anirban; Santocchia, Attilio; Spiezia, Aniello; Androsov, Konstantin; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Bernardini, Jacopo; Boccali, Tommaso; Broccolo, Giuseppe; Castaldi, Rino; Ciocci, Maria Agnese; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Donato, Silvio; Fiori, Francesco; Foà, Lorenzo; Giassi, Alessandro; Grippo, Maria Teresa; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Moon, Chang-Seong; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizzi, Andrea; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Serban, Alin Titus; Spagnolo, Paolo; Squillacioti, Paola; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Vernieri, Caterina; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; D'imperio, Giulia; Del Re, Daniele; Diemoz, Marcella; Grassi, Marco; Jorda, Clara; Longo, Egidio; Margaroli, Fabrizio; Meridiani, Paolo; Micheli, Francesco; Nourbakhsh, Shervin; Organtini, Giovanni; Paramatti, Riccardo; Rahatlou, Shahram; Rovelli, Chiara; Santanastasio, Francesco; Soffi, Livia; Traczyk, Piotr; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Bellan, Riccardo; Biino, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Casasso, Stefano; Costa, Marco; Degano, Alessandro; Demaria, Natale; Finco, Linda; Mariotti, Chiara; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Monaco, Vincenzo; Musich, Marco; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Ortona, Giacomo; Pacher, Luca; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Pinna Angioni, Gian Luca; Potenza, Alberto; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Tamponi, Umberto; Belforte, Stefano; Candelise, Vieri; Casarsa, Massimo; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Gobbo, Benigno; La Licata, Chiara; Marone, Matteo; Schizzi, Andrea; Umer, Tomo; Zanetti, Anna; Chang, Sunghyun; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Nam, Soon-Kwon; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kim, Min Suk; Kong, Dae Jung; Lee, Sangeun; Oh, Young Do; Park, Hyangkyu; Sakharov, Alexandre; Son, Dong-Chul; Kim, Tae Jeong; Kim, Jae Yool; Song, Sanghyeon; Choi, Suyong; Gyun, Dooyeon; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jo, Mihee; Kim, Hyunchul; Kim, Yongsun; Lee, Byounghoon; Lee, Kyong Sei; Park, Sung Keun; Roh, Youn; Choi, Minkyoo; Kim, Ji Hyun; Park, Inkyu; Ryu, Geonmo; Ryu, Min Sang; Choi, Young-Il; Choi, Young Kyu; Goh, Junghwan; Kim, Donghyun; Kwon, Eunhyang; Lee, Jongseok; Seo, Hyunkwan; Yu, Intae; Juodagalvis, Andrius; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Md Ali, Mohd Adli Bin; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Heredia-de La Cruz, Ivan; Hernandez-Almada, Alberto; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Sánchez Hernández, Alberto; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Pedraza, Isabel; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Casimiro Linares, Edgar; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Krofcheck, David; Butler, Philip H; Reucroft, Steve; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahmad, Muhammad; Hassan, Qamar; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Khalid, Shoaib; Khan, Wajid Ali; Khurshid, Taimoor; Shah, Mehar Ali; Shoaib, Muhammad; Bialkowska, Helena; Bluj, Michal; Boimska, Bożena; Frueboes, Tomasz; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Rybinska, Katarzyna; Szleper, Michal; Zalewski, Piotr; Brona, Grzegorz; Bunkowski, Karol; Cwiok, Mikolaj; Dominik, Wojciech; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Misiura, Maciej; Olszewski, Michał; Wolszczak, Weronika; Bargassa, Pedrame; Beirão Da Cruz E Silva, Cristóvão; Faccioli, Pietro; Ferreira Parracho, Pedro Guilherme; Gallinaro, Michele; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Nguyen, Federico; Rodrigues Antunes, Joao; Seixas, Joao; Varela, Joao; Vischia, Pietro; Afanasiev, Serguei; Bunin, Pavel; Gavrilenko, Mikhail; Golutvin, Igor; Gorbunov, Ilya; Kamenev, Alexey; Karjavin, Vladimir; Konoplyanikov, Viktor; Lanev, Alexander; Malakhov, Alexander; Matveev, Viktor; Moisenz, Petr; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Shmatov, Sergey; Skatchkov, Nikolai; Smirnov, Vitaly; Zarubin, Anatoli; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Levchenko, Petr; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Smirnov, Igor; Sulimov, Valentin; Uvarov, Lev; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Andrey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Tlisov, Danila; Toropin, Alexander; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Safronov, Grigory; Semenov, Sergey; Spiridonov, Alexander; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Leonidov, Andrey; Mesyats, Gennady; Rusakov, Sergey V; Vinogradov, Alexey; Belyaev, Andrey; Boos, Edouard; Ershov, Alexander; Gribushin, Andrey; Klyukhin, Vyacheslav; Kodolova, Olga; Korotkikh, Vladimir; Lokhtin, Igor; Obraztsov, Stepan; Petrushanko, Sergey; Savrin, Viktor; Snigirev, Alexander; Vardanyan, Irina; Azhgirey, Igor; Bayshev, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Kachanov, Vassili; Kalinin, Alexey; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Sobol, Andrei; Tourtchanovitch, Leonid; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Ekmedzic, Marko; Milosevic, Jovan; Rekovic, Vladimir; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Battilana, Carlo; Calvo, Enrique; Cerrada, Marcos; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Domínguez Vázquez, Daniel; Escalante Del Valle, Alberto; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Navarro De Martino, Eduardo; Pérez Calero Yzquierdo, Antonio María; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Quintario Olmeda, Adrián; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Senghi Soares, Mara; Albajar, Carmen; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Missiroli, Marino; Moran, Dermot; Brun, Hugues; Cuevas, Javier; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Folgueras, Santiago; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Duarte Campderros, Jordi; Fernandez, Marcos; Gomez, Gervasio; Graziano, Alberto; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Marco, Rafael; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Matorras, Francisco; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Rodrigo, Teresa; Rodríguez-Marrero, Ana Yaiza; Ruiz-Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Auffray, Etiennette; Auzinger, Georg; Bachtis, Michail; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Benaglia, Andrea; Bendavid, Joshua; Benhabib, Lamia; Benitez, Jose F; Bernet, Colin; Bianchi, Giovanni; Bloch, Philippe; Bocci, Andrea; Bonato, Alessio; Bondu, Olivier; Botta, Cristina; Breuker, Horst; Camporesi, Tiziano; Cerminara, Gianluca; Colafranceschi, Stefano; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; D'Enterria, David; Dabrowski, Anne; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; De Guio, Federico; De Roeck, Albert; De Visscher, Simon; Di Marco, Emanuele; Dobson, Marc; Dordevic, Milos; Dupont-Sagorin, Niels; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Eugster, Jürg; Franzoni, Giovanni; Funk, Wolfgang; Gigi, Dominique; Gill, Karl; Giordano, Domenico; Girone, Maria; Glege, Frank; Guida, Roberto; Gundacker, Stefan; Guthoff, Moritz; Hammer, Josef; Hansen, Magnus; Harris, Philip; Hegeman, Jeroen; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janot, Patrick; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Krajczar, Krisztian; Lecoq, Paul; Lourenco, Carlos; Magini, Nicolo; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Marrouche, Jad; Masetti, Lorenzo; Meijers, Frans; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Moortgat, Filip; Morovic, Srecko; Mulders, Martijn; Musella, Pasquale; Orsini, Luciano; Pape, Luc; Perez, Emmanuelle; Perrozzi, Luca; Petrilli, Achille; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Pierini, Maurizio; Pimiä, Martti; Piparo, Danilo; Plagge, Michael; Racz, Attila; Rolandi, Gigi; Rovere, Marco; Sakulin, Hannes; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Sharma, Archana; Siegrist, Patrice; Silva, Pedro; Simon, Michal; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Spiga, Daniele; Steggemann, Jan; Stieger, Benjamin; Stoye, Markus; Takahashi, Yuta; Treille, Daniel; Tsirou, Andromachi; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; Wardle, Nicholas; Wöhri, Hermine Katharina; Wollny, Heiner; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Renker, Dieter; Rohe, Tilman; Bachmair, Felix; Bäni, Lukas; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Buchmann, Marco-Andrea; Casal, Bruno; Chanon, Nicolas; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Donegà, Mauro; Dünser, Marc; Eller, Philipp; Grab, Christoph; Hits, Dmitry; Hoss, Jan; Lustermann, Werner; Mangano, Boris; Marini, Andrea Carlo; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Masciovecchio, Mario; Meister, Daniel; Mohr, Niklas; Nägeli, Christoph; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pandolfi, Francesco; Pauss, Felicitas; Peruzzi, Marco; Quittnat, Milena; Rebane, Liis; Rossini, Marco; Starodumov, Andrei; Takahashi, Maiko; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Wallny, Rainer; Weber, Hannsjoerg Artur; Amsler, Claude; Canelli, Maria Florencia; Chiochia, Vincenzo; De Cosa, Annapaola; Hinzmann, Andreas; Hreus, Tomas; Kilminster, Benjamin; Lange, Clemens; Millan Mejias, Barbara; Ngadiuba, Jennifer; Robmann, Peter; Ronga, Frederic Jean; Taroni, Silvia; Verzetti, Mauro; Yang, Yong; Cardaci, Marco; Chen, Kuan-Hsin; Ferro, Cristina; Kuo, Chia-Ming; Lin, Willis; Lu, Yun-Ju; Volpe, Roberta; Yu, Shin-Shan; Chang, Paoti; Chang, You-Hao; Chang, Yu-Wei; Chao, Yuan; Chen, Kai-Feng; Chen, Po-Hsun; Dietz, Charles; Grundler, Ulysses; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Kao, Kai-Yi; Lei, Yeong-Jyi; Liu, Yueh-Feng; Lu, Rong-Shyang; Majumder, Devdatta; Petrakou, Eleni; Tzeng, Yeng-Ming; Wilken, Rachel; Asavapibhop, Burin; Srimanobhas, Norraphat; Suwonjandee, Narumon; Adiguzel, Aytul; Bakirci, Mustafa Numan; Cerci, Salim; Dozen, Candan; Dumanoglu, Isa; Eskut, Eda; Girgis, Semiray; Gokbulut, Gul; Gurpinar, Emine; Hos, Ilknur; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Kayis Topaksu, Aysel; Onengut, Gulsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Ozturk, Sertac; Polatoz, Ayse; Sunar Cerci, Deniz; Tali, Bayram; Topakli, Huseyin; Vergili, Mehmet; Akin, Ilina Vasileva; Bilin, Bugra; Bilmis, Selcuk; Gamsizkan, Halil; Karapinar, Guler; Ocalan, Kadir; Sekmen, Sezen; Surat, Ugur Emrah; Yalvac, Metin; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Gülmez, Erhan; Isildak, Bora; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Cankocak, Kerem; Vardarlı, Fuat Ilkehan; Levchuk, Leonid; Sorokin, Pavel; Brooke, James John; Clement, Emyr; Cussans, David; Flacher, Henning; Frazier, Robert; Goldstein, Joel; Grimes, Mark; Heath, Greg P; Heath, Helen F; Jacob, Jeson; Kreczko, Lukasz; Lucas, Chris; Meng, Zhaoxia; Newbold, Dave M; Paramesvaran, Sudarshan; Poll, Anthony; Senkin, Sergey; Smith, Vincent J; Williams, Thomas; Belyaev, Alexander; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M; Cockerill, David JA; Coughlan, John A; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Olaiya, Emmanuel; Petyt, David; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Thea, Alessandro; Tomalin, Ian R; Womersley, William John; Worm, Steven; Baber, Mark; Bainbridge, Robert; Buchmuller, Oliver; Burton, Darren; Colling, David; Cripps, Nicholas; Cutajar, Michael; Dauncey, Paul; Davies, Gavin; Della Negra, Michel; Dunne, Patrick; Ferguson, William; Fulcher, Jonathan; Futyan, David; Gilbert, Andrew; Hall, Geoffrey; Iles, Gregory; Jarvis, Martyn; Karapostoli, Georgia; Kenzie, Matthew; Lane, Rebecca; Lucas, Robyn; Lyons, Louis; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Malik, Sarah; Mathias, Bryn; Nash, Jordan; Nikitenko, Alexander; Pela, Joao; Pesaresi, Mark; Petridis, Konstantinos; Raymond, David Mark; Rogerson, Samuel; Rose, Andrew; Seez, Christopher; Sharp, Peter; Tapper, Alexander; Vazquez Acosta, Monica; Virdee, Tejinder; Zenz, Seth Conrad; Cole, Joanne; Hobson, Peter R; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Leggat, Duncan; Leslie, Dawn; Martin, William; Reid, Ivan; Symonds, Philip; Teodorescu, Liliana; Turner, Mark; Dittmann, Jay; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Kasmi, Azeddine; Liu, Hongxuan; Scarborough, Tara; Charaf, Otman; Cooper, Seth; Henderson, Conor; Rumerio, Paolo; Avetisyan, Aram; Bose, Tulika; Fantasia, Cory; Lawson, Philip; Richardson, Clint; Rohlf, James; St John, Jason; Sulak, Lawrence; Alimena, Juliette; Berry, Edmund; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Christopher, Grant; Cutts, David; Demiragli, Zeynep; Dhingra, Nitish; Ferapontov, Alexey; Garabedian, Alex; Heintz, Ulrich; Kukartsev, Gennadiy; Laird, Edward; Landsberg, Greg; Luk, Michael; Narain, Meenakshi; Segala, Michael; Sinthuprasith, Tutanon; Speer, Thomas; Swanson, Joshua; Breedon, Richard; Breto, Guillermo; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Chauhan, Sushil; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Conway, Rylan; Cox, Peter Timothy; Erbacher, Robin; Gardner, Michael; Ko, Winston; Lander, Richard; Miceli, Tia; Mulhearn, Michael; Pellett, Dave; Pilot, Justin; Ricci-Tam, Francesca; Searle, Matthew; Shalhout, Shalhout; Smith, John; Squires, Michael; Stolp, Dustin; Tripathi, Mani; Wilbur, Scott; Yohay, Rachel; Cousins, Robert; Everaerts, Pieter; Farrell, Chris; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Rakness, Gregory; Takasugi, Eric; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Weber, Matthias; Burt, Kira; Clare, Robert; Ellison, John Anthony; Gary, J William; Hanson, Gail; Heilman, Jesse; Ivova Rikova, Mirena; Jandir, Pawandeep; Kennedy, Elizabeth; Lacroix, Florent; Long, Owen Rosser; Luthra, Arun; Malberti, Martina; Nguyen, Harold; Olmedo Negrete, Manuel; Shrinivas, Amithabh; Sumowidagdo, Suharyo; Wimpenny, Stephen; Andrews, Warren; Branson, James G; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; Cittolin, Sergio; D'Agnolo, Raffaele Tito; Evans, David; Holzner, André; Kelley, Ryan; Klein, Daniel; Lebourgeois, Matthew; Letts, James; Macneill, Ian; Olivito, Dominick; Padhi, Sanjay; Palmer, Christopher; Pieri, Marco; Sani, Matteo; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Sudano, Elizabeth; Tadel, Matevz; Tu, Yanjun; Vartak, Adish; Welke, Charles; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Barge, Derek; Bradmiller-Feld, John; Campagnari, Claudio; Danielson, Thomas; Dishaw, Adam; Flowers, Kristen; Franco Sevilla, Manuel; Geffert, Paul; George, Christopher; Golf, Frank; Gouskos, Loukas; Incandela, Joe; Justus, Christopher; Mccoll, Nickolas; Richman, Jeffrey; Stuart, David; To, Wing; West, Christopher; Yoo, Jaehyeok; Apresyan, Artur; Bornheim, Adolf; Bunn, Julian; Chen, Yi; Duarte, Javier; Mott, Alexander; Newman, Harvey B; Pena, Cristian; Rogan, Christopher; Spiropulu, Maria; Timciuc, Vladlen; Wilkinson, Richard; Xie, Si; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Azzolini, Virginia; Calamba, Aristotle; Carlson, Benjamin; Ferguson, Thomas; Iiyama, Yutaro; Paulini, Manfred; Russ, James; Vogel, Helmut; Vorobiev, Igor; Cumalat, John Perry; Ford, William T; Gaz, Alessandro; Luiggi Lopez, Eduardo; Nauenberg, Uriel; Smith, James; Stenson, Kevin; Ulmer, Keith; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Alexander, James; Chatterjee, Avishek; Chu, Jennifer; Dittmer, Susan; Eggert, Nicholas; Mirman, Nathan; Nicolas Kaufman, Gala; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Ryd, Anders; Salvati, Emmanuele; Skinnari, Louise; Sun, Werner; Teo, Wee Don; Thom, Julia; Thompson, Joshua; Tucker, Jordan; Weng, Yao; Winstrom, Lucas; Wittich, Peter; Winn, Dave; Abdullin, Salavat; Albrow, Michael; Anderson, Jacob; Apollinari, Giorgio; Bauerdick, Lothar AT; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C; Bolla, Gino; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Cihangir, Selcuk; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Fisk, Ian; Freeman, Jim; Gao, Yanyan; Gottschalk, Erik; Gray, Lindsey; Green, Dan; Grünendahl, Stefan; Gutsche, Oliver; Hanlon, Jim; Hare, Daryl; Harris, Robert M; Hirschauer, James; Hooberman, Benjamin; Jindariani, Sergo; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Kaadze, Ketino; Klima, Boaz; Kreis, Benjamin; Kwan, Simon; Linacre, Jacob; Lincoln, Don; Lipton, Ron; Liu, Tiehui; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Marraffino, John Michael; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena Ingrid; Maruyama, Sho; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; Merkel, Petra; Mishra, Kalanand; Mrenna, Stephen; Musienko, Yuri; Nahn, Steve; Newman-Holmes, Catherine; O'Dell, Vivian; Prokofyev, Oleg; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Sharma, Seema; Soha, Aron; Spalding, William J; Spiegel, Leonard; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Tran, Nhan Viet; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vidal, Richard; Whitbeck, Andrew; Whitmore, Juliana; Yang, Fan; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bortignon, Pierluigi; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Carver, Matthew; Cheng, Tongguang; Curry, David; Das, Souvik; De Gruttola, Michele; Di Giovanni, Gian Piero; Field, Richard D; Fisher, Matthew; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Hugon, Justin; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Kypreos, Theodore; Low, Jia Fu; Matchev, Konstantin; Milenovic, Predrag; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Muniz, Lana; Rinkevicius, Aurelijus; Shchutska, Lesya; Snowball, Matthew; Sperka, David; Yelton, John; Zakaria, Mohammed; Hewamanage, Samantha; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Martinez, German; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Bochenek, Joseph; Diamond, Brendan; Haas, Jeff; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Johnson, Kurtis F; Prosper, Harrison; Veeraraghavan, Venkatesh; Weinberg, Marc; Baarmand, Marc M; Hohlmann, Marcus; Kalakhety, Himali; Yumiceva, Francisco; Adams, Mark Raymond; Apanasevich, Leonard; Bazterra, Victor Eduardo; Berry, Douglas; Betts, Russell Richard; Bucinskaite, Inga; Cavanaugh, Richard; Evdokimov, Olga; Gauthier, Lucie; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hofman, David Jonathan; Khalatyan, Samvel; Kurt, Pelin; Moon, Dong Ho; O'Brien, Christine; Silkworth, Christopher; Turner, Paul; Varelas, Nikos; Albayrak, Elif Asli; Bilki, Burak; Clarida, Warren; Dilsiz, Kamuran; Duru, Firdevs; Haytmyradov, Maksat; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Ogul, Hasan; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Penzo, Aldo; Rahmat, Rahmat; Sen, Sercan; Tan, Ping; Tiras, Emrah; Wetzel, James; Yetkin, Taylan; Yi, Kai; Barnett, Bruce Arnold; Blumenfeld, Barry; Bolognesi, Sara; Fehling, David; Gritsan, Andrei; Maksimovic, Petar; Martin, Christopher; Swartz, Morris; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Benelli, Gabriele; Bruner, Christopher; Kenny III, Raymond Patrick; Malek, Magdalena; Murray, Michael; Noonan, Daniel; Sanders, Stephen; Sekaric, Jadranka; Stringer, Robert; Wang, Quan; Wood, Jeffrey Scott; Barfuss, Anne-Fleur; Chakaberia, Irakli; Ivanov, Andrew; Khalil, Sadia; Makouski, Mikhail; Maravin, Yurii; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Shrestha, Shruti; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Svintradze, Irakli; Gronberg, Jeffrey; Lange, David; Rebassoo, Finn; Wright, Douglas; Baden, Drew; Belloni, Alberto; Calvert, Brian; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Gomez, Jaime; Hadley, Nicholas John; Kellogg, Richard G; Kolberg, Ted; Lu, Ying; Marionneau, Matthieu; Mignerey, Alice; Pedro, Kevin; Skuja, Andris; Tonjes, Marguerite; Tonwar, Suresh C; Apyan, Aram; Barbieri, Richard; Bauer, Gerry; Busza, Wit; Cali, Ivan Amos; Chan, Matthew; Di Matteo, Leonardo; Dutta, Valentina; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Gulhan, Doga; Klute, Markus; Lai, Yue Shi; Lee, Yen-Jie; Levin, Andrew; Luckey, Paul David; Ma, Teng; Paus, Christoph; Ralph, Duncan; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Stephans, George; Stöckli, Fabian; Sumorok, Konstanty; Velicanu, Dragos; Veverka, Jan; Wyslouch, Bolek; Yang, Mingming; Zanetti, Marco; Zhukova, Victoria; Dahmes, Bryan; Gude, Alexander; Kao, Shih-Chuan; Klapoetke, Kevin; Kubota, Yuichi; Mans, Jeremy; Pastika, Nathaniel; Rusack, Roger; Singovsky, Alexander; Tambe, Norbert; Turkewitz, Jared; Acosta, John Gabriel; Oliveros, Sandra; Avdeeva, Ekaterina; Bloom, Kenneth; Bose, Suvadeep; Claes, Daniel R; Dominguez, Aaron; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Keller, Jason; Knowlton, Dan; Kravchenko, Ilya; Lazo-Flores, Jose; Malik, Sudhir; Meier, Frank; Snow, Gregory R; Zvada, Marian; Dolen, James; Godshalk, Andrew; Iashvili, Ia; Kharchilava, Avto; Kumar, Ashish; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Baumgartel, Darin; Chasco, Matthew; Haley, Joseph; Massironi, Andrea; Morse, David Michael; Nash, David; Orimoto, Toyoko; Trocino, Daniele; Wang, Ren-Jie; Wood, Darien; Zhang, Jinzhong; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Kubik, Andrew; Mucia, Nicholas; Odell, Nathaniel; Pollack, Brian; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Schmitt, Michael Henry; Stoynev, Stoyan; Sung, Kevin; Velasco, Mayda; Won, Steven; Brinkerhoff, Andrew; Chan, Kwok Ming; Drozdetskiy, Alexey; Hildreth, Michael; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kellams, Nathan; Lannon, Kevin; Luo, Wuming; Lynch, Sean; Marinelli, Nancy; Pearson, Tessa; Planer, Michael; Ruchti, Randy; Valls, Nil; Wayne, Mitchell; Wolf, Matthias; Woodard, Anna; Antonelli, Louis; Brinson, Jessica; Bylsma, Ben; Durkin, Lloyd Stanley; Flowers, Sean; Hill, Christopher; Hughes, Richard; Kotov, Khristian; Ling, Ta-Yung; Puigh, Darren; Rodenburg, Marissa; Smith, Geoffrey; Winer, Brian L; Wolfe, Homer; Wulsin, Howard Wells; Driga, Olga; Elmer, Peter; Hebda, Philip; Hunt, Adam; Koay, Sue Ann; Lujan, Paul; Marlow, Daniel; Medvedeva, Tatiana; Mooney, Michael; Olsen, James; Piroué, Pierre; Quan, Xiaohang; Saka, Halil; Stickland, David; Tully, Christopher; Werner, Jeremy Scott; Zuranski, Andrzej; Brownson, Eric; Mendez, Hector; Ramirez Vargas, Juan Eduardo; Barnes, Virgil E; Benedetti, Daniele; Bortoletto, Daniela; De Mattia, Marco; Gutay, Laszlo; Hu, Zhen; Jha, Manoj; Jones, Matthew; Jung, Kurt; Kress, Matthew; Leonardo, Nuno; Lopes Pegna, David; Maroussov, Vassili; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Shi, Xin; Shipsey, Ian; Silvers, David; Svyatkovskiy, Alexey; Wang, Fuqiang; Xie, Wei; Xu, Lingshan; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Zablocki, Jakub; Zheng, Yu; Parashar, Neeti; Stupak, John; Adair, Antony; Akgun, Bora; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Geurts, Frank JM; Li, Wei; Michlin, Benjamin; Padley, Brian Paul; Redjimi, Radia; Roberts, Jay; Zabel, James; Betchart, Burton; Bodek, Arie; Covarelli, Roberto; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Eshaq, Yossof; Ferbel, Thomas; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Goldenzweig, Pablo; Han, Jiyeon; Harel, Amnon; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Petrillo, Gianluca; Vishnevskiy, Dmitry; Ciesielski, Robert; Demortier, Luc; Goulianos, Konstantin; Lungu, Gheorghe; Mesropian, Christina; Arora, Sanjay; Barker, Anthony; Chou, John Paul; Contreras-Campana, Christian; Contreras-Campana, Emmanuel; Duggan, Daniel; Ferencek, Dinko; Gershtein, Yuri; Gray, Richard; Halkiadakis, Eva; Hidas, Dean; Kaplan, Steven; Lath, Amitabh; Panwalkar, Shruti; Park, Michael; Patel, Rishi; Salur, Sevil; Schnetzer, Steve; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Thomassen, Peter; Walker, Matthew; Rose, Keith; Spanier, Stefan; York, Andrew; Bouhali, Othmane; Castaneda Hernandez, Alfredo; Eusebi, Ricardo; Flanagan, Will; Gilmore, Jason; Kamon, Teruki; Khotilovich, Vadim; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Montalvo, Roy; Osipenkov, Ilya; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Perloff, Alexx; Roe, Jeffrey; Rose, Anthony; Safonov, Alexei; Sakuma, Tai; Suarez, Indara; Tatarinov, Aysen; Akchurin, Nural; Cowden, Christopher; Damgov, Jordan; Dragoiu, Cosmin; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Faulkner, James; Kovitanggoon, Kittikul; Kunori, Shuichi; Lee, Sung Won; Libeiro, Terence; Volobouev, Igor; Appelt, Eric; Delannoy, Andrés G; Greene, Senta; Gurrola, Alfredo; Johns, Willard; Maguire, Charles; Mao, Yaxian; Melo, Andrew; Sharma, Monika; Sheldon, Paul; Snook, Benjamin; Tuo, Shengquan; Velkovska, Julia; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Boutle, Sarah; Cox, Bradley; Francis, Brian; Goodell, Joseph; Hirosky, Robert; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Li, Hengne; Lin, Chuanzhe; Neu, Christopher; Wood, John; Clarke, Christopher; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, Chamath; Lamichhane, Pramod; Sturdy, Jared; Belknap, Donald; Carlsmith, Duncan; Cepeda, Maria; Dasu, Sridhara; Dodd, Laura; Duric, Senka; Friis, Evan; Hall-Wilton, Richard; Herndon, Matthew; Hervé, Alain; Klabbers, Pamela; Lanaro, Armando; Lazaridis, Christos; Levine, Aaron; Loveless, Richard; Mohapatra, Ajit; Ojalvo, Isabel; Perry, Thomas; Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Polese, Giovanni; Ross, Ian; Sarangi, Tapas; Savin, Alexander; Smith, Wesley H; Taylor, Devin; Verwilligen, Piet; Vuosalo, Carl; Woods, Nathaniel

    2015-03-06

    Measurements of two-particle angular correlations between an identified strange hadron (${\\rm K}^0_{\\rm S}$ or $\\Lambda$/$\\overline{\\Lambda}$) and a charged particle, emitted in pPb collisions, are presented over a wide range in pseudorapidity and full azimuth. The data, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of approximately 35 nb$^{-1}$, were collected at a nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass energy ($\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$) of 5.02 TeV with the CMS detector at the LHC. The results are compared to semi-peripheral PbPb collision data at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 2.76 TeV, covering similar charged-particle multiplicities in the events. The observed azimuthal correlations at large relative pseudorapidity are used to extract the second-order ($v_2$) and third-order ($v_3$) anisotropy harmonics of ${\\rm K}^0_{\\rm S}$ and $\\Lambda$/$\\overline{\\Lambda}$ particles. These quantities are studied as a function of the charged-particle multiplicity in the event and the transverse momentum of the particles. For high-multiplicity pPb event...

  17. Band structure engineering in topological insulator based heterostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menshchikova, T V; Otrokov, M M; Tsirkin, S S; Samorokov, D A; Bebneva, V V; Ernst, A; Kuznetsov, V M; Chulkov, E V

    2013-01-01

    The ability to engineer an electronic band structure of topological insulators would allow the production of topological materials with tailor-made properties. Using ab initio calculations, we show a promising way to control the conducting surface state in topological insulator based heterostructures representing an insulator ultrathin films on the topological insulator substrates. Because of a specific relation between work functions and band gaps of the topological insulator substrate and the insulator ultrathin film overlayer, a sizable shift of the Dirac point occurs resulting in a significant increase in the number of the topological surface state charge carriers as compared to that of the substrate itself. Such an effect can also be realized by applying the external electric field that allows a gradual tuning of the topological surface state. A simultaneous use of both approaches makes it possible to obtain a topological insulator based heterostructure with a highly tunable topological surface state.

  18. Charged-particle multiplicity distributions over a wide pseudorapidity range in proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 0.9, 7 and 8 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Acharya, S.; The ALICE collaboration; Adolfsson, J.; Aggarwal, M.M.; Aglieri Rinella, G.; Agnello, M.; Agrawal, N.; Ahammed, Z.; Ahmad, N.; Ahn, S.U.; Aiola, S.; Akindinov, A.; Alam, S.N.; Alba, J.L.B.; Albuquerque, D.S.D.; Aleksandrov, D.; Alessandro, B.; Alfaro Molina, R.; Alici, A.; Alkin, A.; Alme, J.; Alt, T.; Altenkamper, L.; Altsybeev, I.; Alves Garcia Prado, C.; An, M.; Andrei, C.; Andreou, D.; Andrews, H.A.; Andronic, A.; Anguelov, V.; Anson, C.; Antičić, T.; Antinori, F.; Antonioli, P.; Anwar, R.; Aphecetche, L.; Appelshäuser, H.; Arcelli, S.; Arnaldi, R.; Arnold, O.W.; Arsene, I.C.; Arslandok, M.; Audurier, B.; Augustinus, A.; Averbeck, R.; Azmi, M.D.; Badalà, A.; Baek, Y.W.; Bagnasco, S.; Bailhache, R.; Bala, R.; Baldisseri, A.; Ball, M.; Baral, R.C.; Barbano, A.M.; Barbera, R.; Barile, F.; Barioglio, L.; Barnaföldi, G.G.; Barnby, L.S.; Barret, V.; Bartalini, P.; Barth, K.; Bartsch, E.; Basile, M.; Bastid, N.; Basu, S.; Bathen, B.; Batigne, G.; Batista Camejo, A.; Batyunya, B.; Batzing, P.C.; Bearden, I.G.; Beck, H.; Bedda, C.; Behera, N.K.; Belikov, I.; Bellini, F.; Bello Martinez, H.; Bellwied, R.; Beltran, L.G.E.; Belyaev, V.; Bencedi, G.; Beole, S.; Bercuci, A.; Berdnikov, Y.; Berenyi, D.; Bertens, R.A.; Berzano, D.; Betev, L.; Bhasin, A.; Bhat, I.R.; Bhati, A.K.; Bhattacharjee, B.; Bhom, J.; Bianchi, L.; Bianchi, N.; Bianchin, C.; Bielčík, J.; Bielčíková, J.; Bilandzic, A.; Biswas, R.; Biswas, S.; Blair, J.T.; Blau, D.; Blume, C.; Boca, G.; Bock, F.; Bogdanov, A.; Boldizsár, L.; Bombara, M.; Bonomi, G.; Bonora, M.; Book, J.; Borel, H.; Borissov, A.; Borri, M.; Botta, E.; Bourjau, C.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Bregant, M.; Broker, T.A.; Browning, T.A.; Broz, M.; Brucken, E.J.; Bruna, E.; Bruno, G.E.; Budnikov, D.; Buesching, H.; Bufalino, S.; Buhler, P.; Buncic, P.; Busch, O.; Buthelezi, Z.; Butt, J.B.; Buxton, J.T.; Cabala, J.; Caffarri, D.; Caines, H.; Caliva, A.; Calvo Villar, E.; Camerini, P.; Capon, A.A.; Carena, F.; Carena, W.; Carnesecchi, F.; Castillo Castellanos, J.; Castro, A.J.; Casula, E.A.R.; Ceballos Sanchez, C.; Cerello, P.; Chandra, S.; Chang, B.; Chapeland, S.; Chartier, M.; Charvet, J.L.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chauvin, A.; Cherney, M.; Cheshkov, C.; Cheynis, B.; Chibante Barroso, V.; Chinellato, D.D.; Cho, S.; Chochula, P.; Choi, K.; Chojnacki, M.; Choudhury, S.; Chowdhury, T.; Christakoglou, P.; Christensen, C.H.; Christiansen, P.; Chujo, T.; Chung, S.U.; Cicalo, C.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Cleymans, J.; Colamaria, F.; Colella, D.; Collu, A.; Colocci, M.; Concas$^{59}$, M.; Conesa Balbastre, G.; Conesa del Valle, Z.; Connors$^{143}$, M.E.; Contreras, J.G.; Cormier, T.M.; Corrales Morales, Y.; Cortés Maldonado, I.; Cortese, P.; Cosentino, M.R.; Costa, F.; Costanza, S.; Crkovská, J.; Crochet, P.; Cuautle, E.; Cunqueiro, L.; Dahms, T.; Dainese, A.; Danisch, M.C.; Danu, A.; Das, D.; Das, I.; Das, S.; Dash, A.; Dash, S.; De, S.; De Caro, A.; de Cataldo, G.; de Conti, C.; de Cuveland, J.; De Falco, A.; De Gruttola, D.; De Marco, N.; De Pasquale, S.; De Souza, R.D.; Degenhardt, H.F.; Deisting, A.; Deloff, A.; Deplano, C.; Dhankher, P.; Di Bari, D.; Di Mauro, A.; Di Nezza, P.; Di Ruzza, B.; Diakonov, I.; Diaz Corchero, M.A.; Dietel, T.; Dillenseger, P.; Divià, R.; Djuvsland, O.; Dobrin, A.; Domenicis Gimenez, D.; Dönigus, B.; Dordic, O.; Doremalen, L.V.V.; Drozhzhova, T.; Dubey, A.K.; Dubla, A.; Ducroux, L.; Duggal, A.K.; Dupieux, P.; Ehlers, R.J.; Elia, D.; Endress, E.; Engel, H.; Epple, E.; Erazmus, B.; Erhardt, F.; Espagnon, B.; Esumi, S.; Eulisse, G.; Eum, J.; Evans, D.; Evdokimov, S.; Fabbietti, L.; Faivre, J.; Fantoni, A.; Fasel, M.; Feldkamp, L.; Feliciello, A.; Feofilov, G.; Ferencei, J.; Fernández Téllez, A.; Ferreiro, E.G.; Ferretti, A.; Festanti, A.; Feuillard, V.J.G.; Figiel, J.; Figueredo, M.A.S.; Filchagin, S.; Finogeev, D.; Fionda, F.M.; Fiore, E.M.; Floris, M.; Foertsch, S.; Foka, P.; Fokin, S.; Fragiacomo, E.; Francescon, A.; Francisco, A.; Frankenfeld, U.; Fronze, G.G.; Fuchs, U.; Furget, C.; Furs, A.; 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Kim, J.; Kim, M.; Kim, M.; Kim, S.; Kim, T.; Kirsch, S.; Kisel, I.; Kiselev, S.; Kisiel, A.; Kiss, G.; Klay, J.L.; Klein, C.; Klein, J.; Klein-Bösing, C.; Klewin, S.; Kluge, A.; Knichel, M.L.; Knospe, A.G.; Kobdaj, C.; Kofarago, M.; Kollegger, T.; Kolojvari, A.; Kondratiev, V.; Kondratyeva, N.; Kondratyuk, E.; Konevskikh, A.; Konyushikhin, M.; Kopcik, M.; Kour, M.; Kouzinopoulos, C.; Kovalenko, O.; Kovalenko, V.; Kowalski, M.; Koyithatta Meethaleveedu, G.; Králik, I.; Kravčáková, A.; Krivda, M.; Krizek, F.; Kryshen, E.; Krzewicki, M.; Kubera, A.M.; Kučera, V.; Kuhn, C.; Kuijer, P.G.; Kumar, A.; Kumar, J.; Kumar, L.; Kumar, S.; Kundu, S.; Kurashvili, P.; Kurepin, A.; Kurepin, A.B.; Kuryakin, A.; Kushpil, S.; Kweon, M.J.; Kwon, Y.; La Pointe, S.L.; La Rocca, P.; Lagana Fernandes, C.; Lai, Y.S.; Lakomov, I.; Langoy, R.; Lapidus, K.; Lara, C.; Lardeux, A.; Lattuca, A.; Laudi, E.; Lavicka, R.; Lazaridis, L.; Lea, R.; Leardini, L.; Lee, S.; Lehas, F.; Lehner, S.; Lehrbach, J.; Lemmon, R.C.; 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Meninno, E.; Mercado Pérez, J.; Meres, M.; Mhlanga, S.; Miake, Y.; Mieskolainen, M.M.; Mihaylov, D.; Mihaylov, D.L.; Mikhaylov, K.; Milano, L.; Milosevic, J.; Mischke, A.; Mishra, A.N.; Miśkowiec, D.; Mitra, J.; Mitu, C.M.; Mohammadi, N.; Mohanty, B.; Mohisin Khan$^{17}$, M.; Montes, E.; Moreira De Godoy, D.A.; Moreno, L.A.P.; Moretto, S.; Morreale, A.; Morsch, A.; Muccifora, V.; Mudnic, E.; Mühlheim, D.; Muhuri, S.; Mukherjee, M.; Mulligan, J.D.; Munhoz, M.G.; Münning, K.; Munzer, R.H.; Murakami, H.; Murray, S.; Musa, L.; Musinsky, J.; Myers, C.J.; Myrcha, J.W.; Naik, B.; Nair, R.; Nandi, B.K.; Nania, R.; Nappi, E.; Narayan, A.; Naru, M.U.; Natal da Luz, H.; Nattrass, C.; Navarro, S.R.; Nayak, K.; Nayak, R.; Nayak, T.K.; Nazarenko, S.; Nedosekin, A.; Negrao De Oliveira, R.A.; Nellen, L.; Nesbo, S.V.; Ng, F.; Nicassio, M.; Niculescu, M.; Niedziela, J.; Nielsen, B.S.; Nikolaev, S.; Nikulin, S.; Nikulin, V.; Nobuhiro, A.; Noferini, F.; Nomokonov, P.; Nooren, G.; Noris, J.C.C.; Norman, J.; Nyanin, A.; Nystrand, J.; Oeschler, H.; Oh, S.; Ohlson, A.; Okubo, T.; Olah, L.; Oleniacz, J.; Oliveira Da Silva, A.C.; Oliver, M.H.; Onderwaater, J.; Oppedisano, C.; Orava, R.; Oravec, M.; Ortiz Velasquez, A.; Oskarsson, A.; Otwinowski, J.; Oyama, K.; Pachmayer, Y.; Pacik, V.; Pagano, D.; Pagano, P.; Paić, G.; Palni, P.; Pan, J.; Pandey, A.K.; Panebianco, S.; Papikyan, V.; Pappalardo, G.S.; Pareek, P.; Park, J.; Parmar, S.; Passfeld, A.; Pathak, S.P.; Paticchio, V.; Patra, R.N.; Paul, B.; Pei, H.; Peitzmann, T.; Peng, X.; Pereira, L.G.; Pereira Da Costa, H.; Peresunko, D.; Perez Lezama, E.; Peskov, V.; Pestov, Y.; Petráček, V.; Petrov, V.; Petrovici, M.; Petta, C.; Pezzi, R.P.; Piano, S.; Pikna, M.; Pillot, P.; Pimentel, L.O.D.L.; Pinazza, O.; Pinsky, L.; Piyarathna, D.B.; Pł oskoń, M.; Planinic, M.; Pliquett, F.; Pluta, J.; Pochybova, S.; Podesta-Lerma, P.L.M.; Poghosyan, M.G.; Polichtchouk, B.; Poljak, N.; Poonsawat, W.; Pop, A.; Poppenborg, H.; Porteboeuf-Houssais, S.; Porter, J.; Pozdniakov, V.; Prasad, S.K.; Preghenella, R.; Prino, F.; Pruneau, C.A.; Pshenichnov, I.; Puccio, M.; Puddu, G.; Pujahari, P.; Punin, V.; Putschke, J.; Rachevski, A.; Raha, S.; Rajput, S.; Rak, J.; Rakotozafindrabe, A.; Ramello, L.; Rami, F.; Rana, D.B.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Räsänen, S.S.; Rascanu, B.T.; Rathee, D.; Ratza, V.; Ravasenga, I.; Read, K.F.; Redlich$^{88}$, K.; Rehman, A.; Reichelt, P.; Reidt, F.; Ren, X.; Renfordt, R.; Reolon, A.R.; Reshetin, A.; Reygers, K.; Riabov, V.; Ricci, R.A.; Richert, T.; Richter, M.; Riedler, P.; Riegler, W.; Riggi, F.; Ristea, C.; Rodríguez Cahuantzi, M.; Røed, K.; Rogochaya, E.; Rohr, D.; Röhrich, D.; Rokita, P.S.; Ronchetti, F.; Rosnet, P.; Rossi, A.; Rotondi, A.; Roukoutakis, F.; Roy, A.; Roy, C.; Roy, P.; Rubio Montero, A.J.; Rueda, O.V.; Rui, R.; Russo, R.; Rustamov, A.; Ryabinkin, E.; Ryabov, Y.; Rybicki, A.; Saarinen, S.; Sadhu, S.; Sadovsky, S.; Šafařík, K.; Saha, S.K.; Sahlmuller, B.; Sahoo, B.; Sahoo, P.; Sahoo, R.; Sahoo, S.; Sahu, P.K.; Saini, J.; Sakai, S.; Saleh, M.A.; Salzwedel, J.; Sambyal, S.; Samsonov, V.; Sandoval, A.; Sarkar, D.; Sarkar, N.; Sarma, P.; Sas, M.H.P.; Scapparone, E.; Scarlassara, F.; Scharenberg, R.P.; Scheid, H.S.; Schiaua, C.; Schicker, R.; Schmidt, C.; Schmidt, H.R.; Schmidt, M.O.; Schmidt, M.; Schuchmann, S.; Schukraft, J.; Schutz, Y.; Schwarz, K.; Schweda, K.; Scioli, G.; Scomparin, E.; Scott, R.; Šefčík, M.; Seger, J.E.; Sekiguchi, Y.; Sekihata, D.; Selyuzhenkov, I.; Senosi, K.; Senyukov, S.; Serradilla, E.; Sett, P.; Sevcenco, A.; Shabanov, A.; Shabetai, A.; Shahoyan, R.; Shaikh, W.; Shangaraev, A.; Sharma, A.; Sharma, A.; Sharma, M.; Sharma, N.; Sheikh, A.I.; Shigaki, K.; Shou, Q.; Shtejer, K.; Sibiriak, Y.; Siddhanta, S.; Sielewicz, K.M.; Siemiarczuk, T.; Silvermyr, D.; Silvestre, C.; Simatovic, G.; Simonetti, G.; Singaraju, R.; Singh, R.; Singhal, V.; Sinha, T.; Sitar, B.; Sitta, M.; Skaali, T.B.; Slupecki, M.; Smirnov, N.; Snellings, R.J.M.; Snellman, T.W.; Song, J.; Song, M.; Soramel, F.; 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Zhao, C.; Zhigareva, N.; Zhou, D.; Zhou, Y.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, X.; Zichichi, A.; Zimmermann, A.; Zimmermann, M.B.; Zinovjev, G.; Zmeskal, J.; Zou, S.

