WorldWideScience

Sample records for range solar wind

  1. Self-Similar Signature of the Active Solar Corona within the Inertial Range of Solar-Wind Turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyani, K.; Chapman, S. C.; Hnat, B.; Nicol, R. M.

    2007-05-01

    We quantify the scaling of magnetic energy density in the inertial range of solar-wind turbulence seen in situ at 1 AU with respect to solar activity. At solar maximum, when the coronal magnetic field is dynamic and topologically complex, we find self-similar scaling in the solar wind, whereas at solar minimum, when the coronal fields are more ordered, we find multifractality. This quantifies the solar-wind signature that is of direct coronal origin and distinguishes it from that of local MHD turbulence, with quantitative implications for coronal heating of the solar wind.

  2. INERTIAL RANGE TURBULENCE OF FAST AND SLOW SOLAR WIND AT 0.72 AU AND SOLAR MINIMUM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teodorescu, Eliza; Echim, Marius; Munteanu, Costel [Institute for Space Sciences, Măgurele (Romania); Zhang, Tielong [Space Research Institute, Graz (Austria); Bruno, Roberto [INAF-IAPS, Istituto di Astrofizica e Planetologia Spaziali, Rome (Italy); Kovacs, Peter, E-mail: eliteo@spacescience.ro [Geological and Geophysical Institute of Hungary, Budapest (Hungary)

    2015-05-10

    We investigate Venus Express observations of magnetic field fluctuations performed systematically in the solar wind at 0.72 Astronomical Units (AU), between 2007 and 2009, during the deep minimum of solar cycle 24. The power spectral densities (PSDs) of the magnetic field components have been computed for time intervals that satisfy the data integrity criteria and have been grouped according to the type of wind, fast and slow, defined for speeds larger and smaller, respectively, than 450 km s{sup −1}. The PSDs show higher levels of power for the fast wind than for the slow. The spectral slopes estimated for all PSDs in the frequency range 0.005–0.1 Hz exhibit a normal distribution. The average value of the trace of the spectral matrix is −1.60 for fast solar wind and −1.65 for slow wind. Compared to the corresponding average slopes at 1 AU, the PSDs are shallower at 0.72 AU for slow wind conditions suggesting a steepening of the solar wind spectra between Venus and Earth. No significant time variation trend is observed for the spectral behavior of both the slow and fast wind.

  3. Inertial-Range Reconnection in Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence and in the Solar Wind

    CERN Document Server

    Lalescu, Cristian C; Eyink, Gregory L; Drivas, Theodore D; Vishniac, Ethan T; Lazarian, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    In situ spacecraft data on the solar wind show events identified as magnetic reconnection with outflows and apparent "`$X$-lines" $10^{3-4}$ times ion scales. To understand the role of turbulence at these scales, we make a case study of an inertial-range reconnection event in a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation. We observe stochastic wandering of field-lines in space, breakdown of standard magnetic flux-freezing due to Richardson dispersion, and a broadened reconnection zone containing many current sheets. The coarse-grain magnetic geometry is like large-scale reconnection in the solar wind, however, with a hyperbolic flux-tube or "$X$-line" extending over integral length-scales.

  4. Non-axisymmetric Anisotropy of the Inertial Range in the Turbulent Solar Wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, A. J.; Gogoberidze, G.; Chapman, S. C.; Hnat, B.; Muller, W.

    2011-12-01

    Anisotropy is a key topic for theoretical, numerical and observational studies of plasma turbulence in the solar wind. However, fluctuations in the solar wind are found to be ordered wrt both the background field and flow directions, for example Belcher and Davis found that the fluctuations on average have 5 : 4 : 1 power anisotropy in an orthogonal coordinate system whose axis are [eBxeR, eBx(eBxeR), eB], where eB is a unit vector in the direction of the average magnetic field and eR is a unit vector in the direction radially away from the sun. The fact that the fluctuations are not axisymmetric wrt the background field is paradoxical in the context of idealized models for MHD turbulence. Here, we show that this observed non-axisymmetric anisotropy may arise as a data sampling effect rather than as a result of the physical properties of the turbulence. We will quantify the observed non-axisymmetry via the Power spectral Density ratio of eBxeR : eBx(eBxeR) for in-situ measurements in fast wind. The observed non-axisymmetric ratio will then be compared with Direct Numerical Simulations that are sampled with a "fly through", emulating in-situ single spacecraft observations using Taylor's hypothesis with a constant velocity. We will see this "fly through" model is sufficient to reproduce the observed non-axisymmetric anisotropy in the inertial range of the solar wind. Thus, the observed non-axisymmetric anisotropy may simply arise as a sampling effect related to the one-dimensional spectrum and Taylor's hypothesis. A simple analytical model for a field composed of a linear superposition of transverse waves confirms this result. Prospects for constructing statistical measures, such as structure functions, in space using super-ensembles of multi-spacecraft observations will be discussed.

  5. The distinct character of anisotropy and intermittency in inertial and kinetic range solar wind plasma turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyani, Khurom; Chapman, Sandra; Osman, Kareem; Sahraoui, Fouad; Hnat, Bogdan

    2014-05-01

    The anisotropic nature of the scaling properties of solar wind magnetic turbulence fluctuations is investigated scale by scale using high cadence in situ magnetic field measurements from the Cluster, ACE and STEREO spacecraft missions in both fast and slow quiet solar wind conditions. The data span five decades in scales from the inertial range to the electron Larmor radius. We find a clear transition in scaling behaviour between the inertial and kinetic range of scales, which provides a direct, quantitative constraint on the physical processes that mediate the cascade of energy through these scales. In the inertial (magnetohydrodynamic) range the statistical nature of turbulent fluctuations are known to be anisotropic, both in the vector components of the magnetic field fluctuations (variance anisotropy) and in the spatial scales of these fluctuations (wavevector or k-anisotropy). We show for the first time that, when measuring parallel to the local magnetic field direction, the full statistical signature of the magnetic and Elsasser field fluctuations is that of a non-Gaussian globally scale-invariant process. This is distinct from the classic multi-exponent statistics observed when the local magnetic field is perpendicular to the flow direction. These observations suggest the weakness, or absence, of a parallel magnetofluid turbulence energy cascade. In contrast to the inertial range, there is a successive increase toward isotropy between parallel and transverse power at scales below the ion Larmor radius, with isotropy being achieved at the electron Larmor radius. Computing higher-order statistics, we show that the full statistical signature of both parallel, and perpendicular fluctuations at scales below the ion Larmor radius are that of an isotropic globally scale-invariant non-Gaussian process. Lastly, we perform a survey of multiple intervals of quiet solar wind sampled under different plasma conditions (fast, slow wind; plasma beta etc.) and find that the

  6. Non-axisymmetric Anisotropy of magnetic field fluctuations in the solar wind dissipation range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogoberidze, G.; Turner, A. J.; Chapman, S. C.; Hnat, B.; Muller, W.

    2011-12-01

    Anisotropy is a key topic for theoretical, numerical and observational studies of plasma turbulence in the solar wind. A fundamental assumption of many theoretical descriptions of turbulence, both in the inertial and dissipation range, is that of axisymmetry of the anisotropic fluctuations with respect to the background magnetic field. Intriguingly, there is observational evidence that these fluctuations are ordered both with respect to the background field and flow directions. This level of non-axisymmetry is observed to increases as we move from the inertial range to the dissipation range. This is characterized by minimum variance analysis as well as in observations of the ratio of the Power Spectral Density (PSD) in the perpendicular directions, eBxeR : eBx(eBxeR), where eB is a unit vector in the direction of the average magnetic field and eR is a unit vector in the radial direction away from the sun. Here, we show that this observed non-axisymmetry may arise as a data sampling effect rather than as a result of the physical properties of the turbulent plasma. We first quantify the observed non-axisymmetry through the inertial and dissipation ranges via the PSD ratio in the perpendicular plane for in-situ measurements using the Cluster spacecraft in fast wind where both magnetic field instruments, FGM and STAFF, are operating in burst mode. This allows the small scales of the dissipation range to be investigated. We then show that a spacecraft 'fly through' of a simple analytical model for a field composed of a linear superposition of transverse waves, where Taylor's hypothesis is used and the only variable parameter is the power law index, is sufficient to give the observed non-axisymmetry. In particular, we find that the ratio of power in the perpendicular plane, eBxeR : eBx(eBxeR), depends on the exponent of the PSD. Thus we find that the enhanced non-axisymmetry seen in the dissipation range is a result of the steepening of the PSD slope.

  7. Forecasting Kp from solar wind data: input parameter study using 3-hour averages and 3-hour range values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintoft, Peter; Wik, Magnus; Matzka, Jürgen; Shprits, Yuri

    2017-11-01

    We have developed neural network models that predict Kp from upstream solar wind data. We study the importance of various input parameters, starting with the magnetic component Bz, particle density n, and velocity V and then adding total field B and the By component. As we also notice a seasonal and UT variation in average Kp we include functions of day-of-year and UT. Finally, as Kp is a global representation of the maximum range of geomagnetic variation over 3-hour UT intervals we conclude that sudden changes in the solar wind can have a big effect on Kp, even though it is a 3-hour value. Therefore, 3-hour solar wind averages will not always appropriately represent the solar wind condition, and we introduce 3-hour maxima and minima values to some degree address this problem. We find that introducing total field B and 3-hour maxima and minima, derived from 1-minute solar wind data, have a great influence on the performance. Due to the low number of samples for high Kp values there can be considerable variation in predicted Kp for different networks with similar validation errors. We address this issue by using an ensemble of networks from which we use the median predicted Kp. The models (ensemble of networks) provide prediction lead times in the range 20-90 min given by the time it takes a solar wind structure to travel from L1 to Earth. Two models are implemented that can be run with real time data: (1) IRF-Kp-2017-h3 uses the 3-hour averages of the solar wind data and (2) IRF-Kp-2017 uses in addition to the averages, also the minima and maxima values. The IRF-Kp-2017 model has RMS error of 0.55 and linear correlation of 0.92 based on an independent test set with final Kp covering 2 years using ACE Level 2 data. The IRF-Kp-2017-h3 model has RMSE = 0.63 and correlation = 0.89. We also explore the errors when tested on another two-year period with real-time ACE data which gives RMSE = 0.59 for IRF-Kp-2017 and RMSE = 0.73 for IRF-Kp-2017-h3. The errors as function

  8. Wind and solar resource data sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clifton, Andrew; Hodge, Bri-Mathias; Draxl, Caroline

    2017-01-01

    The range of resource data sets spans from static cartography showing the mean annual wind speed or solar irradiance across a region to high temporal and high spatial resolution products that provide detailed information at a potential wind or solar energy facility. These data sets are used to su...

  9. Compressibility in Solar Wind Plasma Turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, S. C.; Hnat, B.; Rowlands, G.

    2005-12-01

    Incompressible magnetohydrodynamics is often assumed to describe solar wind turbulence. We use extended self-similarity to reveal scaling in the structure functions of density fluctuations in the solar wind as seen by the ACE spacecraft. The obtained scaling is then compared with that found in the inertial range of quantities identified previously as passive scalars in other turbulent systems. We find that these are not coincident. This implies that either solar wind turbulence is compressible or that straightforward comparison of structure functions does not adequately capture its inertial range properties.

  10. Wave Modeling of the Solar Wind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon Ofman

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The acceleration and heating of the solar wind have been studied for decades using satellite observations and models. However, the exact mechanism that leads to solar wind heating and acceleration is poorly understood. In order to improve the understanding of the physical mechanisms that are involved in these processes a combination of modeling and observational analysis is required. Recent models constrained by satellite observations show that wave heating in the low-frequency (MHD, and high-frequency (ion-cyclotron range may provide the necessary momentum and heat input to coronal plasma and produce the solar wind. This review is focused on the results of several recent solar modeling studies that include waves explicitly in the MHD and the kinetic regime. The current status of the understanding of the solar wind acceleration and heating by waves is reviewed.

  11. Wind loading on solar collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhaduri, S.; Murphy, L.M.

    1985-06-01

    The present design methodology for the determination of wind loading on the various solar collectors has been reviewed and assessed. The total force coefficients of flat plates of aspect ratios 1.0 and 3.0, respectively, at various angles of attack obtained by using the guidelines of the ANSI A58.1-1982, have been compared with those obtained by using the methodology of the ASCE Task Committee, 1961, and the experimental results of the full-scale test of heliostats by Peglow. The turbulent energy spectra, currently employed in the building code, are compared with those of Kaimal et al., Lumley, and Ponofsky for wind velocities of 20.0 m/s and 40.24 m/s at an elevation of 9.15 m. The longitudinal spectra of the building code overestimates the Kaimal spectra in the frequency range of 0.007 Hz to 0.08 Hz and underestimates beyond the frequency of 0.08 Hz. The peak angles of attack, on the heliostat, stowed in horizontal position, due to turbulent vertical and lateral components of wind velocity, have been estimated by using Daniel's methodology for three wind velocities and compared with the value suggested by the code. The experimental results of a simple test in the laboratory indicate the feasibility of decreasing the drag forces of the flat plate by reducing the solidity ratio.

  12. Wind in the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Gordon

    2010-01-01

    As an astronomy instructor I am always looking for commonly experienced Earthly phenomena to help my students and me understand and appreciate similar occurrences elsewhere in the solar system. Recently I wrote short "TPT" articles on frost and precipitation. The present article is on winds in the solar system. A windy day or storm might…

  13. Marshall Space Flight Center's Solar Wind Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, K. H.; Schneider, T. A.; Vaughn, J. A.; Whittlesey, P. L.

    2017-01-01

    Historically, NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has operated a Solar Wind Facility (SWF) to provide long term particle and photon exposure to material samples. The requirements on the particle beam details were not stringent as the cumulative fluence level is the test goal. Motivated by development of the faraday cup instrument on the NASA Solar Probe Plus (SPP) mission, the MSFC SWF has been upgraded to included high fidelity particle beams providing broadbeam ions, broadbeam electrons, and narrow beam protons or ions, which cover a wide dynamic range of solar wind velocity and flux conditions. The large vacuum chamber with integrated cryo-shroud, combined with a 3-axis positioning system, provides an excellent platform for sensor development and qualification. This short paper provides some details of the SWF charged particle beams characteristics in the context of the Solar Probe Plus program requirements. Data will be presented on the flux and energy ranges as well as beam stability.

  14. Wind and solar resource data sets: Wind and solar resource data sets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifton, Andrew [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO USA; Hodge, Bri-Mathias [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO USA; Power Systems Engineering Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO USA; Draxl, Caroline [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO USA; National Wind Technology Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO USA; Badger, Jake [Department of Wind Energy, Danish Technical University, Copenhagen Denmark; Habte, Aron [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO USA; Power Systems Engineering Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO USA

    2017-12-05

    The range of resource data sets spans from static cartography showing the mean annual wind speed or solar irradiance across a region to high temporal and high spatial resolution products that provide detailed information at a potential wind or solar energy facility. These data sets are used to support continental-scale, national, or regional renewable energy development; facilitate prospecting by developers; and enable grid integration studies. This review first provides an introduction to the wind and solar resource data sets, then provides an overview of the common methods used for their creation and validation. A brief history of wind and solar resource data sets is then presented, followed by areas for future research.

  15. Energy Dissipation Processes in Solar Wind Turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Wei, F. S.; Feng, X. S.; Xu, X. J.; Zhang, J.; Sun, T. R.; Zuo, P. B.

    2015-12-01

    Turbulence is a chaotic flow regime filled by irregular flows. The dissipation of turbulence is a fundamental problem in the realm of physics. Theoretically, dissipation ultimately cannot be achieved without collisions, and so how turbulent kinetic energy is dissipated in the nearly collisionless solar wind is a challenging problem. Wave particle interactions and magnetic reconnection (MR) are two possible dissipation mechanisms, but which mechanism dominates is still a controversial topic. Here we analyze the dissipation region scaling around a solar wind MR region. We find that the MR region shows unique multifractal scaling in the dissipation range, while the ambient solar wind turbulence reveals a monofractal dissipation process for most of the time. These results provide the first observational evidences for intermittent multifractal dissipation region scaling around a MR site, and they also have significant implications for the fundamental energy dissipation process.

  16. ENERGY DISSIPATION PROCESSES IN SOLAR WIND TURBULENCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Y.; Wei, F. S.; Feng, X. S.; Sun, T. R.; Zuo, P. B. [SIGMA Weather Group, State Key Laboratory for Space Weather, National Space Science Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Xu, X. J. [Space Science Institute, Macau University of Science and Technology, Macao (China); Zhang, J., E-mail: yw@spaceweather.ac.cn [School of Physics, Astronomy and Computational Sciences, George Mason University, 4400 University Drive, MSN 3F3, Fairfax, Virginia 22030 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Turbulence is a chaotic flow regime filled by irregular flows. The dissipation of turbulence is a fundamental problem in the realm of physics. Theoretically, dissipation ultimately cannot be achieved without collisions, and so how turbulent kinetic energy is dissipated in the nearly collisionless solar wind is a challenging problem. Wave particle interactions and magnetic reconnection (MR) are two possible dissipation mechanisms, but which mechanism dominates is still a controversial topic. Here we analyze the dissipation region scaling around a solar wind MR region. We find that the MR region shows unique multifractal scaling in the dissipation range, while the ambient solar wind turbulence reveals a monofractal dissipation process for most of the time. These results provide the first observational evidences for intermittent multifractal dissipation region scaling around a MR site, and they also have significant implications for the fundamental energy dissipation process.

  17. The role of compressibility in solar wind plasma turbulence

    OpenAIRE

    Hnat, Bogdan; Chapman, Sandra C.; Rowlands, George

    2004-01-01

    Incompressible Magnetohydrodynamics is often assumed to describe solar wind turbulence. We use extended self similarity to reveal scaling in structure functions of density fluctuations in the solar wind. Obtained scaling is then compared with that found in the inertial range of quantities identified as passive scalars in other turbulent systems. We find that these are not coincident. This implies that either solar wind turbulence is compressible, or that straightforward comparison of structur...

  18. Extended Self Similarity in Solar Wind Turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowlands, G.; Chapman, S. C.; Hnat, B.

    2005-12-01

    The solar wind provides a natural laboratory for observations of MHD turbulence over extended temporal scales. A hallmark of turbulence is scaling- and scaling in the Probability Density Functions (PDF) of fluctuations in certain solar wind in- situ bulk plasma parameters has been established from WIND and ACE observations on `short' timescales up to a few hours. On longer timescales there is a crossover in scaling to uncorrelated behaviour. The intermittency of the system is expressed in these parameters through the non-Gaussian nature of the fluctuations PDF up to this timescale. Here we apply a generic approach to turbulence- that of Extended Self Similarity (ESS)- to the analysis of solar wind observations. We find that ESS can extend the range of scaling and for some parameters reveals two distinct scaling regions for the `short' and long timescales, whereas for others, a single scaling encompasses the behaviour over the full range of timescales. That certain parameters, and conditions, can be distinguished via ESS may provide physical insight into the turbulent solar wind.

  19. Long-Range WindScanner System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vasiljevic, Nikola; Lea, Guillaume; Courtney, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The technical aspects of a multi-Doppler LiDAR instrument, the long-range WindScanner system, are presented accompanied by an overview of the results from several field campaigns. The long-range WindScanner system consists of three spatially-separated, scanning coherent Doppler LiDARs and a remote......-rangeWindScanner system measures the wind field by emitting and directing three laser beams to intersect, and then scanning the beam intersection over a region of interest. The long-range WindScanner system was developed to tackle the need for high-quality observations of wind fields on scales of modern wind turbine...

  20. Solar wind controls on Mercury's magnetospheric cusp

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Maosheng; Vogt, Joachim; Heyner, Daniel; Zhong, Jun

    2017-06-01

    This study assesses the response of the cusp to solar wind changes comprehensively, using 2848 orbits of MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) observation. The assessment entails four steps: (1) propose and validate an approach to estimate the solar wind magnetic field (interplanetary magnetic field (IMF)) for MESSENGER's cusp transit; (2) define an index σ measuring the intensity of the magnetic disturbance which significantly peaks within the cusp and serves as an indicator of the cusp activity level; (3) construct an empirical model of σ as a function of IMF and Mercury's heliocentric distance rsun, through linear regression; and (4) use the model to estimate and compare the polar distribution of the disturbance σ under different conditions for a systematic comparison. The comparison illustrates that the disturbance peak over the cusp is strongest and widest extending in local time for negative IMF Bx and negative IMF Bz, and when Mercury is around the perihelion. Azimuthal shifts are associated with both IMF By and rsun: the cusp moves toward dawn when IMF By or rsun decrease. These dependences are explained in terms of the IMF Bx-controlled dayside magnetospheric topology, the component reconnection model applied to IMF By and Bz, and the variability of solar wind ram pressure associated with heliocentric distance rsun. The applicability of the component reconnection model on IMF By indicates that at Mercury reconnection occurs at lower shear angles than at Earth.Plain Language SummaryMercury's magnetosphere was suggested to be particularly sensitive to solar wind conditions. This study investigates the response of the magnetospheric cusp to solar wind conditions systematically. For this purpose, we analyze the statistical predictability of interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) at Mercury, develop an approach for estimating the solar wind magnetic field (IMF) for MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging

  1. Wind loads on solar energy systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampen, B.J.M. van; Geurts, C.P.W.; Borsboom, W.A.; Blackmore, P.

    2005-01-01

    Wind loads on solar energy systems are not covered by current wind loading standards. This paper describes results of a parametric study into the wind loads 0on solar energy systems,. which are placed on flat roofs. Wind tunnel measurements have been carried out on a number of configurations. The

  2. 77 FR 61597 - Avalon Wind, LLC; Avalon Wind 2, LLC; Catalina Solar, LLC; Catalina Solar 2, LLC; Pacific Wind...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-10

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Avalon Wind, LLC; Avalon Wind 2, LLC; Catalina Solar, LLC; Catalina Solar 2, LLC; Pacific Wind Lessee, LLC; Pacific Wind 2, LLC; Valentine Solar, LLC; EDF Renewable Development, Inc.; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order Take notice that on September 27, 2012, Avalon Wind...

  3. Turbulence in the solar wind

    CERN Document Server

    Bruno, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    This book provides an overview of solar wind turbulence from both the theoretical and observational perspective. It argues that the interplanetary medium offers the best opportunity to directly study turbulent fluctuations in collisionless plasmas. In fact, during expansion, the solar wind evolves towards a state characterized by large-amplitude fluctuations in all observed parameters, which resembles, at least at large scales, the well-known hydrodynamic turbulence. This text starts with historical references to past observations and experiments on turbulent flows. It then introduces the Navier-Stokes equations for a magnetized plasma whose low-frequency turbulence evolution is described within the framework of the MHD approximation. It also considers the scaling of plasma and magnetic field fluctuations and the study of nonlinear energy cascades within the same framework. It reports observations of turbulence in the ecliptic and at high latitude, treating Alfvénic and compressive fluctuations separately in...

  4. Distributed Wind Cost Reduction: Learning from Solar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tegen, Suzanne

    2016-02-23

    The distributed wind energy industry can learn several lessons from the solar industry regarding reducing soft costs. Suzanne Tegen presented this overview at the 2016 Distributed Wind Energy Association Business Conference in Washington, D.C., on February 23, 2016.

  5. Astrospheres and Solar-like Stellar Winds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wood Brian E.

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Stellar analogs for the solar wind have proven to be frustratingly difficult to detect directly. However, these stellar winds can be studied indirectly by observing the interaction regions carved out by the collisions between these winds and the interstellar medium (ISM. These interaction regions are called "astrospheres", analogous to the "heliosphere" surrounding the Sun. The heliosphere and astrospheres contain a population of hydrogen heated by charge exchange processes that can produce enough H I Ly alpha absorption to be detectable in UV spectra of nearby stars from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST. The amount of astrospheric absorption is a diagnostic for the strength of the stellar wind, so these observations have provided the first measurements of solar-like stellar winds. Results from these stellar wind studies and their implications for our understanding of the solar wind are reviewed here. Of particular interest are results concerning the past history of the solar wind and its impact on planetary atmospheres.

  6. Solar Wind Earth Exchange Project (SWEEP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-28

    highly charged ions of the solar wind. The main challenge in predicting the resultant photon flux in the X-ray energy bands is due to the...Newton, an X-ray astronomical observatory. We use OMNI solar wind conditions, heavy ion composition data from ACE, the Hodges neutral hydrogen model...of SWEEP was to compare theoretical models of X-ray emission in the terrestrial magnetosphere caused by the Solar Wind Charge Exchange

  7. Solar and stellar coronae and winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardine, Moira

    2017-10-01

    Solar-like stars influence their environments through their coronal emis- sion and winds. These processes are linked through the physics of the stellar magnetic field, whose strength and geometry has now been explored for a large number of stars through spectropolarimetric observations. We have now detected trends with mass and rotation rate in the distribution of magnetic energies in different geometries and on also different length scales. This has implications both for the dynamo processes that generate the fields and also for the dynamics and evolution of the coronae and winds. Modelling of the surface driving processes on stars of various masses and rotation rates has revealed tantalising clues about the dynamics of stellar coronae and their ejecta. These new observations have also prompted a resurgence in the modelling of stellar winds, which is now uncovering the range of different interplanetary conditions that exoplanets might experience as they evolve.

  8. Solar cycle dependence of scaling in solar wind fluctuations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. C. Chapman

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In this review we collate recent results for the statistical scaling properties of fluctuations in the solar wind with a view to synthesizing two descriptions: that of evolving MHD turbulence and that of a scaling signature of coronal origin that passively propagates with the solar wind. The scenario that emerges is that of coexistent signatures which map onto the well known "two component" picture of solar wind magnetic fluctuations. This highlights the need to consider quantities which track Alfvénic fluctuations, and energy and momentum flux densities to obtain a complete description of solar wind fluctuations.

  9. Solar cycle dependence of scaling in solar wind fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, S. C.; Hnat, B.; Kiyani, K.

    2008-06-01

    In this review we collate recent results for the statistical scaling properties of fluctuations in the solar wind with a view to synthesizing two descriptions: that of evolving MHD turbulence and that of a scaling signature of coronal origin that passively propagates with the solar wind. The scenario that emerges is that of coexistent signatures which map onto the well known "two component" picture of solar wind magnetic fluctuations. This highlights the need to consider quantities which track Alfvénic fluctuations, and energy and momentum flux densities to obtain a complete description of solar wind fluctuations.

  10. Are Energetic Electrons in the Solar Wind the Source of the Outer Radiation Belt?

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xinlin; Baker, D. N.; Temerin, M.; Larson, D.; Lin, R. P.; Reeves, G. D.; Looper, M.; Kanekal, S. G.; Mewaldt, R. A.

    1997-01-01

    Using data from WIND, SAMPEX (Solar Anomalous, and Magnetospheric Particle Explorer), and the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) sensors onboard geostationary satellites, we investigate the correlation of energetic electrons in the 20–200 keV range in the solar wind and of high speed solar wind streams with relativistic electrons in the magnetosphere to determine whether energetic electrons in the solar wind are the source of the outer relativistic electron radiation belt. Though there is ...

  11. Scale-free texture of the fast solar wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hnat, B.; Chapman, S. C.; Gogoberidze, G.; Wicks, R. T.

    2011-12-01

    The higher-order statistics of magnetic field magnitude fluctuations in the fast quiet solar wind are quantified systematically, scale by scale. We find a single global non-Gaussian scale-free behavior from minutes to over 5 h. This spans the signature of an inertial range of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence and a ˜1/f range in magnetic field components. This global scaling in field magnitude fluctuations is an intrinsic component of the underlying texture of the solar wind and puts a strong constraint on any theory of solar corona and the heliosphere. Intriguingly, the magnetic field and velocity components show scale-dependent dynamic alignment outside of the inertial range.

  12. Simulations of Solar Wind Turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Melvyn L.; Usmanov, A. V.; Roberts, D. A.

    2008-01-01

    Recently we have restructured our approach to simulating magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence in the solar wind. Previously, we had defined a 'virtual' heliosphere that contained, for example, a tilted rotating current sheet, microstreams, quasi-two-dimensional fluctuations as well as Alfven waves. In this new version of the code, we use the global, time-stationary, WKB Alfven wave-driven solar wind model developed by Usmanov and described in Usmanov and Goldstein [2003] to define the initial state of the system. Consequently, current sheets, and fast and slow streams are computed self-consistently from an inner, photospheric, boundary. To this steady-state configuration, we add fluctuations close to, but above, the surface where the flow become super-Alfvenic. The time-dependent MHD equations are then solved using a semi-discrete third-order Central Weighted Essentially Non-Oscillatory (CWENO) numerical scheme. The computational domain now includes the entire sphere; the geometrical singularity at the poles is removed using the multiple grid approach described in Usmanov [1996]. Wave packets are introduced at the inner boundary such as to satisfy Faraday's Law [Yeh and Dryer, 1985] and their nonlinear evolution are followed in time.

  13. High-Speed Solar Wind and Geomagnetic Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olyak, M. R.

    2015-03-01

    The impact of high-speed solar wind disturbances on the occurrence of geomagnetic storms is analyzed. The solar wind velocity values, determined from scintillation observations at the UTR-2 and URAN-2 Ukrainian decameter radio telescopes are analyzed together with the solar wind parameters at the Earth’s orbit and geomagnetic indices Ap. The solar wind velocity increase during observations was chiefly caused by the high-speed streams from coronal holes. At the time of February 2011, the X-class solar flare, accompanied by coronal mass ejections, was also observed. It was found that the geomagnetic disturbances of that period occurred at negative daily values of the interplanetary magnetic field component being perpendicular to the ecliptic plane. It was shown that the increasing solar wind velocity observed with the UTR-2 and URAN-2 within a wide range of helio- latitudes leads to increase in geomagnetic index Ap and to geomagnetic disturbance. Whereas the increase of solar wind velocity in a narrow range of helio-latitudes near to the ecliptic plane was never accompanied by geomagnetic perturbations.

  14. Solar energy system with wind vane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grip, Robert E

    2015-11-03

    A solar energy system including a pedestal defining a longitudinal axis, a frame that is supported by the pedestal and that is rotateable relative to the pedestal about the longitudinal axis, the frame including at least one solar device, and a wind vane operatively connected to the frame to urge the frame relative to the pedestal about the longitudinal axis in response to wind acting on the wind vane.

  15. Anisotropy in solar wind plasma turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oughton, S.; Matthaeus, W. H.; Wan, M.; Osman, K. T.

    2015-01-01

    A review of spectral anisotropy and variance anisotropy for solar wind fluctuations is given, with the discussion covering inertial range and dissipation range scales. For the inertial range, theory, simulations and observations are more or less in accord, in that fluctuation energy is found to be primarily in modes with quasi-perpendicular wavevectors (relative to a suitably defined mean magnetic field), and also that most of the fluctuation energy is in the vector components transverse to the mean field. Energy transfer in the parallel direction and the energy levels in the parallel components are both relatively weak. In the dissipation range, observations indicate that variance anisotropy tends to decrease towards isotropic levels as the electron gyroradius is approached; spectral anisotropy results are mixed. Evidence for and against wave interpretations and turbulence interpretations of these features will be discussed. We also present new simulation results concerning evolution of variance anisotropy for different classes of initial conditions, each with typical background solar wind parameters. PMID:25848082

  16. Velocity shear generation of solar wind turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, D. A.; Goldstein, Melvyn L.; Matthaeus, William H.; Ghosh, Sanjoy

    1992-01-01

    A two-dimensional incompressible MHD spectral code is used to show that shear-driven turbulence is a possible means for producing many observed properties of the evolution of the magnetic and velocity fluctuations in the solar wind and, in particular, the evolution of the cross helicity ('Alfvenicity') at small scales. It is shown that large-scale shear can nonlinearly produce a cascade to smaller scale fluctuations even when the linear Kelvin-Helmholtz mode is stable, and that a roughly power law inertial range is established by this process. The evolution found is similar to that seen in some other simulations of MHD turbulence.

  17. Potential for Development of Solar and Wind Resource in Bhutan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilman, P.; Cowlin, S.; Heimiller, D.

    2009-09-01

    With support from the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) produced maps and data of the wind and solar resources in Bhutan. The solar resource data show that Bhutan has an adequate resource for flat-plate collectors, with annual average values of global horizontal solar radiation ranging from 4.0 to 5.5 kWh/m2-day (4.0 to 5.5 peak sun hours per day). The information provided in this report may be of use to energy planners in Bhutan involved in developing energy policy or planning wind and solar projects, and to energy analysts around the world interested in gaining an understanding of Bhutan's wind and solar energy potential.

  18. Solar wind tans young asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    A new study published in Nature this week reveals that asteroid surfaces age and redden much faster than previously thought -- in less than a million years, the blink of an eye for an asteroid. This study has finally confirmed that the solar wind is the most likely cause of very rapid space weathering in asteroids. This fundamental result will help astronomers relate the appearance of an asteroid to its actual history and identify any after effects of a catastrophic impact with another asteroid. ESO PR Photo 16a/09 Young Asteroids Look Old "Asteroids seem to get a ‘sun tan' very quickly," says lead author Pierre Vernazza. "But not, as for people, from an overdose of the Sun's ultraviolet radiation, but from the effects of its powerful wind." It has long been known that asteroid surfaces alter in appearance with time -- the observed asteroids are much redder than the interior of meteorites found on Earth [1] -- but the actual processes of this "space weathering" and the timescales involved were controversial. Thanks to observations of different families of asteroids [2] using ESO's New Technology Telescope at La Silla and the Very Large Telescope at Paranal, as well as telescopes in Spain and Hawaii, Vernazza's team have now solved the puzzle. When two asteroids collide, they create a family of fragments with "fresh" surfaces. The astronomers found that these newly exposed surfaces are quickly altered and change colour in less than a million years -- a very short time compared to the age of the Solar System. "The charged, fast moving particles in the solar wind damage the asteroid's surface at an amazing rate [3]", says Vernazza. Unlike human skin, which is damaged and aged by repeated overexposure to sunlight, it is, perhaps rather surprisingly, the first moments of exposure (on the timescale considered) -- the first million years -- that causes most of the aging in asteroids. By studying different families of asteroids, the team has also shown that an asteroid

  19. Acceleration and heating of the solar wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, A.

    1978-01-01

    Some of the competing theories of solar wind acceleration and heating are reviewed, and the observations that are required to distinguish among them are discussed. In most cases what is required is measurement of plasma velocity and temperature and magnetic field, as near the sun as possible and certainly inside 20 solar radii; another critical aspect of this question is determining whether a turbulent envelope exists in this inner region, and if so, defining its properties. Plasma and magnetic observations from the proposed Solar Probe mission would thus yield a quantum jump in our understanding of the dynamics of the solar wind.

  20. Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 2: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lew, D.; Brinkman, G.; Ibanez, E.; Hodge, B.-M.; King, J.

    2012-09-01

    The Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS) investigates the impacts of high penetrations of wind and solar power into the Western Interconnection of the United States. WWSIS2 builds on the Phase 1 study but with far greater refinement in the level of data inputs and production simulation. It considers the differences between wind and solar power on systems operations. It considers mitigation options to accommodate wind and solar when full costs of wear-and-tear and full impacts of emissions rates are taken into account. It determines wear-and-tear costs and emissions impacts. New data sets were created for WWSIS2, and WWSIS1 data sets were refined to improve realism of plant output and forecasts. Four scenarios were defined for WWSIS2 that examine the differences between wind and solar and penetration level. Transmission was built out to bring resources to load. Statistical analysis was conducted to investigate wind and solar impacts at timescales ranging from seasonal down to 5 minutes.

  1. Solar and Wind Site Screening Decision Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA and NREL created a decision tree to guide state and local governments and other stakeholders through a process for screening sites for their suitability for future redevelopment with solar photovoltaic (PV) energy and wind energy.

  2. Mirror Instability in the Turbulent Solar Wind

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hellinger, Petr; Landi, S.; Matteini, L.; Verdini, A.; Franci, L.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 838, č. 2 (2017), 158/1-158/7 ISSN 0004-637X Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : instabilities * solar wind * waves Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 5.533, year: 2016

  3. Wind loads on solar energy roofs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurts, C.P.W.; Bentum, C.A. van

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the wind loads on roofs, equipped with solar energy products, so called Active Roofs. Values given in this paper have been based on wind tunnel and full scale measurements, carried out at TNO, and on an interpretation of existing rules and guidelines. The results

  4. Origin of the Ubiquitous Fast Solar Wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habbal, S. R.; Woo, R.; Fineschi, S.; O'Neal, R.; Kohl, J.; Noci, G.

    1997-01-01

    The solar wind is a direct manifestation of the coronal heating processes which continue to elude us. For over three decades, observations in interplanetary space have identified two types of wind: a slow component with highly variable physical properties also characterized by speeds typically beow 500 kn/s, and a much less variable fast wind flowing on average at 750 km/s1.

  5. Nonaxisymmetric Anisotropy of Solar Wind Turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, A. J.; Gogoberidze, G.; Chapman, S. C.; Hnat, B.; Müller, W.-C.

    2011-08-01

    A key prediction of turbulence theories is frame-invariance, and in magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence, axisymmetry of fluctuations with respect to the background magnetic field. Paradoxically the power in fluctuations in the turbulent solar wind are observed to be ordered with respect to the bulk macroscopic flow as well as the background magnetic field. Here, nonaxisymmetry across the inertial and dissipation ranges is quantified using in situ observations from Cluster. The observed inertial range nonaxisymmetry is reproduced by a “fly through” sampling of a direct numerical simulation of MHD turbulence. Furthermore, fly through sampling of a linear superposition of transverse waves with axisymmetric fluctuations generates the trend in nonaxisymmetry with power spectral exponent. The observed nonaxisymmetric anisotropy may thus simply arise as a sampling effect related to Taylor’s hypothesis and is not related to the plasma dynamics itself.

  6. The Genesis Solar Wind Sample Return Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiens, Roger C.; Burnett, Donald S.; Neugebauer, Marcia; Sasaki, Chester; Sevilla, Donald; Stansbery, Eileen; Clark, Ben; Smith, Nick; Oldham, Lloyd

    1990-01-01

    The Genesis spacecraft was launched on August 8 from Cape Canaveral on a journey to become the first spacecraft to return from interplanetary space. The fifth in NASA's line of low-cost Discovery-class missions, its goal is to collect samples of solar wind and return them to Earth for detailed isotopic and elemental analysis. The spacecraft is to collect solar wind for over two years, while circling the L1 point 1.5 million km sunward of the earth, before heading back for a capsule-style re-entry in September, 2004. After parachute deployment, a mid-air helicopter recovery will be used to avoid a hard landing. The mission has been in the planning stages for over ten years. Its cost, including development, mission operations, and sample analysis, is approximately $209M. The Genesis science team, headed by principal investigator Donald Burnett of Caltech, consists of approximately 20 co-investigators from universities and science centers around the country and internationally. The spacecraft consists of a relatively flat spacecraft bus containing most of the subsystem components, situated below a sample return capsule (SRC) which holds the solar-wind collection substrates and an electrostatic solar wind concentrator. Some of the collectors are exposed throughout the collection period, for a sample of bulk solar wind, while others are exposed only to certain solar wind regimes, or types of flow. Ion and electron spectrometers feed raw data to the spacecraft control and data-handling (C&DH) unit, which determines ion moments and electron flux geometries in real time. An algorithm is used to robotically decide between interstream (IS), coronal hole (CH), and coronal mass ejection (CME) regimes, and to control deployment of the proper arrays to sample these wind regimes independently. This is the first time such a solar-wind decision algorithm has been used on board a spacecraft.

  7. Verification of high-speed solar wind stream forecasts using operational solar wind models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reiss, Martin A.; Temmer, Manuela; Veronig, Astrid M.

    2016-01-01

    High-speed solar wind streams emanating from coronal holes are frequently impinging on the Earth's magnetosphere causing recurrent, medium-level geomagnetic storm activity. Modeling high-speed solar wind streams is thus an essential element of successful space weather forecasting. Here we evaluate...

  8. THE NEW HORIZONS SOLAR WIND AROUND PLUTO (SWAP) OBSERVATIONS OF THE SOLAR WIND FROM 11–33 au

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, H. A.; McComas, D. J.; Valek, P.; Weidner, S.; Livadiotis, G. [Southwest Research Institute, 6220 Culebra Road, San Antonio, TX 78238 (United States); Nicolaou, G., E-mail: helliott@swri.edu [Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Box 812, SE-98128, Kiruna (Sweden)

    2016-04-15

    The Solar Wind Around Pluto (SWAP) instrument on National Aeronautics and Space Administration's New Horizons Pluto mission has collected solar wind observations en route from Earth to Pluto, and these observations continue beyond Pluto. Few missions have explored the solar wind in the outer heliosphere making this dataset a critical addition to the field. We created a forward model of SWAP count rates, which includes a comprehensive instrument response function based on laboratory and flight calibrations. By fitting the count rates with this model, the proton density (n), speed (V), and temperature (T) parameters are determined. Comparisons between SWAP parameters and both propagated 1 au observations and prior Voyager 2 observations indicate consistency in both the range and mean wind values. These comparisons as well as our additional findings confirm that small and midsized solar wind structures are worn down with increasing distance due to dynamic interaction of parcels of wind with different speed. For instance, the T–V relationship steepens, as the range in V is limited more than the range in T with distance. At times the T–V correlation clearly breaks down beyond 20 au, which may indicate wind currently expanding and cooling may have an elevated T reflecting prior heating and compression in the inner heliosphere. The power of wind parameters at shorter periodicities decreases with distance as the longer periodicities strengthen. The solar rotation periodicity is present in temperature beyond 20 au indicating the observed parcel temperature may reflect not only current heating or cooling, but also heating occurring closer to the Sun.

  9. Dominant 2D magnetic turbulence in the solar wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieber, John W.; Wanner, Wolfgang; Matthaeus, William H.

    1995-01-01

    There have been recent suggestions that solar wind magnetic turbulence may be a composite of slab geometry (wavevector aligned with the mean magnetic field) and 2D geometry (wavevectors perpendicular to the mean field). We report results of two new tests of this hypothesis using Helios measurements of inertial ranged magnetic spectra in the solar wind. The first test is based upon a characteristic difference between perpendicular and parallel reduced power spectra which is expected for the 2D component but not for the slab component. The second test examines the dependence of power spectrum density upon the magnetic field angle (i.e., the angle between the mean magnetic field and the radial direction), a relationship which is expected to be in opposite directions for the slab and 2D components. Both tests support the presence of a dominant (approximately 85 percent by energy) 2D component in solar wind magnetic turbulence.

  10. Shock heating of the solar wind plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whang, Y. C.; Liu, Shaoliang; Burlaga, L. F.

    1990-01-01

    The role played by shocks in heating solar-wind plasma is investigated using data on 413 shocks which were identified from the plasma and magnetic-field data collected between 1973 and 1982 by Pioneer and Voyager spacecraft. It is found that the average shock strength increased with the heliocentric distance outside 1 AU, reaching a maximum near 5 AU, after which the shock strength decreased with the distance; the entropy of the solar wind protons also reached a maximum at 5 AU. An MHD simulation model in which shock heating is the only heating mechanism available was used to calculate the entropy changes for the November 1977 event. The calculated entropy agreed well with the value calculated from observational data, suggesting that shocks are chiefly responsible for heating solar wind plasma between 1 and 15 AU.

  11. Escape for the Slow Solar Wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-05-01

    Plasma from the Sun known as the slow solar wind has been observed far away from where scientists thought it was produced. Now new simulations may have resolved the puzzle of where the slow solar wind comes from and how it escapes the Sun to travel through our solar system.An Origin PuzzleA full view of a coronal hole (dark portion) from SDO. The edges of the coronal hole mark the boundary between open and closed magnetic field lines. [SDO; adapted from Higginson et al. 2017]The Suns atmosphere, known as the corona, is divided into two types of regions based on the behavior of magnetic field lines. In closed-field regions, the magnetic field is firmly anchored in the photosphere at both ends of field lines, so traveling plasma is confined to coronal loops and must return to the Suns surface. In open-field regions, only one end of each magnetic field line is anchored in the photosphere, so plasma is able to stream from the Suns surface out into the solar system.This second type of region known as a coronal hole is thought to be the origin of fast-moving plasma measured in our solar system and known as the fast solar wind. But we also observe a slow solar wind: plasma that moves at speeds of less than 500 km/s.The slow solar wind presents a conundrum. Its observational properties strongly suggest it originates in the hot, closed corona rather than the cooler, open regions. But if the slow solar wind plasma originates in closed-field regions of the Suns atmosphere, then how does it escape from the Sun?Slow Wind from Closed FieldsA team of scientists led by Aleida Higginson (University of Michigan) has now used high-resolution, three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations to show how the slow solar wind can be generated from plasma that starts outin closed-field parts of the Sun.A simulated heliospheric arc, composed of open magnetic field lines. [Higginson et al. 2017]Motions on the Suns surface near the boundary between open and closed-field regions the boundary

  12. Reassessing Solar Wind Stability using Nyquist's Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Kristopher; Kasper, Justin; Alterman, Benjamin; Stevens, Michael; Korreck, Kelly

    2017-10-01

    In nearly-collisionless plasmas, such as the solar wind, non-local thermodynamic equilibrium structures, including temperature anisotropies, beam populations with relative drifts, and agyrotropic features, are frequently observed to persist. These features can act as sources of free energy which may drive instabilities that move the plasma closer to LTE. Analysis techniques applied to solar wind observations for the presence of such instabilities typically consider only a single source of free energy, such the temperature anisotropy of the proton population. We have developed an efficient algorithm for general determination of linear stability considering all sources of free energy using Nyquist's Method. By applying this method to the dispersion relation associated with a particular solar wind observation, we rapidly determine if the plasma is linearly unstable, and if so, how many normal modes are driven. Our technique is verified against well-characterized theoretical and observational cases from the literature, and applied to in situ observations from the Wind spacecraft to determine how additional sources of free energy affect the plasma's stability and may govern the solar wind's evolution.

  13. Wind and Solar Curtailment: International Experience and Practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lew, Debra; Bird, Lori; Milligan, Michael

    2013-01-01

    High penetrations of wind and solar generation on power systems are resulting in increasing curtailment. Wind and solar integration studies predict increased curtailment as penetration levels grow. This paper examines experiences with curtailment on bulk power systems internationally. It discusse...

  14. Wind/solar resource in Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, V.; Starcher, K.; Gaines, H. [West Texas A& M Univ., Canyon, TX (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Data are being collected at 17 sites to delineate a baseline for the wind and solar resource across Texas. Wind data are being collected at 10, 25, and 40 m (in some cases at 50 m) to determine wind shear and power at hub heights of large turbines. Many of the sites are located in areas of predicted terrain enhancement. The typical day in a month for power and wind turbine output was calculated for selected sites and combination of sites; distributed systems. Major result to date is that there is the possibility of load matching in South Texas during the summer months, even though the average values by month indicate a low wind potential.

  15. Distribution and solar wind control of compressional solar wind-magnetic anomaly interactions observed at the Moon by ARTEMIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halekas, J. S.; Poppe, A. R.; Lue, C.; Farrell, W. M.; McFadden, J. P.

    2017-06-01

    A statistical investigation of 5 years of observations from the two-probe Acceleration, Reconnection, Turbulence, and Electrodynamics of Moon's Interaction with the Sun (ARTEMIS) mission reveals that strong compressional interactions occur infrequently at high altitudes near the ecliptic but can form in a wide range of solar wind conditions and can occur up to two lunar radii downstream from the lunar limb. The compressional events, some of which may represent small-scale collisionless shocks ("limb shocks"), occur in both steady and variable interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) conditions, with those forming in steady IMF well organized by the location of lunar remanent crustal magnetization. The events observed by ARTEMIS have similarities to ion foreshock phenomena, and those observed in variable IMF conditions may result from either local lunar interactions or distant terrestrial foreshock interactions. Observed velocity deflections associated with compressional events are always outward from the lunar wake, regardless of location and solar wind conditions. However, events for which the observed velocity deflection is parallel to the upstream motional electric field form in distinctly different solar wind conditions and locations than events with antiparallel deflections. Consideration of the momentum transfer between incoming and reflected solar wind populations helps explain the observed characteristics of the different groups of events.Plain Language SummaryWe survey the environment around the Moon to determine when and where strong amplifications in the charged particle density and magnetic field strength occur. These structures may be some of the smallest shock waves in the solar system, and learning about their formation informs us about the interaction of charged particles with small-scale magnetic fields throughout the solar system and beyond. We find that these compressions occur in an extended region downstream from the lunar dawn and dusk regions and

  16. XMM-Newton Observations of Solar Wind Charge Exchange Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowden, S. L.; Collier, M. R.; Kuntz, K. D.

    2004-01-01

    We present an XMM-Newton spectrum of diffuse X-ray emission from within the solar system. The spectrum is dominated by O VII and O VIII lines at 0.57 keV and 0.65 keV, O VIII (and possibly Fe XVII) lines at approximately 0.8 keV, Ne IX lines at approximately 0.92 keV, and Mg XI lines at approximately 1.35 keV. This spectrum is consistent with what is expected from charge exchange emission between the highly ionized solar wind and either interstellar neutrals in the heliosphere or material from Earth's exosphere. The emission is clearly seen as a low-energy ( E less than 1.5 keV) spectral enhancement in one of a series of observations of the Hubble Deep Field North. The X-ray enhancement is concurrent with an enhancement in the solar wind measured by the ACE satellite. The solar wind enhancement reaches a flux level an order of magnitude more intense than typical fluxes at 1 AU, and has ion ratios with significantly enhanced higher ionization states. Whereas observations of the solar wind plasma made at a single point reflect only local conditions which may only be representative of solar wind properties with spatial scales ranging from less than half of an Earth radii (approximately 10 s) to 100 Earth radii, X-ray observations of solar wind charge exchange are remote sensing measurements which may provide observations which are significantly more global in character. Besides being of interest in its own right for studies of the solar system, this emission can have significant consequences for observations of more cosmological objects. It can provide emission lines at zero redshift which are of particular interest (e.g., O VII and O VIII) in studies of diffuse thermal emission, and which can therefore act as contamination in objects which cover the entire detector field of view. We propose the use of solar wind monitoring data, such as from the ACE and Wind spacecraft, as a diagnostic to screen for such possibilities.

  17. Solar cycle changes in the polar solar wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, W. A.; Rickett, B. J.; Rumsey, V. H.; Kaufman, J. J.; Turley, D. G.; Ananthakrishnan, S.; Armstrong, J. W.; Harmons, J. K.; Scott, S. L.; Sime, D. G.

    1980-01-01

    It is noted that although the 11 year solar cycle was first recognized in 1843, it is still only poorly understood. Further, while there are satisfactory models for the magnetic variations, the underlying physics is still obscure. New observations on the changing three-dimensional form of the solar wind are presented which help relate some of the modulations observed in geomagnetic activity, the ionosphere, and the flux of galactic cosmic rays.

  18. Solar wind turbulence at 0.72 AU and solar minimum

    CERN Document Server

    Teodorescu, Eliza; Munteanu, Costel; Zhang, Tielong; Bruno, Roberto; Kovacs, Peter

    2015-01-01

    We investigate Venus Express (VEX) observations of magnetic field fluctuations performed systematically in the solar wind at 0.72 Astronomical Units (AU), between 2007 and 2009, during the deep minimum of the solar cycle 24. The Power Spectral Densities (PSD) of the magnetic field components have been computed for the time intervals that satisfy data integrity criteria and have been grouped according to the type of wind, fast and slow defined for speeds larger and respectively smaller than 450 km/s. The PSDs show higher levels of power for the fast than for the slow wind. The spectral slopes estimated for all PSDs in the frequency range 0.005-0.1 Hz exhibit a normal distribution. The average value of the trace of the spectral matrix is -1.60 for fast solar wind and -1.65 for slow wind. Compared to the corresponding average slopes at 1 AU, the PSDs are shallower at 0.72 AU for slow wind conditions suggesting a steepening of the solar wind spectra between Venus and Earth. No significant time variation trend is ...

  19. Kinetic Physics of the Solar Corona and Solar Wind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marsch Eckart

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Kinetic plasma physics of the solar corona and solar wind are reviewed with emphasis on the theoretical understanding of the in situ measurements of solar wind particles and waves, as well as on the remote-sensing observations of the solar corona made by means of ultraviolet spectroscopy and imaging. In order to explain coronal and interplanetary heating, the microphysics of the dissipation of various forms of mechanical, electric and magnetic energy at small scales (e.g., contained in plasma waves, turbulences or non-uniform flows must be addressed. We therefore scrutinise the basic assumptions underlying the classical transport theory and the related collisional heating rates, and also describe alternatives associated with wave-particle interactions. We elucidate the kinetic aspects of heating the solar corona and interplanetary plasma through Landau- and cyclotron-resonant damping of plasma waves, and analyse in detail wave absorption and micro instabilities. Important aspects (virtues and limitations of fluid models, either single- and multi-species or magnetohydrodynamic and multi-moment models, for coronal heating and solar wind acceleration are critically discussed. Also, kinetic model results which were recently obtained by numerically solving the Vlasov–Boltzmann equation in a coronal funnel and hole are presented. Promising areas and perspectives for future research are outlined finally.

  20. THOR Cold Solar Wind (CSW) instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavraud, Benoit

    2017-04-01

    Turbulence Heating ObserveR (THOR) is the first mission concept dedicated to the study of plasma turbulence. We present the Cold Solar Wind (CSW) instrument that is being designed for THOR. CSW will measure the full three dimensional distribution function of solar wind protons and alphas with unprecedented accuracies. It will measure solar wind proton distributions down to at least 50 ms with energy resolution of 7% and angular resolution of 1.5°. CSW is based on a top-hat electrostatic analyzer (with very large geometric factor) design with deflectors at the entrance. The particle detection system uses Channel Electron Multipliers (CEM) associated with an analog front end Application-Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC). CSW electronics comprises a fast sweeping high voltage board, as well as an FPGA and low voltage power supply boards to perform its operations. CSW is designed to address many of the key science objectives of THOR, in particular regarding ion-scale kinetic aspects of solar wind turbulence.

  1. Classification of Solar Wind With Machine Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camporeale, Enrico; Carè, Algo; Borovsky, Joseph E.

    2017-11-01

    We present a four-category classification algorithm for the solar wind, based on Gaussian Process. The four categories are the ones previously adopted in Xu and Borovsky (2015): ejecta, coronal hole origin plasma, streamer belt origin plasma, and sector reversal origin plasma. The algorithm is trained and tested on a labeled portion of the OMNI data set. It uses seven inputs: the solar wind speed Vsw, the temperature standard deviation σT, the sunspot number R, the F10.7 index, the Alfven speed vA, the proton specific entropy Sp, and the proton temperature Tp compared to a velocity-dependent expected temperature. The output of the Gaussian Process classifier is a four-element vector containing the probabilities that an event (one reading from the hourly averaged OMNI database) belongs to each category. The probabilistic nature of the prediction allows for a more informative and flexible interpretation of the results, for instance, being able to classify events as "undecided." The new method has a median accuracy larger than 90% for all categories, even using a small set of data for training. The Receiver Operating Characteristic curve and the reliability diagram also demonstrate the excellent quality of this new method. Finally, we use the algorithm to classify a large portion of the OMNI data set, and we present for the first time transition probabilities between different solar wind categories. Such probabilities represent the "climatological" statistics that determine the solar wind baseline.

  2. The Solar Wind as a Turbulence Laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Carbone

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this review we will focus on a topic of fundamental importance for both astrophysics and plasma physics, namely the occurrence of large-amplitude low-frequency fluctuations of the fields that describe the plasma state. This subject will be treated within the context of the expanding solar wind and the most meaningful advances in this research field will be reported emphasizing the results obtained in the past decade or so. As a matter of fact, Helios inner heliosphere and Ulysses' high latitude observations, recent multi-spacecrafts measurements in the solar wind (Cluster four satellites and new numerical approaches to the problem, based on the dynamics of complex systems, brought new important insights which helped to better understand how turbulent fluctuations behave in the solar wind. In particular, numerical simulations within the realm of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD turbulence theory unraveled what kind of physical mechanisms are at the basis of turbulence generation and energy transfer across the spectral domain of the fluctuations. In other words, the advances reached in these past years in the investigation of solar wind turbulence now offer a rather complete picture of the phenomenological aspect of the problem to be tentatively presented in a rather organic way.

  3. Energy Primer: Solar, Water, Wind, and Biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portola Inst., Inc., Menlo Park, CA.

    This is a comprehensive, fairly technical book about renewable forms of energy--solar, water, wind, and biofuels. The biofuels section covers biomass energy, agriculture, aquaculture, alcohol, methane, and wood. The focus is on small-scale systems which can be applied to the needs of the individual, small group, or community. More than one-fourth…

  4. Combined Solar and Wind Energy Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripanagnostopoulos, Y.; Souliotis, M.; Makris, Th.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present the new concept of combined solar and wind energy systems for buildings applications. Photovoltaics (PV) and small wind turbines (WTs) can be install on buildings, in case of sufficient wind potential, providing the building with electricity. PVs can be combined with thermal collectors to form the hybrid photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) systems. The PVs (or the PV/Ts) and WT subsystems can supplement each other to cover building electrical load. In case of using PV/T collectors, the surplus of electricity, if not used or stored in batteries, can increase the temperature of the thermal storage tank of the solar thermal unit. The description of the experimental set-up of the suggested PV/T/WT system and experimental results are presented. In PV/T/WT systems the output from the solar part depends on the sunshine time and the output of the wind turbine part depends on the wind speed and is obtained any time of day or night. The use of the three subsystems can cover a great part of building energy load, contributing to conventional energy saving and environment protection. The PV/T/WT systems are considered suitable in rural and remote areas with electricity supply from stand-alone units or mini-grid connection. PV/T/WT systems can also be used in typical grid connected applications.

  5. Wind loads on solar energy systems, mounted on flat roofs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurts, C.P.W.; Bentum, C.A. van; Blackmore, P.

    2005-01-01

    Wind loads on solar energy systems are not covered by current wind loading standards. This paper describes results of a parametric study into the wind loads on solar energy systems, which are placed on flat roofs. Wind tunnel measurements have been carried out on a number of configurations. The

  6. Electric solar wind sail mass budget model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Janhunen

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The electric solar wind sail (E-sail is a new type of propellantless propulsion system for Solar System transportation, which uses the natural solar wind to produce spacecraft propulsion. The E-sail consists of thin centrifugally stretched tethers that are kept charged by an onboard electron gun and, as such, experience Coulomb drag through the high-speed solar wind plasma stream. This paper discusses a mass breakdown and a performance model for an E-sail spacecraft that hosts a mission-specific payload of prescribed mass. In particular, the model is able to estimate the total spacecraft mass and its propulsive acceleration as a function of various design parameters such as the number of tethers and their length. A number of subsystem masses are calculated assuming existing or near-term E-sail technology. In light of the obtained performance estimates, an E-sail represents a promising propulsion system for a variety of transportation needs in the Solar System.

  7. The solar wind as a turbulence laboratory- some new quantitative points of contact between theory, simulation and solar wind observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, S. C.; Gogoberidze, G.; Hnat, B.; Mueller, W.-C.; Turner, A. J.

    2012-04-01

    The solar wind flow has a Reynolds number of order 105. Single point observations suitable for the study of turbulence are on timescales from below ion kinetic scales up to days. Central to the concept of using the solar wind as a test laboratory for plasma turbulence are methods that allow direct quantitative comparison between the predictions of theory and simulation, and the observations. Critically, theoretical predictions, and data analysis methods, must come together in a manner in which uncertainties can be well understood, and thus different theoretical scenarios be distinguished unambiguously. Scaling is a key prediction of theories of infinite range turbulence. Its full characterization requires the scaling exponents of all the moments of the probability density of fluctuations as a function of scale. In practice, only the first few moments are accessible. Most comparisons with theory focus on the second moment scaling, that is, the exponent of the power spectral density (PSD). Solar wind plasma turbulence is anisotropic due to the presence of a background field, so that in general the power spectral density (or correlation) tensor is needed to characterise the turbulence. We focus on the ratios of the PSD tensor terms which are sensitive to the scaling exponent, providing a method for direct observational tests of theories. The reduced PSD tensor accessed by single spacecraft measurements yields ratios of perpendicular terms which we show are robust to uncertainties. These can clearly distinguish turbulence theories as we show for the Goldreich-Sridhar model of MHD turbulence, and the 'slab-2D' solar wind model, which we compare with ULYSSES observations. The comparison between solar wind observations, and 'fly throughs' of DNS of MHD turbulence, is also an informative tool to understand the reduced PSD tensor. We will use this alongside Cluster observations to propose an origin of the observed non-axisymmetry of solar wind turbulence. Properties of the

  8. Information theoretical approach to discovering solar wind drivers of the outer radiation belt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.P. Wing (Simon); J.R. Johnson (Jay); E. Camporeale (Enrico); G.D. Reeves (Geoffrey)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThe solar wind-magnetosphere system is nonlinear. The solar wind drivers of geosynchronous electrons with energy range of 1.8–3.5 MeV are investigated using mutual information, conditional mutual information (CMI), and transfer entropy (TE). These information theoretical tools can

  9. Verification of high-speed solar wind stream forecasts using operational solar wind models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reiss, Martin A.; Temmer, Manuela; Veronig, Astrid M.

    2016-01-01

    High-speed solar wind streams emanating from coronal holes are frequently impinging on the Earth's magnetosphere causing recurrent, medium-level geomagnetic storm activity. Modeling high-speed solar wind streams is thus an essential element of successful space weather forecasting. Here we evaluat...... score, TS ≈ 0.37). The predicted high-speed streams show typical uncertainties in the arrival time of about 1 day and uncertainties in the speed of about 100 km/s. General advantages and disadvantages of the investigated solar wind models are diagnosed and outlined.......High-speed solar wind streams emanating from coronal holes are frequently impinging on the Earth's magnetosphere causing recurrent, medium-level geomagnetic storm activity. Modeling high-speed solar wind streams is thus an essential element of successful space weather forecasting. Here we evaluate...... high-speed stream forecasts made by the empirical solar wind forecast (ESWF) and the semiempirical Wang-Sheeley-Arge (WSA) model based on the in situ plasma measurements from the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) spacecraft for the years 2011 to 2014. While the ESWF makes use of an empirical relation...

  10. Solar Metallicity Derived from In-Situ Solar Wind Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Steiger, R.; Zurbuchen, T.

    2016-12-01

    Solar metallicity — the fraction per unit mass that is composed of elements heavier than He — is a critical and fundamental quantity indicative of the history and future evolution of the Sun. Over the last decade spectroscopic observations of the solar photosphere using inversion techniques of increasing sophistication have led to a downward revision of the abundances of heavy elements, specifically C, N, and O, and thus of the solar metallicity. This in turn has led to a crisis of solar models, which became inconsistent with the results of helioseismology as a consequence of the missing opacity from these elements. We present recently released solar wind compositional data to determine the metallicity of the Sun. We focus on a present-day solar sample available to us, which is the least fractionated solar wind from coronal holes near the poles of the Sun. Using these data, we derive a metallicity of Z = 0.0196 ± 0.0014, which is signicantly larger than recent published values based on photospheric spectroscopy, but consistent with results from helioseismology.

  11. International Solar Terrestrial Physics (ISTP) WIND Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, R.; Sizemore, K. O.

    1991-01-01

    The launch of the WIND spacecraft will place the satellite into a sunside apogee double-lunar swing-by orbit for a period of one year, after which WIND may be transferred to a Sun-Earth L1 Halo orbit. Information is presented in tabular form on the following topics: Deep Space Network support; frequency assignments, telemetry, command, and ranging.

