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Sample records for range side-lobe level

  1. NULL SYNTHESIS OF SCANNED LINEAR ARRAY ANTENNA WITH MINIMUM SIDE LOBE LEVEL AND FIXED DYNAMIC RANGE RATIO USING ITERATIVE FAST FOURIER TRANSFORM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.C. Mahato

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a method based on iterative fast fourier technique for placing nulls in prescribed directions by amplitude-only control method in the radiation pattern of scanned linear array of uniformly spaced isotropic antennas with fixed dynamic range ratio of amplitude distribution and minimum peak side lobe level. Two examples have been presented, one with 20 isotropic antennas for placing two nulls and another with 22 isotropic antennas for placing wide null. Dynamic range ratio in both the cases has been fixed at 4.0.The method uses the property that for a linear array with uniform element spacing, an inverse Fourier transform relationship exists between the array factor and the element excitations.

  2. Supplementary Golay pair for range side lobe suppression in dual-frequency tissue harmonic imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Che-Chou; Wu, Chi; Peng, Jun-Kai

    2015-02-01

    In dual-frequency (DF) harmonic imaging, the second harmonic signal at second harmonic (2f0) frequency and the inter-modulation harmonic signal at fundamental (f0) frequency are simultaneously imaged for spectral compounding. When the phase-encoded Golay pair is utilized to improve the harmonic signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), however, the DF imaging suffers from range side lobe artifacts due to spectral cross-talk with other harmonic components at DC and third harmonic (3f0) frequency. In this study, a supplementary Golay pair is developed to suppress the range side lobes in combination with the original Golay pair. Since the phase code of the DC interference cannot be manipulated, the supplementary Golay is designed to reverse the polarity of the 3f0 interference and the f0 signal while keeping the 2f0 signal unchanged. For 2f0 imaging, the echo summation of the supplementary and the original Golay can cancel the 3f0 interference. On the contrary, the echo difference between the two Golay pairs can eliminate the DC interference for f0 imaging. Hydrophone measurements indicate that the range side lobe level (RSLL) increases with the signal bandwidth of DF harmonic imaging. By using the combination of the two Golay pairs, the achievable suppression of RSLL can be 3 and 14 dB, respectively for the f0 and 2f0 harmonic signal. B-mode phantom imaging also verifies the presence of range side lobe artifacts when only the original Golay pair is utilized. In combination with the supplementary Golay pair, the artifacts are effectively suppressed. The corresponding range side lobe magnitude reduces by about 8 dB in 2f0 imaging but remains unchanged in f0 imaging. Meanwhile, the harmonic SNR improves by 8-10 dB and the contrast-to-noise ratio of harmonic image increases from about 1 to 1.2 by spectral compounding. For DF tissue harmonic imaging, the spectral cross-talk in Golay excitation results in severe range side lobe artifacts. To restore the image quality, two particular

  3. Certain investigations on the reduction of side lobe level of an ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, we propose biogeography based optimization technique, with linear and sinusoidal migration models and simplified biogeography based optimization (S-BBO), for uniformly spaced linear antenna array synthesis to maximize the reduction of side lobe level (SLL). This paper explores biogeography theory.

  4. Certain investigations on the reduction of side lobe level of an ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this paper, we propose biogeography based optimization technique, with linear and sinusoidal migration models and simplified biogeography based opti- mization (S-BBO), for uniformly spaced linear antenna array synthesis to maximize the reduction of side lobe level (SLL). This paper explores biogeography ...

  5. MIMO-radar Waveform Covariance Matrices for High SINR and Low Side-lobe Levels

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Sajid

    2012-12-29

    MIMO-radar has better parametric identifiability but compared to phased-array radar it shows loss in signal-to-noise ratio due to non-coherent processing. To exploit the benefits of both MIMO-radar and phased-array two transmit covariance matrices are found. Both of the covariance matrices yield gain in signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) compared to MIMO-radar and have lower side-lobe levels (SLL)\\'s compared to phased-array and MIMO-radar. Moreover, in contrast to recently introduced phased-MIMO scheme, where each antenna transmit different power, our proposed schemes allows same power transmission from each antenna. The SLL\\'s of the proposed first covariance matrix are higher than the phased-MIMO scheme while the SLL\\'s of the second proposed covariance matrix are lower than the phased-MIMO scheme. The first covariance matrix is generated using an auto-regressive process, which allow us to change the SINR and side lobe levels by changing the auto-regressive parameter, while to generate the second covariance matrix the values of sine function between 0 and $\\\\pi$ with the step size of $\\\\pi/n_T$ are used to form a positive-semidefinite Toeplitiz matrix, where $n_T$ is the number of transmit antennas. Simulation results validate our analytical results.

  6. Linear Array Geometry Synthesis with Minimum Side Lobe Level and Null Control Using Dynamic Multi-Swarm Particle Swarm Optimizer with Local Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Pradipta; Zafar, Hamim

    Linear antenna array design is one of the most important electromagnetic optimization problems of current interest. This paper describes the synthesis method of linear array geometry with minimum side lobe level and null control by the Dynamic Multi-Swarm Particle Swarm Optimizer with Local Search (DMSPSO) which optimizes the spacing between the elements of the linear array to produce a radiation pattern with minimum side lobe level and null placement control. The results of the DMSPSO algorithm have been shown to meet or beat the results obtained using other state-of-the-art metaheuristics like the Genetic Algorithm (GA),General Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), Memetic Algorithms (MA), and Tabu Search (TS) in a statistically meaningful way. Three design examples are presented that illustrate the use of the DMSPSO algorithm, and the optimization goal in each example is easily achieved.

  7. QPSO versus BSA for Failure Correction of Linear Array of Mutually Coupled Parallel Dipole Antennas with Fixed Side Lobe Level and VSWR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Muralidharan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary algorithms play an important role in synthesizing linear array antenna. In this paper, the authors have compared quantum particle swarm optimization (QPSO and backtracking search algorithms (BSA in failure correction of linear antenna arrays constructed using half wavelength uniformly spaced dipoles. The QPSO algorithm is a combination of classical PSO and quantum mechanics principles to enhance the performance of PSO and BSA is considered as a modernized PSO using historical populations. These two algorithms are applied to obtain the voltage excitations of the nondefective elements in the failed antenna array such that the necessary objectives, namely, the minimization of parameters like side lobe level (SLL and voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR, are achieved leading to their values matching closely the desired parameter values. The results of both algorithms are compared in terms of parameters used in the objective function along their statistical parameters. Moreover, in order to reduce the processing time, inverse fast Fourier transform (IFFT is used to obtain the array factor. In this paper, an example is presented for the application of the above two algorithms for a linear array of 30 parallel half wavelength dipole antennas failed with 4 elements and they clearly show the effectiveness of both the QPSO and BSA algorithms in terms of optimized parameters, statistical values, and processing time.

  8. QPSO for failure correction of linear array of mutually coupled parallel dipole antennas with desired side lobe level and return loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Muralidharan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A method based on quantum particle swarm optimization is proposed for correcting radiation pattern of a uniformly spaced linear array of parallel half-wavelength vertical very thin dipole antennas when more than one element of the array is completely defective. The generated pattern is broadside in the horizontal plane. Mutual coupling between the half-wavelength parallel dipole antennas has been taken care of by induced EMF method considering the current distribution on each dipole to be sinusoidal. Side lobe level and minimum return loss of the corrected pattern with defective elements are also calculated and an attempt is made that these parameters be equal to their respective specified values. This is usually done by changing excitation current amplitude of the non-defective elements without replacing the faulty elements. The element pattern of half-wavelength dipole antenna has been assumed omni-directional in the horizontal plane. Two examples are presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  9. Side lobe reduction of a concentric circular antenna array using genetic algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandal Durbadal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A concentric circular antenna array (CCAA consists of elements positioned on the periphery of imaginary circles on a plane having a common centre and different radii. The simplest way to feed the elements of such an array is to use uniform excitation. However, with a non-uniform excitation profile, considerable reduction of the side lobe level (SLL may be achieved at the cost of the added complexity. The difference of SLLs (with respect to the uniform excitation case becomes even more prominent when the beamwidth of the antenna needs to be kept fixed. In this paper, we formulate the task of designing a non-uniformly excited CCAA as a constrained optimization problem and use genetic algorithm (GA to solve the same. The goal is to determine an optimum set of weights for antenna elements which provides a radiation pattern with maximum SLL reduction with the constraint of a fixed beamwidth.

  10. Side lobe suppression in phase mask-based nonlinear superresolution microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beams, Ryan; Stranick, Stephan J.

    2017-08-01

    We compare side lobe suppression methods for nonlinear superresolution optical microscopy using phase masked excitation beams. The excitation point spread function (PSF) can be engineered by introducing a phase mask for superresolution microscopy. By applying a single π phase step to the excitation the central spot can be narrowed and provide improved lateral resolution. However, the energy redistribution leads to side lobes with increased intensity that complicates imaging applications. Several methods have been implemented to suppress the strength of the side lobes including confocal detection and utilizing beams with different phase masks in multiphoton microscopy. Side lobe suppression methods using confocal detection and different phase masks for the excitation beams are compared theoretically and experimentally. These results demonstrate the additional flexibility for PSF engineering for nonlinear optical processes.

  11. Nature-inspired Cuckoo Search Algorithm for Side Lobe Suppression in a Symmetric Linear Antenna Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. N. Abdul Rani

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we proposed a newly modified cuckoo search (MCS algorithm integrated with the Roulette wheel selection operator and the inertia weight controlling the search ability towards synthesizing symmetric linear array geometry with minimum side lobe level (SLL and/or nulls control. The basic cuckoo search (CS algorithm is primarily based on the natural obligate brood parasitic behavior of some cuckoo species in combination with the Levy flight behavior of some birds and fruit flies. The CS metaheuristic approach is straightforward and capable of solving effectively general N-dimensional, linear and nonlinear optimization problems. The array geometry synthesis is first formulated as an optimization problem with the goal of SLL suppression and/or null prescribed placement in certain directions, and then solved by the newly MCS algorithm for the optimum element or isotropic radiator locations in the azimuth-plane or xy-plane. The study also focuses on the four internal parameters of MCS algorithm specifically on their implicit effects in the array synthesis. The optimal inter-element spacing solutions obtained by the MCS-optimizer are validated through comparisons with the standard CS-optimizer and the conventional array within the uniform and the Dolph-Chebyshev envelope patterns using MATLABTM. Finally, we also compared the fine-tuned MCS algorithm with two popular evolutionary algorithm (EA techniques include particle swarm optimization (PSO and genetic algorithms (GA.

  12. Investigations on generation of ultra low side lobe patterns

    OpenAIRE

    T A N S N Varma; Dr. G.S.N.Raju

    2014-01-01

    Array antennas are popular compared to discrete antennas as it is possible to control the radiation beams without much difficulty. Most of the investigations reported in literature contain the results on radiation patterns in which the sidelobe levels are relatively high, but these patterns of high sidelobe are not accepted for point to point communications and these high sidelobes create lot of hazards in low noise receivers. In view of these facts, an attempt is made to generate low sidelob...

  13. DUAL POLARIZATION ANTENNA ARRAY WITH VERY LOW CROSS POLARIZATION AND LOW SIDE LOBES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1997-01-01

    The present invention relates to an antenna array adapted to radiate or receive electromagnetic waves of one or two polarizations with very low cross polarization and low side lobes. An antenna array comprising many antenna elements, e.g. more than ten antenna elements, is provided in which...... formation of grating lobes are inhibited in selected directions of the radiation and cross polarization within the main lobe is suppressed at least 30 dB below the main lobe peak value. According to a preferred embodiment of the invention, the antenna elements of the antenna array comprise probe-fed patches...

  14. Side Lobes Suppressing Algorithms for Eight Elements Linear Uniform Array Antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GHELETUŞ Raul

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the intense use of mobile smartphones, tablets, and laptops involves cutting-edge wireless technologies that require LTE advance or WLAN MIMO systems. With this ongoing increase of the IT domain, the antenna has to evolve as well toward smarter array systems to decrease the computational complexity especially at the user terminal (eNodeB. The current paper investigates some affordable yet efficient techniques that could suppress the side lobes for an array of eight elements, operating an advanced LTE base station. In this respect, a set of MATLAB functions computing the weighting coefficients and deliver their values (as RF gains to the HFSS modeler for a more realistic evaluation.

  15. Robust Centered Element Concentric Circular Antenna Array with Low Side Lobe Using Variable Loading and Tapering Windows in the Presence of Array Imperfections

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    M. F. Reza

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents centered element concentric circular antenna array (CECCAA using variable diagonal loading (VDL technique and different filtering windows. The different filtering windows are modified to apply in the CECCAA system. The modified novel technique not only is able to reduce the side lobe level (SLL but also has the ability to detect and highly attenuate the directional interferences. However, the performance of CECCAA system is degraded in the presence of array imperfections. This performance degradation problem due to array imperfections can be improved by using robust techniques. The proposed technique is also robust against array imperfections and improves the performance. Moreover, the performance of the proposed structure is better than a concentric circular antenna array (CCAA. Several examples are presented to analyze the performance of proposed beamformer by using different tapering windows.

  16. SIDE LOBE REDUCTION OF A UNIFORMLY EXCITED CONCENTRIC RING ARRAY ANTENNA USING EVOLUTIONARY ALGORITHMS

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    A. Chatterjee

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Reduction of sidelobe level in concentric ring arrays results in wide first null beamwidth (FNBW. Theauthors propose a pattern synthesis method based on modified Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO algorithm and Differential Evolution (DE algorithm to reduce sidelobe level while keeping the first null beamwidth (FNBW fixed or variable. This is achieved by optimizing both ring spacing and number of elements in each ring of a concentric circular ring array of uniformly excited isotropic antennas. The first null beamwidth is attempted to be made equal to or less than that of a uniformly excited and 0.5 ? spaced concentric circular ring array of same number of elements and same number of rings. The comparative performance of modified Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO algorithm and Differential Evolution (DE algorithms based on this particular problem in terms of FNBW, sidelobe level and computational time is also studied.

  17. 200 kHz Commercial Sonar Systems Generate Lower Frequency Side Lobes Audible to Some Marine Mammals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Zhiqun; Southall, Brandon; Carlson, Thomas J.; Xu, Jinshan; Martinez, Jayson J.; Weiland, Mark A.; Ingraham, John M.

    2014-04-15

    The spectral properties of pulses transmitted by three commercially available 200 kHz echo sounders were measured to assess the possibility that sound energy in below the center (carrier) frequency might be heard by marine mammals. The study found that all three sounders generated sound at frequencies below the center frequency and within the hearing range of some marine mammals and that this sound was likely detectable by the animals over limited ranges. However, at standard operating source levels for the sounders, the sound below the center frequency was well below potentially harmful levels. It was concluded that the sounds generated by the sounders could affect the behavior of marine mammals within fairly close proximity to the sources and that that the blanket exclusion of echo sounders from environmental impact analysis based solely on the center frequency output in relation to the range of marine mammal hearing should be reconsidered.

  18. Minimizing the Bright/Shadow Focal Spot Size with Controlled Side-Lobe Increase in High-Numerical-Aperture Focusing Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Khonina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Minimizing the bright/shadow focal spot size for differently polarized incident waves through the additional apodization of the focusing system output pupil by use of an optical element with the vortex phase dependence on angle and the polynomial amplitude dependence on radius is studied. The coefficients of the radial polynomial were optimized with the aim of fulfilling certain conditions such as the energy efficiency preservation and keeping the side lobes under control. The coefficients were chosen so as to minimize the functional using Brent’s method.

  19. 200 kHz commercial sonar systems generate lower frequency side lobes audible to some marine mammals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Daniel Deng

    Full Text Available The spectral properties of pulses transmitted by three commercially available 200 kHz echo sounders were measured to assess the possibility that marine mammals might hear sound energy below the center (carrier frequency that may be generated by transmitting short rectangular pulses. All three sounders were found to generate sound at frequencies below the center frequency and within the hearing range of some marine mammals, e.g. killer whales, false killer whales, beluga whales, Atlantic bottlenose dolphins, harbor porpoises, and others. The frequencies of these sub-harmonic sounds ranged from 90 to 130 kHz. These sounds were likely detectable by the animals over distances up to several hundred meters but were well below potentially harmful levels. The sounds generated by the sounders could potentially affect the behavior of marine mammals within fairly close proximity to the sources and therefore the exclusion of echo sounders from environmental impact analysis based solely on the center frequency output in relation to the range of marine mammal hearing should be reconsidered.

  20. Reticle level compensation for long range effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiro, Thiago; Browning, Clyde; Thornton, Martin J.; Vannufel, Cyril; Schiavone, Patrick

    2013-03-01

    Proximity Effects in electron beam lithography impact feature dimensions, pattern fidelity and uniformity. Electron scattering effects are commonly addressed using a mathematical model representing the radial exposure intensity distribution induced by a point electron source, commonly named Point Spread Function (PSF). PSF models are usually employed for correcting "short-range" and "long-range" backscattering effects up to 10μm to 15μm. It is well known that there are also some process related phenomena impacting pattern uniformity that have a wider range (fogging, chemical mechanical polishing -CMP- effects, etc.) which impacts up to a few millimeters or more. There are a number of commercial strategies for mitigating such long range effects based on data density. However, those traditional ones are usually performed within a single chip on a reticle field and ignore the presence of adjacent fields, neglecting their influence. Full field reticles can contain several different designs or arrayed chips in a multitude of layout placements. Reticle level jobdeck placing each design at specific sites, independent of each other can be used to account for the density of each pattern that has a relative impact on its neighbors, even if they are several millimeters away from offending data. Therefore, full field density analysis accounting for scribe frames and all neighboring patterns is required for reaching fidelity control requirements such as critical dimension (CD) and line end shortening (LES) on the full plate. This paper describes a technique to compensate long range effects going across chip boundaries to the full reticle exposure field. The extreme long range effects are also represented with a model that is calibrated according to the characteristics of the user's process. Data correction can be based on dose and geometry modulation. Uniform pattern dimensional control matching the user's specific process long range variability can be achieved with the

  1. Long-range dependence and sea level forecasting

    CERN Document Server

    Ercan, Ali; Abbasov, Rovshan K

    2013-01-01

    This study shows that the Caspian Sea level time series possess long range dependence even after removing linear trends, based on analyses of the Hurst statistic, the sample autocorrelation functions, and the periodogram of the series. Forecasting performance of ARMA, ARIMA, ARFIMA and Trend Line-ARFIMA (TL-ARFIMA) combination models are investigated. The forecast confidence bands and the forecast updating methodology, provided for ARIMA models in the literature, are modified for the ARFIMA models. Sample autocorrelation functions are utilized to estimate the differencing lengths of the ARFIMA

  2. Potential dynamic range in a scheme of the acousto-optical spectrometer providing light beam apodization for a large-aperture crystalline cell with linear acoustic losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherbakov, Alexandre S.; Luna Castellanos, Abraham; Tepichin Rodriguez, Eduardo; Balderas Mata, Sandra E.

    2008-02-01

    We develop our previous considerations for one of the most important problems related to optimizing the performance data of a new acousto-optical spectrometer for the analysis of radio-astronomical signals. The main attention is paid to estimating the side lobes of light distributions inherent in an individual resolvable spot in the output Fourier plane, governing the dynamic range of that spectrometer. At first, we analyze the Akhieser mechanism responsible for linear attenuation of both longitudinal and shear elastic waves in isotropic solid states. Similar analysis can be directly applied to crystalline materials as well in all the cases of passing elastic wave along the acoustic axis in crystals. Then, we estimate the influence of the acoustic attenuation along a large-aperture acousto-optical cells operating in a one- and two-phonon light scattering regimes. In so doing, the optimal operating points are discussed for both these regimes. Finally, the combined effect of the acoustic attenuation and the incident light beam apodization is studied from the points of view of optimizing the levels of side lobes and minima in light distribution of an individual resolvable spot in focal plane of the integrating lens and, consequently, estimating potential limitations of the dynamic range.

  3. High-frame-rate echocardiography with reduced sidelobe level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Hideyuki; Kanai, Hiroshi

    2012-11-01

    Echocardiography has become an indispensable modality for diagnosis of the heart. It enables observation of the shape of the heart and estimation of global heart function based on B-mode and M-mode imaging. Methods for echocardiographic estimation of myocardial strain and strain rate have also been developed to evaluate regional heart function. Furthermore, it has been recently shown that echocardiographic measurements of transmural transition of myocardial contraction/relaxation and propagation of vibration caused by closure of the heart valve would be useful for evaluation of myocardial function and viscoelasticity. However, such measurements require a frame rate (typically >200 Hz) much higher than that achieved by conventional ultrasonic diagnostic equipment. We have recently realized a high frame rate of about 300 Hz with a full field of view of 90° using diverging transmit beams and parallel receive beamforming. Although high-frame-rate imaging was made possible by this method, the side lobe level was slightly larger than that of the conventional method. To reduce the side lobe level, phase coherence imaging has recently been developed. Using this method, the spatial resolution is improved and the side lobe level is also reduced. However, speckle-like echoes, for example, echoes from the inside of the heart wall, are also suppressed. In the present study, a method for reducing the side lobe level while preserving speckle-like echoes was developed. The side lobe level was evaluated using a wire phantom. The side lobe level of the high-frame-rate imaging using unfocused diverging beams was improved by 13.3 dB by the proposed method. In in vivo measurements, a B-mode image of the heart of a 23-year-old healthy male could be obtained while preserving the speckle pattern in the heart wall at a frame rate of 316 Hz with a full field of view of 90°.

  4. Free Space Ranging Utilizing Chaotic Light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Zhao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report our recent works on free space ranging with chaotic light. Using a laser diode with optical feedback as chaotic source, a prototype of chaotic lidar has been developed and it can achieve a range-independent resolution of 18 cm and measurable distance of 130 m at least. And its antijamming performance is presented experimentally and numerically. Finally, we, respectively, employ the wavelet denoising method and the correlation average discrete-component elimination algorithm to detect the chaotic signal in noisy environment and suppress the side-lobe noise of the correlation trace.

  5. Are range-size distributions consistent with species-level heritability?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borregaard, Michael Krabbe; Gotelli, Nicholas; Rahbek, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    The concept of species-level heritability is widely contested. Because it is most likely to apply to emergent, species-level traits, one of the central discussions has focused on the potential heritability of geographic range size. However, a central argument against range-size heritability has...... been that it is not compatible with the observed shape of present-day species range-size distributions (SRDs), a claim that has never been tested. To assess this claim, we used forward simulation of range-size evolution in clades with varying degrees of range-size heritability, and compared the output...

  6. Landscape-level patterns of avian diversity in the Oregon Coast Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel A. Cushman; Kevin McGarigal

    2003-01-01

    We used a comparative mensurative landscape-level experiment to quantify the relative importance of mature forest area and fragmentation and differences among watersheds in influencing avian community diversity in the Oregon Coast Range, USA. Our study design included three large hydrological basins, two levels of fragmentation, and six levels of mature forest area. We...

  7. Impact of sea level rise on tidal range in Chesapeake and Delaware Bays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Serena Blyth; Li, Ming; Zhang, Fan

    2017-05-01

    Coastal inundation is affected not only by rising mean sea level but also by changing tides. A numerical model is developed to investigate how sea level rise and coastline changes may impact tides in two coastal-plain estuaries, Chesapeake Bay and Delaware Bay. Despite their different tidal characteristics, the two estuaries display similar responses to the sea level rise and shoreline management scenarios. When hypothetic sea walls are erected at the present coastline to prevent low-lying land from flooding, tidal range increases, with greater amplification in the upper part of the two estuaries. When low-lying land is allowed to become permanently inundated by higher sea level, however, tidal range in both estuaries decreases. Analyses of the tidal energy budget show that the increased dissipation over the shallow water and newly inundated areas compensates for the reduced dissipation in deep water, leading to smaller tidal range. The changes in the tidal range are not proportional to the changes in the mean sea level, indicating a nonlinear tidal response to sea level rise. The ratio of tidal range change to sea level rise varies between -0.05 and 0.1 in Chesapeake Bay and between -0.2 and 0.25 in Delaware Bay. The model results suggest a potential adaptation strategy that uses inundation over low-lying areas to reduce tidal range at up-estuary locations.

  8. Reference range of serum homocysteine level for the northern Persian Gulf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mojtaba Jafary

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Homocysteine (Hcy, an intermediate form generated during the metabolism of methionine, is associated with cardiovascular diseases. There is little information available about serum concentration of Hcy in healthy Iranian population. In the present study, we assessed the reference range of serum Hcy level among inhabitants of the northern Persian Gulf. Methods: In the Persian Gulf Healthy Heart Study (PGHHS which used a multistage, stratified, clustered sampling, we measured fasting serum Hcy level using enzyme immunoassay method with an accuracy limit of 1 µmol/ L. Confounding factors such as smoking, alcohol consumption, drugs and chronic diseases were eliminated. Reference range for homocysteine level was considered between 5 and 95 percentiles. Results: A total of 886 participants (39.3% female, 60.7% male were evaluated. Mean plasma Hcy level was 14.58 ± 7.29 µmol/ L and was higher in men than women. Reference range for Hcy level was 8.35-31.1 µmol/ L in males and 2.39-24.31 µmol/ L in females. There was no difference among age groups for serum Hcy level. Conclusion: The Hcy level in the northern Persian Gulf general population is high. Since high Hcy level has been shown as a risk factor of cardiovascular diseases in various studies, it is essential to study the reasons of this high level of Hcy in this region.

  9. Reliability of shoulder range of motion comparing a goniometer to a digital level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullaney, Michael J; McHugh, Malachy P; Johnson, Christopher P; Tyler, Timothy F

    2010-07-01

    The clinical use of digital levels, for joint measurement, may be a viable alternative to standard goniometry. The purpose of this study was to determine the intra- and intertester reliability of a construction grade digital level compared to the standard universal goniometer for measurements for active assisted shoulder range of motion (ROM). Two experienced physical therapists measured shoulder flexion, external rotation (ER), and internal rotation (IR) ROM bilaterally, on two different occasions, in 20 patients (9 males, 11 females, 18-79 years old) with unilateral shoulder pathology, using a goniometer and a digital level. Relative reliability was assessed by using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), and absolute reliability was assessed by using 95% limits of agreement (LOA). Intratester ICCs ranged from 0.91 to 0.99, and LOA ranged from 3 degrees to 9 degrees for measurements made with the goniometer and digital level. Intertester ICCs ranged from 0.31 to 0.95, and LOA ranged from 6 degrees to 25 degrees . For the comparison of goniometric vs. digital level ROM, ICCs ranged from 0.71 to 0.98. ER and IR ROM were 3-5 degrees greater for the digital level than the goniometer (p reliability, but for intertester reliability ICCs were 20% lower and LOA were 2.3 times higher than intratester values. Reliability estimates were similar between the digital level and the goniometer. However, because glenohumeral rotation was 3-5 degrees greater for the digital level than the goniometer (systematic error), the two methods cannot be used interchangeably. On the basis of the average intratester LOA for the goniometer and the digital level, a change of 6-11 degrees is needed to be certain that true change has occurred. For comparison of measures made by two different therapists, a change is of 15 degrees is required to be certain a true change has occurred. A digital level can be used to reliably measure shoulder ROM but should not be used interchangeably with a

  10. pain, range of motion and activity level as correlates of dynamic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-12-01

    Dec 1, 2014 ... range of motion and level of activity on dynamic bal- ance among elderly people with hip osteoarthritis. (OA). ... cal movement of the lower limbs.8,9 Impairment of motor control components due to disease, may give rise ..... The Kinematics and Kinet- ics of turning: limb asymmetries associated with walking a ...

  11. Impact of naturally acquired Taenia solium cysticercosis on the hormonal levels of free ranging boars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, N; Morales, J; Morales-Montor, J; Vargas-Villavicencio, A; Fleury, A; Zarco, L; de Aluja, A S; Larralde, C; Fragoso, G; Sciutto, E

    2007-10-21

    In chronically infected BALBc/AnN male mice, Taenia crassiceps cysticercosis induces changes in the host's sex steroids hormone that lead to their estrogenization and deandrogenization, with possible repercussions on their susceptibility to infections. Here reported are the serum steroid levels in free range cysticercotic male boars. Therefore, the possible effects of Taenia solium cysticerci over the pig steroid levels were evaluated. Herein are described the sex steroids and cortisol levels of non-cysticercotic (n=25) and cysticercotic (n=22) adult boars, as diagnosed by tongue inspection, all free-ranging in a typical village of an endemic rural area in Mexico. A significant reduction of testosterone (P=0.022) and a likely one of 17beta-estradiol (P=0.08) levels were found in the cysticercotic boars in comparison with those non-cysticercotic, whilst no significant differences in the cortisol and DHEA levels were detected. Serum levels of specific antibodies did not correlate with infection nor with the levels of any of the hormones measured. Results suggest that T. solium cysticercosis significantly affects the hormonal status of its porcine host independently of their antibody response.

  12. Blue and fin whale call source levels and propagation range in the Southern Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirović, Ana; Hildebrand, John A; Wiggins, Sean M

    2007-08-01

    Blue (Balaenoptera musculus) and fin whales (B. physalus) produce high-intensity, low-frequency calls, which probably function for communication during mating and feeding. The source levels of blue and fin whale calls off the Western Antarctic Peninsula were calculated using recordings made with calibrated, bottom-moored hydrophones. Blue whales were located up to a range of 200 km using hyperbolic localization and time difference of arrival. The distance to fin whales, estimated using multipath arrivals of their calls, was up to 56 km. The error in range measurements was 3.8 km using hyperbolic localization, and 3.4 km using multipath arrivals. Both species produced high-intensity calls; the average blue whale call source level was 189+/-3 dB re:1 microPa-1 m over 25-29 Hz, and the average fin whale call source level was 189+/-4 dB re:1 microPa-1 m over 15-28 Hz. Blue and fin whale populations in the Southern Ocean have remained at low numbers for decades since they became protected; using source level and detection range from passive acoustic recordings can help in calculating the relative density of calling whales.

  13. Estimating a wind shear detection range for different altitude levels in the troposphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Gorodnichev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A so-called wind shear (a vector difference of wind speeds in two points of the space referred to the distance between them is of essential practical interest to air force. The wind shear is a hidden and cliffhanging phenomenon. The growth of aircraft incidents at their taking off and landing have drawn attention to this phenomenon.Laser methods are one of the advanced remote techniques to measure a speed and detect a wind shear. Remote laser methods of wind speed measurement are divided into Doppler and correlation ones. More simple (and, respectively, demanding less expensive equipment are correlation methods and near to them non-Doppler techniques.Today almost all existing wind correlation lidars run in the visible range. However, in terms of safety for an eye, other ranges: near infrared (IK and ultra-violet (UF ones are also of interest.The work assesses a sounding range of the aircraft lidar in UF, visible, and near IK spectral ranges to solve a problem of wind shear detection for different altitude levels in the troposphere.Results of calculations show that the sounding ranges decrease with increasing flight altitude (at lidar parameters used in calculations to be in range from ~ 2.7-3.3 km (the lowest atmospheric layer height ~ 0 to ~ 200 - 300 m (a flight altitude of 10 km. And the main reduction of the sounding range vs height is within the range of heights of 5-10 km. Such dependence is caused by the strong reduction of aerosol extinction and atmosphere scattering with the altitude increase in this altitude range.In a ground layer of the terrestrial atmosphere (height ~ 0 the greatest sounding range is realized for a wave length of 0.532 microns. With increasing flight altitude a difference in sounding ranges for the wave lengths of 0.355; 9.532 and 1.54 microns decreases, and at big heights the greatest range of sounding is realized for a wave length of 1.54 microns.

  14. Wide-Range Temperature Sensors with High-Level Pulse Train Output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammoud, Ahmad; Patterson, Richard L.

    2009-01-01

    Two types of temperature sensors have been developed for wide-range temperature applications. The two sensors measure temperature in the range of -190 to +200 C and utilize a thin-film platinum RTD (resistance temperature detector) as the temperature-sensing element. Other parts used in the fabrication of these sensors include NPO (negative-positive- zero) type ceramic capacitors for timing, thermally-stable film or wirewound resistors, and high-temperature circuit boards and solder. The first type of temperature sensor is a relaxation oscillator circuit using an SOI (silicon-on-insulator) operational amplifier as a comparator. The output is a pulse train with a period that is roughly proportional to the temperature being measured. The voltage level of the pulse train is high-level, for example 10 V. The high-level output makes the sensor less sensitive to noise or electromagnetic interference. The output can be read by a frequency or period meter and then converted into a temperature reading. The second type of temperature sensor is made up of various types of multivibrator circuits using an SOI type 555 timer and the passive components mentioned above. Three configurations have been developed that were based on the technique of charging and discharging a capacitor through a resistive element to create a train of pulses governed by the capacitor-resistor time constant. Both types of sensors, which operated successfully over the wide temperature range, have potential use in extreme temperature environments including jet engines and space exploration missions.

  15. Eilat virus host range restriction is present at multiple levels of the virus life cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasar, Farooq; Gorchakov, Rodion V; Tesh, Robert B; Weaver, Scott C

    2015-01-15

    Most alphaviruses are mosquito-borne and exhibit a broad host range, infecting many different vertebrates, including birds, rodents, equids, humans, and nonhuman primates. This ability of most alphaviruses to infect arthropods and vertebrates is essential for their maintenance in nature. Recently, a new alphavirus, Eilat virus (EILV), was described, and in contrast to all other mosquito-borne viruses, it is unable to replicate in vertebrate cell lines. Investigations into the nature of its host range restriction showed the inability of genomic EILV RNA to replicate in vertebrate cells. Here, we investigated whether the EILV host range restriction is present at the entry level and further explored the viral factors responsible for the lack of genomic RNA replication. Utilizing Sindbis virus (SINV) and EILV chimeras, we show that the EILV vertebrate host range restriction is also manifested at the entry level. Furthermore, the EILV RNA replication restriction is independent of the 3' untranslated genome region (UTR). Complementation experiments with SINV suggested that RNA replication is restricted by the inability of the EILV nonstructural proteins to form functional replicative complexes. These data demonstrate that the EILV host range restriction is multigenic, involving at least one gene from both nonstructural protein (nsP) and structural protein (sP) open reading frames (ORFs). As EILV groups phylogenetically within the mosquito-borne virus clade of pathogenic alphaviruses, our findings have important evolutionary implications for arboviruses. Our work explores the nature of host range restriction of the first "mosquito-only alphavirus," EILV. EILV is related to pathogenic mosquito-borne viruses (Eastern equine encephalitis virus [EEEV], Western equine encephalitis virus [WEEV], Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus [VEEV], and Chikungunya virus [CHIKV]) that cause severe disease in humans. Our data demonstrate that EILV is restricted both at entry and genomic

  16. Lithology- versus base level-dependent morphogenesis of the Hausruck - Kobernaußerwald range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Sebastian; Robl, Jörg; Salcher, Bernhard; Prasicek, Günther; Keil, Melanie

    2016-04-01

    The Hausruck - Kobernaußerwald range has the highest relief in the Northern Molasse Basin in front of the Eastern Alps. The highest peaks of the range exceed an elevation of 800 m and are characterized by a local relief of about 400 m relative to the adjacent lowlands. The Hausruck - Kobernaußerwald range has never been glaciated and erosion is solely driven by fluvial incision and corresponding hillslope processes since the inversion of the Molasse Basin. Landslides are frequently observed at hillslopes in the Hausruck domain in the west but are completely missing in the Kobernaußerwald domain in the east. Recent tectonic activity like faulting has not been reported for that region and the stratigraphic record shows no evidence for tectonically induced discontinuities. The morphological expression of the western Kobernaußerwald and the eastern Hausruck apparently differ in their degree of erosional landscape decay with a gently incised western and deeply incised eastern domain. These domains correspond with two different lithological units of the Upper Freshwater Molasse: The simultaneously deposited western Kobernaußerwald Formation (Kobernaußerwald domain) and the eastern Ampfelwang Formation (Hausruck domain) are interpreted as sedimentary deposits of a fluvial fan in proximal and distal position, respectively, and show fining of the sedimentary record from west to east. The stratigraphic highest unit of the study region, the Hausruck Fm., consists of well consolidated fluvial gravels uniformly covering the hill tops of both domains. We used a high resolution LiDAR digital elevation model and performed a series of morphometric analyses to investigate the effects of different base levels and contrasting lithology on the topographic evolution of the Hausruck - Kobernaußerwald range. The analysis of longitudinal river profiles reveals that all channels independent from base level, bed rock and overall morphological expression are well graded with steep

  17. Range of S-100β levels during functional endoscopic sinus surgery with moderately controlled hypotension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Youngsuk; Jang, Ji Su; Hwang, Sung Mi; Lee, Jae Jun; Lee, Jun Ho; Joo, Sungmin; Lee, In-Gon; Hong, Sung Jun

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the range of S-100β levels during functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) when the mean arterial pressure (MAP) was controlled within 60-70 mmHg. After anesthesia induction with propofol and remifentanil, the patient was positioned in the reverse Trendelenburg position and MAP was controlled within 60-70 mmHg during surgery. For the S-100β assay, blood was taken from a radial arterial catheter before (baseline) and at 20 (T 20 ) and 60 (T 60 ) min after setting the reverse Trendelenburg position and controlled hypotension, and at 60 (T post60 ) min after the end of the operation. In total, 34 patients completed the study. Baseline S-100β was 0.00837 ± 0.00785 ng/mL. The levels at T 20 and T 60 were 0.02057 ± 0.01739 and 0.01987 ± 0.01145 ng/mL, respectively. The level of T post60 was 0.05436 ± 0.02318 ng/mL. The level at T 20 increased significantly versus the baseline level (P hypotension (MAP >60 mmHg) was provided. Thus, moderate hypotension would be seemed to be a safe and effective anesthetic technique for FESS without risk for cerebral ischemia.

  18. Factors affecting fecal glucocorticoid levels in semi-free-ranging female mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setchell, Joanna M; Smith, Tessa; Wickings, E Jean; Knapp, Leslie A

    2008-11-01

    Subordinate female cercopithecine primates often experience decreased reproductive success in comparison with high-ranking females, with a later age at sexual maturity and first reproduction and/or longer interbirth intervals. One explanation that has traditionally been advanced to explain this is high levels of chronic social stress in subordinates, resulting from agonistic and aggressive interactions and leading to higher basal levels of glucocorticoids. We assessed the relationships among fecal cortisol levels and reproductive condition, dominance rank, degree of social support, and fertility in female mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx) living in a semi-free-ranging colony in Franceville, Gabon. Lower-ranking females in this colony have a reproductive disadvantage relative to higher-ranking females, and we were interested in determining whether this relationship between dominance rank and reproductive success is mediated through stress hormones. We analyzed 340 fecal samples from 19 females, collected over a 14-month period. We found that pregnant females experienced higher fecal cortisol levels than cycling or lactating females. This is similar to results for other primate species and is likely owing to increased metabolic demands and interactions between the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis, estrogen, and placental production of corticotrophin releasing hormones during pregnancy. There was no influence of dominance rank on fecal cortisol levels, suggesting that subordinate females do not suffer chronic stress. This may be because female mandrills have a stable social hierarchy, with low levels of aggression and high social support. However, we found no relationship between matriline size, as a measure of social support, and fecal cortisol levels. Subordinates may be able to avoid aggression from dominants in the large enclosure or may react only transiently to specific aggressive events, rather than continuously expecting them. Finally, we found no relationship

  19. Reference ranges and determinants of total hCG levels during pregnancy: the Generation R Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korevaar, Tim I M; Steegers, Eric A P; de Rijke, Yolanda B; Schalekamp-Timmermans, Sarah; Visser, W Edward; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Tiemeier, Henning; Visser, Theo J; Medici, Marco; Peeters, Robin P

    2015-09-01

    Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a pregnancy hormone secreted by the placental synctiotrophoblast cell layer that has been linked to fetal growth and various placental, uterine and fetal functions. In order to investigate the effects of hCG on clinical endpoints, knowledge on reference range (RR) methodology and determinants of gestational hCG levels is crucial. Moreover, a better understanding of gestational hCG physiology can improve current screening programs and future clinical management. Serum total hCG levels were determined in 8195 women participating in the Generation R Study. Gestational age specific RRs using 'ultrasound derived gestational age' (US RRs) were calculated and compared with 'last menstrual period derived gestational age' (LMP RRs) and a model-based RR. We also investigated which pregnancy characteristics were associated with hCG levels. Compared to the US RRs, the LMP RRs were lower, most notably for the median and lower limit levels. No considerable differences were found between RRs calculated in the general population or in uncomplicated pregnancies only. Maternal smoking, BMI, parity, ethnicity, fetal gender, placental weight and hyperemesis gravidarum symptoms were associated with total hCG. We provide gestational RRs for total hCG and show that total hCG values and RR cut-offs during pregnancy vary depending on pregnancy dating methodology. This is likely due to the influence of hCG on embryonic growth, suggesting that ultrasound based pregnancy dating might be less reliable in women with high/low hCG levels. Furthermore, we identify different pregnancy characteristics that influence total hCG levels considerably and should therefore be accounted for in clinical studies.

  20. Blood optical properties at various glucose level values in THz frequency range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusev, S. I.; Borovkova, M. A.; Strepitov, M. A.; Khodzitsky, M. K.

    2015-07-01

    the patients. Most biomolecules have characteristic signature frequencies in the terahertz (THz) range, which can reveal their presence and determine the concentration. Therefore, this paper is intended to study the blood optical properties in the THz frequency range in order to determine THz radiation effect on blood. The main aim of this investigation is to determine the effect of blood glucose concentration on the blood optical properties. In the case if blood optical properties vary at different glucose concentrations having a proportional relationship between them, these results will confirm the possibility of development of non-invasive procedures for blood glucose level diagnostics.

  1. Data on microsatellite markers in Colletotrichum gloeosporioides s.l., polymorphism levels and diversity range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penet, Laurent; Briand, Sophie; Petro, Dalila; Bussière, François; Guyader, Sébastien

    2017-06-01

    Colletotrichum gloeosporioides is a species complex of fungi belonging to the Glomerellaceae family (Ascomycota). It has a global worldwide occurrence and while sometimes described as a plant endophytic commensal, it also often demonstrates pathogenicity on crops and is responsible for anthracnose disease in many cultivated species. Thirty-nine polymorphic microsatellites were isolated and their polymorphism levels were determined in 95 strains from Guadeloupe (Lesser Antilles), mostly isolated from Water Yam (Dioscorea alata). The average allele number per polymorphic locus was 12.3 (decreasing to 4.3 at 5% frequency threshold, indicative of dramatic amounts of rare polymorphisms), with a range of 2-29 alleles. The microsatellite markers data will facilitate genetic diversity analyses and population genetics studies for the species complex.

  2. Data on microsatellite markers in Colletotrichum gloeosporioides s.l., polymorphism levels and diversity range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Penet

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Colletotrichum gloeosporioides is a species complex of fungi belonging to the Glomerellaceae family (Ascomycota. It has a global worldwide occurrence and while sometimes described as a plant endophytic commensal, it also often demonstrates pathogenicity on crops and is responsible for anthracnose disease in many cultivated species. Thirty-nine polymorphic microsatellites were isolated and their polymorphism levels were determined in 95 strains from Guadeloupe (Lesser Antilles, mostly isolated from Water Yam (Dioscorea alata. The average allele number per polymorphic locus was 12.3 (decreasing to 4.3 at 5% frequency threshold, indicative of dramatic amounts of rare polymorphisms, with a range of 2–29 alleles. The microsatellite markers data will facilitate genetic diversity analyses and population genetics studies for the species complex.

  3. [Influence of human body target's spectral characteristics on visual range of low light level image intensifiers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun-Ju; Yang, Wen-Bin; Xu, Hui; Liu, Lei; Tao, Yuan-Yaun

    2013-11-01

    To study the effect of different human target's spectral reflective characteristic on low light level (LLL) image intensifier's distance, based on the spectral characteristics of the night-sky radiation and the spectral reflective coefficients of common clothes, we established a equation of human body target's spectral reflective distribution, and analyzed the spectral reflective characteristics of different human targets wearing the clothes of different color and different material, and from the actual detection equation of LLL image intensifier distance, discussed the detection capability of LLL image intensifier for different human target. The study shows that the effect of different human target's spectral reflective characteristic on LLL image intensifier distance is mainly reflected in the average reflectivity rho(-) and the initial contrast of the target and the background C0. Reflective coefficient and spectral reflection intensity of cotton clothes are higher than polyester clothes, and detection capability of LLL image intensifier is stronger for the human target wearing cotton clothes. Experimental results show that the LLL image intensifiers have longer visual ranges for targets who wear cotton clothes than targets who wear same color but polyester clothes, and have longer visual ranges for targets who wear light-colored clothes than targets who wear dark-colored clothes. And in the full moon illumination conditions, LLL image intensifiers are more sensitive to the clothes' material.

  4. Application of ranging technique of radar level meter for draft survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHEN Yijun

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available [Objectives] This paper aims to solve the problems of the high subjectivity and low accuracy and efficiency of draft surveying relying on human visual inspection.[Methods] Radar-level oil and liquid measurement technology products are widely used in the petrochemical industry. A device is developed that uses radar to survey the draft of a boat, designed with data series optimization formulae to ensure that the data results are true and correct. At the same time, a test is designed to prove the accuracy of the results.[Results] According to the conditions of the ship,the device is composed of a radar sensor, triangular bracket and display,and is put to use in the test.[Conclusions] With 15 vessels as the research objects,the comparison experiment shows a difference in range between 0.001-0.022 meters, with an average difference rate of 0.028%, which meets the requirements for ship draft survey accuracy.

  5. Correlations Among Foot Arching, Ankle Dorsiflexion Range of Motion, and Obesity Level in Primary School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowicz-Szymanska, Agnieszka; Mikolajczyk, Edyta; Wodka, Katarzyna

    2017-03-01

    This study sought to assess the prevalence of flat feet in primary school children and to find correlations among arch height, ankle dorsiflexion range of motion (ROM), and obesity level. The 400 children aged 10 to 12 years who took part in the study had their body height, weight, and fat percentage measured. Based on these measurements, body mass index was calculated and weight status was categorized for all of the participants. The height of the longitudinal arch of the foot was measured on a computerized podoscope and given in Clarke's angles. Dorsiflexion ROM was assessed with the child in the nonweightbearing sitting position with the knees 90° flexed. The arithmetic mean and standard deviation were implemented to analyze the data. Intergroup differences were assessed by Mann-Whitney U, Kruskal-Wallis, and post hoc Tukey tests. Significance was accepted at P = .05. Flat feet were found in 36% of participants; limited ROM was found in both feet in 25% of participants and in one foot in 12%. No significant differences in dorsiflexion ROM in children with high-arched, normal, and flat feet were revealed. Excessive body weight was disclosed in 21% of participants. Overweight and obese children had significantly lower foot arches and notably smaller ankle dorsiflexion ROM than those with normal weight. Ankle dorsiflexion ROM is similar in children with high-arched, normal, and flat feet. However, limited dorsiflexion ROM is more often found in children with excessive weight.

  6. Landscape response to base-level fall in extensional settings: Amargosa River, Basin and Range, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J.; Brocklehurst, S. H.; Gawthorpe, R. L.; Finch, E.

    2012-12-01

    Studies examining transient landscapes within rift basins generally focus on settings where changes in boundary conditions are driven by active tectonics. However, the effect of drainage network re-organisation on landscape development and sediment routing has received significantly less attention. Within active rift settings it is common for drainage networks to become fragmented as uplift rates overcome the erosive potential of streams, while subsidence generates under-filled basins. On a regional-scale this results in poorly integrated drainage systems consisting of numerous internally drained basins. Integration can occur through the filling of sub-basins, lake over-spill, or drainage capture. This may dramatically affect base-level, catchment size, sediment flux and fluvial geomorphology, providing a natural experiment in fluvial response to changing boundary conditions, as well as representing a fundamental control on the ultimate preservation of sediments. We combine field and remote mapping with the available dating to investigate an example of late Pleistocene drainage integration in the southern Basin and Range, where drainage integration has resulted in a base-level fall and rejuvenation of the upstream landscape triggering further drainage rearrangement. The Amargosa River was previously part of an internally-drained basin, feeding the former Lake Tecopa. Drainage capture at 150-200 ka caused the Amargosa River to flow into Death Valley, carving the Amargosa Canyon through the Sperry Hills. The canyon itself has experienced aggradation as well as incision, with both terraces and fans representing levels above the current river. Upstream of the Amargosa Canyon, incision is reflected by minor knickpoints, and gullying along tributaries. For what is now westwards-flowing Willow Wash, the net incision of Amargosa Canyon has resulted in spectacular headward erosion, dissecting fan surfaces which previously graded northwest to Lake Tecopa. The Willow Wash

  7. Higher measured than modeled ozone production at increased NOx levels in the Colorado Front Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baier, Bianca C.; Brune, William H.; Miller, David O.; Blake, Donald; Long, Russell; Wisthaler, Armin; Cantrell, Christopher; Fried, Alan; Heikes, Brian; Brown, Steven; McDuffie, Erin; Flocke, Frank; Apel, Eric; Kaser, Lisa; Weinheimer, Andrew

    2017-09-01

    Chemical models must correctly calculate the ozone formation rate, P(O3), to accurately predict ozone levels and to test mitigation strategies. However, air quality models can have large uncertainties in P(O3) calculations, which can create uncertainties in ozone forecasts, especially during the summertime when P(O3) is high. One way to test mechanisms is to compare modeled P(O3) to direct measurements. During summer 2014, the Measurement of Ozone Production Sensor (MOPS) directly measured net P(O3) in Golden, CO, approximately 25 km west of Denver along the Colorado Front Range. Net P(O3) was compared to rates calculated by a photochemical box model that was constrained by measurements of other chemical species and that used a lumped chemical mechanism and a more explicit one. Median observed P(O3) was up to a factor of 2 higher than that modeled during early morning hours when nitric oxide (NO) levels were high and was similar to modeled P(O3) for the rest of the day. While all interferences and offsets in this new method are not fully understood, simulations of these possible uncertainties cannot explain the observed P(O3) behavior. Modeled and measured P(O3) and peroxy radical (HO2 and RO2) discrepancies observed here are similar to those presented in prior studies. While a missing atmospheric organic peroxy radical source from volatile organic compounds co-emitted with NO could be one plausible solution to the P(O3) discrepancy, such a source has not been identified and does not fully explain the peroxy radical model-data mismatch. If the MOPS accurately depicts atmospheric P(O3), then these results would imply that P(O3) in Golden, CO, would be NOx-sensitive for more of the day than what is calculated by models, extending the NOx-sensitive P(O3) regime from the afternoon further into the morning. These results could affect ozone reduction strategies for the region surrounding Golden and possibly other areas that do not comply with national ozone regulations

  8. Higher measured than modeled ozone production at increased NOx levels in the Colorado Front Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. C. Baier

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Chemical models must correctly calculate the ozone formation rate, P(O3, to accurately predict ozone levels and to test mitigation strategies. However, air quality models can have large uncertainties in P(O3 calculations, which can create uncertainties in ozone forecasts, especially during the summertime when P(O3 is high. One way to test mechanisms is to compare modeled P(O3 to direct measurements. During summer 2014, the Measurement of Ozone Production Sensor (MOPS directly measured net P(O3 in Golden, CO, approximately 25 km west of Denver along the Colorado Front Range. Net P(O3 was compared to rates calculated by a photochemical box model that was constrained by measurements of other chemical species and that used a lumped chemical mechanism and a more explicit one. Median observed P(O3 was up to a factor of 2 higher than that modeled during early morning hours when nitric oxide (NO levels were high and was similar to modeled P(O3 for the rest of the day. While all interferences and offsets in this new method are not fully understood, simulations of these possible uncertainties cannot explain the observed P(O3 behavior. Modeled and measured P(O3 and peroxy radical (HO2 and RO2 discrepancies observed here are similar to those presented in prior studies. While a missing atmospheric organic peroxy radical source from volatile organic compounds co-emitted with NO could be one plausible solution to the P(O3 discrepancy, such a source has not been identified and does not fully explain the peroxy radical model–data mismatch. If the MOPS accurately depicts atmospheric P(O3, then these results would imply that P(O3 in Golden, CO, would be NOx-sensitive for more of the day than what is calculated by models, extending the NOx-sensitive P(O3 regime from the afternoon further into the morning. These results could affect ozone reduction strategies for the region surrounding Golden and possibly other areas that do not comply with national ozone

  9. Constraints on spin-dependent short-range interactions using gravitational quantum levels of ultracold neutrons

    CERN Document Server

    Baeßler, S; Pignol, G; Protasov, K V; Voronin, A Yu

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss a possibility to improve constraints on spin-dependent short-range interactions in the range of 1 - 200 micrometer significantly. For such interactions, our constraints are without competition at the moment. They were obtained through the observation of gravitationally bound states of ultracold neutrons. We are going to improve these constraints by about three orders of magnitude in a dedicated experiment with polarized neutrons using the next-generation spectrometer GRANIT.

  10. The effects of frequency range, vowel, dynamic loudness level, and gender on nasalance in amateur and classically trained singers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Jori Johnson; Kuehn, David P

    2008-01-01

    This study addresses two questions: (1) How much nasality is present in classical Western singing? (2) What are the effects of frequency range, vowel, dynamic level, and gender on nasality in amateur and classically trained singers? The Nasometer II 6400 by KayPENTAX (Lincoln Park, NJ) was used to obtain nasalance values from 21 amateur singers and 25 classically trained singers while singing an ascending five-tone scalar passage in low, mid, and high frequency ranges. Each subject sang the scalar passage at both piano and mezzo-forte dynamic loudness levels on each of the five cardinal vowels (/a/, /e/, /i/, /o/, /u/). A repeated mixed-model analysis indicated a significant main effect for the amateur/classically trained distinction, dynamic loudness level, and vowel, but not for frequency range or gender. The amateur singers had significantly higher nasalance scores than classically trained singers in all ranges and on all vowels except /o/. Dynamic loudness level had a significant effect on nasalance for all subject groups except for female majors in the mid- and high-frequency ranges. The vowel, /i/, received significantly higher nasalance than all of the other vowels. Although results of this study show that dynamic loudness level, vowel, and level of training in classical singing have a significant effect on nasality, nasalance scores for most subjects were relatively low. Only six of the subjects, all of whom were amateur singers, had average nasalance scores that could be considered hypernasal (ie, a nasalance average of 22 or above).

  11. Long-range protein electron transfer observed at the single-molecule level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chi, Qijin; Farver, Ole; Ulstrup, Jens

    2005-01-01

    potential. Maximum resonance appears around the equilibrium redox potential of azurin with an on/off current ratio of approximately 9. Simulation analyses, based on a two-step interfacial ET model for the scanning tunneling microscopy redox process, were performed and provide quantitative information......A biomimetic long-range electron transfer (ET) system consisting of the blue copper protein azurin, a tunneling barrier bridge, and a gold single-crystal electrode was designed on the basis of molecular wiring self-assembly principles. This system is sufficiently stable and sensitive in a quasi...

  12. Glucocorticoid levels in free ranging resident mantled howlers: a study of coping strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristóbal-Azkarate, Jurgi; Chavira, Roberto; Boeck, Lourdes; Rodríguez-Luna, Ernesto; Veà, Joaquím J

    2007-08-01

    A growing amount of data shows that a preference for passive-nonaggressive over active-aggressive problem solving is associated with higher levels of glucocorticoids (GC). For mantled howlers, the arrival of an adult male in a new group is a potential source of psychological stress for both resident males and females. Resident mantled howler males take an active stand and aggressively repel the entrance of solitary males, while females take a passive-nonaggressive stand. In order to study whether the relationship between coping strategies and the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis observed in other species applies to the response of resident mantled howlers to the presence of solitary males, we examine the relationship between different group and subpopulation variables and the GC levels measured in feces collected from 10 groups living in six forest fragments, in Los Tuxtlas, Mexico. The results of our study suggest that the resident mantled howler females' passive response to the presence of solitary males is accompanied by the activation of the HPA axis, whereas resident males' aggressive response is not accompanied by any changes in the HPA axis. In contrast, a previous study suggests that resident male howlers respond by increasing their testosterone levels to the presence of solitary males (Cristobal-Azkarate et al., Hormones and Behavior 2006;49 261-267). These different behavioral and hormonal responses coincide with the active and passive coping styles described for other species. The conditions in which howlers live in our study area may be favoring the interaction between solitary and resident howlers, and inducing chronically high GC levels, which in turn could negatively affect the fitness of these subpopulations.

  13. Soft Tissue Mobilization and PNF Improve Range of Motion and Minimize Pain Level in Shoulder Impingement

    OpenAIRE

    Al Dajah, Salameh Bweir

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of soft tissue mobilization and PNF on pain level, and shoulder ROM in patients with shoulder impingement syndrome. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty patients with painful and limited glenohumeral ROM activities were selected. The subjects were randomly assigned to an experimental group (n=15), which received treatment consisting of soft tissues mobilization and the PNF technique. The control group received an ultrasound treatment. Pain ...

  14. Soft Tissue Mobilization and PNF Improve Range of Motion and Minimize Pain Level in Shoulder Impingement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Dajah, Salameh Bweir

    2014-11-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of soft tissue mobilization and PNF on pain level, and shoulder ROM in patients with shoulder impingement syndrome. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty patients with painful and limited glenohumeral ROM activities were selected. The subjects were randomly assigned to an experimental group (n=15), which received treatment consisting of soft tissues mobilization and the PNF technique. The control group received an ultrasound treatment. Pain level, glenohumeral external rotation and overhead reach were measured before and after the intervention in groups. [Results] The experimental group showed a significant reduction in pain level in comparison with the control group. The values for Shoulder external rotation showed a significant improvement. The mean value for overhead reach in the experimental group significantly increased. [Conclusion] The combination of soft tissue mobilization for the subscapularis for 7 minutes and 5 repetitions of the contract-relax PNF technique for the shoulder internal rotator muscles followed by 5 repetitions of a PNF facilitated abduction and external rotation diagonal pattern was found to be effective in reducing pain and improving glenohumeral external rotation and overhead reach during a single intervention session.