    2017-01-01

    We present the charged-particle multiplicity distributions over a wide pseudorapidity range (−3.4 < $\\eta$ < 5.0) for pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 0.9, 7, and 8 TeV at the LHC. Results are based on information from the Silicon Pixel Detector and the Forward Multiplicity Detector of ALICE, extending the pseudorapidity coverage of the earlier publications and the high- multiplicity reach. The measurements are compared to results from the CMS experiment and to PYTHIA, PHOJET and EPOS LHC event generators, as well as IP-Glasma calcula- tions.

  19. Rendering the Topological Spines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieves-Rivera, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-05-05

    Many tools to analyze and represent high dimensional data already exits yet most of them are not flexible, informative and intuitive enough to help the scientists make the corresponding analysis and predictions, understand the structure and complexity of scientific data, get a complete picture of it and explore a greater number of hypotheses. With this in mind, N-Dimensional Data Analysis and Visualization (ND²AV) is being developed to serve as an interactive visual analysis platform with the purpose of coupling together a number of these existing tools that range from statistics, machine learning, and data mining, with new techniques, in particular with new visualization approaches. My task is to create the rendering and implementation of a new concept called topological spines in order to extend ND²AV's scope. Other existing visualization tools create a representation preserving either the topological properties or the structural (geometric) ones because it is challenging to preserve them both simultaneously. Overcoming such challenge by creating a balance in between them, the topological spines are introduced as a new approach that aims to preserve them both. Its render using OpenGL and C++ and is currently being tested to further on be implemented on ND²AV. In this paper I will present what are the Topological Spines and how they are rendered.

  20. Entanglement entropy for nonzero genus topologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S. Santhosh; Ghosh, Suman; Shankaranarayanan, S.

    2014-03-01

    Over the last three decades, entanglement entropy has been obtained for quantum fields propagating in Genus-0 topologies (spheres). For scalar fields propagating in these topologies, it has been shown that the entanglement entropy scales as area. In the last few years, nontrivial topologies are increasingly relevant for different areas. For instance, in describing quantum phases, it has been realized that long-range entangled states are described by topological order. If quantum entanglement can plausibly provide explanation for these, it is then imperative to obtain entanglement entropy in these topologies. In this work, using two different methods, we explicitly show that the entanglement entropy scales as area of the Genus-1 geometry.

  1. Opportunities in chemistry and materials science for topological insulators and their nanostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Kong, Desheng

    2011-10-24

    Electrical charges on the boundaries of topological insulators favour forward motion over back-scattering at impurities, producing low-dissipation, metallic states that exist up to room temperature in ambient conditions. These states have the promise to impact a broad range of applications from electronics to the production of energy, which is one reason why topological insulators have become the rising star in condensed-matter physics. There are many challenges in the processing of these exotic materials to use the metallic states in functional devices, and they present great opportunities for the chemistry and materials science research communities. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  2. Differential topology

    CERN Document Server

    Guillemin, Victor

    2010-01-01

    Differential Topology provides an elementary and intuitive introduction to the study of smooth manifolds. In the years since its first publication, Guillemin and Pollack's book has become a standard text on the subject. It is a jewel of mathematical exposition, judiciously picking exactly the right mixture of detail and generality to display the richness within. The text is mostly self-contained, requiring only undergraduate analysis and linear algebra. By relying on a unifying idea-transversality-the authors are able to avoid the use of big machinery or ad hoc techniques to establish the main

  3. Charged-Particle Multiplicity Distributions over Wide Pseudorapidity Range in Proton-Proton and Proton-Lead Collisions with ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Zaccolo, Valentina

    The charged–particle distribution ( P ( N ch ) as a function of N ch ), produced in high energy collisions between protons ( pp ) and between protons and heavy nucleus ( pPb ), depends on the fundamental processes, which lead to the for- mation of the observed particles. In particular, the so–called multiplicity dis- tribution is sensitive to the number of collisions between quarks and gluons contained in the colliding systems. In this thesis, data using the Forward Multiplicity Detector and the Sil- icon Pixel Detector of ALICE at CERN’s Large Hadron Collider (LHC) are presented, for pp and pPb collisions. For the first time the multiplicity distri- butions are performed over such a wide kinematic range at the LHC (pseu- dorapidity coverage of 3 : 4 < < +5 : 1 ) and at the highest energies ever, i.e. all available energies at the LHC’s first run: at p s = 0.9, 2.76, 7 and 8 TeV for pp collisions and at p s = 5.02 TeV for pPb and Pbp collisions. The results are compared, where possible, with th...

  4. Differential topology

    CERN Document Server

    Margalef-Roig, J

    1992-01-01

    ...there are reasons enough to warrant a coherent treatment of the main body of differential topology in the realm of Banach manifolds, which is at the same time correct and complete. This book fills the gap: whenever possible the manifolds treated are Banach manifolds with corners. Corners add to the complications and the authors have carefully fathomed the validity of all main results at corners. Even in finite dimensions some results at corners are more complete and better thought out here than elsewhere in the literature. The proofs are correct and with all details. I see this book as a reliable monograph of a well-defined subject; the possibility to fall back to it adds to the feeling of security when climbing in the more dangerous realms of infinite dimensional differential geometry. Peter W. Michor

  5. Comprehensible Presentation of Topological Information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Gunther H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Beketayev, Kenes [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Bremer, Peer-Timo [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hamann, Bernd [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Haranczyk, Maciej [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hlawitschka, Mario [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Pascucci, Valerio [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-03-05

    Topological information has proven very valuable in the analysis of scientific data. An important challenge that remains is presenting this highly abstract information in a way that it is comprehensible even if one does not have an in-depth background in topology. Furthermore, it is often desirable to combine the structural insight gained by topological analysis with complementary information, such as geometric information. We present an overview over methods that use metaphors to make topological information more accessible to non-expert users, and we demonstrate their applicability to a range of scientific data sets. With the increasingly complex output of exascale simulations, the importance of having effective means of providing a comprehensible, abstract overview over data will grow. The techniques that we present will serve as an important foundation for this purpose.

  6. Design and evaluation of wide-range and low-power analog front-end enabling body-implanted devices to monitor charge injection properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Keita; Uno, Shoma; Goto, Tatsuya; Takezawa, Yoshiki; Harashima, Takuya; Morikawa, Takumi; Nishino, Satoru; Kino, Hisashi; Kiyoyama, Koji; Tanaka, Tetsu

    2017-04-01

    For safe electrical stimulation with body-implanted devices, the degradation of stimulus electrodes must be considered because it causes the unexpected electrolysis of water and the destruction of tissues. To monitor the charge injection property (CIP) of stimulus electrodes while these devices are implanted, we have proposed a charge injection monitoring system (CIMS). CIMS can safely read out voltages produced by a biphasic current pulse to a stimulus electrode and CIP is calculated from waveforms of the acquired voltages. In this paper, we describe a wide-range and low-power analog front-end (AFE) for CIMS that has variable gain-frequency characteristics and low-power analog-to-digital (A/D) conversion to adjust to the degradation of stimulus electrodes. The designed AFE was fabricated with 0.18 µm CMOS technology and achieved a valuable gain of 20-60 dB, an upper cutoff frequency of 0.2-10 kHz, and low-power interleaving A/D conversion. In addition, we successfully measured the CIP of stimulus electrodes for body-implanted devices using CIMS.

  7. Switching chiral solitons for algebraic operation of topological quaternary digits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Hwan; Cheon, Sangmo; Yeom, Han Woong

    2017-02-01

    Chiral objects can be found throughout nature; in condensed matter chiral objects are often excited states protected by a system's topology. The use of chiral topological excitations to carry information has been demonstrated, where the information is robust against external perturbations. For instance, reading, writing, and transfer of binary information have been demonstrated with chiral topological excitations in magnetic systems, skyrmions, for spintronic devices. The next step is logic or algebraic operations of such topological bits. Here, we show experimentally the switching between chiral topological excitations or chiral solitons of different chirality in a one-dimensional electronic system with Z4 topological symmetry. We found that a fast-moving achiral soliton merges with chiral solitons to switch their handedness. This can lead to the realization of algebraic operation of Z4 topological charges. Chiral solitons could be a platform for storage and operation of robust topological multi-digit information.

  8. Electron Transport in a Dioxygenase-Ferredoxin Complex: Long Range Charge Coupling between the Rieske and Non-Heme Iron Center.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne K Dawson

    Full Text Available Dioxygenase (dOx utilizes stereospecific oxidation on aromatic molecules; consequently, dOx has potential applications in bioremediation and stereospecific oxidation synthesis. The reactive components of dOx comprise a Rieske structure Cys2[2Fe-2S]His2 and a non-heme reactive oxygen center (ROC. Between the Rieske structure and the ROC, a universally conserved Asp residue appears to bridge the two structures forming a Rieske-Asp-ROC triad, where the Asp is known to be essential for electron transfer processes. The Rieske and ROC share hydrogen bonds with Asp through their His ligands; suggesting an ideal network for electron transfer via the carboxyl side chain of Asp. Associated with the dOx is an itinerant charge carrying protein Ferredoxin (Fdx. Depending on the specific cognate, Fdx may also possess either the Rieske structure or a related structure known as 4-Cys-[2Fe-2S] (4-Cys. In this study, we extensively explore, at different levels of theory, the behavior of the individual components (Rieske and ROC and their interaction together via the Asp using a variety of density function methods, basis sets, and a method known as Generalized Ionic Fragment Approach (GIFA that permits setting up spin configurations manually. We also report results on the 4-Cys structure for comparison. The individual optimized structures are compared with observed spectroscopic data from the Rieske, 4-Cys and ROC structures (where information is available. The separate pieces are then combined together into a large Rieske-Asp-ROC (donor/bridge/acceptor complex to estimate the overall coupling between individual components, based on changes to the partial charges. The results suggest that the partial charges are significantly altered when Asp bridges the Rieske and the ROC; hence, long range coupling through hydrogen bonding effects via the intercalated Asp bridge can drastically affect the partial charge distributions compared to the individual isolated

  9. Description of the Charge Transfer States at the Pentacene/C60 Interface: Combining Range-Separated Hybrid Functionals with the Polarizable Continuum Model

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Zilong

    2016-06-24

    Density functional theory (DFT) approaches based on range-separated hybrid functionals are currently methods of choice for the description of the charge-transfer (CT) states in organic donor/acceptor solar cells. However, these calculations are usually performed on small-size donor/acceptor complexes and as result do not account for electronic polarization effects. Here, using a pentacene/C60 complex as a model system, we discuss the ability of long-range corrected (LCR) hybrid functionals in combination with the polarizable continuum model (PCM) to determine the impact of the solid-state environment on the CT states. The CT energies are found to be insensitive to the interactions with the dielectric medium when a conventional time-dependent DFT/PCM (TDDFT/PCM) approach is used. However, a decrease in the energy of the CT state in the framework of LRC functionals can be obtained by using a smaller range-separated parameter when going from an isolated donor/acceptor complex to the solid-state case.

  10. The topology of architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcussen, Lars

    2003-01-01

    Rummets topologi, Historiens topologi: betragtninger om menneskets orientering til rum - fra hulen over beherskelse af flere akser til det flydende rum.......Rummets topologi, Historiens topologi: betragtninger om menneskets orientering til rum - fra hulen over beherskelse af flere akser til det flydende rum....

  11. Topological Photonics for Continuous Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveirinha, Mario

    Photonic crystals have revolutionized light-based technologies during the last three decades. Notably, it was recently discovered that the light propagation in photonic crystals may depend on some topological characteristics determined by the manner how the light states are mutually entangled. The usual topological classification of photonic crystals explores the fact that these structures are periodic. The periodicity is essential to ensure that the underlying wave vector space is a closed surface with no boundary. In this talk, we prove that it is possible calculate Chern invariants for a wide class of continuous bianisotropic electromagnetic media with no intrinsic periodicity. The nontrivial topology of the relevant continuous materials is linked with the emergence of edge states. Moreover, we will demonstrate that continuous photonic media with the time-reversal symmetry can be topologically characterized by a Z2 integer. This novel classification extends for the first time the theory of electronic topological insulators to a wide range of photonic platforms, and is expected to have an impact in the design of novel photonic systems that enable a topologically protected transport of optical energy. This work is supported in part by Fundacao para a Ciencia e a Tecnologia Grant Number PTDC/EEI-TEL/4543/2014.

  12. Fe2+-Ti4+ vs. Fe2+-Fe3+ charge-transfer and short-range order in single chains of face-sharing octahedra: ellenbergerite and dumortierite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopin, C.; Langer, K.; Khomenko, V.

    2009-04-01

    In zoned pyrope megacrysts from the Dora-Maira UHP terrane, new, dark-violet colour varieties of the hexagonal, high-pressure silicate ellenbergerite extend the range of known Fe contents for this mineral from 0-0.1 to 0-0.4 atom pfu, for Ti contents commonly in the range 0.2-0.4 pfu. The new varieties show an extremely intense pleochroism, colourless for E perpendicular to c to deep Prussian blue for E//c, as compared to colourless to lilac or reddish purple for classical Fe-poor ellenbergerite. These features were the incentive for an electronic absorption spectroscopic study and a reappraisal of the interpretation of the charge transfers (CT), colour and ordering schemes in this group and the structurally related borosilicate dumortierite. Both structures are characterized by the presence of infinite single chains of face-sharing, partly vacant octahedra along the 6-fold screw axis and pseudo-hexad axis, respectively, in which the Fe and Ti atoms are partitioned. In the spectra of Fe-poor ellenbergerite, the presence of a single Fe2+-Ti4+ CT band near 19000 cm˘1 was taken as evidence for complete short-range ordering of Mg(Fe), Ti and vacancies in the octahedral single chain [1]. The E//c spectra of Fe-rich ellenbergerite show the same absorption band near 19000 cm˘1 but consistently flanked by another CT band near 14000 cm˘1 , the intensity of which increases with total Fe content. The latter is similar to the 12400 cm˘1 CT band observed as the single feature in E//c spectra of the isotructural (Ti-free and Fe-bearing) phosphoellenbergerite, and clearly assigned to Fe2+-Fe3+ CT in the octahedral single chain [1]. The same colour pattern occurs in the dumortierite group, with red Fe-poor, Ti-rich crystals showing a single CT band near 20000 cm˘1, blue Ti-poor crystals showing a single CT band near 16500 cm˘1, and violet Fe- and Ti-rich crystals showing a combination of the two bands [2]. In the light of the new data, we reinterpret the dumortierite colour

  13. Topological susceptibility in the SU(3) gauge theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Del Debbio, Luigi; Giusti, Leonardo; Pica, Claudio

    2004-01-01

    We compute the topological susceptibility for the SU(3) Yang--Mills theory by employing the expression of the topological charge density operator suggested by Neuberger's fermions. In the continuum limit we find r_0^4 chi = 0.059(3), which corresponds to chi=(191 +/- 5 MeV)^4 if F_K is used to se...

  14. Topological susceptibility for the SU(3) Yang--Mills theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Del Debbio, Luigi; Giusti, Leonardo; Pica, Claudio

    2004-01-01

    We present the results of a computation of the topological susceptibility in the SU(3) Yang--Mills theory performed by employing the expression of the topological charge density operator suggested by Neuberger's fermions. In the continuum limit we find r_0^4 chi = 0.059(3), which corresponds to c...

  15. Topological field patterns in the Yang–Mills theory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Here, we obtain an expression for the charges of these topological SO(3) gauge field configurations in terms of the Abelian vector potentials. In this formalism we analyse the 't Hooft–Polyakov monopole solution. Keywords. Topological configurations; Yang–Mills theory; monopole. PACS Nos 14.80.Hv; 11.15.-q; 11.15.Tk. 1.

  16. Functionalized 2D-MoS2-Incorporated Polymer Ternary Solar Cells: Role of Nanosheet-Induced Long-Range Ordering of Polymer Chains on Charge Transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Razi; Srivastava, Ritu; Yadav, Sushma; Chand, Suresh; Sapra, Sameer

    2017-10-04

    In this paper, we demonstrated the enhancement in power conversion efficiency (PCE) of solar cells based on poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT)/[6,6]-phenyl C 71 butyric acid methyl ester (PC 71 BM) by incorporation of functionalized 2D-MoS 2 nanosheets (NSs) as an additional charge-transporting material. The enhancement in PCE of ternary solar cells arises due to the synergic enhancement in exciton dissociation and the improvement in mobility of both electrons and holes through the active layer of the solar cells. The improved hole mobility is attributed to the formation of the long-range ordered nanofibrillar structure of polymer phases and improved crystallinity in the presence of 2D-MoS 2 NSs. The improved electron mobility arises due to the highly conducting 2D network of MoS 2 NSs which provides additional electron transport channels within the active layer. The nanosheet-incorporated ternary blend solar cells exhibit 32% enhancement in PCE relative to the binary blend P3HT/PC 71 BM.

  17. Electrically Tunable Magnetism in Magnetic Topological Insulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Lian, Biao; Zhang, Shou-Cheng

    2015-07-17

    The external controllability of the magnetic properties in topological insulators would be important both for fundamental and practical interests. Here we predict the electric-field control of ferromagnetism in a thin film of insulating magnetic topological insulators. The decrease of band inversion by the application of electric fields results in a reduction of magnetic susceptibility, and hence in the modification of magnetism. Remarkably, the electric field could even induce the magnetic quantum phase transition from ferromagnetism to paramagnetism. We further propose a transistor device in which the dissipationless charge transport of chiral edge states is controlled by an electric field. In particular, the field-controlled ferromagnetism in a magnetic topological insulator can be used for voltage based writing of magnetic random access memories in magnetic tunnel junctions. The simultaneous electrical control of magnetic order and chiral edge transport in such devices may lead to electronic and spintronic applications for topological insulators.

  18. Electrically Tunable Magnetism in Magnetic Topological Insulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jing; Lian, Biao; Zhang, Shou-Cheng

    2015-07-14

    The external controllability of the magnetic properties in topological insulators would be important both for fundamental and practical interests. Here we predict the electric-field control of ferromagnetism in a thin film of insulating magnetic topological insulators. The decrease of band inversion by the application of electric fields results in a reduction of magnetic susceptibility, and hence in the modification of magnetism. Remarkably, the electric field could even induce the magnetic quantum phase transition from ferromagnetism to paramagnetism. We further propose a transistor device in which the dissipationless charge transport of chiral edge states is controlled by an electric field. In particular, the field-controlled ferromagnetism in a magnetic topological insulator can be used for voltage based writing of magnetic random access memories in magnetic tunnel junctions. The simultaneous electrical control of magnetic order and chiral edge transport in such devices may lead to electronic and spintronic applications for topological insulators.

  19. A topological derivative method for topology optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norato, J.; Bendsøe, Martin P.; Haber, RB

    2007-01-01

    We propose a fictitious domain method for topology optimization in which a level set of the topological derivative field for the cost function identifies the boundary of the optimal design. We describe a fixed-point iteration scheme that implements this optimality criterion subject to a volumetric...

  20. Nearly flatbands with nontrivial topology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Kai; Gu, Zhengcheng; Katsura, Hosho; Das Sarma, S

    2011-06-10

    We report the theoretical discovery of a class of 2D tight-binding models containing nearly flatbands with nonzero Chern numbers. In contrast with previous studies, where nonlocal hoppings are usually required, the Hamiltonians of our models only require short-range hopping and have the potential to be realized in cold atomic gases. Because of the similarity with 2D continuum Landau levels, these topologically nontrivial nearly flatbands may lead to the realization of fractional anomalous quantum Hall states and fractional topological insulators in real materials. Among the models we discover, the most interesting and practical one is a square-lattice three-band model which has only nearest-neighbor hopping. To understand better the physics underlying the topological flatband aspects, we also present the studies of a minimal two-band model on the checkerboard lattice.

  1. Topologically Protected Complete Polarization Conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yu; Xiao, Meng; Fan, Shanhui

    2017-10-01

    We consider the process of conversion between linear polarizations as light is reflected from a photonic crystal slab. We observe that, over a wide range of frequencies, complete polarization conversion can be found at isolated wave vectors. Moreover, such an effect is topological: the complex reflection coefficients have a nonzero winding number in the wave vector space. We also show that bound states in continuum in this system have their wave vectors lying on the critical coupling curve that defines the condition for complete polarization conversion. Our work points to the use of topological photonics concepts for the control of polarization, and suggests the exploration of topological properties of scattering matrices as a route towards creating robust optical devices.

  2. Book Review: Computational Topology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raussen, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Computational Topology by Herbert Edelsbrunner and John L. Harer. American Matheamtical Society, 2010 - ISBN 978-0-8218-4925-5......Computational Topology by Herbert Edelsbrunner and John L. Harer. American Matheamtical Society, 2010 - ISBN 978-0-8218-4925-5...

  3. Topological Invariant and Quantum Spin Models from Magnetic π Fluxes in Correlated Topological Insulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. F. Assaad

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The adiabatic insertion of a π flux into a quantum spin Hall insulator gives rise to localized spin and charge fluxon states. We demonstrate that π fluxes can be used in exact quantum Monte Carlo simulations to identify a correlated Z_{2} topological insulator using the example of the Kane-Mele-Hubbard model. In the presence of repulsive interactions, a π flux gives rise to a Kramers doublet of spin-fluxon states with a Curie-law signature in the magnetic susceptibility. Electronic correlations also provide a bosonic mode of magnetic excitons with tunable energy that act as exchange particles and mediate a dynamical interaction of adjustable range and strength between spin fluxons. π fluxes can therefore be used to build models of interacting spins. This idea is applied to a three-spin ring and to one-dimensional spin chains. Because of the freedom to create almost arbitrary spin lattices, correlated topological insulators with π fluxes represent a novel kind of quantum simulator, potentially useful for numerical simulations and experiments.

  4. Regulation of multispanning membrane protein topology via post-translational annealing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Lehn, Reid C; Zhang, Bin; Miller, Thomas F

    2015-09-26

    The canonical mechanism for multispanning membrane protein topogenesis suggests that protein topology is established during cotranslational membrane integration. However, this mechanism is inconsistent with the behavior of EmrE, a dual-topology protein for which the mutation of positively charged loop residues, even close to the C-terminus, leads to dramatic shifts in its topology. We use coarse-grained simulations to investigate the Sec-facilitated membrane integration of EmrE and its mutants on realistic biological timescales. This work reveals a mechanism for regulating membrane-protein topogenesis, in which initially misintegrated configurations of the proteins undergo post-translational annealing to reach fully integrated multispanning topologies. The energetic barriers associated with this post-translational annealing process enforce kinetic pathways that dictate the topology of the fully integrated proteins. The proposed mechanism agrees well with the experimentally observed features of EmrE topogenesis and provides a range of experimentally testable predictions regarding the effect of translocon mutations on membrane protein topogenesis.

  5. Electrical Double-Layer Capacitors in Hybrid Topologies —Assessment and Evaluation of Their Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joeri Van Mierlo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available PHEVs and BEVs make use of battery cells optimized for high energy rather than for high power. This means that the power abilities of these batteries are limited. In order to enhance their performance, a hybrid Rechargeable Energy Storage System (RESS architecture can be used combining batteries with electrical-double layer capacitors (EDLCs. Such a hybridized architecture can be accomplished using passive or active systems. In this paper, the characteristics of these topologies have been analyzed and compared based on a newly developed hybridization simulation tool for association of lithium-ion batteries and EDLCs. The analysis shows that the beneficial impact of the EDLCs brings about enhanced battery performances in terms of energy efficiency and voltage drops, rather than extension of vehicle range. These issues have been particularly studied for the passive and active hybrid topologies. The classical passive and active topologies being expensive and less beneficial in term of cost, volume and weight, a new hybrid configuration based on the parallel combination of lithium-ion and EDLCs on cell level has been proposed in this article. This topology allows reducing cost, volume, and weight and system complexity in a significant way. Furthermore, a number of experimental setups have illustrated the power of the novel topology in terms of battery capacity increase and power capabilities during charging and discharging. Finally, a unique cycle life test campaign demonstrated that the lifetime of highly optimized lithium-ion batteries can be extended up to 30%–40%.

  6. Symmetric Bombay topology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Di Maio

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The subject of hyperspace topologies on closed or closed and compact subsets of a topological space X began in the early part of the last century with the discoveries of Hausdorff metric and Vietoris hit-and-miss topology. In course of time, several hyperspace topologies were discovered either for solving some problems in Applied or Pure Mathematics or as natural generalizations of the existing ones. Each hyperspace topology can be split into a lower and an upper part. In the upper part the original set inclusion of Vietoris was generalized to proximal set inclusion. Then the topologization of the Wijsman topology led to the upper Bombay topology which involves two proximities. In all these developments the lower topology, involving intersection of finitely many open sets, was generalized to locally finite families but intersection was left unchanged. Recently the authors studied symmetric proximal topology in which proximity was used for the first time in the lower part replacing intersection with its generalization: nearness. In this paper we use two proximities also in the lower part and we obtain the lower Bombay hypertopology. Consequently, a new hypertopology arises in a natural way: the symmetric Bombay topology which is the join of a lower and an upper Bombay topology.

  7. Topology of polymer chains under nanoscale confinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satarifard, Vahid; Heidari, Maziar; Mashaghi, Samaneh; Tans, Sander J; Ejtehadi, Mohammad Reza; Mashaghi, Alireza

    2017-08-24

    Spatial confinement limits the conformational space accessible to biomolecules but the implications for bimolecular topology are not yet known. Folded linear biopolymers can be seen as molecular circuits formed by intramolecular contacts. The pairwise arrangement of intra-chain contacts can be categorized as parallel, series or cross, and has been identified as a topological property. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we determine the contact order distributions and topological circuits of short semi-flexible linear and ring polymer chains with a persistence length of lp under a spherical confinement of radius Rc. At low values of lp/Rc, the entropy of the linear chain leads to the formation of independent contacts along the chain and accordingly, increases the fraction of series topology with respect to other topologies. However, at high lp/Rc, the fraction of cross and parallel topologies are enhanced in the chain topological circuits with cross becoming predominant. At an intermediate confining regime, we identify a critical value of lp/Rc, at which all topological states have equal probability. Confinement thus equalizes the probability of more complex cross and parallel topologies to the level of the more simple, non-cooperative series topology. Moreover, our topology analysis reveals distinct behaviours for ring- and linear polymers under weak confinement; however, we find no difference between ring- and linear polymers under strong confinement. Under weak confinement, ring polymers adopt parallel and series topologies with equal likelihood, while linear polymers show a higher tendency for series arrangement. The radial distribution analysis of the topology reveals a non-uniform effect of confinement on the topology of polymer chains, thereby imposing more pronounced effects on the core region than on the confinement surface. Additionally, our results reveal that over a wide range of confining radii, loops arranged in parallel and cross topologies have

  8. Improving Topology Optimization using Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nobel-Jørgensen, Morten; Christiansen, Asger Nyman; Bærentzen, J. Andreas

    free of charge on iOS and Android devices1. The TopOptGame is inspired by puzzle-games (a genre of computer games), which constantly challenges the players and gives rewards when progress is made. This engagement loop will take the player on a journey starting with simple problems with few supports......, this will allow us to analyze the data to measure human performance of topology optimization and more importantly, in which cases people's intuition succeed or fail. The game is currently a working prototype and is scheduled for final release on both iOS and Android before WCSMO-10....

  9. Centrality evolution of the charged-particle pseudorapidity density over a broad pseudorapidity range in Pb–Pb collisions at sNN=2.76 TeV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Adam

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The centrality dependence of the charged-particle pseudorapidity density measured with ALICE in Pb–Pb collisions at sNN=2.76 TeV over a broad pseudorapidity range is presented. This Letter extends the previous results reported by ALICE to more peripheral collisions. No strong change of the overall shape of charged-particle pseudorapidity density distributions with centrality is observed, and when normalised to the number of participating nucleons in the collisions, the evolution over pseudorapidity with centrality is likewise small. The broad pseudorapidity range (−3.5<η<5 allows precise estimates of the total number of produced charged particles which we find to range from 162±22(syst. to 17170±770(syst. in 80–90% and 0–5% central collisions, respectively. The total charged-particle multiplicity is seen to approximately scale with the number of participating nucleons in the collision. This suggests that hard contributions to the charged-particle multiplicity are limited. The results are compared to models which describe dNch/dη at mid-rapidity in the most central Pb–Pb collisions and it is found that these models do not capture all features of the distributions.

  10. Triple Point Topological Metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziming Zhu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Topologically protected fermionic quasiparticles appear in metals, where band degeneracies occur at the Fermi level, dictated by the band structure topology. While in some metals these quasiparticles are direct analogues of elementary fermionic particles of the relativistic quantum field theory, other metals can have symmetries that give rise to quasiparticles, fundamentally different from those known in high-energy physics. Here, we report on a new type of topological quasiparticles—triple point fermions—realized in metals with symmorphic crystal structure, which host crossings of three bands in the vicinity of the Fermi level protected by point group symmetries. We find two topologically different types of triple point fermions, both distinct from any other topological quasiparticles reported to date. We provide examples of existing materials that host triple point fermions of both types and discuss a variety of physical phenomena associated with these quasiparticles, such as the occurrence of topological surface Fermi arcs, transport anomalies, and topological Lifshitz transitions.

  11. Network topology analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalb, Jeffrey L.; Lee, David S.

    2008-01-01

    Emerging high-bandwidth, low-latency network technology has made network-based architectures both feasible and potentially desirable for use in satellite payload architectures. The selection of network topology is a critical component when developing these multi-node or multi-point architectures. This study examines network topologies and their effect on overall network performance. Numerous topologies were reviewed against a number of performance, reliability, and cost metrics. This document identifies a handful of good network topologies for satellite applications and the metrics used to justify them as such. Since often multiple topologies will meet the requirements of the satellite payload architecture under development, the choice of network topology is not easy, and in the end the choice of topology is influenced by both the design characteristics and requirements of the overall system and the experience of the developer.

  12. One-dimensional symmetry protected topological phases and their transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verresen, Ruben; Moessner, Roderich; Pollmann, Frank

    2017-10-01

    We present a unified perspective on symmetry protected topological (SPT) phases in one dimension and address the open question of what characterizes their phase transitions. In the first part of this work, we use symmetry as a guide to map various well-known fermionic and spin SPTs to a Kitaev chain with coupling of range α ∈Z . This unified picture uncovers new properties of old models, such as how the cluster state is the fixed point limit of the Affleck-Kennedy-Lieb-Tasaki state in disguise, and elucidates the connection between fermionic and bosonic phases, with the Hubbard chain interpolating between four Kitaev chains and a spin chain in the Haldane phase. In the second part, we study the topological phase transitions between these models in the presence of interactions. This leads us to conjecture that the critical point between any SPT with d -dimensional edge modes and the trivial phase has a central charge c ≥log2d . We analytically verify this for many known transitions. This agrees with the intuitive notion that the phase transition is described by a delocalized edge mode, and that the central charge of a conformal field theory is a measure of the gapless degrees of freedom.

  13. Topology-Based Methods in Visualization 2015

    CERN Document Server

    Garth, Christoph; Weinkauf, Tino

    2017-01-01

    This book presents contributions on topics ranging from novel applications of topological analysis for particular problems, through studies of the effectiveness of modern topological methods, algorithmic improvements on existing methods, and parallel computation of topological structures, all the way to mathematical topologies not previously applied to data analysis. Topological methods are broadly recognized as valuable tools for analyzing the ever-increasing flood of data generated by simulation or acquisition. This is particularly the case in scientific visualization, where the data sets have long since surpassed the ability of the human mind to absorb every single byte of data. The biannual TopoInVis workshop has supported researchers in this area for a decade, and continues to serve as a vital forum for the presentation and discussion of novel results in applications in the area, creating a platform to disseminate knowledge about such implementations throughout and beyond the community. The present volum...

  14. Robust Topological Terahertz Circuits using Semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Bahari, Babak; Kanté, Boubacar

    2016-01-01

    Topological Insulator-based devices can transport electrons/photons at the surfaces of materials without any back reflections, even in the presence of obstacles. Topological properties have recently been studied using non-reciprocal materials such as gyromagnetics or using bianisotropy. However, these effects usually saturate at optical frequencies and limit our ability to scale down devices. In order to implement topological devices that we introduce in this paper for the terahertz range, we show that semiconductors can be utilized via their cyclotron resonance in combination with small magnetic fields. We propose novel terahertz operating devices such as the topological tunable power splitter and the topological circulator. This work opens new perspectives in the design of terahertz integrated devices and circuits with high functionality.

  15. Out-of-equilibrium dynamics and extended textures of topological defects in spin ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udagawa, M.; Jaubert, L. D. C.; Castelnovo, C.; Moessner, R.

    2016-09-01

    Memory effects have been observed across a wide range of geometrically frustrated magnetic materials, possibly including Pr2Ir2O7 where a spontaneous Hall effect has been observed. Frustrated magnets are also famous for the emergence of topological defects. Here we explore how the interaction between these defects can be responsible for a rich diversity of out-of-equilibrium dynamics, dominated by topological bottlenecks and multiscale energy barriers. Our model is an extension of the spinice model on the pyrochlore lattice, where farther-neighbor spin interactions give rise to a nearest-neighbor coupling between topological defects. This coupling can be chosen to be "unnatural" or not, i.e., attractive or repulsive between defects carrying the same topological charge. After applying a field quench, our model supports, for example, long-lived magnetization plateaux, and allows for the metastability of a "fragmented" spin liquid, an unconventional phase of matter where long-range order co-exists with a spin liquid. Perhaps most strikingly, the attraction between same-sign charges produces clusters of these defects in equilibrium, whose stability is due to a combination of energy and topological barriers. These clusters may take the form of a "jellyfish" spin texture, centered on a hexagonal ring with branches of arbitrary length. The ring carries a clockwise or counterclockwise circular flow of magnetization. This emergent toroidal degrees of freedom provide a possibility for time-reversal symmetry breaking with potential relevance to the spontaneous Hall effect observed in Pr2Ir2O7 .