  12. Distribution Strategies for Solar and Wind Renewables in NW Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smedley, Andrew; Webb, Ann

    2017-04-01

    Whilst the UNFCCC Paris Agreement Climate change was ratified in November, 2016 saw the highest global temperature anomaly on record at 1.2°C above pre-industrial levels. As such there is urgent need to reduce CO2 emissions by a move away from fossil fuels and towards renewable electricity energy technologies. As the principal renewable technologies of solar PV and wind turbines contribute an increasing fraction to the electricity grid, questions of cumulative intermittency and the large-scale geographic distribution of each technology need to be addressed. In this study our initial emphasis is on a calculation of a relatively high spatial resolution (0.1° × 0.1°) daily gridded dataset of solar irradiance data, over a 10 year period (2006-2015). This is achieved by coupling established sources of satellite data (MODIS SSF level2 instantaneous footprint data) to a well-validated radiative transfer model, here LibRadTran. We utilise both a morning and afternoon field for two cloud layers (optical depth and cloud fraction) interpolated to hourly grids, together with aerosol optical depth, topographic height and solar zenith angle. These input parameters are passed to a 5-D LUT of LibRadTran results to construct hourly estimates of the solar irradiance field, which is then integrated to a daily total. For the daily wind resource we rely on the 6 hourly height-adjusted ECMWF ERA-Interim reanalysis wind fields, but separated into onshore, offshore and deep water components. From these datasets of the solar and wind resources we construct 22 different distribution strategies for solar PV and wind turbines based on the long-term availability of each resource. Combining these distributions with the original daily gridded datasets enables each distribution strategy to be then assessed in terms of the day-to-day variability, the installed capacity required to maintain a baseline supply, and the relative proportions of each technology. Notably for the NW European area

  13. Origins of the Ambient Solar Wind: Implications for Space Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranmer, Steven R.; Gibson, Sarah E.; Riley, Pete

    2017-10-01

    The Sun's outer atmosphere is heated to temperatures of millions of degrees, and solar plasma flows out into interplanetary space at supersonic speeds. This paper reviews our current understanding of these interrelated problems: coronal heating and the acceleration of the ambient solar wind. We also discuss where the community stands in its ability to forecast how variations in the solar wind (i.e., fast and slow wind streams) impact the Earth. Although the last few decades have seen significant progress in observations and modeling, we still do not have a complete understanding of the relevant physical processes, nor do we have a quantitatively precise census of which coronal structures contribute to specific types of solar wind. Fast streams are known to be connected to the central regions of large coronal holes. Slow streams, however, appear to come from a wide range of sources, including streamers, pseudostreamers, coronal loops, active regions, and coronal hole boundaries. Complicating our understanding even more is the fact that processes such as turbulence, stream-stream interactions, and Coulomb collisions can make it difficult to unambiguously map a parcel measured at 1 AU back down to its coronal source. We also review recent progress—in theoretical modeling, observational data analysis, and forecasting techniques that sit at the interface between data and theory—that gives us hope that the above problems are indeed solvable.

  14. Origins of the Ambient Solar Wind: Implications for Space Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranmer, Steven R.; Gibson, Sarah E.; Riley, Pete

    2017-08-01

    The Sun's outer atmosphere is heated to temperatures of millions of degrees, and solar plasma flows out into interplanetary space at supersonic speeds. This paper reviews our current understanding of these interrelated problems: coronal heating and the acceleration of the ambient solar wind. We also discuss where the community stands in its ability to forecast how variations in the solar wind (i.e., fast and slow wind streams) impact the Earth. Although the last few decades have seen significant progress in observations and modeling, we still do not have a complete understanding of the relevant physical processes, nor do we have a quantitatively precise census of which coronal structures contribute to specific types of solar wind. Fast streams are known to be connected to the central regions of large coronal holes. Slow streams, however, appear to come from a wide range of sources, including streamers, pseudostreamers, coronal loops, active regions, and coronal hole boundaries. Complicating our understanding even more is the fact that processes such as turbulence, stream-stream interactions, and Coulomb collisions can make it difficult to unambiguously map a parcel measured at 1 AU back down to its coronal source. We also review recent progress -- in theoretical modeling, observational data analysis, and forecasting techniques that sit at the interface between data and theory -- that gives us hope that the above problems are indeed solvable.

  15. Air emissions due to wind and solar power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzenstein, Warren; Apt, Jay

    2009-01-15

    Renewables portfolio standards (RPS) encourage large-scale deployment of wind and solar electric power. Their power output varies rapidly, even when several sites are added together. In many locations, natural gas generators are the lowest cost resource available to compensate for this variability, and must ramp up and down quickly to keep the grid stable, affecting their emissions of NOx and CO2. We model a wind or solar photovoltaic plus gas system using measured 1-min time-resolved emissions and heat rate data from two types of natural gas generators, and power data from four wind plants and one solar plant. Over a wide range of renewable penetration, we find CO2 emissions achieve approximately 80% of the emissions reductions expected if the power fluctuations caused no additional emissions. Using steam injection, gas generators achieve only 30-50% of expected NOx emissions reductions, and with dry control NOx emissions increase substantially. We quantify the interaction between state RPSs and NOx constraints, finding that states with substantial RPSs could see significant upward pressure on NOx permit prices, if the gas turbines we modeled are representative of the plants used to mitigate wind and solar power variability.

  16. Origins of the Ambient Solar Wind: Implications for Space Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranmer, Steven R.; Gibson, Sarah E.; Riley, Pete

    2017-11-01

    The Sun's outer atmosphere is heated to temperatures of millions of degrees, and solar plasma flows out into interplanetary space at supersonic speeds. This paper reviews our current understanding of these interrelated problems: coronal heating and the acceleration of the ambient solar wind. We also discuss where the community stands in its ability to forecast how variations in the solar wind (i.e., fast and slow wind streams) impact the Earth. Although the last few decades have seen significant progress in observations and modeling, we still do not have a complete understanding of the relevant physical processes, nor do we have a quantitatively precise census of which coronal structures contribute to specific types of solar wind. Fast streams are known to be connected to the central regions of large coronal holes. Slow streams, however, appear to come from a wide range of sources, including streamers, pseudostreamers, coronal loops, active regions, and coronal hole boundaries. Complicating our understanding even more is the fact that processes such as turbulence, stream-stream interactions, and Coulomb collisions can make it difficult to unambiguously map a parcel measured at 1 AU back down to its coronal source. We also review recent progress—in theoretical modeling, observational data analysis, and forecasting techniques that sit at the interface between data and theory—that gives us hope that the above problems are indeed solvable.

  17. Self-Consistent and Time-Dependent Solar Wind Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, K. K.; Musielak, Z. E.; Rosner, R.; Suess, S. T.; Sulkanen, M. E.

    1997-01-01

    We describe the first results from a self-consistent study of Alfven waves for the time-dependent, single-fluid magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) solar wind equations, using a modified version of the ZEUS MHD code. The wind models we examine are radially symmetrical and magnetized; the initial outflow is described by the standard Parker wind solution. Our study focuses on the effects of Alfven waves on the outflow and is based on solving the full set of the ideal nonlinear MHD equations. In contrast to previous studies, no assumptions regarding wave linearity, wave damping, and wave-flow interaction are made; thus, the models naturally account for the back-reaction of the wind on the waves, as well as for the nonlinear interaction between different types of MHD waves. Our results clearly demonstrate when momentum deposition by Alfven waves in the solar wind can be sufficient to explain the origin of fast streams in solar coronal holes; we discuss the range of wave amplitudes required to obtained such fast stream solutions.

  18. How measurement uncertainties impact upon the observed scaling properties of MHD turbulence in the solar wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hnat, B.; Gogoberidze, G.; Chapman, S. C.; Dunlop, M.

    2012-12-01

    Quantifying the scaling exponents of fluctuations in the solar wind is central to testing predictions of turbulence theories. We study spectral features of Alfvenic turbulence in fast solar wind. We propose a general, instrument independent method (Gogoberidze et al, MNRAS, 2012) to estimate the uncertainty in velocity fluctuations obtained by in-situ satellite observations in the solar wind. We show that when the measurement uncertainties of the velocity fluctuations are taken into account the less energetic Elsasser spectrum obeys a unique power law scaling throughout the inertial range as prevailing theories of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence predict. Moreover, in the solar wind interval analyzed, the two Elsasser spectra are observed to have the same scaling exponent ~1:54 throughout the inertial range. This highlights the importance of understanding uncertainty estimates and how they affect observed scaling in the PSD when using the solar wind as a laboratory to test predictions of theories of turbulence.

  19. The influence of solar wind variability on magnetospheric ULF wave power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Pokhotelov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Magnetospheric ultra-low frequency (ULF oscillations in the Pc 4–5 frequency range play an important role in the dynamics of Earth's radiation belts, both by enhancing the radial diffusion through incoherent interactions and through the coherent drift-resonant interactions with trapped radiation belt electrons. The statistical distributions of magnetospheric ULF wave power are known to be strongly dependent on solar wind parameters such as solar wind speed and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF orientation. Statistical characterisation of ULF wave power in the magnetosphere traditionally relies on average solar wind–IMF conditions over a specific time period. In this brief report, we perform an alternative characterisation of the solar wind influence on magnetospheric ULF wave activity through the characterisation of the solar wind driver by its variability using the standard deviation of solar wind parameters rather than a simple time average. We present a statistical study of nearly one solar cycle (1996–2004 of geosynchronous observations of magnetic ULF wave power and find that there is significant variation in ULF wave powers as a function of the dynamic properties of the solar wind. In particular, we find that the variability in IMF vector, rather than variabilities in other parameters (solar wind density, bulk velocity and ion temperature, plays the strongest role in controlling geosynchronous ULF power. We conclude that, although time-averaged bulk properties of the solar wind are a key factor in driving ULF powers in the magnetosphere, the solar wind variability can be an important contributor as well. This highlights the potential importance of including solar wind variability especially in studies of ULF wave dynamics in order to assess the efficiency of solar wind–magnetosphere coupling.

  20. Mirror Instability in the Turbulent Solar Wind

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hellinger, Petr; Landi, S.; Matteini, L.; Verdini, A.; Franci, L.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 838, č. 2 (2017), č. článku 158. ISSN 0004-637X Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : instabilities * solar wind * turbulence * waves Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 5.533, year: 2016 http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.3847/1538-4357/aa67e0

  1. Cometary ion instabilities in the solar wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matteini, L.; Schwartz, S. J.; Hellinger, P.

    2015-12-01

    We review some of the processes that characterize the interaction of the solar wind with newborn cometary ions. Instabilities generated by the typical ring-beam velocity-space configuration of the pick-up ions in the solar wind frame are studied by means of one- and two-dimensional hybrid numerical simulations. In agreement with previous studies, we find that instabilities generated by the cometary ions play an important role in shaping the properties of the plasma. The resulting ion distributions are in good agreement with observations, showing the presence of energy shells in velocity space. Bi-spherical shells for the heavy oxygen ions are also observed in the late phase of the simulations. Moreover, we also investigate some new aspects of the dynamics, such as the generation of turbulent cascade from the initial spectra of unstable waves, and the related heating and back reaction of the solar wind plasma. We also consider the case of initial non-gyrotropic pick-up ion distributions, and we focus on the polarization of the associated waves, suggesting that linear polarization can be a signature of this configuration, possibly observed by the Rosetta spacecraft in orbit around comet 67P/CG.

  2. The Solar Wind as a Turbulence Laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Roberto

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available In this review we will focus on a topic of fundamental importance for both plasma physics and astrophysics, namely the occurrence of large-amplitude low-frequency fluctuations of the fields that describe the plasma state. This subject will be treated within the context of the expanding solar wind and the most meaningful advances in this research field will be reported emphasizing the results obtained in the past decade or so. As a matter of fact, Ulysses’ high latitude observations and new numerical approaches to the problem, based on the dynamics of complex systems, brought new important insights which helped to better understand how turbulent fluctuations behave in the solar wind. In particular, numerical simulations within the realm of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD turbulence theory unraveled what kind of physical mechanisms are at the basis of turbulence generation and energy transfer across the spectral domain of the fluctuations. In other words, the advances reached in these past years in the investigation of solar wind turbulence now offer a rather complete picture of the phenomenological aspect of the problem to be tentatively presented in a rather organic way.

  3. Association Between the Solar Wind Speed, Interplanetary Magnetic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Meena Pokharia

    2017-11-27

    Nov 27, 2017 ... Abstract. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the association of the cosmic ray intensity (CRI) and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) with high speed solar wind streams (HSSWS) and slow speed solar wind streams (SSSWS) for solar cycle −23 and 24. We have found very interesting and ...

  4. Variations of Strahl Properties with Fast and Slow Solar Wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa-Vinas, Adolfo; Goldstein, Melvyn L.; Gurgiolo, Chris

    2008-01-01

    The interplanetary solar wind electron velocity distribution function generally shows three different populations. Two of the components, the core and halo, have been the most intensively analyzed and modeled populations using different theoretical models. The third component, the strahl, is usually seen at higher energies, is confined in pitch-angle, is highly field-aligned and skew. This population has been more difficult to identify and to model in the solar wind. In this work we make use of the high angular, energy and time resolution and three-dimensional data of the Cluster/PEACE electron spectrometer to identify and analyze this component in the ambient solar wind during high and slow speed solar wind. The moment density and fluid velocity have been computed by a semi-numerical integration method. The variations of solar wind density and drift velocity with the general build solar wind speed could provide some insight into the source, origin, and evolution of the strahl.

  5. The sun, the solar wind, and the heliosphere

    CERN Document Server

    Miralles, Mari Paz

    2011-01-01

    This volume presents a concise, up-to-date overview of current research on the observations, theoretical interpretations, and empirical and physical descriptions of the Sun, the Solar Wind, and the Heliosphere, from the solar interior outward to the planets.

  6. A numerical study of transient, thermally-conductive solar wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, S. M.; Wu, S. T.; Dryer, M.

    1987-01-01

    A numerical analysis of transient solar wind starting at the solar surface and arriving at 1 AU is performed by an implicit numerical method. The model hydrodynamic equations include thermal conduction terms for both steady and unsteady simulations. Simulation results show significant influence of thermal conduction on both steady and time-dependent solar wind. Higher thermal conduction results in higher solar wind speed, higher temperature, but lower plasma density at 1 AU. Higher base temperature at the solar surface gives lower plasma speed, lower temperature, but higher density at 1 AU. Higher base density, on the other hand, gives lower velocity, lower temperature, but higher density at 1 AU.

  7. Genesis Solar Wind Science Canister Components Curated as Potential Solar Wind Collectors and Reference Contamination Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allton, J. H.; Gonzalez, C. P.; Allums, K. K.

    2016-01-01

    The Genesis mission collected solar wind for 27 months at Earth-Sun L1 on both passive and active collectors carried inside of a Science Canister, which was cleaned and assembled in an ISO Class 4 cleanroom prior to launch. The primary passive collectors, 271 individual hexagons and 30 half-hexagons of semiconductor materials, are described in. Since the hard landing reduced the 301 passive collectors to many thousand smaller fragments, characterization and posting in the online catalog remains a work in progress, with about 19% of the total area characterized to date. Other passive collectors, surfaces of opportunity, have been added to the online catalog. For species needing to be concentrated for precise measurement (e.g. oxygen and nitrogen isotopes) an energy-independent parabolic ion mirror focused ions onto a 6.2 cm diameter target. The target materials, as recovered after landing, are described in. The online catalog of these solar wind collectors, a work in progress, can be found at: http://curator.jsc.nasa.gov/gencatalog/index.cfm This paper describes the next step, the cataloging of pieces of the Science Canister, which were surfaces exposed to the solar wind or component materials adjacent to solar wind collectors which may have contributed contamination.

  8. The genesis solar-wind sample return mission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiens, Roger C [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    parameters simultaneously, including charge state distributions, velocities, and densities, all of which have been instrumental in characterizing the nature of the solar wind. However, these instruments have lacked the ability to make large dynamic range measurements of adjacent isotopes (i.e., {sup 17}O/{sup 16}O {approx} 2500) or provide the permil (tenths of percent) accuracy desirable for comparison with geochemical isotopic measurements. An accurate knowledge of the solar and solar-wind compositions helps to answer important questions across a number of disciplines. It aids in understanding the acceleration mechanisms of the solar wind, gives an improved picture of the charged particle environment near the photosphere, it constrains processes within the Sun over its history, and it provides a database by which to compare differences among planetary systems with the solar system's starting composition, providing key information on planetary evolution. For example, precise knowledge of solar isotopic and elemental compositions of volatile species in the Sun provides a baseline for models of atmospheric evolution over time for Earth, Venus, and Mars. Additionally, volatile and chemically active elements such as C, H, O, N, and S can tell us about processes active during the evolution of the solar nebula. A classic example of this is the oxygen isotope system. In the 1970s it was determined that the oxygen isotopic ratio in refractory inclusions in primitive meteorites was enriched {approx}4% in {sup 16}O relative to the average terrestrial, lunar, and thermally processed meteorite materials. In addition, all processed solar-system materials appeared to each have a unique oxygen isotopic composition (except the Moon and Earth, which are thought to be formed from the same materials), though differences are in the fraction of a percent range, much smaller than the refractory material {sup 16}O enrichment. Several theories were developed over the years to account for the

  9. Regional variations in the health, environmental, and climate benefits of wind and solar generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siler-Evans, Kyle; Azevedo, Inês Lima; Morgan, M Granger; Apt, Jay

    2013-07-16

    When wind or solar energy displace conventional generation, the reduction in emissions varies dramatically across the United States. Although the Southwest has the greatest solar resource, a solar panel in New Jersey displaces significantly more sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and particulate matter than a panel in Arizona, resulting in 15 times more health and environmental benefits. A wind turbine in West Virginia displaces twice as much carbon dioxide as the same turbine in California. Depending on location, we estimate that the combined health, environmental, and climate benefits from wind or solar range from $10/MWh to $100/MWh, and the sites with the highest energy output do not yield the greatest social benefits in many cases. We estimate that the social benefits from existing wind farms are roughly 60% higher than the cost of the Production Tax Credit, an important federal subsidy for wind energy. However, that same investment could achieve greater health, environmental, and climate benefits if it were differentiated by region.

  10. Solar wind heavy ions from energetic coronal events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bame, S.J.

    1978-01-01

    Ions heavier than those of He can be resolved in the solar wind with electrostatic E/q analyzers when the local thermal temperatures are low. Ordinarily this condition prevails in the low speed solar wind found between high speed streams, i.e. the interstream, IS, solar wind. Various ions of O, Si and Fe are resolved in IS heavy ion spectra. Relative ion peak intensities indicate that the O ionization state is established in the IS coronal source regions at approx. 2.1 x 10/sup 6/K while the state of Fe is frozen in at approx. 1.5 x 10/sup 6/K farther out. Occasionally, anomalous spectra are observed in which the usually third most prominent ion peak, O/sup 8 +/, is depressed as are the Fe peaks ranging from Fe/sup 12 +/ to Fe/sup 7 +/. A prominent peak in the usual Si/sup 8 +/ position of IS spectra is self-consistently shown to be Fe/sup 16 +/. These features demonstrate that the ionization states were frozen in at higher than usual coronal temperatures. The source regions of these hot heavy ion spectra are identified as energetic coronal events including flares and nonflare coronal mass ejections. 24 references.

  11. The solar wind as a turbulence laboratory- some new quantitative points of contact between theory and solar wind observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hnat, Bogdan; Chapman, Sandra; Gogoberidze, Giga; Kiyani, Khurom; Osman, Kareem; Turner, Andrew

    2013-04-01

    Single point observations of the high Reynolds number solar wind flow, suitable for the study of turbulence, are on timescales from below ion kinetic scales up to days, providing extensive datasets for the study of plasma turbulence. Central to the concept of using the solar wind as a test laboratory for plasma turbulence are methods that allow direct quantitative comparison between the predictions of theory and simulation, and the observations. Critically, theoretical predictions, and data analysis methods, must come together in a manner in which uncertainties can be well understood, and thus different theoretical scenarios be distinguished unambiguously. Scaling is a key prediction of theories of infinite range turbulence. Its full characterization requires the scaling exponents of all the moments of the probability density of fluctuations as a function of scale. In practice, only the first few moments are accessible. Comparisons with theory often focus on the second moment scaling, that is, the exponent of the power spectral density (PSD). We focus on what can be learned from two key properties of turbulent fluctuations: components of the tensor power spectral density, and the functional form and scaling of the non- Gaussian pdf of fluctuations. Solar wind plasma turbulence is anisotropic due to the presence of a background field, so that in general the power spectral density (or correlation) tensor is needed to characterise the turbulence. We focus on the ratios of the PSD tensor terms which are sensitive to the scaling exponent, providing a method for direct observational tests of theories. The reduced PSD tensor accessed by single spacecraft measurements yields ratios of perpendicular terms which we show are robust to uncertainties. In the MHD inertial range of turbulence in the solar wind, these can clearly distinguish turbulence theories as we discuss[1]. They also offer insights into the physics below the ion kinetic scales where a further scaling range

  12. Multifractality and intermittency in the solar wind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. M. Macek

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Within the complex dynamics of the solar wind's fluctuating plasma parameters, there is a detectable, hidden order described by a chaotic strange attractor which has a multifractal structure. The multifractal spectrum has been investigated using Voyager (magnetic field data in the outer heliosphere and using Helios (plasma data in the inner heliosphere. We have also analyzed the spectrum for the solar wind attractor. The spectrum is found to be consistent with that for the multifractal measure of the self-similar one-scale weighted Cantor set with two parameters describing uniform compression and natural invariant probability measure of the attractor of the system. In order to further quantify the multifractality, we also consider a generalized weighted Cantor set with two different scales describing nonuniform compression. We investigate the resulting multifractal spectrum depending on two scaling parameters and one probability measure parameter, especially for asymmetric scaling. We hope that this generalized model will also be a useful tool for analysis of intermittent turbulence in space plasmas.

  13. Characteristics of Solar Wind Density Depletions During Solar Cycles 23 and 24

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keunchan Park

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Solar wind density depletions are phenomena that solar wind density is rapidly decreased and keep the state. They are generally believed to be caused by the interplanetary (IP shocks. However, there are other cases that are hardly associated with IP shocks. We set up a hypothesis for this phenomenon and analyze this study. We have collected the solar wind parameters such as density, speed and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF data related to the solar wind density depletion events during the period from 1996 to 2013 that are obtained with the advanced composition explorer (ACE and the Wind satellite. We also calculate two pressures (magnetic, dynamic and analyze the relation with density depletion. As a result, we found total 53 events and the most these phenomena’s sources caused by IP shock are interplanetary coronal mass ejection (ICME. We also found that solar wind density depletions are scarcely related with IP shock’s parameters. The solar wind density is correlated with solar wind dynamic pressure within density depletion. However, the solar wind density has an little anti-correlation with IMF strength during all events of solar wind density depletion, regardless of the presence of IP shocks. Additionally, In 47 events of IP shocks, we find 6 events that show a feature of blast wave. The quantities of IP shocks are weaker than blast wave from the Sun, they are declined in a short time after increasing rapidly. We thus argue that IMF strength or dynamic pressure are an important factor in understanding the nature of solar wind density depletion. Since IMF strength and solar wind speed varies with solar cycle, we will also investigate the characteristics of solar wind density depletion events in different phases of solar cycle as an additional clue to their physical nature.

  14. Enigmatic Solar Wind Disappearance Events – Do We Understand ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    nearly 60 Earth radii, the lunar orbit. The event was so dramatic that it has come to be known as the solar wind disappearance event. Though extensive studies of this event were made by many authors in the past, it has only been recently shown that the unusual solar wind flows char- acterizing this event originated from a ...

  15. Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 3: Technical Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-11-01

    Technical fact sheet outlining the key findings of Phase 3 of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS-3). NREL and GE find that with good system planning, sound engineering practices, and commercially available technologies, the Western grid can maintain reliability and stability during the crucial first minute after grid disturbances with high penetrations of wind and solar power.

  16. Solar and Wind Technologies for Hydrogen Production Report to Congress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2005-12-01

    DOE's Solar and Wind Technologies for Hydrogen Production Report to Congress summarizes the technology roadmaps for solar- and wind-based hydrogen production. Published in December 2005, it fulfills the requirement under section 812 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005.

  17. Chaos in the solar wind flow near Earth

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We have done a time series analysis of daily average data of solar wind velocity, density and temperature at 1 AU measured by ACE spacecraft for a period of nine years. We have used the raw data without filtering to give a faithful representation of the nonlinear behaviour of the solar wind flow which is a novel one ...

  18. Magnetosonic Waveguide Model of Solar Wind Flow Tubes A. K. ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We consider solar wind flow tubes as a magnetosonic wave- guide. Assuming a symmetric expansion in edges of slab-modelled wave- guide, we study the propagation characteristics of magnetosonic wave in the solar wind flow tubes. We present the preliminary results and discuss their implications. Key words.

  19. Tomography of the Solar Wind using Interplanetary Scintillation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy; Volume 21; Issue 3-4. Tomography of the Solar Wind using Interplanetary Scintillation. Divya Oberoi A. Pramesh Rao. Session XI – Solar Wind & Interplanetary Magnetic Fields Volume 21 Issue 3-4 September-December 2000 pp 445-446 ...

  20. Solar Wind Associated with Near Equatorial Coronal Hole

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We find a strong association between different parameters of coronal hole and solar wind. For both the wavelength bands, we also compute coronal hole radiative energy near the earth and it is found to be of similar order as that of solar wind energy. However, for the wavelength 193 Å, owing to almost similar magnitudes of ...

  1. Solar Wind Associated with Near Equatorial Coronal Hole M ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-05-25

    May 25, 2015 ... coronal hole and solar wind. For both the wavelength bands, we also com- pute coronal hole radiative energy near the earth and it is found to be of similar order as that of solar wind energy. However, for the wavelength. 193 Å, owing to almost similar magnitudes of energy emitted by coronal hole and ...

  2. Geo-effectiveness of Solar Wind Extremes Hari Om Vats

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    solar wind to the magnetosphere. Rastogi (2001 and references therein) gives a histor- ical background of the geomagnetic activity phenomena and its interesting features. Now it is an established fact that the major mechanism of energy transfer from the solar wind to the Earth's magnetosphere is magnetic reconnection ...

  3. Remote Sensing of the Heliospheric Solar Wind using Radio ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... The ground-based radio astronomy method of interplanetary scintillations (IPS) and spacecraft observations have shown, in the past 25 years, that while coronal holes give rise to stable, recurring high speed solar wind streams during the minimum of the solar activity cycle, the slow speed wind seen more ...

  4. Assessing the lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions from solar PV and wind energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nugent, Daniel; Sovacool, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    This paper critically screens 153 lifecycle studies covering a broad range of wind and solar photovoltaic (PV) electricity generation technologies to identify 41 of the most relevant, recent, rigorous, original, and complete assessments so that the dynamics of their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions......, this article uncovers best practices in wind and solar design and deployment that can better inform climate change mitigation efforts in the electricity sector...

  5. The Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lew, Debra [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brinkman, Greg [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ibanez, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Florita, A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heaney, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hodge, B. -M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hummon, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Stark, G. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); King, J. [RePPAE; Lefton, S. A. [Intertek-APTECH, Houston, TX (United States); Kumar, N. [Intertek-APTECH, Houston, TX (United States); Agan, D. [Intertek-APTECH, Houston, TX (United States); Jordan, G. [GE Energy, Fairfield, CT (United States); Venkataraman, S. [GE Energy, Fairfield, CT (United States)

    2013-09-01

    The electric grid is a highly complex, interconnected machine, and changing one part of the grid can have consequences elsewhere. Adding wind and solar affects the operation of the other power plants and adding high penetrations can induce cycling of fossil-fueled generators. Cycling leads to wear-and-tear costs and changes in emissions. Phase 2 of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS-2) evaluated these costs and emissions and simulated grid operations for a year to investigate the detailed impact of wind and solar on the fossil-fueled fleet. This built on Phase 1, one of the largest wind and solar integration studies ever conducted, which examined operational impacts of high wind and solar penetrations in the West(GE Energy 2010).

  6. The Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lew, D.; Brinkman, G.; Ibanez, E.; Hodge, B. M.; Hummon, M.; Florita, A.; Heaney, M.

    2013-09-01

    The electric grid is a highly complex, interconnected machine, and changing one part of the grid can have consequences elsewhere. Adding wind and solar affects the operation of the other power plants and adding high penetrations can induce cycling of fossil-fueled generators. Cycling leads to wear-and-tear costs and changes in emissions. Phase 2 of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS-2) evaluated these costs and emissions and simulated grid operations for a year to investigate the detailed impact of wind and solar on the fossil-fueled fleet. This built on Phase 1, one of the largest wind and solar integration studies ever conducted, which examined operational impacts of high wind and solar penetrations in the West.

  7. Simulating and cataloguing the background solar wind conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Rui; Rouillard, Alexis; Odstrcil, Dusan; Mays, Leila

    2017-04-01

    I will present a new series of solar wind simulations used to build a catalogue of the background solar wind from the surface of the Sun to 1 AU. We used a new solar wind model, called MULTI-VP, which takes a coronal magnetic field map as input and calculates the dynamical and thermal properties of the solar wind from the chromosphere up to about 30 Rsun. MULTI-VP supplies the full set of physical inner boundary conditions required to initiate the model ENLIL, which was then used to calculate the properties of the wind flow in the heliosphere (from 21.5 Rsun to 1AU). This combined modelling strategy does not rely on semi-empirical assumptions for the state of the solar wind at the high corona, and provides new estimates of the state of the background wind which are based only on physical principles. MULTI-VP was initiated using Potential Field Source-Surface extrapolations from WSO synoptic maps covering several Carrington rotations both at solar minimum and at solar maximum (CR 2055 - 2079 and CR 2130 - 2149; see https://stormsweb.irap.omp.eu/doku.php?id=windmaptable). Our solutions were calibrated against in-situ measurements of different spacecrafts, white-light J-Maps and coronal/heliospheric imagery in order to provide better predictions than the classical methods. These wind solution will be available as HELCATS catalogues (http://www.helcats-fp7.eu/).

  8. Polar solar wind and interstellar wind properties from interplanetary Lyman-alpha radiation measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, N.; Blum, P. W.; Ajello, J. M.

    1981-01-01

    The analysis of Mariner 10 observations of Lyman-alpha resonance radiation shows an increase of interplanetary neutral hydrogen densities above the solar poles. This increase is caused by a latitudinal variation of the solar wind velocity and/or flux. Using both the Mariner 10 results and other solar wind observations, the values of the solar wind flux and velocity with latitude are determined for several cases of interest. The latitudinal variation of interplanetary hydrogen gas, arising from the solar wind latitudinal variation, is shown to be most pronounced in the inner solar system. From this result it is shown that spacecraft Lyman-alpha observations are more sensitive to the latitudinal anisotropy for a spacecraft location in the inner solar system near the downwind axis.

  9. Solar and wind forecasting by NARX neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Piazza Annalisa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The nonlinear autoregressive network with exogenous input (NARX is used to perform hourly solar irradiation and wind speed forecasting, according to a multi-step ahead approach. Temperature has been considered as the exogenous variable. The NARX topology selection is supported by a combined use of two techniques: (1 a genetic algorithm (GA-based optimization technique and (2 a method that determines the optimal network architecture by pruning (optimal brain surgeon (OBS strategy. The considered variables are observed at hourly scale in a seven year dataset and the forecasting is done for several time horizons in the range from 8 to 24 h ahead.

  10. Innovations in Wind and Solar PV Financing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cory, K.; Coughlin, J.; Jenkin, T.; Pater, J.; Swezey, B.

    2008-02-01

    There is growing national interest in renewable energy development based on the economic, environmental, and security benefits that these resources provide. Historically, greater development of our domestic renewable energy resources has faced a number of hurdles, primarily related to cost, regulation, and financing. With the recent sustained increase in the costs and associated volatility of fossil fuels, the economics of renewable energy technologies have become increasingly attractive to investors, both large and small. As a result, new entrants are investing in renewable energy and new business models are emerging. This study surveys some of the current issues related to wind and solar photovoltaic (PV) energy project financing in the electric power industry, and identifies both barriers to and opportunities for increased investment.

  11. Genesis Solar Wind Array Collector Cataloging Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkett, P.J.; Rodriguez, M.C.; Calaway, M.C.; Allton, J.H.

    2009-01-01

    Genesis solar wind array collectors were fractured upon landing hard in Utah in 2004. The fragments were retrieved from the damaged canister, imaged, repackaged and shipped to the Johnson Space Center curatorial facility [1]. As of January 2009, the collection consists of 3460 samples. Of these, 442 are comprised into "multiple" sample groupings, either affixed to adhesive paper (177) or collected in jars (17), culture trays (87), or sets of polystyrene vials (161). A focused characterization task was initiated in May 2008 to document the largest samples in the collection. The task consisted of two goals: to document sapphire based fragments greater than 2 cm in one dimension, and to document silicon based fragments greater than 1 cm in one direction.

  12. Turbulence and other processes for the scale-free texture of the fast solar wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hnat, B.; Chapman, S. C.; Gogoberidze, G.; Wicks, R. T.

    2012-04-01

    The higher-order statistics of magnetic field magnitude fluctuations in the fast quiet solar wind are quantified systematically, scale by scale. We find a single global non-Gaussian scale-free behavior from minutes to over 5 hours. This spans the signature of an inertial range of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence and a ˜1/f range in magnetic field components. This global scaling in field magnitude fluctuations is an intrinsic component of the underlying texture of the solar wind which co-exists with the signature of MHD turbulence but extends to lower frequencies. Importantly, scaling and non- Gaussian statistics of fluctuations are not unique to turbulence and can imply other physical mechanisms- our results thus place a strong constraint on theories of the dynamics of the solar corona and solar wind. Intriguingly, the magnetic field and velocity components also show scale-dependent dynamic alignment outside of the inertial range of MHD turbulence.

  13. Solar updraft tower - structural optimisation under dynamic wind action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Eck, S.; Coenders, J.L.; Doomen, R.

    2015-01-01

    A solar updraft tower is a type of power plant which uses solar irradiation to generate electricity. It consists of three elements: a solar air collector, wind turbines and a chimney. The proposed concepts for this chimney schematise it as a 1-km-tall reinforced concrete shell, which are vulnerable

  14. Dst Prediction Based on Solar Wind Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon-Kyung Park

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available We reevaluate the Burton equation (Burton et al. 1975 of predicting Dst index using high quality hourly solar wind data supplied by the ACE satellite for the period from 1998 to 2006. Sixty magnetic storms with monotonously decreasing main phase are selected. In order to determine the injection term (Q and the decay time (tau of the equation, we examine the relationships between Dst* and VB_s, Delta Dst* and VB_s, and Delta Dst* and Dst* during the magnetic storms. For this analysis, we take into account one hour of the propagation time from the ACE satellite to the magnetopause, and a half hour of the response time of the magnetosphere/ring current to the solar wind forcing. The injection term is found to be Q({nT}/h=-3.56VB_s for VB_s>0.5mV/m and Q({nT}/h=0 for VB_s leq0.5mV/m. The tau (hour is estimated as 0.060 Dst* + 16.65 for Dst*>-175nT and 6.15 hours for Dst* leq -175nT. Based on these empirical relationships, we predict the 60 magnetic storms and find that the correlation coefficient between the observed and predicted Dst* is 0.88. To evaluate the performance of our prediction scheme, the 60 magnetic storms are predicted again using the models by Burton et al. (1975 and O'Brien & McPherron (2000a. The correlation coefficients thus obtained are 0.85, the same value for both of the two models. In this respect, our model is slightly improved over the other two models as far as the correlation coefficients is concerned. Particularly our model does a better job than the other two models in predicting intense magnetic storms (Dst* lesssim -200nT.

  15. Electrifying Greece with solar and wind energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mentis Dimitris

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ensuring energy security, reducing GHG emissions and boosting the competitiveness of a country’s economy by attracting investments and technical knowhow are of paramount importance considering the targets of “20-20-20” set by the European community. Being the cradle of civilization, Greece appears today as a country caught in a prolonged hard economic and social crisis, the way out of which its citizens are looking forward as well as the entire European Union. Establishment of the leading renewable energy sources like solar and wind in Greece will not only increase the independence of its own electrification but will also provide with a foundation for developing the market of international trade of “green” energy. This paper initially highlights the current status of photovoltaics and wind turbines in Greece. Furthermore, this study evaluates whether a higher penetration of the above mentioned green energy sources would have positive impact in the economy of the country or not and in what extent they could decline the CO2 emissions until 2020, comparing to the corresponding levels in 2010.

  16. Statistical study of the substorm onset: its dependence on solar wind parameters and solar illumination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Wang

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Based on 1829 well-defined substorm onsets in the Northern Hemisphere, observed during a 2-year period by the FUV Imager on board the IMAGE spacecraft, a statistical study is performed. From the combination of solar wind parameter observations by ACE and magnetic field observations by the low altitude satellite CHAMP, the location of auroral breakups in response to solar illumination and solar coupling parameters are studied. Furthermore, the correspondence of the onset location with prominent large-scale field-aligned currents and electrojets are investigated. Solar illumination and the related ionospheric conductivity have significant effects on the most probable substorm onset latitude and local time. In sunlight, substorm onsets tend to occur 1h earlier in local time and 1.5° more poleward than in darkness. The solar wind input, represented by the merging electric field, integrated over 1h prior to the substorm, correlates well with the latitude of the breakup. Most poleward latitudes of the onsets are found to range around 73° magnetic latitude during very quiet times. Field-aligned and Hall currents observed concurrently with the onset are consistent with the signature of a westward travelling surge evolving out of the Harang discontinuity. The observations suggest that the ionospheric conductivity has an influence on the location of the precipitating energetic electron which causes the auroral break-up signature. Keywords. Ionosphere (Auroral ionosphere – Magnetospheric Physics (Current systems; Magnetosphereionosphere interactions

  17. The Solar Wind as a Magnetofluid Turbulence Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Melvyn L.

    2011-01-01

    The solar wind is the Sun's exosphere. As the solar atmosphere expands into interplanetary space, it is accelerated and heated. Data from spacecraft located throughout the heliosphere have revealed that this exosphere has velocities of several hundred kilometers/sec, densities at Earth orbit of about 5 particles/cu cm, and an entrained magnetic field that at Earth orbit that is about 5 10-5 Gauss. A fascinating feature of the solar wind is that the magnetic field fluctuates in a way that is highly reminiscent of "Alfven waves, i.e., the fluctuating magnetic fields are more-or-less aligned with fluctuations in the velocity of the plasma and, with proper normalization, have approximately equal magnitudes. The imperfect (observed) alignment leads to a variety of complex interactions. In many respects, the flow patterns appear to be an example of fully developed magneto fluid turbulence. Recently, the dissipation range of this turbulence has been studied using search coil magnetometer data from the STAFF instrument on the four Cluster spacecraft. I will attempt to give an overview of selected properties of this large-scale and small-scale turbulence.

  18. Addressing Spatial Variability of Surface-Layer Wind with Long-Range WindScanners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Jacob; Vasiljevic, Nikola; Kelly, Mark C.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of mean wind measurements from a coordinated system of long-range WindScanners. From individual scan patterns the mean wind field was reconstructed over a large area, and hence it highlights the spatial variability. From comparison with sonic anemometers, the quality...

  19. Charge States of Krypton and Xenon in the Solar Wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochsler, Peter; Fludra, Andrzej; Giunta, Alessandra

    2017-09-01

    We calculate charge state distributions of Kr and Xe in a model for two different types of solar wind using the effective ionization and recombination rates provided from the OPEN_ADAS data base. The charge states of heavy elements in the solar wind are essential for estimating the efficiency of Coulomb drag in the inner corona. We find that xenon ions experience particularly low Coulomb drag from protons in the inner corona, comparable to the notoriously weak drag of protons on helium ions. It has been found long ago that helium in the solar wind can be strongly depleted near interplanetary current sheets, whereas coronal mass ejecta are sometimes strongly enriched in helium. We argue that if the extraordinary variability of the helium abundance in the solar wind is due to inefficient Coulomb drag, the xenon abundance must vary strongly. In fact, a secular decrease of the solar wind xenon abundance relative to the other heavier noble gases (Ne, Ar, Kr) has been postulated based on a comparison of noble gases in recently irradiated and ancient samples of ilmenite in the lunar regolith. We conclude that decreasing solar activity and decreasing frequency of coronal mass ejections over the solar lifetime might be responsible for a secularly decreasing abundance of xenon in the solar wind.

  20. Lethbridge wind research test site evaluation of wind and solar pumping systems, 1985 - 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paterson, B.A. (Land Evaluation and Reclamation Branch, Alberta Agriculture, Lethbridge, AB (Canada)); Baker, D.R. (DRB Engineering Consultants Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)); Jensen, N.E. (Jensen Engineerging Ltd., Olds, AB (Canada))

    1988-01-01

    The performance of wind pumping systems has been evaluated over the past 3 years at a field test facility in Alberta. A total of eight wind turbines (6 mechanical and 2 electromechanical) and 2 photovoltaic-powered pumpers were tested. Data are presented on each machine's availability and reliability. Performance curves (pumping rate versus wind speed) are included. The data format is based on the International Enegry Agency's wind performance testing standard, so that extrapolation of the information world-wide is possible. The test procedures and the data acquisition and monitoring systems are also described. In addition, the applications and markets for wind pumps, notably in agriculture (land drainage, irrigation, livestock watering), are discussed. The results of the testing have been encouraging. Long-term reliability is a key factor which needs improvement, and which has been seen to be of much greater importance than overall performance numbers or improvements. The availability of water pumping systems tested at the site ranges from a low of 24% to a high of 100%. The test program has shown that full measurement of the overall availability and reliability of a machine requires that it be monitored at least 2-3 years. Most of the machines at the site have not met this requirement because of continuous changes and upgrading by the manufacturers, who are responsible for installation and maintenance of the wind turbine units. The exceptions to this are the 2 solar pumping systems, which have performed very reliably over the last 3 years, with very low maintenance requirements. Their disadvantage at present is a higher capital cost per unit of water pumped compared with the wind turbines. 43 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Wind loading on solar concentrators: some general considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roschke, E. J.

    1984-05-01

    A survey has been completed to examine the problems and complications arising from wind loading on solar concentrators. Wind loading is site specific and has an important bearing on the design, cost, performance, operation and maintenance, safety, survival, and replacement of solar collecting systems. Emphasis herein is on paraboloidal, two-axis tracking systems. Thermal receiver problems also are discussed. Wind characteristics are discussed from a general point of view; current methods for determining design wind speed are reviewed. Aerodynamic coefficients are defined and illustrative examples are presented. Wind tunnel testing is discussed, and environmental wind tunnels are reviewed; recent results on heliostat arrays are reviewed as well. Aeroelasticity in relation to structural design is discussed briefly. Wind loads, i.e., forces and moments, are proportional to the square of the mean wind velocity. Forces are proportional to the square of concentrator diameter, and moments are proportional to the cube of diameter. Thus, wind loads have an important bearing on size selection from both cost and performance standpoints. It is concluded that sufficient information exists so that reasonably accurate predictions of wind loading are possible for a given paraboloidal concentrator configuration, provided that reliable and relevant wind conditions are specified. Such predictions will be useful to the design engineer and to the systems engineer as well. Information is lacking, however, on wind effects in field arrays of paraboloidal concentrators. Wind tunnel tests have been performed on model heliostat arrays, but there are important aerodynamic differences between heliostats and paraboloidal dishes.

  2. Solar wind plasma interaction with solar probe plus spacecraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Guillemant

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available 3-D PIC (Particle In Cell simulations of spacecraft-plasma interactions in the solar wind context of the Solar Probe Plus mission are presented. The SPIS software is used to simulate a simplified probe in the near-Sun environment (at a distance of 0.044 AU or 9.5 RS from the Sun surface. We begin this study with a cross comparison of SPIS with another PIC code, aiming at providing the static potential structure surrounding a spacecraft in a high photoelectron environment. This paper presents then a sensitivity study using generic SPIS capabilities, investigating the role of some physical phenomena and numerical models. It confirms that in the near- sun environment, the Solar Probe Plus spacecraft would rather be negatively charged, despite the high yield of photoemission. This negative potential is explained through the dense sheath of photoelectrons and secondary electrons both emitted with low energies (2–3 eV. Due to this low energy of emission, these particles are not ejected at an infinite distance of the spacecraft and would rather surround it. As involved densities of photoelectrons can reach 106 cm−3 (compared to ambient ions and electrons densities of about 7 × 103 cm−3, those populations affect the surrounding plasma potential generating potential barriers for low energy electrons, leading to high recollection. This charging could interfere with the low energy (up to a few tens of eV plasma sensors and particle detectors, by biasing the particle distribution functions measured by the instruments. Moreover, if the spacecraft charges to large negative potentials, the problem will be more severe as low energy electrons will not be seen at all. The importance of the modelling requirements in terms of precise prediction of spacecraft potential is also discussed.

  3. Erosion of carbon/carbon by solar wind charged particle radiation during a solar probe mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolowski, Witold; O'Donnell, Tim; Millard, Jerry

    1991-01-01

    The possible erosion of a carbon/carbon thermal shield by solar wind-charged particle radiation is reviewed. The present knowledge of erosion data for carbon and/or graphite is surveyed, and an explanation of erosion mechanisms under different charged particle environments is discussed. The highest erosion is expected at four solar radii. Erosion rates are analytically estimated under several conservative assumptions for a normal quiet and worst case solar wind storm conditions. Mass loss analyses and comparison studies surprisingly indicate that the predicted erosion rate by solar wind could be greater than by nominal free sublimation during solar wind storm conditions at four solar radii. The predicted overall mass loss of a carbon/carbon shield material during the critical four solar radii flyby can still meet the mass loss mission requirement of less than 0.0025 g/sec.

  4. Transient flows of the solar wind associated with small-scale solar activity in solar minimum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slemzin, Vladimir; Veselovsky, Igor; Kuzin, Sergey; Gburek, Szymon; Ulyanov, Artyom; Kirichenko, Alexey; Shugay, Yulia; Goryaev, Farid

    The data obtained by the modern high sensitive EUV-XUV telescopes and photometers such as CORONAS-Photon/TESIS and SPHINX, STEREO/EUVI, PROBA2/SWAP, SDO/AIA provide good possibilities for studying small-scale solar activity (SSA), which is supposed to play an important role in heating of the corona and producing transient flows of the solar wind. During the recent unusually weak solar minimum, a large number of SSA events, such as week solar flares, small CMEs and CME-like flows were observed and recorded in the databases of flares (STEREO, SWAP, SPHINX) and CMEs (LASCO, CACTUS). On the other hand, the solar wind data obtained in this period by ACE, Wind, STEREO contain signatures of transient ICME-like structures which have shorter duration (<10h), weaker magnetic field strength (<10 nT) and lower proton temperature than usual ICMEs. To verify the assumption that ICME-like transients may be associated with the SSA events we investigated the number of weak flares of C-class and lower detected by SPHINX in 2009 and STEREO/EUVI in 2010. The flares were classified on temperature and emission measure using the diagnostic means of SPHINX and Hinode/EIS and were confronted with the parameters of the solar wind (velocity, density, ion composition and temperature, magnetic field, pitch angle distribution of the suprathermal electrons). The outflows of plasma associated with the flares were identified by their coronal signatures - CMEs (only in few cases) and dimmings. It was found that the mean parameters of the solar wind projected to the source surface for the times of the studied flares were typical for the ICME-like transients. The results support the suggestion that weak flares can be indicators of sources of transient plasma flows contributing to the slow solar wind at solar minimum, although these flows may be too weak to be considered as separate CMEs and ICMEs. The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union’s Seventh Programme

  5. Western Wind and Solar Integration Study: Phase 2 (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lew, D.; Brinkman, G.; Ibanez, E.; Lefton, S.; Kumar, N.; Venkataraman, S.; Jordan, G.

    2013-09-01

    This presentation summarizes the scope and results of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 2, which examined operational impacts of high penetrations of variable renewable generation in the West.

  6. SAKIGAKE SOLAR WIND EXPERIMENT DATA V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The original dataset was called MST5SOW. It was personally delivered by Dr. Oyama. The sample hardcopy listed the column headings with units for the solar wind...

  7. Small Footprint Solar/Wind-powered CASTNET System Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — In this Research Effort “Small Footprint Solar/Wind-Powered CASTNET System” there are two data sets. One data set contains atmospheric concentration measurements, at...

  8. Solar Wind Interaction and Impact on the Venus Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futaana, Yoshifumi; Stenberg Wieser, Gabriella; Barabash, Stas; Luhmann, Janet G.

    2017-11-01

    , describing the plasma interaction on scales ranging from ion gyro radius to the entire induced magnetosphere. In this review article, we review what has been found from space physics measurements around Venus (from the solar wind down to the ionopause), with a particular emphasis on updated results since the Venus Express mission. We conclude the article by a short discussion on the remaining open scientific questions and the future of this field.

  9. Solar Wind Interaction and Impact on the Venus Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futaana, Yoshifumi; Stenberg Wieser, Gabriella; Barabash, Stas; Luhmann, Janet G.

    2017-08-01

    , describing the plasma interaction on scales ranging from ion gyro radius to the entire induced magnetosphere. In this review article, we review what has been found from space physics measurements around Venus (from the solar wind down to the ionopause), with a particular emphasis on updated results since the Venus Express mission. We conclude the article by a short discussion on the remaining open scientific questions and the future of this field.

  10. The Interplanetary Magnetic Field and Solar Wind Driven Magnetospheric Reconfiguration

    OpenAIRE

    Savov, Eugene

    2002-01-01

    The magnetic disturbances are associated with electric currents as it is well checked at laboratory room scales and described by the Maxwell's equations of electromagnetic field. The analysis of spacecraft observations for more than a quarter of a century failed to provide a self-consistent three-dimensional picture of the solar wind-magnetosphere dynamo generated magnetospheric and ionospheric current systems. The proposed solar wind and the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) driven reconfi...

  11. Heating of the interstellar medium by the solar wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunc, J. A.; Wu, F. M.; Judge, D. L.

    1983-01-01

    The heating of inflowing interstellar gas by the solar wind is calculated. The experimental differential cross sections have been used for calculating electron-H(He) and proton-H(He) elastic scattering rate coefficients. The solar wind is assumed to be a two-component (protons and electrons), steady, spherically symmetric stream moving radially outward, with the inflowing gas following Keplerian trajectories. The spatial distributions of effective temperature increase within interplanetary space have been obtained.

  12. Interplanetary shock waves and the structure of solar wind disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hundhausen, A. J.

    1972-01-01

    Observations and theoretical models of interplanetary shock waves are reviewed, with emphasis on the large-scale characteristics of the associated solar wind disturbances and on the relationship of these disturbances to solar activity. The sum of observational knowledge indicates that shock waves propagate through the solar wind along a broad, roughly spherical front, ahead of plasma and magnetic field ejected from solar flares. Typically, the shock front reaches 1 AU about two days after its flare origin, and is of intermediate strength. Not all large flares produce observable interplanetary shock waves; the best indicator of shock production appears to be the generation of both type 2 and type 4 radio bursts by a flare. Theoretical models of shock propagation in the solar wind can account for the typically observed shock strength, transit time, and shape.

  13. The Character of the Solar Wind, Surface Interactions, and Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, William M.

    2011-01-01

    We discuss the key characteristics of the proton-rich solar wind and describe how it may interact with the lunar surface. We suggest that solar wind can be both a source and loss of water/OH related volatiles, and review models showing both possibilities. Energy from the Sun in the form of radiation and solar wind plasma are in constant interaction with the lunar surface. As such, there is a solar-lunar energy connection, where solar energy and matter are continually bombarding the lunar surface, acting at the largest scale to erode the surface at 0.2 Angstroms per year via ion sputtering [1]. Figure 1 illustrates this dynamically Sun-Moon system.

  14. STEREO Observations of Turbulent Solar Wind Waveforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, Paul J.; Goetz, Keith; Monson, Steven J.

    2017-04-01

    Studies of solar wind turbulence have heretofore concentrated on Kolmogorov-type studies of the full MHD equations, without regard to the separate modes of the possible solutions. Further understanding of the nonlinear processes of the cascade, and especially transference of wave energy to particles, would seem to depend on more detailed understanding of the waves, their modes and their separate electric and magnetic fields. . A part of the SWAVES experiment on the STEREO spacecraft was designed to study the waves in the dissipation region of the turbulence spectrum. However, compatibility with SECCHI, the optical sensors, required that only monopole antennas could be accommodated, and these respond both to electric fields and to density fluctuations. This seemed to require that one measure four quantities with only three signals. After several years, the response of the antennas to density fluctuations was reduced, due to changes in photoemission coefficients, and measurement of separate electric fields became possible. It is found that sometimes there are short periods when a sinusoidal waveform appears which seems sufficiently pure to represent a single mode. Results of study of the fields of such waves will be presented.

  15. Intermittent structures at ion scales in the turbulent solar wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrone, Denise; Alexandrova, Olga; Lion, Sonny; Roberts, Owen W.; Maksimovic, Milan; Escoubet, Philippe C.; Zouganelis, Yannis

    2017-04-01

    Understanding the physical mechanisms of dissipation, and the related heating, in turbulent collisionless plasmas (such as the solar wind) represents nowadays one of the key issues of plasma physics. Although the complex behavior of the solar wind has been matter of investigation of many years, some of the primary problems still remain a puzzle for the scientific community. Here, we study coherent structures responsible for solar wind intermittency around ion characteristic scales. We find that, in fast solar wind, intermittency is due to current sheets and Alfvén vortex-like structures. In slow solar wind, we observe as well compressive structures like magnetic solitons, holes and shocks. By using high-time resolution magnetic field data of multi-point measurements of Cluster spacecraft, we characterize the observed coherent structures in terms of topology and propagation speed. We show that all structures, both in fast and slow solar wind, are characterized by a strong wave-vector anisotropy in the perpendicular direction with respect to the local magnetic field and typical scales around ion characteristic scales. Moreover, some of them propagate in the plasma rest frame. Moreover, a further analysis on the ion velocity distribution shows a high variability; in particular, close to coherent structures the proton distribution function appears strongly deformed and far from the thermodynamic equilibrium. We discuss possible interpretation of the observed structures and their role in the heating process of the plasma.

  16. A novel guideline for wind loads on solar energy systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurts, C.P.W.; Bentum, C.A. van

    2014-01-01

    The new Dutch standard NEN 7250 ([1], NEN, 2014) gives rules for the building integration of solar energy systems. A considerable part of thís standard deals with the wind loads on systems, placed on pitched and flat roofs. Wind tunnel tests were carried out in 2003 and 2013 to provide values for

  17. Modeling of short scale turbulence in the solar wind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Krishan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The solar wind serves as a laboratory for investigating magnetohydrodynamic turbulence under conditions irreproducible on the terra firma. Here we show that the frame work of Hall magnetohydrodynamics (HMHD, which can support three quadratic invariants and allows nonlinear states to depart fundamentally from the Alfvénic, is capable of reproducing in the inertial range the three branches of the observed solar wind magnetic fluctuation spectrum - the Kolmogorov branch f -5/3 steepening to f -α1 with on the high frequency side and flattening to f -1 on the low frequency side. These fluctuations are found to be associated with the nonlinear Hall-MHD Shear Alfvén waves. The spectrum of the concomitant whistler type fluctuations is very different from the observed one. Perhaps the relatively stronger damping of the whistler fluctuations may cause their unobservability. The issue of equipartition of energy through the so called Alfvén ratio acquires a new status through its dependence, now, on the spatial scale.

  18. Kinetic Features Observed in the Solar Wind Electron Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierrard, V.; Lazar, M.; Poedts, S.

    2016-12-01

    More than 120 000 of velocity distributions measured by Helios, Cluster and Ulysses in the ecliptic have been analyzed within an extended range of heliocentric distances from 0.3 to over 4 AU. The velocity distribution of electrons reveal a dual structure with a thermal (Maxwellian) core and a suprathermal (Kappa) halo. A detailed observational analysis of these two components provides estimations of their temperatures and temperature anisotropies, and we decode any potential interdependence that their properties may indicate. The core temperature is found to decrease with the radial distance, while the halo temperature slightly increases, clarifying an apparent contradiction in previous observational analysis and providing valuable clues about the temperature of the Kappa-distributed populations. For low values of the power-index kappa, these two components manifest a clear tendency to deviate from isotropy in the same direction, that seems to confirm the existence of mechanisms with similar effects on both components, e.g., the solar wind expansion, or the particle heating by the fluctuations. However, the existence of plasma states with anti-correlated anisotropies of the core and halo populations and the increase of their number for high values of the power-index kappa suggest a dynamic interplay of these components, mediated most probably by the anisotropy-driven instabilities. Estimating the temperature of the solar wind particles and their anisotropies is particularly important for understanding the origin of these deviations from thermal equilibrium as well as their effects.

  19. Chandrayaan-1 results on the solar wind ion - regolith interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barabash, Stas

    Recently several missions (Kaguya, Chandrayaan-1, IBEX) revealed for the first time the complexity of the solar wind ions interaction with the lunar regolith. In this review we focus on the observations performed by the Chandrayaan-1 mission at the Moon but similar interaction processes take place on all airless bodies covered by regolith. Contrary to early assumptions the solar wind ions are not fully absorbed by the regolith but experience strong (10-20% of the impinging flux) backscattering. Only hydrogen was firmly identified. Helium for the helium enriched solar wind was detected only tentatively. The charge - state of the backscattered particles is mainly neutral. The fraction of H (+) varies strongly with the impinging solar wind velocity and constitutes 0.01 - 10% of the total backscattered flux. No H (-) ions were detected. The spectrum of the backscattered hydrogen is best-fitted by a Maxwellian distribution with a temperature of 40 - 160 eV linearly proportional to the solar wind velocity. The spectrum of the backscattered protons is also Maxwellian although shifted to a velocity some what smaller than the solar wind velocity. The scattering function of the neutrals is close to isotropic at large impinging angles (small solar zenith angles) and becomes backward peaked at shallow impinging angles. The scattering function and energy spectra of the backscatters indicate that the solar wind protons experience multiple collisions with surfaces of individual grain when traveling in the inter-grain space. Why the reflection efficiency is so high in this case is a puzzle. The solar wind also causes sputtering of elements composing the regolith minerals. Only sputtered oxygen was identified although at levels lower than expected. Chandrayaan-1 results on the solar wind ion - regolith interaction still remain to be explained. The orbital measurements should be complemented by measurements from landers revealing the “ground true”. Further studies of the

  20. Solar wind ion trends and signatures: STEREO PLASTIC observations approaching solar minimum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Galvin

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available STEREO has now completed the first two years of its mission, moving from close proximity to Earth in 2006/2007 to more than 50 degrees longitudinal separation from Earth in 2009. During this time, several large-scale structures have been observed in situ. Given the prevailing solar minimum conditions, these structures have been predominantly coronal hole-associated solar wind, slow solar wind, their interfaces, and the occasional transient event. In this paper, we extend earlier solar wind composition studies into the current solar minimum using high-resolution (1-h sampling times for the charge state analysis. We examine 2-year trends for iron charge states and solar wind proton speeds, and present a case study of Carrington Rotation 2064 (December 2007 which includes minor ion (He, Fe, O kinetic and Fe composition parameters in comparison with proton and magnetic field signatures at large-scale structures observed during this interval.

  1. Periodicity for 50 yr of daily solar wind velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, K. J.; Zhang, J.; Feng, W.

    2017-11-01

    Daily mean velocity of solar wind that was surveyed near the Earth's orbit at about 1 au from 1963 November 27 to 2015 November 30 and issued by OMNIWeb is used to look into its periodicity through the Lomb-Scargle periodogram method. As the strongest periodical signal, the solar activity cycle of about 10.4 yr is found in high-velocity wind, but in low-velocity wind, the 9.17-yr cycle appears instead. The rotation cycle of about 27 d and its 1/2 and 1/3 harmonic periods are clearly detected in all-, low- and high-velocity wind, and at their periodograms, several individual periodical peaks appear very close to the peaks of these three periods. The annual period of about 1.07 yr is identified for both all- and low-velocity wind, but not for high-velocity wind after 1994. The 1.68-yr period occurs in all- and high-velocity wind, but does not appear in low-velocity wind. The period of about 2.42 yr appears just in the all-velocity wind after 1994, but its twofold period (about 4.83 yr) appears in both all- and high-velocity wind. The period of about 4.1 yr occurs in all-, low- and high-velocity wind. The possible origin of these periods is discussed.

  2. The solar wind at solar maximum: comparisons of EISCAT IPS and in situ observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Breen

    Full Text Available The solar maximum solar wind is highly structured in latitude, longitude and in time. Coronal measurements show a very high degree of variability, with large variations that are less apparent within in situ spacecraft measurements. Interplanetary scintillation (IPS observations from EISCAT, covering distances from 20 to 100 solar radii (RS, are an ideal source of information on the inner solar wind and can be used, therefore, to cast light on its evolution with distance from the Sun. Earlier comparisons of in situ and IPS measurements under solar minimum conditions showed good large-scale agreement, particularly in the fast wind. In this study we attempt a quantitative comparison of measurements made over solar maximum by EISCAT (20–100 RS and the Wind and Ulysses spacecraft (at 215 RS and 300–1000 RS, respectively. The intervals studied were August–September 1999, May 2000, September 2000 and May 2001, the last-named being the period of the second Ulysses fast latitude scan. Both ballistic and – when possible – MHD/ballistic hybrid models were used to relate the data sets, and we compare the results obtained from these two mapping methods. The results of this study suggest that solar wind velocities measured in situ were less variable than those estimated from IPS measurements closer to the Sun, with the greatest divergence between IPS velocities and in situ measurements occurring in regions where steep longitudinal velocity gradients were seen in situ. We suggest that the interaction between streams of solar wind with different velocities leads to "smoothing" of solar wind velocities between 30–60 RS and 1 AU, and that this process continues at greater distances from the Sun.

    Key words. Interplanetary physics (solar wind plasma; sources of the solar wind; instruments and techniques

  3. A survey of solar wind conditions at 5 AU: A tool for interpreting solar wind-magnetosphere interactions at Jupiter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Wilkes Ebert

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We examine Ulysses solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF observations at 5 AU for two ~13 month intervals during the rising and declining phases of solar cycle 23 and the predicted response of the Jovian magnetosphere during these times. The declining phase solar wind, composed primarily of corotating interaction regions and high-speed streams, was, on average, faster, hotter, less dense, and more Alfvénic relative to the rising phase solar wind, composed mainly of slow wind and interplanetary coronal mass ejections. Interestingly, none of solar wind and IMF distributions reported here were bimodal, a feature used to explain the bimodal distribution of bow shock and magnetopause standoff distances observed at Jupiter. Instead, many of these distributions had extended, non-Gaussian tails that resulted in large standard deviations and much larger mean over median values. The distribution of predicted Jupiter bow shock and magnetopause standoff distances during these intervals were also not bimodal, the mean/median values being larger during the declining phase by ~1 – 4%. These results provide data-derived solar wind and IMF boundary conditions at 5 AU for models aimed at studying solar wind-magnetosphere interactions at Jupiter and can support the science investigations of upcoming Jupiter system missions. Here, we provide expectations for Juno, which is scheduled to arrive at Jupiter in July 2016. Accounting for the long-term decline in solar wind dynamic pressure reported by McComas et al. (2013, Jupiter’s bow shock and magnetopause is expected to be at least 8 – 12% further from Jupiter, if these trends continue.

