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Sample records for range mineral belt

  1. Metallogenic belt and mineral deposit maps of northeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obolenskiy, Alexander A.; Rodionov, Sergey M.; Dejidmaa, Gunchin; Gerel, Ochir; Hwang, Duk-Hwan; Miller, Robert J.; Nokleberg, Warren J.; Ogasawara, Masatsugu; Smelov, Alexander P.; Yan, Hongquan; Seminskiy, Zhan V.

    2013-01-01

    This report contains explanatory material and summary tables for lode mineral deposits and placer districts (Map A, sheet 1) and metallogenic belts of Northeast Asia (Maps B, C, and D on sheets 2, 3, and 4, respectively). The map region includes eastern Siberia, southeastern Russia, Mongolia, northeast China, and Japan. A large group of geologists—members of the joint international project, Major Mineral Deposits, Metallogenesis, and Tectonics of Northeast Asia—prepared the maps, tables, and introductory text. This is a cooperative project with the Russian Academy of Sciences, Mongolian Academy of Sciences, Mongolian National University, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolian Technical University, Mineral Resources Authority of Mongolia, Geological Research Institute, Jilin University, China Geological Survey, Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources, Geological Survey of Japan, and U.S. Geological Survey. This report is one of a series of reports on the mineral resources, geodynamics, and metallogenesis of Northeast Asia. Companion studies include (1) a detailed geodynamics map of Northeast Asia (Parfenov and others, 2003); (2) a compilation of major mineral deposit models (Rodionov and Nokleberg, 2000; Rodionov and others, 2000); (3) a series of metallogenic belt maps (Obolenskiy and others, 2004); (4) location map of lode mineral deposits and placer districts of Northeast Asia (Ariunbileg and others, 2003b); (5) descriptions of metallogenic belts (Rodionov and others, 2004); (6) a database on significant metalliferous and selected nonmetalliferous lode deposits and selected placer districts (Ariunbileg and others, 2003a); and (7) a series of summary project publications (Ariunbileg and 74 others, 2003b).

  2. Geoinformatics and Data Fusion in the Southwestern Utah Mineral Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiesel, T.; Enright, R.

    2012-12-01

    Data Fusion is a technique in remote sensing that combines separate geophysical data sets from different platforms to yield the maximum information of each set. Data fusion was employed on multiple sources of data for the purposes of investigating an area of the Utah Mineral Belt known as the San Francisco Mining District. In the past many mineral deposits were expressed in or on the immediate surface and therefore relatively easy to locate. More modern methods of investigation look for evidence beyond the visible spectrum to find patterns that predict the presence of deeply buried mineral deposits. The methods used in this study employed measurements of reflectivity or emissivity features in the infrared portion of the electromagnetic spectrum for different materials, elevation data collected from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission and indirect measurement of the magnetic or mass properties of deposits. The measurements were collected by various spaceborne remote sensing instruments like Landsat TM, ASTER and Hyperion and ground-based statewide geophysical surveys. ASTER's shortwave infrared bands, that have been calibrated to surface reflectance using the atmospheric correction tool FLAASH, can be used to identify products of hydrothermal alteration like kaolinite, alunite, limonite and pyrophyllite using image spectroscopy. The thermal infrared bands once calibrated to emissivity can be used to differentiate between felsic, mafic and carbonate rock units for the purposes of lithologic mapping. To validate results from the extracted spectral profiles existing geological reports were used for ground truth data. Measurements of electromagnetic spectra can only reveal the composition of surface features. Gravimetric and magnetic information were utilized to reveal subsurface features. Using Bouguer anomaly data provided by the USGS an interpreted geological cross section can be created that indicates the shape of local igneous intrusions and the depth of

  3. Clay minerals assemblage in the Neogene fluvial succession of the Pishin Belt, Pakistan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasi, Aimal Khan; Kassi, Akhtar Muhammad; Friis, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    indicate derivation of material from the Pre-Miocene sedimentary and meta-sedimentary terrains of the Pishin Belt. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses indicate that clay minerals in various mudstones and sandstone samples are identical and detrital in nature and include smectite, chlorite, illite, serpentine...... and metasedimentary successions. The source of kaolinite seems to be pedogenic or lateritic. The clay minerals assemblage in mudstones and sandstones of the Dasht Murgha group, Malthanai formation and Bostan formation appears to have been derived from the nearby-exposed Pre-Miocence mafic/ultramafic rocks...

  4. Geochemical Analysis for Sedimentary Emerald Mineralization in Western Emerald belt, Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nino Vasquez, Gabriel Felipe; Song, Sheng-Rong

    2017-04-01

    1Gabriel Felipe Nino Vasquez and 1Sheng-Rong Song 1Department of Geosciences, National Taiwan University Colombia hosts a large quantity of mineral resources due to its complex tectonic arrangement, and emerald deposits are one of the most representatives for the country. Emeralds in Colombia occur mainly in black shale, and are located in eastern Andes Cordillera with two parallel belts separated by approximately 130 Km: the Western belt (WB) and the Eastern belt (EB). The geological, mineralogical and tectonic features from these belts are quite similar (Buenaventura 2002). Previous researchers concluded that emeralds in Colombia came from hydrothermal sedimentary processes without any magmatic influence, and suggested that the source of Cr, V and Be (which are important components of the beryl) was the host rock. According to their results, the process which allowed the shale to release these cations was the metasomatism (albitization and carbonization), which was resulted from the interaction between the rocks and the alkaline brines. Fractures and fault planes originated by these tectonic movements were fulfilled by enriched fluids, which they allowed emeralds and the other minerals precipitation with decreasing alkalinity and pressure (Giuliani et al. 1994). However, there were several pitfalls of conclusions drawn from previous researches. Firstly, Cr and V were widely distributed and come from mafic and ultramafic rocks, and Be was mostly found in pegmatites, finding these elements in sedimentary rocks suggest that probably the ultramafic rocks occurred not far from the deposits. Secondly, there was an inconsistency in the estimated temperatures of emeralds formation, i.e. temperature of hydrothermal sedimentary deposits was only 200° C, while laboratory analysis showed that the formation of emeralds was higher than 300° C. Therefore, there might still be an allocthonus influence on emerald formation that significantly increases the temperature. This

  5. Annotated bibliography of environmentally relevant investigations of uranium mining and milling in the Grants Mineral Belt, northwestern New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otton, James K.

    2011-01-01

    Studies of the natural environment in the Grants Mineral Belt in northwestern New Mexico have been conducted since the 1930s; however, few such investigations predate uranium mining and milling operations, which began in the early 1950s. This report provides an annotated bibliography of reports that describe the hydrology and geochemistry of groundwaters and surface waters and the geochemistry of soils and sediments in the Grants Mineral Belt and contiguous areas. The reports referenced and discussed provide a large volume of information about the environmental conditions in the area after mining started. Data presented in many of these studies, if evaluated carefully, may provide much basic information about the baseline conditions that existed over large parts of the Grants Mineral Belt prior to mining. Other data may provide information that can direct new work in efforts to discriminate between baseline conditions and the effects of the mining and milling on the natural environment.

  6. Evolution and Dynamics of a Fold-Thrust Belt: The Sulaiman Range of Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, K.; Copley, A.; Hussain, E.

    2014-12-01

    Plan-view curvature of geological structures and range-front topography has long been a recognized and debated feature of both ancient and active fold-thrust belts. As part of the largest active mountain range on Earth, much of the body of work surrounding this topic has focused on the Tibetan Plateau. A lack of published data, extremely limited geodetic coverage and difficulty of access mean there have been relatively few studies of the western part of the India-Asia collision zone, where the Himalaya curve to the southwest into the lobate fold-thrust belts of Pakistan. The widest of these, the Sulaiman Range, forms a strongly curved lobe with ~300km across-strike width. We present observations and models of the Sulaiman Range of western Pakistan that shed new light on the evolution and deformation of fold-thrust belts. Earthquake source inversions show that the seismic deformation in the range is concentrated in the thick pile of sediments overlying the underthrusting lithosphere of the Indian subcontinent. The slip vectors of the earthquakes vary in strike around the margin of the range, in tandem with the shape of the topography, suggesting that gravitational driving forces arising from the topography play an important role in governing the deformation of the region. Numerical models suggest that the active deformation, and extreme plan-view curvature of the range, are governed by the presence of weak sediments in a pre-existing basin on the underthrusting Indian plate. These sediments affect the stress-state in the over-riding mountain range and allow for the rapid propagation of the nose of the range and the development of extreme curvature and laterally-varying surface gradients.

  7. Paleozoic magmatism and porphyry Cu-mineralization in an evolving tectonic setting in the North Qilian Orogenic Belt, NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Kun-Feng; Deng, Jun; Taylor, Ryan D.; Song, Kai-Rui; Song, Yao-Hui; Li, Quan-Zhong; Goldfarb, Richard J.

    2016-05-01

    The NWW-striking North Qilian Orogenic Belt records the Paleozoic accretion-collision processes in NW China, and hosts Paleozoic Cu-Pb-Zn mineralization that was temporally and spatially related to the closure of the Paleo Qilian-Qinling Ocean. The Wangdian Cu deposit is located in the eastern part of the North Qilian Orogenic Belt, NW China. Copper mineralization is spatially associated with an altered early Paleozoic porphyritic granodiorite, which intruded tonalites and volcaniclastic rocks. Alteration zones surrounding the mineralization progress outward from a potassic to a feldspar-destructive phyllic assemblage. Mineralization consists mainly of quartz-sulfide stockworks and disseminated sulfides, with ore minerals chalcopyrite, pyrite, molybdenite, and minor galena and sphalerite. Gangue minerals include quartz, orthoclase, biotite, sericite, and K-feldspar. Zircon LA-ICPMS U-Pb dating of the ore-bearing porphyritic granodiorite yielded a mean 206Pb/238U age of 444.6 ± 7.8 Ma, with a group of inherited zircons yielding a mean U-Pb age of 485 ± 12 Ma, consistent with the emplacement age (485.3 ± 6.2 Ma) of the barren precursor tonalite. Rhenium and osmium analyses of molybdenite grains returned model ages of 442.9 ± 6.8 Ma and 443.3 ± 6.2 Ma, indicating mineralization was coeval with the emplacement of the host porphyritic granodiorite. Rhenium concentrations in molybdenite (208.9-213.2 ppm) suggest a mantle Re source. The tonalities are medium-K calc-alkaline. They are characterized by enrichment of light rare-earth elements (LREEs) and large-ion lithophile elements (LILEs), depletion of heavy rare-earth elements (HREEs) and high-field-strength elements (HFSEs), and minor negative Eu anomalies. They have εHf(t) values in the range of +3.6 to +11.1, with two-stage Hf model ages of 0.67-1.13 Ga, suggesting that the ca. 485 Ma barren tonalites were products of arc magmatism incorporating melts from the mantle wedge and the lithosphere. In contrast, the

  8. Paleozoic magmatism and porphyry Cu-mineralization in an evolving tectonic setting in the North Qilian Orogenic Belt, NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Kun-Feng; Deng, Jun; Taylor, Ryan D.; Song, Kai-Rui; Song, Yao-Hui; Li, Quan-Zhong; Goldfarb, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    The NWW-striking North Qilian Orogenic Belt records the Paleozoic accretion–collision processes in NW China, and hosts Paleozoic Cu–Pb–Zn mineralization that was temporally and spatially related to the closure of the Paleo Qilian-Qinling Ocean. The Wangdian Cu deposit is located in the eastern part of the North Qilian Orogenic Belt, NW China. Copper mineralization is spatially associated with an altered early Paleozoic porphyritic granodiorite, which intruded tonalites and volcaniclastic rocks. Alteration zones surrounding the mineralization progress outward from a potassic to a feldspar-destructive phyllic assemblage. Mineralization consists mainly of quartz-sulfide stockworks and disseminated sulfides, with ore minerals chalcopyrite, pyrite, molybdenite, and minor galena and sphalerite. Gangue minerals include quartz, orthoclase, biotite, sericite, and K-feldspar. Zircon LA-ICPMS U–Pb dating of the ore-bearing porphyritic granodiorite yielded a mean 206Pb/238U age of 444.6 ± 7.8 Ma, with a group of inherited zircons yielding a mean U–Pb age of 485 ± 12 Ma, consistent with the emplacement age (485.3 ± 6.2 Ma) of the barren precursor tonalite. Rhenium and osmium analyses of molybdenite grains returned model ages of 442.9 ± 6.8 Ma and 443.3 ± 6.2 Ma, indicating mineralization was coeval with the emplacement of the host porphyritic granodiorite. Rhenium concentrations in molybdenite (208.9–213.2 ppm) suggest a mantle Re source. The tonalities are medium-K calc-alkaline. They are characterized by enrichment of light rare-earth elements (LREEs) and large-ion lithophile elements (LILEs), depletion of heavy rare-earth elements (HREEs) and high-field-strength elements (HFSEs), and minor negative Eu anomalies. They have εHf(t) values in the range of +3.6 to +11.1, with two-stage Hf model ages of 0.67–1.13 Ga, suggesting that the ca. 485 Ma barren tonalites were products of arc magmatism incorporating melts from the mantle wedge and

  9. Skarn formation and trace elements in garnet and associated minerals from Zhibula copper deposit, Gangdese Belt, southern Tibet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing; Ciobanu, Cristiana L.; Cook, Nigel J.; Zheng, Youye; Sun, Xiang; Wade, Benjamin P.

    2016-10-01

    Trace element concentrations in garnet and associated minerals from the mid-Miocene Zhibula Cu skarn, Gangdese Belt, Tibet reflect a diversity of local environments, evolving fluid parameters and partitioning with coexisting minerals. Exoskarn occurs as massive but narrow intervals within a Lower Jurassic volcano-sedimentary sequence containing limestone, the main skarn protolith. Endoskarn is present at the contact with mid-Miocene granodiorite dikes. Prograde skarn associations are garnet-dominant but also include diopside-dominant pyroxene in variable amounts. Garnet compositions in exoskarn change from andradite (And)- to grossular (Gr)-dominant from the massive intervals to bands/lenses within marble/tuff, but not in endoskarn. In both cases however, associations at the protolith contact include anorthite and wollastonite, both indicative of skarnoid or distal (relative to fluid source) skarn formation. Exoskarns also contain vesuvianite. Retrograde clinozoisite, actinolite and chlorite replace pre-existing skarn minerals. Garnet displays brecciation and replacement by Al-richer garnet. Depending on partitioning among coexisting minerals, chondrite-normalised REY (REE + Y) fractionation trends for garnet depict endo- to exoskarn diversity, the dominance of And- vs. Gr-rich garnet (in turn related to proximal-to-distal relationship to fluid source), as well as prograde-to-retrograde evolution in the same sample. A strong variation in Eu-anomaly, from positive to negative, in And-dominant garnet can be correlated with variation in salinity of ore-forming fluids, concordant with published fluid inclusion data. Trends depicted by And- and Gr-dominant garnets are consistent with published data from skarns elsewhere, in which the dominant substitution mechanism for REY is YAG-type. Zhibula garnets are enriched in a range of trace elements less commonly reported, including W, Sn, and As, but also Mo (as high as 730 ppm), an element seldom analysed for in silicates

  10. Tectonic setting of Late Cenozoic gold mineralization in the gold belt of Costa Rica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deruyter, V.D.

    1985-01-01

    The Gold Belt of Costa Rica is a northwest-elongated zone 15 km wide by 120 km long containing numerous auriferous quartz veins and pyritic silicified patterns upon which abundant small mines are developed. Gold veins are related principally to northeast-southwest and north-south striking, steeply dipping faults. Higher grade ore and thicker veins invariably occur at intersections of these fracture orientations, indicating simultaneous opening at the time of gold introduction. Restriction of gold veins to the northwest-trending arc of Miocene Aguacate Group andesite volcanic rocks, a product of Cocos Plate subduction, suggested approximately coeval formation, but recognition by the writer of the important role played by 2-5 m.y. old altered, gold mineralized rhyolite dikes intruded along north-south gold vein structures and intimately involved with high grade ores at the Esperanza Mine and Rio Chiquito prospect, for example, suggest a much younger period of fracturing and gold introduction. The rhyolite intrusions are more brittle and stockwork mineralized than andesite host rocks and form bulk tonnage gold targets. Initiation of right-lateral movement along the north-south Panama Fracture Zone at 5 m.y.a. within the pattern of northeastward Cocos Plate subduction may have tapped rhyolites from subvolcanic magma chambers into new faults.