  16. Optimization and limits of electrostatic sorting by bi-polar charge of mineral mixtures in the fine grain size range. Final report. Optimierung und Grenzen der elektrostatischen Sortierung durch bipolare Aufladung von Mineralgemischen im Feinkornbereich. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    In this work, the charge distribution in mineral mixtures and the electrostatic sorting according to tribo-charging is examined on R-10 fractions in the particle size range of 50-200 {mu}m. The purpose of the investigations was combinations of pairs from quartz, calcite, heavy spar, river spar and the pairing anthracite/quartz. Separation experiments were also carried out for the quartz/calcite pair in the particle size range of 20-50 {mu}m. After a survey of the literature and the electrical processes in the contact of two materials, some theoretical considerations procede the investigations, which are concerned with the maximum surface charge density on particles, the electrostatic agglomeration and the calculation of particle track curves in an homogeneous electrical field. It is shown that in principle, electrostatic agglomerates can always be separated in an electrical field. (orig.).

  17. Electronic interconnects and devices with topological surface states and methods for fabricating same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yazdani, Ali; Ong, N. Phuan; Cava, Robert J.

    2017-04-04

    An interconnect is disclosed with enhanced immunity of electrical conductivity to defects. The interconnect includes a material with charge carriers having topological surface states. Also disclosed is a method for fabricating such interconnects. Also disclosed is an integrated circuit including such interconnects. Also disclosed is a gated electronic device including a material with charge carriers having topological surface states.

  18. Spintronics Based on Topological Insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yabin; Wang, Kang L.

    2016-10-01

    Spintronics using topological insulators (TIs) as strong spin-orbit coupling (SOC) materials have emerged and shown rapid progress in the past few years. Different from traditional heavy metals, TIs exhibit very strong SOC and nontrivial topological surface states that originate in the bulk band topology order, which can provide very efficient means to manipulate adjacent magnetic materials when passing a charge current through them. In this paper, we review the recent progress in the TI-based magnetic spintronics research field. In particular, we focus on the spin-orbit torque (SOT)-induced magnetization switching in the magnetic TI structures, spin-torque ferromagnetic resonance (ST-FMR) measurements in the TI/ferromagnet structures, spin pumping and spin injection effects in the TI/magnet structures, as well as the electrical detection of the surface spin-polarized current in TIs. Finally, we discuss the challenges and opportunities in the TI-based spintronics field and its potential applications in ultralow power dissipation spintronic memory and logic devices.

  19. A Similarity Search Using Molecular Topological Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshifumi Fukunishi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A molecular similarity measure has been developed using molecular topological graphs and atomic partial charges. Two kinds of topological graphs were used. One is the ordinary adjacency matrix and the other is a matrix which represents the minimum path length between two atoms of the molecule. The ordinary adjacency matrix is suitable to compare the local structures of molecules such as functional groups, and the other matrix is suitable to compare the global structures of molecules. The combination of these two matrices gave a similarity measure. This method was applied to in silico drug screening, and the results showed that it was effective as a similarity measure.

  20. Topological Defects in Topological Insulators and Bound States at Topological Superconductor Vortices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parente, Vincenzo; Campagnano, Gabriele; Giuliano, Domenico; Tagliacozzo, Arturo; Guinea, Francisco

    2014-03-04

    The scattering of Dirac electrons by topological defects could be one of the most relevant sources of resistance in graphene and at the boundary surfaces of a three-dimensional topological insulator (3D TI). In the long wavelength, continuous limit of the Dirac equation, the topological defect can be described as a distortion of the metric in curved space, which can be accounted for by a rotation of the Gamma matrices and by a spin connection inherited with the curvature. These features modify the scattering properties of the carriers. We discuss the self-energy of defect formation with this approach and the electron cross-section for intra-valley scattering at an edge dislocation in graphene, including corrections coming from the local stress. The cross-section contribution to the resistivity, ρ, is derived within the Boltzmann theory of transport. On the same lines, we discuss the scattering of a screw dislocation in a two-band 3D TI, like Bi1-xSbx, and we present the analytical simplified form of the wavefunction for gapless helical states bound at the defect. When a 3D TI is sandwiched between two even-parity superconductors, Dirac boundary states acquire superconductive correlations by proximity. In the presence of a magnetic vortex piercing the heterostructure, two Majorana states are localized at the two interfaces and bound to the vortex core. They have a half integer total angular momentum each, to match with the unitary orbital angular momentum of the vortex charge.

  1. Antiferromagnetic skyrmion crystals: Generation, topological Hall, and topological spin Hall effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göbel, Börge; Mook, Alexander; Henk, Jürgen; Mertig, Ingrid

    2017-08-01

    Skyrmions are topologically nontrivial, magnetic quasiparticles that are characterized by a topological charge. A regular array of skyrmions, a skyrmion crystal (SkX), features the topological Hall effect (THE) of electrons, which, in turn, gives rise to the Hall effect of the skyrmions themselves. It is commonly believed that antiferromagnetic skyrmion crystals (AFM-SkXs) lack both effects. In this Rapid Communication, we present a generally applicable method to create stable AFM-SkXs by growing a two-sublattice SkX onto a collinear antiferromagnet. As an example we show that both types of skyrmion crystals, conventional and antiferromagnetic, exist in honeycomb lattices. While AFM-SkXs with equivalent lattice sites do not show a THE, they exhibit a topological spin Hall effect. On top of this, AFM-SkXs on inequivalent sublattices exhibit a nonzero THE, which may be utilized in spintronics devices. Our theoretical findings call for experimental realization.

  2. Ordered groups and topology

    CERN Document Server

    Clay, Adam

    2016-01-01

    This book deals with the connections between topology and ordered groups. It begins with a self-contained introduction to orderable groups and from there explores the interactions between orderability and objects in low-dimensional topology, such as knot theory, braid groups, and 3-manifolds, as well as groups of homeomorphisms and other topological structures. The book also addresses recent applications of orderability in the studies of codimension-one foliations and Heegaard-Floer homology. The use of topological methods in proving algebraic results is another feature of the book. The book was written to serve both as a textbook for graduate students, containing many exercises, and as a reference for researchers in topology, algebra, and dynamical systems. A basic background in group theory and topology is the only prerequisite for the reader.

  3. Measurement of the long--range pseudorapidity correlations between muons and charged-particles in $\\sqrt{s_{\\mathrm{NN}}}$=8.16~TeV proton-lead collisions with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Measurements of correlations between inclusive charged-particle pairs and between inclusive charged-particle and muon pairs in relative azimuthal angle ($\\Delta\\phi$) and pseudorapidity ($\\Delta\\eta$) are presented for $p$+Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{\\mathrm{NN}}}$=8.16~TeV using muons and charged particles with $|\\eta|<2.5$. The correlations involving the muons are interesting as the muons primarily come from heavy-flavor decays and studying these correlations gives an understanding of the long-range correlations involving heavy-flavor quarks. The measurements show the presence of long-range correlations between muons and inclusive charged-particles extending to $|\\Delta\\eta|=5$. A template fitting method is used to remove the contribution from dijets to the correlations, and obtain the second-order Fourier coefficient, $v_{2,2}$, corresponding to the genuine long-range correlations. The $v_{2,2}$ is factorized to obtain the single-particle anisotropy coefficient, $v_2$, of the muons. The dependence of the...

  4. Topological Foundations of Electromagnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Barrett, Terrence W

    2008-01-01

    Topological Foundations of Electromagnetism seeks a fundamental understanding of the dynamics of electromagnetism; and marshals the evidence that in certain precisely defined topological conditions, electromagnetic theory (Maxwell's theory) must be extended or generalized in order to provide an explanation and understanding of, until now, unusual electromagnetic phenomena. Key to this generalization is an understanding of the circumstances under which the so-called A potential fields have physical effects. Basic to the approach taken is that the topological composition of electromagnetic field

  5. Fuzzy Soft Topological Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Nazmul

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Notions of Lowen type fuzzy soft topological space are introduced and some of their properties are established in the present paper. Besides this, a combined structure of a fuzzy soft topological space and a fuzzy soft group, which is termed here as fuzzy soft topological group is introduced. Homomorphic images and preimages are also examined. Finally, some definitions and results on fuzzy soft set are studied.

  6. Topics in general topology

    CERN Document Server

    Morita, K

    1989-01-01

    Being an advanced account of certain aspects of general topology, the primary purpose of this volume is to provide the reader with an overview of recent developments.The papers cover basic fields such as metrization and extension of maps, as well as newly-developed fields like categorical topology and topological dynamics. Each chapter may be read independently of the others, with a few exceptions. It is assumed that the reader has some knowledge of set theory, algebra, analysis and basic general topology.

  7. Topology for computing

    CERN Document Server

    Zomorodian, Afra J

    2005-01-01

    The emerging field of computational topology utilizes theory from topology and the power of computing to solve problems in diverse fields. Recent applications include computer graphics, computer-aided design (CAD), and structural biology, all of which involve understanding the intrinsic shape of some real or abstract space. A primary goal of this book is to present basic concepts from topology and Morse theory to enable a non-specialist to grasp and participate in current research in computational topology. The author gives a self-contained presentation of the mathematical concepts from a comp

  8. Open Extension Topology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Вячеслав Бабич

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains the results which describe the properties of such general topological construction as open extension topology. In particular, we prove that this topology is not transitive. We find the base of the least cardinality for the topology and local one for the neighborhood system of every point. We calculate the interior, the closure, and the sets of isolated and limit points of any set. Also we prove that this space is path connected and is not metrizable, and investigate its cardinal invariants and separation axioms.

  9. Topological Gyroscopic Metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Lisa Michelle

    Topological materials are generally insulating in their bulk, with protected conducting states on their boundaries that are robust against disorder and perturbation of material property. The existence of these conducting edge states is characterized by an integer topological invariant. Though the phenomenon was first discovered in electronic systems, recent years have shown that topological states exist in classical systems as well. In this thesis we are primarily concerned with the topological properties of gyroscopic materials, which are created by coupling networks of fast-spinning objects. Through a series of simulations, numerical calculations, and experiments, we show that these materials can support topological edge states. We find that edge states in these gyroscopic metamaterials bear the hallmarks of topology related to broken time reversal symmetry: they transmit excitations unidirectionally and are extremely robust against experimental disorder. We also explore requirements for topology by studying several lattice configurations and find that topology emerges naturally in gyroscopic systems.A simple prescription can be used to create many gyroscopic lattices. Though many of our gyroscopic networks are periodic, we explore amorphous point-sets and find that topology also emerges in these networks.

  10. Real Topological Cyclic Homology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgenhaven, Amalie

    , where O(2) is the semi-direct product of T, the multiplicative group of complex number of modulus 1, by the group G=Gal(C/R). We refer to this O(2)-spectrum as the real topological Hochschild homology. This generalization leads to a G-equivariant version of topological cyclic homology, which we call...... real topological cyclic homology. The first part of the thesis computes the G-equivariant homotopy type of the real topological cyclic homology of spherical group rings at a prime p with anti-involution induced by taking inverses in the group. The second part of the thesis investigates the derived G...

  11. Topology optimization based on the harmony search method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung-Min; Han, Seog-Young [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    A new topology optimization scheme based on a Harmony search (HS) as a metaheuristic method was proposed and applied to static stiffness topology optimization problems. To apply the HS to topology optimization, the variables in HS were transformed to those in topology optimization. Compliance was used as an objective function, and harmony memory was defined as the set of the optimized topology. Also, a parametric study for Harmony memory considering rate (HMCR), Pitch adjusting rate (PAR), and Bandwidth (BW) was performed to find the appropriate range for topology optimization. Various techniques were employed such as a filtering scheme, simple average scheme and harmony rate. To provide a robust optimized topology, the concept of the harmony rate update rule was also implemented. Numerical examples are provided to verify the effectiveness of the HS by comparing the optimal layouts of the HS with those of Bidirectional evolutionary structural optimization (BESO) and Artificial bee colony algorithm (ABCA). The following conclu- sions could be made: (1) The proposed topology scheme is very effective for static stiffness topology optimization problems in terms of stability, robustness and convergence rate. (2) The suggested method provides a symmetric optimized topology despite the fact that the HS is a stochastic method like the ABCA. (3) The proposed scheme is applicable and practical in manufacturing since it produces a solid-void design of the optimized topology. (4) The suggested method appears to be very effective for large scale problems like topology optimization.

  12. General Topology of the Universe

    OpenAIRE

    Pandya, Aalok

    2002-01-01

    General topology of the universe is descibed. It is concluded that topology of the present universe is greater or stronger than the topology of the universe in the past and topology of the future universe will be stronger or greater than the present topology of the universe. Consequently, the universe remains unbounded.

  13. Electrical control of spin in topological insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Kai

    2012-02-01

    by changing the gate voltage. It provides us a new way to control surface magnetism electrically. The gap opened by doped magnetic ions can lead to a short-range Bloembergen-Rowland interaction. The competition among the Heisenberg, Ising, and DM terms leads to rich spin configurations and an anomalous Hall effect on different lattices [4]. There are many proposals for quantum computation scheme are based on the spin in semiconductor quantum dots. Topological insulator quantum dots display a very different behavior with that of conventional semiconductor quantum dots [5]. In sharp contrast to conventional semiconductor quantum dots, the quantum states in the gap of the HgTe QD are fully spin-polarized and show ring-like density distributions near the boundary of the QD and optically dark. The persistent charge currents and magnetic moments, i.e., the Aharonov-Bohm effect, can be observed in such a QD structure. This feature offers us a practical way to detect these exotic ring-like edge states by using the SQUID technique. [0pt]Refs: [1] W. Yang, Kai Chang, and S. C. Zhang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 056602 (2008); J. Li and Kai Chang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 222110 (2009). [2] L. B. Zhang, Kai Chang, X. C. Xie, H. Buhmann and L. W. Molenkamp, New J. Phys. 12, 083058 (2010). [3] L. B. Zhang, F. Cheng, F. Zhai and Kai Chang, Phys. Rev. B 83 081402(R) (2011); Z. H. Wu, F. Zhai, F. M. Peeters, H. Q. Xu and Kai Chang, Phys, Rev. Lett. 106, 176802 (2011). [4] J. J. Zhu, D. X. Yao, S. C. Zhang, and Kai Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 097201 (2011). [5] Kai Chang, and Wen-Kai Lou, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 206802 (2011).

  14. Second Topology Symposium

    CERN Document Server

    1988-01-01

    The main subjects of the Siegen Topology Symposium are reflected in this collection of 16 research and expository papers. They center around differential topology and, more specifically, around linking phenomena in 3, 4 and higher dimensions, tangent fields, immersions and other vector bundle morphisms. Manifold categories, K-theory and group actions are also discussed.

  15. Topology from Neighbourhoods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coghetto Roland

    2015-12-01

    If to each element x of a set X there corresponds a set B(x of subsets of X such that the properties VI, VII, VIII and VIV are satisfied, then there is a unique topological structure on X such that, for each x ∈ X, B(x is the set of neighborhoods of x in this topology.

  16. Modeling Internet Topology Dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haddadi, H.; Uhlig, S.; Moore, A.; Mortier, R.; Rio, M.

    Despite the large number of papers on network topology modeling and inference, there still exists ambiguity about the real nature of the Internet AS and router level topology. While recent findings have illustrated the inaccuracies in maps inferred from BGP peering and traceroute measurements,

  17. Introduction to topology

    CERN Document Server

    Mendelson, Bert

    1990-01-01

    Highly regarded for its exceptional clarity, imaginative and instructive exercises, and fine writing style, this concise book offers an ideal introduction to the fundamentals of topology. It provides a simple, thorough survey of elementary topics, starting with set theory and advancing to metric and topological spaces, connectedness, and compactness. 1975 edition.

  18. Topology Optimization with Stress Constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbart, A.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis contains contributions to the development of topology optimization techniques capable of handling stress constraints. The research that led to these contributions was motivated by the need for topology optimization techniques more suitable for industrial applications. Currently, topology

  19. Higgsless superconductivity from topological defects in compact BF terms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cristina Diamantini

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We present a new Higgsless model of superconductivity, inspired from anyon superconductivity but P- and T-invariant and generalisable to any dimension. While the original anyon superconductivity mechanism was based on incompressible quantum Hall fluids as average field states, our mechanism involves topological insulators as average field states. In D space dimensions it involves a (D−1-form fictitious pseudovector gauge field which originates from the condensation of topological defects in compact low-energy effective BF theories. In the average field approximation, the corresponding uniform emergent charge creates a gap for the (D−2-dimensional branes via the Magnus force, the dual of the Lorentz force. One particular combination of intrinsic and emergent charge fluctuations that leaves the total charge distribution invariant constitutes an isolated gapless mode leading to superfluidity. The remaining massive modes organise themselves into a D-dimensional charged, massive vector. There is no massive Higgs scalar as there is no local order parameter. When electromagnetism is switched on, the photon acquires mass by the topological BF mechanism. Although the charge of the gapless mode (2 and the topological order (4 are the same as those of the standard Higgs model, the two models of superconductivity are clearly different since the origins of the gap, reflected in the high-energy sectors are totally different. In 2D this type of superconductivity is explicitly realised as global superconductivity in Josephson junction arrays. In 3D this model predicts a possible phase transition from topological insulators to Higgsless superconductors.

  20. Interactive Topology Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nobel-Jørgensen, Morten

    software where the users are assumed to be well-educated both in the finite element method and topology optimization. This dissertation describes how various topology optimization methods have been used for creating cross-platform applications with high performance. The user interface design is based......Interactivity is the continuous interaction between the user and the application to solve a task. Topology optimization is the optimization of structures in order to improve stiffness or other objectives. The goal of the thesis is to explore how topology optimization can be used in applications...... in an interactive and intuitive way. By creating such applications with an intuitive and simple user interface we allow non-engineers like designers and architects to easily experiment with boundary conditions, design domains and other optimization settings. This is in contrast to commercial topology optimization...

  1. Differential cross section of the pion-nucleon charge-exchange reaction in the momentum range from 148 to 323 MeV/c

    CERN Document Server

    Sadler, M E; Abaev, V V; Allgower, C; Barker, A; Bekrenev, V; Bircher, C; Briscoe, W J; Cadman, R; Carter, C; Clajus, M; Comfort, J R; Craig, K; Daugherity, M; Draper, B; Grosnick, D P; Hayden, S; Huddleston, J; Isenhower, D; Jerkins, M; Joy, M; Knecht, N; Koetke, D D; Kozlenko, N; Kruglov, S; Kycia, T; Lolos, G J; Lopatin, I; Manley, D M; Manweiler, R; Marusic, A; McDonald, S; Nefkens, B M K; Olmsted, J; Papandreou, Z; Peaslee, D; Peterson, J; Phaisangittisakul, N; Prakhov, S N; Price, J W; Ramírez, A; Robinson, C; Shafi, A; Spinka, H; Stanislaus, S; Starostin, A; Staudenmaier, H M; Strakovsky, I I; Supek, I; Tippens, W B; Watson, S

    2004-01-01

    Measured values of the differential cross section for pion-nucleon charge exchange are presented at momenta 148, 174, 188, 212, 238, 271, 298, and 323 MeV/c, a region dominated by the Delta resonance. Complete angular distributions were obtained using the Crystal Ball detector at the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). Statistical uncertainties of the differential cross sections are typically 2-6%, exceptions being the results at the lowest momentum and at the most forward measurements of the five lowest momenta. We estimate the systematic uncertainties to be 3-6%.

  2. Differential cross sections of the charge-exchange reaction pi- p --> pi0 n in the momentum range from 103 to 178 MeV/c

    CERN Document Server

    Mekterović, D; Abaev, V; Bekrenev, V; Bircher, C; Briscoe, W J; Cadman, R V; Clajus, M; Comfort, J R; Craig, K; Grosnick, D; Isenhover, D; Jerkins, M; Joy, M; Knecht, N; Koetke, D D; Kozlenko, N; Kulbardis, A; Kruglov, S; Lolos, G; Lopatin, I; Manley, D M; Manweiler, R; Marušić, A; McDonald, S; Nefkens, B M K; Olmsted, J; Papandreou, Z; Peaslee, D; Peterson, J; Phaisangittisakul, N; Prakhov, S N; Price, J W; Ramírez, A; Sadler, M E; Shafi, A; Spinka, H; Stanislaus, S; Starostin, A; Staudenmaier, H M; Strakovsky, I; Tippens, W B; Watson, S

    2009-01-01

    Measured values of the differential cross sections for pion-nucleon charge exchange, pi- p --> pi0 n, are presented for pi- momenta of 103, 112, 120, 130, 139, 152, and 178 MeV/c. Complete angular distributions were obtained by using the Crystal Ball detector at the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Statistical uncertainties of the differential cross sections vary from 3% to 6% in the backward angle region, and from 6% to about 20% in the forward region with the exception of the two most forward angles. The systematic uncertainties are estimated to be about 3% for all momenta.

  3. Fermionic Symmetry-Protected Topological Phase in a Two-Dimensional Hubbard Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cheng-Chien; Muechler, Lukas; Car, Roberto; Neupert, Titus; Maciejko, Joseph

    2016-08-26

    We study the two-dimensional (2D) Hubbard model using exact diagonalization for spin-1/2 fermions on the triangular and honeycomb lattices decorated with a single hexagon per site. In certain parameter ranges, the Hubbard model maps to a quantum compass model on those lattices. On the triangular lattice, the compass model exhibits collinear stripe antiferromagnetism, implying d-density wave charge order in the original Hubbard model. On the honeycomb lattice, the compass model has a unique, quantum disordered ground state that transforms nontrivially under lattice reflection. The ground state of the Hubbard model on the decorated honeycomb lattice is thus a 2D fermionic symmetry-protected topological phase. This state-protected by time-reversal and reflection symmetries-cannot be connected adiabatically to a free-fermion topological phase.

  4. Topology Optimization for Convection Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexandersen, Joe

    2011-01-01

    This report deals with the topology optimization of convection problems.That is, the aim of the project is to develop, implement and examine topology optimization of purely thermal and coupled thermomechanical problems,when the design-dependent eects of convection are taken into consideration...... problems, steady-state thermal problems and coupled thermomechanical problems, for a range of objective functions subjected to a volume-fraction constraint. The programme utilises the GCMMA algorithm, by K. Svanberg, to optimize the given problems. Design-dependent side convection has been formulated...... and implemented, where the convection is interpolated into the design-domain and applied upon the boundaries of the design using a density-based interpolation function.The implementation has been tested for both pure thermal analysis, along with thermal and thermomechanical optimization. The solutions to the test...

  5. Manipulating Topological States by Imprinting Non-Collinear Spin Textures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streubel, Robert; Han, Luyang; Im, Mi-Young; Kronast, Florian; Rößler, Ulrich K.; Radu, Florin; Abrudan, Radu; Lin, Gungun; Schmidt, Oliver G.; Fischer, Peter; Makarov, Denys

    2015-01-01

    Topological magnetic states, such as chiral skyrmions, are of great scientific interest and show huge potential for novel spintronics applications, provided their topological charges can be fully controlled. So far skyrmionic textures have been observed in noncentrosymmetric crystalline materials with low symmetry and at low temperatures. We propose theoretically and demonstrate experimentally the design of spin textures with topological charge densities that can be tailored at ambient temperatures. Tuning the interlayer coupling in vertically stacked nanopatterned magnetic heterostructures, such as a model system of a Co/Pd multilayer coupled to Permalloy, the in-plane non-collinear spin texture of one layer can be imprinted into the out-of-plane magnetised material. We observe distinct spin textures, e.g. vortices, magnetic swirls with tunable opening angle, donut states and skyrmion core configurations. We show that applying a small magnetic field, a reliable switching between topologically distinct textures can be achieved at remanence. PMID:25739643

  6. Manipulating Topological States by Imprinting Non Collinear Spin Textures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Peter; Streubel, Robert; Han, Luyang; Im, Mi-Young; Kronast, Florian; Roessler, Ulrich K.; Radu, Florin; Abrudan, Radu; Lin, Gungun; Schmidt, Oliver G.; Makarov, Denys

    2015-03-01

    Topological magnetic states, such as chiral skyrmions, are of great scientific interest and show huge potential for novel spintronics applications, provided their topological charges can be fully controlled. So far skyrmionic textures have been observed in noncentrosymmetric crystalline materials with low symmetry and at low temperatures. We propose theoretically and demonstrate experimentally the design of spin textures with topological charge densities that can be tailored at ambient temperatures. Tuning the interlayer coupling in vertically stacked nanopatterned magnetic heterostructures, such as a model system of a Co/Pd multilayer coupled to Permalloy, the in-plane non-collinear spin texture of one layer can be imprinted into the out-of-plane magnetised material. We observe distinct spin textures, e.g. vortices, magnetic swirls with tunable opening angle, donut states and skyrmion systems of Dn symmetry. We show that applying a small magnetic field, a reliable switching between topologically distinct textures can be achieved at remanence.

  7. Manipulating Topological States by Imprinting Non-Collinear Spin Textures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streubel, Robert; Han, Luyang; Im, Mi-Young; Kronast, Florian; Rößler, Ulrich K.; Radu, Florin; Abrudan, Radu; Lin, Gungun; Schmidt, Oliver G.; Fischer, Peter; Makarov, Denys

    2015-03-01

    Topological magnetic states, such as chiral skyrmions, are of great scientific interest and show huge potential for novel spintronics applications, provided their topological charges can be fully controlled. So far skyrmionic textures have been observed in noncentrosymmetric crystalline materials with low symmetry and at low temperatures. We propose theoretically and demonstrate experimentally the design of spin textures with topological charge densities that can be tailored at ambient temperatures. Tuning the interlayer coupling in vertically stacked nanopatterned magnetic heterostructures, such as a model system of a Co/Pd multilayer coupled to Permalloy, the in-plane non-collinear spin texture of one layer can be imprinted into the out-of-plane magnetised material. We observe distinct spin textures, e.g. vortices, magnetic swirls with tunable opening angle, donut states and skyrmion core configurations. We show that applying a small magnetic field, a reliable switching between topologically distinct textures can be achieved at remanence.

  8. Z_{2} and Chiral Anomalies in Topological Dirac Semimetals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkov, Anton A; Kim, Yong Baek

    2016-09-23

    We demonstrate that topological Dirac semimetals, which possess two Dirac nodes, separated in momentum space along a rotation axis and protected by rotational symmetry, exhibit an additional quantum anomaly, distinct from the chiral anomaly. This anomaly, which we call the Z_{2} anomaly, is a consequence of the fact that the Dirac nodes in topological Dirac semimetals carry a Z_{2} topological charge. The Z_{2} anomaly refers to nonconservation of this charge in the presence of external fields due to quantum effects and has observable consequences due to its interplay with the chiral anomaly. We discuss possible implications of this for the interpretation of magnetotransport experiments on topological Dirac semimetals. We also provide a possible explanation for the magnetic field dependent angular narrowing of the negative longitudinal magnetoresistance, observed in a recent experiment on Na_{3}Bi.

  9. Topological crystalline insulator SnTe nanoribbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahal, Bishnu R.; Dulal, Rajendra P.; Pegg, Ian L.; Philip, John

    2017-03-01

    Topological crystalline insulators are systems in which a band inversion that is protected by crystalline mirror symmetry gives rise to nontrivial topological surface states. SnTe is a topological crystalline insulator. It exhibits p-type conductivity due to Sn vacancies and Te antisites, which leads to high carrier density in the bulk. Thus growth of high quality SnTe is a prerequisite for understanding the topological crystalline insulating behavior. We have grown SnTe nanoribbons using a solution method. The width of the SnTe ribbons varies from 500 nm to 2 μm. They exhibit rock salt crystal structure with a lattice parameter of 6.32 Å. The solution method that we have adapted uses low temperature, so the Sn vacancies can be controlled. The solution grown SnTe nanoribbons exhibit strong semiconducting behavior with an activation energy of 240 meV. This activation energy matches with the calculated band gap for SnTe with a lattice parameter of 6.32 Å, which is higher than that reported for bulk SnTe. The higher activation energy makes the thermal excitation of bulk charges very difficult on the surface. As a result, the topological surfaces will be free from the disturbance caused by the thermal excitations

  10. Emerging Trends in Topological Insulators and Topological ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    concept of symmetry breaking. For the above mentioned exam-. Keywords. Superconductor, quantum Hall ef- fect, topological insulator, Majo- rana fermions. ples, translational, rotational, and gauge symmetries respectively, are spontaneously broken. Before 1980, the principle of broken symmetry was the key concept for ...

  11. Modification of electrical properties of topological insulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Peter Anand

    2017-08-29

    Ion implantation or deposition can be used to modify the bulk electrical properties of topological insulators. More particularly, ion implantation or deposition can be used to compensate for the non-zero bulk conductivity due to extrinsic charge carriers. The direct implantation of deposition/annealing of dopants allows better control over carrier concentrations for the purposes of achieving low bulk conductivity. Ion implantation or deposition enables the fabrication of inhomogeneously doped structures, enabling new types of device designs.

  12. Disordered topological wires in a momentum-space lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Eric; An, Fangzhao; Gadway, Bryce

    2017-04-01

    One of the most interesting aspects of topological systems is the presence of boundary modes which remain robust in the presence of weak disorder. We explore this feature in the context of one-dimensional (1D) topological wires where staggered tunneling strengths lead to the creation of a mid-gap state in the lattice band structure. Using Bose-condensed 87Rb atoms in a 1D momentum-space lattice, we probe the robust topological character of this model when subjected to both site energy and tunneling disorder. We observe a transition to a topologically trivial phase when tailored disorder is applied, which we detect through both charge-pumping and Hamiltonian-quenching protocols. In addition, we report on efforts to probe the influence of interactions in topological momentum-space lattices.

  13. Topological Susceptibility in the SU(3) Gauge Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Del Debbio, L; Pica, C; Debbio, Luigi Del; Giusti, Leonardo; Pica, Claudio

    2006-01-01

    We compute the topological susceptibility for the SU(3) Yang--Mills theory by employing the expression of the topological charge density operator suggested by Neuberger's fermions. In the continuum limit we find r_0^4 chi = 0.059(3), which corresponds to chi=(191 +/- 5 MeV)^4 if F_K is used to set the scale. Our result supports the Witten--Veneziano explanation for the large mass of the eta'.

  14. Supersymmetric black holes with lens-space topology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunduri, Hari K; Lucietti, James

    2014-11-21

    We present a new supersymmetric, asymptotically flat, black hole solution to five-dimensional supergravity. It is regular on and outside an event horizon of lens-space topology L(2,1). It is the first example of an asymptotically flat black hole with lens-space topology. The solution is characterized by a charge, two angular momenta, and a magnetic flux through a noncontractible disk region ending on the horizon, with one constraint relating these.

  15. A search for stable massive particles carrying electric charges in the range of 2e to 6e in proton-proton collisions at {radical}(s)=7 TeV recorded with the ATLAS detector at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmermann, Simone

    2013-08-15

    This dissertation presents a search for long-lived, multi-charged particles using the ATLAS detector at the LHC. Motivation for this search arose from an unexploited search regime at ATLAS of stable massive particles with electric charges of vertical stroke q vertical stroke = 2e to vertical stroke q vertical stroke = 5e. Additional motivation can be found in several beyond the Standard Model physics theories. Proton-proton collisions recorded during the 2011 LHC running at {radical}(s)=7 TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 4.4 fb{sup -1}, are examined in a signature-based analysis. The search seeks out charged particle tracks exhibiting anomalously high ionization consistent with stable massive particles with electric charges in the range from vertical stroke q vertical stroke =2e to vertical stroke q vertical stroke =6e. For this search, new variables of specific energy loss per path length dE/dx are used in the candidate selection. One of these variables, the TRT dE/dx, is developed in the course of this thesis and is described in detail. No excess is observed with respect to the prediction of Standard Model processes. The 95% C.L. upper cross section limits are also interpreted as mass exclusion limits for a simplified Drell-Yan production model.

  16. Charge carrier generation potential of graphene/Si-TiO2 based solar cell device in UV-Vis wavelength range spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosikhin, Ahmad; Syuhada, Ibnu; Hidayat, Aulia Fikri; Winata, Toto

    2016-02-01

    Charges carrier generation potential of graphene/Si solar cell performing TiO2 layer has been elucidated via simple analytical mathematical calculation. Optical electric field both as wavelength function and position of any points at light propagation direction performed by transfer matrix method while dissipated energy profile has observed using electromagnetic theory. Furthermore potential of excitons generation has explored by dividing dissipated energy by photon of wavelength λ then integrating to overall UV-Vis spectra. By this calculation it was revealed that silicon semiconductor material is responsive enough in visible region while by adding TiO2 layer the excitons production is significantly increased until more than 1024/s. Such metal oxide layer is entrusted able to enhance photons absorption in short wavelength spectra. Therefore the role of this metal oxide material should increase the performance in wider wavelength area.

  17. The Slab Method to Measure the Topological Susceptibility

    CERN Document Server

    Bietenholz, Wolfgang; de Forcrand, Philippe; Dromard, Arthur; Gerber, Urs

    2016-10-11

    In simulations of a model with topological sectors, algorithms which proceed in small update steps tend to get stuck in one sector, especially on fine lattices. This distorts the numerical results, in particular it is not straightforward to measure the topological susceptibility chi_t. We test a method to measure chi_t even if configurations from only one sector are available. It is based on the topological charges in sub-volumes, which we denote as "slabs". This enables the evaluation of chi_t, as we demonstrate with numerical results for non-linear sigma-models and for 2-flavour QCD.

  18. Elementary topology problem textbook

    CERN Document Server

    Viro, O Ya; Netsvetaev, N Yu; Kharlamov, V M

    2008-01-01

    This textbook on elementary topology contains a detailed introduction to general topology and an introduction to algebraic topology via its most classical and elementary segment centered at the notions of fundamental group and covering space. The book is tailored for the reader who is determined to work actively. The proofs of theorems are separated from their formulations and are gathered at the end of each chapter. This makes the book look like a pure problem book and encourages the reader to think through each formulation. A reader who prefers a more traditional style can either find the pr

  19. Topics in topology

    CERN Document Server

    Todorcevic, Stevo

    1997-01-01

    The book describes some interactions of topology with other areas of mathematics and it requires only basic background. The first chapter deals with the topology of pointwise convergence and proves results of Bourgain, Fremlin, Talagrand and Rosenthal on compact sets of Baire class-1 functions. In the second chapter some topological dynamics of beta-N and its applications to combinatorial number theory are presented. The third chapter gives a proof of the Ivanovskii-Kuzminov-Vilenkin theorem that compact groups are dyadic. The last chapter presents Marjanovic's classification of hyperspaces of compact metric zerodimensional spaces.

  20. From geometry to topology

    CERN Document Server

    Flegg, H Graham

    2001-01-01

    This excellent introduction to topology eases first-year math students and general readers into the subject by surveying its concepts in a descriptive and intuitive way, attempting to build a bridge from the familiar concepts of geometry to the formalized study of topology. The first three chapters focus on congruence classes defined by transformations in real Euclidean space. As the number of permitted transformations increases, these classes become larger, and their common topological properties become intuitively clear. Chapters 4-12 give a largely intuitive presentation of selected topics.

  1. Plasmonics in Topological Insulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Ping Lai

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available With strong spin-orbit coupling, topological insulators have an insulating bulk state, characterized by a band gap, and a conducting surface state, characterized by a Dirac cone. Plasmons in topological insulators show high frequency-tunability in the mid-infrared and terahertz spectral regions with transverse spin oscillations, also called “spin-plasmons”. This paper presents a discussion and review of the developments in this field from the fundamental theory of plasmons in bulk, thin-film, and surface-magnetized topological insulators to the techniques of plasmon excitation and future applications.

  2. Experiments in topology

    CERN Document Server

    Barr, Stephen

    1989-01-01

    ""A mathematician named KleinThought the Moebius band was divine.Said he: 'If you glueThe edges of two,You'll get a weird bottle like mine.' "" - Stephen BarrIn this lively book, the classic in its field, a master of recreational topology invites readers to venture into such tantalizing topological realms as continuity and connectedness via the Klein bottle and the Moebius strip. Beginning with a definition of topology and a discussion of Euler's theorem, Mr. Barr brings wit and clarity to these topics:New Surfaces (Orientability, Dimension, The Klein Bottle, etc.)The Shortest Moebius StripThe

  3. Ferromagnetism in ferroelectric BaTiO3 induced by vacancies: Sensitive dependence on charge state, origin of magnetism, and temperature range of existence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raeliarijaona, Aldo; Fu, Huaxiang

    2017-10-01

    Using density-functional calculations we investigate the possibility and underlying mechanism of generating ferromagnetism (FM) in ferroelectric BaTiO3 by native vacancies. For the same vacancy species but different charge states (e.g., VO0 vs VO2 +), our paper reveals a marked difference in magnetic behaviors. For instance, while VO0 is ferromagnetic, VO2 + is not. This sensitive dependence, which has often been overlooked, highlights the critical importance of taking into account different charge states. Furthermore, while oxygen vacancies have been often used in experiments to explain the vacancy-induced FM, our calculation demonstrates that Ti vacancies, in particular VTi3 - and VTi2 - with low formation energies, generate even stronger ferromagnetism in BaTiO3, with a magnetic moment which is 400% larger than that of VO0. Interestingly, this strong FM of VTi can be further enhanced by hole doping. Although both cation vacancies (VTiq) and anion vacancies (VO0) induce FM, their mechanisms differ drastically. FM of anion vacancies originates from the spin-polarized electrons at Ti sites, but FM of cation vacancies stems from the spin-polarized holes at O sites. This paper also sheds light on vacancy-induced FM by discovering that the spin densities of all three considered vacancy species are highly extended in real space, distributed far away from the vacancy. Moreover, we predict that the ferromagnetism caused by VTi3 - is able to survive at high temperatures, which is promising for room-temperature spintronic or multiferroic applications.

  4. Topological Defects in Topological Insulators and Bound States at Topological Superconductor Vortices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Parente

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The scattering of Dirac electrons by topological defects could be one of the most relevant sources of resistance in graphene and at the boundary surfaces of a three-dimensional topological insulator (3D TI. In the long wavelength, continuous limit of the Dirac equation, the topological defect can be described as a distortion of the metric in curved space, which can be accounted for by a rotation of the Gamma matrices and by a spin connection inherited with the curvature. These features modify the scattering properties of the carriers. We discuss the self-energy of defect formation with this approach and the electron cross-section for intra-valley scattering at an edge dislocation in graphene, including corrections coming from the local stress. The cross-section contribution to the resistivity, ρ, is derived within the Boltzmann theory of transport. On the same lines, we discuss the scattering of a screw dislocation in a two-band 3D TI, like Bi1-xSbx, and we present the analytical simplified form of the wavefunction for gapless helical states bound at the defect. When a 3D TI is sandwiched between two even-parity superconductors, Dirac boundary states acquire superconductive correlations by proximity. In the presence of a magnetic vortex piercing the heterostructure, two Majorana states are localized at the two interfaces and bound to the vortex core. They have a half integer total angular momentum each, to match with the unitary orbital angular momentum of the vortex charge.