  15. A Novel Range Compression Algorithm for Resolution Enhancement in GNSS-SARs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yu; Yang, Yang; Chen, Wu

    2017-06-25

    In this paper, a novel range compression algorithm for enhancing range resolutions of a passive Global Navigation Satellite System-based Synthetic Aperture Radar (GNSS-SAR) is proposed. In the proposed algorithm, within each azimuth bin, firstly range compression is carried out by correlating a reflected GNSS intermediate frequency (IF) signal with a synchronized direct GNSS base-band signal in the range domain. Thereafter, spectrum equalization is applied to the compressed results for suppressing side lobes to obtain a final range-compressed signal. Both theoretical analysis and simulation results have demonstrated that significant range resolution improvement in GNSS-SAR images can be achieved by the proposed range compression algorithm, compared to the conventional range compression algorithm.

  16. A Dynamic Multi-Level Factor Model with Long-Range Dependence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ergemen, Yunus Emre; Rodríguez-Caballero, Carlos Vladimir

    A dynamic multi-level factor model with stationary or nonstationary global and regional factors is proposed. In the model, persistence in global and regional common factors as well as innovations allows for the study of fractional cointegrating relationships. Estimation of global and regional...... common factors is performed in two steps employing canonical correlation analysis and a sequential least-squares algorithm. Selection of the number of global and regional factors is discussed. The small sample properties of our methodology are investigated by some Monte Carlo simulations. The method...... is then applied to the Nord Pool power market for the analysis of price comovements among different regions within the power grid. We find that the global factor can be interpreted as the system price of the power grid as well as a fractional cointegration relationship between prices and the global factor....

  17. What range of trait levels can the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) measure reliably? An item response theory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Aja Louise; Booth, Tom; McKenzie, Karen; Kuenssberg, Renate

    2016-06-01

    It has previously been noted that inventories measuring traits that originated in a psychopathological paradigm can often reliably measure only a very narrow range of trait levels that are near and above clinical cutoffs. Much recent work has, however, suggested that autism spectrum disorder traits are on a continuum of severity that extends well into the nonclinical range. This implies a need for inventories that can capture individual differences in autistic traits from very high levels all the way to the opposite end of the continuum. The Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) was developed based on a closely related rationale, but there has, to date, been no direct test of the range of trait levels that the AQ can reliably measure. To assess this, we fit a bifactor item response theory model to the AQ. Results suggested that AQ measures moderately low to moderately high levels of a general autistic trait with good measurement precision. The reliable range of measurement was significantly improved by scoring the instrument using its 4-point response scale, rather than dichotomizing responses. These results support the use of the AQ in nonclinical samples, but suggest that items measuring very low and very high levels of autistic traits would be beneficial additions to the inventory. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. GC-MS method validation and levels of methyl eugenol in a diverse range of tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Carolyn A; Davies, Noel W; Larkman, Tony

    2017-03-01

    Tea tree oil distilled from Melaleuca alternifolia has widespread use in the cosmetic industry as an antimicrobial as well as for other functions in topical products. Concerns were first raised by the European Commission's Scientific Committee on Consumer Products in 2004 about the level of the potentially carcinogenic phenylpropanoid compound methyl eugenol in tea tree oil. Limits on oil content in different types of cosmetic products were set based on a reported upper level of 0.9% methyl eugenol in the oil. A previous publication indicated that these levels were based on oil from a Melaleuca species not used in the commercial production of oil. Even the highest recorded levels in Melaleuca alternifolia, the overwhelmingly most common species used, were ∼15 times less than this, meaning that more oil could be safely used in the products. The current study, including details on methodology and reproducibility, extends that work across a suite of 57 plantation-sourced oils from a range of geographical locations and production years, as well as many Australian and international commercial oils. Lower levels of methyl eugenol in oils of known provenance were confirmed, with a recorded range of 160-552 ppm and a mean of 337 ppm. Analysis of variance showed methyl eugenol levels in Australian plantation oils to be correlated to the geographical region but not to the year of production. Average methyl eugenol levels in commercial oils were significantly lower, and these samples were divided into an authentic group and a group that were suspected of being adulterated based on an independent test. Authentic commercial oils had similar levels of methyl eugenol to Australian provenance material, whilst the oils classed as suspect had significantly lower levels.

  19. Individual-level variation and higher-level interpretations of space use in wide-ranging species: An albatross case study of sampling effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Elizabeth Gutowsky

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Marine ecologists and managers need to know the spatial extent of at-sea areas most frequented by the groups of wildlife they study or manage. Defining group-specific ranges and distributions (i.e. space use at the level of species, population, age-class, etc. can help to identify the source or severity of common or distinct threats among different at-risk groups. In biologging studies, this is accomplished by estimating the space use of a group based on a sample of tracked individuals. A major assumption of these studies is consistency in individual movements among members of a group. The implications of scaling up individual-level tracking data to infer higher-level spatial patterns for groups (i.e. size and extent of areas used, overlap or segregation among groups is not well documented for wide-ranging pelagic species with high potential for individual variation in space use. We present a case study exploring the effects of sampling (i.e. number and identity of individuals contributing to an analysis on defining group-specific space use with year-round multi-colony tracking data from two highly vagile species, Laysan (Phoebastria immutabilis and black-footed (P. nigripes albatrosses. The results clearly demonstrate that caution is warranted when defining space use for a specific species-colony-period group based on datasets of small, intermediate, or relatively large sample sizes (ranging from n=3-42 tracked individuals due to a high degree of individual-level variation in movements. Overall, we provide further support to the recommendation that biologging studies aiming to define higher-level patterns in space use exercise restraint in the scope of inference, particularly when pooled Kernel Density Estimation techniques are applied to small datasets for wide-ranging species. Transparent reporting in respect to the potential limitations of the data can in turn better inform both biological interpretations and science-based management

  20. The impact of age-class and social context on fecal glucocorticoid metabolite levels in free-ranging male giraffes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, T E; Bennett, N C; Burroughs, R; Ganswindt, A

    2018-01-01

    One of the primary sources of perceived stress is the social environment of an animal and the interactions with conspecifics. An essential component of the response to a stressor is the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis, which results amongst others in a temporal increase in circulating glucocorticoid (GC) levels. Giraffes occur in a highly flexible fission-fusion social system and group compositions can change on a daily basis, with bulls establishing an age-related dominance hierarchy and showing a roaming strategy in the search for fertile females. The aim of this study was to non-invasively monitor the influence of different group compositions (mixed sex groups vs. all-male groups) on GC concentrations in free ranging giraffe bulls of different age classes. We collected fecal samples from free-ranging giraffe bulls for 12months in a South African Private Game Reserve to examine age- and social context-related patterns of fecal GC metabolite (fGCM) concentrations. We found that fGCM levels in giraffe bulls are age-class dependent, as well asassociated with changes in the social environment. Independently of the social setting, bulls of the youngest age class exhibited the highest fGCM levels compared to bulls of the other two older age-classes, with differences most pronounced when the bulls are associated in all-male groups. In contrast, an almost reversed picture appears when looking at the fGCM levels of sexually active individuals in mixed sex groups, where highest levels were found for the bulls in the oldest age-class, and the lowest for the bulls in the youngest age-class. The study stresses the importance to taking factors such asage-related status and social settings into account, when interpreting fGCM levels in free ranging giraffes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Higher serum bicarbonate levels within the normal range are associated with better survival and renal outcomes in African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raphael, Kalani L.; Wei, Guo; Baird, Bradley C.; Greene, Tom; Beddhu, Srinivasan

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that correcting low serum bicarbonate levels may reduce the progression of kidney disease; however, few patients with chronic kidney disease have low serum bicarbonate. Therefore, we examined whether higher levels of serum bicarbonate within the normal range (20–30 mmol/l) were associated with better kidney outcomes in the African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension (AASK) trial. At baseline and during follow-up of 1094 patients, the glomerular filtration rates (GFR) were measured by iothalamate clearances and events were adjudicated by the outcomes committee. Mean baseline serum bicarbonate, measured GFR, and proteinuria were 25.1 mmol/l, 46 ml/min per 1.73 m2, and 326 mg/g of creatinine, respectively. Each 1 mmol/l increase in serum bicarbonate within the normal range was associated with reduced risk of death, dialysis, or GFR event and with dialysis or GFR event (hazard ratios of 0.942 and 0.932, respectively) in separate multivariable Cox regression models that included errors-in-variables calibration. Cubic spline regression showed that the lowest risk of GFR event or dialysis was found at serum bicarbonate levels near 28–30 mmol/l. Thus, our study suggests that serum bicarbonate is an independent predictor of CKD progression. Whether increasing serum bicarbonate into the high-normal range will improve kidney outcomes during interventional studies will need to be considered. PMID:20962743

  2. Host Range Restriction of Insect-Specific Flaviviruses Occurs at Several Levels of the Viral Life Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junglen, Sandra; Korries, Marvin; Grasse, Wolfgang; Wieseler, Janett; Kopp, Anne; Hermanns, Kyra; León-Juárez, Moises; Drosten, Christian; Kümmerer, Beate Mareike

    2017-01-01

    The genus Flavivirus contains emerging arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) infecting vertebrates, as well as insect-specific viruses (ISVs) (i.e., viruses whose host range is restricted to insects). ISVs are evolutionary precursors to arboviruses. Knowledge of the nature of the ISV infection block in vertebrates could identify functions necessary for the expansion of the host range toward vertebrates. Mapping of host restrictions by complementation of ISV and arbovirus genome functions could generate knowledge critical to predicting arbovirus emergence. Here we isolated a novel flavivirus, termed Niénokoué virus (NIEV), from mosquitoes sampled in Côte d'Ivoire. NIEV groups with insect-specific flaviviruses (ISFs) in phylogeny and grows in insect cells but not in vertebrate cells. We generated an infectious NIEV cDNA clone and a NIEV reporter replicon to study growth restrictions of NIEV in comparison to yellow fever virus (YFV), for which the same tools are available. Efficient RNA replication of the NIEV reporter replicon was observed in insect cells but not in vertebrate cells. Initial translation of the input replicon RNA in vertebrate cells was functional, but RNA replication did not occur. Chimeric YFV carrying the envelope proteins of NIEV was recovered via electroporation in C6/36 insect cells but did not infect vertebrate cells, indicating a block at the level of entry. Since the YF/NIEV chimera readily produced infectious particles in insect cells but not in vertebrate cells despite efficient RNA replication, restriction is also determined at the level of assembly/release. Taking the results together, the ability of ISF to infect vertebrates is blocked at several levels, including attachment/entry and RNA replication as well as assembly/release. IMPORTANCE Most viruses of the genus Flavivirus, e.g., YFV and dengue virus, are mosquito borne and transmitted to vertebrates during blood feeding of mosquitoes. Within the last decade, an increasing number

  3. One-level modeling for diagnosing surface winds over complex terrain. II - Applicability to short-range forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpert, P.; Getenio, B.; Zak-Rosenthal, R.

    1988-01-01

    The Alpert and Getenio (1988) modification of the Mass and Dempsey (1985) one-level sigma-surface model was used to study four synoptic events that included two winter cases (a Cyprus low and a Siberian high) and two summer cases. Results of statistical verification showed that the model is not only capable of diagnosing many details of surface mesoscale flow, but might also be useful for various applications which require operative short-range prediction of the diurnal changes of high-resolution surface flow over complex terrain, for example, in locating wildland fires, determining the dispersion of air pollutants, and predicting changes in wind energy or of surface wind for low-level air flights.

  4. Range and trend of expected toxicity level (ETL) in standard A + B designs: a report from the Children's Oncology Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhengjia; Krailo, Mark D; Sun, Junfeng; Azen, Stanley P

    2009-03-01

    The traditional algorithm-based 3+3 designs are most widely used for their practical simplicity in phase I clinical trials. At early stage, a common belief was that the expected toxicity level (ETL) at the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) should be 33% [Storer, B. Design and analysis of phase I clinical trials. Biometrics 1989;45;925-937, Gorden, N., Willson, J. Using toxicity grades in the design and analysis of cancer phase I clinical trials. Statistics in Medicine 1992; 11: 2063-2075, Mick, R. Phase I Clinical Trial Design. In Schilsky, R., Milano, G., Ratain, M., eds. Principles of Antineoplastic Drug Development and Pharmacology New York, NY: Marcel Dekker, 1996; 29-36]. Recently, Kang and Ahn [Kang, S., Ahn, C. The expected toxicity rate at the maximum tolerated dose in the standard phase I cancer clinical trial design. Drug Information Journal 2001; 35:1189-1199, Kang, S., Ahn, C. An investigation of the traditional algorithm-based designs for phase I cancer clinical trials. Drug Information Journal 2002; 36:865-873] found that the ETL is between 17% and 21% and He et al [He, W., Liu, J., Binkowitz, B., Quan, H. A model-based approach in the estimation of the maximum tolerated dose in phase I cancer clinical trials. Statistics in Medicine 2006; 25(12):2027-42] further reported that the ETL ranges from 19% to 24%. However they only investigated designs where the number of dose levels was at most 20. It has practical significance in designing and conducting phase I clinical trial to definitely assess the full range and trend of ETL by all possible number of tested dose levels in traditional algorithm-based A+B designs, especially 3+3 designs. In this simulation study, we originally find that the ETL decreases monotonically from about 30% to 0% as the number of dose levels increase from 3 to infinity, which will correct the inaccuracy in the common belief among phase I trial investigators. To help better design and conduct phase I trials, we create a table as a

  5. Transient response of bedrock channel networks to sea-level forcing in the Oregon Coast Range, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santaniello, D. J.; Finnegan, N. J.

    2014-12-01

    Although sea level has fluctuated repeatedly over the Pleistocene by up to 120 meters, how (or whether) this cyclic base level forcing impacts the development of bedrock river profiles in tectonically active settings is poorly understood. A major reason for this uncertainty is that bedrock river channels in unglaciated locations are typically buried at their mouths under sediment resulting from the Holocene marine transgression, making direct observations impossible. Here we present a novel approach to constraining the influence of cyclical sea-level forcing on the development of bedrock river profiles in the Oregon Coast Range. Using a 1 m LiDAR DEM, we estimate the depth to the buried bedrock longitudinal profile using measurements of valley width, elevation, wall slope, and present day river width for the Smith River and its tributaries where the river is currently buried by Holocene fluvial and marine sediments. Assuming the current river width is spatially and temporally constant, we calculate the depth to bedrock based on a trapezoidal geometry. In an effort to reduce the noise in our signal, we calculate linear regressions for valley and river width and hold the valley wall slope constant at its average value (~ 30 degrees) for all our calculations. Several important observations stem from this analysis. First, the bedrock profile of the Smith River projects to the same elevation (~ -110 m) as the bench cut into the continental shelf by the sea-level low stand of the last glacial maximum, suggesting the river is currently graded to the low-stand elevation. Second, almost all of the tributary bedrock profiles plot at the same elevation (~ 40 m below sea-level), which is much higher than the mainstem bedrock profile. One key exception is the significantly larger North Fork of the Smith River, which falls directly on the projected bedrock curve for the Smith. These observations suggest that sea-level low stands force incision of the entire bedrock river network

  6. Leaf traits and photosynthetic responses of Betula pendula saplings to a range of ground-level ozone concentrations at a range of nitrogen loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmens, Harry; Hayes, Felicity; Sharps, Katrina; Mills, Gina; Calatayud, Vicent

    2017-04-01

    Ground-level ozone (O3) concentrations and atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition rates have increased strongly since the 1950s. Rising ground-level O3 concentrations and atmospheric N deposition both affect plant physiology and growth, however, impacts have often been studied in isolation rather than in combination. In addition, studies are often limited to a control treatment and one or two elevated levels of ozone and/or nitrogen supply. In the current study, three-year old Betula pendula saplings were exposed to seven different O3 profiles (24h mean O3 concentration of 36-68ppb in 2013, with peaks up to an average of 105ppb) in precision-controlled hemispherical glasshouses (solardomes) and four different N loads (10, 30, 50 or 70kgNha-1y-1) in 2012 and 2013. Here we report on the effects of enhanced O3 concentrations and N load on leaf traits and gas exchange in leaves of varying age and developmental stage in 2013. The response of leaf traits to O3 (but not N) vary with leaf developmental stage. For example, elevated O3 did not affect the chlorophyll content of the youngest fully expanded leaf, but it reduced the chlorophyll content and photosynthetic parameters in aging leaves, relatively more so later than earlier in the growing season. Elevated O3 enhanced the N content of senesced leaves prior to leaf fall, potentially affecting subsequent N cycling in the soil. Enhanced N generally stimulated the chlorophyll content and photosynthetic capacity. Whilst elevated O3 reduced the light-saturated rate of photosynthesis (Asat) in aging leaves, it did not affect stomatal conductance (gs). This suggests that photosynthesis and gs are not closely coupled at elevated O3 under-light saturating conditions. We did not observe any interactions between O3 and N regarding photosynthetic parameters (Vc,max, Jmax, Asat), chlorophyll content, gs, N content in senesced leaves and leaf number. Hence, the sensitivity of these leaf traits to O3 in young silver birch trees is

  7. Processes Influencing Ozone Levels in Alaskan Forest Fires Plumes during Long-Range Transport over the North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Real, E.; Law, K. S.; Wienzierl, B.; Fiebig, M.; Petzold, A.; Wild, O.; Methven, J.; Arnold, S.; Stohl, A.; Huntrieser, H.; hide

    2006-01-01

    A case of long-range transport of a biomass burning plume from Alaska to Europe is analyzed using a Lagrangian approach. This plume was sampled several times in the free troposphere over North America, the North Atlantic and Europe by 3 different aircraft during the IGAC Lagrangian 2K4 experiment which was part of the ICARTT/ITOP measurement intensive in summer 2004. Measurements in the plume showed enhanced values of CO, VOCs and NOy, mainly in form of PAN. Observed O3 levels increased by 17 ppbv over 5 days. A photochemical trajectory model, CiTTyCAT, is used to examine processes responsible for the chemical evolution of the plume. The model was initialized with upwind data, and compared with downwind measurements. The influence of high aerosol loading on photolysis rates in the plume is investigated using in-situ aerosol measurements in the plume and lidar retrievals of optical depth as input into a photolysis code (Fast-J), run in the model. Significant impacts on photochemistry are found with a decrease of 18 percent in O3 production and 24 percent in O3 destruction over 5 days when including aerosols. The plume is found to be chemically active with large O3 increases attributed primarily to PAN decomposition during descent of the plume towards Europe. The predicted O3 changes are very dependent on temperature changes during transport, and also, on water vapor levels in the lower troposphere which can lead to O3 destruction. Simulation of mixing/dilution was necessary to reproduce observed pollutants level in the plume. Mixing was simulated using background concentrations from measurements in air masses in close proximity to the plume, and mixing timescales (averaging 6.25 days) were derived from CO changes. Observed and simulated O3/CO correlations in the plume are also compared in order to evaluate the photochemistry in the model. Observed slopes changed from negative to positive over 5 days. This change, which can be attributed largely to photochemistry, is

  8. Using background air pollutants levels correlation analysis to identify periods of long-range transport of anthropogenic pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konkova, Elizaveta S.; Burtseva, Larisa V.; Gromov, Sergey A.; Gromov, Sergey S.

    2017-04-01

    Increasing trends of airborne lead and cadmium at background station within the central region of European Russia have been identified previously (e.g., Gromov & Konkova, 2016). In order to reveal the possible drivers of these trends, a deeper investigation of correlation among these heavy metals (HM) and other co-measured pollutants is done in this study. Based on the data for the 2001-2012 period, calculations have been carried out for the period from 2006 onwards, when the growth of HM concentrations is observed. Pairwise correlations of individual species abundances were derived for the entire time series and subsets for each calendar year, including warm (April to September) and cold seasons (October to March). The calculated values for the seasons and the whole years vary substantially, suggesting that that variable ratios of atmospheric HM emission sources could affect the final air concentrations at measurement site in these periods. To distinguish the events of predominant influence of natural and anthropogenic sources, we assume that correlation between lead and cadmium levels must be greater in the case of natural sources being in effect. High values of the correlation coefficient are expected in cases when HM air abundances are induced by the long-range transport from the regions of anthropogenic sources (co-emission of these metals results from a number of same sources, and both of them are also present on same matrix aerosols). The results demonstrate a substantial correlation between Pb and Cd, with higher values for individual seasons (70% of 0.5 and higher) than for whole years. Higher mass concentrations of airborne dust (TSP) in remote areas are to large extent promoted by large particles blown away from the surface at local surroundings. Captured better by filters, such events could be a particular indicator of local (mostly natural) sources. Low or insignificant correlation with HM indicates prevalence of long-range transport of them and could

  9. Host Range Restriction of Insect-Specific Flaviviruses Occurs at Several Levels of the Viral Life Cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Junglen; Marvin Korries; Wolfgang Grasse; Janett Wieseler; Anne Kopp; Kyra Hermanns; Moises León-Juóárez; Christian Drosten; Beate Mareike Kummerer; Glenn Randall

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The genus Flavivirus contains emerging arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) infecting vertebrates, as well as insect-specific viruses (ISVs) (i.e., viruses whose host range is restricted to insects). ISVs are evolutionary precursors to arboviruses. Knowledge of the nature of the ISV infection block in vertebrates could identify functions necessary for the expansion of the host range toward vertebrates. Mapping of host restrictions by complementation of ISV and arbovirus genome funct...

  10. The relationship of serum alanine aminotransferase normal-range levels to arterial stiffness and metabolic syndrome in non-drinkers and drinkers: a Chinese community-based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Shihui; Lin, Ying; Luo, Leiming; Ye, Ping

    2017-04-11

    Few studies have investigated the relationship between carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) and serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) normal-range levels across the world. The current analysis was designed to explore the relationship of serum ALT normal-range levels to cfPWV and metabolic syndrome (Mets) in non-drinkers and drinkers in a Chinese community-dwelling population. There were 2202 participants with serum ALT levels within normal range enrolled for the current analysis. Median (range) age of participants was 53 (18-96) years, 51.5% were males, and 31.2% were drinkers. Prevalence of Mets was 29.4%. Median (range) of cfPWV was 10.1 (2.4-32.7) m/s. Hazard ratios for prevalence of Mets, central obesity and high triglyceride significantly increased with elevated levels of serum ALT in both non-drinkers and drinkers (p  10 m/s, high blood pressure and high blood glucose significantly increased with elevated levels of serum ALT in non-drinkers (p Chinese community-dwelling population, prevalence of Mets and its components (including central obesity and high TG) increased with an elevation in serum ALT levels within normal range in both non-drinkers and drinkers, while cfPWV and other components of Mets, such as high blood pressure and glucose, increased with an elevation in serum ALT levels in non-drinkers, but not in drinkers.

  11. Serum Alanine Aminotransferase Levels within Normal Range Have Different Associations with Augmentation Index and Other Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Nondrinkers and Drinkers: A Chinese Community-Based Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shihui Fu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. To investigate whether serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT levels within normal range were associated with augmentation index (AIx and cardiometabolic risk factors in nondrinkers and drinkers in Chinese community-dwelling population. Methods. There were 4165 participants with serum ALT levels within normal range. Results. Alcohol drinking was observed in 1173 participants (28.2%. In multivariate analysis, serum ALT levels of nondrinkers were independently associated with age, sex, body mass index (BMI, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, diastolic blood pressure, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-c, and AIx, while serum ALT levels of drinkers were independently associated with age, sex, BMI, triglyceride, and LDL-c (p<0.05 for all. Conclusions. Associations of serum ALT levels within normal range with age, sex, body height and weight, and blood lipid were simultaneously present in participants with and without alcohol drinking, while associations of serum ALT levels within normal range with AIx, blood pressure, and glucose were seen in nondrinkers rather than in drinkers. These findings not only provide the evidence that serum ALT levels, even within the normal range, have different associations with arteriosclerosis and cardiometabolic risk factors in nondrinkers and drinkers but also are helpful in understanding the underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms linking the hepatic function to arteriosclerosis and cardiometabolic risk factors.

  12. Fecal Nutrients Suggest Diets of Higher Fiber Levels in Free-Ranging than in Captive Proboscis Monkeys (Nasalis larvatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikki Matsuda

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the natural diet of species may provide useful information that can contribute to successful captive maintenance. A common problem experienced with captive foregut-fermenting primate (colobine diets is that they are deficient in fiber and therefore highly digestible. This may contribute to gastrointestinal disorders often observed in zoos. An approach to obtain information relevant for the improvement of diets is to compare the nutrient composition of feces from free-ranging and captive individuals. In theory, fecal material can be considered a proxy for diet intake integrated over a certain period of time. We collected fecal samples from eight free-ranging proboscis monkey (Nasalis larvatus, a highly endangered colobine species groups from a secondary forest along the Kinabatangan River and four from a mixed mangrove-riverine forest along the Garama River, Sabah, Borneo, Malaysia. We also collected fecal samples from 12 individual captive adult/sub-adult proboscis monkeys from three different zoos. We confirmed that feces from free-ranging monkeys contained more fiber and less metabolic fecal nitrogen than those from captive specimens, indicating a less digestible diet in the wild. Modifying the diets of captive colobines to include more fiber, comparable to those of free-ranging ones, may contribute to their health and survival.

  13. Fecal Nutrients Suggest Diets of Higher Fiber Levels in Free-Ranging than in Captive Proboscis Monkeys (Nasalis larvatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Ikki; Bernard, Henry; Tuuga, Augustine; Nathan, Sen K. S. S.; Sha, John C. M.; Osman, Ismon; Sipangkui, Rosa; Seino, Satoru; Asano, Sanae; Wong, Anna; Kreuzer, Michael; Ramirez Saldivar, Diana A.; Clauss, Marcus

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the natural diet of species may provide useful information that can contribute to successful captive maintenance. A common problem experienced with captive foregut-fermenting primate (colobine) diets is that they are deficient in fiber and therefore highly digestible. This may contribute to gastrointestinal disorders often observed in zoos. An approach to obtain information relevant for the improvement of diets is to compare the nutrient composition of feces from free-ranging and captive individuals. In theory, fecal material can be considered a proxy for diet intake integrated over a certain period of time. We collected fecal samples from eight free-ranging proboscis monkey (Nasalis larvatus, a highly endangered colobine species) groups from a secondary forest along the Kinabatangan River and four from a mixed mangrove-riverine forest along the Garama River, Sabah, Borneo, Malaysia. We also collected fecal samples from 12 individual captive adult/sub-adult proboscis monkeys from three different zoos. We confirmed that feces from free-ranging monkeys contained more fiber and less metabolic fecal nitrogen than those from captive specimens, indicating a less digestible diet in the wild. Modifying the diets of captive colobines to include more fiber, comparable to those of free-ranging ones, may contribute to their health and survival. PMID:29404345

  14. Thyroid hormone levels within reference range are associated with heart rate, cardiac structure, and function in middle-aged men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roef, Greet L; Taes, Youri E; Kaufman, Jean-Marc; Van Daele, Caroline M; De Buyzere, Marc L; Gillebert, Thierry C; Rietzschel, Ernst R

    2013-08-01

    Triiodothyronine (T3) has many effects on the heart, and marked changes in cardiac function and structure occur in patients with (subclinical) thyroid disease. We investigated whether between-subject variation in thyroid hormone levels within the euthyroid range is also associated with heart rate and echocardiographic heart function and structure. Subjects were selected from the Asklepios study (n=2524), a population-representative random sample of patients aged between 35 and 55 years, free from overt cardiovascular disease at baseline. Analyses were restricted to 2078 subjects (1013 women and 1065 men), not using antihypertensive or thyroid medication nor having antithyroperoxidase antibody levels above clinical cut-off or thyrotropin (TSH) levels outside the reference range. All subjects were phenotyped in-depth and underwent comprehensive echocardiography, including diastolic evaluation. Thyroid function parameters were determined by automated electrochemiluminescence. Heart rate was robustly positively associated with (quartiles of) free T3 (FT3) and T3, both in subjects with TSH levels within reference (0.27-4.2 μU/L) and in narrow TSH range (0.5-2.5 μU/L; plevels within the euthyroid range and heart rate, and more subtle effects on cardiac function and structure. More specifically, we suggest a smaller LV cavity size (with increased relative wall thickness), an enhanced atrial and ventricular contraction, and LV relaxation with higher circulating thyroid hormones. These results illustrate that variation in thyroid hormone levels, even within the reference range, exerts effects on the heart.

  15. High serum bicarbonate level within the normal range prevents the progression of chronic kidney disease in elderly chronic kidney disease patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanda Eiichiro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metabolic acidosis leads to chronic kidney disease (CKD progression. The guidelines recommend a lower limit of serum bicarbonate level, but no upper limit. For serum bicarbonate level to be clinically useful as a therapeutic target marker, it is necessary to investigate the target serum bicarbonate level within the normal range to prevent CKD progression. Methods One hundred and thirteen elderly CKD patients, whose serum bicarbonate level was controlled within the normal range, were enrolled in this retrospective cohort study in Ibaraki, Japan. Outcome was defined as a decrease of 25% or more in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR or starting dialysis. We used Cox proportional hazard models adjusted for patients’ characteristics to examine the association between serum bicarbonate level and the outcome. Results Female patients were 36.3%: average age (SD, 70.4 (6.6 years; eGFR, 25.7 (13.6 ml/min/1.73 m2; serum bicarbonate level, 27.4 (3.2 mEq/l. Patients with the lowest quartile of serum bicarbonate levels [23.4 (1.8 mEq/l] showed a high risk of CKD progression compared with patients with high serum bicarbonate levels [28.8 (2.3 mEq/l]: adjusted hazard ratio (HR, 3.511 (95% CI, 1.342-9.186. A 1 mEq/l increase in serum bicarbonate level was associated with a low risk of CKD progression: adjusted HR, 0.791 [95% confidence interval (CI, 0.684-0.914]. Conclusions In elderly CKD patients, our findings suggest that serum bicarbonate level is independently associated with CKD progression, and that a high serum bicarbonate level is associated with a low risk of CKD progression. A high target serum bicarbonate level within the normal range may be effective for preventing CKD progression.

  16. High serum bicarbonate level within the normal range prevents the progression of chronic kidney disease in elderly chronic kidney disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanda, Eiichiro; Ai, Masumi; Yoshida, Masayuki; Kuriyama, Renjiro; Shiigai, Tatsuo

    2013-01-09

    Metabolic acidosis leads to chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression. The guidelines recommend a lower limit of serum bicarbonate level, but no upper limit. For serum bicarbonate level to be clinically useful as a therapeutic target marker, it is necessary to investigate the target serum bicarbonate level within the normal range to prevent CKD progression. One hundred and thirteen elderly CKD patients, whose serum bicarbonate level was controlled within the normal range, were enrolled in this retrospective cohort study in Ibaraki, Japan. Outcome was defined as a decrease of 25% or more in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) or starting dialysis. We used Cox proportional hazard models adjusted for patients' characteristics to examine the association between serum bicarbonate level and the outcome. Female patients were 36.3%: average age (SD), 70.4 (6.6) years; eGFR, 25.7 (13.6) ml/min/1.73 m(2); serum bicarbonate level, 27.4 (3.2) mEq/l. Patients with the lowest quartile of serum bicarbonate levels [23.4 (1.8) mEq/l] showed a high risk of CKD progression compared with patients with high serum bicarbonate levels [28.8 (2.3) mEq/l]: adjusted hazard ratio (HR), 3.511 (95% CI, 1.342-9.186). A 1 mEq/l increase in serum bicarbonate level was associated with a low risk of CKD progression: adjusted HR, 0.791 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.684-0.914]. In elderly CKD patients, our findings suggest that serum bicarbonate level is independently associated with CKD progression, and that a high serum bicarbonate level is associated with a low risk of CKD progression. A high target serum bicarbonate level within the normal range may be effective for preventing CKD progression.

  17. Low-level parasitic worm burdens may reduce body condition in free-ranging red deer (Cervus elaphus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, R J; Corbishley, H; Pilkington, J G; Albon, S D

    2006-10-01

    Regulation of ungulate populations by parasites relies on establishing a density-dependent relationship between infection and vital demographic rates which may act through the effect of parasites on body condition. We examine evidence for parasite impacts in 285 red deer (Cervus elaphus) harvested during 1991 and 1992 on the Isle of Rum. In the abomasa, prevalence of nematodes was 100% and the most abundant genus observed were Ostertagia species, however, mean intensity of infection was low (less than 1000) relative to other studies. Additional species, also present in low numbers, included Nematodirus spp., Capillaria spp., Cooperia spp., Monieza expanza, Oesophagostomum venulosum and Trichuris ovis. Lungworm (Dictyocaulus spp.) and tissue worm (Elaphostronygylus cervi) larvae were also observed in faecal samples. There was no evidence for acquired immunity to abomasal nematodes. Despite low levels of infection, both adult male and female deer showed significant negative correlation between indices of condition (kidney fat index, dressed carcass weight and larder weight) and intensity of Ostertagia spp. infection. However, there was no evidence that pregnancy rate in females was related to intensity of infection. For calves, there was no relationship between body condition and intensity of infection. The apparent subclinical effects of low-level parasite infection on red deer performance could alternatively be due to animals in poorer nutritional state being more susceptible to infection. Either way the results suggest that further studies of wild populations are justified, in particular where high local host densities exist or alternative ungulate hosts are present, and, where experimental treatments are tractable.

  18. Iterative load-balancing method with multigrid level relaxation for particle simulation with short-range interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuichi, Mikito; Nishiura, Daisuke

    2017-10-01

    We developed dynamic load-balancing algorithms for Particle Simulation Methods (PSM) involving short-range interactions, such as Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH), Moving Particle Semi-implicit method (MPS), and Discrete Element method (DEM). These are needed to handle billions of particles modeled in large distributed-memory computer systems. Our method utilizes flexible orthogonal domain decomposition, allowing the sub-domain boundaries in the column to be different for each row. The imbalances in the execution time between parallel logical processes are treated as a nonlinear residual. Load-balancing is achieved by minimizing the residual within the framework of an iterative nonlinear solver, combined with a multigrid technique in the local smoother. Our iterative method is suitable for adjusting the sub-domain frequently by monitoring the performance of each computational process because it is computationally cheaper in terms of communication and memory costs than non-iterative methods. Numerical tests demonstrated the ability of our approach to handle workload imbalances arising from a non-uniform particle distribution, differences in particle types, or heterogeneous computer architecture which was difficult with previously proposed methods. We analyzed the parallel efficiency and scalability of our method using Earth simulator and K-computer supercomputer systems.

  19. Folding by cataclastic flow at shallow crustal levels in the Canyon Range, Sevier orogenic belt, west-central Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismat, Zeshan; Mitra, Gautam

    2001-02-01

    Folds form by ductile deformation typically involving continuous flow. In the elastico-frictional regime, such deformation may be accomplished by cataclastic flow involving collective movement on a population of fractures and zones. The Canyon Range (CR) syncline, part of the CR thrust sheet in west-central Utah, developed in this regime. The CR syncline is composed of thick-bedded quartzite units with a small material contrast between layers, limiting limb rotation by flexural slip alone. Thus, fracture populations developed to accommodate fold tightening by limb rotation and thinning, and the formation of transverse zones across the fold. Several generations of fracture and deformation zone (DZ) networks are recognized from mesoscopic and microscopic evidence, and can be related to stages of folding. The net result of the large number of distributed fractures and deformation zones is a continuous deformation that is homogeneous at the scale of the outcrop. All these lines of evidence suggest that large-scale cataclastic flow accommodated folding by allowing rigid mesoscopic blocks to slide along bounding DZs. Along its length, the CR syncline consists of several segments bounded by transverse zones with different mechanisms accommodating fold tightening in adjacent segments. In one segment, fold tightening progressed by limb rotation, and then out-of-the-core thrusting. In contrast, fold tightening in the adjoining segments occurred by rotation and thinning of one limb and possible hinge migration, with the steeply dipping to overturned limb showing progressive thinning of units on a megascopic scale and progressive increase in the thickness and density of deformation zones at all scales.

  20. Continuing Inflation at Three Sisters Volcanic Center, Central Oregon Cascade Range, USA, From GPS, InSAR, and Leveling Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisowski, M.; Dzurisin, D.; Wicks, C. W.

    2007-12-01

    Uplift of a broad area centered ~5 km west of South Sister volcano in central Oregon started sometime after fall 1996, accelerated after fall 1998, and was continuing when last surveyed with GPS and leveling in fall 2006. Surface displacements were measured whenever possible since 1992 with satellite radar interferometry (InSAR), annually since 2001 with GPS and leveling campaigns, and with a continuous GPS station since 2001. The average maximum displacement rate from InSAR was 3 to 5 cm/yr during 1998--2001 and ~1.4 cm/yr during 2004--2006. The other three datasets show a similar pattern, i.e., surface dilation and uplift rates decreased over time but deformation continued through 2006. Our best-fit model is a spherical point pressure (Mogi) source located 6.0--6.5 km below the surface and 4.5--5 km west-southwest of the summit of South Sister volcano. Any marginal improvement gained by using a more complicated source shape is not constrained by the data. This same model fits the deformation data for 2001--2003 and 2003--2006 equally well, so there is no indication that the location or shape of the source has changed. However, the source inflation rate has decreased exponentially since 2001 with a 1/e decay time of about 4 years. The net increase in source volume from the beginning of the episode (~1997) through 2006 was 60 × 106 m3 ± 10 × 106 m3. The only unusual seismicity near the deforming area was a swarm of about 300 small earthquakes on March 23- -26, 2004 ---the first notable seismicity for at least two decades. Timing of the swarm generally coincides with slowing of surface deformation, but any link between the two, if one exists, is not understood. Similar episodes in the past probably would have gone unnoticed if, as we suspect, most were small intrusions that do not culminate in eruptions.

  1. Continuing inflation at Three Sisters volcanic center, central Oregon Cascade Range, USA, from GPS, leveling, and InSAR observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzurisin, Daniel; Lisowski, Michael; Wicks, Charles W.

    2009-12-01

    Uplift of a broad area centered ~6 km west of the summit of South Sister volcano started in September 1997 (onset estimated from model discussed in this paper) and was continuing when surveyed in August 2006. Surface displacements were measured whenever possible since August 1992 with satellite radar interferometry (InSAR), annually since August 2001 with GPS and leveling surveys, and with continuous GPS since May 2001. The average maximum displacement rate from InSAR decreased from 3-5 cm/yr during 1998-2001 to ~1.4 cm/yr during 2004-2006. The other datasets show a similar pattern, i.e., surface uplift and extension rates decreased over time but deformation continued through August 2006. Our best-fit model to the deformation data is a vertical, prolate, spheroidal point-pressure source located 4.9-5.4 km below the surface. The source inflation rate decreased exponentially during 2001-2006 with a 1/ e decay time of 5.3 ± 1.1 years. The net increase in source volume from September 1997 to August 2006 was 36.5-41.9 x 106 m3. A swarm of ~300 small ( M max = 1.9) earthquakes occurred beneath the deforming area in March 2004; no other unusual seismicity has been noted. Similar deformation episodes in the past probably would have gone unnoticed if, as we suspect, most are small intrusions that do not culminate in eruptions.

  2. Definition of reference ranges for free T4, TSH, and thyroglobulin levels in healthy subjects of the Jaén Health District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmedo Carrillo, Pablo; Santiago Fernández, Piedad; García Fuentes, Eduardo; Ureña Fernández, Tomás; Gutiérrez Alcántara, Carmen; Sánchez-Malo, Carolina; Gassó Campos, Manuela; Martínez Ramírez, María José

    2017-10-01

    The treatment guidelines for thyroid dysfunction recommend defining reference ranges for thyroid hormones in each area through assessment of local population data considering the iodine nutritional status. The aim of this study was to define the reference ranges of free thyroxine (FT4), TSH, and thyroglobulin levels in a general population from Jaen, an area of southern Spain with an adequate iodine nutritional status, and whether they were associated with urinary iodine levels. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 1,003 subjects of the general population of the Jaen Health District. Levels of urinary iodine, FT4, TSH, thyroglobulin, and thyroid peroxidase (TPO) antibodies were measured according to age and sex. Median and mean urinary iodine levels were 110.59μg/L and 130.11μg/L respectively. Median TSH level was 1.83μIU/mL (p2.5=0.56μIU/mL, p97.5=4.66μIU/mL). Median FT4 level was 0.84ng/dL (p2.5=0.62ng/dL, p97.5=1.18ng/dL). TPO antibodies were detected in 5.7% of subjects. There was no correlation between urinary iodine levels and FT4, TSH or TPO antibodies. Subjects with positive TPO antibodies had higher TSH levels (3.34μIU/L versus 2.14μIU/mL, P=.001; odds ratio=2.42). Urinary iodine levels in Jaen are optimal according to World Health Organization standards. Reference ranges of FT4, TSH, and thyroglobulin do not differ from those reported in the literature and are no associated to urinary iodine levels. The prevalence of positive TPO antibodies was similar to that reported in other Spanish areas. Copyright © 2017 SEEN y SED. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Experimental determination of rotational constants of low-lying vibrational levels in the 0g- pure long-range state of ultracold Cs2 molecule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jizhou; Liu, Wenliang; Li, Yuqing; Ma, Jie; Xiao, Liantuan; Jia, Suotang

    2017-04-01

    We report an accurate experimental determination of rotational constants of the lowest vibrational levels in the purely long-range state of ultracold cesium molecules (Cs2). We engineer a precise reference of the frequency difference through double photoassociation spectroscopy (PAS). The PAS for the lowest vibrational levels, v=0-3, has been obtained with an enhanced sensitivity and accuracy, according to which the binding energies have been corrected. As deduced from the reference, the frequency intervals between neighboring rotational levels are fitted to a non-rigid rotor model, thus the rotational constants are precisely obtained. The experimental results show good agreement with theoretical expectations.

  4. Experimental increase of testosterone levels in free-ranging juvenile male African striped mice (Rhabdomys pumilio) induces physiological, morphological, and behavioral changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynaud, Julien; Müller, Karin; Schradin, Carsten

    2012-08-01

    Testosterone influences sexual differentiation in early development, and activates sexual maturation and sex-related behavior in males during puberty. Testosterone can also influence the expression of male alternative reproductive tactics, by either organizational effects (fixed tactics) or by activational effects (plastic tactics). However, the roles of testosterone in sexual maturation and at the same time the expression of alternative reproductive tactics have been little investigated experimentally, and studies of free-ranging mammals are lacking. We conducted a field experiment in free-ranging juvenile African striped mice (Rhabdomys pumilio), a species with alternative reproductive tactics. Juvenile male striped mice reaching puberty can remain in their family as philopatric group-living males with low testosterone levels, or they can disperse and become solitary living roamers with much higher testosterone levels. We tested whether experimentally increased testosterone levels in non-scrotal juvenile males induces puberty and leads to the expression of the roaming tactic. Testosterone-treated males received the hormone for 15days by silastic implants which were empty in control-treated males. When compared to control-treated males, testosterone-treated males had higher testosterone levels, lower corticosterone levels, and became scrotal with descended testes. Testosterone-treated males also had larger testes, larger epididymides, and showed indication of spermatogenesis. Testosterone-treated males did not become solitary-living roamers, but had larger home ranges than control males. We conclude that testosterone can induce sexual maturation and causes juvenile males to increase their home ranges, maybe to search for dispersal opportunities. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of corn dry distiller grains plus solubles supplementation level on performance and digestion characteristics of steers grazing native range during forage growing season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Pérez, M F; Calderón-Mendoza, D; Islas, A; Encinias, A M; Loya-Olguín, F; Soto-Navarro, S A

    2013-03-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate effects of corn dry distiller grains plus condensed solubles (DDGS) supplementation level on performance digestion characteristics of steers grazing native range during the forage growing season. In the performance study, 72 (206 ± 23.6 kg; 2008) and 60 (230 ± 11.3 kg; 2009) English crossbred steer calves were used in a randomized complete block design replicated over 2 yr. The grazing periods lasted 56 and 58 d and started on August 11 and 18 for 2008 and 2009, respectively. Each year, steers were blocked by BW (light, medium, and heavy), stratified by BW within blocks, and randomly assigned to 1 of 4 grazing groups. Each grazing group (6 steers in 2008 and 5 in 2009) was assigned to a DDGS supplementation levels (0, 0.2, 0.4, and 0.6% BW). Grazing group served as the experimental unit with 12 groups per year receiving 1 of 4 treatments for 2 yr (n = 6). In the metabolism study, 16 English crossbred steers (360 ± 28.9 kg) fitted with ruminal cannulas grazing native range during the summer growing season were used in a completely randomized design to evaluate treatment effects on forage intake and digestion. The experiment was conducted during the first and second weeks of October 2008. Steers were randomly assigned to supplement level (0, 0.2, 0.4, and 0.6% BW; n = 4) and grazed a single native range pasture with supplements offered individually once daily at 0700 h. In the performance study, ADG (0.64, 0.75, 0.80, and 0.86 ± 0.03 kg/d for 0, 0.2, 0.4, and 0.6% BW, respectively) increased linearly (P = 0.01) with increasing DDGS supplementation level. In the metabolism study, forage OM, NDF, CP, and ether extract (EE) intake decreased (P ≤ 0.05) linearly with increasing DDGS supplementation level. Total CP and EE intake increased (P ≤ 0.002) with increasing DDGS supplementation level. Digestibility of OM, NDF, and EE increased (linear; P ≤ 0.008) whereas the soluble CP fraction of forage masticate sample

  6. Passive exposure of adult cats to moderate-level tone pip ensembles differentially decreases AI and AII responsiveness in the exposure frequency range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pienkowski, Martin; Eggermont, Jos J

    2010-09-01

    Passive exposure of adult animals to a random ensemble of tone pips band limited between 4 and 20 kHz has been shown to suppress neural activity in primary auditory cortex (AI) to sounds in the exposure frequency range. In the long-term (>3 months), the suppressed neurons can be reactivated by frequencies above and below the exposure range, i.e., tonotopic map reorganization occurs. The suppression can be at least partially reversed after a long period of quiet recovery, as the moderate-level exposure does not impair peripheral hearing. Here we exposed adult cats, for 7-13 weeks without interruption, to two different moderate-level tone pip ensembles, in separate experiments. One exposure stimulus consisted of an octave-wide 2-4 kHz band, which overlaps substantially with the cat vocalization range; the other consisted of a pair of third-octave bands centered at 4 and 16 kHz. We again report a decrease in AI responsiveness in the exposure frequency range, irrespective of the exposure stimulus bandwidth or center frequency, and a slow, partial recovery over a 12-week post-exposure window. In contrast to our previous studies, the suppression in both of the present experiments extended well beyond the exposure frequency range. In particular, following the 4 and 16 kHz experimental acoustic environment, AI activity was strongly suppressed not only in response to frequencies close to the two exposure bands, but also in response to frequencies between the bands, i.e., the results resembled those to a single broadband stimulus spanning the 3-18 kHz range. On the other hand, responses in secondary auditory cortex (AII) were suppressed predominantly around 4 and 16 kHz, with little or no suppression in between. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Revision in Reference Ranges of Peripheral Total Leukocyte Count and Differential Leukocyte Percentages Based on a Normal Serum C-Reactive Protein Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zei-Shung Huang

    2007-08-01

    Conclusion: In view of the abundant evidence showing that a higher peripheral total leukocyte count is harmful to health, a down-correction of its upper reference range from the currently used 11.0 × 109/L to the proposed 8.83 × 109/L, based on a normal CRP level, should allow more abnormal health conditions to be identified and promote the usefulness of peripheral leukocyte analysis.

  8. Assessment of Altimetric Range and Geophysical Corrections and Mean Sea Surface Models—Impacts on Sea Level Variability around the Indonesian Seas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eko Yuli Handoko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this study is the assessment of the main range and geophysical corrections needed to derive accurate sea level time series from satellite altimetry in the Indonesia seas, the ultimate aim being the determination of sea level trend for this region. Due to its island nature, this is an area of large complexity for altimetric studies, a true laboratory for coastal altimetry. For this reason, the selection of the best corrections for sea level anomaly estimation from satellite altimetry is of particular relevance in the Indonesian seas. The same happens with the mean sea surface adopted in the sea level anomaly computation due to the large gradients of the mean sea surface in this part of the ocean. This study has been performed using altimetric data from the three reference missions, TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason-1 and Jason-2, extracted from the Radar Altimeter Database System. Analyses of sea level anomaly variance differences, function of distance from the coast and at altimeter crossovers were used to assess the quality of the various corrections and mean sea surface models. The selected set of corrections and mean sea surface have been used to estimate the sea level anomaly time series. The rate of sea level rise for the Indonesian seas was found to be 4.2 ± 0.2 mm/year over the 23-year period (1993–2015.

  9. Relation of serum gamma-glutamyltransferase levels in normal range to metabolic syndrome in middle-aged and elderly Chinese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen-ping HU

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To explore the correlation of serum γ-glutamyltransferase (γ-GT level in normal range to metabolic syndrome (MS in middle-aged and elderly Chinese women. Methods  Female inhabitants aged ≥40 years in Nan'an community, Chongqing, were recruited to receive questionnaire interview and physical examination. Blood glucose, lipid, liver and kidney function profiles were also examined. A total of 1308 subjects were involved in our study, and they were divided into four groups according to the γ-GT quartiles. The correlation of MS prevalence, odds ratio and the relation of menopausal status with γ-GT level was analyzed. Results  As the quartile of serum γ-GT level increased, the multiple metabolic risk profiles tended to deteriorate, and the number of postmenopausal women increased gradually. From the first quartile to the fourth quartile of γ-GT level, the prevalence of MS was 22.5%, 27.4%, 42.7% and 58.5%, respectively (P<0.01. Compared with those subjects in the first quartile of γ-GT, the MS risks in the fourth quartile increased by 2.92-fold, central obesity by 2.31-fold, high triglycerides by 3.76-fold, hypertension by 1.84-fold, and hyperglycemia by 1.63 fold. The γ-GT levels increased significantly in proportion to the number of elements of MS (P<0.01. Multiple stepwise regression analysis showed that triglycerides, waist circumference, menopausal status, 2h postprandial blood glucose and body mass index were independent influencing factors of γ-GT levels. Conclusions  Serum γ-GT is an independent metabolic risk factor related to woman's menopausal status. An increased γ-GT level in normal range might imply an increased MS risk in middle-aged and elderly Chinese women.

  10. Comparison of plasma vitamin A and E, copper and zinc levels in free-ranging and captive greater flamingos (Phoenicopterus roseus) and their relation to pododermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyss, F; Wolf, P; Wenker, C; Hoby, S; Schumacher, V; Béchet, A; Robert, N; Liesegang, A

    2014-12-01

    Pododermatitis is a worldwide problem in captive flamingos. Studies in domestic poultry showed that nutrition is a possible influencing factor for pododermatitis. Vitamin A and E, copper and zinc levels were analysed in two different diets (diet 1 = in-house mix and diet 2 = commercial diet) and in plasma of captive greater flamingos fed these diets and compared to those of free-ranging greater flamingos. Results were analysed with respect to type and severity of foot lesions of the individuals from the different groups. Juvenile and subadult/adult captive flamingos on diet 1 showed various types and severities of foot lesions, whereas no foot lesions were found at the time of blood sampling in juvenile captive flamingos on diet 2. Juvenile captive flamingos on diet 1 had significantly lower plasma zinc levels than juvenile captive flamingos on diet 2 and juvenile free-ranging flamingos; data were also lower than reference ranges for flamingos, poultry and cranes. There were no significant differences in plasma vitamin A, vitamin E, copper or zinc levels between animals with different types of foot lesions or with different severity scores. Shortly after the change to diet 2 (fed to juvenile captive flamingos that did not show any foot lesion), the flooring of the outdoor water pools was covered with fine granular sand. Because both factors (nutrition and flooring) were changed during the same evaluation period, it cannot be concluded which factor contributed in what extent to the reduction of foot lesions. While it is assumed that low plasma zinc levels identified in the group of juvenile captive flamingos on diet 1 were not directly responsible for foot lesions observed in these animals, they may have played a role in altering the skin integrity of the feet and predisposing them to pododermatitis. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Application of Short-Range LIDAR in Early Alerting for Low-Level Windshear and Turbulence at Hong Kong International Airport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. K. Hon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hong Kong Observatory currently uses a series of meteorological instruments, including long-range LIDAR (light detection and ranging systems, to provide alerting services of low-level windshear and turbulence for Hong Kong International Airport. For some events that are smaller in spatial dimensions and are rapidly changing, such as low altitude windshear and turbulence associated with buildings or man-made structures, it would be necessary to involve meteorological instruments that offer greater spatial resolution. Therefore, the Observatory has set up a short-range LIDAR on the roof of the AsiaWorld-Expo during the summers over the past several years, conducting field research on the feasibility of strengthening early alerting for windshear and turbulence over the north runway’s eastern arrival runway (Runway 25RA and developing an automated early alerting algorithm. This paper takes the pilot reports for Runway 25RA during the 2013 field research as verification samples, using different thresholds for radial wind velocity spatial and temporal changes detected by the short-range LIDAR to calculate the relative operating characteristic (ROC curve, and analyzes its early alerting performance.

  12. Troponin levels within the normal range and probability of inducible myocardial ischemia and coronary events in patients with acute chest pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzas-Mosquera, Alberto; Peteiro, Jesús; Broullón, Francisco J; Constanso, Ignacio P; Rodríguez-Garrido, Jorge L; Martínez, Dolores; Yáñez, Juan C; Bescos, Hildegart; Álvarez-García, Nemesio; Vázquez-Rodríguez, José Manuel

    2016-03-01

    Patients with suspected acute coronary syndromes and negative cardiac troponin (cTn) levels are deemed at low risk. Our aim was to assess the effect of cTn levels on the frequency of inducible myocardial ischemia and subsequent coronary events in patients with acute chest pain and cTn levels within the normal range. We evaluated 4474 patients with suspected acute coronary syndromes, nondiagnostic electrocardiograms and serial cTnI levels below the diagnostic threshold for myocardial necrosis using a conventional or a sensitive cTnI assay. The end points were the probability of inducible myocardial ischemia and coronary events (i.e., coronary death, myocardial infarction or coronary revascularization within 3 months). The probability of inducible myocardial ischemia was significantly higher in patients with detectable peak cTnI levels (25%) than in those with undetectable concentrations (14.6%, pacute coronary syndromes and seemingly negative cTnI. Copyright © 2015 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Muscle trigger points, pressure pain threshold, and cervical range of motion in patients with high level of disability related to acute whiplash injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Pérez, Antonio Manuel; Villaverde-Gutiérrez, Carmen; Mora-Sánchez, Aurora; Alonso-Blanco, Cristina; Sterling, Michele; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César

    2012-07-01

    Cross sectional cohort study. To analyze the differences in the prevalence of trigger points (TrPs) between patients with acute whiplash-associated disorders (WADs) and healthy controls, and to determine if widespread pressure hypersensitivity and reduced cervical range of motion are related to the presence of TrPs in patients with acute WADs. The relationship between active TrPs and central sensitization is not well understood in patients with acute WADs. Twenty individuals with a high level of disability related to acute WAD and 20 age- and sex-matched controls participated in the study. TrPs in the temporalis, masseter, upper trapezius, levator scapulae, sternocleidomastoid, suboccipital, and scalene muscles were examined. TrPs are defined as hypersensitive spots in a palpable taut band, producing a local twitch response and referred pain when palpated. Pressure pain threshold (PPT) was assessed bilaterally over the C5-6 zygapophyseal joints, second metacarpal, and tibialis anterior muscle. Active cervical range of motion, neck pain, and self-rated disability using the Neck Disability Index were also assessed. The mean ± SD number of TrPs for the patients with acute WAD was 7.3 ± 2.8 (3.4 ± 2.7 were latent TrPs; 3.9 ± 2.5 were active TrPs). In comparison, healthy controls had 1.7 ± 2.2 latent and no active TrPs (Pactive TrPs were the levator scapulae and upper trapezius muscles. The number of active TrPs increased with higher neck pain intensity (Pactive cervical range of motion than controls (Pactive TrPs and PPT over the C5-C6 joints and cervical range of motion in flexion, extension, and rotation in both directions: the greater the number of active TrPs, the lower the bilateral PPT over the neck and the greater the cervical range of motion limitation. The local and referred pain elicited from active TrPs reproduced neck and shoulder pain patterns in individuals with acute WADs with higher levels of disability. Patients with acute WADs exhibited

  14. The effect of deviated center of rotation on flexion-extension range of motion after single-level cervical arthroplasty: an in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Xin; Gong, Quan; Liu, Hao; Hong, Ying; Lou, Jigang; Wu, Wenjie; Meng, Yang; Chen, Hua; Song, Yueming

    2014-12-15

    A retrospective study. To report the clinical outcomes and sagittal kinematics after cervical total disc replacement (TDR). To evaluate the in vivo effect of deviated center of rotation (COR) on flexion-extension range of motion (ROM) at the instrumented level. A few studies showed that the location of COR after cervical TDR deviated from its preoperative location or inherent location in healthy subjects. However, little is known about the effect of deviated COR on ROM at the instrumented level. A total of 24 patients who underwent C5-C6 single-level TDR with Prestige LP (Medtronic Sofamor Danek) were retrospectively included. Japanese Orthopedic Association score and visual analogue scale were used to assess the clinical outcomes. ROM and COR were measured for radiographical analysis. Patients were categorized into 2 groups according to the change of ROM for further evaluation. Group 1, characterized by decreased postoperative ROM, consisted of 16 patients; group 2, characterized by increased postoperative ROM, consisted of 8 patients. Ten males and 14 females comprised the study cohort. The mean age was 45.05 years, and the mean follow-up time was 15.5 months. The Japanese Orthopedic Association score increased significantly and the neck and arm visual analogue scale decreased significantly after cervical TDR. On average, ROM was preserved after cervical TDR. The postoperative COR had a significant cranial shift from its preoperative location. The COR shift in anterior-posterior direction was larger in group 2 than that in group 1. No difference was observed in the COR shift in cranial-caudal direction between the 2 groups. Single-level cervical TDR with Prestige LP obtained satisfactory clinical outcomes and partially restored the natural cervical kinematics. At instrumented level, the deviated COR had a negative correlation with the flexion-extension ROM.