  11. Geochemical evidence for subduction in the early Archaean from quartz-carbonate-fuchsite mineralization, Isua Supracrustal Belt, West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pope, Emily Catherine; Rosing, Minik Thorleif; Bird, Dennis K.

    of this metasomatic-tectonic relationship requires that 1) Phanerozoic orogenic Au-deposits form in subduction-zone environments, and 2) the geochemical similarity of Precambrian orogenic deposits to their younger counterparts is the result of having the same petrogenetic origin. Hydrogen and oxygen isotope...... compositions of fuchsite and quartz from auriferous mineralization in the ca. 3.8 Ga Isua Supracrustal Belt (ISB) in West Greenland, in conjunction with elevated concentrations of CO2, Cr, Al, K and silica relative to protolith assemblages, suggest that this mineralization shares a common petro-tectonic origin......, are the result of seawater-derived fluids liberated from subducting lithosphere interacting with ultramafic rocks in the mantle wedge and lower crust, before migrating up crustal-scale vertical fracture zones. Thus, the presence of quartz-carbonate-fuchsite mineralization in the Isua supracrustal belt and other...

  12. Controls on SEDEX Mineralization in the Aravalli-Delhi Fold Belt: Insights from Integrated 3D Geological and Geophysical Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Shilpi; Porwal, Alok

    2017-04-01

    3D modelling provides a representation of the uncertainty when sparse or no data are available for a region. 3D geological model can provide important insights on the geometrical behavior of the rock units and also the locations of the crustal scale structures which in turn can provide the 3D (depth) and 4D (time) geodynamic evolution of the region. The Aravalli-Delhi Fold Belt which is located in the state of Rajasthan, India covers the geological history from Archaean to Recent. It underwent two stage tectonic evolution during Proterozoic, which lead to the formation of substantial Sediment-Hosted Lead-Zinc deposits i.e. Rampura-Agucha deposit ( 1800 Ma.), Rajpura-Dariba deposit ( 1800 Ma), Pur-Banera deposit ( 1800 Ma) and Zawar deposit ( 1700 Ma). The Sediment-Hosted Lead-Zinc deposits with easy surface expressions have already been discovered based on the conventional 2D conceptual geological models approach, therefore now it is very important to discover and explore the deep-seated deposits which have no or indirect surface expressions. These deposits are formed due to the mineralization process which run in three dimensional space and time, and hence are the result of the 3D and 4D geodynamic processes operating in the region. The 3D geological modelling of the Aravalli-Delhi Fold Belt and the mineral system of the Sediment-Hosted Lead-Zinc deposit will identify the new controls of mineralization for the Lead-Zinc deposits in the fold belt.. A 3D crustal model for Aravalli-Delhi Fold Belt will be created for an area of about 275×200 square kilometers of Aravalli-Delhi Fold Belt, which will convert into a 3D block of about 275×200×60 cubic kilometers by applying forward gravity modelling technique. The 3D geological model will be based on the detailed geological and structural mapping, and the use of the 2D forward gravity models created for the entire fold belt. Keywords: Aravalli-Delhi Fold Belt; 3D Geological Modelling; 3D and 4D Geological Evolution

  13. Intermediate sulfidation type base metal mineralization at Aliabad-Khanchy, Tarom-Hashtjin metallogenic belt, NW Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouhestani, Hossein; Mokhtari, Mir Ali Asghar; Chang, Zhaoshan; Johnson, Craig A.

    2018-01-01

    The Aliabad-Khanchy epithermal base metal deposit is located in the Tarom-Hashtjin metallogenic belt (THMB) of northwest Iran. The mineralization occurs as Cu-bearing brecciated quartz veins hosted by Eocene volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks of the Karaj Formation. Ore formation can be divided into five stages, with most ore minerals, such as pyrite and chalcopyrite being formed in the early stages. The main wall-rock alteration is silicification, and chlorite, argillic and propylitic alteration. Microthermometric measurements of fluid inclusion assemblages show that the ore-forming fluids have eutectic temperatures between −30 and −52 °C, trapping temperatures of 150–290 °C, and salinities of 6.6–12.4 wt% NaCl equiv. These data demonstrate that the ore-forming fluids were medium- to high-temperature, medium- to low-salinity, and low-density H2O–NaCl–CaCl2 fluids. Calculated δ18O values indicate that ore-forming hydrothermal fluids had δ18Owater ranging from +3.6‰ to +0.8‰, confirming that the ore–fluid system evolved from dominantly magmatic to dominantly meteoric. The calculated 34SH2S values range from −8.1‰ to −5.0‰, consistent with derivation of the sulfur from either magma or possibly from local volcanic wall-rock. Combined, the fluid inclusion and stable isotope data indicate that the Aliabad-Khanchy deposit formed from magmatic-hydrothermal fluids. After rising to a depth of between 790 and 500 m, the fluid boiled and subsequent hydraulic fracturing may have led to inflow and/or mixing of early magmatic fluids with circulating groundwater causing deposition of base metals due to dilution and/or cooling. The Aliabad-Khanchy deposit is interpreted as an intermediate-sulfidation style of epithermal mineralization. Our data suggest that the mineralization at Aliabad-Khanchy and other epithermal deposits of the THMB formed by hydrothermal activity related to shallow late Eocene magmatism. The altered Eocene volcanic and

  14. South Tien Shan orogenic belt: structure, magmatism and gold mineralization (Uzbekistan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koneev, Rustam; Seltmann, Reimer

    2014-05-01

    The Southern Tien Shan represents one of the key units of the Central Asian orogenic belt in Uzbekistan. Together with the Beltau-Kurama volcano-plutonic arc it formed as a result of subduction of the crust under the Turkistan paleoocean and the Kazakhstan continent, followed by collision and post-collisional strike-slip processes. The Southern Tien Shan is of particular interest due to its gold mineralisation. It hosts the giant Muruntau gold deposit and the large gold deposits of Amantaitau, Daugyztau, Myutenbay (Kyzylkum ore district) and Charmitan, Guzhumsay, Urtalik (Nurata ore district). The Middle Tienshan hosts within the Beltau-Kurama volcano-plutonic arc the Kurama ore district with the giant Kalmakyr Cu-Au porphyry and large epithermal Au-Ag deposits of Kochbulak and Kyzylalma. Yakubchuk et al. (2005) and others stress that the largest ore clusters are confined by the intersections of volcano-plutonic belts and transform faults in result of sinistral strike slip dislocations during the Permo-Carboniferous. Others believe that the ore giants are in addition controlled by hot spots - a mantle plume, superimposed on the crust architecture shaped by the subduction processes. Zircon U-Pb geochronology of main intrusive massifs of Uzbekistan (CERCAMS data) showed that granitoid magmatism is predominantly of postcollisional age, manifested in the accretionary units at 270-290 Ma, whereas subduction magmatism prevails as characteristic in the volcano-plutonic arc at 300-320 Ma. Determination of sulphide mineralization ages using Os-Re method (CERCAMS data), are respectively 283-289 Ma and 298-314 Ma. The studies were performed in the framework of IGCP- 592. References 1. Yakubchuk A.S., Shatov V.V., Kirwin D. et al., (2005) Gold and base metal metallogeny of the Central Asian Orogenic supercollage: Society of Economic Geologists, Inc. Economic Geology, 100th, Anniversary Volume, 1035-1068. 2. Groves, D.I., Goldfarb, R.J., Gebre-Mariam, M., Hagemann, S.G. and

  15. Isotopic data for Late Cretaceous intrusions and associated altered and mineralized rocks in the Big Belt Mountains, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Bray, Edward A.; Unruh, Daniel M.; Hofstra, Albert H.

    2017-03-07

    The quartz monzodiorite of Mount Edith and the concentrically zoned intrusive suite of Boulder Baldy constitute the principal Late Cretaceous igneous intrusions hosted by Mesoproterozoic sedimentary rocks of the Newland Formation in the Big Belt Mountains, Montana. These calc-alkaline plutonic masses are manifestations of subduction-related magmatism that prevailed along the western edge of North America during the Cretaceous. Radiogenic isotope data for neodymium, strontium, and lead indicate that the petrogenesis of the associated magmas involved a combination of (1) sources that were compositionally heterogeneous at the scale of the geographically restricted intrusive rocks in the Big Belt Mountains and (2) variable contamination by crustal assimilants also having diverse isotopic compositions. Altered and mineralized rocks temporally, spatially, and genetically related to these intrusions manifest at least two isotopically distinct mineralizing events, both of which involve major inputs from spatially associated Late Cretaceous igneous rocks. Alteration and mineralization of rock associated with the intrusive suite of Boulder Baldy requires a component characterized by significantly more radiogenic strontium than that characteristic of the associated igneous rocks. However, the source of such a component was not identified in the Big Belt Mountains. Similarly, altered and mineralized rocks associated with the quartz monzodiorite of Mount Edith include a component characterized by significantly more radiogenic strontium and lead, particularly as defined by 207Pb/204Pb values. The source of this component appears to be fluids that equilibrated with proximal Newland Formation rocks. Oxygen isotope data for rocks of the intrusive suite of Boulder Baldy are similar to those of subduction-related magmatism that include mantle-derived components; oxygen isotope data for altered and mineralized equivalents are slightly lighter.

  16. Low-angle normal faults in the south-central Brooks Range fold and thrust belt, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gottschalk, R.R.; Oldow, J.S.

    1988-05-01

    A north-south structural transect through the south-central Brooks Range, Alaska, exposes three lithologically distinct, fault-bounded packages of rock, all regionally metamorphosed during the Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous contractional deformation that formed much of the Brooks Range fold and thrust belt. These are, from south to north and structurally highest to lowest, (1) the prehnite-pumpellyite facies ophiolitic rocks of the Angayucham terrane, (2) the low-grade metasedimentary rocks of the Rosie Creek allochthon, and (3) pumpellyite-actinolite to glaucophane-epidote facies metamorphic rocks of the schist belt. The presence of rocks metamorphosed and deformed at shallow levels of the fold and thrust belt (the Angayucham terrane and Rosie Creek allochthon) lying structurally above rocks representing the deepest exposed levels of the fold and thrust belt (the schist belt) indicates that the imbricate stack is disrupted by south-dipping, low-angle normal faults along the southern margin of the Brooks Range. The authors propose that normal faults developed in response to the uplift of the schist belt and the overlying metasedimentary and ophiolitic allochthons by north-directed thrusting in the late Early Cretaceous. Thrusting resulting in the oversteepening of the imbricate stack, causing compensatory normal faulting along the southern flank of the ramp structure. Normal faults may have provided at least local structural control of the locus of Albian and younger sedimentation in the Koyukuk basin. 34 references.

  17. Early-Holocene greening of the Afro-Asian dust belt changed sources of mineral dust in West Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi, Arash; Murphy, Lisa N.; Pourmand, Ali; Clement, Amy C.; Canuel, Elizabeth A.; Naderi Beni, Abdolmajid; Lahijani, Hamid A. K.; Delanghe, Doriane; Ahmady-Birgani, Hesam

    2018-01-01

    Production, transport and deposition of mineral dust have significant impacts on different components of the Earth systems through time and space. In modern times, dust plumes are associated with their source region(s) using satellite and land-based measurements and trajectory analysis of air masses through time. Reconstruction of past changes in the sources of mineral dust as related to changes in climate, however, must rely on the knowledge of the geochemical and mineralogical composition of modern and paleo-dust, and that of their potential source origins. In this contribution, we present a 13,000-yr record of variations in radiogenic Sr-Nd-Hf isotopes and Rare Earth Element (REE) anomalies as well as dust grain size from an ombrotrophic (rain fed) peat core in NW Iran as proxies of past changes in the sources of dust over the interior of West Asia. Our data shows that although the grain size of dust varies in a narrow range through the entire record, the geochemical fingerprint of dust particles deposited during the low-flux, early Holocene period (11,700-6,000 yr BP) is distinctly different from aerosols deposited during high dust flux periods of the Younger Dryas and the mid-late Holocene (6,000-present). Our findings indicate that the composition of mineral dust deposited at the study site changed as a function of prevailing atmospheric circulation regimes and land exposure throughout the last deglacial period and the Holocene. Simulations of atmospheric circulation over the region show the Northern Hemisphere Summer Westerly Jet was displaced poleward across the study area during the early Holocene when Northern Hemisphere insolation was higher due to the Earth's orbital configuration. This shift, coupled with lower dust emissions simulated based on greening of the Afro-Asian Dust Belt during the early Holocene likely led to potential sources in Central Asia dominating dust export to West Asia during this period. In contrast, the dominant western and

  18. Uranium (-nickel-cobalt-molybdenum) mineralization along the Singhbhum copper belt, India, and the problem of ore genesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, S. C.

    1982-08-01

    Uranium mineralization is present at many places along the 200 km long Singhbhum copper belt, but the mineralization is relatively concentrated at the central part of it. The belt is characterized by many shear zone features, such as mylonites, phyllonites, and L-S type of structures and of course, copious metasomatism. Country rocks are basic schists, metapelites, quartzose rocks and albite schist/gneiss (‘Soda Granite’). Orebodies are sheet-like, conformable with the pervasive planar structures in the host rocks. No pronounced ‘wall rock alteration’ accompanied the mineralization. Grade of the ore is low (crystal structure. Additionally, nickel, cobalt and molybdenum are present at Jaduguda-Bhatin in the form of millerite, gersdorffite, melonite, nickel-bearing pyrite, molybdenite etc. Dominance of uraninite over pitchblende and the larger cell-edge of uraninite, development of hematite-bearing quartz and Na-oligoclase at places in the ore zone, association of uranium mineralization with Ni-Co-Mo(-S-As) mineralization at Jaduguda-Bhatin and continuation of the orebodies to considerable depths, suggest that the uranium mineralization along the Singhbhum belt belongs to moderate to high temperature ‘vein type’. The age obtained by Pb207/Pb206 ratio and the concordia method suggest that the uranium mineralization in Singhbhum took place 1500 1600 Ma ago and this age is not far different from the age of formation of uranium-vein deposits in many other Precambrian shields of the world. The following two mechanisms of the formation of the deposits are discussed: 1) uranium precipitated in the Dhanjori basal sediments was mobilized during deformation and metamorphism into ore deposits, 2) the hydrodynamic system that leached out copper from the metabasic rocks to form the copper deposits at an earlier stage, could, in one of the oxidised pulses leach out uranium from the basal sediments and precipitate it in the favourable situations. Subsequent small

  19. New Horizons: Long-Range Kuiper Belt Targets Observed by the Hubble Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benecchi, S. D.; Noll, K. S.; Weaver, H. A.; Spencer, J. R.; Stern, S. A.; Buie, M. W.; Parker, A. H.

    2014-01-01

    We report on Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations of three Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs), discovered in our dedicated ground-based search campaign, that are candidates for long-range observations from the New Horizons spacecraft: 2011 epochY31, 2011 HZ102, and 2013 LU35. Astrometry with HST enables both current and future critical accuracy improvements for orbit precision, required for possible New Horizons observations, beyond what can be obtained from the ground. Photometric colors of all three objects are red, typical of the Cold Classical dynamical population within which they reside; they are also the faintest KBOs to have had their colors measured. None are observed to be binary with HST above separations of approx. 0.02 arcsec (approx. 700 km at 44 AU) and delta m less than or equal to 0.5.

  20. Porphyry copper assessment of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt and eastern Tethysides: China, Mongolia, Russia, Pakistan, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, and India: Chapter X in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalasky, Mark J.; Ludington, Stephen; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Alexeiev, Dmitriy V.; Frost, Thomas P.; Light, Thomas D.; Robinson,, Gilpin R.; Briggs, Deborah A.; Wallis, John C.; Miller, Robert J.; Bookstrom, Arthur A.; Panteleyev, Andre; Chitalin, Andre; Seltmann, Reimar; Guangsheng, Yan; Changyun, Lian; Jingwen, Mao; Jinyi, Li; Keyan, Xiao; Ruizhao, Qiu; Jianbao, Shao; Gangyi, Shai; Yuliang, Du

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey collaborated with international colleagues to assess undiscovered resources in porphyry copper deposits in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt and eastern Tethysides. These areas host 20 known porphyry copper deposits, including the world class Oyu Tolgoi deposit in Mongolia that was discovered in the late 1990s. The study area covers major parts of the world’s largest orogenic systems. The Central Asian Orogenic Belt is a collage of amalgamated Precambrian through Mesozoic terranes that extends from the Ural Mountains in the west nearly to the Pacific Coast of Asia in the east and records the evolution and final closure of the Paleo-Asian Ocean in Permian time. The eastern Tethysides, the orogenic belt to the south of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt, records the evolution of another ancient ocean system, the Tethys Ocean. The evolution of these orogenic belts involved magmatism associated with a variety of geologic settings appropriate for formation of porphyry copper deposits, including subduction-related island arcs, continental arcs, and collisional and postconvergent settings. The original settings are difficult to trace because the arcs have been complexly deformed and dismembered by younger tectonic events. Twelve mineral resource assessment tracts were delineated to be permissive for the occurrence of porphyry copper deposits based on mapped and inferred subsurface distributions of igneous rocks of specific age ranges and compositions. These include (1) nine Paleozoic tracts in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt, which range in area from about 60,000 to 800,000 square kilometers (km2); (2) a complex area of about 400,000 km2 on the northern margin of the Tethysides, the Qinling-Dabie tract, which spans central China and areas to the west, encompassing Paleozoic through Triassic igneous rocks that formed in diverse settings; and (3) assemblages of late Paleozoic and Mesozoic rocks that define two other tracts in the Tethysides, the 100

  1. To reactivate or not to reactivate: nature and varied behavior of structural inheritance in the Proterozoic basement of the Eastern Colorado mineral belt over 1.7 billion years of earth history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caine, Jonathan S.; Ridley, John; Wessel, Zachary R.