  5. Review of possible SICAM topologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ljusev, P.

    2002-12-15

    In this report some possible topologies and approaches towards construction of a SIngle Conversion stage AMpli er - SICAM are explored. Operation of such amplifier from a single phase voltage grid - AC mains, imposes some stringent limitations over the audio amplifier construction and possible topologies. It will be shown that these restrictions will necessitate the use of reactive energy storage elements at the SICAM input, still making some kind of a power supply needed. Therefore, SICAM should be conceived not as a single stage, but as a sophisticated interconnection of two dedicated stages, that are optimised and designed for the best performance in the audio range, leading to better efficiency, lower losses, reduced volume and cost of the integrated components. Several topologies will be presented, starting with the straightforward AC to AC conversion, continuing with DC-AC and ending with DC to DC conversion. Extensions, advantages, drawbacks and trade-offs will be thoroughly investigated, leading to conclusions for the direction of future research and development. (au)

  6. Topology for analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Wilansky, Albert

    2008-01-01

    Three levels of examples and problems make this volume appropriate for students and professionals. Abundant exercises, ordered and numbered by degree of difficulty, illustrate important topological concepts. 1970 edition.

  7. Prion topology and toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguzzi, Adriano; Steele, Andrew D

    2009-06-12

    Inactivation of mahogunin, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, causes a spongiform encephalopathy resembling prion disease. Chakrabarti and Hegde (2009) now report that prion proteins with aberrant topologies inactivate mahogunin, providing a plausible explanation for certain aspects of prion pathology.

  8. Real topological string amplitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narain, K.S. [The Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP),Strada Costiera 11, Trieste, 34151 (Italy); Piazzalunga, N. [Simons Center for Geometry and Physics, State University of New York,Stony Brook, NY, 11794-3636 (United States); International School for Advanced Studies (SISSA) and INFN, Sez. di Trieste,via Bonomea 265, Trieste, 34136 (Italy); Tanzini, A. [International School for Advanced Studies (SISSA) and INFN, Sez. di Trieste,via Bonomea 265, Trieste, 34136 (Italy)

    2017-03-15

    We discuss the physical superstring correlation functions in type I theory (or equivalently type II with orientifold) that compute real topological string amplitudes. We consider the correlator corresponding to holomorphic derivative of the real topological amplitude G{sub χ}, at fixed worldsheet Euler characteristic χ. This corresponds in the low-energy effective action to N=2 Weyl multiplet, appropriately reduced to the orientifold invariant part, and raised to the power g{sup ′}=−χ+1. We show that the physical string correlator gives precisely the holomorphic derivative of topological amplitude. Finally, we apply this method to the standard closed oriented case as well, and prove a similar statement for the topological amplitude F{sub g}.

  9. Manufacturing tolerant topology optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigmund, Ole

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present an extension of the topology optimization method to include uncertainties during the fabrication of macro, micro and nano structures. More specifically, we consider devices that are manufactured using processes which may result in (uniformly) too thin (eroded) or too thick...... (dilated) structures compared to the intended topology. Examples are MEMS devices manufactured using etching processes, nano-devices manufactured using e-beam lithography or laser micro-machining and macro structures manufactured using milling processes. In the suggested robust topology optimization...... that the method provides manufacturing tolerant designs with little decrease in performance. As a positive side effect the robust design formulation also eliminates the longstanding problem of one-node connected hinges in compliant mechanism design using topology optimization....

  10. Topological states of condensed matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Zhang, Shou-Cheng

    2017-11-01

    Topological states of quantum matter have been investigated intensively in recent years in materials science and condensed matter physics. The field developed explosively largely because of the precise theoretical predictions, well-controlled materials processing, and novel characterization techniques. In this Perspective, we review recent progress in topological insulators, the quantum anomalous Hall effect, chiral topological superconductors, helical topological superconductors and Weyl semimetals.

  11. Strongly Correlated Topological Insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-03

    Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 Condensed Matter, Topological Phases of Matter REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER(S...Fractional Quantum Hall effect, but unlike it, can potentially exist in more than 2-dimensional quantum wells. By using a mix of numerical and analytical...intricate surface physics. Another direction we have explored focuses on breaking the barriers of numerical simulations for interacting topological phases

  12. Manufacturing tolerant topology optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Sigmund, Ole

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present an extension of the topology optimization method to include uncertainties during the fabrication of macro, micro and nano structures. More specifically, we consider devices that are manufactured using processes which may result in (uniformly) too thin (eroded) or too thick (dilated) structures compared to the intended topology. Examples are MEMS devices manufactured using etching processes, nano-devices manufactured using e-beam lithography or laser micro-machining an...

  13. Topology optimized microbioreactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schäpper, Daniel; Lencastre Fernandes, Rita; Eliasson Lantz, Anna

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the fusion of two hitherto unrelated fields—microbioreactors and topology optimization. The basis for this study is a rectangular microbioreactor with homogeneously distributed immobilized brewers yeast cells (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) that produce a recombinant protein...... in productivity is at least fivefold compared with the homogeneous reactor. The improvements obtained by applying topology optimization are largest where either nutrition is scarce or inhibition effects are pronounced....

  14. Fibonacci Topological Superconductor

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Yichen; Kane, C. L.

    2017-01-01

    We introduce a model of interacting Majorana fermions that describes a superconducting phase with a topological order characterized by the Fibonacci topological field theory. Our theory, which is based on a $SO(7)_1/(G_2)_1$ coset factorization, leads to a solvable one dimensional model that is extended to two dimensions using a network construction. In addition to providing a description of the Fibonacci phase without parafermions, our theory predicts a closely related "anti-Fibonacci" phase...

  15. Tunable Topological Phononic Crystals

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Ze-Guo

    2016-05-27

    Topological insulators first observed in electronic systems have inspired many analogues in photonic and phononic crystals in which remarkable one-way propagation edge states are supported by topologically nontrivial band gaps. Such band gaps can be achieved by breaking the time-reversal symmetry to lift the degeneracy associated with Dirac cones at the corners of the Brillouin zone. Here, we report on our construction of a phononic crystal exhibiting a Dirac-like cone in the Brillouin zone center. We demonstrate that simultaneously breaking the time-reversal symmetry and altering the geometric size of the unit cell result in a topological transition that we verify by the Chern number calculation and edge-mode analysis. We develop a complete model based on the tight binding to uncover the physical mechanisms of the topological transition. Both the model and numerical simulations show that the topology of the band gap is tunable by varying both the velocity field and the geometric size; such tunability may dramatically enrich the design and use of acoustic topological insulators.

  16. Photonic topological insulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanikaev, Alexander B; Mousavi, S Hossein; Tse, Wang-Kong; Kargarian, Mehdi; MacDonald, Allan H; Shvets, Gennady

    2013-03-01

    Recent progress in understanding the topological properties of condensed matter has led to the discovery of time-reversal-invariant topological insulators. A remarkable and useful property of these materials is that they support unidirectional spin-polarized propagation at their surfaces. Unfortunately topological insulators are rare among solid-state materials. Using suitably designed electromagnetic media (metamaterials) we theoretically demonstrate a photonic analogue of a topological insulator. We show that metacrystals-superlattices of metamaterials with judiciously designed properties-provide a platform for designing topologically non-trivial photonic states, similar to those that have been identified for condensed-matter topological insulators. The interfaces of the metacrystals support helical edge states that exhibit spin-polarized one-way propagation of photons, robust against disorder. Our results demonstrate the possibility of attaining one-way photon transport without application of external magnetic fields or breaking of time-reversal symmetry. Such spin-polarized one-way transport enables exotic spin-cloaked photon sources that do not obscure each other.

  17. Superconducting doped topological materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, Satoshi, E-mail: sasaki@sanken.osaka-u.ac.jp [Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research, Osaka University, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Mizushima, Takeshi, E-mail: mizushima@mp.es.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Materials Engineering Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan); Department of Physics, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Studies on both normal- and SC-state properties of doped topological materials. • Odd-parity pairing systems with the time-reversal-invariance. • Robust superconductivity in the presence of nonmagnetic impurity scattering. • We propose experiments to identify the existence of Majorana fermions in these SCs. - Abstract: Recently, the search for Majorana fermions (MFs) has become one of the most important and exciting issues in condensed matter physics since such an exotic quasiparticle is expected to potentially give rise to unprecedented quantum phenomena whose functional properties will be used to develop future quantum technology. Theoretically, the MFs may reside in various types of topological superconductor materials that is characterized by the topologically protected gapless surface state which are essentially an Andreev bound state. Superconducting doped topological insulators and topological crystalline insulators are promising candidates to harbor the MFs. In this review, we discuss recent progress and understanding on the research of MFs based on time-reversal-invariant superconducting topological materials to deepen our understanding and have a better outlook on both the search for and realization of MFs in these systems. We also discuss some advantages of these bulk systems to realize MFs including remarkable superconducting robustness against nonmagnetic impurities.

  18. Essentials of topology with applications

    CERN Document Server

    Krantz, Steven G

    2009-01-01

    Fundamentals What Is Topology? First Definitions Mappings The Separation Axioms Compactness Homeomorphisms Connectedness Path-Connectedness Continua Totally Disconnected Spaces The Cantor Set Metric Spaces Metrizability Baire's Theorem Lebesgue's Lemma and Lebesgue NumbersAdvanced Properties of Topological Spaces Basis and Sub-Basis Product Spaces Relative Topology First Countable, Second Countable, and So ForthCompactifications Quotient Topologies Uniformities Morse Theory Proper Mappings Paracompactness An Application to Digital ImagingBasic Algebraic Topology Homotopy Theory Homology Theory

  19. Rényi entropies and topological quantum numbers in 2D gapped Dirac materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolívar, Juan Carlos; Romera, Elvira, E-mail: eromera@ugr.es

    2017-05-25

    New topological quantum numbers are introduced by analyzing complexity measures and relative Rényi entropies in silicene in the presence of perpendicular electric and magnetic fields. These topological quantum numbers characterize the topological insulator and band insulator phases in silicene. In addition, we have found that, these information measures reach extremum values at the charge neutrality points. These results are valid for other 2D gapped Dirac materials analogous to silicene with a buckled honeycomb structure and a significant spin-orbit coupling. - Highlights: • Topological quantum numbers (Chern-like numbers) by Rényi entropies in silicene. • These topological numbers characterize silicene topological and band insulator phases. • These information measures reach extremum values at the charge neutrality points. • These results are valid for other 2D gapped Dirac materials analogous to silicene.

  20. Pseudorapidity Distribution of Charged Particles and Square Speed of Sound Parameter in p-p or p-p- Collisions over an Energy Range from 0.053 to 7 TeV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Qin Gao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pseudorapidity distributions of charged particles produced in proton-proton (p-p or proton-antiproton (p-p- collisions over an energy range from 0.053 to 7 TeV are studied by using the four-component Landau hydrodynamic model. The results calculated by the model are in agreement with the experimental data of the UA5, PHOBOS, UA1, P238, CDF, ALICE, and CMS Collaborations which present orderly from low to high energies. According to the distribution widths of different components, the values and some features of square speed of sound parameter cs2 for “participant” and “spectator” quark components are obtained. It is shown that the speed of sound for “participant” quark components agrees approximately with that for “spectator” quark components in the error ranges. The present work is useful for studying nucleus-nucleus collisions in the related energy range.

  1. Topology optimization for nano-photonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard; Sigmund, Ole

    2011-01-01

    Topology optimization is a computational tool that can be used for the systematic design of photonic crystals, waveguides, resonators, filters and plasmonics. The method was originally developed for mechanical design problems but has within the last six years been applied to a range of photonics...... applications. Topology optimization may be based on finite element and finite difference type modeling methods in both frequency and time domain. The basic idea is that the material density of each element or grid point is a design variable, hence the geometry is parameterized in a pixel-like fashion....... The optimization problem is efficiently solved using mathematical programming-based optimization methods and analytical gradient calculations. The paper reviews the basic procedures behind topology optimization, a large number of applications ranging from photonic crystal design to surface plasmonic devices...

  2. Simple PWM modulator topology with excellent dynamic behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Søren; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.

    2004-01-01

    This paper proposes a new PWM modulator topology. The modulator is used in switch mode audio power amplifiers, but the topology can be used in a wide range of applications. Due to excellent transient behavior, the modulator is very suited for VRMs or other types of DC-DC or DC-AC applications....

  3. A precise measurement of the muon neutrino-nucleon inclusive charged current cross section off an isoscalar target in the energy range 2.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Q.; Mishra, S. R.; Godley, A.; Petti, R.; Alekhin, S.; Astier, P.; Autiero, D.; Baldisseri, A.; Baldo-Ceolin, M.; Banner, M.; Bassompierre, G.; Benslama, K.; Besson, N.; Bird, I.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bobisut, F.; Bouchez, J.; Boyd, S.; Bueno, A.; Bunyatov, S.; Camilleri, L.; Cardini, A.; Cattaneo, P. W.; Cavasinni, V.; Cervera-Villanueva, A.; Challis, R.; Chukanov, A.; Collazuol, G.; Conforto, G.; Conta, C.; Contalbrigo, M.; Cousins, R.; Degaudenzi, H.; Del Prete, T.; de Santo, A.; di Lella, L.; Do Couto E Silva, E.; Dumarchez, J.; Ellis, M.; Feldman, G. J.; Ferrari, R.; Ferrère, D.; Flaminio, V.; Fraternali, M.; Gaillard, J.-M.; Gangler, E.; Geiser, A.; Geppert, D.; Gibin, D.; Gninenko, S.; Gomez-Cadenas, J.-J.; Gosset, J.; Gößling, C.; Gouanère, M.; Grant, A.; Graziani, G.; Guglielmi, A.; Hagner, C.; Hernando, J.; Hurst, P.; Hyett, N.; Iacopini, E.; Joseph, C.; Juget, F.; Kent, N.; Kim, J. J.; Kirsanov, M.; Klimov, O.; Kokkonen, J.; Kovzelev, A.; Krasnoperov, A.; Kulagin, S.; Lacaprara, S.; Lachaud, C.; Lakić, B.; Lanza, A.; La Rotonda, L.; Laveder, M.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Levy, J.-M.; Ling, J.; Linssen, L.; Ljubič, A.; Long, J.; Lupi, A.; Lyubushkin, V.; Marchionni, A.; Martelli, F.; Méchain, X.; Mendiburu, J.-P.; Meyer, J.-P.; Mezzetto, M.; Moorhead, G. F.; Naumov, D.; Nédélec, P.; Nefedov, Yu.; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Orestano, D.; Pastore, F.; Peak, L. S.; Pennacchio, E.; Pessard, H.; Placci, A.; Polesello, G.; Pollmann, D.; Polyarush, A.; Poulsen, C.; Popov, B.; Rebuffi, L.; Rico, J.; Riemann, P.; Roda, C.; Rubbia, A.; Salvatore, F.; Samoylov, O.; Schahmaneche, K.; Schmidt, B.; Schmidt, T.; Sconza, A.; Seaton, M.; Sevior, M.; Sillou, D.; Soler, F. J. P.; Sozzi, G.; Steele, D.; Stiegler, U.; Stipčević, M.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Tareb-Reyes, M.; Taylor, G. N.; Tereshchenko, V.; Toropin, A.; Touchard, A.-M.; Tovey, S. N.; Tran, M.-T.; Tsesmelis, E.; Ulrichs, J.; Vacavant, L.; Valdata-Nappi, M.; Valuev, V.; Vannucci, F.; Varvell, K. E.; Veltri, M.; Vercesi, V.; Vidal-Sitjes, G.; Vieira, J.-M.; Vinogradova, T.; Weber, F. V.; Weisse, T.; Wilson, F. F.; Winton, L. J.; Yabsley, B. D.; Zaccone, H.; Zuber, K.; Zuccon, P.; NOMAD Collaboration

    2008-02-01

    We present a measurement of the muon neutrino-nucleon inclusive charged current cross section, off an isoscalar target, in the neutrino energy range 2.5 ⩽Eν ⩽ 40 GeV. The significance of this measurement is its precision, ±4% in 2.5 ⩽Eν ⩽ 10 GeV, and ±2.6% in 10 ⩽Eν ⩽ 40 GeV regions, where significant uncertainties in previous experiments still exist, and its importance to the current and proposed long baseline neutrino oscillation experiments.

  4. A precise measurement of the muon neutrino nucleon inclusive charged current cross section off an isoscalar target in the energy range 2.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    NOMAD Collaboration; Wu, Q.; Mishra, S. R.; Godley, A.; Petti, R.; Alekhin, S.; Astier, P.; Autiero, D.; Baldisseri, A.; Baldo-Ceolin, M.; Banner, M.; Bassompierre, G.; Benslama, K.; Besson, N.; Bird, I.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bobisut, F.; Bouchez, J.; Boyd, S.; Bueno, A.; Bunyatov, S.; Camilleri, L.; Cardini, A.; Cattaneo, P. W.; Cavasinni, V.; Cervera-Villanueva, A.; Challis, R.; Chukanov, A.; Collazuol, G.; Conforto, G.; Conta, C.; Contalbrigo, M.; Cousins, R.; Degaudenzi, H.; Del Prete, T.; de Santo, A.; di Lella, L.; Do Couto E Silva, E.; Dumarchez, J.; Ellis, M.; Feldman, G. J.; Ferrari, R.; Ferrère, D.; Flaminio, V.; Fraternali, M.; Gaillard, J.-M.; Gangler, E.; Geiser, A.; Geppert, D.; Gibin, D.; Gninenko, S.; Gomez-Cadenas, J.-J.; Gosset, J.; Gößling, C.; Gouanère, M.; Grant, A.; Graziani, G.; Guglielmi, A.; Hagner, C.; Hernando, J.; Hurst, P.; Hyett, N.; Iacopini, E.; Joseph, C.; Juget, F.; Kent, N.; Kim, J. J.; Kirsanov, M.; Klimov, O.; Kokkonen, J.; Kovzelev, A.; Krasnoperov, A.; Kulagin, S.; Lacaprara, S.; Lachaud, C.; Lakić, B.; Lanza, A.; La Rotonda, L.; Laveder, M.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Levy, J.-M.; Ling, J.; Linssen, L.; Ljubič, A.; Long, J.; Lupi, A.; Lyubushkin, V.; Marchionni, A.; Martelli, F.; Méchain, X.; Mendiburu, J.-P.; Meyer, J.-P.; Mezzetto, M.; Moorhead, G. F.; Naumov, D.; Nédélec, P.; Nefedov, Yu.; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Orestano, D.; Pastore, F.; Peak, L. S.; Pennacchio, E.; Pessard, H.; Placci, A.; Polesello, G.; Pollmann, D.; Polyarush, A.; Poulsen, C.; Popov, B.; Rebuffi, L.; Rico, J.; Riemann, P.; Roda, C.; Rubbia, A.; Salvatore, F.; Samoylov, O.; Schahmaneche, K.; Schmidt, B.; Schmidt, T.; Sconza, A.; Seaton, M.; Sevior, M.; Sillou, D.; Soler, F. J. P.; Sozzi, G.; Steele, D.; Stiegler, U.; Stipčević, M.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Tareb-Reyes, M.; Taylor, G. N.; Tereshchenko, V.; Toropin, A.; Touchard, A.-M.; Tovey, S. N.; Tran, M.-T.; Tsesmelis, E.; Ulrichs, J.; Vacavant, L.; Valdata-Nappi, M.; Valuev, V.; Vannucci, F.; Varvell, K. E.; Veltri, M.; Vercesi, V.; Vidal-Sitjes, G.; Vieira, J.-M.; Vinogradova, T.; Weber, F. V.; Weisse, T.; Wilson, F. F.; Winton, L. J.; Yabsley, B. D.; Zaccone, H.; Zuber, K.; Zuccon, P.

    2008-02-01

    We present a measurement of the muon neutrino nucleon inclusive charged current cross section, off an isoscalar target, in the neutrino energy range 2.5⩽E⩽40 GeV. The significance of this measurement is its precision, ±4% in 2.5⩽E⩽10 GeV, and ±2.6% in 10⩽E⩽40 GeV regions, where significant uncertainties in previous experiments still exist, and its importance to the current and proposed long baseline neutrino oscillation experiments.

  5. Countable Fuzzy Topological Space and Countable Fuzzy Topological Vector Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apu Kumar Saha

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with countable fuzzy topological spaces, a generalization of the notion of fuzzy topological spaces. A collection of fuzzy sets F on a universe X forms a countable fuzzy topology if in the definition of a fuzzy topology, the condition of arbitrary supremum is relaxed to countable supremum. In this generalized fuzzy structure, the continuity of fuzzy functions and some other related properties are studied. Also the class of countable fuzzy topological vector spaces as a generalization of the class of fuzzy topological vector spaces has been introduced and investigated.

  6. Definition of topological susceptibility via lattice anomalous Ward identities and its perturbative tail

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bochicchio, M.

    1984-09-01

    The lattice definition of topological charge density suggested by the U(1)A anomalous Ward identity is considered. It is proved that the associated topological susceptibility has no perturbative tail in the chiral limit (zero renormalized quark mass) by studying the infrared properties of perturbative lattice QCD.

  7. On the definition of topological susceptibility via lattice-anomalous ward identities and its perturbative tail

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bochicchio, M.

    1986-07-07

    We consider the lattice definition of the topological charge density suggested by the U(1)sub(A) anomalous Ward identity. We prove that the associated topological susceptibility has no perturbative tail in the ''chiral limit'' (zero renormalized quark mass) by studying the infrared properties of perturbative lattice QCD.

  8. Topological selections for V0 (K0s, Lambda) and Cascade (Xi, Omega) reconstruction in ALICE

    CERN Multimedia

    Maire, Antonin

    2011-01-01

    The figures are illustrations of topological selections used by ALICE to reconstruct ϕ(1020), V0 particles (K°s and Λ, single-strange particles) and cascades (Ξ- and Ω-, charged multi-strange baryons).

  9. Topology optimized microbioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäpper, Daniel; Lencastre Fernandes, Rita; Lantz, Anna Eliasson; Okkels, Fridolin; Bruus, Henrik; Gernaey, Krist V

    2011-04-01

    This article presents the fusion of two hitherto unrelated fields--microbioreactors and topology optimization. The basis for this study is a rectangular microbioreactor with homogeneously distributed immobilized brewers yeast cells (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) that produce a recombinant protein. Topology optimization is then used to change the spatial distribution of cells in the reactor in order to optimize for maximal product flow out of the reactor. This distribution accounts for potentially negative effects of, for example, by-product inhibition. We show that the theoretical improvement in productivity is at least fivefold compared with the homogeneous reactor. The improvements obtained by applying topology optimization are largest where either nutrition is scarce or inhibition effects are pronounced. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Riemann, topology, and physics

    CERN Document Server

    Monastyrsky, Michael I

    2008-01-01

    This significantly expanded second edition of Riemann, Topology, and Physics combines a fascinating account of the life and work of Bernhard Riemann with a lucid discussion of current interaction between topology and physics. The author, a distinguished mathematical physicist, takes into account his own research at the Riemann archives of Göttingen University and developments over the last decade that connect Riemann with numerous significant ideas and methods reflected throughout contemporary mathematics and physics. Special attention is paid in part one to results on the Riemann–Hilbert problem and, in part two, to discoveries in field theory and condensed matter such as the quantum Hall effect, quasicrystals, membranes with nontrivial topology, "fake" differential structures on 4-dimensional Euclidean space, new invariants of knots and more. In his relatively short lifetime, this great mathematician made outstanding contributions to nearly all branches of mathematics; today Riemann’s name appears prom...

  11. Algebraic topology and concurrency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fajstrup, Lisbeth; Raussen, Martin; Goubault, Eric

    2006-01-01

    We show in this article that some concepts from homotopy theory, in algebraic topology,are relevant for studying concurrent programs. We exhibit a natural semantics of semaphore programs, based on partially ordered topological spaces, which are studied up to “elastic deformation” or homotopy...... differences between ordinary and directed homotopy through examples. We also relate the topological view to a combinatorial view of concurrent programs closer to transition systems, through the notion of a cubical set. Finally we apply some of these concepts to the proof of the safeness of a two......-phase protocol, well-known and used in concurrent database theory. We end up with a list of problems from both a mathematical and a computer-scientific point of view....

  12. The Topological Vertex

    CERN Document Server

    Aganagic, M; Marino, M; Vafa, C; Aganagic, Mina; Klemm, Albrecht; Marino, Marcos; Vafa, Cumrun

    2005-01-01

    We construct a cubic field theory which provides all genus amplitudes of the topological A-model for all non-compact Calabi-Yau toric threefolds. The topology of a given Feynman diagram encodes the topology of a fixed Calabi-Yau, with Schwinger parameters playing the role of Kahler classes of Calabi-Yau. We interpret this result as an operator computation of the amplitudes in the B-model mirror which is the Kodaira-Spencer quantum theory. The only degree of freedom of this theory is an unconventional chiral scalar on a Riemann surface. In this setup we identify the B-branes on the mirror Riemann surface as fermions related to the chiral boson by bosonization.

  13. Topology, calculus and approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Komornik, Vilmos

    2017-01-01

    Presenting basic results of topology, calculus of several variables, and approximation theory which are rarely treated in a single volume, this textbook includes several beautiful, but almost forgotten, classical theorems of Descartes, Erdős, Fejér, Stieltjes, and Turán. The exposition style of Topology, Calculus and Approximation follows the Hungarian mathematical tradition of Paul Erdős and others. In the first part, the classical results of Alexandroff, Cantor, Hausdorff, Helly, Peano, Radon, Tietze and Urysohn illustrate the theories of metric, topological and normed spaces. Following this, the general framework of normed spaces and Carathéodory's definition of the derivative are shown to simplify the statement and proof of various theorems in calculus and ordinary differential equations. The third and final part is devoted to interpolation, orthogonal polynomials, numerical integration, asymptotic expansions and the numerical solution of algebraic and differential equations. Students of both pure an...

  14. A topology on inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria D'Aristotile

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available We consider sets of inequalities in Real Analysis and construct a topology such that inequalities usually called "limit cases" of certain sequences of inequalities are in fact limits - in the precise topological sense - of such sequences. To show the generality of the results, several examples are given for the notions introduced, and three main examples are considered: Sequences of inequalities relating real numbers, sequences of classical Hardy's inequalities, and sequences of embedding inequalities for fractional Sobolev spaces. All examples are considered along with their limit cases, and it is shown how they can be considered as sequences of one "big" space of inequalities. As a byproduct, we show how an abstract process to derive inequalities among homogeneous operators can be a tool for proving inequalities. Finally, we give some tools to compute limits of sequences of inequalities in the topology introduced, and we exhibit new applications.

  15. Switching of chiral magnetic skyrmions by picosecond magnetic field pulses via transient topological states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Changhoon; Kiselev, Nikolai S.; Nandy, Ashis Kumar; Blügel, Stefan; Rasing, Theo

    2016-06-01

    Magnetic chiral skyrmions are vortex like spin structures that appear as stable or meta-stable states in magnetic materials due to the interplay between the symmetric and antisymmetric exchange interactions, applied magnetic field and/or uniaxial anisotropy. Their small size and internal stability make them prospective objects for data storage but for this, the controlled switching between skyrmion states of opposite polarity and topological charge is essential. Here we present a study of magnetic skyrmion switching by an applied magnetic field pulse based on a discrete model of classical spins and atomistic spin dynamics. We found a finite range of coupling parameters corresponding to the coexistence of two degenerate isolated skyrmions characterized by mutually inverted spin structures with opposite polarity and topological charge. We demonstrate how for a wide range of material parameters a short inclined magnetic field pulse can initiate the reliable switching between these states at GHz rates. Detailed analysis of the switching mechanism revealed the complex path of the system accompanied with the excitation of a chiral-achiral meron pair and the formation of an achiral skyrmion.

  16. Switching of chiral magnetic skyrmions by picosecond magnetic field pulses via transient topological states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Changhoon; Kiselev, Nikolai S.; Nandy, Ashis Kumar; Blügel, Stefan; Rasing, Theo

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic chiral skyrmions are vortex like spin structures that appear as stable or meta-stable states in magnetic materials due to the interplay between the symmetric and antisymmetric exchange interactions, applied magnetic field and/or uniaxial anisotropy. Their small size and internal stability make them prospective objects for data storage but for this, the controlled switching between skyrmion states of opposite polarity and topological charge is essential. Here we present a study of magnetic skyrmion switching by an applied magnetic field pulse based on a discrete model of classical spins and atomistic spin dynamics. We found a finite range of coupling parameters corresponding to the coexistence of two degenerate isolated skyrmions characterized by mutually inverted spin structures with opposite polarity and topological charge. We demonstrate how for a wide range of material parameters a short inclined magnetic field pulse can initiate the reliable switching between these states at GHz rates. Detailed analysis of the switching mechanism revealed the complex path of the system accompanied with the excitation of a chiral-achiral meron pair and the formation of an achiral skyrmion. PMID:27273157

  17. Coherent topological phenomena in protein folding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Henrik; Brunak, Søren; Bohr, Jakob

    1997-01-01

    A theory is presented for coherent topological phenomena in protein dynamics with implications for protein folding and stability. We discuss the relationship to the writhing number used in knot diagrams of DNA. The winding state defines a long-range order along the backbone of a protein with long...

  18. The complex hierarchical topology of EEG functional connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Keith; Escudero, Javier

    2017-01-30

    Understanding the complex hierarchical topology of functional brain networks is a key aspect of functional connectivity research. Such topics are obscured by the widespread use of sparse binary network models which are fundamentally different to the complete weighted networks derived from functional connectivity. We introduce two techniques to probe the hierarchical complexity of topologies. Firstly, a new metric to measure hierarchical complexity; secondly, a Weighted Complex Hierarchy (WCH) model. To thoroughly evaluate our techniques, we generalise sparse binary network archetypes to weighted forms and explore the main topological features of brain networks - integration, regularity and modularity - using curves over density. By controlling the parameters of our model, the highest complexity is found to arise between a random topology and a strict 'class-based' topology. Further, the model has equivalent complexity to EEG phase-lag networks at peak performance. Hierarchical complexity attains greater magnitude and range of differences between different networks than the previous commonly used complexity metric and our WCH model offers a much broader range of network topology than the standard scale-free and small-world models at a full range of densities. Our metric and model provide a rigorous characterisation of hierarchical complexity. Importantly, our framework shows a scale of complexity arising between 'all nodes are equal' topologies at one extreme and 'strict class-based' topologies at the other. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Lattice structures integration with conventional topology optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, M.; Primo, T.; Del Prete, A.

    2017-10-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) processes enable the production of functional parts with complex geometries, multi-materials as well as individualized mass production. Another significant benefit of AM is the ability to produce optimized geometries with near perfect strength to weight ratios. For several years now, the topology optimization techniques assist the designers in order to develop components that have a good material distribution in order to reduce the weight ensuring the request stiffness. Therefore, the topology optimization generates concepts based on the subtractive approach and usually these geometries require a further post processing in order to obtain a geometry "ready to produce" that represents a compromise between the topologic result and the manufacturing constraints. The advent of the AM opens new scenarios in terms of definition of innovative geometries that are not feasible with the conventional processes (such as lattice structures). In order to exploit the AM capabilities, new topology optimization tools are emerging that allow to define innovative concepts that could reach structural performance greater than the result obtainable with conventional topology optimization. In this paper the Authors have studied a new concept design and the performance improvement, of PIN installation equipment, used for thin-walled aerospace workpiece, in order to solve critical dimensioning issues, due to the overcoming of the allowable range tolerances (strain and displacement). Topology optimization has been applied in order to define a new concept design able to satisfy the functionality requirements. Moreover, it has been conducted a study to evaluate the possible advantages offered by the integration of the lattice structure in the topology design in order to improve the performance in terms of weight and structural characteristics.

  20. Filters in topology optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourdin, Blaise

    1999-01-01

    In this article, a modified (``filtered'') version of the minimum compliance topology optimization problem is studied. The direct dependence of the material properties on its pointwise density is replaced by a regularization of the density field using a convolution operator. In this setting...... it is possible to establish the existence of solutions. Moreover, convergence of an approximation by means of finite elements can be obtained. This is illustrated through some numerical experiments. The ``filtering'' technique is also shown to cope with two important numerical problems in topology optimization...

  1. Free topological vector spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriyelyan, Saak S.; Morris, Sidney A.

    2016-01-01

    We define and study the free topological vector space $\\mathbb{V}(X)$ over a Tychonoff space $X$. We prove that $\\mathbb{V}(X)$ is a $k_\\omega$-space if and only if $X$ is a $k_\\omega$-space. If $X$ is infinite, then $\\mathbb{V}(X)$ contains a closed vector subspace which is topologically isomorphic to $\\mathbb{V}(\\mathbb{N})$. It is proved that if $X$ is a $k$-space, then $\\mathbb{V}(X)$ is locally convex if and only if $X$ is discrete and countable. If $X$ is a metrizable space it is shown ...

  2. Topology optimization approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigmund, Ole; Maute, Kurt

    2013-01-01

    Topology optimization has undergone a tremendous development since its introduction in the seminal paper by Bendsøe and Kikuchi in 1988. By now, the concept is developing in many different directions, including “density”, “level set”, “topological derivative”, “phase field”, “evolutionary” and se......” and several others. The paper gives an overview, comparison and critical review of the different approaches, their strengths, weaknesses, similarities and dissimilarities and suggests guidelines for future research....

  3. Topology in Condensed Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Monastyrsky, M I

    2006-01-01

    This book reports new results in condensed matter physics for which topological methods and ideas are important. It considers, on the one hand, recently discovered systems such as carbon nanocrystals and, on the other hand, new topological methods used to describe more traditional systems such as the Fermi surfaces of normal metals, liquid crystals and quasicrystals. The authors of the book are renowned specialists in their fields and present the results of ongoing research, some of it obtained only very recently and not yet published in monograph form.

  4. Microscopic Theory of Surface Topological Order for Topological Crystalline Superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Meng

    2018-01-01

    We construct microscopic Hamiltonians for symmetry-preserving topologically ordered states on the surface of topological crystalline superconductors, protected by a Z2 reflection symmetry. Starting from ν Majorana cones on the surface, we show that the semion-fermion topological order emerges for ν =2 , and more generally, SO (ν )ν topological order for all ν ≥2 and Sp (n )n for ν =2 n when n ≥2 .

  5. Bistable Topological Insulator with Exciton-Polaritons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartashov, Yaroslav V.; Skryabin, Dmitry V.

    2017-12-01

    The functionality of many nonlinear and quantum optical devices relies on the effect of optical bistability. Using microcavity exciton-polaritons in a honeycomb arrangement of microcavity pillars, we report the resonance response and bistability of topological edge states. A balance between the pump, loss, and nonlinearity ensures a broad range of dynamical stability and controls the distribution of power between counterpropagating states on the opposite edges of the honeycomb lattice stripe. Tuning energy and polarization of the pump photons, while keeping their momentum constant, we demonstrate control of the propagation direction of the dominant edge state. Our results facilitate the development of practical applications of topological photonics.

  6. Ranking beta sheet topologies with applications to protein structure prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonseca, Rasmus; Helles, Glennie; Winter, Pawel

    2011-01-01

    One reason why ab initio protein structure predictors do not perform very well is their inability to reliably identify long-range interactions between amino acids. To achieve reliable long-range interactions, all potential pairings of ß-strands (ß-topologies) of a given protein are enumerated...... of this paper is a method to deal with the inaccuracies of secondary structure predictors when enumerating potential ß-topologies. The results reported in this paper are highly relevant for ab initio protein structure prediction methods based on decoy generation. They indicate that decoy generation can......, consistently top-ranks native ß-topologies. Since the number of potential ß-topologies grows exponentially with the number of ß-strands, it is unrealistic to expect that all potential ß-topologies can be enumerated for large proteins. The second result of this paper is an enumeration scheme of a subset of ß...

  7. Electrical resistance of individual defects at a topological insulator surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüpke, Felix; Eschbach, Markus; Heider, Tristan; Lanius, Martin; Schüffelgen, Peter; Rosenbach, Daniel; von den Driesch, Nils; Cherepanov, Vasily; Mussler, Gregor; Plucinski, Lukasz; Grützmacher, Detlev; Schneider, Claus M.; Voigtländer, Bert

    2017-06-01

    Three-dimensional topological insulators host surface states with linear dispersion, which manifest as a Dirac cone. Nanoscale transport measurements provide direct access to the transport properties of the Dirac cone in real space and allow the detailed investigation of charge carrier scattering. Here we use scanning tunnelling potentiometry to analyse the resistance of different kinds of defects at the surface of a (Bi0.53Sb0.47)2Te3 topological insulator thin film. We find the largest localized voltage drop to be located at domain boundaries in the topological insulator film, with a resistivity about four times higher than that of a step edge. Furthermore, we resolve resistivity dipoles located around nanoscale voids in the sample surface. The influence of such defects on the resistance of the topological surface state is analysed by means of a resistor network model. The effect resulting from the voids is found to be small compared with the other defects.

  8. Global topology of Weyl semimetals and Fermi arcs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathai, Varghese; Thiang, Guo Chuan

    2017-03-01

    We provide a manifestly topological classification scheme for generalised Weyl semimetals, in any spatial dimension and with arbitrary Weyl surfaces which may be non-trivially linked. The classification naturally incorporates that of Chern insulators. Our analysis refines, in a mathematically precise sense, some well-known 3D constructions to account for subtle but important global aspects of the topology of semimetals. Using a fundamental locality principle, we derive a generalized charge cancellation condition for the Weyl surface components. We analyse the bulk-boundary correspondence under a duality transformation, which reveals explicitly the topological nature of the resulting surface Fermi arcs. We also analyse the effect of moving Weyl points on the bulk and boundary topological semimetal invariants.

  9. Topological states and quantized current in helical organic molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ai-Min; Sun, Qing-Feng

    2017-04-01

    We report a theoretical study of electron transport along helical organic molecules subject to an external electric field which is perpendicular to molecular helix axis. Our results reveal that topological states can appear in single-helical molecules as well as double-stranded DNA under the perpendicular electric field. In particular, a topological charge pumping can be realized by rotating the electric field in the transverse plane, where during each pumping cycle, an integer number of electrons can transport across the helical molecules at zero bias voltage, with pumped current being quantized. The quantized current constitutes multiple plateaus by scanning the Fermi energy as well as the bias voltage, and holds for various model parameters, since the edge states are topologically protected. These results could pave the way to explore topological states and quantized current in the biological systems and the helical molecules, and help in designing stable molecular devices.

  10. Linear topologies and sequential compactness in topological modules

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We prove that an absolute semi-valued ring is rst-countable if the set of invertibles is separable and its closure contains 0. We also show that every linearly topologized topological module over an absolute semi-valued ring whose invertibles approach 0 has the trivial topology. We also show that every sequentially compact ...