  15. Regional climate change over Europe at specific significant warming levels in a range of EURO-CORDEX regional downscalings at 0.11° resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjellström, Erik; Nikulin, Grigory; Strandberg, Gustav

    2017-04-01

    We investigate European regional climate change for time periods when the global mean temperature has increased by respectively 1.5°C, 2°C, 2.5°C and 3°C compared to preindustrial conditions. Results are based on regional downscaling of transient climate change simulations for the 21st century with global climate models (GCMs) from CMIP5. We use an ensemble of EURO-CORDEX high-resolution regional climate model (RCM) simulations undertaken at a computational grid of 12.5 km horizontal resolution covering Europe. The ensemble consists of a range of RCMs that have been used for downscaling a few GCMs under different forcing scenarios. We also use an ensemble of RCM simulations with one specific RCM, the RCA4 from the Rossby Centre, which has been used for downscaling ten different GCMs. These two ensembles enable us to address questions related to sensitivity of choice of GCM and RCM on the results. Furthermore, we use two different methods of determining the time period when a certain significant warming level is reached. By contrasting these methods we investigate how sensitive the results are to the choice of method. The results indicate considerable climate change signals already at the lower (i.e. 1.5°C and 2°C) warming levels and increasingly high levels of change with increasing global warming.

  16. Geologic and hydrologic characterization and evaluation of the Basin and Range Province relative to the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Part I. Introduction and guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bedinger, M.S.; Sargent, K.A.; Reed, J.E.

    1984-12-31

    The US Geological Survey`s program for geologic and hydrologic evaluation of physiographic provinces to identify areas potentially suitable for locating repository sites for disposal of high-level nuclear wastes was announced to the Governors of the eight states in the Basin and Range Province on May 5, 1981. Representatives of Arizona, California, Idaho, New Mexico, Nevada, Oregon, Texas, and Utah, were invited to cooperate with the federal government in the evaluation process. Each governor was requested to nominate an earth scientist to represent the state in a province working group composed of state and US Geological Survey representatives. This report, Part I of a three-part report, provides the background, introduction and scope of the study. This part also includes a discussion of geologic and hydrologic guidelines that will be used in the evaluation process and illustrates geohydrologic environments and the effect of individual factors in providing multiple natural barriers to radionuclide migration. 27 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Synthesis of Circular Array Antenna for Sidelobe Level and Aperture Size Control Using Flower Pollination Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. S. S. Chakravarthy Vedula

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sidelobe level suppression is a major problem in circular array antenna (CAA synthesis. Many conventional numerical techniques are proposed to achieve this which are time consuming and often fail to handle multimodal problems. In this paper, a method of circular array synthesis using nature inspired flower pollination algorithm (FPA is proposed. The synthesis technique considered here adapts one and two degrees of freedom, namely, amplitude only and amplitude spacing. The effectiveness of the FPA is studied by comparing the results with genetic algorithm (GA and uniform circular array antenna (UCAA with uniform spacing. Also the effect of additional degree of freedom on the aperture size and the computational time is analyzed. A relative side lobe level (SLL of −25 dB is achieved using the algorithm under both no beam scanning (0° and beam scanning (15° conditions for 20 and 40 elements of CAA.

  18. Oligotyping reveals differences between gut-microbiomes of free-ranging sympatric Namibian carnivores (Acinonyx jubatus, Canis mesomelas on a bacterial species-like level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian eMenke

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent gut microbiome studies in model organisms emphasize the effects of intrinsic and extrinsic factors on the variation of the bacterial composition and its impact on the overall health status of the host. Species occurring in the same habitat might share a similar microbiome, especially if they overlap in ecological and behavioral traits. So far, the natural variation in microbiomes of free-ranging wildlife species has not been thoroughly investigated. The few existing studies exploring microbiomes through 16S rRNA gene reads clustered sequencing reads into operational taxonomic units (OTUs based on a similarity threshold (e.g. 97%. This approach, in combination with the low resolution of target databases, generally limits the level of taxonomic assignments to the genus level. However, distinguishing natural variation of microbiomes in healthy individuals from abnormal microbial compositions that affect host health requires knowledge of the normal microbial flora at a high taxonomic resolution. This gap can now be addressed using the recently published oligotyping approach, which can resolve closely related organisms into distinct oligotypes by utilizing subtle nucleotide variation. Here, we used Illumina MiSeq to sequence amplicons generated from the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene to investigate the gut microbiome of two free-ranging sympatric Namibian carnivore species, the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus and the black-backed jackal (Canis mesomelas. Bacterial phyla with proportions > 0.2 % were identical for both species and included Firmicutes, Fusobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria. At a finer taxonomic resolution, black-backed jackals exhibited 69 bacterial taxa with proportions ≥ 0.1 %, whereas cheetahs had only 42. Finally, oligotyping revealed that shared bacterial taxa consisted of distinct oligotype profiles. Thus, in contrast to 3 % OTUs, oligotyping can detect fine-scale taxonomic differences between

  19. Discriminant effect of morphology and range of attack on the performance level of volleyball players. DOI: 10.5007/1980-0037.2011v13n3p223

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Machado Reis

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify the discriminant effect of morphology and range of attack-related variables on the performance level of under-17 female volleyball players. The sample consisted of young volleyball players (n=40 divided into two groups: players of the Brazilian national team (n=21 aged 15.86 ± 0.36 years, body weight of 68.11 ± 8.73 kg, and height of 181.61 ± 6.11 cm, and players of the state team of Rio Grande do Norte (n=19 aged 15.16 ± 0.88 years, body weight of 60.54 ± 7.60 kg, and height of 170.52 ± 7.97 cm. The somatotype was assessed using the Heath & Carter method. A modified Sargent test was used to assess vertical jump height and maximum attack height. The measures were compared between the two groups using the Student t-test for independent samples. Discriminant function analysis was applied to predict group allocation using the measures obtained as independent variables. The two groups differed significantly in terms of body weight, fat mass, height, maximum attack height, range of attack, and somatotype. Discriminant function analysis identified the somato-type measures (endomorphy, ectomorphy, and mesomorphy with correlation coefficients below 0.30. The canonical correlation coefficient obtained with this function was 0.856. In conclusion, somatotype or vertical jump ability does not seem to distinguish elite athletes from non-elite athletes in under-17 female volleyball players, and height is the main morphological determinant to achieve elite level performance.

  20. Charge-leveling and proper treatment of long-range electrostatics in all-atom molecular dynamics at constant pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Jason A; Shen, Jana K

    2012-11-14

    Recent development of constant pH molecular dynamics (CpHMD) methods has offered promise for adding pH-stat in molecular dynamics simulations. However, until now the working pH molecular dynamics (pHMD) implementations are dependent in part or whole on implicit-solvent models. Here we show that proper treatment of long-range electrostatics and maintaining charge neutrality of the system are critical for extending the continuous pHMD framework to the all-atom representation. The former is achieved here by adding forces to titration coordinates due to long-range electrostatics based on the generalized reaction field method, while the latter is made possible by a charge-leveling technique that couples proton titration with simultaneous ionization or neutralization of a co-ion in solution. We test the new method using the pH-replica-exchange CpHMD simulations of a series of aliphatic dicarboxylic acids with varying carbon chain length. The average absolute deviation from the experimental pK(a) values is merely 0.18 units. The results show that accounting for the forces due to extended electrostatics removes the large random noise in propagating titration coordinates, while maintaining charge neutrality of the system improves the accuracy in the calculated electrostatic interaction between ionizable sites. Thus, we believe that the way is paved for realizing pH-controlled all-atom molecular dynamics in the near future.

  1. Studies of geology and hydrology in the Basin and Range Province, Southwestern United States, for isolation of high-level radioactive waste - Basis of characterization and evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedinger, M.S.; Sargent, K.A.; Langer, William H.; Sherman, Frank B.; Reed, J.E.; Brady, B.T.

    1989-01-01

    The geologic and hydrologic factors in selected regions of the Basin and Range province were examined to identify prospective areas for further study that may provide isolation of high-level radioactive waste from the accessible environment. The six regions selected for study were characterized with respect to the following guidelines: (1) Potential repository media; (2) Quaternary tectonic conditions; (3) climatic change and geomorphic processes; (4) ground-water conditions; (5) ground-water quality; and (6) mineral and energy resources.The repository medium will function as the first natural barrier to radionuclide travel by virtue of associated slow ground-water velocity. The principal rock types considered as host media include granitic, intermediate, and mafic intrusive rocks; argillaceous rocks; salt and anhydrite; volcanic mudflow (laharic) breccias; some intrusive rhyolitic plugs and stocks; partially zeolitized tuff; and metamorphic rocks. In the unsaturated zone, the permeability and hydrologic properties of the rocks and the hydrologic setting are more important than the rock type. Media ideally should be permeable to provide drainage and should have a minimal water fluxThe ground-water flow path from a repository to the accessible environment needs to present major barriers to the transport of radionuclides. Factors considered in evaluating the ground-water conditions include ground-water traveltimes and quality, confining beds, and earth materials favorable for retardation of radionuclides. Ground-water velocities in the regions were calculated from estimated hydraulic properties of the rocks and gradients. Because site-specific data on hydraulic properties are not available, data from the literature were assembled and synthesized to obtain values for use in estimating ground-water velocities. Hydraulic conductivities for many rock types having granular and fracture permeability follow a log-normal distribution. Porosity for granular and very weathered

  2. Investigation of the influence of transport from oil and natural gas regions on elevated ozone levels in the northern Colorado front range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Jason M; Helmig, Detlev

    2017-02-01

    The Northern Colorado Front Range (NCFR) has been in exceedance of the ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) since 2004, which has led to much debate over the sources of ozone precursors to the region, as this area is home to both the Denver, CO, metropolitan area and the Denver-Julesburg Basin, which has experienced rapid growth of oil and natural gas (O&NG) operations and associated emissions. Several recent studies have reported elevated levels of atmospheric volatile organic compounds (VOCs) as a result of O&NG emissions and the potential for significant ozone production from these emissions, despite implementation of stricter O&NG VOC emissions regulations in 2008. Approximately 88% of 1-hr elevated ozone events (>75 ppbv) occur during June-August, indicating that elevated ozone levels are driven by regional photochemistry. Analyses of surface ozone and wind observations from two sites, namely, South Boulder and the Boulder Atmospheric Observatory, both near Boulder, CO, show a preponderance of elevated ozone events associated with east-to-west airflow from regions with O&NG operations in the N-ESE, and a relatively minor contribution of transport from the Denver Metropolitan area to the SE-S. Transport from upwind areas associated with abundant O&NG operations accounts for on the order of 65% (mean for both sites) of 1-hr averaged elevated ozone levels, while the Denver urban corridor accounts for 9%. These correlations contribute to mounting evidence that air transport from areas with O&NG operation has a significant impact on ozone and air quality in the NCFR. This article builds on several previous pieces of research that implied significant contributions from oil and natural gas emissions on ozone production in the Northern Colorado Front Range. By correlating increased ozone events with transport analyses we show that there is a high abundance of transport events with elevated ozone originating from the Denver-Julesburg oil and natural gas

  3. Effect of dietary crude protein levels in a commercial range, on the nitrogen balance, ammonia emission and pollutant characteristics of slurry in fattening pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, F; Martínez, S; López, C; Megías, M D; López, M; Madrid, J

    2011-06-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary levels of crude protein (CP), close to the range used commercially and to the European Commission recommended values, on the nitrogen (N) balance, ammonia (NH(3)) emission and pollutant characteristics of the slurry from growing and finishing pigs. Three feeding programmes with different CP levels were compared during the growing and the finishing periods of fattening. Diets were formulated to be isoenergetic and for the digestible lysine : metabolisable energy ratio to be similar in all the diets for each phase, but differed in CP concentration (160, 150 and 140 g CP/kg for the growing phase and 155, 145 and 135 g CP/kg for the finishing phase). Faeces and urine from barrows (eight replicates per diet) allocated in metabolism cages were collected separately for 5 days to calculate the N balance and for 2 days to measure NH(3) emission in a laboratory system for 240 h. Excreta were analysed for pH, volatile fatty acids (VFA), total N, electrical conductivity (EC), total solids (TS), volatile solids (VS), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD(5)), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and NH(4)-N reduction of dietary CP content led to a linear decrease of urinary (P excretion, and N excretion/feed intake (P 0.05) during the 240 h of study. However, in the growing phase, the NH(3)-N level in slurry was lower (P 0.05) on total VFA, EC, TS, VS, COD or BOD(5) contents of excreta. These parameters were higher (P excretion in the slurry of growing-finishing pigs. The slurry from finishing pigs is more concentrated than that from growing pigs.

  4. A waveform covariancematrix for high SINR and lowside-lobe levels

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Sajid

    2013-05-01

    In this work to exploit the benefits of both multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO)-radar and phased-array a waveform covariance matrix is proposed. Our analytical results show that the proposed covariance matrix yields gain in signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) compared to MIMO-radar while the gain in SINR is close to phased-array and recently proposed phased-MIMO scheme. Transmitted waveforms with the proposed covariance matrix, at the receiver, significantly supress the side-lobe levels compared to phased-array, MIMO-radar, and phased-MIMO schemes. Moreover, in contrast to phased-MIMO our proposed scheme allows same power transmission from each antenna. Simulation results validate the analytical results. © 2013 IEEE.

  5. Chronic Neck Pain and Cervico-Craniofacial Pain Patients Express Similar Levels of Neck Pain-Related Disability, Pain Catastrophizing, and Cervical Range of Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Muñoz-García

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Neck pain (NP is strongly associated with cervico-craniofacial pain (CCFP. The primary aim of the present study was to compare the neck pain-related disability, pain catastrophizing, and cervical and mandibular ROM between patients with chronic mechanical NP and patients with CCFP, as well as asymptomatic subjects. Methods. A total of 64 participants formed three groups. All participants underwent a clinical examination evaluating the cervical range of motion and maximum mouth opening, neck disability index (NDI, and psychological factor of Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS. Results. There were no statistically significant differences between patients with NP and CCFP for NDI and PCS (P>0.05. One- way ANOVA revealed significant differences for all ROM measurements. The post hoc analysis showed no statistically significant differences in cervical extension and rotation between the two patient groups (P>0.05. The Pearson correlation analysis shows a moderate positive association between NDI and the PCS for the group of patients with NP and CCFP. Conclusion. The CCFP and NP patient groups have similar neck disability levels and limitation in cervical ROM in extension and rotation. Both groups had positively correlated the NDI with the PCS.

  6. Relationships between in vitro lymphoproliferative responses and levels of contaminants in blood of free-ranging adult harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) from the North Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupont, Aurélie [Laboratory of Oceanology – MARE Center, University of Liège, B6c, allée de la chimie 3, B-4000 Liège (Sart-Tilman) (Belgium); Siebert, Ursula [Institute for Terrestrial and Aquatic Wildlife Research, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Foundation, Werftstrasse 6, 25761 Buesum (Germany); Covaci, Adrian; Weijs, Liesbeth [Toxicological Centre, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Systemic Physiological and Ecotoxicological Research (SPHERE), Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Eppe, Gauthier [Center for Analytical Research and Technology (CART), Inorganic Analytical Chemistry, University of Liège, B6c, allée de la chimie 3, B-4000 Liège (Sart-Tilman) (Belgium); Debier, Cathy [Unit of Nutrition Biochemistry, Catholic University of Leuven, Place Croix du Sud 2/8, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); De Pauw-Gillet, Marie-Claire [Mammalian Cell Culture Laboratory (GIGA-R), University of Liège, B6c, allée de la chimie 3, B-4000 Liège (Sart-Tilman) (Belgium); Das, Krishna, E-mail: Krishna.das@ulg.ac.be [Laboratory of Oceanology – MARE Center, University of Liège, B6c, allée de la chimie 3, B-4000 Liège (Sart-Tilman) (Belgium)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: •Blood samples were taken from adult harbour seals in good body condition. •Trace element and POP levels, as well as haematological parameters were determined. •Peripheral blood leucocytes were isolated from the same blood samples. •The in vitro lymphocyte stimulation indices were calculated. •No clear correlation between the lymphocyte stimulation indices and pollutants could be highlighted. -- Abstract: In vitro culture of peripheral blood leucocytes (PBLs) is currently used in toxicological studies of marine mammals. However, blood cells of wild individuals are exposed in vivo to environmental contaminants before being isolated and exposed to contaminants in vitro. The aim of this study was to highlight potential relationships between blood contaminant levels and in vitro peripheral blood lymphocyte proliferation in free-ranging adult harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) from the North Sea. Blood samples of 18 individuals were analyzed for trace elements (Fe, Zn, Se, Cu, Hg, Pb, Cd) and persistent organic contaminants and metabolites (ΣPCBs, ΣHO-PCBs, ΣPBDEs, 2-MeO-BDE68 and 6-MeO-BDE47, ΣDDXs, hexachlorobenzene, oxychlordane, trans-nonachlor, pentachlorophenol and tribromoanisole). The same samples were used to determine the haematology profiles, cell numbers and viability, as well as the in vitro ConA-induced lymphocyte proliferation expressed as a stimulation index (SI). Correlation tests (Bravais-Pearson) and Principal Component Analysis with multiple regression revealed no statistically significant relationship between the lymphocyte SI and the contaminants studied. However, the number of lymphocytes per millilitre of whole blood appeared to be negatively correlated to pentachlorophenol (r = −0.63, p = 0.005). In adult harbour seals, the interindividual variations of in vitro lymphocyte proliferation did not appear to be directly linked to pollutant levels present in the blood, and it is likely that other factors such as age, life

  7. Geologic and hydrologic characterization and evaluation of the Basin and Range Province relative to the disposal of high-level radioactive waste: Part II, Geologic and hydrologic characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, Kenneth A.; Bedinger, M.S.

    1985-01-01

    The geology and hydrology of the Basin and Range Province of the western conterminous United States are characterized in a series of data sets depicted in maps compiled for evaluation of prospective areas for further study of geohydrologic environments for isolation of high-level radioactive waste. The data sets include: (1) Average precipitation and evaporation; (2) surface distribution of selected rock types; (3) tectonic conditions; and (4) surface- and ground -water hydrology and Pleistocene lakes and marshes.Rocks mapped for consideration as potential host media for the isolation of high-level radioactive waste are widespread and include argillaceous rocks, granitic rocks, tuffaceous rocks, mafic extrusive rocks, evaporites, and laharic breccias. The unsaturated zone, where probably as thick as 150 meters (500 feet), was mapped for consideration as an environment for isolation of high-level waste. Unsaturated rocks of various lithologic types are widespread in the Province.Tectonic stability in the Quaternary Period is considered the key to assessing the probability of future tectonism with regard to high-level radioactive waste disposal. Tectonic conditions are characterized on the basis of the seismic record, heat-flow measurements, the occurrence of Quaternary faults, vertical crustal movement, and volcanic features. Tectonic activity, as indicated by seismicity, is greatest in areas bordering the western margin of the Province in Nevada and southern California, the eastern margin of the Province bordering the Wasatch Mountains in Utah and in parts of the Rio Grande valley. Late Cenozoic volcanic activity is widespread, being greatest bordering the Sierra Nevada in California and Oregon, and bordering the Wasatch Mountains in southern Utah and Idaho.he arid to semiarid climate of the Province results in few perennial streams and lakes. A large part of the surface drainage is interior and the many closed basins commonly are occupied by playas or dry lake

  8. Expression levels of the yeast alcohol acetyltransferase genes ATF1, Lg-ATF1, and ATF2 control the formation of a broad range of volatile esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstrepen, Kevin J; Van Laere, Stijn D M; Vanderhaegen, Bart M P; Derdelinckx, Guy; Dufour, Jean-Pierre; Pretorius, Isak S; Winderickx, Joris; Thevelein, Johan M; Delvaux, Freddy R

    2003-09-01

    Volatile aroma-active esters are responsible for the fruity character of fermented alcoholic beverages such as beer and wine. Esters are produced by fermenting yeast cells in an enzyme-catalyzed intracellular reaction. In order to investigate and compare the roles of the known Saccharomyces cerevisiae alcohol acetyltransferases, Atf1p, Atf2p and Lg-Atf1p, in volatile ester production, the respective genes were either deleted or overexpressed in a laboratory strain and a commercial brewing strain. Subsequently, the ester formation of the transformants was monitored by headspace gas chromatography and gas chromatography combined with mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Analysis of the fermentation products confirmed that the expression levels of ATF1 and ATF2 greatly affect the production of ethyl acetate and isoamyl acetate. GC-MS analysis revealed that Atf1p and Atf2p are also responsible for the formation of a broad range of less volatile esters, such as propyl acetate, isobutyl acetate, pentyl acetate, hexyl acetate, heptyl acetate, octyl acetate, and phenyl ethyl acetate. With respect to the esters analyzed in this study, Atf2p seemed to play only a minor role compared to Atf1p. The atf1Delta atf2Delta double deletion strain did not form any isoamyl acetate, showing that together, Atf1p and Atf2p are responsible for the total cellular isoamyl alcohol acetyltransferase activity. However, the double deletion strain still produced considerable amounts of certain other esters, such as ethyl acetate (50% of the wild-type strain), propyl acetate (50%), and isobutyl acetate (40%), which provides evidence for the existence of additional, as-yet-unknown ester synthases in the yeast proteome. Interestingly, overexpression of different alleles of ATF1 and ATF2 led to different ester production rates, indicating that differences in the aroma profiles of yeast strains may be partially due to mutations in their ATF genes.

  9. Estimation of the local and long-range contributions to particulate matter levels using continuous measurements in a single urban background site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamantopoulou, Marianna; Skyllakou, Ksakousti; Pandis, Spyros N.

    2016-06-01

    The Particulate Matter Source Apportionment Technology (PSAT) algorithm is used together with PMCAMx, a regional chemical transport model, to develop a simple observation-based method (OBM) for the estimation of local and regional contributions of sources of primary and secondary pollutants in urban areas. We test the hypothesis that the minimum of the diurnal average concentration profile of the pollutant is a good estimate of the average contribution of long range transport levels. We use PMCAMx to generate "pseudo-observations" for four different European cities (Paris, London, Milan, and Dusseldorf) and PSAT to estimate the corresponding "true" local and regional contributions. The predictions of the proposed OBM are compared to the "true" values for different definitions of the source area. During winter, the estimates by the OBM for the local contributions to the concentrations of total PM2.5, primary pollutants, and sulfate are within 25% of the "true" contributions of the urban area sources. For secondary organic aerosol the OBM overestimates the importance of the local sources and it actually estimates the contributions of sources within 200 km from the receptor. During summer for primary pollutants and cities with low nearby emissions (ratio of emissions in an area extending 100 km from the city over local emissions lower than 10) the OBM estimates correspond to the city emissions within 25% or so. For cities with relatively high nearby emissions the OBM estimates correspond to emissions within 100 km from the receptor. For secondary PM2.5 components like sulfate and secondary organic aerosol the OBM's estimates correspond to sources within 200 km from the receptor. Finally, for total PM2.5 the OBM provides approximately the contribution of city emissions during the winter and the contribution of sources within 100 km from the receptor during the summer.

  10. Geologic and hydrologic characterization and evaluation of the Basin and Range Province relative to the disposal of high-level radioactive waste: Part I, Introduction and guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedinger, M.S.; Sargent, Kenneth A.; Reed, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's program for geologic and hydrologic evaluation of physiographic provinces to identify areas potentially suitable for locating repository sites for disposal of high-level nuclear wastes was announced to the Governors of the eight States in the Basin and Range Province on May 5, 1981. Representatives of Arizona, California, Idaho, New Mexico, Nevada, Oregon, Texas, and Utah, were invited to cooperate with the Federal Government in the evaluation process. Each Governor was requested to nominate an Earth scientist to represent the State in a province working group composed of State and U.S. Geological Survey representatives. This report, Part I of a three-part report, provides the background, introduction and scope of the study. This part also includes a discussion of geologic and hydrologic guidelines that will be used in the evaluation process and illustrates geohydrologic environments and the effect of individual factors in providing multiple natural barriers to radionuclide migration.Part II is a reconnaissance characterization of the geologic and hydrologic factors to be used in the initial screening of the Basin and Range Province. Part III will be the initial evaluation of the Province and will identify regions that appear suitable for further study.The plan for study of the Province includes a stepwise screening process by which successively smaller land units are considered in increasing detail. Each step involves characterization of the geology and hydrology and selection of subunits for more intensive characterization. Selection of subunits for further study is by evaluation of geologic and hydrologic conditions following a set of guidelines. By representation on the Province Working Group, the States participate in a consultation and review role in: (1) Establishing geologic and hydrologic guidelines, and (2) characterizing and evaluating the Province. The States also participate in compilation of geologic and hydrologic data

  11. Sound transmission at ground level in a short-grass prairie habitat and its implications for long-range communication in the swift fox Vulpes velox

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darden, Safi K; Pedersen, Simon B; Larsen, Ole N

    2008-01-01

    seem to persist to at least 400 m. Individual temporal features were very consistent to at least 400 m. The communication range of the barking sequences is likely to be farther than 400 m and it should be considered a long-ranging vocalization. However, relative to the large home ranges of swift foxes......The acoustic environment of swift foxes Vulpes velox vocalizing close to the ground and the effect of propagation on individual identity information in vocalizations were quantified in a transmission experiment in prairie habitat. Sounds were propagated (0.45 m above the ground) at distances up.......2-2.5 kHz propagated the furthest and the latter sweeps exhibited the best transmission properties for long-range propagation. Swift fox barking sequence elements are centered toward the lower end of this frequency range. Nevertheless, measurable individual spectral characteristics of the barking sequence...

  12. [Comparison of the effect of laser and magnetic therapy for pain level and the range of motion of the spine of people with osteoarthritis lower back].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdrodowska, Beata; Leszczyńska-Filus, Magdalena; Leszczyński, Ryszard; Błaszczyk, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Increased expression of degenerative disease of the lumbar spine is an onerous task, which reduces the efficiency of the activity and life of many populations. It is the most common cause of medical visits. In 95% of cases the cause of complaints is a destructive process in the course of degenerative intervertebral disc called a lumbar disc herniation. Protrusion of the nucleus pulposus causes severe pain and impaired muscle tone, often more chronic and difficult to master. Successful treatment of lumbar disc herniation constitutes a serious interdisciplinary problem. It is important to properly planned and carried out physiotherapy. Based on the number of non-invasive methods, to reduce muscle tension, mute pain and alleviation of inflammation. It is the treatment safe, effective, and at the same time, which is their big advantage, readily available and cheap. It is worth noting that not every method has the same efficiency. The question that the methods are effective in relieving pain and helping to effectively increase the range of motion led to a comparison of two methods - Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) and pulsating magnetic field therapy. The aim of the study was to compare the efficacy of LLLT and pulsating magnetic field therapy in combating pain and increase range of motion of the spine of people with degenerative spine disease of the lower back. 120 patients with diagnose lumbar disc herniation whit no nerve roots symptoms. Patients were divided into two Groups: A and B. Group A of 60 patients were subjected to laser therapy (λ=820nm, P=400mW, Ed=6-12 J/cm²) and the second Group B of 60 patients too, to pulsating magnetic fields procedures (5mT, 30 Hz, 15 minutes). Every patient before rehabilitation started and right after it has finished has undergone examination. Subjective pain assessment was carried out using a modified Laitinen questionnaire and Visual Analogue Scale of Pain intensity. Spine mobility was evaluated whit the Schober test and the

  13. Long-range coupling of single atoms mediated by metallic nano-wires and metamaterials: collective decay rate modifications and level shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzsotjan, David; Fleischhauer, Michael

    2012-10-01

    We investigate the long-range coupling of individual atoms coupled to plasmon modes of metallic nanostructures. Placing a pair of emitters along a thin metallic wire, we observe a strong, wire- mediated long-range interaction between the emitters. As a result, super- and subradiance can occur over distances large compared to the resonant wavelength. The states with enhanced or suppressed decay rate are the symmetric or anti-symmetric single-excitation states. Coupling more atoms to a wire network with a nontrivial coupling topology leads to interesting entangled subradiant states of the system. A similar long-range superradiance effect can be observed when two emitters are coupled by a metamaterial slab (also known as a perfect lens) having a refractive index n=-1. Besides the modification of decay rates, dipole-dipole shifts enter due to the plasmon-mediated interaction. Based on the superradiance effect, we propose setups for building a two-qubit quantum phase gate for quantum emitters coupled by a nanowire and a perfect lens, respectively, where the qubits are strongly interacting and individually addressable at the same time.

  14. Transaminase levels in the upper normal range are associated with oral hypoglycemic drug therapy failure in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irace, Concetta; Rossetti, Marco; Carallo, Claudio; Morano, Susanna; Vespertini, Viviana; Mandosi, Elisabetta; Maranghi, Marianna; Fiorentino, Raffaella; Filetti, Sebastiano; Gnasso, Agostino

    2012-06-01

    Incident diabetes and the worsening of diabetes have recently been linked to hepatic steatosis. Aim of our study was to determine whether oral hypoglycemic agent failure is associated with higher transaminase levels (valid measure of liver steatosis). We selected 200 patients, attenders (3 consecutive annual evaluations) in our clinic, with type 2 diabetes among which 100 with oral hypoglycemic agents failure and 100 who were still responsive to oral therapy. Failure to therapy was defined as glycated hemoglobin >7.5% despite maximal-dose oral therapy. We analyzed patient histories and laboratory data. Compared with oral-therapy-responsive patients, those with failure had a significantly higher level mostly of alanine aminotransferase at the time of therapy failure and 2 years before. They were more likely to have had symptoms of hyperglycemia at the time of diabetes diagnosis. Regression analysis indicated that each 5-unit increase in transaminase levels independently increased the risk for oral hypoglycemic agents failure by 1.70. Higher liver transaminase levels, especially in patients who had symptomatic hyperglycemia at diabetes diagnosis, associate with oral hypoglycemic agent failure. The possible pathogenetic link between transaminase and declining islet function might consist of insulin resistance and increased circulating fatty acid levels, in turn causing liver steatosis and beta-cell dysfunction.

  15. Hair Mercury Levels in U.S. Children and Women of Childbearing Age: Reference Range Data from NHANES 1999–2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Margaret A.; Dillon, Charles F.; Osterloh, John; Bolger, P. Michael; Pellizzari, Edo; Fernando, Reshan; de Oca, Ruben Montes; Schober, Susan E.; Sinks, Thomas; Jones, Robert L.; Mahaffey, Kathryn R.

    2004-01-01

    Exposure to methyl mercury, a risk factor for neurodevelopmental toxicity, was assessed in U.S. children 1–5 years of age (n = 838) and women 16–49 years of age (n = 1,726) using hair mercury analysis during the 1999–2000 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). The data are nationally representative and are based on analysis of cross-sectional data for the non-institutionalized, U.S. household population. The survey consisted of interviews conducted in participants’ homes and standardized health examinations conducted in mobile examination centers. Distributions of total hair mercury levels expressed as micrograms per gram hair Hg and the association of hair Hg levels with sociodemographic characteristics and fish consumption are reported. Geometric mean (standard error of the geometric mean) hair mercury was 0.12 μg/g (0.01 μg/g) in children, and 0.20 μg/g (0.02 μg/g) in women. Among frequent fish consumers, geometric mean hair mercury levels were 3-fold higher for women (0.38 vs. 0.11 μg/g) and 2-fold higher for children (0.16 vs. 0.08 μg/g) compared with nonconsumers. The NHANES 1999–2000 data provide population-based data on hair mercury concentrations for women and children in the United States. Hair mercury levels were associated with age and fish consumption frequency. PMID:15289161

  16. Equivalent threshold sound pressure levels for Sennheiser HDA 200 earphone and Etymotic Research ER-2 insert earphone in the frequency range 125 Hz to 16 kHz

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Loc A; Poulsen, Torben

    1998-01-01

    Equivalent Threshold Sound Pressure Levels (ETSPLs) have been determined for the Sennheiser HDA 200 earphone and the Etymotic Research ER-2insert earphone. Thirty-one young normal-hearing test subjects participated and the thresholds were determined for all recommended frequencies in thefrequency...

  17. Equivalent threshold sound pressure levels (ETSPL) for Sennheiser HDA 280 supra-aural audiometric earphones in the frequency range 125 Hz to 8000 Hz

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Torben; Oakley, Sebastian

    2009-01-01

    Hearing threshold sound pressure levels were measured for the Sennheiser HDA 280 audiometric earphone. Hearing thresholds were measured for 25 normal hearing test subjects at the 11 audiometric test frequencies from 125 Hz to 8000 Hz. Sennheiser HDA 280 is a supra-aural earphone that may be seen ...

  18. Influence of long-range atmospheric transportation (LRAT) on mono-to octa-chlorinated PCDD/Fs levels and distributions in soil around Qinghai Lake, China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Ying; Liu, Wenbin; Hansen, Hans Chr. Bruun

    2016-01-01

    Long-range atmospheric transportation (LRAT) of persistent organic pollutants followed by their deposition in cold, arid regions is of wide concern. This problem occurs at Qinghai Lake in the northeastern Tibetan Plateau, a sparsely populated area with extreme weather conditions and little current...... or historical anthropogenic pollution. The concentrations and distribution patterns of the mono-to octa-chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) congeners in surface soil samples collected from around Qinghai Lake were quantified. Concentration differences between low-(mono-to tri-) chlorinated...

  19. Long-range protein electron transfer observed at the single-molecule level: In situ mapping of redox-gated tunneling resonance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chi, Qijin; Farver, O; Ulstrup, Jens

    2005-01-01

    on the redox potential. Maximum resonance appears around the equilibrium redox potential of azurin with an on/off current ratio of approximate to 9. Simulation analyses, based on a two-step interfacial ET model for the scanning tunneling microscopy redox process, were performed and provide quantitative......A biomimetic long-range electron transfer (ET) system consisting of the blue copper protein azurin, a tunneling barrier bridge, and a gold single-crystal electrode was designed on the basis of molecular wiring self-assembly principles. This system is sufficiently stable and sensitive in a quasi...

  20. Soil burdens of persistent organic pollutants--their levels, fate and risk. Part I. Variation of concentration ranges according to different soil uses and locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holoubek, Ivan; Dusek, Ladislav; Sánka, Milan; Hofman, Jakub; Cupr, Pavel; Jarkovský, Jirí; Zbíral, Jirí; Klánová, Jana

    2009-12-01

    Detailed soil screening data from the Czech Republic as a typical Central European country are presented here. Determination of a wide selection of organic and inorganic pollutants as well as an assessment of specific soil parameters allowed us to study the soil contamination in relation to the land use and soil properties. While HCHs and HCB were found at highest levels in arable soils, the higher concentrations of PCDDs/Fs, PCBs, PAHs and DDTs were observed in high altitude forest soils. Concentrations of these compounds strongly correlated with the soil organic carbon content. Several possible reasons have been suggested for the observed higher concentrations in mountain forest soils but the impact of each of these influencing factors remains to be identified. An inventory of the soil contamination is needed as a first step in our effort to estimate an extent to which the secondary sources contribute to the enhanced atmospheric levels of POPs.

  1. Support of Joint Function, Range of Motion, and Physical Activity Levels by Consumption of a Water-Soluble Egg Membrane Hydrolyzate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Gitte S; Lenninger, Miki R; Beaman, Joni L; Taylor, Robert; Benson, Kathleen F

    2015-09-01

    This study evaluated the effects of consumption of hydrolyzed water-soluble egg membrane (WSEM) on joint function in an otherwise healthy population experiencing chronic pain. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study included two 4-week periods of placebo and WSEM consumption, separated by a 4-week washout period. Twenty-five study participants were randomized to either the "placebo-first" or "WSEM first" sequence in the crossover trial, and 22 participants completed the study requirements. Range of motion (ROM) was assessed using digital inclinometry for joints associated with vertical weight bearing from neck to knees and for shoulders. Pain at rest and when physically active was scored for the same anatomical areas using visual analog scales (VAS). Physical functioning was tracked using questionnaires with VAS. Consumption of WSEM was associated with improved ROM for neck, spine, hips, and knees, with ROM for the neck and right knee being significantly improved during WSEM consumption compared to placebo (P consumption (P consumption (P functioning as part of daily living improved. Subgroup analysis showed rapid improvement of lower back pain after 5 days of WSEM consumption compared to placebo consumption (P consumption of 450 mg WSEM was associated with improved joint function, comfort during daily activities, and increased physical activity.

  2. Analysis of the genetic diversity and structure across a wide range of germplasm reveals prominent gene flow in apple at the European level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urrestarazu, Jorge; Denancé, Caroline; Ravon, Elisa; Guyader, Arnaud; Guisnel, Rémi; Feugey, Laurence; Poncet, Charles; Lateur, Marc; Houben, Patrick; Ordidge, Matthew; Fernandez-Fernandez, Felicidad; Evans, Kate M; Paprstein, Frantisek; Sedlak, Jiri; Nybom, Hilde; Garkava-Gustavsson, Larisa; Miranda, Carlos; Gassmann, Jennifer; Kellerhals, Markus; Suprun, Ivan; Pikunova, Anna V; Krasova, Nina G; Torutaeva, Elnura; Dondini, Luca; Tartarini, Stefano; Laurens, François; Durel, Charles-Eric

    2016-06-08

    The amount and structure of genetic diversity in dessert apple germplasm conserved at a European level is mostly unknown, since all diversity studies conducted in Europe until now have been performed on regional or national collections. Here, we applied a common set of 16 SSR markers to genotype more than 2,400 accessions across 14 collections representing three broad European geographic regions (North + East, West and South) with the aim to analyze the extent, distribution and structure of variation in the apple genetic resources in Europe. A Bayesian model-based clustering approach showed that diversity was organized in three groups, although these were only moderately differentiated (FST = 0.031). A nested Bayesian clustering approach allowed identification of subgroups which revealed internal patterns of substructure within the groups, allowing a finer delineation of the variation into eight subgroups (FST = 0.044). The first level of stratification revealed an asymmetric division of the germplasm among the three groups, and a clear association was found with the geographical regions of origin of the cultivars. The substructure revealed clear partitioning of genetic groups among countries, but also interesting associations between subgroups and breeding purposes of recent cultivars or particular usage such as cider production. Additional parentage analyses allowed us to identify both putative parents of more than 40 old and/or local cultivars giving interesting insights in the pedigree of some emblematic cultivars. The variation found at group and subgroup levels may reflect a combination of historical processes of migration/selection and adaptive factors to diverse agricultural environments that, together with genetic drift, have resulted in extensive genetic variation but limited population structure. The European dessert apple germplasm represents an important source of genetic diversity with a strong historical and patrimonial value. The present

  3. Foraging behaviour, nutrient intake from pasture and performance of free-range growing pigs in relation to feed CP level in two organic cropping systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Malene; Kongsted, Anne Grete; Hermansen, John Erik

    2015-01-01

    in lucerne paddocks LP pigs only had 18% lower daily weight gain (741 v. 900 g) and a 14% poorer feed conversion ratio (2.95 v. 2.54 kg feed/kg weight gain) compared with HP pigs. LP pigs foraging on lucerne used 169 g less concentrate CP/kg weight gain, compared with HP pigs, indicating the nitrogen...... mixture (HP: high protein) or a grain mixture containing 48% less CP (LP: low protein) compared with the high protein feed mixture, from an average live weight of 58 kg to 90 kg in a complete block design in three replicates. The pigs were fed 80% of energy recommendations and had access to 4 m2...... of pasture/pig per day during the 40 days experimental period from September to October 2013. Behavioural observations were carried out 12 times over the entire experimental period. For both crops, LP pigs rooted significantly more compared with HP pigs but the effect of CP level was more pronounced in grass...

  4. Species-level phylogeographical history of Myricaria plants in the mountain ranges of western China and the origin of M. laxiflora in the Three Gorges mountain region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yifei; Wang, Yong; Huang, Hongwen

    2009-06-01

    Myricaria species in China occur mostly in the major high-altitude mountain areas in and around the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. The one major exception to this is M. laxiflora which is restricted to the Three Gorges mountain region. In this study, we investigate species-level phylogeographical patterns of Myricaria species in western China and the origin of M. laxiflora. The results show that most chloroplast haplotypes are species-specific, except for one haplotype which is shared by three widespread species. Higher haplotype diversity within the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau region supports the hypothesis that the Himalayas are the centre of origin for Myricaria. The phylogeny of Myricaria was geographically structured, and an estimated Bayesian chronology suggested the main divergence events occurred during the Late Pliocene and Early Pleistocene (approximately 1.46-2.30 million years ago). The overall phylogeographical pattern was characterized by vicariance events and regional demographical expansion, reflecting a major influence of geological and climatic events on the evolution of Myricaria species. Our data suggest that M. laxiflora has an ancient origin, but has experienced recent population expansion through the Three Gorges Valley. The origin of M. laxiflora was estimated to be during the Early Pleistocene but its demographical expansion was more recent at about 0.015 million years ago. This highlights the unique phylogeographical history of the Three Gorges mountain region, and the deep imprint of the watercourse connections of the Yangtze River Valley on the phylogeographical structure of the species in this region.

  5. Optimization of the level and range of working temperature of the PCM in the gypsum-microencapsulated PCM thermal energy storage unit for summer conditions in Central Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łapka, P.; Jaworski, M.

    2017-10-01

    In this paper thermal energy storage (TES) unit in a form of a ceiling panel made of gypsum-microencapsulated PCM composite with internal U-shaped channels was considered and optimal characteristics of the microencapsulated PCM were determined. This panel may be easily incorporated into, e.g., an office or residential ventilation system in order to reduce daily variations of air temperature during the summer without additional costs related to the consumption of energy for preparing air parameters to the desired level. For the purpose of the analysis of heat transfer in the panel, a novel numerical simulator was developed. The numerical model consists of two coupled parts, i.e., the 1D which deals with the air flowing through the U-shaped channel and the 3D which deals with heat transfer in the body of the panel. The computational tool was validated based on the experimental study performed on the special set-up. Using this tool an optimization of parameters of the gypsum-microencapsulated PCM composite was performed in order to determine its most appropriate properties for the application under study. The analyses were performed for averaged local summer conditions in Warsaw, Poland.

  6. A comparative study of inelastic scattering models at energy levels ranging from 0.5 keV to 10 keV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Chia-Yu [Department of Photonics, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Lin, Chun-Hung, E-mail: chlin@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Photonics, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Advanced Optoelectronic Technology Center, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China)

    2017-03-01

    Six models, including a single-scattering model, four hybrid models, and one dielectric function model, were evaluated using Monte Carlo simulations for aluminum and copper at incident beam energies ranging from 0.5 keV to 10 keV. The inelastic mean free path, mean energy loss per unit path length, and backscattering coefficients obtained by these models are compared and discussed to understand the merits of the various models. ANOVA (analysis of variance) statistical models were used to quantify the effects of inelastic cross section and energy loss models on the basis of the simulated results deviation from the experimental data for the inelastic mean free path, the mean energy loss per unit path length, and the backscattering coefficient, as well as their correlations. This work in this study is believed to be the first application of ANOVA models towards evaluating inelastic electron beam scattering models. This approach is an improvement over the traditional approach which involves only visual estimation of the difference between the experimental data and simulated results. The data suggests that the optimization of the effective electron number per atom, binding energy, and cut-off energy of an inelastic model for different materials at different beam energies is more important than the selection of inelastic models for Monte Carlo electron scattering simulation. During the simulations, parameters in the equations should be tuned according to different materials for different beam energies rather than merely employing default parameters for an arbitrary material. Energy loss models and cross-section formulas are not the main factors influencing energy loss. Comparison of the deviation of the simulated results from the experimental data shows a significant correlation (p < 0.05) between the backscattering coefficient and energy loss per unit path length. The inclusion of backscattering electrons generated by both primary and secondary electrons for

  7. A Pedestrian Detection Scheme Using a Coherent Phase Difference Method Based on 2D Range-Doppler FMCW Radar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Eugin; Jin, Young-Seok; Lee, Jong-Hun

    2016-01-20

    For an automotive pedestrian detection radar system, fast-ramp based 2D range-Doppler Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW) radar is effective for distinguishing between moving targets and unwanted clutter. However, when a weak moving target such as a pedestrian exists together with strong clutter, the pedestrian may be masked by the side-lobe of the clutter even though they are notably separated in the Doppler dimension. To prevent this problem, one popular solution is the use of a windowing scheme with a weighting function. However, this method leads to a spread spectrum, so the pedestrian with weak signal power and slow Doppler may also be masked by the main-lobe of clutter. With a fast-ramp based FMCW radar, if the target is moving, the complex spectrum of the range- Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) is changed with a constant phase difference over ramps. In contrast, the clutter exhibits constant phase irrespective of the ramps. Based on this fact, in this paper we propose a pedestrian detection for highly cluttered environments using a coherent phase difference method. By detecting the coherent phase difference from the complex spectrum of the range-FFT, we first extract the range profile of the moving pedestrians. Then, through the Doppler FFT, we obtain the 2D range-Doppler map for only the pedestrian. To test the proposed detection scheme, we have developed a real-time data logging system with a 24 GHz FMCW transceiver. In laboratory tests, we verified that the signal processing results from the proposed method were much better than those expected from the conventional 2D FFT-based detection method.

  8. A Pedestrian Detection Scheme Using a Coherent Phase Difference Method Based on 2D Range-Doppler FMCW Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugin Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For an automotive pedestrian detection radar system, fast-ramp based 2D range-Doppler Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW radar is effective for distinguishing between moving targets and unwanted clutter. However, when a weak moving target such as a pedestrian exists together with strong clutter, the pedestrian may be masked by the side-lobe of the clutter even though they are notably separated in the Doppler dimension. To prevent this problem, one popular solution is the use of a windowing scheme with a weighting function. However, this method leads to a spread spectrum, so the pedestrian with weak signal power and slow Doppler may also be masked by the main-lobe of clutter. With a fast-ramp based FMCW radar, if the target is moving, the complex spectrum of the range- Fast Fourier Transform (FFT is changed with a constant phase difference over ramps. In contrast, the clutter exhibits constant phase irrespective of the ramps. Based on this fact, in this paper we propose a pedestrian detection for highly cluttered environments using a coherent phase difference method. By detecting the coherent phase difference from the complex spectrum of the range-FFT, we first extract the range profile of the moving pedestrians. Then, through the Doppler FFT, we obtain the 2D range-Doppler map for only the pedestrian. To test the proposed detection scheme, we have developed a real-time data logging system with a 24 GHz FMCW transceiver. In laboratory tests, we verified that the signal processing results from the proposed method were much better than those expected from the conventional 2D FFT-based detection method.

  9. The relative effectiveness of segment specific level and non-specific level spinal joint mobilization on pain and range of motion: results of a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaven, Emily Joan; Goode, Adam P; Coronado, Rogelio A; Poole, Charles; Hegedus, Eric J

    2013-02-01

    Systematic literature review and meta-analysis. IN SYMPTOMATIC SUBJECTS TO: (1) examine the effects of a single session of joint mobilization on pain at rest and with most painful movement, and (2) compare the effects when joint mobilization is provided to a specific or non-specific spinal level. Joint mobilization is routinely used for treating spinal pain in conjunction with other interventions, but its unique effect is not well understood. Further, there is controversy about the role of 'specific level' techniques in producing benefit. Searches were performed for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) using electronic databases (MEDLINE, CINAHL, and PEDro) from 1966 through November 2010. Methodological quality was assessed using previously detailed criteria. Meta-analysis and meta-regression were conducted on eligible studies. Eight RCTs with a mean methodological score of 10/12 were included. Significant heterogeneity (P = 0.075) was found in the overall meta-analysis estimate. When stratified by body location, no significant individual effect was found for pain at rest. However, there was a statistical mean difference [0.71 (95% confidence interval: 0.13-1.28)] between pain at rest for the cervical and lumbar individual means. We found multiple studies which provided evidence that a single session of joint mobilization can lead to a reduction of pain at rest and with most painful movement. When using joint mobilization, the need for specific versus non-specific level mobilization may be influenced by anatomical region; the direction of effect in the cervical spine was toward specific mobilization and in the lumbar spine towards non-specific mobilization.

  10. Ozone levels in the Spanish Sierra de Guadarrama mountain range are above the thresholds for plant protection: analysis at 2262, 1850, and 995 m a.s.l.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvira, S; González-Fernández, I; Alonso, R; Sanz, J; Bermejo-Bermejo, V

    2016-10-01

    The Sierra de Guadarrama mountain range, located at 60 km from Madrid City (Spain), includes high valuable ecosystems following an altitude gradient, some of them protected under the Sierra de Guadarrama National Park. The characteristic Mediterranean climatic conditions and the precursors emitted from Madrid favor a high photochemical production of ozone (O3) in the region. However, very little information is available about the patterns and levels of O3 and other air pollutants in the high elevation areas and their potential effects on vegetation. Ozone levels were monitored at three altitudes (2262, 1850, and 995 m a.s.l.) for at least 3 years within the 2005-2011 period. NO x and SO2 were also recorded at the highest and lowest altitude sites. Despite the inter-annual and seasonal variations detected in the O3 concentrations, the study revealed that SG is exposed to a chronic O3 pollution. The two high elevation sites showed high O3 levels even in winter and at nighttime, having low correlation with local meteorological variables. At the lower elevation site, O3 levels were more related with local meteorological and pollution conditions. Ozone concentrations at the three sites exceeded the thresholds for the protection of human health and vegetation according to the European Air Quality Directive (EU/50/2008) and the thresholds for vegetation protection of the CLRTAP. Ozone should be considered as a stress factor for the health of the Sierra de Guadarrama mountain ecosystems. Furthermore, since O3 levels at foothills differ from concentration in high elevation, monitoring stations in mountain ranges should be incorporated in regional air quality monitoring networks.

  11. PLA2R Antibody Levels and Clinical Outcome in Patients with Membranous Nephropathy and Non-Nephrotic Range Proteinuria under Treatment with Inhibitors of the Renin-Angiotensin System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoxha, Elion; Harendza, Sigrid; Pinnschmidt, Hans; Panzer, Ulf; Stahl, Rolf A. K.

    2014-01-01

    Patients with primary membranous nephropathy (MN) who experience spontaneous remission of proteinuria generally have an excellent outcome without need of immunosuppressive therapy. It is, however, unclear whether non-nephrotic proteinuria at the time of diagnosis is also associated with good prognosis since a reasonable number of these patients develop nephrotic syndrome despite blockade of the renin-angiotensin system. No clinical or laboratory parameters are available, which allow the assessment of risk for development of nephrotic proteinuria. Phospholipase A2 Receptor antibodies (PLA2R-Ab) play a prominent role in the pathogenesis of primary MN and are associated with persistence of nephrotic proteinuria. In this study we analysed whether PLA2R-Ab levels might predict development of nephrotic syndrome and the clinical outcome in 33 patients with biopsy-proven primary MN and non-nephrotic proteinuria under treatment with blockers of the renin-angiotensin system. PLA2R-Ab levels, proteinuria and serum creatinine were measured every three months. Nephrotic-range proteinuria developed in 18 (55%) patients. At study start (1.2±1.5 months after renal biopsy and time of diagnosis), 16 (48%) patients were positive for PLA2R-Ab. A multivariate analysis showed that PLA2R-Ab levels were associated with an increased risk for development of nephrotic proteinuria (HR = 3.66; 95%CI: 1.39–9.64; p = 0.009). Immunosuppressive therapy was initiated more frequently in PLA2R-Ab positive patients (13 of 16 patients, 81%) compared to PLA2R-Ab negative patients (2 of 17 patients, 12%). PLA2R-Ab levels are associated with higher risk for development of nephrotic-range proteinuria in this cohort of non-nephrotic patients at the time of diagnosis and should be closely monitored in the clinical management. PMID:25313791

  12. Apparent source levels and active communication space of whistles of free-ranging Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis in the Pearl River Estuary and Beibu Gulf, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Tao Wang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Knowledge of species-specific vocalization characteristics and their associated active communication space, the effective range over which a communication signal can be detected by a conspecific, is critical for understanding the impacts of underwater acoustic pollution, as well as other threats. Methods. We used a two-dimensional cross-shaped hydrophone array system to record the whistles of free-ranging Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis in shallow-water environments of the Pearl River Estuary (PRE and Beibu Gulf (BG, China. Using hyperbolic position fixing, which exploits time differences of arrival of a signal between pairs of hydrophone receivers, we obtained source location estimates for whistles with good signal-to-noise ratio (SNR ≥10 dB and not polluted by other sounds and back-calculated their apparent source levels (ASL. Combining with the masking levels (including simultaneous noise levels, masking tonal threshold, and the Sousa auditory threshold and the custom made site-specific sound propagation models, we further estimated their active communication space (ACS. Results. Humpback dolphins produced whistles with average root-mean-square ASL of 138.5 ± 6.8 (mean ± standard deviation and 137.2 ± 7.0 dB re 1 µPa in PRE (N = 33 and BG (N = 209, respectively. We found statistically significant differences in ASLs among different whistle contour types. The mean and maximum ACS of whistles were estimated to be 14.7 ± 2.6 (median ± quartile deviation and 17.1± 3.5 m in PRE, and 34.2 ± 9.5 and 43.5 ± 12.2 m in BG. Using just the auditory threshold as the masking level produced the mean and maximum ACSat of 24.3 ± 4.8 and 35.7 ± 4.6 m for PRE, and 60.7 ± 18.1 and 74.3 ± 25.3 m for BG. The small ACSs were due to the high ambient noise level. Significant differences in ACSs were also observed among different whistle contour types. Discussion. Besides shedding some light for evaluating appropriate noise

  13. Apparent source levels and active communication space of whistles of free-ranging Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) in the Pearl River Estuary and Beibu Gulf, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi-Tao; W L Au, Whitlow; Rendell, Luke; Wang, Ke-Xiong; Wu, Hai-Ping; Wu, Yu-Ping; Liu, Jian-Chang; Duan, Guo-Qin; Cao, Han-Jiang; Wang, Ding

    2016-01-01

    Background. Knowledge of species-specific vocalization characteristics and their associated active communication space, the effective range over which a communication signal can be detected by a conspecific, is critical for understanding the impacts of underwater acoustic pollution, as well as other threats. Methods. We used a two-dimensional cross-shaped hydrophone array system to record the whistles of free-ranging Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) in shallow-water environments of the Pearl River Estuary (PRE) and Beibu Gulf (BG), China. Using hyperbolic position fixing, which exploits time differences of arrival of a signal between pairs of hydrophone receivers, we obtained source location estimates for whistles with good signal-to-noise ratio (SNR ≥10 dB) and not polluted by other sounds and back-calculated their apparent source levels (ASL). Combining with the masking levels (including simultaneous noise levels, masking tonal threshold, and the Sousa auditory threshold) and the custom made site-specific sound propagation models, we further estimated their active communication space (ACS). Results. Humpback dolphins produced whistles with average root-mean-square ASL of 138.5 ± 6.8 (mean ± standard deviation) and 137.2 ± 7.0 dB re 1 µPa in PRE (N = 33) and BG (N = 209), respectively. We found statistically significant differences in ASLs among different whistle contour types. The mean and maximum ACS of whistles were estimated to be 14.7 ± 2.6 (median ± quartile deviation) and 17.1± 3.5 m in PRE, and 34.2 ± 9.5 and 43.5 ± 12.2 m in BG. Using just the auditory threshold as the masking level produced the mean and maximum ACSat of 24.3 ± 4.8 and 35.7 ± 4.6 m for PRE, and 60.7 ± 18.1 and 74.3 ± 25.3 m for BG. The small ACSs were due to the high ambient noise level. Significant differences in ACSs were also observed among different whistle contour types. Discussion. Besides shedding some light for evaluating appropriate noise exposure

  14. W-CDMA Uplink Capacity and Interference Statistics of a LongGroove-Shaped Road Microcells Using A Hybrid Propagation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. de Haro-Ariet

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The uplink capacity and the interference statistics of the sectorsof a long groove-shaped road W-CDMA microcell are studied. A model of 9microcells in a groove-shaped road is used to analyze the uplink. Ahybrid model for the propagation is used in the analysis. The capacityand the interference statistics of the cell are studied for differentsector ranges, different specific attenuation factors, differentantenna side lobe levels and different bend losses.