    2010-01-01

    The eastern central Front Range of the Rocky Mountains in Colorado has long been a region of geologic interest because of Laramide-age hydrothermal polymetallic vein-related ores. The region is characterized by a well-exposed array of geologic structures associated with ductile and brittle deformation, which record crustal strain over 1.7 billion years of continental growth and evolution. The mineralized areas lie along a broad linear zone termed the Colorado Mineral Belt. This lineament has commonly been interpreted as following a fundamental boundary, such as a suture zone, in the North American Proterozoic crust that acted as a persistent zone of weakness localizing the emplacement of magmas and associated hydrothermal fluid flow. However, the details on the controls of the location, orientation, kinematics, density, permeability, and relative strength of various geological structures and their specific relationships to mineral deposit formation are not related to Proterozoic ancestry in a simple manner. The objectives of this field trip are to show key localities typical of the various types of structures present, show recently compiled and new data, offer alternative conceptual models, and foster dialogue. Topics to be discussed include: (1) structural history of the eastern Front Range; (2) characteristics, kinematics, orientations, and age of ductile and brittle structures and how they may or may not relate to one another and mineral deposit permeability; and (3) characteristics, localization, and evolution of the metal and non–metal-bearing hydrothermal systems in the eastern Colorado Mineral Belt.

  2. Two stages of deformation and fluid migration in the central Brooks Range fold-and-thrust belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Thomas E.; Potter, Christopher J.; O'Sullivan, Paul B.; Shelton, Kevin L.; Underwood, Michael B.

    2004-01-01

    The Brooks Range is a north-directed fold and thrust belt that forms the southern boundary of the North Slope petroleum province in northern Alaska. Field-based studies have long recognized that large-magnitude, thin-skinned folding and thrusting in the Brooks Range occurred during arc-continent collision in the Middle Jurassic to Early Cretaceous (Neocomian). Folds and thrusts, however, also deform middle and Upper Cretaceous strata of the Colville foreland basin and thus record a younger phase of deformation that apatite fission-track data have shown to occur primarily during the early Tertiary (~60 and ~45 Ma). A structural and kinematic model that reconciles these observations is critical to understanding the petroleum system of the Brooks Range fold and thrust belt.

  3. Distribution of In and other rare metals in cassiterite and associated minerals in Sn ± W ore deposits of the western Variscan Belt

    OpenAIRE

    Lerouge, Catherine; Gloaguen, Eric; Wille, Guillaume; Bailly, Laurent

    2017-01-01

    International audience; We present data available on rare metal and indium distributions in cassiterite and associated minerals from thirteen Sn ± W granite-related ore deposits in the western Variscan Belt (Massif Central and Armorican Massif, France; Galicia, Spain; and SW England). Cassiterite and associated minerals including sulfides and titanium oxides were analysed using an electron probe micro-analyzer (EPMA). Significant indium contents were only measured in cassiterite from hydrothe...

  4. The Sanfengshan copper deposit and early Carboniferous volcanogenic massive sulfide mineralization in the Beishan orogenic belt, Northwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jialin; Gu, Xuexiang; Zhang, Yongmei; Zhou, Chao; He, Ge; Liu, Ruiping

    2018-03-01

    The Sanfengshan copper deposit, located in the Beishan orogenic belt, Northwestern China, is hosted in the lower member of the Hongliuyuan Formation, an early Carboniferous metavolcanic-sedimentary sequence. Mineralization occurs as stratiform, stratiform-like and lenticular orebodies, and comprises of laminated, brecciated, banded, massive, and disseminated ores. The mineralogy is dominated by pyrite, chalcopyrite and sphalerite. Fe-Mn chert is widely distributed and generally occurs as massive, laminated, bands or lenses, which are consistent with the orebody. Alteration at Sanfengshan displays a clear concentric zoning pattern and the footwall alteration is more intense and somewhat thicker than the hanging-wall alteration. Systematic geochemical investigation on the volcanic rocks in this area shows that the basalts of the Hongliuyuan Formation (HLY) are predominantly tholeiites with nearly flat rare earth element (REE) pattern, insignificant negative anomalies of high field strength elements (HFSEs), and low Ti/V and Th/Nb ratios. They were most likely derived from partial melting of depleted asthenospheric mantle and formed in a fore-arc setting during initiation of the southward subduction of the Paleo-Asian Ocean. The basalts of the Maotoushan Formation (MTS) display a calc-alkaline nature and are enriched in large ion lithophile elements (LILEs) and depleted in HFSEs, suggesting an active continental margin setting. Sulfur isotope (δ34S) values of the sulfide and sulfate minerals vary between 0‰ and 5.4‰, which are consistent with sulfur derivation from leaching of the host volcanic rocks, although a direct magmatic contribution cannot be ruled out. The Re-Os isotope data of pyrite yield an isochron age of 353 ± 35 Ma, consistent with the age of the host HLY basalts. Thus, a syngenetic (volcanogenic massive sulfide) model is proposed and it is concluded that the Sanfengshan copper deposit is a typical Cyprus-type VMS deposit that formed in an early

  5. 30 CFR 77.406 - Drive belts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drive belts. 77.406 Section 77.406 Mineral... Mechanical Equipment § 77.406 Drive belts. (a) Drive belts shall not be shifted while in motion unless the machines are provided with mechanical shifters. (b) Belt dressing shall not be applied while belts are in...

  6. Yellowstone plume trigger for Basin and Range extension and emplacement of the Nevada-Columbia Basin magmatic belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Victor E; Pierce, Kenneth L.; Morgan Morzel, Lisa Ann

    2015-01-01

    Widespread extension began across the northern and central Basin and Range Province at 17–16 Ma, contemporaneous with magmatism along the Nevada–Columbia Basin magmatic belt, a linear zone of dikes and volcanic centers that extends for >1000 km, from southern Nevada to the Columbia Basin of eastern Washington. This belt was generated above an elongated sublithospheric melt zone associated with arrival of the Yellowstone mantle plume, with a north-south tabular shape attributed to plume ascent through a propagating fracture in the Juan de Fuca slab. Dike orientation along the magmatic belt suggests an extension direction of 245°–250°, but this trend lies oblique to the regional extension direction of 280°–300° during coeval and younger Basin and Range faulting, an ∼45° difference. Field relationships suggest that this magmatic trend was not controlled by regional stress in the upper crust, but rather by magma overpressure from below and forceful dike injection with an orientation inherited from a deeper process in the sublithospheric mantle. The southern half of the elongated zone of mantle upwelling was emplaced beneath a cratonic lithosphere with an elevated surface derived from Late Cretaceous to mid-Tertiary crustal thickening. This high Nevadaplano was primed for collapse with high gravitational potential energy under the influence of regional stress, partly derived from boundary forces due to Pacific–North American plate interaction. Plume arrival at 17–16 Ma resulted in advective thermal weakening of the lithosphere, mantle traction, delamination, and added buoyancy to the northern and central Basin and Range. It was not the sole cause of Basin and Range extension, but rather the catalyst for extension of the Nevadaplano, which was already on the verge of regional collapse.

  7. Metallogeny of precious and base metal mineralization in the Murchison Greenstone Belt, South Africa: indications from U-Pb and Pb-Pb geochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaguin, J.; Poujol, M.; Boulvais, P.; Robb, L. J.; Paquette, J. L.

    2012-10-01

    The 3.09 to 2.97 Ga Murchison Greenstone Belt is an important metallotect in the northern Kaapvaal Craton (South Africa), hosting several precious and base metal deposits. Central to the metallotect is the Antimony Line, striking ENE for over 35 km, which hosts a series of structurally controlled Sb-Au deposits. To the north of the Antimony Line, hosted within felsic volcanic rocks, is the Copper-Zinc Line where a series of small, ca. 2.97 Ga Cu-Zn volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS)-type deposits occur. New data are provided for the Malati Pump gold mine, located at the eastern end of the Antimony Line. Crystallizations of a granodiorite in the Malati Pump Mine and of the Baderoukwe granodiorite are dated at 2,964 ± 7 and 2,970 ± 7 Ma, respectively (zircon U-Pb), while pyrite associated with gold mineralization yielded a Pb-Pb age of 2,967 ± 48 Ma. Therefore, granodiorite emplacement, sulfide mineral deposition and gold mineralization all happened at ca. 2.97 Ga. It is, thus, suggested that the major styles of orogenic Au-Sb and the Cu-Zn VMS mineralization in the Murchison Greenstone Belt are contemporaneous and that the formation of meso- to epithermal Au-Sb mineralization at fairly shallow levels was accompanied by submarine extrusion of felsic volcanic rocks to form associated Cu-Zn VMS mineralization.

  8. The occurrence and origin of celestite in the Abolfares region, Iran: Implications for Sr-mineralization in Zagros fold belt (ZFB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourkaseb, Houshang; Zarasvandi, Alireza; Rezaei, Mohsen; Mahdavi, Reyhaneh; Ghanavati, Fatemeh

    2017-10-01

    The major celestite deposits in Zagros Fold belt are associated with coastal marine carbonate and evaporate sediments of Oligo-Miocene Asmari and Lower Miocene Ghachsaran Formations. In the Abolfares region, celestite mineralization is extended in the western limb of Bangestan anticline in the carbonates of Early Miocene (middle part of Asmari Formation), underlying by dolomitic carbonates of Burdigalian. From bottom to top three main types of mineralization can be distinguished in the study area: (1) layer texture resulting from replacement of algal limestone by celestite minerals with some parts showing idiomorphic crystals (geodes) along the walls of the cavities, (2) celestite occurrence as irregular massive shape interconnected small crystals and nodules, and (3) celestite mineralization associated with steeply dipping veins and open space fracture fillings, resulting from late-stage epigenetic processes. Highlightly, the ore-hosting carbonate rocks were deposited in an intertidal - supratidal protected setting with hypersaline conditions, in accordance with other celestite deposits of the Zagros Fold belt. The abundance of diagenetic crystallization rhythmites, carbonate and anhydrite inclusions as confirmed by Laser Raman spectroscopy analysis, high Sr/Ba values (average; 8726.1) and strong negative correlations between SO3 vs CaO (R2 = 0.98), SrO vs CaO (R2 = 0.96) with positive correlations between Ba vs SrO (R2 = 0.54) and SO3 vs SrO (R2 = 0.98) highlight the role of high Sr late-diagenetic brines in replacement of carbonates with celestite minerals. It seems that the inception of compressional folding during or soon after the deposition of the Asmari Formation in the carbonate platform at the margin of NW-trending basin in the foreland of the Zagros orogenic belt lead to the upward refluxing of penetrated high-Sr diagenetic brines and celestite mineralization.

  9. Magmatic and related mineral deposits of the Pan-African Saldania belt in the Western Cape Province, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozendaal, A.; Scheepers, R.

    1995-07-01

    Mineral deposits and prospects of the Pan-African Saldania orogenic belt in the Western Cape Province, South Africa, are reviewed. The polyphase, deformed, low-grade metamorphosed, volcano-sedimentary Malmesbury Group constitutes a complex, poorly understood supracrustal sequence that has been loosely subdivided into the Tygerberg, Swartland and Boland tectono-stratigraphic terranes on the basis of NW-trending fault zones. Syn- and post-tectonic granitoids of the Cape Granite Suite selectively intruded these terranes. Early S-types preferred the Tygerberg terrane, whereas the later I-types dominate the remaining areas. Anorogenic A-type granites, however, occur in all three terranes. Despite the absence of operating base or precious metal mines in the area, this study has established at least four metal associations directly or indirectly related to the intrusions: i) Cassiterite-wolframite (±Au, Cu, Mo, Zn, As, Fe-sulphides) in quartz and quartz/aplite veins hosted by tour-malinized and locally greissenized S-type granite. Similar exo-granitic veins occur in proximal metamorphites; ii) Juxtaposed, disseminated, stockwork breccia and vein style CuMoFe(Au)-sulphide mineralization hosted by mafic- to intermediate-intrusions of high-K calc-alkaline, I-type affinity; iii) CuMoAu-sulphides hosted by hydraulic breccia pipes, stocks and veins occurring in anorogenic A-type alkali feldspar granites and amphibole quartz syenites; iv) Scheelite with minor CuMoAu-sulphides associated with endo- and exo-skams spatially related to I-type monzogranite, granite and alkali feldspar granite. The first three associations occur along the Yzerfontein-Helderberg-zone, a 180 km lineament in the Tygerberg terrane, exploited by syn-, late- and post-tectonic intrusions and their related mineralization. The fourth association is typical of the Boland terrane. The spatial and temporal relationships among the various metal associations are interpreted as the result of

  10. Prospectivity analysis of gold and iron oxide copper-gold-(silver mineralizations from the Faina Greenstone Belt, Brazil, using multiple data sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Schievano de Campos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The Faina Greenstone Belt is located in the southern sector of the Goiás Archean Block and has been investigated since the 18th century because of its gold deposits. Recent studies have revealed the polymetallic potential of the belt, which is indicated by anomalous levels of Ag, Cu, Fe and Co in addition to Mn, Ba, Li, Ni, Cr and Zn. This study was developed based on a detailed analysis of two selected target sites, Cascavel and Tinteiro, and multiple data sets, such as airborne geophysics, geochemistry and geological information. These datasets were used to create a final prospectivity map using the fuzzy logic technique. The gold mineralization of Cascavel target is inserted in an orogenic system and occurs in two overlapping quartz veins systems, called Mestre-Cascavel and Cuca, embedded in quartzite with an average thickness 50 cm and guidance N45º-60ºW/25ºSW with free coarse gold in grains 2-3 mm to 3 cm. The prospectivity map created for this prospect generated four first-order favorable areas for mineralization and new medium-favorability foci. The Tinteiro area, derived from studies conducted by Orinoco do Brasil Mineração Ltda., shows polymetallic mineralization associated with an iron oxide-copper-gold ore deposit (IOCG system posterior to Cascavel target mineralization. Its prospectivity map generated 19 new target sites with the potential for Au, Cu and Ag mineralization, suggesting new directions for future prospecting programs.

  11. 75 FR 27361 - Notice of Public Meeting, Whiskey Mountain Bighorn Sheep Range Locatable Mineral Withdrawal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-14

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Public Meeting, Whiskey Mountain Bighorn Sheep Range Locatable... Bighorn Sheep Range Locatable Mineral Withdrawal Extension to protect and preserve bighorn sheep winter... INFORMATION: The Notice of Proposed Withdrawal Extension for the Whiskey Mountain Bighorn Sheep Winter Range...

  12. Crustal structure beneath the middle-lower Yangtze metallogenic belt in East China: Constraints from passive source seismic experiment on the Mesozoic intra-continental mineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Danian; Lü, Qingtian; Xu, Wenyi; Yan, Jiayong; Zhao, Jinhua; Dong, Shuwen; Chang, Yinfo

    2013-10-01

    To understand the formation and the tectonic process of the Mesozoic middle-lower Yangtze metallogenic belt (YMB), the SinoProbe program deployed a quasi-linear passive source seismic array across the belt. We performed receiver function profiling and measurement of shear-wave splitting parameters with the collected data. Our results show that the Moho depth varies significantly along the profile and that a “mantle uplift” exists right beneath the YMB. We also found that the lower crust of the YMB is different from that of its adjacent areas in structure on the receiver function profile. It possesses seismic anisotropy with direction roughly parallel to the belt. Our SKS/SKKS shear-wave splitting results also show similar belt-parallel azimuthal anisotropy right beneath the YMB. We interpret the seismic anisotropy in the lower crust of the YMB as the result of mineral crystal alignment caused by melting and belt-parallel flow in the Mesozoic ore-forming process. Besides, we observed a nearly south-dipping converter extending from shallow to lower crust beneath the Hefei Basin, which most possibly resulted from the Mesozoic crustal extension. We interpret the “mantle uplift” and the crustal extensional structures to be consequences of asthenospheric upwelling during the Mesozoic ore-forming process. Our results suggest that the lower crust of the YMB was most likely one part of the multi-level metallogenic magma system in the Mesozoic magmatism and mineralization processes, and the formation of the metallogenic belt to be a result much similar to the MASH (Melting, Assimilation, Storage and Homogenization; cf. Hildreth and Moorbath, 1988; Richards, 2003) process. First, the asthenospheric upwelling resulted in a crustal extensional environment; then the melts from the upwelling asthenosphere intruded into the lower crust of the YMB, and assimilation occurred when they mixed with in situ lower crustal materials, which led to the formation of adakitic

  13. 30 CFR 75.1727 - Drive belts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drive belts. 75.1727 Section 75.1727 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1727 Drive belts. (a) Drive belts shall not be shifted while in motion unless the machines are provided with mechanical shifters. (b) Belt dressing shall...