  11. Aharonov–Bohm interference in topological insulator nanoribbons

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Hailin

    2009-12-13

    Topological insulators represent unusual phases of quantum matter with an insulating bulk gap and gapless edges or surface states. The two-dimensional topological insulator phase was predicted in HgTe quantum wells and confirmed by transport measurements. Recently, Bi2 Se3 and related materials have been proposed as three-dimensional topological insulators with a single Dirac cone on the surface, protected by time-reversal symmetry. The topological surface states have been observed by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy experiments. However, few transport measurements in this context have been reported, presumably owing to the predominance of bulk carriers from crystal defects or thermal excitations. Here we show unambiguous transport evidence of topological surface states through periodic quantum interference effects in layered single-crystalline Bi2 Se3 nanoribbons, which have larger surface-to-volume ratios than bulk materials and can therefore manifest surface effects. Pronounced Aharonov-Bohm oscillations in the magnetoresistance clearly demonstrate the coherent propagation of two-dimensional electrons around the perimeter of the nanoribbon surface, as expected from the topological nature of the surface states. The dominance of the primary h/e oscillation, where h is Plancks constant and e is the electron charge, and its temperature dependence demonstrate the robustness of these states. Our results suggest that topological insulator nanoribbons afford promising materials for future spintronic devices at room temperature.

  12. Ranking beta sheet topologies of proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonseca, Rasmus; Helles, Glennie; Winter, Pawel

    2010-01-01

    One of the challenges of protein structure prediction is to identify long-range interactions between amino acids. To reliably predict such interactions, we enumerate, score and rank all beta-topologies (partitions of beta-strands into sheets, orderings of strands within sheets and orientations...... of paired strands) of a given protein. We show that the beta-topology corresponding to the native structure is, with high probability, among the top-ranked. Since full enumeration is very time-consuming, we also suggest a method to deal with proteins with many beta-strands. The results reported...... in this paper are highly relevant for ab initio protein structure prediction methods based on decoy generation. The top-ranked beta-topologies can be used to find initial conformations from which conformational searches can be started. They can also be used to filter decoys by removing those with poorly...

  13. Topology optimization of viscoelastic rectifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristian Ejlebjærg; Szabo, Peter; Okkels, Fridolin

    2012-01-01

    An approach for the design of microfluidic viscoelastic rectifiers is presented based on a combination of a viscoelastic model and the method of topology optimization. This presumption free approach yields a material layout topologically different from experimentally realized rectifiers...

  14. Fractional Charge Definitions and Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldhaber, A.S.

    2004-06-04

    Fractional charge is known through theoretical and experimental discoveries of isolable objects carrying fractions of familiar charge units--electric charge Q, spin S, and the difference of baryon and lepton numbers B-L. With a few simple assumptions all these effects may be described using a generalized version of charge renormalization for locally conserved charges, in which medium correlations yield familiar adiabatic, continuous renormalization, or sometimes nonadiabatic, discrete renormalization. Fractional charges may be carried by fundamental particles or fundamental solitons. Either picture works for the simplest fractional-quantum-Hall-effect quasiholes, though the particle description is far more general. The only known fundamental solitons in three or fewer space dimensions d are the kink (d = 1), the vortex (d = 2), and the magnetic monopole (d = 3). Further, for a charge not intrinsically coupled to the topological charge of a soliton, only the kink and the monopole may carry fractional values. The same reasoning enforces fractional values of B-L for electrically charged elementary particles.

  15. LHCb Topological Trigger Reoptimization

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00400931; Ilten, Philip; Khairullin, Egor; Rogozhnikov, Alex; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Williams, Michael

    2015-12-23

    The main b-physics trigger algorithm used by the LHCb experiment is the so-called topological trigger. The topological trigger selects vertices which are a) detached from the primary proton-proton collision and b) compatible with coming from the decay of a b-hadron. In the LHC Run 1, this trigger, which utilized a custom boosted decision tree algorithm, selected a nearly 100% pure sample of b-hadrons with a typical efficiency of 60-70%; its output was used in about 60% of LHCb papers. This talk presents studies carried out to optimize the topological trigger for LHC Run 2. In particular, we have carried out a detailed comparison of various machine learning classifier algorithms, e.g., AdaBoost, MatrixNet and neural networks. The topological trigger algorithm is designed to select all "interesting" decays of b-hadrons, but cannot be trained on every such decay. Studies have therefore been performed to determine how to optimize the performance of the classification algorithm on decays not used in the training. ...

  16. Topological Trigger Developments

    CERN Multimedia

    Likhomanenko, Tatiana

    2015-01-01

    The main b-physics trigger algorithm used by the LHCb experiment is the so-called topological trigger. The topological trigger selects vertices which are a) detached from the primary proton-proton collision and b) compatible with coming from the decay of a b-hadron. In the LHC Run 1, this trigger utilized a custom boosted decision tree algorithm, selected an almost 100% pure sample of b-hadrons with a typical efficiency of 60-70%, and its output was used in about 60% of LHCb papers. This talk presents studies carried out to optimize the topological trigger for LHC Run 2. In particular, we have carried out a detailed comparison of various machine learning classifier algorithms, e.g., AdaBoost, MatrixNet and uBoost. The topological trigger algorithm is designed to select all "interesting" decays of b-hadrons, but cannot be trained on every such decay. Studies have therefore been performed to determine how to optimize the performance of the classification algorithm on decays not used in the training. These inclu...

  17. Degree 3 Networks Topological Routing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gutierrez Lopez, Jose Manuel; Riaz, M. Tahir; Pedersen, Jens Myrup

    2009-01-01

    Topological routing is a table free alternative to traditional routing methods. It is specially well suited for organized network interconnection schemes. Topological routing algorithms correspond to the type O(1), constant complexity, being very attractive for large scale networks. It has been p...... proposed for many topologies and this work compares the algorithms for three degree three topologies using a more analytical approach than previous studies....

  18. Adjoint entropy vs topological entropy

    OpenAIRE

    Giordano Bruno, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Recently the adjoint algebraic entropy of endomorphisms of abelian groups was introduced and studied. We generalize the notion of adjoint entropy to continuous endomorphisms of topological abelian groups. Indeed, the adjoint algebraic entropy is defined using the family of all finite-index subgroups, while we take only the subfamily of all open finite-index subgroups to define the topological adjoint entropy. This allows us to compare the (topological) adjoint entropy with the known topologic...

  19. Singularities and Topology of Meromorphic Functions

    OpenAIRE

    Tibar, Mihai

    2002-01-01

    We present several aspects of the "topology of meromorphic functions", which we conceive as a general theory which includes the topology of holomorphic functions, the topology of pencils on quasi-projective spaces and the topology of polynomial functions.

  20. The lattice of ordinable topologies

    OpenAIRE

    Pachón Rubiano, Nestor

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate that the ordinable topologies for a set X areprecisely those that occupy the upper part of the lattice of topologies for X, and that they determine a lattice, not always complete or distributive. We also found the amount of complements, and principal complements, for certainordinable topologies, generalizing a known result of P. S. Schnare.

  1. Topological Properties of Superconducting Junctions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pikulin, D.I.; Nazarov, Y.V.

    Motivated by recent developments in the field of one-dimensional topological superconductors, we investigate the topological properties of s-matrix of generic superconducting junctions where dimension should not play any role. We argue that for a finite junction the s-matrix is always topologically

  2. Topological susceptibility in finite temperature (2+1)-flavor QCD using gradient flow

    CERN Document Server

    Taniguchi, Yusuke; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Umeda, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    We compute the topological charge and its susceptibility in finite temperature (2+1)-flavor QCD on the lattice applying a gradient flow method. With the Iwasaki gauge action and non-perturbatively $O(a)$-improved Wilson quarks, we perform simulations on a fine lattice with~$a\\simeq0.07\\,\\mathrm{fm}$ at a heavy $u$, $d$ quark mass with $m_\\pi/m_\\rho\\simeq0.63$ but approximately physical $s$ quark mass of $m_{\\eta_{ss}}/m_\\phi\\simeq0.74$. In a temperature range from~$T\\simeq174\\,\\mathrm{MeV}$ ($N_t=16$) to $697\\,\\mathrm{MeV}$ ($N_t=4$), we study two topics on the topological susceptibility. One is a comparison of gluonic and fermionic definitions of the topological susceptibility. Because the two definitions are related by chiral Ward-Takahashi identities, their equivalence is not trivial for lattice quarks which violate the chiral symmetry explicitly at finite lattice spacings. The gradient flow method enables us to compute them without being bothered by the chiral violation. We find a good agreement between t...

  3. Quantum critical points in tunneling junction of topological superconductor and topological insulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuo, Zheng-Wei, E-mail: zuozw@163.com [School of Physics and Engineering, Henan University of Science and Technology, Luoyang 471003 (China); National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Kang, Da-wei [School of Physics and Engineering, Henan University of Science and Technology, Luoyang 471003 (China); Wang, Zhao-Wu [School of Physics and Engineering, Henan University of Science and Technology, Luoyang 471003 (China); National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Li, Liben [School of Physics and Engineering, Henan University of Science and Technology, Luoyang 471003 (China)

    2016-08-26

    The tunneling junction between one-dimensional topological superconductor and integer (fractional) topological insulator (TI), realized via point contact, is investigated theoretically with bosonization technology and renormalization group methods. For the integer TI case, in a finite range of edge interaction parameter, there is a non-trivial stable fixed point which corresponds to the physical picture that the edge of TI breaks up into two sections at the junction, with one side coupling strongly to the Majorana fermion and exhibiting perfect Andreev reflection, while the other side decouples, exhibiting perfect normal reflection at low energies. This fixed point can be used as a signature of the Majorana fermion and tested by nowadays experiment techniques. For the fractional TI case, the universal low-energy transport properties are described by perfect normal reflection, perfect Andreev reflection, or perfect insulating fixed points dependent on the filling fraction and edge interaction parameter of fractional TI. - Highlights: • Tunneling junctions between topological superconductor and topological insulator are investigated. • There is a non-trivial stable fixed point in integer topological insulator case at low energies. • The edge of topological insulator breaks up into two sections at the junction. • One side couples strongly to the Majorana fermion and exhibits perfect Andreev reflection. • The other side decouples and exhibits perfect normal reflection.

  4. Systematic design of acoustic devices by topology optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard; Sigmund, Ole

    2005-01-01

    We present a method to design acoustic devices with topology optimization. The general algorithm is exemplified by the design of a reflection chamber that minimizes the transmission of acoustic waves in a specified frequency range....

  5. Topological quantum numbers in nonrelativistic physics

    CERN Document Server

    Thouless, David James

    1998-01-01

    Topological quantum numbers are distinguished from quantum numbers based on symmetry because they are insensitive to the imperfections of the systems in which they are observed. They have become very important in precision measurements in recent years, and provide the best measurements of voltage and electrical resistance. This book describes the theory of such quantum numbers, starting with Dirac's argument for the quantization of electric charge, and continuing with discussions on the helium superfluids, flux quantization and the Josephson effect in superconductors, the quantum Hall effect,

  6. Topology and condensed matter physics

    CERN Document Server

    Mj, Mahan; Bandyopadhyay, Abhijit

    2017-01-01

    This book introduces aspects of topology and applications to problems in condensed matter physics. Basic topics in mathematics have been introduced in a form accessible to physicists, and the use of topology in quantum, statistical and solid state physics has been developed with an emphasis on pedagogy. The aim is to bridge the language barrier between physics and mathematics, as well as the different specializations in physics. Pitched at the level of a graduate student of physics, this book does not assume any additional knowledge of mathematics or physics. It is therefore suited for advanced postgraduate students as well. A collection of selected problems will help the reader learn the topics on one's own, and the broad range of topics covered will make the text a valuable resource for practising researchers in the field.  The book consists of two parts: one corresponds to developing the necessary mathematics and the other discusses applications to physical problems. The section on mathematics is a qui...

  7. Topology in SU(2) lattice gauge theory and parallelization of functional magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solbrig, Stefan

    2008-07-01

    In this thesis, I discuss topological properties of quenched SU(2) lattice gauge fields. In particular, clusters of topological charge density exhibit a power-law. The exponent of that power-law can be used to validate models for lattice gauge fields. Instead of working with fixed cutoffs of the topological charge density, using the notion of a ''watermark'' is more convenient. Furthermore, I discuss how a parallel computer, originally designed for lattice gauge field simulations, can be used for functional magnetic resonance imaging. Multi parameter fits can be parallelized to achieve almost real-time evaluation of fMRI data. (orig.)

  8. Undergraduate topology a working textbook

    CERN Document Server

    McCluskey, Aisling

    2014-01-01

    This textbook offers an accessible, modern introduction at undergraduate level to an area known variously as general topology, point-set topology or analytic topology with a particular focus on helping students to build theory for themselves. It is the result of several years of the authors' combined university teaching experience stimulated by sustained interest in advanced mathematical thinking and learning, alongside established research careers in analytic topology. Point-set topology is a discipline that needs relatively little background knowledge, but sufficient determination to grasp i

  9. Topology optimized permanent magnet systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørk, Rasmus; Bahl, Christian; Insinga, Andrea Roberto

    2017-01-01

    Topology optimization of permanent magnet systems consisting of permanent magnets, high permeability iron and air is presented. An implementation of topology optimization for magnetostatics is discussed and three examples are considered. The Halbach cylinder is topology optimized with iron...... and an increase of 15% in magnetic efficiency is shown. A topology optimized structure to concentrate a homogeneous field is shown to increase the magnitude of the field by 111%. Finally, a permanent magnet with alternating high and low field regions is topology optimized and a ΛcoolΛcool figure of merit of 0...

  10. Topology optimized permanent magnet systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørk, R.; Bahl, C. R. H.; Insinga, A. R.

    2017-09-01

    Topology optimization of permanent magnet systems consisting of permanent magnets, high permeability iron and air is presented. An implementation of topology optimization for magnetostatics is discussed and three examples are considered. The Halbach cylinder is topology optimized with iron and an increase of 15% in magnetic efficiency is shown. A topology optimized structure to concentrate a homogeneous field is shown to increase the magnitude of the field by 111%. Finally, a permanent magnet with alternating high and low field regions is topology optimized and a Λcool figure of merit of 0.472 is reached, which is an increase of 100% compared to a previous optimized design.

  11. Ultrafilters and topologies on groups

    CERN Document Server

    Zelenyuk, Yevhen

    2011-01-01

    This book presents the relationship between ultrafilters and topologies on groups. It shows how ultrafilters are used in constructing topologies on groups with extremal properties and how topologies on groups serve in deriving algebraic results aboutultrafilters. Topics covered include: topological and left topological groups, ultrafilter semigroups, local homomorphisms and automorphisms, subgroups and ideal structure of ßG, almost maximal spaces and projectives of finite semigroups, resolvability of groups. This is a self-contained book aimed at graduate students and researchers working in to

  12. Nobel Lecture: Topological quantum matter*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldane, F. Duncan M.

    2017-10-01

    Nobel Lecture, presented December 8, 2016, Aula Magna, Stockholm University. I will describe the history and background of three discoveries cited in this Nobel Prize: The "TKNN" topological formula for the integer quantum Hall effect found by David Thouless and collaborators, the Chern insulator or quantum anomalous Hall effect, and its role in the later discovery of time-reversal-invariant topological insulators, and the unexpected topological spin-liquid state of the spin-1 quantum antiferromagnetic chain, which provided an initial example of topological quantum matter. I will summarize how these early beginnings have led to the exciting, and currently extremely active, field of "topological matter."

  13. EDITORIAL: Topological data analysis Topological data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Charles; Carlsson, Gunnar; Edelsbrunner, Herbert

    2011-12-01

    Inverse problems can be defined as the area of mathematics that attempts to reconstruct a physical or mathematical object from derived data. Frequently, this means the evaluation of parameters or other numerical quantities (such as eigenvalues) that characterize or provide information about the system. There are, however, other aspects of a system that are important, but are not as readily summarized by numerical quantities. If one considers observations of diabetic patients (using metabolic quantities), one will find that the data breaks up into components, or pieces, corresponding to distinct forms of the disease. The decomposition of data sets into disjoint pieces, or clustering, is an aspect of the study of the shape of the data, albeit one that has been extensively studied. A more complex notion of shape appears in observations of a predator-prey system governed by a Lotka-Volterra equation. One would find that exact observations, consisting of (prey population, predator population) pairs, appear to lie along a simple closed curve in the plane. The fact that the data lies along such a closed curve is an important piece of information, since it suggests that the system displays recurrent behavior. If one did not know, a priori, that the system is governed by a Lotka-Volterra equation, then it would not be immediately obvious that the system is undergoing recurrent motion, and this deduction would constitute a significant insight. In this case, it is again the shape of the data, namely the fact that it lies on a simple closed curve, which is the key insight. Shape is a somewhat nebulous concept, which at first blush may be too intuitive to make precise mathematically, and describe quantitatively. Within pure mathematics, the disciplines of topology and differential geometry are designed exactly to address this problem. They provide explicit signatures which, in precise senses, quantify and describe the shape of a geometric object. In addition, they provide

  14. Evidence of Distributed Robust Surface Current Flow in 3D Topological Insulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janghee Lee

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The topologically protected conducting state is expected to exist on the entire surface of three-dimensional topological insulators (TIs. Using concurrent measurements of the local and nonlocal conduction, we provide experimental evidence for the topological robustness of the surface-conducting states of bulk-insulating Bi_{1.5}Sb_{0.5}Te_{1.7}Se_{1.3} crystalline flakes. The detailed investigation of local and nonlocal charge conductance on the top surfaces, combining with the comprehensive numerical simulation, reveals that the charge current is widely distributed over the entire surface of a TI. Our findings show evidence of the presence of the topologically protected conducting state at the side wall with irregularly stacked edges between the top and bottom surfaces. This study provides a reliable means of accurately characterizing the topological surface states with inherent nonlocal surface-dominant conducting channels in a TI.

  15. The topological Anderson insulator phase in the Kane-Mele model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Christoph P; Sekera, Tibor; Bruder, Christoph; Schmidt, Thomas L

    2016-04-05

    It has been proposed that adding disorder to a topologically trivial mercury telluride/cadmium telluride (HgTe/CdTe) quantum well can induce a transition to a topologically nontrivial state. The resulting state was termed topological Anderson insulator and was found in computer simulations of the Bernevig-Hughes-Zhang model. Here, we show that the topological Anderson insulator is a more universal phenomenon and also appears in the Kane-Mele model of topological insulators on a honeycomb lattice. We numerically investigate the interplay of the relevant parameters, and establish the parameter range in which the topological Anderson insulator exists. A staggered sublattice potential turns out to be a necessary condition for the transition to the topological Anderson insulator. For weak enough disorder, a calculation based on the lowest-order Born approximation reproduces quantitatively the numerical data. Our results thus considerably increase the number of candidate materials for the topological Anderson insulator phase.

  16. Edge instabilities of topological superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Johannes S.; Assaad, Fakher F.; Schnyder, Andreas P.

    2016-05-01

    Nodal topological superconductors display zero-energy Majorana flat bands at generic edges. The flatness of these edge bands, which is protected by time-reversal and translation symmetry, gives rise to an extensive ground-state degeneracy. Therefore, even arbitrarily weak interactions lead to an instability of the flat-band edge states towards time-reversal and translation-symmetry-broken phases, which lift the ground-state degeneracy. We examine the instabilities of the flat-band edge states of dx y-wave superconductors by performing a mean-field analysis in the Majorana basis of the edge states. The leading instabilities are Majorana mass terms, which correspond to coherent superpositions of particle-particle and particle-hole channels in the fermionic language. We find that attractive interactions induce three different mass terms. One is a coherent superposition of imaginary s -wave pairing and current order, and another combines a charge-density-wave and finite-momentum singlet pairing. Repulsive interactions, on the other hand, lead to ferromagnetism together with spin-triplet pairing at the edge. Our quantum Monte Carlo simulations confirm these findings and demonstrate that these instabilities occur even in the presence of strong quantum fluctuations. We discuss the implications of our results for experiments on cuprate high-temperature superconductors.

  17. Topological signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Robinson, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Signal processing is the discipline of extracting information from collections of measurements. To be effective, the measurements must be organized and then filtered, detected, or transformed to expose the desired information.  Distortions caused by uncertainty, noise, and clutter degrade the performance of practical signal processing systems. In aggressively uncertain situations, the full truth about an underlying signal cannot be known.  This book develops the theory and practice of signal processing systems for these situations that extract useful, qualitative information using the mathematics of topology -- the study of spaces under continuous transformations.  Since the collection of continuous transformations is large and varied, tools which are topologically-motivated are automatically insensitive to substantial distortion. The target audience comprises practitioners as well as researchers, but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.

  18. Network topology mapper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quist, Daniel A [Los Alamos, NM; Gavrilov, Eugene M [Los Alamos, NM; Fisk, Michael E [Jemez, NM

    2008-01-15

    A method enables the topology of an acyclic fully propagated network to be discovered. A list of switches that comprise the network is formed and the MAC address cache for each one of the switches is determined. For each pair of switches, from the MAC address caches the remaining switches that see the pair of switches are located. For each pair of switches the remaining switches are determined that see one of the pair of switches on a first port and the second one of the pair of switches on a second port. A list of insiders is formed for every pair of switches. It is determined whether the insider for each pair of switches is a graph edge and adjacent ones of the graph edges are determined. A symmetric adjacency matrix is formed from the graph edges to represent the topology of the data link network.

  19. Entanglement and topological interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brehm, E.; Brunner, I.; Jaud, D.; Schmidt-Colinet, C. [Arnold Sommerfeld Center, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Theresienstrasse 37, 80333, Muenchen (Germany)

    2016-06-15

    In this paper we consider entanglement entropies in two-dimensional conformal field theories in the presence of topological interfaces. Tracing over one side of the interface, the leading term of the entropy remains unchanged. The interface however adds a subleading contribution, which can be interpreted as a relative (Kullback-Leibler) entropy with respect to the situation with no defect inserted. Reinterpreting boundaries as topological interfaces of a chiral half of the full theory, we rederive the left/right entanglement entropy in analogy with the interface case. We discuss WZW models and toroidal bosonic theories as examples. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  20. Design as Topology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekman, Ulrik

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the issue of approaching the design of the ubiquitous city as a matter of topology. The general context here is the design of contemporary global urbanity in the form of u-cities, smart cities, or intelligent cities emerging with the second phase of network societies....... It is demonstrated that design as topology offers significant resources with respect to traits of the u-city such as continuous material and energetic flows, its environmental landscaping of mixed realities, its ongoing virtual and physical infrastructural developments, the folding and unfolding of its architecture...... that increasingly develop mixed reality environments with context-aware out-of-the-box computing as well as the soci-ocultural and experiental horizon of a virtually and physically mobile citizenry. Design here must meet an ongoing and exceedingly complex interactivity among environmental, technical, social...

  1. Topology in Molecular Biology

    CERN Document Server

    Monastyrsky, Michail Ilych

    2007-01-01

    The book presents a class of new results in molecular biology for which topological methods and ideas are important. These include: the large-scale conformation properties of DNA; computational methods (Monte Carlo) allowing the simulation of large-scale properties of DNA; the tangle model of DNA recombination and other applications of Knot theory; dynamics of supercoiled DNA and biocatalitic properties of DNA; the structure of proteins; and other very recent problems in molecular biology. The text also provides a short course of modern topology intended for the broad audience of biologists and physicists. The authors are renowned specialists in their fields and some of the new results presented here are documented for the first time in monographic form.

  2. Topologies of climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blok, Anders

    2010-01-01

    Climate change is quickly becoming a ubiquitous socionatural reality, mediating extremes of sociospatial scale from the bodily to the planetary. Although environmentalism invites us to ‘think globally and act locally', the meaning of these scalar designations remains ambiguous. This paper explores...... the topological presuppositions of social theory in the context of global climate change, asking how carbon emissions ‘translate' into various sociomaterial forms. Staging a meeting between Tim Ingold's phenomenology of globes and spheres and the social topologies of actor-network theory (ANT), the paper advances...... a ‘relational-scalar' analytics of spatial practices, technoscience, and power. As technoscience gradually constructs a networked global climate, this ‘grey box' comes to circulate within fluid social spaces, taking on new shades as it hybridizes knowledges, symbols, and practices. Global climates thus come...

  3. Measurement of Neutrino Induced, Charged Current, Charged Pion Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilking, Michael Joseph [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2009-05-01

    Neutrinos are among the least understood particles in the standard model of particle physics. At neutrino energies in the 1 GeV range, neutrino properties are typically determined by observing the outgoing charged lepton produced in a charged current quasi-elastic interactions. The largest charged current background to these measurements comes from charged current pion production interactions, for which there is very little available data.

  4. Topological susceptibility near $T_{c}$ in SU(3) gauge theory

    CERN Document Server

    Xiong, Guang-Yi; Chen, Ying; Liu, Chuan; Liu, Yu-Bin; Ma, Jian-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Topological charge susceptibility $\\chi_{t}$ for pure gauge SU(3) theory at finite temperature is studied using anisotropic lattices. The over-improved stout-link smoothing method is utilized to calculate the topological charge. Near the phase transition point we find a rapid declining behavior for $\\chi_{t}$ with values decreasing from $(188(1)\\mathrm{MeV})^{4}$ to $(67(3)\\mathrm{MeV})^{4}$ as the temperature increased from zero temperature to $1.9T_{c}$ which demonstrates the existence of topological excitations far above $T_{c}$. The 4th order cumulant $c_4$ of topological charge, as well as the ratio $c_4/\\chi_t$ are also investigated. Results of $c_4$ show step-like behavior near $T_c$ while the ratio at high temperature agrees with the value as predicted by the diluted instanton gas model.

  5. Gods as Topological Invariants

    CERN Document Server

    Schoch, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    We show that the number of gods in a universe must equal the Euler characteristics of its underlying manifold. By incorporating the classical cosmological argument for creation, this result builds a bridge between theology and physics and makes theism a testable hypothesis. Theological implications are profound since the theorem gives us new insights in the topological structure of heavens and hells. Recent astronomical observations can not reject theism, but data are slightly in favor of atheism.

  6. The topology of fullerenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwerdtfeger, Peter; Wirz, Lukas; Avery, James Emil

    2014-01-01

    Fullerenes are carbon molecules that form polyhedral cages. Their bond structures are exactly the planar cubic graphs that have only pentagon and hexagon faces. Strikingly, a number of chemical properties of a fullerene can be derived from its graph structure. A rich mathematics of cubic planar g....... In this paper, we present a general overview of recent topological and graph theoretical developments in fullerene research over the past two decades, describing both solved and open problems....

  7. Technologies for converter topologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yan; Zhang, Haiyu

    2017-02-28

    In some embodiments of the disclosed inverter topologies, an inverter may include a full bridge LLC resonant converter, a first boost converter, and a second boost converter. In such embodiments, the first and second boost converters operate in an interleaved manner. In other disclosed embodiments, the inverter may include a half-bridge inverter circuit, a resonant circuit, a capacitor divider circuit, and a transformer.

  8. CHARGE IMBALANCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarke, John

    1980-09-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the theory of charge imbalance, and to discuss its relevance to a number of experimental situations. We introduce the concepts of quasiparticle charge and charge imbalance, and discuss the generation and detection of charge imbalance by tunneling. We describe the relaxation of the injected charge imbalance by inelastic scattering processes, and show how the Boltzmann equation can be solved to obtain the steady state quasiparticle distribution and the charge relaxation rate. Details are given of experiments to measure charge imbalance and the charge relaxation rate when inelastic scattering is the predominant relaxation mechanism. Experiments on and theories of other charge relaxation mechanisms are discussed, namely relaxation via elastic scattering in the presence of energy gap anisotropy, or in the presence of a pair breaking mechanism such as magnetic impurities or an applied supercurrent or magnetic field. We describe three other situations in which charge imbalance occurs, namely the resistance of the NS interface, phase slip centers, and the flow of a supercurrent in the presence of a temperature gradient.

  9. Topological Substituent Descriptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mircea V. DIUDEA

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Motivation. Substituted 1,3,5-triazines are known as useful herbicidal substances. In view of reducing the cost of biological screening, computational methods are carried out for evaluating the biological activity of organic compounds. Often a class of bioactives differs only in the substituent attached to a basic skeleton. In such cases substituent descriptors will give the same prospecting results as in case of using the whole molecule description, but with significantly reduced computational time. Such descriptors are useful in describing steric effects involved in chemical reactions. Method. Molecular topology is the method used for substituent description and multi linear regression analysis as a statistical tool. Results. Novel topological descriptors, XLDS and Ws, based on the layer matrix of distance sums and walks in molecular graphs, respectively, are proposed for describing the topology of substituents linked on a chemical skeleton. They are tested for modeling the esterification reaction in the class of benzoic acids and herbicidal activity of 2-difluoromethylthio-4,6-bis(monoalkylamino-1,3,5-triazines. Conclusions. Ws substituent descriptor, based on walks in graph, satisfactorily describes the steric effect of alkyl substituents behaving in esterification reaction, with good correlations to the Taft and Charton steric parameters, respectively. Modeling the herbicidal activity of the seo of 1,3,5-triazines exceeded the models reported in literature, so far.

  10. Charging up for the future of plug-in hybrids and range extenders. An exploration of options for increased battery utilisation; Opladen voor de toekomst van plug-in hybrides en range extenders. Een verkenning naar mogelijkheden voor vergroten van het elektrische gebruik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Essen, H.; Schroten, A.; Aarnink, S.

    2013-05-15

    If the full potential of plug-in hybrids and electric cars with a range extender is to be usefully exploited, it is important that these vehicles be used in battery mode as much as possible. This means that users' charging and driving behaviour needs to be positively influenced. This can be achieved through suitably designed financial incentives on the part of employers and government, further expansion of battery-charging infrastructure, and transferring knowledge on driving style. Improved driving and charging behaviour will lead to lower effective fuel consumption, reduced CO2 emissions and improved air quality. These are some of the results of this study in which it is examined how the performance of plug-in hybrids and cars with a range extender can be improved. It is the first study to look into the factors governing practical usage of such vehicles and the options available to the various parties to improve that usage. To this end a literature study was carried out and interviews were held with employers, leasing companies, trade associations, government agencies and other parties [Dutch] Om het potentieel van plug-in hybrides en elektrische auto's met een range extender te benutten is het van belang dat deze auto's zoveel mogelijk elektrisch worden gereden. Hiervoor is het nodig om het oplaad- en rijgedrag van de gebruikers positief te beïnvloeden. Dit kan door het geven van slimme financiële prikkels door werkgevers en overheid, het verder uitbreiden van de laadinfrastructuur en kennisoverdracht over rijgedrag. Een verbeterd rij- en laadgedrag zorgt voor een lager brandstofpraktijkverbruik, minder CO2-uitstoot en een betere luchtkwaliteit. Dit staat onder meer in de studie 'Opladen voor de toekomst van plug-in hybrides en range extenders' van CE Delft, waarin op verzoek van de Nederlandse importeurs van Toyota en Opel is onderzocht hoe het elektrisch gebruik kan worden verbeterd. Hierin is voor het eerst gekeken naar de factoren

  11. Internal Charging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minow, Joseph I.

    2014-01-01

    (1) High energy (>100keV) electrons penetrate spacecraft walls and accumulate in dielectrics or isolated conductors; (2) Threat environment is energetic electrons with sufficient flux to charge circuit boards, cable insulation, and ungrounded metal faster than charge can dissipate; (3) Accumulating charge density generates electric fields in excess of material breakdown strenght resulting in electrostatic discharge; and (4) System impact is material damage, discharge currents inside of spacecraft Faraday cage on or near critical circuitry, and RF noise.

  12. Valley-selective topologically ordered states in irradiated bilayer graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Chunlei; Zhang, Chuanwei; Zhang, Fan

    2018-01-01

    Gapless bilayer graphene is susceptible to a variety of spontaneously gapped states. As predicted by theory and observed by experiment, the ground state is, however, topologically trivial, because a valley-independent gap is energetically favorable. Here, we show that under the application of interlayer electric field and circularly polarized light, one valley can be selected to exhibit the original interaction instability while the other is frozen out. Tuning this Floquet system stabilizes multiple competing topologically ordered states, distinguishable by edge transport and circular dichroism. Notably, quantized charge, spin, and valley Hall conductivities coexist in one stabilized state.

  13. Topological susceptibility for the SU(3) Yang--Mills theory

    CERN Document Server

    Del Debbio, L; Pica, C; Debbio, Luigi Del; Giusti, Leonardo; Pica, Claudio

    2005-01-01

    We present the results of a computation of the topological susceptibility in the SU(3) Yang--Mills theory performed by employing the expression of the topological charge density operator suggested by Neuberger's fermions. In the continuum limit we find r_0^4 chi = 0.059(3), which corresponds to chi=(191 \\pm 5 MeV)^4 if F_K is used to set the scale. Our result supports the Witten--Veneziano explanation for the large mass of the eta'.

  14. Topological transport from a black hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnikov, Dmitry

    2018-03-01

    In this paper the low temperature zero-frequency transport in a 2 + 1-dimensional theory dual to a dyonic black hole is discussed. It is shown that transport exhibits topological features: the transverse electric and heat conductivities satisfy the Wiedemann-Franz law of free electrons; the direct heat conductivity is measured in units of the central charge of CFT2+1, while the direct electric conductivity vanishes; the thermoelectric conductivity is non-zero at vanishing temperature, while the O (T) behavior, controlled by the Mott relation, is subleading. Provided that the entropy of the black hole, and the dual system, is non-vanishing at T = 0, the observations indicate that the dyonic black hole describes a ħ → 0 limit of a highly degenerate topological state, in which the black hole charge measures the density of excited non-abelian quasiparticles. The holographic description gives further evidence that non-abelian nature of quasiparticles can be determined by the low temperature behavior of the thermoelectric transport.

  15. Topological proximity effect in a topological insulator hybrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoman, T; Takayama, A; Sato, T; Souma, S; Takahashi, T; Oguchi, T; Segawa, Kouji; Ando, Yoichi

    2015-03-12

    It is well known that a topologically protected gapless state appears at an interface between a topological insulator and an ordinary insulator; however, the physics of the interface between a topological insulator and a metal has largely been left unexplored. Here we report a novel phenomenon termed topological proximity effect, which occurs between a metallic ultrathin film and a three-dimensional topological insulator. We study one bilayer of bismuth metal grown on the three-dimensional topological insulator material TlBiSe2, and by using spin- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, we found evidence that the topological Dirac-cone state migrates from the surface of TlBiSe2 to the attached one-bilayer Bi. We show that such a migration of the topological state occurs as a result of strong spin-dependent hybridization of the wave functions at the interface, which is also supported by our first-principles calculations. This discovery points to a new route to manipulating the topological properties of materials.

  16. Quantized charge transport in chiral Majorana edge modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachel, Stephan; Mascot, Eric; Cocklin, Sagen; Vojta, Matthias; Morr, Dirk K.

    2017-11-01

    Majorana fermions can be realized as quasiparticles in topological superconductors, with potential applications in topological quantum computing. Recently, lattices of magnetic adatoms deposited on the surface of s -wave superconductors—Shiba lattices—have been proposed as a new platform for topological superconductivity. These systems possess the great advantage that they are accessible via scanning-probe techniques and thus enable the local manipulation and detection of Majorana modes. Using a nonequilibrium Green's function technique we demonstrate that the topological Majorana edge modes of nanoscopic Shiba islands display universal electronic and transport properties. Most remarkably, these Majorana modes possess a quantized charge conductance that is proportional to the topological Chern number, C , and carry a supercurrent whose chirality reflects the sign of C . These results establish nanoscopic Shiba islands as promising components in future topology-based devices.

  17. Topological Insulators in Amorphous Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwala, Adhip; Shenoy, Vijay B.

    2017-06-01

    Much of the current understanding of topological insulators, which informs the experimental search for topological materials and systems, is based on crystalline band theory, where local electronic degrees of freedom at different crystal sites hybridize with each other in ways that produce nontrivial topology. Here we provide a novel theoretical demonstration of realizing topological phases in amorphous systems, as exemplified by a set of sites randomly located in space. We show this by constructing hopping models on such random lattices whose gapped ground states are shown to possess nontrivial topological nature (characterized by Bott indices) that manifests as quantized conductances in systems with a boundary. Our study adds a new dimension, beyond crystalline solids, to the search for topological systems by pointing to the promising possibilities in amorphous solids and other engineered random systems.

  18. Topological Phase Diagrams of Bulk and Monolayer TiS2−xTex

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Zhiyong

    2013-02-12

    With the use of ab initio calculations, the topological phase diagrams of bulk and monolayer TiS2−xTex are established. Whereas bulk TiS2−xTex shows two strong topological phases [1;(000)] and [1;(001)] for 0.44topologically nontrivial for 0.48range the topologically nontrivial nature survives down to a monolayer, TiS2−xTex is a unique system for studying topological phases in three and two dimensions simultaneously.

  19. Flow simulation and topological rearrangements of ordered foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza Ortiz, J. S.; Belich, H., Jr.

    2014-03-01

    Flow through a narrow bent channel may induce topological rearrangements in a two-dimensional monodispersed dry liquid foam. We use the Cellular Potts Model to simulate a foam under a variable driving force in order to investigate the strain-rate response from these rearrangements. We observe a set of foams' behaviors ranging from elastic, viscoelastic to fluid regime. Bubble's topological rearrangements are localized and their cumulative rearrangements change linearly with time, thus non avalanches critical behavior is found. The strain-rate affects the rate of topological rearrangements, its dependence on the drag force is nonlinear, obeying a Herschel-Bulkley like relationship below the foam's flow point.

  20. Extracting Topological Relations Between Indoor Spaces from Point Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, H.; Khoshelham, K.; Kealy, A.; Díaz-Vilariño, L.

    2017-09-01

    3D models of indoor environments are essential for many application domains such as navigation guidance, emergency management and a range of indoor location-based services. The principal components defined in different BIM standards contain not only building elements, such as floors, walls and doors, but also navigable spaces and their topological relations, which are essential for path planning and navigation. We present an approach to automatically reconstruct topological relations between navigable spaces from point clouds. Three types of topological relations, namely containment, adjacency and connectivity of the spaces are modelled. The results of initial experiments demonstrate the potential of the method in supporting indoor navigation.

  1. Topological Order in Silicon Photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-07

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2017-0037 Topological orders in Silicon photonics Mohammad Hafezi MARYLAND UNIV COLLEGE PARK 3112 LEE BLDG COLLEGE PARK, MD 20742...15 SEP 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Topological Order in Silicon Photonics 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER FA-9550-14-1-0267 5c. PROGRAM...DISTRIBUTION/AVAILABILITY STATEMENT DISTRIBUTION A: Distribution approved for public release. 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Topological features

  2. OPTIMAL NETWORK TOPOLOGY DESIGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, J. H.

    1994-01-01

    This program was developed as part of a research study on the topology design and performance analysis for the Space Station Information System (SSIS) network. It uses an efficient algorithm to generate candidate network designs (consisting of subsets of the set of all network components) in increasing order of their total costs, and checks each design to see if it forms an acceptable network. This technique gives the true cost-optimal network, and is particularly useful when the network has many constraints and not too many components. It is intended that this new design technique consider all important performance measures explicitly and take into account the constraints due to various technical feasibilities. In the current program, technical constraints are taken care of by the user properly forming the starting set of candidate components (e.g. nonfeasible links are not included). As subsets are generated, they are tested to see if they form an acceptable network by checking that all requirements are satisfied. Thus the first acceptable subset encountered gives the cost-optimal topology satisfying all given constraints. The user must sort the set of "feasible" link elements in increasing order of their costs. The program prompts the user for the following information for each link: 1) cost, 2) connectivity (number of stations connected by the link), and 3) the stations connected by that link. Unless instructed to stop, the program generates all possible acceptable networks in increasing order of their total costs. The program is written only to generate topologies that are simply connected. Tests on reliability, delay, and other performance measures are discussed in the documentation, but have not been incorporated into the program. This program is written in PASCAL for interactive execution and has been implemented on an IBM PC series computer operating under PC DOS. The disk contains source code only. This program was developed in 1985.