  4. Association Between the Solar Wind Speed, Interplanetary Magnetic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy; Volume 38; Issue 4. Association Between the Solar Wind Speed, Interplanetary Magnetic Field and the Cosmic Ray Intensity for Solar Cycles 23 and 24. Meena Pokharia Lalan Prasad Chandni Mathpal Chandrasekhar Bhoj Hema Kharayat Rajesh Mathpal. Research ...

  5. Global solar wind variations over the last four centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, M J; Lockwood, M; Riley, P

    2017-01-31

    The most recent "grand minimum" of solar activity, the Maunder minimum (MM, 1650-1710), is of great interest both for understanding the solar dynamo and providing insight into possible future heliospheric conditions. Here, we use nearly 30 years of output from a data-constrained magnetohydrodynamic model of the solar corona to calibrate heliospheric reconstructions based solely on sunspot observations. Using these empirical relations, we produce the first quantitative estimate of global solar wind variations over the last 400 years. Relative to the modern era, the MM shows a factor 2 reduction in near-Earth heliospheric magnetic field strength and solar wind speed, and up to a factor 4 increase in solar wind Mach number. Thus solar wind energy input into the Earth's magnetosphere was reduced, resulting in a more Jupiter-like system, in agreement with the dearth of auroral reports from the time. The global heliosphere was both smaller and more symmetric under MM conditions, which has implications for the interpretation of cosmogenic radionuclide data and resulting total solar irradiance estimates during grand minima.

  6. Offshore wind profiling using light detection and ranging measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pena Diaz, Alfredo; Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Gryning, Sven-Erik

    2009-01-01

    The advantages and limitations of the ZephlR (R), a continuous-wave, focused light detection and ranging (LiDAR) wind profiler, to observe offshore winds and turbulence characteristics were tested during a 6 month campaign at the tronsformer/platform of Hams Rev, the world's largest wind form......-derived friction velocities and roughness lengths were compared to Charnock's sea roughness model. These overage values were found to be close to the model, although the scatter of the individual estimations of sea roughness length was large. Copyright (C) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....

  7. On density and pressure variations in the solar wind plasma

    OpenAIRE

    Jonson, Martin

    2007-01-01

    A study of ACE solar wind data at lAU, for the period from 1998 to early 2005, was conducted. This was done in order to find sudden solar wind pressure enhancements accounting for plasma transfer through the magnetopause. In order to get information about the extent and orientation of the structures found, a correlation of found events to data from the Wind satellite was done. The enhancements considered are those with a relative increase exceeding unity. These are found by applying a 1-hour ...

  8. Fluctuations in the solar wind that show scaling- MHD turbulence and coronal origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, S. C.; Kiyani, K. H.; Hnat, B.; Nicol, R. M.; Wicks, R.

    2008-12-01

    In- situ spacecraft observations of plasma parameters are at minute (or below) resolution for intervals spanning the solar cycle and provide a large number of samples for statistical studies. These observations reveal that the power spectrum of the components of magnetic field typically has two characteristic features, an inertial range of turbulence over several orders of magnitude with approximately Kolmogorov power law and at lower frequencies, an approximately '1/f' energy containing range believed to be of direct coronal origin. On the other hand, the (much lower energy density) magnetic field magnitude power spectrum typically shows a single scaling range that spans these timescales. This is consistent with the idea that the power seen in the components, but not necessarily the magnitude, of magnetic field is dominated by Alfvenic turbulence in the evolving solar wind. Here, we use quantitative statistical techniques to explore the idea that the solar wind exhibits fluctuations over a broad range of timescales characteristic of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence evolving in the presence of structures of direct coronal origin. We find a strong correlation between the solar cycle variation in the scaling properties of magnetic energy density fluctuations and the magnetic complexity of the coronal magnetic fields. At solar maximum in the ecliptic, the magnetic energy density as seen by WIND and ACE shows a fractal signature, whereas at minimum it is multifractal. This is corroborated by ULLYSES polar observations at solar minimum in quiet, fast solar wind where again, multifractal scaling is found. High magnetic complexity in the corona then corresponds to fractal, rather than multifractal scaling in magnetic energy density seen at 1AU; remarkably, this fractal signature dominates the full dynamic range of observations, extending across timescales typically identified with both the '1/f' and 'inertial range'. Intervals when WIND and ACE simultaneously sample

  9. Imaging the Top of the Solar Corona and the Young Solar Wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeForest, C. E.; Matthaeus, W. H.; Viall, N. M.; Cranmer, S. R.

    2016-12-01

    We present the first direct visual evidence of the quasi-stationary breakup of solar coronal structure and the rise of turbulence in the young solar wind, directly in the future flight path of Solar Probe. Although the corona and, more recently, the solar wind have both been observed directly with Thomson scattered light, the transition from the corona to the solar wind has remained a mystery. The corona itself is highly structured by the magnetic field and the outflowing solar wind, giving rise to radial "striae" - which comprise the familiar streamers, pseudostreamers, and rays. These striae are not visible in wide-field heliospheric images, nor are they clearly delineated with in-situ measurements of the solar wind. Using careful photometric analysis of the images from STEREO/HI-1, we have, for the first time, directly observed the breakup of radial coronal structure and the rise of nearly-isotropic turbulent structure in the outflowing slow solar wind plasma between 10° (40 Rs) and 20° (80 Rs) from the Sun. These observations are important not only for their direct science value, but for predicting and understanding the conditions expected near SPP as it flies through - and beyond - this final frontier of the heliosphere, the outer limits of the solar corona.

  10. Self-consistent Castaing distribution of solar wind turbulent fluctuations

    CERN Document Server

    Sorriso-Valvo, L; Lijoi, L; Perri, S; Carbone, V

    2015-01-01

    The intermittent behavior of solar wind turbulent fluctuations has often been investigated through the modeling of their probability distribution functions (PDFs). Among others, the Castaing model (Castaing et al. 1990) has successfully been used in the past. In this paper, the energy dissipation field of solar wind turbulence has been studied for fast, slow and polar wind samples recorded by Helios 2 and Ulysses spacecraft. The statistical description of the dissipation rate has then be used to remove intermittency through conditioning of the PDFs. Based on such observation, a self-consistent, parameter-free Castaing model is presented. The self-consistent model is tested against experimental PDFs, showing good agreement and supporting the picture of a multifractal energy cascade at the origin of solar wind intermittency.

  11. The Genesis solar wind sample return mission: Past, present, and future

    OpenAIRE

    Burnett, D. S.

    2013-01-01

    The Genesis Discovery mission returned solar matter in the form of the solar wind with the goal of obtaining precise solar isotopic abundances (for the first time) and greatly improved elemental abundances. Measurements of the light noble gases in regime samples demonstrate that isotopes are fractionated in the solar wind relative to the solar photosphere. Theory is required for correction. Measurement of the solar wind O and N isotopes shows that these are very different from any inner solar...

  12. The magnetosphere under weak solar wind forcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Farrugia

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The Earth's magnetosphere was very strongly disturbed during the passage of the strong shock and the following interacting ejecta on 21–25 October 2001. These disturbances included two intense storms (Dst*≈−250 and −180 nT, respectively. The cessation of this activity at the start of 24 October ushered in a peculiar state of the magnetosphere which lasted for about 28 h and which we discuss in this paper. The interplanetary field was dominated by the sunward component [B=(4.29±0.77, −0.30±0.71, 0.49±0.45 nT]. We analyze global indicators of geomagnetic disturbances, polar cap precipitation, ground magnetometer records, and ionospheric convection as obtained from SuperDARN radars. The state of the magnetosphere is characterized by the following features: (i generally weak and patchy (in time low-latitude dayside reconnection or reconnection poleward of the cusps; (ii absence of substorms; (iii a monotonic recovery from the previous storm activity (Dst corrected for magnetopause currents decreasing from ~−65 to ~−35 nT, giving an unforced decreased of ~1.1 nT/h; (iv the probable absence of viscous-type interaction originating from the Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH instability; (v a cross-polar cap potential of just 20–30 kV; (vi a persistent, polar cap region containing (vii very weak, and sometimes absent, electron precipitation and no systematic inter-hemisphere asymmetry. Whereas we therefore infer the presence of a moderate amount of open flux, the convection is generally weak and patchy, which we ascribe to the lack of solar wind driver. This magnetospheric state approaches that predicted by Cowley and Lockwood (1992 but has never yet been observed.

  13. The magnetosphere under weak solar wind forcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Farrugia

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The Earth's magnetosphere was very strongly disturbed during the passage of the strong shock and the following interacting ejecta on 21–25 October 2001. These disturbances included two intense storms (Dst*≈−250 and −180 nT, respectively. The cessation of this activity at the start of 24 October ushered in a peculiar state of the magnetosphere which lasted for about 28 h and which we discuss in this paper. The interplanetary field was dominated by the sunward component [B=(4.29±0.77, −0.30±0.71, 0.49±0.45 nT]. We analyze global indicators of geomagnetic disturbances, polar cap precipitation, ground magnetometer records, and ionospheric convection as obtained from SuperDARN radars. The state of the magnetosphere is characterized by the following features: (i generally weak and patchy (in time low-latitude dayside reconnection or reconnection poleward of the cusps; (ii absence of substorms; (iii a monotonic recovery from the previous storm activity (Dst corrected for magnetopause currents decreasing from ~−65 to ~−35 nT, giving an unforced decreased of ~1.1 nT/h; (iv the probable absence of viscous-type interaction originating from the Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH instability; (v a cross-polar cap potential of just 20–30 kV; (vi a persistent, polar cap region containing (vii very weak, and sometimes absent, electron precipitation and no systematic inter-hemisphere asymmetry. Whereas we therefore infer the presence of a moderate amount of open flux, the convection is generally weak and patchy, which we ascribe to the lack of solar wind driver. This magnetospheric state approaches that predicted by Cowley and Lockwood (1992 but has never yet been observed.

  14. Solar wind drivers of geomagnetic storms during more than four solar cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richardson Ian G.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Using a classification of the near-Earth solar wind into three basic flow types: (1 High-speed streams associated with coronal holes at the Sun; (2 Slow, interstream solar wind; and (3 Transient flows originating with coronal mass ejections (CMEs at the Sun, including interplanetary CMEs and the associated upstream shocks and post-shock regions, we determine the drivers of geomagnetic storms of various size ranges based on the Kp index and the NOAA “G” criteria since 1964, close to the beginning of the space era, to 2011, encompassing more than four solar cycles (20–23. We also briefly discuss the occurrence of storms since the beginning of the Kp index in 1932, in the minimum before cycle 17. We note that the extended low level of storm activity during the minimum following cycle 23 is without precedent in this 80-year interval. Furthermore, the “typical” numbers of storm days/cycle quoted in the standard NOAA G storm table appear to be significantly higher than those obtained from our analysis, except for the strongest (G5 storms, suggesting that they should be revised downward.

  15. Sonic Detection and Ranging (SODAR) Wind Profiler Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coulter, Richard L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The SODAR (Sonic Detection and Ranging) wind profiler measures wind profiles and backscattered signal strength between (nominally) 15 meters (m) and 500 m. It operates by transmitting acoustic energy into the atmosphere and measuring the strength and frequency of backscattered energy. The strength of the backscattered signal is determined by the strength of temperature inhomogeneities with size on the order of 10 centimeters (cm). Assuming the scattering elements in the atmosphere are moving with the mean wind, the horizontal wind field can be derived. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility Mobile Facility (AMF) has a system developed by Scintec, Inc. that transmits a sequence of frequencies to enhance signal determination.

  16. Solar Wind Variation with the Cycle I. S. Veselovsky,* A. V. Dmitriev ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    Solar wind, energy and mass flux densities during the 20–23 solar cycles. (a) sunspot numbers; (b) solar wind energy flux density St;(c) solar wind mass flux density j. cycles with time scales from days to tens of years. The results of this investigation. (Veselovsky et al. 2000b) show a large manifold of the regular and irregular ...

  17. 77 FR 48138 - Topaz Solar Farms LLC; High Plains Ranch II, LLC; Bethel Wind Energy LLC; Rippey Wind Energy LLC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-13

    ...-000; EG12-68-000; EG12-69-000] Topaz Solar Farms LLC; High Plains Ranch II, LLC; Bethel Wind Energy LLC; Rippey Wind Energy LLC; Pacific Wind, LLC; Colorado Highlands Wind, LLC; Shooting Star Wind... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal...

  18. Recent progress in astrophysical plasma turbulence from solar wind observations

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, C H K

    2016-01-01

    This paper summarises some of the recent progress that has been made in understanding astrophysical plasma turbulence in the solar wind, from in situ spacecraft observations. At large scales, where the turbulence is predominantly Alfvenic, measurements of critical balance, residual energy, and 3D structure are discussed, along with comparison to recent models of strong Alfvenic turbulence. At these scales, a few percent of the energy is also in compressive fluctuations, and their nature, anisotropy, and relation to the Alfvenic component is described. In the small scale kinetic range, below the ion gyroscale, the turbulence becomes predominantly kinetic Alfven in nature, and measurements of the spectra, anisotropy, and intermittency of this turbulence are discussed with respect to recent cascade models. One of the major remaining questions is how the turbulent energy is dissipated, and some recent work on this question, in addition to future space missions which will help to answer it, are briefly discussed.

  19. NEW MODEL OF A SOLAR WIND AIRPLANE FOR GEOMATIC OPERATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Achachi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The ability for an aircraft to fly during a much extended period of time has become a key issue and a target of research, both in the domain of civilian aviation and unmanned aerial vehicles. This paper describes a new design and evaluating of solar wind aircraft with the objective to assess the impact of a new system design on overall flight crew performance. The required endurance is in the range of some hours in the case of law enforcement, border surveillance, forest fire fighting or power line inspection. However, other applications at high altitudes, such as geomatic operations for delivering geographic information, weather research and forecast, environmental monitoring, would require remaining airborne during days, weeks or even months. The design of GNSS non precision approach procedure for different airports is based on geomatic data.

  20. Role of Concentrating Solar Power in Integrating Solar and Wind Energy: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denholm, P.; Mehos, M.

    2015-06-03

    As wind and solar photovoltaics (PV) increase in penetration it is increasingly important to examine enabling technologies that can help integrate these resources at large scale. Concentrating solar power (CSP) when deployed with thermal energy storage (TES) can provide multiple services that can help integrate variable generation (VG) resources such as wind and PV. CSP with TES can provide firm, highly flexible capacity, reducing minimum generation constraints which limit penetration and results in curtailment. By acting as an enabling technology, CSP can complement PV and wind, substantially increasing their penetration in locations with adequate solar resource.

  1. Scaling and singularity characteristics of solar wind and magnetospheric fluctuations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Vörös

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary results are presented which suggest that scaling and singularity characteristics of solar wind and ground-based magnetic fluctuations appear to be a significant component in the solar wind-magnetosphere interaction processes. Of key importance is the intermittence of the "magnetic turbulence" as seen in ground-based and solar wind magnetic data. The methods used in this paper (estimation of flatness and multifractal spectra are commonly used in the studies of fluid or MHD turbulence. The results show that single observatory characteristics of magnetic fluctuations are different from those of the multi-observatory AE-index. In both data sets, however, the influence of the solar wind fluctuations is recognizable. The correlation between the scaling/singularity features of solar wind magnetic fluctuations and the corresponding geomagnetic response is demonstrated in a number of cases. The results are also discussed in terms of patchy reconnection processes in the magnetopause and forced and/or self-organized criticality (F/SOC of internal magnetosphere dynamics.

  2. New stratagies for modelling and forecasting the background solar wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Rui; Rouillard, Alexis; Brun, Sacha

    2017-04-01

    The large-scale solar wind speed distribution varies in time in response to the cyclic variations of the strength and geometry of the magnetic field of the corona. Semi-empirical predictive laws (such as in the widely-used WSA law) parametrise the asymptotic solar wind speed via simple parameters describing the geometry of the coronal magnetic field. In practice, such scaling laws require ad-hoc corrections and empirical fits to in-situ spacecraft data, and a predictive law based solely on physical principles is still missing. I will discuss improvements to this kind of laws based on the analysis of very large samples of wind acceleration profiles in open flux-tubes (both from MHD simulations and potential-field extrapolations), and show that flux-tube expansion effectively control the locations of the slow and fast wind flows (as in WSA), but that the actual asymptotic wind speeds attained - specially those of the slow wind - are also dependent on field-line inclination. I will furthermore present a new solar wind model - MULTI-VP - which takes a coronal magnetic field map as input (past data or forecast), and computes a collection of solar wind profiles (1 to 30 Rsun) spanning a region of interest of the solar atmosphere (up to a full synoptic map) at any instant desired in quasi-real time, while keeping a good description the plasma heating and cooling mechanisms. MULTI-VP provides full sets of inner boundary conditions for heliospheric propagation models (such as ENLIL; see https://stormsweb.irap.omp.eu/doku.php?id=windmaptable), bypassing the need to rely on semi-empirical approaches. I will fully discuss the predictive capabilities of the model (synthetic imagery and in-situ time series) and its suitability to real-time space-weather applications. This is work is supported by the FP7 project #606692 (HELCATS).

  3. Weakest solar wind of the space age and the current 'MINI' solar maximum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McComas, D. J.; Angold, N.; Elliott, H. A.; Livadiotis, G. [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX 78228 (United States); Schwadron, N. A.; Smith, C. W. [University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 (United States); Skoug, R. M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2013-12-10

    The last solar minimum, which extended into 2009, was especially deep and prolonged. Since then, sunspot activity has gone through a very small peak while the heliospheric current sheet achieved large tilt angles similar to prior solar maxima. The solar wind fluid properties and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) have declined through the prolonged solar minimum and continued to be low through the current mini solar maximum. Compared to values typically observed from the mid-1970s through the mid-1990s, the following proton parameters are lower on average from 2009 through day 79 of 2013: solar wind speed and beta (∼11%), temperature (∼40%), thermal pressure (∼55%), mass flux (∼34%), momentum flux or dynamic pressure (∼41%), energy flux (∼48%), IMF magnitude (∼31%), and radial component of the IMF (∼38%). These results have important implications for the solar wind's interaction with planetary magnetospheres and the heliosphere's interaction with the local interstellar medium, with the proton dynamic pressure remaining near the lowest values observed in the space age: ∼1.4 nPa, compared to ∼2.4 nPa typically observed from the mid-1970s through the mid-1990s. The combination of lower magnetic flux emergence from the Sun (carried out in the solar wind as the IMF) and associated low power in the solar wind points to the causal relationship between them. Our results indicate that the low solar wind output is driven by an internal trend in the Sun that is longer than the ∼11 yr solar cycle, and they suggest that this current weak solar maximum is driven by the same trend.

  4. A hybrid reconfigurable solar and wind energy system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadkari, Sagar A.

    We study the feasibility of a novel hybrid solar-wind hybrid system that shares most of its infrastructure and components. During periods of clear sunny days the system will generate electricity from the sun using a parabolic concentrator. The concentrator is formed by individual mirror elements and focuses the light onto high intensity vertical multi-junction (VMJ) cells. During periods of high wind speeds and at night, the same concentrator setup will be reconfigured to channel the wind into a wind turbine which will be used to harness wind energy. In this study we report on the feasibility of this type of solar/wind hybrid energy system. The key mechanisms; optics, cooling mechanism of VMJ cells and air flow through the system were investigated using simulation tools. The results from these simulations, along with a simple economic analysis giving the levelized cost of energy for such a system are presented. An iterative method of design refinement based on the simulation results was used to work towards a prototype design. The levelized cost of the system achieved in the economic analysis shows the system to be a good alternative for a grid isolated site and could be used as a standalone system in regions of lower demand. The new approach to solar wind hybrid system reported herein will pave way for newer generation of hybrid systems that share common infrastructure in addition to the storage and distribution of energy.

  5. The climate and air-quality benefits of wind and solar power in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millstein, Dev; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark; Barbose, Galen

    2017-09-01

    Wind and solar energy reduce combustion-based electricity generation and provide air-quality and greenhouse gas emission benefits. These benefits vary dramatically by region and over time. From 2007 to 2015, solar and wind power deployment increased rapidly while regulatory changes and fossil fuel price changes led to steep cuts in overall power-sector emissions. Here we evaluate how wind and solar climate and air-quality benefits evolved during this time period. We find cumulative wind and solar air-quality benefits of 2015 US$29.7-112.8 billion mostly from 3,000 to 12,700 avoided premature mortalities, and cumulative climate benefits of 2015 US$5.3-106.8 billion. The ranges span results across a suite of air-quality and health impact models and social cost of carbon estimates. We find that binding cap-and-trade pollutant markets may reduce these cumulative benefits by up to 16%. In 2015, based on central estimates, combined marginal benefits equal 7.3 ¢ kWh-1 (wind) and 4.0 ¢ kWh-1 (solar).

  6. RSA/Legacy Wind Sensor Comparison. Part 2; Eastern Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, David A.; Wheeler, Mark M.

    2006-01-01

    This report describes a comparison of data from ultrasonic and propeller-and-vane anemometers on 5 wind towers at Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. The ultrasonic sensors are scheduled to replace the Legacy propeller-and-vane sensors under the Range Standardization and Automation (RSA) program. Because previous studies have noted differences between peak wind speeds reported by mechanical and ultrasonic wind sensors, the latter having no moving parts, the 30th and 45th Weather Squadrons wanted to understand possible differences between the two sensor types. The period-of-record was 13-30 May 2005, A total of 357,626 readings of 1-minute average and peak wind speed/direction from each sensor type were used. Statistics of differences in speed and direction were used to identify 15 out of 19 RSA sensors having the most consistent performance, with respect to the Legacy sensors. RSA average wind speed data from these 15 showed a small positive bias of 0.38 kts. A slightly larger positive bias of 0.94 kts was found in the RSA peak wind speed.

  7. RSA/Legacy Wind Sensor Comparison. Part 1; Western Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, David A.; Wheeler, Mark M.

    2006-01-01

    This report describes a comparison of data from ultrasonic and cup-and-vane anemometers on 5 wind towers at Vandenberg AFB. The ultrasonic sensors are scheduled to replace the Legacy cup-and-vane sensors under the Range Standardization and Automation (RSA) program. Because previous studies have noted differences between peak wind speeds reported by mechanical and ultrasonic wind sensors, the latter having no moving parts, the 30th and 45th Weather Squadrons wanted to understand possible differences between the two sensor types. The period-of-record was 13-30 May 2005. A total of 153,961 readings of I-minute average and peak wind speed/direction from each sensor type were used. Statistics of differences in speed and direction were used to identify 18 out of 34 RSA sensors having the most consistent performance, with respect to the Legacy sensors. Data from these 18 were used to form a composite comparison. A small positive bias in the composite RSA average wind speed increased from +0.5 kts at 15 kts, to +1 kt at 25 kts. A slightly larger positive bias in the RSA peak wind speed increased from +1 kt at 15 kts, to +2 kts at 30 kts.

  8. Characterization of the Turbulent Magnetic Integral Length in the Solar Wind: From 0.3 to 5 Astronomical Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, M. E.; Dasso, S.; Matthaeus, W. H.; Weygand, J. M.

    2014-10-01

    The solar wind is a structured and complex system, in which the fields vary strongly over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. As an example, the turbulent activity in the wind affects the evolution in the heliosphere of the integral turbulent scale or correlation length [ λ], usually associated with the breakpoint in the turbulent-energy spectrum that separates the inertial range from the injection range. This large variability of the fields demands a statistical description of the solar wind. We study the probability distribution function (PDF) of the magnetic-autocorrelation lengths observed in the solar wind at different distances from the Sun. We used observations from the Helios, ACE, and Ulysses spacecraft. We distinguished between the usual solar wind and one of its transient components (interplanetary coronal mass ejections, ICMEs), and also studied solar-wind samples with low and high proton beta [βp]. We find that in the last three regimes the PDF of λ is a log-normal function, consistent with the multiplicative and nonlinear processes that take place in the solar wind, the initial λ (before the Alfvénic point) being larger in ICMEs.

  9. Ancillary Services for the European Grid with High Shares of Wind and Solar Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Hulle, Frans; Holttinen, Hannele; Kiviluoma, Juha

    2012-01-01

    With significantly increasing share of variable renewable power generation like wind and solar PV, the need in the power system for ancillary services supporting the network frequency, voltage, etc. changes. Turning this issue around, market opportunities will emerge for wind and solar PV...... technology to deliver such grid services. In the European power system, adequate market mechanisms need to be developed to ensure that there will be an efficient trading of these services. For that purpose a range of (economic) characteristics of wind (and solar) power as providers of grid services need...... to be better understood. This relates both to the technical capabilities of the plants for delivering specific services and to the quantification of the needs. The paper presents the approach of the European IEE project REserviceS, aiming at establishing reference guidance for the ongoing developments...

  10. Short term fluctuations of wind and solar power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Anvari, M; Wächter, M; Milan, P; Lorenz, E; Heinemann, D; Tabar, M Reza Rahimi; Peinke, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Wind and solar power are known to be highly influenced by weather events and may ramp up or down abruptly. Such events in the power production influence not only the availability of energy, but also the stability of the entire power grid. By analysing significant amounts of data from several regions around the world with resolutions of seconds to minutes, we provide strong evidence that renewable wind and solar sources exhibit multiple types of variability and nonlinearity in the time scale of {\\it seconds} and characterise their stochastic properties. In contrast to previous findings, we show that only the jumpy characteristic of renewable sources decreases when increasing the spatial size over which the renewable energies are harvested. Otherwise, the strong non-Gaussian, intermittent behaviour in the cumulative power of the total field survives even for a country-wide distribution of the systems. The strong fluctuating behaviour of renewable wind and solar sources can be well characterised by Kolmogorov-li...

  11. Intermittency and local heating in the solar wind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, K T; Matthaeus, W H; Wan, M; Rappazzo, A F

    2012-06-29

    Evidence for nonuniform heating in the solar wind plasma near current sheets dynamically generated by magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence is obtained using measurements from the ACE spacecraft. These coherent structures only constitute 19% of the data, but contribute 50% of the total plasma internal energy. Intermittent heating manifests as elevations in proton temperature near current sheets, resulting in regional heating and temperature enhancements extending over several hours. The number density of non-Gaussian structures is found to be proportional to the mean proton temperature and solar wind speed. These results suggest magnetofluid turbulence drives intermittent dissipation through a hierarchy of coherent structures, which collectively could be a significant source of coronal and solar wind heating.

  12. Global scale- free behaviour in compressive fluctuations in the fast solar wind, and pseudo- dynamic alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hnat, B.; Chapman, S. C.; Gogoberidze, G.; Wicks, R. T.

    2011-12-01

    We present the first scale-by-scale quantitative comparison of the higher order statistics of magnetic field magnitude and component temporal fluctuations in the fast quiet solar wind. The magnetic field magnitude fluctuations show a single global intermittent non-Gaussian scale free behaviour from minutes to over 5 hours. This coexists with the signature in the field components of an inertial range of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence up to ~ 30 minutes and a ~ 1/f range of coronal origin on longer timescales. This is found both in the ecliptic with ACE and in ULLYSES polar passes. This suggests a single stochastic process for magnetic field magnitude fluctuations operating across the full range of MHD timescales supported by the solar wind. Fluctuations in velocity and magnetic field show the strongest 'dynamic' alignment on scales in the ~ 1/f range. We wil discuss how uncertainties in velocity and magnetic field measurements propagate through 'compound' measures of the turbulence properties of the flow in this context. Observational evidence of incompressible MHD turbulence in the solar wind must thus be understood in the context of this global scaling of the compressive 'texture' of the solar wind.

  13. Magnetic fields in the solar system planets, moons and solar wind interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Wicht, Johannes; Gilder, Stuart; Holschneider, Matthias

    2018-01-01

    This book addresses and reviews many of the still little understood questions related to the processes underlying planetary magnetic fields and their interaction with the solar wind. With focus on research carried out within the German Priority Program ”PlanetMag”, it also provides an overview of the most recent research in the field. Magnetic fields play an important role in making a planet habitable by protecting the environment from the solar wind. Without the geomagnetic field, for example, life on Earth as we know it would not be possible. And results from recent space missions to Mars and Venus strongly indicate that planetary magnetic fields play a vital role in preventing atmospheric erosion by the solar wind. However, very little is known about the underlying interaction between the solar wind and a planet’s magnetic field. The book takes a synergistic interdisciplinary approach that combines newly developed tools for data acquisition and analysis, computer simulations of planetary interiors an...

  14. Agua Caliente Wind/Solar Project at Whitewater Ranch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooks, Todd [Agua Caliente Band of Cahuilla Indians, Palm Springs, CA (United States); Stewart, Royce [Red Mountain Energy Partners, Sante Fe, NM (United States)

    2014-12-16

    Agua Caliente Band of Cahuilla Indians (ACBCI) was awarded a grant by the Department of Energy (DOE) to study the feasibility of a wind and/or solar renewable energy project at the Whitewater Ranch (WWR) property of ACBCI. Red Mountain Energy Partners (RMEP) was engaged to conduct the study. The ACBCI tribal lands in the Coachella Valley have very rich renewable energy resources. The tribe has undertaken several studies to more fully understand the options available to them if they were to move forward with one or more renewable energy projects. With respect to the resources, the WWR property clearly has excellent wind and solar resources. The DOE National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has continued to upgrade and refine their library of resource maps. The newer, more precise maps quantify the resources as among the best in the world. The wind and solar technology available for deployment is also being improved. Both are reducing their costs to the point of being at or below the costs of fossil fuels. Technologies for energy storage and microgrids are also improving quickly and present additional ways to increase the wind and/or solar energy retained for later use with the network management flexibility to provide power to the appropriate locations when needed. As a result, renewable resources continue to gain more market share. The transitioning to renewables as the major resources for power will take some time as the conversion is complex and can have negative impacts if not managed well. While the economics for wind and solar systems continue to improve, the robustness of the WWR site was validated by the repeated queries of developers to place wind and/or solar there. The robust resources and improving technologies portends toward WWR land as a renewable energy site. The business case, however, is not so clear, especially when the potential investment portfolio for ACBCI has several very beneficial and profitable alternatives.

  15. Non-Gaussian probability distributions of solar wind fluctuations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Marsch

    Full Text Available The probability distributions of field differences ∆x(τ=x(t+τ-x(t, where the variable x(t may denote any solar wind scalar field or vector field component at time t, have been calculated from time series of Helios data obtained in 1976 at heliocentric distances near 0.3 AU. It is found that for comparatively long time lag τ, ranging from a few hours to 1 day, the differences are normally distributed according to a Gaussian. For shorter time lags, of less than ten minutes, significant changes in shape are observed. The distributions are often spikier and narrower than the equivalent Gaussian distribution with the same standard deviation, and they are enhanced for large, reduced for intermediate and enhanced for very small values of ∆x. This result is in accordance with fluid observations and numerical simulations. Hence statistical properties are dominated at small scale τ by large fluctuation amplitudes that are sparsely distributed, which is direct evidence for spatial intermittency of the fluctuations. This is in agreement with results from earlier analyses of the structure functions of ∆x. The non-Gaussian features are differently developed for the various types of fluctuations. The relevance of these observations to the interpretation and understanding of the nature of solar wind magnetohydrodynamic (MHD turbulence is pointed out, and contact is made with existing theoretical concepts of intermittency in fluid turbulence.

  16. Heavy noble gases in solar wind delivered by Genesis mission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshik, Alex; Hohenberg, Charles; Pravdivtseva, Olga; Burnett, Donald

    2014-02-15

    One of the major goals of the Genesis Mission was to refine our knowledge of the isotopic composition of the heavy noble gases in solar wind and, by inference, the Sun, which represents the initial composition of the solar system. This has now been achieved with permil precision: (36)Ar/(38)Ar = 5.5005 ± 0.0040, (86)Kr/(84)Kr = .3012 ± .0004, (83)Kr/(84)Kr = .2034 ± .0002, (82)Kr/(84)Kr = .2054 ± .0002, (80)Kr/(84)Kr = .0412 ± .0002, (78)Kr/(84)Kr = .00642 ± .00005, (136)Xe/(132)Xe = .3001 ± .0006, (134)Xe/(132)Xe = .3691 ± .0007, (131)Xe/(132)Xe = .8256 ± .0012, (130)Xe/(132)Xe = .1650 ± .0004, (129)Xe/(132)Xe = 1.0405 ± .0010, (128)Xe/(132)Xe = .0842 ± .0003, (126)Xe/(132)Xe = .00416 ± .00009, and (124)Xe/(132)Xe = .00491 ± .00007 (error-weighted averages of all published data). The Kr and Xe ratios measured in the Genesis solar wind collectors generally agree with the less precise values obtained from lunar soils and breccias, which have accumulated solar wind over hundreds of millions of years, suggesting little if any temporal variability of the isotopic composition of solar wind krypton and xenon. The higher precision for the initial composition of the heavy noble gases in the solar system allows (1) to confirm that, exept (136)Xe and (134)Xe, the mathematically derived U-Xe is equivalent to Solar Wind Xe and (2) to provide an opportunity for better understanding the relationship between the starting composition and Xe-Q (and Q-Kr), the dominant current "planetary" component, and its host, the mysterious phase-Q.

  17. Mars plasma system response to solar wind disturbances during solar minimum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Cano, B.; Hall, B. E. S.; Lester, M.; Mays, M. L.; Witasse, O.; Ambrosi, R.; Andrews, D.; Cartacci, M.; Cicchetti, A.; Holmström, M.; Imber, S.; Kajdič, P.; Milan, S. E.; Noschese, R.; Odstrcil, D.; Opgenoorth, H.; Plaut, J.; Ramstad, R.; Reyes-Ayala, K. I.

    2017-06-01

    This paper is a phenomenological description of the ionospheric plasma and induced magnetospheric boundary (IMB) response to two different types of upstream solar wind events impacting Mars in March 2008, at the solar minimum. A total of 16 Mars Express orbits corresponding to five consecutive days is evaluated. Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory-B (STEREO-B) at 1 AU and Mars Express and Mars Odyssey at 1.644 AU detected the arrival of a small transient interplanetary coronal mass ejection (ICME-like) on the 6 and 7 of March, respectively. This is the first time that this kind of small solar structure is reported at Mars's distance. In both cases, it was followed by a large increase in solar wind velocity that lasted for 10 days. This scenario is simulated with the Wang-Sheeley-Arge (WSA) - ENLIL + Cone solar solar wind model. At Mars, the ICME-like event caused a strong compression of the magnetosheath and ionosphere, and the recovery lasted for 3 orbits ( 20 h). After that, the fast stream affected the upper ionosphere and the IMB, which radial and tangential motions in regions close to the subsolar point are analyzed. Moreover, a compression in the Martian plasma system is also observed, although weaker than after the ICME-like impact, and several magnetosheath plasma blobs in the upper ionosphere are detected by Mars Express. We conclude that, during solar minimum and at aphelion, small solar wind structures can create larger perturbations than previously expected in the Martian system.

  18. Formation of Heliospheric Arcs of Slow Solar Wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higginson, A. K.; Antiochos, S. K.; Devore, C. R.; Wyper, P. F.; Zurbuchen, T. H.

    2017-01-01

    A major challenge in solar and heliospheric physics is understanding the origin and nature of the so-called slow solar wind. The Sun's atmosphere is divided into magnetically open regions, known as coronal holes, where the plasma streams out freely and fills the solar system, and closed regions, where the plasma is confined to coronal loops. The boundary between these regions extends outward as the heliospheric current sheet (HCS). Measurements of plasma composition strongly imply that much of the slow wind consists of plasma from the closed corona that escapes onto open field lines, presumably by field-line opening or by interchange reconnection. Both of these processes are expected to release closed-field plasma into the solar wind within and immediately adjacent to the HCS. Mysteriously, however, slow wind with closed-field plasma composition is often observed in situ far from the HCS. We use high-resolution, three-dimensional, magnetohydrodynamic simulations to calculate the dynamics of a coronal hole with a geometry that includes a narrow corridor flanked by closed field and is driven by supergranule-like flows at the coronal-hole boundary. These dynamics produce giant arcs of closed-field plasma that originate at the open-closed boundary in the corona, but extend far from the HCS and span tens of degrees in latitude and longitude at Earth. We conclude that such structures can account for the long-puzzling slow-wind observations.

  19. Formation of Heliospheric Arcs of Slow Solar Wind

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higginson, A. K.; Zurbuchen, T. H. [Department of Climate and Space Sciences and Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Antiochos, S. K.; DeVore, C. R. [Heliophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Wyper, P. F., E-mail: aleida@umich.edu [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Durham University, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)

    2017-05-01

    A major challenge in solar and heliospheric physics is understanding the origin and nature of the so-called slow solar wind. The Sun’s atmosphere is divided into magnetically open regions, known as coronal holes, where the plasma streams out freely and fills the solar system, and closed regions, where the plasma is confined to coronal loops. The boundary between these regions extends outward as the heliospheric current sheet (HCS). Measurements of plasma composition strongly imply that much of the slow wind consists of plasma from the closed corona that escapes onto open field lines, presumably by field-line opening or by interchange reconnection. Both of these processes are expected to release closed-field plasma into the solar wind within and immediately adjacent to the HCS. Mysteriously, however, slow wind with closed-field plasma composition is often observed in situ far from the HCS. We use high-resolution, three-dimensional, magnetohydrodynamic simulations to calculate the dynamics of a coronal hole with a geometry that includes a narrow corridor flanked by closed field and is driven by supergranule-like flows at the coronal-hole boundary. These dynamics produce giant arcs of closed-field plasma that originate at the open-closed boundary in the corona, but extend far from the HCS and span tens of degrees in latitude and longitude at Earth. We conclude that such structures can account for the long-puzzling slow-wind observations.

  20. Source reliability in a combined wind-solar-hydro system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traca de Almeida, A.; Martins, A.; Jesus, H.; Climaco, J.

    1983-06-01

    The results of an examination of the feasibility of using coupled wind-solar-hydro power generation systems to provide all of Portugal's electricity by the year 2000 are reported. Portugal used 15.6 TWh of electricity in 1981, of which hydro supplied 10 TWh. Demand is expected to reach 34 TWh in 2000 AD. The full development of hydropower resource would furnish 18 TWh and a storage capacity of 4.5 TWh. The installed hydro system could meet the peak demand of 6 GW, while solar cells and wind turbines must produce 16 TWh annually plus a reserve. The Growian wind turbine, 100 m tall, is considered for its 2.2 MW output. A coastal strip of wind turbines 150 x 20 km, with 1 km spacing between the machines, would be needed to produce 5.4 GW of power. Partially tracking solar cell arrays generating 9.4 GW of electricity would require an area of 100 sq km. Computer simulations of the annual rainfall, combined with projections of the variations in wind-solar output, demonstrates that a reserve margin of 1.20 will be necessary. The costs of installation of the renewable energy converters are estimated at about three times that currently necessary for obtaining the same capacity from fission power plants, although the situation may change due to import and technical considerations.

  1. Wind and solar energy curtailment: A review of international experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, Lori; Lew, Debra; Milligan, Michael; Carlini, E. Maria; Estanqueiro, Ana; Flynn, Damian; Gomez-Lazaro, Emilio; Holttinen, Hannele; Menemenlis, Nickie; Orths, Antje; Eriksen, Peter Børre; Smith, J. Charles; Soder, Lennart; Sorensen, Poul; Altiparmakis, Argyrios; Yasuda, Yoh; Miller, John

    2016-11-01

    Greater penetrations of variable renewable generation on some electric grids have resulted in increased levels of curtailment in recent years. Studies of renewable energy grid integration have found that curtailment levels may grow as the penetration of wind and solar energy generation increases. This paper reviews international experience with curtailment of wind and solar energy on bulk power systems in recent years, with a focus on eleven countries in Europe, North America, and Asia. It examines levels of curtailment, the causes of curtailment, curtailment methods and use of market-based dispatch, as well as operational, institutional, and other changes that are being made to reduce renewable energy curtailment.

  2. ANALYSING SOLAR-WIND HYBRID POWER GENERATING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa ENGİN

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a solar-wind hybrid power generating, system that will be used for security lighting was designed. Hybrid system was installed and solar cells, wind turbine, battery bank, charge regulators and inverter performance values were measured through the whole year. Using measured values of overall system efficiency, reliability, demanded energy cost per kWh were calculated, and percentage of generated energy according to resources were defined. We also include in the paper a discussion of new strategies to improve hybrid power generating system performance and demanded energy cost per kWh.

  3. Analysis of powerful local acceleration of solar wind particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molotkov, I. A.; Ryabova, N. A.

    2017-07-01

    Collisionless plasma of the solar wind is considered. A number of physical processes in this plasma lead to the formation of magnetic islands that are potential traps for charged particles. The merging and contractions of magnetic islands cause a powerful acceleration of these particles to energies over 1 MeV. This work continues the study in recent years on modeling of the acceleration of charged particles of the solar wind. Our analytical solution of the transport equations allowed us to find the exact number of particles with energies exceeding given level.

  4. Scaling properties of the solar wind driver and the Akasofu's ɛ parameter at solar maximum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hnat, B.; Chapman, S. C.; Kiyani, K.; Rowlands, G.; Watkins, N. W.

    2007-12-01

    Earth magnetosphere is constantly driven by turbulent and intermittent solar wind. Observations suggest that the multi-scale nature of this coupling is a fundamental aspect of magnetospheric dynamics. We examine the statistical properties of fluctuations in Akasofu's ɛ, which represents the energy input from the solar wind into the magnetosphere, and the magnetic field energy density of the solar wind at solar maximum. Previous studies suggested that, at solar maximum, these fluctuations are approximately self-similar and their probability distributions have similar functional form. We examine scaling properties of these quantities in detail, obtain values of their scaling exponents and examine a fractional Lévy walk as a possible model for their statistics.

  5. Observing and quantifying the solar wind signature of the magnetically complex corona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hnat, B.; Chapman, S. C.; Kiyani, K. H.; Nicol, R. M.

    2008-12-01

    The solar wind exhibits fluctuations over a broad range of timescales characteristic of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence evolving in the presence of structures of coronal origin. In- situ spacecraft observations of plasma parameters are at minute (or below) resolution for intervals spanning the solar cycle and provide a large number of samples for statistical studies. The magnetic field power spectrum typically has two characteristic components, an inertial range of turbulence over several orders of magnitude with approximately Kolmogorov power law and at lower frequencies, an approximately '1/f' energy containing range believed to be of direct coronal origin. We focus on the behaviour of in- situ observations of fluctuations in the inner heliosphere as a function of solar cycle and solar wind speed; that is, with respect to coronal structure and dynamics. We employ a recently developed technique that sensitively distinguishes between fractal and multifractal scaling in the timeseries. Our working hypothesis is that since the latter can be characteristic of local MHD turbulence, the former maps more directly to features of coronal origin. We find a strong correlation between the scaling properties of magnetic energy density fluctuations and the magnetic complexity of the coronal magnetic fields. At solar maximum in the ecliptic, where the in- situ observations can be dominated by slow solar wind, the magnetic energy density as seen by WIND and ACE shows a fractal signature, whereas at minimum it is multifractal. This is corroborated by ULLYSES polar observations at solar minimum in quiet, fast solar wind where again, multifractal scaling is found. This high magnetic complexity in the corona corresponds to fractal, rather than multifractal scaling in magnetic energy density; remarkably, this fractal signature dominates the full dynamic range of observations, extending across timescales typically identified with both the '1/f' and 'inertial range'. The

  6. Knowledge of coronal heating and solar-wind acceleration obtained from observations of the solar wind near 1 AU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neugebauer, M.

    1992-01-01

    Clues to the nature of the mechanisms responsible for heating the corona and accelerating the solar wind can be obtained by contrasting the properties of the quasi-stationary and transient states of the solar wind. Substantial differences exist in the proton temperatures and anisotropies, the entropy, the field strength, the Alfvenicity of fluctuations in the field, the distribution of MHD discontinuities, and the helium abundance of the two types of flow. Those differences are displayed as a function of the solar wind speed. Several signals of wave acceleration can be found in the data for quasi-stationary flows. The relatively smooth velocity dependences of proton temperature, helium abundance, and frequency of occurrence of rotational discontinuities suggest that the acceleration mechanisms for flow from coronal holes, coronal streamers, and the quasi-stationary low-speed flows between them may be basically the same, differing only in degree.

  7. GPP Webinar: Market Outlook and Innovations in Wind and Solar Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green Power Partnership webinar reviewing the state of the renewable energy industry as a whole, with a focus on wind and solar power and exploring recent marketplace innovations in wind and solar power and renewable energy purchases.

  8. Power generation from wind turbines in a solar chimney

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foote, Tudor [Graduate Student, Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Washington University in St. Louis, Jolley Hall, Campus Box 1185, One Brookings Drive, St. Louis, Missouri, 63130 (United States); Agarwal, Ramesh K. [William Palm Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Washington University in St. Louis, Jolley Hall, Campus Box 1185, One Brookings Drive, St. Louis, Missouri, 63130 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Recent studies have shown that shrouded wind turbines can generate greater power compared to bare turbines. A solar chimney generates an upward draft of wind inside a tower and a shroud around the wind turbine. There are numerous empty silos on farms in the U.S. that can be converted to solar chimneys with minor modifications at modest cost. The objective of this study is to determine the potential of these silos/chimneys for generating wind power. The study is conducted through analytical/computational approach by employing the commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software. Computations are performed for five different geometric configurations consisting of a turbine, a cylindrical silo, and/or a venturi and/or a diffuser using the dimensions of typical silos and assuming Class 3 wind velocity. The incompressible Navier-Stokes equations with the Boussinesq approximation and a two equation realizable {kappa}-{epsilon} model are employed in the calculations, and the turbine is modeled as an actuator disk. The power coefficient (Cp) and generated power are calculated for the five cases. Consistent with recent literature, it was found that the silos with diffusers increase the Cp beyond Betz’s limit significantly and thus the generated power. It should be noted that Cp is calculated by normalizing it by the turbine area swept by the wind. This study shows the potential of using abandoned silos in the mid-west and other parts of the country for localized wind power generation.

  9. Solar cycle changes in the geo-effectiveness of small-scale solar wind turbulence measured by Wind and ACE at 1 AU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Parkinson

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Multi-scale structure of the solar wind in the ecliptic at 1 AU undergoes significant evolution with the phase of the solar cycle. Wind spacecraft measurements during 1995 to 1998 and ACE spacecraft measurements during 1997 to 2005 were used to characterise the evolution of small-scale (~1 min to 2 h fluctuations in the solar wind speed vsw, magnetic energy density B2, and solar wind ε parameter, in the context of large-scale (~1 day to years variations. The large-scale variation in ε most resembled large-scale variations in B2. The probability density of large fluctuations in ε and B2 both had strong minima during 1995, a familiar signature of solar minimum. Generalized Structure Function (GSF analysis was used to estimate inertial range scaling exponents aGSF and their evolution throughout 1995 to 2005. For the entire data set, the weighted average scaling exponent for small-scale fluctuations in vsw was aGSF=0.284±0.001, a value characteristic of intermittent MHD turbulence (>1/4, whereas the scaling exponents for corresponding fluctuations in B2 and ε were aGSF=0.395±0.001 and 0.334±0.001, respectively. These values are between the range expected for Gaussian fluctuations (1/2 and Kolmogorov turbulence (1/3. However, the scaling exponent for ε changed from a Gaussian-Kolmogorov value of 0.373±0.005 during 1997 (end of solar minimum to an MHD turbulence value of 0.247±0.004 during 2003 (recurrent fast streams. Changes in the characteristics of solar wind turbulence may be reproducible from one solar cycle to the next.

  10. Solar Coronal Plumes and the Fast Solar Wind

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... Before the spectroscopic peculiarities in IPRs and plumes in Polar Coronal Holes (PCHs) can be further investigated with the instrument Solar Ultraviolet Measurements of Emitted Radiation (SUMER) aboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO), it is mandatory to summarize the results of the ...

  11. Solar Wind Variation with the Cycle

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    dependent boundary conditions in the solar corona. "Minimal" coronal configurations correspond to the regular appearance of the tenuous, but hot and fast plasma streams from the large polar coronal holes. The denser, but cooler and slower ...

  12. IMPLICATIONS OF THE RECENT LOW SOLAR MINIMUM FOR THE SOLAR WIND DURING THE MAUNDER MINIMUM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lockwood, M.; Owens, M. J., E-mail: m.lockwood@reading.ac.uk [Department of Meteorology, University of Reading, Earley Gate, RG6 6BB (United Kingdom)

    2014-01-20

    The behavior of the Sun and near-Earth space during grand solar minima is not understood; however, the recent long and low minimum of the decadal-scale solar cycle gives some important clues, with implications for understanding the solar dynamo and predicting space weather conditions. The speed of the near-Earth solar wind and the strength of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) embedded within it can be reliably reconstructed for before the advent of spacecraft monitoring using observations of geomagnetic activity that extend back to the mid-19th century. We show that during the solar cycle minima around 1879 and 1901 the average solar wind speed was exceptionally low, implying the Earth remained within the streamer belt of slow solar wind flow for extended periods. This is consistent with a broader streamer belt, which was also a feature of the recent low minimum (2009), and yields a prediction that the low near-Earth IMF during the Maunder minimum (1640-1700), as derived from models and deduced from cosmogenic isotopes, was accompanied by a persistent and relatively constant solar wind of speed roughly half the average for the modern era.

  13. Regional variations in the health, environmental, and climate benefits of wind and solar generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siler-Evans, Kyle; Azevedo, Inês Lima; Morgan, M. Granger; Apt, Jay

    2013-01-01

    When wind or solar energy displace conventional generation, the reduction in emissions varies dramatically across the United States. Although the Southwest has the greatest solar resource, a solar panel in New Jersey displaces significantly more sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and particulate matter than a panel in Arizona, resulting in 15 times more health and environmental benefits. A wind turbine in West Virginia displaces twice as much carbon dioxide as the same turbine in California. Depending on location, we estimate that the combined health, environmental, and climate benefits from wind or solar range from $10/MWh to $100/MWh, and the sites with the highest energy output do not yield the greatest social benefits in many cases. We estimate that the social benefits from existing wind farms are roughly 60% higher than the cost of the Production Tax Credit, an important federal subsidy for wind energy. However, that same investment could achieve greater health, environmental, and climate benefits if it were differentiated by region. PMID:23798431

  14. Demonstration of short-range wind lidar in a high-performance wind tunnel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anders Tegtmeier; Montes, Belen Fernández; Pedersen, Jens Engholm

    A short-range continuous-wave coherent laser radar (lidar) has been tested in a high-performance wind tunnel for possible use as a standard component in wind tunnels. The lidar was tested in a low as well as a high speed regime ranging from 5-35 m/s and 40-75 m/s, respectively. In both low and high......-speed regimes very good correlation with reference measurements was found. Furthermore different staring directions were tested and taking a simple geometrical correction into account very good correlation was again found. These measurements all demonstrate the high accuracy of the lidar and indicate a possible...... future for short range lidars as a complement to LDA and other standard equipment in wind tunnels....

  15. Demonstration of short-range wind lidar in a high-performance wind tunnel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anders Tegtmeier; Montes, Belen Fernández; Pedersen, Jens Engholm

    2012-01-01

    A short-range continuous-wave coherent laser radar (lidar) has been tested in a high-performance wind tunnel for possible use as a standard component in wind tunnels. The lidar was tested in a low as well as a high speed regime ranging from 5-35 m/s and 40-75 m/s, respectively. In both low and high......-speed regimes very good correlation with reference measurements was found. Furthermore different staring directions were tested and taking a simple geometrical correction into account very good correlation was again found. These measurements all demonstrate the high accuracy of the lidar and indicate a possible...... future for short range lidars as a complement to LDA and other standard equipment in wind tunnels....

  16. Global kinetic hybrid simulation for radially expanding solar wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyadechkin, S.; Semenov, V. S.; Kallio, E.; Erkaev, N. V.; Alho, M.; Lammer, H.

    2017-08-01

    We present the results of a 1-D global kinetic simulation of the solar wind in spherical coordinates without a magnetic field in the region from the Sun to the Earth's orbit. Protons are considered as particles while electrons are considered as a massless fluid, with a constant temperature, in order to study the relation between the hybrid and hydrodynamic solutions. It is shown that the strong electric field in the hybrid model accelerates the protons. Since the electric field in the model is related to electron pressure, each proton in the initial Maxwellian velocity distribution function moves under the same forces as in the classical Parker Solar wind model. The study shows that the hybrid model results in very similar velocity and number density distributions along the radial distance as in the Parker model. In the hybrid simulations, the proton temperature is decreased with distance in 1 order of magnitude. The effective polytropic index of the proton population slightly exceeds 1 at larger distances with the maximum value ˜1.15 in the region near the Sun. A highly non-Maxwellian type of distribution function is initially formed. Further from the Sun, a narrow beam of the escaping protons is created which does not change much in later expansion. The results of our study indicates that already a nonmagnetized global hybrid model is capable of reproducing some fundamental features of the expanding solar wind shown in the Parker model and additional kinetic effects in the solar wind.

  17. Western Wind and Solar Integration Study: Executive Summary, May 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piwko, R.; Clark, K.; Freeman, L.; Jordan, G.; Miller, N.

    2010-05-01

    This Study investigates the operational impact of up to 35% energy penetration of wind, photovoltaics (PVs), and concentrating solar power (CSP) on the power system operated by the WestConnect group of utilities in Arizona, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, and Wyoming.

  18. Livestock water pumping with wind and solar power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent developments in pumping technologies have allowed for efficient use of renewable energies like wind and solar to power new pumps for remote water pumping. A helical type, positive displacement pump was developed a few years ago and recently modified to accept input from a variable power sourc...

  19. NEMO 2 - Be aware: Wind and solar are coming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, P. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Finnish research and development is well placed with respect to new renewable energy technologies in that there exists considerable expertise in specialized areas. For example, over 20 % of all power transmission equipment and generators used in wind energy systems world-wide are manufactured in Finland, while advanced instruments for monitoring wind speed are also highly regarded internationally. Moreover, unique wind technology for complex windy and freezing conditions have been developed. Finland has a 10 % share in the European photovoltaic market, and has competitive advantages in photovoltaic systems and applications, thin film solar cells, and automated electronic controlling systems. A unique solar energy storage system based on hydrogen technology demonstrates skills on overcoming the summer-winter syndrome of large-scale solar energy utilization. The annual turnover of the Finnish industries on solar and wind energy has increased from 5 million ECU in 1988 to almost 50 million ECU in 1996. The national R and D and D from 1988 onwards has played an important role in this context. Most of the research and development into new and renewable energy technologies in Finland has been carried out through the Advanced New Energy Systems and Technologies Research Programme (NEMO2) of Tekes

  20. A Review of Hybrid Solar PV and Wind Energy System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashid Al Badwawi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to the fact that solar and wind power is intermittent and unpredictable in nature, higher penetration of their types in existing power system could cause and create high technical challenges especially to weak grids or stand-alone systems without proper and enough storage capacity. By integrating the two renewable resources into an optimum combination, the impact of the variable nature of solar and wind resources can be partially resolved and the overall system becomes more reliable and economical to run. This paper provides a review of challenges and opportunities / solutions of hybrid solar PV and wind energy integration systems. Voltage and frequency fluctuation, and harmonics are major power quality issues for both grid-connected and stand-alone systems with bigger impact in case of weak grid. This can be resolved to a large extent by having proper design, advanced fast response control facilities, and good optimization of the hybrid systems. The paper gives a review of the main research work reported in the literature with regard to optimal sizing design, power electronics topologies and control. The paper presents a review of the state of the art of both grid-connected and stand-alone hybrid solar and wind systems.

  1. Analysis of Ion Charge States in Solar Wind and CMEs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We discuss needs in dielectronic recombination data motivated by recent work directed at a quantitative understanding of ion charge states of various elements observed in situ in the solar wind and CMEs. The competing processes of ionization and recombination lead to departures from collision ionization equilibrium.

  2. Astronaut Edwin Aldrin deploying Solar Wind Composition experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., lunar module pilot, is photographed during the Apollo 11 extravehicular activity on the Moon. Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, commander, took this picture with a 70mm lunar surface camera. Aldrin has just deployed the Solar Wind Composition experiment, a component of the Early Apollo Scientific Experiments Package (EASEP).

  3. Kinetic instabilities in the solar wind driven by temperature anisotropies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Peter H.

    2017-12-01

    The present paper comprises a review of kinetic instabilities that may be operative in the solar wind, and how they influence the dynamics thereof. The review is limited to collective plasma instabilities driven by the temperature anisotropies. To limit the scope even further, the discussion is restricted to the temperature anisotropy-driven instabilities within the model of bi-Maxwellian plasma velocity distribution function. The effects of multiple particle species or the influence of field-aligned drift will not be included. The field-aligned drift or beam is particularly prominent for the solar wind electrons, and thus ignoring its effect leaves out a vast portion of important physics. Nevertheless, for the sake of limiting the scope, this effect will not be discussed. The exposition is within the context of linear and quasilinear Vlasov kinetic theories. The discussion does not cover either computer simulations or data analyses of observations, in any systematic manner, although references will be made to published works pertaining to these methods. The scientific rationale for the present analysis is that the anisotropic temperatures associated with charged particles are pervasively detected in the solar wind, and it is one of the key contemporary scientific research topics to correctly characterize how such anisotropies are generated, maintained, and regulated in the solar wind. The present article aims to provide an up-to-date theoretical development on this research topic, largely based on the author's own work.

  4. Remote Sensing of the Heliospheric Solar Wind using Radio ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    Astr. (2000) 21, 439–444. Remote Sensing of the Heliospheric Solar Wind using Radio. Astronomy Methods and Numerical Simulations. S. Ananthakrishnan, National Center for Radio Astrophysics, Tata Institute of. Fundamental Research, Pune, India. Abstract. The ground-based radio astronomy method of interplanetary.

  5. Tsallis non-extensive statistics and solar wind plasma complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlos, G. P.; Iliopoulos, A. C.; Zastenker, G. N.; Zelenyi, L. M.; Karakatsanis, L. P.; Riazantseva, M. O.; Xenakis, M. N.; Pavlos, E. G.

    2015-03-01

    This article presents novel results revealing non-equilibrium phase transition processes in the solar wind plasma during a strong shock event, which took place on 26th September 2011. Solar wind plasma is a typical case of stochastic spatiotemporal distribution of physical state variables such as force fields (B → , E →) and matter fields (particle and current densities or bulk plasma distributions). This study shows clearly the non-extensive and non-Gaussian character of the solar wind plasma and the existence of multi-scale strong correlations from the microscopic to the macroscopic level. It also underlines the inefficiency of classical magneto-hydro-dynamic (MHD) or plasma statistical theories, based on the classical central limit theorem (CLT), to explain the complexity of the solar wind dynamics, since these theories include smooth and differentiable spatial-temporal functions (MHD theory) or Gaussian statistics (Boltzmann-Maxwell statistical mechanics). On the contrary, the results of this study indicate the presence of non-Gaussian non-extensive statistics with heavy tails probability distribution functions, which are related to the q-extension of CLT. Finally, the results of this study can be understood in the framework of modern theoretical concepts such as non-extensive statistical mechanics (Tsallis, 2009), fractal topology (Zelenyi and Milovanov, 2004), turbulence theory (Frisch, 1996), strange dynamics (Zaslavsky, 2002), percolation theory (Milovanov, 1997), anomalous diffusion theory and anomalous transport theory (Milovanov, 2001), fractional dynamics (Tarasov, 2013) and non-equilibrium phase transition theory (Chang, 1992).

  6. Economic load dispatch of wind-solar-thermal system using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Due to rise in the price of fossil fuels and technical advances in the area of renewable energy, integrated systems became more popular now a day. However uncertain nature of wind, solar irradiation due to weather and climate change, integration of renewable power generation system complicates the ELD formulation.

  7. A large ion beam device for laboratory solar wind studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulibarri, Zach; Han, Jia; Horányi, Mihály; Munsat, Tobin; Wang, Xu; Whittall-Scherfee, Guy; Yeo, Li Hsia

    2017-11-01

    The Colorado Solar Wind Experiment is a new device constructed at the Institute for Modeling Plasma, Atmospheres, and Cosmic Dust at the University of Colorado. A large cross-sectional Kaufman ion source is used to create steady state plasma flow to model the solar wind in an experimental vacuum chamber. The plasma beam has a diameter of 12 cm at the source, ion energies of up to 1 keV, and ion flows of up to 0.1 mA/cm2. Chamber pressure can be reduced to 4 × 10-5 Torr under operating conditions to suppress ion-neutral collisions and create a monoenergetic ion beam. The beam profile has been characterized by a Langmuir probe and an ion energy analyzer mounted on a two-dimensional translation stage. The beam profile meets the requirements for planned experiments that will study solar wind interaction with lunar magnetic anomalies, the charging and dynamics of dust in the solar wind, plasma wakes and refilling, and the wakes of topographic features such as craters or boulders. This article describes the technical details of the device, initial operation and beam characterization, and the planned experiments.

  8. Wind and solar energy curtailment: A review of international experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bird, Lori; Lew, Debra; Milligan, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Greater penetrations of variable renewable generation on some electric grids have resulted in increased levels of curtailment in recent years. Studies of renewable energy grid integration have found that curtailment levels may grow as the penetration of wind and solar energy generation increases....

  9. Assessment of existing studies of wind loading on solar collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, L. M.

    1981-02-01

    In developing solar collectors, wind loading is the major structural design consideration. Wind loading investigations have focused on establishing safe bounds for steady state loading and verifying rational but initial and conservative design approaches for the various solar collector concepts. As such, the effort has been very successful, and has contributed greatly to both the recognition and qualitative understanding of many of the physical phenomena involved. Loading coefficients corresponding to mean wind velocities have been derived in these prior studies to measure the expected structural loading on the various solar collectors. Current design and testing procedures for wind loading are discussed. The test results corresponding to numerous wind tests on heliostats, parabolic troughs, parabolic dishes, and field mounted photovoltaic arrays are discussed and the applicability of the findings across the various technologies is assessed. One of the most significant consistencies in the data from all the technologies is the apparent benefit provided by fences and field shielding. Taken in toto, these data show that load reductions of three or possibly more seem feasible, though a more thorough understanding of the phenomena involved must be attained before this benefit can be realized. It is recommended that the required understanding be developed to take advantage of this benefit and that field tests be conducted to correlate with both analyses and tests.

  10. Study on Pyroelectric Harvesters Integrating Solar Radiation with Wind Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Ching Hsiao

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Pyroelectric harvesters use temperature fluctuations to generate electrical outputs. Solar radiation and waste heat are rich energy sources that can be harvested. Pyroelectric energy converters offer a novel and direct energy-conversion technology by transforming time-dependent temperatures directly into electricity. Moreover, the great challenge for pyroelectric energy harvesting lies in finding promising temperature variations or an alternating thermal loading in real situations. Hence, in this article, a novel pyroelectric harvester integrating solar radiation with wind power by the pyroelectric effect is proposed. Solar radiation is a thermal source, and wind is a dynamic potential. A disk generator is used for harvesting wind power. A mechanism is considered to convert the rotary energy of the disk generator to drive a shutter for generating temperature variations in pyroelectric cells using a planetary gear system. The optimal period of the pyroelectric cells is 35 s to harvest the stored energy, about 70 μJ, while the rotary velocity of the disk generator is about 31 RPM and the wind speed is about 1 m/s. In this state, the stored energy acquired from the pyroelectric harvester is about 75% more than that from the disk generator. Although the generated energy of the proposed pyroelectric harvester is less than that of the disk generator, the pyroelectric harvester plays a complementary role when the disk generator is inactive in situations of low wind speed.