  15. Níveis de cloreto de sódio para aves de corte da linhagem Colonial criadas em semiconfinamento Sodium chloride levels for Colonial broiler chickens reared in free-range system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Regina Freitas Pinheiro

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se determinar níveis de inclusão de cloreto de sódio (NaCl em rações para aves machos e fêmeas da linhagem Colonial nas fases inicial (1 a 28 dias, de crescimento (28 a 56 dias e final (56 a 84 dias criadas em semiconfinamento. Em cada ensaio, 480 aves com idade correspondente à fase de criação foram alojadas em 24 unidades experimentais contendo áreas de abrigo e de pastejo. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 4 × 2 (níveis de NaCl e sexos, totalizando oito tratamentos e três repetições de 20 aves. Os níveis de NaCl avaliados foram: 0,20; 0,40; 0,60 e 0,80% na fase inicial; 0,10; 0,30; 0,50 e 0,70% na fase de crescimento e 0,10; 0,25; 0,40 e 0,55% na fase final. Foram avaliados o ganho de peso, o consumo de ração, a ingestão de água, a conversão alimentar, o potencial hidrogeniônico, a pressão parcial de gás carbônico no sangue, a concentração de hematócritos e os teores de sódio e cloro no sangue. Para a fase inicial, o nível recomendado é de 0,53% de NaCl na ração para aves de ambos os sexos. Para a fase de crescimento, os níveis de 0,40 e 0,43% de NaCl, respectivamente, para machos e fêmeas e, para a fase final, de 0,25% para aves de ambos os sexos, atendem às exigências nutricionais.The objective of this work was to determine inclusion levels of sodium chloride (NaCl in diets for male and female Colonial strain birds in the starter (from one to 28 days of age, growing (from 28 to 56 days of age and finisher (from 56 to 84 days of age phases reared in free-range system. In each trial, 480 birds at age corresponding to the rearing phase were housed in 24 experimental units containing areas of shelter and pasture. The experimental design used was a completely randomized in a 4 × 2 factorial arrangement (NaCl levels × sex, totaling eight treatments and three replications of 20 birds. Levels of NaCl evaluated were: 0.20, 0.40, 0.60 and 0.80% in

  16. Studies of geology and hydrology in the Basin and Range Province, Southwestern United States, for isolation of high-level radioactive waste - Characterization of the Bonneville region, Utah and Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedinger, M.S.; Sargent, K.A.; Langer, William H.

    1990-01-01

    The Bonneville region of the Basin and Range province in westcentral Utah and adjacent Nevada includes several basins lying south of the Great Salt Lake Desert. Physiographically, the region consists of linear, north-trending mountain ranges separated by valleys, many of which are closed basins underlain by thick sequences of fill. Surface drainage of open basins and ground-water flow is to the Great Salt Lake Desert. In structure and composition the ranges are faulted Paleozoic rocks, locally intruded by Mesozoic and Tertiary plugs and stocks. In the southern and northeastern parts of the region, volcanic rocks are widespread and form large parts of some mountain ranges. The Paleozoic sedimentary rocks include great thicknesses of carbonate rocks which compose a significant aquifer in the regionMedia considered to have potential for isolation of high-level radioactive waste in the region include intrusive rocks, such as granite; ash-flow tuff; and basalt and basaltic andesite lava flows. These rock types, basin fill, and possibly other rock types, may have potential as host media in the unsaturated zone. Quaternary tectonism in the region is evidenced by seismic activity, local areas of above-normal geothermal heat flow, Quaternary faulting, late Cenozoic volcanic activity, and active vertical crustal movement. The Bonneville region is part of a large ground-water flow system that is integrated partly through basin-fill deposits, but largely through an underlying carbonate-rock sequence. The region includes: (1) several topographically closed basins with virtually no local surface discharge that are drained by the underlying carbonate-rock aquifer; (2) closed basins with local surface discharge by evapotranspiration; and (3) basins open to the Great Salt Lake Desert that discharge by groundwater underflow and evapotranspiration. The carbonate-rock aquifer discharges to large springs in the Desert and in basins tributary to the Desert. The climate is arid to

  17. Range management visual impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce R. Brown; David Kissel

    1979-01-01

    Historical overgrazing of western public rangelands has resulted in the passage of the Public Rangeland Improvement Act of 1978. The main purpose of this Act is to improve unsatisfactory range conditions. A contributing factor to unfavorable range conditions is adverse visual impacts. These visual impacts can be identified in three categories of range management: range...

  18. Manganese/cerium clusters spanning a range of oxidation levels and CeMn(8), Ce(2)Mn(4), and Ce(6)Mn(4) nuclearities: structural, magnetic, and EPR properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampropoulos, Christos; Thuijs, Annaliese E; Mitchell, Kylie J; Abboud, Khalil A; Christou, George

    2014-07-07

    The syntheses, structures, and magnetic properties are reported for three new Ce/Mn clusters with different Ce/Mn ratios: [Ce6Mn4O12(O2CMe)10(NO3)4(py)4] (py = pyridine) (1), [CeMn8O8(O2CCH2(t)Bu)12(DMF)14] (DMF = dimethylformamide) (2), and [Ce2Mn4O2(O2CMe)6(NO3)4(hmp)4] (3; hmp(-) is the anion of 2-(hydroxymethyl)pyridine). 1 and 2 were obtained from the reaction of Ce(IV) with [Mn12O12(O2CMe)16(H2O)4] (Mn(III)8Mn(IV)4) and [Mn8O2(O2CCH2(t)Bu)14((t)BuCH2CO2H)4] (Mn(II)6Mn(III)2), respectively, whereas 3 resulted from the oxidation of Mn(II) acetate with Ce(IV) in the presence of hmpH. Cluster 1 possesses an unusual [Ce6Mn4O12](14+) core topology consisting of a [Ce6O8] face-capped octahedron, which is face-fused at each end to a [Ce(IV)2Mn(III)Mn(IV)O4] cubane. Cluster 2 possesses a nonplanar, saddlelike loop of eight Mn(III) atoms bridged by eight μ3-O(2-) ions to a central Ce(IV) atom. Cluster 3 is similar to 1 in possessing an octahedral core, but this is now a [Ce2Mn4] octahedron consisting of a Ce(III) atom on either side of a Mn4 parallelogram, with the metal atoms bridged by two μ4-O(2-) ions, the alkoxide arms of four hmp(-) groups, and six acetates. Clusters 1, 2, and 3 are thus at the Ce(IV)6Mn(III)2Mn(IV)2, Ce(IV)Mn(III)8, and Ce(III)2Mn(III)4 oxidation levels, respectively. Variable-temperature, solid-state direct current (DC) and alternating current (AC) magnetization studies on 1-3 in the 5.0-300 K range revealed predominantly antiferromagnetic exchange interactions within the complexes. For 1, fitting of the DC data to the theoretical expression for a dinuclear Mn(III)Mn(IV) complex derived using the Van Vleck equation and an isotropic spin Hamiltonian (ℋ = -2JŜi·Ŝj convention) gave a value for the exchange coupling parameter (J) of -60.4(7) cm(-1) and a Landé factor g = 2.00(1), indicating an S = 1/2 ground state. For 2, both DC and AC data indicate an S = 0 ground state, which is unprecedented for a member of the CeMn8 family and now

  19. Minnesota Pheasant Range

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This dataset delineates the spatial range of wild pheasant populations in Minnesota as of 2002 by dividing the MN state boundary into 2 units: pheasant range and...

  20. Substring Range Reporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li

    2014-01-01

    We revisit various string indexing problems with range reporting features, namely, position-restricted substring searching, indexing substrings with gaps, and indexing substrings with intervals. We obtain the following main results. We give efficient reductions for each of the above problems...... to a new problem, which we call substring range reporting. Hence, we unify the previous work by showing that we may restrict our attention to a single problem rather than studying each of the above problems individually. We show how to solve substring range reporting with optimal query time and little...... for substring range reporting generalize to substring range counting and substring range emptiness variants. We also obtain non-trivial time-space trade-offs for these problems. Our bounds for substring range reporting are based on a novel combination of suffix trees and range reporting data structures...

  1. Substring Range Reporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li

    2011-01-01

    We revisit various string indexing problems with range reporting features, namely, position-restricted substring searching, indexing substrings with gaps, and indexing substrings with intervals. We obtain the following main results. – We give efficient reductions for each of the above problems...... to a new problem, which we call substring range reporting. Hence, we unify the previous work by showing that we may restrict our attention to a single problem rather than studying each of the above problems individually. – We show how to solve substring range reporting with optimal query time and little...... range reporting are based on a novel combination of suffix trees and range reporting data structures. The reductions are simple and general and may apply to other combinations of string indexing with range reporting....

  2. Compact Antenna Range

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Facility consists of a folded compact antenna range including a computer controlled three axis position table, parabolic reflector and RF sources for the measurement...

  3. Dryden Aeronautical Test Range

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Recently redesignated to honor Dr. Hugh L. Dryden, NASA's Dryden Aeronautical Test Range (DATR) supports aerospace flight research and technology integration, space...

  4. Optimization of Micro Strip Array Antennas Using Hybrid Particle Swarm Optimizer with Breeding and Subpopulation for Maximum Side-Lobe Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. T. Bendimerad

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a technique based on hybrid particle swarm optimiser with breeding and subpopulation is presented for optimal design of reconfigurable dual-beam linear array antennas and planar arrays. In the amplitudephase synthesis, the design of a reconfigurable dual-pattern antenna array is based on finding a common amplitude distribution that can generate either a pencil or sector beam power pattern, when the phase distribution of the array is modified appropriately. The goal of this study is to introduce the hybrid model to the electromagnetic community and demonstrate its great potential in electromagnetic optimizations.

  5. On Range of Skill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Dueholm; Miltersen, Peter Bro; Sørensen, Troels Bjerre

    2008-01-01

    size (and doubly exponential in its depth). We also provide techniques that yield concrete bounds for unbalanced game trees and apply these to estimate the Range of Skill of Tic-Tac-Toe and Heads-Up Limit Texas Hold'em Poker. In particular, we show that the Range of Skill of Tic-Tac-Toe is more than...

  6. Range Scheduling Aid (RSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, J. R.; Pulvermacher, M. K.

    1991-01-01

    Range Scheduling Aid (RSA) is presented in the form of the viewgraphs. The following subject areas are covered: satellite control network; current and new approaches to range scheduling; MITRE tasking; RSA features; RSA display; constraint based analytic capability; RSA architecture; and RSA benefits.

  7. Home range and travels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, L.F.; King, John A.

    1968-01-01

    The concept of home range was expressed by Seton (1909) in the term 'home region,' which Burr (1940, 1943) clarified with a definition of home range and exemplified in a definitive study of Peromyscus in the field. Burt pointed out the ever-changing characteristics of home-range area and the consequent absence of boundaries in the usual sense--a finding verified by investigators thereafter. In the studies summarized in this paper, sizes of home ranges of Peromyscus varied within two magnitudes, approximately from 0.1 acre to ten acres, in 34 studies conducted in a variety of habitats from the seaside dunes of Florida to the Alaskan forests. Variation in sizes of home ranges was correlated with both environmental and physiological factors; with habitat it was conspicuous, both in the same and different regions. Food supply also was related to size of home range, both seasonally and in relation to habitat. Home ranges generally were smallest in winter and largest in spring, at the onset of the breeding season. Activity and size also were affected by changes in weather. Activity was least when temperatures were low and nights were bright. Effects of rainfall were variable. Sizes varied according to sex and age; young mice remained in the parents' range until they approached maturity, when they began to travel more widely. Adult males commonly had larger home ranges than females, although there were a number of exceptions. An inverse relationship between population density and size of home range was shown in several studies and probably is the usual relationship. A basic need for activity and exploration also appeared to influence size of home range. Behavior within the home range was discussed in terms of travel patterns, travels in relation to home sites and refuges, territory, and stability of size of home range. Travels within the home range consisted of repeated use of well-worn trails to sites of food, shelter, and refuge, plus more random exploratory travels

  8. Long range image enhancement

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Duvenhage, B

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available and Vision Computing, Auckland, New Zealand, 23-24 November 2015 Long Range Image Enhancement Bernardt Duvenhage Council for Scientific and Industrial Research South Africa Email: bduvenhage@csir.co.za Abstract Turbulent pockets of air...

  9. SNOWY RANGE WILDERNESS, WYOMING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Robert S.; Bigsby, Philip R.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey of the Snowy Range Wilderness in Wyoming was undertaken and was followed up with more detailed geologic and geochemical surveys, culminating in diamond drilling of one hole in the Snowy Range Wilderness. No mineral deposits were identified in the Snowy Range Wilderness, but inasmuch as low-grade uranium and associated gold resources were identified in rocks similar to those of the northern Snowy Range Wilderness in an area about 5 mi northeast of the wilderness boundary, the authors conclude that the northern half of the wilderness has a probable-resource potential for uranium and gold. Closely spaced drilling would be required to completely evaluate this mineral potential. The geologic terrane precludes the occurrence of fossil fuels.

  10. Atlantic Test Range (ATR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — ATR controls fully-instrumented and integrated test ranges that provide full-service support for cradle-to-grave testing. Airspace and surface target areas are used...

  11. Light Detection And Ranging

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) discrete-return point cloud data are available in the American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ASPRS) LAS format....

  12. Erratum: Correction to Table 3, in: Equivalent threshold sound pressure levels (ETSPL) for Sennheiser HDA 280 supra-aural audiometric earphones in the frequency range 125 Hz to 8000 Hz (International Journal of Audiology (2009) 48 (271-276))

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Torben

    2014-01-01

    The main results in Poulsen & Oakley (2009) are given as the equivalent threshold sound pressure level, ETSPL, measured in an acoustic coupler specifi ed in IEC 60318-3. These results are all correct. The ETSPL values for the ear simulator specifi ed in IEC 60318-1 were calculated from acoustic l...

  13. On Range of Skill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Dueholm; Miltersen, Peter Bro; Sørensen, Troels Bjerre

    2008-01-01

    is a small number, but only gave heuristic arguments for this. In this paper, we provide the first methods for rigorously estimating the Range of Skill of a given game. We provide some general, asymptotic bounds that imply that the Range of Skill of a perfectly balanced game tree is almost exponential in its......At AAAI'07, Zinkevich, Bowling and Burch introduced the Range of Skill measure of a two-player game and used it as a parameter in the analysis of the running time of an algorithm for finding approximate solutions to such games. They suggested that the Range of Skill of a typical natural game...... size (and doubly exponential in its depth). We also provide techniques that yield concrete bounds for unbalanced game trees and apply these to estimate the Range of Skill of Tic-Tac-Toe and Heads-Up Limit Texas Hold'em Poker. In particular, we show that the Range of Skill of Tic-Tac-Toe is more than...

  14. Wide Operational Range Thermal Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, John H. (Inventor); McMurray, Robert E., Jr. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    Bolometer system and method for detecting, at BLIP levels, presence of radiation over a broad range of wavelengths in an infrared spectrum and in a temperature range from 20 K to as high as room temperature. The radiation is received by a Si crystal having a region that is doped with one or more of In, Ga, S, Se, Te, B, Al, P, As and Sb in a concentration ratio in a range such as 5 x 10(exp -11) to 5 x 10(exp -6). Change in electrical resistance delta R due to receipt of the radiation is measured through a change in voltage difference or current within the crystal, and the quantity delta R is converted to an estimate of the amount of radiation received. Optionally, incident radiation having an energy high enough to promote photoconductivity is removed before detection.

  15. Assessment of Modeled Received Sound Pressure Levels and Movements of Satellite-Tagged Odontocetes Exposed to Mid-Frequency Active Sonar at the Pacific Missile Range Facility: February 2011 Through February 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-30

    acoustic instrumentation which allows for passive acoustic monitoring (PAM) capabilities to detect and localize sounds such as vocalizing marine...the islands of Kaua‘i and Ni‘ihau. Satellite-tagged animals were exposed to estimated received levels of: 130 to 144 decibels for two rough-toothed...acoustic monitoring (PAM) capabilities in real-time and/or with recorded acoustic data, to detect and localize vocalizing marine mammals or other

  16. Radio pill antenna range test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, W. F.; Kane, R. J.

    1992-05-01

    In order to investigate the potential of a proposed 'radio pill' beacon transmitter, a range test experiment was devised and carried out in the VHF frequency range. Calculations and previous work indicated that optimum sensitivity and, thus, distance would be obtained in this frequency range provided body radio-frequency (RF) absorption was not too great. A ferrite-core loop antenna is compatible with a pill geometry and has better radiation efficiency than an air core loop. The ferrite core may be a hollow cylinder with the electronics and batteries placed inside. However, this range test was only concerned with experimentally developing test range data on the ferrite core antenna itself. A one turn strap loop was placed around a 9.5 mm diameter by 18.3 mm long stack of ferrite cores. This was coupled to a 50 Omega transmission line by 76 mm of twisted pair line and a capacitive matching section. This assembly was excited by a signal generator at output levels of -10 to +10 dBm. Signals were received on a VHF receiver and tape recorder coupled to a 14 element, circularly polarized Yagi antenna at a height of 2.5 m. Field strength measurements taken at ranges of 440, 1100, and 1714 m. Maximum field strengths referenced to 0 dBm transmitter level were -107 to -110 dB at 440 m, -124 to -127 dBm at 1100 m, and -116 to -119 dBm at 1714 m when the antenna cylinder was horizontal. Field strengths with a vertical antenna were about 6 dB below these values. The latter transmit site was elevated and had a clear line-of-site path to the receiving site. The performance of this test antenna was better than that expected from method-of-moment field calculations. When this performance data is scaled to a narrow bandwidth receiving system, ground level receiving ranges of a few to 10 km can be expected. Clear line-of-sight ranges where either or both the transmitter and receiver are elevated could vary from several km to 100 km.

  17. Different N-terminal isoforms of Oct-1 control expression of distinct sets of genes and their high levels in Namalwa Burkitt's lymphoma cells affect a wide range of cellular processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankratova, Elizaveta V; Stepchenko, Alexander G; Portseva, Tatiana; Mogila, Vladic A; Georgieva, Sofia G

    2016-11-02

    Oct-1 transcription factor has various functions in gene regulation. Its expression level is increased in several types of cancer and is associated with poor survival prognosis. Here we identified distinct Oct-1 protein isoforms in human cells and compared gene expression patterns and functions for Oct-1A, Oct-1L, and Oct-1X isoforms that differ by their N-terminal sequences. The longest isoform, Oct-1A, is abundantly expressed and is the main Oct-1 isoform in most of human tissues. The Oct-1L and the weakly expressed Oct-1X regulate the majority of Oct-1A targets as well as additional sets of genes. Oct-1X controls genes involved in DNA replication, DNA repair, RNA processing, and cellular response to stress. The high level of Oct-1 isoforms upregulates genes related to cell cycle progression and activates proliferation both in Namalwa Burkitt's lymphoma cells and primary human fibroblasts. It downregulates expression of genes related to antigen processing and presentation, cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, oxidative metabolism, and cell adhesion, thus facilitating pro-oncogenic processes. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  18. Range Selection and Median

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Allan Grønlund; Larsen, Kasper Green

    2011-01-01

    that supports queries in constant time, needs n1+ (1) space. For data structures that uses n logO(1) n space this matches the best known upper bound. Additionally, we present a linear space data structure that supports range selection queries in O(log k= log log n + log log n) time. Finally, we prove that any...

  19. Electric vehicles: Driving range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempton, Willett

    2016-09-01

    For uptake of electric vehicles to increase, consumers' driving-range needs must be fulfilled. Analysis of the driving patterns of personal vehicles in the US now shows that today's electric vehicles can meet all travel needs on almost 90% of days from a single overnight charge.

  20. New Mexico Mountain Ranges

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) actively seeks data from and partnerships with Government agencies at all levels and other interested organizations....

  1. Cassava root meal levels in diets for free-range female broiler chickens Níveis de farelo da raiz integral de mandioca em dietas para fêmeas de frangos caipiras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amélia Maria Lima Garcia

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate the performance, carcass yield and cuts of free range female broiler chickens submitted to diets containing cassava root meal (CRM. We used 400 naked neck chicks female at one day-old line ISA S575-N, distributed in a completely randomized design with four treatments and four replicates of 25 birds. The treatments consisted of the inclusion of 0, 15, 30 and 45% of CRM in diet. The performance of the birds was evaluated in periods 1 to 28, 1 to 56 days and 1 to 84 days of age and carcass yield and cuts to 85 days of age. There was no difference during the evaluated periods. For the variables of yield, there was a difference in yield back (YB and percentage of abdominal fat (AF, decrease linear with the increase of CRM (YB = 20.92859 – 0.01636x, r² = 0.35, AF = 2.73339 – 0.02779x, r² = 0.49. The CRM can be used in free range broiler chickens diets to 45%, without impairing yields performance of carcass and cuts.Foram avaliados o desempenho, rendimento de carcaça e os cortes de fêmeas de frangos de corte tipo caipira, submetidos a dietas à base de farelo da raiz integral de mandioca (FRIM. Foram utilizados 400 pintos fêmeas de pescoço pelado com um dia de idade, da linhagem ISA S575-N, distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro tratamentos e quatro repetições de 25 aves. Os tratamentos consistiram na inclusão de 0, 15, 30 e 45% de FRIM na dieta. O desempenho das aves foi avaliado nos períodos de 1 a 28, 1 a 56 e 1 a 84 dias de idade, e o rendimento de carcaça e de cortes aos 85 dias de idade. Não houve diferenças nas variáveis de desempenho analisadas, durante as fases de criação das aves. Para as variáveis de rendimento, houve diferença, para rendimento de dorso (RD e percentual de gordura abdominal (GA, e diminuição de forma linear com o aumento de FRIM (RD = 20,92859 – 0,01636x, r² = 0,35; GA = 2,73339 – 0,02779x, r² = 0,49. O FRIM pode ser

  2. Long-range antigravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macrae, K.I.; Riegert, R.J. (Maryland Univ., College Park (USA). Center for Theoretical Physics)

    1984-10-01

    We consider a theory in which fermionic matter interacts via long-range scalar, vector and tensor fields. In order not to be in conflict with experiment, the scalar and vector couplings for a given fermion must be equal, as is natural in a dimensionally reduced model. Assuming that the Sun is not approximately neutral with respect to these new scalar-vector charges, and if the couplings saturate the experimental bounds, then their strength can be comparable to that of gravity. Scalar-vector fields of this strength can compensate for a solar quadrupole moment contribution to Mercury's anomalous perihelion precession.

  3. Online Sorted Range Reporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Fagerberg, Rolf; Greve, Mark

    2009-01-01

    We study the following one-dimensional range reporting problem: On an arrayA of n elements, support queries that given two indices i ≤ j and an integerk report the k smallest elements in the subarray A[i..j] in sorted order. We present a data structure in the RAM model supporting such queries...... in optimal O(k) time. The structure uses O(n) words of space and can be constructed in O(n logn) time. The data structure can be extended to solve the online version of the problem, where the elements in A[i..j] are reported one-by-one in sorted order, in O(1) worst-case time per element. The problem...... is motivated by (and is a generalization of) a problem with applications in search engines: On a tree where leaves have associated rank values, report the highest ranked leaves in a given subtree. Finally, the problem studied generalizes the classic range minimum query (RMQ) problem on arrays....

  4. Lightning detection and ranging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennon, C. L.; Poehler, H. A.

    1982-01-01

    A lightning detector and ranging (LDAR) system developed at the Kennedy Space Center and recently transferred to Wallops Island is described. The system detects pulsed VHF signals due to electrical discharges occurring in a thunderstorm by means of 56-75 MHz receivers located at the hub and at the tips of 8 km radial lines. Incoming signals are transmitted by wideband links to a central computing facility which processes the times of arrival, using two independent calculations to determine position in order to guard against false data. The results are plotted on a CRT display, and an example of a thunderstorm lightning strike detection near Kennedy Space Center is outlined. The LDAR correctly identified potential ground strike zones and additionally provided a high correlation between updrafts and ground strikes.

  5. 5 CFR 534.502 - Pay range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pay range. 534.502 Section 534.502 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY UNDER OTHER SYSTEMS Pay for Senior-Level and Scientific and Professional Positions § 534.502 Pay range. A pay rate fixed under this...

  6. Range-based covariance estimation using high-frequency data: The realized co-range

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Bannouh (Karim); D.J.C. van Dijk (Dick); M.P.E. Martens (Martin)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractWe introduce the realized co-range, utilizing intraday high-low price ranges to estimate asset return covariances. Using simulations we find that for plausible levels of bid-ask bounce and infrequent and non-synchronous trading the realized co-range improves upon the realized covariance,

  7. Ranging Behaviour of Commercial Free-Range Broiler Chickens 2: Individual Variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Peta S; Hemsworth, Paul H; Groves, Peter J; Gebhardt-Henrich, Sabine G; Rault, Jean-Loup

    2017-07-20

    Little is known about broiler chicken ranging behaviour. Previous studies have monitored ranging behaviour at flock level but whether individual ranging behaviour varies within a flock is unknown. Using Radio Frequency Identification technology, we tracked 1200 individual ROSS 308 broiler chickens across four mixed sex flocks in two seasons on one commercial farm. Ranging behaviour was tracked from first day of range access (21 days of age) until 35 days of age in winter flocks and 44 days of age in summer flocks. We identified groups of chickens that differed in frequency of range visits: chickens that never accessed the range (13 to 67% of tagged chickens), low ranging chickens (15 to 44% of tagged chickens) that accounted for <15% of all range visits and included chickens that used the range only once (6 to 12% of tagged chickens), and high ranging chickens (3 to 9% of tagged chickens) that accounted for 33 to 50% of all range visits. Males spent longer on the range than females in winter (p < 0.05). Identifying the causes of inter-individual variation in ranging behaviour may help optimise ranging opportunities in free-range systems and is important to elucidate the potential welfare implications of ranging.

  8. Tunable complex-valued multi-tap microwave photonic filter based on single silicon-oninsulator microring resonator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lloret, Juan; Sancho, Juan; Pu, Minhao

    2011-01-01

    A complex-valued multi-tap tunable microwave photonic filter based on single silicon-on-insulator microring resonator is presented. The degree of tunability of the approach involving two, three and four taps is theoretical and experimentally characterized, respectively. The constraints...... of exploiting the optical phase transfer function of a microring resonator aiming at implementing complex-valued multi-tap filtering schemes are also reported. The trade-off between the degree of tunability without changing the free spectral range and the number of taps is studied in-depth. Different window...... based scenarios are evaluated for improving the filter performance in terms of the side-lobe level....

  9. Frequency scanning antenna arrays with pentagonal dipoles of different impedances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bošković Nikola

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we present the benefits of using pentagonal dipoles as radiating elements instead of classical printed dipoles in the design of frequency scanning antenna arrays. We investigate how impedance of pentagonal dipoles, which can be changed in a wide range, influences the overall characteristics of the uniform antenna array. Some very important antenna characteristics such as side lobe level, gain and scanning angle are compared for three different antenna arrays consisting of identical pentagonal dipoles with impedances of 500 Ω, 1000 Ω and 1500 Ω. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-32024 i br. III-45016

  10. National implementation of the UNECE convention on long-range transboundary air pollution (effects). Pt. 2. Impacts and risk estimation, critical loads, biodiversity, dynamic modelling, critical level violation, material corrosion; Nationale Umsetzung UNECE-Luftreinhaltekonvention (Wirkungen). T. 2. Wirkungen und Risikoabschaetzungen Critical Loads, Biodiversitaet, Dynamische Modellierung, Critical Levels Ueberschreitungen, Materialkorrosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauger, Thomas [Bundesforschungsanstalt fuer Landwirtschaft, Braunschweig (DE). Inst. fuer Agraroekologie (FAL-AOE); Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Navigation; Haenel, Hans-Dieter; Roesemann, Claus [Bundesforschungsanstalt fuer Landwirtschaft, Braunschweig (DE). Inst. fuer Agraroekologie (FAL-AOE); Nagel, Hans-Dieter; Becker, Rolf; Kraft, Philipp; Schlutow, Angela; Schuetze, Gudrun; Weigelt-Kirchner, Regine [OeKO-DATA Gesellschaft fuer Oekosystemanalyse und Umweltdatenmanagement mbH, Strausberg (Germany); Anshelm, Frank [Geotechnik Suedwest Frey Marx GbR, Bietigheim-Bissingen (Germany)

    2008-09-15

    The report on the implementation of the UNECE convention on long-range transboundary air pollution Pt.2 covers the following issues: The tasks of the NFC (National Focal Center) Germany including the ICP (international cooperative program) modeling and mapping and the expert panel for heavy metals. Results of the work for the multi-component protocol cover the initial data for the calculation of the critical loads following the mass balance method, critical loads for acid deposition, critical loads for nitrogen input, critical load violations (sulfur, nitrogen). The results of work for the heavy metal protocol cover methodology development and recommendations for ICO modeling and mapping in accordance with international development, contributions of the expert group/ task force on heavy metals (WGSR), data sets on the critical loads for lead, cadmium and mercury, and critical load violations (Pb, Cd, Hg). The results of work on the inclusion of biodiversity (BERN) cover data compilation, acquisition and integration concerning ecosystems, model validation and verification and the possible interpretation frame following the coupling with dynamic modeling. The future development and utilization of dynamic modeling covers model comparison, applicability, the preparation of a national data set and preparations concerning the interface to the BERN model.

  11. Storm surge and tidal range energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Matthew; Angeloudis, Athanasios; Robins, Peter; Evans, Paul; Neill, Simon

    2017-04-01

    The need to reduce carbon-based energy sources whilst increasing renewable energy forms has led to concerns of intermittency within a national electricity supply strategy. The regular rise and fall of the tide makes prediction almost entirely deterministic compared to other stochastic renewable energy forms; therefore, tidal range energy is often stated as a predictable and firm renewable energy source. Storm surge is the term used for the non-astronomical forcing of tidal elevation, and is synonymous with coastal flooding because positive storm surges can elevate water-levels above the height of coastal flood defences. We hypothesis storm surges will affect the reliability of the tidal range energy resource; with negative surge events reducing the tidal range, and conversely, positive surge events increasing the available resource. Moreover, tide-surge interaction, which results in positive storm surges more likely to occur on a flooding tide, will reduce the annual tidal range energy resource estimate. Water-level data (2000-2012) at nine UK tide gauges, where the mean tidal amplitude is above 2.5m and thus suitable for tidal-range energy development (e.g. Bristol Channel), were used to predict tidal range power with a 0D modelling approach. Storm surge affected the annual resource estimate by between -5% to +3%, due to inter-annual variability. Instantaneous power output were significantly affected (Normalised Root Mean Squared Error: 3%-8%, Scatter Index: 15%-41%) with spatial variability and variability due to operational strategy. We therefore find a storm surge affects the theoretical reliability of tidal range power, such that a prediction system may be required for any future electricity generation scenario that includes large amounts of tidal-range energy; however, annual resource estimation from astronomical tides alone appears sufficient for resource estimation. Future work should investigate water-level uncertainties on the reliability and

  12. Tests of Gravity Using Lunar Laser Ranging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen M. Merkowitz

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Lunar laser ranging (LLR has been a workhorse for testing general relativity over the past four decades. The three retroreflector arrays put on the Moon by the Apollo astronauts and the French built arrays on the Soviet Lunokhod rovers continue to be useful targets, and have provided the most stringent tests of the Strong Equivalence Principle and the time variation of Newton’s gravitational constant. The relatively new ranging system at the Apache Point 3.5 meter telescope now routinely makes millimeter level range measurements. Incredibly, it has taken 40 years for ground station technology to advance to the point where characteristics of the lunar retroreflectors are limiting the precision of the range measurements. In this article, we review the gravitational science and technology of lunar laser ranging and discuss prospects for the future.

  13. Ranging Behaviour of Commercial Free-Range Laying Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonard Ikenna Chielo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the range use and behaviour of laying hens in commercial free-range flocks was explored. Six flocks were each visited on four separate days and data collected from their outdoor area (divided into zones based on distance from shed and available resources. These were: apron (0–10 m from shed normally without cover or other enrichments; enriched belt (10–50 m from shed where resources such as manmade cover, saplings and dust baths were provided; and outer range (beyond 50 m from shed with no cover and mainly grass pasture. Data collection consisted of counting the number of hens in each zone and recording behaviour, feather condition and nearest neighbour distance (NND of 20 birds per zone on each visit day. In addition, we used techniques derived from ecological surveys to establish four transects perpendicular to the shed, running through the apron, enriched belt and outer range. Number of hens in each 10 m × 10 m quadrat was recorded four times per day as was the temperature and relative humidity of the outer range. On average, 12.5% of hens were found outside. Of these, 5.4% were found in the apron; 4.3% in the enriched zone; and 2.8% were in the outer range. This pattern was supported by data from quadrats, where the density of hens sharply dropped with increasing distance from shed. Consequently, NND was greatest in the outer range, least in the apron and intermediate in the enriched belt. Hens sampled in outer range and enriched belts had better feather condition than those from the apron. Standing, ground pecking, walking and foraging were the most commonly recorded activities with standing and pecking most likely to occur in the apron, and walking and foraging more common in the outer range. Use of the outer range declined with lower temperatures and increasing relative humidity, though use of apron and enriched belt was not affected by variation in these measures. These data support previous findings that outer range

  14. Ranging Behaviour of Commercial Free-Range Laying Hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chielo, Leonard Ikenna; Pike, Tom; Cooper, Jonathan

    2016-04-26

    In this study, the range use and behaviour of laying hens in commercial free-range flocks was explored. Six flocks were each visited on four separate days and data collected from their outdoor area (divided into zones based on distance from shed and available resources). These were: apron (0-10 m from shed normally without cover or other enrichments); enriched belt (10-50 m from shed where resources such as manmade cover, saplings and dust baths were provided); and outer range (beyond 50 m from shed with no cover and mainly grass pasture). Data collection consisted of counting the number of hens in each zone and recording behaviour, feather condition and nearest neighbour distance (NND) of 20 birds per zone on each visit day. In addition, we used techniques derived from ecological surveys to establish four transects perpendicular to the shed, running through the apron, enriched belt and outer range. Number of hens in each 10 m × 10 m quadrat was recorded four times per day as was the temperature and relative humidity of the outer range. On average, 12.5% of hens were found outside. Of these, 5.4% were found in the apron; 4.3% in the enriched zone; and 2.8% were in the outer range. This pattern was supported by data from quadrats, where the density of hens sharply dropped with increasing distance from shed. Consequently, NND was greatest in the outer range, least in the apron and intermediate in the enriched belt. Hens sampled in outer range and enriched belts had better feather condition than those from the apron. Standing, ground pecking, walking and foraging were the most commonly recorded activities with standing and pecking most likely to occur in the apron, and walking and foraging more common in the outer range. Use of the outer range declined with lower temperatures and increasing relative humidity, though use of apron and enriched belt was not affected by variation in these measures. These data support previous findings that outer range areas tend to be

  15. Osprey Range - CWHR [ds601

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model for...

  16. Short-range fundamental forces

    CERN Document Server

    Antoniadis, I; Buchner, M; Fedorov, V V; Hoedl, S; Lambrecht, A; Nesvizhevsky, V V; Pignol, G; Protasov, K V; Reynaud, S; Sobolev, Yu

    2011-01-01

    We consider theoretical motivations to search for extra short-range fundamental forces as well as experiments constraining their parameters. The forces could be of two types: 1) spin-independent forces, 2) spin-dependent axion-like forces. Differe nt experimental techniques are sensitive in respective ranges of characteristic distances. The techniques include measurements of gravity at short distances, searches for extra interactions on top of the Casimir force, precision atomic and neutron experim ents. We focus on neutron constraints, thus the range of characteristic distances considered here corresponds to the range accessible for neutron experiments.

  17. Cascade Mountain Range in Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrod, David R.

    2016-01-01

    The Cascade mountain system extends from northern California to central British Columbia. In Oregon, it comprises the Cascade Range, which is 260 miles long and, at greatest breadth, 90 miles wide (fig. 1). Oregon’s Cascade Range covers roughly 17,000 square miles, or about 17 percent of the state, an area larger than each of the smallest nine of the fifty United States. The range is bounded on the east by U.S. Highways 97 and 197. On the west it reaches nearly to Interstate 5, forming the eastern margin of the Willamette Valley and, farther south, abutting the Coast Ranges

  18. Ranging Behaviour of Commercial Free-Range Laying Hens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chielo, Leonard Ikenna; Pike, Tom; Cooper, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary Commercial free-range production has become a significant sector of the fresh egg market due to legislation banning conventional cages and consumer preference for products perceived as welfare friendly, as access to outdoor range can lead to welfare benefits such as greater freedom of movement and enhanced behavioural opportunities. This study investigated dispersal patterns, feather condition and activity of laying hens in three distinct zones of the range area; the apron area near shed; enriched zone 10–50 m from shed; and outer range beyond 50 m, in six flocks of laying hens under commercial free-range conditions varying in size between 4000 and 24,000 hens. Each flock was visited for four days to record number of hens in each zone, their behaviour, feather condition and nearest neighbour distances (NND), as well as record temperature and relative humidity during the visit. Temperature and relative humidity varied across the study period in line with seasonal variations and influenced the use of range with fewer hens out of shed as temperature fell or relative humidity rose. On average, 12.5% of the hens were observed on the range and most of these hens were recorded in the apron zone as hen density decreased rapidly with increasing distance from the shed. Larger flocks appeared to have a lower proportion of hens on range. The hens used the range more in the early morning followed by a progressive decrease through to early afternoon. The NND was greatest in the outer range and decreased towards the shed. Feather condition was generally good and hens observed in the outer range had the best overall feather condition. Standing, pecking, walking and foraging were the most commonly recorded behaviours and of these, standing occurred most in the apron whereas walking and foraging behaviours were recorded most in the outer range. This study supported the findings of previous studies that reported few hens in the range and greater use of areas closer

  19. Compact ranges in antenna and RCS measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audone, B.

    1989-09-01

    With the increased complexity and extended frequency range of operation model measurements and far field test ranges are no longer suitable to satisfy the demand of accurate testing. Moreover plane wave test conditions are required for Radar Cross Section (RCS) measurements which represent a key point in stealth technology. Compact ranges represent the best test facilities available presently since they allow for indoor measurements under far field conditions in real time without any calculation effort. Several types of compact ranges are described and compared discussing their relevant advantages with regard to RCS and antenna measurements. In parallel to measuring systems sophisticated computer models were developed with such a high level of accuracy that it is questionable whether experiments give better results than theory. Tests performed on simple structures show the correlation between experimental results and theoretical ones derived on the basis of GTD computer codes.

  20. Desert Experimental Range: Annotated bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. Durant McArthur; Stanley G. Kitchen

    2013-01-01

    Entries qualify for inclusion if they were conducted in whole or part at the Desert Experimental Range (DER, also known as the Desert Range Experiment Station) or were based on DER research in whole or part. They do not qualify merely by the author having worked at the DER when the research was performed or prepared. Entries were drawn from the original abstracts or...

  1. Foraging optimally for home ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Michael S.; Powell, Roger A.

    2012-01-01

    Economic models predict behavior of animals based on the presumption that natural selection has shaped behaviors important to an animal's fitness to maximize benefits over costs. Economic analyses have shown that territories of animals are structured by trade-offs between benefits gained from resources and costs of defending them. Intuitively, home ranges should be similarly structured, but trade-offs are difficult to assess because there are no costs of defense, thus economic models of home-range behavior are rare. We present economic models that predict how home ranges can be efficient with respect to spatially distributed resources, discounted for travel costs, under 2 strategies of optimization, resource maximization and area minimization. We show how constraints such as competitors can influence structure of homes ranges through resource depression, ultimately structuring density of animals within a population and their distribution on a landscape. We present simulations based on these models to show how they can be generally predictive of home-range behavior and the mechanisms that structure the spatial distribution of animals. We also show how contiguous home ranges estimated statistically from location data can be misleading for animals that optimize home ranges on landscapes with patchily distributed resources. We conclude with a summary of how we applied our models to nonterritorial black bears (Ursus americanus) living in the mountains of North Carolina, where we found their home ranges were best predicted by an area-minimization strategy constrained by intraspecific competition within a social hierarchy. Economic models can provide strong inference about home-range behavior and the resources that structure home ranges by offering falsifiable, a priori hypotheses that can be tested with field observations.

  2. Reference Ranges & What They Mean

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chains Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG) Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli Sickle Cell Tests Sirolimus Smooth Muscle ... If you're trying to follow a healthy lifestyle, take test results that are within range as ...

  3. Kenai National Moose Range Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This book presents a summary of the history, wildlife, recreational opportunities, economic uses, and future plans for Kenai National Moose Range.

  4. Antenna induced range smearing in MST radars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, B. J.; Johnston, P. E.

    1984-01-01

    There is considerable interest in developing stratosphere troposphere (ST) and mesosphere stratosphere troposphere (MST) radars for higher resolution to study small-scale turbulent structures and waves. At present most ST and MST radars have resolutions of 150 meters or larger, and are not able to distinguish the thin (40 - 100 m) turbulent layers that are known to occur in the troposphere and stratosphere, and possibly in the mesosphere. However the antenna beam width and sidelobe level become important considerations for radars with superior height resolution. The objective of this paper is to point out that for radars with range resolutions of about 150 meters or less, there may be significant range smearing of the signals from mesospheric altitudes due to the finite beam width of the radar antenna. At both stratospheric and mesospheric heights the antenna sidelobe level for lear equally spaced phased arrays may also produce range aliased signals. To illustrate this effect the range smearing functions for two vertically directed antennas have been calculated, (1) an array of 32 coaxial-collinear strings each with 48 elements that simulates the vertical beam of the Poker Flat, Glaska, MST radar; and (2) a similar, but smaller, array of 16 coaxial-collinear strings each with 24 elements.

  5. GEA CRDA Range Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-07-28

    E1, July-August 1998 18 3.3. Example 3: SatMex, Solidaridad 2, May-June 1998 27 3.4. Example 4: PanAmSat, Galaxy IV, May-June 1998 33 3.5...17 Millstone measurements residuals for Telstar 401 on Days 181-263. 26 3-18 Millstone measurement residuals for Solidaridad 1 on Days 141-153...with 29 SatMex range data. 3-19 Hermosillo B-- Solidaridad 1 range residuals through Days 135-144 with bias 30 removed. 3-20 Iztapalapa D

  6. Common Risk Criteria Standards for National Test Ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    process among the ranges; b. Promote valid, repeatable risk assessments; c. Facilitate innovation to support challenging missions; d. Nurture...with operational requirements. Range flight operations typically involve some level of risk. Therefore, an important aspect of the range safety...accurate, repeatable risk assessments by minimizing errors in estimating and ensuring their scientific validity; c. Facilitate innovation to support

  7. Alteração do teor de cálcio no banho de DP para 2,5 mEq/L é eficaz no reestabelecimento dos valores preconizados por diretrizes atuais em pacientes com PTH < 150 pg/dL Low-calcium peritoneal dialysis solution is effective in bringing PTH levels to the range recommended by current guidelines in patients with PTH levels < 150 pg/dL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thyago Proença de Moraes

    2010-09-01

    followed by nephrosclerosis (25% and glomerulonephritis (14%. Converted group presented a greater increase in PTH levels when compared with the control group (Δ194 pg/dL versus Δ 92/dL; p < 0,05. Among patients switched to low calcium solution, 41% reached the target values (PTH 150300 pg/mL compared to 14% whose remain with normal calcium solutions (p < 0.05. There were no differences between groups regarding calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase. CONCLUSION: In patients with PTH < 150 pg/mL conversion to low calcium solutions (2.5 mEq/L appears to be a simple and effective strategy to bring PTH levels to the range determined by current guidelines when compared with 3.5mEq/L calcium PD solutions.

  8. Improved Range Searching Lower Bounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kasper Green; Nguyen, Huy L.

    2012-01-01

    by constructing a hard input set and query set, and then invoking Chazelle and Rosenberg's [CGTA'96] general theorem on the complexity of navigation in the pointer machine. For the group model, we show that input sets and query sets that are hard for range reporting in the pointer machine (i.e. by Chazelle...

  9. Anatomy of a Mountain Range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Berkeley

    1993-01-01

    Provides written tour of Colorado Rockies along San Juan Skyway in which the geological features and formation of the mountain range is explored. Discusses evidence of geologic forces and products such as plate tectonic movement and the Ancestral Rockies; subduction and the Laramide Orogeny; volcanism and calderas; erosion, faulting, land…

  10. Mobile Lunar Laser Ranging Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intellect, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Harlan Smith, chairman of the University of Texas's Astronomy Department, discusses a mobile lunar laser ranging station which could help determine the exact rates of movement between continents and help geophysicists understand earthquakes. He also discusses its application for studying fundamental concepts of cosmology and physics. (Editor/RK)

  11. Range Compressed Holographic Aperture Ladar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    step 1. This image can be obtained through any digital holography processing technique and contains no range information. Since the penny has a... digital holography, laser, active imaging , remote sensing, laser imaging 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT: SAR 8...30 15. Digital Hologram Image

  12. Mandibular movement range in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Barbara Cristina Zanandréa; Medeiros, Ana Paula Magalhães; Felício, Cláudia Maria de

    2009-01-01

    identification of the mandibular movement range is an important procedure in the evaluation of the stomatognathic system. However, there are few studies in children that focus on normal parameters or abnormalities. to determine the average range of mandibular movements in Brazilian children aged 6 to 12 years; to verify the difference between genders, in each age group, and between the different age groups: 6-8 years; 8.1-10 years; and 10.1-12 years. participants of the study were 240 healthy children selected among regular students from local schools of São Paulo State. The maximum mandibular opening, lateral excursion and protrusive movements, and deviation of the medium line, if present, were measured using a digital caliper. Student T test, Analysis of variance and Tukey test were considered significant for p mandibular opening; 7.71mm for lateral excursion to the right; 7.92mm for lateral excursion to the left; 7.45mm for protrusive movements. No statistical difference was observed between genders. There was a gradual increase in the range of mandibular movements, with significant differences mainly between the ages of 6-8 years and 10.1-12 years. during childhood the range of mandibular movements increases. Age should be considered in this analysis for a greater precision in the diagnosis.

  13. Current Trends in Satellite Laser Ranging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearlman, M. R.; Appleby, G. M.; Kirchner, G.; McGarry, J.; Murphy, T.; Noll, C. E.; Pavlis, E. C.; Pierron, F.

    2010-01-01

    Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) techniques are used to accurately measure the distance from ground stations to retroreflectors on satellites and the moon. SLR is one of the fundamental techniques that define the international Terrestrial Reference Frame (iTRF), which is the basis upon which we measure many aspects of global change over space, time, and evolving technology. It is one of the fundamental techniques that define at a level of precision of a few mm the origin and scale of the ITRF. Laser Ranging provides precision orbit determination and instrument calibration/validation for satellite-borne altimeters for the better understanding of sea level change, ocean dynamics, ice budget, and terrestrial topography. Laser ranging is also a tool to study the dynamics of the Moon and fundamental constants. Many of the GNSS satellites now carry retro-reflectors for improved orbit determination, harmonization of reference frames, and in-orbit co-location and system performance validation. The GNSS Constellations will be the means of making the reference frame available to worldwide users. Data and products from these measurements support key aspects of the GEOSS 10-Year implementation Plan adopted on February 16, 2005, The ITRF has been identified as a key contribution of the JAG to GEOSS and the ILRS makes a major contribution for its development since its foundation. The ILRS delivers weekly additional realizations that are accumulated sequentially to extend the ITRF and the Earth Orientation Parameter (EOP) series with a daily resolution. Additional products are currently under development such as precise orbits of satellites, EOP with daily availability, low-degree gravitational harmonics for studies of Earth dynamics and kinematics, etc. SLR technology continues to evolve toward the next generation laser ranging systems as programmatic requirements become more stringent. Ranging accuracy is improving as higher repetition rate, narrower pulse lasers and faster

  14. Short-range communication system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhorn, Dean C. (Inventor); Howard, David E. (Inventor); Smith, Dennis A. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A short-range communication system includes an antenna, a transmitter, and a receiver. The antenna is an electrical conductor formed as a planar coil with rings thereof being uniformly spaced. The transmitter is spaced apart from the plane of the coil by a gap. An amplitude-modulated and asynchronous signal indicative of a data stream of known peak amplitude is transmitted into the gap. The receiver detects the coil's resonance and decodes same to recover the data stream.

  15. Countering short range ballistic missiles

    OpenAIRE

    Conner, George W.; Ehiers, Mark A.; Marshall, Kneale T.

    1993-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Concepts commonly found in ASW search are used to model the flow and detection of mobile launchers for short range ballistic missiles. Emphasis is on detection and destruction of the launcher before launch. The benefit of pre-hostility intelligence and pre-missile-launch prosecution, the backbone of successful ASW, is revealed through the analysis of a circulation model which reflects the standard operations of a third world mobile mi...

  16. Lead Poisoning at an Indoor Firing Range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Kyung Wook; Park, Won Ju

    2017-10-01

    In March 2014, a 39-year-old Korean male presented with a 6-month history of various nonspecific symptoms including dizziness, fatigue, asthenia, irritability, elevated blood pressure, palpitation, eyestrain, and tinnitus. His occupational history revealed that he had been working as an indoor firing range manager for 13 months; therefore, he was subjected to a blood lead level (BLL) test. The test results showed a BLL of 64 μg/dL; hence, he was diagnosed with lead poisoning and immediately withdrawn from work. As evident from the workplace environmental monitoring, the level of lead exposure in the air exceeded its limit (0.015-0.387 mg/m³). He received chelation treatment with calcium-disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (1 g/day) for 5 days without any adverse effects. In the follow-up results after 2 months, the BLL had decreased to 9.7 μg/dL and the symptoms resolved. This report represents the first occupational case of lead poisoning in firing ranges in Korea, and this necessitates institutional management to prevent the recurrence of poisoning through this route. Workplace environmental monitoring should be implemented for indoor firing ranges, and the workers should undergo regularly scheduled special health examinations. In clinical practice, it is essential to question the patient about his occupational history. © 2017 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  17. Medium Range Forecasts Representation (and Long Range Forecasts?)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincendon, J.-C.

    2009-09-01

    The progress of the numerical forecasts urges us to interest us in more and more distant ranges. We thus supply more and more forecasts with term of some days. Nevertheless, precautions of use are necessary to give the most reliable and the most relevant possible information. Available in a TV bulletin or on quite other support (Internet, mobile phone), the interpretation and the representation of a medium range forecast (5 - 15 days) must be different from those of a short range forecast. Indeed, the "foresee-ability” of a meteorological phenomenon decreases gradually in the course of the ranges, it decreases all the more quickly that the phenomenon is of small scale. So, at the end of some days, the probability character of a forecast becomes very widely dominating. That is why in Meteo-France the forecasts of D+4 to D+7 are accompanied with a confidence index since around ten years. It is a figure between 1 and 5: the more we approach 5, the more the confidence in the supplied forecast is good. In the practice, an indication is supplied for period D+4 / D+5, the other one for period D+6 / D+7, every day being able to benefit from a different forecast, that is be represented in a independent way. We thus supply a global tendency over 24 hours with less and less precise symbols as the range goes away. Concrete examples will be presented. From now on two years, we also publish forecasts to D+8 / J+9, accompanied with a sign of confidence (" good reliability " or " to confirm "). These two days are grouped together on a single map because for us, the described tendency to this term is relevant on a duration about 48 hours with a spatial scale slightly superior to the synoptic scale. So, we avoid producing more than two zones of types of weather over France and we content with giving an evolution for the temperatures (still, in increase or in decline). Newspapers began to publish this information, it should soon be the case of televisions. It is particularly

  18. Low sodium level

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... do other vigorous activity, drink fluids such as sports drinks that contain electrolytes to keep your body's sodium level in a healthy range. Alternative Names Hyponatremia; Dilutional hyponatremia; Euvolemic hyponatremia; Hypervolemic hyponatremia; ...

  19. Truthful approximations to range voting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filos-Ratsika, Aris; Miltersen, Peter Bro

    We consider the fundamental mechanism design problem of approximate social welfare maximization under general cardinal preferences on a finite number of alternatives and without money. The well-known range voting scheme can be thought of as a non-truthful mechanism for exact social welfare......-unilateral has an approximation ratio between 0.610 and 0.611, the best ordinal mechanism has an approximation ratio between 0.616 and 0.641, while the best mixed-unilateral mechanism has an approximation ratio bigger than 0.660. In particular, the best mixed-unilateral non-ordinal (i.e., cardinal) mechanism...

  20. Nonlinear dynamic range compression deconvolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haji-Saeed, Bahareh; Sengupta, Sandip K.; Goodhue, William; Khoury, Jed; Woods, Charles L.; Kierstead, John

    2006-07-01

    We introduce a dynamic range image compression technique for nonlinear deconvolution; the impulse response of the distortion function and the noisy distorted image are jointly transformed to pump a clean reference beam in a two-beam coupling arrangement. The Fourier transform of the pumped reference beam contains the deconvolved image and its conjugate. In contrast to standard deconvolution approaches, for which noise can be a limiting factor in the performance, this approach allows the retrieval of distorted signals embedded in a very high-noise environment.

  1. Target Image Matching Algorithm Based on Binocular CCD Ranging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongming Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposed target image in a subpixel level matching algorithm for binocular CCD ranging, which is based on the principle of binocular CCD ranging. In the paper, firstly, we introduced the ranging principle of the binocular ranging system and deduced a binocular parallax formula. Secondly, we deduced the algorithm which was named improved cross-correlation matching algorithm and cubic surface fitting algorithm for target images matched, and it could achieve a subpixel level matching for binocular CCD ranging images. Lastly, through experiment we have analyzed and verified the actual CCD ranging images, then analyzed the errors of the experimental results and corrected the formula of calculating system errors. Experimental results showed that the actual measurement accuracy of a target within 3 km was higher than 0.52%, which meet the accuracy requirements of the high precision binocular ranging.

  2. Live Fire Range Environmental Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1993-08-01

    The Central Training Academy (CTA) is a DOE Headquarters Organization located in Albuquerque, New Mexico, with the mission to effectively and efficiently educate and train personnel involved in the protection of vital national security interests of DOE. The CTA Live Fire Range (LFR), where most of the firearms and tactical training occurs, is a complex separate from the main campus. The purpose of the proposed action is to expand the LFR to allow more options of implementing required training. The Department of Energy has prepared this Environmental Assessment (EA) for the proposed construction and operation of an expanded Live Fire Range Facility at the Central Training Academy in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Based on the analysis in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  3. Dynamic range majority data structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmasry, Amr Ahmed Abd Elmoneim; He, Meng; Munro, J. Ian

    2011-01-01

    data structure for answering range α-majority queries on a dynamic set of points, where α ε (0,1). Our data structure uses O(n) space, supports queries in O((lg n)/α) time, and updates in O((lg n)/α) amortized time. If the coordinates of the points are integers, then the query time can be improved to O......((lg n/(α lglg n)). For constant values of α, this improved query time matches an existing lower bound, for any data structure with polylogarithmic update time. We also generalize our data structure to handle sets of points in d-dimensions, for d ≥ 2, as well as dynamic arrays, in which each entry...

  4. Níveis críticos e faixas de suficiência nutricional em laranjeira-pêra na Amazônia Central obtidas pelo método DRIS Critical levels and nutrient sufficiency ranges in orange of the Central Amazon determined by DRIS method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Rafael Machado Dias

    2013-09-01

    fields of Central Amazonia (municipalities of Iranduba, Manacapuru, Manaus, Presidente Figueiredo and Rio Preto da Eva. We used the Diagnosis and Recommendation Integrated System for multivariate relation (DRIS method to establish the nutrient reference values. The nutritional status of 120 commercial orchards of orange grafted on rangpur lime was evaluated by the sufficiency ranges defined from the set of nutritionally balanced plants. For macronutrients, the nutritional sufficiency ranges were (g kg-1: 28-30 (for nitogen, N; 1.6-1.7 (phosphorus, P; 7-9 (potassium, K; 26-29 (calcium, Ca; 3.6-4.0 (magnesium, Mg; 1.7-2.0 (sulfur - S and for micronutrients (mg kg-1: 47-56 (boron, B; 8-10 (copper, Cu; 84-93 (iron, Fe; 12-13 (manganese, Mn; 14-16 (zinc, Zn. For macronutrients, the critical levels were (g kg-1: 28 (for N; 1.6 (P; 7 (K; 26 (Ca; 3.6 (Mg; 1.7 (S and for micronutrients (mg kg-1: 47 (B; 8 (Cu; 84 (Fe; 12 (Mn and 14 for Zn. Nutritional standards obtained by the DRIS methods are in disagreement with the normal ranges proposed in the literature for most nutrients. In about 50% of orchards, the elements P, K, Ca, S, B, Cu e Fe were found below the critical levels. This suggests that orange producers in Central Amazonia should pay more attention to these elements when planning fertilization practices.

  5. Levels of Literary Meaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, Søren Harnow

    2017-01-01

    I argue that intentionalist theories of meaning and interpretation, like those of Hirsch and Juhl, have been insufficiently attentive to the different levels of authorial intention that are operative in literary works. By countenancing intentions on different levelsranging from simple semantic...

  6. A Computational Approach to Competitive Range Expansions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Markus F.; Poxleitner, Gabriele; Hebisch, Elke; Frey, Erwin; Opitz, Madeleine

    2014-03-01

    Bacterial communities represent complex and dynamic ecological systems. Environmental conditions and microbial interactions determine whether a bacterial strain survives an expansion to new territory. In our work, we studied competitive range expansions in a model system of three Escherichia coli strains. In this system, a colicin producing strain competed with a colicin resistant, and with a colicin sensitive strain for new territory. Genetic engineering allowed us to tune the strains' growth rates and to study their expansion in distinct ecological scenarios (with either cyclic or hierarchical dominance). The control over growth rates also enabled us to construct and to validate a predictive computational model of the bacterial dynamics. The model rested on an agent-based, coarse-grained description of the expansion process and we conducted independent experiments on the growth of single-strain colonies for its parametrization. Furthermore, the model considered the long-range nature of the toxin interaction between strains. The integration of experimental analysis with computational modeling made it possible to quantify how the level of biodiversity depends on the interplay between bacterial growth rates, the initial composition of the inoculum, and the toxin range.