  3. Transport of Dirac fermions on the surface of strong topological insulator and graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kundu, Arijit

    2012-06-14

    estimates covering the full temperature range are provided for the parameters of Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} which possibly can be verified by experiment. Afterwards, a theory of quantum transport and scattering by spatially localized static magnetic fields is developed in a unified way for the low energy Dirac Fermions on topological insulator and graphene. The employed model describes in a unified manner the effects of orbital magnetic fields, Zeeman and exchange fields in topological insulators, and the pseudo-magnetic fields caused by strain or defects in monolayer graphene. The general scattering theory is formulated, and for radially symmetric fields, the scattering amplitude and the total and transport cross sections are expressed in terms of phase shifts. As applications, I study ring-shaped magnetic fields. The Aharonov-Bohm geometry is also studied as a limit to the ring geometry. I also review the superconducting proximity effect on graphene and study resonant tunneling through a superconducting double barrier structure in graphene as a function of the system parameters. In this geometry, transmission resonances occur because of the formation of Andreev bound states. The evolution of the transport through this geometry as a function of the incident energy for various angles of incidence shows the damping of the resonance as normal reflection between the barriers increases. I also consider the phenomenon of quantum charge pumping of electrons in this geometry in the adiabatic limit. Quantum charge pumping can be achieved by modulating the amplitudes (Δ{sub 1} and Δ{sub 2}) of the gaps associated with the two superconducting strips. Because of transmission resonances in the Δ{sub 1} - Δ{sub 2} plane of parameter space, a large value of pumped charge is obtained when the pumping contour encloses the resonances. This is in sharp contrast to the case of charge pumping in a normal double barrier structure in graphene, where the pumped charge is very small, due to the

  4. Topological dynamics on hyperspaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puneet Sharma

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we wish to relate the dynamics of the base map to the dynamics of the induced map. In the process, we obtain conditions on the endowed hyperspace topology under which the chaotic behaviour of the map on the base space is inherited by the induced map on the hyperspace. Several of the known results come up as corollaries to our results. We also discuss some metric related dynamical properties on the hyperspace that cannot be deduced for the base dynamics.

  5. Topological defect lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Knitter, Sebastian; Xiong, Wen; Guy, Mikhael I; Solomon, Glenn S; Cao, Hui

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate topological defect lasers in a GaAs membrane with embedded InAs quantum dots. By introducing a disclination to a square-lattice of elliptical air holes, we obtain spatially confined optical resonances with high quality factor. Such resonances support powerflow vortices, and lase upon optical excitation of quantum dots, embedded in the structure. The spatially inhomogeneous variation of the unit cell orientation adds another dimension to the control of a lasing mode, enabling the manipulation of its field pattern and energy flow landscape.

  6. Modern general topology

    CERN Document Server

    Nagata, J-I

    1985-01-01

    This classic work has been fundamentally revised to take account of recent developments in general topology. The first three chapters remain unchanged except for numerous minor corrections and additional exercises, but chapters IV-VII and the new chapter VIII cover the rapid changes that have occurred since 1968 when the first edition appeared.The reader will find many new topics in chapters IV-VIII, e.g. theory of Wallmann-Shanin's compactification, realcompact space, various generalizations of paracompactness, generalized metric spaces, Dugundji type extension theory, linearly ordered topolo

  7. Topological forms of information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baudot, Pierre [Max Planck Institute for Mathematics in the Sciences, Inselstrasse 22, 04103 Leipzig (Germany); Bennequin, Daniel [Universite Paris Diderot-Paris 7, UFR de Mathematiques, Equipe Geometrie et Dynamique, Batiment Sophie Germain, 5 rue Thomas Mann, 75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France)

    2015-01-13

    We propose that entropy is a universal co-homological class in a theory associated to a family of observable quantities and a family of probability distributions. Three cases are presented: 1) classical probabilities and random variables; 2) quantum probabilities and observable operators; 3) dynamic probabilities and observation trees. This gives rise to a new kind of topology for information processes. We discuss briefly its application to complex data, in particular to the structures of information flows in biological systems. This short note summarizes results obtained during the last years by the authors. The proofs are not included, but the definitions and theorems are stated with precision.

  8. Configuration spaces geometry, topology and representation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, Frederick; Concini, Corrado; Feichtner, Eva; Gaiffi, Giovanni; Salvetti, Mario

    2016-01-01

    This book collects the scientific contributions of a group of leading experts who took part in the INdAM Meeting held in Cortona in September 2014. With combinatorial techniques as the central theme, it focuses on recent developments in configuration spaces from various perspectives. It also discusses their applications in areas ranging from representation theory, toric geometry and geometric group theory to applied algebraic topology.

  9. Topology optimised wavelength dependent splitters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hede, K. K.; Burgos Leon, J.; Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn

    A photonic crystal wavelength dependent splitter has been constructed by utilising topology optimisation1. The splitter has been fabricated in a silicon-on-insulator material (Fig. 1). The topology optimised wavelength dependent splitter demonstrates promising 3D FDTD simulation results. This com......A photonic crystal wavelength dependent splitter has been constructed by utilising topology optimisation1. The splitter has been fabricated in a silicon-on-insulator material (Fig. 1). The topology optimised wavelength dependent splitter demonstrates promising 3D FDTD simulation results...

  10. Density functional theory calculations of charge transport properties ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ZIRAN CHEN

    2017-08-04

    Aug 4, 2017 ... Abstract. Charge transport rate is one of the key parameters determining the performance of organic electronic devices. In this paper, we used density functional theory (DFT) at the M06-2X/6−31+G(d) level to compute the charge transport rates of nine coronene topological structures. The results show that ...

  11. Topological and non-topological soliton solutions to some time ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 85; Issue 1. Topological and non-topological soliton ... These equations have been widely applied in many branches of nonlinear sciences such as nonlinear optics, plasma physics, superconductivity and quantum mechanics. So, finding exact solutions of such ...

  12. Topology in the 2d Heisenberg Model under Gradient Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval, I. O.; Bietenholz, W.; de Forcrand, P.; Gerber, U.; Mejía-Díaz, H.

    2017-10-01

    The 2d Heisenberg model — or 2d O(3) model — is popular in condensed matter physics, and in particle physics as a toy model for QCD. Along with other analogies, it shares with 4d Yang-Mills theories, and with QCD, the property that the configurations are divided in topological sectors. In the lattice regularisation the topological charge Q can still be defined such that Q\\in {Z}. It has generally been observed, however, that the topological susceptibility {{χ }t}= /V does not scale properly in the continuum limit, i.e. that the quantity {{χ }t}{{ξ }2} diverges for ξ → ∞ (where ξ is the correlation length in lattice units). Here we address the question whether or not this divergence persists after the application of the Gradient Flow.

  13. Type-II Symmetry-Protected Topological Dirac Semimetals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Tay-Rong; Xu, Su-Yang; Sanchez, Daniel S; Tsai, Wei-Feng; Huang, Shin-Ming; Chang, Guoqing; Hsu, Chuang-Han; Bian, Guang; Belopolski, Ilya; Yu, Zhi-Ming; Yang, Shengyuan A; Neupert, Titus; Jeng, Horng-Tay; Lin, Hsin; Hasan, M Zahid

    2017-07-14

    The recent proposal of the type-II Weyl semimetal state has attracted significant interest. In this Letter, we propose the concept of the three-dimensional type-II Dirac fermion and theoretically identify this new symmetry-protected topological state in the large family of transition-metal icosagenides, MA_{3} (M=V, Nb, Ta; A=Al, Ga, In). We show that the VAl_{3} family features a pair of strongly Lorentz-violating type-II Dirac nodes and that each Dirac node can be split into four type-II Weyl nodes with chiral charge ±1 via symmetry breaking. Furthermore, we predict that the Landau level spectrum arising from the type-II Dirac fermions in VAl_{3} is distinct from that of known Dirac or Weyl semimetals. We also demonstrate a topological phase transition from a type-II Dirac semimetal to a quadratic Weyl semimetal or a topological crystalline insulator via crystalline distortions.

  14. Chiral topological insulator on Nambu 3-algebraic geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuki Hasebe

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Chiral topological insulator (AIII-class with Landau levels is constructed based on the Nambu 3-algebraic geometry. We clarify the geometric origin of the chiral symmetry of the AIII-class topological insulator in the context of non-commutative geometry of 4D quantum Hall effect. The many-body groundstate wavefunction is explicitly derived as a (l,l,l−1 Laughlin–Halperin type wavefunction with unique K-matrix structure. Fundamental excitation is identified with anyonic string-like object with fractional charge 1/(2(l−12+1. The Hall effect of the chiral topological insulators turns out be a color version of Hall effect, which exhibits a dual property of the Hall and spin-Hall effects.

  15. Topological social choice

    CERN Document Server

    1997-01-01

    The origins of this volume can be traced back to a conference on "Ethics, Economic and Business" organized by Columbia Busi­ ness School in March of 1993, and held in the splendid facilities of Columbia's Casa Italiana. Preliminary versions of several of the papers were presented at that meeting. In July 1994 the Fields Institute of Mathematical Sciences sponsored a workshop on "Geometry, Topology and Markets": additional papers and more refined versions of the original papers were presented there. They were published in their present versions in Social Choice and Wel­ fare, volume 14, number 2, 1997. The common aim of these workshops and this volume is to crystallize research in an area which has emerged rapidly in the last fifteen years, the area of topological approaches to social choice and the theory of games. The area is attracting increasing interest from social choice theorists, game theorists, mathematical econ­ omists and mathematicians, yet there is no authoritative collection of papers in the a...

  16. Algebraic topology of finite topological spaces and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Barmak, Jonathan A

    2011-01-01

    This volume deals with the theory of finite topological spaces and its relationship with the homotopy and simple homotopy theory of polyhedra. The interaction between their intrinsic combinatorial and topological structures makes finite spaces a useful tool for studying problems in Topology, Algebra and Geometry from a new perspective. In particular, the methods developed in this manuscript are used to study Quillen’s conjecture on the poset of p-subgroups of a finite group and the Andrews-Curtis conjecture on the 3-deformability of contractible two-dimensional complexes. This self-contained work constitutes the first detailed exposition on the algebraic topology of finite spaces. It is intended for topologists and combinatorialists, but it is also recommended for advanced undergraduate students and graduate students with a modest knowledge of Algebraic Topology.

  17. Topology with applications topological spaces via near and far

    CERN Document Server

    Naimpally, Somashekhar A

    2013-01-01

    The principal aim of this book is to introduce topology and its many applications viewed within a framework that includes a consideration of compactness, completeness, continuity, filters, function spaces, grills, clusters and bunches, hyperspace topologies, initial and final structures, metric spaces, metrization, nets, proximal continuity, proximity spaces, separation axioms, and uniform spaces. This book provides a complete framework for the study of topology with a variety of applications in science and engineering that include camouflage filters, classification, digital image processing, forgery detection, Hausdorff raster spaces, image analysis, microscopy, paleontology, pattern recognition, population dynamics, stem cell biology, topological psychology, and visual merchandising. It is the first complete presentation on topology with applications considered in the context of proximity spaces, and the nearness and remoteness of sets of objects. A novel feature throughout this book is the use of near and...

  18. Transport and magnetic properties in topological materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Tian

    The notion of topology has been the central topic of the condensed matter physics in recent years, ranging from 2D quantum hall (QH) and quantum spin hall (QSH) states, 3D topological insulators (TIs), topological crystalline insulators (TCIs), 3D Dirac/Weyl semimetals, and topological superconductors (TSCs) etc. The key notion of the topological materials is the bulk edge correspondence, i.e., in order to preserve the symmetry of the whole system (bulk+edge), edge states must exist to counter-compensate the broken symmetry of the bulk. Combined with the fact that the bulk is topologically protected, the edge states are robust due to the bulk edge correspondence. This leads to interesting phenomena of chiral edge states in 2D QH, helical edge states in 2D QSH, "parity anomaly'' (time reversal anomaly) in 3D TI, helical edge states in the mirror plane of TCI, chiral anomaly in Dirac/Weyl semimetals, Majorana fermions in the TSCs. Transport and magnetic properties of topological materials are investigated to yield intriguing phenomena. For 3D TI Bi1.1Sb0.9Te 2S, anomalous Hall effect (AHE) is observed, and for TCI Pb1-x SnxSe, Seebeck/Nernst measurements reveal the anomalous sign change of Nernst signals as well as the massive Dirac fermions. Ferroelectricity and pressure measurements show that TCI Pb1-xSnxTe undergoes quantum phase transition (QPT) from trivial insulator through Weyl semimetal to anomalous insulator. Dirac semimetals Cd3As2, Na 3Bi show interesting results such as the ultrahigh mobility 10 7cm2V-1s-1 protected from backscattering at zero magnetic field, as well as anomalous Nernst effect (ANE) for Cd3As2, and the negative longitudinal magnetoresistance (MR) due to chiral anomaly for Na3Bi. In-plane and out-of-plane AHE are observed for semimetal ZrTe5 by in-situ double-axes rotation measurements. For interacting system Eu2Ir2O7, full angle torque magnetometry measurements reveal the existence of orthogonal magnetization breaking the symmetry of

  19. Chains of topological oscillators with instantons and calculable topological observables in topological quantum mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baulieu, L., E-mail: baulieu@lpthe.jussieu.fr [LPTHE – Sorbonne Universités, UPMC, 4 Place Jussieu, 75 005 Paris (France); Toppan, Francesco [CBPF, Rio de Janeiro, Rua Dr. Xavier Sigaud 150, Urca, cep 22290-180 (RJ) (Brazil)

    2016-11-15

    We extend to a possibly infinite chain the conformally invariant mechanical system that was introduced earlier as a toy model for understanding the topological Yang–Mills theory. It gives a topological quantum model that has interesting and computable zero modes and topological invariants. It confirms the recent conjecture by several authors that supersymmetric quantum mechanics may provide useful tools for understanding robotic mechanical systems (Vitelli et al.) and condensed matter properties (Kane et al.), where trajectories are allowed or not by the conservation of topological indices. The absences of ground state and mass gaps are special features of such systems.

  20. Insulators and metals with topological order and discrete symmetry breaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Shubhayu; Sachdev, Subir

    2017-05-01

    Numerous experiments have reported discrete symmetry breaking in the high-temperature pseudogap phase of the hole-doped cuprates, including breaking of one or more of lattice rotation, inversion, and time-reversal symmetries. In the absence of translational symmetry breaking or topological order, these conventional order parameters cannot explain the gap in the charged fermion excitation spectrum in the antinodal region. Zhao et al. [L. Zhao, D. H. Torchinsky, H. Chu, V. Ivanov, R. Lifshitz, R. Flint, T. Qi, G. Cao, and D. Hsieh, Nat. Phys. 12, 32 (2016), 10.1038/nphys3517] and Jeong et al. [J. Jeong, Y. Sidis, A. Louat, V. Brouet, and P. Bourges, Nat. Commun. 8, 15119 (2017), 10.1038/ncomms15119] have also reported inversion and time-reversal symmetry breaking in insulating Sr2IrO4 similar to that in the metallic cuprates, but coexisting with Néel order. We extend an earlier theory of topological order in insulators and metals, in which the topological order combines naturally with the breaking of these conventional discrete symmetries. We find translationally invariant states with topological order coexisting with both Ising-nematic order and spontaneous charge currents. The link between the discrete broken symmetries and the topological-order-induced pseudogap explains why the broken symmetries do not survive in the confining phases without a pseudogap at large doping. Our theory also connects to the O(3) nonlinear sigma model and CP1 descriptions of quantum fluctuations of the Néel order. In this framework, the optimal doping criticality of the cuprates is primarily associated with the loss of topological order.

  1. Anomalous photoelectric effect of a polycrystalline topological insulator film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongbin; Yao, Jiandong; Shao, Jianmei; Li, Hai; Li, Shuwei; Bao, Dinghua; Wang, Chengxin; Yang, Guowei

    2014-07-29

    A topological insulator represents a new state of quantum matter that possesses an insulating bulk band gap as well as a spin-momentum-locked Dirac cone on the surface that is protected by time-reversal symmetry. Photon-dressed surface states and light-induced surface photocurrents have been observed in topological insulators. Here, we report experimental observations of an anomalous photoelectric effect in thin films of Bi2Te3, a polycrystalline topological insulator. Under illumination with non-polarised light, transport measurements reveal that the resistance of the topological surface states suddenly increases when the polycrystalline film is illuminated. The resistance variation is positively dependent on the light intensity but has no relation to the applied electric field; this finding can be attributed to the gap opening of the surface Dirac cone. This observation of an anomalous photoelectric effect in polycrystalline topological insulators offers exciting opportunities for the creation of photodetectors with an unusually broad spectral range. Moreover, polycrystalline topological insulator films provide an attractive material platform for exploring the nature and practical application of topological insulators.

  2. Robust doubly charged nodal lines and nodal surfaces in centrosymmetric systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bzdušek, Tomáš; Sigrist, Manfred

    2017-10-01

    Weyl points in three spatial dimensions are characterized by a Z -valued charge—the Chern number—which makes them stable against a wide range of perturbations. A set of Weyl points can mutually annihilate only if their net charge vanishes, a property we refer to as robustness. While nodal loops are usually not robust in this sense, it has recently been shown using homotopy arguments that in the centrosymmetric extension of the AI symmetry class they nevertheless develop a Z2 charge analogous to the Chern number. Nodal loops carrying a nontrivial value of this Z2 charge are robust, i.e., they can be gapped out only by a pairwise annihilation and not on their own. As this is an additional charge independent of the Berry π -phase flowing along the band degeneracy, such nodal loops are, in fact, doubly charged. In this manuscript, we generalize the homotopy discussion to the centrosymmetric extensions of all Atland-Zirnbauer classes. We develop a tailored mathematical framework dubbed the AZ +I classification and show that in three spatial dimensions such robust and multiply charged nodes appear in four of such centrosymmetric extensions, namely, AZ +I classes CI and AI lead to doubly charged nodal lines, while D and BDI support doubly charged nodal surfaces. We remark that no further crystalline symmetries apart from the spatial inversion are necessary for their stability. We provide a description of the corresponding topological charges, and develop simple tight-binding models of various semimetallic and superconducting phases that exhibit these nodes. We also indicate how the concept of robust and multiply charged nodes generalizes to other spatial dimensions.

  3. Measurement of charge- and mass-changing cross sections for 4He+12C collisions in the energy range 80-220 MeV/u for applications in ion beam therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horst, Felix; Schuy, Christoph; Weber, Uli; Brinkmann, Kai-Thomas; Zink, Klemens

    2017-08-01

    4He ions are considered to be used for hadron radiotherapy due to their favorable physical and radiobiological properties. For an accurate dose calculation the fragmentation of the primary 4He ions occurring as a result of nuclear collisions must be taken into account. Therefore precise nuclear reaction models need to be implemented in the radiation transport codes used for dose calculation. A fragmentation experiment using thin graphite targets was conducted at the Heidelberg Ion Beam Therapy Center (HIT) to obtain new and precise 4He-nucleus cross section data in the clinically relevant energy range. Measured values for the charge-changing cross section, mass-changing cross section, as well as the inclusive 3He production cross section for 4He+12C collisions at energies between 80 and 220 MeV /u are presented. These data are compared to the 4He-nucleus reaction model by DeVries and Peng as well as to the parametrizations by Tripathi et al. and by Cucinotta et al., which are implemented in the treatment planning code trip98 and several other radiation transport codes.

  4. Depilating Global Charge From Thermal Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    March-Russell, John David; March-Russell, John; Wilczek, Frank

    2001-01-01

    At a formal level, there appears to be no difficulty involved in introducing a chemical potential for a globally conserved quantum number into the partition function for space-time including a black hole. Were this possible, however, it would provide a form of black hole hair, and contradict the idea that global quantum numbers are violated in black hole evaporation. We demonstrate dynamical mechanisms that negate the formal procedure, both for topological charge (Skyrmions) and complex scalar-field charge. Skyrmions collapse to the horizon; scalar-field charge fluctuates uncontrollably.

  5. Topology optimization of turbulent flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dilgen, Cetin B.; Dilgen, Sumer B.; Fuhrman, David R.

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this work is to present a fast and viable approach for taking into account turbulence in topology optimization of complex fluid flow systems, without resorting to any simplifying assumptions in the derivation of discrete adjoints. Topology optimization is an iterative gradient...

  6. Topology optimization of flow problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gersborg, Allan Roulund

    2007-01-01

    to the development of the topology optimization method by studying different problem formulations related to topology optimization of fluid problems. In addition, the COMSOL software has been used as a post processing tool. Prior to design manufacturing this allows the engineer to quantify the performance...

  7. Classical topology and quantum states

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Classical topology is in this manner incorporated in conventional quantum physics by formulating it using ... touches both on issues of relevance to quantum gravity such as the meaning of 'quantized topology' and the ..... thus is equivalent to a classical probability measure for an instantaneous measurement. (which any way ...

  8. Solving equations by topological methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lech Górniewicz

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we survey most important results from topological fixed point theory which can be directly applied to differential equations. Some new formulations are presented. We believe that our article will be useful for analysts applying topological fixed point theory in nonlinear analysis and in differential equations.

  9. The ABCD of topological recursion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jorgen Ellegaard; Borot, Gaëtan; Chekhov, Leonid O.

    2017-01-01

    Kontsevich and Soibelman reformulated and slightly generalised the topological recursion of math-ph/0702045, seeing it as a quantization of certain quadratic Lagrangians in T*V for some vector space V. KS topological recursion is a procedure which takes as initial data a quantum Airy structure - ...

  10. Cartography – morphology – topology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dinesen, Cort Ross; Peder Pedersen, Claus

    I 2004 a Summer School was established on the Greek island of Hydra. The was to be the basis of research-based morphological and topological studies, which have since taken place for 4 weeks of every year. Starting with Hydra’s topography different ways of considering topology were developed. The...

  11. Electrically controlled band gap and topological phase transition in two-dimensional multilayer germanane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Jingshan; Li, Xiao; Qian, Xiaofeng

    2016-06-01

    Electrically controlled band gap and topological electronic states are important for the next-generation topological quantum devices. In this letter, we study the electric field control of band gap and topological phase transitions in multilayer germanane. We find that although the monolayer and multilayer germananes are normal insulators, a vertical electric field can significantly reduce the band gap of multilayer germananes owing to the giant Stark effect. The decrease of band gap eventually leads to band inversion, transforming them into topological insulators with nontrivial Z2 invariant. The electrically controlled topological phase transition in multilayer germananes provides a potential route to manipulate topologically protected edge states and design topological quantum devices. This strategy should be generally applicable to a broad range of materials, including other two-dimensional materials and ultrathin films with controlled growth.

  12. Electrically tunable robust edge states in graphene-based topological photonic crystal slabs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zidong; Liu, HongJun; Huang, Nan; Wang, ZhaoLu

    2018-03-01

    Topological photonic crystals are optical structures supporting topologically protected unidirectional edge states that exhibit robustness against defects. Here, we propose a graphene-based all-dielectric photonic crystal slab structure that supports two-dimensionally confined topological edge states. These topological edge states can be confined in the out-of-plane direction by two parallel graphene sheets. In the structure, the excitation frequency range of topological edge states can be dynamically and continuously tuned by varying bias voltage across the two parallel graphene sheets. Utilizing this kind of architecture, we construct Z-shaped channels to realize topological edge transmission with diffrerent frequencies. The proposal provides a new degree of freedom to dynamically control topological edge states and potential applications for robust integrated photonic devices and optical communication systems.

  13. Combined Shape and Topology Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Asger Nyman

    Shape and topology optimization seeks to compute the optimal shape and topology of a structure such that one or more properties, for example stiffness, balance or volume, are improved. The goal of the thesis is to develop a method for shape and topology optimization which uses the Deformable...... Simplicial Complex (DSC) method. Consequently, we present a novel method which combines current shape and topology optimization methods. This method represents the surface of the structure explicitly and discretizes the structure into non-overlapping elements, i.e. a simplicial complex. An explicit surface...... representation usually limits the optimization to minor shape changes. However, the DSC method uses a single explicit representation and still allows for large shape and topology changes. It does so by constantly applying a set of mesh operations during deformations of the structure. Using an explicit instead...

  14. Topological states in partially-PT-symmetric azimuthal potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Kartashov, Yaroslav V; Torner, Lluis

    2015-01-01

    We introduce partially-parity-time-symmetric (pPT-symmetric) azimuthal potentials composed from individual PT-symmetric cells located on a ring, where two azimuthal directions are nonequivalent in a sense that in such potentials excitations carrying topological dislo-cations exhibit different dynamics for different directions of energy circulation in the initial field distribution. Such non-conservative ratchet-like structures support rich families of stable vortex solitons in cubic nonlinear media, whose properties depend on the sign of the topological charge due to the nonequivalence of azimuthal directions. In contrast, oppositely charged vortex solitons remain equivalent in similar fully PT-symmetric potentials. The vortex solitons in the pPT- and PT-symmetric potentials are shown to feature qualitatively different internal current distributions, which are described by different discrete rotation symmetries of the intensity profiles.

  15. Topologically frustrated ionisation in a water-ammonia ice mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, C; Mafety, A; Queyroux, J A; Wilson, C W; Zhang, H; Béneut, K; Le Marchand, G; Baptiste, B; Dumas, P; Garbarino, G; Finocchi, F; Loveday, J S; Pietrucci, F; Saitta, A M; Datchi, F; Ninet, S

    2017-10-20

    Water and ammonia are considered major components of the interiors of the giant icy planets and their satellites, which has motivated their exploration under high P-T conditions. Exotic forms of these pure ices have been revealed at extreme (~megabar) pressures, notably symmetric, ionic, and superionic phases. Here we report on an extensive experimental and computational study of the high-pressure properties of the ammonia monohydrate compound forming from an equimolar mixture of water and ammonia. Our experiments demonstrate that relatively mild pressure conditions (7.4 GPa at 300 K) are sufficient to transform ammonia monohydrate from a prototypical hydrogen-bonded crystal into a form where the standard molecular forms of water and ammonia coexist with their ionic counterparts, hydroxide (OH-) and ammonium [Formula: see text] ions. Using ab initio atomistic simulations, we explain this surprising coexistence of neutral/charged species as resulting from a topological frustration between local homonuclear and long-ranged heteronuclear ionisation mechanisms.

  16. Switching a normal insulator into a topological insulator via electric field with application to phosphorene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qihang; Zhang, Xiuwen; Abdalla, L B; Fazzio, Adalberto; Zunger, Alex

    2015-02-11

    The study of topological insulators has generally involved search of materials that have this property as an innate quality, distinct from normal insulators. Here we focus on the possibility of converting a normal insulator into a topological one by application of an external electric field that shifts different bands by different energies and induces a specific band inversion, which leads to a topological state. Phosphorene is a two-dimensional (2D) material that can be isolated through mechanical exfoliation from layered black phosphorus, but unlike graphene and silicene, single-layer phosphorene has a large band gap (1.5-2.2 eV). Thus, it was unsuspected to exhibit band inversion and the ensuing topological insulator behavior. Using first-principles calculations with applied perpendicular electric field F⊥ on few-layer phosphorene we predict a continuous transition from the normal insulator to a topological insulator and eventually to a metal as a function of F⊥. The tuning of topological behavior with electric field would lead to spin-separated, gapless edge states, that is, quantum spin Hall effect. This finding opens the possibility of converting normal insulating materials into topological ones via electric field and making a multifunctional "field effect topological transistor" that could manipulate simultaneously both spin and charge carrier. We use our results to formulate some design principles for looking for other 2D materials that could have such an electrical-induced topological transition.

  17. Three-band Hubbard model for Na2IrO3 : Topological insulator, zigzag antiferromagnet, and Kitaev-Heisenberg material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laubach, Manuel; Reuther, Johannes; Thomale, Ronny; Rachel, Stephan

    2017-09-01

    Na2IrO3 was one of the first materials proposed to feature the Kane-Mele-type topological insulator phase. Contemporaneously it was claimed that the very same material is in a Mott insulating phase which is described by the Kitaev-Heisenberg (KH) model. First experiments indeed revealed Mott insulating behavior in conjunction with antiferromagnetic long-range order. Further refined experiments established antiferromagnetic order of zigzag type which is not captured by the KH model. Since then several extensions and modifications of the KH model were proposed in order to describe the experimental findings. Here we suggest that adding charge fluctuations to the KH model represents an alternative explanation of zigzag antiferromagnetism. Moreover, a phenomenological three-band Hubbard model unifies all the pieces of the puzzle: topological insulator physics for weak and KH model for strong electron-electron interactions as well as a zigzag antiferromagnet at intermediate interaction strength.

  18. Transportation Network Topologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrov, Natalia (Editor)

    2004-01-01

    The existing U.S. hub-and-spoke air transportation system is reaching saturation. Major aspects of the current system, such as capacity, safety, mobility, customer satisfaction, security, communications, and ecological effects, require improvements. The changing dynamics - increased presence of general aviation, unmanned autonomous vehicles, military aircraft in civil airspace as part of homeland defense - contributes to growing complexity of airspace. The system has proven remarkably resistant to change. NASA Langley Research Center and the National Institute of Aerospace conducted a workshop on Transportation Network Topologies on 9-10 December 2003 in Williamsburg, Virginia. The workshop aimed to examine the feasibility of traditional methods for complex system analysis and design as well as potential novel alternatives in application to transportation systems, identify state-of-the-art models and methods, conduct gap analysis, and thus to lay a foundation for establishing a focused research program in complex systems applied to air transportation.

  19. Topological Code Autotune

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Austin G. Fowler

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Many quantum systems are being investigated in the hope of building a large-scale quantum computer. All of these systems suffer from decoherence, resulting in errors during the execution of quantum gates. Quantum error correction enables reliable quantum computation given unreliable hardware. Unoptimized topological quantum error correction (TQEC, while still effective, performs very suboptimally, especially at low error rates. Hand optimizing the classical processing associated with a TQEC scheme for a specific system to achieve better error tolerance can be extremely laborious. We describe a tool, Autotune, capable of performing this optimization automatically, and give two highly distinct examples of its use and extreme outperformance of unoptimized TQEC. Autotune is designed to facilitate the precise study of real hardware running TQEC, with every quantum gate having a realistic, physics-based error model.

  20. Transformable topological mechanical metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocklin, D. Zeb; Zhou, Shangnan; Sun, Kai; Mao, Xiaoming

    2017-01-01

    Mechanical metamaterials are engineered materials whose structures give them novel mechanical properties, including negative Poisson's ratios, negative compressibilities and phononic bandgaps. Of particular interest are systems near the point of mechanical instability, which recently have been shown to distribute force and motion in robust ways determined by a nontrivial topological state. Here we discuss the classification of and propose a design principle for mechanical metamaterials that can be easily and reversibly transformed between states with dramatically different mechanical and acoustic properties via a soft strain. Remarkably, despite the low energetic cost of this transition, quantities such as the edge stiffness and speed of sound can change by orders of magnitude. We show that the existence and form of a soft deformation directly determines floppy edge modes and phonon dispersion. Finally, we generalize the soft strain to generate domain structures that allow further tuning of the material.

  1. Gapless Symmetry-Protected Topological Order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Scaffidi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We introduce exactly solvable gapless quantum systems in d dimensions that support symmetry-protected topological (SPT edge modes. Our construction leads to long-range entangled, critical points or phases that can be interpreted as critical condensates of domain walls “decorated” with dimension (d-1 SPT systems. Using a combination of field theory and exact lattice results, we argue that such gapless SPT systems have symmetry-protected topological edge modes that can be either gapless or symmetry broken, leading to unusual surface critical properties. Despite the absence of a bulk gap, these edge modes are robust against arbitrary symmetry-preserving local perturbations near the edges. In two dimensions, we construct wave functions that can also be interpreted as unusual quantum critical points with diffusive scaling in the bulk but ballistic edge dynamics.

  2. Topological vector spaces and their applications

    CERN Document Server

    Bogachev, V I

    2017-01-01

    This book gives a compact exposition of the fundamentals of the theory of locally convex topological vector spaces. Furthermore it contains a survey of the most important results of a more subtle nature, which cannot be regarded as basic, but knowledge which is useful for understanding applications. Finally, the book explores some of such applications connected with differential calculus and measure theory in infinite-dimensional spaces. These applications are a central aspect of the book, which is why it is different from the wide range of existing texts on topological vector spaces. In addition, this book develops differential and integral calculus on infinite-dimensional locally convex spaces by using methods and techniques of the theory of locally convex spaces. The target readership includes mathematicians and physicists whose research is related to infinite-dimensional analysis.

  3. Shape and topology optimization of enzymatic microreactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pereira Rosinha, Ines

    Structural optimization methods have been used by mechanical and civil engineers over the yearsto find the optimal structures. Structural optimization is a series of computational techniqueswhich include shape and topology optimization. Shape optimization is directly applied to theboundaries...... for effective and cost efficient reactors for pharmaceutical processes forces the industry to search for better technologies. In biochemical engineering, the used reactor design in a given process is usually limited to a range of well-established configurations and layouts. Usually the implemented reactors...... in a chemical process do not always yield in the best reaction conditions.This thesis develops an innovative application of topology and shape optimization methods to achemical engineering problem. The main goal is to design a reactor according to the limitations of the reaction system by modifying the reactor...

  4. Shape and topology optimization of enzymatic microreactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pereira Rosinha, Ines

    in a chemical process do not always yield in the best reaction conditions.This thesis develops an innovative application of topology and shape optimization methods to achemical engineering problem. The main goal is to design a reactor according to the limitations of the reaction system by modifying the reactor......Structural optimization methods have been used by mechanical and civil engineers over the yearsto find the optimal structures. Structural optimization is a series of computational techniqueswhich include shape and topology optimization. Shape optimization is directly applied to theboundaries...... for effective and cost efficient reactors for pharmaceutical processes forces the industry to search for better technologies. In biochemical engineering, the used reactor design in a given process is usually limited to a range of well-established configurations and layouts. Usually the implemented reactors...

  5. Cultural Topology of Creativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Andryukhina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The man in the modern culture faces the challenge of either being creative or forced to leave the stage, which reflects the essential basics of life. The price of lost opportunities, caused by mental stereotypes and encapsulation, is gradually rising. The paper reveals the socio-cultural conditions and the necessary cultural topology of creativity development, as well as the man’s creative potential in the 21st century. The content of the creativity concept is specified along with the phenomenon of its fast expansion in the modern discourse. That results from the global spreading of numerous creative practices in various spheres of life, affecting the progress directions in economics, business, industrial technologies, labor, employment and social stratification. The author emphasizes the social features of creativity, the rising number of, so called, creative class, and outlines the two opposing strategies influencing the topology modification of the social and cultural environment. The first one, applied by the developed countries, facilitates the development of the creative human potential, whereas the other one, inherent in our country, holds that a creative person is able to make progress by himself. However, for solving the urgent problem of innovative development, the creative potential of modern Russia is not sufficient, and following the second strategy will result in unrealized social opportunities and ever lasting social and cultural situation demanding further investment. According to the author, to avoid such a perspective, it is necessary to overcome the three deeply rooted archetypes: the educational disciplinary centrism, organizational absolutism and cultural ostracism. 

  6. Cultural Topology of Creativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Andryukhina

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The man in the modern culture faces the challenge of either being creative or forced to leave the stage, which reflects the essential basics of life. The price of lost opportunities, caused by mental stereotypes and encapsulation, is gradually rising. The paper reveals the socio-cultural conditions and the necessary cultural topology of creativity development, as well as the man’s creative potential in the 21st century. The content of the creativity concept is specified along with the phenomenon of its fast expansion in the modern discourse. That results from the global spreading of numerous creative practices in various spheres of life, affecting the progress directions in economics, business, industrial technologies, labor, employment and social stratification. The author emphasizes the social features of creativity, the rising number of, so called, creative class, and outlines the two opposing strategies influencing the topology modification of the social and cultural environment. The first one, applied by the developed countries, facilitates the development of the creative human potential, whereas the other one, inherent in our country, holds that a creative person is able to make progress by himself. However, for solving the urgent problem of innovative development, the creative potential of modern Russia is not sufficient, and following the second strategy will result in unrealized social opportunities and ever lasting social and cultural situation demanding further investment. According to the author, to avoid such a perspective, it is necessary to overcome the three deeply rooted archetypes: the educational disciplinary centrism, organizational absolutism and cultural ostracism. 

  7. Distributed polarizabilities using the topological theory of atoms in molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ángyán, János G.; Jansen, Georg; Loss, Michel; Hättig, Christof; Heß, Bernd A.

    1994-03-01

    Distributed atom—atom multipolar polarizabilities have been calculated at the coupled perturbed Hartree-Fock (CPHF) level, using Bader's topological theory to partition the molecular charge density into atomic domains. The proposed scheme applies without difficulty to molecules of arbitrary shape and symmetry and maintains a remarkable stability of the individual atomic polarizability components with respect to basis set extension, exemplified by the molecules CO, H 2O, NH 3 and BF 3.

  8. Combining Topological Hardware and Topological Software: Color-Code Quantum Computing with Topological Superconductor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Litinski

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We present a scalable architecture for fault-tolerant topological quantum computation using networks of voltage-controlled Majorana Cooper pair boxes and topological color codes for error correction. Color codes have a set of transversal gates which coincides with the set of topologically protected gates in Majorana-based systems, namely, the Clifford gates. In this way, we establish color codes as providing a natural setting in which advantages offered by topological hardware can be combined with those arising from topological error-correcting software for full-fledged fault-tolerant quantum computing. We provide a complete description of our architecture, including the underlying physical ingredients. We start by showing that in topological superconductor networks, hexagonal cells can be employed to serve as physical qubits for universal quantum computation, and we present protocols for realizing topologically protected Clifford gates. These hexagonal-cell qubits allow for a direct implementation of open-boundary color codes with ancilla-free syndrome read-out and logical T gates via magic-state distillation. For concreteness, we describe how the necessary operations can be implemented using networks of Majorana Cooper pair boxes, and we give a feasibility estimate for error correction in this architecture. Our approach is motivated by nanowire-based networks of topological superconductors, but it could also be realized in alternative settings such as quantum-Hall–superconductor hybrids.

  9. Photogalvanic probing of helical edge channels in two-dimensional HgTe topological insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantscher, K.-M.; Kozlov, D. A.; Scherr, M. T.; Gebert, S.; Bärenfänger, J.; Durnev, M. V.; Tarasenko, S. A.; Bel'kov, V. V.; Mikhailov, N. N.; Dvoretsky, S. A.; Kvon, Z. D.; Ziegler, J.; Weiss, D.; Ganichev, S. D.