  11. Solar origins of solar wind properties during the cycle 23 solar minimum and rising phase of cycle 24

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luhmann, Janet G.; Petrie, Gordon; Riley, Pete

    2012-01-01

    The solar wind was originally envisioned using a simple dipolar corona/polar coronal hole sources picture, but modern observations and models, together with the recent unusual solar cycle minimum, have demonstrated the limitations of this picture. The solar surface fields in both polar and low-to-mid-latitude active region zones routinely produce coronal magnetic fields and related solar wind sources much more complex than a dipole. This makes low-to-mid latitude coronal holes and their associated streamer boundaries major contributors to what is observed in the ecliptic and affects the Earth. In this paper we use magnetogram-based coronal field models to describe the conditions that prevailed in the corona from the decline of cycle 23 into the rising phase of cycle 24. The results emphasize the need for adopting new views of what is ‘typical’ solar wind, even when the Sun is relatively inactive. PMID:25685422

  12. Energy Cascade Rate in Compressible Fast and Slow Solar Wind Turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadid, L. Z.; Sahraoui, F.; Galtier, S., E-mail: lina.hadid@lpp.polytechnique.fr [LPP, CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique, UPMC Univ Paris 06, Univ. Paris-Sud, Observatoire de Paris, Université Paris-Saclay, Sorbonne Universités, PSL Research University, F-91128 Palaiseau (France)

    2017-03-20

    Estimation of the energy cascade rate in the inertial range of solar wind turbulence has been done so far mostly within incompressible magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) theory. Here, we go beyond that approximation to include plasma compressibility using a reduced form of a recently derived exact law for compressible, isothermal MHD turbulence. Using in situ data from the THEMIS / ARTEMIS spacecraft in the fast and slow solar wind, we investigate in detail the role of the compressible fluctuations in modifying the energy cascade rate with respect to the prediction of the incompressible MHD model. In particular, we found that the energy cascade rate (1) is amplified particularly in the slow solar wind; (2) exhibits weaker fluctuations in spatial scales, which leads to a broader inertial range than the previous reported ones; (3) has a power-law scaling with the turbulent Mach number; (4) has a lower level of spatial anisotropy. Other features of solar wind turbulence are discussed along with their comparison with previous studies that used incompressible or heuristic (nonexact) compressible MHD models.

  13. Energy Cascade Rate in Compressible Fast and Slow Solar Wind Turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadid, L. Z.; Sahraoui, F.; Galtier, S.

    2017-03-01

    Estimation of the energy cascade rate in the inertial range of solar wind turbulence has been done so far mostly within incompressible magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) theory. Here, we go beyond that approximation to include plasma compressibility using a reduced form of a recently derived exact law for compressible, isothermal MHD turbulence. Using in situ data from the THEMIS/ARTEMIS spacecraft in the fast and slow solar wind, we investigate in detail the role of the compressible fluctuations in modifying the energy cascade rate with respect to the prediction of the incompressible MHD model. In particular, we found that the energy cascade rate (1) is amplified particularly in the slow solar wind; (2) exhibits weaker fluctuations in spatial scales, which leads to a broader inertial range than the previous reported ones; (3) has a power-law scaling with the turbulent Mach number; (4) has a lower level of spatial anisotropy. Other features of solar wind turbulence are discussed along with their comparison with previous studies that used incompressible or heuristic (nonexact) compressible MHD models.

  14. Magnetic Reconnection and Intermittent Turbulence in the Solar Wind

    CERN Document Server

    Osman, K T; Gosling, J T; Greco, A; Servidio, S; Hnat, B; Chapman, S C; Phan, T D

    2014-01-01

    A statistical relationship between magnetic reconnection, current sheets and intermittent turbulence in the solar wind is reported for the first time using in-situ measurements from the Wind spacecraft at 1 AU. We identify intermittency as non-Gaussian fluctuations in increments of the magnetic field vector, $\\mathbf{B}$, that are spatially and temporally non-uniform. The reconnection events and current sheets are found to be concentrated in intervals of intermittent turbulence, identified using the partial variance of increments method: within the most non-Gaussian 1% of fluctuations in $\\mathbf{B}$, we find 87%-92% of reconnection exhausts and $\\sim$9% of current sheets. Also, the likelihood that an identified current sheet will also correspond to a reconnection exhaust increases dramatically as the least intermittent fluctuations are removed from the dataset. Hence, the turbulent solar wind contains a hierarchy of intermittent magnetic field structures that are increasingly linked to current sheets, which ...

  15. Sustainable business models for wind and solar energy in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nichifor Maria Alexandra

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy has become a crucial element for the business environment as the need for new energy resources and the degree of climate change are increasing. As developed economies strive towards greater progress, sustainable business models are of the essence in order to maintain a balance between the triple bottom line: people, planet and profit. In recent years, European Union countries have installed important capacities of renewable energy, especially wind and solar energy to achieve this purpose. The objective of this article is to make a comparative study between the current sustainable business models implemented in companies that are active in the wind and solar energy sector in Romania. Both sectors underwent tremendous changes in the last two years due to changing support schemes which have had a significant influence on the mechanism of the renewable energy market, as well as on its development. Using the classical Delphi method, based on questionnaires and interviews with experts in the fields of wind and solar energy, this paper offers an overview of the sustainable business models of wind and solar energy companies, both sectors opting for the alternative of selling electricity to trading companies as a main source of revenue until 2013 and as the main future trend until 2020. Furthermore, the participating wind energy companies noted a pessimistic outlook of future investments due to legal instability that made them to reduce their projects in comparison to PV investments, which are expected to continue. The subject of the article is of interest to scientific literature because sustainable business models in wind and photovoltaic energy have been scarcely researched in previous articles and are essential in understanding the activity of the companies in these two fields of renewable energy.

  16. Data Assimilation in the Solar Wind: Challenges and First Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Matthew; Browne, Philip; van Leeuwen, Peter Jan; Owens, Mathew

    2017-11-01

    Data assimilation (DA) is used extensively in numerical weather prediction (NWP) to improve forecast skill. Indeed, improvements in forecast skill in NWP models over the past 30 years have directly coincided with improvements in DA schemes. At present, due to data availability and technical challenges, DA is underused in space weather applications, particularly for solar wind prediction. This paper investigates the potential of advanced DA methods currently used in operational NWP centers to improve solar wind prediction. To develop the technical capability, as well as quantify the potential benefit, twin experiments are conducted to assess the performance of the Local Ensemble Transform Kalman Filter (LETKF) in the solar wind model ENLIL. Boundary conditions are provided by the Wang-Sheeley-Arge coronal model and synthetic observations of density, temperature, and momentum generated every 4.5 h at 0.6 AU. While in situ spacecraft observations are unlikely to be routinely available at 0.6 AU, these techniques can be applied to remote sensing of the solar wind, such as with Heliospheric Imagers or interplanetary scintillation. The LETKF can be seen to improve the state at the observation location and advect that improvement toward the Earth, leading to an improvement in forecast skill in near-Earth space for both the observed and unobserved variables. However, sharp gradients caused by the analysis of a single observation in space resulted in artificial wavelike structures being advected toward Earth. This paper is the first attempt to apply DA to solar wind prediction and provides the first in-depth analysis of the challenges and potential solutions.

  17. Introducing log-kappa distributions for solar wind analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitner, Martin; Vörös, Zolan Z.; Leubner, Manfred P.

    2010-05-01

    The one-point probability density functions (PDFs) obtained from the Wind spacecraft observations of the magnitude of total magnetic field (B) and the solar wind quasi-invariant (QI) are investigated at 1 AU during the years 1995 and 1998. It is known from previous studies that the distributions follow in a rather good approximation a lognormal distribution. This indicates that the underlying random multiplicative processes are skewed, the PDFs are nonsymmetric. The concept of kappa distributions generating PDF tails closer to the observed values is introduced. The skewness, characteristic for the multiplicative processes in the solar wind, is treated on the basis of log-kappa distributions, introduced here for the first time. Normal and lognormal distributions are related in a similar way to each other as the kappa and log-kappa distributions, although the statistics is based on extensive physics in the former and nonextensive physics in the latter cases. We show hat log-kappa PDFs describe the observed distributions in the solar wind more accurately than the lognormal PDFs. In particular, the tails of PDFs corresponding to extreme values of the considered parameters B and QI are better modeled in terms of the nonextensive approach. It indicates that, for the theoretical explanation of the complexity of multisource fluctuations present in 1 year solar wind magnetic and plasma data, both the extensive and the nonextensive physical escription is needed. The variation of the values of kappa obtained from the log-kappa fits can serve as a quantitative measure describing the changing balance between these two distinct physical processes during the solar cycle.

  18. Solar wind stream interaction regions throughout the heliosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Ian G.

    2018-01-01

    This paper focuses on the interactions between the fast solar wind from coronal holes and the intervening slower solar wind, leading to the creation of stream interaction regions that corotate with the Sun and may persist for many solar rotations. Stream interaction regions have been observed near 1 AU, in the inner heliosphere (at ˜ 0.3-1 AU) by the Helios spacecraft, in the outer and distant heliosphere by the Pioneer 10 and 11 and Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft, and out of the ecliptic by Ulysses, and these observations are reviewed. Stream interaction regions accelerate energetic particles, modulate the intensity of Galactic cosmic rays and generate enhanced geomagnetic activity. The remote detection of interaction regions using interplanetary scintillation and white-light imaging, and MHD modeling of interaction regions will also be discussed.

  19. Predicting Atmospheric Ionization and Excitation by Precipitating SEP and Solar Wind Protons Measured By MAVEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolitz, Rebecca; Dong, Chuanfei; Lee, Christina; Lillis, Rob; Brain, David; Curry, Shannon; Halekas, Jasper; Bougher, Stephen W.; Jakosky, Bruce

    2017-10-01

    Precipitating energetic particles ionize and excite planetary atmospheres, increasing electron content and producing aurora. At Mars, the solar wind and solar energetic particles (SEPs) can precipitate directly into the atmosphere because solar wind protons can charge exchange to become neutral and pass the magnetosheath, and SEPs are sufficiently energetic to cross the magnetosheath unchanged. We will compare ionization and Lyman alpha emission rates for solar wind and SEP protons during nominal solar activity and a CME shock front impact event on May 16 2016. We will use the Atmospheric Scattering of Protons and Energetic Neutrals (ASPEN) model to compare excitation and ionization rates by SEPs and solar wind protons currently measured by the SWIA (Solar Wind Ion Analyzer) and SEP instruments aboard the MAVEN spacecraft. Results will help quantify how SEP and solar wind protons influence atmospheric energy deposition during solar minimum.

  20. Geo-effectiveness of Solar Wind Extremes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... However, the high speed streams below the threshold with -ve IMF are 1.1 times more effective in enhancing geomagnetic activity than those with +ve IMF. The violent solar activity period (October–November 2003) of cycle 23 presents a very special case during which many severe and strong effects were ...

  1. WSA-Enlil Solar Wind Prediction

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — WSA-Enlil is a large-scale, physics-based prediction model of the heliosphere, used by the Space Weather Forecast Office to provide 1-4 day advance warning of solar...

  2. Solar Panel Buffeted by Wind at Phoenix Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Winds were strong enough to cause about a half a centimeter (.19 inch) of motion of a solar panel on NASA's Phoenix Mars lander when the lander's Surface Stereo Imager took this picture on Aug. 31, 2008, during the 96th Martian day since landing. The lander's telltale wind gauge has been indicating wind speeds of about 4 meters per second (9 miles per hour) during late mornings at the site. These conditions were anticipated and the wind is not expected to do any harm to the lander. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  3. The solar wind in time: a change in the behaviour of older winds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Fionnagáin, D.; Vidotto, A. A.

    2018-02-01

    In the present paper, we model the wind of solar analogues at different ages to investigate the evolution of the solar wind. Recently, it has been suggested that winds of solar type stars might undergo a change in properties at old ages, whereby stars older than the Sun would be less efficient in carrying away angular momentum than what was traditionally believed. Adding to this, recent observations suggest that old solar-type stars show a break in coronal properties, with a steeper decay in X-ray luminosities and temperatures at older ages. We use these X-ray observations to constrain the thermal acceleration of winds of solar analogues. Our sample is based on the stars from the `Sun in time' project with ages between 120-7000 Myr. The break in X-ray properties leads to a break in wind mass-loss rates (\\dot{M}) at roughly 2 Gyr, with \\dot{M} (t 2 Gyr) ∝ t-3.9. This steep decay in \\dot{M} at older ages could be the reason why older stars are less efficient at carrying away angular momentum, which would explain the anomalously rapid rotation observed in older stars. We also show that none of the stars in our sample would have winds dense enough to produce thermal emission above 1-2 GHz, explaining why their radio emissions have not yet been detected. Combining our models with dynamo evolution models for the magnetic field of the Earth we find that, at early ages (≈100 Myr) our Earth had a magnetosphere that was 3 or more times smaller than its current size.

  4. Electric car with solar and wind energy may change the environment and economy: A tool for utilizing the renewable energy resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Quanhua

    2014-01-01

    Energy and environmental issues are among the most important problems of public concern. Wind and solar energy may be one of the alternative solutions to overcome energy shortage and to reduce greenhouse gaseous emission. Using electric cars in cities can significantly improve the air quality there. Through our analyses and modeling on the basis of the National Centers for Environment Prediction data we confirm that the amount of usable solar and wind energy far exceeds the world's total energy demand, considering the feasibility of the technology being used. Storing the surplus solar and wind energy and then releasing this surplus on demand is an important approach to maintaining uninterrupted solar- and wind-generated electricity. This approach requires us to be aware of the available solar and wind energy in advance in order to manage their storage. Solar and wind energy depends on weather conditions and we know weather forecasting. This implies that solar and wind energy is predictable. In this article, we demonstrate how solar and wind energy can be forecasted. We provide a web tool that can be used by all to arrive at solar and wind energy amount at any location in the world. The tool is available at http://www.renewableenergyst.org. The website also provides additional information on renewable energy, which is useful to a wide range of audiences, including students, educators, and the general public.

  5. High-time resolution measurements of solar wind heavy ions with SOHO/CELIAS/CTOF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janitzek, N. P., E-mail: janitzek@physik.uni-kiel.de; Taut, A.; Berger, L.; Drews, C.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R. F. [Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics, University of Kiel (Germany); Bochsler, P. [University of Bern, Bern (Switzerland); Klecker, B. [Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Garching (Germany)

    2016-03-25

    The Charge Time-Of-Flight (CTOF) mass spectrometer as part of the Charge, ELement and Isotope Analysis System (CELIAS) onboard the SOlar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) is designed to measure the kinetic properties and elemental/ionic composition of solar wind ions heavier than protons, which we refer to as heavy ions. This is achieved by the combined measurements of the energy-per-charge, the time-of-flight and the energy of incident ions. The CTOF instrument combines a remarkable time-of-flight resolution with a large effective area and a high measurement cadence. This allows to determine the Velocity Distribution Functions (VDFs) of a wide range of heavy ions with 5-minute time resolution which ensures that the complete VDF is measured under nearly identical solar wind and magnetic field conditions. For the measurement period between Day Of Year (DOY) 150 and 220 in 1996, which covers a large part of the instrument’s short life time, we analyzed VDFs of solar wind iron Fe{sup 8+}, Fe{sup 9+} and Fe{sup 10+} for differential streaming relative to the solar wind proton speed measured simultaneously with the CELIAS Proton Monitor (PM). We find an increasing differential streaming with increasing solar wind proton speed for all investigated ions up to ion-proton velocity differences of 30 - 50 km s{sup −1} at proton velocities of 500 km s{sup −1}, which is contradictory to an earlier CTOF study by [7]. We believe this difference is because in this study we used raw Pulse Height Analysis (PHA) data with a significantly increased mass and mass-per-charge resolution compared to the earlier used onboard preprocessed data.

  6. Simulation and optimum design of hybrid solar-wind and solar-wind-diesel power generation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei

    Solar and wind energy systems are considered as promising power generating sources due to its availability and topological advantages in local power generations. However, a drawback, common to solar and wind options, is their unpredictable nature and dependence on weather changes, both of these energy systems would have to be oversized to make them completely reliable. Fortunately, the problems caused by variable nature of these resources can be partially overcome by integrating these two resources in a proper combination to form a hybrid system. However, with the increased complexity in comparison with single energy systems, optimum design of hybrid system becomes more complicated. In order to efficiently and economically utilize the renewable energy resources, one optimal sizing method is necessary. This thesis developed an optimal sizing method to find the global optimum configuration of stand-alone hybrid (both solar-wind and solar-wind-diesel) power generation systems. By using Genetic Algorithm (GA), the optimal sizing method was developed to calculate the system optimum configuration which offers to guarantee the lowest investment with full use of the PV array, wind turbine and battery bank. For the hybrid solar-wind system, the optimal sizing method is developed based on the Loss of Power Supply Probability (LPSP) and the Annualized Cost of System (ACS) concepts. The optimization procedure aims to find the configuration that yields the best compromise between the two considered objectives: LPSP and ACS. The decision variables, which need to be optimized in the optimization process, are the PV module capacity, wind turbine capacity, battery capacity, PV module slope angle and wind turbine installation height. For the hybrid solar-wind-diesel system, minimization of the system cost is achieved not only by selecting an appropriate system configuration, but also by finding a suitable control strategy (starting and stopping point) of the diesel generator. The

  7. Invited article: Electric solar wind sail: toward test missions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janhunen, P; Toivanen, P K; Polkko, J; Merikallio, S; Salminen, P; Haeggström, E; Seppänen, H; Kurppa, R; Ukkonen, J; Kiprich, S; Thornell, G; Kratz, H; Richter, L; Krömer, O; Rosta, R; Noorma, M; Envall, J; Lätt, S; Mengali, G; Quarta, A A; Koivisto, H; Tarvainen, O; Kalvas, T; Kauppinen, J; Nuottajärvi, A; Obraztsov, A

    2010-11-01

    The electric solar wind sail (E-sail) is a space propulsion concept that uses the natural solar wind dynamic pressure for producing spacecraft thrust. In its baseline form, the E-sail consists of a number of long, thin, conducting, and centrifugally stretched tethers, which are kept in a high positive potential by an onboard electron gun. The concept gains its efficiency from the fact that the effective sail area, i.e., the potential structure of the tethers, can be millions of times larger than the physical area of the thin tethers wires, which offsets the fact that the dynamic pressure of the solar wind is very weak. Indeed, according to the most recent published estimates, an E-sail of 1 N thrust and 100 kg mass could be built in the rather near future, providing a revolutionary level of propulsive performance (specific acceleration) for travel in the solar system. Here we give a review of the ongoing technical development work of the E-sail, covering tether construction, overall mechanical design alternatives, guidance and navigation strategies, and dynamical and orbital simulations.

  8. Blob formation and acceleration in the solar wind: role of converging flows and viscosity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Lapenta

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of viscosity and of converging flows on the formation of blobs in the slow solar wind is analysed by means of resistive MHD simulations. The regions above coronal streamers where blobs are formed (Sheeley et al., 1997 are simulated using a model previously proposed by Einaudi et al. (1999. The result of our investigation is two-fold. First, we demonstrate a new mechanism for enhanced momentum transfer between a forming blob and the fast solar wind surrounding it. The effect is caused by the longer range of the electric field caused by the tearing instability forming the blob. The electric field reaches into the fast solar wind and interacts with it, causing a viscous drag that is global in nature rather than local across fluid layers as it is the case in normal uncharged fluids (like water. Second, the presence of a magnetic cusp at the tip of a coronal helmet streamer causes a converging of the flows on the two sides of the streamer and a direct push of the forming island by the fast solar wind, resulting in a more efficient momentum exchange.

  9. Anorthite sputtering by H+ and Arq+ (q = 1-9) at solar wind velocities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hijazi, H.; Bannister, M. E.; Meyer, H. M.; Rouleau, C. M.; Barghouty, A. F.; Rickman, D. L.; Meyer, F. W.

    2014-10-01

    We report sputtering measurements of anorthite-like material, taken to be representative of soils found in the lunar highlands, impacted by singly and multicharged ions representative of the solar wind. The ions investigated include protons, as well as singly and multicharged Ar ions (as proxies for the nonreactive heavy solar wind constituents), in the charge state range +1 to +9, at fixed solar wind-relevant impact velocities of 165 and 310 km/s (0.25 keV/amu and 0.5 keV/amu). A quartz microbalance approach (QCM) for determination of total sputtering yields was used. The goal of the measurements was to determine the sputtering contribution of the heavy, multicharged minority solar wind constituents in comparison to that due to the dominant H+ fraction. The QCM results show a yield increase of a factor of about 80 for Ar+ versus H+ sputtering and an enhancement by a factor of 1.67 between Ar9+ and Ar+, which is a clear indication of a potential sputtering effect.

  10. Dependence of thermospheric zonal winds on solar flux, geomagnetic activity, and hemisphere as measured by CHAMP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaofang; Liu, Libo; Liu, Songtao

    2017-08-01

    The thermospheric zonal winds measured by the CHAllenging Minisatellite Payload (CHAMP) satellite are used to statistically determine the climatology under quiet and active geomagnetic conditions. By collectively analyzing the bin-averaged wind trend with F10.7 and the solar-induced difference in wind structures, the solar flux dependence of global thermosphere zonal wind is determined. The increase of solar flux enhances the eastward winds at low latitudes from dusk to midnight. The increased ion drag reduces the nighttime eastward wind in the subauroral latitudes, and the daytime westward winds from 06 to 08 MLT at all latitudes decrease with increasing solar flux. Zonal winds show coupled seasonal/extreme ultraviolet (EUV) dependency. The equatorial zonal winds from 18 to 04 magnetic local time (MLT) indicate weaker eastward winds during the June solstice at high solar flux levels. Quiet time eastward winds at subauroral latitudes from 16 to 20 MLT are further decreased in the winter hemisphere. Influenced by asymmetries in solar illumination and the magnetic field, zonal winds show hemispheric asymmetries. Quiet daytime winds are additionally influenced by solar illumination effects, and the westward winds at the middle and subauroral latitudes are always stronger in the summer. The nighttime eastward winds are higher in the winter hemisphere during the solstices, as in the Southern Hemisphere during equinoxes, with the winter-summer asymmetry lessened or receding at the solar maxima. Storm-induced subauroral westward disturbance winds are higher in the summer hemisphere and in the Northern Hemisphere during equinoxes. At a high level of solar flux, the westward disturbance winds are comparable in the two hemispheres during December solstice. Geomagnetic disturbance wind observations from CHAMP agree well with the empirical geomagnetic disturbance wind model, except for stronger subauroral westward jets. Westward winds during the afternoon may be enhanced in

  11. Linear prediction studies for the solar wind and Saturn kilometric radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Taubenschuss

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The external control of Saturn kilometric radiation (SKR by the solar wind has been investigated in the frame of the Linear Prediction Theory (LPT. The LPT establishes a linear filter function on the basis of correlations between input signals, i.e. time profiles for solar wind parameters, and output signals, i.e. time profiles for SKR intensity. Three different experiments onboard the Cassini spacecraft (RPWS, MAG and CAPS yield appropriate data sets for compiling the various input and output signals. The time period investigated ranges from DOY 202 to 326, 2004 and is only limited due to limited availability of CAPS plasma data for the solar wind. During this time Cassini was positioned mainly on the morning side on its orbit around Saturn at low southern latitudes. Four basic solar wind quantities have been found to exert a clear influence on the SKR intensity profile. These quantities are: the solar wind bulk velocity, the solar wind ram pressure, the magnetic field strength of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF and the y-component of the IMF. All four inputs exhibit nearly the same level of efficiency for the linear prediction indicating that all four inputs are possible drivers for triggering SKR. Furthermore, they act at completely different lag times ranging from ~13 h for the ram pressure to ~52 h for the bulk velocity. The lag time for the magnetic field strength is usually beyond ~40 h and the lag time for the y-component of the magnetic field is located around 30 h. Considering that all four solar wind quantities are interrelated in a corotating interaction region, only the influence of the ram pressure seems to be of reasonable relevance. An increase in ram pressure causes a substantial compression of Saturn's magnetosphere leading to tail collapse, injection of hot plasma from the tail into the outer magnetosphere and finally to an intensification of auroral dynamics and SKR emission. So, after the onset of magnetospheric

  12. Linear prediction studies for the solar wind and Saturn kilometric radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Taubenschuss

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The external control of Saturn kilometric radiation (SKR by the solar wind has been investigated in the frame of the Linear Prediction Theory (LPT. The LPT establishes a linear filter function on the basis of correlations between input signals, i.e. time profiles for solar wind parameters, and output signals, i.e. time profiles for SKR intensity. Three different experiments onboard the Cassini spacecraft (RPWS, MAG and CAPS yield appropriate data sets for compiling the various input and output signals. The time period investigated ranges from DOY 202 to 326, 2004 and is only limited due to limited availability of CAPS plasma data for the solar wind. During this time Cassini was positioned mainly on the morning side on its orbit around Saturn at low southern latitudes. Four basic solar wind quantities have been found to exert a clear influence on the SKR intensity profile. These quantities are: the solar wind bulk velocity, the solar wind ram pressure, the magnetic field strength of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF and the y-component of the IMF. All four inputs exhibit nearly the same level of efficiency for the linear prediction indicating that all four inputs are possible drivers for triggering SKR. Furthermore, they act at completely different lag times ranging from ~13 h for the ram pressure to ~52 h for the bulk velocity. The lag time for the magnetic field strength is usually beyond ~40 h and the lag time for the y-component of the magnetic field is located around 30 h. Considering that all four solar wind quantities are interrelated in a corotating interaction region, only the influence of the ram pressure seems to be of reasonable relevance. An increase in ram pressure causes a substantial compression of Saturn's magnetosphere leading to tail collapse, injection of hot plasma from the tail into the outer magnetosphere and finally to an intensification of auroral dynamics and SKR emission. So, after the onset of magnetospheric

  13. Western Wind and Solar Integration Study: Hydropower Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acker, T.; Pete, C.

    2012-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) study of 20% Wind Energy by 2030 was conducted to consider the benefits, challenges, and costs associated with sourcing 20% of U.S. energy consumption from wind power by 2030. This study found that with proactive measures, no insurmountable barriers were identified to meet the 20% goal. Following this study, DOE and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) conducted two more studies: the Eastern Wind Integration and Transmission Study (EWITS) covering the eastern portion of the U.S., and the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS) covering the western portion of the United States. The WWSIS was conducted by NREL and research partner General Electric (GE) in order to provide insight into the costs, technical or physical barriers, and operational impacts caused by the variability and uncertainty of wind, photovoltaic, and concentrated solar power when employed to serve up to 35% of the load energy in the WestConnect region (Arizona, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, and Wyoming). WestConnect is composed of several utility companies working collaboratively to assess stakeholder and market needs to and develop cost-effective improvements to the western wholesale electricity market. Participants include the Arizona Public Service, El Paso Electric Company, NV Energy, Public Service of New Mexico, Salt River Project, Tri-State Generation and Transmission Cooperative, Tucson Electric Power, Xcel Energy and the Western Area Power Administration.

  14. Implementation Strategy for a Global Solar and Wind Atlas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-01-15

    In July 2009, Major Economies Forum leaders met to prepare for the COP 15 Copenhagen Conference that took place later that year. At this occasion the Major Economies Forum Global Partnership f or low carbon and climate-friendly technology was founded and Technology Action Plans (TAPs) for ten key low-carbon technologies were drafted. At that juncture Denmark, Germany and Spain took on the responsibility for drafting TAPs for Solar and Wind Energy Technologies. The TAPs were then consolidated and presented at COP 15 that would later take place in December in Copenhagen. Since then, countries that led the development of the Action Plans have started their implementation. During a first Clean Energy Ministerial (CEM) in July 2010 in Washington on the invitation of Steven Chu, US Secretary of Energy, several initiatives were launched. Denmark, Germany and Spain took the lead in the implementation of the TAPs for Solar and Wind Technologies and initiated the Multilateral Working Group on Solar and Wind Energy Technologies (MWGSW). Several countries joined the working group in Washington and afterwards. In two international workshops in Bonn (June 2010) and Madrid (November 2010) and in meetings during the first CEM in Washington (July 2010) and the second CEM in Abu Dhabi (April 2011) the Multilateral Working Group made substantial progress in the two initial fields of action: (1) the Development of a Global Solar and Wind Atlas; and (2) the Development of a Long-term Strategy on Joint Capacity Building. Discussion papers on the respective topics were elaborated involving the Working Group's member countries as well as various international institutions. This led to concrete proposals for several pilot activities in both fields of action. After further specifying key elements of the suggested projects in two expert workshops in spring 2011, the Multilateral Working Group convened for a third international workshop in Copenhagen, Denmark, to discuss the project

  15. Sheath-limited unipolar induction in the solar wind. [plasma interactions with solar system bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srnka, L. J.

    1975-01-01

    A model of the steady-state interaction between the solar wind and an electrically conducting body having neither an atmosphere nor an intrinsic magnetic field sufficient enough to deflect the plasma flow is presented which considers some effects of a plasma surface sheath on unipolar induction. The Sonett-Colburn (1967, 1968) unipolar dynamo model is reviewed, and it is noted that the unipolar dynamo response of an electrically conducting body in the solar wind's motional field can be controlled by sheath effects in certain cases where the body radius is less than a certain critical value. It is shown that sheath effects do not limit the unipolar response of the moon or Mercury since their body radii are much larger than their critical radii. Sheath effects are also considered for asteroids, the Martian satellites, the irregular Jovian satellites, the outer satellites of Saturn, and meteorite parent bodies in a primordial enhanced solar wind.

  16. Scaling properties of intermittent solar wind turbulence and their solar cycle dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hnat, B.; Chapman, S. C.; Rowlands, G.

    Quantifying the properties of solar wind turbulence is important for our understanding of the fundamentals of MHD turbulence the evolution of the solar wind and for the propagation of energetic particles A hallmark of turbulence is scaling in statistical measures of fluctuations in the flow In data this is quantified by testing for scaling in the Probability Density Functions PDF of fluctuations either directly or via structure function analysis Comparisons can then be made at least in principle with turbulence phenomenologies Having determined the scaling exponents from the data we can also derive a Fokker-Planck model along with the associated Langevin equation- this provides a stochastic dynamical equation for the fluctuations in the time series of in- situ plasma parameters Differences in the scaling exponents found for different plasma parameters constructed to more closely track distinct phenomenologies Alvenic or compressive may reflect both local and nonlocal processes with implications for our understanding of the evolving solar wind

  17. Solar Rotational Periodicities and the Semiannual Variation in the Solar Wind, Radiation Belt, and Aurora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Barbara A.; Richardson, Ian G.; Evans, David S.; Rich, Frederick J.; Wilson, Gordon R.

    2011-01-01

    The behavior of a number of solar wind, radiation belt, auroral and geomagnetic parameters is examined during the recent extended solar minimum and previous solar cycles, covering the period from January 1972 to July 2010. This period includes most of the solar minimum between Cycles 23 and 24, which was more extended than recent solar minima, with historically low values of most of these parameters in 2009. Solar rotational periodicities from S to 27 days were found from daily averages over 81 days for the parameters. There were very strong 9-day periodicities in many variables in 2005 -2008, triggered by recurring corotating high-speed streams (HSS). All rotational amplitudes were relatively large in the descending and early minimum phases of the solar cycle, when HSS are the predominant solar wind structures. There were minima in the amplitudes of all solar rotational periodicities near the end of each solar minimum, as well as at the start of the reversal of the solar magnetic field polarity at solar maximum (approx.1980, approx.1990, and approx. 2001) when the occurrence frequency of HSS is relatively low. Semiannual equinoctial periodicities, which were relatively strong in the 1995-1997 solar minimum, were found to be primarily the result of the changing amplitudes of the 13.5- and 27-day periodicities, where 13.5-day amplitudes were better correlated with heliospheric daily observations and 27-day amplitudes correlated better with Earth-based daily observations. The equinoctial rotational amplitudes of the Earth-based parameters were probably enhanced by a combination of the Russell-McPherron effect and a reduction in the solar wind-magnetosphere coupling efficiency during solstices. The rotational amplitudes were cross-correlated with each other, where the 27 -day amplitudes showed some of the weakest cross-correlations. The rotational amplitudes of the > 2 MeV radiation belt electron number fluxes were progressively weaker from 27- to 5-day periods

  18. Bibliometric Analysis of International Collaboration in Wind and Solar Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ichiro Sakata

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Modern technology is increasingly complex and demands an ever-widening range of knowledge and skills. No single country will possess all the knowledge and skills required for addressing global issues such as climate change. Technology collaboration between leading countries is important to promptly and efficiently address the problem. Previous studies have shown that a high level of collaboration is correlated with high paper productivity. This paper first aims to use objective data and create maps that enable us to see both the distribution of worldwide research competency and the relationship of international collaboration in clean energy research. In the international research network of wind power and solar cell, 4,189 institutions located in 121 countries and 6,600 institutions located in 125 countries are included respectively. This paper discusses various factors that would have an impact on research capability and support strong international relationships. With respect to research capability, governmental policies, stability of governmental commitment, natural conditions and historical and institutional differences have a significant impact on it. For research collaborations, factors such as geographical proximity, international science and technology policy, and developmental stage of technology have been brought to attention. This study demonstrates that bibliometrics is a methodology that is capable of providing a knowledge base that is useful in the development of the international science and technology policy and technological management strategy.

  19. Solar winds surfs waves in the Sun's atmosphere!

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-07-01

    The fact that this electrified plasma speeds up to almost 3 million kilometres per hour as it leaves the Sun - twice as fast as originally predicted - has been known for years. The interpretation of how it happens is the real and surprising novelty: "The waves in the Sun's atmosphere are produced by vibrating solar magnetic field lines, which give solar wind particles a push just like an ocean wave gives a surfer a ride" said Dr John Kohl, principal investigator for the Ultraviolet Coronal Spectrometer (UVCS) - the instrument among the 12 aboard SOHO which gathered the data - and for the Spartan 201 mission. The outermost solar atmosphere, or corona, is only seen from Earth during a total eclipse of the Sun, when it appears as a shimmering, white veil surrounding the black lunar disc. The corona is an extremely tenuous, electrically charged gas, known as plasma, that flows throughout the solar system as the solar wind. The waves are formed by rapidly vibrating magnetic fields in the coronal plasma. They are called magneto - hydro - dynamic (MHD) waves and are believed to accelerate the solar wind. The solar wind is made up of electrons and ions, electrically charged atoms that have lost electrons. The electric charge of the solar wind particles forces them to travel along invisible lines of magnetic force in the corona. The particles spiral around the magnetic field lines as they rush into space. "The magnetic field acts like a violin string: when it's touched, it vibrates. When the Sun's magnetic field vibrates with a frequency equal to that of the particle spiraling around the magnetic field, it heats it up, producing a force that accelerates the particle upward and away from the Sun," says Dr. Ester Antonucci, an astronomer at the observatory of Turin, Italy, and co-investigator for SOHO's UVCS an instrument developed with considerable financial support by the Italian Space Agency, ASI. In a way this is similar to what happens if two people hold a string at

  20. Solar wind dependent models for the shapes of the Martian plasma boundaries based on Mars Express measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramstad, Robin; Barabash, Stas; Futaana, Yoshifumi; Holmstrom, Mats

    2016-10-01

    The long operational life (2003-) of Mars Express (MEX) has allowed the spacecraft to make plasma measurements in the Martian environment over a wide range of upstream conditions. We have analyzed ~5000 MEX orbits, covering three orders of magnitude in solar wind dynamic pressure, with data from the on-board Analyzer of Space Plasmas and Energetic Particles (ASPERA-3) package, mapping the locations where MEX crosses the main plasma boundaries; induced magnetosphere boundary (IMB), ionosphere boundary (IB) and bow shock (BS). A coincidence scheme was employed, where data from the Ion Mass Analyzer (IMA) and the Electron Spectrometer (ELS) had to agree for a positive boundary identification, which resulted in crossings from 882 orbit segments that were used to create dynamic 2-parameter (solar wind density, nsw, and velocity vsw dependent global dynamic models for the IMB, IB and BS. The modeled response is found to be individual to each boundary; the BS is stationary for all but extremely thin and slow solar wind, the IMB scales solely dependent on dynamic pressure and the IB changes morphology with different trends for nsw and vsw. We find no significant trend in IMB location with changing EUV intensities when the upstream solar wind is constrained to nominal conditions. Finally, the IMB model is used to extrapolate the solar wind stand-off distance in the ancient (0.7 Ga old) solar wind.

  1. High time resolution measurements of solar wind heavy ions with SOHO/CELIAS/CTOF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janitzek, Nils; Taut, Andreas; Berger, Lars; Drews, Christian; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F. [Christian-Albrechts-Universitaet Kiel (Germany); Bochsler, Peter [Universitaet Bern (Germany); Klecker, Berndt [MPE Garching (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    The Charge Time-Of-Flight (CTOF) mass spectrometer as one of the three main sensors of the Charge, ELement and Isotope Analysis System (CELIAS) onboard the SOlar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) is designed to measure the kinetic properties and elemental/ionic composition of solar wind ions heavier than H{sup +}, which we refer to as heavy ions. This is achieved by measuring the E/q-ratio, the time-of-flight and the energy deposit of incident ions. While CTOF was able to measure data only for a short time period from DOY 80 1996 until DOY 230 1996 due to an instrument failure, the measured data shows a remarkable time-of-flight resolution compared to similar instruments such as SWICS on ACE. In addition the CTOF measurement cycle of about 5 minutes allows the investigation of short-time variations of the solar wind composition. We performed an in-flight calibration of the CTOF sensor which includes the determination of both time-of-flight range and energy deposit range of the measured ion species at fixed E/q-ratios. The results of our calibration will allow us to infer the composition and spectra of solar wind heavy ions with high time resolution.

  2. Effective combination of solar and wind energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tripanagnostopoulos, Y.; Souliotis, M.; Makris, T. [Patras Univ. (Greece). Dept. of Physics; Chemisana, D. [Lleida Univ. (Spain)

    2010-07-01

    Hybrid photovoltaic/thermal solar energy collectors (PV/T) and small wind turbines (WT) are renewable energy systems that can supplement each other to adapt energy demand and to achieve optimal use of solar and wind energy. The PV/T/WT systems are suitable in rural and remote areas, with electricity supply from stand-alone units or mini-grid connection. The use of these subsystems can cover a great part of energy load in electricity and heat of buildings, contributing to conventional energy saving and to the protection of the environment by reducing CO{sub 2} emission. In this paper we present the experimental set-up of a suggested PV/T/WT system and the obtained results from the tested system. The results are analysed and discussed, regarding the effectiveness of system for practical application. (orig.)

  3. Save with Solar and Wind, Summer 2002 (Newsletter)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2002-07-01

    This newsletter is published by the Department of Energy's Federal Energy Management Program. It is intended for facility managers, contracting officials, energy specialists, and others involved in helping Federal agencies increase their use of cost-effective solar and wind energy systems at their facilities. Renewable energy systems ultimately save agencies money by reducing utility costs; they also help to lower the emissions associated with the use of fossil fuels. This issue describes a new strategy to achieve the Federal goal for renewable energy, as well as some new solar and wind systems installed at facilities of the Department of Defense, the U.S. Geological Survey, the U.S. Postal Service, the National Park Service, and other agencies.

  4. MHD effects of the solar wind flow around planets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. K. Biernat

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of the interaction of the solar wind with magnetized and unmagnetized planets forms a central topic of space research. Focussing on planetary magnetosheaths, we review some major developments in this field. Magnetosheath structures depend crucially on the orientation of the interplanetary magnetic field, the solar wind Alfvén Mach number, the shape of the obstacle (axisymmetric/non-axisymmetric, etc., the boundary conditions at the magnetopause (low/high magnetic shear, and the degree of thermal anisotropy of the plasma. We illustrate the cases of Earth, Jupiter and Venus. The terrestrial magnetosphere is axisymmetric and has been probed in-situ by many spacecraft. Jupiter's magnetosphere is highly non-axisymmetric. Furthermore, we study magnetohydrodynamic effects in the Venus magnetosheath.

  5. Generation of residual energy in the turbulent solar wind

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gogoberidze, G. [Centre for Fusion, Space and Astrophysics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Institute of Theoretical Physics, Ilia State University, 3/5 Cholokashvili Ave., 0162 Tbilisi (Georgia); Chapman, S. C.; Hnat, B. [Centre for Fusion, Space and Astrophysics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)

    2012-10-15

    In situ observations of the fluctuating solar wind flow show that the energy of magnetic field fluctuations always exceeds that of the kinetic energy, and therefore the difference between the kinetic and magnetic energies, known as the residual energy, is always negative. The same behaviour is found in numerical simulations of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence. We study the dynamics of the residual energy for strong, anisotropic, critically balanced magnetohydrodynamic turbulence using the eddy damped quasi-normal Markovian approximation. Our analysis shows that for stationary critically balanced magnetohydrodynamic turbulence, negative residual energy will always be generated by nonlinear interacting Alfven waves. This offers a general explanation for the observation of negative residual energy in solar wind turbulence and in the numerical simulations.

  6. Generation of residual energy in the turbulent solar wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogoberidze, G.; Chapman, S. C.; Hnat, B.

    2012-10-01

    In situ observations of the fluctuating solar wind flow show that the energy of magnetic field fluctuations always exceeds that of the kinetic energy, and therefore the difference between the kinetic and magnetic energies, known as the residual energy, is always negative. The same behaviour is found in numerical simulations of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence. We study the dynamics of the residual energy for strong, anisotropic, critically balanced magnetohydrodynamic turbulence using the eddy damped quasi-normal Markovian approximation. Our analysis shows that for stationary critically balanced magnetohydrodynamic turbulence, negative residual energy will always be generated by nonlinear interacting Alfvén waves. This offers a general explanation for the observation of negative residual energy in solar wind turbulence and in the numerical simulations.

  7. Third-Moment Studies of Cascade Dynamics in Solar Wind Turbulence (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C. W.; Stawarz, J. E.; Vasquez, B. J.; Forman, M. A.; MacBride, B. T.

    2010-12-01

    Kolmogorov [1941] and Yaglom [1949] showed that the incompressible hydrodynamic equations governing fluid turbulence could be manipulated to yield a rigorous third-order structure function expression for the energy cascade at inertial range scales. In that derivation the structure function scales linearly with separation distance and the proportionality constant is a factor of the energy cascade rate. For decades it has been argued that the most commonly studied spatial scales for magnetic and velocity fluctuations in the solar wind form an inertial range in an MHD analogy to hydrodynamic turbulence. Politano and Pouquet [1998a,b] and Podesta [2008] derived third-moment expressions for the inertial range cascade in MHD in direct analogy with the earlier hydrodynamic results. We have been exploring the use of these expressions for both isotropic and anisotropic solar wind turbulence [MacBride 2005, 2008; Stawarz 2009, 2010; Smith 2009, 2010; Forman 2010a,b] and find (1) the measured third moments do scale linearly with separation and (2) the resulting estimate for the energy cascade rate accurately account for the energy cascade budget required for turbulence to heat the solar wind. In addition, the anisotropic formalism shows preferential cascade perpendicular to the mean magnetic field. Recent results show the unexpected backward transfer of energy associated with the dominant outward-propagating component when the cross-helicity is large. The latter behavior is thought to exist over only a limited range of heliocentric distances forming a transient turbulent dynamic near 1 AU. We will include some important comments about the need to monitor convergence and error analyses when using solar wind data. Kolmogorov, 1941, Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR, 32, 16. Forman, et al., 2010a, Physical Review Letters, 104, 189001. Forman, et al., 2010b, Solar Wind 12, 176. MacBride, et al., 2005, Solar Wind 11, 613. MacBride, et al., 2008, The Astrophysical Journal, 679, 1644. Podesta

  8. Velocity fluctuations in polar solar wind: a comparison between different solar cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Bavassano

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The polar solar wind is a fast, tenuous and steady flow that, with the exception of a relatively short phase around the Sun's activity maximum, fills the high-latitude heliosphere. The polar wind properties have been extensively investigated by Ulysses, the first spacecraft able to perform in-situ measurements in the high-latitude heliosphere. The out-of-ecliptic phases of Ulysses cover about seventeen years. This makes possible to study heliospheric properties at high latitudes in different solar cycles. In the present investigation we focus on hourly- to daily-scale fluctuations of the polar wind velocity. Though the polar wind is a quite uniform flow, fluctuations in its velocity do not appear negligible. A simple way to characterize wind velocity variations is that of performing a multi-scale statistical analysis of the wind velocity differences. Our analysis is based on the computation of velocity differences at different time lags and the evaluation of statistical quantities (mean, standard deviation, skewness, and kurtosis for the different ensembles. The results clearly show that, though differences exist in the three-dimensional structure of the heliosphere between the investigated solar cycles, the velocity fluctuations in the core of polar coronal holes exhibit essentially unchanged statistical properties.

  9. A desalination plant with solar and wind energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H.; Ye, Z.; Gao, W.

    2013-12-01

    The shortage of freshwater resources has become a worldwide problem. China has a water shortage, although the total amount of water resources is the sixth in the world, the per capita water capacity is the 121th (a quarter of the world's per capita water capacity), and the United Nations considers China one of the poorest 13 countries in the world in terms of water. In order to increase the supply of fresh water, a realistic way is to make full use of China's long and narrow coastline for seawater desalination. This paper discusses a sea water desalination device, the device adopts distillation, uses the greenhouse effect principle and wind power heating principle, and the two-type start is used to solve the problem of vertical axis wind turbine self-starting. Thrust bearings are used to ensure the stability of the device, and to ensure absorbtion of wind energy and solar energy, and to collect evaporation of water to achieve desalination. The device can absorb solar and wind energy instead of input energy, so it can be used in ship, island and many kinds of environment. Due to the comprehensive utilization of wind power and solar power, the efficiency of the device is more than other passive sea water desalting plants, the initial investment and maintenance cost is lower than active sea water desalting plant. The main part of the device cannot only be used in offshore work, but can also be used in deep sea floating work, so the device can utilise deep sea energy. In order to prove the practicability of the device, the author has carried out theory of water production calculations. According to the principle of conservation of energy, the device ais bsorbing solar and wind power, except loose lost part which is used for water temperature rise and phase transition. Assume the inflow water temperature is 20 °C, outflow water temperature is 70 °C, the energy utilization is 60%, we can know that the water production quantity is 8 kg/ m2 per hour. Comparing with the

  10. On a magnetosphere disturbed by solar wind; observations of macroelectrons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. B. Wodnicka

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional electromagnetic full kinetic particle code (a version of TRISTAN is used to study the interaction of a weakly-magnetized object with a solar wind of low density. The details of two magnetospheric processes – wave activity and energetic electrons appearing at the flanks of the magnetosphere – are presented. The results of the simulation are compared with known magnetospheric data.

  11. Substorm probabilities are best predicted from solar wind speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, P. T.; Liou, K.; Gjerloev, J. W.; Sotirelis, T.; Wing, S.; Mitchell, E. J.

    2016-08-01

    Most measures of magnetospheric activity - including auroral power (AP), magnetotail stretching, and ring current intensity - are best predicted by solar wind-magnetosphere coupling functions which approximate the frontside magnetopause merging rate. However radiation belt fluxes are best predicted by a simpler function, namely the solar wind speed, v. Since most theories of how these high energy electrons arise are associated with repeated rapid dipolarizations such as associated with substorms, this apparent discrepancy could be reconciled under the hypothesis that the frequency of substorms tracks v rather than the merging rate - despite the necessity of magnetotail flux loading prior to substorms. Here we investigate this conjecture about v and substorm probability. Specifically, a continuous list of substorm onsets compiled from SuperMAG covering January 1, 1997 through December 31, 2007 are studied. The continuity of SuperMAG data and near continuity of solar wind measurements minimize selection bias. In fact v is a much better predictor of onset probability than is the overall merging rate, with substorm odds rising sharply with v. Some loading by merging is necessary, and frontside merging does increase substorm probability, but nearly as strongly as does v taken alone. Likewise, the effects of dynamic pressure, p, are smaller than simply v taken by itself. Changes in the solar wind matter, albeit modestly. For a given level of v (or Bz), a change in v (or Bz) will increase the odds of a substorm for at least 2 h following the change. A decrease in driving elevates substorm probabilities to a greater extent than does an increase, partially supporting external triggering. Yet current v is the best single predictor of subsequently observing a substorm. These results explain why geomagnetically quiet years and active years are better characterized by low or high v (respectively) than by the distribution of merging estimators. It appears that the flow of energy

  12. Statistical Properties of Geomagnetic Activity Indices and Solar Wind Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Hee Kim

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available As the prediction of geomagnetic storms is becoming an important and practical problem, conditions in the Earth’s magnetosphere have been studied rigorously in terms of those in the interplanetary space. Another approach to space weather forecast is to deal with it as a probabilistic geomagnetic storm forecasting problem. In this study, we carry out detailed statistical analysis of solar wind parameters and geomagnetic indices examining the dependence of the distribution on the solar cycle and annual variations. Our main findings are as follows: (1 The distribution of parameters obtained via the superimposed epoch method follows the Gaussian distribution. (2 When solar activity is at its maximum the mean value of the distribution is shifted to the direction indicating the intense environment. Furthermore, the width of the distribution becomes wider at its maximum than at its minimum so that more extreme case can be expected. (3 The distribution of some certain heliospheric parameters is less sensitive to the phase of the solar cycle and annual variations. (4 The distribution of the eastward component of the interplanetary electric field BV and the solar wind driving function BV2, however, appears to be all dependent on the solar maximum/minimum, the descending/ascending phases of the solar cycle and the equinoxes/solstices. (5 The distribution of the AE index and the Dst index shares statistical features closely with BV and BV2 compared with other heliospheric parameters. In this sense, BV and BV2 are more robust proxies of the geomagnetic storm. We conclude by pointing out that our results allow us to step forward in providing the occurrence probability of geomagnetic storms for space weather and physical modeling.

  13. Solar wind-magnetosphere coupling; Proceedings of the Chapman Conference, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, Feb. 12-15, 1985

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamide, Y. (Editor); Slavin, James Arthur (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    Various papers on the coupling of the solar wind with the earth's magnetosphere are presented. The topics addressed include: geomagnetic indices and statistical methods; solar wind and magnetospheric processes, including solar wind control of the magnetosphere, dayside interaction, and solar wind disturbances and magnetospheric response; the electrodynamics of magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling, including electric fields and currents and auroras and auroral precipitation; and solar wind control of the nightside magnetosphere.

  14. Interaction of the solar wind with comets: a Rosetta perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassmeier, Karl-Heinz

    2017-07-13

    The Rosetta mission provides an unprecedented possibility to study the interaction of comets with the solar wind. As the spacecraft accompanies comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko from its very low-activity stage through its perihelion phase, the physics of mass loading is witnessed for various activity levels of the nucleus. While observations at other comets provided snapshots of the interaction region and its various plasma boundaries, Rosetta observations allow a detailed study of the temporal evolution of the innermost cometary magnetosphere. Owing to the short passage time of the solar wind through the interaction region, plasma instabilities such as ring--beam and non-gyrotropic instabilities are of less importance during the early life of the magnetosphere. Large-amplitude ultra-low-frequency (ULF) waves, the 'singing' of the comet, is probably due to a modified ion Weibel instability. This instability drives a cross-field current of implanted cometary ions unstable. The initial pick-up of these ions causes a major deflection of the solar wind protons. Proton deflection, cross-field current and the instability induce a threefold structure of the innermost interaction region with the characteristic Mach cone and Whistler wings as stationary interaction signatures as well as the ULF waves representing the dynamic aspect of the interaction.This article is part of the themed issue 'Cometary science after Rosetta'. © 2017 The Authors.

  15. Interaction of the solar wind with comets: a Rosetta perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassmeier, Karl-Heinz

    2017-05-01

    The Rosetta mission provides an unprecedented possibility to study the interaction of comets with the solar wind. As the spacecraft accompanies comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko from its very low-activity stage through its perihelion phase, the physics of mass loading is witnessed for various activity levels of the nucleus. While observations at other comets provided snapshots of the interaction region and its various plasma boundaries, Rosetta observations allow a detailed study of the temporal evolution of the innermost cometary magnetosphere. Owing to the short passage time of the solar wind through the interaction region, plasma instabilities such as ring-beam and non-gyrotropic instabilities are of less importance during the early life of the magnetosphere. Large-amplitude ultra-low-frequency (ULF) waves, the `singing' of the comet, is probably due to a modified ion Weibel instability. This instability drives a cross-field current of implanted cometary ions unstable. The initial pick-up of these ions causes a major deflection of the solar wind protons. Proton deflection, cross-field current and the instability induce a threefold structure of the innermost interaction region with the characteristic Mach cone and Whistler wings as stationary interaction signatures as well as the ULF waves representing the dynamic aspect of the interaction. This article is part of the themed issue 'Cometary science after Rosetta'.

  16. Construction of Solar-Wind-Like Magnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Dana Aaron

    2012-01-01

    Fluctuations in the solar wind fields tend to not only have velocities and magnetic fields correlated in the sense consistent with Alfven waves traveling from the Sun, but they also have the magnitude of the magnetic field remarkably constant despite their being broadband. This paper provides, for the first time, a method for constructing fields with nearly constant magnetic field, zero divergence, and with any specified power spectrum for the fluctuations of the components of the field. Every wave vector, k, is associated with two polarizations the relative phases of these can be chosen to minimize the variance of the field magnitude while retaining the\\random character of the fields. The method is applied to a case with one spatial coordinate that demonstrates good agreement with observed time series and power spectra of the magnetic field in the solar wind, as well as with the distribution of the angles of rapid changes (discontinuities), thus showing a deep connection between two seemingly unrelated issues. It is suggested that using this construction will lead to more realistic simulations of solar wind turbulence and of the propagation of energetic particles.

  17. Differential flow between solar wind protons and alpha particles: First WIND observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, J. T.; Lazarus, A. J.; Ogilvie, K. W.; Lepping, R.; Byrnes, J.

    Alpha particle and proton measurements in the solar wind made using the SWE Faraday cup detectors on the WIND spacecraft are reported. Some overall trends observed confirm past observations: the ratios of alpha particle to proton density Nα/NP, thermal speed Wα/WP, as well as the differential velocity Vα-VP (hereafter VαP) are generally correlated with bulk solar wind flow speed. The detailed WIND measurements enable us to investigate instances when the alpha-proton differences deviate from these overall general trends. Occasionally, difference velocities as large as 80 km/s were seen, with the ratio of |VαP| to the Alfvén speed VA near unity, characteristics more typical of observations at solar distances less than 1 AU. An example is presented where |Vα|-|VP| reverses sign while |VαP| stays nearly constant. Comparison of the vector velocities and the magnetic field suggests that the speed reversal is associated with a localized kink in the magnetic field. Finally we show an instance where |VαP| exceeds the observed wave speed for Alfvénic fluctuations (Vwave=B0ΔV/ΔB) resulting in alpha particle velocity fluctuations that anti-correlate with the wave. Though this phenomenon has been previously reported in high-latitude measurements beyond 1 AU, it is shown here to also occur at 1 AU in the ecliptic.

  18. Solar wind modulation of the Martian ionosphere observed by Mars Global Surveyor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-S. Wang

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Electron density profiles in the Martian ionosphere observed by the radio occultation experiment on board Mars Global Surveyor have been analyzed to determine if the densities are influenced by the solar wind. Evidence is presented that the altitude of the maximum ionospheric electron density shows a positive correlation to the energetic proton flux in the solar wind. The solar wind modulation of the Martian ionosphere can be attributed to heating of the neutral atmosphere by the solar wind energetic proton precipitation. The modulation is observed to be most prominent at high solar zenith angles. It is argued that this is consistent with the proposed modulation mechanism.

  19. Earth's magnetosphere and outer radiation belt under sub-Alfvénic solar wind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugaz, Noé; Farrugia, Charles J; Huang, Chia-Lin; Winslow, Reka M; Spence, Harlan E; Schwadron, Nathan A

    2016-10-03

    The interaction between Earth's magnetic field and the solar wind results in the formation of a collisionless bow shock 60,000-100,000 km upstream of our planet, as long as the solar wind fast magnetosonic Mach (hereafter Mach) number exceeds unity. Here, we present one of those extremely rare instances, when the solar wind Mach number reached steady values radiation belt. This study allows us to directly observe the state of the inner magnetosphere, including the radiation belts during a type of solar wind-magnetosphere coupling which is unusual for planets in our solar system but may be common for close-in extrasolar planets.

  20. Wave-vector dependence of magnetic-turbulence spectra in the solar wind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narita, Y; Glassmeier, K-H; Sahraoui, F; Goldstein, M L

    2010-04-30

    Using four-point measurements of the Cluster spacecraft, the energy distribution was determined for magnetic field fluctuations in the solar wind directly in the three-dimensional wave-vector domain in the range |k|wave vector anisotropy is estimated with respect to directions parallel and perpendicular to the mean magnetic field, and the result suggests the dominance of quasi-two-dimensional turbulence toward smaller spatial scales.

  1. Analysis of off-grid hybrid wind turbine/solar PV water pumping systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    While many remote water pumping systems exist (e.g. mechanical windmills, solar photovoltaic , wind-electric, diesel powered), very few combine both the wind and solar energy resources to possibly improve the reliability and the performance of the system. In this paper, off-grid wind turbine (WT) a...

  2. Solar Wind Strahl Broadening by Self-Generated Plasma Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavan, J.; Vinas, A. F.; Yoon, P. H.; Ziebell, L. F.; Gaelzer, R.

    2013-01-01

    This Letter reports on the results of numerical simulations which may provide a possible explanation for the strahl broadening during quiet solar conditions. The relevant processes involved in the broadening are due to kinetic quasi-linear wave-particle interaction. Making use of static analytical electron distribution in an inhomogeneous field, it is found that self-generated electrostatic waves at the plasma frequency, i.e., Langmuir waves, are capable of scattering the strahl component, resulting in energy and pitch-angle diffusion that broadens its velocity distribution significantly. The present theoretical results provide an alternative or complementary explanation to the usual whistler diffusion scenario, suggesting that self-induced electrostatic waves at the plasma frequency might play a key role in broadening the solar wind strahl during quiet solar conditions.

  3. Common solar wind drivers behind magnetic storm - magnetospheric substorm dependency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasis, Georgios; Runge, Jakob; Daglis, Ioannis A.; Papadimitriou, Constantinos; Donner, Reik E.

    2017-04-01

    The storm-substorm relationship is one of the most controversial aspects of geospace magnetic storm dynamics and one of the unresolved topics of solar-terrestrial coupling. Here we investigate the statistical dependencies between storm and substorm indices in conjunction with multiple relevant solar wind variables with an information-theoretic causal inference approach. We find that the vertical component of the interplanetary magnetic field is the strongest driver of both storms and substorms. Importantly, this common driver explains the transfer entropy between substorms and storms found by a previous bivariate analysis. These results hold during both a year close to solar maximum (2001) and minimum (2008) and suggest that, at least based on the analyzed indices, there is no statistical evidence of a direct or indirect information transfer and, therefore, likely no physical mechanism by which substorms drive storms or vice versa.

  4. SOLAR WIND STRAHL BROADENING BY SELF-GENERATED PLASMA WAVES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavan, J.; Gaelzer, R. [UFPEL, Pelotas (Brazil); Vinas, A. F. [NASA GSFC, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Yoon, P. H. [IPST, UMD, College Park, MD (United States); Ziebell, L. F., E-mail: joel.pavan@ufpel.edu.br, E-mail: rudi@ufpel.edu.br, E-mail: adolfo.vinas@nasa.gov, E-mail: yoonp@umd.edu, E-mail: luiz.ziebell@ufrgs.br [UFRGS, Porto Alegre (Brazil)

    2013-06-01

    This Letter reports on the results of numerical simulations which may provide a possible explanation for the strahl broadening during quiet solar conditions. The relevant processes involved in the broadening are due to kinetic quasi-linear wave-particle interaction. Making use of static analytical electron distribution in an inhomogeneous field, it is found that self-generated electrostatic waves at the plasma frequency, i.e., Langmuir waves, are capable of scattering the strahl component, resulting in energy and pitch-angle diffusion that broadens its velocity distribution significantly. The present theoretical results provide an alternative or complementary explanation to the usual whistler diffusion scenario, suggesting that self-induced electrostatic waves at the plasma frequency might play a key role in broadening the solar wind strahl during quiet solar conditions.

  5. Cometary X-rays : solar wind charge exchange in cometary atmospheres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodewits, Dennis

    2007-01-01

    The interaction of the solar wind with the planets and the interstellar medium is of key importance for the evolution of our solar system. The interaction with Earth's atmosphere is best known for the northern light. In case of Mars, the interaction with the solar wind might have lead to the erosion

  6. Modeling the heating and the acceleration of the fast solar wind ion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofman, L.; Vinas, A. F.

    2014-12-01

    The solar wind is the major component of solar activity and is the variable background state for the propagating solar disturbances that affect the heliosphere and interact with planetary magnetospheres. However, the physical mechanisms of solar wind acceleration and heating are not fully understood. During periods of solar maxima streamers dominate the solar corona and the slow solar wind streams are ubiquitous in the heliosphere. The ion composition and the charge states of the solar wind streams measured in situ and are used to determine their coronal origin. The physical properties of the multi-ion solar wind plasma and turbulent wave spectra are modeled with multifluid models, while the kinetic processes that lead to solar wind ion heating by resonant waves and instabilities are modeled with 2.5 hybrid models that include the kinetic ion wave-particle interactions and ion-cyclotron wave heating processes. We will show recent results of multi-fluid and hybrid models constrained by remote sensing and in situ observations of the solar wind and discuss how this modeling approach improves understanding of the heating and acceleration processes of the solar wind.

  7. On the Relation between the In Situ Properties and the Coronal Sources of the Solar Wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, L.; Landi, E.; Lepri, S. T.; Gilbert, J. A.; Zurbuchen, T. H.; Fisk, L. A.; Raines, J. M.

    2017-09-01

    We categorize the types of solar wind using a new classification scheme based on the location of the wind’s coronal source regions in the solar atmosphere and near-solar heliosphere. We first trace the solar wind measured by ACE/SWEPAM and SWICS from 1998 to 2011 at 1 au back to a 2.5{R}{{s}} solar surface using ballistic mapping at constant proton speed; then we map them back to their magnetic footpoints on the 1{R}{{s}} solar surface via the potential field source surface (PFSS) model. Coronal structures are identified using a classification scheme based on the pixel brightness in the SOHO or STEREO EUV Carrington images. The angular distances between each mapped solar wind footpoint to the different coronal structure pixels are calculated and used as a criterion to identify the type of solar wind source region. Depending on the proximity of the solar wind footpoints to a given coronal or heliospheric structure, we classify the solar wind into six types: active region (AR), AR-boundary, quiet Sun (QS), coronal hole (CH), CH-boundary, and helmet-streamer associated wind. The in situ properties of these six types of solar winds are then examined and compared, and their solar cycle dependences are also discussed.