  14. Tellurides, selenides and Bi-mineral assemblages from the Río Narcea Gold Belt, Asturias, Spain: genetic implications in Cu-Au and Au skarns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepedal, A.; Fuertes-Fuente, M.; Martín-Izard, A.; González-Nistal, S.; Rodríguez-Pevida, L.

    2006-07-01

    Gold ores in skarns from the Río Narcea Gold Belt are associated with Bi-Te(-Se)-bearing minerals. These mineral assemblages have been used to compare two different skarns from this belt, a Cu-Au skarn (calcic and magnesian) from the El Valle deposit, and a Au-reduced calcic skarn from the Ortosa deposit. In the former, gold mineralization occurs associated with Cu-(Fe)-sulfides (chalcopyrite, bornite, chalcocite-digenite), commonly in the presence of magnetite. Gold occurs mainly as native gold and electrum. Au-tellurides (petzite, sylvanite, calaverite) are locally present; other tellurides are hessite, clausthalite and coloradoite. The Bi-bearing minerals related to gold are Bi-sulfosalts (wittichenite, emplectite, aikinite, bismuthinite), native bismuth, and Bi-tellurides and selenides (tetradymite, kawazulite, tsumoite). The speciation of Bi-tellurides with Bi/Te(Se + S) ≤ 1, the presence of magnetite and the abundance of precious metal tellurides and clausthalite indicate fO2 conditions within the magnetite stability field that locally overlap the magnetite-hematite buffer. In Ortosa deposit, gold essentially occurs as native gold and maldonite and is commonly related to pyrrhotite and to the replacement of löllingite by arsenopyrite, indicating lower fO2 conditions for gold mineralization than those for El Valle deposit. This fact is confirmed by the speciation of Bi-tellurides and selenides (hedleyite, joséite-B, joséite-A, ikunolite-laitakarite) with Bi/Te(+ Se + S) ≥ 1.

  15. 30 CFR 75.1731 - Maintenance of belt conveyors and belt conveyor entries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maintenance of belt conveyors and belt conveyor....1731 Maintenance of belt conveyors and belt conveyor entries. (a) Damaged rollers, or other damaged belt conveyor components, which pose a fire hazard must be immediately repaired or replaced. All other...

  16. Integration of Absorption Feature Information from Visible to Longwave Infrared Spectral Ranges for Mineral Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Kopačková

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Merging hyperspectral data from optical and thermal ranges allows a wider variety of minerals to be mapped and thus allows lithology to be mapped in a more complex way. In contrast, in most of the studies that have taken advantage of the data from the visible (VIS, near-infrared (NIR, shortwave infrared (SWIR and longwave infrared (LWIR spectral ranges, these different spectral ranges were analysed and interpreted separately. This limits the complexity of the final interpretation. In this study a presentation is made of how multiple absorption features, which are directly linked to the mineral composition and are present throughout the VIS, NIR, SWIR and LWIR ranges, can be automatically derived and, moreover, how these new datasets can be successfully used for mineral/lithology mapping. The biggest advantage of this approach is that it overcomes the issue of prior definition of endmembers, which is a requested routine employed in all widely used spectral mapping techniques. In this study, two different airborne image datasets were analysed, HyMap (VIS/NIR/SWIR image data and Airborne Hyperspectral Scanner (AHS, LWIR image data. Both datasets were acquired over the Sokolov lignite open-cast mines in the Czech Republic. It is further demonstrated that even in this case, when the absorption feature information derived from multispectral LWIR data is integrated with the absorption feature information derived from hyperspectral VIS/NIR/SWIR data, an important improvement in terms of more complex mineral mapping is achieved.

  17. Re-Os systematics and geochemistry of cobaltite (CoAsS) in the Idaho cobalt belt, Belt-Purcell Basin, USA: Evidence for middle Mesoproterozoic sediment-hosted Co-Cu sulfide mineralization with Grenvillian and Cretaceous remobilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saintilan, N.J.; Creaser, R.A.; Bookstrom, Arthur A.

    2017-01-01

    We report the first study of the Re-Os systematics of cobaltite (CoAsS) using disseminated grains and massive sulfides from samples of two breccia-type and two stratabound deposits in the Co-Cu-Au Idaho cobalt belt (ICB), Lemhi subbasin to the Belt-Purcell Basin, Idaho, USA. Using a 185Re + 190Os spike solution, magnetic and non-magnetic fractions of cobaltite mineral separates give reproducible Re-Os analytical data for aliquot sizes of 150 to 200 mg. Cobaltite from the ICB has highly radiogenic 187Os/188Os ratios (17–45) and high 187Re/188Os ratios (600–1800) but low Re and total Os contents (ca. 0.4–4 ppb and 14–64 ppt, respectively). Containing 30 to 74% radiogenic 187Os, cobaltite from the ICB is amenable to Re-Os age determination using the isochron regression approach.Re-Os data for disseminated cobaltite mineralization in a quartz-tourmaline breccia from the Haynes-Stellite deposit yield a Model 1 isochron age of 1349 ± 76 Ma (2σ, n = 4, mean squared weighted deviation MSWD = 2.1, initial 187Os/188Os ratio = 4.7 ± 2.2). This middle Mesoproterozoic age is preserved despite a possible metamorphic overprint or a pulse of metamorphic-hydrothermal remobilization of pre-existing cobaltite that formed along fold cleavages during the ca. 1190–1006 Ma Grenvillian orogeny. This phase of remobilization is tentatively identified by a Model 3 isochron age of 1132 ± 240 Ma (2σ, n = 7, MSWD = 9.3, initial 187Os/188Os ratio of 9.0 ± 2.9) for cobaltite in the quartz-tourmaline breccia from the Idaho zone in the Blackbird mine.All Mesoproterozoic cobaltite mineralization in the district was affected by greenschist- to lower amphibolite-facies (garnet zone) metamorphism during the Late Jurassic to Late Cretaceous Cordilleran orogeny. However, the fine- to coarse-grained massive cobaltite mineralization from the shear zone-hosted Chicago zone, Blackbird mine, is the only studied deposit that has severely disturbed Re

  18. Deforestation induces shallow landsliding in the montane and subalpine belts of the Urbión Mountains, Iberian Range, Northern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ruiz, José M.; Beguería, Santiago; Arnáez, José; Sanjuán, Yasmina; Lana-Renault, Noemí; Gómez-Villar, Amelia; Álvarez-Martínez, Javier; Coba-Pérez, Paz

    2017-11-01

    In this study the spatial distribution of shallow landslides in the upper montane and subalpine belts of the Urbión Mountains (Iberian Range, northern Spain) was investigated, particularly in relation to the spatial organization of deforestation and land cover. The upper montane and subalpine belts have been deforested several times since the Neolithic Period, to enlarge the area of summer grasslands for feeding transhumant sheep flocks. Consequently, the timberline was lowered by 400-600 m, and increased the occurrence of severe erosion processes, particularly shallow landslides. This study shows that most of the landslide scars are in the summer grasslands area, and that a remarkable extent of the subalpine belt area has been subjected to mass movements. In addition to land use, the soil characteristics and topography help explain the development of conditions most favorable to landsliding. Shallow landslide susceptibility was highest in the upper parts of the slopes near the divides, in areas having slope gradients of 10-30° and deep soils with an increasing proportion of clay with depth. The landslides were clustered and not randomly distributed, and the causes of this spatial distribution are discussed. The current trend of woody encroachment in the upper montane and subalpine belts, resulting from decreasing livestock pressure, will probably reduce the susceptibility of these areas to shallow landslides in the future.

  19. 30 CFR 77.1107 - Belt conveyors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Belt conveyors. 77.1107 Section 77.1107 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY... § 77.1107 Belt conveyors. Belt conveyors in locations where fire would create a hazard to personnel...

  20. Molybdenite Re/Os dating, zircon U-Pb age and geochemistry of granitoids in the Yangchuling porphyry W-Mo deposit (Jiangnan tungsten ore belt), China: Implications for petrogenesis, mineralization and geodynamic setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Jingwen; Xiong, Bikang; Liu, Jun; Pirajno, Franco; Cheng, Yanbo; Ye, Huishou; Song, Shiwei; Dai, Pan

    2017-08-01

    The Yangchuling W-Mo deposit, located in the Jiangnan porphyry-skarn (JNB) tungsten ore belt, is the first recognized typical porphyry W-Mo deposit in China in the 1980's. Stockworks and disseminated W-Mo mineralization occur in the roof pendant of a 0.3 km2 monzogranitic porphyry stock that intruded into a granodiorite stock, hosted by Neoproterozoic phyllite and slate. LA-ICPMS zircon U-Pb analyses suggest that of the monzogranitic porphyry and granodiorite were formed at 143.8 ± 0.5 Ma and 149.8 ± 0.6 Ma, respectively. Six molybdenite samples yielded a Re-Os weighted mean age of 146.4 ± 1.0 Ma. Geochemical data show that both granodiorite and monzogranitic porphyry are characterized by enrichment of large ion lithophile elements (LILE) relative to high field strength elements (HFSE), indicating a peraluminous nature (A/CNK = 1.01-1.08). Two granitoids are characterized by a negative slope with significant light REE/heavy REE fractionation [(La/Yb)N = 8.38-23.20] and negative Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu* = 0.69-0.76). The P2O5 contents of the Yangchuling granitoids range from 0.12% to 0.17% and exhibit a negative correlation with SiO2, reflecting that they are highly fractionated I-type. They have high initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.7104-0.7116), low negative εNd(t) (- 5.05 to - 5.67), and homogeneous εHf(t) between - 1.39 and - 2.17, indicating similar sources. Additionally, two-stage Nd model ages (TDM2) of 1.3-1.4 Ga and two-stage Hf model ages (TDM2) of 1.2-1.3 Ga are consistent, indicating that Neoproterozoic crustal rocks of the Shuangqiaoshan Group could have contributed to form the Yangchuling magmas. Considering the two groups of parallel Late Mesozoic ore belts, namely the Jiangnan porphyry-skarn tungsten belt (JNB) in the south and the Middle-Lower Yangtze River porphyry-skarn Cu-Au-Mo-Fe ore belt (YRB) in the north, the Nanling granite-related W-Sn ore belt (NLB) in the south, the neighboring Qin-Hang porphyry-skarn Cu-Mo-hydrothermal Pb-Zn-Ag ore belt (QHB

  1. Site exploration for rock-mechanics field tests in the Grouse Canyon Member, Belted Range Tuff, U12g Tunnel Complex, Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langkopf, B.S.; Eshom, E.

    1982-02-01

    This report describes site exploration work completed in support of planned rock-mechanics field tests in the Grouse Canyon Member of the Belted Range Ruff at Nevada Test Site`s, G-Tunnel. As part of this work, the Rock Mechanics Drift (RMD) and the Rock Mass Property Alcove (RMPA) were mined and three coreholes drilled. The results of mapping and corehole logging are displayed, described, and analyzed.

  2. A Fold Province in the Hinterland of the Sevier Orogenic Belt in Eastern Nevada: A Valley and Ridge in the Basin and Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, S. P.

    2014-12-01

    The overprinting effects of Cenozoic extensional tectonism hinder analysis of the style, geometry, and timing of Cordilleran contractional deformation in the hinterland of the Sevier fold-thrust belt in Nevada. To address this problem, a 1:250,000-scale paleogeologic map of eastern Nevada, showing spatial distributions of Paleozoic-Mesozoic rocks exposed beneath a Paleogene unconformity, divided out at the formation scale, is integrated with maps of dip magnitude for Paleozoic-Mesozoic and Tertiary rocks, published sedimentary thickness records, and a published reconstruction of Basin and Range extension, in order to define and regionally-correlate thrust faults and folds, and estimate the pre-extensional amplitude, wavelength, and limb dips of folds. A new structural province, the Eastern Nevada fold belt (ENFB) is defined, and consists of a 100-150 km-wide region containing as many as five 1st-order, N-trending folds that can be traced for map distances between 100-250 km, have amplitudes between 2-4 km, wavelengths between 20-40 km, pre-extensional limb dips typically between 10-30˚, and deform rocks as young as Jurassic and Early Cretaceous. No regional-scale thrust faults or decollemont horizons breach modern exposure levels in the ENFB. ENFB folds are interpreted to have formed above a deep (≥10 km below the Paleogene unconformity), blind decollemont or shear zone, perhaps the westward projection of the master decollemont of the Sevier fold-thrust belt. Two additional structural provinces of the Sevier hinterland, the Central Nevada thrust belt (CNTB) and Western Utah thrust belt (WUTB), represent zones of N-striking, E-vergent thrust faults and folds that each accommodated ca. 10 km of shortening. Both thrust belts branch northward off of the Sevier thrust belt, and are interpreted to represent contemporary, interior components of the Sevier thrust system. The CNTB, WUTB, and the intervening ENFB collectively record low-magnitude (a few 10's of km) upper

  3. Effects of a long-acting, trace mineral, reticulorumen bolus on range cow productivity and trace mineral profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprinkle, J E; Cuneo, S P; Frederick, H M; Enns, R M; Schafer, D W; Carstens, G E; Daugherty, S B; Noon, T H; Rickert, B M; Reggiardo, C

    2006-06-01

    The objectives were to determine if strategic supplementation of range cows with a long-acting (6 mo), trace mineral, reticulorumen bolus containing Cu, Se, and Co would: (1) increase cow BCS and BW, and calf birth, weaning, and postweaning weights, or weight per day of age (WDA); (2) increase liver concentrations of Cu or Zn in cows, or blood Se, Cu, or Zn concentrations in cows and calves; and (3) vary by cow breed for any of these response variables. There were 192 control and 144 bolused Composite cows (C; 25% Hereford, Angus, Gelbevieh, and Senepol or Barzona); 236 control and 158 bolused Hereford (H) cows; and 208 control and 149 bolused Brahman cross (B) cows used in a 3-yr experiment. Cows were weighed and scored for body condition in January, May, and September, and all bolused cows received boluses in January. Each year, from among the 3 breed groups a subset of 15 control and 15 bolused cows (n = 90) had samples obtained in January and May for liver Cu and Zn, blood Se, and serum Cu and Zn. As for cows, blood and serum from the calves of these cows were sampled each year in May and September for Cu, Se, and Zn. There was a significant breed x year x treatment interaction (P = 0.001) for cow weight loss from January to May. Calf WDA, weaning, and postweaning weights did not differ (P > 0.40) between bolused and control cows, but there was a significant (P = 0.022) breed x year x treatment interaction for birth weight. Liver Cu was deficient ( 0.50) in blood Se between treatment groups in January, but bolused cows had greater (P < 0.01) blood Se in May. Breed differences for blood Se concentrations existed for bolused cows, with B having greater (P < 0.05) blood Se than either C or H cows. Breed differences also existed for control cows, with H having less blood Se (P < 0.04) than B or C cows. Calves from bolused cows had greater blood Se than calves from control cows (P = 0.01). Supplementation via a long-acting trace mineral bolus was successful in

  4. Origin and nature of the aluminium phosphate-sulfate minerals (APS) associated with uranium mineralization in triassic red-beds (Iberian Range, Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marfil, R.; Iglesia, A. la; Estupinan, J.

    2013-10-01

    This study focuses on the mineralogical and chemical study of an Aluminium-phosphate-sulphate (APS) mineralization that occurs in a classic sequence from the Triassic (Buntsandstein) of the Iberian Range. The deposit is constituted by sandstones, mud stones, and conglomerates with arenaceous matrix, which were deposited in fluvial to shallow-marine environments. In addition to APS minerals, the following diagenetic minerals are present in the classic sequence: quartz, K-feldspar, kaolinite group minerals, illite, Fe-oxides-hydroxides, carbonate-sulphate cement-replacements and secondary uraniferous minerals. APS minerals were identified and characterized by optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and electron microprobe. Microcrystalline APS crystals occur replacing uraniferous minerals, associated with kaolinite, mica and filling pores, in distal fluvial-to-tidal arkoses-subarkoses. Given their Ca, Sr, and Ba contents, the APS minerals can be defined as a solid solution of crandallite- goyacite-gorceixite (0.53 Ca, 0.46 Sr and 0.01 Ba). The chemical composition, low LREE concentration and Sr > S suggest that the APS mineral were originated during the supergene alteration of the Buntsandstein sandstones due to the presence of the mineralizing fluids which causes the development of Ubearing sandstones in a distal alteration area precipitating from partially dissolved and altered detrital minerals. Besides, the occurrence of dickite associated with APS minerals indicates they were precipitated at diagenetic temperatures (higher than 80 degree centigrade), related to the uplifting occurred during the late Cretaceous post-rift thermal stage.(Author)

  5. Ore-microscopic and geochemical characteristics of gold-tellurides-sulfide mineralization in the Macassa Gold Mine, Abitibi Belt, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesfaye, G.