    2017-05-01

    We report on the observation of a circular photogalvanic current excited by terahertz laser radiation in helical edge channels of two-dimensional (2D) HgTe topological insulators (TIs). The direction of the photocurrent reverses by switching the radiation polarization from a right-handed to a left-handed one and, for fixed photon helicity, is opposite for the opposite edges. The photocurrent is detected in a wide range of gate voltages. With decreasing the Fermi level below the conduction band bottom, the current emerges, reaches a maximum, decreases, changes its sign close to the charge neutrality point (CNP), and again rises. Conductance measured over a ≈3 μ m distance at CNP approaches 2 e2/h , the value characteristic for ballistic transport in 2D TIs. The data reveal that the photocurrent is caused by photoionization of helical edge electrons to the conduction band. We discuss the microscopic model of this phenomenon and compare calculations with experimental data.

  10. Analysis of Membrane Protein Topology in the Plant Secretory Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jinya; Miao, Yansong; Cai, Yi

    2017-01-01

    Topology of membrane proteins provides important information for the understanding of protein function and intermolecular associations. Integrate membrane proteins are generally transported from endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to Golgi and downstream compartments in the plant secretory pathway. Here, we describe a simple method to study membrane protein topology along the plant secretory pathway by transiently coexpressing a fluorescent protein (XFP)-tagged membrane protein and an ER export inhibitor protein, ARF1 (T31N), in tobacco BY-2 protoplast. By fractionation, microsome isolation, and trypsin digestion, membrane protein topology could be easily detected by either direct confocal microscopy imaging or western-blot analysis using specific XFP antibodies. A similar strategy in determining membrane protein topology could be widely adopted and applied to protein analysis in a broad range of eukaryotic systems, including yeast cells and mammalian cells.

  11. Observing Topological Invariants Using Quantum Walks in Superconducting Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Flurin

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The direct measurement of topological invariants in both engineered and naturally occurring quantum materials is a key step in classifying quantum phases of matter. Here, we motivate a toolbox based on time-dependent quantum walks as a method to digitally simulate single-particle topological band structures. Using a superconducting qubit dispersively coupled to a microwave cavity, we implement two classes of split-step quantum walks and directly measure the topological invariant (winding number associated with each. The measurement relies upon interference between two components of a cavity Schrödinger cat state and highlights a novel refocusing technique, which allows for the direct implementation of a digital version of Bloch oscillations. As the walk is performed in phase space, our scheme can be extended to higher synthetic dimensions by adding additional microwave cavities, whereby superconducting circuit-based simulations can probe topological phases ranging from the quantum-spin Hall effect to the Hopf insulator.

  12. Quantum transport in topological semimetals under magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hai-Zhou; Shen, Shun-Qing

    2017-06-01

    Topological semimetals are three-dimensional topological states of matter, in which the conduction and valence bands touch at a finite number of points, i.e., the Weyl nodes. Topological semimetals host paired monopoles and antimonopoles of Berry curvature at the Weyl nodes and topologically protected Fermi arcs at certain surfaces. We review our recent works on quantum transport in topological semimetals, according to the strength of the magnetic field. At weak magnetic fields, there are competitions between the positive magnetoresistivity induced by the weak anti-localization effect and negative magnetoresistivity related to the nontrivial Berry curvature. We propose a fitting formula for the magnetoconductivity of the weak anti-localization. We expect that the weak localization may be induced by inter-valley effects and interaction effect, and occur in double-Weyl semimetals. For the negative magnetoresistance induced by the nontrivial Berry curvature in topological semimetals, we show the dependence of the negative magnetoresistance on the carrier density. At strong magnetic fields, specifically, in the quantum limit, the magnetoconductivity depends on the type and range of the scattering potential of disorder. The high-field positive magnetoconductivity may not be a compelling signature of the chiral anomaly. For long-range Gaussian scattering potential and half filling, the magnetoconductivity can be linear in the quantum limit. A minimal conductivity is found at the Weyl nodes although the density of states vanishes there.

  13. Complete topology inversion can be part of normal membrane protein biogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodall, Nicholas B; Hadley, Sarah; Yin, Ying; Bowie, James U

    2017-04-01

    The topology of helical membrane proteins is generally defined during insertion of the transmembrane helices, yet it is now clear that it is possible for topology to change under unusual circumstances. It remains unclear, however, if topology reorientation is part of normal biogenesis. For dual topology dimer proteins such as the multidrug transporter EmrE, there may be evolutionary pressure to allow topology flipping so that the populations of both orientations can be equalized. We previously demonstrated that when EmrE is forced to insert in a distorted topology, topology flipping of the first transmembrane helix can occur during translation. Here, we show that topological malleability also extends to the C-terminal helix and that even complete topology inversion of the entire EmrE protein can occur after the full protein is translated and inserted. Thus, topology rearrangements are possible during normal biogenesis. Wholesale topology flipping is remarkable given the physical constraints of the membrane and expands the range of possible membrane protein folding pathways, both productive and detrimental. © 2017 The Protein Society.

  14. Robustness of edge states in topological quantum dots against global electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Jin-Xian; Zhang, Shu-Hui; Liu, Ding-Yang; Wang, Ping; Yang, Wen

    2017-07-01

    The topological insulator has attracted increasing attention as a new state of quantum matter featured by the symmetry-protected edge states. Although the qualitative robustness of the edge states against local perturbations has been well established, it is not clear how these topological edge states respond quantitatively to a global perturbation. Here, we study the response of topological edge states in a HgTe quantum dot to an external in-plane electric field—a paradigmatic global perturbation in solid-state environments. We find that the stability of the topological edge state could be larger than that of the ground bulk state by several orders of magnitudes. This robustness may be verified by standard transport measurements in the Coulomb blockage regime. Our work may pave the way towards utilizing these topological edge states as stable memory devices for charge and/or spin information and stable emitter of single terahertz photons or entangled terahertz photon pairs for quantum communication.

  15. The Dynamics of Network Topology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voicu, Ramiro; Legrand, Iosif; Newman, Harvey; Barczyk, Artur; Grigoras, Costin; Dobre, Ciprian

    2011-12-01

    Network monitoring is vital to ensure proper network operation over time, and is tightly integrated with all the data intensive processing tasks used by the LHC experiments. In order to build a coherent set of network management services it is very important to collect in near real-time information about the network topology, the main data flows, traffic volume and the quality of connectivity. A set of dedicated modules were developed in the MonALISA framework to periodically perform network measurements tests between all sites. We developed global services to present in near real-time the entire network topology used by a community. For any LHC experiment such a network topology includes several hundred of routers and tens of Autonomous Systems. Any changes in the global topology are recorded and this information is can be easily correlated with traffic patterns. The evolution in time of global network topology is shown a dedicated GUI. Changes in the global topology at this level occur quite frequently and even small modifications in the connectivity map may significantly affect the network performance. The global topology graphs are correlated with active end to end network performance measurements, done with the Fast Data Transfer application, between all sites. Access to both real-time and historical data, as provided by MonALISA, is also important for developing services able to predict the usage pattern, to aid in efficiently allocating resources globally.

  16. Topology Optimization using a Topology Description Function Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ruiter, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    During the last two decades, computational structural optimization methods have emerged, as computational power increased tremendously. Designers now have topological optimization routines at their disposal. These routines are able to generate the entire geometry of structures, provided only with

  17. Quantum spin/valley Hall effect and topological insulator phase transitions in silicene

    KAUST Repository

    Tahir, M.

    2013-04-26

    We present a theoretical realization of quantum spin and quantum valley Hall effects in silicene. We show that combination of an electric field and intrinsic spin-orbit interaction leads to quantum phase transitions at the charge neutrality point. This phase transition from a two dimensional topological insulator to a trivial insulating state is accompanied by a quenching of the quantum spin Hall effect and the onset of a quantum valley Hall effect, providing a tool to experimentally tune the topological state of silicene. In contrast to graphene and other conventional topological insulators, the proposed effects in silicene are accessible to experiments.

  18. Circular photocurrent response of a topological insulator thin film probed by scanning photocurrent microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Dong-Xia; Kou, Xufeng; Lang, Murong; Crowhurst, Jonathan; Armstrong, Michael; Zaug, Joseph; Wang, Kang L.; Chapline, George

    2015-03-01

    The remarkable nature of surface states in topological insulators is expected to have a unique photocurrent response to electromagnetic radiation. However, the surface and bulk photo-excited charge transport mechanisms, in relation to the band bending at the electrode-topological insulator interface, have not been well understood. Here, we present scanning photocurrent microscopy measurements on a gated topological insulator microdevice and show that the spin-polarized photocurrent displays direction reversal near the electrical contact interfaces. We discuss two possible mechanisms, which alternatively play dominant roles in the helicity-dependent photocurrent map. Our analysis determines the magnitude of each contribution, and reveals the governing process under different gate conditions.

  19. Topology optimization for coated structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Anders; Andreassen, Erik; Sigmund, Ole

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents new results within the design of three-dimensional (3D) coated structures using topology optimization.The work is an extension of a recently published two-dimensional (2D) method for including coatedstructures into the minimum compliance topology optimization problem. The high...... level of control over key parameters demonstrated for the 2D model can likewise be achieved in 3D. The effectiveness of the approach isdemonstrated with numerical examples, which for the 3D problems have been solved using a parallel topology optimization implementation based on the PETSc toolkit....

  20. Isometry groups among topological groups

    OpenAIRE

    Niemiec, Piotr

    2012-01-01

    It is shown that a topological group G is topologically isomorphic to the isometry group of a (complete) metric space iff G coincides with its G-delta-closure in the Rajkov completion of G (resp. if G is Rajkov-complete). It is also shown that for every Polish (resp. compact Polish; locally compact Polish) group G there is a complete (resp. proper) metric d on X inducing the topology of X such that G is isomorphic to Iso(X,d) where X = l_2 (resp. X = Q; X = Q\\{point} where Q is the Hilbert cu...

  1. Topological strength of magnetic skyrmions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazeia, D.; Ramos, J.G.G.S.; Rodrigues, E.I.B.

    2017-02-01

    This work deals with magnetic structures that attain integer and half-integer skyrmion numbers. We model and solve the problem analytically, and show how the solutions appear in materials that engender distinct, very specific physical properties, and use them to describe their topological features. In particular, we found a way to model skyrmion with a large transition region correlated with the presence of a two-peak skyrmion number density. Moreover, we run into the issue concerning the topological strength of a vortex-like structure and suggest an experimental realization, important to decide how to modify and measure the topological strength of the magnetic structure.

  2. Topological Rankings in Communication Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabrandt, Andreas; Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard; Træholt, Chresten

    2015-01-01

    In the theory of communication the central problem is to study how agents exchange information. This problem may be studied using the theory of connected spaces in topology, since a communication network can be modelled as a topological space such that agents can communicate if and only...... if they belong to the same path connected component of that space. In order to study combinatorial properties of such a communication network, notions from algebraic topology are applied. This makes it possible to determine the shape of a network by concrete invariants, e.g. the number of connected components...

  3. Charge orders in organic charge-transfer salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Ryui; Tocchio, Luca F.; Valentí, Roser; Becca, Federico

    2017-10-01

    Motivated by recent experimental suggestions of charge-order-driven ferroelectricity in organic charge-transfer salts, such as κ-(BEDT-TTF)2Cu[N(CN)2]Cl, we investigate magnetic and charge-ordered phases that emerge in an extended two-orbital Hubbard model on the anisotropic triangular lattice at 3/4 filling. This model takes into account the presence of two organic BEDT-TTF molecules, which form a dimer on each site of the lattice, and includes short-range intramolecular and intermolecular interactions and hoppings. By using variational wave functions and quantum Monte Carlo techniques, we find two polar states with charge disproportionation inside the dimer, hinting to ferroelectricity. These charge-ordered insulating phases are stabilized in the strongly correlated limit and their actual charge pattern is determined by the relative strength of intradimer to interdimer couplings. Our results suggest that ferroelectricity is not driven by magnetism, since these polar phases can be stabilized also without antiferromagnetic order and provide a possible microscopic explanation of the experimental observations. In addition, a conventional dimer-Mott state (with uniform density and antiferromagnetic order) and a nonpolar charge-ordered state (with charge-rich and charge-poor dimers forming a checkerboard pattern) can be stabilized in the strong-coupling regime. Finally, when electron–electron interactions are weak, metallic states appear, with either uniform charge distribution or a peculiar 12-site periodicity that generates honeycomb-like charge order.

  4. Identification of photocurrents in topological insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bas, Derek A.; Muniz, Rodrigo A.; Babakiray, Sercan; Lederman, David; Sipe, J. E.; Bristow, Alan D.

    2016-10-01

    Optical injection and detection of charge currents can complement conventional transport and photoemission measurements without the necessity of invasive contact that may disturb the system being examined. This is a particular concern for the surface states of a topological insulator. In this work one- and two-color sources of photocurrents are examined in epitaxial, thin films of Bi2Se3. We demonstrate that optical excitation and terahertz detection simultaneously captures one- and two- color photocurrent contributions, as previously not required in other material systems. A method is devised to isolate the two components, and in doing so each can be related to surface or bulk excitations through symmetry. This strategy allows surface states to be examined in a model system, where they have independently been verified with angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy.

  5. Quantum Chemical Topology: Knowledgeable atoms in peptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popelier, Paul L. A.

    2012-06-01

    The need to improve atomistic biomolecular force fields remains acute. Fortunately, the abundance of contemporary computing power enables an overhaul of the architecture of current force fields, which typically base their electrostatics on fixed atomic partial charges. We discuss the principles behind the electrostatics of a more realistic force field under construction, called QCTFF. At the heart of QCTFF lies the so-called topological atom, which is a malleable box, whose shape and electrostatics changes in response to a changing environment. This response is captured by a machine learning method called Kriging. Kriging directly predicts each multipole moment of a given atom (i.e. the output) from the coordinates of the nuclei surrounding this atom (i.e. the input). This procedure yields accurate interatomic electrostatic energies, which form the basis for future-proof progress in force field design.

  6. Membrane composition influences the topology bias of bacterial integral membrane proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bay, Denice C; Turner, Raymond J

    2013-02-01

    Small multidrug resistance (SMR) protein family members confer bacterial resistance to toxic antiseptics and are believed to function as dual topology oligomers. If dual topology is essential for SMR activity, then the topology bias should change as bacterial membrane lipid compositions alter to maintain a "neutral" topology bias. To test this hypothesis, a bioinformatic analysis of bacterial SMR protein sequences was performed to determine a membrane protein topology based on charged amino acid residues within loops, and termini regions according to the positive inside rule. Three bacterial lipid membrane parameters were examined, providing the proportion of polar lipid head group charges at the membrane surface (PLH), the relative hydrophobic fatty acid length (FAL), and the proportion of fatty acid unsaturation (FAU). Our analysis indicates that individual SMR pairs, and to a lesser extent SMR singleton topology biases, are significantly correlated to increasing PLH, FAL and FAU differences validating the hypothesis. Correlations between the topology biases of SMR proteins identified in Gram+ compared to Gram- species and each lipid parameter demonstrated a linear inverse relationship. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Scalable designs for quasiparticle-poisoning-protected topological quantum computation with Majorana zero modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karzig, Torsten; Knapp, Christina; Lutchyn, Roman M.; Bonderson, Parsa; Hastings, Matthew B.; Nayak, Chetan; Alicea, Jason; Flensberg, Karsten; Plugge, Stephan; Oreg, Yuval; Marcus, Charles M.; Freedman, Michael H.

    2017-06-01

    We present designs for scalable quantum computers composed of qubits encoded in aggregates of four or more Majorana zero modes, realized at the ends of topological superconducting wire segments that are assembled into superconducting islands with significant charging energy. Quantum information can be manipulated according to a measurement-only protocol, which is facilitated by tunable couplings between Majorana zero modes and nearby semiconductor quantum dots. Our proposed architecture designs have the following principal virtues: (1) the magnetic field can be aligned in the direction of all of the topological superconducting wires since they are all parallel; (2) topological T junctions are not used, obviating possible difficulties in their fabrication and utilization; (3) quasiparticle poisoning is abated by the charging energy; (4) Clifford operations are executed by a relatively standard measurement: detection of corrections to quantum dot energy, charge, or differential capacitance induced by quantum fluctuations; (5) it is compatible with strategies for producing good approximate magic states.

  8. An Implementation fo a Flexible Topology Management System for Aerial High Capacity Directional Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    different transmit and receive frequency bands from the local wide-area coverage links. The primary performance metric for candidate topology ...An Implementation of a Flexible Topology Management System for Aerial High Capacity Directional Networks Joy Wang, Patricia Deutsch, Andrea Coyle...several advantages such as high data rates at long ranges and interference resistant links when paired with directional systems. On the flip side, topology

  9. Dissipative Topological Defects in Coupled Laser Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Pal, Vishwa; Chriki, Ronen; Friesem, Asher A; Davidson, Nir

    2016-01-01

    Topologically protected defects have been observed and studied in a wide range of fields, such as cosmology, spin systems, cold atoms and optics as they are quenched across a phase transition into an ordered state. Revealing their origin and control is becoming increasingly important field of research, as they limit the coherence of the system and its ability to approach a fully ordered state. Here, we present dissipative topological defects in a 1-D ring network of phase-locked lasers, and show how their formation is related to the Kibble-Zurek mechanism and is governed in a universal manner by two competing time scales of the lasers, namely the phase locking time and synchronization time of their amplitude fluctuations. The ratio between these two time scales depends on the system parameters such as gain and coupling strength, and thus offers the possibility to control the probability of topological defects in the system. Enabling the system to dissipate to the fully ordered, defect-free state can be exploi...

  10. Transverse angular momentum in topological photonic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Wei-Min; Chen, Xiao-Dong; Zhao, Fu-Li; Dong, Jian-Wen

    2018-01-01

    Engineering local angular momentum of structured light fields in real space enables applications in many fields, in particular, the realization of unidirectional robust transport in topological photonic crystals with a non-trivial Berry vortex in momentum space. Here, we show transverse angular momentum modes in silicon topological photonic crystals when considering transverse electric polarization. Excited by a chiral external source with either transverse spin angular momentum or transverse phase vortex, robust light flow propagating along opposite directions is observed in several kinds of sharp-turn interfaces between two topologically-distinct silicon photonic crystals. A transverse orbital angular momentum mode with alternating phase vortex exists at the boundary of two such photonic crystals. In addition, unidirectional transport is robust to the working frequency even when the ring size or location of the pseudo-spin source varies in a certain range, leading to the superiority of the broadband photonic device. These findings enable one to make use of transverse angular momentum, a kind of degree of freedom, to achieve unidirectional robust transport in the telecom region and other potential applications in integrated photonic circuits, such as on-chip robust delay lines.

  11. Topological evolution of the internet public opinion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Ying; Dong, Xuefan; Liu, Yijun

    2017-11-01

    The Internet forms a platform featured with high liquidity, accessibility and concealment for the public to express their respective views on certain events, thus leading to a large network graph. Due to such environmental features, the public opinions formed on the Internet are different from those on traditional media. Studies focusing on the former area are relatively fewer. In addition, the majority of existing methods proposed for constructing the Internet public opinion topological structure are based on the classic BA model, thus resulting in drawbacks in the range of simplicity and a lack of strict deduction. Therefore, based on the complex networks theory, a model applied to describe the topology of the Internet public opinion is deduced with rigorous derivation in the present paper. Results show that the proposed expression could well reflect the degree distribution of Internet public opinion which follows an analogous power law distribution, and that the peak value and the degree distribution are not correlative to each other. Moreover, it has been also proved that compared to the classic BA model, the proposed model has better accuracy performance in the description of the degree distribution of the Internet public opinion, which contributes to future studies focusing on this area. Thus, an attempt has been made to give the first theoretical description of the Internet public opinion topology in the present paper. In addition, it is also the first paper focusing on the solution of networks degree distribution with an exponential growth form.

  12. Space charge

    CERN Document Server

    Schindl, Karlheinz

    2005-01-01

    The Coulomb forces between the charged particles of a high-intensity beam in an accelerator create a self-field which acts on the particles inside the beam like a distributed lens, defocusing in both transverse planes. A beam moving with speed n is accompanied by a magnetic field which partially cancels the electrostatic defocusing effect, with complete cancellation at c, the speed of light. The effect of this 'direct space charge' is evaluated for transport lines and synchrotrons where the number of betatron oscillations per machine turn, Q, is reduced by DQ. In a real accelerator, the beam is also influenced by the environment (beam pipe, magnets, etc.) which generates 'indirect' space charge effects. For a smooth and perfectly conducting wall, they can easily be evaluated by introducing image charges and currents. These 'image effects' do not cancel when n approaches c, thus they become dominant for high-energy synchrotrons. Each particle in the beam has its particular incoherent tune Q and incoherent tune...

  13. The topology of fullerenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwerdtfeger, Peter; Wirz, Lukas N; Avery, James

    2015-01-01

    Fullerenes are carbon molecules that form polyhedral cages. Their bond structures are exactly the planar cubic graphs that have only pentagon and hexagon faces. Strikingly, a number of chemical properties of a fullerene can be derived from its graph structure. A rich mathematics of cubic planar graphs and fullerene graphs has grown since they were studied by Goldberg, Coxeter, and others in the early 20th century, and many mathematical properties of fullerenes have found simple and beautiful solutions. Yet many interesting chemical and mathematical problems in the field remain open. In this paper, we present a general overview of recent topological and graph theoretical developments in fullerene research over the past two decades, describing both solved and open problems. WIREs Comput Mol Sci 2015, 5:96–145. doi: 10.1002/wcms.1207 Conflict of interest: The authors have declared no conflicts of interest for this article. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:25678935

  14. Topological morphing of planar graphs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Angelini, Patrizio; Cortese, Pier Francesco; Di Battista, Giuseppe; Patrignani, Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    .... We show that the Topological Morphing problem is NP-hard for biconnected planar graphs, we give polynomial-time algorithms for some restricted versions of the problem, and, based on such polynomial...

  15. Topology optimized electrothermal polysilicon microgrippers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sardan Sukas, Özlem; Petersen, Dirch Hjorth; Mølhave, Kristian

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the topology optimized design procedure and fabrication of electrothermal polysilicon microgrippers for nanomanipulation purposes. Performance of the optimized microactuators is compared with a conventional three-beam microactuator design through finite element analysis...

  16. Intuitive concepts in elementary topology

    CERN Document Server

    Arnold, BH

    2011-01-01

    Classroom-tested and much-cited, this concise text is designed for undergraduates. It offers a valuable and instructive introduction to the basic concepts of topology, taking an intuitive rather than an axiomatic viewpoint. 1962 edition.

  17. The coarsest Hausdorff Lebesgue topology | Conradie ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    If a Riesz space E contains an order dense Riesz subspace which admits a Hausdorff Lebesgue (i.e. order continuous) topology, then there is a coarsest Hausdorff Lebesgue topology on E. This topology extends uniquely to a Hausdorff Lebesgue topology on the universal completion of E, and is always minimal amongst ...

  18. Spin-transfer torque generated by a topological insulator

    KAUST Repository

    Mellnik, A. R.

    2014-07-23

    Magnetic devices are a leading contender for the implementation of memory and logic technologies that are non-volatile, that can scale to high density and high speed, and that do not wear out. However, widespread application of magnetic memory and logic devices will require the development of efficient mechanisms for reorienting their magnetization using the least possible current and power. There has been considerable recent progress in this effort; in particular, it has been discovered that spin-orbit interactions in heavy-metal/ferromagnet bilayers can produce strong current-driven torques on the magnetic layer, via the spin Hall effect in the heavy metal or the Rashba-Edelstein effect in the ferromagnet. In the search for materials to provide even more efficient spin-orbit-induced torques, some proposals have suggested topological insulators, which possess a surface state in which the effects of spin-orbit coupling are maximal in the sense that an electron\\' s spin orientation is fixed relative to its propagation direction. Here we report experiments showing that charge current flowing in-plane in a thin film of the topological insulator bismuth selenide (Bi2Se3) at room temperature can indeed exert a strong spin-transfer torque on an adjacent ferromagnetic permalloy (Ni81Fe19) thin film, with a direction consistent with that expected from the topological surface state. We find that the strength of the torque per unit charge current density in Bi 2Se3 is greater than for any source of spin-transfer torque measured so far, even for non-ideal topological insulator films in which the surface states coexist with bulk conduction. Our data suggest that topological insulators could enable very efficient electrical manipulation of magnetic materials at room temperature, for memory and logic applications. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  19. A topological Dirac insulator in a quantum spin Hall phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, D; Qian, D; Wray, L; Xia, Y; Hor, Y S; Cava, R J; Hasan, M Z

    2008-04-24

    When electrons are subject to a large external magnetic field, the conventional charge quantum Hall effect dictates that an electronic excitation gap is generated in the sample bulk, but metallic conduction is permitted at the boundary. Recent theoretical models suggest that certain bulk insulators with large spin-orbit interactions may also naturally support conducting topological boundary states in the quantum limit, which opens up the possibility for studying unusual quantum Hall-like phenomena in zero external magnetic fields. Bulk Bi(1-x)Sb(x) single crystals are predicted to be prime candidates for one such unusual Hall phase of matter known as the topological insulator. The hallmark of a topological insulator is the existence of metallic surface states that are higher-dimensional analogues of the edge states that characterize a quantum spin Hall insulator. In addition to its interesting boundary states, the bulk of Bi(1-x)Sb(x) is predicted to exhibit three-dimensional Dirac particles, another topic of heightened current interest following the new findings in two-dimensional graphene and charge quantum Hall fractionalization observed in pure bismuth. However, despite numerous transport and magnetic measurements on the Bi(1-x)Sb(x) family since the 1960s, no direct evidence of either topological Hall states or bulk Dirac particles has been found. Here, using incident-photon-energy-modulated angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (IPEM-ARPES), we report the direct observation of massive Dirac particles in the bulk of Bi(0.9)Sb(0.1), locate the Kramers points at the sample's boundary and provide a comprehensive mapping of the Dirac insulator's gapless surface electron bands. These findings taken together suggest that the observed surface state on the boundary of the bulk insulator is a realization of the 'topological metal'. They also suggest that this material has potential application in developing next-generation quantum computing devices that may

  20. Topology Optimization of Nanophotonic Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Lirong

    This thesis explores the various aspects of utilizing topology optimization in designing nanophotonic devices. Either frequency-domain or time-domain methods is used in combination with the optimization algorithms, depending on various aims of the designing problems. The frequency-domain methods...... lengthscale and flexible pulse delay are addressed to demonstrate time-domain based topology optimization’s potential in designing complicated photonic structures with specifications on the time characteristics of pulses....

  1. Topology Optimized Photonic Wire Splitters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn; Borel, Peter Ingo; Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard

    2006-01-01

    Photonic wire splitters have been designed using topology optimization. The splitters have been fabricated in silicon-on-insulator material and display broadband low-loss 3dB splitting in a bandwidth larger than 100 nm.......Photonic wire splitters have been designed using topology optimization. The splitters have been fabricated in silicon-on-insulator material and display broadband low-loss 3dB splitting in a bandwidth larger than 100 nm....

  2. Elements of mathematics general topology

    CERN Document Server

    Bourbaki, Nicolas

    1995-01-01

    This is the softcover reprint of the English translation of 1971 (available from Springer since 1989) of the first 4 chapters of Bourbaki's Topologie générale. It gives all the basics of the subject, starting from definitions. Important classes of topological spaces are studied, uniform structures are introduced and applied to topological groups. Real numbers are constructed and their properties established. Part II, comprising the later chapters, Ch. 5-10, is also available in English in softcover.

  3. On orderability of topological groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Rangan

    1985-01-01

    can be induced by a total order compatible with the group structure is given and such groups are called ordered or orderable topological groups. A separable totally disconnected ordered topological group is proved to be non-archimedean metrizable while the converse is shown to be false by means of an example. A necessary and sufficient condition for a no-totally disconnected locally compact abelian group to be orderable is also given.

  4. Fuzzy parametrized fuzzy soft topology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan Atmaca

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, researches have contributed a lot towards fuzzification of Soft Set Theory. In this paper, we introduce the topological structure of fuzzyfying soft sets called fuzzy parametrized soft sets. We define the notion of quasi-coincidence for fuzzy parametrized soft sets and investigated basic properties of it. We study the closure, interior, base, continuity and compactness in the content of fuzzy parametrized soft topological spaces.

  5. Topological classification of RNA structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bon, Michael; Vernizzi, Graziano; Orland, Henri; Zee, A

    2008-06-13

    We present a novel topological classification of RNA secondary structures with pseudoknots. It is based on the topological genus of the circular diagram associated to the RNA base-pair structure. The genus is a positive integer number whose value quantifies the topological complexity of the folded RNA structure. In such a representation, planar diagrams correspond to pure RNA secondary structures and have zero genus, whereas non-planar diagrams correspond to pseudoknotted structures and have higher genus. The topological genus allows for the definition of topological folding motifs, similar in spirit to those introduced and commonly used in protein folding. We analyze real RNA structures from the databases Worldwide Protein Data Bank and Pseudobase and classify them according to their topological genus. For simplicity, we limit our analysis by considering only Watson-Crick complementary base pairs and G-U wobble base pairs. We compare the results of our statistical survey with existing theoretical and numerical models. We also discuss possible applications of this classification and show how it can be used for identifying new RNA structural motifs.

  6. Galois conjugates of topological phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, M. H.; Gukelberger, J.; Hastings, M. B.; Trebst, S.; Troyer, M.; Wang, Z.

    2012-01-01

    Galois conjugation relates unitary conformal field theories and topological quantum field theories (TQFTs) to their nonunitary counterparts. Here we investigate Galois conjugates of quantum double models, such as the Levin-Wen model. While these Galois-conjugated Hamiltonians are typically non-Hermitian, we find that their ground-state wave functions still obey a generalized version of the usual code property (local operators do not act on the ground-state manifold) and hence enjoy a generalized topological protection. The key question addressed in this paper is whether such nonunitary topological phases can also appear as the ground states of Hermitian Hamiltonians. Specific attempts at constructing Hermitian Hamiltonians with these ground states lead to a loss of the code property and topological protection of the degenerate ground states. Beyond this, we rigorously prove that no local change of basis can transform the ground states of the Galois-conjugated doubled Fibonacci theory into the ground states of a topological model whose Hermitian Hamiltonian satisfies Lieb-Robinson bounds. These include all gapped local or quasilocal Hamiltonians. A similar statement holds for many other nonunitary TQFTs. One consequence is that these nonunitary TQFTs do not describe physical realizations of topological phases. In particular, this implies that the “Gaffnian” wave function can not be the ground state of a gapped fractional quantum Hall state.

  7. Quantum Quenches in Topological Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kells, Graham; Sen, Diptiman; Slingerland, J. K.; Vishveshwara, Smitha

    2014-03-01

    We study the non-equilibrium dynamics of quenching through a quantum critical point in topological systems, focusing on one of their characteristic features, namely, ground state degeneracies, and associated topological sectors. We present the notion of ``topological blocking,'' experienced by the dynamics due to the mismatch in degeneracies between two phases. We demonstrate the interplay between quenching and topology in two extensively studied systems, the transverse Ising chain and the Kitaev honeycomb model. Casting these systems in the language of fermionic spinless p-wave paired superconductors enables us to cleanly address degeneracies, subtle issues of fermion occupation and parity, and mismatches between topological sectors. We show that several features of the quench, which are related to Kibble-Zurek physics, are sensitive to the topological sector being probed. Supported by DST, India under Project No. SR/S2/JCB-44/2010, NSF under grant DMR 0644022-CAR, the Simons Foundation under Grant No.229047 and Science Foundation Ireland Awards 08/IN.1/I1961, 10/IN.1/I3013 and 12/IA/1697.

  8. Quantum capacitance in topological insulators under strain in a tilted magnetic field

    KAUST Repository

    Tahir, M.

    2012-12-06

    Topological insulators exhibit unique properties due to surface states of massless Dirac fermions with conserved time reversal symmetry. We consider the quantum capacitance under strain in an external tilted magnetic field and demonstrate a minimum at the charge neutrality point due to splitting of the zeroth Landau level. We also find beating in the Shubnikov de Haas oscillations due to strain, which originate from the topological helical states. Varying the tilting angle from perpendicular to parallel washes out these oscillations with a strain induced gap at the charge neutrality point. Our results explain recent quantum capacitance and transport experiments.

  9. Radiative charge transfer in He{sup +}+ H{sub 2} collisions in the milli- to nano-electron-volt range: A theoretical study within state-to-state and optical potential approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mrugala, Felicja [Institute of Physics, Faculty of Physics, Astronomy and Informatics, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Grudziadzka 5, PL 87-100 Torun (Poland); Kraemer, Wolfgang P. [Max-Planck-Institute of Astrophysics, Postfach 1317, D-85741 Garching (Germany)

    2013-03-14

    The paper presents a theoretical study of the low-energy dynamics of the radiative charge transfer (RCT) reaction He{sup +}({sup 2}S)+H{sub 2}(X{sup 1}{Sigma}{sub g}{sup +}){yields}He({sup 1}S)+H{sub 2}{sup +}(X{sup 2}{Sigma}{sub g}{sup +})+h{nu} extending our previous studies on radiative association of HeH{sub 2}{sup +} [F. Mrugala, V. Spirko, and W. P. Kraemer, J. Chem. Phys. 118, 10547 (2003); F. Mrugala and W. P. Kraemer, ibid. 122, 224321 (2005)]. The calculations account for the vibrational and rotational motions of the H{sub 2}/H{sub 2}{sup +} diatomics and for the atom-diatom complex formation in the reactant and the product channels of the RCT reaction. Continuum states of He{sup +}+ H{sub 2}(v= 0, j= 0) in the collision energy range {approx}10{sup -7}-18.6 meV and all quasi-bound states of the He{sup +}- H{sub 2}(para;v= 0) complex formed in this range are taken into account. Close-coupling calculations are performed to determine rates of radiative transitions from these states to the continuum and quasi-bound states of the He +H{sub 2}{sup +} system in the energy range extending up to {approx}0.16 eV above the opening of the HeH{sup +}+ H arrangement channel. From the detailed state-to-state calculated characteristics global functions of the RCT reaction, such as cross-section {sigma}(E), emission intensity I({nu}, T), and rate constant k(T) are derived, and are presented together with their counterparts for the radiative association (RA) reaction He{sup +}({sup 2}S) +H{sub 2}(X{sup 1}{Sigma}{sub g}{sup +}){yields} HeH{sub 2}{sup +}(X{sup 2}A{sup Prime })+h{nu}. The rate constant k{sup RCT} is approximately 20 times larger than k{sup RA} at the considered temperatures, 0.1 {mu}K-50 K. Formation of rotational Feshbach resonances in the reactant channel plays an important role in both reactions. Transitions mediated by these resonances contribute more than 70% to the respective rates. An extension of the one-dimensional optical potential model is

  10. Topology of two-band superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Y., E-mail: y.tanaka@aist.go.j [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), AIST-Tsukuba Central-2-32918, 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Iyo, A. [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), AIST-Tsukuba Central-2-32918, 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Tokiwa, K.; Watanabe, T. [Department of Applied Electronics, Faculty of Industrial Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science, 2641 Yamazaki, Noda, Chiba 278-8510 (Japan); Crisan, A. [National Institute for Materials Physics, P.O. Box MG-7, Bucharest 077125 (Romania); Department of Metallurgy and Materials, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Sundaresan, A. [Chemistry and Physics of Materials Unit (CPMU), Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research (JNCASR), Jakkur P.O., Bangalore 560 064 (India); Terada, N. [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Faculty of of Engineering, Kagoshima University, 1-21-40 Koromoto, Kagoshima, Kagoshima 890-0065 (Japan)

    2010-12-15

    Two-band superconductivity has a topology different from that in single-band superconductivity. The topology is not always stabilized in an infinitely homogeneous sample. The morphology, grain shape, and pattern of the device (topology of the superconducting materials) is effective in stabilizing the topology. In this report, we discuss a vortex having a small magnetic flux but a large winding number as one plausible topology in a two-band superconductor.

  11. Topological Terms and Phases of Sigma Models

    OpenAIRE

    Thorngren, Ryan

    2017-01-01

    We study boundary conditions of topological sigma models with the goal of generalizing the concepts of anomalous symmetry and symmetry protected topological order. We find a version of 't Hooft's anomaly matching conditions on the renormalization group flow of boundaries of invertible topological sigma models and discuss several examples of anomalous boundary theories. We also comment on bulk topological transitions in dynamical sigma models and argue that one can, with care, use topological ...

  12. Spintronics and spincaloritronics in topological insulators

    OpenAIRE

    Yokoyama, Takehito; Murakami, Shuichi

    2013-01-01

    We study spintronics and spincaloritronics in topological insulators. We show spintronics effects in 2D topological insulator junctions and 3D topological insulators coupled to ferromagnets. We also investigate spin polarization on the surface of a topological insulator induced by a circularly polarized light and refraction at the junction between two topological insulators. As for spincaloritronics effects, we show transverse magnetic heat transport and thermoelectric transport in topologica...

  13. Three-component topological superfluid in one-dimensional Fermi gases with spin-orbit coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie; Hu, Hui; Xianlong, Gao

    2014-08-01

    We theoretically investigate one-dimensional three-component spin-orbit-coupled Fermi gases in the presence of the Zeeman field. By solving the Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations, we obtain the phase diagram at a given chemical potential and order parameter. We show that, with increasing the intensity of the Zeeman field, in addition to undergoing a phase transition from Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) superfluid to topological superfluid, similar to the two-component system, the three-component system may exhibit some other interesting topological phase transitions. For example, by appropriately adjusting the chemical potential μ, the system can be in a nontrivial topological superfluid in the whole region of the Zeeman field h. It also may initially be a topological superfluid and then translate to a topologically trivial BCS superfluid with increasing the field h. Even more exotically, the system may exhibit a re-entrance behavior, being a topological superfluid at small and large fields but a topologically trivial BCS superfluid in between at a mediate Zeeman field. It can therefore have two regions with zero-energy Majorana fermions. As a consequence of these interesting topological phase transitions, the system of the three-component spin-orbit-coupled Fermi gases in a certain parameter range is more optimizing for the experimental realization of the topological phase due to the smaller magnetic field needed. Thus, a promising candidate for the realization of the topological phase is proposed.

  14. Reionization: Characteristic Scales, Topology And Observability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iliev, Ilian T.; /Canadian Inst. Theor. Astrophys. /Zurich U.; Shapiro, Paul R.; /Texas U., Astron. Dept.; Mellema, Garrelt; /Stockholm Observ.; Pen, Ue-Li; McDonald, Patrick; /Canadian Inst. Theor. Astrophys.; Alvarez, Marcelo A.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park

    2007-11-02

    Recently the numerical simulations of the process of reionization of the universe at z > 6 have made a qualitative leap forward, reaching sufficient sizes and dynamic range to determine the characteristic scales of this process. This allowed making the first realistic predictions for a variety of observational signatures. We discuss recent results from large-scale radiative transfer and structure formation simulations on the observability of high-redshift Ly-{alpha} sources. We also briefly discuss the dependence of the characteristic scales and topology of the ionized and neutral patches on the reionization parameters.