  8. ACE/SWICS OBSERVATIONS OF HEAVY ION DROPOUTS WITHIN THE SOLAR WIND

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weberg, Micah J. [PhD Candidate in Space and Planetary Physics, 2435 Space Research Building, 2455 Hayward Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2143, USA. (United States); Zurbuchen, Thomas H. [Professor, Space Science and Aerospace Engineering, Associate Dean for Entrepreneurship, 2429 Space Research Building, 2455 Hayward Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2143, USA. (United States); Lepri, Susan T., E-mail: mjweberg@umich.edu, E-mail: thomasz@umich.edu, E-mail: slepri@umich.edu [Associate Research Scientist, 2417 Space Research Building, 2455 Hayward Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2143, USA. (United States)

    2012-11-20

    We present the first in situ observations of heavy ion dropouts within the slow solar wind, observed for select elements ranging from helium to iron. For iron, these dropouts manifest themselves as depletions of the Fe/H ratio by factors up to {approx}25. The events often exhibit mass-dependent fractionation and are contained in slow, unsteady wind found within a few days from known stream interfaces. We propose that such dropouts are evidence of gravitational settling within large coronal loops, which later undergo interchange reconnection and become source regions of slow, unsteady wind. Previously, spectroscopic studies by Raymond et al. in 1997 (and later Feldman et al. in 1999) have yielded strong evidence for gravitational settling within these loops. However, their expected in situ signature plasma with heavy elements fractionated by mass was not observed prior to this study. Using data from the SWICS instrument on board the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE), we investigate the composition of the solar wind within these dropouts and explore long term trends over most of a solar cycle.

  9. Estimation of wind and solar resources in Mali

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badger, J.; Kamissoko, F.; Olander Rasmussen, M.; Larsen, Soeren; Guidon, N.; Boye Hansen, L.; Dewilde, L.; Alhousseini, M.; Noergaard, P.; Nygaard, I.

    2012-11-15

    The wind resource has been estimated for all of Mali at 7.5 km resolution using the KAMM/WAsP numerical wind atlas methodology. Three domains were used to cover entire country and three sets of wind classes used to capture change in large scale forcing over country. The final output includes generalized climate statistics for any location in Mali, giving wind direction and wind speed distribution. The modelled generalized climate statistics can be used directly in the WAsP software. The preliminary results show a wind resource, which is relatively low, but which under certain conditions may be economically feasible, i.e. at favourably exposed sites, giving enhanced winds, and where practical utilization is possible, given consideration to grid connection or replacement or augmentation of diesel-based electricity systems. The solar energy resource for Mali was assessed for the period between July 2008 and June 2011 using a remote sensing based estimate of the down-welling surface shortwave flux. The remote sensing estimates were adjusted on a month-by-month basis to account for seasonal differences between the remote sensing estimates and in situ data. Calibration was found to improve the coefficient of determination as well as decreasing the mean error both for the calibration and validation data. Compared to the results presented in the ''Renewable energy resources in Mali - preliminary mapping''-report that showed a tendency for underestimation compared to data from the NASA PPOWER/SSE database, the presented results show a very good agreement with the in situ data (after calibration) with no significant bias. Unfortunately, the NASA-database only contains data up until 2005, so a similar comparison could not be done for the time period analyzed in this study, although the agreement with the historic NASA data is still useful as reference. (LN)

  10. Quiet solar wind interaction with Mars over the entire solar cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, Andrey; Modolo, Ronan; Jarvinen, Riku; Barabash, Stas

    2017-04-01

    This work presents a massive statistical analysis of the ion flows in the Martian induced magnetosphere over the one solar cycle. We performed this analysis using Mars Express ion mass spectrometer data taken during 2008 - 2014 time interval. This data allows to make an enhanced study of the induced magnetosphere variations as a response of the solar activity level. Since Mars Express has no onboard magnetometer, we used the hybrid models of the Martian plasma environment to get a proper frame to make an adequate statistics of the magnetospheric response. We found that the planetary ions escape rate for the quiet solar wind time intervals do not depend on the solar activity. However the induced magnetosphere structure depends very much on the low/high solar cycle season.

  11. Turbulent Density Fluctuations and Proton Heating Rate in the Solar Wind from 9–20 R ⊙

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasikumar Raja, K.; Subramanian, Prasad; Ramesh, R.; Vourlidas, Angelos; Ingale, Madhusudan

    2017-12-01

    We obtain scatter-broadened images of the Crab Nebula at 80 MHz as it transits through the inner solar wind in 2017 and 2016 June. These images are anisotropic, with the major axis oriented perpendicular to the radially outward coronal magnetic field. Using these data, we deduce that the density modulation index (δ {N}e/{N}e) caused by turbulent density fluctuations in the solar wind ranges from 1.9× {10}-3 to 7.7× {10}-3 between 9 and 20 R ⊙. We also find that the heating rate of solar wind protons at these distances ranges from 2.2× {10}-13 to 1.0× {10}-11 {erg} {{cm}}-3 {{{s}}}-1. On two occasions, the line of sight intercepted a coronal streamer. We find that the presence of the streamer approximately doubles the thickness of the scattering screen.

  12. Electromagnetic cyclotron waves near the proton cyclotron frequency in the solar wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Lan K.; Boardsen, Scott; Moya, Pablo; Stevens, Michael; Alexander, Robert; Vinas, Adolfo

    2015-04-01

    Strong narrow-band electromagnetic waves around the proton cyclotron frequency (fpc) have been found sporadically in the solar wind from 0.3 to 0.7 AU during MESSENGER spacecraft’s cruise phase. These waves are transverse and circularly polarized, and they propagate in directions quasi-parallel to the magnetic field. The wave power decreases quadratically with heliocentric distance, faster than the trend if assuming the conservation of Poynting flux for wave packets, suggesting there is energy dissipation from the waves, which could contribute to the heating and acceleration of solar wind plasma. Although the wave frequency is a few times of fpc in the spacecraft frame, it is a fraction of fpc in the solar wind plasma frame after removing the Doppler shift effect. In this frequency range, the waves can be left-hand (LH) polarized ion cyclotron waves or right-hand (RH) polarized magnetosonic waves. Because the waves are LH or RH polarized in the spacecraft frame with otherwise nearly identical characteristics, they could be due to Doppler shift of a same type of waves or a mixture of waves with intrinsically different polarizations. Through the assistance of audification, we have studied the long-lasting wave events in 2005 using high-cadence magnetic field data from the Wind mission. Statistically, in contrast with general solar wind, the protons at these waves are distributed closer to the proton instability thresholds, while the alpha particles at these waves are distributed further away from the alpha instability thresholds. For selected events of extensive waves, the ion distribution is analyzed in detail. A mixture of temperature anisotropies for core protons, beam protons, and alpha particles, as well as proton beam drift are often found in such events. We conduct linear wave dispersion analysis using these ion moments to examine whether these waves can be explained by the local generation of kinetic instabilities such as the LH ion cyclotron, the RH

  13. Simulating the Reiner Gamma Lunar Swirl: Solar Wind Standoff Works!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deca, Jan; Divin, Andrey; Lue, Charles; Ahmadi, Tara; Horányi, Mihály

    2017-04-01

    Discovered by early astronomers during the Renaissance, the Reiner Gamma formation is a prominent lunar surface feature. Observations have shown that the tadpole-shaped albedo marking, or swirl, is co-located with one of the strongest crustal magnetic anomalies on the Moon. The region therefore presents an ideal test case to constrain the kinetic solar wind interaction with lunar magnetic anomalies and its possible consequences for lunar swirl formation. All known swirls have been associated with magnetic anomalies, but the opposite does not hold. The evolutionary scenario of the lunar albedo markings has been under debate since the Apollo era. By coupling fully kinetic simulations with a surface vector mapping model based on Kaguya and Lunar Prospector magnetic field measurements, we show that solar wind standoff is the dominant process to have formed the lunar swirls. It is an ion-electron kinetic interaction mechanism that locally prevents weathering by solar wind ions and the subsequent formation of nanophase iron. The correlation between the surface weathering process and the surface reflectance is optimal when evaluating the proton energy flux, rather than the proton density or number flux. This is an important result to characterise the primary process for surface darkening. In addition, the simulated proton reflection rate is for the first time directly compared with in-orbit flux measurements from the SARA:SWIM ion sensor onboard the Chandrayaan-1 spacecraft. The agreement is found excellent. Understanding the relation between the lunar surface albedo features and the co-located magnetic anomaly is essential for our interpretation of the Moon's geological history, space weathering, and to evaluate future lunar exploration opportunities. This work was supported in part by NASA's Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute (SSERVI): Institute for Modeling Plasmas, Atmosphere, and Cosmic Dust (IMPACT). The work by C.L. was supported by NASA grant NNX

  14. Wind Tunnel Tests of Parabolic Trough Solar Collectors: March 2001--August 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosoya, N.; Peterka, J. A.; Gee, R. C.; Kearney, D.

    2008-05-01

    Conducted extensive wind-tunnel tests on parabolic trough solar collectors to determine practical wind loads applicable to structural design for stress and deformation, and local component design for concentrator reflectors.

  15. A description of the solar wind-magnetosphere coupling based on nonlinear filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassiliadis, D.; Klimas, A. J.; Baker, D. N.; Roberts, D. A.

    1995-01-01

    A nonlinear filtering method is introduced for the study of the solar wind -- magnetosphere coupling and related to earlier linear techniques. The filters are derived from the magnetospheric state, a representation of the magnetospheric conditions in terms of a few global variables, here the auroral electrojet indices. The filters also couple to the input, a representation of the solar wind variables, here the rectified electric field. Filter-based iterative prediction of the indices has been obtained for up to 20 hours. The prediction is stable with respect to perturbations in the initial magnetospheric state; these decrease exponentially at the rate of 30/min. The performance of the method is examined for a wide range of parameters and is superior to that of other linear and nonlinear techniques. In the magnetospheric state representation the coupling is modeled as a small number of nonlinear equations under a time-dependent input.

  16. Fast and Slow Solar Wind: Energy Transfer Rate in Compressible MHD Turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadid, L.; Sahraoui, F.; Galtier, S.; Banerjee, S.

    2016-12-01

    The role of compressible fluctuations in the energy cascade in the fast and slow solar wind is investigated. A focus is put on comparing the energy cascade rates estimated using the exact laws derived for incompressible MHD turbulence [Politano and Pouquet, 1998] (PP98) and for compressible isothermal turbulence recently derived by Galtier and Banerjee, 2013 (BG13). New features are evidenced using the BG13 model in comparison with the PP98 model: i) broader inertial range (more than two decades of scales); ii) higher energy cascade rate (up to 4 times); iii) less anisotropic cascade rates (along and perpendicular to the local mean field). Furthermore, a term-by-term analysis of the compressible model emphasized the relative importance of the new flux term in the BG13 model, and provided new insight into the role played by the compressible fluctuations in the solar wind.

  17. Fast and Slow solar wind: Energy transferrate in compressible MHD trubulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadid, Lina; Sahraoui, Fouad; Galtier, Sebastien; Banerjee, Supratik

    2017-04-01

    The role of compressible fluctuations in the energy cascade in the fast and slow solar wind is investigated. A focus is put on comparing the energy cascade rates estimated using the exact laws derived for incompressible MHD turbulence [Politano and Pouquet, 1998] (PP98) and for compressible isothermal turbulence recently derived by Galtier and Banerjee, PRE, 2013 (BG13). New features are evidenced using the BG13 model in comparison with the PP98 model: i) broader inertial range (more than two decades of scales); ii) higher energy cascade rate (up to 4 times); iii) less anisotropic cascade rates (along and perpendicular to the local mean field). Furthermore, a term-by-term analysis of the compressible model emphasized the relative importance of the new flux term in the BG13 model, and provided new insight into the role played by the compressible fluctuations in the solar wind.

  18. Spiky Structures around Reconnection Exhausts in the Solar Wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enžl, Jakub; Šafránková, Jana; Němeček, Zdeněk; Přech, Lubomír

    2017-12-01

    The paper presents for the first time observations of unusual reconnection events in the solar wind. In all solar wind types, we identify magnetic reconnection exhausts accompanied by one or two side jets. This complex structure is created around a single current sheet and the jet(s) oriented in the same direction as the main exhaust is (are) spatially separated from it. A statistical analysis of reconnection exhausts in Wind observations (422 events) revealed that about 12% of exhausts is accompanied with one side jet and 3% of exhausts is bounded by two side jets, one on each side. Multispacecraft observations of events allow us to conclude that these structures are not consistent with a folding of the reconnection exhaust boundary. A source of these side jets is probably multiple or patchy reconnection at or close to the heliospheric current sheet. We suggest a scenario based on multiple reconnection that would lead to the presence of two side jets. A single jet is caused by a broken X-line consisting of two or more spatially separated parts.

  19. Magnetic Reconnection and Intermittent Turbulence in the Solar Wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, K. T.; Matthaeus, W. H.; Gosling, J. T.; Greco, A.; Servidio, S.; Hnat, B.; Chapman, S. C.; Phan, T. D.

    2014-05-01

    A statistical relationship between magnetic reconnection, current sheets, and intermittent turbulence in the solar wind is reported for the first time using in situ measurements from the Wind spacecraft at 1 AU. We identify intermittency as non-Gaussian fluctuations in increments of the magnetic field vector B that are spatially and temporally nonuniform. The reconnection events and current sheets are found to be concentrated in intervals of intermittent turbulence, identified using the partial variance of increments method: within the most non-Gaussian 1% of fluctuations in B, we find 87%-92% of reconnection exhausts and ˜9% of current sheets. Also, the likelihood that an identified current sheet will also correspond to a reconnection exhaust increases dramatically as the least intermittent fluctuations are removed from the data set. Hence, the turbulent solar wind contains a hierarchy of intermittent magnetic field structures that are increasingly linked to current sheets, which in turn are progressively more likely to correspond to sites of magnetic reconnection. These results could have far reaching implications for laboratory and astrophysical plasmas where turbulence and magnetic reconnection are ubiquitous.

  20. Ensemble downscaling in coupled solar wind-magnetosphere modeling for space weather forecasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, M J; Horbury, T S; Wicks, R T; McGregor, S L; Savani, N P; Xiong, M

    2014-06-01

    Advanced forecasting of space weather requires simulation of the whole Sun-to-Earth system, which necessitates driving magnetospheric models with the outputs from solar wind models. This presents a fundamental difficulty, as the magnetosphere is sensitive to both large-scale solar wind structures, which can be captured by solar wind models, and small-scale solar wind "noise," which is far below typical solar wind model resolution and results primarily from stochastic processes. Following similar approaches in terrestrial climate modeling, we propose statistical "downscaling" of solar wind model results prior to their use as input to a magnetospheric model. As magnetospheric response can be highly nonlinear, this is preferable to downscaling the results of magnetospheric modeling. To demonstrate the benefit of this approach, we first approximate solar wind model output by smoothing solar wind observations with an 8 h filter, then add small-scale structure back in through the addition of random noise with the observed spectral characteristics. Here we use a very simple parameterization of noise based upon the observed probability distribution functions of solar wind parameters, but more sophisticated methods will be developed in the future. An ensemble of results from the simple downscaling scheme are tested using a model-independent method and shown to add value to the magnetospheric forecast, both improving the best estimate and quantifying the uncertainty. We suggest a number of features desirable in an operational solar wind downscaling scheme. Solar wind models must be downscaled in order to drive magnetospheric models Ensemble downscaling is more effective than deterministic downscaling The magnetosphere responds nonlinearly to small-scale solar wind fluctuations.

  1. Kinetic scale turbulence and dissipation in the solar wind: key observational results and future outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, M. L.; Wicks, R. T.; Perri, S.; Sahraoui, F.

    2015-01-01

    Turbulence is ubiquitous in the solar wind. Turbulence causes kinetic and magnetic energy to cascade to small scales where they are eventually dissipated, adding heat to the plasma. The details of how this occurs are not well understood. This article reviews the evidence for turbulent dissipation and examines various diagnostics for identifying solar wind regions where dissipation is occurring. We also discuss how future missions will further enhance our understanding of the importance of turbulence to solar wind dynamics. PMID:25848084

  2. Probabilistic Solar Wind Forecasting Using Large Ensembles of Near-Sun Conditions With a Simple One-Dimensional "Upwind" Scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Mathew J; Riley, Pete

    2017-11-01

    Long lead-time space-weather forecasting requires accurate prediction of the near-Earth solar wind. The current state of the art uses a coronal model to extrapolate the observed photospheric magnetic field to the upper corona, where it is related to solar wind speed through empirical relations. These near-Sun solar wind and magnetic field conditions provide the inner boundary condition to three-dimensional numerical magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) models of the heliosphere out to 1 AU. This physics-based approach can capture dynamic processes within the solar wind, which affect the resulting conditions in near-Earth space. However, this deterministic approach lacks a quantification of forecast uncertainty. Here we describe a complementary method to exploit the near-Sun solar wind information produced by coronal models and provide a quantitative estimate of forecast uncertainty. By sampling the near-Sun solar wind speed at a range of latitudes about the sub-Earth point, we produce a large ensemble (N = 576) of time series at the base of the Sun-Earth line. Propagating these conditions to Earth by a three-dimensional MHD model would be computationally prohibitive; thus, a computationally efficient one-dimensional "upwind" scheme is used. The variance in the resulting near-Earth solar wind speed ensemble is shown to provide an accurate measure of the forecast uncertainty. Applying this technique over 1996-2016, the upwind ensemble is found to provide a more "actionable" forecast than a single deterministic forecast; potential economic value is increased for all operational scenarios, but particularly when false alarms are important (i.e., where the cost of taking mitigating action is relatively large).

  3. Wind and solar energy resources on the 'Roof of the World'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandler, Harald; Morche, Thomas; Samimi, Cyrus

    2015-04-01

    The Eastern Pamirs of Tajikistan, often referred to as 'Roof of the World', are an arid high mountain plateau characterized by severe energy poverty that may have great potential for renewable energy resources due to the prevailing natural conditions. The lack of energetic infrastructure makes the region a prime target for decentralized integration of wind and solar power. However, up to date no scientific attempt to assess the regional potential of these resources has been carried out. In this context, it is particularly important to evaluate if wind and solar energy are able to provide enough power to generate thermal energy, as other thermal energy carriers are scarce or unavailable and the existing alternative, local harvest of dwarf shrubs, is unsustainable due to the slow regeneration in this environment. Therefore, this study examines the feasibility of using wind and solar energy as thermal energy sources. Financial frame conditions were set on a maximum amount of five million Euros. This sum provides a realistic scenario as it is based on the current budget of the KfW development bank to finance the modernization of the local hydropower plant in the regions only city, Murghab, with about 1500 households. The basis for resource assessment is data of four climate stations, erected for this purpose in 2012, where wind speed, wind direction, global radiation and temperature are measured at a half hourly interval. These measurements confirm the expectation of a large photovoltaic potential and high panel efficiency with up to 84 percent of extraterrestrial radiation reaching the surface and only 16 hours of temperatures above 25°C were measured in two years at the village stations on average. As these observations are only point measurements, radiation data and the ASTER GDEM was used to train a GIS based solar radiation model to spatially extrapolate incoming radiation. With mean validation errors ranging from 5% in July (minimum) to 15% in December (maximum

  4. Structure and sources of solar wind in the growing phase of 24th solar cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slemzin, Vladimir; Goryaev, Farid; Shugay, Julia; Rodkin, Denis; Veselovsky, Igor

    2015-04-01

    We present analysis of the solar wind (SW) structure and its association with coronal sources during the minimum and rising phase of 24th solar cycle (2009-2011). The coronal sources prominent in this period - coronal holes, small areas of open magnetic fields near active regions and transient sources associated with small-scale solar activity have been investigated using EUV solar images and soft X-ray fluxes obtained by the CORONAS-Photon/TESIS/Sphinx, PROBA2/SWAP, Hinode/EIS and AIA/SDO instruments as well as the magnetograms obtained by HMI/SDO. It was found that at solar minimum (2009) velocity and magnetic field strength of high speed wind (HSW) and transient SW from small-scale flares did not differ significantly from those of the background slow speed wind (SSW). The major difference between parameters of different SW components was seen in the ion composition represented by the C6/C5, O7/O6, Fe/O ratios and the mean charge of Fe ions. With growing solar activity, the speed of HSW increased due to transformation of its sources - small-size low-latitude coronal holes into equatorial extensions of large polar holes. At that period, the ion composition of transient SW changed from low-temperature to high-temperature values, which was caused by variation of the source conditions and change of the recombination/ionization rates during passage of the plasma flow through the low corona. However, we conclude that criteria of separation of the SW components based on the ion ratios established earlier by Zhao&Fisk (2009) for higher solar activity are not applicable to the extremely weak beginning of 24th cycle. The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Commission's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under the grant agreement eHeroes (project n° 284461, www.eheroes.eu).

  5. Venus Ionosphere and Induced Magnetosphere Responses to Solar Wind Dynamic Pressure and IMF Direction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yingjuan; Toth, Gabor; Nagy, Andew; Russell, Chris

    2017-10-01

    In this study, we focus on the responses of the ionosphere and the induced magnetosphere of Venus to two typical changes in the solar wind: solar wind dynamic pressure changes and the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) direction changes. Often regarded as the Earth’s ‘sister planet’, Venus has similar size and mass as Earth. But it is also remarkably different from Earth in many respects. Even though we have some basic knowledge of the solar wind interaction with Venus based on spacecraft observations, little is known about how the interaction and the resulting plasma escape rates vary in response to solar wind variations due to the lack of coordinated observations of both upstream solar wind conditions and simultaneous plasma properties in the Venus ionosphere. Furthermore, recent observations suggest that plasma escape rates are significantly enhanced during stormy space weather in response to solar wind pressure pulses (Edberg et al., 2011). Thus it is important to understand the plasma interaction under varying solar wind conditions. We use a sophisticated multi-species MHD model that has been recently developed for Venus (Ma et al., 2013) to characterize the changes of the ionosphere and the induced magnetosphere for varying solar wind conditions. Based on model results, we discuss the perturbations of the magnetic field in the ionosphere and its variation with altitude; the variation of the total plasma escape-rate; and the time scale of the Venus ionosphere and induced magnetosphere in responding to both types of changes in the solar wind.

  6. Wind and solar portfolios and their impact on predictability. German case study 2010-2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Speth, Valerie [St. Gallen Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. for Economy and the Environment (IWOE-HSG)

    2012-07-01

    This paper develops an approach based on energy generator diversification to reduce associated balancing costs. I use German wind and solar data from 2010-2011 and apply Mean-Variance Portfolio Theory. My goal is to identify the optimal wind and solar portfolio that minimizes the forecast error within the portfolio. My results highlight the decreased balancing need that might be generated by applying an ideal wind and solar portfolio. Policy makers could use these findings to develop a mechanism that aligns the installation capacities of wind and solar energy with decreased balancing needs driven by enhanced generation forecasts. (orig.)

  7. Coupled Solar Wind-Magnetosphere-Ionosphere-Thermosphere System by QFT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shao-Guang

    shoot to Sun from the center of Galaxy. The dynamic balance of forces on the solar surface plasma at once is broken and the plasma will upwards eject as the solar wind with redundant negative charge, at the same time, the solar surface remain a cavity as a sunspot whorl with the positive electric potential relative to around. The whorl caused by that the reaction of plasma eject front and upwards with the different velocity at different latitude of solar rotation, leads to the cavity around in the downwards and backwards helix movement. The solar rotation more slow, when the cavity is filled by around plasma in the reverse turn direction, the Jupiter at front had been produced a new cavity, so that we had observe the sunspot pair with different whorl directions and different magnetic polarity. Jupiter possess half mass of all planets in solar system, its action to stop net nuν _{0} flux is primary, so that Jupiter’s period of 11.8 sidereal years accord basically with the period of sunspot eruptions. The solar wind is essentially the plasma with additional electrons flux ejected from the solar surface: its additional electrons come from the ionosphere again eject into the ionosphere and leads to the direct connect between the solar wind and the ionosphere; its magnetism from its redundant negative charge and leads to the connect between the solar wind and the magnetosphere; it possess the high temperature of the solar surface and ejecting kinetic energy leads to the thermo-exchange connect between the solar wind and the thermosphere. Through the solar wind ejecting into and cross over the outside atmosphere carry out the electromagnetic, particles material and thermal exchanges, the Coupled Solar Wind-Magnetosphere-Ionosphere-Thermosphere System to be came into being. This conclusion is inferred only by QFT.

  8. Genesis Solar Wind Interstream, Coronal Hole and Coronal Mass Ejection Samples: Update on Availability and Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allton, J. H.; Gonzalez, C. P.; Allums, K. K.

    2017-01-01

    Recent refinement of analysis of ACE/SWICS data (Advanced Composition Explorer/Solar Wind Ion Composition Spectrometer) and of onboard data for Genesis Discovery Mission of 3 regimes of solar wind at Earth-Sun L1 make it an appropriate time to update the availability and condition of Genesis samples specifically collected in these three regimes and currently curated at Johnson Space Center. ACE/SWICS spacecraft data indicate that solar wind flow types emanating from the interstream regions, from coronal holes and from coronal mass ejections are elementally and isotopically fractionated in different ways from the solar photosphere, and that correction of solar wind values to photosphere values is non-trivial. Returned Genesis solar wind samples captured very different kinds of information about these three regimes than spacecraft data. Samples were collected from 11/30/2001 to 4/1/2004 on the declining phase of solar cycle 23. Meshik, et al is an example of precision attainable. Earlier high precision laboratory analyses of noble gases collected in the interstream, coronal hole and coronal mass ejection regimes speak to degree of fractionation in solar wind formation and models that laboratory data support. The current availability and condition of samples captured on collector plates during interstream slow solar wind, coronal hole high speed solar wind and coronal mass ejections are de-scribed here for potential users of these samples.

  9. Kinetic Signatures and Intermittent Turbulence in the Solar Wind Plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Osman, K T; Hnat, B; Chapman, S C

    2012-01-01

    A connection between kinetic processes and intermittent turbulence is observed in the solar wind plasma using measurements from the Wind spacecraft at 1 AU. In particular, kinetic effects such as temperature anisotropy and plasma heating are concentrated near coherent structures, such as current sheets, which are non-uniformly distributed in space. Furthermore, these coherent structures are preferentially found in plasma unstable to the mirror and firehose instabilities. The inhomogeneous heating in these regions, which is present in both the magnetic field parallel and perpendicular temperature components, results in protons at least 3--4 times hotter than under typical stable plasma conditions. These results offer a new understanding of kinetic processes in a turbulent regime, where linear Vlasov theory is not sufficient to explain the inhomogeneous plasma dynamics operating near non-Gaussian structures.

  10. Kinetic Signatures and Intermittent Turbulence in the Solar Wind Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, K. T.; Matthaeus, W. H.; Hnat, B.; Chapman, S. C.

    2012-06-01

    A connection between kinetic processes and intermittent turbulence is observed in the solar wind plasma using measurements from the Wind spacecraft at 1 A.U. In particular, kinetic effects such as temperature anisotropy and plasma heating are concentrated near coherent structures, such as current sheets, which are nonuniformly distributed in space. Furthermore, these coherent structures are preferentially found in plasma unstable to the mirror and firehose instabilities. The inhomogeneous heating in these regions, which is present in both the magnetic field parallel and perpendicular temperature components, results in protons at least 3-4 times hotter than under typical stable plasma conditions. These results offer a new understanding of kinetic processes in a turbulent regime, where linear Vlasov theory is not sufficient to explain the inhomogeneous plasma dynamics operating near non-Gaussian structures.

  11. Kinetic Processes and Intermittent Turbulence in the Solar Wind Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, K.; Matthaeus, W. H.; Hnat, B.; Chapman, S. C.

    2012-12-01

    A connection between intermittent turbulence and kinetic processes in the solar wind is presented using measurements from the Wind spacecraft. Temperature anisotropy is found to be concentrated near coherent structures, such as current sheets, which are non-uniformly distributed in space. Hence, these structures are preferentially found in plasma that is unstable to temperature anisotropy-driven mirror and firehose instabilities. The coherent structures heat the plasma, resulting in protons at least 3-4 times hotter than under typical stable plasma conditions. These results offer a new understanding of kinetic processes in a turbulent regime, where linear Vlasov theory is insufficient to explain the inhomogeneous plasma dynamics operating near non-Gaussian structures.

  12. Solar wind control of stratospheric temperatures in Jupiter's auroral regions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, James Andrew; Orton, Glenn; Kasaba, Yasumasa; Sato, Takao M.; Tao, Chihiro; Waite, J. Hunter; Cravens, Thomas; Houston, Stephen; Fletcher, Leigh; Irwin, Patrick; Greathouse, Thomas K.

    2017-10-01

    Auroral emissions are the process through which the interaction of a planet’s atmosphere and its external magnetosphere can be studied. Jupiter exhibits auroral emission at a multitude of wavelengths including the X-ray, ultraviolet and near-infrared. Enhanced emission of CH4 and other stratospheric hydrocarbons is also observed coincident with Jupiter’s shorter-wavelength auroral emission (e.g. Caldwell et al., 1980, Icarus 44, 667-675, Kostiuk et al., 1993, JGR 98, 18823). This indicates that auroral processes modify the thermal structure and composition of the auroral stratosphere. The exact mechanism responsible for this auroral-related heating of the stratosphere has however remained elusive (Sinclair et al., 2017a, Icarus 292, 182-207, Sinclair et al., 2017b, GRL, 44, 5345-5354). We will present an analysis of 7.8-μm images of Jupiter measured by COMICS (Cooled Mid-Infrared Camera and Spectrograph, Kataza et al., 2000, Proc. SPIE(4008), 1144-1152) on the Subaru telescope. These images were acquired on January 11th, 12th, 13th, 14th, February 4, 5th and May 17th, 18th, 19th and 20th in 2017, allowing the daily variability of Jupiter’s auroral-related stratospheric heating to be tracked. Preliminary results suggest lower stratospheric temperatures are directly forced by the solar wind dynamical pressure. The southern auroral hotspot exhibited a significant increase in brightness temperature over a 24-hour period. Over the same time period, a solar wind propagation model (Tao et al. 2005, JGR 110, A11208) predicts a strong increase in the solar wind dynamical pressure at Jupiter.

  13. Simulation of transcontinental wind and solar PV generation time series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nuño Martinez, Edgar; Maule, Petr; Hahmann, Andrea N.

    2018-01-01

    The deployment of Renewable Energy Sources (RES) is driving modern power systems towards a fundamental green transition. In this regard, there is a need to develop models to accurately capture the variability of wind and solar photovoltaic (PV) power, at different geographical and temporal scales....... This paper presents a general methodology based on meteorological reanalysis techniques allowing to simulate aggregated RES time series over large geographical areas. It also introduces a novel PV conversion approach based on aggregated power curves in order to capture the uncertainty associated...

  14. Save with Solar and Wind, Winter 2001/2002 (Newsletter)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2002-01-01

    This issue describes some of the ways in which our government is saving energy and money by using solar and wind systems to produce heat and electricity at Federal facilities. It focuses on successful energy efficiency and renewable energy projects-such as those in Joshua Tree National Park in California-sponsored by DOE's Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) and other agencies. And it includes information about software, innovative financing opportunities, and other tools that can help agencies fulfill the mandates of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 and Executive Order 13123.

  15. Assessing temporal complementarity of solar, wind and hydrokinetic energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurasz Jakub

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy sources (RES exhibit various characteristics when it comes to their availability in time and space domain. Some are characterised by significant variability and limited predictability. This makes their integration to the power grid a complicated task. Temporal and spatial complementarity of RES is perceived as one of the possible ways to facilitate the process of integration. This paper investigates the concept of temporal complementarity of solar wind and hydrokinetic energy in case of two sites in Poland. Obtained results indicate existence of some beneficial complementarity on inter-annual and annual time scale. Combination of those three RES in one hybrid system makes power source more reliable.

  16. Nonlinear development of shocklike structure in the solar wind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, E; Parks, G K; Wilber, M; Lin, N

    2009-07-17

    We report first in situ multispacecraft observations of nonlinear steepening of compressional pulses in the solar wind upstream of Earth's bow shock. The magnetic field of a compressional pulse formed at the upstream edge of density holes is shown to suddenly break and steepen into a shocklike structure. During the early phase of development thermalization of ions is insignificant. Substantial thermalization of ions occurs as gyrating ions are observed at the steepened edge. These observations indicate that the mechanisms causing the dissipation of magnetic fields (currents) and ions are different in the early phase of shock development.

  17. EMMI-Electric solar wind sail facilitated Manned Mars Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janhunen, Pekka; Merikallio, Sini; Paton, Mark

    2015-08-01

    The novel propellantless electric solar wind sail concept promises efficient low thrust transportation in the Solar System outside Earth's magnetosphere. Combined with asteroid mining to provide water and synthetic cryogenic rocket fuel in orbits of Earth and Mars, possibilities for affordable continuous manned presence on Mars open up. Orbital fuel and water enable reusable bidirectional Earth-Mars vehicles for continuous manned presence on Mars and allow smaller fuel fraction of spacecraft than what is achievable by traditional means. Water can also be used as radiation shielding of the manned compartment, thus reducing the launch mass further. In addition, the presence of fuel in the orbit of Mars provides the option for an all-propulsive landing, thus potentially eliminating issues of heavy heat shields and augmenting the capability of pinpoint landing. With this E-sail enabled scheme, the recurrent cost of continuous bidirectional traffic between Earth and Mars might ultimately approach the recurrent cost of running the International Space Station, ISS.

  18. A 15N-poor isotopic composition for the solar system as shown by Genesis solar wind samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marty, B; Chaussidon, M; Wiens, R C; Jurewicz, A J G; Burnett, D S

    2011-06-24

    The Genesis mission sampled solar wind ions to document the elemental and isotopic compositions of the Sun and, by inference, of the protosolar nebula. Nitrogen was a key target element because the extent and origin of its isotopic variations in solar system materials remain unknown. Isotopic analysis of a Genesis Solar Wind Concentrator target material shows that implanted solar wind nitrogen has a (15)N/(14)N ratio of 2.18 ± 0.02 × 10(-3) (that is, ≈40% poorer in (15)N relative to terrestrial atmosphere). The (15)N/(14)N ratio of the protosolar nebula was 2.27 ± 0.03 × 10(-3), which is the lowest (15)N/(14)N ratio known for solar system objects. This result demonstrates the extreme nitrogen isotopic heterogeneity of the nascent solar system and accounts for the (15)N-depleted components observed in solar system reservoirs.

  19. Coronal and heliospheric imagers for solar wind phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Kevin F.; Bourdelle, Anthony; Davies, Jackie A.; Eyles, Chris J.; Griffin, Doug K.; Harrison, Richard A.; Richards, Tony R.; Rogers, J. Kevin; Tappin, S. James; Tosh, Ian A. J.; Waltham, Nick R.

    2015-09-01

    RAL Space is enhancing its program to lead the development of European capabilities in space-based visible-light coronal and heliospheric imaging instrumentation in the light of emerging opportunities such as the European Space Agency's Space Situational Awareness program and recent S2 small-mission call. Visible-light coronal and heliospheric imaging of solar wind phenomena, such as coronal mass ejections and interaction regions, is of critical importance to space weather studies, both operationally and in terms of enabling the underpinning science. This work draws on heritage from scientific instruments such as LASCO (Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph) on the SOHO spacecraft, SMEI (Solar Mass Ejection Imager) on the Coriolis spacecraft and the HI (Heliospheric Imager) instruments on STEREO. Such visible-light observation of solar wind structures relies on the detection of sunlight that has been Thomson-scattered by electrons (the so-called K-corona). The Thomson-scattered signal must be extracted from other signals that can be many orders of magnitude greater (such as that from the F-corona and the solar disc itself) and this places stringent constraints on stray-light rejection, as well as pointing stability and accuracy. We discuss the determination of instrument requirements, key design trade-offs and the evolution of base-line designs for the coronal and heliospheric regimes. We explain how the next generation of instruments will build on this heritage while also, in some cases, meeting the challenges on resources imposed on operational space weather imagers. In particular, we discuss the optical engineering challenges involved in the design of these instruments.

  20. Spectral Analysis of Geomagnetic Activity Indices and Solar Wind Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Hee Kim

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Solar variability is widely known to affect the interplanetary space and in turn the Earth’s electromagnetical environment on the basis of common periodicities in the solar and geomagnetic activity indices. The goal of this study is twofold. Firstly, we attempt to associate modes by comparing a temporal behavior of the power of geomagnetic activity parameters since it is barely sufficient searching for common peaks with a similar periodicity in order to causally correlate geomagnetic activity parameters. As a result of the wavelet transform analysis we are able to obtain information on the temporal behavior of the power in the velocity of the solar wind, the number density of protons in the solar wind, the AE index, the Dst index, the interplanetary magnetic field, B and its three components of the GSM coordinate system, BX, BY, BZ. Secondly, we also attempt to search for any signatures of influence on the space environment near the Earth by inner planets orbiting around the Sun. Our main findings are as follows: (1 Parameters we have investigated show periodicities of ~ 27 days, ~ 13.5 days, ~ 9 days. (2 The peaks in the power spectrum of BZ appear to be split due to an unknown agent. (3 For some modes powers are not present all the time and intervals showing high powers do not always coincide. (4 Noticeable peaks do not emerge at those frequencies corresponding to the synodic and/or sidereal periods of Mercury and Venus, which leads us to conclude that the Earth’s space environment is not subject to the shadow of the inner planets as suggested earlier.

  1. Perception of Solar Eclipses Captured by Art Explains How Imaging Misrepresented the Source of the Solar Wind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Woo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The visible corona revealed by the natural phenomenon of solar eclipses has been studied for 150 years. A turning point has been the discovery that the true spatial distribution of coronal brightness can neither be seen nor imaged on account of its unprecedented dynamic range. Howard Russell Butler (1856–1934, the painter of solar eclipses in the early 20th century, possessed the extraordinary skill of painting from memory what he saw for only a brief time. His remarkable but forgotten eclipse paintings are, therefore, ideal for capturing and representing best the perceptual experience of the visible corona. Explained here is how by bridging the eras of visual (late 19th century and imaging investigations (since the latter half of the 20th century, Butler’s paintings reveal why white-light images misled researching and understanding the Sun’s atmosphere, the solar wind. The closure in understanding solar eclipses through the convergence of perception, art, imaging, science and the history of science promises to enrich the experience of viewing and photographing the first solar eclipse of the 21st century in the United States on 21st August 2017.

  2. Superthermal electrons at Mars: Photoelectrons, solar wind electrons, and dust storm influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shaosui

    Mars is unique in the solar system in terms of its interaction with solar wind because it lacks of a significant intrinsic global magnetic field but possesses localized strong crustal fields. This interaction results in a very complex magnetic topology at Mars so that superthermal electrons, mainly including photoelectrons and solar wind electrons, can be distinctively important for such a complicated planetary space environment. These energetic electrons (1-1000 electron volts) can carry and rapidly redistribute energy along the magnetic field lines. They are also a reliable tool to deduce the Martian magnetic topology, which is critical to understand the electromagnetic dynamics of the Martian space environment. The investigation methodology involves both data analysis and modeling. This dissertation mainly investigates three topics of superthermal electrons at Mars. (1) This dissertation confirms that the long-lived influence of Martian low-altitude dust storms on high-altitude photoelectron fluxes is common for a wide range of energy and pitch angles and determines that this effect originates from the thermosphere-ionosphere source region of the photoelectrons, rather than at exospheric altitudes at or above MGS. Through simulations, the results suggest that the global dust storm altered the photoelectron fluxes by causing CO2 to be the dominant species at a much larger altitude range than usual. (2) Because the integral of the production rate above the superthermal electron exobase is about the same for all solar zenith angles, quite counterintuitively, it is found, observationally and numerically/theoretically, that the high-altitude photoelectron fluxes are quite independent of solar zenith angle. (3) Based on the energy spectral (flux against energy) difference between photoelectrons and solar wind electrons, a statistical approach is taken to distinguish the two populations and also allows us to quantify the occurrence rate of solar wind electron

  3. Space weather predictions and energetic particle transport in the solar wind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimbardo, G.; Veltri, P.; Pommois, P.

    Solar-terrestrial relationships are a wide range of physical phenomena which include perturbations of the Earth's magnetosphere and of the Earth's environment due to solar activity. These perturbations can heavily influence systems which use advanced technologies. For instance, geomagnetic storms can induce very strong EMF in the power distribution network. Also, increased fluxes of energetic particles in the magnetosphere can seriously damage telecommunication and navigation spacecraft. The research programme known as "Space Weather" aims at making predictions of such perturbations in order to minimize the risk for human life and economic losses. In particular, an understanding of energetic particle transport either from the Sun or from interplanetary shocks to the Earth can help to forecast high risk periods. Numerical results on particle propagation in solar wind magnetic turbulence is discussed.

  4. Vertical profiles of the 3-D wind velocity retrieved from multiple wind lidars performing triple range-height-indicator scans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debnath, Mithu; Valerio Iungo, G.; Ashton, Ryan; Brewer, W. Alan; Choukulkar, Aditya; Delgado, Ruben; Lundquist, Julie K.; Shaw, William J.; Wilczak, James M.; Wolfe, Daniel

    2017-02-01

    Vertical profiles of 3-D wind velocity are retrieved from triple range-height-indicator (RHI) scans performed with multiple simultaneous scanning Doppler wind lidars. This test is part of the eXperimental Planetary boundary layer Instrumentation Assessment (XPIA) campaign carried out at the Boulder Atmospheric Observatory. The three wind velocity components are retrieved and then compared with the data acquired through various profiling wind lidars and high-frequency wind data obtained from sonic anemometers installed on a 300 m meteorological tower. The results show that the magnitude of the horizontal wind velocity and the wind direction obtained from the triple RHI scans are generally retrieved with good accuracy. However, poor accuracy is obtained for the evaluation of the vertical velocity, which is mainly due to its typically smaller magnitude and to the error propagation connected with the data retrieval procedure and accuracy in the experimental setup.

  5. The global morphology of the solar wind interaction with comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendis, D. A. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92037-0407 (United States); Horányi, M. [Laboratory of Atmospheric and Space Physics and Department of Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309-0392 (United States)

    2014-10-10

    The forthcoming Rosetta-Philae mission to comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko provides a novel opportunity to observe the variable nature of the solar wind interaction with a comet over an extended range of heliocentric distance. We use a simple analytical one-dimensional MHD model to estimate the sizes of the two most prominent features in the global structure of the solar wind interaction with a comet. When the heliocentric distance of the comet reaches d ≤ 1.51 AU, we expect a sharp shock to be observed, whose size would increase monotonically as the comet approaches the Sun, reaching a value ≅ 15, 000 km at perihelion (d ≅ 1.29 AU). Upstream of the shock, we expect the velocity-space distribution of the picked up cometary ions to be essentially gyrotropic. A well-defined ionopause is predicted when d ≤1.61 AU, though its size is expected to be only ≅25 km at perihelion, and it is expected to be susceptible to the 'flute' instability due to its small size. Consequently, we expect the magnetic field to penetrate all the way to the surface of the nucleus. We conclude with a brief discussion of the response of the comet's plasma environment to fast temporal variations in the solar wind.

  6. Periodicities in solar wind-magnetosphere coupling functions and geomagnetic activity during the past solar cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriyas, T.; Andriyas, S.

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, we study the solar-terrestrial relation through the wavelet analysis. We report periodicities common between multiple solar wind coupling functions and geomagnetic indices during five solar cycles and also and the strength of this correspondence. The Dst (found to be most predictable in Newell et al., J. Geophys. Res. Space Phys. 112(A1):A01206, 2007) and AL (least predictable in Newell et al., J. Geophys. Res. Space Phys. 112(A1):A01206, 2007) indices are used for this purpose. During the years 1966-2016 (which includes five solar cycles 20, 21, 22, 23, and 24), prominent periodicities ≤720 days with power above 95% confidence level were found to occur around 27, 182, 385, and 648 days in the Dst index while those in the AL index were found in bands around 27, 187, and 472 days. Ten solar wind coupling functions were then used to find periodicities common with the indices. All the coupling functions had significant power in bands centered around 27, 280, and 648 days while powers in fluctuations around 182, 385, and 472 days were only found in some coupling functions. All the drivers and their variants had power above the significant level in the 280-288 days band, which was absent in the Dst and AL indices. The normalized scale averaged spectral power around the common periods in the coupling functions and the indices indicated that the coupling functions most correlated with the Dst index were the Newell (27 and 385 days), Wygant (182 days), and Scurry-Russell and Boynton (648 days) functions. An absence of common power between the coupling functions and the Dst index around the annual periodicity was noted during the even solar cycles. A similar analysis for the AL index indicated that Newell (27 days), Rectified (187 days), and Boynton (472 days) were the most correlated functions. It was also found that the correlation numbers were relatively weaker for the AL index, specially for the 187 day periodicity. It is concluded that as the two

  7. Multifractal scaling of the kinetic energy flux in solar wind turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsch, E.; Rosenbauer, H.; Tu, C.-Y.

    1995-01-01

    The geometrical and scaling properties of the energy flux of the turbulent kinetic energy in the solar wind have been studied. By present experimental technology in solar wind measurements, we cannot directly measure the real volumetric dissipation rate, epsilon(t), but are constrained to represent it by surrogating the energy flux near the dissipation range at the proton gyro scales. There is evidence for the multifractal nature of the so defined dissipation field epsilon(t), a result derived from the scaling exponents of its statistical q-th order moments. The related generalized dimension D(q) has been determined and reveals that the dissipation field has a multifractal structure. which is not compatible with a scale-invariant cascade. The associated multifractal spectrum f(alpha) has been estimated for the first time for MHD turbulence in the solar wind. Its features resemble those obtained for turbulent fluids and other nonlinear multifractal systems. The generalized dimension D(q) can, for turbulence in high-speed streams, be fitted well by the functional dependence of the p-model with a comparatively large parameter, p = 0.87. indicating a strongly intermittent multifractal energy cascade. The experimental value for D(p)/3, if used in the scaling exponent s(p) of the velocity structure function, gives an exponent that can describe some of the observations. The scaling exponent mu of the auto correlation function of epsilon(t) has also been directly evaluated. It has the value of 0.37. Finally. the mean dissipation rate was determined, which could be used in solar wind heating models.

  8. On Lunar Exospheric Column Densities and Solar Wind Access Beyond the Terminator from ROSAT Soft X-ray Observations of Solar Wind Charge Exchange (SWCX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, M. R.; Snowden, S. L.; Sarantos, M.; Benna, M.; Carter, J. A.; Cravens, T.; Farrell, W. M.; Fatemi, S.; Hills, H. K.; Hodges, R. R.; Holmstrom, M.; Kuntz, K. D.; Porter, F. S.; Read, A.; Robertson, I. P.; Sembay, S. F.; Sibeck, D. G.; Stubbs, T. J.; Travnicek, P. M.

    2013-12-01

    We analyze the ROSAT PSPC soft X-ray image of the Moon taken on 29 June 1990 by examining the radial profile of the count rate in three wedges, two wedges (one north and one south) 13-32 degrees off (19 degrees wide) the terminator towards the dark side and one wedge 38 degrees wide centered on the antisolar point. The radial profiles of both the north and the south wedges show substantial limb brightening that is absent in the 38 degree wide antisolar wedge. An analysis of the soft X-ray intensity increase associated with the limb brightening shows that its magnitude is consistent with that expected due to solar wind charge exchange (SWCX) with the tenuous lunar atmosphere based on lunar exospheric models and hybrid simulation results of solar wind access beyond the terminator. Soft X-ray imaging thus can independently infer the total lunar limb column density including all species, a property that before now has not been measured, and provide a large-scale picture of the solar wind-lunar interaction. Because the SWCX signal appears dominated by exospheric species arising from solar wind implantation, this technique can also monitor how the exosphere varies with solar wind conditions. Now along with Mars, Venus, and Earth, the Moon represents another solar system body at which solar wind charge exchange has been observed.

  9. Model for vortex turbulence with discontinuities in the solar wind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. P. Verkhoglyadova

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A model of vortex with embedded discontinuities in plasma flow is developed in the framework of ideal MHD in a low b plasma. Vortex structures are considered as a result of 2-D evolution of nonlinear shear Alfvén waves in the heliosphere. Physical properties of the solutions and vector fields are analyzed and the observational aspects of the model are discussed. The ratio of normal components to the discontinuity Br /Vr can be close to -2. The alignment between velocity and magnetic field vectors takes place. Spacecraft crossing such vortices will typically observe a pair of discontinuities, but with dissimilar properties. Occurrence rate for different discontinuity types is estimated and agrees with observations in high-speed solar wind stream. Discontinuity crossing provides a backward rotation of magnetic field vector and can be observed as part of a backward arc. The Ulysses magnetometer data obtained in the fast solar wind are compared with the results of theoretical modelling.

  10. Solar Wind-Induced Erosion of PLUTÓS Ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez De Tejada, H. A.

    2015-12-01

    Planetary ionospheres eroded by the solar wind provide mass and momentum to plasma wakes that extend downstream along the solar wind direction. Similar conditions can be applicable to Pluto where an extended atmosphere is expected given its low gravity force. Measurements conducted in the Venus plasma environment have shown that the Venus nightward directed ionospheric flow is deviated on the ecliptic plane as a result of its combined participation with the strong atmospheric rotation. At Pluto that deviation will be on a direction with a component perpendicular to the ecliptic plane given that its rotation axis is oriented ~30° away from that plane+. Measurements in the Venus wake also show the existence of plasma vortex structures located downstream from the planet and it is possible that similar features may be detected far downstream from Pluto along its plasma wake ++. + Pérez-de-Tejada, H., et al., Pluto´s plasma wake orientated away from the ecliptic plane ICARUS, 246, 310-316, 2015. ++Lundin, R. et al., A large-scale flow vortex in the Venus plasma tail and its fluid dynamic interpretation. GRL, 40(7), 1273, 2013; Pérez-de-Tejada, H., et al., Plasma vortices in planetary wakes: Open Questions in Cosmology, INTECH Pub., Dec. 2012 (ISB 978-953-51-0880-1).

  11. Extended MHD turbulence and its applications to the solar wind

    CERN Document Server

    Abdelhamid, Hamdi M; Mahajan, Swadesh M

    2016-01-01

    Extended MHD is a one-fluid model that incorporates two-fluid effects such as electron inertia and the Hall drift. This model is used to construct fully nonlinear Alfv\\'enic wave solutions, and thereby derive the kinetic and magnetic spectra by resorting to a Kolmogorov-like hypothesis based on the constant cascading rates of the energy and generalized helicities of this model. The magnetic and kinetic spectra are derived in the ideal $\\left(k 1/\\lambda_e\\right)$ regimes; $k$ is the wavenumber and $\\lambda_s = c/\\omega_{p s}$ is the skin depth of species `$s$'. In the Hall regime, it is shown that the emergent results are fully consistent with previous numerical and analytical studies, especially in the context of the solar wind. The focus is primarily on the electron inertia regime, where magnetic energy spectra with power-law indexes of $-11/3$ and $-13/3$ are always recovered. The latter, in particular, is quite close to recent observational evidence from the solar wind with a potential slope of approxima...

  12. Heating coronal holes and accelerating the solar wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, E. N.

    1992-01-01

    The special energy requirements of a coronal hole combined with current knowledge of the limited dissipation of Alfven and fast mode MHD waves in the solar corona suggest a unique source of heat for the coronal hole. The near coronal hole requires approximately 3 - 4 x 10 exp 5 ergs/sq cm s, which can come only from the fluid jets, fast particles, and short period MHD waves from the network activity. The high speed streams of solar wind from coronal holes show that there is substantial heating, of 1 - 2 x 10 exp 5 ergs/sq cm s, beyond the sonic point in the wind, which can come only from the dissipation by thermal conduction of long period (approximately equal or greater than 100 sec) MHD waves from subphotospheric convection. Although the Alfven wave flux from the photosphere is generally taken for granted in the literature, we point out that it is a crucial phenomenon that has yet to be established on either a theoretical or observational scientific basis.

  13. Solar wind implication on dust ion acoustic rogue waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelghany, A. M., E-mail: asmaaallah20@yahoo.com; Abd El-Razek, H. N., E-mail: hosam.abdelrazek@yahoo.com; El-Labany, S. K., E-mail: skellabany@hotmail.com [Theoretical Physics Group, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Damietta University, New Damietta 34517 (Egypt); Moslem, W. M., E-mail: wmmoslem@hotmail.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Port Said University, Port Said 42521 (Egypt); Centre for Theoretical Physics, The British University in Egypt (BUE), El-Shorouk City, Cairo (Egypt)

    2016-06-15

    The relevance of the solar wind with the magnetosphere of Jupiter that contains positively charged dust grains is investigated. The perturbation/excitation caused by streaming ions and electron beams from the solar wind could form different nonlinear structures such as rogue waves, depending on the dominant role of the plasma parameters. Using the reductive perturbation method, the basic set of fluid equations is reduced to modified Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) and further modified (KdV) equation. Assuming that the frequency of the carrier wave is much smaller than the ion plasma frequency, these equations are transformed into nonlinear Schrödinger equations with appropriate coefficients. Rational solution of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation shows that rogue wave envelopes are supported by the present plasma model. It is found that the existence region of rogue waves depends on the dust-acoustic speed and the streaming temperatures for both the ions and electrons. The dependence of the maximum rogue wave envelope amplitude on the system parameters has been investigated.

  14. LANGMUIR WAVE DECAY IN INHOMOGENEOUS SOLAR WIND PLASMAS: SIMULATION RESULTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krafft, C. [Laboratoire de Physique des Plasmas, Ecole Polytechnique, F-91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Volokitin, A. S. [IZMIRAN, Troitsk, 142190, Moscow (Russian Federation); Krasnoselskikh, V. V., E-mail: catherine.krafft@u-psud.fr [Laboratoire de Physique et Chimie de l’Environnement et de l’Espace, 3A Av. de la Recherche Scientifique, F-45071 Orléans Cedex 2 (France)

    2015-08-20

    Langmuir turbulence excited by electron flows in solar wind plasmas is studied on the basis of numerical simulations. In particular, nonlinear wave decay processes involving ion-sound (IS) waves are considered in order to understand their dependence on external long-wavelength plasma density fluctuations. In the presence of inhomogeneities, it is shown that the decay processes are localized in space and, due to the differences between the group velocities of Langmuir and IS waves, their duration is limited so that a full nonlinear saturation cannot be achieved. The reflection and the scattering of Langmuir wave packets on the ambient and randomly varying density fluctuations lead to crucial effects impacting the development of the IS wave spectrum. Notably, beatings between forward propagating Langmuir waves and reflected ones result in the parametric generation of waves of noticeable amplitudes and in the amplification of IS waves. These processes, repeated at different space locations, form a series of cascades of wave energy transfer, similar to those studied in the frame of weak turbulence theory. The dynamics of such a cascading mechanism and its influence on the acceleration of the most energetic part of the electron beam are studied. Finally, the role of the decay processes in the shaping of the profiles of the Langmuir wave packets is discussed, and the waveforms calculated are compared with those observed recently on board the spacecraft Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory and WIND.

  15. Lunar precursor effects in the solar wind and terrestrial magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halekas, J. S.; Poppe, A. R.; Farrell, W. M.; Delory, G. T.; Angelopoulos, V.; McFadden, J. P.; Bonnell, J. W.; Glassmeier, K. H.; Plaschke, F.; Roux, A.; Ergun, R. E.

    2012-05-01

    The two ARTEMIS probes observe significant precursor activity upstream from the Moon, when magnetically connected to the dayside lunar surface. The most common signature consists of high levels of whistler wave activity near half of the electron cyclotron frequency. This precursor activity extends to distances of many thousands of km, in both the solar wind and terrestrial magnetosphere. In the magnetosphere, electrons reflect from a combination of magnetic and electrostatic fields above the lunar surface, forming loss cone distributions. In the solar wind they generally form conics, as a result of reflection from an obstacle moving with respect to the plasma frame (just as at a shock). The anisotropy associated with these reflected electrons provides the free energy source for the whistlers, with cyclotron resonance conditions met between the reflected source population and Moonward-propagating waves. These waves can in turn affect incoming plasma, and we observe significant perpendicular electron heating and plasma density depletions in some cases. In the magnetosphere, we also observe broadband electrostatic modes driven by beams of secondary electrons and/or photoelectrons accelerated outward from the surface. We also occasionally see waves near the ion cyclotron frequency in the magnetosphere. These lower frequency waves, which may result from the presence of ions of lunar origin, modulate the whistlers described above, as well as the electrons. Taken together, our observations suggest that the presence of the Moon leads to the formation of an upstream region analogous in many ways to the terrestrial electron foreshock.

  16. Validation of Model Forecasts of the Ambient Solar Wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macneice, P. J.; Hesse, M.; Kuznetsova, M. M.; Rastaetter, L.; Taktakishvili, A.

    2009-01-01

    Independent and automated validation is a vital step in the progression of models from the research community into operational forecasting use. In this paper we describe a program in development at the CCMC to provide just such a comprehensive validation for models of the ambient solar wind in the inner heliosphere. We have built upon previous efforts published in the community, sharpened their definitions, and completed a baseline study. We also provide first results from this program of the comparative performance of the MHD models available at the CCMC against that of the Wang-Sheeley-Arge (WSA) model. An important goal of this effort is to provide a consistent validation to all available models. Clearly exposing the relative strengths and weaknesses of the different models will enable forecasters to craft more reliable ensemble forecasting strategies. Models of the ambient solar wind are developing rapidly as a result of improvements in data supply, numerical techniques, and computing resources. It is anticipated that in the next five to ten years, the MHD based models will supplant semi-empirical potential based models such as the WSA model, as the best available forecast models. We anticipate that this validation effort will track this evolution and so assist policy makers in gauging the value of past and future investment in modeling support.

  17. 3D Electric Waveforms of Solar Wind Turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, P. J.; Goetz, K.; Monson, S. J.

    2018-01-01

    Electric fields provide the major coupling between the turbulence of the solar wind and particles. A large part of the turbulent spectrum of fluctuations in the solar wind is thought to be kinetic Alfvén waves; however, whistlers have recently been found to be important. In this article, we attempt to determine the mode identification of individual waveforms using the three-dimensional antenna system of the SWaves experiments on the STEREO spacecraft. Samples are chosen using waveforms with an apparent periodic structure, selected visually. The short antennas of STEREO respond to density fluctuations and to electric fields. Measurement of four quantities using only three antennas presents a problem. Methods to overcome or to ignore this difficulty are presented. We attempt to decide whether the waveforms correspond to the whistler mode or the Alfvén mode by using the direction of rotation of the signal. Most of the waveforms are so oblique—nearly linearly polarized—that the direction cannot be determined. However, about one third of the waveforms can be identified, and whistlers and Alfvén waves are present in roughly equal numbers. The selected waveforms are very intense but intermittent and are orders of magnitude stronger than the average, yet their accumulated signal accounts for a large fraction of the average. The average, however, is supposed to be the result of a turbulent mixture of many waves, not short coherent events. This presents a puzzle for future work.

  18. Solar Wind Interaction with the Martian Upper Atmosphere at Early Mars/Extreme Solar Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, C.; Bougher, S. W.; Ma, Y.; Toth, G.; Lee, Y.; Nagy, A. F.; Tenishev, V.; Pawlowski, D. J.; Combi, M. R.

    2014-12-01

    The investigation of ion escape fluxes from Mars, resulting from the solar wind interaction with its upper atmosphere/ionosphere, is important due to its potential impact on the long-term evolution of Mars atmosphere (e.g., loss of water) over its history. In the present work, we adopt the 3-D Mars cold neutral atmosphere profiles (0 ~ 300 km) from the newly developed and validated Mars Global Ionosphere Thermosphere Model (M-GITM) and the 3-D hot oxygen profiles (100 km ~ 5 RM) from the exosphere Monte Carlo model Adaptive Mesh Particle Simulator (AMPS). We apply these 3-D model output fields into the 3-D BATS-R-US Mars multi-fluid MHD (MF-MHD) model (100 km ~ 20 RM) that can simulate the interplay between Mars upper atmosphere and solar wind by considering the dynamics of individual ion species. The multi-fluid MHD model solves separate continuity, momentum and energy equations for each ion species (H+, O+, O2+, CO2+). The M-GITM model together with the AMPS exosphere model take into account the effects of solar cycle and seasonal variations on both cold and hot neutral atmospheres. This feature allows us to investigate the corresponding effects on the Mars upper atmosphere ion escape by using a one-way coupling approach, i.e., both the M-GITM and AMPS model output fields are used as the input for the multi-fluid MHD model and the M-GITM is used as input into the AMPS exosphere model. In this study, we present M-GITM, AMPS, and MF-MHD calculations (1-way coupled) for 2.5 GYA conditions and/or extreme solar conditions for present day Mars (high solar wind velocities, high solar wind dynamic pressure, and high solar irradiance conditions, etc.). Present day extreme conditions may result in MF-MHD outputs that are similar to 2.5 GYA cases. The crustal field orientations are also considered in this study. By comparing estimates of past ion escape rates with the current ion loss rates to be returned by the MAVEN spacecraft (2013-2016), we can better constrain the

  19. Cometary X-rays. Solar wind charge exchange in cometary atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodewits, Dennis

    2007-06-01

    The interaction of the solar wind with the planets and the interstellar medium is of key importance for the evolution of our solar system. The interaction with Earth's atmosphere is best known for the northern light. In case of Mars, the interaction with the solar wind might have lead to the erosion of its atmosphere. Solar wind-atmosphere interactions can be studied particularly well in cometary atmospheres, because in that case the solar wind flow is not attenuated by a planetary magnetic field and interacts directly with its atmosphere, the coma. The size of the cometary atmosphere (in the order of 10(4-10^5) km) allows remote tracking of the ions as they penetrate into the comet's atmosphere, offering a unique window on the cometary atmosphere, the solar wind and the interaction of these two plasmas. When solar wind ions fly through an atmosphere they are neutralized via charge exchange reactions with the neutral gaseous species. These reactions depend strongly on target species and collision velocity. The resulting X-ray and Far-UV emission can therefore be regarded as a fingerprint of the underlying reaction, with many diagnostic qualities. My thesis studies have focussed on all aspects relevant for X-ray emission from comets: experimental studies of state-to-state charge exchange cross sections, observations of X-ray emission from comets with Chandra, XMM, and Swift, and theoretical modelling of the interaction of solar wind ions with cometary gasses and the resulting X-ray emission spectrum. Together, this has greatly improved our understanding of the interaction of the solar wind with solar system objects and in more general, of physical processes in wind-environment collisions. The thorough understanding of cometary charge exchange emission has opened the door to the direct observation of more complex solar wind interactions such as those with Mars and Venus.