  7. Lead exposure in indoor firing ranges: environmental impact and health risk to the range users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abudhaise, B A; Alzoubi, M A; Rabi, A Z; Alwash, R M

    1996-01-01

    Health risk from airborne lead exposure were evaluated in 54 trainees and 31 firearm instructors at two indoor firing ranges in Amman, Jordan. Airborne lead concentration was measured during shooting sessions of conventional lead ammunition. Venous blood was collected from the trainees, instructors and controls. The levels of blood lead (PbB) and the activity of amino levulinic acid dehydrogenase (ALAD) were measured. High concentrations of air lead that markedly exceeded the internationally adopted safe exposure levels were found on both ranges. Despite the absence of symptoms of lead poisoning, there was a significantly higher PbB in the instructors (19 +/- 7 micrograms/dl) and trainees (22.9 +/- 4.6 micrograms/dl) than in the controls (2.1 +/- 1.4 micrograms/dl). Furthermore, the activity of ALAD was significantly lower in both groups (29.2 +/- 1.3, 18.9 +/- 1.2 U/L, respectively) than in the controls (47.5 +/- 1.1 U/L) indicating a subcritical lead effect. In the trainees, levels of PbB rose from a pre-training mean of 2.2 to 22.9 micrograms/dl and the activity of ALAD decreased from 46.9 to 18.9 U/L. It is concluded that indoor firing range users are at risk of lead absorption and intoxication and, therefore, periodic biological monitoring of the frequent users of firing ranges is highly recommended. Environmental hygienic actions to control excessive emissions of lead on the ranges are also imperative.

  8. Triglyceride level

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003493.htm Triglyceride level To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The triglyceride level is a blood test to measure the ...

  9. Recognizing history in range ecology: 100 years of science and management on the Santa Rita Experimental Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan F. Sayre

    2003-01-01

    At the centennial of the Santa Rita Experimental Range, historical analysis is called for on two levels. First, as a major site in the history of range ecology, the Santa Rita illuminates past successes and failures in science and management and the ways in which larger social, economic, and political factors have shaped scientific research. Second, with the turn away...

  10. Perceptual effects of dynamic range compression in popular music recordings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortkjær, Jens; Walther-Hansen, Mads

    2014-01-01

    The belief that the use of dynamic range compression in music mastering deteriorates sound quality needs to be formally tested. In this study normal hearing listeners were asked to evaluate popular music recordings in original versions and in remastered versions with higher levels of dynamic range...... compression. Surprisingly, the results failed to reveal any evidence of the effects of dynamic range compression on subjective preference or perceived depth cues. Perceptual data suggest that listeners are less sensitive than commonly believed to even high levels of compression. As measured in terms...

  11. Intervalo hídrico ótimo no perfil explorado pelas raízes de feijoeiro em um latossolo sob diferentes níveis de compactação Least limiting water range in an oxisol profile penetrated by common bean roots under different compaction levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Rodrigo Kaiser

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available O intervalo hídrico ótimo (IHO é integrador dos fatores de crescimento das plantas, e a densidade crítica obtida é um indicativo da qualidade estrutural do solo. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o IHO em um Latossolo argiloso. Amostras de solo com estrutura preservada foram coletadas num experimento com três níveis de compactação: PD - plantio direto continuado por seis anos, PDc - plantio direto com compactação adicional e Esc - escarificação. Para a curva de resistência, coletaram-se 107 amostras na camada de 0 a 0,20 m em diferentes condições de umidade. Para a curva de retenção de água, coletaram-se amostras nas camadas de 0 a 0,05; 0,05 a 0,10; 0,10 a 0,15; 0,20 a 0,25; e 0,30 a 0,35 m. O modelo de resistência à penetração ajustado, com base na densidade e umidade, explicou 33 % da variação obtida na resistência do solo à penetração, sendo todos os parâmetros de ajuste significativos. A densidade crítica do IHO é dependente do valor de resistência à penetração considerado limitante, sendo de 1,36; 1,40; 1,45; e 1,49 Mg m-3 para valores de RP de 1,5; 2,0; 2,5; e 3,0 MPa, respectivamente. A aeração do solo passa a ser limitante com densidades acima de 1,32 Mg m-3. A compactação do solo reduziu o seu IHO na camada próxima a 0,10 m de profundidade. Quando se adotou a resistência crítica de 2 MPa, o IHO foi nulo nas camadas de 0,05 a 0,12 m no PD, de 0,05 a 0,17 m no Esc e de 0,03 a 0,22 m no PDc. Com a utilização de 3 MPa como resistência crítica, ocorreu ampliação, em que o IHO tem valor positivo, no perfil do solo; o IHO foi nulo apenas na camada de 0,05 a 0,15 m do PDc. As raízes do feijoeiro não cresceram na camada de solo onde o IHO foi nulo com resistência crítica de 3 MPa.The least limiting water range (LLWR integrates the plant growth factors and the critical bulk density is an indicator of the soil structural quality. The objective of this study was to determine the LLWR of a

  12. Age-specific serum prostate specific antigen ranges among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels increase with age and varies among different races and communities. The study was aimed at defining the age-specific reference ranges of serum PSA in our environment. Methods: We evaluated the relationship between age and serum PSA levels and the ...

  13. Low Complexity Receiver Design for MIMO-Radar

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Sajid

    2012-09-08

    In this work, an algorithm for the multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar is proposed. It has low computational complexity compared to the available schemes, and relatively low side-lobe-levels in the receive beampattern compared to the phased-array and MIMO-radar. In the proposed algorithm, the received signal vector of MIMO-radar is divided into sub-vectors, and each sub-vector is multiplied with the corresponding weight vector. The number of sub-vectors and weight vectors are optimally found to maximise the received signal power from the target of interest direction. The proposed scheme can be effectively applied in passive radars to minimise the side-lobe levels and place deep nulls for interferers in the receive beampattern. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme has relatively lower side lobe levels and better detection capabilities compared to MIMO-radar and phased-array.

  14. Middle Range Theory: A Perspective on Development and Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liehr, Patricia; Smith, Mary Jane

    This replication and critique addresses ongoing development and use of middle range theory since considering this body of nursing knowledge 18 years ago. Middle range theory is appreciated as essential to the structure of nursing knowledge. Nine middle range theories that demonstrate ongoing use by the theory authors are analyzed using the criteria of theory name, theory generation, disciplinary perspective, theory model, practice use and research use. Critique conclusions indicate the importance of staying with the theory over time, naming and development consistent with the disciplinary perspective, movement to an empirical level, and bringing middle range theory to the interdisciplinary table.

  15. 45th Annual Targets, UAVs and Range Operations Symposium and Exhibition - Tools and Technologies for the Warfighter. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-10-30

    Configuration #6: 1-box IM Common Framework Short Range Mid Range Extended Range High Throughput Encryption DeviceLevel I A Level I B Level II Level III...6’ System -Airfield area -2 Spirals for ground checks Laurel Mtn -6’ System -16’ System -North Range -ECR -Edwards AFB Parrot Peak -16’ System - Coso

  16. Wide Range Multiscale Entropy Changes through Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola R. Polizzotto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available How variability in the brain’s neurophysiologic signals evolves during development is important for a global, system-level understanding of brain maturation and its disturbance in neurodevelopmental disorders. In the current study, we use multiscale entropy (MSE, a measure that has been related to signal complexity, to investigate how this variability evolves during development across a broad range of temporal scales. We computed MSE, standard deviation (STD and standard spectral analyses on resting EEG from 188 healthy individuals aged 8–22 years old. We found age-related increases in entropy at lower scales (<~20 ms and decreases in entropy at higher scales (~60–80 ms. Decreases in the overall signal STD were anticorrelated with entropy, especially in the lower scales, where regression analyses showed substantial covariation of observed changes. Our findings document for the first time the scale dependency of developmental changes from childhood to early adulthood, challenging a parsimonious MSE-based account of brain maturation along a unidimensional, complexity measure. At the level of analysis permitted by electroencephalography (EEG, MSE could capture critical spatiotemporal variations in the role of noise in the brain. However, interpretations critically rely on defining how signal STD affects MSE properties.

  17. Unexploded Ordnance Site Investigation of US Military Ranges in Panama: Empire, Balboa West and Pina Ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-07-01

    Process, UXO Detection Technologies, and Detector Reference Area. Table 1-1 UXO Site Investigation Report Components Aiko ik ogai6Componehp - Sect"on Site...200.0 C2 Suspect impact area of Range 6 09 97 482 17 645 592 929.9 D FP- 11 Firing Fan 0995639 17648673 369.0 E FP-15 Firing Fan 0997194 17645735 326.5 K ...bulldozer was brought in to grade and level the area. The transect was surveyed with a hand held EM61 locator starting off the K -6 road about 1.000

  18. Radar range measurements in the atmosphere.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2013-02-01

    The earths atmosphere affects the velocity of propagation of microwave signals. This imparts a range error to radar range measurements that assume the typical simplistic model for propagation velocity. This range error is a function of atmospheric constituents, such as water vapor, as well as the geometry of the radar data collection, notably altitude and range. Models are presented for calculating atmospheric effects on radar range measurements, and compared against more elaborate atmospheric models.

  19. Time course of dynamic range adaptation in the auditory nerve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Grace I.; Dean, Isabel; Delgutte, Bertrand

    2012-01-01

    Auditory adaptation to sound-level statistics occurs as early as in the auditory nerve (AN), the first stage of neural auditory processing. In addition to firing rate adaptation characterized by a rate decrement dependent on previous spike activity, AN fibers show dynamic range adaptation, which is characterized by a shift of the rate-level function or dynamic range toward the most frequently occurring levels in a dynamic stimulus, thereby improving the precision of coding of the most common sound levels (Wen B, Wang GI, Dean I, Delgutte B. J Neurosci 29: 13797–13808, 2009). We investigated the time course of dynamic range adaptation by recording from AN fibers with a stimulus in which the sound levels periodically switch from one nonuniform level distribution to another (Dean I, Robinson BL, Harper NS, McAlpine D. J Neurosci 28: 6430–6438, 2008). Dynamic range adaptation occurred rapidly, but its exact time course was difficult to determine directly from the data because of the concomitant firing rate adaptation. To characterize the time course of dynamic range adaptation without the confound of firing rate adaptation, we developed a phenomenological “dual adaptation” model that accounts for both forms of AN adaptation. When fitted to the data, the model predicts that dynamic range adaptation occurs as rapidly as firing rate adaptation, over 100–400 ms, and the time constants of the two forms of adaptation are correlated. These findings suggest that adaptive processing in the auditory periphery in response to changes in mean sound level occurs rapidly enough to have significant impact on the coding of natural sounds. PMID:22457465

  20. Cholesterol Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/cholesterollevels.html Cholesterol Levels To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. What is a Cholesterol Test? Cholesterol is a waxy, fat-like substance ...

  1. ADAPTIVE BEAMFORMING IN SMART ANTENNA USINGTCHEBYSCHEFF DISTRIBUTION AND VARIANTS OF LEAST MEAN SQUARE ALGORITHM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANUPAMA SENAPATI

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Tchebyscheff distribution is used for adaptive beam formation for smart antenna combined with different variants of least mean square (LMS algorithm. Performances for accuracies of generated main beam direction and null direction and also side lobe level (SLL are obtained using these hybrid algorithms. Tchebyscheff distribution with LMS (TDLMS, Tchebyscheff distribution with normalised LMS (TDNLMS and Tchebyscheff distribution with sign LMS (TDSLMS are used for adaptive beam generation and results are compared. Results show that using these hybrid algorithms low side lobe level can be obtained.

  2. Topographic laser ranging and scanning principles and processing

    CERN Document Server

    Shan, Jie

    2008-01-01

    A systematic, in-depth introduction to theories and principles of Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) technology is long overdue, as it is the most important geospatial data acquisition technology to be introduced in recent years. An advanced discussion, this text fills the void.Professionals in fields ranging from geology, geography and geoinformatics to physics, transportation, and law enforcement will benefit from this comprehensive discussion of topographic LiDAR principles, systems, data acquisition, and data processing techniques. The book covers ranging and scanning fundamentals, and broad, contemporary analysis of airborne LiDAR systems, as well as those situated on land and in space. The authors present data collection at the signal level in terms of waveforms and their properties; at the system level with regard to calibration and georeferencing; and at the data level to discuss error budget, quality control, and data organization. They devote the bulk of the book to LiDAR data processing and inform...

  3. Colored Range Searching in Linear Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grossi, Roberto; Vind, Søren Juhl

    2014-01-01

    In colored range searching, we are given a set of n colored points in d ≥ 2 dimensions to store, and want to support orthogonal range queries taking colors into account. In the colored range counting problem, a query must report the number of distinct colors found in the query range, while...... an answer to the colored range reporting problem must report the distinct colors in the query range. We give the first linear space data structure for both problems in two dimensions (d = 2) with o(n) worst case query time. We also give the first data structure obtaining almost-linear space usage and o...

  4. Exposure to lead in South African shooting ranges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathee, Angela; de Jager, Pieter; Naidoo, Shan; Naicker, Nisha

    2017-02-01

    Lead exposure in shooting ranges has been under scrutiny for decades, but no information in this regard is available in respect of African settings, and in South Africa specifically. The aim of this study was to determine the blood lead levels in the users of randomly selected private shooting ranges in South Africa's Gauteng province. An analytical cross sectional study was conducted, with participants recruited from four randomly selected shooting ranges and three archery ranges as a comparator group. A total of 118 (87 shooters and 31 archers) were included in the analysis. Shooters had significantly higher blood lead levels (BLL) compared to archers with 36/85 (42.4%) of shooters versus 2/34 (5.9%) of archers found to have a BLL ≥10μg/dl (pShooting ranges may constitute an import site of elevated exposure to lead. Improved ventilation, low levels of awareness of lead hazards, poor housekeeping, and inadequate personal hygiene facilities and practices at South African shooting ranges need urgent attention. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. WPC's Short Range Forecast Coded Bulletin

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Short Range Forecast Coded Bulletin. The Short Range Forecast Coded Bulletin describes the expected locations of high and low pressure centers, surface frontal...

  6. Range-Based Auto-Focus Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Maracel Systems and Software Technologies, LLC proposes a revolutionary Range-Based Auto Focus (RBAF) system that will combine externally input range, such as might...

  7. Survivial Strategies in Bacterial Range Expansions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Erwin

    2014-03-01

    Bacterial communities represent complex and dynamic ecological systems. Different environmental conditions as well as bacterial interactions determine the establishment and sustainability of bacterial diversity. In this talk we discuss the competition of three Escherichia coli strains during range expansions on agar plates. In this bacterial model system, a colicin E2 producing strain C competes with a colicin resistant strain R and with a colicin sensitive strain S for new territory. Genetic engineering allows us to tune the growth rates of the strains and to study distinct ecological scenarios. These scenarios may lead to either single-strain dominance, pairwise coexistence, or to the coexistence of all three strains. In order to elucidate the survival mechanisms of the individual strains, we also developed a stochastic agent-based model to capture the ecological scenarios in silico. In a combined theoretical and experimental approach we are able to show that the level of biodiversity depends crucially on the composition of the inoculum, on the relative growth rates of the three strains, and on the effective reach of colicin toxicity.

  8. Report to Congress on Sustainable Ranges, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Air Facility Quantico in FY2008. RAICUZ studies at Townsend Range, Chocolate Mountain Aerial Gunnery Range, and Barry M Goldwater Range-West are on...representatives from Arizona, California, Nevada, New Mexico and Utah and other interested stakeholders. Part of the working group’s tactical

  9. Leveling Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista, Nazan

    2014-01-01

    A national survey reports that 42% of mainstream teachers have English language learners (ELLs) in their classrooms, but only 12.5% say they have been prepared to work with them (National Center for Education Statistics 2002). This article supplies a framework to address the cognitive demands of ELLs with varying proficiency levels, guided by the…

  10. Compressed Data Structures for Range Searching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li; Vind, Søren Juhl

    2015-01-01

    matrices and web graphs. Our contribution is twofold. First, we show how to compress geometric repetitions that may appear in standard range searching data structures (such as K-D trees, Quad trees, Range trees, R-trees, Priority R-trees, and K-D-B trees), and how to implement subsequent range queries......We study the orthogonal range searching problem on points that have a significant number of geometric repetitions, that is, subsets of points that are identical under translation. Such repetitions occur in scenarios such as image compression, GIS applications and in compactly representing sparse...... that supports range searching....

  11. Projecting future sea level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayan, Daniel R.; Bromirski, Peter; Hayhoe, Katharine; Tyree, Mary; Dettinger, Mike; Flick, Reinhard

    2006-01-01

    California’s coastal observations and global model projections indicate that California’s open coast and estuaries will experience increasing sea levels over the next century. Sea level rise has affected much of the coast of California, including the Southern California coast, the Central California open coast, and the San Francisco Bay and upper estuary. These trends, quantified from a small set of California tide gages, have ranged from 10–20 centimeters (cm) (3.9–7.9 inches) per century, quite similar to that estimated for global mean sea level. So far, there is little evidence that the rate of rise has accelerated, and the rate of rise at California tide gages has actually flattened since 1980, but projections suggest substantial sea level rise may occur over the next century. Climate change simulations project a substantial rate of global sea level rise over the next century due to thermal expansion as the oceans warm and runoff from melting land-based snow and ice accelerates. Sea level rise projected from the models increases with the amount of warming. Relative to sea levels in 2000, by the 2070–2099 period, sea level rise projections range from 11–54 cm (4.3–21 in) for simulations following the lower (B1) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions scenario, from 14–61 cm (5.5–24 in) for the middle-upper (A2) emission scenario, and from 17–72 cm (6.7–28 in) for the highest (A1fi) scenario. In addition to relatively steady secular trends, sea levels along the California coast undergo shorter period variability above or below predicted tide levels and changes associated with long-term trends. These variations are caused by weather events and by seasonal to decadal climate fluctuations over the Pacific Ocean that in turn affect the Pacific coast. Highest coastal sea levels have occurred when winter storms and Pacific climate disturbances, such as El Niño, have coincided with high astronomical tides. This study considers a range of projected future

  12. RANGE RAM: a long-term planning method for managing grazing lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henricus C. Jansen

    1976-01-01

    Range RAM (Resource Allocation Method) is a computerized planning method designed to assist range managers in developing and selecting alternatives in spatial and temporal allocation of resources. The technique is applicable at the frest or district management levels, or their equivalents. Range RAM can help formulate plans that maximize the production of range outputs...

  13. Lead poisoning in shooting-range workers in Gauteng Province ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    private indoor shooting range in greater Johannesburg. Blood lead levels were determined using a LeadCare II (Magellan Diagnostics,. USA) portable testing system, with a 50 μL aliquot of whole blood obtained from a finger prick following the thorough washing of hands with soap and water. Ethical approval for this work, ...

  14. Perceptual Effects of Dynamic Range Compression in Popular Music Recordings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortkjær, Jens; Walther-Hansen, Mads

    2014-01-01

    There is a widespread belief that the increasing use of dynamic range compression in music mastering (the loudnesswar) deteriorates sound quality but experimental evidence of perceptual effects is lacking. In this study, normal hearing listeners were asked to evaluate popular music recordings...... of response consistency between different presentations of the same music suggests that listeners are less sensitive to even high levels of dynamic range compression than often argued....... in original versions and in remastered versions with higher levels of dynamic range compression. Surprisingly, we found no evidence of preference for the less compressed music. We also failed to find differences in ratings of perceived "depth" between the original and more compressed audio. A low degree...

  15. Relativity Parameters Determined from Lunar Laser Ranging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J. G.; Newhall, X. X.; Dickey, J. O.

    1996-01-01

    Analysis of 24 years of lunar laser ranging data is used to test the principle of equivalence, geodetic precession, the PPN parameters beta and gamma, and G/G. Recent data can be fitted with a rms scatter of 3 cm. (a) Using the Nordtvedt effect to test the principle of equivalence, it is found that the Moon and Earth accelerate alike in the Sun's field. The relative accelerations match to within 5 x 10(exp -13) . This limit, combined with an independent determination of y from planetary time delay, gives beta. Including the uncertainty due to compositional differences, the parameter beta differs from unity by no more than 0.0014; and, if the weak equivalence principle is satisfied, the difference is no more than 0.0006. (b) Geodetic precession matches its expected 19.2 marc sec/yr rate within 0.7%. This corresponds to a 1% test of gamma. (c) Apart from the Nordtvedt effect, beta and gamma can be tested from their influence on the lunar orbit. It is argued theoretically that the linear combination 0.8(beta) + 1.4(gamma) can be tested at the 1% level of accuracy. For solutions using numerically derived partial derivatives, higher sensitivity is found. Both 6 and y match the values of general relativity to within 0.005, and the linear combination beta+ gamma matches to within 0,003, but caution is advised due to the lack of theoretical understanding of these sensitivities. (d) No evidence for a changing gravitational constant is found, with absolute value of G/G less than or equal to 8 x lO(exp -12)/yr. There is significant sensitivity to G/G through solar perturbations on the lunar orbit.

  16. An algorithm for segmenting range imagery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, R.S.

    1997-03-01

    This report describes the technical accomplishments of the FY96 Cross Cutting and Advanced Technology (CC&AT) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The project focused on developing algorithms for segmenting range images. The image segmentation algorithm developed during the project is described here. In addition to segmenting range images, the algorithm can fuse multiple range images thereby providing true 3D scene models. The algorithm has been incorporated into the Rapid World Modelling System at Sandia National Laboratory.

  17. Report to Congress on Sustainable Ranges, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    Continuing to work with JIOR to provide a mobile service which can be deployed at the Urban Operations Complex ( UOC ) on Range 62. Electronic Combat...range; some means of facilitating IO play but no organic capability. NTTR continuing to work with JIOR to provide a mobile service to deploy at UOC ...no organic capability. Continuing to work with JIOR to provide a mobile service which can be deployed at the UOC . Collective Ranges Information

  18. Report to Congress on Sustainable Ranges, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    no organic capability. HQ NTTR continues to work with JIOR to provide a mobile service which can be deployed at the Urban Operations Complex ( UOC ...NTTR continues to work with JIOR to provide a mobile service which can be deployed at the Urban Operations Complex ( UOC ) on Range 62. Electronic... UOC ) on Range 62. Electronic Combat Support h The range lacks a complete electronic target set. EA platforms do not get real-time feedback on their

  19. Supersymmetric inversion of effective-range expansions

    OpenAIRE

    Midya, Bikashkali; Evrard, Jérémie; Abramowicz, Sylvain; Ramirez Suarez, Oscar Leonardo; Sparenberg, Jean-Marc

    2015-01-01

    A complete and consistent inversion technique is proposed to derive an accurate interaction potential from an effective-range function for a given partial wave in the neutral case. First, the effective-range function is Taylor or Pad\\'e expanded, which allows high precision fitting of the experimental scattering phase shifts with a minimal number of parameters on a large energy range. Second, the corresponding poles of the scattering matrix are extracted in the complex wave-number plane. Thir...

  20. EPA Region 6 Laboratory Method Specific Analytical Capabilities with Sample Concentration Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA Region 6 Environmental Services Branch (ESB) Laboratory is capable of analyzing a wide range of samples with concentrations ranging for low part-per trillion (ppt) to low percent () levels, depending on the sample matrix.

  1. Range contraction in large pelagic predators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worm, Boris; Tittensor, Derek P

    2011-07-19

    Large reductions in the abundance of exploited land predators have led to significant range contractions for those species. This pattern can be formalized as the range-abundance relationship, a general macroecological pattern that has important implications for the conservation of threatened species. Here we ask whether similar responses may have occurred in highly mobile pelagic predators, specifically 13 species of tuna and billfish. We analyzed two multidecadal global data sets on the spatial distribution of catches and fishing effort targeting these species and compared these with available abundance time series from stock assessments. We calculated the effort needed to reliably detect the presence of a species and then computed observed range sizes in each decade from 1960 to 2000. Results suggest significant range contractions in 9 of the 13 species considered here (between 2% and 46% loss of observed range) and significant range expansions in two species (11-29% increase). Species that have undergone the largest declines in abundance and are of particular conservation concern tended to show the largest range contractions. These include all three species of bluefin tuna and several marlin species. In contrast, skipjack tuna, which may have increased its abundance in the Pacific, has also expanded its range size. These results mirror patterns described for many land predators, despite considerable differences in habitat, mobility, and dispersal, and imply ecological extirpation of heavily exploited species across parts of their range.

  2. California Tiger Salamander Range - CWHR [ds588

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model for...

  3. Oregon Spotted Frog Range - CWHR [ds597

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model for...

  4. Caspian Tern Range - CWHR [ds604

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model for...

  5. Willow Flycatcher Range - CWHR [ds594

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model for...

  6. Western Pond Turtle Range - CWHR [ds598

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model for...

  7. Great Blue Heron Range - CWHR [ds609

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model for...

  8. Black Swift Range - CWHR [ds605

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model for...

  9. Bank Swallow Range - CWHR [ds606

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model for...

  10. Northern Leopard Frog Range - CWHR [ds593

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model for...

  11. Yellow Warbler Range - CWHR [ds607

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model for...

  12. Great Egret Range - CWHR [ds610

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model for...

  13. Black Rail Range - CWHR [ds595

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model for...

  14. Cascades Frog Range - CWHR [ds591

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model for...

  15. Western spadefoot Range - CWHR [ds590

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model for...

  16. Bald Eagle Range - CWHR [ds600

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model for...

  17. Close range photogrammetry and machine vision

    CERN Document Server

    Atkinson, KB

    1996-01-01

    This book presents the methodology, algorithms, techniques and equipment necessary to achieve real time digital photogrammetric solutions, together with contemporary examples of close range photogrammetry.

  18. Long-Range WindScanner System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vasiljevic, Nikola; Lea, Guillaume; Courtney, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The technical aspects of a multi-Doppler LiDAR instrument, the long-range WindScanner system, are presented accompanied by an overview of the results from several field campaigns. The long-range WindScanner system consists of three spatially-separated, scanning coherent Doppler LiDARs and a remote......-rangeWindScanner system measures the wind field by emitting and directing three laser beams to intersect, and then scanning the beam intersection over a region of interest. The long-range WindScanner system was developed to tackle the need for high-quality observations of wind fields on scales of modern wind turbine...

  19. Software for computing and annotating genomic ranges.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Lawrence

    Full Text Available We describe Bioconductor infrastructure for representing and computing on annotated genomic ranges and integrating genomic data with the statistical computing features of R and its extensions. At the core of the infrastructure are three packages: IRanges, GenomicRanges, and GenomicFeatures. These packages provide scalable data structures for representing annotated ranges on the genome, with special support for transcript structures, read alignments and coverage vectors. Computational facilities include efficient algorithms for overlap and nearest neighbor detection, coverage calculation and other range operations. This infrastructure directly supports more than 80 other Bioconductor packages, including those for sequence analysis, differential expression analysis and visualization.

  20. Snowy Egret Range - CWHR [ds611

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model for...

  1. Giant Garter Snake Range - CWHR [ds599

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model for...

  2. Zadoff-Chu coded ultrasonic signal for accurate range estimation

    KAUST Repository

    AlSharif, Mohammed H.

    2017-11-02

    This paper presents a new adaptation of Zadoff-Chu sequences for the purpose of range estimation and movement tracking. The proposed method uses Zadoff-Chu sequences utilizing a wideband ultrasonic signal to estimate the range between two devices with very high accuracy and high update rate. This range estimation method is based on time of flight (TOF) estimation using cyclic cross correlation. The system was experimentally evaluated under different noise levels and multi-user interference scenarios. For a single user, the results show less than 7 mm error for 90% of range estimates in a typical indoor environment. Under the interference from three other users, the 90% error was less than 25 mm. The system provides high estimation update rate allowing accurate tracking of objects moving with high speed.

  3. Range detection for AGV using a rotating sonar sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Wen-chuan; Ramamurthy, Dhyana Chandra; Mundhenk, Terrell N.; Hall, Ernest L.

    1998-10-01

    A single rotating sonar element is used with a restricted angle of sweep to obtain readings to develop a range map for the unobstructed path of an autonomous guided vehicle (AGV). A Polaroid ultrasound transducer element is mounted on a micromotor with an encoder feedback. The motion of this motor is controlled using a Galil DMC 1000 motion control board. The encoder is interfaced with the DMC 1000 board using an intermediate IMC 1100 break-out board. By adjusting the parameters of the Polaroid element, it is possible to obtain range readings at known angles with respect to the center of the robot. The readings are mapped to obtain a range map of the unobstructed path in front of the robot. The idea can be extended to a 360 degree mapping by changing the assembly level programming on the Galil Motion control board. Such a system would be compact and reliable over a range of environments and AGV applications.

  4. Visualizing attitudes towards service levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.Y. Lam (Kar Yin); M. van de Velden (Michel); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractTo assess the attitudes with respect to the quality of banks’ service levels, we use survey data amongst more than 250 Chief Financial Officers (CFOs) of a range of Netherlands-based companies. These companies range from small to very large (including multinationals as Philips and Shell)

  5. The reference range of serum, plasma and erythrocyte magnesium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanna Immanuel

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The interest in the clinical importance of serum magnesium level has just recently begun with the analysis and findings of abnormal magnesium level in cardiovascular, metabolic and neuromuscular disorder. Although the serum level does not reflect the body magnesium level, but currently, only serum magnesium determination is widely used. Erythrocyte magnesium is considered more sensitive than serum magnesium as it reflects intracellular magnesium status. According to NCCLS (National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards every laboratory is recommended to have its own reference range for the tests it performs, including magnesium determination. The reference range obtained is appropriate for the population and affected by the method and technique. This study aimed to find the reference range of serum and plasma magnesium and also intracellular magnesium i.e. erythrocyte magnesium by direct method, and compare the results of serum and plasma magnesium. Blood was taken from 114-blood donor from Unit Transfusi Darah Daerah (UTDD Budhyarto Palang Merah Indonesia (PMI DKI Jakarta, consisted of 57 male and 57 female, aged 17 – 65 years, clinically healthy according to PMI donor criteria. Blood was taken from blood set, collected into 4 ml vacuum tube without anticoagulant for serum magnesium determination and 3 ml vacuum tube with lithium heparin for determination of erythrocyte and plasma magnesium Determination of magnesium level was performed with clinical chemistry auto analyzer Hitachi 912 by Xylidil Blue method colorimetrically. This study showed no significant difference between serum and heparinized plasma extra cellular magnesium. The reference range for serum or plasma magnesium was 1.30 – 2.00 mEq/L and for erythrocyte magnesium was 4.46 - 7.10 mEq/L. (Med J Indones 2006; 15:229-35Keywords: Reference range, extracellular magnesium, intracellular magnesium

  6. Geographic range size and extinction risk assessment in nomadic species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runge, Claire A; Tulloch, Ayesha; Hammill, Edd; Possingham, Hugh P; Fuller, Richard A

    2015-06-01

    Geographic range size is often conceptualized as a fixed attribute of a species and treated as such for the purposes of quantification of extinction risk; species occupying smaller geographic ranges are assumed to have a higher risk of extinction, all else being equal. However many species are mobile, and their movements range from relatively predictable to-and-fro migrations to complex irregular movements shown by nomadic species. These movements can lead to substantial temporary expansion and contraction of geographic ranges, potentially to levels which may pose an extinction risk. By linking occurrence data with environmental conditions at the time of observations of nomadic species, we modeled the dynamic distributions of 43 arid-zone nomadic bird species across the Australian continent for each month over 11 years and calculated minimum range size and extent of fluctuation in geographic range size from these models. There was enormous variability in predicted spatial distribution over time; 10 species varied in estimated geographic range size by more than an order of magnitude, and 2 species varied by >2 orders of magnitude. During times of poor environmental conditions, several species not currently classified as globally threatened contracted their ranges to very small areas, despite their normally large geographic range size. This finding raises questions about the adequacy of conventional assessments of extinction risk based on static geographic range size (e.g., IUCN Red Listing). Climate change is predicted to affect the pattern of resource fluctuations across much of the southern hemisphere, where nomadism is the dominant form of animal movement, so it is critical we begin to understand the consequences of this for accurate threat assessment of nomadic species. Our approach provides a tool for discovering spatial dynamics in highly mobile species and can be used to unlock valuable information for improved extinction risk assessment and conservation

  7. Investigation of Non-linear Chirp Coding for Improved Second Harmonic Pulse Compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, Muhammad; Ali, Muhammad Asim; Shaikh, Muhammad Mujtaba; Freear, Steven

    2017-08-01

    Non-linear frequency-modulated (NLFM) chirp coding was investigated to improve the pulse compression of the second harmonic chirp signal by reducing the range side lobe level. The problem of spectral overlap between the fundamental component and second harmonic component (SHC) was also investigated. Therefore, two methods were proposed: method I for the non-overlap condition and method II with the pulse inversion technique for the overlap harmonic condition. In both methods, the performance of the NLFM chirp was compared with that of the reference LFM chirp signals. Experiments were performed using a 2.25 MHz transducer mounted coaxially at a distance of 5 cm with a 1 mm hydrophone in a water tank, and the peak negative pressure of 300 kPa was set at the receiver. Both simulations and experimental results revealed that the peak side lobe level (PSL) of the compressed SHC of the NLFM chirp was improved by at least 13 dB in method I and 5 dB in method II when compared with the PSL of LFM chirps. Similarly, the integrated side lobe level (ISL) of the compressed SHC of the NLFM chirp was improved by at least 8 dB when compared with the ISL of LFM chirps. In both methods, the axial main lobe width of the compressed NLFM chirp was comparable to that of the LFM signals. The signal-to-noise ratio of the SHC of NLFM was improved by as much as 0.8 dB, when compared with the SHC of the LFM signal having the same energy level. The results also revealed the robustness of the NLFM chirp under a frequency-dependent attenuation of 0.5 dB/cm·MHz up to a penetration depth of 5 cm and a Doppler shift up to 12 kHz. Copyright © 2017 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Postoperative range of motion trends following total ankle arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajis, Adam; Henriquez, Hugo; Myerson, Mark

    2013-05-01

    It is still unknown how ankle range of motion changes following total ankle arthroplasty. This study was undertaken to more accurately address patient expectations, guide postoperative rehabilitation, and improve our understanding of how ankle range of motion changes with time. 119 total ankle replacements of 3 different prosthetic designs from 1 surgeon were retrospectively examined and compared. Ankle dorsiflexion and plantar flexion ranges of motion were calculated and analyzed preoperatively and postoperatively at 6 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year. The different ankle replacement systems were analyzed individually and together to determine whether trends were replicated. No significant increase in ankle range of motion was found 6 months postoperatively (P = .75). Mean combined postoperative range of motion did not change significantly from 24.3 degrees at 1 year versus a preoperative mean of 22.7 degrees (P = .75). Mean dorsiflexion improved significantly at the 6-week postoperative stage by 5.5 degrees (P dorsiflexion improved from preoperative levels by 5.4 degrees (P = .001), whereas mean plantar flexion decreased by 3.7 degrees (P = .004). We found no notable improvement in ankle range of motion after 6 months following total ankle arthroplasty. We also found a disproportionately higher increase in dorsiflexion compared with plantar flexion following surgery and an overall reduction in mean plantar flexion range compared with preoperative values. Notwithstanding this discrepancy, total mean ankle range of motion 1 year postoperatively was similar to preoperative values. Reasons for the discrepancy between dorsiflexion and plantar flexion are unclear. Level III, retrospective comparative study.

  9. Adaptive HIFU noise cancellation for simultaneous therapy and imaging using an integrated HIFU/imaging transducer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Jong Seob; Cannata, Jonathan Matthew; Shung, K Kirk [Department of Biomedical Engineering, NIH Resource Center for Medical Ultrasonic Transducer Technology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)], E-mail: jongsjeo@usc.edu

    2010-04-07

    It was previously demonstrated that it is feasible to simultaneously perform ultrasound therapy and imaging of a coagulated lesion during treatment with an integrated transducer that is capable of high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) and B-mode ultrasound imaging. It was found that coded excitation and fixed notch filtering upon reception could significantly reduce interference caused by the therapeutic transducer. During HIFU sonication, the imaging signal generated with coded excitation and fixed notch filtering had a range side-lobe level of less than -40 dB, while traditional short-pulse excitation and fixed notch filtering produced a range side-lobe level of -20 dB. The shortcoming is, however, that relatively complicated electronics may be needed to utilize coded excitation in an array imaging system. It is for this reason that in this paper an adaptive noise canceling technique is proposed to improve image quality by minimizing not only the therapeutic interference, but also the remnant side-lobe 'ripples' when using the traditional short-pulse excitation. The performance of this technique was verified through simulation and experiments using a prototype integrated HIFU/imaging transducer. Although it is known that the remnant ripples are related to the notch attenuation value of the fixed notch filter, in reality, it is difficult to find the optimal notch attenuation value due to the change in targets or the media resulted from motion or different acoustic properties even during one sonication pulse. In contrast, the proposed adaptive noise canceling technique is capable of optimally minimizing both the therapeutic interference and residual ripples without such constraints. The prototype integrated HIFU/imaging transducer is composed of three rectangular elements. The 6 MHz center element is used for imaging and the outer two identical 4 MHz elements work together to transmit the HIFU beam. Two HIFU elements of 14.4 mm x 20.0 mm dimensions

  10. Lead exposure at firing ranges-a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laidlaw, Mark A S; Filippelli, Gabriel; Mielke, Howard; Gulson, Brian; Ball, Andrew S

    2017-04-04

    Lead (Pb) is a toxic substance with well-known, multiple, long-term, adverse health outcomes. Shooting guns at firing ranges is an occupational necessity for security personnel, police officers, members of the military, and increasingly a recreational activity by the public. In the United States alone, an estimated 16,000-18,000 firing ranges exist. Discharge of Pb dust and gases is a consequence of shooting guns. The objectives of this study are to review the literature on blood lead levels (BLLs) and potential adverse health effects associated with the shooting population. The search terms "blood lead", "lead poisoning", "lead exposure", "marksmen", "firearms", "shooting", "guns", "rifles" and "firing ranges" were used in the search engines Google Scholar, PubMed and Science Direct to identify studies that described BLLs in association with firearm use and health effects associated with shooting activities. Thirty-six articles were reviewed that included BLLs from shooters at firing ranges. In 31 studies BLLs > 10 μg/dL were reported in some shooters, 18 studies reported BLLs > 20 μg/dL, 17 studies > 30 μg/d, and 15 studies BLLs > 40 μg/dL. The literature indicates that BLLs in shooters are associated with Pb aerosol discharge from guns and air Pb at firing ranges, number of bullets discharged, and the caliber of weapon fired. Shooting at firing ranges results in the discharge of Pb dust, elevated BLLs, and exposures that are associated with a variety of adverse health outcomes. Women and children are among recreational shooters at special risk and they do not receive the same health protections as occupational users of firing ranges. Nearly all BLL measurements compiled in the reviewed studies exceed the current reference level of 5 μg/dL recommended by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (CDC/NIOSH). Thus firing ranges, regardless of type and user classification

  11. Ultrasonic range measurements on the human body

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weenk, D.; van Beijnum, Bernhard J.F.; Droog, Adriaan; Hermens, Hermanus J.; Veltink, Petrus H.

    2013-01-01

    Ambulatory range estimation on the human body is important for the assessment of the performance of upper- and lower limb tasks outside a laboratory. In this paper an ultrasound sensor for estimating ranges on the human body is presented and validated during gait. The distance between the feet is

  12. Flinders Mountain Range, South Australia Province, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Classic examples of folded mountain ranges and wind erosion of geologic structures abound in the Flinders Mountain Range (30.5S, 139.0E), South Australia province, Australia. Winds from the deserts to the west gain speed as they blow across the barren surface and create interesting patterns as they funnel through the gullies and valleys.

  13. Report to Congress on Sustainable Ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Laysan Albatrosses , and the recovery of a shoreline/littoral zone when human traffic is limited to security vehicles and personnel. This range...Requirements Module (ARRM) and feed the Installation Status C-8 July 2007 2007 SUSTAINABLE RANGES REPORT Report-Natural Infrastructure (see

  14. On the validity range of piston theory

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Meijer, M-C

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available as the analytical validity range for linear piston theory as based in potential flows. The range of validity of single-term nonlinear extensions to the linear potential equation into the transonic and hypersonic regions is treated. A brief review of the development...

  15. Range management research, Fort Valley Experimental Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry A. Pearson; Warren P. Clary; Margaret M. Moore; Carolyn Hull Sieg

    2008-01-01

    Range management research at the Fort Valley Experimental Forest during the past 100 years has provided scientific knowledge for managing ponderosa pine forests and forest-range grazing lands in the Southwest. Three research time periods are identified: 1908 to 1950, 1950 to 1978, and 1978 to 2008. Early research (1908-1950) addressed ecological effects of livestock...

  16. Undergraduate range management exam: 1999-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Undergraduate Range Management Exam (URME) has been administered to undergraduate students at the Annual Meeting of the Society for Range Management since 1983, with students demonstrating their higher order learning skills and synthesis knowledge of the art and science of rangeland management. ...

  17. Selected Bibliography On Southern Range Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. S. Campbell; L. K. Halls; H. P. Morgan

    1963-01-01

    The purpose of this bibliography is to list important publications relating directly to southern ranges, the domestic livestock and wildlife produced thereon, and the management of these lands, livestock, and wildlife. Range is defined as natural grassland, savannah, or forest that supports native grasses, forbs, or shrubs suitable as forage for livestock and game....

  18. New data structures for orthogonal range searching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Stephen; Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Rauhe, Theis

    2000-01-01

    We present new general techniques for static orthogonal range searching problems in two and higher dimensions. For the general range reporting problem in R3, we achieve query time O(log n+k) using space O(n log1+ε n), where n denotes the number of stored points and k the number of points to be re...

  19. Long-Range Persistence Techniques Evaluated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, A.; Malamud, B. D.

    2006-12-01

    Many time series in the Earth Sciences exhibit persistence (memory) where large values (small values) `cluster' together. Here we examine long-range persistence, where one value is correlated with all others in the time series. A time series is long-range persistent (a self-affine fractal) if the power spectral density scales with a power law. The scaling exponent beta characterizes the `strength' of persistence. We compare five common analysis techniques for quantifying long-range persistence: (a) Power-spectral analysis, (b) Wavelet variance analysis, (c) Detrended Fluctuation analysis, (d) Semivariogram analysis, and (e) Rescaled-Range (R/S) analysis. To evaluate these methods, we construct 26,000 synthetic fractional noises with lengths between 512 and 4096, different persistence strengths, different distributions (normal, log-normal, levy), and using different construction methods: Fourier filtering, discrete wavelets, random additions, and Mandelbrot `cartoon' Brownian motions. We find: (a) Power-spectral and wavelet analyses are the most robust for measuring long-range persistence across all beta, although `antipersistence' is over-estimated for non- Gaussian time series. (b) Detrended Fluctuation Analysis is appropriate for signals with long-range persistence strength beta between -0.2 and 2.8 and has very large 95% confidence intervals for non-Gaussian signals. (c) Semivariograms are appropriate for signals with long-range persistence strength between 1.0 and 2.8; it has large confidence intervals and systematically underestimates log-normal noises in this range. (d) Rescaled- Range Analysis is only accurate for beta of about 0.7. We conclude some techniques are much better suited than others for quantifying long-range persistence, and the resultant beta (and associated error bars on them) are sensitive to the one point probability distribution, the length of the time series, and the techniques used.

  20. Illuminating geographical patterns in species' range shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenouillet, Gaël; Comte, Lise

    2014-10-01

    Species' range shifts in response to ongoing climate change have been widely documented, but although complex spatial patterns in species' responses are expected to be common, comprehensive comparisons of species' ranges over time have undergone little investigation. Here, we outline a modeling framework based on historical and current species distribution records for disentangling different drivers (i.e. climatic vs. nonclimatic) and assessing distinct facets (i.e. colonization, extirpation, persistence, and lags) of species' range shifts. We used extensive monitoring data for stream fish assemblages throughout France to assess range shifts for 32 fish species between an initial period (1980-1992) and a contemporary one (2003-2009). Our results provide strong evidence that the responses of individual species varied considerably and exhibited complex mosaics of spatial rearrangements. By dissociating range shifts in climatically suitable and unsuitable habitats, we demonstrated that patterns in climate-driven colonization and extirpation were less marked than those attributed to nonclimatic drivers, although this situation could rapidly shift in the near future. We also found evidence that range shifts could be related to some species' traits and that the traits involved varied depending on the facet of range shift considered. The persistence of populations in climatically unsuitable areas was greater for short-lived species, whereas the extent of the lag behind climate change was greater for long-lived, restricted-range, and low-elevation species. We further demonstrated that nonclimatic extirpations were primarily related to the size of the species' range, whereas climate-driven extirpations were better explained by thermal tolerance. Thus, the proposed framework demonstrated its potential for markedly improving our understanding of the key processes involved in range shifting and also offers a template for informing management decisions. Conservation strategies

  1. Short range DFT combined with long-range local RPA within a range-separated hybrid DFT framework

    CERN Document Server

    Chermak, E; Mussard, Bastien; Angyan, Janos

    2015-01-01

    Selecting excitations in localized orbitals to calculate long-range correlation contributions to range-separated density-functional theory can reduce the overall computational effort significantly. Beyond simple selection schemes of excited determinants, the dispersion-only approximation, which avoids counterpoise-corrected monomer calculations, is shown to be particularly interesting in this context, which we apply to the random-phase approximation. The approach has been tested on dimers of formamide, water, methane and benzene.

  2. 2008 NASA Range Safety Annual Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamoreaux, Richard W.

    2008-01-01

    Welcome to the 2008 edition of the NASA Range Safety Annual Report. Funded by NASA Headquarters, this report provides a NASA Range Safety overview for current and potential range users. This year, along with full length articles concerning various subject areas, we have provided updates to standard subjects with links back to the 2007 original article. Additionally, we present summaries from the various NASA Range Safety Program activities that took place throughout the year, as well as information on several special projects that may have a profound impact on the way we will do business in the future. The sections include a program overview and 2008 highlights of Range Safety Training; Range Safety Policy; Independent Assessments and Common Risk Analysis Tools Development; Support to Program Operations at all ranges conducting NASA launch operations; a continuing overview of emerging Range Safety-related technologies; Special Interests Items that include recent changes in the ELV Payload Safety Program and the VAS explosive siting study; and status reports from all of the NASA Centers that have Range Safety responsibilities. As is the case each year, contributors to this report are too numerous to mention, but we thank individuals from the NASA Centers, the Department of Defense, and civilian organizations for their contributions. We have made a great effort to include the most current information available. We recommend that this report be used only for guidance and that the validity and accuracy of all articles be verified for updates. This is the third year we have utilized this web-based format for the annual report. We continually receive positive feedback on the web-based edition, and we hope you enjoy this year's product as well. It has been a very busy and productive year on many fronts as you will note as you review this report. Thank you to everyone who contributed to make this year a successful one, and I look forward to working with all of you in the

  3. Expert systems and ballistic range data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathaway, Wayne; Steinhoff, Mark; Whyte, Robert; Brown, David; Choate, Jeff; Adelgren, Russ

    1992-07-01

    A program aimed at the development of an expert system for the reduction of ballistic range data is described. The program applies expert system and artificial intelligence techniques to develop a mathematically complex state-of-the-art spark range data reduction procedure that includes linear theory and six-degree-of-freedom analysis. The scope of the knowledge base includes both spin and statically stable vehicles. The expert system is expected to improve the quality of the data reduction process while reducing the work load on the senior range engineer.

  4. Remote sensing applications for range management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, R. H.

    1981-01-01

    The use of satellite information for range management is discussed. The use of infrared photography and color photography for analysis of vegetation cover is described. The methods of interpreting LANDSAT imagery are highlighted and possible applications of such interpretive methods to range management are considered. The concept of using LANDSAT as a sampling frame for renewable natural resource inventories was examined. It is concluded that a blending of LANDSAT vegetation data with soils and digital terrain data, will define a basic sampling unit that is appropriate for range management utilization.

  5. Progress and Challenges in Short to Medium Range Coupled Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassington, G. B.; Martin, M. J.; Tolman, H. L.; Akella, Santha; Balmeseda, M.; Chambers, C. R. S.; Cummings, J. A.; Drillet, Y.; Jansen, P. A. E. M.; Laloyaux, P.; hide

    2014-01-01

    The availability of GODAE Oceanview-type ocean forecast systems provides the opportunity to develop high-resolution, short- to medium-range coupled prediction systems. Several groups have undertaken the first experiments based on relatively unsophisticated approaches. Progress is being driven at the institutional level targeting a range of applications that represent their respective national interests with clear overlaps and opportunities for information exchange and collaboration. These include general circulation, hurricanes, extra-tropical storms, high-latitude weather and sea-ice forecasting as well as coastal air-sea interaction. In some cases, research has moved beyond case and sensitivity studies to controlled experiments to obtain statistically significant metrics.

  6. A wide dynamic range square-law diode detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparici, Juan

    1988-09-01

    Semiconductor square-law diode detectors are frequently used in radio astronomy to recover signals immersed in the system noise. Their use is commonly restricted to narrow dynamic ranges of very low signal levels where the square-law is valid. A circuit based on operational amplifiers is proposed that would minimize temperature-drift effects within a dynamic range greater than 30 dB, with an efficiency 600 times greater than the simple high-impedance unbiased detector. Using square-law detector theory, optimum performance is determined for a detector driving source impedance of about 14 percent of the dynamic resistance.

  7. Combined search for Lorentz violation in short-range gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Shao, Cheng-Gang; Tan, Wen-Hai; Yang, Shan-Qing; Luo, Jun; Tobar, Michael Edmund; Bailey, Quentin G; Long, J C; Weisman, E; Xu, Rui; Kostelecky, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Short-range experiments testing the gravitational inverse-square law at the submillimeter scale offer uniquely sensitive probes of Lorentz invariance. A combined analysis of results from the short-range gravity experiments HUST-2015, HUST-2011, IU-2012, and IU-2002 permits the first independent measurements of the 14 nonrelativistic coefficients for Lorentz violation in the pure-gravity sector at the level of $10^{-9}$ m$^2$, improving by an order of magnitude the sensitivity to numerous types of Lorentz violation involving quadratic curvature derivatives and curvature couplings.

  8. Experimental Limits on Gravitational Waves in the MHz frequency Range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanza, Robert Jr. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This thesis presents the results of a search for gravitational waves in the 1-11MHz frequency range using dual power-recycled Michelson laser interferometers at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. An unprecedented level of sensitivity to gravitational waves in this frequency range has been achieved by cross-correlating the output fluctuations of two identical and colocated 40m long interferometers. This technique produces sensitivities better than two orders of magnitude below the quantum shot-noise limit, within integration times of less than 1 hour. 95% confidence level upper limits are placed on the strain amplitude of MHz frequency gravitational waves at the 10-21 Hz-1/2 level, constituting the best direct limits to date at these frequencies. For gravitational wave power distributed over this frequency range, a broadband upper limit of 2.4 x 10-21Hz-1/2 at 95% confidence level is also obtained. This thesis covers the detector technology, the commissioning and calibration of the instrument, the statistical data analysis, and the gravitational wave limit results. Particular attention is paid to the end-to-end calibration of the instrument’s sensitivity to differential arm length motion, and so to gravitational wave strain. A detailed statistical analysis of the data is presented as well.

  9. Kenai National Moose Range : Narrative report : 1968

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Kenai National Moose Range outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1968 calendar year. The report begins by summarizing the...

  10. Long-Range Nondestructive Testing System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal is for the development of a long range, multi-point non-destructive system for the detection of subsurface flaws in metallic and composite materials of...

  11. Arctic National Wildlife Range, Annual Narrative Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Arctic National Wildlife Range (ANWR) was established by executive order in 1960 for the purpose of preserving unique wildlife, wilderness and recreational...

  12. Range ecosystem management for natural areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report describes methods for managing range ecosystems in natural areas. Preserved natural areas on rangeland may, in a short time, be only those which received...

  13. Mountain ranges favour vigorous Atlantic meridional overturning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bablu Sinha; Adam T. Blaker; Joël J.-M. Hirschi; Sarah Bonham; Matthew Brand; Simon Josey; Robin S. Smith; Jochem Marotzke

    2012-01-01

      We use a global Ocean-Atmosphere General Circulation Model (OAGCM) to show that the major mountain ranges of the world have a significant role in maintenance of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC...

  14. Final Range Wide Environmental Impact Statement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Botdorf, Charles

    2001-01-01

    This Final Range Wide Environmental Impact Statement presents the impacts associated with the direct, indirect, and cumulative effects of mission diversification and changes to land use for Yuma Proving Ground, Arizona...

  15. VT E911 road address range geocoder

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — VT E911 road address range geocoder. VCGI, in collaboration with the VT E911 Board, has created a suite of geocoding services that can be used to batch geocode...

  16. Worst-Case Efficient Range Searching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arge, Lars Allan

    2009-01-01

    In this tutorial we will describe some of the recent advances in the development of worst-case efficient range search indexing structures, that is, structures for storing a set of data points such that the points in a axis-parallel (hyper-) query rectangle can be found efficiently (with as few disk...... discuss the external priority search tree [8], which solves a restricted version of the two-dimensional version of the problem where the query rectangle is unbounded on one side. This structure is then used in a range tree index structure [8, 21] that answers general two-dimensional queries in the same......, 17], as well as recent index structures for higher-dimensional range search indexing [1]. We end by mentioning various R-tree variant [7, 18, 15] that can be used to solve the extended version of range search indexing where the queries as well as the data are (hyper-) rectangles. More comprehensive...

  17. Comparative analysis of planetary laser ranging concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirkx, D.; Bauer, S.; Noomen, R.; Vermeersen, B. L. A.; Visser, P. N.

    2014-12-01

    Laser ranging is an emerging technology for tracking interplanetary missions, offering improved range accuracy and precision (mm-cm), compared to existing DSN tracking. The ground segment uses existing Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) technology, whereas the space segment is modified with an active system. In a one-way system, such as that currently being used on the LRO spacecraft (Zuber et al., 2010), only an active detector is required on the spacecraft. For a two-way system, such as that tested by using the laser altimeter system on the MESSENGER spacecraft en route to Mercury (Smith et al., 2006), a laser transmitter system is additionally placed on the space segment, which will asynchronously fire laser pulses towards the ground stations. Although the one-way system requires less hardware, clock errors on both the space and ground segments will accumulate over time, polluting the range measurements. For a two-way system, the range measurements are only sensitive to clock errors integrated over the the two-way light time.We investigate the performance of both one- and two-way laser range systems by simulating their operation. We generate realizations of clock error time histories from Allan variance profiles, and use them to create range measurement error profiles. We subsequently perform the orbit determination process from this data to quanitfy the system's performance. For our simulations, we use two test cases: a lunar orbiter similar to LRO and a Phobos lander similar to the Phobos Laser Ranging concept (Turyshev et al., 2010). For the lunar orbiter, we include an empirical model for unmodelled non-gravitational accelerations in our truth model to include errors ihe dynamics. We include the estimation of clock parameters over a number of arc lengths for our simulations of the one-way range system and use a variety of state arc durations for the lunar orbiter simulations.We perform Monte Carlo simulations and generate true error distributions for both

  18. Cache-Oblivious Planar Orthogonal Range Searching and Counting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arge, Lars; Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Fagerberg, Rolf

    2005-01-01

    present the first cache-oblivious data structure for planar orthogonal range counting, and improve on previous results for cache-oblivious planar orthogonal range searching. Our range counting structure uses O(Nlog2 N) space and answers queries using O(logB N) memory transfers, where B is the block...... size of any memory level in a multilevel memory hierarchy. Using bit manipulation techniques, the space can be further reduced to O(N). The structure can also be modified to support more general semigroup range sum queries in O(logB N) memory transfers, using O(Nlog2 N) space for three-sided queries...... and O(Nlog22 N/log2log2 N) space for four-sided queries. Based on the O(Nlog N) space range counting structure, we develop a data structure that uses O(Nlog2 N) space and answers three-sided range queries in O(logB N+T/B) memory transfers, where T is the number of reported points. Based...

  19. Bandwidth Extension of a Printed Square Monopole Antenna Loaded with Periodic Parallel-Plate Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linglong Meng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel wideband monopole antenna employing periodically loaded parallel-plate lines is presented in this paper. The proposed antenna consists of a main square patch, a rectangular ground plane, and a periodical structure which is printed on both sides of substrate. A strong electromagnetic coupling technique is used to design the element that enhances impedance bandwidth and decreases the side-lobe level throughout the effective bandwidth. The antenna achieves a wide impedance bandwidth of about 61.1% or ranging from 2.16 to 4.06 GHz, an omnidirectional far-field pattern, and a peak radiation gain of 2.37 dBi. Finally, the proposed antenna is analyzed and measured. The measured results show satisfactory performance and good agreement with the simulated results.

  20. Pattern Synthesis of Dual-band Shared Aperture Interleaved Linear Antenna Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Guo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an approach to improve the efficiency of an array aperture by interleaving two different arrays in the same aperture area. Two sub-arrays working at different frequencies are interleaved in the same linear aperture area. The available aperture area is efficiently used. The element positions of antenna array are optimized by using Invasive Weed Optimization (IWO to reduce the peak side lobe level (PSLL of the radiation pattern. To overcome the shortness of traditional methods which can only fulfill the design of shared aperture antenna array working at the same frequency, this method can achieve the design of dual-band antenna array with wide working frequency range. Simulation results show that the proposed method is feasible and efficient in the synthesis of dual-band shared aperture antenna array.

  1. Adaptive and Approximate Orthogonal Range Counting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chan, Timothy M.; Wilkinson, Bryan Thomas

    2013-01-01

    ]. •We give an O(n loglog n)-space data structure for approximate 2-D orthogonal range counting that can compute a (1+δ)-factor approximation to the count in O(loglog n) time for any fixed constant δ>0. Again, our bounds match the state of the art for the 2-D orthogonal range emptiness problem. •Lastly...

  2. Vehicle Based Laser Range Finding in Crops

    OpenAIRE

    Hans-Juergen Horn; Rolf Adamek; Detlef Ehlert

    2009-01-01

    Laser rangefinders and laser scanners are widely used for industrial purposes and for remote sensing. In agriculture information about crop parameters like volume, height, and density can support the optimisation of production processes. In scientific papers the measurement of these parameters by low cost laser rangefinders with one echo has been presented for short ranges. Because the cross section area of the beam increases with the measuring range, it can be expected that laser rangefinder...