  15. Topological phase diagram of superconducting carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milz, Lars; Marganska-Lyzniak, Magdalena; Grifoni, Milena [Institut I - Theoretische Physik Universitaet Regensburg (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The topological superconducting phase diagram of superconducting carbon nanotubes is discussed. Under the assumption of a short-ranged pairing potential, there are two spin-singlet states: an s-wave and an exotic p + ip-wave that are possible because of the special structure of the honeycomb lattice. The consequences for the possible presence of Majorana edge states in carbon nanotubes are addressed. In particular, regions in the magnetic field-chemical potential plane possibly hosting localized Majorana modes are discussed.

  16. A short guide to topological terms in the effective theories of condensed matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Akihiro; Takayoshi, Shintaro

    2015-02-01

    This article is meant as a gentle introduction to the topological terms that often play a decisive role in effective theories describing topological quantum effects in condensed matter systems. We first take up several prominent examples, mainly from the area of quantum magnetism and superfluids/superconductors. We then briefly discuss how these ideas are now finding incarnations in the studies of symmetry-protected topological phases, which are in a sense a generalization of the concept of topological insulators to a wider range of materials, including magnets and cold atoms.

  17. Rewritable Artificial Magnetic Charge Ice

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yong-Lei; Xiao, Zhi-Li; Snezhko, Alexey; Xu, Jing; Ocola, Leonidas E.; Divan, Ralu; Pearson, John E.; Crabtree, George W.; Kwok, Wai-Kwong

    2016-01-01

    Artificial ices enable the study of geometrical frustration by design and through direct observation. However, it has proven difficult to achieve tailored long-range ordering of their diverse configurations, limiting both fundamental and applied research directions. We designed an artificial spin structure that produces a magnetic charge ice with tunable long-range ordering of eight different configurations. We also developed a technique to precisely manipulate the local magnetic charge state...

  18. Landau theory of topological defects in multiferroic hexagonal manganites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artyukhin, Sergey; Delaney, Kris T; Spaldin, Nicola A; Mostovoy, Maxim

    2014-01-01

    Topological defects in ordered states with spontaneously broken symmetry often have unusual physical properties, such as fractional electric charge or a quantized magnetic field flux, originating from their non-trivial topology. Coupled topological defects in systems with several coexisting orders give rise to unconventional functionalities, such as the electric-field control of magnetization in multiferroics resulting from the coupling between the ferroelectric and ferromagnetic domain walls. Hexagonal manganites provide an extra degree of freedom: in these materials, both ferroelectricity and magnetism are coupled to an additional, non-ferroelectric structural order parameter. Here we present a theoretical study of topological defects in hexagonal manganites based on Landau theory with parameters determined from first-principles calculations. We explain the observed flip of electric polarization at the boundaries of structural domains, the origin of the observed discrete vortices, and the clamping between ferroelectric and antiferromagnetic domain walls. We show that structural vortices induce magnetic ones and that, consistent with a recent experimental report, ferroelectric domain walls can carry a magnetic moment.

  19. Gradient Bundle Analysis: A Full Topological Approach to Chemical Bonding

    CERN Document Server

    Morgenstern, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    The "chemical bond" is a central concept in molecular sciences, but there is no consensus as to what a bond actually is. Therefore, a variety of bonding models have been developed, each defining the structure of molecules in a different manner with the goal of explaining and predicting chemical properties. This thesis describes the initial development of gradient bundle analysis (GBA), a chemical bonding model that creates a high resolution picture of chemical interactions within the charge density framework. GBA is based on concepts from the quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM), but uses a more complete picture of the topology and geometry of the electron charge density to understand and predict bonding interactions. Gradient bundles are defined as volumes bounded by zero-flux surfaces (ZFSs) in the gradient of the charge density with well-defined energies. The structure of gradient bundles provides an avenue for detecting the locations of valence electrons, which correspond to reactive regions in a ...

  20. Rewritable artificial magnetic charge ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong-Lei; Xiao, Zhi-Li; Snezhko, Alexey; Xu, Jing; Ocola, Leonidas E.; Divan, Ralu; Pearson, John E.; Crabtree, George W.; Kwok, Wai-Kwong

    2016-05-01

    Artificial ices enable the study of geometrical frustration by design and through direct observation. However, it has proven difficult to achieve tailored long-range ordering of their diverse configurations, limiting both fundamental and applied research directions. We designed an artificial spin structure that produces a magnetic charge ice with tunable long-range ordering of eight different configurations. We also developed a technique to precisely manipulate the local magnetic charge states and demonstrate write-read-erase multifunctionality at room temperature. This globally reconfigurable and locally writable magnetic charge ice could provide a setting for designing magnetic monopole defects, tailoring magnonics, and controlling the properties of other two-dimensional materials.

  1. Topological Strings and Integrable Hierarchies

    CERN Document Server

    Aganagic, M; Klemm, A D; Marino, M; Vafa, C; Aganagic, Mina; Dijkgraaf, Robbert; Klemm, Albrecht; Marino, Marcos; Vafa, Cumrun

    2006-01-01

    We consider the topological B-model on local Calabi-Yau geometries. We show how one can solve for the amplitudes by using W-algebra symmetries which encodes the symmetries of holomorphic diffeomorphisms of the Calabi-Yau. In the highly effective fermionic/brane formulation this leads to a free fermion description of the amplitudes. Furthermore we argue that topological strings on Calabi-Yau geometries provide a unifying picture connecting non-critical (super)strings, integrable hierarchies, and various matrix models. In particular we show how the ordinary matrix model, the double scaling limit of matrix models, and Kontsevich-like matrix model are all related and arise from studying branes in specific local Calabi-Yau three-folds. We also show how A-model topological string on P^1 and local toric threefolds (and in particular the topological vertex) can be realized and solved as B-model topological string amplitudes on a Calabi-Yau manifold.

  2. Toward A Nonperturbative Topological String

    CERN Document Server

    Neitzke, A

    2005-01-01

    We discuss three examples of nonperturbative phenomena in the topological string. First, we consider the computation of amplitudes in N = 4 super Yang-Mills theory using the B model topological string as proposed by Witten. We give an argument suggesting that the computations using connected or disconnected D-instantons of the B model are in fact equivalent. Second, we formulate a conjecture that the squared modulus of the open topological string partition function can be defined nonperturbatively as the partition function of a mixed ensemble of BPS states in d = 4. This conjecture is an extension of a recent proposal for the closed topological string. In a particular example involving a non-compact Calabi- Yau threefold, we show that the conjecture passes some basic checks, and that the square of the open topological string amplitude has a natural interpretation in terms of 2-dimensional Yang-Mills theory, again generalizing known results for the closed string case. Third, we discuss an action for an abel...

  3. Electric vehicles: Driving range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempton, Willett

    2016-09-01

    For uptake of electric vehicles to increase, consumers' driving-range needs must be fulfilled. Analysis of the driving patterns of personal vehicles in the US now shows that today's electric vehicles can meet all travel needs on almost 90% of days from a single overnight charge.

  4. Translational Symmetry and Microscopic Constraints on Symmetry-Enriched Topological Phases: A View from the Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Cheng

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Lieb-Schultz-Mattis theorem and its higher-dimensional generalizations by Oshikawa and Hastings require that translationally invariant 2D spin systems with a half-integer spin per unit cell must either have a continuum of low energy excitations, spontaneously break some symmetries, or exhibit topological order with anyonic excitations. We establish a connection between these constraints and a remarkably similar set of constraints at the surface of a 3D interacting topological insulator. This, combined with recent work on symmetry-enriched topological phases with on-site unitary symmetries, enables us to develop a framework for understanding the structure of symmetry-enriched topological phases with both translational and on-site unitary symmetries, including the effective theory of symmetry defects. This framework places stringent constraints on the possible types of symmetry fractionalization that can occur in 2D systems whose unit cell contains fractional spin, fractional charge, or a projective representation of the symmetry group. As a concrete application, we determine when a topological phase must possess a “spinon” excitation, even in cases when spin rotational invariance is broken down to a discrete subgroup by the crystal structure. We also describe the phenomena of “anyonic spin-orbit coupling,” which may arise from the interplay of translational and on-site symmetries. These include the possibility of on-site symmetry defect branch lines carrying topological charge per unit length and lattice dislocations inducing degeneracies protected by on-site symmetry.

  5. The flat topology and its duality aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Tarizadeh, Abolfazl

    2015-01-01

    In this article, a new and natural topology on the prime spectrum is established which behaves completely as the dual of the Zariski topology. It is called the flat topology. The basic and also some sophisticated properties of the flat topology are proved. Specially, various algebraic characterizations for the noetherianness of the flat topology are given. Using the flat topology, then some facts on the structure of the prime ideals of a ring come to light which are not in the access of the Z...

  6. Topological Partial *-ALGEBRAS:. Basic Properties and Examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoine, J.-P.; Bagarello, F.; Trapani, C.

    Let {A} be a partial *-algebra endowed with a topology τ that makes it into a locally convex topological vector space {A} {[ τ ]}. Then {A} is called a topological partial *-algebra if it satisfies a number of conditions, which all amount to require that the topology τ fits with the multiplier structure of {A}. Besides the obvious cases of topological quasi *-algebras and CQ*-algebras, we examine several classes of potential topological partial *-algebras, either function spaces (lattices of Lp spaces on [0, 1] or on ℝ, amalgam spaces), or partial *-algebras of operators (operators on a partial inner product space, O*-algebras).

  7. Topology optimization of flexoelectric structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanthakumar, S. S.; Zhuang, Xiaoying; Park, Harold S.; Rabczuk, Timon

    2017-08-01

    We present a mixed finite element formulation for flexoelectric nanostructures that is coupled with topology optimization to maximize their intrinsic material performance with regards to their energy conversion potential. Using Barium Titanate (BTO) as the model flexoelectric material, we demonstrate the significant enhancement in energy conversion that can be obtained using topology optimization. We also demonstrate that non-smooth surfaces can play a key role in the energy conversion enhancements obtained through topology optimization. Finally, we examine the relative benefits of flexoelectricity, and surface piezoelectricity on the energy conversion efficiency of nanobeams. We find that the energy conversion efficiency of flexoelectric nanobeams is comparable to the energy conversion efficiency obtained from nanobeams whose electromechanical coupling occurs through surface piezoelectricity, but are ten times thinner. Overall, our results not only demonstrate the utility and efficiency of flexoelectricity as a nanoscale energy conversion mechanism, but also its relative superiority as compared to piezoelectric or surface piezoelectric effects.

  8. Streamline topology of axisymmetric flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøns, Morten

    Topological fluid mechanics in the sense of the present paper is the study and classification of flow patterns close to a critical point. Here we discuss the topology of steady viscous incompressible axisymmetric flows in the vicinity of the axis. Following previous studies the velocity field $v......$ is expanded in a Taylor series at a point on the axis, and the expansion coefficients are considered as bifurcation parameters. After a normal form transformation we easily obtain the most common bifurcations of the flow patterns. The use of non-linear normal forms provide a gross simplification, which...... and interact follow the topological classification and that the complete set of patterns found is contained in a codimension-4 unfolding of the most simple singular configuration....

  9. Aeroelastic Wingbox Stiffener Topology Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford, Bret K.

    2017-01-01

    This work considers an aeroelastic wingbox model seeded with run-out blade stiffeners along the skins. Topology optimization is conducted within the shell webs of the stiffeners, in order to add cutouts and holes for mass reduction. This optimization is done with a global-local approach in order to moderate the computational cost: aeroelastic loads are computed at the wing-level, but the topology and sizing optimization is conducted at the panel-level. Each panel is optimized separately under stress, buckling, and adjacency constraints, and periodically reassembled to update the trimmed aeroelastic loads. The resulting topology is baselined against a design with standard full-depth solid stiffener blades, and found to weigh 7.43% less.

  10. Quantum capacitance in topological insulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiu, Faxian; Meyer, Nicholas; Kou, Xufeng; He, Liang; Lang, Murong; Wang, Yong; Yu, Xinxin; Fedorov, Alexei V; Zou, Jin; Wang, Kang L

    2012-01-01

    Topological insulators show unique properties resulting from massless, Dirac-like surface states that are protected by time-reversal symmetry. Theory predicts that the surface states exhibit a quantum spin Hall effect with counter-propagating electrons carrying opposite spins in the absence of an external magnetic field. However, to date, the revelation of these states through conventional transport measurements remains a significant challenge owing to the predominance of bulk carriers. Here, we report on an experimental observation of Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations in quantum capacitance measurements, which originate from topological helical states. Unlike the traditional transport approach, the quantum capacitance measurements are remarkably alleviated from bulk interference at high excitation frequencies, thus enabling a distinction between the surface and bulk. We also demonstrate easy access to the surface states at relatively high temperatures up to 60 K. Our approach may eventually facilitate an exciting exploration of exotic topological properties at room temperature.

  11. Topological AdS/CFT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genolini, Pietro Benetti; Richmond, Paul; Sparks, James

    2017-12-01

    We define a holographic dual to the Donaldson-Witten topological twist of N=2 gauge theories on a Riemannian four-manifold. This is described by a class of asymptotically locally hyperbolic solutions to N=4 gauged supergravity in five dimensions, with the four-manifold as conformal boundary. Under AdS/CFT, minus the logarithm of the partition function of the gauge theory is identified with the holographically renormalized supergravity action. We show that the latter is independent of the metric on the boundary four-manifold, as required for a topological theory. Supersymmetric solutions in the bulk satisfy first order differential equations for a twisted Sp(1) structure, which extends the quaternionic Kähler structure that exists on any Riemannian four-manifold boundary. We comment on applications and extensions, including generalizations to other topological twists.

  12. Search for New Topological Insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hsin; Wray, L. A.; Xu, S.-Y.; Hasan, M. Z.; Das, T.; Wang, Y. J.; Markiewicz, R. S.; Bansil, Arun

    2011-03-01

    Topological insulators (TIs) host a novel quantum phase of electrons which is characterized by topologically protected surface states originating from the effects of spin-orbit and time-reversal symmetries. While several families of TIs have already been found, the intense world-wide search for new classes of TIs continues unabated. This interest is driven by the need for materials with greater structural flexibility and tunability to enable viable applications in spintronics and quantum computing. We have used first-principles band theory computations in combination with angle-resolved photoemission experiments to successfully predict many new classes of topologically interesting materials, including Bi2Se3 series, the ternary half-Heusler compounds, thallium-based chalcogenides, and the Li2AgSb and Ge n Bi 2m Te 3m+n families. [1-5] Work supported by the Office of Basic Energy Sciences, US DOE.

  13. The Topology ToolKit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierny, Julien; Favelier, Guillaume; Levine, Joshua A; Gueunet, Charles; Michaux, Michael

    2017-08-29

    This system paper presents the Topology ToolKit (TTK), a software platform designed for the topological analysis of scalar data in scientific visualization. While topological data analysis has gained in popularity over the last two decades, it has not yet been widely adopted as a standard data analysis tool for end users or developers. TTK aims at addressing this problem by providing a unified, generic, efficient, and robust implementation of key algorithms for the topological analysis of scalar data, including: critical points, integral lines, persistence diagrams, persistence curves, merge trees, contour trees, Morse-Smale complexes, fiber surfaces, continuous scatterplots, Jacobi sets, Reeb spaces, and more. TTK is easily accessible to end users due to a tight integration with ParaView. It is also easily accessible to developers through a variety of bindings (Python, VTK/C++) for fast prototyping or through direct, dependency-free, C++, to ease integration into pre-existing complex systems. While developing TTK, we faced several algorithmic and software engineering challenges, which we document in this paper. In particular, we present an algorithm for the construction of a discrete gradient that complies to the critical points extracted in the piecewise-linear setting. This algorithm guarantees a combinatorial consistency across the topological abstractions supported by TTK, and importantly, a unified implementation of topological data simplification for multi-scale exploration and analysis. We also present a cached triangulation data structure, that supports time efficient and generic traversals, which self-adjusts its memory usage on demand for input simplicial meshes and which implicitly emulates a triangulation for regular grids with no memory overhead. Finally, we describe an original software architecture, which guarantees memory efficient and direct accesses to TTK features, while still allowing for researchers powerful and easy bindings and extensions

  14. Topology Optimized Architectures with Programmable Poisson's Ratio over Large Deformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausen, Anders; Wang, Fengwen; Jensen, Jakob S; Sigmund, Ole; Lewis, Jennifer A

    2015-10-07

    Topology optimized architectures are designed and printed with programmable Poisson's ratios ranging from -0.8 to 0.8 over large deformations of 20% or more. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Topology optimization for transient wave propagation problems in one dimension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Jonas; Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard; Sigmund, Ole

    2008-01-01

    Structures exhibiting band gap properties, i.e., having frequency ranges for which the structure attenuates propagating waves, have applications in damping of acoustic and elastic wave propagation and in optical communication. A topology optimization method for synthesis of such structures......, employing a time domain formulation, is developed. The method is extended to synthesis of pulse converting structures with possible applications in optical communication....

  16. Topological estimation of aerodynamic controlled airplane system functionality of quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    С.В. Павлова

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available  It is suggested to use topological methods for stage estimation of aerodynamic airplane control in widespread range of its conditions The estimation is based on normalized stage virtual non-isotropy of configurational airplane systems calculation.

  17. Spin Gauge Interactions as a Topological Mechanism of Superconductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta Choudhury, Ishita

    2017-12-01

    We talk about a low energy, effective, topological theory of superconductivity in which a topological mass term is radiatively induced in one loop effective action. In this field theoretic model, an antisymmetric tensor field couples with the vorticity current of charged Dirac fermions in the Lagrangian. The fermion loop generates a coupling between the gauge field and the antisymmetric tensor field below an ultraviolet cut-off. The spin interactions mediated by the antisymmetric tensor field induces a mass for the photon field indicating Meissner effect. The dual antisymmetric tensor field produces a current which satisfies the relativistic version of the London equations of superconductivity. In the non-relativistic limit, the static effective potential shows a linear, always attractive term between two electrons. Thus, the theory can be considered as an alternative, low energy, effective field theory of superconductivity without spontaneous symmetry breaking.

  18. Quantized anomalous Hall effect in magnetic topological insulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Rui; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Hai-Jun; Zhang, Shou-Cheng; Dai, Xi; Fang, Zhong

    2010-07-02

    The anomalous Hall effect is a fundamental transport process in solids arising from the spin-orbit coupling. In a quantum anomalous Hall insulator, spontaneous magnetic moments and spin-orbit coupling combine to give rise to a topologically nontrivial electronic structure, leading to the quantized Hall effect without an external magnetic field. Based on first-principles calculations, we predict that the tetradymite semiconductors Bi2Te3, Bi2Se3, and Sb2Te3 form magnetically ordered insulators when doped with transition metal elements (Cr or Fe), in contrast to conventional dilute magnetic semiconductors where free carriers are necessary to mediate the magnetic coupling. In two-dimensional thin films, this magnetic order gives rise to a topological electronic structure characterized by a finite Chern number, with the Hall conductance quantized in units of e2/h (where e is the charge of an electron and h is Planck's constant).

  19. Topological Phase Transitions in the Photonic Spin Hall Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kort-Kamp, W. J. M.

    2017-10-01

    The recent synthesis of two-dimensional staggered materials opens up burgeoning opportunities to study optical spin-orbit interactions in semiconducting Dirac-like systems. We unveil topological phase transitions in the photonic spin Hall effect in the graphene family materials. It is shown that an external static electric field and a high frequency circularly polarized laser allow for active on-demand manipulation of electromagnetic beam shifts. The spin Hall effect of light presents a rich dependence with radiation degrees of freedom, and material properties, and features nontrivial topological properties. We discover that photonic Hall shifts are sensitive to spin and valley properties of the charge carriers, providing an unprecedented pathway to investigate spintronics and valleytronics in staggered 2D semiconductors.

  20. Acoustic design by topology optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dühring, Maria Bayard; Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard; Sigmund, Ole

    2008-01-01

    To bring down noise levels in human surroundings is an important issue and a method to reduce noise by means of topology optimization is presented here. The acoustic field is modeled by Helmholtz equation and the topology optimization method is based on continuous material interpolation functions...... in the density and bulk modulus. The objective function is the squared sound pressure amplitude. First, room acoustic problems are considered and it is shown that the sound level can be reduced in a certain part of the room by an optimized distribution of reflecting material in a design domain along the ceiling...

  1. Topological insulators fundamentals and perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Ortmann, Frank; Valenzuela, Sergio O

    2015-01-01

    There are only few discoveries and new technologies in physical sciences that have the potential to dramatically alter and revolutionize our electronic world. Topological insulators are one of them. The present book for the first time provides a full overview and in-depth knowledge about this hot topic in materials science and condensed matter physics. Techniques such as angle-resolved photoemission spectrometry (ARPES), advanced solid-state Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) or scanning-tunnel microscopy (STM) together with key principles of topological insulators such as spin-locked electronic

  2. Topological Superconductivity in Dirac Semimetals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Shingo; Sato, Masatoshi

    2015-10-30

    Dirac semimetals host bulk band-touching Dirac points and a surface Fermi loop. We develop a theory of superconducting Dirac semimetals. Establishing a relation between the Dirac points and the surface Fermi loop, we clarify how the nontrivial topology of Dirac semimetals affects their superconducting state. We note that the unique orbital texture of Dirac points and a structural phase transition of the crystal favor symmetry-protected topological superconductivity with a quartet of surface Majorana fermions. We suggest the possible application of our theory to recently discovered superconducting states in Cd_{3}As_{2}.

  3. Topological vector spaces and distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Horvath, John

    2012-01-01

    ""The most readable introduction to the theory of vector spaces available in English and possibly any other language.""-J. L. B. Cooper, MathSciNet ReviewMathematically rigorous but user-friendly, this classic treatise discusses major modern contributions to the field of topological vector spaces. The self-contained treatment includes complete proofs for all necessary results from algebra and topology. Suitable for undergraduate mathematics majors with a background in advanced calculus, this volume will also assist professional mathematicians, physicists, and engineers.The precise exposition o

  4. Topology optimized RF MEMS switches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philippine, M. A.; Zareie, H.; Sigmund, Ole

    2013-01-01

    optimization for an RF MEM capacitive switch. Extensive experimental data confirms that the switches perform as designed by the optimizations, and that our simulation models are accurate. A subset of measurements are presented here. Broader results have been submitted in full journal format.......Topology optimization is a rigorous and powerful method that should become a standard MEMS design tool - it can produce unique and non-intuitive designs that meet complex objectives and can dramatically improve the performance and reliability of MEMS devices. We present successful uses of topology...

  5. International Conference on Algebraic Topology

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, Ralph; Miller, Haynes; Ravenel, Douglas

    1989-01-01

    These are proceedings of an International Conference on Algebraic Topology, held 28 July through 1 August, 1986, at Arcata, California. The conference served in part to mark the 25th anniversary of the journal Topology and 60th birthday of Edgar H. Brown. It preceded ICM 86 in Berkeley, and was conceived as a successor to the Aarhus conferences of 1978 and 1982. Some thirty papers are included in this volume, mostly at a research level. Subjects include cyclic homology, H-spaces, transformation groups, real and rational homotopy theory, acyclic manifolds, the homotopy theory of classifying spaces, instantons and loop spaces, and complex bordism.

  6. Holographic Wilson loops, dielectric interfaces, and topological insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, John; O'Bannon, Andy; Tsatis, Efstratios; Wrase, Timm

    2013-05-01

    We use holography to study (3+1)-dimensional N=4 supersymmetric SU(Nc) Yang-Mills theory (SYM) in the large-Nc and large-coupling limits, with a (2+1)-dimensional interface where the Yang-Mills coupling or θ angle changes value, or “jumps.” We consider interfaces that either break all supersymmetry or that preserve half of the N=4 supersymmetry thanks to certain operators localized to the interface. Specifically, we compute the expectation values of a straight timelike Wilson line and of a rectangular Wilson loop in the fundamental representation of SU(Nc). The former gives us the self-energy of a heavy test charge while the latter gives us the potential between heavy test charges. A jumping coupling or θ angle acts much like a dielectric interface in electromagnetism: the self-energy or potential includes the effects of image charges. N=4 SYM with a jumping θ angle may also be interpreted as the low-energy effective description of a fractional topological insulator, as we explain in detail. For nonsupersymmetric interfaces, we find that the self-energy and potential are qualitatively similar to those in electromagnetism, despite the differences between N=4 SYM and electromagnetism. For supersymmetric interfaces, we find dramatic differences from electromagnetism which depend sensitively on the coupling of the test charge to the adjoint scalars of N=4 SYM. In particular, we find one special case where a test charge has a vanishing image charge.

  7. Topological insulator infrared pseudo-bolometer with polarization sensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Peter Anand

    2017-10-25

    Topological insulators can be utilized in a new type of infrared photodetector that is intrinsically sensitive to the polarization of incident light and static magnetic fields. The detector isolates single topological insulator surfaces and allows light collection and exposure to static magnetic fields. The wavelength range of interest is between 750 nm and about 100 microns. This detector eliminates the need for external polarization selective optics. Polarization sensitive infrared photodetectors are useful for optoelectronics applications, such as light detection in environments with low visibility in the visible wavelength regime.

  8. Topological Nanocolloids with Facile Electric Switching of Plasmonic Properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Ye; Smalyukh, Ivan I.

    2015-12-01

    Combining topology and plasmonics paradigms in nanocolloidal systems may enable new means of pre-engineering desired composite material properties. Here we design and realize orientationally ordered assemblies of noble metal nanoparticles with genus-one topology and unusual long-range ordering mediated by their interactions with the surrounding nematic fluid host. Facile electric switching of these composites is reminiscent of that of pristine liquid crystals (LCs), but provides a means of reconfiguring the nanoparticle assembly and thus also the ensuing composite medium's optical properties. Our findings may lead to formation of new molecular-colloidal soft matter phases with unusual optical properties, as well as optical metamaterials.

  9. Zero-Field Skyrmions with a High Topological Number in Itinerant Magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Ryo; Hayami, Satoru; Motome, Yukitoshi

    2017-04-01

    Magnetic Skyrmions are swirling spin textures with topologically protected noncoplanarity. Recently, Skyrmions with the topological number of unity have been extensively studied in both experiment and theory. We here show that a Skyrmion crystal with an unusually high topological number of two is stabilized in itinerant magnets at a zero magnetic field. The results are obtained for a minimal Kondo lattice model on a triangular lattice by an unrestricted large-scale numerical simulation and variational calculations. We find that the topological number can be switched by a magnetic field as 2 ↔1 ↔0 . The Skyrmion crystals are formed by the superpositions of three spin density waves induced by the Fermi surface effect, and hence, the size of Skyrmions can be controlled by the band structure and electron filling. We also discuss the charge and spin textures of itinerant electrons in the Skyrmion crystals which are directly obtained in our numerical simulations.

  10. Black holes in quasi-topological gravity and conformal couplings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chernicoff, Mariano [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México,A.P. 70-542, México D.F. 04510 (Mexico); Fierro, Octavio [Departamento de Matemática y Física Aplicadas,Universidad Católica de la Santísima Concepción,Alonso de Rivera 2850, Concepción (Chile); Giribet, Gaston [Martin Fisher School of Physics, Brandeis University,Waltham, Massachusetts 02453 (United States); Departamento de Física, Universidad de Buenos Aires FCEN-UBA and IFIBA-CONICET, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellón I, 1428, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Oliva, Julio [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Concepción,Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile)

    2017-02-02

    Lovelock theory of gravity provides a tractable model to investigate the effects of higher-curvature terms in the context of AdS/CFT. Yielding second order, ghost-free field equations, this theory represents a minimal setup in which higher-order gravitational couplings in asymptotically Anti-de Sitter (AdS) spaces, including black holes, can be solved analytically. This however has an obvious limitation as in dimensions lower than seven, the contribution from cubic or higher curvature terms is merely topological. Therefore, in order to go beyond quadratic order and study higher terms in AdS{sub 5} analytically, one is compelled to look for other toy models. One such model is the so-called quasi-topological gravity, which, despite being a higher-derivative theory, provides a tractable setup with R{sup 3} and R{sup 4} terms. In this paper, we investigate AdS{sub 5} black holes in quasi-topological gravity. We consider the theory conformally coupled to matter and in presence of Abelian gauge fields. We show that charged black holes in AdS{sub 5} which, in addition, exhibit a backreaction of the matter fields on the geometry can be found explicitly in this theory. These solutions generalize the black hole solution of quasi-topological gravity and exist in a region of the parameter spaces consistent with the constraints coming from causality and other consistency conditions. They have finite conserved charges and exhibit non-trivial thermodynamical properties.

  11. Direct experimental determination of the topological winding number of skyrmions in Cu2OSeO3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, S L; van der Laan, G; Hesjedal, T

    2017-02-24

    The mathematical concept of topology has brought about significant advantages that allow for a fundamental understanding of the underlying physics of a system. In magnetism, the topology of spin order manifests itself in the topological winding number which plays a pivotal role for the determination of the emergent properties of a system. However, the direct experimental determination of the topological winding number of a magnetically ordered system remains elusive. Here, we present a direct relationship between the topological winding number of the spin texture and the polarized resonant X-ray scattering process. This relationship provides a one-to-one correspondence between the measured scattering signal and the winding number. We demonstrate that the exact topological quantities of the skyrmion material Cu2OSeO3 can be directly experimentally determined this way. This technique has the potential to be applicable to a wide range of materials, allowing for a direct determination of their topological properties.

  12. Electrostatic fields in hybrid heterojunctions: Field-effect transistor, topological insulator, & thermoelectronic application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, Robert Matthew

    Organic semiconductors (OSC) are still surging in popularity for sustainable electronic devices, especially since they can perform as well as amorphous and polycrystalline silicon materials. Although OSCs have processing advantages that give rise to novel opportunities compared to inorganic semiconductors (ISCs), devices usually require inorganic materials for highly conductive connections or other functionality. Significantly, OSCs can be used to tune or modify the behavior of inorganic semiconductors (ISCs) by exploiting the junction between two semiconductors (a heterojunction). The possible creation of stable interfaces between ISCs and OSCs provides a practically limitless range of functionalities. Broadly, my goal is to study interfaces between OSCs and ISCs (hybrid heterojunctions) by testing devices of different configurations and altering the internal fields systematically, as well as with the aid of electron- and force-microscopy, and photoelectron spectroscopy. This thesis contains three major sections based around nascent, relevant applications: field-effect transistors, topological insulators, and thermoelectrics. First I study the effects of combining tellurium thin-films with OSC layers in field-effect transistors, where the organic acts both as a substrate modification layer and electrostatic gate. Secondly, I use electron withdrawing OSCs as gating materials for modifying Bi2Se3 in order to realize fundamental topological insulator behavior. Thirdly, I develop polymer-particle composites, including doping of the polymers and stabilization of inorganic particles with an electronic density of states that supports good thermoelectric behavior. We show that OSCs can undeniably be used to significantly modify properties of ISCs, namely tellurium, bismuth selenide, and organometallic compounds. I will first discuss the interfacial fields intrinsic to each heterojunction or device structure. Then I implement an additional electrostatic gate as part of the

  13. Representability of algebraic topology for biomolecules in machine learning based scoring and virtual screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Lin

    2018-01-01

    This work introduces a number of algebraic topology approaches, including multi-component persistent homology, multi-level persistent homology, and electrostatic persistence for the representation, characterization, and description of small molecules and biomolecular complexes. In contrast to the conventional persistent homology, multi-component persistent homology retains critical chemical and biological information during the topological simplification of biomolecular geometric complexity. Multi-level persistent homology enables a tailored topological description of inter- and/or intra-molecular interactions of interest. Electrostatic persistence incorporates partial charge information into topological invariants. These topological methods are paired with Wasserstein distance to characterize similarities between molecules and are further integrated with a variety of machine learning algorithms, including k-nearest neighbors, ensemble of trees, and deep convolutional neural networks, to manifest their descriptive and predictive powers for protein-ligand binding analysis and virtual screening of small molecules. Extensive numerical experiments involving 4,414 protein-ligand complexes from the PDBBind database and 128,374 ligand-target and decoy-target pairs in the DUD database are performed to test respectively the scoring power and the discriminatory power of the proposed topological learning strategies. It is demonstrated that the present topological learning outperforms other existing methods in protein-ligand binding affinity prediction and ligand-decoy discrimination. PMID:29309403

  14. Room temperature magnetization switching in topological insulator-ferromagnet heterostructures by spin-orbit torques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Zhu, Dapeng; Wu, Yang; Yang, Yumeng; Yu, Jiawei; Ramaswamy, Rajagopalan; Mishra, Rahul; Shi, Shuyuan; Elyasi, Mehrdad; Teo, Kie-Leong; Wu, Yihong; Yang, Hyunsoo

    2017-11-08

    Topological insulators with spin-momentum-locked topological surface states are expected to exhibit a giant spin-orbit torque in the topological insulator/ferromagnet systems. To date, the topological insulator spin-orbit torque-driven magnetization switching is solely reported in a Cr-doped topological insulator at 1.9 K. Here we directly show giant spin-orbit torque-driven magnetization switching in a Bi2Se3/NiFe heterostructure at room temperature captured using a magneto-optic Kerr effect microscope. We identify a large charge-to-spin conversion efficiency of ~1-1.75 in the thin Bi2Se3 films, where the topological surface states are dominant. In addition, we find the current density required for the magnetization switching is extremely low, ~6 × 105 A cm-2, which is one to two orders of magnitude smaller than that with heavy metals. Our demonstration of room temperature magnetization switching of a conventional 3d ferromagnet using Bi2Se3 may lead to potential innovations in topological insulator-based spintronic applications.

  15. Topological nodal points in two coupled Su-Schrieffer-Heeger chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C.; Lin, S.; Zhang, G.; Song, Z.

    2017-09-01

    We study a two coupled Su-Schrieffer-Heeger (SSH) chains system, which is shown to contain rich quantum phases associated with topological invariants protected by symmetries. In the weak coupling region, the system supports two nontrivial topological insulating phases, characterized by winding number N =±1 , and two types of edge states. The boundary between the two topological phases arises from two band closing points, which exhibit topological characteristics in one-dimensional k space. By mapping Bloch states on a vector field in k space, the band degenerate points correspond to a pair of kinks of the field, with opposite topological charges. Two topological nodal points move and merge as the interchain coupling strength varies. This topological invariant is protected by the translational and inversion symmetries, rather than the antiunitary operation. Furthermore, we find that when a pair of nodal points is created, a second order quantum phase transition (QPT) occurs, associating with a gap closing and spontaneously symmetry breaking. This simple model demonstrates several central concepts in the field of quantum materials and provides a theoretical connection between them.

  16. On the design of 1-3 piezo-composites using topology optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigmund, Ole; Torquato, S.; Aksay, I.A.

    1998-01-01

    We use a topology optimization method to design 1-3 piezocomposites with optimal performance characteristics for hydrophone applications. The performance characteristics we focus on are the hydrostatic charge coefficient d(h)((*)), the hydrophone figure of merit d(h)((*))g(h)((*)), and the electr...

  17. Topological phases in condensed matter systems: A study of symmetries, quasiparticles and phase transitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haaker, S.M.

    2014-01-01

    The research described in this thesis focuses on topological phases in condensed matter systems. It can be roughly divided into two parts. In the first part noninteracting systems are studied. The symmetry algebra of a charged spin-1/2 particle coupled to a non-Abelian magnetic field is determined,

  18. Dynamical Scaling and Phase Coexistence in Topologically Constrained DNA Melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosado, Y. A. G.; Michieletto, D.; Marenduzzo, D.

    2017-09-01

    There is a long-standing experimental observation that the melting of topologically constrained DNA, such as circular closed plasmids, is less abrupt than that of linear molecules. This finding points to an important role of topology in the physics of DNA denaturation, which is, however, poorly understood. Here, we shed light on this issue by combining large-scale Brownian dynamics simulations with an analytically solvable phenomenological Landau mean field theory. We find that the competition between melting and supercoiling leads to phase coexistence of denatured and intact phases at the single-molecule level. This coexistence occurs in a wide temperature range, thereby accounting for the broadening of the transition. Finally, our simulations show an intriguing topology-dependent scaling law governing the growth of denaturation bubbles in supercoiled plasmids, which can be understood within the proposed mean field theory.

  19. An in-beam test study of the response of calorimeters in the ATLAS Experiment of LHC to charged pions of 3 to 350 GeV energy range; Etude en faisceau-test de la reponse des calorimetres de l'Experience ATLAS du LHC a des pions charges, d'energie comprise entre 3 et 350 Gev

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giangiobbe Vincent [Ecole Doctorale des Sciences Fondamentales, Universite Blaise Pascal, U.F.R de Recherches Scientifiques et Techniques, 34, avenue Carnot - BP 185, 63006 Clermont-Ferrand Cedex (France)

    2006-11-15

    ATLAS is one of the four main experiments under way of installing within the Large Hadron Project (LHC). LHC will provide two proton beams of high luminosity (1 x 10{sup 34} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} at peak), colliding in the center of ATLAS detector at a 14 TeV rated COM energy. The aim of this study is an in-beam test characterization of the response of calorimeters in the central part of ATLAS. The study will be focused on the response to pions as main jet components. In the beginning a short presentation of the ATLAS program of physics is given enlightening the basic theoretical and experimental aspects of the experiment. A description of the ATLAS detector is also presented. The second chapter is devoted to detailed description of the central calorimetry of ATLAS. One starts from the mechanism of signal production in calorimeters, through the electronic processing up to the reconstruction of the released energy. The third chapter deals with the processing electronics of the TileCal hadron calorimeter the installation and certification at CERN of which was in charge of Clermont-Ferrand team. The chapter 4 gives a description of the SPS beam line and of the associated instrumentation tested in-beam in 2004. The chapters 6 and 7 are devoted to the study of the response of calorimeters to high energy pions (within 20 to 350 GeV range). The pion selection is described in the chapter 5. In the eighth chapter the calorimeter response to low energy pions (up to 9 GeV) is examined. In conclusion this study has shown that the data concerning pions obtained in-beam in 2004 are usable for energies within 3 to 350 GeV. The response and the energy resolution of LAr and TileCal were measured with a satisfactory accuracy,. A systematic comparison of these results with simulations (in the configuration of in-beam test) can now be done. Should the agreement be satisfying, the modelling could be used for the study of calibration of calorimeter response for the case of works with the

  20. Self oscillating PWM modulators, a topological comparison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Søren; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.

    2004-01-01

    's work with switch mode audio power amplifiers, where linear tracking of the reference signal is of major importance. Use of the modulator topologies presented are not limited to this kind of equipment, but can be used in a very wide range of applications from very low to very high power levels....... or fs/ð range respectively, where fs is the switching frequency of the converter. For some applications this will require unacceptable high switching frequency to achieve enough control loop bandwidth for the desired dynamic performance. With self oscillating modulators, the open loop bandwidth is equal...... or by shaping the open loop function of the modulator so its gain and phase response causes a closed loop natural oscillation. The two main types of self oscillating modulators have many similarities, but differences in dynamic performance and linearity are present. The work presented is related to the author...