  20. Statistics of counter-streaming solar wind suprathermal electrons at solar minimum: STEREO observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Lavraud

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous work has shown that solar wind suprathermal electrons can display a number of features in terms of their anisotropy. Of importance is the occurrence of counter-streaming electron patterns, i.e., with "beams" both parallel and anti-parallel to the local magnetic field, which is believed to shed light on the heliospheric magnetic field topology. In the present study, we use STEREO data to obtain the statistical properties of counter-streaming suprathermal electrons (CSEs in the vicinity of corotating interaction regions (CIRs during the period March–December 2007. Because this period corresponds to a minimum of solar activity, the results are unrelated to the sampling of large-scale coronal mass ejections, which can lead to CSE owing to their closed magnetic field topology. The present study statistically confirms that CSEs are primarily the result of suprathermal electron leakage from the compressed CIR into the upstream regions with the combined occurrence of halo depletion at 90° pitch angle. The occurrence rate of CSE is found to be about 15–20% on average during the period analyzed (depending on the criteria used, but superposed epoch analysis demonstrates that CSEs are preferentially observed both before and after the passage of the stream interface (with peak occurrence rate >35% in the trailing high speed stream, as well as both inside and outside CIRs. The results quantitatively show that CSEs are common in the solar wind during solar minimum, but yet they suggest that such distributions would be much more common if pitch angle scattering were absent. We further argue that (1 the formation of shocks contributes to the occurrence of enhanced counter-streaming sunward-directed fluxes, but does not appear to be a necessary condition, and (2 that the presence of small-scale transients with closed-field topologies likely also contributes to the occurrence of counter-streaming patterns, but only in the slow solar wind prior to

  1. Solar wind interaction with the Martian upper atmosphere: Crustal field orientation, solar cycle, and seasonal variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Chuanfei; Bougher, Stephen W.; Ma, Yingjuan; Toth, Gabor; Lee, Yuni; Nagy, Andrew F.; Tenishev, Valeriy; Pawlowski, Dave J.; Combi, Michael R.; Najib, Dalal

    2015-09-01

    A comprehensive study of the solar wind interaction with the Martian upper atmosphere is presented. Three global models: the 3-D Mars multifluid Block Adaptive Tree Solar-wind Roe Upwind Scheme MHD code (MF-MHD), the 3-D Mars Global Ionosphere Thermosphere Model (M-GITM), and the Mars exosphere Monte Carlo model Adaptive Mesh Particle Simulator (M-AMPS) were used in this study. These models are one-way coupled; i.e., the MF-MHD model uses the 3-D neutral inputs from M-GITM and the 3-D hot oxygen corona distribution from M-AMPS. By adopting this one-way coupling approach, the Martian upper atmosphere ion escape rates are investigated in detail with the combined variations of crustal field orientation, solar cycle, and Martian seasonal conditions. The calculated ion escape rates are compared with Mars Express observational data and show reasonable agreement. The variations in solar cycles and seasons can affect the ion loss by a factor of ˜3.3 and ˜1.3, respectively. The crustal magnetic field has a shielding effect to protect Mars from solar wind interaction, and this effect is the strongest for perihelion conditions, with the crustal field facing the Sun. Furthermore, the fraction of cold escaping heavy ionospheric molecular ions [(O2+ and/or O2+)/Total] are inversely proportional to the fraction of the escaping (ionospheric and corona) atomic ion [O+/Total], whereas O2+ and O2+ ion escape fractions show a positive linear correlation since both ion species are ionospheric ions that follow the same escaping path.

  2. Wind observations of low energy particles within a solar wind reconnection region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. E. J. Huttunen

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available We report characteristics of thermal particle observations during the encounter of the Wind satellite with the separatrix and the outflow domains of a reconnection event on 22 July 1999 in the solar wind. During the studied event the electrostatic analyzers on Wind were transmitting three-dimensional electron and proton distributions in a burst mode every 3 s, the spin period of the spacecraft. The event was associated with a magnetic shear angle of 114° and a large guide magnetic field. The observations suggest that Wind crossed the separatrix and outflow regions about a thousand of ion skin depths from the X-line. At the leading separator boundary, a strong proton beam was identified that originated from the direction of the X-line. In the separatrix and the outflow regions, the phase space distributions of thermal electrons displayed field aligned bidirectional anisotropy. During the crossings of the current sheets bounding the outflow region, we identified two adjacent layers in which the dominant thermal electron flows were towards the X-line at the inner edges of the current sheets and away from the X-line at the outer edges. Interestingly, simulation studies and observations in the Earth's magnetosphere have revealed that the electron flows are reversed, consistent with the Hall current system.

  3. Wind observations of low energy particles within a solar wind reconnection region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. E. J. Huttunen

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available We report characteristics of thermal particle observations during the encounter of the Wind satellite with the separatrix and the outflow domains of a reconnection event on 22 July 1999 in the solar wind. During the studied event the electrostatic analyzers on Wind were transmitting three-dimensional electron and proton distributions in a burst mode every 3 s, the spin period of the spacecraft. The event was associated with a magnetic shear angle of 114° and a large guide magnetic field. The observations suggest that Wind crossed the separatrix and outflow regions about a thousand of ion skin depths from the X-line. At the leading separator boundary, a strong proton beam was identified that originated from the direction of the X-line. In the separatrix and the outflow regions, the phase space distributions of thermal electrons displayed field aligned bidirectional anisotropy. During the crossings of the current sheets bounding the outflow region, we identified two adjacent layers in which the dominant thermal electron flows were towards the X-line at the inner edges of the current sheets and away from the X-line at the outer edges. Interestingly, simulation studies and observations in the Earth's magnetosphere have revealed that the electron flows are reversed, consistent with the Hall current system.

  4. COMPLEX MAPPING OF ENERGY RESOURCES FOR ALLOCATION OF SOLAR AND WIND ENERGY OBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. A. Novakovskiy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents developed methodology of solar and wind energy resources complex mapping at the regional level, taking into account the environmental and socio-economic factors affecting the placement of renewable energy facilities. Methodology provides a reasonable search and allocation of areas, the most promising for the placement of wind and solar power plants.

  5. Developing a hybrid solar/wind powered irrigation system for crops in the Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some small scale irrigation systems (powered by wind or solar do not require subsidies, but this paper discusses ways to achieve an economical renewable energy powered center pivot irrigation system for crops in the Great Plains. By adding a solar-photovoltaic (PV) array together with a wind...

  6. Solar PV resource for higher penetration through a combined spatial aggregation with wind

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bischof-Niemz, ST

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available between wind and solar PV and how these would be reflected in the power system. The benefits of spatial distribution of renewables are well understood, but the impact of the combined spatial aggregation of wind and solar PV is central to the design...

  7. Three-Dimensional Magnetohydrodynamic Modeling of the Solar Wind Including Pickup Protons and Turbulence Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usmanov, Arcadi V.; Goldstein, Melvyn L.; Matthaeus, William H.

    2012-01-01

    To study the effects of interstellar pickup protons and turbulence on the structure and dynamics of the solar wind, we have developed a fully three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic solar wind model that treats interstellar pickup protons as a separate fluid and incorporates the transport of turbulence and turbulent heating. The governing system of equations combines the mean-field equations for the solar wind plasma, magnetic field, and pickup protons and the turbulence transport equations for the turbulent energy, normalized cross-helicity, and correlation length. The model equations account for photoionization of interstellar hydrogen atoms and their charge exchange with solar wind protons, energy transfer from pickup protons to solar wind protons, and plasma heating by turbulent dissipation. Separate mass and energy equations are used for the solar wind and pickup protons, though a single momentum equation is employed under the assumption that the pickup protons are comoving with the solar wind protons.We compute the global structure of the solar wind plasma, magnetic field, and turbulence in the region from 0.3 to 100 AU for a source magnetic dipole on the Sun tilted by 0 deg - .90 deg and compare our results with Voyager 2 observations. The results computed with and without pickup protons are superposed to evaluate quantitatively the deceleration and heating effects of pickup protons, the overall compression of the magnetic field in the outer heliosphere caused by deceleration, and the weakening of corotating interaction regions by the thermal pressure of pickup protons.

  8. 78 FR 77447 - California Wind Energy Association, First Solar, Inc. v. California Independent System Operator...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-23

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission California Wind Energy Association, First Solar, Inc. v. California Independent System Operator Corporation, Southern California Edison Company; Notice of Complaint Take notice... Practice and Procedure, 18 CFR 385.206 (2013), California Wind Energy Association and First Solar, Inc...

  9. Interaction of the solar wind with Venus. [plasma measurements by Mariner space probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridge, H. S.; Lazarus, A. J.; Siscoe, G. L.; Hartle, R. E.; Ogilvie, K. W.; Scudder, J. D.; Yeates, C. M.

    1976-01-01

    Two topics related to the interaction of the solar wind with Venus are considered. First, a short review of the experimental evidence with particular attention to plasma measurements carried out on Mariner-5 and Mariner-10 is given. Secondly, the results of some recent theoretical work on the interaction of the solar wind with the ionosphere of Venus are summarized.

  10. Sensitivity analysis of nacelle lidar free stream wind speed measurements to wind-induction reconstruction model and lidar range configuration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Elin; Borraccino, Antoine; Meyer Forsting, Alexander Raul

    The sensitivity of nacelle lidar wind speed measurements to wind-induction models and lidar range configurations is studied using experimental data from the Nørrekær Enge (NKE) measurement campaign and simulated lidar data from Reynold-Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) aerodynamic computational fluid...

  11. The Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 2 (Executive Summary)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lew, Debra [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brinkman, Greg [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-09-01

    The electric grid is a highly complex, interconnected machine, and changing one part of the grid can have consequences elsewhere. Adding wind and solar affects the operation of the other power plants and adding high penetrations can induce cycling of fossil-fueled generators. Cycling leads to wear-and-tear costs and changes in emissions. Phase 2 of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS-2) evaluated these costs and emissions and simulated grid operations for a year to investigate the detailed impact of wind and solar on the fossil-fueled fleet. This built on Phase 1, one of the largest wind and solar integration studies ever conducted, which examined operational impacts of high wind and solar penetrations in the West(GE Energy 2010).

  12. Contribution of strong discontinuities to the power spectrum of the solar wind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borovsky, Joseph E

    2010-09-10

    Eight and a half years of magnetic field measurements (2(22) samples) from the ACE spacecraft in the solar wind at 1 A.U. are analyzed. Strong (large-rotation-angle) discontinuities in the solar wind are collected and measured. An artificial time series is created that preserves the timing and amplitudes of the discontinuities. The power spectral density of the discontinuity series is calculated and compared with the power spectral density of the solar-wind magnetic field. The strong discontinuities produce a power-law spectrum in the "inertial subrange" with a spectral index near the Kolmogorov -5/3 index. The discontinuity spectrum contains about half of the power of the full solar-wind magnetic field over this "inertial subrange." Warnings are issued about the significant contribution of discontinuities to the spectrum of the solar wind, complicating interpretation of spectral power and spectral indices.

  13. A new view on the solar wind interaction with the Moon

    CERN Document Server

    Bhardwaj, Anil; Alok, Abhinaw; Barabash, Stas; Wieser, Martin; Futaana, Yoshifumi; Wurz, Peter; Vorburger, Audrey; Holmström, Mats; Lue, Charles; Harada, Yuki; Asamura, Kazushi

    2015-01-01

    Characterised by a surface bound exosphere and localised crustal magnetic fields, the Moon was considered as a passive object when solar wind interacts with it. However, the neutral particle and plasma measurements around the Moon by recent dedicated lunar missions, such as Chandrayaan-1, Kaguya, Chang'E-1, LRO, and ARTEMIS, as well as IBEX have revealed a variety of phenomena around the Moon which results from the interaction with solar wind, such as backscattering of solar wind protons as energetic neutral atoms (ENA) from lunar surface, sputtering of atoms from the lunar surface, formation of a "mini-magnetosphere" around lunar magnetic anomaly regions, as well as several plasma populations around the Moon, including solar wind protons scattered from the lunar surface, from the magnetic anomalies, pick-up ions, protons in lunar wake and more. This paper provides a review of these recent findings and presents the interaction of solar wind with the Moon in a new perspective.

  14. Nonresonant absorption of shear Alfven waves. [in solar coronal heating and solar wind acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, H. R.

    1991-01-01

    Resonant absorption of shear Alfven waves is thought to be a likely candidate to explain heating of the solar corona and acceleration of the solar wind. A difficulty with the theory is that the absorption process is slow. Moreover, heating occurs in a very thin layer. A faster absorption mechanism is nonresonant absorption by compressional viscosity, in a curved magnetic field. Heating is nonresonant and is not localized to a narrow layer. The effect could be quite important where the solar coronal magnetic field is strongly curved, in the chromosphere. It could also be important on open field lines in the upper corona, where the compressional viscosity is large. It might imply that a significant part of outgoing Alfven waves are absorbed in the corona.

  15. How does geographic scale alter the utilization of wind and solar power in the USA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clack, C.; MacDonald, A. E.; Alexander, A.; Dunbar, A.; Xie, Y.; Wilczak, J. M.

    2012-12-01

    A significant obstacle to the widespread use of wind and solar energy is the high variability. While this obstacle is significant for a small area, because of the possibility of low wind and solar energy production for a significant period every year, over larger areas renewable energy production can make use of the fact that there will always be wind or solar energy available somewhere in the domain. A key scientific question is how large does an area have to be such that wind and solar can supply significant electricity production without large shortages? Results will be presented from a study that exams whether the continental US has enough areal scale such that the weather can drive large-scale wind and solar deployment? The study uses assimilated hourly weather data for 2006-8 and hourly electric load projected from 2006-8 to 2030. An optimization model developed for this study evaluates the cost of the national system when taking into account not only the cost of wind turbines and solar panels but also the costs of building the electricity producing stations, building the transmission lines, allowing for transmission losses and the fuel burned in the dispatch-able generation. While some results from this study are intuitive, others give surprising insights relevant to planning energy systems of the future. We show that wind and solar energy utilization increases with domain size, while the total atmospheric carbon release and total system costs are subsequently reduced. We show that transmission constraints do not significantly alter the utilization of wind and solar deployment, however, transmission dramatically affect the areal locations of the wind and solar generation plants. A similar scaling for global land and adjacent coastal areas, with no transmission constraints, shows that wind and solar energy systems are most effective on large geographic areas. The optimization model will be explained in greater detail and key results will be shared.

  16. Radio sounding of the solar wind acceleration region with spacecraft signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakovlev, Oleg I.; Pisanko, Yuri V.

    2018-01-01

    Data from coronal radio-sounding experiments carried out on various interplanetary spacecraft are used to derive the empirical radial dependence of solar wind velocity and density at heliocentric distances from 3 to 60 solar radii for heliolatitudes below 60° and for low solar activity. The radial dependencies of solar wind power and acceleration are derived from these results. Summaries of the radial behavior of characteristic parameters of the solar wind turbulence (e.g., the spectral index and the inner and outer turbulence scales), as well as the fractional density fluctuation, are also presented. These radio-sounding results provide a benchmark for models of the solar wind in its acceleration region.

  17. Markets to Facilitate Wind and Solar Energy Integration in the Bulk Power Supply: An IEA Task 25 Collaboration; Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milligan, M.; Holttinen, H.; Soder, L.; Clark, C.; Pineda, I.

    2012-09-01

    Wind and solar power will give rise to challenges in electricity markets regarding flexibility, capacity adequacy, and the participation of wind and solar generators to markets. Large amounts of wind power will have impacts on bulk power system markets and electricity prices. If the markets respond to increased wind power by increasing investments in low-capital, high-cost or marginal-cost power, the average price may remain in the same range. However, experiences so far from Denmark, Germany, Spain, and Ireland are such that the average market prices have decreased because of wind power. This reduction may result in additional revenue insufficiency, which may be corrected with a capacity market, yet capacity markets are difficult to design. However, the flexibility attributes of the capacity also need to be considered. Markets facilitating wind and solar integration will include possibilities for trading close to delivery (either by shorter gate closure times or intraday markets). Time steps chosen for markets can enable more flexibility to be assessed. Experience from 5- and 10-minute markets has been encouraging.

  18. Highly reliable wind-rolling triboelectric nanogenerator operating in a wide wind speed range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Hyungseok; Chung, Jihoon; Choi, Dukhyun; Jung, Daewoong; Cho, Minhaeng; Lee, Sangmin

    2016-09-01

    Triboelectric nanogenerators are aspiring energy harvesting methods that generate electricity from the triboelectric effect and electrostatic induction. This study demonstrates the harvesting of wind energy by a wind-rolling triboelectric nanogenerator (WR-TENG). The WR-TENG generates electricity from wind as a lightweight dielectric sphere rotates along the vortex whistle substrate. Increasing the kinetic energy of a dielectric converted from the wind energy is a key factor in fabricating an efficient WR-TENG. Computation fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis is introduced to estimate the precise movements of wind flow and to create a vortex flow by adjusting the parameters of the vortex whistle shape to optimize the design parameters to increase the kinetic energy conversion rate. WR-TENG can be utilized as both a self-powered wind velocity sensor and a wind energy harvester. A single unit of WR-TENG produces open-circuit voltage of 11.2 V and closed-circuit current of 1.86 μA. Additionally, findings reveal that the electrical power is enhanced through multiple electrode patterns in a single device and by increasing the number of dielectric spheres inside WR-TENG. The wind-rolling TENG is a novel approach for a sustainable wind-driven TENG that is sensitive and reliable to wind flows to harvest wasted wind energy in the near future.

  19. Wind shear proportional errors in the horizontal wind speed sensed by focused, range gated lidars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindelöw, Per Jonas Petter; Courtney, Michael; Parmentier, R.

    2008-01-01

    The 10-minute average horizontal wind speeds sensed with lidar and mast mounted cup anemometers, at 60 to 116 meters altitude at Hovsore, are compared. The lidar deviation from the cup value as a function of wind velocity and wind shear is studied in a 2-parametric regression analysis which reveals...... an altitude dependent relation between the lidar error and the wind shear. A likely explanation for this relation is an error in the intended sensing altitude. At most this error is estimated to 9 in which induced errors in the horizontal wind velocity of up to 0.5 m/s as compared to a cup at the intended...... for wind velocity and wind shear dependent errors are discussed. The 2-parametric regression analysis described in this paper is proven to be a better approach when acceptance testing and calibrating lidars....

  20. Could Wind or Solar Energy Replace Diesel Generators for Aviation Ground Maintenance Operations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-17

    administration to cover the solar panels with tarps . Additionally, the panels have been rearranged in more than a few occasions. On the other hand, there are...Master of Mifltary Studies Research Paper September 2012- April2013 4. TITLE AND SUB11TLE 5a. CONTRACT NUIIBER : Could Wind or Solar Energy Replace...logistic footprints, as a result the USMC is looking fro green alternatives to reduce their dependency on fossil fuels. Wind and solar power. although two

  1. Regional variations in the health, environmental, and climate benefits of wind and solar generation

    OpenAIRE

    Siler-Evans, Kyle; Azevedo, Inês Lima; Morgan, M. Granger; Apt, Jay

    2013-01-01

    When wind or solar energy displace conventional generation, the reduction in emissions varies dramatically across the United States. Although the Southwest has the greatest solar resource, a solar panel in New Jersey displaces significantly more sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and particulate matter than a panel in Arizona, resulting in 15 times more health and environmental benefits. A wind turbine in West Virginia displaces twice as much carbon dioxide as the same turbine in California. De...

  2. 75 FR 59291 - In the Matter of: Certain Wind and Solar-Powered Light Posts and Street Lamps; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-27

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of: Certain Wind and Solar-Powered Light Posts and Street Lamps; Notice of... after importation of certain wind and solar- ] powered light posts and street lamps that infringe the... the sale within the United States after importation of certain wind and solar-powered light posts and...

  3. Examining a solar climate link in diurnal temperature ranges

    CERN Document Server

    Laken, Benjamin A; Shahbaz, Tariq; Pallé, Enric; 10.1029/2012JD17683

    2012-01-01

    A recent study has suggested a link between the surface level diurnal temperature range (DTR) and variations in the cosmic ray (CR) flux. As the DTR is an effective proxy for cloud cover, this result supports the notion that widespread cloud changes may be induced by the CR flux. If confirmed, this would have significant implications for our understanding of natural climate forcings. Here, we perform a detailed investigation of the relationships between DTR and solar activity (total solar irradiance and the CR flux) from more than 60 years of NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data and observations from meteorological station data. We find no statistically significant evidence to suggest that the DTR is connected to either long-term solar periodicities (11 or 1.68 year) or short-term (daily-timescale) fluctuations in solar activity, and we attribute previous reports on the contrary to an incorrect estimation of the statistical significance of the data. If a CR-DTR relationship exists, based on the estimated noise in DTR co...

  4. Universality of solar-wind turbulent spectrum from MHD to electron scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrova, O; Saur, J; Lacombe, C; Mangeney, A; Mitchell, J; Schwartz, S J; Robert, P

    2009-10-16

    To investigate the universality of magnetic turbulence in space plasmas, we analyze seven time periods in the free solar wind under different plasma conditions. Three instruments on Cluster spacecraft operating in different frequency ranges give us the possibility to resolve spectra up to 300 Hz. We show that the spectra form a quasiuniversal spectrum following the Kolmogorov's law approximately k(-5/3) at MHD scales, a approximately k(-2.8) power law at ion scales, and an exponential approximately exp[-sqrt[k(rho)e

  5. Phase-synchronization, energy cascade, and intermittency in solar-wind turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perri, S; Carbone, V; Vecchio, A; Bruno, R; Korth, H; Zurbuchen, T H; Sorriso-Valvo, L

    2012-12-14

    The energy cascade in solar wind magnetic turbulence is investigated using MESSENGER data in the inner heliosphere. The decomposition of magnetic field time series in intrinsic functions, each characterized by a typical time scale, reveals phase reorganization. This allows for the identification of structures of all sizes generated by the nonlinear turbulent cascade, covering both the inertial and the dispersive ranges of the turbulent magnetic power spectrum. We find that the correlation (or anticorrelation) of phases occurs between pairs of neighboring time scales, whenever localized peaks of magnetic energy are present at both scales, consistent with the local character of the energy transfer process.

  6. Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 2 (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lew, D.; Brinkman, G.; Ibanez, E.; Kumar, N.; Lefton, S.; Jordan, G.; Venkataraman, S.; King, J.

    2013-06-01

    This presentation accompanies Phase 2 of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study, a follow-on to Phase 1, which examined the operational impacts of high penetrations of variable renewable generation on the electric power system in the West and was one of the largest variable generation studies to date. High penetrations of variable generation can induce cycling of fossil-fueled generators. Cycling leads to wear-and-tear costs and changes in emissions. Phase 2 calculated these costs and emissions, and simulated grid operations for a year to investigate the detailed impact of variable generation on the fossil-fueled fleet. The presentation highlights the scope of the study and results.

  7. Investigation of Backside Textures for Genesis Solar Wind Silicon Collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, C. P.; Burkett, P. J.; Rodriguez, M. C.; Allton, J. H.

    2014-01-01

    Genesis solar wind collectors were comprised of a suite of 15 types of ultrapure materials. The single crystal, pure silicon collectors were fabricated by two methods: float zone (FZ) and Czochralski (CZ). Because of slight differences in bulk purity and surface cleanliness among the fabrication processes and the specific vendor, it is desirable to know which variety of silicon and identity of vendor, so that appropriate reference materials can be used. The Czochralski method results in a bulk composition with slightly higher oxygen, for example. The CZ silicon array wafers that were Genesis-flown were purchased from MEMC Electronics. Most of the Genesis-flown FZ silicon was purchased from Unisil and cleaned by MEMC, although a few FZ wafers were acquired from International Wafer Service (IWS).

  8. Cyclotron instabilities driven by temperature anisotropy in the solar wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noreen, N.; Yoon, P. H.; Zaheer, S.

    2017-10-01

    Kinetic plasma instabilities are important for regulating the temperature anisotropies of electrons and ions in solar wind. For the low beta regime, it is known that electromagnetic ion/electron cyclotron instabilities are important, but in the literature these unstable modes are discussed under the assumption of parallel propagation. The present paper extends the analysis to two (or with cylindrical symmetry, three) dimensions. The analysis is further extended to include quasilinear description with the assumption of the bi-Maxwellian velocity distribution function. Such an analysis lays the foundation for an eventual study in which cyclotron instabilities as well as obliquely propagating unstable modes such as the mirror instability are simultaneously taken into account. The present paper first lays down the basis for such future efforts in which the two- or three dimensional linear and quasilinear theories of cyclotron instabilities in the low beta regime are formulated.

  9. Solar wind heating by an embedded quasi-isothermal pick-up ion fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. J. Fahr

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the solar wind plasma consists of primary ions of solar coronal origin and secondary ions of interstellar origin. Interstellar H-atoms penetrate into the inner heliosphere and when ionized there are converted into secondary ions. These are implanted into the magnetized solar wind flow and are essentially enforced to co-move with this flow. By nonlinear interactions with wind-entrained Alfvén waves the latter are processed in the co-moving velocity space. This pick-up process, however, also causes actions back upon the original solar wind flow, leading to a deceleration, as well as a heating of the solar wind plasma. The resulting deceleration is not only due to the loading effect, but also due to the action of the pressure gradient. To calculate the latter, it is important to take into account the stochastic acceleration that suffers at their convection out of the inner heliosphere by the quasi-linear interactions with MHD turbulences. Only then can the presently reported VOYAGER observations of solar wind decelerations and heatings in the outer heliosphere be understood in terms of the current, most likely values of interstellar gas parameters. In a consistent view of the thermodynamics of the solar wind plasma, which is composed of secondary ions and solar wind protons, we also derive that the latter are globally heated at their motion to larger solar distances. The arising heat transfer is due to the action of suprathermal ions which drive MHD waves that are partially absorbed by solar wind protons and thereby establish their observed quasi-polytropy. We obtain a quantitative expression for the solar wind proton pressure as a function of solar distance. This expression clearly shows the change from an adiabatic to a quasi-polytropic behaviour with a decreasing polytropic index at increasing distances, as has been observed by the VOYAGERS. This also allows one to calculate the average percentage of the intitial energy

  10. Solar wind heating by an embedded quasi-isothermal pick-up ion fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. J. Fahr

    Full Text Available It is well known that the solar wind plasma consists of primary ions of solar coronal origin and secondary ions of interstellar origin. Interstellar H-atoms penetrate into the inner heliosphere and when ionized there are converted into secondary ions. These are implanted into the magnetized solar wind flow and are essentially enforced to co-move with this flow. By nonlinear interactions with wind-entrained Alfvén waves the latter are processed in the co-moving velocity space. This pick-up process, however, also causes actions back upon the original solar wind flow, leading to a deceleration, as well as a heating of the solar wind plasma. The resulting deceleration is not only due to the loading effect, but also due to the action of the pressure gradient. To calculate the latter, it is important to take into account the stochastic acceleration that suffers at their convection out of the inner heliosphere by the quasi-linear interactions with MHD turbulences. Only then can the presently reported VOYAGER observations of solar wind decelerations and heatings in the outer heliosphere be understood in terms of the current, most likely values of interstellar gas parameters. In a consistent view of the thermodynamics of the solar wind plasma, which is composed of secondary ions and solar wind protons, we also derive that the latter are globally heated at their motion to larger solar distances. The arising heat transfer is due to the action of suprathermal ions which drive MHD waves that are partially absorbed by solar wind protons and thereby establish their observed quasi-polytropy. We obtain a quantitative expression for the solar wind proton pressure as a function of solar distance. This expression clearly shows the change from an adiabatic to a quasi-polytropic behaviour with a decreasing polytropic index at increasing distances, as has been observed by the VOYAGERS. This also allows one to calculate the average percentage of the intitial energy

  11. RECONSTRUCTING THE SOLAR WIND FROM ITS EARLY HISTORY TO CURRENT EPOCH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Airapetian, Vladimir S.; Usmanov, Arcadi V., E-mail: vladimir.airapetian@nasa.gov, E-mail: avusmanov@gmail.com [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Stellar winds from active solar-type stars can play a crucial role in removal of stellar angular momentum and erosion of planetary atmospheres. However, major wind properties except for mass-loss rates cannot be directly derived from observations. We employed a three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic Alfvén wave driven solar wind model, ALF3D, to reconstruct the solar wind parameters including the mass-loss rate, terminal velocity, and wind temperature at 0.7, 2, and 4.65 Gyr. Our model treats the wind thermal electrons, protons, and pickup protons as separate fluids and incorporates turbulence transport, eddy viscosity, turbulent resistivity, and turbulent heating to properly describe proton and electron temperatures of the solar wind. To study the evolution of the solar wind, we specified three input model parameters, the plasma density, Alfvén wave amplitude, and the strength of the dipole magnetic field at the wind base for each of three solar wind evolution models that are consistent with observational constrains. Our model results show that the velocity of the paleo solar wind was twice as fast, ∼50 times denser and 2 times hotter at 1 AU in the Sun's early history at 0.7 Gyr. The theoretical calculations of mass-loss rate appear to be in agreement with the empirically derived values for stars of various ages. These results can provide realistic constraints for wind dynamic pressures on magnetospheres of (exo)planets around the young Sun and other active stars, which is crucial in realistic assessment of the Joule heating of their ionospheres and corresponding effects of atmospheric erosion.

  12. Estimated performance of solar PV and wind turbine systems compared to coincident electrical demand in Minnesota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artig, R. [Minnesota Dept. of Public Service, St. Paul, MN (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The Minnesota Department of Public Service (department), with the cooperation of Northern States Power (NSP) and US Department of Energy, is making a detailed study of wind and solar resources in the Buffalo Ridge area of southwestern Minnesota. The purpose of the study is to determine the viability of using a combination of wind and solar generation facilities to help meet electrical demand in the region. Through the Solar/Wind Study, five monitoring sites have been established to collect solar radiation and temperature data as well as to record wind speed and direction information at multiple elevations. In this paper, the data from the first year of the Solar/Wind Study are used to directly compare the projected hourly production of electricity from the wind and solar resources to hourly electrical demand. This study compares the potential electrical production from these renewable resources concurrent with peak or near peak occurrences in electrical demand. The electrical demand information used in this study is from two utilities: NSP, a utility that supplies electricity to a combination of urban residential, commercial, and industrial customers; and Cooperative Power (CP), which provides power primarily to suburban and rural residential customers. Estimates of the performance of solar PV systems were made using PVFORM, a simulation program from Sandia National Laboratories. Analysis of first year data indicates that the availability of electricity generated from a combination of solar and wind resources matches period of high peak demand for Northern States Power. The value of adding wind and solar generated electricity to the utility`s resource mix merits further investigation. The match between solar and wind power availability and Cooperative Power`s peak demand period is not apparent, but here, too, further study is needed.

  13. TURBULENCE IN THE SOLAR WIND MEASURED WITH COMET TAIL TEST PARTICLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeForest, C. E.; Howard, T. A. [Southwest Research Institute, 1050 Walnut Street Suite 300, Boulder, CO 80302 (United States); Matthaeus, W. H. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, 217 Sharp Laboratory, Newark, DE 19711 (United States); Rice, D. R. [Northwestern University, 633 Clark St., Evanston, IL 60208 (United States)

    2015-10-20

    By analyzing the motions of test particles observed remotely in the tail of Comet Encke, we demonstrate that the solar wind undergoes turbulent processing enroute from the Sun to the Earth and that the kinetic energy entrained in the large-scale turbulence is sufficient to explain the well-known anomalous heating of the solar wind. Using the heliospheric imaging (HI-1) camera on board NASA's STEREO-A spacecraft, we have observed an ensemble of compact features in the comet tail as they became entrained in the solar wind near 0.4 AU. We find that the features are useful as test particles, via mean-motion analysis and a forward model of pickup dynamics. Using population analysis of the ensemble's relative motion, we find a regime of random-walk diffusion in the solar wind, followed, on larger scales, by a surprising regime of semiconfinement that we attribute to turbulent eddies in the solar wind. The entrained kinetic energy of the turbulent motions represents a sufficient energy reservoir to heat the solar wind to observed temperatures at 1 AU. We determine the Lagrangian-frame diffusion coefficient in the diffusive regime, derive upper limits for the small scale coherence length of solar wind turbulence, compare our results to existing Eulerian-frame measurements, and compare the turbulent velocity with the size of the observed eddies extrapolated to 1 AU. We conclude that the slow solar wind is fully mixed by turbulence on scales corresponding to a 1–2 hr crossing time at Earth; and that solar wind variability on timescales shorter than 1–2 hr is therefore dominated by turbulent processing rather than by direct solar effects.

  14. On lunar exospheric column densities and solar wind access beyond the terminator from ROSAT soft X-ray observations of solar wind charge exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Michael R.; Snowden, S. L.; Sarantos, M.; Benna, M.; Carter, J. A.; Cravens, T. E.; Farrell, W. M.; Fatemi, S.; Hills, H. Kent; Hodges, R. R.; Holmström, M.; Kuntz, K. D.; Porter, F. Scott; Read, A.; Robertson, I. P.; Sembay, S. F.; Sibeck, D. G.; Stubbs, T. J.; Travnicek, P.; Walsh, B. M.

    2014-07-01

    We analyze the Röntgen satellite (ROSAT) position sensitive proportional counter soft X-ray image of the Moon taken on 29 June 1990 by examining the radial profile of the surface brightness in three wedges: two 19° wedges (one north and one south) 13-32° off the terminator toward the dark side and one wedge 38° wide centered on the antisolar direction. The radial profiles of both the north and the south wedges show significant limb brightening that is absent in the 38° wide antisolar wedge. An analysis of the soft X-ray intensity increase associated with the limb brightening shows that its magnitude is consistent with that expected due to solar wind charge exchange (SWCX) with the tenuous lunar atmosphere based on lunar exospheric models and hybrid simulation results of solar wind access beyond the terminator. Soft X-ray imaging thus can independently infer the total lunar limb column density including all species, a property that before now has not been measured, and provide a large-scale picture of the solar wind-lunar interaction. Because the SWCX signal appears to be dominated by exospheric species arising from solar wind implantation, this technique can also determine how the exosphere varies with solar wind conditions. Now, along with Mars, Venus, and Earth, the Moon represents another solar system body at which SWCX has been observed.

  15. Costs of solar and wind power variability for reducing CO2 emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lueken, Colleen; Cohen, Gilbert E; Apt, Jay

    2012-09-04

    We compare the power output from a year of electricity generation data from one solar thermal plant, two solar photovoltaic (PV) arrays, and twenty Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT) wind farms. The analysis shows that solar PV electricity generation is approximately one hundred times more variable at frequencies on the order of 10(-3) Hz than solar thermal electricity generation, and the variability of wind generation lies between that of solar PV and solar thermal. We calculate the cost of variability of the different solar power sources and wind by using the costs of ancillary services and the energy required to compensate for its variability and intermittency, and the cost of variability per unit of displaced CO(2) emissions. We show the costs of variability are highly dependent on both technology type and capacity factor. California emissions data were used to calculate the cost of variability per unit of displaced CO(2) emissions. Variability cost is greatest for solar PV generation at $8-11 per MWh. The cost of variability for solar thermal generation is $5 per MWh, while that of wind generation in ERCOT was found to be on average $4 per MWh. Variability adds ~$15/tonne CO(2) to the cost of abatement for solar thermal power, $25 for wind, and $33-$40 for PV.

  16. Decay of Solar Wind Turbulence behind Interplanetary Shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitňa, Alexander; Šafránková, Jana; Němeček, Zdeněk; Franci, Luca

    2017-07-01

    We investigate the decay of magnetic and kinetic energies behind IP shocks with motivation to find a relaxation time when downstream turbulence reaches a usual solar wind value. We start with a case study that introduces computation techniques and quantifies a contribution of kinetic fluctuations to the general energy balance. This part of the study is based on high-time (31 ms) resolution plasma data provided by the Spektr-R spacecraft. On the other hand, a statistical part is based on 92 s Wind plasma and magnetic data and its results confirm theoretically established decay laws for kinetic and magnetic energies. We observe the power-law behavior of the energy decay profiles and we estimated the power-law exponents of both kinetic and magnetic energy decay rates as -1.2. We found that the decay of MHD turbulence does not start immediately after the IP shock ramp and we suggest that the proper decay of turbulence begins when a contribution of the kinetic processes becomes negligible. We support this suggestion with a detailed analysis of the decay of turbulence at the kinetic scale.

  17. Multi-fluid MHD study of the solar wind interaction with Venus at Solar max and Solar min conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Y. J.; Nagy, A. F.; Russell, C. T.; Najib, D.; Toth, G.

    2012-09-01

    We study the solar wind interaction with Venus, using a new advanced multi-fluid MHD model that has been developed recently. The model is similar to the numerical model that was successfully applied to Mars (Najib et al., 2011). Mass densities, velocities and pressures of the protons and three important ionosphere ion species (O+, O2+ and CO2+) are self-consistently calculated by solving the individual coupled continuity, momentum and energy equations. The various chemical reactions and ion-neutral collision processes are considered in the model. The simulation domain covers the region from 100 km altitude above the surface up to 16 RV in the tail. An adaptive spherical grid structure is constructed with radial resolution of about 10 km in the lower ionosphere. The model is applied to both solar-maximum and solar-minimum conditions and model results are compared in detail with multi-species single fluid model results and VEX observations.

  18. The connection between solar wind charged particles and tornadoes: Case analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovanović Milan M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The temperature of charged particles coming from the Sun ranges from several hundred thousands to several millions °C, in extreme cases. Theoretical possibilities of the hydrodynamic air mass seizing by charged particles, i. e. solar wind, are discussed in this paper. On one hand, they are characterized by extremely high temperatures, on the other, by the compression of cold air at an approximate altitude of 90 km towards the top of the cloud of the cyclone, they influence the phenomenon of extremely low temperatures. By using the Mann-Whitney U test we have tried to determine the potential link between certain indicators of solar activity and resulting disturbances in the atmosphere. Analyzed data refer to global daily values for the 2004-2010 period. Our results confirm the possibility of coupling between the charged particles and the vortex air mass movements, based on which a more detailed study of the appearance of a tornado near Sombor on May 12th, 2010, was carried out. It has also been proven that there are grounds for a causality between the sudden arrival of the solar wind charged particles, i. e. protons, and the appearance of a tornado. Based on the presented approach, elements for an entirely novel prediction model are given. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III47007 i br. 176008

  19. Signatures of Slow Solar Wind Streams from Active Regions in the Inner Corona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slemzin, V.; Harra, L.; Urnov, A.; Kuzin, S.; Goryaev, F.; Berghmans, D.

    2013-08-01

    The identification of solar-wind sources is an important question in solar physics. The existing solar-wind models ( e.g., the Wang-Sheeley-Arge model) provide the approximate locations of the solar wind sources based on magnetic field extrapolations. It has been suggested recently that plasma outflows observed at the edges of active regions may be a source of the slow solar wind. To explore this we analyze an isolated active region (AR) adjacent to small coronal hole (CH) in July/August 2009. On 1 August, Hinode/EUV Imaging Spectrometer observations showed two compact outflow regions in the corona. Coronal rays were observed above the active-region coronal hole (ARCH) region on the eastern limb on 31 July by STEREO-A/EUVI and at the western limb on 7 August by CORONAS- Photon/TESIS telescopes. In both cases the coronal rays were co-aligned with open magnetic-field lines given by the potential field source surface model, which expanded into the streamer. The solar-wind parameters measured by STEREO-B, ACE, Wind, and STEREO-A confirmed the identification of the ARCH as a source region of the slow solar wind. The results of the study support the suggestion that coronal rays can represent signatures of outflows from ARs propagating in the inner corona along open field lines into the heliosphere.

  20. Towards Dynamic Realism for Solar Wind Boundary Conditions Used in Global Heliospheric Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thatcher, L. J.; Mueller, H.; Heiderer, A.

    2009-12-01

    The two Voyager missions have demonstrated the highly time-dependent nature of the outer heliosphere, and the measurements from IBEX will require, for proper interpretation of the data, theoretical models that incorporate this time-dependence. Our research group uses multifluid HD models of the global heliosphere with idealized, simplified solar wind conditions for the inner boundary of the simulations. For this contribution, solar wind data of the past four solar cycles, taken from NASA's OMNI data set, is used to build a realistic inner boundary data set for our simulations. This data set is time-dependent so as to realistically represent changes in solar wind characteristics through the solar cycle and capture the corresponding transient effects in the heliosphere. We have had preliminary success with our data set, extrapolating OMNI data, which is entirely Sun-Earth directed, to fill the entire ecliptic disc. The success of the results confirmed to us that, with some improvements, our central technique would create a solar win data set sufficiently realistic for heliospheric simulations. To refine the data set, independent analyses and categorization of data will be performed. Four solar wind regimes are envisioned, undisturbed fast and slow wind, ICME wind, and 'other' wind, the catchall category. After we have categorized the entire OMNI data set, our extrapolations will represent the behavior of each regime in a more realistic fashion. Preliminary results for global heliospheric simulations will be presented.

  1. Thermodynamic characteristics of a novel wind-solar-liquid air energy storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, W.; Zhou, Y.; Sun, Y.; Zhang, W.; Pan, C. Z.; Wang, J. J.

    2017-12-01

    Due to the nature of fluctuation and intermittency, the utilization of wind and solar power will bring a huge impact to the power grid management. Therefore a novel hybrid wind-solar-liquid air energy storage (WS-LAES) system was proposed. In this system, wind and solar power are stored in the form of liquid air by cryogenic liquefaction technology and thermal energy by solar thermal collector, respectively. Owing to the high density of liquid air, the system has a large storage capacity and no geographic constraints. The WS-LAES system can store unstable wind and solar power for a stable output of electric energy and hot water. Moreover, a thermodynamic analysis was carried out to investigate the best system performance. The result shows that the increases of compressor adiabatic efficiency, turbine inlet pressure and inlet temperature all have a beneficial effect.

  2. FIP effect for minor heavy solar wind ions as seen with SOHO/CELIAS/MTOF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heidrich-Meisner, Verena, E-mail: heidrich@physik.uni-kiel.de; Berger, Lars; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F. [Christian-Albrechts-Universität Kiel (Germany); Wurz, Peter [University of Bern, Bern (Switzerland); Bochsler, Peter [University of New Hampshire, Durham (United States); Ipavich, Fred M. [University of Maryland, College Park (United States); Paquette, John A. [Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Göttingen (Germany); Klecker, Bernd [Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Garching (Germany)

    2016-03-25

    A recent paper [Shearer et al., 2014] reported that during solar maximum Ne showed a surprisingly low abundance. This leads to the question whether other elements show the same behavior. The good mass resolution of Mass-Time-Of-Flight (MTOF) as part of the Charge ELement and Isotope Analysis System (CELIAS) on the Solar Helioshperic Observatory (SOHO) allows to investigate the composition of heavy minor elements in different types of solar wind. We restrict this study to slow solar wind, where the characterisation of slow solar wind is taken from Xu and Borovsky, 2014. This classification scheme requires magnet field information. Since SOHO does not carry a magnetometer, we use the Magnetometer (MAG) of the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) instead. The Solar Wind Ion Composition Spectrometer (ACE/SWICS) also provides composition data for cross-calibration and charge-state distributions as input for the transmission function of MTOF whenever the two spacecraft can be expected to observe the same type of wind. We illustrate the MTOF’s capability to determine the solar wind abundance compared to the photospheric abundance (called the FIP ratio in the following) for rare elements like Ti or Cr on long-time scales as a proof of concept for our analysis. And in this brief study, measurements with both ACE/SWICS indicate that the observed elements exhibit a (weak) dependence on the solar cycle, whereas the MTOF measurements are inconclusive.

  3. Observational Evidence for Self-generation of Small-scale Magnetic Flux Ropes from Intermittent Solar Wind Turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jinlei; Hu, Qiang

    2018-01-01

    We present unique and additional observational evidence for the self-generation of small-scale coherent magnetic flux rope structures in the solar wind. Such structures with durations between 9 and 361 minutes are identified from Wind in situ spacecraft measurements through the Grad–Shafranov (GS) reconstruction approach. The event occurrence counts are on the order of 3500 per year on average and have a clear solar-cycle dependence. We build a database of small-scale magnetic flux ropes from 20 yr worth of Wind spacecraft data. We show a power-law distribution of the wall-to-wall time corresponding well to the inertial range turbulence, which agrees with relevant observations and numerical simulation results. We also provide the axial current density distribution from the GS-based observational analysis, which yields a non-Gaussian probability density function consistent with numerical simulation results.

  4. Probability density functions for the variable solar wind near the solar cycle minimum

    CERN Document Server

    Vörös,; Leitner, M; Narita, Y; Consolini, G; Kovács, P; Tóth, A; Lichtenberger, J

    2015-01-01

    Unconditional and conditional statistics is used for studying the histograms of magnetic field multi-scale fluctuations in the solar wind near the solar cycle minimum in 2008. The unconditional statistics involves the magnetic data during the whole year 2008. The conditional statistics involves the magnetic field time series splitted into concatenated subsets of data according to a threshold in dynamic pressure. The threshold separates fast stream leading edge compressional and trailing edge uncompressional fluctuations. The histograms obtained from these data sets are associated with both large-scale (B) and small-scale ({\\delta}B) magnetic fluctuations, the latter corresponding to time-delayed differences. It is shown here that, by keeping flexibility but avoiding the unnecessary redundancy in modeling, the histograms can be effectively described by a limited set of theoretical probability distribution functions (PDFs), such as the normal, log-normal, kappa and logkappa functions. In a statistical sense the...

  5. Modeling and analysis of solar wind generated contributions to the near-Earth magnetic field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vennerstrøm, Susanne; Moretto, T.; Rastatter, L.

    2006-01-01

    Solar wind generated magnetic disturbances are currently one of the major obstacles for improving the accuracy in the determination of the magnetic field due to sources internal to the Earth. In the present study a global MHD model of solar wind magnetosphere interaction is used to obtain...... of identifying the most important aspects of the solar wind disturbances in an internal field modeling context. The contribution from the distant magnetospheric currents is found to consist of two, mainly opposing, contributions from respectively the dayside magnetopause currents and the cross-tail current...

  6. Comparison of plasma sheet ion composition with the IMF and solar wind plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennartsson, W.

    1988-01-01

    Plasma sheet energetic ion data (0.1- to 16 keV/e) obtained by the Plasma Composition Experiment on ISEE-1 between 10 and 23 earth radii are compared with concurrent IMF and solar wind plasma data. The densities of H(+) and He(++) ions in the plasma sheet are found to be the highest, and the most nearly proportional to the solar wind density, when the IMF B(z) is not northward. The density of terrestrial O(+) ions increases strongly with increasing magnitude of the IMF, in apparent agreement with the notion that the IMF plays a fundamental role in the electric coupling between the solar wind and the ionosphere.

  7. Wind and Solar Resource Assessment of Sri Lanka and the Maldives (CD-ROM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, D.; Schwartz, M.; Scott, G.; Haymes, S.; Heimiller, D.; George, R.

    2003-08-01

    The Wind and Solar Resource Assessment of Sri Lanka and the Maldives CD contains an electronic version of Wind Energy Resource Atlas of Sri Lanka and the Maldives (NREL/TP-500-34518), Solar Resource Assessment for Sri Lanka and the Maldives (NREL/TO-710-34645), Sri Lanka Wind Farm Analysis and Site Selection Assistance (NREL/SR-500-34646), GIS Data Viewer (software and data files with a readme file), and Hourly Solar and Typical Meteorological Year Data with a readme file.

  8. The energy coupling function and the power generated by the solar wind-magnetosphere dynamo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, J. R.; Lee, L. C.; Akasofu, S.-I.

    1980-01-01

    A solar wind parameter epsilon, known as the energy coupling function, has been shown to correlate with the power consumption in the magnetosphere. It is shown in the present paper that the parameter epsilon can be identified semi-quantitatively as the dynamo power delivered from the solar wind to an open magnetosphere. This identification not only provides a theoretical basis for the energy coupling function, but also constitutes an observational verification of the solar wind-magnetosphere dynamo along the magnetotail. Moreover, one can now conclude that a substorm results when the dynamo power exceeds 10 to the 18th erg/s.

  9. Solar Energetic Particles (SEP) and Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) as tracers of solar wind conditions near Saturn: Event lists and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussos, E.; Jackman, C. M.; Thomsen, M. F.; Kurth, W. S.; Badman, S. V.; Paranicas, C.; Kollmann, P.; Krupp, N.; Bučík, R.; Mitchell, D. G.; Krimigis, S. M.; Hamilton, D. C.; Radioti, A.

    2018-01-01

    The lack of an upstream solar wind monitor poses a major challenge to any study that investigates the influence of the solar wind on the configuration and the dynamics of Saturn's magnetosphere. Here we show how Cassini MIMI/LEMMS observations of Solar Energetic Particle (SEP) and Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR) transients, that are both linked to energetic processes in the heliosphere such us Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections (ICMEs) and Corotating Interaction Regions (CIRs), can be used to trace enhanced solar wind conditions at Saturn's distance. SEP protons can be easily distinguished from magnetospheric ions, particularly at the MeV energy range. Many SEPs are also accompanied by strong GCR Forbush Decreases. GCRs are detectable as a low count-rate noise signal in a large number of LEMMS channels. As SEPs and GCRs can easily penetrate into the outer and middle magnetosphere, they can be monitored continuously, even when Cassini is not situated in the solar wind. A survey of the MIMI/LEMMS dataset between 2004 and 2016 resulted in the identification of 46 SEP events. Most events last more than two weeks and have their lowest occurrence rate around the extended solar minimum between 2008 and 2010, suggesting that they are associated to ICMEs rather than CIRs, which are the main source of activity during the declining phase and the minimum of the solar cycle. We also list of 17 time periods ( > 50 days each) where GCRs show a clear solar periodicity ( ∼ 13 or 26 days). The 13-day period that derives from two CIRs per solar rotation dominates over the 26-day period in only one of the 17 cases catalogued. This interval belongs to the second half of 2008 when expansions of Saturn's electron radiation belts were previously reported to show a similar periodicity. That observation not only links the variability of Saturn's electron belts to solar wind processes, but also indicates that the source of the observed periodicity in GCRs may be local. In this case GCR

  10. Correlations at large scales and the onset of turbulence in the fast solar wind

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wicks, R. T.; Roberts, D. A. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 672, Greenbelt, MD (United States); Mallet, A.; Schekochihin, A. A. [Rudolf Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3NP (United Kingdom); Horbury, T. S. [Space and Atmospheric Physics Group, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Chen, C. H. K., E-mail: robert.t.wicks@nasa.gov [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2013-12-01

    We show that the scaling of structure functions of magnetic and velocity fields in a mostly highly Alfvénic fast solar wind stream depends strongly on the joint distribution of the dimensionless measures of cross helicity and residual energy. Already at very low frequencies, fluctuations that are both more balanced (cross helicity ∼0) and equipartitioned (residual energy ∼0) have steep structure functions reminiscent of 'turbulent' scalings usually associated with the inertial range. Fluctuations that are magnetically dominated (residual energy ∼–1), and so have closely anti-aligned Elsasser-field vectors, or are imbalanced (cross helicity ∼1), and so have closely aligned magnetic and velocity vectors, have wide '1/f' ranges typical of fast solar wind. We conclude that the strength of nonlinear interactions of individual fluctuations within a stream, diagnosed by the degree of correlation in direction and magnitude of magnetic and velocity fluctuations, determines the extent of the 1/f region observed, and thus the onset scale for the turbulent cascade.

  11. An evaluation on the cost efficiency of wind and solar hybrid power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Hugo

    Solar energy generation is intermittent due to the limitation of night time and weather, so batteries are normally used to stabilize the solar energy output in the distributed generation system. However, batteries are still expensive and have relatively short life span. The motivation of this research is to evaluate if wind energy can be a more cost efficient solution to replace battery storage. An algorithm is created to analyze the solar irradiance, wind speed and load data from two different cities, Atlantic City and San Diego. Then find the most cost efficient renewable energy solution for each city under different renewable energy penetration level. The result shows that the wind energy is not a good substitution for battery. The solar and wind hybrid system can reach higher renewable energy penetration level, but the cost of the system and the wasted energy percentage is also extremely high. In San Diego, the integration of wind energy does not bring any economic benefit to the solar system. In Atlantic City, where the wind energy resource is abundant, adding wind turbines to the solar battery system can lower the system cost while maintaining the same level of renewable energy penetration.

  12. Hybrid Model of Inhomogeneous Solar Wind Plasma Heating by Alfven Wave Spectrum: Parametric Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofman, L.

    2010-01-01

    Observations of the solar wind plasma at 0.3 AU and beyond show that a turbulent spectrum of magnetic fluctuations is present. Remote sensing observations of the corona indicate that heavy ions are hotter than protons and their temperature is anisotropic (T(sub perpindicular / T(sub parallel) >> 1). We study the heating and the acceleration of multi-ion plasma in the solar wind by a turbulent spectrum of Alfvenic fluctuations using a 2-D hybrid numerical model. In the hybrid model the protons and heavy ions are treated kinetically as particles, while the electrons are included as neutralizing background fluid. This is the first two-dimensional hybrid parametric study of the solar wind plasma that includes an input turbulent wave spectrum guided by observation with inhomogeneous background density. We also investigate the effects of He++ ion beams in the inhomogeneous background plasma density on the heating of the solar wind plasma. The 2-D hybrid model treats parallel and oblique waves, together with cross-field inhomogeneity, self-consistently. We investigate the parametric dependence of the perpendicular heating, and the temperature anisotropy in the H+-He++ solar wind plasma. It was found that the scaling of the magnetic fluctuations power spectrum steepens in the higher-density regions, and the heating is channeled to these regions from the surrounding lower-density plasma due to wave refraction. The model parameters are applicable to the expected solar wind conditions at about 10 solar radii.

  13. Estimating the solar wind pressure at comet 67P from Rosetta magnetic field measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Z.; Dósa, M.; Goetz, C.; Madanian, H.; Opitz, A.; Richter, I.; Szego, K.; Timar, A.

    2017-09-01

    The solar wind pressure is an important parameter of planetary space weather, which plays a crucial role in the interaction of the solar wind with the planetary plasma environment. Unfortunately, it is not always possible to measure its value at every locations where it would be useful or needed. Spacecraft observing the internal dynamics of a planetary magnetosphere, for example, would benefit greatly from solar wind pressure data, but as the solar wind does not penetrate to their locations, direct measurements are impossible. It is well known that the maximum of the magnetic field in the pile-up region of a magnetosphere is proportional to the square root of the solar wind pressure. Recent investigation of Rosetta data revealed that the maximum of the magnetic field in the pile-up region can be approximated by magnetic field measurements performed in the inner regions of the cometary magnetosphere close to the boundary of the diamagnetic cavity. This relationship holds for several months spanning from June 2015 to January 2016. Here we investigate the possibility to use this relationship to determine a solar wind pressure proxy for this time interval using magnetic field data measured by the Rosetta Magnetometer. This pressure proxy would be useful not only for other Rosetta related studies, but could also serve as a new independent input database for space weather propagation to other locations in the Solar System.

  14. Are Dynamical Sources Essential for the Production of the Ambient Solar Wind?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linker, Jon; Downs, Cooper; Lionello, Roberto; Titov, Viacheslav; Caplan, Ronald; Riley, Pete; Mikic, Zoran

    2016-10-01

    At a basic level, the large structure of the solar corona and its connection to the solar wind has been known for many years. In the classic (near-solar minimum) picture, the slow solar wind is associated with the streamer belt at low latitudes, while the fast solar wind arises from coronal holes at higher latitudes. At a deeper level, important aspects of this connection still puzzle us. One such controversy is the origin of the slow solar wind. One group of theories assume that the slow wind primarily arises quasi-statically from regions of large expansion factor near the boundaries of coronal holes, while a contrasting set of theories argue that the slow solar wind is primarily dynamic in origin and involves the reconnection and exchange of open and closed fields. In this talk, we describe evidence for both sets of theories, and ongoing and future work that may help to resolve this question. Work supported by NASA, NSF and AFOSR.

  15. Detectability of active triangulation range finder: a solar irradiance approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huizhe; Gao, Jason; Bui, Viet Phuong; Liu, Zhengtong; Lee, Kenneth Eng Kian; Peh, Li-Shiuan; Png, Ching Eng

    2016-06-27

    Active triangulation range finders are widely used in a variety of applications such as robotics and assistive technologies. The power of the laser source should be carefully selected in order to satisfy detectability and still remain eye-safe. In this paper, we present a systematic approach to assess the detectability of an active triangulation range finder in an outdoor environment. For the first time, we accurately quantify the background noise of a laser system due to solar irradiance by coupling the Perez all-weather sky model and ray tracing techniques. The model is validated with measurements with a modeling error of less than 14.0%. Being highly generic and sufficiently flexible, the proposed model serves as a guide to define a laser system for any geographical location and microclimate.

  16. Solar-wind convection in the Uranian magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Gang; Hill, T. W.

    1994-09-01

    We present an analytic, self-consistent model of time-dependent solar-wind-driven convection in the magnetosphere of Uranus. Because of the unusual orientation of the planetary rotation and magnetic dipole axes, magnetic merging on the dayside magnetopause varies as a function of planetary spin, in response to the changing orientation of the planetary magnetic field relative to the upstream interplanetary magnetic field, which is assumed to have a fixed direction for many planetary rotations. Therefore the magnitude of the solar-wind driven convection electric field varies sinusoidally in time with the 17.2-hour planetary spin period, even though the field direction is fixed in the corotating frame in a direction analogous to the dawn-to-dusk direction in the Earth's magnetosphere. We assume that the 'hot' (keV) protons observed by the Voyager 2 plasma science instrument in the inner magnetosphere convect sunward from a source in the near tail and form a ring current shielding layer near L = 5. The shielding process requires a time-dependent model because the convection timescale (approximately 20 days) is much larger than the 17-hour period of variation of the convection field. The time-averaged part of the imposed electric field is strongly attenuated inside the shielding layer, but the sinusoidally varying part of the imposed field penetrates the layer without significant attenuation because the shielding timescale (approximately 30 hours) is longer than the 17-hour oscillation period. A fraction of the hot plasma is thereby 'scattered' onto closed drift orbits to form a trapped ring current population. This trapped ring current population is sufficiently long-lived to undergo charge exchange and inelastic collisions with the widely distributed neutral hydrogen corona, resulting in the energy degradation of the 'hot' component and the simultaneous appearance of the 'intermediate' (approximately 100 eV) and 'warm' (approximately 10 eV) components evident in the

  17. The structure and origin of magnetic clouds in the solar wind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Bothmer

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Plasma and magnetic field data from the Helios 1/2 spacecraft have been used to investigate the structure of magnetic clouds (MCs in the inner heliosphere. 46 MCs were identified in the Helios data for the period 1974–1981 between 0.3 and 1 AU. 85% of the MCs were associated with fast-forward interplanetary shock waves, supporting the close association between MCs and SMEs (solar mass ejections. Seven MCs were identified as direct consequences of Helios-directed SMEs, and the passage of MCs agreed with that of interplanetary plasma clouds (IPCs identified as white-light brightness enhancements in the Helios photometer data. The total (plasma and magnetic field pressure in MCs was higher and the plasma-β lower than in the surrounding solar wind. Minimum variance analysis (MVA showed that MCs can best be described as large-scale quasi-cylindrical magnetic flux tubes. The axes of the flux tubes usually had a small inclination to the ecliptic plane, with their azimuthal direction close to the east-west direction. The large-scale flux tube model for MCs was validated by the analysis of multi-spacecraft observations. MCs were observed over a range of up to ~60° in solar longitude in the ecliptic having the same magnetic configuration. The Helios observations further showed that over-expansion is a common feature of MCs. From a combined study of Helios, Voyager and IMP data we found that the radial diameter of MCs increases between 0.3 and 4.2 AU proportional to the distance, R, from the Sun as R0.8 (R in AU. The density decrease inside MCs was found to be proportional to R–2.4, thus being stronger compared to the average solar wind. Four different magnetic configurations, as expected from the flux-tube concept, for MCs have been observed in situ by the Helios probes. MCs with left- and right-handed magnetic helicity occurred with about equal frequencies during 1974–1981, but surprisingly, the majority (74% of the MCs had a south to north (SN

  18. The structure and origin of magnetic clouds in the solar wind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Bothmer

    Full Text Available Plasma and magnetic field data from the Helios 1/2 spacecraft have been used to investigate the structure of magnetic clouds (MCs in the inner heliosphere. 46 MCs were identified in the Helios data for the period 1974–1981 between 0.3 and 1 AU. 85% of the MCs were associated with fast-forward interplanetary shock waves, supporting the close association between MCs and SMEs (solar mass ejections. Seven MCs were identified as direct consequences of Helios-directed SMEs, and the passage of MCs agreed with that of interplanetary plasma clouds (IPCs identified as white-light brightness enhancements in the Helios photometer data. The total (plasma and magnetic field pressure in MCs was higher and the plasma-β lower than in the surrounding solar wind. Minimum variance analysis (MVA showed that MCs can best be described as large-scale quasi-cylindrical magnetic flux tubes. The axes of the flux tubes usually had a small inclination to the ecliptic plane, with their azimuthal direction close to the east-west direction. The large-scale flux tube model for MCs was validated by the analysis of multi-spacecraft observations. MCs were observed over a range of up to ~60° in solar longitude in the ecliptic having the same magnetic configuration. The Helios observations further showed that over-expansion is a common feature of MCs. From a combined study of Helios, Voyager and IMP data we found that the radial diameter of MCs increases between 0.3 and 4.2 AU proportional to the distance, R, from the Sun as R0.8 (R in AU. The density decrease inside MCs was found to be proportional to R–2.4, thus being stronger compared to the average solar wind. Four different magnetic configurations, as expected from the flux-tube concept, for MCs have been observed in situ by the Helios probes. MCs with left- and right-handed magnetic helicity occurred with about equal frequencies during 1974–1981, but surprisingly, the majority (74% of the MCs had

  19. Estimated solar wind-implanted helium-3 distribution on the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J. R.; Swindle, T.D.; Lucey, P.G.

    1999-01-01

    Among the solar wind-implanted volatiles present in the lunar regolith, 3 He is possibly the most valuable resource because of its potential as a fusion fuel. The abundance of 3 He in the lunar regolith at a given location depends on surface maturity, the amount of solar wind fluence, and titanium content, because ilmenite (FeTiO3) retains helium much better than other major lunar minerals. Surface maturity and TiO2 maps from Clementine multispectral data sets are combined here with a solar wind fluence model to produce a 3He abundance map of the Moon. Comparison of the predicted 3He values to landing site observations shows good correlation. The highest 3He abundances occur in the farside maria (due to greater solar wind fluence received) and in higher TiO2 nearside mare regions.

  20. PV-solar / Wind Hybrid Energy System for GSM/CDMA Type Mobile Telephony Base

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Station Md. Ibrahim; Mohammad Tayyab

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the design of optimized PV-Solar and Wind Hybrid Energy System for GSM/CDMA type mobile base station over conventional diesel generator for a particular site in south India (Chennai...

  1. Sensitive test for ion-cyclotron resonant heating in the solar wind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, Justin C; Maruca, Bennett A; Stevens, Michael L; Zaslavsky, Arnaud

    2013-03-01

    Plasma carrying a spectrum of counterpropagating field-aligned ion-cyclotron waves can strongly and preferentially heat ions through a stochastic Fermi mechanism. Such a process has been proposed to explain the extreme temperatures, temperature anisotropies, and speeds of ions in the solar corona and solar wind. We quantify how differential flow between ion species results in a Doppler shift in the wave spectrum that can prevent this strong heating. Two critical values of differential flow are derived for strong heating of the core and tail of a given ion distribution function. Our comparison of these predictions to observations from the Wind spacecraft reveals excellent agreement. Solar wind helium that meets the condition for strong core heating is nearly 7 times hotter than hydrogen on average. Ion-cyclotron resonance contributes to heating in the solar wind, and there is a close link between heating, differential flow, and temperature anisotropy.

  2. Estimates of Sputter Yields of Solar-Wind Heavy Ions of Lunar Regolith Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barghouty, Abdulmasser F.; Adams, James H., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    At energies of approximately 1 keV/amu, solar-wind protons and heavy ions interact with the lunar surface materials via a number of microscopic interactions that include sputtering. Solar-wind induced sputtering is a main mechanism by which the composition of the topmost layers of the lunar surface can change, dynamically and preferentially. This work concentrates on sputtering induced by solar-wind heavy ions. Sputtering associated with slow (speeds the electrons speed in its first Bohr orbit) and highly charged ions are known to include both kinetic and potential sputtering. Potential sputtering enjoys some unique characteristics that makes it of special interest to lunar science and exploration. Unlike the yield from kinetic sputtering where simulation and approximation schemes exist, the yield from potential sputtering is not as easy to estimate. This work will present a preliminary numerical scheme designed to estimate potential sputtering yields from reactions relevant to this aspect of solar-wind lunar-surface coupling.