    1992-01-01

    The Macassa Gold Mine is the only operational mine (Lac-Minerals Ltd., Macassa Division) of seven original gold producers in the Kirkland Lake camp of northern Ontario, Canada. The gold deposit is in Archaean volcanic and sedimentary rocks which have been intruded by a composite syenite stock. The mineralization has taken place in two stages. The first stage is not gold bearing but involves pyritization and concomitant development of titanium phase minerals (leucoxene, rutile) and hematite. It is mainly associated with carbonatization, silicification and hematitization marked by Ba, Sr and Rb enrichment. In contrast to this, the quartz vein-type mineralization is associated mainly with later silicification and enrichment with tellurium, lead, silver, gold and copper. It is relatively depleted in Sr, Ba and Rb. The ore mineralogical assemblages in the second stage include pyrite, chalcopyrite, petzite, altaite and native gold. Geochemical and petrographic evidence indicate that the reddened wall rocks (hematitized) and reddened fragments are neither related with nor contain any gold. Therefore, hematitization and the presence of barium, in this case in K-feldspars, could not be considered as the sole evidence to suggest a magmatic oxidizing fluid model for the genesis of Macassa gold deposit. Regarding the metals transport, tellurides and thiocomplexes are considered as the important carriers of gold and silver. Hence, fugacity of tellurium and sulphur controlled the precipitation of gold in the Macassa gold deposit.

  6. Structural control on gold mineralization in the Satulinmäki and Riukka prospects, Häme Schist Belt, southern Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin Saalmann

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The Satulinmäki and Riukka prospects located in the Häme Schist Belt in southern Finland are dominated by mafic and intermediate to felsic metavolcanic rocks of the Forssa Group formed in a continental arc setting. This magmatic belt formed some 1890–1880 Ma ago and has been deformed during the Svecofennian orogeny. The dominant penetrative foliation is represented by Sn+1, which is axial planar to cm- to dm-scale iscolinal Fn+1 folds and thus parallel to the layering Sn. Associated ductile shearing might reflect early thrusting. Dn+2 post-dating peak metamorphism is characterized by small-scale to regional-scale refolding of Fn+1 folds around ~SW-NE fold axes. This phase is transitional to development of SW-NE to WSW-ENE and NW-SE striking shear zones and faults formed due to dextral transpressionduring Dn+3 at retrograde conditions crossing the brittle-ductile transition. Many mineralized quartz veins have formed during this event. Later faults and quartz veins and reactivation of pre-existing structures during Dn+4 indicate rotation of the stress field to ~NESWoriented compression. A clear ~SW-NE trend of sulphide mineralization and elevated gold contents and the spatial association to Dn+3 quartz veins, shear zones and faults suggest a strong structural control, typical of orogenic gold deposits, and that mineralization took place during Dn+3. The controlling structures, (i WSW-ENE to SW-NE shear zones and faults and (ii NW-SE oriented fault, are second and third order structures to major regional-scale shear zones. The fault zones and their intersection points impart a directional permeability so that the mineralising fluids were channelled along dilatant zones. Approximately (WNW-(ESE trending faults being (reactivated as extensional faults or dilatant shear planes during Dn+3 transpression with WNW-ESE to NW-SE oriented compression direction could have acted as conduits for fluids during upward flow from deeper crustal level. Future

  7. GOLD MINERAL PROSPECTING USING PHASED ARRAY TYPE L-BAND SYNTHETIC APERTURE RADAR (PALSAR SATELLITE REMOTE SENSING DATA, CENTRAL GOLD BELT, MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Beiranvand Pour

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Bentong-Raub Suture Zone (BRSZ of Peninsular Malaysia is one of the significant structural zones in Sundaland, Southeast Asia. It forms the boundary between the Gondwana-derived Sibumasu terrane in the west and Sukhothai arc in the east. The BRSZ is also genetically related to the sediment-hosted/orogenic gold deposits associated with the major lineaments and form-lines in the central gold belt Central Gold Belt of Peninsular Malaysia. In tropical environments, heavy tropical rainforest and intense weathering makes it impossible to map geological structures over long distances. Advances in remote sensing technology allow the application of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR data in geological structural analysis for tropical environments. In this investigation, the Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR satellite remote sensing data were used to analyse major geological structures in Peninsular Malaysia and provide detailed characterization of lineaments and form-lines in the BRSZ, as well as its implication for sediment-hosted/orogenic gold exploration in tropical environments. The major geological structure directions of the BRSZ are N-S, NNE-SSW, NE-SW and NW-SE, which derived from directional filtering analysis to PALSAR data. The pervasive array of N-S faults in the study area and surrounding terrain is mainly linked to the N-S trending of the Suture Zone. N-S striking lineaments are often cut by younger NE-SW and NW-SE-trending lineaments. Gold mineralized trends lineaments are associated with the intersection of N-S, NE-SW, NNW-SSE and ESE-WNW faults and curvilinear features in shearing and alteration zones. Lineament analysis on PALSAR satellite remote sensing data is a useful tool for detecting the boundary between the Gondwana-derived terranes and major geological features associated with suture zone especially for large inaccessible regions in tropical environments.

  8. Gold Mineral Prospecting Using Phased Array Type L-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (palsar) Satellite Remote Sensing Data, Central Gold Belt, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiranvand Pour, Amin; Hashim, Mazlan

    2016-06-01

    The Bentong-Raub Suture Zone (BRSZ) of Peninsular Malaysia is one of the significant structural zones in Sundaland, Southeast Asia. It forms the boundary between the Gondwana-derived Sibumasu terrane in the west and Sukhothai arc in the east. The BRSZ is also genetically related to the sediment-hosted/orogenic gold deposits associated with the major lineaments and form-lines in the central gold belt Central Gold Belt of Peninsular Malaysia. In tropical environments, heavy tropical rainforest and intense weathering makes it impossible to map geological structures over long distances. Advances in remote sensing technology allow the application of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data in geological structural analysis for tropical environments. In this investigation, the Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) satellite remote sensing data were used to analyse major geological structures in Peninsular Malaysia and provide detailed characterization of lineaments and form-lines in the BRSZ, as well as its implication for sediment-hosted/orogenic gold exploration in tropical environments. The major geological structure directions of the BRSZ are N-S, NNE-SSW, NE-SW and NW-SE, which derived from directional filtering analysis to PALSAR data. The pervasive array of N-S faults in the study area and surrounding terrain is mainly linked to the N-S trending of the Suture Zone. N-S striking lineaments are often cut by younger NE-SW and NW-SE-trending lineaments. Gold mineralized trends lineaments are associated with the intersection of N-S, NE-SW, NNW-SSE and ESE-WNW faults and curvilinear features in shearing and alteration zones. Lineament analysis on PALSAR satellite remote sensing data is a useful tool for detecting the boundary between the Gondwana-derived terranes and major geological features associated with suture zone especially for large inaccessible regions in tropical environments.

  9. Evaluation of the static belt fit provided by belt-positioning booster seats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Matthew P; Ebert, Sheila M; Sherwood, Christopher P; Klinich, Kathleen D; Manary, Miriam A

    2009-05-01

    Belt-positioning booster seats are recommended for children who use vehicle seat belts as primary restraints but who are too small to obtain good belt fit. Previous research has shown that belt-positioning boosters reduce injury risk, but the belt fit produced by the wide range of boosters in the US market has not previously been assessed. The present study describes the development of a method for quantifying static belt fit with a Hybrid-III 6-year-old test dummy. The measurement method was applied in a laboratory seat mockup to 31 boosters (10 in both backless and highback modes) across a range of belt geometries obtained from in-vehicle measurements. Belt fit varied widely across boosters. Backless boosters generally produced better lap belt fit than highback boosters, largely because adding the back component moved the dummy forward with respect to the lap belt routing guides. However, highback boosters produced more consistent shoulder belt fit because of the presence of belt routing guides near the shoulder. Some boosters performed well on both lap belt and shoulder belt fit. Lap belt fit in dedicated boosters was generally better than in combination restraints that also can be used with an integrated harness. Results demonstrate that certain booster design features produce better belt fit across a wide range of belt geometries. Lap belt guides that hold the belt down, rather than up, and shoulder belt guides integrated into the booster backrest provided better belt fit.

  10. Short Range-Ordered Minerals: Insight into Aqueous Alteration Processes on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.; Golden, D. C.

    2011-12-01

    Short range-ordered (SRO) aluminosilicates (e.g., allophane) and nanophase ferric oxides (npOx) are common SRO minerals derived during aqueous alteration of basaltic materials. NpOx refers to poorly crystalline or amorphous alteration products that can be any combination of superparamagnetic hematite and/or goethite, akaganeite, schwertmannite, ferrihydrite, iddingsite, and nanometer-sized ferric oxide particles that pigment palagonitic tephra. Nearly 30 years ago, SRO phases were suggested as alteration phases on Mars based on similar spectral properties for altered basaltic tephra on the slopes of Mauna Kea in Hawaii and Martian bright regions measured by Earth-based telescopes. Detailed characterization of altered basaltic tephra on Mauna Kea have identified a variety of alteration phases including allophane, npOx, hisingerite, jarosite, alunite, hematite, goethite, ferrihydrite, halloysite, kaolinite, smectite, and zeolites. The presence of npOx and other Fe-bearing minerals (jarosite, hematite, goethite) was confirmed by the Mössbauer Spectrometer onboard the Mars Exploration Rovers. Although the presence of allophane has not been definitely identified on Mars robotic missions, chemical analysis by the Spirit and Opportunity rovers and thermal infrared spectral orbital measurements suggest the presence of allophane or allophane-like phases on Mars. SRO phases form under a variety of environmental conditions on Earth ranging from cold and arid to warm and humid, including hydrothermal conditions. The formation of SRO aluminosilicates such as allophane (and crystalline halloysite) from basaltic material is controlled by several key factors including activity of water, extent of leaching, Si activity in solution, and available Al. Generally, a low leaching index (e.g., wet-dry cycles) and slightly acidic to alkaline conditions are necessary. NpOx generally form under aqueous oxidative weathering conditions, although thermal oxidative alteration may occasional be

  11. Short Range-Ordered Minerals: Insight into Aqueous Alteration Processes on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Douglas W.; Morris, R. V.; Golden, D. C.

    2011-01-01

    Short range-ordered (SRO) aluminosilicates (e.g., allophane) and nanophase ferric oxides (npOx) are common SRO minerals derived during aqueous alteration of basaltic materials. NpOx refers to poorly crystalline or amorphous alteration products that can be any combination of superparamagnetic hematite and/or goethite, akaganeite, schwertmannite, ferrihydrite, iddingsite, and nanometer-sized ferric oxide particles that pigment palagonitic tephra. Nearly 30 years ago, SRO phases were suggested as alteration phases on Mars based on similar spectral properties for altered basaltic tephra on the slopes of Mauna Kea in Hawaii and Martian bright regions measured by Earth-based telescopes. Detailed characterization of altered basaltic tephra on Mauna Kea have identified a variety of alteration phases including allophane, npOx, hisingerite, jarosite, alunite, hematite, goethite, ferrihydrite, halloysite, kaolinite, smectite, and zeolites. The presence of npOx and other Fe-bearing minerals (jarosite, hematite, goethite) was confirmed by the M ssbauer Spectrometer onboard the Mars Exploration Rovers. Although the presence of allophane has not been definitely identified on Mars robotic missions, chemical analysis by the Spirit and Opportunity rovers and thermal infrared spectral orbital measurements suggest the presence of allophane or allophane-like phases on Mars. SRO phases form under a variety of environmental conditions on Earth ranging from cold and arid to warm and humid, including hydrothermal conditions. The formation of SRO aluminosilicates such as allophane (and crystalline halloysite) from basaltic material is controlled by several key factors including activity of water, extent of leaching, Si activity in solution, and available Al. Generally, a low leaching index (e.g., wet-dry cycles) and slightly acidic to alkaline conditions are necessary. NpOx generally form under aqueous oxidative weathering conditions, although thermal oxidative alteration may occasional be

  12. Petrogenesis of the granitic Donkerhuk batholith in the Damara Belt of Namibia: protracted, syntectonic, short-range, crustal magma transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, J. D.; Buick, I. S.; Kisters, A. F. M.; Frei, D.

    2017-07-01

    The areally extensive (>5000 km2), syn-tectonic, ca. 520 Ma, mainly S-type Donkerhuk batholith was constructed through injection of thousands of mainly sheet-like magma pulses over 20-25 Myr. It intruded schists of the Southern Zone accretionary prism in the Damara Belt of Namibia. Each magma pulse had at least partly crystallised prior to the arrival of the following batch. However, much of the batholith may have remained partially molten for long periods, close to the H2O-saturated granite solidus. The batholith shows extreme variation in chemistry, while having limited mineralogical variation, and seems to be the world's most heterogeneous granitic mass. The Nd model ages of 2 Ga suggest that Eburnean rocks of the former magmatic arc, structurally overlain by the accretionary wedge, are the most probable magma sources. Crustal melting was initiated by mantle heat flux, probably introduced by thermal diffusion rather than magma advection. The granitic magmas were transferred from source to sink, with minimal intermediate storage; the whole process having occurred in the middle crust, resulting in feeble crustal differentiation despite the huge volume of silicic magma generated. Source heterogeneity controlled variation in the magmas and neither mixing nor fractionation was prominent. However, due to the transpressional emplacement régime, local filter pressing formed highly silicic liquids, as well as felsic cumulate rocks. The case of the Donkerhuk batholith demonstrates that emplacement-level tectonics can significantly influence compositional evolution of very large syn-tectonic magma bodies.

  13. Stable isotope (C, O, H), major- and trace element studies on hydrothermal alteration and related ore mineralization in the volcano-sedimentary belt of Bergslagen, Sweden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, P.A.

    1993-01-01

    The 1.90 - 1.86 Ga volcano-sedimentary belt of West Bergslagen, central Sweden, is situated in the Svecofennian domain, which forms part of the Baltic Shield. The West Bergslagen belt comprizes more than 10 km of felsic volcanics and over 2 km of volcaniclastic sediments. Carbonate, chert and

  14. Minerals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaquero, M. P.

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available The possible changes in the mineral composition of food during frying could be the consequence of losses by leaching, or changes in concentrations caused by exchanges between the food and culinary fat of other compounds. The net result depends on the type of food, the frying fat used and the frying process. Moreover, the modifications that frying produces in other nutrients could indirectly affect the availability of dietary minerals. The most outstanding ones are those that can take place in the fat or in the protein. With respect to the interactions between frying oils and minerals, we have recent knowledge concerning the effects of consuming vegetable oils used in repeated fryings of potatoes without turnover, on the nutritive utilization of dietary minerals. The experiments have been carried out in pregnant and growing rats, which consumed diets containing, as a sole source of fat, the testing frying oils or unused oils. It seems that the consumption of various frying oils, with a polar compound content lower or close to the maximum limit of 25% accepted for human consumption, does not alter the absorption and metabolism of calcium, phosphorous, iron or copper. Magnesium absorption from diets containing frying oils tends to increase but the urinary excretion of this element increases, resulting imperceptible the variations in the magnesium balance. The urinary excretion of Zn also increased although its balance remained unchanged. Different studies referring to the effects of consuming fried fatty fish on mineral bioavailability will also be presented. On one hand, frying can cause structural changes in fish protein, which are associated with an increase in iron absorption and a decrease in body zinc retention. The nutritive utilization of other elements such as magnesium, calcium and copper seems to be unaffected. On the other hand; it has been described that an excess of fish fatty acids in the diet produces iron depletion, but when fatty

  15. Petrogenesis of the mineralized granitoids from the Kounrad and Borly porphyry Cu deposits and the East Kounrad porphyry Mo deposit in Kazakhstan: Implication for tectonic evolution and mineralization of the western part of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ping; Pan, Hongdi; Seitmuratova, Eleonora

    2017-08-01

    The Kounrad region, located in the western part of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt, hosts the Kounrad porphyry Cu, the Borly porphyry Cu-Mo, and the East Kounrad porphyry Mo deposits. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) zircon U-Pb dating indicates that the mineralized granitoids from the Kounrad, the Borly and the East Kounrad deposits emplaced at 331.7 ± 2.2 Ma, 311.6 ± 2.6 Ma, and 295.4 ± 2.9 Ma, respectively. The mineralized granodiorite porphyries at Kounrad show a geochemical affinity to adakitic rocks with high Sr (357-670 ppm), Sr/Y (40-68) and Mg numbers (Mg# = molar Mg/(Mg + Fe2 +)) from 0.43 to 0.51, low Yb (0.97-1.1 ppm) and Y (8.3-11.1 ppm). They have variable Sr-Nd-Hf-O isotopic compositions ((87Sr/86Sr)i = 0.7046 to 0.7051, εNd(t) = - 0.1 to + 1.1, εHf(t) = + 5.2 to + 9.0, δ18O = + 5.7 to + 6.8). These features indicate that the Kounrad adakitic magmas derived from the MASH (melting, assimilation, storage, homogenization) zone at depth of 40 km with 5-15% ancient basement rocks contamination. The mineralized granodiorite porphyries at Borly have a normal arc magma geochemical signature (e.g., enrichment of light rare earth elements (LREE) and depletion of heavy REE, Nb and Ti) and experienced fractional crystallization. They also have variable Sr-Nd-Hf-O isotopic compositions ((87Sr/86Sr)i = 0.7047 to 0.7053, εNd(t) = 0 to - 1.3, εHf(t) = - 0.6 to + 7.4, δ18O = + 5.5 to + 6.7) and Mg# (0.45 to 0.51), indicating that they were generated by melting of juvenile basaltic lower crust with normal thickness, followed by 10-30% ancient crustal contamination. The East Kounrad mineralized intrusions, consisting of granite and leucogranite, have experienced advanced degrees of fractional crystallization and have similar Sr-Nd-Hf-O isotopic compositions ((87Sr/86Sr)i = 0.7048, ɛNd (t) = + 1.0 to + 2.8, εHf(t) = + 4.8 to + 8.9, δ18O = + 5.6 to + 6.4) and low Mg# (0.18-0.37), indicating a juvenile lower crust source at depths of < 27 km with 10

  16. Petrology and geochemistry of the Grouse Canyon Member of the Belted Range Tuff, Rock-Mechanics Drift, U12g Tunnel, Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connolly, J.R.; Mansker, W.L.; Hicks, R.; Allen, C.C.; Husler, J.; Keil, K.; Lappin, A.R.