  3. Long-Range Order in β Brass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norvell, J.C.; Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage

    1970-01-01

    The long-range order parameter M of β brass has been determined from measurements of the intensity of superlattice reflections of Bragg-scattered neutrons. Over the whole temperature range T=300 °K to T=Tc=736 °K, the data are in remarkable agreement with the prediction for the compressible Ising...... bcc lattice with only nearest-neighbor interactions. © 1970 The American Physical Society...

  4. High Dynamic Range Digital Imaging of Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karr, Brian A.; Chalmers, Alan; Debattista, Kurt

    2014-01-01

    The ability to capture engineering imagery with a wide degree of dynamic range during rocket launches is critical for post launch processing and analysis [USC03, NNC86]. Rocket launches often present an extreme range of lightness, particularly during night launches. Night launches present a two-fold problem: capturing detail of the vehicle and scene that is masked by darkness, while also capturing detail in the engine plume.

  5. Long range electrostatic forces in ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebbie, Matthew A; Smith, Alexander M; Dobbs, Howard A; Lee, Alpha A; Warr, Gregory G; Banquy, Xavier; Valtiner, Markus; Rutland, Mark W; Israelachvili, Jacob N; Perkin, Susan; Atkin, Rob

    2017-01-19

    Ionic liquids are pure salts that are liquid under ambient conditions. As liquids composed solely of ions, the scientific consensus has been that ionic liquids have exceedingly high ionic strengths and thus very short Debye screening lengths. However, several recent experiments from laboratories around the world have reported data for the approach of two surfaces separated by ionic liquids which revealed remarkable long range forces that appear to be electrostatic in origin. Evidence has accumulated demonstrating long range surface forces for several different combinations of ionic liquids and electrically charged surfaces, as well as for concentrated mixtures of inorganic salts in solvent. The original interpretation of these forces, that ionic liquids could be envisioned as "dilute electrolytes," was controversial, and the origin of long range forces in ionic liquids remains the subject of discussion. Here we seek to collate and examine the evidence for long range surface forces in ionic liquids, identify key outstanding questions, and explore possible mechanisms underlying the origin of these long range forces. Long range surface forces in ionic liquids and other highly concentrated electrolytes hold diverse implications from designing ionic liquids for energy storage applications to rationalizing electrostatic correlations in biological self-assembly.

  6. Reference ranges and determinants of total hCG levels during pregnancy: the Generation R Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.I.M. Korevaar (Tim); E.A.P. Steegers (Eric); Y.B. de Rijke (Yolanda); S. Schalekamp-Timmermans (Sarah); W.E. Visser (Wil Edward); A. Hofman (Albert); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning); T.J. Visser (Theo); M. Medici (Marco); R.P. Peeters (Robin)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractHuman chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a pregnancy hormone secreted by the placental synctiotrophoblast cell layer that has been linked to fetal growth and various placental, uterine and fetal functions. In order to investigate the effects of hCG on clinical endpoints, knowledge on

  7. The Development of a Tactical-Level Full Range Leadership Measurement Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    theory has become established as the predominant and most widely researched theory on leadership ( Northouse , 2007). The most commonly used survey...correlated correlation coefficients,” Psychological Bulletin, 111: 172-175 (1992). 64 Northouse , Peter G. Leadership Theory and Practice

  8. Developing a capability to classify technical skill levels within a Cyber Range

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Labuschagne, William A

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available with the characteristics of a web server or a NFS server. The results should highlight that Secure Shell (SSH) is open on the other nodes. The participants can use this to access the servers remotely. The participants will need authentication details in the form of a... have a very slow response to a request). Ideally, participants should have performed six commands in the incident response portion of the experiment: ● vi data.txt ● sudo ssh roque@10.0.5.22 ● netstat -ntlp | grep LISTEN ● sudo ssh roque@10...

  9. Microprocessor realizations of range and range-rate filters in radar systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischer, D.; Aronhime, P.

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes the implementation of digital radar range-rate filters on a microprocessor-based system. A range-rate filter processes a digitized noisy range signal to recover smoothed range data and its derivative, range rate. Two filter designs are implemented. Considerations aiding their efficient operation on an 8-bit microprocessor are discussed. The filters are subjected to a noisy range input signal of known variance, and the associated output signals are statistically analysed to determine noise-rejection characteristics. These results are compared to analytical predictions.

  10. Properties of Fermi liquids with a finite range interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nozieres, P. (Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France))

    1992-04-01

    Following a suggestion of Khodel' and Shaginyan (KS), it is shown that a Hartree Fock description of Fermi liquids can lead to very strange results when the interaction has long range. For instance, the sharp drop of particle distribution at the Fermi level can be smeared over a finite k-range, with a flat plateau in the quasiparticle energy. In practice, such an effect appears as an artefact of the Hartree Fock approximation. The KS effect occurs only for an attraction, in which case it is hidden by superconductivity. Moreover, the enhanced quasiparticle collision rate makes the Hartree Fock approximation untenable. Finally, screening of a strong long range interaction is such that the instability threshold cannot be reached.

  11. [Laryngeal registers as shown in the voice range profile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roubeau, Bernard; Castellengo, Michèle; Bodin, Patricia; Ragot, Maryse

    2004-01-01

    Voice range profile (VRP) is a well-known vocal test. Usually, it consists of a single diagram based on the whole voice range. When practised separately in each individual laryngeal mechanism, VRP may offer much information on both the relative development of the different mechanisms used by the subject and the extension of the common area between two consecutive mechanisms. We present the results obtained from 42 subjects of both sexes who have different singing technique levels: professional singers, student and amateur singers, as well as subjects without any experience in singing. For each mechanism, the global VRP area and the dynamic range were computed. Results are discussed in relation to sex category and vocal training of subjects. Exploring systematically VRP for each mechanism gives new and valuable information on register managing in singing practice.

  12. Perceptual Effects of Dynamic Range Compression in Popular Music Recordings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortkjær, Jens; Walther-Hansen, Mads

    2014-01-01

    compression. Surprisingly, the results failed to reveal any evidence of the effects of dynamic range compression on subjective preference or perceived depth cues. Perceptual data suggest that listeners are less sensitive than commonly believed to even high levels of compression. As measured in terms...... of differences in the peak-to-average ratio, compression has little perceptual effect other than increased loudness or clipping effects that only occur at high levels of compression. One explanation for the inconsistency between data and belief might result from the fact that compression is frequently...

  13. Individual differences in BEV drivers' range stress during first encounter of a critical range situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Thomas; Rauh, Nadine; Krems, Josef F

    2016-11-01

    It is commonly held that range anxiety, in the form of experienced range stress, constitutes a usage barrier, particularly during the early period of battery electric vehicle (BEV) usage. To better understand factors that play a role in range stress during this critical period of adaptation to limited-range mobility, we examined individual differences in experienced range stress in the context of a critical range situation. In a field experiment, 74 participants drove a BEV on a 94-km round trip, which was tailored to lead to a critical range situation (i.e., small available range safety buffer). Higher route familiarity, trust in the range estimation system, system knowledge, subjective range competence, and internal control beliefs in dealing with technology were clearly related to lower experienced range stress; emotional stability (i.e., low neuroticism) was partly related to lower range stress. These results can inform strategies aimed at reducing range stress during early BEV usage, as well as contribute to a better understanding of factors that drive user experience in low-resource systems, which is a key topic in the field of green ergonomics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Optics At White Sands Missile Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fronczek, Ron C.; Hayslett, Charles R.

    1985-11-01

    We present an overview of the optics and optical data gathering programs conducted at White Sands Missile Range. Activities at White Sands Missile Range have always been diverse - the first test conducted there was the world's first nuclear explosion. In the forty years since that event the range has hosted a large assortment of vehicles including V2, Nike, Aerobee, Space Shuttle, Cruise, and the Copperhead. The last three of these devices illustrate the difficulty of the White Sands optical data gathering task. One is acquired in orbit, one as it crosses through a mountain pass, and one as it issues from the muzzle of a cannon. A combination of optical, radar, video, computer, and communications technology has produced a versatile system that can satisfy the data gathering requirements of most range users. Another example of the diverse optics programs at the range is the development of the High Energy Laser Systems Test Facility (HELSTF). Because of the nature of the systems being tested, the HELSTF is full of optics and optical systems including the TRW MIRACL laser and the Hughes SEA LITE Beam Director.

  15. Passive ranging of boost-phase missiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawks, Michael; Perram, Glen

    2007-04-01

    The depth of absorption bands in observed spectra of distant, bright sources can be used to estimate range to the source. Previous efforts in this area relied on Beer's Law to estimate range from observations of infrared CO II bands, with disappointing results. A modified approach is presented that uses band models and observations of the O II absorption band near 762 nm. This band is spectrally isolated from other atmospheric bands, which enables direct estimation of molecular absorption from observed intensity. Range is estimated by comparing observed values of band-average absorption, (see manuscript), against predicted curves derived from either historical data or model predictions. Accuracy of better than 0.5% has been verified in short-range (up to 3km) experiments using a Fourier transform interferometer at 1cm -1 resolution. A conceptual design is described for a small, affordable passive ranging sensor suitable for use on tactical aircraft for missile attack warning and time-to-impact estimation. Models are used to extrapolate experimental results (using 1 cm -1 resolution data) to analyze expected performance of this filter-based system.

  16. Ground-Based Midcourse Defense (GMD) Extended Test Range (ETR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-07-01

    Steller’s eiders and endangered short-tailed albatross offshore would also be outside the range of site preparation noise levels and are not...bird populations. Waterfowl would quickly resume feeding and other normal behavior patterns after a launch is completed. GMD ETR Final EIS es...mammal. No significant long-term adverse impacts are anticipated to seabirds and shorebirds, Guadalupe fur seals, California sea lions, northern

  17. Communications and Information: Compendium of Communications and Information Terminology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-02-01

    DSM —Digital Switching Module DSN—Defense Switched Network DSNET—Defense Secure Network DSP—Digital Signal Processor DSR—Data Set Ready DSRS...Lobe Level SLOC—Source Line of Code SLP —Single Line Phone SLS—Side Lobe Suppression SMART—Self-Monitoring Analysis And Reporting Technology SMART-T

  18. T S Jeyali Laseetha

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Sadhana. T S Jeyali Laseetha. Articles written in Sadhana. Volume 39 Issue 1 February 2014 pp 81-95. Certain investigations on the reduction of side lobe level of an uniform linear antenna array using biogeography based optimization technique with sinusoidal migration model and simplified-BBO.

  19. Hip strength and range of motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosler, Andrea B.; Crossley, Kay M.; Thorborg, Kristian

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To determine the normal profiles for hip strength and range of motion (ROM) in a professional football league in Qatar, and examine the effect of leg dominance, age, past history of injury, and ethnicity on these profiles. Design Cross-sectional cohort study. Methods Participants...... values are documented for hip strength and range of motion that can be used as reference profiles in the clinical assessment, screening, and management of professional football players. Leg dominance, recent past injury history and ethnicity do not need to be accounted for when using these profiles...... included 394 asymptomatic, male professional football players, aged 18–40 years. Strength was measured using a hand held dynamometer with an eccentric test in side-lying for hip adduction and abduction, and the squeeze test in supine with 45° hip flexion. Range of motion measures included: hip internal...

  20. Extended range interferometry based on wavefront shaping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczupak, M. L.; Salbut, L.

    2007-09-01

    There are many cases when absolute measurements of objects with large height differences or height discontinuity is needed. These measurements can not be covered by classical interferometry since the range of non-ambiguity is limited to half the optical wavelength. Several techniques have been already developed for extending of non-ambiguity range. However most of them is based on multi-wavelength methods which demands expensive light sources and special environment conditions. In this work the new interferometric technique for absolute measurements of large steps discontinuities is proposed. Variable wavefront of the illuminating beam and special procedure for calibration of the measurement volume are used for extending of the measurement range without using multispectral sources. Additionally, calibration of the measurement area simplifies fringe processing and quicken measures. Theoretical analysis of this technique, its numerical simulations and experimental verification are presented and discussed.

  1. Range conditions for a spherical mean transform

    KAUST Repository

    Agranovsky, Mark

    2009-07-01

    The paper is devoted to the range description of the Radon type transform that averages a function over all spheres centered on a given sphere. Such transforms arise naturally in thermoacoustic tomography, a novel method of medical imaging. Range descriptions have recently been obtained for such transforms, and consisted of smoothness and support conditions, moment conditions, and some additional orthogonality conditions of spectral nature. It has been noticed that in odd dimensions, surprisingly, the moment conditions are superfluous and can be eliminated. It is shown in this text that in fact the same happens in any dimension.

  2. Distributed chaos and inertial ranges in turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Bershadskii, A

    2016-01-01

    It is shown that appearance of inertial range of scales, adjacent to distributed chaos range, results in adiabatic invariance of an energy correlation integral for isotropic homogeneous turbulence and for buoyancy driven turbulence (with stable or unstable stratification, including Rayleigh-Taylor mixing zone). Power spectrum of velocity field for distributed chaos dominated by this adiabatic invariant has a stretched exponential form $\\propto \\exp(-k/k_{\\beta})^{3/5}$. Results of recent direct numerical simulations have been used in order to support these conclusions.

  3. High dynamic range imaging sensors and architectures

    CERN Document Server

    Darmont, Arnaud

    2013-01-01

    Illumination is a crucial element in many applications, matching the luminance of the scene with the operational range of a camera. When luminance cannot be adequately controlled, a high dynamic range (HDR) imaging system may be necessary. These systems are being increasingly used in automotive on-board systems, road traffic monitoring, and other industrial, security, and military applications. This book provides readers with an intermediate discussion of HDR image sensors and techniques for industrial and non-industrial applications. It describes various sensor and pixel architectures capable

  4. New range of heavy electric vehicle chassis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-06-01

    A new range of electrically-powered vehicles is announced in the UK. The vehicles are a joint venture between the Electric Vehicle Division of Hydrotechniek and its Dutch associate, Creusen Elektro-Mechanische Industrie BV. The 867S and 968S are three-axle vehicles with four-wheel drive on the rear four wheels. At present the vehicles go 20 km/h and have an 80-km range. The speed is to be extended in the near future and a diesel-electric hybrid may be introduced. An 867S is to be fitted out as a mobile library.

  5. Introduction to sensors for ranging and imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Brooker, Graham

    2009-01-01

    ""This comprehensive text-reference provides a solid background in active sensing technology. It is concerned with active sensing, starting with the basics of time-of-flight sensors (operational principles, components), and going through the derivation of the radar range equation and the detection of echo signals, both fundamental to the understanding of radar, sonar and lidar imaging. Several chapters cover signal propagation of both electromagnetic and acoustic energy, target characteristics, stealth, and clutter. The remainder of the book introduces the range measurement process, active ima

  6. Bearings Only Air-to-Air Ranging

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-07-25

    TERMS (Continue on reverse it necessarv and identify WIock numberl FIELD GROUP’ SUB- GIR Air to Air RangingRange Estimationt Min..a simtr Passive...by uarget rnge sad direction or by observer motion in the statistical behavior of the 4.2 &Awo 0*l LA Sqvwnr. Rmng IoiamIin. Since it hu alredy bin...lengths, sad while they indicate irreularty in the estimation processt, they do nix explain its source. Figure 22, whMc as typical of whet can arise

  7. Ranging Behaviour of Commercial Free-Range Broiler Chickens 1: Factors Related to Flock Variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Peta S; Hemsworth, Paul H; Groves, Peter J; Gebhardt-Henrich, Sabine G; Rault, Jean-Loup

    2017-07-20

    Little is known about the ranging behaviour of chickens. Understanding ranging behaviour is required to improve management and shed and range design to ensure optimal ranging opportunities. Using Radio Frequency Identification technology, we tracked 300 individual broiler chickens in each of four mixed sex ROSS 308 flocks on one commercial farm across two seasons. Ranging behaviour was tracked from the first day of range access (21 days of age) until 35 days of age in winter and 44 days of age in summer. Range use was higher than previously reported from scan sampling studies. More chickens accessed the range in summer (81%) than winter (32%; p < 0.05). On average, daily frequency and duration of range use was greater in summer flocks (4.4 ± 0.1 visits for a total of 26.3 ± 0.8 min/day) than winter flocks (3.2 ± 0.2 visits for a total of 7.9 ± 1.0 min/day). Seasonal differences were only marginally explained by weather conditions and may reflect the reduction in range exposure between seasons (number of days, hours per day, and time of day). Specific times of the day (p < 0.01) and pop-holes were favoured (p < 0.05). We provide evidence of relationships between ranging and external factors that may explain ranging preferences.

  8. Comparison of the produced and perceived voice range profiles in untrained and trained classical singers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hunter, Eric J.; Svec, Jan G.; Titze, Ingo R.

    2006-01-01

    Frequency and intensity ranges (in true decibel sound pressure level, 20 mu Pa at 1 m) of voice production in trained and untrained vocalists were compared with the perceived dynamic range (phons) and units of loudness (sones) of the ear. Results were reported in terms of standard voice range

  9. Understanding the impact of electric vehicle driving experience on range anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauh, Nadine; Franke, Thomas; Krems, Josef F

    2015-02-01

    The objective of the present research was to increase understanding of the phenomenon of range anxiety and to determine the degree to which practical experience with battery electric vehicles (BEVs) reduces different levels of range anxiety. Limited range is a challenge for BEV users. A frequently discussed phenomenon in this context is range anxiety. There is some evidence suggesting that range anxiety might be a problem only for inexperienced BEV drivers and, therefore, might decrease with practical experience. We compared 12 motorists with high BEV driving experience (M = 60,500 km) with 12 motorists who had never driven a BEV before. The test drive was designed to lead to a critical range situation (remaining range < trip length). We examined range appraisal and range stress (i.e., range anxiety) on different levels (cognitive, emotional, and behavioral). Experienced BEV drivers exhibited less negative range appraisal and range anxiety than inexperienced BEV drivers, revealing significant, strong effects for all but one variable. Hence, BEV driving experience (defined as absolute kilometers driven with a BEV) seems to be one important variable that predicts less range anxiety. In order to reduce range anxiety in BEV drivers even when there is a critical range situation, it is important to increase efficiency and effectiveness of the learning process.

  10. Historical Biogeography Using Species Geographical Ranges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero, Ignacio; Keil, Petr; Jetz, Walter; Crawford, Forrest W

    2015-11-01

    Spatial variation in biodiversity is the result of complex interactions between evolutionary history and ecological factors. Methods in historical biogeography combine phylogenetic information with current species locations to infer the evolutionary history of a clade through space and time. A major limitation of most methods for historical biogeographic inference is the requirement of single locations for terminal lineages, reducing contemporary species geographical ranges to a point in two-dimensional space. In reality, geographic ranges usually show complex geographic patterns, irregular shapes, or discontinuities. In this article, we describe a method for phylogeographic analysis using polygonal species geographic ranges of arbitrary complexity. By integrating the geographic diversification process across species ranges, we provide a method to infer the geographic location of ancestors in a Bayesian framework. By modeling migration conditioned on a phylogenetic tree, this approach permits reconstructing the geographic location of ancestors through time. We apply this new method to the diversification of two neotropical bird genera, Trumpeters (Psophia) and Cinclodes ovenbirds. We demonstrate the usefulness of our method (called rase) in phylogeographic reconstruction of species ancestral locations and contrast our results with previous methods that compel researchers to reduce the distribution of species to one point in space. We discuss model extensions to enable a more general, spatially explicit framework for historical biogeographic analysis. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Society of Systematic Biologists. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Resources and Long-Range Forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Waldo E.

    1973-01-01

    The author argues that forecasts of quick depletion of resources in the environment as a result of overpopulation and increased usage may not be free from error. Ignorance still exists in understanding the recovery mechanisms of nature. Long-range forecasts are likely to be wrong in such situations. (PS)

  12. Medium-range fire weather forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.O. Roads; K. Ueyoshi; S.C. Chen; J. Alpert; F. Fujioka

    1991-01-01

    The forecast skill of theNational Meteorological Center's medium range forecast (MRF) numerical forecasts of fire weather variables is assessed for the period June 1,1988 to May 31,1990. Near-surface virtual temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and a derived fire weather index (FWI) are forecast well by the MRF model. However, forecast relative humidity has...

  13. Optimal Static Range Reporting in One Dimension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Stephen; Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Rauhe, Theis

    2001-01-01

    a query interval, we present an optimal data structure with linear space cost and with query time linear in the number of integers reported. This result holds in the unit cost RAM model with word size w and a standard instruction set. We also present a linear space data structure for approximate range...

  14. RANGE ECONOMICS RESEARCH (THE NATIONAL INTEREST)

    OpenAIRE

    Crom, Richard J.

    1985-01-01

    Increasing interest in range economics research calls for a more tightly defined set of issues and a menu of research projects addressing these issues. This paper identifies major issues of national importance followed by a brief description of suggested research projects.

  15. Short range radio research in Twente

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijerink, Arjan

    2010-01-01

    The research and education by the Telecommunication Engineering Group at the University of Twente is dedicated to physical layer topics in communications. Three research tracks have prominence: Short Range Radio, Microwave Photonics, and Electromagnetic Compatibility. Arjan is active in the Short

  16. African Journal of Range and Forage Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The African Journal of Range & Forage Science (previously known as Proceedings of the Grassland Society of Southern Africa and Journal of the Grassland Society of Southern Africa) is the leading rangeland and pastoral journal in Africa, and serves as an important reference for anyone interested in the management and ...

  17. Controlling a wide range of flow rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, G. S.

    1979-01-01

    Servo-operated valve and two flowmeters allow accurate control over 1,900:1 flow-rate range. It was developed as part of laboratory instrument for measuring properties of confined fluids under conditions analogous to those encountered in deep drilling operations.

  18. Demonstration of the Colour Range of Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, G. T.

    1975-01-01

    Describes the construction of a box that is filled with indicator of a particular concentration. A little acid is added to one side and a little alkali to the other so that the complete colour range of the indicator is observable. (GS)

  19. Look Ahead: Long-Range Learning Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Margery

    2010-01-01

    Faced with an unsteady economy and fluctuating learning needs, planning a learning strategy designed to last longer than the next six months can be a tall order. But a long-range learning plan can provide a road map for success. In this article, four companies (KPMG LLP, CarMax, DPR Construction, and EMC Corp.) describe their learning plans, and…

  20. Great Basin Experimental Range: Annotated bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. Durant McArthur; Bryce A. Richardson; Stanley G. Kitchen

    2013-01-01

    This annotated bibliography documents the research that has been conducted on the Great Basin Experimental Range (GBER, also known as the Utah Experiment Station, Great Basin Station, the Great Basin Branch Experiment Station, Great Basin Experimental Center, and other similar name variants) over the 102 years of its existence. Entries were drawn from the original...

  1. Extended-range order in glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellison, A.J.G.; Price, D.L.; Saboungi, M.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Egami, T.; Hu, Rui-Zhong [Pennsylvania Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Howells, W.S. [Rutherford Appleton Lab., Chilton (United Kingdom)

    1994-03-01

    A new type of order is identified in complex glasses, characterized by diffraction peaks at values of the wave vector below those typical of intermediate-range order. Combined neutron and anomalous x-ray diffraction studies of one glass exhibiting this behavior, vitreous rubidium germanate, indicate it to be associated with chemical ordering of the two cations with respect to each other.

  2. Report to Congress on Sustainable Ranges, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    research, tsunami warning/verification, and seismic / earthquake monitoring. The littoral nature of Navy training ranges and the unique types of...training. `` Completed Phases 1 (Mountainside Village) and 2 (Hillside Tunnels ) of four-phase urban training complex plan. Ongoing Progress

  3. Report to Congress on Sustainable Ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    research, climate research, tsunami warning/ verification, and seismic /earthquake monitoring. The littoral nature of Navy training ranges and the unique...Mountainside Village) and 2 (Hillside Tunnels ) of four-phase urban training complex plan. Ongoing Progress continuing into 2014. 252014 Sustainable

  4. Host range evaluation and morphological characterization of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 29 isolates of Pseudoperonospora cubensis were collected from various cucurbit farms in West Malaysia. Sporangia of 13 isolates had the ability to germinate at 14°C and were used for host range (pathotype) study using leaf disc assay on a set of twelve cucurbit cultivars. Twelve different pathotypes of P. cubensis ...

  5. Engineering Biosensors with Dual Programmable Dynamic Ranges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Benmei; Zhang, Juntao; Ou, Xiaowen; Lou, Xiaoding; Xia, Fan; Vallée-Bélisle, Alexis

    2018-01-10

    Although extensively used in all fields of chemistry, molecular recognition still suffers from a significant limitation: host-guest binding displays a fixed, hyperbolic dose-response curve, which limits its usefulness in many applications. Here we take advantage of the high programmability of DNA chemistry and propose a universal strategy to engineer biorecognition-based sensors with dual programmable dynamic ranges. Using DNA aptamers as our model recognition element and electrochemistry as our readout signal, we first designed a dual signaling "signal-on" and "signal-off" adenosine triphosphate (ATP) sensor composed of a ferrocene-labeled ATP aptamer in complex to a complementary, electrode-bound, methylene-blue labeled DNA. Using this simple "dimeric" sensor, we show that we can easily (1) tune the dynamic range of this dual-signaling sensor through base mutations on the electrode-bound DNA, (2) extend the dynamic range of this sensor by 2 orders of magnitude by using a combination of electrode-bound strands with varying affinity for the aptamers, (3) create an ultrasensitive dual signaling sensor by employing a sequestration strategy in which a nonsignaling, high affinity "depletant" DNA aptamer is added to the sensor surface, and (4) engineer a sensor that simultaneously provides extended and ultrasensitive readouts. These strategies, applicable to a wide range of biosensors and chemical systems, should broaden the application of molecular recognition in various fields of chemistry.

  6. Selenium levels of Estonians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauhamaa, P; Kantola, M; Viitak, A; Kaasik, T; Mussalo-Rauhamaa, H

    2008-09-01

    The objective of this study is to sum up the dietary selenium intake of the Estonian people according to the serum selenium concentrations. This research compiles the information published in the literature about the levels of selenium in the serum of the Estonian people. We compare these results with the findings obtained from the analyses of serum samples gathered by us in the 1990s in Estonia. The selenium concentration in sera of 404 Estonians ranged from 26 to 116 microg/l; the mean was 75 microg/l. The selenium contents of Estonians were at a similar level as reported for Finns before the selenium supplementation of fertilizers carried out in Finland in 1984. In view of the selenium concentration in the sera, we suggest that the dietary selenium intake among the Estonian people might be scarce, and Estonian authorities should consider in their nutrition policies the possible low intake of selenium of Estonians.

  7. Inversion of spheroid particle size distribution in wider size range and aspect ratio range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Hong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The non-spherical particle sizing is very important in the aerosol science, and it can be determined by the light extinction measurement. This paper studies the effect of relationship of the size range and aspect ratio range on the inversion of spheroid particle size distribution by the dependent mode algorithm. The T matrix method and the geometric optics approximation method are used to calculate the extinction efficiency of the spheroids with different size range and aspect ratio range, and the inversion of spheroid particle size distribution in these different ranges is conducted. Numerical simulation indicates that a fairly reasonable representation of the spheroid particle size distribution can be obtained when the size range and aspect ratio range are suitably chosen.

  8. Comparison of range migration correction algorithms for range-Doppler processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, Faruk

    2017-07-01

    The next generation digital radars are able to provide high-range resolution by the advancement of radar hardware technologies. These systems take advantage of coherent integration and Doppler processing technique to increase the target's signal-to-noise ratio. Due to the high-range resolution (small range cells) and fast target motion, a target migrates through multiple range cells within a coherent processing interval. Range cell migration (also known as range walk) occurs and degrades the coherent integration gain. There are many approaches in the literature to correct these unavoidable effects and focus the target in the range-Doppler domain. We demonstrate some of these methods on an operational frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FMCW) radar and point out practical issues in the application.

  9. Method and apparatus for coherent burst ranging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachter, Eric A.; Fisher, Walter G.

    1998-01-01

    A high resolution ranging method is described utilizing a novel modulated waveform, hereafter referred to as coherent burst modulation. In the coherent burst method, high frequency modulation of an acoustic or electromagnetic transmitter, such as a laser, is performed at a modulation frequency. This modulation frequency is transmitted quasi-continuously in the form of interrupted bursts of radiation. Energy from the transmitter is directed onto a target, interacts with the target, and the returning energy is collected. The encoded burst pattern contained in the collected return signal is detected coherently by a receiver that is tuned so as to be principally sensitive to the modulation frequency. The receiver signal is processed to determine target range using both time-of-flight of the burst envelope and phase shift of the high frequency modulation. This approach effectively decouples the maximum unambiguous range and range resolution relationship of earlier methods, thereby allowing high precision ranging to be conducted at arbitrarily long distances using at least one burst of encoded energy. The use of a receiver tuned to the high frequency modulation contained within the coherent burst vastly improves both sensitivity in the detection of the target return signal and rejection of background interferences, such as ambient acoustic or electromagnetic noise. Simultaneous transmission at several energies (or wavelengths) is possible by encoding each energy with a separate modulation frequency or pattern; electronic demodulation at the receiver allows the return pattern for each energy to be monitored independently. Radial velocity of a target can also be determined by monitoring change in phase shift of the return signal as a function of time.

  10. Long-range measurement system using ultrasonic range sensor with high-power transmitter array in air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sahdev; Furuhashi, Hideo

    2017-02-01

    A long-range measurement system comprising an ultrasonic range sensor with a high-power ultrasonic transmitter array in air was investigated. The system is simple in construction and can be used under adverse conditions such as fog, rain, darkness, and smoke. However, due to ultrasonic waves are well absorbed by air molecules, the measurable range is limited to a few meters. Therefore, we developed a high-power ultrasonic transmitter array consisting of 144 transmitting elements. All elements are arranged in the form of a 12×12 array pattern. The sound pressure level at 5m from the transmitter array was >30dB higher than that of a single element. A measuring range of over 25m was achieved using this transmitter array in conjunction with a receiver array having 32 receiving elements. The characteristics of the transmitter array and range sensor system are discussed by comparing simulation and experimental results. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. High Precision Ranging and Range-Rate Measurements over Free-Space-Laser Communication Link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guangning; Lu, Wei; Krainak, Michael; Sun, Xiaoli

    2016-01-01

    We present a high-precision ranging and range-rate measurement system via an optical-ranging or combined ranging-communication link. A complete bench-top optical communication system was built. It included a ground terminal and a space terminal. Ranging and range rate tests were conducted in two configurations. In the communication configuration with 622 data rate, we achieved a two-way range-rate error of 2 microns/s, or a modified Allan deviation of 9 x 10 (exp -15) with 10 second averaging time. Ranging and range-rate as a function of Bit Error Rate of the communication link is reported. They are not sensitive to the link error rate. In the single-frequency amplitude modulation mode, we report a two-way range rate error of 0.8 microns/s, or a modified Allan deviation of 2.6 x 10 (exp -15) with 10 second averaging time. We identified the major noise sources in the current system as the transmitter modulation injected noise and receiver electronics generated noise. A new improved system will be constructed to further improve the system performance for both operating modes.

  12. Visual Control of Robots Using Range Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Torres

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In the last years, 3D-vision systems based on the time-of-flight (ToF principle have gained more importance in order to obtain 3D information from the workspace. In this paper, an analysis of the use of 3D ToF cameras to guide a robot arm is performed. To do so, an adaptive method to simultaneous visual servo control and camera calibration is presented. Using this method a robot arm is guided by using range information obtained from a ToF camera. Furthermore, the self-calibration method obtains the adequate integration time to be used by the range camera in order to precisely determine the depth information.

  13. Orthogonal Range Searching on the RAM, Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chan, Timothy M.; Larsen, Kasper Green; Patrascu, Mihai

    2011-01-01

    We present a number of new results on one of the most extensively studied topics in computational geometry, orthogonal range searching. All our results are in the standard word RAM model: We present two data structures for 2-d orthogonal range emptiness. The first achieves O(n lg lg n) space and O...... the output size. This resolves two open problems (both appeared in Preparata and Shamos' seminal book): given a set of n axis-aligned rectangles in the plane, we can report all k enclosure pairs (i.e., pairs (r1,r2) where rectangle r1 completely encloses rectangle r2) in O(n lg n + k) expected time; given...

  14. Space Weather Effects on Range Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    War II, with heavy reliance on radar and radio as war-fighting tools, we encountered unexplained outages. You may have seen movies showing soldiers...individual meteorology offices, and the issues that each range might possibly encounter. You may have radars that can be directly affected by solar radio...may interact with atomic nuclei thus imparting a certain recoil energy and generating secondary particles. Both the recoiling nucleus and secondary

  15. Ranges of bimodule projections and conditional expectations

    CERN Document Server

    Pluta, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The algebraic theory of corner subrings introduced by Lam (as an abstraction of the properties of Peirce corners eRe of a ring R associated with an idempotent e in R) is investigated here in the context of Banach and C*-algebras. We propose a general algebraic approach which includes the notion of ranges of (completely) contractive conditional expectations on C*-algebras and on ternary rings of operators, and we investigate when topological properties are consequences of the algebraic assumpt...

  16. Semiconductor Sensors for a Wide Temperature Range

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolay GORBACHUK; Mikhail LARIONOV; Aleksey FIRSOV; Nikolay SHATIL

    2014-01-01

    Prototype sensors are described that are applicable for pressure, position, temperature, and field measurements in the temperature range of 4.2 to 300 K. The strain gauges utilize the silicon substrate and thin film technology. The tensosensitivity of strain sensors is 40 µV/mln-1 or better depending on metrological characteristics of semiconductor films, orientation, and current. The temperature sensors (thermistors) make use of the germanium powder bulk. The temperature coefficient of resis...

  17. Reference Physiological Ranges for Serum Biochemical Parameters ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    After complete assay, the data were subjected to both parametric and non parametric statistics for analyses with 2.5 and 97.5 percentiles considered as the lower and upper limits of reference ranges. Results: There were 331(66.1%) males and 170(33.9) females, with 359(71.7%) and 142(28.3) of them residing in the urban ...

  18. Short Rayleigh Range Free Electron Laser Amplifiers

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, L H; Murphy, J B; Rose, J; Shaftan, T V; Wang, X J; Watanabe, T

    2005-01-01

    An important requirement for a high average power laser system is a manageable power density on the first optical element. One possibility to achieve this is a single pass amplifier which generates a short Rayleigh range (SRL) light beam. We present design parameters and calculated performances for several SRL configurations. These include a simulation of the optically guided (pinched) MW class FEL [1], the scalloped beam FEL amplifier [2] and high gain TOK amplifiers we propose to explore at our SDL facility.

  19. Capacitive Proximity Sensor Has Longer Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vranish, John M.

    1992-01-01

    Capacitive proximity sensor on robot arm detects nearby object via capacitive effect of object on frequency of oscillator. Sensing element part of oscillator circuit operating at about 20 kHz. Total capacitance between sensing element and ground constitutes tuning capacitance of oscillator. Sensor circuit includes shield driven by replica of alternating voltage applied to sensing element. Driven shield concentrates sensing electrostatic field in exterior region to enhance sensitivity to object. Sensitivity and dynamic range has corresponding 12-to-1 improvement.

  20. Report to Congress on Sustainable Ranges, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Services (IGI&S) data proponency, Common Installation Picture, and Quality Assurance Plans ( QAPs ). Based on this guidance, all Army installations are...Sustainable Ranges Report July 2011 Support Center are defined in each layer’s geospatial data QAP . QAPs provide the definition, information about the...requirements for each of the data layers. QAPs are living documents and are maintained by the HQDA proponent with input from the installation data

  1. On the ranges of discrete exponentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Caragiu

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Let a>1 be a fixed integer. We prove that there is no first-order formula ϕ(X in one free variable X, written in the language of rings, such that for any prime p with gcd(a,p=1 the set of all elements in the finite prime field Fp satisfying ϕ coincides with the range of the discrete exponential function t↦at(modp.

  2. On the ranges of discrete exponentials

    OpenAIRE

    Florin Caragiu; Mihai Caragiu

    2004-01-01

    Let a>1 be a fixed integer. We prove that there is no first-order formula ϕ(X) in one free variable X, written in the language of rings, such that for any prime p with gcd(a,p)=1 the set of all elements in the finite prime field Fp satisfying ϕ coincides with the range of the discrete exponential function t↦at(modp).

  3. Range of motion and cervical myofascial pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilke, J; Niederer, D; Fleckenstein, J; Vogt, L; Banzer, W

    2016-01-01

    Several studies investigating myofascial pain syndrome include assessments of range of motion (ROM) as a diagnostic criterion. However, the value of ROM in this context has not yet been evaluated in controlled clinical studies. We aimed to examine whether patients with myofascial pain syndrome display alterations of ROM when compared to healthy subjects. Twenty-two individuals (13 females, 9 males; aged 33.4 ± 13.9 yrs) afflicted with active myofascial trigger points in the upper trapezius muscle as well as 22 age and sex matched healthy controls were included. All subjects underwent an examination of maximal active cervical ROM in flexion/extension assessed by means of a 3D ultrasonic movement analysis system (30 Hz; Zebris CMS 70). In the patients group, pressure pain threshold (PPT) of the trigger points was determined using a pressure algometer. Maximum range of motion in the sagittal plane did not differ between individuals with MTrP (125.9 ± 23.2°, 95% CI: 116.2-135.6°) and asymptomatic subjects (128.2 ± 20.4°, 95% CI: 119.7-136.7°; p > .05). In patients, PPT (1.7 ± .6, 95% CI: 1.5-1.9) was not correlated with cervical mobility (r = -.13; p > .05). Based on these pilot data, range of motion in flexion/extension is not a valid criterion for the detection of myofascial trigger points. Additional research incorporating movement amplitudes in other anatomical planes and additional afflicted muscles should be conducted in order to further delineate the relative impact of MTrP on range of motion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Long-range order in canary song.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowitz, Jeffrey E; Ivie, Elizabeth; Kligler, Laura; Gardner, Timothy J

    2013-01-01

    Bird songs range in form from the simple notes of a Chipping Sparrow to the rich performance of the nightingale. Non-adjacent correlations can be found in the syntax of some birdsongs, indicating that the choice of what to sing next is determined not only by the current syllable, but also by previous syllables sung. Here we examine the song of the domesticated canary, a complex singer whose song consists of syllables, grouped into phrases that are arranged in flexible sequences. Phrases are defined by a fundamental time-scale that is independent of the underlying syllable duration. We show that the ordering of phrases is governed by long-range rules: the choice of what phrase to sing next in a given context depends on the history of the song, and for some syllables, highly specific rules produce correlations in song over timescales of up to ten seconds. The neural basis of these long-range correlations may provide insight into how complex behaviors are assembled from more elementary, stereotyped modules.

  5. Enhanced Graphics for Extended Scale Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Andrew J.; Chi-Wing Fu, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Enhanced Graphics for Extended Scale Range is a computer program for rendering fly-through views of scene models that include visible objects differing in size by large orders of magnitude. An example would be a scene showing a person in a park at night with the moon, stars, and galaxies in the background sky. Prior graphical computer programs exhibit arithmetic and other anomalies when rendering scenes containing objects that differ enormously in scale and distance from the viewer. The present program dynamically repartitions distance scales of objects in a scene during rendering to eliminate almost all such anomalies in a way compatible with implementation in other software and in hardware accelerators. By assigning depth ranges correspond ing to rendering precision requirements, either automatically or under program control, this program spaces out object scales to match the precision requirements of the rendering arithmetic. This action includes an intelligent partition of the depth buffer ranges to avoid known anomalies from this source. The program is written in C++, using OpenGL, GLUT, and GLUI standard libraries, and nVidia GEForce Vertex Shader extensions. The program has been shown to work on several computers running UNIX and Windows operating systems.

  6. Effect of dispersal at range edges on the structure of species ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahn, V.; O'Connor, R.J.; Krohn, W.B.

    2006-01-01

    Range edges are of particular interest to ecology because they hold key insights into the limits of the realized niche and associated population dynamics. A recent feature of Oikos summarized the state of the art on range edge ecology. While the typical question is what causes range edges, another important question is how range edges influence the distribution of abundances across a species geographic range when dispersal is present. We used a single species population dynamics model on a coupled-lattice to determine the effects of dispersal on peripheral populations as compared to populations at the core of the range. In the absence of resource gradients, the reduced neighborhood and thus lower connectivity or higher isolation among populations at the range edge alone led to significantly lower population sizes in the periphery of the range than in the core. Lower population sizes mean higher extinction risks and lower adaptability at the range edge, which could inhibit or slow range expansions, and thus effectively stabilize range edges. The strength of this effect depended on the potential population growth rate and the maximum dispersal distance. Lower potential population growth rates led to a stronger effect of dispersal resulting in a higher difference in population sizes between the two areas. The differential effect of dispersal on population sizes at the core and periphery of the range in the absence of resource gradients implies that traditional, habitat-based distribution models could result in misleading conclusions about the habitat quality in the periphery. Lower population sizes at the periphery are also relevant to conservation, because habitat removal not only eliminates populations but also creates new edges. Populations bordering these new edges may experience declines, due to their increased isolation. ?? OIKOS.

  7. Effects of standard and modified gravity on interplanetary ranges

    CERN Document Server

    Iorio, Lorenzo

    2010-01-01

    We numerically investigate the impact on the two-body range by several Newtonian and non-Newtonian dynamical effects for some Earth-planet pairs in view of the expected cm-level accuracy in future planned or proposed interplanetary ranging operations. The general relativistic gravitomagnetic Lense-Thirring effect should be modeled and solved-for in future, accurate ranging tests of Newtonian and post-Newtonian gravity because it falls within their measurability domain. It could a-priori "imprint" the determination of some of the target parameters of the tests considered. Moreover, the ring of the minor asteroids, Ceres, Pallas, Vesta and the Trans-Neptunian Objects (TNOs) act as sources of non-negligible systematic uncertainty on the larger gravitoelectric post-Newtonian signals from which it is intended to determine the parameters \\gamma and \\beta of the Parameterized Post Newtonian (PPN) formalism with very high precision (orders of magnitude better than the current 10^-4-10^-5 levels). Also other putative,...

  8. Does this range suit me? Range satisfaction of battery electric vehicle users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Thomas; Günther, Madlen; Trantow, Maria; Krems, Josef F

    2017-11-01

    User satisfaction is a vital design criterion for sustainable systems. The present research aimed to understand factors relating to individually perceived range satisfaction of battery electric vehicle (BEV) users. Data from a large-scale BEV field trial (N = 72) were analyzed. Apart from an initial drop in range satisfaction, increasing practical experience was related to increased range satisfaction. Classical indicators of users' mobility profiles (daily travel distances) were only weakly related to lower range satisfaction (not significant), after controlling for practical experience and preferred coverage of mobility needs. The regularity/predictability of users' mobility patterns, the percentage of journeys not coverable because of range issues, and users' individual comfortable range accounted for variance in range satisfaction. Finally, range satisfaction was related to key indicators of general BEV acceptance (e.g., purchase intentions). These results underline the complex dynamics involved in individual range satisfaction, as well as its central role for BEV acceptance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Measuring the relativistic perigee advance with satellite laser ranging

    CERN Document Server

    Iorio, L; Pavlis, E C

    2002-01-01

    The pericentric advance of a test body by a central mass is one of the classical tests of general relativity. Today, this effect is measured with radar ranging by the perihelion shift of Mercury and other planets in the gravitational field of the Sun, with a relative accuracy of the order of 10 sup - sup 2 -10 sup - sup 3. In this paper, we explore the possibility of a measurement of the pericentric advance in the gravitational field of Earth by analysing the laser-ranged data of some orbiting, or proposed, laser-ranged geodetic satellites. Such a measurement of the perigee advance would place limits on hypothetical, very weak, Yukawa-type components of the gravitational interaction with a finite range of the order of 10 sup 4 km. Thus, we show that, at the present level of knowledge of the orbital perturbations, the relative accuracy, achievable with suitably combined orbital elements of LAGEOS and LAGEOS II, is of the order of 10 sup - sup 3. With the corresponding measured value of (2 + 2 gamma - beta)/3, ...

  10. Reference Ranges for Serum Uric Acid among Healthy Assamese People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhumita Das

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to establish reference ranges for serum uric acid among healthy adult Assamese population. Samples from 1470 aged 35–86 years were used to establish age and sex related reference range by the centile method (central 95 percentile for serum uric acid level. There were 51% (n=754 males and 49% (n=716 females; 75.9% (n=1115 of them were from urban area and the rest 24.1% (n=355 were from the rural area. Majority of the population were nonvegetarian (98.6%, n=1450 and only 1.4% (n=20 were vegetarian. The mean age, weight, height, and uric acid of the studied group were 53.6±11.3 years, 62.6±10.5 kg, 160±9.4 cm, and 5.5±1.4 mg/dL, respectively. There is a statistically significant difference in the mean value of the abovementioned parameters between male and female. The observed reference range of uric acid in the population is 2.6–8.2 mg/dL which is wider than the current reference range used in the laboratory. Except gender (P<0.0001, we did not find any significant relation of uric acid with other selected factors.

  11. Chemical contamination of free-range eggs from Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Overmeire, I; Pussemier, L; Hanot, V; De Temmerman, L; Hoenig, M; Goeyens, L

    2006-11-01

    The elements manganese, cobalt, nickel, copper, zinc, arsenic, selenium, molybdenum, cadmium, antimony, thallium, lead and mercury, and selected persistent organochlorine compounds (dioxins, marker and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls, dichlorodiphenyltricholroethane (DDT) and metabolites as well as other chlorinated pesticides) were analysed in Belgian free-range eggs obtained from hens of private owners and of commercial farms. It was found that eggs from private owners were more contaminated than eggs from commercial farms. The ratios of levels in eggs from private owners to the levels in eggs from commercial farms ranged from 2 to 8 for the toxic contaminants lead, mercury, thallium, dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyls and the group of DDT. DDT contamination was marked by the substantial presence of p,p'-DDT in eggs from private owners in addition to dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p-DDE) and dichlorodiphenyl-dichloroethane (p,p'-DDD). It is postulated that environmental pollution is at the origin of the higher contamination of eggs from private owners. Extensive consumption of eggs from private owners is likely to result in toxic equivalent quantity intake levels exceeding the tolerable weekly intake.

  12. Broad temperature range antiferroelectric regular mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabrowski, Roman; Czuprynski, Krzysztof; Gasowska, J.; Oton, Jose; Quintana, Xabier; Castillo, P. L.; Bennis, N.

    2004-09-01

    Tristate regular mixtures with different electro-optical properties such as threshold voltage, saturation voltage, holding ratio and response time are presented. The relation of properties with the structure of compounds is discussed. All of mixtures show only moderate dynamic and static contrast but big gray level scale without hysteresis for positive and negative field driving.

  13. Host range evaluation and morphological characterization of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-08-02

    Aug 2, 2010 ... pathogens” with high evolutionary potential (Sarris et al.,. 2008). Pathogenic and morphological variation of this oomycete appear to be correlated with host and environ- mental conditions (Lebeda and Widrlechner, 2003), and significant variation has been found at both the individual and population levels.

  14. Development of the seafloor acoustic ranging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osada, Y.; Kido, M.; Fujimoto, H.

    2007-12-01

    We have developed a seafloor acoustic ranging system, which simulates an operation with the DONET (Development of Dense Ocean-floor Network System for Earthquake and Tsunami) cable, to monitor seafloor crustal movement. The seafloor acoustic ranging system was based on the precise acoustic transponder (PXP). We have a few problems for the improvement of the resolution. One thing is the variation of sound speed. Another is the bending of ray path. A PXP measures horizontal distances on the seafloor from the round trip travel times of acoustic pulses between pairs of PXP. The PXP was equipped with the pressure, temperature gauge and tilt-meter. The variation of sound speed in seawater has a direct effect on the measurement. Therefore we collect the data of temperature and pressure. But we don't collect the data of salinity because of less influence than temperature and pressure. Accordingly a ray path of acoustic wave tends to be bent upward in the deep sea due to the Snell's law. As the acoustic transducer of each PXPs held about 3.0m above the seafloor, the baseline is too long for altitude from the seafloor. In this year we carried out the experiment for the seafloor acoustic ranging system. We deployed two PXPs at about 750m spacing on Kumano-nada. The water depth is about 2050m. We collected the 660 data in this experiment during one day. The round trip travel time show the variation with peak-to-peak amplitude of about 0.03msec. It was confirmed to explain the majority in this change by the change in sound speed according to the temperature and pressure. This results shows the resolution of acoustic measurements is +/-2mm. Acknowledgement This study is supported by 'DONET' of Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology.

  15. Structural architecture of the central Brooks Range foothills, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Thomas E.; Potter, Christopher J.; O'Sullivan, Paul B.

    2002-01-01

    Five structural levels underlie the Brooks Range foothills, from lowest to highest: (1) autochthon, at a depth of ~9 km; (2) Endicott Mountains allochthon (EMA), thickest under the northern Brooks Range (>15 km) and wedging out northward above the autochthon; (3) higher allochthons (HA), with a composite thickness of 1.5+ km, wedging out northward at or beyond the termination of EMA; (4) Aptian-Albian Fortress Mountain Formation (FM), deposited unconformably on deformed EMA and HA and thickening northward into a >7-km-thick succession of deformed turbidites (Torok Formation); (5) gently folded Albian-Cenomanian deltaic deposits (Nanushuk Group). The dominant faulting pattern in levels 2-3 is thin-skinned thrusting and thrust-related folds formed before deposition of Cretaceous strata. These structures are cut by younger steeply south-dipping reverse faults that truncate and juxtapose structural levels 1-4 and expose progressively deeper structural levels to the south. Structural levels 4-5 are juxtaposed along a north-dipping zone of south-vergent folds and thrusts. Stratigraphic and fission-track age data suggest a kinematic model wherein the foothills belt was formed first, by thrusting of HA and EMA as deformational wedges onto the regionally south-dipping authochon at 140-120Ma. After deposition of FM and Torok during mid-Cretaceous hinterland extension and uplift, a second episode of contractional deformation at 60 Ma shortened the older allochthonous deformational wedges (EMA, HA) and overlying strata on north-vergent reverse faults. To the north, where the allochthons wedge out, shortening caused duplexing in the Torok and development of a triangle zone south of the Tuktu escarpment.

  16. Close-range imaging and research priorities in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Patias

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Since 1984, the European Union’s Framework Program for Research and Innovation has been the main instrument for funding research. Specific priorities, objectives and types of funded activities vary between funding periods. Horizon 2020 is the biggest EU Research and Innovation programme ever with nearly € 80 billion of funding available over 7 years (2014–2020. H2020 is based on three pillars: (i Excellent science, (ii Industrial leadership, (iii Societal challenges. The current economic crisis in Europe and elsewhere leads to extended shortage of research budgets in national levels, which in turn leads researchers to search funds in the highly competitive transnational research instruments, as H2020. This paper : - draws the overall picture of Horizon 2020 - investigates the position of close-range imaging technologies, applications and research areas - presents the research challenges in H2020 that offer funding opportunities in close-range imaging

  17. Wide Dynamic Range CMOS Potentiostat for Amperometric Chemical Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Song Wang

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Presented is a single-ended potentiostat topology with a new interface connection between sensor electrodes and potentiostat circuit to avoid deviation of cell voltage and linearly convert the cell current into voltage signal. Additionally, due to the increased harmonic distortion quantity when detecting low-level sensor current, the performance of potentiostat linearity which causes the detectable current and dynamic range to be limited is relatively decreased. Thus, to alleviate these irregularities, a fully-differential potentiostat is designed with a wide output voltage swing compared to single-ended potentiostat. Two proposed potentiostats were implemented using TSMC 0.18-μm CMOS process for biomedical application. Measurement results show that the fully differential potentiostat performs relatively better in terms of linearity when measuring current from 500 ºpA to 10 uA. Besides, the dynamic range value can reach a value of 86 dB.

  18. Soil Compressibility Models for a Wide Stress Range

    KAUST Repository

    Chong, Song-Hun

    2016-03-03

    Soil compressibility models with physically correct asymptotic void ratios are required to analyze situations that involve a wide stress range. Previously suggested models and other functions are adapted to satisfy asymptotic void ratios at low and high stress levels; all updated models involve four parameters. Compiled consolidation data for remolded and natural clays are used to test the models and to develop correlations between model parameters and index properties. Models can adequately fit soil compression data for a wide range of stresses and soil types; in particular, models that involve the power of the stress σ\\'β display higher flexibility to capture the brittle response of some natural soils. The use of a single continuous function avoids numerical discontinuities or the need for ad hoc procedures to determine the yield stress. The tangent stiffness-readily computed for all models-should not be mistaken for the small-strain constant-fabric stiffness. © 2016 American Society of Civil Engineers.

  19. Limited Range Sesame EOS for Ta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greeff, Carl William [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Crockett, Scott [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rudin, Sven Peter [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Burakovsky, Leonid [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-30

    A new Sesame EOS table for Ta has been released for testing. It is a limited range table covering T ≤ 26, 000 K and ρ ≤ 37.53 g/cc. The EOS is based on earlier analysis using DFT phonon calculations to infer the cold pressure from the Hugoniot. The cold curve has been extended into compression using new DFT calculations. The present EOS covers expansion into the gas phase. It is a multi-phase EOS with distinct liquid and solid phases. A cold shear modulus table (431) is included. This is based on an analytic interpolation of DFT calculations.

  20. Fast Range Covariance Estimation using CONRAD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Saint Jean, C.; Habert, B.; Noguere, G.; Archier, P.; Litaize, O.; Ruggieri, J.M. [CEA-Cadarache, DER/SPRC/LEPh, 13 - St-Paul-Lez-Durance (France)

    2009-07-01

    One of the initial goals of the CONRAD code development was to properly take into account various uncertainties propagations. First developments were performed to treat adequately nuisance parameters (such as experimental parameters), in the resolved and unresolved resonance region by using a marginalization technique. A generalization of these methodologies to higher energy range is presented in this paper. We will first present in detail the mathematics involved in this technique. The interface of CONRAD with ECIS will be presented, especially, the way optical model were parameterized in CONRAD from the classical RIPL database. Then, some applications of CONRAD (wrapping ECIS) will be presented. (authors)

  1. Tracking capabilities of SPADs for laser ranging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zappa, F.; Ripamonti, Giancarlo; Lacaita, A.; Cova, Sergio; Samori, C.

    1993-01-01

    The spatial sensitivity of Single-Photon Avalanche Diodes (SPADs) can be exploited in laser ranging measurements to finely tune the laser spot in the center of the detector sensitive area. We report the performance of a SPAD with l00 micron diameter. It features a time resolution better than 80 ps rms when operated 4V above V(b) at minus 30 C, and a spatial sensitivity better than 20 microns to radial displacements of the laser spot. New SPAD structures with auxiliary delay detectors are proposed. These improved devices could allow a two dimensional sensitivity, that could be employed for the design of pointing servos.

  2. Unitarity corrections to short-range order long-range rapidity correlations

    CERN Document Server

    Capella, A

    1978-01-01

    Although the effective hadronic forces have short range in rapidity space, one nevertheless expects long-range dynamical correlations induced by unitarity constraints. This paper contains a thorough discussion of long-range rapidity correlations in high-multiplicity events. In particular, the authors analyze in detail the forward- backward multiplicity correlations, measured recently in the whole CERN ISR energy range. They find from these data that the normalized variance of the number n of exchanged cut Pomerons, ((n/(n)-1)/sup 2/) , is most probably in the range 0.32 to 0.36. They show that such a number is obtained from Reggeon theory in the eikonal approximation. The authors also predict a very specific violation of local compensation of charge in multiparticle events: The violation should appear in the fourth-order zone correlation function and is absent in the second-order correlation function, the only one measured until now. (48 refs).

  3. Climate-driven range extension of Amphistegina (protista, foraminiferida: models of current and predicted future ranges.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin R Langer

    Full Text Available Species-range expansions are a predicted and realized consequence of global climate change. Climate warming and the poleward widening of the tropical belt have induced range shifts in a variety of marine and terrestrial species. Range expansions may have broad implications on native biota and ecosystem functioning as shifting species may perturb recipient communities. Larger symbiont-bearing foraminifera constitute ubiquitous and prominent components of shallow water ecosystems, and range shifts of these important protists are likely to trigger changes in ecosystem functioning. We have used historical and newly acquired occurrence records to compute current range shifts of Amphistegina spp., a larger symbiont-bearing foraminifera, along the eastern coastline of Africa and compare them to analogous range shifts currently observed in the Mediterranean Sea. The study provides new evidence that amphisteginid foraminifera are rapidly progressing southwestward, closely approaching Port Edward (South Africa at 31°S. To project future species distributions, we applied a species distribution model (SDM based on ecological niche constraints of current distribution ranges. Our model indicates that further warming is likely to cause a continued range extension, and predicts dispersal along nearly the entire southeastern coast of Africa. The average rates of amphisteginid range shift were computed between 8 and 2.7 km year(-1, and are projected to lead to a total southward range expansion of 267 km, or 2.4° latitude, in the year 2100. Our results corroborate findings from the fossil record that some larger symbiont-bearing foraminifera cope well with rising water temperatures and are beneficiaries of global climate change.