  3. Seasonal optimal mix of wind and solar power in a future, highly renewable Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heide, Dominik; Bremen, Lueder von; Greiner, Martin

    2010-01-01

    behaviors are able to counterbalance each other to a certain extent to follow the seasonal load curve. The best point of counterbalancing represents the seasonal optimal mix between wind and solar power generation. It leads to a pronounced minimum in required stored energy. For a 100% renewable Europe......The renewable power generation aggregated across Europe exhibits strong seasonal behaviors. Wind power generation is much stronger in winter than in summer. The opposite is true for solar power generation. In a future Europe with a very high share of renewable power generation those two opposite...... the seasonal optimal mix becomes 55% wind and 45% solar power generation. For less than 100% renewable scenarios the fraction of wind power generation increases and that of solar power generation decreases....

  4. Comparative Validation of Realtime Solar Wind Forecasting Using the UCSD Heliospheric Tomography Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNeice, Peter; Taktakishvili, Alexandra; Jackson, Bernard; Clover, John; Bisi, Mario; Odstrcil, Dusan

    2011-01-01

    The University of California, San Diego 3D Heliospheric Tomography Model reconstructs the evolution of heliospheric structures, and can make forecasts of solar wind density and velocity up to 72 hours in the future. The latest model version, installed and running in realtime at the Community Coordinated Modeling Center(CCMC), analyzes scintillations of meter wavelength radio point sources recorded by the Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory(STELab) together with realtime measurements of solar wind speed and density recorded by the Advanced Composition Explorer(ACE) Solar Wind Electron Proton Alpha Monitor(SWEPAM).The solution is reconstructed using tomographic techniques and a simple kinematic wind model. Since installation, the CCMC has been recording the model forecasts and comparing them with ACE measurements, and with forecasts made using other heliospheric models hosted by the CCMC. We report the preliminary results of this validation work and comparison with alternative models.

  5. Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 3 – Frequency Response and Transient Stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, N. W. [GE Energy Management, Schenectady, NY (United States); Shao, M. [GE Energy Management, Schenectady, NY (United States); Pajic, S. [GE Energy Management, Schenectady, NY (United States); D' Aquila, R. [GE Energy Management, Schenectady, NY (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Power system operators and utilities worldwide have concerns about the impact of high-penetration wind and solar generation on electric grid reliability (EirGrid 2011b, Hydro-Quebec 2006, ERCOT 2010). The stability of North American grids under these conditions is a particular concern and possible impediment to reaching future renewable energy goals. Phase 3 of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS-3) considers a 33% wind and solar annual energy penetration level that results in substantial changes to the characteristics of the bulk power system, including different power flow patterns, different commitment and dispatch of existing synchronous generation, and different dynamic behavior of wind and solar generation. WWSIS-3 evaluates two specific aspects of fundamental frequency system stability: frequency response and transient stability.

  6. MESSENGER and Venus Express Observations of the Solar Wind Interaction with Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, James A.; Acuna, Mario H.; Anderson, Brian J.; Barabash, Stas; Benna, Mehdi; Boardsen, Scott A.; Fraenz, Markus; Gloeckler, George; Gold, Robert E.; Ho,George C.; hide

    2009-01-01

    At 23:08 UTC on 5 June 2007 the MESSENGER spacecraft reached its closest approach altitude of 338 kin during its final flyby of Venus en route to its 2011 orbit insertion at Mercury. The availability of the simultaneous Venus Express solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field measurements provides a rare opportunity to examine the influence of upstream conditions on this planet's solar wind interaction. We present MESSENGER observations of new features of the Venus - solar wind interaction including hot flow anomalies upstream of the bow shock, a flux rope in the near-tail and a two-point determination of the timescale for magnetic flux transport through this induced magnetosphere. Citation: Stavin, J. A., et al. (2009), MESSENGER and Venus Express observations of the solar wind interaction with Venus,

  7. Smoothing out the volatility of South Africa’s wind and solar energy resources

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mushwana, Crescent

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In the past, renewables were mainly driven by the US, Europe and China, but South Africa is slowly picking up. This presentation discusses South Africa's wind and solar resources as alternative energy resources....

  8. Dawn-dusk asymmetry in particles of solar wind origin within the magnetosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. Stubbs

    Full Text Available Solar wind/magnetosheath plasma in the magnetosphere can be identified using a component that has a higher charge state, lower density and, at least soon after their entry into the magnetosphere, lower energy than plasma from a terrestrial source. We survey here observations taken over 3 years of He2+ ions made by the Magnetospheric Ion Composition Sensor (MICS of the Charge and Mass Magnetospheric Ion Composition Experiment (CAMMICE instrument aboard POLAR. The occurrence probability of these solar wind ions is then plotted as a function of Magnetic Local Time (MLT and invariant latitude (7 for various energy ranges. For all energies observed by MICS (1.8–21.4 keV and all solar wind conditions, the occurrence probabilities peaked around the cusp region and along the dawn flank. The solar wind conditions were filtered to see if this dawnward asymmetry is controlled by the Svalgaard-Mansurov effect (and so depends on the BY component of the interplanetary magnetic field, IMF or by Fermi acceleration of He2+ at the bow shock (and so depends on the IMF ratio BX /BY . It is shown that the asymmetry remained persistently on the dawn flank, suggesting it was not due to effects associated with direct entry into the magnetosphere. This asymmetry, with enhanced fluxes on the dawn flank, persisted for lower energy ions (below a "cross-over" energy of about 23 keV but reversed sense to give higher fluxes on the dusk flank at higher energies. This can be explained by the competing effects of gradient/curvature drifts and the convection electric field on ions that are convecting sunward on re-closed field lines. The lower-energy He2+ ions E × B drift dawnwards as they move earthward, whereas the higher energy ions curvature/ gradient drift towards dusk. The convection electric field in the tail is weaker for

  9. Dawn-dusk asymmetry in particles of solar wind origin within the magnetosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. Stubbs

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar wind/magnetosheath plasma in the magnetosphere can be identified using a component that has a higher charge state, lower density and, at least soon after their entry into the magnetosphere, lower energy than plasma from a terrestrial source. We survey here observations taken over 3 years of He2+ ions made by the Magnetospheric Ion Composition Sensor (MICS of the Charge and Mass Magnetospheric Ion Composition Experiment (CAMMICE instrument aboard POLAR. The occurrence probability of these solar wind ions is then plotted as a function of Magnetic Local Time (MLT and invariant latitude (7 for various energy ranges. For all energies observed by MICS (1.8–21.4 keV and all solar wind conditions, the occurrence probabilities peaked around the cusp region and along the dawn flank. The solar wind conditions were filtered to see if this dawnward asymmetry is controlled by the Svalgaard-Mansurov effect (and so depends on the BY component of the interplanetary magnetic field, IMF or by Fermi acceleration of He2+ at the bow shock (and so depends on the IMF ratio BX /BY . It is shown that the asymmetry remained persistently on the dawn flank, suggesting it was not due to effects associated with direct entry into the magnetosphere. This asymmetry, with enhanced fluxes on the dawn flank, persisted for lower energy ions (below a "cross-over" energy of about 23 keV but reversed sense to give higher fluxes on the dusk flank at higher energies. This can be explained by the competing effects of gradient/curvature drifts and the convection electric field on ions that are convecting sunward on re-closed field lines. The lower-energy He2+ ions E × B drift dawnwards as they move earthward, whereas the higher energy ions curvature/ gradient drift towards dusk. The convection electric field in the tail is weaker for northward IMF. Ions then need less energy to drift to the dusk flank, so that the cross-over energy, at which the asymmetry changes sense, is reduced

  10. Perturbations of the solar wind flow by radial and latitudinal pick-up ion pressure gradients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. J. Fahr

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available It has been found that pick-up ions at their dynamical incorporation into the solar wind modify the original conditions of the asymptotic solar wind plasma flow. In this respect, it has meanwhile been revealed in many papers that these type of solar wind modifications, i.e. deceleration and decrease of effective Mach number, are not only due to the pick-up ion loading effects, but also to the action of pick-up ion pressure gradients. Up to now only the effects of radial pick-up ion pressure gradients were considered, however, analogously but latitudinal pressure gradients also appear to be important. Here we study the effects of radial and latitudinal pick-up ion pressure gradients, occurring especially during solar minimum conditions at mid-latitude regions where slow solar wind streams change to fast solar wind streams. First, we give estimates of the latitudinal wind components connected with these gradients, and then after revealing its importance, present a more quantitative calculation of solar wind velocity and density perturbations resulting from these pressure forces. It is shown that the relative density perturbations near and in the ecliptic increase with radial distance and thus may well explain the measured non-spherically symmetric density decrease with distance. We also show that the solar wind decelerations actually seen with Voyager-1/2 are in conciliation with interstellar hydrogen densities of nH∞≥0.1cm-3, in contrast to earlier claims for nH∞=0.05cm-3.

  11. Perturbations of the solar wind flow by radial and latitudinal pick-up ion pressure gradients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. J. Fahr

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available It has been found that pick-up ions at their dynamical incorporation into the solar wind modify the original conditions of the asymptotic solar wind plasma flow. In this respect, it has meanwhile been revealed in many papers that these type of solar wind modifications, i.e. deceleration and decrease of effective Mach number, are not only due to the pick-up ion loading effects, but also to the action of pick-up ion pressure gradients. Up to now only the effects of radial pick-up ion pressure gradients were considered, however, analogously but latitudinal pressure gradients also appear to be important. Here we study the effects of radial and latitudinal pick-up ion pressure gradients, occurring especially during solar minimum conditions at mid-latitude regions where slow solar wind streams change to fast solar wind streams. First, we give estimates of the latitudinal wind components connected with these gradients, and then after revealing its importance, present a more quantitative calculation of solar wind velocity and density perturbations resulting from these pressure forces. It is shown that the relative density perturbations near and in the ecliptic increase with radial distance and thus may well explain the measured non-spherically symmetric density decrease with distance. We also show that the solar wind decelerations actually seen with Voyager-1/2 are in conciliation with interstellar hydrogen densities of nH∞≥0.1cm-3, in contrast to earlier claims for nH∞=0.05cm-3.

  12. Assessment of wind and solar power in global low-carbon energy scenarios: An introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luderer, Gunnar; Pietzcker, Robert C.; Carrara, Samuel; de Boer, Harmen Sytze; Fujimori, Shinichiro; Johnson, Nils; Mima, Silvana; Arent, Douglas

    2017-04-07

    This preface introduces the special section on the assessment of wind and solar in global low-carbon energy scenarios. The special section documents the results of a coordinated research effort to improve the representation of variable renewable energies (VRE), including wind and solar power, in Integrated Assessment Models (IAM) and presents an overview of the results obtained in the underlying coordinated model inter-comparison exercise.

  13. Solar wind conditions leading to efficient radiation belt electron acceleration: A superposed epoch analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Li, W; Thorne, RM; Bortnik, J; Baker, DN; Reeves, GD; Kanekal, SG; Spence, HE; Green, JC

    2015-01-01

    ©2015. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved. Determining preferential solar wind conditions leading to efficient radiation belt electron acceleration is crucial for predicting radiation belt electron dynamics. Using Van Allen Probes electron observations ( > 1 MeV) from 2012 to 2015, we identify a number of efficient and inefficient acceleration events separately to perform a superposed epoch analysis of the corresponding solar wind parameters and geomagnetic indices. By directly c...

  14. Response of the Jovian thermosphere to a transient `pulse' in solar wind pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Yates, J. N.; Achilleos, N.; Guio, P.

    2013-01-01

    The importance of the Jovian thermosphere with regard to magnetosphere–ionosphere coupling is often neglected in magnetospheric physics. We present the first study to investigate the response of the Jovian thermosphere to transient variations in solar wind dynamic pressure, using an azimuthally symmetric global circulation model coupled to a simple magnetosphere and fixed auroral conductivity model. In our simulations, the Jovian magnetosphere encounters a solar wind shock or rarefaction regi...

  15. ROSAT Observations of Solar Wind Charge Exchange with the Lunar Exosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Michael R.; Snowden, S. L.; Benna, M.; Carter, J. A.; Cravens, T. E.; Hills, H. Kent; Hodges, R. R.; Kuntz, K. D.; Porter, F. Scott; Read, A.; hide

    2012-01-01

    We analyze the ROSAT PSPC soft X-ray image of the Moon taken on 29 June 1990 by examining the radial profile of the count rate in three wedges, two wedges (one north and one south) 13-32 degrees off (19 degrees wide) the terminator towards the dark side and one wedge 38 degrees wide centered on the anti-solar direction. The radial profiles of both the north and the south wedges show substantial limb brightening that is absent in the 38 degree wide antisolar wedge. An analysis of the count rate increase associated with the limb brightening shows that its magnitude is consistent with that expected due to solar wind charge exchange (SWCX) with the tenuous lunar atmosphere. Along with Mars, Venus, and Earth, the Moon represents another solar system body at which solar wind charge exchange has been observed. This technique can be used to explore the solar wind-lunar interaction.

  16. Interplanetary Field Enhancements: The Interaction between Solar Wind and Interplanetary Dusty Plasma Released by Interplanetary Collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Hairong

    Interplanetary field enhancements (IFEs) are unique large-scale structures in the solar wind. During IFEs, the magnetic-field strength is significantly enhanced with little perturbation in the solar-wind plasma. Early studies showed that IFEs move at nearly the solar-wind speed and some IFEs detected at 0.72AU by Pioneer Venus Orbiter (PVO) are associated with material co-orbiting with asteroid Oljato. To explain the observed IFE features, we develop and test an IFE formation hypothesis: IFEs result from interactions between the solar wind and clouds of nanoscale charged dust particles released in interplanetary collisions. This hypothesis predicts that the magnetic field drapes and the solar wind slows down in the upstream. Meanwhile the observed IFE occurrence rate should be comparable with the detectable interplanetary collision rate. Based on this hypothesis, we can use the IFE occurrence to determine the spatial distribution and temporal variation of interplanetary objects which produce IFEs. To test the hypothesis, we perform a systematic survey of IFEs in the magnetic-field data from many spacecraft. Our datasets cover from 1970s to present and from inner than 0.3AU to outer than 5 AU. In total, more than 470 IFEs are identified and their occurrences show clustering features in both space and time. We use multi-spacecraft simultaneous observations to reconstruct the magnetic-field geometry and find that the magnetic field drapes in the upstream region. The results of a superposed epoch study show that the solar wind slows down in the upstream and there is a plasma depletion region near the IFE centers. In addition, the solar-wind slowdown and plasma depletion feature are more significant in larger IFEs. The mass contained in IFEs can be estimated by balancing the solar-wind pressure force exerted on the IFEs against the solar gravity. The solar-wind slowdown resultant from the estimated mass is consistent with the result in superposed epoch study. The

  17. Response of Mercury's Magnetosphere to Solar Wind Forcing: Results of Global MHD Simulations with Coupled Planetary Interior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xianzhe; Slavin, James; Poh, Gangkai; Toth, Gabor; Gombosi, Tamas

    2016-04-01

    As the innermost planet, Mercury arguably undergoes the most direct space weathering interactions due to its weak intrinsic magnetic field and its close proximity to the Sun. It has long been suggested that two processes, i.e., erosion of the dayside magnetosphere due to intense magnetopause reconnection and the shielding effect of the induction currents generated at the conducting core, compete against each other in governing the large-scale structure of Mercury's magnetosphere. An outstanding question concerning Mercury's space weather is which of the two processes is more important. To address this question, we have developed a global MHD model in which Mercury's interior is electromagnetically coupled to the surrounding space environment. As demonstrated in Jia et al. (2015), the new modeling capability allows for self-consistently characterizing the dynamical response of the Mercury system to time-varying external conditions. To assess the relative importance of induction and magnetopause reconnection in controlling the magnetospheric configuration, especially under strong solar driving conditions, we have carried out multiple global simulations that adopt a wide range of solar wind dynamic pressure and IMF conditions. We find that, while the magnetopause standoff distance decreases with increasing solar wind pressure, just as expected, its dependence on the solar wind pressure follows closely a power-law relationship with an index of ~ -1/6, rather than a steeper power-law falling-off expected for the case with only induction present. This result suggests that for the range of solar wind conditions examined, the two competing processes, namely induction and reconnection, appear to play equally important roles in determining the global configuration of Mercury's magnetosphere, consistent with the finding obtained by Slavin et al. (2014) based on MESSENGER observations. We also find that the magnetic perturbations produced by the magnetospheric current systems

  18. Spring-fall asymmetry of substorm strength, geomagnetic activity and solar wind: Implications for semiannual variation and solar hemispheric asymmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsula, K.; Tanskanen, E.; Love, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    We study the seasonal variation of substorms, geomagnetic activity and their solar wind drivers in 1993–2008. The number of substorms and substorm mean duration depict an annual variation with maxima in Winter and Summer, respectively, reflecting the annual change of the local ionosphere. In contradiction, substorm mean amplitude, substorm total efficiency and global geomagnetic activity show a dominant annual variation, with equinoctial maxima alternating between Spring in solar cycle 22 and Fall in cycle 23. The largest annual variations were found in 1994 and 2003, in the declining phase of the two cycles when high-speed streams dominate the solar wind. A similar, large annual variation is found in the solar wind driver of substorms and geomagnetic activity, which implies that the annual variation of substorm strength, substorm efficiency and geomagnetic activity is not due to ionospheric conditions but to a hemispherically asymmetric distribution of solar wind which varies from one cycle to another. Our results imply that the overall semiannual variation in global geomagnetic activity has been seriously overestimated, and is largely an artifact of the dominant annual variation with maxima alternating between Spring and Fall. The results also suggest an intimate connection between the asymmetry of solar magnetic fields and some of the largest geomagnetic disturbances, offering interesting new pathways for forecasting disturbances with a longer lead time to the future.

  19. Space Weather and Solar Wind Studies with OWFA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoharan, P. K.; Subrahmanya, C. R.; Chengalur, J. N.

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we review the results of interplanetary scintillation (IPS) observations made with the legacy system of the Ooty Radio Telescope (ORT) and compare them with the possibilities opened by the upgraded ORT, the Ooty Wide Field Array (OWFA). The stability and the sensitivity of the legacy system of ORT allowed the regular monitoring of IPS on a grid of large number of radio sources and the results of these studies have been useful to understand the physical processes in the heliosphere and space weather events, such as coronal mass ejections, interaction regions and their propagation effects. In the case of OWFA, its wide bandwidth of 38 MHz, the large field-of-view of 27° and increased sensitivity provide a unique capability for the heliospheric science at 326.5 MHz. IPS observations with the OWFA would allow one to monitor more than 5000 sources per day. This, in turn, will lead to much improved studies of space weather events and solar wind plasma, overcoming the limitations faced with the legacy system. We also highlight some of the specific aspects of the OWFA, potentially relevant for the studies of coronal plasma and its turbulence characteristics.

  20. Solar wind and substorm excitation of the wavy current sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Forsyth

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Following a solar wind pressure pulse on 3 August 2001, GOES 8, GOES 10, Cluster and Polar observed dipolarizations of the magnetic field, accompanied by an eastward expansion of the aurora observed by IMAGE, indicating the occurrence of two substorms. Prior to the first substorm, the motion of the plasma sheet with respect to Cluster was in the ZGSM direction. Observations following the substorms show the occurrence of current sheet waves moving predominantly in the −YGSM direction. Following the second substorm, the current sheet waves caused multiple current sheet crossings of the Cluster spacecraft, previously studied by Zhang et al. (2002. We further this study to show that the velocity of the current sheet waves was similar to the expansion velocity of the substorm aurora and the expansion of the dipolarization regions in the magnetotail. Furthermore, we compare these results with the current sheet wave models of Golovchanskaya and Maltsev (2005 and Erkaev et al. (2008. We find that the Erkaev et al. (2008 model gives the best fit to the observations.

  1. Solar wind and substorm excitation of the wavy current sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Forsyth

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Following a solar wind pressure pulse on 3 August 2001, GOES 8, GOES 10, Cluster and Polar observed dipolarizations of the magnetic field, accompanied by an eastward expansion of the aurora observed by IMAGE, indicating the occurrence of two substorms. Prior to the first substorm, the motion of the plasma sheet with respect to Cluster was in the ZGSM direction. Observations following the substorms show the occurrence of current sheet waves moving predominantly in the −YGSM direction. Following the second substorm, the current sheet waves caused multiple current sheet crossings of the Cluster spacecraft, previously studied by Zhang et al. (2002. We further this study to show that the velocity of the current sheet waves was similar to the expansion velocity of the substorm aurora and the expansion of the dipolarization regions in the magnetotail. Furthermore, we compare these results with the current sheet wave models of Golovchanskaya and Maltsev (2005 and Erkaev et al. (2008. We find that the Erkaev et al. (2008 model gives the best fit to the observations.

  2. Climatic implications of a rapid wind/solar transition

    CERN Document Server

    Schwartzman, Peter D; Zhang, Xiaochun

    2016-01-01

    A transition to a fully global renewable energy infrastructure is potentially possible in no more than a few decades, even using current wind/solar technologies. We demonstrate that at its completion this transition would terminate anthropogenic carbon emissions to the atmosphere derived from energy consumption in roughly 25 years as well as double current global energy production. This result would provide all human energy needs worldwide and additional energy required for climate adaptation as well as carbon sequestration from the atmosphere to bring down the atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration to safer levels. The implementation of this energy transition in the near future would maximize the probability for achieving a less than 2 deg C, with a potential 1.5 deg C limit, increase to global temperature over the pre-industrial level by 2100. Our best case scenario utilizes less than 3% of current annual global energy consumption per year with an annual reinvestment of 10% of its growing renewable ...

  3. Plasma Beta Dependence of Magnetic Compressibility in Solar Wind Turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, S. C.; Hnat, B.; Kiyani, K. H.; Sahraoui, F.

    2014-12-01

    The turbulent signature of MHD scales in the near-Earth solar wind are known to be primarily incompressible which manifests itself in magnetic field fluctuation vector components to be aligned primarily perpendicular to the background magnetic field -- so-called "Variance Anisotropy". This, and other facts, have been seen as evidence for a majority Alfvenic turbulence cascade; with a small component (10%) of compressible fluctuations. When one approaches scales on the order of the ion-inertial length and the Larmor radius, this behaviour changes and it is now becoming increasingly evident that the spectral break at these scales is also accompanied by an increase in magnetic compressibility. This has been attributed to a phase change in the physics at these scales -- from fluid to kinetic -- and in particular to the dominant role of the Hall-effect at sub-ion scales. We will be presenting results from the Cluster mission to show how this increase in the compressibility is dependent on the ion plasma beta and what implications this has for the physics at sub-ion scales in the context of prominent theories and models for kinetic plasma turbulence.

  4. Dependence of Lunar Surface Charging on Solar Wind Plasma Conditions and Solar Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbs, T. J.; Farrell, W. M.; Halekas, J. S.; Burchill, J. K.; Collier, M. R.; Zimmerman, M. I.; Vondrak, R. R.; Delory, G. T.; Pfaff, R. F.

    2014-01-01

    The surface of the Moon is electrically charged by exposure to solar radiation on its dayside, as well as by the continuous flux of charged particles from the various plasma environments that surround it. An electric potential develops between the lunar surface and ambient plasma, which manifests itself in a near-surface plasma sheath with a scale height of order the Debye length. This study investigates surface charging on the lunar dayside and near-terminator regions in the solar wind, for which the dominant current sources are usually from the pohotoemission of electrons, J(sub p), and the collection of plasma electrons J(sub e) and ions J(sub i). These currents are dependent on the following six parameters: plasma concentration n(sub 0), electron temperature T(sub e), ion temperature T(sub i), bulk flow velocity V, photoemission current at normal incidence J(sub P0), and photo electron temperature T(sub p). Using a numerical model, derived from a set of eleven basic assumptions, the influence of these six parameters on surface charging - characterized by the equilibrium surface potential, Debye length, and surface electric field - is investigated as a function of solar zenith angle. Overall, T(sub e) is the most important parameter, especially near the terminator, while J(sub P0) and T(sub p) dominate over most of the dayside.

  5. Design of Hybrid Solar and Wind Energy Harvester for Fishing Boat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banjarnahor, D. A.; Hanifan, M.; Budi, E. M.

    2017-07-01

    In southern beach of West Java, Indonesia, there are many villagers live as fishermen. They use small boats for fishing, in one to three days. Therefore, they need a fish preservation system. Fortunately, the area has high potential of solar and wind energy. This paper presents the design of a hybrid solar and wind energy harvester to power a refrigerator in the fishing boat. The refrigerator should keep the fish in 2 - 4 °C. The energy needed is 720 Wh daily. In the area, the daily average wind velocity is 4.27 m/s and the sun irradiation is 672 W/m2. The design combined two 100W solar panels and a 300W wind turbine. The testing showed that the solar panels can harvest 815 - 817 Wh of energy, while the wind turbine can harvest 43 - 62 Wh of energy daily. Therefore, the system can fulfil the energy requirement in fishing boat, although the solar panels were more dominant. To install the wind turbine on the fishing-boat, a computational design had been conducted. The boat hydrostatic dimension was measured to determine its stability condition. To reach a stable equilibrium condition, the wind turbine should be installed no more than 1.7 m of height.

  6. Observations of Plasma Turbulence and Heating from the Solar Wind and Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicks, R. T.

    2015-12-01

    The cascade of energy by plasma turbulence has been shown to occur in, and heat, the solar wind. Recent work in the study of solar wind turbulence has focussed, in the most part, on advanced data analysis techniques, such as third moment structure functions, wavelets, conditional data sampling, multi-spacecraft observations and reconstruction of 2D k-spectra with tomography, and statistical studies from long time series of spacecraft observations. These techniques are complex and contain different assumptions about the qualities of the data underpinning the measurements. Here, we will review recent advances and discoveries in the study of plasma turbulence from solar wind data analysis and discuss how benchmarking of techniques against one another could be pursued and how simulations can be used to aid in the understanding of the results of solar wind data analysis, in particular in the framework of the "Turbulence Dissipation Challenge" (Parashar et al., Journal of Plasma Physics, Volume 81, Issue 05, 905810513, 2015). We will pay particular attention to observing two different heating mechanisms: stochastic heating and resonant wave-particle interactions. The magnetic helicity of the solar wind is shown to separate into two distinct components, one originating from pseudo-Alfvenic (k may have a component parallel to the magnetic field) and one from the Alfvenic fluctuations (k is strictly perpendicular). The solar wind results are compared with "pseudo-spacecraft" data from large 3D PIC simulations.

  7. The effects of inhomogeneous proton-α drifts on the heating of the solar wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofman, L.; Viñas, A. F.; Roberts, D. A.

    2017-06-01

    Previous modeling studies have demonstrated that waves and super-Alfvénic drift can lead to perpendicular preferential heating of the α particles with respect to protons. Using 2.5-D hybrid model of the solar wind α-proton plasma, we study the effects of inhomogeneous (across the magnetic field) background streaming focusing on the fast solar wind. We explore the effects of an initial relative, inhomogeneous ion drift on the perpendicular ion heating and cooling and consider the effects of solar wind expansion. We study the spectrum of the magnetic fluctuations in the inhomogeneous background solar wind and demonstrate the generation of oblique waves and their effects on enhanced resonant anisotropic ion heating. The model reproduces the typical ion temperature anisotropy values seen in observations. Using our model, we find that inhomogeneous super-Alfvénic ion drift in the plasma generates significant power of oblique waves in the solar wind plasma, in addition to enhanced heating compared to the nondrifting populations. We demonstrate the effects of various inhomogeneity profiles and regions of the drift on the ion anisotropic heating in super-Alfvénic and near-Alfvénic drifts. We find that the cooling effect due to the solar wind expansion is not significant when super-Alfvénic drifts are considered.

  8. Enhancing information for solar and wind energy technology deployment in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos Martins, Fernando, E-mail: fernando.martins@inpe.br [Centro de Ciencia do Sistema Terrestre-Instituto Nacisonal de Pesquisas Espaciais (Earth System Center-National Institute for Space Research), P.O. Box 515, 12245-970, Sao Jose dos Campos (Brazil); Pereira, Enio Bueno, E-mail: enio.pereira@inpe.br [Centro de Ciencia do Sistema Terrestre-Instituto Nacisonal de Pesquisas Espaciais (Earth System Center-National Institute for Space Research), P.O. Box 515, 12245-970, Sao Jose dos Campos (Brazil)

    2011-07-15

    Brazil's primary energy matrix is based on more than 47% of renewables, and more than 85% of its electricity is generated by hydro power sources. Despite this large fraction of renewable energy resources, less than 0.3% of the national energy supply comes from solar or wind sources. This paper presents a diagnostic review on the penetration of the solar and wind energy technologies in Brazil. It also includes a survey of the latest government policies and incentives for renewable energies deployment by entrepreneurs, industry and commercial and residential consumers. In addition, the paper analyses how to best meet the requirements for policy support and information technology to boost the deployment of solar technology and wind energy in Brazil. This study was mostly based on results of a widely distributed survey covering key issues, and also by personal interviews carried out with key stakeholders in order to better understand the issues highlighted in the survey responses. The study pointed out some of the main obstacles to effectively promote and improve government policies and actions for investment in solar and wind energy market in Brazil. - Highlights: > Current status on the solar and wind energy deployment in Brazil is presented. > Policy framework required to support solar and wind energy was discussed. > Study was based on responses for consultations with key stakeholders. > Worthiness Index was established to rank the stakeholders outlooks. > Energy price, human resources and tax reductions were indicated as priority.

  9. Improved electrical load match in California by combining solar thermal power plants with wind farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ability of wind and solar electrical energy generation to match the current utility electrical load in California was analyzed. We compared the renewable electrical generation and the utility load in California using actual hourly wind farm data at two different locations and predicted hourly p...

  10. Use of Solar and Wind as a Physical Hedge against Price Variability within a Generation Portfolio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkin, T.; Diakov, V.; Drury, E.; Bush, B.; Denholm, P.; Milford, J.; Arent, D.; Margolis, R.; Byrne, R.

    2013-08-01

    This study provides a framework to explore the potential use and incremental value of small- to large-scale penetration of solar and wind technologies as a physical hedge against the risk and uncertainty of electricity cost on multi-year to multi-decade timescales. Earlier studies characterizing the impacts of adding renewable energy (RE) to portfolios of electricity generators often used a levelized cost of energy or simplified net cash flow approach. In this study, we expand on previous work by demonstrating the use of an 8760 hourly production cost model (PLEXOS) to analyze the incremental impact of solar and wind penetration under a wide range of penetration scenarios for a region in the Western U.S. We do not attempt to 'optimize' the portfolio in any of these cases. Rather we consider different RE penetration scenarios, that might for example result from the implementation of a Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS) to explore the dynamics, risk mitigation characteristics and incremental value that RE might add to the system. We also compare the use of RE to alternative mechanisms, such as the use of financial or physical supply contracts to mitigate risk and uncertainty, including consideration of their effectiveness and availability over a variety of timeframes.

  11. Variability Characteristics of European Wind and Solar Power Resources—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingeborg Graabak

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the most recent and relevant research into the variability characteristics of wind and solar power resources in Europe. The background for this study is that wind and solar resources will probably constitute major components of the future European power system. Such resources are variable, and EU plans to balance the variability with more grids and demand response. Thus, planning for the future power system requires an in-depth understanding of the variability. Resource variability is a multi-faceted concept best described using a range of distinct characteristics, and this review is structured on the basis of seven of these: Distribution Long-Term (hours to years, Distribution Short-Term (less than one hour, Step Changes, Autocorrelation, Spatial Correlation, Cross Correlation and Predictable Patterns. The review presents simulations and empirical results related to resource variability for each of these characteristics. Results to date reveal that the variability characteristics of the future power system is limited understood. This study recommends the development of a scheme for greater systematic assessment of variability. Such a scheme will contribute to the understanding of the impacts of variability and will make it possible to compare alternative power production portfolios and impacts of grid expansions, demand response and storage technologies.

  12. Bursts of ULF noise excited by sudden changes of solar wind dynamic pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Safargaleev

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of analysis of the dayside magnetic pulsation response to a sudden change in solar wind dynamic pressure. We concentrate on the events when a burst or a series of short-lived bursts in the Pc1 frequency range with the repetition period of 7–15 min were observed on the ground around the local noon. Not every impulse of large amplitude caused this phenomenon. We have found that the ULF bursts were excited when the spectrograms of the DMSP satellites showed a signature of 10–30 keV ions in the vicinity of the magnetic flux tube of the ground observatory, that may be related to a geomagnetic storm preceding the event. In light of this finding a possible model of the phenomenon is suggested in which the hot protons influence significantly both the generation and modulation of Pc1 activity.Key words. Magnetospheric physics (solar wind – magnetosphere interaction; MHD waves and instabilities; storms and substorms

  13. Bursts of ULF noise excited by sudden changes of solar wind dynamic pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Safargaleev

    Full Text Available We present the results of analysis of the dayside magnetic pulsation response to a sudden change in solar wind dynamic pressure. We concentrate on the events when a burst or a series of short-lived bursts in the Pc1 frequency range with the repetition period of 7–15 min were observed on the ground around the local noon. Not every impulse of large amplitude caused this phenomenon. We have found that the ULF bursts were excited when the spectrograms of the DMSP satellites showed a signature of 10–30 keV ions in the vicinity of the magnetic flux tube of the ground observatory, that may be related to a geomagnetic storm preceding the event. In light of this finding a possible model of the phenomenon is suggested in which the hot protons influence significantly both the generation and modulation of Pc1 activity.

    Key words. Magnetospheric physics (solar wind – magnetosphere interaction; MHD waves and instabilities; storms and substorms

  14. Attempts to Simulate Anisotropies of Solar Wind Fluctuations Using MHD with a Turning Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sanjoy; Roberts, D. Aaron

    2010-01-01

    We examine a "two-component" model of the solar wind to see if any of the observed anisotropies of the fields can be explained in light of the need for various quantities, such as the magnetic minimum variance direction, to turn along with the Parker spiral. Previous results used a 3-D MHD spectral code to show that neither Q2D nor slab-wave components will turn their wave vectors in a turning Parker-like field, and that nonlinear interactions between the components are required to reproduce observations. In these new simulations we use higher resolution in both decaying and driven cases, and with and without a turning background field, to see what, if any, conditions lead to variance anisotropies similar to observations. We focus especially on the middle spectral range, and not the energy-containing scales, of the simulation for comparison with the solar wind. Preliminary results have shown that it is very difficult to produce the required variances with a turbulent cascade.

  15. The Electron Temperature and Anisotropy in the Solar Wind. Comparison of the Core and Halo Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierrard, V.; Lazar, M.; Poedts, S.; Štverák, Š.; Maksimovic, M.; Trávníček, P. M.

    2016-08-01

    Estimating the temperature of solar wind particles and their anisotropies is particularly important for understanding the origin of their deviations from thermal equilibrium and the effects this has. In the absence of energetic events, the velocity distribution of electrons reveals a dual structure with a thermal (Maxwellian) core and a suprathermal (kappa) halo. This article presents a detailed observational analysis of these two components, providing estimations of their temperatures and temperature anisotropies, and decoding any potential interdependence that their properties may indicate. The dataset used in this study includes more than 120 000 of the distributions measured by three missions in the ecliptic within an extended range of heliocentric distances from 0.3 to over 4 AU. The core temperature is found to decrease with the radial distance, while the halo temperature slightly increases, clarifying an apparent contradiction in previous observational analyses and providing valuable clues about the temperature of the kappa-distributed populations. For low values of the power-index kappa, these two components manifest a clear tendency to deviate from isotropy in the same direction, which seems to confirm the existence of mechanisms with similar effects on both components, e.g., the solar wind expansion, or the particle heating by the fluctuations. However, the existence of plasma states with anticorrelated anisotropies of the core and halo populations and the increase in their number for high values of the power-index kappa suggest a dynamic interplay of these components, mediated, most probably, by the anisotropy-driven instabilities.

  16. Use of meteorological information in the risk analysis of a mixed wind farm and solar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengelkamp, H.-T.; Bendel, D.

    2010-09-01

    Use of meteorological information in the risk analysis of a mixed wind farm and solar power plant portfolio H.-T. Mengelkamp*,** , D. Bendel** *GKSS Research Center Geesthacht GmbH **anemos Gesellschaft für Umweltmeteorologie mbH The renewable energy industry has rapidly developed during the last two decades and so have the needs for high quality comprehensive meteorological services. It is, however, only recently that international financial institutions bundle wind farms and solar power plants and offer shares in these aggregate portfolios. The monetary value of a mixed wind farm and solar power plant portfolio is determined by legal and technical aspects, the expected annual energy production of each wind farm and solar power plant and the associated uncertainty of the energy yield estimation or the investment risk. Building an aggregate portfolio will reduce the overall uncertainty through diversification in contrast to the single wind farm/solar power plant energy yield uncertainty. This is similar to equity funds based on a variety of companies or products. Meteorological aspects contribute to the diversification in various ways. There is the uncertainty in the estimation of the expected long-term mean energy production of the wind and solar power plants. Different components of uncertainty have to be considered depending on whether the power plant is already in operation or in the planning phase. The uncertainty related to a wind farm in the planning phase comprises the methodology of the wind potential estimation and the uncertainty of the site specific wind turbine power curve as well as the uncertainty of the wind farm effect calculation. The uncertainty related to a solar power plant in the pre-operational phase comprises the uncertainty of the radiation data base and that of the performance curve. The long-term mean annual energy yield of operational wind farms and solar power plants is estimated on the basis of the actual energy production and it

  17. On the Role of Solar Wind Discontinuities in the ULF Power Spectral Density at the Earth's Outer Radiation Belt: a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lago, A.; Alves, L. R.; Braga, C. R.; Mendonca, R. R. S.; Jauer, P. R.; Medeiros, C.; Souza, V. M. C. E. S.; Mendes, O., Jr.; Marchezi, J.; da Silva, L.; Vieira, L.; Rockenbach, M.; Sibeck, D. G.; Kanekal, S. G.; Baker, D. N.; Wygant, J. R.; Kletzing, C.

    2016-12-01

    The solar wind incident upon the Earth's magnetosphere can produce either enhancement, depletion or no change in the flux of relativistic electrons at the outer radiation belt. During geomagnetic storms progress, solar wind parameters may change significantly, and occasionally relativistic electron fluxes at the outer radiation belt show dropouts in a range of energy and L-shells. Wave-particle interactions observed within the Van Allen belts have been claimed to play a significant role in energetic particle flux changes. The relation between changes on the solar wind parameters and the radiation belt is still a hot topic nowadays, particularly the role played by the solar wind on sudden electron flux decreases. The twin satellite Van Allen Probes measured a relativistic electron flux dropout concurrent to broad band Ultra-low frequency (ULF) waves, i.e. from 1 mHz to 10 Hz, on October 2, 2013. Magnetic field and plasma data from both ACE and WIND satellites allowed the characterization of this event as being an interplanetary coronal mass ejection in conjunction with shock. The interaction of this event with the Earth's magnetosphere was modeled using a global magnetohydrodynamic simulation and the magnetic field perturbation deep in magnetosphere could be analyzed from the model outputs. Results show the contribution of time-varying solar wind parameters to the generation of ULF waves. The power spectral densities, as a function of L-shell, were evaluated considering changes in the input parameters, e.g. magnitude and duration of dynamic pressure and magnetic field. The modeled power spectral densities are compared with Van Allen Probes data. The results provide us a clue on the solar wind characteristics that might be able to drive ULF waves in the inner magnetosphere, and also which wave modes are expected to be excited under a specific solar wind driving.

  18. An extended structure-function model and its application to the analysis of solar wind intermittency properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.-Y. Tu

    Full Text Available An extended structure-function model is developed by including the new effect in the p-model of Meneveau and Sreenivasan which shows that the averaged energy cascade rate changes with scale, a situation which has been found to prevail in non-fully-developed turbulence in the inner solar wind. This model is useful for the small-scale fluctuations in the inner heliosphere, where the turbulence is not fully developed and cannot be explained quantitatively by any of the previous intermittency turbulence models. With two model parameters, the intrinsic index of the energy spectrum α, and the fragmentation fraction P1, the model can fit, for the first time, all the observed scaling exponents of the structure functions, which are calculated for time lags ranging from 81 s to 0.7 h from the Helios solar wind data. From the cases we studied we cannot establish for P1 either a clear radial evolution trend, or a solar-wind-speed or stream-structure dependence or a systematic anisotropy for both the flow velocity and magnetic field component fluctuations. Generally, P1 has values between 0.7 and 0.8. However, in some cases in low-speed wind P1 has somewhat higher values for the magnetic components, especially for the radial component. In high-speed wind, the inferred intrinsic spectral indices α of the velocity and magnetic field components are about equal, while the experimental spectral indices derived from the observed power spectra differ. The magnetic index is somewhat larger than the index of the velocity spectrum. For magnetic fluctuations in both high- and low-speed winds, the intrinsic exponent α has values which are near 1.5, while the observed spectral exponent has much higher values. In the solar wind with considerable density fluctuations near the interplanetary current sheet near 1 AU, it is found that P1 has a comparatively high value of 0

  19. Integrating Wind And Solar With Hydrogen Producing Fuel Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemmes, K.

    2007-01-01

    The often proposed solution for the fluctuating wind energy supply is the conversion of the surplus of wind energy into hydrogen by means of electrolysis. In this paper a patented alternative is proposed consisting of the integration of wind turbines with internal reforming fuel-cells, capable of

  20. IPS activity observed as a precursor of solar induced terrestrial activity. [solar wind density fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronyn, W. M.; Shawhan, S. D.; Rickard, J. J.; Mitchell, D. G.; Roelof, E. C.; Gotwols, B. L.

    1978-01-01

    A radio telescope designed to exploit the interplanetary scintillation (IPS) technique and locate, map, and track solar wind disturbances which result in geomagnetic disturbances, thereby providing a forecast capability, is described. Preliminary results from operation of the telescope include: (1) evidence for a precursor signal in the IPS activity with a 1-2 day lead time with respect to density enhancements which frequently give rise to geomagnetic activity; (2) detection of a spectral broadening signature which also serves as a precursor of geomagnetic activity; (3) out-of-the-ecliptic plasma density enhancements which were not detected by near-Earth, ecliptic plane spacecraft; (4) detection of 12 corotating density enhancements;(5) detection of over 80 sources which give detectable scintillation of which 45 have been used for detailed synoptic analysis and 9 for spectral analysis; and (6) measurement of 0-lag coefficient of 0.56 between density and IPS activity enhancements.

  1. Interaction of the interplanetary shock and tangential discontinuity in the solar wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncharov, Oleksandr; Koval, Andriy; Safrankova, Jana; Nemecek, Zdenek; Prech, Lubomir; Szabo, Adam; Zastenker, Georgy N.

    2017-04-01

    Collisionless shocks play a significant role in the solar wind interaction with the Earth. Fast forward interplanetary (IP) shocks driven by coronal mass ejections or by interaction of fast and slow solar wind streams can be encountered in the interplanetary space, while the bow shock is a standing fast reverse shock formed by the interaction of the supersonic solar wind with Earth's magnetic field. Both types of shocks are responsible for a transformation of a part of the energy of the directed solar wind motion to plasma heating and to acceleration of reflected particles to high energies. It is well known that the interaction of tangential discontinuities with the bow shock can create hot flow anomalies but interactions between IP shocks and tangential discontinuities in the solar wind are studied to a lesser extent due to lack of observations. A fortunate position of many spacecraft (Wind, ACE, DSCOVR, THEMIS, Spektr-R) on June 22, 2015 allows us detailed observations of an IP shock modification due to this interaction. We present an analysis of the event supported with MHD modeling that reveals basic features of the observed IP shock ramp splitting. However, a good matching of modeling and observations was found for DSCOVR and Spektr-R located above the ecliptic plane, whereas a timing of observations below this plane demonstrates problems of modeling of highly inclined discontinuities.

  2. Interfacing MHD Single Fluid and Kinetic Exospheric Solar Wind Models and Comparing Their Energetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moschou, Sofia-Paraskevi; Pierrard, Viviane; Keppens, Rony; Pomoell, Jens

    2017-09-01

    An exospheric kinetic solar wind model is interfaced with an observation-driven single-fluid magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model. Initially, a photospheric magnetogram serves as observational input in the fluid approach to extrapolate the heliospheric magnetic field. Then semi-empirical coronal models are used for estimating the plasma characteristics up to a heliocentric distance of 0.1 AU. From there on, a full MHD model that computes the three-dimensional time-dependent evolution of the solar wind macroscopic variables up to the orbit of Earth is used. After interfacing the density and velocity at the inner MHD boundary, we compare our results with those of a kinetic exospheric solar wind model based on the assumption of Maxwell and Kappa velocity distribution functions for protons and electrons, respectively, as well as with in situ observations at 1 AU. This provides insight into more physically detailed processes, such as coronal heating and solar wind acceleration, which naturally arise from including suprathermal electrons in the model. We are interested in the profile of the solar wind speed and density at 1 AU, in characterizing the slow and fast source regions of the wind, and in comparing MHD with exospheric models in similar conditions. We calculate the energetics of both models from low to high heliocentric distances.

  3. A Comparative Verification of Forecasts from Two Operational Solar Wind Models (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-08

    Improvements to the HAF solar wind model for space weather predictions, J. Geophys. Res., 106, 20,985–21,001, doi:10.1029/2000JA000220. Fry, C. D., M. Dryer , Z...sheet magnetic model for the solar corona, Cosmic Electrodyn., 2, 232–245. Smith, Z. K., M. Dryer , S. M. P. McKenna‐Lawlor, C. D. Fry, C. S. Deehr, and W...AFRL-RV-PS- AFRL-RV-PS- TP-2012-0006 TP-2012-0006 A COMPARATIVE VERIFICATION OF FORECASTS FROM TWO OPERATIONAL SOLAR WIND MODELS

  4. IPS observations of the solar wind speed out of the ecliptic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, W. A.; Rickett, B. J.

    1976-01-01

    Interplanetary scintillation observations from 1971-1975 show that the average solar wind speed increases away from the solar equator, with a mean gradient of 2.1 km/s per degree. These results are compared with spacecraft observations over the + or - 7 deg attainable in the ecliptic and with those deduced from comet tails. The role of temporal variations, especially those caused by latitude dependent solar wind streams, is emphasized, and this points to the need for extensive ecliptic and ground-based observations during an out-of-the-ecliptic spacecraft mission.

  5. Recent Optical and SEM Characterization of Genesis Solar Wind Concentrator Diamond on Silicon Collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allton, Judith H.; Rodriquez, M. C.; Burkett, P. J.; Ross, D. K.; Gonzalez, C. P.; McNamara, K. M.

    2013-01-01

    One of the 4 Genesis solar wind concentrator collectors was a silicon substrate coated with diamond-like carbon (DLC) in which to capture solar wind. This material was designed for analysis of solar nitrogen and noble gases [1, 2]. This particular collector fractured during landing, but about 80% of the surface was recovered, including a large piece which was subdivided in 2012 [3, 4, 5]. The optical and SEM imaging and analysis described below supports the subdivision and allocation of the diamond-on-silicon (DOS) concentrator collector.

  6. Charge state evolution in the solar wind. III. Model comparison with observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landi, E.; Oran, R.; Lepri, S. T.; Zurbuchen, T. H.; Fisk, L. A.; Van der Holst, B. [Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2014-08-01

    We test three theoretical models of the fast solar wind with a set of remote sensing observations and in-situ measurements taken during the minimum of solar cycle 23. First, the model electron density and temperature are compared to SOHO/SUMER spectroscopic measurements. Second, the model electron density, temperature, and wind speed are used to predict the charge state evolution of the wind plasma from the source regions to the freeze-in point. Frozen-in charge states are compared with Ulysses/SWICS measurements at 1 AU, while charge states close to the Sun are combined with the CHIANTI spectral code to calculate the intensities of selected spectral lines, to be compared with SOHO/SUMER observations in the north polar coronal hole. We find that none of the theoretical models are able to completely reproduce all observations; namely, all of them underestimate the charge state distribution of the solar wind everywhere, although the levels of disagreement vary from model to model. We discuss possible causes of the disagreement, namely, uncertainties in the calculation of the charge state evolution and of line intensities, in the atomic data, and in the assumptions on the wind plasma conditions. Last, we discuss the scenario where the wind is accelerated from a region located in the solar corona rather than in the chromosphere as assumed in the three theoretical models, and find that a wind originating from the corona is in much closer agreement with observations.

  7. Mobile network architecture of the long-range WindScanner system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vasiljevic, Nikola; Lea, Guillaume; Hansen, Per

    In this report we have presented the network architecture of the long-range WindScanner system that allows utilization of mobile network connections without the use of static public IP addresses. The architecture mitigates the issues of additional fees and contractual obligations that are linked...... to the acquisition of the mobile network connections with static public IP addresses. The architecture consists of a hardware VPN solution based on the network appliances Z1 and MX60 from Cisco Meraki with additional 3G or 4G dongles. With the presented network architecture and appropriate configuration, we fulfill...... the requirements of running the long-range WindScanner system using a mobile network such as 3G. This architecture allows us to have the WindScanners and the master computer in different geographical locations, and in general facilitates deployments of the long-range WindScanner system....

  8. Differential kinetic dynamics and heating of ions in the turbulent solar wind

    CERN Document Server

    Valentini, F; Stabile, S; Pezzi, O; Servidio, S; De Marco, R; Marcucci, F; Bruno, R; Lavraud, B; De Keyser, J; Consolini, G; Brienza, D; Sorriso-Valvo, L; Retinò, A; Vaivads, A; Salatti, M; Veltri, P

    2016-01-01

    The solar wind plasma is a fully ionized and turbulent gas ejected by the outer layers of the solar corona at very high speed, mainly composed by protons and electrons, with a small percentage of helium nuclei and a significantly lower abundance of heavier ions. Since particle collisions are practically negligible, the solar wind is typically not in a state of thermodynamic equilibrium. Such a complex system must be described through self-consistent and fully nonlinear models, taking into account its multi-species composition and turbulence. We use a kinetic hybrid Vlasov-Maxwell numerical code to reproduce the turbulent energy cascade down to ion kinetic scales, in typical conditions of the uncontaminated solar wind plasma, with the aim of exploring the differential kinetic dynamics of the dominant ion species, namely protons and alpha particles. We show that the response of different species to the fluctuating electromagnetic fields is different. In particular, a significant differential heating of alphas w...

  9. Assessing the Structural, Driver and Economic Impacts of Traffic Pole Mounted Wind Power Generator and Solar Panel Hybrid System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    This project evaluates the physical and economic feasibility of using existing traffic infrastructure to mount wind power : generators. Some possible places to mount a light weight wind generator and solar panel hybrid system are: i) Traffic : signal...

  10. Saptio-temporal complementarity of wind and solar power in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lolla, Savita; Baidya Roy, Somnath; Chowdhury, Sourangshu

    2015-04-01

    Wind and solar power are likely to be a part of the solution to the climate change problem. That is why they feature prominently in the energy policies of all industrial economies including India. One of the major hindrances that is preventing an explosive growth of wind and solar energy is the issue of intermittency. This is a major problem because in a rapidly moving economy, energy production must match the patterns of energy demand. Moreover, sudden increase and decrease in energy supply may destabilize the power grids leading to disruptions in power supply. In this work we explore if the patterns of variability in wind and solar energy availability can offset each other so that a constant supply can be guaranteed. As a first step, this work focuses on seasonal-scale variability for each of the 5 regional power transmission grids in India. Communication within each grid is better than communication between grids. Hence, it is assumed that the grids can switch sources relatively easily. Wind and solar resources are estimated using the MERRA Reanalysis data for the 1979-2013 period. Solar resources are calculated with a 20% conversion efficiency. Wind resources are estimated using a 2 MW turbine power curve. Total resources are obtained by optimizing location and number of wind/solar energy farms. Preliminary results show that the southern and western grids are more appropriate for cogeneration than the other grids. Many studies on wind-solar cogeneration have focused on temporal complementarity at local scale. However, this is one of the first studies to explore spatial complementarity over regional scales. This project may help accelerate renewable energy penetration in India by identifying regional grid(s) where the renewable energy intermittency problem can be minimized.

  11. Two years of solar wind and pickup ion measurements at comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Raymond; Burch, J. L.; Mokashi, P.; Mandt, K.; Carr, C.; Eriksson, A.; Glassmeier, K.-H.; Henri, P.; Nilsson, H.; Rubin, M.; Tzou, C.-Y.

    2017-07-01

    The Ion and Electron Sensor (IES) as well as other members of the Rosetta Plasma Consortium (RPC) on board the Rosetta spacecraft (S/C) measured the characteristics of the solar wind almost continuously since its arrival at 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (CG) in 2014 August. An important process at a comet is the so-called pickup process in which a newly ionized atom or molecule begins gyrating about the interplanetary magnetic field, is accelerated in the process and is carried along with the solar wind. Within a month after comet arrival, while Rosetta was ions. We believe that these are newly formed from cometary neutrals near Rosetta and attracted to the negative S/C potential. These ions were in the early phase of pickup and had not yet reached the energy they would after at least one full gyration about the magnetic field. As CG increased its activity, the flux and energy of the measured pickup ions increased intermittently while the solar wind appeared intermittently as well. By about 2015 end of April, the solar wind had become very faint until it eventually disappeared from the IES field of view. We then began to see ions at the highest energy levels of IES, >10 keV for a few days and then intermittently through the remainder of the mission, but lower energy (a few keV) pickup ions were also observed. As of 2016 early February, the solar wind reappeared more consistently. We believe that the disappearance of the solar wind in the IES field of view is the result of interaction with the pickup ions and the eventual formation of a cavity that excluded the solar wind.

  12. Power Flow Simulations of a More Renewable California Grid Utilizing Wind and Solar Insolation Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, E. K.; Jacobson, M. Z.; Dvorak, M. J.

    2008-12-01

    Time series power flow analyses of the California electricity grid are performed with extensive addition of intermittent renewable power. The study focuses on the effects of replacing non-renewable and imported (out-of-state) electricity with wind and solar power on the reliability of the transmission grid. Simulations are performed for specific days chosen throughout the year to capture seasonal fluctuations in load, wind, and insolation. Wind farm expansions and new wind farms are proposed based on regional wind resources and time-dependent wind power output is calculated using a meteorological model and the power curves of specific wind turbines. Solar power is incorporated both as centralized and distributed generation. Concentrating solar thermal plants are modeled using local insolation data and the efficiencies of pre-existing plants. Distributed generation from rooftop PV systems is included using regional insolation data, efficiencies of common PV systems, and census data. The additional power output of these technologies offsets power from large natural gas plants and is balanced for the purposes of load matching largely with hydroelectric power and by curtailment when necessary. A quantitative analysis of the effects of this significant shift in the electricity portfolio of the state of California on power availability and transmission line congestion, using a transmission load-flow model, is presented. A sensitivity analysis is also performed to determine the effects of forecasting errors in wind and insolation on load-matching and transmission line congestion.

  13. Evolution of Intermittency in the Slow and Fast Solar Wind Beyond the Ecliptic Plane

    CERN Document Server

    Wawrzaszek, Anna; Macek, Wiesław M; Bruno, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    We study intermittency as a departure from self-similarity of the solar wind magnetic turbulence and investigate the evolution with the heliocentric distance and latitude. We use data from the Ulysses spacecraft measured during two solar minima (1997-1998 and 2007-2008) and one solar maximum (1999-2001). In particular, by modeling a multifractal spectrum, we revealed the intermittent character of turbulence in the small-scale fluctuations of the magnetic field embedded in the slow and fast solar wind. Generally, at small distances from the Sun, in both the slow and fast solar wind, we observe the high degree of multifractality (intermittency) that decreases somewhat slowly with distance and slowly with latitude. The obtained results seem to suggest that generally intermittency in the solar wind has a solar origin. However, the fast and slow streams, shocks, and other nonlinear interactions can only be considered as the drivers of the intermittent turbulence. It seems that analysis shows that turbulence beyond...

  14. IPS observations of the solar wind velocity and the acceleration mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofman, L.; Davila, J. M.; Coles, W. A.; Grall, R. R.; Klinglesmith, M. T.

    1997-01-01

    Coronal holes are well know sources of high speed solar wind, however, the exact acceleration mechanism of the wind is still unknown. Interplanetary scintillation (IPS) observations indicate that the fast solar wind reaches an average velocity of 800 km s(exp -1) within several solar radii with large velocity fluctuations. However, the origin of the IPS velocity spread below 10 solar radii is unclear. A previously developed coronal home model with a more realistic initial state is applied, and time-dependent, nonlinear, resistive 2.5-DMHD equations are numerically solved. It is found that nonlinear solitary-like waves with a supersonic phase speed are generated in coronal holes by torisonal Alfven waves in the radial flow velocity. The outward propagating nonlinear waves are similar in properties to sound solitons. When these waves are present, the solar wind speed and density fluctuate considerably on a time scale of an hour and on spatial scales of several solar radii in addition to the Alfvenic fluctuations. This is in qualitative agreement with the IPS velocity observations beyond 10 solar radii.

  15. Kinetic and Potential Sputtering of Lunar Regolith: The Contribution of the Heavy Highly Charged (Minority) Solar Wind Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, F. W.; Barghouty, A. F.

    2012-01-01

    Solar wind sputtering of the lunar surface helps determine the composition of the lunar exosphere and contributes to surface weathering. To date, only the effects of the two dominant solar wind constituents, H+ and He+, have been considered. The heavier, less abundant solar wind constituents have much larger sputtering yields because they have greater mass (kinetic sputtering) and they are highly charged (potential sputtering) Their contribution to total sputtering can therefore be orders of magnitude larger than their relative abundances would suggest

  16. HVDC Solution for Offshore Wind Park Comprising Turbines Equipped with Full-Range Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Ranjan; Rasmussen, Tonny Wederberg; Jensen, Kim Høj

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a power transmission technique from an offshore wind farm to an on-land AC (alternating current) grid through a HVDC (high voltage direct current) transmission system. The limitations of an AC transmission system for long distances are presented together with the advantages...... of a HVDC transmission system. The power system under study includes an offshore wind farm comprising turbines equipped with full range converters. The collection network is a local AC grid. Power transmission is done through HVDC system. The grid side VSC (voltage source converter) controls the DC voltage...... of the DC transmission together with the reactive power to the grid. However, the control of the wind farm side VSC needs to be adaptive. The paper presents control methods for wind farm side VSC during the normal and the fault conditions of the connecting AC grid. During normal operation, the wind farm VSC...

  17. Electron instability thresholds of solar wind magnetic fluctuations in non-thermal anisotropic kappa distribution plasmas: Survey of Wind-SWE-VEIS observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinas, A. F.; Adrian, M. L.; Moya, P. S.; Wendel, D. E.

    2015-12-01

    The solar wind electron velocity distribution function (eVDF) displays a great variety of non-thermal features (e.g., core, halo and strahl electron populations; with superposition of different temperatures, thermal anisotropies, suprathermal tails, beam-like features, etc.) that deviate from thermal equilibrium. These electron nonthermal deviations provide a local source for whistler-cyclotron and firehose instabilities electromagnetic fluctuations that are commonly observed. We present clear observational evidence that the temperature anisotropy whistler instability threshold, of a nonthermal kappa distribution plasma, marginally bounds solar wind magnetic fluctuations — when the full electron distribution is considered, without regard of separation of the various electron components during slow solar wind periods. Analysis seems to suggest that during slow solar wind periods, collisional effects are dominant. During fast solar wind periods, magnetic fluctuations and solar wind anisotropies are enhanced above the parallel whistler anisotropic threshold boundary and collisional effects are drastically reduced. Preliminary calculations further show that the oblique electron whistler mirror anisotropic instability bounds both the slow and fast solar wind. Regardless of solar wind speed, the solar wind electron thermal anisotropy appears globally bounded by the parallel electron firehose instability for anisotropies Te⊥ / Te|| < 1 indicative of a firehose-stable electron plasma. Preliminary analysis suggests that skew-kappa nonthermal distributions also shows marginally stable threshold boundaries when considering electron heat flux instability thresholds. The results of our analysis suggests that the slow solar wind electron plasma, when considered globally as a single eVDF, is only marginally stable with respect to nonthermal skew kappa distributions and parallel propagating instabilities.

  18. Probabilistic Solar Wind Forecasting Using Large Ensembles of Near‐Sun Conditions With a Simple One‐Dimensional “Upwind” Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Pete

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Long lead‐time space‐weather forecasting requires accurate prediction of the near‐Earth solar wind. The current state of the art uses a coronal model to extrapolate the observed photospheric magnetic field to the upper corona, where it is related to solar wind speed through empirical relations. These near‐Sun solar wind and magnetic field conditions provide the inner boundary condition to three‐dimensional numerical magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) models of the heliosphere out to 1 AU. This physics‐based approach can capture dynamic processes within the solar wind, which affect the resulting conditions in near‐Earth space. However, this deterministic approach lacks a quantification of forecast uncertainty. Here we describe a complementary method to exploit the near‐Sun solar wind information produced by coronal models and provide a quantitative estimate of forecast uncertainty. By sampling the near‐Sun solar wind speed at a range of latitudes about the sub‐Earth point, we produce a large ensemble (N = 576) of time series at the base of the Sun‐Earth line. Propagating these conditions to Earth by a three‐dimensional MHD model would be computationally prohibitive; thus, a computationally efficient one‐dimensional “upwind” scheme is used. The variance in the resulting near‐Earth solar wind speed ensemble is shown to provide an accurate measure of the forecast uncertainty. Applying this technique over 1996–2016, the upwind ensemble is found to provide a more “actionable” forecast than a single deterministic forecast; potential economic value is increased for all operational scenarios, but particularly when false alarms are important (i.e., where the cost of taking mitigating action is relatively large). PMID:29398982

  19. The abundances of H-3 and C-14 in the solar wind. [measured by lunar soil analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fireman, E. L.; Defelice, J.; Damico, J.

    1976-01-01

    Tritium is measured as a function of depth in a Surveyor 3 sample. The upper limit for solar-wind-implanted tritium gives a H-3/H-1 limit for the solar wind of 1 part in one hundred billion. The temperature release patterns of C-14 from lunar soils are measured. The C-14 release patterns from surface soils differ from a trench-bottom soil and give evidence for the presence of C-14 in the solar wind with a C-14/H-1 ratio of approximately 4 parts in one hundred billion. The implications of these radionuclide abundances in the solar wind are discussed.

  20. High-resolution Statistics of Solar Wind Turbulence at Kinetic Scales Using the Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chasapis, Alexandros; Matthaeus, W. H.; Parashar, T. N.; Maruca, B. A. [University of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States); Fuselier, S. A.; Burch, J. L. [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX (United States); Phan, T. D. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Moore, T. E.; Pollock, C. J.; Gershman, D. J. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States); Torbert, R. B. [University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH (United States); Russell, C. T.; Strangeway, R. J., E-mail: chasapis@udel.edu [University of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2017-07-20

    Using data from the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) and Cluster missions obtained in the solar wind, we examine second-order and fourth-order structure functions at varying spatial lags normalized to ion inertial scales. The analysis includes direct two-spacecraft results and single-spacecraft results employing the familiar Taylor frozen-in flow approximation. Several familiar statistical results, including the spectral distribution of energy, and the sale-dependent kurtosis, are extended down to unprecedented spatial scales of ∼6 km, approaching electron scales. The Taylor approximation is also confirmed at those small scales, although small deviations are present in the kinetic range. The kurtosis is seen to attain very high values at sub-proton scales, supporting the previously reported suggestion that monofractal behavior may be due to high-frequency plasma waves at kinetic scales.