    1983-04-01

    G-Tunnel at Nevada Test Site (NTS) is the site of thermal and thermomechanical experiments examining the feasibility of emplacing heat-producing nuclear wastes in silicic tuffs. This report describes the general stratigraphy, mineralogy, and bulk chemistry of welded portions of the Grouse Canyon Member of the Belted Range Tuff, the unit in which most of these experiments will be performed. The geologic characteristics of the Grouse Canyon Member are compared with those of the Topopah Spring Member of the Paintbrush Tuff, presently the preferred horizon for an actual waste repository at Yucca Mountain, near the southwest boundary of Nevada Test Site. This comparison suggests that test results obtained in welded tuff from G-Tunnel are applicable, with limitations, to evaluation of the Topopah Spring Member at Yucca Mountain.

  17. Cenozoic thrust emplacement of a Devonian batholith, northeastern Brooks Range: Involvement of crystalline rocks in a foreland fold-and-thrust belt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, W.K.; Hanks, C.L. (Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks (USA))

    1990-05-01

    Involvement of crystalline rocks in thrusting near the foreland basin of a fold-and-thrust belt is relatively uncommon. In the northeastern Brooks Range, the Devonian Okpilak batholith was thrust northward and structurally elevated above adjacent foreland basin deposits during Cenozoic fold-and-thrust deformation. The batholith may have acted initially as a regional structural buttress, but a drop in the basal detachment surface to greater depth south of the batholith resulted in northward transport of the batholith. Shortening within the batholith was accommodated by (1) the development of discrete thrust slices bounded by ductile shear zones, (2) simple shear and development of penetrative mesoscopic and microscopic fabrics throughout the batholith, or both. The Mississippian Kayak Shale, a regional detachment horizon at the base of the overlying cover sequence, is depositionally thin or absent adjacent to the batholith. Thus, most of the cover sequence remained structurally coupled to the batholith during thrusting and was shortened by the development of penetrative structures.

  18. 30 CFR 56.14108 - Overhead drive belts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Overhead drive belts. 56.14108 Section 56.14108... Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14108 Overhead drive belts. Overhead drive belts shall be guarded to contain the whipping action of a broken belt if that action could be hazardous to...

  19. 30 CFR 57.14108 - Overhead drive belts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Overhead drive belts. 57.14108 Section 57.14108... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14108 Overhead drive belts. Overhead drive belts shall be guarded to contain the whipping action of a broken belt if that action could be hazardous to...

  20. 30 CFR 56.14131 - Seat belts for haulage trucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Seat belts for haulage trucks. 56.14131 Section... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14131 Seat belts for haulage trucks. (a) Seat belts shall be provided and worn in haulage trucks. (b) Seat belts shall be maintained in functional...

  1. 30 CFR 57.4503 - Conveyor belt slippage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Underground belt conveyors shall be equipped with a detection system capable of automatically stopping the... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conveyor belt slippage. 57.4503 Section 57.4503... Control Installation/construction/maintenance § 57.4503 Conveyor belt slippage. (a) Surface belt conveyors...

  2. 30 CFR 75.1403-5 - Criteria-Belt conveyors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Criteria-Belt conveyors. 75.1403-5 Section 75... Criteria—Belt conveyors. (a) Positive-acting stop controls should be installed along all belt conveyors... can be stopped or started at any location. (b) Belt conveyors used for regularly scheduled mantrips...

  3. 30 CFR 56.15005 - Safety belts and lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety belts and lines. 56.15005 Section 56.15005 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... § 56.15005 Safety belts and lines. Safety belts and lines shall be worn when persons work where there...

  4. 30 CFR 57.15005 - Safety belts and lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety belts and lines. 57.15005 Section 57.15005 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Protection Surface and Underground § 57.15005 Safety belts and lines. Safety belts and lines shall be worn...

  5. 30 CFR 57.15020 - Life jackets and belts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Life jackets and belts. 57.15020 Section 57.15020 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Protection Surface Only § 57.15020 Life jackets and belts. Life jackets or belts shall be worn where there is...

  6. 30 CFR 56.15020 - Life jackets and belts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Life jackets and belts. 56.15020 Section 56.15020 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... § 56.15020 Life jackets and belts. Life jackets or belts shall be worn where there is danger from...

  7. Origin and nature of the aluminium phosphate-sulfate minerals (APS associated with uranium mineralization in triassic red-beds (Iberian Range, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marfil, R.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the mineralogical and chemical study of an Aluminium–phosphate–sulphate (APS mineralization that occurs in a clastic sequence from the Triassic (Buntsandstein of the Iberian Range. The deposit is constituted by sandstones, mudstones, and conglomerates with arenaceous matrix, which were deposited in fluvial to shallow-marine environments. In addition to APS minerals, the following diagenetic minerals are present in the clastic sequence: quartz, K-feldspar, kaolinite group minerals, illite, Fe-oxides-hidroxides, carbonate-sulphate cement-replacements and secondary uraniferous minerals. APS minerals were identified and characterized by optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and electron microprobe. Microcrystalline APS crystals occur replacing uraniferous minerals, associated with kaolinite, mica and filling pores, in distal fluvial-to-tidal arkoses-subarkoses. Given their Ca, Sr, and Ba contents, the APS minerals can be defined as a solid solution of crandallite-goyacite-gorceixite (0.53 Ca, 0.46 Sr and 0.01 Ba. The chemical composition, low LREE concentration and Sr > S suggest that the APS mineral were originated during the supergene alteration of the Buntsandstein sandstones due to the presence of the mineralizing fluids which causes the development of U-bearing sandstones in a distal alteration area precipitating from partially dissolved and altered detrital minerals. Besides, the occurrence of dickite associated with APS minerals indicates they were precipitated at diagenetic temperatures (higher than 80ºC, related to the uplifting occurred during the late Cretaceous post-rift thermal stage.Este trabajo se centra en el estudio de los minerales fosfato-sulfato alumínicos (APS que se producenen una secuencia clástica del Triásico (Buntsandstein de la Cordillera Ibérica. El depósito está constituido por areniscas, lutitas y conglomerados con matriz arenosa, que fueron depositados en

  8. Highly differentiated magmas linked with polymetallic mineralization: A case study from the Cuihongshan granitic intrusions, Lesser Xing'an Range, NE China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Xianghui; Zhang, Zhaochong; Cheng, Zhiguo; Santosh, M.; Jin, Ziliang; Wen, Bingbing; Li, Zixi; Xu, Lijuan

    2018-03-01

    The genetic link between granitoids and polymetallic skarn mineralization has remained equivocal. The Cuihongshan skarn-porphyry W-Mo-Pb-Zn-(Fe-Cu) deposit in the eastern part of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt provides a unique example to address this issue. The major rock types in the mine area are Early Paleozoic intrusions composed of biotite syenogranite and biotite porphyritic granite and Early Mesozoic intrusions represented by porphyritic quartz monzonite, biotite monzogranite, and porphyritic granite. The diagnostic mineralogical and geochemical features indicate that the rocks belong to A2-type granites. The Early Paleozoic suite shows zircon U-Pb ages of 501 Ma, and εHf(t) values of - 4.4 to + 2.7 and + 2.4 to + 7.6, respectively. In combination with their coherent geochemical trends, these rocks are inferred to be products of in-situ differentiation. Although the Mesozoic suite shows crystallization ages of 194-196 Ma, εHf(t) values are in the range of - 2.5 to + 7.5 for the porphyritic quartz monzonite, the - 1.8 to + 4.5 values for the monzogranite and the + 2.3 to + 8.0 range for the porphyritic granite. The porphyritic quartz monzonite displays distinct mineral assemblage and shows significant compositional gap with the other two lithofacies. In contrast, the monzogranite and porphyritic granite have similar geochemical features, and are thus inferred to be co-magmatic. Considering the high SiO2 contents, variable εHf(t) (- 4.4 to + 8.0) and εNd(t) values (- 8.4 to + 0.28) for the two suites, we infer that both episodes of granitoid magmatism resulted from partial melting of crustal materials with a mixed source containing varying proportions of juvenile and Precambrian crustal components. The Early Mesozoic porphyritic granite shows a highly evolved F-rich geochemical affinity, and experienced magma-fluid interaction. Cassiterite from the calcic skarn and the magnesian skarn that coexists with magnetite orebodies shows a mean U-Pb age of 195

  9. Folding by cataclastic flow at shallow crustal levels in the Canyon Range, Sevier orogenic belt, west-central Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismat, Zeshan; Mitra, Gautam

    2001-02-01

    Folds form by ductile deformation typically involving continuous flow. In the elastico-frictional regime, such deformation may be accomplished by cataclastic flow involving collective movement on a population of fractures and zones. The Canyon Range (CR) syncline, part of the CR thrust sheet in west-central Utah, developed in this regime. The CR syncline is composed of thick-bedded quartzite units with a small material contrast between layers, limiting limb rotation by flexural slip alone. Thus, fracture populations developed to accommodate fold tightening by limb rotation and thinning, and the formation of transverse zones across the fold. Several generations of fracture and deformation zone (DZ) networks are recognized from mesoscopic and microscopic evidence, and can be related to stages of folding. The net result of the large number of distributed fractures and deformation zones is a continuous deformation that is homogeneous at the scale of the outcrop. All these lines of evidence suggest that large-scale cataclastic flow accommodated folding by allowing rigid mesoscopic blocks to slide along bounding DZs. Along its length, the CR syncline consists of several segments bounded by transverse zones with different mechanisms accommodating fold tightening in adjacent segments. In one segment, fold tightening progressed by limb rotation, and then out-of-the-core thrusting. In contrast, fold tightening in the adjoining segments occurred by rotation and thinning of one limb and possible hinge migration, with the steeply dipping to overturned limb showing progressive thinning of units on a megascopic scale and progressive increase in the thickness and density of deformation zones at all scales.

  10. Fumarolic minerals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balic Zunic, Tonci; Garavelli, Anna; Jakobsson, Sveinn Peter

    2016-01-01

    The fumarolic mineralogy of the Icelandic active volcanoes, the Tyrrhenian volcanic belt (Italy) and the Aegean active arc (Greece) is investigated, and literature data surveyed in order to define the characteristics of the European fumarolic systems. They show broad diversity of mineral associat......The fumarolic mineralogy of the Icelandic active volcanoes, the Tyrrhenian volcanic belt (Italy) and the Aegean active arc (Greece) is investigated, and literature data surveyed in order to define the characteristics of the European fumarolic systems. They show broad diversity of mineral...

  11. Multivariate Analysis, Mass Balance Techniques, and Statistical Tests as Tools in Igneous Petrology: Application to the Sierra de las Cruces Volcanic Range (Mexican Volcanic Belt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Velasco-Tapia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Magmatic processes have usually been identified and evaluated using qualitative or semiquantitative geochemical or isotopic tools based on a restricted number of variables. However, a more complete and quantitative view could be reached applying multivariate analysis, mass balance techniques, and statistical tests. As an example, in this work a statistical and quantitative scheme is applied to analyze the geochemical features for the Sierra de las Cruces (SC volcanic range (Mexican Volcanic Belt. In this locality, the volcanic activity (3.7 to 0.5 Ma was dominantly dacitic, but the presence of spheroidal andesitic enclaves and/or diverse disequilibrium features in majority of lavas confirms the operation of magma mixing/mingling. New discriminant-function-based multidimensional diagrams were used to discriminate tectonic setting. Statistical tests of discordancy and significance were applied to evaluate the influence of the subducting Cocos plate, which seems to be rather negligible for the SC magmas in relation to several major and trace elements. A cluster analysis following Ward’s linkage rule was carried out to classify the SC volcanic rocks geochemical groups. Finally, two mass-balance schemes were applied for the quantitative evaluation of the proportion of the end-member components (dacitic and andesitic magmas in the comingled lavas (binary mixtures.

  12. Molecular belts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Paul J; Jasti, Ramesh

    2014-01-01

    Rigid hydrocarbon macrocycles with radially-oriented π-systems and continuous conjugation have attracted great interest in recent years. These molecular belts have novel optoelectronic properties and host-guest behavior. Certain belts may also ultimately lead to a rational synthesis of carbon nanotubes. The high strain associated with the nonplanar, conjugated backbones requires the development of new synthetic methods, and clever synthetic design. Herein we describe the synthetic history and properties of these structurally simple but synthetically challenging molecules.

  13. A synthesis of mineralization styles with an integrated genetic model of carbonatite-syenite-hosted REE deposits in the Cenozoic Mianning-Dechang REE metallogenic belt, the eastern Tibetan Plateau, southwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Hou, Zengqian

    2017-04-01

    The Cenozoic Mianning-Dechang (MD) rare earth element (REE) belt in eastern Tibet is an important source of light REE in southwest China. The belt is 270 km long and 15 km wide. The total REE resources are >3 Mt of light rare earth oxides (REO), including 3.17 Mt of REO at Maoniuping (average grade = 2.95 wt.%), 81,556 t at Dalucao (average grade = 5.21 wt.%), 0.1 Mt at Muluozhai (average grade = 3.97 wt.%), and 5764 t of REO at Lizhuang (average grade = 2.38 wt.%). Recent results from detailed geological surveys, and studies of petrographic features, ore-forming ages, ore forming conditions, and wallrock alteration are synthesized in this paper. REE mineralization within this belt is associated with carbonatite-syenite complexes, with syenites occurring as stocks intruded by carbonatitic sills or dikes. The mineralization is present as complex vein systems that contain veinlet, stringer, stockwork, and brecciated pipe type mineralization. Carbonatites in these carbonatite-related REE deposits (CARDs) are extremely rich in light REEs, Sr (>5000 ppm), and Ba (>1000 ppm), and have low Sr/Ba and high Ba/Th ratios, and radiogenic Sr-Nd isotopic compositions. These fertile magmas, which may lead to the formation of REE deposits, were generated by the partial melting of sub-continental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) that was metasomatized by REE- and CO2-rich fluids derived from subducted marine sediments. We suggest that this refertilization occurred along cratonic margins and, in particular, at a convergent margin where small-volume carbonatitic melts ascended along trans-lithospheric faults and transported REEs into the overlying crust, leading to the formation of the CARDs. The formation of fertile carbonatites requires a thick lithosphere and/or high pressures (>25 kbar), a metasomatized and enriched mantle source, and favorable pathways for magma to ascend into the overlying crust where REE-rich fluids exsolve from cooling magma. The optimal combination of these three

  14. A Parametric Energy Model for Energy Management of Long Belt Conveyors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tebello Mathaba

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available As electricity prices continue to rise, the increasing need for energy management requires better understanding of models for energy-consuming applications, such as conveyor belts. Conveyor belts are used in a wide range of industries, including power generation, mining and mineral processing. Conveyor technological advances are leading to increasingly long conveyor belts being commissioned. Thus, the energy consumption of each individual belt conveyor unit is becoming increasingly significant. This paper proposes a generic energy model for belt conveyors with long troughed belts. The model has a two-parameter power equation, and it uses a partial differential equation to capture the variable amount of material mass per unit length throughout the belt length. Verification results show that the power consumption calculations of the newly proposed simpler model are consistent with those of a known non-linear model with an error of less than 4%. The online parameter identification set-up of the model is proposed. Simulations indicate that the parameters can be identified successfully from data with up to 15% measurement noise. Results show that the proposed model gives better predictions of the power consumed and material delivered by a long conveyor belt than the steady-state models in the current literature.