  4. Climate-driven range extension of Amphistegina (protista, foraminiferida): models of current and predicted future ranges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Martin R; Weinmann, Anna E; Lötters, Stefan; Bernhard, Joan M; Rödder, Dennis

    2013-01-01

    Species-range expansions are a predicted and realized consequence of global climate change. Climate warming and the poleward widening of the tropical belt have induced range shifts in a variety of marine and terrestrial species. Range expansions may have broad implications on native biota and ecosystem functioning as shifting species may perturb recipient communities. Larger symbiont-bearing foraminifera constitute ubiquitous and prominent components of shallow water ecosystems, and range shifts of these important protists are likely to trigger changes in ecosystem functioning. We have used historical and newly acquired occurrence records to compute current range shifts of Amphistegina spp., a larger symbiont-bearing foraminifera, along the eastern coastline of Africa and compare them to analogous range shifts currently observed in the Mediterranean Sea. The study provides new evidence that amphisteginid foraminifera are rapidly progressing southwestward, closely approaching Port Edward (South Africa) at 31°S. To project future species distributions, we applied a species distribution model (SDM) based on ecological niche constraints of current distribution ranges. Our model indicates that further warming is likely to cause a continued range extension, and predicts dispersal along nearly the entire southeastern coast of Africa. The average rates of amphisteginid range shift were computed between 8 and 2.7 km year(-1), and are projected to lead to a total southward range expansion of 267 km, or 2.4° latitude, in the year 2100. Our results corroborate findings from the fossil record that some larger symbiont-bearing foraminifera cope well with rising water temperatures and are beneficiaries of global climate change.

  5. Enhanced dynamic range x-ray imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidekker, Mark A; Morrison, Logan Dain-Kelley; Sharma, Ajay; Burke, Emily

    2017-03-01

    X-ray images can suffer from excess contrast. Often, image exposure is chosen to visually optimize the region of interest, but at the expense of over- and underexposed regions elsewhere in the image. When image values are interpreted quantitatively as projected absorption, both over- and underexposure leads to the loss of quantitative information. We propose to combine multiple exposures into a composite that uses only pixels from those exposures in which they are neither under- nor overexposed. The composite image is created in analogy to visible-light high dynamic range photography. We present the mathematical framework for the recovery of absorbance from such composite images and demonstrate the method with biological and non-biological samples. We also show with an aluminum step-wedge that accurate recovery of step thickness from the absorbance values is possible, thereby highlighting the quantitative nature of the presented method. Due to the higher amount of detail encoded in an enhanced dynamic range x-ray image, we expect that the number of retaken images can be reduced, and patient exposure overall reduced. We also envision that the method can improve dual energy absorptiometry and even computed tomography by reducing the number of low-exposure ("photon-starved") projections. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Vehicle based laser range finding in crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlert, Detlef; Adamek, Rolf; Horn, Hans-Juergen

    2009-01-01

    Laser rangefinders and laser scanners are widely used for industrial purposes and for remote sensing. In agriculture information about crop parameters like volume, height, and density can support the optimisation of production processes. In scientific papers the measurement of these parameters by low cost laser rangefinders with one echo has been presented for short ranges. Because the cross section area of the beam increases with the measuring range, it can be expected that laser rangefinders will have a reduced measuring accuracy in small sized crops and when measuring far distances. These problems are caused by target areas smaller than the beam and by the beam striking the edges of crop objects. Lab tests under defined conditions and a real field test were performed to assess the measuring properties under such difficult conditions of a chosen low cost sensor. Based on lab tests it was shown that the accuracy was reduced, but the successful use of the sensor under field conditions demonstrated the potential to meet the demands for agricultural applications, Insights resulting from investigations made in the paper contribute to facilitating the choice or the development of laser rangefinder sensors for vehicle based measurement of crop parameters for optimisation of production processes.

  7. SVSVGMKPSPRP: a broad range adhesion peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estephan, Elias; Dao, Jérôme; Saab, Marie-Belle; Panayotov, Ivan; Martin, Marta; Larroque, Christian; Gergely, Csilla; Cuisinier, Frédéric J G; Levallois, Bernard

    2012-12-01

    A combinatorial phage display approach was previously used to evolve a 12-mer peptide (SVSVGMKPSPRP) with the highest affinity for different semiconductor surfaces. The discovery of the multiple occurrences of the SVSVGMKPSPRP sequence in an all-against-all basic local alignment search tool search of PepBank sequences was unexpected, and a Google search using the peptide sequence recovered 58 results concerning 12 patents and 16 scientific publications. The number of patent and articles indicates that the peptide is perhaps a broad range adhesion peptide. To evaluate peptide properties, we conducted a study to investigate peptide adhesion on different inorganic substrates by mass spectrometry and atomic force microscopy for gold, carbon nanotubes, cobalt, chrome alloy, titanium, and titanium alloy substrates. Our results showed that the peptide has a great potential as a linker to functionalize metallic surfaces if specificity is not a key factor. This peptide is not specific to a particular metal surface, but it is a good linker for the functionalization of a wide range of metallic materials. The fact that this peptide has the potential to adsorb on a large set of inorganic surfaces suggests novel promising directions for further investigation. Affinity determination of SVSVGMKPSPRP peptide would be an important issue for eventual commercial uses.

  8. Perceived glossiness in high dynamic range scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerschner, Katja; Maloney, Laurence T; Boyaci, Huseyin

    2010-01-01

    We investigated how spatial pattern, background, and dynamic range affect perceived gloss in brightly lit real scenes. Observers viewed spherical objects against uniform backgrounds. There were three possible objects. Two were black matte spheres with circular matte white dots painted on them (matte-dot spheres). The third sphere was painted glossy black (glossy black sphere). Backgrounds were either black or white matte, and observers saw each of the objects in turn on each background. Scenes were illuminated by an intense collimated source. On each trial, observers matched the apparent albedo of the sphere to an albedo reference scale and its apparent gloss to a gloss reference scale. We found that matte-dot spheres and the black glossy sphere were perceived as glossy on both backgrounds. All spheres were judged to be significantly glossier when in front of the black background. In contrast with previous research using conventional computer displays, we find that background markedly affects perceived gloss. This finding is surprising because darker surfaces are normally perceived as glossier (F. Pellacini, J. A. Ferwerda, & D. P. Greenberg, 2000). We conjecture that there are cues to surface material signaling glossiness present in high dynamic range scenes that are absent or weak in scenes presented using conventional computer displays.

  9. Perceptual Contrast Enhancement with Dynamic Range Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong; Li, Yuecheng; Chen, Hao; Yuan, Ding; Sun, Mingui

    2013-01-01

    Recent years, although great efforts have been made to improve its performance, few Histogram equalization (HE) methods take human visual perception (HVP) into account explicitly. The human visual system (HVS) is more sensitive to edges than brightness. This paper proposes to take use of this nature intuitively and develops a perceptual contrast enhancement approach with dynamic range adjustment through histogram modification. The use of perceptual contrast connects the image enhancement problem with the HVS. To pre-condition the input image before the HE procedure is implemented, a perceptual contrast map (PCM) is constructed based on the modified Difference of Gaussian (DOG) algorithm. As a result, the contrast of the image is sharpened and high frequency noise is suppressed. A modified Clipped Histogram Equalization (CHE) is also developed which improves visual quality by automatically detecting the dynamic range of the image with improved perceptual contrast. Experimental results show that the new HE algorithm outperforms several state-of-the-art algorithms in improving perceptual contrast and enhancing details. In addition, the new algorithm is simple to implement, making it suitable for real-time applications. PMID:24339452

  10. Normal values for cervical range of motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinkels, Raymond A H M; Swinkels-Meewisse, Ilse E J C M

    2014-03-01

    Cohort study. To generate normal values for active range of motion (ACROM) of the cervical spine in asymptomatic persons. There is a lack of normal values for ACROM based on large groups and stratified for different age categories. Four hundred asymptomatic persons were included, 100 for each decade of age from 20 years to 60 years and in each subgroup 50 males and 50 females. ACROM was measured with the cervical range of motion (CROM) device. Analysis of variance and the Scheffé post hoc test was used to investigate the differences of ACROM between the decades of age. Linear regression analysis was performed to examine the influence of age and sex on ACROM. The results of this study show that the ACROM decreases significantly in persons older than 50 years for all directions except extension and side flexion compared with that in the subgroup aged 40 to 50. Age had an overall significant effect on the ACROM for all directions. Sex proved to have no significant effect on the ACROM. Normal values were established for ACROM in a group of 400 persons without neck complaints. It was demonstrated that age has a significant influence on the ACROM, but sex has no influence. N/A.

  11. [Temperature range for growth of the Antarctic microorganisms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanovaskaia, V A; Tashirev, A B; Gladka, G B; Tashireva, A A

    2012-01-01

    The assessment of a temperature range for growth of microorganisms isolated at various temperatures (1-5 degrees C or 30 degrees C) from biotopes of the Antarctic region (soil, grass Deschampcia antarctica, grass Colobanthus, a green moss, crustose black lichens and encrustation biofilm on vertical rocks) is made. From 40 to 70% of the investigated Antarctic microorganisms, irrespective of temperature conditions of their isolation, were capable of growing in a wide temperature range (from 1 degrees C to 30 degrees C), i.e. they are psychrotolerant. In selective conditions (1 degrees C or 5 degrees C) the psychrophilic Antarctic bacteria and yeast are isolated which grew in the range from 1 degrees C to 20 degrees C and did not grow at 30 degrees C. At the same time, among the Antarctic microorganisms isolated in nonselective conditions (at 30 degrees C), almost 50% are capable of growing at the lowest temperature (5 degrees C), and a smaller number of strains--at 1 degrees C. However with a decrease of cultivation temperature the growth lag-phase of the Antarctic bacteria increased. Thus the level of the final biomass of the investigated strains did not depend on cultivation temperature. When comparing the temperature range of growth of the mesophilic Antarctic bacteria and collection strains of the same species isolated more than 10 years ago from the region with a temperate climate, the psychrotolerant forms were also revealed among the latter. So, it is shown that the investigated Antarctic bacteria can exist in the temperature range characteristic of terrestrial biotopes of the Antarctic Region (from 1 degrees C to 10 degrees C).

  12. Total bilirubin in athletes, determination of reference range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Witek

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine a typical reference range for the population of athletes. Results of blood tests of 339 athletes (82 women and 257 men, aged 18-37 years were retrospectively analysed. The subjects were representatives of different sports disciplines. The measurements of total bilirubin (BIT, iron (Fe, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, alanine aminotransferase (ALT and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT were made using a Pentra 400 biochemical analyser (Horiba, France. Red blood cell count (RBC, reticulocyte count and haemoglobin concentration measurements were made using an Advia 120 haematology analyser (Siemens, Germany. In groups of women and men the percentage of elevated results were similar at 18%. Most results of total bilirubin in both sexes were in the range 7-14 μmol ∙ L-1 (49% of women and 42% of men. The highest results of elevated levels of BIT were in the range 21-28 μmol ∙ L-1 (12% of women and 11% of men. There was a significant correlation between serum iron and BIT concentration in female and male athletes whose serum total bilirubin concentration does not exceed the upper limit of the reference range. Elevated concentrations of total bilirubin appear to be due to changes caused by regular exercise. The obtained upper limit of the reference range for total bilirubin concentration in the group of athletes is 29.0 μmol ∙ L-1. It seems reasonable to use dedicated reference values for total bilirubin concentration in relation to the group of athletes.

  13. Parallel Track Initiation for Optical Space Surveillance Using Range and Range Rate Bounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, P.; Roscoe, C.; Wilkins, M.

    2013-09-01

    As new optical sensors come online and more optical observations become available for space objects previously too small or too far away to detect, the space surveillance community is presented with the computationally challenging problem of generating initial orbit solutions (data association hypotheses) for a large number of short-arc line-of-sight observations. Traditional methods of angles-only orbit determination do not scale well to large problems because of the large number of combinations of observations that must be evaluated, since these methods require at least 3 observations for each initial orbit determination (IOD). On the other hand, if unique ranges are known (or assumed) then IOD can be performed with 2 observations using a Lambert-based approach. Furthermore, if angles and angle rates are available and range and range rate are both known (or assumed) then a complete orbit solution can be obtained for a single observation and the IOD computational load is only O(N). One possible method to deal with line-of-sight data is to assign a number of range hypotheses to each angles-only observation and develop data association hypotheses to be either confirmed or eliminated for each one. This approach would allow the use of the already proven Search and Determine (SAD) algorithm and software that was designed for generating and testing data association hypotheses for position-type observations typical of radar sensors. If the number of range hypotheses can be limited then this method will be more computationally efficient than performing pure angles-only IOD. If angle rates are available or can be derived from the observation data then another possible approach is to assign range and range rate hypotheses to each angle-angle rate pair and develop data association hypotheses based on their corresponding orbit solutions, which will be extremely efficient if the range-range rate hypothesis set can be limited. For both of these methods, once range and range

  14. Free Range Hens Use the Range More When the Outdoor Environment Is Enriched

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. D. Nagle

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the role of using forage, shade and shelterbelts in attracting birds into the range, three trials were undertaken with free range layers both on a research facility and on commercial farms. Each of the trials on the free range research facility in South Australia used a total of 120 laying hens (Hyline Brown. Birds were housed in an eco-shelter which had 6 internal pens of equal size with a free range area adjoining the shelter. The on-farm trials were undertaken on commercial free range layer farms in the Darling Downs in Southeast Queensland with bird numbers on farms ranging from 2,000–6,800 hens. The first research trial examined the role of shaded areas in the range; the second trial examined the role of forage and the third trial examined the influence of shelterbelts in the range. These treatments were compared to a free range area with no enrichment. Aggressive feather pecking was only observed on a few occasions in all of the trials due to the low bird numbers housed. Enriching the free range environment attracted more birds into the range. Shaded areas were used by 18% of the hens with a tendency (p = 0.07 for more hens to be in the paddock. When forage was provided in paddocks more control birds (55% were observed in the range in morning than in the afternoon (30% while for the forage treatments 45% of the birds were in the range both during the morning and afternoon. When shelterbelts were provided there was a significantly (p<0.05 higher % of birds in the range (43% vs. 24% and greater numbers of birds were observed in areas further away from the poultry house. The results from the on-farm trials mirrored the research trials. Overall 3 times more hens used the shaded areas than the non shaded areas, with slightly more using the shade in the morning than in the afternoon. As the environmental temperature increased the number of birds using the outdoor shade also increased. Overall 17 times more hens used the shelterbelt

  15. Revised tephra volumes for Cascade Range volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathenson, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    Isopach maps from tephra eruptions from Mount St. Helens were reported in Carey et al. (1995) and for tephra eruptions from Glacier Peak in Gardner et al. (1998). For exponential thinning, the isopach data only define a single slope on a log thickness versus square root of area plot. Carey et al. (1995) proposed a model that was used to estimate a second slope, and volumes were presented in both studies using this model. A study by Sulpizio (2005) for estimating the second slope and square root of area where the lines intersect involves a systematic analysis of many eruptions to provide correlation equations. The purpose of this paper is to recalculate the volumes of Cascades eruptions and compare results from the two methods. In order to gain some perspective on the methods for estimating the second slope, we use data for thickness versus distance beyond the last isopach that are available for some of the larger eruptions in the Cascades. The thickness versus square root of area method is extended to thickness versus distance by developing an approximate relation between the two assuming elliptical isopachs with the source at one of the foci. Based on the comparisons made between the Carey et al. (1995) and Sulpizio (2005) methods, it is felt that the later method provides a better estimate of the second slope. For Mount St. Helens, the estimates of total volume using the Sulpizio (2005) method are generally smaller than those using the Carey et al. (1995) method. For the volume estimates of Carey et al. (1995), the volume of the May 18, 1980, eruption of Mount St. Helens is smaller than six of the eight previous eruptions. With the new volumes using the Sulpizio (2005) method, the 1980 eruption is smaller in volume than the upper end of the range for only three of the layers (Wn, Ye, and Yn) and is the same size as layer We. Thus the 1980 eruption becomes representative of the mid-range of volumes rather than being in the lower range.

  16. Sampling Number Effects in 2D and Range Imaging of Range-gated Acquisition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Seong-Ouk; Park, Seung-Kyu; Baik, Sung-Hoon; Cho, Jai-Wan; Jeong, Kyung-Min [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    In this paper, we analyzed the number effects of sampling images for making a 2D image and a range image from acquired RGI images. We analyzed the number effects of RGI images for making a 2D image and a range image using a RGI vision system. As the results, 2D image quality was not much depended on the number of sampling images but on how much well extract efficient RGI images. But, the number of RGI images was important for making a range image because range image quality was proportional to the number of RGI images. Image acquiring in a monitoring area of nuclear industry is an important function for safety inspection and preparing appropriate control plans. To overcome the non-visualization problem caused by airborne obstacle particles, vision systems should have extra-functions, such as active illumination lightening through disturbance airborne particles. One of these powerful active vision systems is a range-gated imaging system. The vision system based on the range-gated imaging system can acquire image data from raining or smoking environments. Range-gated imaging (RGI) is a direct active visualization technique using a highly sensitive image sensor and a high intensity illuminant. Currently, the range-gated imaging technique providing 2D and 3D images is one of emerging active vision technologies. The range-gated imaging system gets vision information by summing time sliced vision images. In the RGI system, a high intensity illuminant illuminates for ultra-short time and a highly sensitive image sensor is gated by ultra-short exposure time to only get the illumination light. Here, the illuminant illuminates objects by flashing strong light through airborne disturbance particles. Thus, in contrast to passive conventional vision systems, the RGI active vision technology robust for low-visibility environments.

  17. Climate driven range divergence among host species affects range-wide patterns of parasitism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard E. Feldman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Species interactions like parasitism influence the outcome of climate-driven shifts in species ranges. For some host species, parasitism can only occur in that part of its range that overlaps with a second host species. Thus, predicting future parasitism may depend on how the ranges of the two hosts change in relation to each other. In this study, we tested whether the climate driven species range shift of Odocoileus virginianus (white-tailed deer accounts for predicted changes in parasitism of two other species from the family Cervidae, Alces alces (moose and Rangifer tarandus (caribou, in North America. We used MaxEnt models to predict the recent (2000 and future (2050 ranges (probabilities of occurrence of the cervids and a parasite Parelaphostrongylus tenuis (brainworm taking into account range shifts of the parasite’s intermediate gastropod hosts. Our models predicted that range overlap between A. alces/R. tarandus and P. tenuis will decrease between 2000 and 2050, an outcome that reflects decreased overlap between A. alces/R. tarandus and O. virginianus and not the parasites, themselves. Geographically, our models predicted increasing potential occurrence of P. tenuis where A. alces/R. tarandus are likely to decline, but minimal spatial overlap where A. alces/R. tarandus are likely to increase. Thus, parasitism may exacerbate climate-mediated southern contraction of A. alces and R. tarandus ranges but will have limited influence on northward range expansion. Our results suggest that the spatial dynamics of one host species may be the driving force behind future rates of parasitism for another host species.

  18. Unsynchronized scanning with a low-cost laser range finder for real-time range imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatipoglu, Isa; Nakhmani, Arie

    2017-06-01

    Range imaging plays an essential role in many fields: 3D modeling, robotics, heritage, agriculture, forestry, reverse engineering. One of the most popular range-measuring technologies is laser scanner due to its several advantages: long range, high precision, real-time measurement capabilities, and no dependence on lighting conditions. However, laser scanners are very costly. Their high cost prevents widespread use in applications. Due to the latest developments in technology, now, low-cost, reliable, faster, and light-weight 1D laser range finders (LRFs) are available. A low-cost 1D LRF with a scanning mechanism, providing the ability of laser beam steering for additional dimensions, enables to capture a depth map. In this work, we present an unsynchronized scanning with a low-cost LRF to decrease scanning period and reduce vibrations caused by stop-scan in synchronized scanning. Moreover, we developed an algorithm for alignment of unsynchronized raw data and proposed range image post-processing framework. The proposed technique enables to have a range imaging system for a fraction of the price of its counterparts. The results prove that the proposed method can fulfill the need for a low-cost laser scanning for range imaging for static environments because the most significant limitation of the method is the scanning period which is about 2 minutes for 55,000 range points (resolution of 250x220 image). In contrast, scanning the same image takes around 4 minutes in synchronized scanning. Once faster, longer range, and narrow beam LRFs are available, the methods proposed in this work can produce better results.

  19. Sparse Representation Denoising for Radar High Resolution Range Profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Radar high resolution range profile has attracted considerable attention in radar automatic target recognition. In practice, radar return is usually contaminated by noise, which results in profile distortion and recognition performance degradation. To deal with this problem, in this paper, a novel denoising method based on sparse representation is proposed to remove the Gaussian white additive noise. The return is sparsely described in the Fourier redundant dictionary and the denoising problem is described as a sparse representation model. Noise level of the return, which is crucial to the denoising performance but often unknown, is estimated by performing subspace method on the sliding subsequence correlation matrix. Sliding window process enables noise level estimation using only one observation sequence, not only guaranteeing estimation efficiency but also avoiding the influence of profile time-shift sensitivity. Experimental results show that the proposed method can effectively improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the return, leading to a high-quality profile.

  20. Low Power High Dynamic Range A/D Conversion Channel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marker-Villumsen, Niels; Rombach, Pirmin

    on this knowledge, a new method is proposed for the reduction of the transient glitches, based on linear extrapolation of the channel output signal. The design of a low power continuous-time (CT) Delta-Sigma (∆Σ) ADC for use in the adaptive A/D conversion channel is also presented. When designing a CT ∆Σ ADC...... in the conversion channel in order to avoid distortion for large input signals. In combination with a low resolution A/D converter (ADC) and a digital gain block, the adaptive A/D conversion channel achieves an extended dynamic range beyond that of the ADC. This in turn reduces the current consumption......, the choice of e.g. integrator topology, feedback waveform, feedback type, noise transfer function, and quantization levels, results in a large design space, both at the modulator and circuit level. A new optimization method is presented, that seeks to minimize the current consumption of the ADC. Based...

  1. Interference of lee waves over mountain ranges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Makarenko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Internal waves in the atmosphere and ocean are generated frequently from the interaction of mean flow with bottom obstacles such as mountains and submarine ridges. Analysis of these environmental phenomena involves theoretical models of non-homogeneous fluid affected by the gravity. In this paper, a semi-analytical model of stratified flow over the mountain range is considered under the assumption of small amplitude of the topography. Attention is focused on stationary wave patterns forced above the rough terrain. Adapted to account for such terrain, model equations involves exact topographic condition settled on the uneven ground surface. Wave solutions corresponding to sinusoidal topography with a finite number of peaks are calculated and examined.

  2. Broader range of skills distinguishes successful CFOs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doody, M F

    2000-09-01

    In recent years, healthcare CFOs have seen their role expand significantly beyond traditional financial duties. A series of trended surveys on CFO roles and responsibilities reveals that today's healthcare CFO requires a broad new range of traits and skills in the areas of leadership, operations, and healthcare strategy. CFOs regard strategic thinking and the ability to communicate clearly as the most important of their essential leadership traits and skills, respectively. Among operational and strategic skills, CFOs most often cite the importance of being able to improve organizational performance and benchmark. Healthcare CFOs can enhance their chances of success by focusing self-improvement efforts on five key areas: implementing the organization's vision; developing tactics that stimulate change; enhancing communication skills; focusing on managing and leading; and strengthening relationships.

  3. An introduction to optimal satellite range scheduling

    CERN Document Server

    Vázquez Álvarez, Antonio José

    2015-01-01

    The satellite range scheduling (SRS) problem, an important operations research problem in the aerospace industry consisting of allocating tasks among satellites and Earth-bound objects, is examined in this book. SRS principles and solutions are applicable to many areas, including: Satellite communications, where tasks are communication intervals between sets of satellites and ground stations Earth observation, where tasks are observations of spots on the Earth by satellites Sensor scheduling, where tasks are observations of satellites by sensors on the Earth. This self-contained monograph begins with a structured compendium of the problem and moves on to explain the optimal approach to the solution, which includes aspects from graph theory, set theory, game theory and belief networks. This book is accessible to students, professionals and researchers in a variety of fields, including: operations research, optimization, scheduling theory, dynamic programming and game theory. Taking account of the distributed, ...

  4. Principles of digital dynamic-range compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kates, James M

    2005-01-01

    This article provides an overview of dynamic-range compression in digital hearing aids. Digital technology is becoming increasingly common in hearing aids, particularly because of the processing flexibility it offers and the opportunity to create more-effective devices. The focus of the paper is on the algorithms used to build digital compression systems. Of the various approaches that can be used to design a digital hearing aid, this paper considers broadband compression, multi-channel filter banks, a frequency-domain compressor using the FFT, the side-branch design that separates the filtering operation from the frequency analysis, and the frequency-warped version of the side-branch approach that modifies the analysis frequency spacing to more closely match auditory perception. Examples of the compressor frequency resolution, group delay, and compression behavior are provided for the different design approaches.

  5. Long-range interaction of anisotropic systems

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Junyi

    2015-02-01

    The first-order electrostatic interaction energy between two far-apart anisotropic atoms depends not only on the distance between them but also on their relative orientation, according to Rayleigh-Schrödinger perturbation theory. Using the first-order interaction energy and the continuum model, we study the long-range interaction between a pair of parallel pristine graphene sheets at zero temperature. The asymptotic form of the obtained potential density, &epsi:(D) &prop: ?D ?3 ?O(D?4), is consistent with the random phase approximation and Lifshitz theory. Accordingly, neglectance of the anisotropy, especially the nonzero first-order interaction energy, is the reason why the widely used Lennard-Jones potential approach and dispersion corrections in density functional theory give a wrong asymptotic form ε(D) &prop: ?D?4. © EPLA, 2015.

  6. Range-preserving AE(0-spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.W. Comfort

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available All spaces here are Tychonoff spaces. The class AE(0 consists of those spaces which are absolute extensors for compact zero-dimensional spaces. We define and study here the subclass AE(0rp, consisting of those spaces for which extensions of continuous functions can be chosen to have the same range. We prove these results. If each point of T 2 AE(0 is a G-point of T , then T 2 AE(0rp. These are equivalent: (a T 2 AE(0rp; (b every compact subspace of T is metrizable; (c every compact subspace of T is dyadic; and (d every subspace of T is AE(0. Thus in particular, every metrizable space is an AE(0rp-space.

  7. Range of drainage effect of surface mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sozanski, J.

    1978-03-01

    This paper discusses methods of calculating the range of effects of water drainage from surface coal mines and other surface mines. It is suggested that methods based on test pumping (water drainage) are time consuming, and the results can be distorted by atmospheric factors such as rain fall or dry period. So-called empirical formulae produce results which are often incorrect. The size of a cone shaped depression calculated on the basis of empirical formulae can be ten times smaller than the size of the real depression. It is suggested that using a formula based on the Dupuit formula is superior to other methods of depression calculation. According to the derived formulae the radius of the depresion cone is a function of parameters of the water bearing horizons, size of surface mine working and of water depression. The proposed formula also takes into account the influence of atmospheric factors (water influx caused by precipitation, etc.). (1 ref.) (In Polish)

  8. Semiconductor Sensors for a Wide Temperature Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay GORBACHUK

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Prototype sensors are described that are applicable for pressure, position, temperature, and field measurements in the temperature range of 4.2 to 300 K. The strain gauges utilize the silicon substrate and thin film technology. The tensosensitivity of strain sensors is 40 µV/mln-1 or better depending on metrological characteristics of semiconductor films, orientation, and current. The temperature sensors (thermistors make use of the germanium powder bulk. The temperature coefficient of resistance is within 50-100 % /K at 4.2 K. The magnetic field sensors use GaAs films that offer weak temperature dependence of parameters at high sensitivity (up to 300-400 mV/T.

  9. Tonopah Test Range Post-Closure Inspection Annual Report, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, Calendar Year 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; Bechtel Nevada

    2004-04-01

    This post-closure inspection report provides documentation of the semiannual inspection activities, maintenance and repair activities, and conclusions and recommendations for calendar year 2003 for eight corrective action units located on the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada.

  10. Range Reference Atmosphere Wake Island, North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-08-01

    the best availabie upper-atmosphere data bases rawinsonde, rocketsonde, and any other high -altitude data source) to create and publ ish (in standard...V components of wind, density, and dew point for the 0-30 km portion and density only from 30 to 60 km (in RRAs that go that high ). The lower (or...Prcssgtrk at at siLimsfikcant radiosonde data level 11h IL 1 wIalayintegrated mecan monthly or annual pressure An .\\ talumlateid PR A quantity R’ I ’nwr

  11. Ranging and Correlating Sensor Development Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-11-01

    left and the RPY97 is on the right. The RPY97 has nearly identical construction 3-160 Fiue33.RY6(et n P9 Rgt 3-16 𔃾.,Z and operational characteristics...reduced about 50% using the 1 Hz cut- off. For a fast moving target (i.e., brisk walk or run as opposed to crawling or creeping ) however, the signal level...cancel. There remains however, a 3-183 A *Kc*- * ~. *~ *~ g -. * p9 hi UJ 0 *~ 0 *, *o .~0 0) ~ 0) Es 0. - 0) SI CO 6 55flL1~.U,-., -1 0) *~ .. *, 𔃾

  12. Evolution of Topography in Glaciated Mountain Ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocklehurst, Simon H.

    2002-01-01

    This thesis examines the response of alpine landscapes to the onset of glaciation. The basic approach is to compare fluvial and glacial laudscapes, since it is the change from the former to the latter that accompanies climatic cooling. This allows a detailed evaluation of hypotheses relating climate change to tectonic processes in glaciated mountain belts. Fieldwork was carried out in the eastern Sierra Nevada, California, and the Sangre de Cristo Range, Colorado, alongside digital elevation model analyses in the western US, the Southern Alps of New Zealand, and the Himalaya of northwestern Pakistan. hypothesis is overstated in its appeal to glacial erosion as a major source of relief production and subsequent peak uplift. Glaciers in the eastern Sierra Nevada and the western Sangre de Cristos have redistributed relief, but have produced only modest relief by enlarging drainage basins at the expense of low-relief topography. Glaciers have lowered valley floors and ridgelines by similar amounts, limiting the amount of "missing mass' that can be generated, and causing a decrease in drainage basin relief. The principal response of glaciated landscapes to rapid rock uplift is the development of towering cirque headwalls. This represents considerable relief production, but is not caused by glacial erosion alone. Large valley glaciers can maintain their low gradient regardless of uplift rate, which supports the "glacial buzzsaw" hypothesis. However, the inability of glaciers to erode steep hillslopes as rapidly can cause mean elevations to rise. Cosmogenic isotope dating is used to show that (i) where plucking is active, the last major glaciation removed sufficient material to reset the cosmogenic clock; and (ii) former glacial valley floors now stranded near the crest of the Sierra Nevada are at varying stages of abandonment, suggesting a cycle of drainage reorganiszation and relief inversion due to glacial erosion similar to that observed in river networks. Glaciated

  13. Short-range correlations in quark and nuclear matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froemel, Frank

    2007-06-15

    In the first part of this thesis, the role of short-range correlations in quark matter is explored within the framework of the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. Starting from a next-to-leading order expansion in the inverse number of the quark colors, a fully self-consistent model constructed that employs the close relations between spectral functions and self-energies. In contrast to the usual quasiparticle approximations, this approach allows the investigation of the collisional broadening of the quark spectral function. Numerical calculations at various chemical potentials and zero temperature show that the short-range correlations do not only induce a finite width of the spectral function but also have some influence on the structure of the chiral phase transition. In the second part of this thesis, the temperature and density dependence of the nucleon spectral function in symmetric nuclear matter is investigated. The short-range correlations can be well described by a simple, self-consistent model on the one-particle-two-hole and two-particle-one-hole level (1p2h, 2p1h). The thermodynamically consistent description of the mean-field properties of the nucleons is ensured by incorporating a Skyrme-type potential. Calculations at temperatures and densities that can also be found in heavy-ion collisions or supernova explosions and the formation of neutron stars show that the correlations saturate at high temperatures and densities. (orig.)

  14. Projected range contractions of montane biodiversity under global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Sorte, Frank A.; Jetz, Walter

    2010-01-01

    Mountains, especially in the tropics, harbour a unique and large portion of the world's biodiversity. Their geographical isolation, limited range size and unique environmental adaptations make montane species potentially the most threatened under impeding climate change. Here, we provide a global baseline assessment of geographical range contractions and extinction risk of high-elevation specialists in a future warmer world. We consider three dispersal scenarios for simulated species and for the world's 1009 montane bird species. Under constrained vertical dispersal (VD), species with narrow vertical distributions are strongly impacted; at least a third of montane bird diversity is severely threatened. In a scenario of unconstrained VD, the location and structure of mountain systems emerge as a strong driver of extinction risk. Even unconstrained lateral movements offer little improvement to the fate of montane species in the Afrotropics, Australasia and Nearctic. Our results demonstrate the particular roles that the geography of species richness, the spatial structure of lateral and particularly vertical range extents and the specific geography of mountain systems have in determining the vulnerability of montane biodiversity to climate change. Our findings confirm the outstanding levels of biotic perturbation and extinction risk that mountain systems are likely to experience under global warming and highlight the need for additional knowledge on species' vertical distributions, dispersal and adaptive capacities. PMID:20534610

  15. Dynamic range and sensitivity adaptation in a silicon spiking neuron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, J; Koch, C

    1999-01-01

    We here propose an adaptive procedure that enables a spiking neuron, whether artificial or biological, to make optimal use of its dynamic range and gain.We discuss an analog electronic circuit implementation of this algorithm using a biologically realistic artificial "silicon" neuron. The adaptation procedure adapts the neuron's firing threshold and the sensitivity (or gain) of its current-frequency relationship to match the dc offset (or mean) and the dynamic range (or variance) of the time-varying somatic input current. The neuron extracts the minimum and maximum levels of the reconstructed somatic current signals from the cell's own spike trains. These are used to regulate the somatic leak conductance in order to shift the somatic current-frequency relation and to adjust a calcium-activated potassium conductance to change the dynamic range of the cell's somatic current-frequency relationship. We report experimental data from a test neuron--built using analog subthreshold CMOS VLSI technology--that shows the expected behavior.

  16. Constraints on New Gravitylike Forces in the Nanometer Range

    CERN Document Server

    Kamiya, Y; Tani, M; Kim, G N; Komamiya, S

    2015-01-01

    We report on a new constraint on gravitylike short-range forces, in which the interaction charge is mass, obtained by measuring the angular distribution of 5 A neutrons scattering off atomic xenon gas. Around 10^7 scattering events were collected at the 40 m small angle neutron scattering beam line located at the HANARO research reactor of the Korean Atomic Energy Research Institute. The extracted coupling strengths of new forces in the Yukawa-type parametrization are g^2 = (0.2 \\pm 6.8 \\pm 2.0) \\times 10^-15 GeV^2 and g^2 = (-5.3 \\pm 9.0 + 2.7 -2.8) \\times 10^-17 GeV^2 for interaction ranges of 0.1 and 1.0 nm, respectively. These strengths correspond to 95% confidence level limits of g^2 < (1.4 \\pm 0.2) \\times 10^-14 GeV^-2 and g^2 < (1.3 \\pm 0.2) \\times 10^-16 GeV^-2, improving the current limits for interaction ranges between 4 and 0.04 nm by a factor of up to 10.

  17. Scaffolding of long read assemblies using long range contact information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghurye, Jay; Pop, Mihai; Koren, Sergey; Bickhart, Derek; Chin, Chen-Shan

    2017-07-12

    Long read technologies have revolutionized de novo genome assembly by generating contigs orders of magnitude longer than that of short read assemblies. Although assembly contiguity has increased, it usually does not reconstruct a full chromosome or an arm of the chromosome, resulting in an unfinished chromosome level assembly. To increase the contiguity of the assembly to the chromosome level, different strategies are used which exploit long range contact information between chromosomes in the genome. We develop a scalable and computationally efficient scaffolding method that can boost the assembly contiguity to a large extent using genome-wide chromatin interaction data such as Hi-C. we demonstrate an algorithm that uses Hi-C data for longer-range scaffolding of de novo long read genome assemblies. We tested our methods on the human and goat genome assemblies. We compare our scaffolds with the scaffolds generated by LACHESIS based on various metrics. Our new algorithm SALSA produces more accurate scaffolds compared to the existing state of the art method LACHESIS.

  18. Surveillance Range and Interference Impacts on Self-Separation Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, Husni; Consiglio, Maria C.; Wing, David J.

    2011-01-01

    Self-separation is a concept of flight operations that aims to provide user benefits and increase airspace capacity by transferring traffic separation responsibility from ground-based controllers to the flight crew. Self-separation is enabled by cooperative airborne surveillance, such as that provided by the Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADSB) system and airborne separation assistance technologies. This paper describes an assessment of the impact of ADS-B system performance on the performance of self-separation as a step towards establishing far-term ADS-B performance requirements. Specifically, the impacts of ADS-B surveillance range and interference limitations were analyzed under different traffic density levels. The analysis was performed using a batch simulation of aircraft performing self-separation assisted by NASA s Autonomous Operations Planner prototype flight-deck tool, in two-dimensional airspace. An aircraft detected conflicts within a look-ahead time of ten minutes and resolved them using strategic closed trajectories or tactical open maneuvers if the time to loss of separation was below a threshold. While a complex interaction was observed between the impacts of surveillance range and interference, as both factors are physically coupled, self-separation performance followed expected trends. An increase in surveillance range resulted in a decrease in the number of conflict detections, an increase in the average conflict detection lead time, and an increase in the percentage of conflict resolutions that were strategic. The majority of the benefit was observed when surveillance range was increased to a value corresponding to the conflict detection look-ahead time. The benefits were attenuated at higher interference levels. Increase in traffic density resulted in a significant increase in the number of conflict detections, as expected, but had no effect on the conflict detection lead time and the percentage of conflict resolutions that were

  19. Frequency ranges and attenuation of macroseismic effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosi, Patrizia; De Rubeis, Valerio; Sbarra, Paola

    2017-09-01

    Macroseismic intensity is assessed on the basis of the effects caused by an earthquake. These effects reflect the expression of both the intensity and frequency of the ground motion, thus complicating prediction equation modelling. Here we analysed data of several macroseismic transitory effects caused by recent Italian earthquakes in order to study their attenuation as a function of magnitude and hypocentral distance and to obtain a specific prediction equation, of simple functional form, that could be applied to each of the effects under analysis. We found that the different attenuation behaviours could be clearly defined by the values of the specially formulated magnitude-distance scaling ratio (S), thus allowing to group the effects on the basis of the S value. The oscillation of hanging objects and liquids, together with the feeling of dizziness, were separated from most other variables, such as the effects of the earthquake on small objects, china and windows, which were caused by a vibration of higher frequency. Besides, the greater value of S, associated with the perception of the seismic sound, explained the peculiarity of this phenomenon. As a result, we recognized the frequency range associated with each effect through comparisons with the ground motion prediction equations and, in particular, with the 5 per cent damped horizontal response spectra. Here we show the importance of appropriately selecting the diagnostic elements to be used for intensity assessment in order to improve the correlation with ground motion.

  20. Stochastic processes and long range dependence

    CERN Document Server

    Samorodnitsky, Gennady

    2016-01-01

    This monograph is a gateway for researchers and graduate students to explore the profound, yet subtle, world of long-range dependence (also known as long memory). The text is organized around the probabilistic properties of stationary processes that are important for determining the presence or absence of long memory. The first few chapters serve as an overview of the general theory of stochastic processes which gives the reader sufficient background, language, and models for the subsequent discussion of long memory. The later chapters devoted to long memory begin with an introduction to the subject along with a brief history of its development, followed by a presentation of what is currently the best known approach, applicable to stationary processes with a finite second moment. The book concludes with a chapter devoted to the author’s own, less standard, point of view of long memory as a phase transition, and even includes some novel results. Most of the material in the book has not previously been publis...

  1. Relativistic tests with lunar laser ranging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, F.; Müller, J.

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents the recent version of the lunar laser ranging (LLR) analysis model at the Institut für Erdmessung (IfE), Leibniz Universität Hannover and highlights a few tests of Einstein’s theory of gravitation using LLR data. Investigations related to a possible temporal variation of the gravitational constant, the equivalence principle, the PPN parameters β and γ as well as the geodetic precession were carried out. The LLR analysis model was updated by gravitational effects of the Sun and planets with the Moon as extended body. The higher-order gravitational interaction between Earth and Moon as well as effects of the solid Earth tides on the lunar motion were refined. The basis for the modeled lunar rotation is now a 2-layer core/mantle model according to the DE430 ephemeris. The validity of Einstein’s theory was studied using this updated analysis model and an LLR data set from 1970 to January 2015. Within the estimated accuracies, no deviations from Einstein’s theory are detected. A relative temporal variation of the gravitational constant is estimated as \\dot{G}/G_0=(7.1+/-7.6)×10-14~yr-1 , the test of the equivalence principle gives Δ(m_g/m_i)EM=(-3+/-5)×10-14 and the Nordtvedt parameter \

  2. Long-range forecasting of intermittent streamflow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. F. van Ogtrop

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Long-range forecasting of intermittent streamflow in semi-arid Australia poses a number of major challenges. One of the challenges relates to modelling zero, skewed, non-stationary, and non-linear data. To address this, a statistical model to forecast streamflow up to 12 months ahead is applied to five semi-arid catchments in South Western Queensland. The model uses logistic regression through Generalised Additive Models for Location, Scale and Shape (GAMLSS to determine the probability of flow occurring in any of the systems. We then use the same regression framework in combination with a right-skewed distribution, the Box-Cox t distribution, to model the intensity (depth of the non-zero streamflows. Time, seasonality and climate indices, describing the Pacific and Indian Ocean sea surface temperatures, are tested as covariates in the GAMLSS model to make probabilistic 6 and 12-month forecasts of the occurrence and intensity of streamflow. The output reveals that in the study region the occurrence and variability of flow is driven by sea surface temperatures and therefore forecasts can be made with some skill.

  3. Measurement of individual loudness functions by trisection of loudness ranges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villchur, Edgar; Killion, Mead C

    2008-10-01

    Loudness-balance measurements with monaurally impaired subjects have shown that the shape of the loudness versus sound-pressure curve among hearing-impaired persons varies significantly. But the effectiveness of adjusting the compression characteristics of wide-dynamic-range compression hearing aids-the compression ratios, the variation of compression ratio with level, and the threshold of compression-to restore normal loudness growth for the individual patient has never been properly tested; individual loudness measurements have been too uncertain to permit meaningful individual adjustments. Recent investigators have reported standard deviations of such measurements in normal-hearing subjects of 6.4 dB and 7.8 dB. This investigation describes a method of measuring loudness function with a standard deviation in normal-hearing subjects of the order of 1 dB, both significantly lower than that of previous methods and sufficiently accurate for individual-subject adjustments. Each of nine normal-hearing subjects-seven of them inexperienced and one a 9-year-old was asked to make three successive loudness trisections within an amplitude range of 40 to 80 dB SPL, providing six points from which to plot a loudness-function curve between these limits. The individual and average curves were validated as accurate loudness functions by comparing them to the curve defined by the equation of loudness versus amplitude in current Standards. In a second validation experiment, the loudness functions of masked ears measured by trisection were compared to the loudness function of those ears measured by loudness balance between masked and unmasked ears. The difference between a loudness function based on the average of subject trisections and the loudness function defined by the ANSI Standard loudness equation was -1.92 dB at the lowest trisection level and +0.05 dB at the highest level. The standard deviations of subject responses were 1.63 dB for the lowest trisection level and 0.68 d

  4. Shadow correction in high dynamic range images for generating orthophotos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Hideo; Chikatsu, Hirofumi

    2011-07-01

    High dynamic range imagery is widely used in remote sensing. With the widespread use of aerial digital cameras such as the DMC, ADS40, RMK-D, and UltraCamD, high dynamic range imaging is generally expected for generating minuteness orthophotos in digital aerial photogrammetry. However, high dynamic range images (12-bit, 4,096 gray levels) are generally compressed into an 8-bit depth digital image (256 gray levels) owing to huge amount of data and interface with peripherals such as monitors and printers. This means that a great deal of image data is eliminated from the original image, and this introduces a new shadow problem. In particular, the influence of shadows in urban areas causes serious problems when generating minuteness orthophotos and performing house detection. Therefore, shadow problems can be solved by addressing the image compression problems. There is a large body of literature on image compression techniques such as logarithmic compression and tone mapping algorithms. However, logarithmic compression tends to cause loss of details in dark and/or light areas. Furthermore, the logarithmic method intends to operate on the full scene. This means that high-resolution luminance information can not be obtained. Even though tone mapping algorithms have the ability to operate over both full scene and local scene, background knowledge is required. To resolve the shadow problem in digital aerial photogrammetry, shadow areas should be recognized and corrected automatically without the loss of luminance information. To this end, a practical shadow correction method using 12-bit real data acquired by DMC is investigated in this paper.

  5. Home range and ranging behaviour of Bornean elephant (Elephas maximus borneensis) females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfred, Raymond; Ahmad, Abd Hamid; Payne, Junaidi; Williams, Christy; Ambu, Laurentius Nayan; How, Phua Mui; Goossens, Benoit

    2012-01-01

    Home range is defined as the extent and location of the area covered annually by a wild animal in its natural habitat. Studies of African and Indian elephants in landscapes of largely open habitats have indicated that the sizes of the home range are determined not only by the food supplies and seasonal changes, but also by numerous other factors including availability of water sources, habitat loss and the existence of man-made barriers. The home range size for the Bornean elephant had never been investigated before. The first satellite tracking program to investigate the movement of wild Bornean elephants in Sabah was initiated in 2005. Five adult female elephants were immobilized and neck collars were fitted with tracking devices. The sizes of their home range and movement patterns were determined using location data gathered from a satellite tracking system and analyzed by using the Minimum Convex Polygon and Harmonic Mean methods. Home range size was estimated to be 250 to 400 km(2) in a non-fragmented forest and 600 km(2) in a fragmented forest. The ranging behavior was influenced by the size of the natural forest habitat and the availability of permanent water sources. The movement pattern was influenced by human disturbance and the need to move from one feeding site to another. Home range and movement rate were influenced by the degree of habitat fragmentation. Once habitat was cleared or converted, the availability of food plants and water sources were reduced, forcing the elephants to travel to adjacent forest areas. Therefore movement rate in fragmented forest was higher than in the non-fragmented forest. Finally, in fragmented habitat human and elephant conflict occurrences were likely to be higher, due to increased movement bringing elephants into contact more often with humans.

  6. Are fish outside their usual ranges early indicators of climate-driven range shifts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, Hannah E; Burrows, Michael T; Pecl, Gretta T; Robinson, Lucy M; Poloczanska, Elvira S

    2017-05-01

    Shifts in species ranges are a global phenomenon, well known to occur in response to a changing climate. New species arriving in an area may become pest species, modify ecosystem structure, or represent challenges or opportunities for fisheries and recreation. Early detection of range shifts and prompt implementation of any appropriate management strategies is therefore crucial. This study investigates whether 'first sightings' of marine species outside their normal ranges could provide an early warning of impending climate-driven range shifts. We examine the relationships between first sightings and marine regions defined by patterns of local climate velocities (calculated on a 50-year timescale), while also considering the distribution of observational effort (i.e. number of sampling days recorded with biological observations in global databases). The marine trajectory regions include climate 'source' regions (areas lacking connections to warmer areas), 'corridor' regions (areas where moving isotherms converge), and 'sink' regions (areas where isotherms locally disappear). Additionally, we investigate the latitudinal band in which first sightings were recorded, and species' thermal affiliations. We found that first sightings are more likely to occur in climate sink and 'divergent' regions (areas where many rapid and diverging climate trajectories pass through) indicating a role of temperature in driving changes in marine species distributions. The majority of our fish first sightings appear to be tropical and subtropical species moving towards high latitudes, as would be expected in climate warming. Our results indicate that first sightings are likely related to longer-term climatic processes, and therefore have potential use to indicate likely climate-driven range shifts. The development of an approach to detect impending range shifts at an early stage will allow resource managers and researchers to better manage opportunities resulting from range

  7. Tidal Range Monitoring and Analysis for Estuary Restoration Projects: Nisqually National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Documenting the range of tides within a wetland provides critical information to assess the effects of restoration as well as changes from sea-level rise and...

  8. GLAS/ICESat L1B Global Waveform-based Range Corrections Data V034

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The level 1B waveform parameterization data will contain waveform-based range corrections and surface characteristics at the full 40 per second resolution. Data...

  9. Relief Evolution in Tectonically Active Mountain Ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whipple, Kelin X.

    2004-01-01

    The overall aims of this 3-yr project, as originally proposed were to: (1) investigate quantitatively the roles of fluvial and glacial erosion in the evolution of relief in mountainous regions, and (2) test rigorously the quality and accuracy of SRTM topographic data in areas of rugged relief - both the most challenging and of greatest interest to geomorphic, neotectonic, and hazards applications. Natural laboratories in both the western US and the Southern Alps of New Zealand were identified as most promising. The project has been both successful and productive, despite the fact that no SRTM data for our primary field sites in New Zealand were released on the time frame of the work effort. Given the delayed release of SRTM data, we pursued the scientific questions of the roles of fluvial and, especially, glacial erosion in the evolution of relief in mountainous regions using available digital elevation models (DEMs) for the Southern Alps of New Zealand (available at both 25m and 50m pixel sizes), and USGS 10m and 30m DEMs within the Western US. As emphasized in the original proposal, we chose the emphasis on the role of glacial modification of topographic relief because there has been little quantitative investigation of glacial erosion processes at landscape scale. This is particularly surprising considering the dramatic sculpting of most mid- and high-latitude mountain ranges, the prodigious quantities of glacially-derived sediment in terrestrial and marine basins, and the current cross-disciplinary interest in the role of denudational processes in orogenesis and the evolution of topography in general. Moreover, the evolution of glaciated landscapes is not only a fundamental problem in geomorphology in its own right, but also is at the heart of the debate over Late Cenozoic linkages between climate and tectonics.

  10. Major International R and D Ranges and Test Facilities. Summary of Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    SIDE- tors. WINDER AIM-9 air-to-air missile, a low.level anti- Lank Measures to increase reliability. I weapon and new weapons for use against...vehicles. Six cinesextants and a full range of high-speed Wildcat and Baker’s Strongpoint Ranges con- cameras provide documentary photography. * 189 SrI

  11. Calibrating and testing a gap model for simulating forest management in the Oregon Coast Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert J. Pabst; Matthew N. Goslin; Steven L. Garman; Thomas A. Spies

    2008-01-01

    The complex mix of economic and ecological objectives facing today's forest managers necessitates the development of growth models with a capacity for simulating a wide range of forest conditions while producing outputs useful for economic analyses. We calibrated the gap model ZELIG to simulate stand level forest development in the Oregon Coast Range as part of a...

  12. Roles of host plants in boll weevil range expansion beyond tropical Mesoamerica

    Science.gov (United States)

    New findings on boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), biology and ecology have had repercussions on the current level of understanding about short- and long-range boll weevil dispersal, and range expansion from its original tropical Mesoamerican habitat. The w...

  13. A Hybrid Finite Element/Helmholtz-Kirchhoff-Integral Model for Shooting Range Sound Prediction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhof, M.J.J.; Eerden, F.J.M. van der

    2013-01-01

    National legislation enforces a limit on the Sound Levels of outdoor military shooting ranges observed in nearby residential areas. These restrictions directly influence the number of shots that may be fired at a specific shooting range, which may conflict with the required/ scheduled training

  14. Realistic simulation of laser range finder behavior in a smoky environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Formsma, O.; Dijkshoorn, N.; van Noort, S.; Visser, A.; Ruiz-del-Solar, J.; Chown, E.; Plöger, P.G.

    2011-01-01

    The Urban Search and Rescue Simulation used for RoboCup lacks realistic response of laser range finders on smoke. In this paper, the behavior of a Hokuyo and Sick laser range finder in a smoky environment is studied. The behavior of the lasers is among others a function of the visibility level, and

  15. Dynamic Range for Speech Materials in Korean, English, and Mandarin: A Cross-Language Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, In-Ki; Kates, James M.; Arehart, Kathryn H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify whether differences in dynamic range (DR) are evident across the spoken languages of Korean, English, and Mandarin. Method: Recorded sentence-level speech materials were used as stimuli. DR was quantified using different definitions of DR (defined as the range in decibels from the highest to the…

  16. Grenade Range Management Using Lime for Metals Immobilization and Explosives Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    The Department of Defense (DoD) operates numerous hand grenade ranges (HGR) for training purposes. Live-fire training creates a potential source zone...g]/kilogram [kg]) up to percent levels. RDX has been detected in leachate waters below live-fire hand grenade ranges and in surface waters leaving

  17. Infinite matter properties and zero-range limit of non-relativistic finite-range interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davesne, D. [Université de Lyon, Université Lyon 1, CNRS/IN2P3, Institut de Physique Nucléaire de Lyon, UMR 5822, F-69622 Villeurbanne cedex (France); Becker, P., E-mail: pbecker@ipnl.in2p3.fr [Université de Lyon, Université Lyon 1, CNRS/IN2P3, Institut de Physique Nucléaire de Lyon, UMR 5822, F-69622 Villeurbanne cedex (France); Pastore, A. [Department of Physics, University of York, Heslington, York, Y010 5DD (United Kingdom); Navarro, J. [IFIC (CSIC-Universidad de Valencia), Apartado Postal 22085, E-46.071-Valencia (Spain)

    2016-12-15

    We discuss some infinite matter properties of two finite-range interactions widely used for nuclear structure calculations, namely Gogny and M3Y interactions. We show that some useful informations can be deduced for the central, tensor and spin–orbit terms from the spin–isospin channels and the partial wave decomposition of the symmetric nuclear matter equation of state. We show in particular that the central part of the Gogny interaction should benefit from the introduction of a third Gaussian and the tensor parameters of both interactions can be deduced from special combinations of partial waves. We also discuss the fact that the spin–orbit of the M3Y interaction is not compatible with local gauge invariance. Finally, we show that the zero-range limit of both families of interactions coincides with the specific form of the zero-range Skyrme interaction extended to higher momentum orders and we emphasize from this analogy its benefits.

  18. A study of the sensitivity of long-range passive ranging techniques to atmospheric scintillation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available of the sensitivity of long-range passive ranging techniques to atmospheric scintillation Jason de Villiersa,b, Fintan Wilsona and Fred Nicollsb aCouncil for Scientific and Industrial Research, Pretoria, South Africa; bUniversity of Cape Town, Cape Town, South... and not scintillation and remove it from the list. 6. Interpolate between identified matches to create a complete de-warping mesh for the image. 7. Use de-warping mesh to create stabilised image. 6. RESULTS The resultant depth images in this paper are small in order...

  19. Predicting Long-Range Traversability from Short-Range Stereo-Derived Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turmon, Michael; Tang, Benyang; Howard, Andrew; Brjaracharya, Max

    2010-01-01

    Based only on its appearance in imagery, this program uses close-range 3D terrain analysis to produce training data sufficient to estimate the traversability of terrain beyond 3D sensing range. This approach is called learning from stereo (LFS). In effect, the software transfers knowledge from middle distances, where 3D geometry provides training cues, into the far field where only appearance is available. This is a viable approach because the same obstacle classes, and sometimes the same obstacles, are typically present in the mid-field and the farfield. Learning thus extends the effective look-ahead distance of the sensors.

  20. Active deformation offshore the Western Transverse Ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ucarkus, G.; Driscoll, N. W.; Brothers, D. S.; Kent, G.; Rockwell, T. K.

    2014-12-01

    The Transverse Ranges within the structural province of southern California, an east-west trending active fold and thrust belt system, has rapid uplift rates that are capable of generating large earthquakes and tsunamis. This system to the west consists of north and south dipping reverse faults offshore Santa Barbara and Ventura (i.e., Pitas Point fault, Red Mountain fault, Rincon Creek fault). Ventura Avenue Anticline (VAA) is one of the fastest uplifting structure within this system has experienced nearly 2.7 km of structural uplift since fold initiation about 200-300 thousand years ago, yielding an average uplift rate of 9-13 mm/yr. Mapped and dated Holocene marine terraces between Ventura and Carpenteria reveal that large uplift events occurred at 0.8 ka and 1.9 ka; a recurrence interval of approximately a thousand years. The VAA trends offshore to the west and is buried by sediment from Rincon Creek. This sediment completely obscures the surficial expression of the fold between Rincon Point and Punta Gorda, indicating that Holocene sedimentation has kept pace with fold growth. Given the high sedimentation rate, each uplift event should be captured by stratigraphic rotation and onlap, and formation of angular unconformities. With that perspective, we acquired ~240 km-long very high-resolution (decimeter) CHIRP seismic reflection data from offshore Santa Barbara in the west to Ventura in the east, in order to examine discrete folding/uplift events that are preserved in the Holocene sediment record. CHIRP data together with re-processed USGS sparker profiles provide new constraints on timing and architecture of deformation offshore. A transgressive surface that dates back to ~9.5 kyr B.P is identified in seismic reflection data and dips landward; bending of the transgressive surface appears to be due to active folding and faulting. Observed onlapping sediments together with the deformation of the transgressive surface mark the onset of deformation while periods

  1. Long term changes of altimeter range and geophysical corrections at altimetry calibration sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Cheng, Yongcun; Pascal Willis

    2013-01-01

    trends in the sum of range corrections are found for the calibrations sites both for local scales (within 50km around the selected site) and for regional scales (within 300km). However, the geophysical corrections accounting for atmospheric pressure loading and high frequency sea level variations......Accurate sea level trend determination is fundamentally related to calibration of both the instrument as well as to investigate if there are linear trends in the set of standard geophysical and range corrections applied to the sea level observations. Long term changes in range corrections can leak...... into the observed sea level record and be interpreted as part of the sea level trend. Particularly if these exhibit anomalous trend close to the satellite calibration sites.Long term changes in the routinely applied TOPEX/Jason corrections as well as their changes in coastal regions are investigated at four...