  1. Toward Synthesis of Solar Wind and Geomagnetic Scaling Exponents: a Fractional Levy Motion Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, N. W.; Credgington, D.; Hnat, B.; Freeman, M. P.; Chapman, S. C.; Greenhough, J.

    2005-12-01

    Mandelbrot introduced the concept of fractals to describe the non-Euclidean shape of many aspects of the natural world. In the time series context he proposed the use of fractional Brownian motion (fBm) to model non-negligible temporal persistence, the ``Joseph Effect"; and Lévy flights to quantify large discontinuities, the ``Noah Effect". In space physics, both effects are manifested in the intermittency and long-range correlation which are by now well-established features of geomagnetic indices and their solar wind drivers. In order to capture and quantify the Noah and Joseph effects in one compact model we propose the application of the ``bridging" fractional Lévy motion (fLm) to space physics. We perform an initial evaluation of some previous scaling results in this paradigm, and show how fLm can model the previously observed exponents. We suggest some new directions for the future.

  2. An analysis of wind and solar energy resources for the State of Kuwait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhusainan, Haya Nasser

    Kuwait is an important producer of oil and gas. Its rapid socio-economic growth has been characterized by increasing population, high rates of urbanization, and substantial industrialization, which is transforming it into a large big energy consumer as well. In addition to urbanization, climatic conditions have played an important function in increasing demand for electricity in Kuwait. Electricity for thermal cooling has become essential in the hot desert climate, and its use has developed rapidly along with the economic development, urbanization, and population growth. This study examines the long-term wind and solar resources over the Kuwait to determine the feasibility of these resources as potential sustainable and renewable energy sources. The ultimate goal of this research is to help identify the potential role of renewable energy in Kuwait. This study will examine the drivers and requirements for the deployment of these energy sources and their possible integration into the electricity generation sector to illustrate how renewable energy can be a suitable resource for power production in Kuwait and to illustrate how they can also be used to provide electricity for the country. For this study, data from sixteen established stations monitored by the meteorological department were analyzed. A solar resource map was developed that identifies the most suitable locations for solar farm development. A range of different relevant variables, including, for example, electric networks, population zones, fuel networks, elevation, water wells, streets, and weather stations, were combined in a geospatial analysis to predict suitable locations for solar farm development and placement. An analysis of recommendations, future energy targets and strategies for renewable energy policy in Kuwait are then conducted. This study was put together to identify issues and opportunities related to renewable energy in the region, since renewable energy technologies are still limited in

  3. Solar wind record in the lunar regolith - Nitrogen and noble gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, Urs; Becker, Richard H.; Pepin, Robert O.

    1988-01-01

    The measured elemental and isotopic abundances of noble gases and nitrogen have been measured in five different samples of lunar regolith material. It was found noble gases liberated by chemical attack on grain surfaces from two of the samples were solar. The Ne-20/Ne-22 ratio in the two grain surface reservoir is 13.5-13.6, compared to the average value of 13.7 + or - 0.3 measured in the Apollo solar wind collection foils (Gochsler and Geiss, 1977). It is suggested that the noble gases in grain interiors have suffered severe mass fractionation. The surface-sited N/Ar in an ilmenite sample exceeds the predicted solar ratio by more than a factor of 10. It is concluded that the solar system abundances of Cameron (1982) describe the elemental composition of the noble gases in the solar wind very well.

  4. Standing Shocks in the Inner Slow Solar Wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo; Chen, Yan-Jun; Li, Xing

    2011-05-01

    We examine whether the now tube along the edge of a coronal streamer supports standing shocks in the inner slow wind by solving an isothermal wind model in terms of the Lambert W function. It is shown that solutions with standing shocks do exist and they exist in a broad area in the parameter space characterizing the wind temperature and now tube. In particular, streamers with cusps located at a heliocentric distance ≳ 3.2Rodot can readily support discontinuous slow winds with temperatures barely higher than 1 MK.

  5. Permutation entropy and statistical complexity analysis of turbulence in laboratory plasmas and the solar wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weck, P. J.; Schaffner, D. A.; Brown, M. R.; Wicks, R. T.

    2015-02-01

    The Bandt-Pompe permutation entropy and the Jensen-Shannon statistical complexity are used to analyze fluctuating time series of three different turbulent plasmas: the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence in the plasma wind tunnel of the Swarthmore Spheromak Experiment (SSX), drift-wave turbulence of ion saturation current fluctuations in the edge of the Large Plasma Device (LAPD), and fully developed turbulent magnetic fluctuations of the solar wind taken from the Wind spacecraft. The entropy and complexity values are presented as coordinates on the CH plane for comparison among the different plasma environments and other fluctuation models. The solar wind is found to have the highest permutation entropy and lowest statistical complexity of the three data sets analyzed. Both laboratory data sets have larger values of statistical complexity, suggesting that these systems have fewer degrees of freedom in their fluctuations, with SSX magnetic fluctuations having slightly less complexity than the LAPD edge Isat. The CH plane coordinates are compared to the shape and distribution of a spectral decomposition of the wave forms. These results suggest that fully developed turbulence (solar wind) occupies the lower-right region of the CH plane, and that other plasma systems considered to be turbulent have less permutation entropy and more statistical complexity. This paper presents use of this statistical analysis tool on solar wind plasma, as well as on an MHD turbulent experimental plasma.

  6. Solar wind dependence of ion parameters in the Earth's magnetospheric region calculated from CLUSTER observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Denton

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Moments calculated from the ion distributions (~0–40 keV measured by the Cluster Ion Spectrometry (CIS instrument are combined with data from the Cluster Flux Gate Magnetometer (FGM instrument and used to characterise the bulk properties of the plasma in the near-Earth magnetosphere over five years (2001–2005. Results are presented in the form of 2-D xy, xz and yz GSM cuts through the magnetosphere using data obtained from the Cluster Science Data System (CSDS and the Cluster Active Archive (CAA. Analysis reveals the distribution of ~0–40 keV ions in the inner magnetosphere is highly ordered and highly responsive to changes in solar wind velocity. Specifically, elevations in temperature are found to occur across the entire nightside plasma sheet region during times of fast solar wind. We demonstrate that the nightside plasma sheet ion temperature at a downtail distance of ~12 to 19 Earth radii increases by a factor of ~2 during periods of fast solar wind (500–1000 km s−1 compared to periods of slow solar wind (100–400 km s−1. The spatial extent of these increases are shown in the xy, xz and yz GSM planes. The results from the study have implications for modelling studies and simulations of solar-wind/magnetosphere coupling, which ultimately rely on in situ observations of the plasma sheet properties for input/boundary conditions.

  7. A consistent thermodynamics of the MHD wave-heated two-fluid solar wind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Chashei

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available We start our considerations from two more recent findings in heliospheric physics: One is the fact that the primary solar wind protons do not cool off adiabatically with distance, but appear to be heated. The other one is that secondary protons, embedded in the solar wind as pick-up ions, behave quasi-isothermal at their motion to the outer heliosphere. These two phenomena must be physically closely connected with each other. To demonstrate this we solve a coupled set of enthalpy flow conservation equations for the two-fluid solar wind system consisting of primary and secondary protons. The coupling of these equations comes by the heat sources that are relevant, namely the dissipation of MHD turbulence power to the respective protons at the relevant dissipation scales. Hereby we consider both the dissipation of convected turbulences and the dissipation of turbulences locally driven by the injection of new pick-up ions into an unstable mode of the ion distribution function. Conversion of free kinetic energy of freshly injected secondary ions into turbulence power is finally followed by partial reabsorption of this energy both by primary and secondary ions. We show solutions of simultaneous integrations of the coupled set of differential thermodynamic two-fluid equations and can draw interesting conclusions from the solutions obtained. We can show that the secondary proton temperature with increasing radial distance asymptotically attains a constant value with a magnitude essentially determined by the actual solar wind velocity. Furthermore, we study the primary proton temperature within this two-fluid context and find a polytropic behaviour with radially and latitudinally variable polytropic indices determined by the local heat sources due to dissipated turbulent wave energy. Considering latitudinally variable solar wind conditions, as published by McComas et al. (2000, we also predict latitudinal variations of primary proton temperatures at

  8. On the electron temperature downstream of the solar wind termination shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Chashei

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study the temperatures of electrons convected with the solar wind to large solar distances and finally transported over the solar wind termination shock. Nearly nothing, unless at high energies in the cosmic ray regime, is known about the thermodynamical behaviour of these distant electrons from in~situ plasma observations. Hence it is tacitly assumed these electrons, due to their adiabatic behaviour and vanishing heat conduction or energization processes, have rapidly cooled off to very low temperatures once they eventually arrive at the solar wind termination shock (at about 100 AU. In this paper we show that such electrons, however, at their passage over the termination shock due to the shock–electric field action undergo an over-adiabatic heating and therefore appear on the downstream side as a substantially heated plasma species. Looking quantitatively into this heating process we find that solar wind electrons achieve temperatures of the order of 2–4 × 106 K downstream of the termination shock, depending on the upstream solar wind bulk velocity and the shock compression ratio. Hence these electrons therewith play an important dynamical role in structuring this shock and determining the downstream plasma flow properties. Furthermore, they present an additional ionization source for incoming neutral interstellar hydrogen and excite X-ray emission. They also behave similar to cosmic ray electrons and extend to some limited region upstream of the shock of the order of 0.1 AU by spatial diffusion and thereby also modify the upstream solar wind properties.

  9. A consistent thermodynamics of the MHD wave-heated two-fluid solar wind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Chashei

    Full Text Available We start our considerations from two more recent findings in heliospheric physics: One is the fact that the primary solar wind protons do not cool off adiabatically with distance, but appear to be heated. The other one is that secondary protons, embedded in the solar wind as pick-up ions, behave quasi-isothermal at their motion to the outer heliosphere. These two phenomena must be physically closely connected with each other. To demonstrate this we solve a coupled set of enthalpy flow conservation equations for the two-fluid solar wind system consisting of primary and secondary protons. The coupling of these equations comes by the heat sources that are relevant, namely the dissipation of MHD turbulence power to the respective protons at the relevant dissipation scales. Hereby we consider both the dissipation of convected turbulences and the dissipation of turbulences locally driven by the injection of new pick-up ions into an unstable mode of the ion distribution function. Conversion of free kinetic energy of freshly injected secondary ions into turbulence power is finally followed by partial reabsorption of this energy both by primary and secondary ions. We show solutions of simultaneous integrations of the coupled set of differential thermodynamic two-fluid equations and can draw interesting conclusions from the solutions obtained. We can show that the secondary proton temperature with increasing radial distance asymptotically attains a constant value with a magnitude essentially determined by the actual solar wind velocity. Furthermore, we study the primary proton temperature within this two-fluid context and find a polytropic behaviour with radially and latitudinally variable polytropic indices determined by the local heat sources due to dissipated turbulent wave energy. Considering latitudinally variable solar wind conditions, as published by McComas et al. (2000, we also predict latitudinal variations of primary proton temperatures at

  10. Interaction of suprathermal solar wind electron fluxes with sheared whistler waves: fan instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Krafft

    Full Text Available Several in situ measurements performed in the solar wind evidenced that solar type III radio bursts were some-times associated with locally excited Langmuir waves, high-energy electron fluxes and low-frequency electrostatic and electromagnetic waves; moreover, in some cases, the simultaneous identification of energetic electron fluxes, Langmuir and whistler waves was performed. This paper shows how whistlers can be excited in the disturbed solar wind through the so-called "fan instability" by interacting with energetic electrons at the anomalous Doppler resonance. This instability process, which is driven by the anisotropy in the energetic electron velocity distribution along the ambient magnetic field, does not require any positive slope in the suprathermal electron tail and thus can account for physical situations where plateaued reduced electron velocity distributions were observed in solar wind plasmas in association with Langmuir and whistler waves. Owing to linear calculations of growth rates, we show that for disturbed solar wind conditions (that is, when suprathermal particle fluxes propagate along the ambient magnetic field, the fan instability can excite VLF waves (whistlers and lower hybrid waves with characteristics close to those observed in space experiments.

    Key words. Space plasma physics (waves and instabilities – Radio Science (waves in plasma – Solar physics, astrophysics and astronomy (radio emissions

  11. Alfvénic waves with sufficient energy to power the quiet solar corona and fast solar wind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Scott W; De Pontieu, Bart; Carlsson, Mats; Hansteen, Viggo; Boerner, Paul; Goossens, Marcel

    2011-07-27

    Energy is required to heat the outer solar atmosphere to millions of degrees (refs 1, 2) and to accelerate the solar wind to hundreds of kilometres per second (refs 2-6). Alfvén waves (travelling oscillations of ions and magnetic field) have been invoked as a possible mechanism to transport magneto-convective energy upwards along the Sun's magnetic field lines into the corona. Previous observations of Alfvénic waves in the corona revealed amplitudes far too small (0.5 km s(-1)) to supply the energy flux (100-200 W m(-2)) required to drive the fast solar wind or balance the radiative losses of the quiet corona. Here we report observations of the transition region (between the chromosphere and the corona) and of the corona that reveal how Alfvénic motions permeate the dynamic and finely structured outer solar atmosphere. The ubiquitous outward-propagating Alfvénic motions observed have amplitudes of the order of 20 km s(-1) and periods of the order of 100-500 s throughout the quiescent atmosphere (compatible with recent investigations), and are energetic enough to accelerate the fast solar wind and heat the quiet corona.

  12. Empirically modelled Pc3 activity based on solar wind parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Heilig

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available It is known that under certain solar wind (SW/interplanetary magnetic field (IMF conditions (e.g. high SW speed, low cone angle the occurrence of ground-level Pc3–4 pulsations is more likely. In this paper we demonstrate that in the event of anomalously low SW particle density, Pc3 activity is extremely low regardless of otherwise favourable SW speed and cone angle. We re-investigate the SW control of Pc3 pulsation activity through a statistical analysis and two empirical models with emphasis on the influence of SW density on Pc3 activity. We utilise SW and IMF measurements from the OMNI project and ground-based magnetometer measurements from the MM100 array to relate SW and IMF measurements to the occurrence of Pc3 activity. Multiple linear regression and artificial neural network models are used in iterative processes in order to identify sets of SW-based input parameters, which optimally reproduce a set of Pc3 activity data. The inclusion of SW density in the parameter set significantly improves the models. Not only the density itself, but other density related parameters, such as the dynamic pressure of the SW, or the standoff distance of the magnetopause work equally well in the model. The disappearance of Pc3s during low-density events can have at least four reasons according to the existing upstream wave theory: 1. Pausing the ion-cyclotron resonance that generates the upstream ultra low frequency waves in the absence of protons, 2. Weakening of the bow shock that implies less efficient reflection, 3. The SW becomes sub-Alfvénic and hence it is not able to sweep back the waves propagating upstream with the Alfvén-speed, and 4. The increase of the standoff distance of the magnetopause (and of the bow shock. Although the models cannot account for the lack of Pc3s during intervals when the SW density is extremely low, the resulting sets of optimal model inputs support the generation of mid latitude Pc3 activity predominantly through

  13. Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 3A: Low Levels of Synchronous Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Nicholas W. [GE Energy Management, Atlanta, GA (United States); Leonardi, Bruno [GE Energy Management, Atlanta, GA (United States); D' Aquila, Robert [GE Energy Management, Atlanta, GA (United States); Clark, Kara [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-11-17

    The stability of the North American electric power grids under conditions of high penetrations of wind and solar is a significant concern and possible impediment to reaching renewable energy goals. The 33% wind and solar annual energy penetration considered in this study results in substantial changes to the characteristics of the bulk power system. This includes different power flow patterns, different commitment and dispatch of existing synchronous generation, and different dynamic behavior from wind and solar generation. The Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS), sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, is one of the largest regional solar and wind integration studies to date. In multiple phases, it has explored different aspects of the question: Can we integrate large amounts of wind and solar energy into the electric power system of the West? The work reported here focused on the impact of low levels of synchronous generation on the transient stability performance in one part of the region in which wind generation has displaced synchronous thermal generation under highly stressed, weak system conditions. It is essentially an extension of WWSIS-3. Transient stability, the ability of the power system to maintain synchronism among all elements following disturbances, is a major constraint on operations in many grids, including the western U.S. and Texas systems. These constraints primarily concern the performance of the large-scale bulk power system. But grid-wide stability concerns with high penetrations of wind and solar are still not thoroughly understood. This work focuses on 'traditional' fundamental frequency stability issues, such as maintaining synchronism, frequency, and voltage. The objectives of this study are to better understand the implications of low levels of synchronous generation and a weak grid on overall system performance by: 1) Investigating the Western Interconnection under conditions of both high renewable

  14. Investigation on characteristics and application of hybrid solar-wind power generation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lin

    This thesis develops an overall methodology for investigating the characteristics and application of hybrid solar-wind power generation systems using both technical methodology and field experiment. The field experiment investigates the operating performances and characteristics of a hybrid solar-wind system and helps to validate the field application feasibility of the models developed in this thesis. By applying and integrating new technologies and new concepts, the Hybrid Solar-Wind System Optimization (HSWSO) methodology is developed according to the Loss of Power Supply Probability (LPSP) technique and the new concept of Levelised Cost of Energy (LCE). The HSWSO model is utilized to carry out system evaluations and to achieve optimal system configurations with two case studies. By applying the HSWSO model, the hybrid system can be sized technically and economically according to the system reliability requirements. The weighting relationships among three sizing parameters (the capacity of photovoltaic (PV) system, the rated power of wind system, and the capacity of battery bank) are investigated accordingly. The orientations of PV modules (gamma, beta) and the hub heights of wind tower are also studied as two factors influencing the sizing simulation results. A Typical Meteorological Year (TMY) for renewable energy applications is proposed. By applying the new methodologies developed in this thesis, a local TMY is derived for solar-wind applications (utilized as the weather data input in the HSWSO model) by processing local long-term weather data. As one part of the integrated HSWSO model, the simulation model for hybrid solar-wind system is developed. System simulation mainly employs modeling of PV modules, modeling of wind turbine, and modeling of battery bank. Modeling PV modules includes two parts: modeling the maximum power output of PV modules, which is developed from the model describing the I--V characteristics of PV modules and validated by

  15. Solar wind- and EUV-dependent models for the shapes of the Martian plasma boundaries based on Mars Express measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramstad, Robin; Barabash, Stas; Futaana, Yoshifumi; Holmström, Mats

    2017-07-01

    The long operational life (2003-present) of Mars Express (MEX) has allowed the spacecraft to make plasma measurements in the Martian environment over a wide range of upstream conditions. We have analyzed ˜7000 MEX orbits, covering three orders of magnitude in solar wind dynamic pressure, with data from the on board Analyzer of Space Plasmas and Energetic Particles (ASPERA-3) package, mapping the locations where MEX crosses the main plasma boundaries, induced magnetosphere boundary (IMB), ionosphere boundary (IB), and bow shock (BS). A coincidence scheme was employed, where data from the Ion Mass Analyzer (IMA) and the Electron Spectrometer (ELS) had to agree for a positive boundary identification, which resulted in crossings from 1083 orbit segments that were used to create dynamic two-parameter (solar wind density, nsw, and velocity vsw) dependent global dynamic models for the IMB, IB, and BS. The modeled response is found to be individual to each boundary. The IMB scales mainly dependent on solar wind dynamic pressure and EUV intensity. The BS location closely follows the location of the IMB at the subsolar point, though under extremely low nsw and vsw the BS assumes a more oblique shape. The IB closely follows the IMB on the dayside and changes its nightside morphology with different trends for nsw and vsw. We also investigate the influence of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation on the IMB and BS, finding that increased EUV intensity expands both boundaries.

  16. Solar Wind Halo Formation by the Scattering of the Strahl via Direct Cluster/PEACE Observations of the 3D Velocity Distribution Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa-Vinas, Adolfo; Gurgiolo, Chris A.; Nieves-Chinchilla, Teresa; Goldstein, Melvyn L.

    2010-01-01

    It has been suggested by a number of authors that the solar wind electron halo can be formed by the scattering of the strahl. On frequent occasions we have observed in electron angular skymaps (Phi/Theta-plots) of the electron 3D velocity distribution functions) a bursty-filament of particles connecting the strahl to the solar wind core-halo. These are seen over a very limited energy range. When the magnetic field is well off the nominal solar wind flow direction such filaments are inconsistent with any local forces and are probably the result of strong scattering. Furthermore, observations indicates that the strahl component is frequently and significantly anisotropic (Tper/Tpal approx.2). This provides a possible free energy source for the excitation of whistler waves as a possible scattering mechanism. The empirical observational evidence between the halo and the strahl suggests that the strahl population may be, at least in part, the source of the halo component.

  17. Weaving the history of the solar wind with magnetic field lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado Gomez, Julian

    2017-08-01

    Despite its fundamental role for the evolution of the solar system, our observational knowledge of the wind properties of the young Sun comes from a single stellar observation. This unexpected fact for a field such as astrophysics arises from the difficulty of detecting Sun-like stellar winds. Their detection relies on the appearance of an astrospheric signature (from the stellar wind-ISM interaction region), visible only with the aid of high-resolution HST Lyman-alpha spectra. However, observations and modelling of the present day Sun have revealed that magnetic fields constitute the main driver of the solar wind, providing guidance on how such winds would look like back in time. In this context we propose observations of four young Sun-like stars in order to detect their astrospheres and characterise their stellar winds. For all these objects we have recovered surface magnetic field maps using the technique of Zeeman Doppler Imaging, and developed detailed wind models based on these observed field distributions. Even a single detection would represent a major step forward for our understanding of the history of the solar wind, and the outflows in more active stars. Mass loss rate estimates from HST will be confronted with predictions from realistic models of the corona/stellar wind. In one of our objects the comparison would allow us to quantify the wind variability induced by the magnetic cycle of a star, other than the Sun, for the first time. Three of our targets are planet hosts, thus the HST spectra would also provide key information on the high-energy environment of these systems, guaranteeing their legacy value for the growing field of exoplanet characterisation.

  18. The most intense electrical currents in the solar wind: Comparisons between single-spacecraft measurements and plasma turbulence simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podesta, John J.; Roytershteyn, Vadim

    2017-07-01

    Three-dimensional hybrid simulations of solar wind turbulence near the orbit of the Earth are used to investigate the plasma current density over the range of scales from 0.5 proton inertial lengths to hundreds of proton inertial lengths. The data are analyzed along a simulated spacecraft trajectory in order to directly compare the results against single-spacecraft measurements. The most intense current densities are identified using an amplitude threshold technique and the properties of 5σ events identified in the true current density are compared to the properties of 5σ events identified using a proxy for the current density designed for studies of single-spacecraft solar wind measurements. The proxy is proportional to the magnitude of the directional derivative of the magnetic field along the spacecraft trajectory. The results from the simulation show that the average properties of 5σ events observed in the proxy are quantitatively similar to those observed in the true current density, properties such as the spatial size of the events, the nearest neighbor distance, and the peak current density of the events. This provides some justification for the use of the proxy for the statistical analysis of solar wind data even though the simulation indicates that the occurrence times of large-amplitude events in the proxy are not always a reliable indicator of the occurrence times of large-amplitude events in the true current density. The physical properties of 5σ events in simulated spacecraft data show remarkable quantitative agreement with the properties of 5σ events observed in solar wind data.

  19. Effects of solar wind and IMF on BBFs in high-resolution LFM simulations of the magnetotail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltberger, M. J.; Pham, K. H.; Merkin, V. G.; Lyon, J.; Ohtani, S.

    2015-12-01

    Recent high-resolution LFM simulations for southward IMF have shown strong agreement between the high speed flows see in the simulations and observations. This agreement includes comparison of structures seen in the passage of a simulated BBF with observations made by the THEMSIS mission. A superposed epoch analysis of the high-speed flows seen in the simulation using the same selection criteria used to analyze Geotail observations found excellent agreement in structure of the flow profile, dipolarization of the field, and reduction of the density after BBF passage. In this work we extend the analysis of BBFs in LFM simulations to include a range of solar wind conditions and IMF directions. We begin by holding the solar wind speed constant and vary the IMF direction from northward to southward in 30-degree steps. We then hold the IMF constant in its southward IMF direction and vary the solar wind speed from 200 to 800 km/s. In the final set of experiments we leave the IMF southward, hold the speed constant, and vary the strength of IMF between 2.5 and 10 nT. We will report on the differences these conditions and statistical nature of the BBFs seen in the simulation using the same superposed epoch analysis tools developed for the southward IMF results previously analyzed. This analysis will include comparison of the features at lunar distances with those closer to the Earth. In addition, we will examine the distribution of the BBFs in the simulation as function of the solar wind and IMF parameters.

  20. The Statistical Mechanics of Solar Wind Hydroxylation at the Moon, Within Lunar Magnetic Anomalies, and at Phobos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, W. M.; Hurley, D. M.; Esposito, V. J.; Mclain, J. L.; Zimmerman, M. I.

    2017-01-01

    We present a new formalism to describe the outgassing of hydrogen initially implanted by the solar wind protons into exposed soils on airless bodies. The formalism applies a statistical mechanics approach similar to that applied recently to molecular adsorption onto activated surfaces. The key element enabling this formalism is the recognition that the interatomic potential between the implanted H and regolith-residing oxides is not of singular value but possess a distribution of trapped energy values at a given temperature, F(U,T). All subsequent derivations of the outward diffusion and H retention rely on the specific properties of this distribution. We find that solar wind hydrogen can be retained if there are sites in the implantation layer with activation energy values exceeding 0.5eV. We especially examine the dependence of H retention applying characteristic energy values found previously for irradiated silica and mature lunar samples. We also apply the formalism to two cases that differ from the typical solar wind implantation at the Moon. First, we test for a case of implantation in magnetic anomaly regions where significantly lower-energy ions of solar wind origin are expected to be incident with the surface. In magnetic anomalies, H retention is found to be reduced due to the reduced ion flux and shallower depth of implantation. Second, we also apply the model to Phobos where the surface temperature range is not as extreme as the Moon. We find the H atom retention in this second case is higher than the lunar case due to the reduced thermal extremes (that reduces outgassing).

  1. On the exergetic capacity factor of a windSolar power generation system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xydis, George

    2013-01-01

    In the recent years, exergy analysis has become a very important tool in the evaluation of systems’ efficiency. It aims on minimizing the energy related-system losses and therefore maximizing energy savings and helps society substantially to move towards sustainable development and cleaner...... irradiation losses play a crucial role in identifying the real and net wind and solar power output while planning new renewable energy projects and in fact do play a significant role on the windsolar plant’s overall exergetic efficiency. In specific, it was found that air density varies from site to site......, are continually increasing, and new areas are required, the basic idea behind this research, was not only to introduce ExCF, as a new evaluation index for RES, but also to investigate the combined use of wind and solar energy under the same area and the benefits coming out of this combination....

  2. Azimuthally asymmetric ring current as a function of Dst and solar wind conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. P. Maltsev

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Based on magnetic data, spatial distribution of the westward ring current flowing at |z|<3 RE has been found under five levels of Dst, five levels of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF z component, and five levels of the solar wind dynamic pressure Psw. The maximum of the current is located near midnight at distances 5 to 7 RE. The magnitude of the nightside and dayside parts of the westward current at distances from 4 to 9 RE can be approximated as Inight=1.75-0.041 Dst, Inoon=0.22-0.013 Dst, where the current is in MA. The relation of the nightside current to the solar wind parameters can be expressed as Inight=1.45-0.20 Bs IMF + 0.32 Psw, where BsIMF is the IMF southward component. The dayside ring current poorly correlates with the solar wind parameters.

  3. Economic Dispatch for Power System Included Wind and Solar Thermal Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saoussen BRINI

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available With the fast development of technologies of alternative energy, the electric power network can be composed of several renewable energy resources. The energy resources have various characteristics in terms of operational costs and reliability. In this study, the problem is the Economic Environmental Dispatching (EED of hybrid power system including wind and solar thermal energies. Renewable energy resources depend on the data of the climate such as the wind speed for wind energy, solar radiation and the temperature for solar thermal energy. In this article it proposes a methodology to solve this problem. The resolution takes account of the fuel costs and reducing of the emissions of the polluting gases. The resolution is done by the Strength Pareto Evolutionary Algorithm (SPEA method and the simulations have been made on an IEEE network test (30 nodes, 8 machines and 41 lines.

  4. The relationship between solar wind entry processes and transpolar arc formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mailyan, Bagrat; Shi, Quanqi; Maggiolo, Romain; Zong, Qiugang; Cao, Xin; Zhang, Yongliang; Yao, Zhonghua; Fu, Suiyan; Wei, Yong; Pu, Zuyin

    2014-05-01

    Recently, Cluster observations revealed the presence of solar wind plasma entry regions in the high latitudes of the Earth's magnetosphere, i.e. the lobes tailward of the cusp region, mostly during periods on northward IMF. Such periods of northward IMF are associated with the presence of transpolar arcs. We use observations from the GUVI experiment onboard the TIMED spacecraft to investigate a possible link between solar wind entry in the high latitude magnetosphere and the formation of transpolar arcs. For ~20 solar wind entry events from ~100, transpolar arcs were evidenced by the GUVI imager. The properties of ions and electrons in the entry regions, their connection with transpolar auroras and the correlations with IMF conditions are examined for the most intense events using multiple spacecraft data (Cluster, TIMED, DMSP, IMAGE, POLAR). The time evolution and asymmetries between the two hemispheres for these transpolar arcs are also discussed.

  5. Particle Velocity Distributions and Large-Scale Electric Field in Solar Wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavan, J.; Vinas, A. F.

    2016-12-01

    Velocity distributions of particles are key elements in the study of solar wind. The physical mechanisms that regulate their many features are a matter of debate. The present work addresses the subject with a fully analytical method in order to establish the shape of particle velocity distributions in solar wind. The method consists in solving the steady-state kinetic equation for particles and the related fluid equations, assigning spatial profiles for density and temperature matching observational data. The model is one-dimensional in configuration-space and two-dimensional in velocity-space, and accounts for large-scale processes, namely, advection, gravity, magnetic mirroring and the large-scale ambipolar electric field, without the aid of wave-particle interactions or collisions. The findings reported add to the general understanding of regulation of particle distributions in solar wind and to the predictions of their shape in regions restricted for in situ measurements.

  6. Solar wind interaction with small bodies. 1: Whistler wing signatures near to Gaspra and Ida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z.; Kivelson, M. G.; Joy, S.; Khurana, K. K.; Polanskey, C.; Southwood, D. J.; Walker, R. J.

    1995-01-01

    Data from Galileo's two asteroid flybys reveal magnetic fluctuations that we interpret as perturbations of the solar wind magnetic field caused by an interaction with the nearby asteroid. The scale sizes of the bodies (approximately 14 km for Gaspra and approximately 30 km for Ida) are intermediate between the ion and electron gyroradii, which implies that the asteroid-imposed perturbations propagate in the whistler mode. Special properties of the whistler mode include phase phase velocities that can exceed the solar wind speed and confinement of the disturbance to directions nearly aligned with the magnetic field. These features of the interaction impose a structure on the solar wind disturbance that differs greatly from the forms familiar for either magnetized or unmagnetized bodies of magnetohydrodynamic spatial scales. We examine both data and computer simulations of the interaction with special attention to what can be inferred about the interaction itself from analysis of the data.

  7. A theory of local and global processes which affect solar wind electrons. II - Experimental support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scudder, J. D.; Olbert, S.

    1979-01-01

    Strong observational support from data obtained on three different satellites and reported by three independent experimental groups is presented for all of the theoretically predicted correlations of a previous paper concerning local and global processes that affect solar-wind electrons. Specifically, it is shown that: (1) subthermal electrons behave most nearly as a classical gas; (2) the solar-wind extrathermal fraction of the electron density is anticorrelated within steady-state stream patterns with the local bulk speed; (3) the extrathermal electrons form a spectrally distinguishable subpopulation whose differential 'temperature' is anticorrelated with the local bulk speed; (4) the heat flux carried by electrons is anticorrelated with the bulk speed; and (5) the extrathermal 'temperature' is nearly independent of radius in the inner heliosphere. It is concluded that the previously discussed global and local Coulomb collisional effects are essential aspects of the solar-wind plasma as it is observed.

  8. Solar wind entry into the high-latitude terrestrial magnetosphere during geomagnetically quiet times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Q Q; Zong, Q-G; Fu, S Y; Dunlop, M W; Pu, Z Y; Parks, G K; Wei, Y; Li, W H; Zhang, H; Nowada, M; Wang, Y B; Sun, W J; Xiao, T; Reme, H; Carr, C; Fazakerley, A N; Lucek, E

    2013-01-01

    An understanding of the transport of solar wind plasma into and throughout the terrestrial magnetosphere is crucial to space science and space weather. For non-active periods, there is little agreement on where and how plasma entry into the magnetosphere might occur. Moreover, behaviour in the high-latitude region behind the magnetospheric cusps, for example, the lobes, is poorly understood, partly because of lack of coverage by previous space missions. Here, using Cluster multi-spacecraft data, we report an unexpected discovery of regions of solar wind entry into the Earth's high-latitude magnetosphere tailward of the cusps. From statistical observational facts and simulation analysis we suggest that these regions are most likely produced by magnetic reconnection at the high-latitude magnetopause, although other processes, such as impulsive penetration, may not be ruled out entirely. We find that the degree of entry can be significant for solar wind transport into the magnetosphere during such quiet times.

  9. Particle acceleration at a termination shock. I - Application to the solar wind and the anomalous component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokipii, J. R.

    1986-01-01

    The results of a numerical study of the diffusive acceleration of charged particles at the termination shock of the solar wind are reported. In the model a realistic magnetic field structure is employed which is similar to that observed in the solar wind. In addition to causing spatial variation of the diffusion tensor, a major effect of the magnetic field is to cause guiding-center drifts of the accelerated particles, both in the solar wind and at the shock. It is demonstrated that the inclusion of the drifts has a large effect on the acceleration. It is concluded, furthermore, that acceleration at the termination shock, in conjunction with drifts, can explain several observed features of the anomalous component.

  10. Dynamic Biogas Upgrading for Integration of Renewable Energy from Wind, Biomass and Solar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurgensen, Lars

    ) combined heat and power production from biogas during periods of electricity demand, bioenergy utilization becomes a dynamic process. In such a process scheme, biomass, wind, and solar could be integrated in a local context. This thesis aims to demonstrate the feasibility of the dynamic biogas upgrading......The Sabatier process is investigated as a storage scheme for renewable energy. Hydrogen derived from fluctuating renewable energy sources like wind and solar is converted to methane by the hydrogenation/methanation of carbon oxides. Biogas from anaerobic digestion is considered in this study...... as a high concentrated source of carbon dioxide. By using the Sabatier process, the CO2 content of the biogas is converted to CH4, which is a new upgrading process for biogas. By switching between (i) this upgrading process during periods of extensive electricity production from wind and solar, and (ii...

  11. High-latitude F region large-scale ionospheric irregularities under different solar wind and zenith angle conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukianova, R. Yu.; Uvarov, V. M.; Coïsson, P.

    2017-01-01

    A numerical model is used to study systematically the evolution of large scale irregularities depending on the IMF Bz and By components, solar zenith angle (seasonal and daily variation), solar and geomagnetic activity. The model enables to reproduce the 3-D distribution of electron density over the high-latitude F region ionosphere in the altitude range between 130 and 640 km. Since the convection electric field driven by changes in solar wind conditions has an important effect on the high-latitude ionosphere, the rotation of the IMF vector in the Y-Z plane causes a significant redistribution of the ionospheric plasma. Under the southward IMF conditions the plasma density is enhanced over a large portion of the near-pole ionosphere as a tongue of ionization, while the northward IMF leads to a considerable depletion and occurrence of the polar hole. The IMF By polarity is crucial for the shift and extension of the tongue of ionization to the dusk or dawn side. Particle precipitation also plays a role through a localized increase of the electron density mostly within the auroral oval and more pronounced auroral peak. The solar zenith angle, especially its seasonal variation, is the strongest regular factor influencing the electron density magnitude and spatial distribution. In winter, when the polar ionosphere is in darkness, large variations associated with different solar wind condition are more prominent. The daily variation of the zenith angle considerably modifies the Ne within a particular pattern. At a given time, the combined action of the IMF, solar zenith angle, level of solar and geomagnetic activity produces a complicated ionospheric response which can be considered as a superposition of different effects. Quantitative estimates of the ionospheric response to each factor are presented.

  12. Probability density functions for the variable solar wind near the solar cycle minimum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vörös, Z.; Leitner, M.; Narita, Y.; Consolini, G.; Kovács, P.; Tóth, A.; Lichtenberger, J.

    2015-08-01

    Unconditional and conditional statistics are used for studying the histograms of magnetic field multiscale fluctuations in the solar wind near the solar cycle minimum in 2008. The unconditional statistics involves the magnetic data during the whole year in 2008. The conditional statistics involves the magnetic field time series split into concatenated subsets of data according to a threshold in dynamic pressure. The threshold separates fast-stream leading edge compressional and trailing edge uncompressional fluctuations. The histograms obtained from these data sets are associated with both multiscale (B) and small-scale (δB) magnetic fluctuations, the latter corresponding to time-delayed differences. It is shown here that, by keeping flexibility but avoiding the unnecessary redundancy in modeling, the histograms can be effectively described by a limited set of theoretical probability distribution functions (PDFs), such as the normal, lognormal, kappa, and log-kappa functions. In a statistical sense the model PDFs correspond to additive and multiplicative processes exhibiting correlations. It is demonstrated here that the skewed small-scale histograms inherent in turbulent cascades are better described by the skewed log-kappa than by the symmetric kappa model. Nevertheless, the observed skewness is rather small, resulting in potential difficulties of estimation of the third-order moments. This paper also investigates the dependence of the statistical convergence of PDF model parameters, goodness of fit, and skewness on the data sample size. It is shown that the minimum lengths of data intervals required for the robust estimation of parameters is scale, process, and model dependent.

  13. Estimating a wind shear detection range for different altitude levels in the troposphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Gorodnichev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A so-called wind shear (a vector difference of wind speeds in two points of the space referred to the distance between them is of essential practical interest to air force. The wind shear is a hidden and cliffhanging phenomenon. The growth of aircraft incidents at their taking off and landing have drawn attention to this phenomenon.Laser methods are one of the advanced remote techniques to measure a speed and detect a wind shear. Remote laser methods of wind speed measurement are divided into Doppler and correlation ones. More simple (and, respectively, demanding less expensive equipment are correlation methods and near to them non-Doppler techniques.Today almost all existing wind correlation lidars run in the visible range. However, in terms of safety for an eye, other ranges: near infrared (IK and ultra-violet (UF ones are also of interest.The work assesses a sounding range of the aircraft lidar in UF, visible, and near IK spectral ranges to solve a problem of wind shear detection for different altitude levels in the troposphere.Results of calculations show that the sounding ranges decrease with increasing flight altitude (at lidar parameters used in calculations to be in range from ~ 2.7-3.3 km (the lowest atmospheric layer height ~ 0 to ~ 200 - 300 m (a flight altitude of 10 km. And the main reduction of the sounding range vs height is within the range of heights of 5-10 km. Such dependence is caused by the strong reduction of aerosol extinction and atmosphere scattering with the altitude increase in this altitude range.In a ground layer of the terrestrial atmosphere (height ~ 0 the greatest sounding range is realized for a wave length of 0.532 microns. With increasing flight altitude a difference in sounding ranges for the wave lengths of 0.355; 9.532 and 1.54 microns decreases, and at big heights the greatest range of sounding is realized for a wave length of 1.54 microns.

  14. Integrating wind and solar power into the energy systems of the 21st century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flavin, C. [Worldwatch Inst., Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Although they have been pursued by scientists and entrepreneurs for two decades, solar and wind energy have not yet claimed the large share of the world energy market that proponents hoped they would. Yet the past two years brought a series of developments that suggest the time has come for solar and wind energy to compete directly with fossil fuels. Wind and solar power generators are likely to contribute significant power to the electricity systems of scores of countries within the next decade, with generating costs as low as 4-5 cents per kilowatt-hour. This will require adjustment in the operation of power transmission and distribution systems to accommodate intermittent resources, as well as new time-specific pricing of electricity. The transition to more open, competitive power systems, with liberal access by independent producers, is likely to speed introduction of the new technologies. Altogether, the energy that strikes the earth`s atmosphere in the form of sunlight each year, and the winds that flow from it, represent the equivalent of nearly 1,000 trillion barrels of oil-sufficient to fuel the global economy thousands of times over. By relying on a new generation of efficient, high-tech, and mass produced energy conversion devices such as advanced wind turbines and photovoltaics, the world can rapidly reduce its dependence on oil and coal in the twenty-first century. In the more distant future, solar and wind energy have the potential not only to supply much of the world`s electricity but to displace the direct use of oil and natural gas. Solar and wind energy can be used to split water via electrolysis, producing hydrogen gas that can be substituted for liquid and gaseous fuels. (46 refs.)

  15. Intermittency, non-Gaussian statistics and fractal scaling of MHD fluctuations in the solar wind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Marsch

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives a review of some recent work on intermittency, non-Gaussian statistics, and fractal scaling of solar wind magnetohydrodynamic turbulence. Model calculations and theories are discussed and put in their context with the in-situ observations of the solar wind fluctuations, essentially of the flow velocity and magnetic field. Emphasis is placed more on a comparison of the data with the theory than on a complete derivation of the model results, which are treated in a more tutorial fashion. The introduction reminds of some important observations and key aspects of the solar wind turbulence. Then structure functions are defined and observational results discussed. The probability density functions provide a direct means to analyse the statistical properties of the fluctuations. Evidence for non-Gaussian statistics is provided. Intermittency and simple scaling models are discussed, which yield algebraic expressions for the scaling exponents of the structure functions. The concept of the extended self-similarity is presented and corresponding observational evidence for its existence in the solar wind is provided. Subsequently, and extended structure function model, including the p-model scaling and a scale-dependent cascade, is discussed and compared with selected measurements. The basics of the multifractals are presented and applied to solar wind data. The multifractal scaling of the kinetic energy flux as proxy for the unknown cascading rate is established observationally, and the so-called multifractal spectrum is obtained. Finally, the scaling exponents of the associated correlation functions are derived and analysed. The paper concludes with a discussion of the empirical results and prospects for the future research in this field and in solar wind MHD turbulence in general.

  16. A statistical study on the correlations between plasma sheet and solar wind based on DSP explorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Q. Yan

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available By using the data of two spacecraft, TC-1 and ACE (Advanced Composition Explorer, a statistical study on the correlations between plasma sheet and solar wind has been carried out. The results obtained show that the plasma sheet at geocentric distances of about 9~13.4 Re has an apparent driving relationship with the solar wind. It is found that (1 there is a positive correlation between the duskward component of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF and the duskward component of the geomagnetic field in the plasma sheet, with a proportionality constant of about 1.09. It indicates that the duskward component of the IMF can effectively penetrate into the near-Earth plasma sheet, and can be amplified by sunward convection in the corresponding region at geocentric distances of about 9~13.4 Re; (2 the increase in the density or the dynamic pressure of the solar wind will generally lead to the increase in the density of the plasma sheet; (3 the ion thermal pressure in the near-Earth plasma sheet is significantly controlled by the dynamic pressure of solar wind; (4 under the northward IMF condition, the ion temperature and ion thermal pressure in the plasma sheet decrease as the solar wind speed increases. This feature indicates that plasmas in the near-Earth plasma sheet can come from the magnetosheath through the LLBL. Northward IMF is one important condition for the transport of the cold plasmas of the magnetosheath into the plasma sheet through the LLBL, and fast solar wind will enhance such a transport process.

  17. Wind speed and wind power short and medium range predictions for complex terrain using artificial neural networks and ensemble calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schicker, Irene; Papazek, Petrina; Kann, Alexander; Wang, Yong

    2017-04-01

    Reliable predictions of wind speed and wind power are vital for balancing the electricity network. Within the last two decades the amount of energy stemming from renewable sources increased substantially relying heavily on the prevailing synoptic conditions. Especially for regions with complex terrain and forested surfaces providing reliable predictions is a challenging task. Forecasts in the nowcasting as well as in the (two) day-ahead range are thus essential for the network balancing. Predictions of wind speed and wind power from the nowcasting to the +72-hour forecast range using NWP models in regions with complex terrain need a suitable horizontal, vertical and temporal resolution (e.g. 10 - 15 minute forecasts for the Nowcasting range) requiring high performance computing. To be able to provide sub-hourly to hourly forecasts different approaches such as model output statistics (MOS) or artificial neural networks (ANN) - including feed forward recurrent neural networks, fuzzy logic, particle swarm optimizations - are needed as computational costs are too high. To represent the forecast uncertainties additional probabilistic ensemble predictions are required increasing the computational needs. Ensemble prediction systems account for errors and uncertainties in the initial and boundary conditions, parameterizations, numeric, etc. Due to the underestimation of model and sampling errors ensemble predictions tend to be underdispersive and biased. They lack, too, sharpness and reliability. These shortcomings can be accounted for using statistical post-processing methods such as the non-homogeneous Gaussian regression (NGR) to calibrate an ensemble. These calibrated ensembles provide forecasts in the medium range for any arbitrary location where observations are available. In this study an ANN is used to provide forecasts for the nowcasting and medium-range with sub-hourly to hourly predictions for different Austrian sites, including high alpine sites as well as low

  18. A theory of local and global processes which affect solar wind electrons. 2: Experimental support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scudder, J. D.; Olbert, S.

    1979-01-01

    The microscopic characteristics of the Coulomb cross section show that there are three natural subpopulations for plasma electrons: the subthermals with local kinetic energy E kT sub c; the transthermals with kT sub c E 7 kT sub c and the extrathermals E 7 kT sub c. Data from three experimental groups on three different spacecraft in the interplanetary medium over a radial range are presented to support the five interrelations projected between solar wind electron properties and changes in the interplanetary medium: (1) subthermals respond primarily to local changes (compression and rarefactions) in stream dynamics; (2) the extrathermal fraction of the ambient electron density should be anti-correlated with the asymptotic bulk speed; (3) the extrathermal "temperature" should be anti-correlated with the local wind speed at 1 AU; (4) the heat flux carried by electrons should be anti-correlated with the local bulk speed; and (5) the extrathermal differential 'temperature' should be nearly independent of radius within 1 AU.

  19. Effects of vernal equinox solar eclipse on temperature and wind direction in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eugster, Werner; Emmel, Carmen; Wolf, Sebastian; Buchmann, Nina; McFadden, Joseph P.; Whiteman, Charles David

    2017-12-01

    The vernal equinox total solar eclipse of 20 March 2015 produced a maximum occultation of 65.8-70.1 % over Switzerland during the morning hours (09:22 to 11:48 CET). Skies were generally clear over the Swiss Alps due to a persistent high-pressure band between the UK and Russia associated with a rather weak pressure gradient over the continent. To assess the effects of penumbral shading on near-surface meteorology across Switzerland, air temperature data measured at 10 min intervals at 184 MeteoSwiss weather stations were used. Wind speed and direction data were available from 165 of these stations. Additionally, six Swiss FluxNet eddy covariance flux (ECF) sites provided turbulent measurements at 20 Hz resolution. During maximum occultation, the temperature drop was up to 5.8 K at a mountain site where cold air can pool in a topographic depression. The bootstrapped average of the maximum temperature drops of all 184 MeteoSwiss sites during the solar eclipse was 1.51 ± 0.02 K (mean ± SE). A detailed comparison with literature values since 1834 showed a temperature decrease of 2.6 ± 1.7 K (average of all reports), with extreme values up to 11 K. On fair weather days under weak larger-scale pressure gradients, local thermo-topographic wind systems develop that are driven by small-scale pressure and temperature gradients. At one ECF site, the penumbral shading delayed the morning transition from down-valley to up-valley wind conditions. At another site, it prevented this transition from occurring at all. Data from the 165 MeteoSwiss sites measuring wind direction did not show a consistent pattern of wind direction response to the passing of the penumbral shadow. These results suggest that the local topographic setting had an important influence on the temperature drop and the wind flow patterns during the eclipse. A significant cyclonic effect of the passing penumbral shadow was found in the elevation range ≈ 1700-2700 m a. s. l., but not at lower

  20. Effects of vernal equinox solar eclipse on temperature and wind direction in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Eugster

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The vernal equinox total solar eclipse of 20 March 2015 produced a maximum occultation of 65.8–70.1 % over Switzerland during the morning hours (09:22 to 11:48 CET. Skies were generally clear over the Swiss Alps due to a persistent high-pressure band between the UK and Russia associated with a rather weak pressure gradient over the continent. To assess the effects of penumbral shading on near-surface meteorology across Switzerland, air temperature data measured at 10 min intervals at 184 MeteoSwiss weather stations were used. Wind speed and direction data were available from 165 of these stations. Additionally, six Swiss FluxNet eddy covariance flux (ECF sites provided turbulent measurements at 20 Hz resolution. During maximum occultation, the temperature drop was up to 5.8 K at a mountain site where cold air can pool in a topographic depression. The bootstrapped average of the maximum temperature drops of all 184 MeteoSwiss sites during the solar eclipse was 1.51 ± 0.02 K (mean ± SE. A detailed comparison with literature values since 1834 showed a temperature decrease of 2.6 ± 1.7 K (average of all reports, with extreme values up to 11 K. On fair weather days under weak larger-scale pressure gradients, local thermo-topographic wind systems develop that are driven by small-scale pressure and temperature gradients. At one ECF site, the penumbral shading delayed the morning transition from down-valley to up-valley wind conditions. At another site, it prevented this transition from occurring at all. Data from the 165 MeteoSwiss sites measuring wind direction did not show a consistent pattern of wind direction response to the passing of the penumbral shadow. These results suggest that the local topographic setting had an important influence on the temperature drop and the wind flow patterns during the eclipse. A significant cyclonic effect of the passing penumbral shadow was found in the elevation range

  1. Interaction of Solar Wind and Magnetic Anomalies - Modelling from Moon to Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alho, Markku; Kallio, Esa; Wedlund, Cyril Simon; Wurz, Peter

    2015-04-01

    The crustal magnetic anomalies on both the Moon and Mars strongly affect the local plasma environment. On the Moon, the impinging solar wind is decelerated or deflected when interacting with the magnetic field anomaly, visible in the lunar surface as energetic neutral atom (ENA) emissions or as reflected protons, and may play a part in the space weathering of the lunar soil. At Mars, the crustal magnetic fields have been shown to be associated with, e.g., enhanced electron scale heights and modified convection of ionospheric plasma, resulting in the plasma environment being dominated by crustal magnetic fields up to altitudes of 400km. Our previous modelling work suggested that Hall currents are a dominant feature in a Moon-like magnetic anomaly interaction at scales at or below the proton inertial length. In this work we study the solar wind interaction with magnetic anomalies and compare the plasma environments of a Moon-like anomaly with a Mars-like anomaly by introducing an ionosphere and an exosphere to probe the transition from an atmosphere-less anomaly interaction to an ionospheric one. We utilize a 3D hybrid plasma model, in which ions are modelled as particles while electrons form a charge-neutralizing massless fluid. The hybrid model gives a full description of ion kinetics and associated plasma phenomena at the simulation region ranging from instabilities to possible reconnection. The model can thus be used to interpret both in-situ particle and field observations and remotely-sensed ENA emissions. A self-consistent ionosphere package for the model is additionally in development.

  2. Multipoint analysis of compressive fluctuations in the fast and slow solar wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, O. W.; Narita, Y.; Li, X.; Escoubet, C. P.; Laakso, H.

    2017-07-01

    Compressible turbulence in the solar wind is a topic of much recent debate. To understand the various compressive fluctuations at scales comparable to proton characteristic lengths, we use multipoint magnetic field and density data (derived from spacecraft potential which allows higher time resolution than is typically possible than with particle instruments) from the Cluster spacecraft when they were in undisturbed intervals of slow and fast solar wind. The application of the multipoint signal resonator technique is performed for the first time, to the analysis of scalar time series. Fluctuations in the measurements of electron density and in magnitude of the magnetic field (used as a proxy for compressible magnetic fluctuations) are used as inputs in addition to the traditional vector components of the magnetic field. This analysis is performed on two streams of solar wind, one which can be classed as a slow stream and one which can be classed as a fast stream to investigate the difference in the compressible components in the two types of wind. The recovered plasma frame frequencies for the incompressible component show low propagation speed in the plasma frame consistent with previous applications of the method, while the compressible components are more scattered, some with very high phase speeds. Based on these results, we propose a picture of compressive solar wind turbulence as a mixed state of (1) linear modes such as kinetic Alfvén, kinetic slow, and ion Bernstein modes; (2) coherent structures with very small intrinsic frequencies; and (3) nonlinear or sideband modes.

  3. The Feasibility of Wind and Solar Energy Application for Oil and Gas Offshore Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiong, Y. K.; Zahari, M. A.; Wong, S. F.; Dol, S. S.

    2015-04-01

    Renewable energy is an energy which is freely available in nature such as winds and solar energy. It plays a critical role in greening the energy sector as these sources of energy produce little or no pollution to environment. This paper will focus on capability of renewable energy (wind and solar) in generating power for offshore application. Data of wind speeds and solar irradiation that are available around SHELL Sabah Water Platform for every 10 minutes, 24 hours a day, for a period of one year are provided by SHELL Sarawak Sdn. Bhd. The suitable wind turbine and photovoltaic panel that are able to give a high output and higher reliability during operation period are selected by using the tabulated data. The highest power output generated using single wind energy application is equal to 492 kW while for solar energy application is equal to 20 kW. Using the calculated data, the feasibility of renewable energy is then determined based on the platform energy demand.

  4. Periodic Alpha Signatures and the Origins of the Slow Solar Wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blume, Catherine; Kepko, Larry

    2017-01-01

    The origin of the slow solar wind has puzzled scientists for decades. Both flux tube geometry of field lines open to the heliosphere and magnetic reconnection that opens field lines that were previously closed to the heliosphere have been proposed as explanations (via the expansion factor and S-web models, respectively), but the observations to date have proven an inadequate test for distinguishing between the theories. However, short term (~hours) variability of alpha particles could provide the set of observations that tips the balance. Alpha particles compose about 4% of the solar wind, and its precise composition is determined by dynamics in the solar atmosphere. Therefore, compositional changes in the alpha to proton ratio must have originated at the Sun, making alphs tracer particles of sorts and carrying signatures of their solar creation. We examined in situ alpha density and proton density data from the Wind, ACE, STEREO-B, AND STEREO-A spacecraft, focusing on a pseudostreamer that occurred August 9, 2008. This case study found one clear periodic structure in the slow solar wind preceding the pseudostreamer in Wind/ACE and the same periodic structure in the in situ data at STEREO-B. The existence of this slow wind structure in association with a pseudostreamer directly contradicts the expansion factor model, which predicts that pseudostreamers produce fast wind. The structure's appearance at STEREO-B, which was located 30 degrees behind the Earth-Sun line, further indicates that the mechanism at the Sun is responsible for its formation was active for at least three days. Moreover, an analysis of both helmet streamer and pseudostreamer events between 2007-2009 finds that similar density structures exist in at least 35% of all streamers. This indicates that the same physical process that produces this slow solar wind occurs with a degree of frequency in association with both types of streamers. The clarity, duration, and frequency of these periodic density

  5. The technique of linear prediction filters applied to studies of solar wind-magnetosphere coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clauer, C. Robert

    1986-01-01

    Linear prediction filtering is a powerful empirical technique suitable for the study of stimulus-response behavior. The technique enables one to determine the most general linear relationship between multiple time-varying quantities, assuming that the physical systems relating the quantities are linear and time invariant. Several researchers have applied linear prediction analysis to investigate solar wind-magnetosphere interactions. This short review describes the method of linear prediction analysis, its application to solar wind-magnetosphere coupling studies both in terms of physical processes, and the results of investigations which have used this technique.

  6. PV-solar / wind hybrid energy system for GSM/CDMA type mobile telephony base station

    OpenAIRE

    Pragya Nema, R.K. Nema, Saroj Rangnekar

    2010-01-01

    This paper gives the design idea of optimized PV-Solar and Wind Hybrid Energy System for GSM/CDMA type mobile base station over conventional diesel generator for a particular site in central India (Bhopal) . For this hybrid system ,the meteorological data of Solar Insolation, hourly wind speed, are taken for Bhopal-Central India (Longitude 77o.23'and Latitude 23o.21' ) and the pattern of load consumption of mobile base station are studied and suitably modeled for optimization of the hybrid en...

  7. Compressible MHD Turbulence in the Slow Solar Wind: Energy Transfer Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahraoui, F.; Andres, N.; Hadid, L.; Galtier, S.; Dmitruk, P.; Mininni, P. D.

    2016-12-01

    The role of compressible fluctuations in the MHD turbulence is investigated using direct numerical simulations and in-situ spacecraft in the solar wind. A focus is put on verifying the exact third-order law derived for compressible isothermal turbulence by Banerjee and Galtier, 2013. The numerical simulations use a 3D compressible MHD code in the isothermal limit ( =1) with low sonic Mach numbers (Ms<1). The main goal is to evaluate the relative importance of the new flux and source terms involved in the derived law. Direct comparison with spacecraft observations from the Themis spacecraft in the fast and slow solar wind will be made.

  8. Quantifying the intermittency independent scaling exponents in the anisotropic solar wind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, S. C.; Hnat, B.

    2006-12-01

    Solar wind turbulence is dominated by Alfvenic fluctuations with power spectral exponents that somewhat surprisingly evolve toward the Kolmogorov value of -5/3, that of hydrodynamic turbulence. We analyse a 3 year interval of ACE data that is dominated by slow solar wind and show that at 1AU the turbulence decomposes linearly into two coexistent components perpendicular and parallel to the local average magnetic field and determine the distinct intermittency independent scaling exponents. The first of these is consistent with recent predictions for anisotropic MHD and the second shows Kolmogorov-like scaling which we also find in the number and magnetic energy density, and Poynting flux.

  9. 3D, multi-fluid, MHD calculations of Mars interaction with the solar wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najib, D.; Toth, G.; Nagy, A. F.; Curry, S.; Ma, Y.

    2010-12-01

    We use our 3D multi-fluid MHD model to simulate the interaction of the solar wind with non-magnetized planets, Mars in particular. We set the lower boundary to 100 km and consider photo and electron impact ionization as well as charge exchange in our chemistry. We also add more realistic physical processes to our model, and test it against different solar wind conditions. In addition, we are solving for the electron pressure and therefore for the electron fluid. We also calculate the escape fluxes and compare our results to observations.

  10. On ion-cyclotron-resonance heating of the corona and solar wind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Marsch

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper concisely summarizes and critically reviews recent work by the authors on models of the heating of the solar corona by resonance of ions with high-frequency waves (up to the proton cyclotron frequency. The quasi-linear theory of pitch angle diffusion is presented in connection with relevant solar wind proton observations. Hybrid fluid-kinetic model equations, which include wave-particle interactions and collisions, are derived. Numerical solutions are discussed, representative of the inner corona and near-Sun solar wind. A semi-kinetic model for reduced velocity distributions is presented, yielding kinetic results for heavy ions in the solar corona. It is concluded that a self-consistent treatment of particle distributions and wave spectra is required, in order to adequately describe coronal physics and to obtain agreement with observations.

  11. Mars atmospheric losses induced by the solar wind: current knowledge and perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermakov, Vladimir; Zelenyi, Lev; Vaisberg, Oleg; Sementsov, Egor; Dubinin, Eduard

    2017-04-01

    Solar wind induced atmospheric losses have been studied since earlier 1970th. Several loss channels have been identified including pick-up of exospheric photo-ions and ionospheric ions escape. Measurements performed during several solar cycles showed variation of these losses by about factor of 10, being largest at maximum solar activity. MAVEN spacecraft equipped with comprehensive set of instruments with high temporal and mass resolution operating at Mars since fall 2014 ensures much better investigation of solar wind enforcing Martian environment, Mars atmospheric losses processes and mass loss rate. These issues are very important for understanding of Martian atmospheric evolution including water loss during cosmogonic time. Simultaneous observations by MAVEN and MEX spacecraft open the new perspective in study of Martian environment. In this report we discuss results of past and current missions and preliminary analysis of heavy ions escape using simultaneous measurements of MEX and MAVEN spacecraft.

  12. Solar wind noble gases and nitrogen in metal from lunar soil 68501

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Richard H.; Pepin, Robert O.

    1994-01-01

    Noble gases and N were analyzed in handpicked metal separates from lunar soil 68501 by a combination of step-wise combustions and pyrolyses. Helium and Ne were found to be unfractionated with respect to one another when normalized to solar abundances, for both the bulk sample and for all but the highest temperature steps. However, they are depleted relative to Ar, Kr and Xe by at least a factor of 5. The heavier gases exhibit mass-dependent fractionation relative to solar system abundance ratios but appear unfractionated, both in the bulk metal and in early temperature steps, when compared to relative abundances derived from lunar ilmenite 71501 by chemical etching, recently put forward as representing the abundance ratios in solar wind. Estimates of the contribution of solar energetic particles (SEP) to the originally implanted solar gases, derived from a basic interpretation of He and Ne isotopes, yield values of about 10%. Analysis of the Ar isotopes requires a minimum of 20% SEP, and Kr isotopes, using our preferred composition for solar wind Kr, yield a result that overlaps both these values. It is possible to reconcile the data from these gases if significant loss of solar wind Ar, Kr and presumably Xe has occurred relative to the SEP component, most likely by erosive processes that are mass independent, although mass-dependent losses (Ar greater than Kr greater than Xe) cannot be excluded. If such losses did occur, the SEP contribution to the solar implanted gases must have been no more than a few percent. Nitrogen is a mixture of indigenous meteoritic N, whose isotopic composition is inferred to be relatively light, and implanted solar N, which has probably undergone diffusive redistribution and fractionation. If the heavy noble gases have not undergone diffusive loss, then N/Ar in the solar wind can be inferred to be at least several times the accepted solar ratio. The solar wind N appears, even after correction for fractionation effects, to have a minimum

  13. Temporal evolution of the solar wind and the formation of a standing shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habbal, S. R.; Rosner, R.

    1984-01-01

    The temporal evolution of the solar wind from one steady state to another is explored when momentum deposition produces multiple critical points in the flow. It is shown that the wind always evolves in time to a new steady state compatible with the solution of the steady state equation of motion. However, for the same initial state and identical asymptotic momentum deposition rate, the temporal evolution pattern of the wind depends on the detailed time history of momentum addition and is therefore not unique. This feature plays an important role in the particular case when multiple (three in this study) steady states exist for identical boundary conditions; each one of these solutions is thus shown to be physically accessible. The details of the temporal evolution pattern of the wind reveal the formation of a shock discontinuity whenever the flow becomes supersonic at a critical point upstream from the initial critical point. If the flow remains supersonic at that inner critical point, the shock can become a standing one, depending on the strength and the temporal history of momentum addition. The results of this study indicate that the time scale required for the solar wind to evolve between steady states is of the order of 30-60 hours. Furthermore, the results also reveal the interesting and novel phenomenon that a standing shock is likely to develop in the inner solar wind flow within this time frame, in particular, in coronal hole regions with rapidly diverging geometries.

  14. The Solar Wind as a Laboratory for the Study of Magnetofluid Turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Melvyn L.

    2011-01-01

    The solar wind is the Sun's exosphere. As the solar atmosphere expands into interplanetary space, it is accelerated and heated. Data from spacecraft located throughout the heliosphere have revealed that this exosphere has velocities of several hundred kilometers/sec, densities at Earth orbit of about 5 particles/cm(exp 3), and an entrained magnetic field that at Earth orbit t