  15. Structural observations and U-Pb mineral ages from igneous rocks at the Archaean-Palaeoproterozoic boundary in the Salahmi Schist Belt, central Finland: constraints on tectonic evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietikäinen, K.

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The study area in Vieremä, central Finland, contains part of Archaean-Palaeoproterozoic boundary. In the east, the area comprises Archaean gneiss and the Salahmi Schist Belt. The rocks of the schist belt are turbiditic metagreywackes, with well-preserved depositional structures, occurring as Proterozoic wedge-shaped blocks, and staurolite schists, the latter representing higher-strained and metamorphosed equivalents of the metagreywackes. In the west of the area there is an Archaean gneiss block, containing strongly elongated structures, and deformed Svecofennian supracrustal rocks, which are cut by deformed granitoids. These are juxtaposed with the schist belt. The boundaries of these tectonometamorphic blocks are narrow, highly strained mylonites and thrust zones. The metamorphic grade of the supracrustal rocks increases from east to west, the increase being stepwise across the mylonitic block boundaries. The rocks are more deformed from east to west with younger structures overprinting. In the staurolite schists of the Salahmi Schist Belt, the most prominent structure is a lineation (L2 that overprints the bedding and axial plane foliation. In Sorronmäki quarry, at the western boundary of the schist belt, this Palaeoproterozoic lineation dominates all the structures in tonalite gneiss, which gives a U-Pb age of 2731±6 Ma. Southeast of the quarry, at the same boundary, the Salahmi schists have been overturned towards the northeast, suggesting that the Archaean gneiss at Sorronmäki has been thrust towards the northeast over these rocks. In the western part of the study area, the Leppikangas granodiorite that intrudes the Svecofennian supracrustal rocks gives a U-Pb age of 1891+6 Ma. In the granodiorite, a strong lineation formed by the intersection of two foliations, which maybe L2 is associated with thrusting towards the northeast. The monazite age of the Archaean Sorronmäki gneiss is 1817+3 Ma, and the titanite age of the Svecofennian

  16. 30 CFR 56.14212 - Chains, ropes, and drive belts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chains, ropes, and drive belts. 56.14212... Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 56.14212 Chains, ropes, and drive belts. Chains, ropes, and drive belts shall be guided mechanically onto moving pulleys, sprockets, or drums except...

  17. 30 CFR 57.14212 - Chains, ropes, and drive belts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chains, ropes, and drive belts. 57.14212... and Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 57.14212 Chains, ropes, and drive belts. Chains, ropes, and drive belts shall be guided mechanically onto moving pulleys, sprockets, or drums...

  18. 30 CFR 56.4503 - Conveyor belt slippage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conveyor belt slippage. 56.4503 Section 56.4503... Control Installation/construction/maintenance § 56.4503 Conveyor belt slippage. Belt conveyors within... shall be equipped with a detection system capable of automatically stopping the drive pulley. A person...

  19. 30 CFR 57.4263 - Underground belt conveyors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground belt conveyors. 57.4263 Section 57... and Control Firefighting Equipment § 57.4263 Underground belt conveyors. Fire protection shall be provided at the head, tail, drive, and take-up pulleys of underground belt conveyors. Provisions shall be...

  20. 30 CFR 75.1108 - Approved conveyor belts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approved conveyor belts. 75.1108 Section 75... Fire-Resistant Hydraulic Fluids on Underground Equipment § 75.1108 Approved conveyor belts. (a) Until December 31, 2009 conveyor belts placed in service in underground coal mines shall be: (1) Approved under...

  1. Great Belt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Carsten S.; Kristensen, Per S.; Erichsen, Lars

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes aspects of the soil investigations and geotechnical evaluations for the foundation design of the 6.6 km long Great Belt West Bridge. The gravity foundations rest predominantly on glacial tills and pre-quaternary limestone. Special investigations for assessment of the soil...

  2. Distribution of Cu, Co, As, and Fe in mine waste, sediment, soil, and water in and around mineral deposits and mines of the Idaho Cobalt Belt, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, John E.; Eppinger, Robert G.

    2012-01-01

    The distribution of Cu, Co, As and Fe was studied downstream from mines and deposits in the Idaho Cobalt Belt (ICB), the largest Co resource in the USA. To evaluate potential contamination in ecosystems in the ICB, mine waste, stream sediment, soil, and water were collected and analyzed for Cu, Co, As and Fe in this area. Concentrations of Cu in mine waste and stream sediment collected proximal to mines in the ICB ranged from 390 to 19,000 μg/g, exceeding the USEPA target clean-up level and the probable effect concentration (PEC) for Cu of 149 μg/g in sediment; PEC is the concentration above which harmful effects are likely in sediment dwelling organisms. In addition concentrations of Cu in mine runoff and stream water collected proximal to mines were highly elevated in the ICB and exceeded the USEPA chronic criterion for aquatic organisms of 6.3 μg/L (at a water hardness of 50 mg/L) and an LC50 concentration for rainbow trout of 14 μg/L for Cu in water. Concentrations of Co in mine waste and stream sediment collected proximal to mines varied from 14 to 7400 μg/g and were highly elevated above regional background concentrations, and generally exceeded the USEPA target clean-up level of 80 μg/g for Co in sediment. Concentrations of Co in water were as high as in 75,000 μg/L in the ICB, exceeding an LC50 of 346 μg/L for rainbow trout for Co in water by as much as two orders of magnitude, likely indicating an adverse effect on trout. Mine waste and stream sediment collected in the ICB also contained highly elevated As concentrations that varied from 26 to 17,000 μg/g, most of which exceeded the PEC of 33 μg/g and the USEPA target clean-up level of 35 μg/g for As in sediment. Conversely, most water samples had As concentrations that were below the 150 μg/L chronic criterion for protection of aquatic organisms and the USEPA target clean-up level of 14 μg/L. There is abundant Fe oxide in streams in the ICB and several samples of mine runoff and stream water

  3. Strata-bound Fe-Co-Cu-Au-Bi-Y-REE deposits of the Idaho Cobalt Belt: Multistage hydrothermal mineralization in a magmatic-related iron oxide copper-gold system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slack, John F.

    2012-01-01

    Mineralogical and geochemical studies of strata-bound Fe-Co-Cu-Au-Bi-Y-rare-earth element (REE) deposits of the Idaho cobalt belt in east-central Idaho provide evidence of multistage epigenetic mineralization by magmatic-hydrothermal processes in an iron oxide copper-gold (IOCG) system. Deposits of the Idaho cobalt belt comprise three types: (1) strata-bound sulfide lenses in the Blackbird district, which are cobaltite and, less commonly, chalcopyrite rich with locally abundant gold, native bismuth, bismuthinite, xenotime, allanite, monazite, and the Be-rich silicate gadolinite-(Y), with sparse uraninite, stannite, and Bi tellurides, in a gangue of quartz, chlorite, biotite, muscovite, garnet, tourmaline, chloritoid, and/or siderite, with locally abundant fluorapatite or magnetite; (2) discordant tourmalinized breccias in the Blackbird district that in places have concentrations of cobaltite, chalcopyrite, gold, and xenotime; and (3) strata-bound magnetite-rich lenses in the Iron Creek area, which contain cobaltiferous pyrite and locally sparse chalcopyrite or xenotime. Most sulfide-rich deposits in the Blackbird district are enclosed by strata-bound lenses composed mainly of Cl-rich Fe biotite; some deposits have quartz-rich envelopes.Whole-rock analyses of 48 Co- and/or Cu-rich samples show high concentrations of Au (up to 26.8 ppm), Bi (up to 9.16 wt %), Y (up to 0.83 wt %), ∑REEs (up to 2.56 wt %), Ni (up to 6,780 ppm), and Be (up to 1,180 ppm), with locally elevated U (up to 124 ppm) and Sn (up to 133 ppm); Zn and Pb contents are uniformly low (≤821 and ≤61 ppm, respectively). Varimax factor analysis of bulk compositions of these samples reveals geochemically distinct element groupings that reflect statistical associations of monazite, allanite, and xenotime; biotite and gold; detrital minerals; chalcopyrite and sparse stannite; quartz; and cobaltite with sparse selenides and tellurides. Significantly, Cu is statistically separate from Co and As

  4. Skarn-mineralized porphyry adakites in the Harlik arc at Kalatage, E. Tianshan (NW China): Slab melting in the Devonian-early Carboniferous in the southern Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Qigui; Yu, Mingjie; Xiao, Wenjiao; Windley, Brian F.; Li, Yuechen; Wei, Xiaofeng; Zhu, Jiangjian; Lü, Xiaoqiang

    2018-03-01

    The geodynamic control of mineralization in the accretionary evolution of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) has long been controversial. Here we report new field, geochemical and geochronological data on recently defined porphyry and skarn-type ore deposits (Devonian-Early Carboniferous) in the Kalatage area in the middle of the Harlik-Dananhu arc, Eastern Tianshan, NW China in the southern CAOB, with the aim of better understanding the accretionary tectonics and genesis of porphyry and skarn-type mineralization. The Yudai porphyry Cu-(Au) deposits and the Xierqu skarn Cu-Fe-(Au) deposits are closely associated with Middle Devonian adakitic diorite porphyries (382-390 Ma), which are calc-alkaline and characterized by high Na2O/K2O ratios and Sr contents (310-1020 ppm), strong depletion of HREE (e.g., Yb = 0.80-1.44 ppm) and Y (7.68-14.50 ppm), and all enriched in Rb, Sr, Ba, K and depleted in Nb and Ti. They are characterized by distinctive Eu positive anomalies, high Na2O contents and MORB-like Sr and Nd isotope signatures (high εNd(t) = +6.1 to +7.0 and low (87Sr/86Sr)i = 0.70412-0.70462). These adakites most likely formed by melting of a young/hot subducted oceanic slab, and adakites in general are important carriers of porphyry Cu ± (Au) deposits. Early Carboniferous adakites in the Tuwu area south of Kalatage are known to have similar features. Therefore, skarn-mineralized porphyry adakites get younger from north to south, suggesting southward migration of the Harlik-Dananhu arc from 390 Ma to 322 Ma. These data indicate that partial melting of hot (and/or young) oceanic crustal slabs were an important mechanism of accretionary crustal growth and mineralization in the southern CAOB.

  5. Mineral weathering experiments to explore the effects of vegetation shifts in high mountain region (Wind River Range, Wyoming, USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavris, Christian; Furrer, Gerhard; Dahms, Dennis; Anderson, Suzanne P.; Blum, Alex; Goetze, Jens; Wells, Aaron; Egli, Markus

    2015-04-01

    Climate change influences the evolution of soil and landscape. With changing climate, both flora and fauna must adapt to new conditions. It is unknown in many respects to what extent soils will react to warming and vegetation change. The aim of this study was to identify possible consequences for soils in a dry-alpine region with respect to weathering of primary minerals and leaching of elements under expected warming climate conditions due to shifts in vegetation. To achieve this, a field empirical approach was used in combination with laboratory weathering experiments simulating several scenarios. Study sites located in Sinks Canyon and in Stough Basin of the Wind River Range, Wyoming, USA, encompass ecotones that consist of tundra, forest, or sagebrush (from moist to dry, with increasing temperature, respectively). All soils are developed on granitoid moraines. The mineralogy of the soils along the altitudinal sequence was analysed using cathodoluminescence and X-ray diffraction, and revealed clear mineral transformations: biotite and plagioclase were both weathered to smectite while plagioclase also weathered to kaolinite. Cooler, wetter, altitude-dependent conditions seemed to promote weathering of these primary minerals. To test the impact of soil solutions from different ecotones on mineral weathering, aqueous extracts from topsoils (A horizons) were reacted with subsoils (B horizons) in batch experiments. Aqueous extracts of topsoil samples were generated for all three ecotones, and these solutions were characterized. For the batch experiments, the topsoil extracts were reacted for 1800 hours with the subsoil samples of the same ecotone, or with the subsoil samples from higher altitude ecotones. Solutions collected periodically during the experiments were measured using ICP-OES and ion chromatography. Dissolved Ca, Mg and K were mainly controlled by the chemical weathering of oligoclase, K-feldspar and biotite. With increasing altitude (and consequently

  6. 30 CFR 57.14131 - Seat belts for surface haulage trucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Seat belts for surface haulage trucks. 57.14131 Section 57.14131 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... trucks. (a) Seat belts shall be provided and worn in haulage trucks. (b) Seat belts shall be maintained...

  7. Mineral parageneses, regional architecture, and tectonic evolution of Franciscan metagraywackes, Cape Mendocino-Garberville-Covelo 30' x 60' quadrangles, northwest California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, W.G.; McLaughlin, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    The Franciscan Complex is a classic subduction-zone assemblage. In northwest California, it comprises a stack of west vergent thrust sheets: westernmost Eastern Belt outliers; Central Belt mélange; Coastal Belt Yager terrane; Coastal Belt Coastal terrane; Coastal Belt King Range/False Cape terranes. We collected samples and determined P-T conditions of recrystallization for 88 medium-fine-grained metasandstones to assess their subduction-exhumation histories and assembly of the host allochthons. Feebly recrystallized Yager, Coastal, and King Range strata retain clear detrital features. Scattered neoblastic prehnite occurs in several Coastal terrane metasandstones; traces of possible pumpellyite are present in three Yager metaclastic rocks. Pumpellyite ± lawsonite ± aragonite-bearing Central Belt metasandstones are moderately deformed and reconstituted. Intensely contorted, thoroughly recrystallized Eastern Belt affinity quartzose metagraywackes contain lawsonite + jadeitic pyroxene ± aragonite ± glaucophane. We microprobed neoblastic phases in 23 rocks, documenting mineral parageneses that constrain the tectonic accretion and metamorphic P-T evolution of these sheets. Quasi-stable mineral assemblages typify Eastern Belt metasandstones, but mm-sized domains in the Central and Coastal belt rocks failed to achieve chemical equilibrium. Eastern Belt slabs rose from subduction depths approaching 25–30 km, whereas structurally lower Central Belt mélanges returned from ∼15–18 km. Coastal Belt assemblages suggest burial depths less than 5–8 km. Eastern and Central belt allochthons sequentially decoupled from the downgoing oceanic lithosphere and ascended into the accretionary margin; K-feldspar-rich Coastal Belt rocks were stranded along the continental edge without undergoing appreciable subduction, probably during Paleogene unroofing of the older, deeply subducted units of the Franciscan Complex in east-vergent crustal wedges.

  8. Tracing chlorine sources of thermal and mineral springs along and across the Cascade Range using halogen and chlorine isotope compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Jeffrey T.; Barnes, Jaime D.; Hurwitz, Shaul; Leeman, William P.

    2015-01-01

    In order to provide constraints on the sources of chlorine in spring waters associated with arc volcanism, the major/minor element concentrations and stable isotope compositions of chlorine, oxygen, and hydrogen were measured in 28 thermal and mineral springs along the Cascade Range in northwestern USA. Chloride concentrations in the springs range from 64 to 19,000 mg/L and View the MathML source values range from +0.2‰ to +1.9‰ (average=+1.0±0.4‰), with no systematic variation along or across the arc, nor correlations with their presumed underlying basement lithologies. Additionally, nine geochemically well-characterized lavas from across the Mt. St. Helens/Mt. Adams region of the Cascade Range (Leeman et al., 2004 and Leeman et al., 2005) were analyzed for their halogen concentrations and Cl isotope compositions. In the arc lavas, Cl and Br concentrations from the volcanic front are higher than in lavas from the forearc and backarc. F and I concentrations progressively decrease from forearc to backarc, similar to the trend documented for B in most arcs. View the MathML source values of the lavas range from −0.1 to +0.8‰ (average = +0.4±0.3‰). Our results suggest that the predominantly positive View the MathML source values observed in the springs are consistent with water interaction with underlying 37Cl-enriched basalt and/or altered oceanic crust, thereby making thermal spring waters a reasonable proxy for the Cl isotope compositions of associated volcanic rocks in the Cascades. However, waters with View the MathML source values >+1.0‰ also suggest additional contributions of chlorine degassed from cooling magmas due to subsurface vapor–liquid HCl fractionation in which Cl is lost to the aqueous fluid phase and 37Cl is concentrated in the ascending magmatic HCl vapor. Future work is necessary to better constrain Cl isotope behavior during volcanic degassing and fluid–rock interaction in order to improve volatile flux estimates through

  9. Laterally bendable belt conveyor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, William J.

    1985-01-01

    An endless, laterally flexible and bendable belt conveyor particularly adapted for coal mining applications in facilitating the transport of the extracted coal up- or downslope and around corners in a continuous manner is disclosed. The conveying means includes a flat rubber belt reinforced along the middle portion thereof along which the major portion of the belt tension is directed so as to cause rotation of the tubular shaped belt when trammed around lateral turns thus preventing excessive belt bulging distortion between adjacent belt supports which would inhibit belt transport. Pretension induced into the fabric reinforced flat rubber belt by conventional belt take-up means supports the load conveyed when the belt conveyor is making lateral turns. The carrying and return portions of the belt are supported and formed into a tubular shape by a plurality of shapers positioned along its length. Each shaper is supported from above by a monorail and includes clusters of idler rollers which support the belt. Additional cluster rollers in each shaper permit the belt supporting roller clusters to rotate in response to the belt's operating tension imposed upon the cluster rollers by induced lateral belt friction forces. The freely rotating roller clusters thus permit the belt to twist on lateral curves without damage to itself while precluding escape of the conveyed material by effectively enclosing it in the tube-shaped, inner belt transport length.