  2. An investigation of infrasound propagation over mountain ranges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiens, Florentin; Millet, Christophe; Lott, François

    2018-01-01

    Linear theory is used to analyze trapping of infrasound within the lower tropospheric waveguide during propagation above a mountain range. Atmospheric flow produced by the mountains is predicted by a nonlinear mountain gravity wave model. For the infrasound component, this paper solves the wave equation under the effective sound speed approximation using both a finite difference method and a Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin approach. It is shown that in realistic configurations, the mountain waves can deeply perturb the low-level waveguide, which leads to significant acoustic dispersion. To interpret these results, each acoustic mode is tracked separately as the horizontal distance increases. It is shown that during statically stable situations, situations that are common during night over land in winter, the mountain waves induce a strong Foehn effect downstream, which shrinks the waveguide significantly. This yields a new form of infrasound absorption that can largely outweigh the direct effect the mountain induces on the low-level waveguide. For the opposite case, when the low-level flow is less statically stable (situations that are more common during day in summer), mountain wave dynamics do not produce dramatic responses downstream. It may even favor the passage of infrasound and mitigate the direct effect of the obstacle.

  3. Genetic consequences of habitat fragmentation during a range expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mona, S; Ray, N; Arenas, M; Excoffier, L

    2014-03-01

    We investigate the effect of habitat fragmentation on the genetic diversity of a species experiencing a range expansion. These two evolutionary processes have not been studied yet, at the same time, owing to the difficulties of deriving analytic results for non-equilibrium models. Here we provide a description of their interaction by using extensive spatial and temporal coalescent simulations and we suggest guidelines for a proper genetic sampling to detect fragmentation. To model habitat fragmentation, we simulated a two-dimensional lattice of demes partitioned into groups (patches) by adding barriers to dispersal. After letting a population expand on this grid, we sampled lineages from the lattice at several scales and studied their coalescent history. We find that in order to detect fragmentation, one needs to extensively sample at a local level rather than at a landscape level. This is because the gene genealogy of a scattered sample is less sensitive to the presence of genetic barriers. Considering the effect of temporal changes of fragmentation intensities, we find that at least 10, but often >100, generations are needed to affect local genetic diversity and population structure. This result explains why recent habitat fragmentation does not always lead to detectable signatures in the genetic structure of populations. Finally, as expected, long-distance dispersal increases local genetic diversity and decreases levels of population differentiation, efficiently counteracting the effects of fragmentation.

  4. Value-Range Analysis of C Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Axel

    In 1988, Robert T. Morris exploited a so-called buffer-overflow bug in finger (a dæmon whose job it is to return information on local users) to mount a denial-of-service attack on hundreds of VAX and Sun-3 computers [159]. He created what is nowadays called a worm; that is, a crafted stream of bytes that, when sent to a computer over the network, utilises a buffer-overflow bug in the software of that computer to execute code encoded in the byte stream. In the case of a worm, this code will send the very same byte stream to other computers on the network, thereby creating an avalanche of network traffic that ultimately renders the network and all computers involved in replicating the worm inaccessible. Besides duplicating themselves, worms can alter data on the host that they are running on. The most famous example in recent years was the MSBlaster32 worm, which altered the configuration database on many Microsoft Windows machines, thereby forcing the computers to reboot incessantly. Although this worm was rather benign, it caused huge damage to businesses who were unable to use their IT infrastructure for hours or even days after the appearance of the worm. A more malicious worm is certainly conceivable [187] due to the fact that worms are executed as part of a dæmon (also known as "service" on Windows machines) and thereby run at a privileged level, allowing access to any data stored on the remote computer. While the deletion of data presents a looming threat to valuable information, even more serious uses are espionage and theft, in particular because worms do not have to affect the running system and hence may be impossible to detect.

  5. A general approach for cache-oblivious range reporting and approximate range counting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afshani, Peyman; Hamilton, Chris; Zeh, Norbert

    2010-01-01

    of points in the query range. As a corollary, we also obtain the first approximate 3-d halfspace range counting and 3-d dominance counting data structures with a worst-case query time of O(log(N/K)) in internal memory. An easy but important consequence of our main result is the existence of -space cache...... counting queries. This class includes three-sided range counting in the plane, 3-d dominance counting, and 3-d halfspace range counting. The constructed data structures use linear space and answer queries in the optimal query bound of O(logB(N/K)) block transfers in the worst case, where K is the number......-oblivious data structures with an optimal query bound of O(logBN+K/B) block transfers for the reporting versions of the above problems. Using standard reductions, these data structures allow us to obtain the first cache-oblivious data structures that use almost linear space and achieve the optimal query bound...

  6. Barium Titanate Nanoparticles: Short-range Lattice Distortions with Long-range Cubic Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskell, Richard C.; Shi, Chenyang; Billinge, Simon J. L.; Puma, Eric; Bang, Sun Hwi; Bean, Nathaniel J. H.; de Sugny, Jean-Claude; Gambee, Robert G.; Hightower, Adrian; Monson, Todd C.

    Small barium titanate (BTO) nanoparticles (atomic pair distribution functions (PDFs). Fits to PDFs at temperatures of 20° to 220°C suggest that Ti atom displacements from the center of the unit cell are comparable to or even greater than those in the bulk material and persist at temperatures well above 120°C where the tetragonal to pseudo-cubic phase transition occurs in the bulk. Raman spectra acquired over a temperature range of 20° to 220°C confirm that small BTO nanoparticles exhibit a distorted unit cell even above 120°C. On the other hand, small BTO nanoparticles exhibit a long-range order consistent with a cubic lattice as recorded by laboratory XRD Bragg reflections at temperatures of 20° to 150°C. We have reconciled these seemingly contradictory data sets by fitting the PDFs over their full range of 6 nm to reveal a long-range structure with a reduced lattice distortion that still manages to support tetragonal Raman lines but is sufficiently close to cubic to yield apparent Bragg peak singlets. US DOE NNSA contract DE-AC04-94AL85000 and US DOE Office of Science contract DE-SC00112704.

  7. Environment Assessment for Grand Bay Range, Bemiss Field, and Moody Explosive Ordnance Disposal Range Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    longleaf pine (Pinus palustris), and slash pine (Moody AFB 2007a). The Grand Bay Range impact area and Bemiss Field are managed to provide a Bahia ...Bemiss Field or immigration has occurred in this area. No confirmed sightings of indigo snakes have occurred since 1996, despite intensive monitoring

  8. Range-Image Acquisition for Discriminated Objects in a Range-gated Robot Vision System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Seung-Kyu; Ahn, Yong-Jin; Park, Nak-Kyu; Baik, Sung-Hoon; Choi, Young-Soo; Jeong, Kyung-Min [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The imaging capability of a surveillance vision system from harsh low-visibility environments such as in fire and detonation areas is a key function to monitor the safety of the facilities. 2D and range image data acquired from low-visibility environment are important data to assess the safety and prepare appropriate countermeasures. Passive vision systems, such as conventional camera and binocular stereo vision systems usually cannot acquire image information when the reflected light is highly scattered and absorbed by airborne particles such as fog. In addition, the image resolution captured through low-density airborne particles is decreased because the image is blurred and dimmed by the scattering, emission and absorption. Active vision systems, such as structured light vision and projected stereo vision are usually more robust for harsh environment than passive vision systems. However, the performance is considerably decreased in proportion to the density of the particles. The RGI system provides 2D and range image data from several RGI images and it moreover provides clear images from low-visibility fog and smoke environment by using the sum of time-sliced images. Nowadays, the Range-gated (RG) imaging is an emerging technology in the field of surveillance for security applications, especially in the visualization of invisible night and fog environment. Although RGI viewing was discovered in the 1960's, this technology is, nowadays becoming more applicable by virtue of the rapid development of optical and sensor technologies. Especially, this system can be adopted in robot-vision system by virtue of its compact portable configuration. In contrast to passive vision systems, this technology enables operation even in harsh environments like fog and smoke. During the past decades, several applications of this technology have been applied in target recognition and in harsh environments, such as fog, underwater vision. Also, this technology has been

  9. The Boulder Creek Batholith, Front Range, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gable, Dolores J.

    1980-01-01

    The Boulder Creek batholith is the best known of several large Precambrian batholiths of similar rock composition that crop out across central Colorado. The rocks in the batholith belong to the calc-alkaline series and range in composition from granodiorite through quartz diorite (tonalite) to gneissic aplite. Two rock types dominate': the Boulder Creek Granodiorite, the major rock unit, and a more leucocratic and slightly younger unit herein named Twin Spruce Quartz Monzonite. Besides mafic inclusions, which occur mainly in hornblende-bearing phases of the Boulder Creek Granodiorite, there are cogenetic older and younger lenses, dikes, and small plutons of hornblende diorite, hornblendite, gabbro, and pyroxenite. Pyroxenite is not found in the batholith. The Boulder Creek Granodiorite in the batholith represents essentially two contemporaneous magmas, a northern body occurring in the Gold Hill and Boulder quadrangles and a larger southern body exposed in the Blackhawk and the greater parts of the Tungsten and Eldorado Springs quadrangles. The two bodies are chemically and mineralogically distinct. The northern body is richer in CaO and poorer in K2O, is more mafic, and has a larger percentage of plagioclase than the southern body. A crude sequence of rock types occurs from west to east in the batholith accompanied by a change in plagioclase composition from calcic plagioclase on the west to sodic on the east. Ore minerals tend to decrease, and the ratio potassium feldspar:plagioclase increases inward from the western contact of the batholith, indicating that the Boulder Creek batholith is similar to granodiorite batholiths the world over. Emplacement of the Boulder Creek batholith was contemporaneous with plastic deformation and high-grade regional metamorphism that folded the country rock and the batholith contact along west-northwest and north-northwest axes. Also, smaller satellitic granodiorite bodies tend to conform to the trends of foliation and fold axes in

  10. Long-Range Weather Forecasting In The Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martazinova, V. F.; Ivanova, E. K.

    2004-12-01

    The operational system for long range weather forecasting (LRF) was developed by Ukrainian Hydrometeorological Institute (UHMI) in the result of studies of general circulation and on the long-range weather forecasting which were began in 1975 by research group leaded by Prof. V. Martazinova. Three key approaches are used in the operational system LRF of UHMI: (1) Floating analog method (FAM); (2) Two-month quasi-periodicity of atmospheric processes in the troposphere of the Northern Hemisphere; (3)Ethalon-field approach. The based on the pattern recognition technique FAM is the continuation of the ideas of former Soviet Union school of long-range forecasting. The traditional method of analog was generalized and advanced as the method of "floating analog" (Martazinova and Sologub, 1986; Martazinova, 1989; 2001). FAM requires only geometrical similarity of the planetary high-level frontal zone and surface pressure on the Northern Hemisphere. The limiting conditions of the coincidence in time and space are lifted. The use of FAM made it possible to reveal the two-month quasi-periodicity of synoptic situation in the Northern Hemisphere. The strong changes of weather within month are predicted using statistical "ethalon field" approach that was developed for classification of meteorological fields in the climate research and the long-range forecasting (Martazinova and Prokhorenko, 1991). The meteorological information for the forecast is used only for the last two months before the target month. The fields of geopotential and pressure are recognized by the "ethalon-field-analog" which corresponds to two-month quasi-periodicity of the ethalon-fields. The forecast for days the strong changes of weather over the territory of Ukraine in next two months. Recognition of daily synoptic situations of last two months by the synoptic situation of two-month quasi-periodicity of atmospheric processes for ethalons when there are waves of cold and heat, strong precipitation, strong

  11. The CMS High Level Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Gori, Valentina

    2014-01-01

    The CMS experiment has been designed with a 2-level trigger system: the Level 1 Trigger, implemented on custom-designed electronics, and the High Level Trigger (HLT), a streamlined version of the CMS offline reconstruction software running on a computer farm. A software trigger system requires a tradeoff between the complexity of the algorithms running on the available computing power, the sustainable output rate, and the selection efficiency. Here we will present the performance of the main triggers used during the 2012 data taking, ranging from simpler single-object selections to more complex algorithms combining different objects, and applying analysis-level reconstruction and selection. We will discuss the optimisation of the triggers and the specific techniques to cope with the increasing LHC pile-up, reducing its impact on the physics performance.

  12. The CMS High Level Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Trocino, Daniele

    2014-01-01

    The CMS experiment has been designed with a 2-level trigger system: the Level 1 Trigger, implemented in custom-designed electronics, and the High Level Trigger (HLT), a streamlined version of the CMS offline reconstruction software running on a computer farm. A software trigger system requires a tradeoff between the complexity of the algorithms running with the available computing power, the sustainable output rate, and the selection efficiency. We present the performance of the main triggers used during the 2012 data taking, ranging from simple single-object selections to more complex algorithms combining different objects, and applying analysis-level reconstruction and selection. We discuss the optimisation of the trigger and the specific techniques to cope with the increasing LHC pile-up, reducing its impact on the physics performance.

  13. 50 CFR 30.1 - Surplus range animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Surplus range animals. 30.1 Section 30.1... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM RANGE AND FERAL ANIMAL MANAGEMENT Range Animals § 30.1 Surplus range animals. Range animals on fenced wildlife refuge areas, including buffalo and longhorn cattle, determined...

  14. Idaho Marketing Education Core Curriculum. Career Sustaining Level, Specialist Level, Supervisory Level, Entrepreneurial Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allbright, Bruce; Holup, John

    This guide lists the competencies expected to be developed in four levels of the marketing education curriculum in Idaho: the career sustaining level, the specialist level, the supervisory level, and the entrepreneurial level. For the career sustaining and specialist levels, 15 competencies are listed: define and apply the role of marketing in the…

  15. Source levels of foraging humpback whale calls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournet, Michelle E H; Matthews, Leanna P; Gabriele, Christine M; Mellinger, David K; Klinck, Holger

    2018-02-01

    Humpback whales produce a wide range of low- to mid-frequency vocalizations throughout their migratory range. Non-song "calls" dominate this species' vocal repertoire while on high-latitude foraging grounds. The source levels of 426 humpback whale calls in four vocal classes were estimated using a four-element planar array deployed in Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve, Southeast Alaska. There was no significant difference in source levels between humpback whale vocal classes. The mean call source level was 137 dB RMS re 1 μPa @ 1 m in the bandwidth of the call (range 113-157 dB RMS re 1 μPa @ 1 m), where bandwidth is defined as the frequency range from the lowest to the highest frequency component of the call. These values represent a robust estimate of humpback whale source levels on foraging grounds and should append earlier estimates.

  16. On the origin of long-range correlations in texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmann, Eduardo G; Cristadoro, Giampaolo; Esposti, Mirko Degli

    2012-07-17

    The complexity of human interactions with social and natural phenomena is mirrored in the way we describe our experiences through natural language. In order to retain and convey such a high dimensional information, the statistical properties of our linguistic output has to be highly correlated in time. An example are the robust observations, still largely not understood, of correlations on arbitrary long scales in literary texts. In this paper we explain how long-range correlations flow from highly structured linguistic levels down to the building blocks of a text (words, letters, etc..). By combining calculations and data analysis we show that correlations take form of a bursty sequence of events once we approach the semantically relevant topics of the text. The mechanisms we identify are fairly general and can be equally applied to other hierarchical settings.

  17. New test of the equivalence principle from lunar laser ranging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J. G.; Dicke, R. H.; Bender, P. L.; Alley, C. O.; Currie, D. G.; Carter, W. E.; Eckhardt, D. H.

    1976-01-01

    An analysis of six years of lunar-laser-ranging data gives a zero amplitude for the Nordtvedt term in the earth-moon distance yielding the Nordtvedt parameter eta = 0.00 plus or minus 0.03. Thus, earth's gravitational self-energy contributes equally, plus or minus 3%, to its inertial mass and passive gravitational mass. At the 70% confidence level this result is only consistent with the Brans-Dicke theory for omega greater than 29. We obtain the absolute value of beta - 1 less than about 0.02 to 0.05 for five-parameter parametrized post-Newtonian theories of gravitation with energy-momentum conservation.

  18. High-dynamic-range cationic two-photon photopolymerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boiko, Yuri B.; Costa, Joannes M.; Wang, Mark M.; Esener, Sadik C.

    2001-06-01

    Cationic-induced two-photon photopolymerization is demonstrated at 710 nm, using an isopropylthioxanthone/diarylidonium salt initiating system for the cationic polymerization of an epoxide. The polymerization threshold J2th is found to be approximately 1 GW/cm2, with a dynamic range of > 100, i.e. the material can be fully polymerized at intensities > 100 times the threshold level without damage. The polymerization rate R is found to be proportional to the m equals 1.7 power of the intensity, or R equals [C (J-J2th)]m equals [C (J-J2th)]1.7, which implies a significantly stronger localization of the photochemical response than that of free radical photoinitiators. R and J2th significantly improve when the concentration z of the initiator (onium salt) increases.

  19. On the origin of long-range correlations in texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmann, Eduardo G.; Cristadoro, Giampaolo; Esposti, Mirko Degli

    2012-01-01

    The complexity of human interactions with social and natural phenomena is mirrored in the way we describe our experiences through natural language. In order to retain and convey such a high dimensional information, the statistical properties of our linguistic output has to be highly correlated in time. An example are the robust observations, still largely not understood, of correlations on arbitrary long scales in literary texts. In this paper we explain how long-range correlations flow from highly structured linguistic levels down to the building blocks of a text (words, letters, etc..). By combining calculations and data analysis we show that correlations take form of a bursty sequence of events once we approach the semantically relevant topics of the text. The mechanisms we identify are fairly general and can be equally applied to other hierarchical settings. PMID:22753514

  20. Properties of Fermi liquids with a finite range interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozières, Philippe

    1992-04-01

    Following a suggestion of Khodel' and Shaginyan (KS), it is shown that a Hartree Fock description of Fermi liquids can lead to very strange results when the interaction has long range. For instance, the sharp drop of particle distribution at the Fermi level can be smeared over a finite k-range, with a flat plateau in the quasiparticle energy. In practice, such an effect appears as an artefact of the Hartree Fock approximation. The KS effect occurs only for an attraction, in which case it is hidden by superconductivity. Moreover, the enhanced quasiparticle collision rate makes the Hartree Fock approximation untenable. Finally, screening of a strong long range interaction is such that the instability threshold cannot be reached. Partant d'une suggestion de Khodel' et Shaginyan (KS), on montre que la description d'un liquide de Fermi en Hartree Fock peut conduire à des résultats très étranges quand la portée de l'interaction est grande. Par exemple, la discontinuité de la distribution des particules au niveau de Fermi est étalée sur une bande de k finie, avec un plateau de l'énergie des quasiparticules. En fait, cet état est une conséquence de l'approximation de Hartree Fock. Il se produit seulement pour une attraction, auquel cas il est masqué par la supraconductivité. De plus, le renforcement des collisions entre quasiparticules rend l'approximation de Hartree Fock inutilisable. Enfin, l'écrantage d'une interaction forte et à longue portée ne permet pas d'atteindre le seuil d'instabilité.

  1. Weapons of Mass Destruction Technology Evaluation and Training Range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Larry Young

    2009-05-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has a long history for providing technology evaluation and training for military and other federal level Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) response agencies. Currently there are many federal organizations and commercial companies developing technologies related to detecting, assessing, mitigating and protecting against hazards associated with a WMD event. Unfortunately, very few locations exist within the United States where WMD response technologies are realistically field tested and evaluated using real chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear and explosive materials. This is particularly true with biological and radiological hazards. Related to this lack of adequate WMD, multi-hazard technology testing capability is the shortage of locations where WMD response teams can train using actual chemical, biological, and radiological material or highly realistic simulates. In response to these technology evaluation and training needs, the INL has assembled a consortium of subject matter experts from existing programs and identified dedicated resources for the purpose of establishing an all-hazards, WMD technology evaluation and training range. The author describes the challenges associated with creating the all-hazards WMD technology evaluation and training range and lists the technical, logistical and financial benefits of an all-hazards technology evaluation and training range. Current resources and capabilities for conducting all-hazard technology evaluation and training at the INL are identified. Existing technology evaluation and training programs at the INL related to radiological, biological and chemical hazards are highlighted, including successes and lessons learned. Finally, remaining gaps in WMD technology evaluation and training capabilities are identified along with recommendations for closing those gaps.

  2. Lead poisoning in shooting-range workers in Gauteng Province, South Africa: Two case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathee, A; De Jager, P; Naidoo, S; Naicker, N

    2017-03-29

    Lead exposure constitutes a major public health concern globally. Relative to developed nations, lead exposure is understudied and poorly addressed in Africa, and there is a dearth of information available to inform lead poisoning prevention strategies, even in high-risk groups such as workers in shooting ranges who are potentially exposed to lead daily. Two workers at a private shooting range in Gauteng, South Africa (SA), had blood lead levels and exposure histories taken. Workers had highly elevated blood lead levels and clinical symptoms associated with elevated blood lead levels. Workers in private SA shooting ranges are vulnerable to lead exposure and poisoning, and scaled-up action is required to protect them and their families, as well as shooting-range users, from lead and the related health risks.

  3. Lead poisoning in shooting-range workers in Gauteng Province, South Africa: Two case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Naidoo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. Lead exposure constitutes a major public health concern globally. Relative to developed nations, lead exposure is understudied and poorly addressed in Africa, and there is a dearth of information available to inform lead poisoning prevention strategies, even in high-risk groups such as workers in shooting ranges who are potentially exposed to lead daily. Methods. Two workers at a private shooting range in Gauteng, South Africa (SA, had blood lead levels and exposure histories taken. Results. Workers had highly elevated blood lead levels and clinical symptoms associated with elevated blood lead levels. Conclusion. Workers in private SA shooting ranges are vulnerable to lead exposure and poisoning, and scaled-up action is required to protect them and their families, as well as shooting-range users, from lead and the related health risks.

  4. Staying Out of Range: Increasing Attacking Distance in Fencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Anthony N; Marshall, Geoff; Noto, Angelo; Chavda, Shyam; Atlay, Nathan; Kirby, David

    2017-03-14

    To avoid being hit, fencers typically adopt an out of range position, which was hypothesized to be governed by body- and action-scaled affordances. This theory was measured in elite and national level junior (u20) fencers. Associations between "reachability" of lunging and step-lunging attacks, was assessed against height, arm-span, leg-span, body mass and lower-body power, and then compared across level. Reachability was determined as the distance covered by fencers during these attacks and was reported as actual and estimated distances. Elite fencers are better at estimating their lunging and step-lunge distance compared to national ranked junior fencers (-0.9 vs. 7.3 % and 5.4 vs. 10.9 % respectively). Surprisingly, elite fencers' actual and estimated distances for these was less than the junior fencers' (222.6 vs. 251.5 cm and 299.3 vs. 360.2 cm respectively), and significantly so in the former. Finally only arm (r = .81) and leg span (r = .71) were significantly correlated to estimated lunging distance and this was only in elite fencers. Findings suggest that better fencers can accurately predict their attack range and that reachability appears to be positively influenced by arm and leg-span; these may feed in to talent identification. Given that distances were less in elite fencers, findings suggests that timing and distance estimation are key skills to master, and that the mastery of these in offensive actions can mitigate to a large extent, the physical benefits of an opponent's greater height.

  5. Integrative overview of the herpetofauna from Serra da Mocidade, a granitic mountain range in northern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, Leandro J.C.L.; de Almeida, Alexandre P.; de Fraga, Rafael; Rojas, Rommel R.; Pirani, Renata M.; Silva, Ariane A.A.; de Carvalho, Vinícius T.; Gordo, Marcelo; Werneck, Fernanda P.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The Brazilian mountain ranges from the Guiana Shield highlands are largely unexplored, with an understudied herpetofauna. Here the amphibian and reptile species diversity of the remote Serra da Mocidade mountain range, located in extreme northern Brazil, is reported upon, and biogeographical affinities and taxonomic highlights are discussed. A 22-days expedition to this mountain range was undertaken during which specimens were sampled at four distinct altitudinal levels (600, 960, 1,060 and 1,365 m above sea level) using six complementary methods. Specimens were identified through an integrated approach that considered morphological, bioacoustical, and molecular analyses. Fifty-one species (23 amphibians and 28 reptiles) were found, a comparable richness to other mountain ranges in the region. The recorded assemblage showed a mixed compositional influence from assemblages typical of other mountain ranges and lowland forest habitats in the region. Most of the taxa occupying the Serra da Mocidade mountain range are typical of the Guiana Shield or widely distributed in the Amazon. Extensions of known distribution ranges and candidate undescribed taxa are also recorded. This is the first herpetofaunal expedition that accessed the higher altitudinal levels of this mountain range, contributing to the basic knowledge of these groups in remote areas. PMID:29302235

  6. Dynamic range of frontoparietal functional modulation is associated with working memory capacity limitations in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakun, Jonathan G; Johnson, Nathan F

    2017-11-01

    Older adults tend to over-activate regions throughout frontoparietal cortices and exhibit a reduced range of functional modulation during WM task performance compared to younger adults. While recent evidence suggests that reduced functional modulation is associated with poorer task performance, it remains unclear whether reduced range of modulation is indicative of general WM capacity-limitations. In the current study, we examined whether the range of functional modulation observed over multiple levels of WM task difficulty (N-Back) predicts in-scanner task performance and out-of-scanner psychometric estimates of WM capacity. Within our sample (60-77years of age), age was negatively associated with frontoparietal modulation range. Individuals with greater modulation range exhibited more accurate N-Back performance. In addition, despite a lack of significant relationships between N-Back and complex span task performance, range of frontoparietal modulation during the N-Back significantly predicted domain-general estimates of WM capacity. Consistent with previous cross-sectional findings, older individuals with less modulation range exhibited greater activation at the lowest level of task difficulty but less activation at the highest levels of task difficulty. Our results are largely consistent with existing theories of neurocognitive aging (e.g. CRUNCH) but focus attention on dynamic range of functional modulation asa novel marker of WM capacity-limitations in older adults. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Current range of the eastern population of Painted Bunting (Passerina ciris). Part II: Winter range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykes, P.W.; Holzman, S.; Iñigo-Elias, Eduardo E.

    2007-01-01

    The importance of wintering areas for Neotropical migrants is well established. The wintering range of the eastern population of Painted Bunting (Passerina ciris) is described in detail and presented in maps. The paper also discusses extralimital records from islands in the Caribbean Basin as well as scattered wintering individuals outside the winter range. The possibility of eastern birds wintering on the Yucatan Peninsula and adjacent Central America is considered. An extensive treatment of the protected areas of Peninsular Florida, the northern Bahamas, and Cuba describes the importance of upland habitats within these protected areas for wintering buntings. This information should be useful to land management agencies, conservation organizations, and private landholders for the welfare of the bunting and biodiversity in general and may also be of interest to ornithologists, other biological disciplines, naturalists, and birders.

  8. Unsupervised learning in neural networks with short range synapses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunnet, L. G.; Agnes, E. J.; Mizusaki, B. E. P.; Erichsen, R., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Different areas of the brain are involved in specific aspects of the information being processed both in learning and in memory formation. For example, the hippocampus is important in the consolidation of information from short-term memory to long-term memory, while emotional memory seems to be dealt by the amygdala. On the microscopic scale the underlying structures in these areas differ in the kind of neurons involved, in their connectivity, or in their clustering degree but, at this level, learning and memory are attributed to neuronal synapses mediated by longterm potentiation and long-term depression. In this work we explore the properties of a short range synaptic connection network, a nearest neighbor lattice composed mostly by excitatory neurons and a fraction of inhibitory ones. The mechanism of synaptic modification responsible for the emergence of memory is Spike-Timing-Dependent Plasticity (STDP), a Hebbian-like rule, where potentiation/depression is acquired when causal/non-causal spikes happen in a synapse involving two neurons. The system is intended to store and recognize memories associated to spatial external inputs presented as simple geometrical forms. The synaptic modifications are continuously applied to excitatory connections, including a homeostasis rule and STDP. In this work we explore the different scenarios under which a network with short range connections can accomplish the task of storing and recognizing simple connected patterns.

  9. The singer's voice range profile: female professional opera soloists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamarche, Anick; Ternström, Sten; Pabon, Peter

    2010-07-01

    This work concerns the collection of 30 voice range profiles (VRPs) of female operatic voice. We address the questions: Is there a need for a singer's protocol in VRP acquisition? Are physiological measurements sufficient or should the measurement of performance capabilities also be included? Can we address the female singing voice in general or is there a case for categorizing voices when studying phonetographic data? Subjects performed a series of structured tasks involving both standard speech voice protocols and additional singing tasks. Singers also completed an extensive questionnaire. Physiological VRPs differ from performance VRPs. Two new VRP metrics, the voice area above a defined level threshold and the dynamic range independent from the fundamental frequency (F(0)), were found to be useful in the analysis of singer VRPs. Task design had no effect on performance VRP outcomes. Voice category differences were mainly attributable to phonation frequency-based information. Results support the clinical importance of addressing the vocal instrument as it is used in performance. Equally important is the elaboration of a protocol suitable for the singing voice. The given context and instructions can be more important than task design for performance VRPs. Yet, for physiological VRP recordings, task design remains critical. Both types of VRPs are suggested for a singer's voice evaluation. Copyright (c) 2010 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Wildfire risk transmission in the Colorado Front Range, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Jessica R; Calkin, David E; Thompson, Matthew P

    2015-02-01

    Wildfires are a global phenomenon that in some circumstances can result in human casualties, economic loss, and ecosystem service degradation. In this article we spatially identify wildfire risk transmission pathways and locate the areas of highest exposure of human populations to wildland fires under severe, but not uncommon, weather events. We quantify varying levels of exposure in terms of population potentially affected and tie the exposure back to the spatial source of the risk for the Front Range of Colorado, USA. We use probabilistic fire simulation modeling to address where fire ignitions are most likely to cause the highest impact to human communities, and to explore the role that various landowners play in that transmission of risk. Our results indicated that, given an ignition and the right fire weather conditions, large areas along the Front Range in Colorado could be exposed to wildfires with high potential to impact human populations, and that overall private ignitions have the potential to impact more people than federal ignitions. These results can be used to identify high-priority areas for wildfire risk mitigation using various mitigation tools. © 2014 Society for Risk Analysis Published 2014. This article is a U.S. government work and is in the public domain for the USA.

  11. Atomistic microstructures in short-range ordered alloys

    CERN Document Server

    Hata, S

    2002-01-01

    Short-range order (SRO) in Ni-Mo alloys and their relatives has been controversial for decades, since it causes clearly diffraction intensity maxima at positions which do not coincide with the superlattice reflections in the long-range order (LRO) state. This paper gives an overview of recent studies on the structure of SRO and the transition from SRO to LRO in Ni-Mo alloys, including our results obtained in atomic level by combination of kinetic Monte Carlo simulation and semi-quantitative high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. It is rationalized in our results that the SRO state is set up by local ordering of A sub 4 B, A sub 3 B and A sub 2 B types in sub-unit cell scale. The dispersed mixture of the sub-unit cell clusters gives diffraction intensity maxima at the particular positions. An LRO state is formed by selected growth of the A sub 4 B, A sub 3 B and A sub 2 B type clusters into LRO domains depending on alloy-composition.

  12. Greenness and Birth Outcomes in a Range of Pennsylvania Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan A. Casey

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Living in communities with more vegetation during pregnancy has been associated with higher birth weights, but fewer studies have evaluated other birth outcomes, and only one has been conducted in the Eastern United States, in regions with a broad range, including high levels, of greenness. We evaluated associations between prenatal residential greenness and birth outcomes (term birth weight, small for gestational age, preterm birth, and low 5 min Apgar score across a range of community types using electronic health record data from 2006–2013 from the Geisinger Health System in Pennsylvania. We assigned greenness based on mother’s geocoded address using the normalized difference vegetation index from satellite imagery. We used propensity scores to restrict the study population to comparable groups among those living in green vs. less-green areas. Analyses were adjusted for demographic, clinical, and environmental covariates, and stratified by community type (city, borough, and township. In cities, higher greenness (tertiles 2–3 vs. 1 was protective for both preterm (OR = 0.78, 95% CI: 0.61–0.99 and small for gestational age birth (OR = 0.73, 95% CI: 0.58–0.97, but not birth weight or Apgar score. We did not observe associations between greenness and birth outcomes in adjusted models in boroughs or townships. These results add to the evidence that greener cities might be healthier cities.

  13. A national range inventory for the Kingdom of Lesotho. | Martin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: classification; Colour aerial photography; Ecological sites; ecology; inventory; lesotho; management; management plan; mapping; National range inventories; photo interpretation; photography; plant communities; Plant community relationships; range; range management; rangeland; rangelands; remote sensing; ...

  14. Optical pulse compression reflectometry: proposal and proof-of-concept experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Weiwen; Yang, Shuo; Long, Xin; Chen, Jianping

    2015-01-12

    This paper proposes a novel reflectometry based on the frequency modulation pulse-compression technology, called optical pulse compression reflectometry (OPCR). Linear frequency modulation (LFM) pulse is taken as an example to implement the OPCR. Its working principle and theoretical analysis are demonstrated. The spatial resolution is determined by the sweeping range of the LFM rather than the pulse width, which overcomes the tradeoff between spatial resolution and measurement range in the conventional pulse-based optical time domain reflectometry. The influence of the laser's phase noise on the integrated side lobe ratio and peak side lobe ratio is theoretically studied. Thanks to the continuous acquisition nature of the OPCR, time averaging is valid to eliminate the influence and results in the measurement range of the OPCR beyond a few times of the source coherent length. A proof-of-concept experiment of the OPCR is carried out to verify the spatial resolution and measurement range.

  15. Minimum Entropy Autofocus Correction of Residual Range Cell Migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-02

    Minimum Entropy Autofocus Correction of Residual Range Cell Migration Joshua M. Kantor Abstract—In this article we present a SAR autofocus algorithm...residual range shift, or operate by cross correlating range profiles to estimate residual range migration . These approaches are quite effective in many...range migration by cross-correlating range profiles can be difficult when the single pulse SNR is low and the scene does not have prominent point-like

  16. Winter range drift in the George River Caribou Herd: a response to summer forage limitation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Schmelzer

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Space use by the George River caribou herd (GRCH changes in correspondence with migration patterns. The traditional range of this herd encompasses an area of approximately 900 000 km2. Range use is seasonal and includes travel to traditional calving grounds. Winter range use however, is more variable. The GRCH has grown rapidly from 5000 animals in 1954 to approximately 775 000 in 1993. Beginning in the mid 1980s, the calving and summer range habitats of the GRCH have deteriorated, resulting in a decline in physical condition and subsequent poor calf survival and low pregnancy rates. We assessed the importance of the winter range as a food source compensating for poor summer range quality through an evaluation of winter range drift and use intensity. We hypothesized that if winter ranges provide a compensatory source of forage, then George River caribou should avoid sites heavily used during the previous winter at a population level. Winter ranges for the GRCH were calculated using 4300 caribou locations obtained 1986-2000. We found that in spite of a doubling in net range area, the size of annual winter ranges did not increase, indicating the occurrence of range drift. Further, George River caribou exhibited avoidance of wintering areas at several spatial scales. Avoidance occurred across a use threshold, where the degree of use (or density during the previous winter determined the level of avoidance during the subsequent winter. As the spatial scale decreased, the degree of avoidance increased. Caribou significantly avoided areas used the previous winter at spatial scales below and including 245 km2 (corresponding to a 75% use distribution. Results suggest winter foraging allows caribou suspend the effects of density-dependent summer forage limitation on herd productivity. As such, analysis of GRCH population trends should be considered in light of both summer and winter range resources.

  17. Factors affecting the range of movement of total knee arthroplasty

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Harvey, I A; Barry, K; Kirby, S P; Johnson, R; Elloy, M A

    1993-01-01

    We have investigated those factors which influence the range of movement after total knee arthroplasty, including sex, age, preoperative diagnosis and preoperative flexion deformity and flexion range...

  18. Efficient ranging-sensor navigation methods for indoor aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobers, David Michael, Jr.

    sonar, infrared (IR) range sensors, and a scanning laser rangefinder. Each type of range sensor tested has its own unique characteristics and contributes in a slightly different way to effectively eliminate the dependence on GPS. A discussion of vehicle selection criteria is provided, with an analysis of the pros and cons associated with passively versus actively stabilized vehicles. Two levels of navigation capability are presented, each providing different levels of mission performance. First, the use of low-cost range sensors on an inexpensive passively stabilized coaxial helicopter for drift-tolerant indoor navigation is demonstrated through simulation and flight test. The system developed and own shows promise for future miniaturization, enabling vehicles to be easily transported in large quantities to remote areas. One potential use for such a vehicle would be the distribution of small lightweight sensors deep into a mine or cave through a small opening. Figure 1(a) shows an example of such a deployment. Other sensors, including video cameras and microphones, could also be used in a variety of similar scenarios where access is limited. For situations where some level of map building may be required, as shown in Figure 1(b), additional capabilities are needed. Hence, this thesis also describes a system with a scanning laser rangefinder mounted onboard a quadrotor helicopter with an IMU to enable active stabilization. Position control is demonstrated in simulation via navigation algorithms that utilize Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) techniques. Two different algorithms are evaluated for suitability for use with an IMU-stabilized flying vehicle. Simulation and experimental results of the navigation system are provided, including two novel approaches to extracting useful information about the environment from laser scan data. Thus, the research presented in this thesis demonstrates new capabilities for autonomous UAV operation in adverse unknown

  19. Genetic mixture of multiple source populations accelerates invasive range expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Natalie K; Ochocki, Brad M; Crawford, Kerri M; Compagnoni, Aldo; Miller, Tom E X

    2017-01-01

    A wealth of population genetic studies have documented that many successful biological invasions stem from multiple introductions from genetically distinct source populations. Yet, mechanistic understanding of whether and how genetic mixture promotes invasiveness has lagged behind documentation that such mixture commonly occurs. We conducted a laboratory experiment to test the influence of genetic mixture on the velocity of invasive range expansion. The mechanistic basis for effects of genetic mixture could include evolutionary responses (mixed invasions may harbour greater genetic diversity and thus elevated evolutionary potential) and/or fitness advantages of between-population mating (heterosis). If driven by evolution, positive effects of source population mixture should increase through time, as selection sculpts genetic variation. If driven by heterosis, effects of mixture should peak following first reproductive contact and then dissipate. Using a laboratory model system (beetles spreading through artificial landscapes), we quantified the velocity of range expansion for invasions initiated with one, two, four or six genetic sources over six generations. Our experiment was designed to test predictions corresponding to the evolutionary and heterosis mechanisms, asking whether any effects of genetic mixture occurred in early or later generations of range expansion. We also quantified demography and dispersal for each experimental treatment, since any effects of mixture should be manifest in one or both of these traits. Over six generations, invasions with any amount of genetic mixture (two, four and six sources) spread farther than single-source invasions. Our data suggest that heterosis provided a 'catapult effect', leaving a lasting signature on range expansion even though the benefits of outcrossing were transient. Individual-level trait data indicated that genetic mixture had positive effects on local demography (reduced extinction risk and enhanced

  20. Phase model analysis of the long-range excitation in the hippocampal CA1 model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang-Gui [Nonlinear and Complex Systems Lab., Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Dong-Uk; Han, Seung-Kee [Chungbuk National University, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of); Kook, Hyung-Tae [Kyungwon University, Sungnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-03-15

    The synchronization of rhythms in various frequency ranges over participating cortical areas is one of the important issues in neuroscience. Experimental and modeling studies suggest that rhythms of the beta frequency range have a dynamical structure distinct from that of the gamma rhythms. To elucidate the mechanism of synchronization, the role of the long-range excitatory connection which is incorporated with finite conduction delay time needs to be analyzed. This work attempts such analysis, utilizing the reduced phase oscillator model. It is shown that the long-range gamma rhythm remains unstable, regardless of the presence of the excitatory connection. However, the beta rhythm is stable over a broad range of conduction time delay, which cannot apparently be tolerated by the long-range gamma rhythm. These synchronization features are consistent with experimental observations which imply that gamma rhythms are used for local computations, whereas beta rhythms are used for higher level interactions involving more distant structures.

  1. Orthogonal Range Searching in Moderate Dimensions: k-d Trees and Range Trees Strike Back

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Timothy M.

    2017-01-01

    We revisit the orthogonal range searching problem and the exact l_infinity nearest neighbor searching problem for a static set of n points when the dimension d is moderately large. We give the first data structure with near linear space that achieves truly sublinear query time when the dimension is any constant multiple of log n. Specifically, the preprocessing time and space are O(n^{1+delta}) for any constant delta>0, and the expected query time is n^{1-1/O(c log c)} for d = c log n. The ...

  2. 50 CFR 30.2 - Disposition of surplus range animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disposition of surplus range animals. 30.2... (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM RANGE AND FERAL ANIMAL MANAGEMENT Range Animals § 30.2 Disposition of surplus range animals. Disposition shall be made only during regularly scheduled disposal...

  3. Sound propagation from a semi-open shooting range

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eerden, F.J.M. van der; Berg, F. van den

    2011-01-01

    Semi-open shooting ranges, in contrast to a fully open shooting range, are often used in the densely populated area of the Netherlands. The Ministry of Defense operates a number of these ranges. In these shooting ranges above the line of fire a number of screens are situated for safety precautions

  4. 25 CFR 700.721 - Range management plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Range management plans. 700.721 Section 700.721 Indians... Lands Grazing § 700.721 Range management plans. The Commissioner (or his designee) and the permittees of each range unit will meet as a group and develop a Range Management Plan for the common use of the...

  5. 25 CFR 161.203 - Are range management plans required?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Are range management plans required? 161.203 Section 161... LANDS GRAZING PERMITS General Provisions § 161.203 Are range management plans required? Yes. BIA will... range restoration activities for the Navajo Partitioned Lands. (b) Develop range management plans with...

  6. Climate change, aboveground-belowground interactions, and species range shifts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Putten, van der W.H.

    2012-01-01

    Changes in climate, land use, fire incidence, and ecological connections all may contribute to current species' range shifts. Species shift range individually, and not all species shift range at the same time and rate. This variation causes community reorganization in both the old and new ranges. In

  7. Entrepreneurial Engagement Levels in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Grilo (Isabel); A.R. Thurik (Roy)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractA multinomial logit model and survey data from the 25 EU member states and the US are used to establish the effect of demographic and other variables on various entrepreneurial engagement levels. These engagement levels range from “never thought about starting a business” to “thinking

  8. Entrepreneurial engagement levels in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Grilo (Isabel); A.R. Thurik (Roy)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractA multinomial logit model and survey data from the 25 EU member states and the US are used to establish the effect of demographic and other variables on various entrepreneurial engagement levels. These engagement levels range from never thought about starting a business to thinking

  9. Geographic range size and extinction risk assessment in nomadic species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runge, Claire A; Tulloch, Ayesha; Hammill, Edd; Possingham, Hugh P; Fuller, Richard A

    2015-01-01

    Geographic range size is often conceptualized as a fixed attribute of a species and treated as such for the purposes of quantification of extinction risk; species occupying smaller geographic ranges are assumed to have a higher risk of extinction, all else being equal. However many species are mobile, and their movements range from relatively predictable to-and-fro migrations to complex irregular movements shown by nomadic species. These movements can lead to substantial temporary expansion and contraction of geographic ranges, potentially to levels which may pose an extinction risk. By linking occurrence data with environmental conditions at the time of observations of nomadic species, we modeled the dynamic distributions of 43 arid-zone nomadic bird species across the Australian continent for each month over 11 years and calculated minimum range size and extent of fluctuation in geographic range size from these models. There was enormous variability in predicted spatial distribution over time; 10 species varied in estimated geographic range size by more than an order of magnitude, and 2 species varied by >2 orders of magnitude. During times of poor environmental conditions, several species not currently classified as globally threatened contracted their ranges to very small areas, despite their normally large geographic range size. This finding raises questions about the adequacy of conventional assessments of extinction risk based on static geographic range size (e.g., IUCN Red Listing). Climate change is predicted to affect the pattern of resource fluctuations across much of the southern hemisphere, where nomadism is the dominant form of animal movement, so it is critical we begin to understand the consequences of this for accurate threat assessment of nomadic species. Our approach provides a tool for discovering spatial dynamics in highly mobile species and can be used to unlock valuable information for improved extinction risk assessment and conservation

  10. High-level Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    High-level Petri nets are now widely used in both theoretical analysis and practical modelling of concurrent systems. The main reason for the success of this class of net models is that they make it possible to obtain much more succinct and manageable descriptions than can be obtained by means...... of low-level Petri nets - while, on the other hand, they still offer a wide range of analysis methods and tools. The step from low-level nets to high-level nets can be compared to the step from assembly languages to modern programming languages with an elaborated type concept. In low-level nets...... there is only one kind of token and this means that the state of a place is described by an integer (and in many cases even by a boolean). In high-level nets each token can carry a complex information/data - which, e.g., may describe the entire state of a process or a data base. Today most practical...

  11. Heavy-metal contamination on training ranges at the Grafenwoehr Training Area, Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zellmer, S.D.; Schneider, J.F.

    1993-05-01

    Large quantities of lead and other heavy metals are deposited in the environment of weapons ranges during training exercises. This study was conducted to determine the type, degree, and extent of heavy-metal contamination on selected handgun, rifle, and hand-grenade ranges at Grafenwoehr Training Area, Germany. Soil, vegetation, and surface-water samples were collected and analyzed using the inductively-coupled plasma atomic-emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) method and the toxic characterization leaching procedure (TCLP). The ICP-AES results show that above-normal levels of lead and copper are in the surface soil at the handgun range, high concentrations of lead and copper are in the berm and soil surface at the rifle range, and elevated levels of cadmium and above-normal concentrations of arsenic, copper, and zinc are present in the surface soil at the hand-grenade range. The TCLP results show that surface soils can be considered hazardous waste because of lead content at the rifle range and because of cadmium concentration at the hand-grenade range. Vegetation at the handgun and rifle ranges has above-normal concentrations of lead. At the hand-grenade range, both vegetation and surface water have high levels of cadmium. A hand-held X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrum analyzer was used to measure lead concentrations in soils in a field test of the method. Comparison of XRF readings with ICP-AES results for lead indicate that the accuracy and precision of the hand-held XRF unit must improve before the unit can be used as more than a screening tool. Results of this study show that heavy-metal contamination at all three ranges is limited to the surface soil; heavy metals are not being leached into the soil profile or transported into adjacent areas.

  12. Testing Gravity via Lunar Laser Ranging: Maximizing Data Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Thomas

    We propose to continue leading-edge observations with the Apache Point Observatory Lunar Laser-ranging Operation (APOLLO), in an effort to subject gravity to the most stringent tests yet. APOLLO has delivered a dramatic improvement in the measurement of the lunar orbit: now at the millimeter level. Yet incomplete models are thus far unable to confirm the accuracy. We therefore seek to build a calibration system to ensure that APOLLO meets its millimeter measurement goal. Gravity--the most evident force of nature--is in fact the weakest of the fundamental forces, and consequently the most poorly tested. Einstein’s general relativity, which is currently our best description of gravity, is fundamentally incompatible with quantum mechanics and is likely to be replaced by a more complete theory in the future. A modified theory would predict small deviations in the solar system that could have profound consequences for our understanding of the Universe as a whole. Lunar laser ranging (LLR), in which short laser pulses launched from a telescope are bounced off of reflectors placed on the Moon by U.S. astronauts and Soviet landers, has for decades produced some of the leading tests of gravity by mapping the shape of the lunar orbit to high precision. These include tests of the strong equivalence principle, the time-rate-ofchange of Newton’s gravitational constant, gravitomagnetism, the inverse-square law, and many others. Among the attributes that contribute to APOLLO’s superior observations, routine ranging to all five lunar reflectors on timescales of minutes dramatically improves our ability to gauge lunar orientation and body distortion. This information produces insights into the interior structure and dynamics of the Moon, allowing a more precise determination of the path for the Moon’s center of mass, lending to tests of fundamental gravity. Simultaneously, higher precision range measurements, together with data from a superconducting gravimeter at the

  13. Strategies for registering range images from unknown camera positions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardini, Fausto; Rushmeier, Holly E.

    2000-03-01

    We describe a project to construct a 3D numerical model of Michelangelo's Florentine Pieta to be used in a study of the sculpture. Here we focus on the registration of the range images used to construct the model. The major challenge was the range of length scales involved. A resolution of 1 mm or less required for the 2.25 m tall piece. To achieve this resolution, we could only acquire an area of 20 by 20 cm per scan. A total of approximately 700 images were required. Ideally, a tracker would be attached to the scanner to record position and pose. The use of a tracker was not possible in the field. Instead, we used a crude-to-fine approach to registering the meshes to one another. The crudest level consisted of pairwise manual registration, aided by texture maps containing laser dots that were projected onto the sculpture. This crude alignment was refined by an automatic registration of laser dot centers. In this phase, we found that consistency constraints on dot matches were essential to obtaining accurate results. The laser dot alignment was refined by an automatic registration of laser dot centers. In this phase, we found that consistency constraints on dot matches were essential to obtaining accurate results. The laser dot alignment was further refined using a variation of the ICP algorithm developed by Besl and McKay. In the application of ICP to global registration, we developed a method to avoid one class of local minima by finding a set of points, rather than the single point, that matches each candidate point.

  14. Phobos laser ranging: Numerical Geodesy experiments for Martian system science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirkx, D.; Vermeersen, L. L. A.; Noomen, R.; Visser, P. N. A. M.

    2014-09-01

    Laser ranging is emerging as a technology for use over (inter)planetary distances, having the advantage of high (mm-cm) precision and accuracy and low mass and power consumption. We have performed numerical simulations to assess the science return in terms of geodetic observables of a hypothetical Phobos lander performing active two-way laser ranging with Earth-based stations. We focus our analysis on the estimation of Phobos and Mars gravitational, tidal and rotational parameters. We explicitly include systematic error sources in addition to uncorrelated random observation errors. This is achieved through the use of consider covariance parameters, specifically the ground station position and observation biases. Uncertainties for the consider parameters are set at 5 mm and at 1 mm for the Gaussian uncorrelated observation noise (for an observation integration time of 60 s). We perform the analysis for a mission duration up to 5 years. It is shown that a Phobos Laser Ranging (PLR) can contribute to a better understanding of the Martian system, opening the possibility for improved determination of a variety of physical parameters of Mars and Phobos. The simulations show that the mission concept is especially suited for estimating Mars tidal deformation parameters, estimating degree 2 Love numbers with absolute uncertainties at the 10-2 to 10-4 level after 1 and 4 years, respectively and providing separate estimates for the Martian quality factors at Sun and Phobos-forced frequencies. The estimation of Phobos libration amplitudes and gravity field coefficients provides an estimate of Phobos' relative equatorial and polar moments of inertia with an absolute uncertainty of 10-4 and 10-7, respectively, after 1 year. The observation of Phobos tidal deformation will be able to differentiate between a rubble pile and monolithic interior within 2 years. For all parameters, systematic errors have a much stronger influence (per unit uncertainty) than the uncorrelated Gaussian

  15. Classical investigation of long-range coherence in biological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preto, Jordane

    2016-12-01

    Almost five decades ago, H. Fröhlich [H. Fröhlich, "Long-range coherence and energy storage in biological systems," Int. J. Quantum Chem. 2(5), 641-649 (1968)] reported, on a theoretical basis, that the excitation of quantum modes of vibration in contact with a thermal reservoir may lead to steady states, where under high enough rate of energy supply, only specific low-frequency modes of vibration are strongly excited. This nonlinear phenomenon was predicted to occur in biomolecular systems, which are known to exhibit complex vibrational spectral properties, especially in the terahertz frequency domain. However, since the effects of terahertz or lower-frequency modes are mainly classical at physiological temperatures, there are serious doubts that Fröhlich's quantum description can be applied to predict such a coherent behavior in a biological environment, as suggested by the author. In addition, a quantum formalism makes the phenomenon hard to investigate using realistic molecular dynamics simulations (MD) as they are usually based on the classical principles. In the current paper, we provide a general classical Hamiltonian description of a nonlinear open system composed of many degrees of freedom (biomolecular structure) excited by an external energy source. It is shown that a coherent behaviour similar to Fröhlich's effect is to be expected in the classical case for a given range of parameter values. Thus, the supplied energy is not completely thermalized but stored in a highly ordered fashion. The connection between our Hamiltonian description, carried out in the space of normal modes, and a more standard treatment in the physical space is emphasized in order to facilitate the prediction of the effect from MD simulations. It is shown how such a coherent phenomenon may induce long-range resonance effects that could be of critical importance at the biomolecular level. The present work is motivated by recent experimental evidences of long-lived excited low

  16. Eilat virus displays a narrow mosquito vector range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasar, Farooq; Haddow, Andrew D; Tesh, Robert B; Weaver, Scott C

    2014-12-17

    Most alphaviruses are arthropod-borne and utilize mosquitoes as vectors for transmission to susceptible vertebrate hosts. This ability to infect both mosquitoes and vertebrates is essential for maintenance of most alphaviruses in nature. A recently characterized alphavirus, Eilat virus (EILV), isolated from a pool of Anopheles coustani s.I. is unable to replicate in vertebrate cell lines. The EILV host range restriction occurs at both attachment/entry as well as genomic RNA replication levels. Here we investigated the mosquito vector range of EILV in species encompassing three genera that are responsible for maintenance of other alphaviruses in nature. Susceptibility studies were performed in four mosquito species: Aedes albopictus, A. aegypti, Anopheles gambiae, and Culex quinquefasciatus via intrathoracic and oral routes utilizing EILV and EILV expressing red fluorescent protein (-eRFP) clones. EILV-eRFP was injected at 10(7) PFU/mL to visualize replication in various mosquito organs at 7 days post-infection. Mosquitoes were also injected with EILV at 10(4)-10(1) PFU/mosquito and virus replication was measured via plaque assays at day 7 post-infection. Lastly, mosquitoes were provided bloodmeals containing EILV-eRFP at doses of 10(9), 10(7), 10(5) PFU/mL, and infection and dissemination rates were determined at 14 days post-infection. All four species were susceptible via the intrathoracic route; however, replication was 10-100 fold less than typical for most alphaviruses, and infection was limited to midgut-associated muscle tissue and salivary glands. A. albopictus was refractory to oral infection, while A. gambiae and C. quinquefasciatus were susceptible only at 10(9) PFU/mL dose. In contrast, A. aegypti was susceptible at both 10(9) and 10(7) PFU/mL doses, with body infection rates of 78% and 63%, and dissemination rates of 26% and 8%, respectively. The exclusion of vertebrates in its maintenance cycle may have facilitated the adaptation of EILV to a single

  17. Thyroid Function Within the Normal Range, Subclinical Hypothyroidism and the Risk of Atrial Fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumgartner, Christine; da Costa, Bruno R.; Collet, Tinh-Hai

    2017-01-01

    variations in thyroid function within the normal range or subclinical hypothyroidism are also associated with AF. Methods -We conducted a systematic review and obtained individual participant data from prospective cohort studies that measured thyroid function at baseline and assessed incident AF. Studies...... were identified from MEDLINE and EMBASE databases from inception to July 27, 2016. The euthyroid state was defined as thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) 0.45 to 4.49 mIU/L, and subclinical hypothyroidism as TSH 4.5 to 19.9 mIU/L with free thyroxine (fT4) levels within reference range. The association...... of TSH levels in the euthyroid and subclinical hypothyroid range with incident AF was examined by using Cox proportional hazards models. In euthyroid participants, we additionally examined the association between fT4 levels and incident AF. Results -Of 30 085 participants from 11 cohorts (278 955 person...

  18. Data analysis at Level-1 Trigger level

    CERN Document Server

    Wittmann, Johannes; Aradi, Gregor; Bergauer, Herbert; Jeitler, Manfred; Wulz, Claudia; Apanasevich, Leonard; Winer, Brian; Puigh, Darren Michael

    2017-01-01

    With ever increasing luminosity at the LHC, optimum online data selection is getting more and more important. While in the case of some experiments (LHCb and ALICE) this task is being completely transferred to computer farms, the others - ATLAS and CMS - will not be able to do this in the medium-term future for technological, detector-related reasons. Therefore, these experiments pursue the complementary approach of migrating more and more of the offline and High-Level Trigger intelligence into the trigger electronics. This paper illustrates how the Level-1 Trigger of the CMS experiment and in particular its concluding stage, the Global Trigger, take up this challenge.

  19. Serum biochemistry of captive and free-ranging gray wolves (Canis lupus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constable, P; Hinchcliff, K; Demma, N; Callahan, M; Dale, B; Fox, K; Adams, L; Wack, R; Kramer, L

    1998-12-01

    Normal serum biochemistry values are frequently obtained from studies of captive sedentary (zoo) or free-ranging (wild) animals. It is frequently assumed that values obtained from these two populations are directly referable to each other. We tested this assumption using 20 captive gray wolves (Canis lupus) in Minnesota, USA, and 11 free-ranging gray wolves in Alaska, USA. Free-ranging wolves had significantly (P wolves. Corticosteroid-induced alkaline phosphatase activity (a marker of stress in domestic dogs) was detected in 3 of 11 free-ranging wolves and in 0 of 20 captive wolves (P = 0.037). This study provides clear evidence that serum biochemical differences can exist between captive and free-ranging populations of one species. Accordingly, evaluation of the health status of an animal should incorporate an understanding of the potential confounding effect that nutrition, activity level, and environmental stress could have on the factor(s) being measured.

  20. Home range sizes for burchell's zebra equus burchelli antiquorum from the Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.L. Smuts

    1975-07-01

    Full Text Available Annual home range sizes were determined for 49 marked zebra family groups in the Kruger National Park. Sizes varied from 49 to 566 sq. km, the mean for the Park being 164 square kilometre. Mean home range sizes for different zebra sub-populations and biotic areas were found to differ considerably. Present herbivore densities have not influenced intra- and inter-specific tolerance levels to the extent that home range sizes have increased. Local habitat conditions, and particularly seasonal vegetational changes, were found to have the most profound influence on the shape and mean size of home ranges. The large home range sizes obtained in the Kruger Park, when compared to an area such as the Ngorongoro Crater, can be ascribed to a lower carrying capacity with respect to zebra, large portions of the habitat being sub-optimal, either seasonally or annually.