  10. Alpine lakes preserve mineral dust signatures: Implications for long-range mineral dust transport and Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) tornado frequency in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, A.; Lora, J. M.; Pollen, A.; Vollmer, T.; Thomas, M.; Leithold, E. L.; Mitchell, J.; Tripati, A.

    2016-12-01

    The net amount of mineral dust accumulation in arid and semi-arid regions might not be entirely sourced locally or even regionally; in fact, new evidence suggests that there could be significant contributions from distal sources. The contribution from the distal sources needs to be identified, and accounted for, in order to accurately understand the meteorological and climatologic factors, both regional and global, that control mineral dust accumulation in arid and semi-arid regions. Most importantly, if identified, the two components of mineral dust accumulation- fine fraction (typically 25 microns)- could provide critical information about regional as well as global climate. There are large-scale climatological controls on the finer fraction of mineral dust, while the coarser fraction is related to intense invents (i.e., the occurrence of cyclones). However, studies attempting to separate these two size fractions in terrestrial archives have been limited. Here we separate the two size fractions using grain size analysis, and use trace element analysis in each size fraction to identify contributing source regions. We apply this technique to well-dated cores collected from three lakes that are distributed across the western, southwestern and Great Plains in the United States: Pear Lake in the Sierra Nevada Mountains (CA), Senator Beck Lake in the San Juan Mountains (CO), and North Lake (WY). These lakes are uniquely situated to monitor dust fluxes; previous studies have demonstrated that sedimentation in these lakes are dominated by mineral dust accumulation; there is also evidence of remotely and locally sourced dust in these lakes, and of textural differences between the two types of dust fractions. We compare our results with previously published data on dust from loess deposits in the United States, and isotopic modeling (LMDZ). We find evidence that the finer-grain size fraction in alpine lake cores could be of remote origin; work is underway to quantify this

  11. Seat belt reminders.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2008-01-01

    Seat belts are an effective way of reducing the number or road deaths and severe road injuries in crashes. Seat belt reminders warn car drivers and passengers if the seat belt is not fastened. This can be done by a visual signal or an acoustic signal or by a combination of the two. Seat belt

  12. Mineral metabolism parameters throughout chronic kidney disease stages 1-5-achievement of K DOQI target ranges

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Craver, Lourdes; Marco, Maria Paz; Martínez, Isabel; Rue, Montserrat; Borràs, Merce; Martín, Maria Luisa; Sarró, Felipe; Valdivielso, José Manuel; Fernández, Elvira

    2007-01-01

    Background. Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study has shown that the proportion of haemodialysis patients with adequate mineral metabolism parameters according to the Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative (K/DOQI...

  13. A deep space inventory tour of the main asteroid belt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gibbings, Alison; Bowles, Neil; Snodgrass, Colin

    2016-01-01

    A consortium of international scientists and industry partners are proposing the Main Belt Inventory Mission as a candidate in the next forthcoming ESA medium class mission call. The inventory mission will characterise a broad range of statistically significant asteroid samples throughout the Main...... a key tracer to understanding the dynamic evolution of the solar system, offer an insight into its early history and the origins of life forming material. Furthermore, by combing visible, near-infrared and thermal spectroscopy, the mission will unlock information on the major rock forming minerals...

  14. EXTRATERRESTRIAL MINERALS AND FUTURE FRONTIERS IN MINERAL EXPLORATION

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    WILMER GIRALDO; JORGE IVÁN TOBÓN

    2013-01-01

    .... The mining of bodies of our solar system like the Moon, Mars and the asteroid belt can provide abundant energy resources such as helium 3 and minerals such as potassium, rare earth elements, iron...

  15. Mineralogical maps showing distribution of selected ore-related minerals in the nonmagnetic, heavy-mineral-concentrate fraction of stream sediment from the Mount Hayes 1 degree by 3 degrees Quadrangle, eastern Alaska Range, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripp, Richard B.; Curtin, Gary C.; Nokleberg, Warren J.; Huston, David L.; Hampton, James R.

    1993-01-01

    Exploratory geochemical sampling was done in 1979, 1980, and 1981. The collection of composite samples of stream sediment or glacial debris was emphasized the first 2 years; the last year was spent collecting mineralized stream pebbles, float, and outcrop samples. The stream-sediment and heavy- mineral-concentrate samples were collected at 795 sites on tributary streams having drainage basins ranging from 1 to 5 mi 2 in area. The glacial debris samples were collected at 116 sites on tributary glaciers also having drainage basins ranging from 1 to 5 mi2 in area. All of these samples were analyzed for 31 elements by six-step semiquantitative emission spectrography (Grimes and Marranzino, 1968). In addition, all samples were analyzed for zinc by an atomic absorption method (Ward and others, 1969). The spectrographic and chemical results are available in O'Leary and others (1982).

  16. Lap belts and three-point belts.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampen, L.T.B. van & Edelman, A.

    1975-01-01

    Results of the swov-accident investigation prove that if there are any differences in the effectiveness of lap belts and three-point belts, these are so small that they cannot form a basis for giving preference to one type over the other. Furthermore, in spite of the results of this investigation

  17. Synaptic ribbon. Conveyor belt or safety belt?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, T D; Sterling, P

    2003-02-06

    The synaptic ribbon in neurons that release transmitter via graded potentials has been considered as a conveyor belt that actively moves vesicles toward their release sites. But evidence has accumulated to the contrary, and it now seems plausible that the ribbon serves instead as a safety belt to tether vesicles stably in mutual contact and thus facilitate multivesicular release by compound exocytosis.

  18. 30 CFR 56.14130 - Roll-over protective structures (ROPS) and seat belts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... belts. 56.14130 Section 56.14130 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... protective structures (ROPS) and seat belts. (a) Equipment included. Roll-over protective structures (ROPS) and seat belts shall be installed on— (1) Crawler tractors and crawler loaders; (2) Graders; (3) Wheel...

  19. 30 CFR 14.22 - Test for flame resistance of conveyor belts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test for flame resistance of conveyor belts. 14..., EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS REQUIREMENTS FOR THE APPROVAL OF FLAME-RESISTANT CONVEYOR BELTS Technical Requirements § 14.22 Test for flame resistance of conveyor belts. (a) Test procedures. The test...

  20. Astrotischeria neotropicana sp. nov.-a leaf-miner on Sida, Malvaceae, currently with the broadest distribution range in the Neotropics (Lepidoptera, Tischeriidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diškus, Arūnas; Stonis, Jonas R

    2015-11-05

    This paper describes Astrotischeria neotropicana Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov. (Lepidoptera: Tischeriidae), a new leaf-miner on Sida (Malvaceae) with a broad distribution range in tropical Central & South America. The new species is currently recorded from the Amazon Basin in Peru and Ecuador to tropical lowlands in Guatemala and Belize (including the Caribbean Archipelago). The new species is illustrated with photographs of the adults, male and female genitalia, and the leaf-mines; distribution map is also provided.

  1. Belt Aligning Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurchenko Vadim

    2017-01-01

    parts of the conveyor, the sides of the belt wear intensively. This results in reducing the life of the belt. The reasons for this phenomenon are well investigated, but the difficulty lies in the fact that they all act simultaneously. The belt misalignment prevention can be carried out in two ways: by minimizing the effect of causes and by aligning the belt. The construction of aligning devices and errors encountered in practice are considered in this paper. Self-aligning roller supports rotational in plan view are recommended as a means of combating the belt misalignment.

  2. Belt Aligning Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurchenko, Vadim

    2017-11-01

    The misalignment causes the greatest damage to the conveyor belt. As a result of the interaction of the moving belt with the stationary parts of the conveyor, the sides of the belt wear intensively. This results in reducing the life of the belt. The reasons for this phenomenon are well investigated, but the difficulty lies in the fact that they all act simultaneously. The belt misalignment prevention can be carried out in two ways: by minimizing the effect of causes and by aligning the belt. The construction of aligning devices and errors encountered in practice are considered in this paper. Self-aligning roller supports rotational in plan view are recommended as a means of combating the belt misalignment.

  3. Epochs of intrusion-related copper mineralization in the Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sillitoe, R. H.

    Seventy-four copper deposits and prospects related intimately to intrusive activity in the Andes have been dated radiometrically during the last 18 years by many different investigators, most of whom used the KAr method. The results are summarized and some of their local and regional implications are reviewed. A number of copper deposits, mainly of the porphyry type, were emplaced in, or near to, premineral volcanic sequences and (or) equigranular plutons. Such precursor volcanism lasted for as long as 9 Ma, and preceded mineralization by intervals of from less than 1 Ma to as much as 9 Ma. Precursor plutons were emplaced no more than 2 to 3 Ma prior to mineralization at several localities in Chile, but possibly as long as 10 to 30 Ma earlier in parts of Colombia and Peru. The time separating emplacement of progenitor stocks and hydrothermal alteration and accompanying copper mineralization, and the duration of alteration-mineralization sequences generally are both less than the analytical uncertainty of the KAr method. However, on the basis of a detailed study of the Julcani vein system in Peru and less clearcut evidence from elsewhere, it may be concluded that alteration and copper mineralization followed stock or dome emplacement by substantially less than 1 Ma and lasted for 0.5 to 2 Ma and, locally, possibly as long as 3 Ma. At several localities, post-mineral magmatic activity could not be separated by the KAr method from the preceding alteration-mineralization events. As many as nine epochs of copper mineralization, ranging in age from late Paleozoic to late Pliocene-Pleistocene, are recognizable in the central Andes of Chile, Peru, Bolivia, and Argentina, and at least four somewhat different epochs characterize the northern Andes of Colombia. Each epoch coincides with a discrete linear sub-belt, some of which extend for more than 2000 km along the length of the orogen. More than 90% of Andean copper resources, mainly as porphyry deposits, are

  4. [Modeling of species distribution using topography and remote sensing data, with vascular plants of the Tukuringra Range low mountain belt (Zeya state Nature Reserve, Amur Region) as a case study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudov, S V

    2016-01-01

    On the basis of maximum entropy method embedded in MaxEnt software, the cartographic models are designed for spatial distribution of 63 species of vascular plants inhabiting low mountain belt of the Tukuringra Range. Initial data for modeling were actual points of a species occurrence, data on remote sensing (multispectral space snapshots by Landsat), and a digital topographic model. It is found out that the structure of factors contributing to the model is related to species ecological amplitude. The distribution of stenotopic species is determined, mainly, by the topography, which thermal and humidity conditions of habitats are associated with. To the models for eurytopic species, variables formed on the basis of remote sensing contribute significantly, those variables encompassing the parameters of the soil-vegetable cover. In course of the obtained models analyzing, three principal groups of species are revealed that have similar distribution pattern. Species of the first group are restricted in their distribution by the slopes of the. River Zeya and River Giluy gorges. Species of the second group are associated with the southern macroslope of the range and with southern slopes of large rivers' valleys. The third group incorporates those species that are distributed over the whole territory under study.

  5. Belt drive construction improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.Yu. Khomenko

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of the traction capacity increase of the belt drive TRK is examined. This was done for the purpose of air conditioning system of passenger car with double-generator system energy supplying. Belts XPC (made by the German firm «Continental ContiTech» testing were conducted. The results confirmed the possibility of their usage in order to improve belt drive TRK characteristics.

  6. Mineral and Vegetation Maps of the Bodie Hills, Sweetwater Mountains, and Wassuk Range, California/Nevada, Generated from ASTER Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockwell, Barnaby W.

    2010-01-01

    Multispectral remote sensing data acquired by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) were analyzed to identify and map minerals, vegetation groups, and volatiles (water and snow) in support of geologic studies of the Bodie Hills, Sweetwater Mountains, and Wassuk Range, California/Nevada. Digital mineral and vegetation mapping results are presented in both portable document format (PDF) and ERDAS Imagine format (.img). The ERDAS-format files are suitable for integration with other geospatial data in Geographic Information Systems (GIS) such as ArcGIS. The ERDAS files showing occurrence of 1) iron-bearing minerals, vegetation, and water, and 2) clay, sulfate, mica, carbonate, Mg-OH, and hydrous quartz minerals have been attributed according to identified material, so that the material detected in a pixel can be queried with the interactive attribute identification tools of GIS and image processing software packages (for example, the Identify Tool of ArcMap and the Inquire Cursor Tool of ERDAS Imagine). All raster data have been orthorectified to the Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) projection using a projective transform with ground-control points selected from orthorectified Landsat Thematic Mapper data and a digital elevation model from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Elevation Dataset (1/3 arc second, 10 m resolution). Metadata compliant with Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) standards for all ERDAS-format files have been included, and contain important information regarding geographic coordinate systems, attributes, and cross-references. Documentation regarding spectral analysis methodologies employed to make the maps is included in these cross-references.

  7. Radiation Belt Storm Probe (RBSP) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibeck, D. G.; Fox, N.; Grebowsky, J. M.; Mauk, B. H.

    2009-01-01

    Scheduled to launch in May 2012, NASA's dual spacecraft Living With a Star Radiation Belt Storm Probe mission carries the field and particle instrumentation needed to determine the processes that produce enhancements in radiation belt ion and electron fluxes, the dominant mechanisms that cause the loss of relativistic electrons, and the manner by which the ring current and other geomagnetic phenomena affect radiation belt behavior. The two spacecraft will operate in low-inclination elliptical lapping orbits around the Earth, within and immediately exterior to the Van Allen radiation belts. During course of their two year primary mission, they will cover the full range of local times, measuring both AC and DC electric and magnetic fields to 10kHz, as well as ions from 50 eV to 1 GeV and electrons with energies ranging from 50 eV to 10 MeV.

  8. The effects of organic matter-mineral interactions and organic matter chemistry on diuron sorption across a diverse range of soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smernik, Ronald J; Kookana, Rai S

    2015-01-01

    Sorption of non-ionic organic compounds to soil is usually expressed as the carbon-normalized partition coefficient (KOC), because it is assumed that the main factor that influences the amount sorbed is the organic carbon content of the soil. However, KOC can vary by a factor of at least ten across a range of soils. We investigated two potential causes of variation in diuron KOC - organic matter-mineral interactions and organic matter chemistry - for a diverse set of 34 soils from Sri Lanka, representing a wide range of soil types. Treatment with hydrofluoric acid (HF-treatment) was used to concentrate soil organic matter. HF-treatment increased KOC for the majority of soils (average factor 2.4). We attribute this increase to the blocking of organic matter sorption sites in the whole soils by minerals. There was no significant correlation between KOC for the whole soils and KOC for the HF-treated soils, indicating that the importance of organic matter-mineral interactions varied greatly amongst these soils. There was as much variation in KOC across the HF-treated soils as there was across the whole soils, indicating that the nature of soil organic matter is also an important contributor to KOC variability. Organic matter chemistry, determined by solid-state (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, was correlated with KOC for the HF-treated soils. In particular, KOC increased with the aromatic C content (R=0.64, p=1×10(-6)), and decreased with O-alkyl C (R=-0.32, p=0.03) and alkyl C (R=-0.41, p=0.004) content. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Geochemistry, geochronology, mineralogy, and geology suggest sources of and controls on mineral systems in the southern Toquima Range, Nye County, Nevada; with geochemistry maps of gold, silver, mercury, arsenic, antimony, zinc, copper, lead, molybdenum, bismuth, iron, titanium, vanadium, cobalt, beryllium, boron, fluorine, and sulfur; and with a section on lead associations, mineralogy and paragenesis, and isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawe, Daniel R.; Hoffman, James D.; Doe, Bruce R.; Foord, Eugene E.; Stein, Holly J.; Ayuso, Robert A.

    2003-01-01

    Geochemistry maps showing the distribution and abundance of 18 elements in about 1,400 rock samples, both mineralized and unmineralized, from the southern Toquima Range, Nev., indicate major structural and lithologic controls on mineralization, and suggest sources of the elements. Radiometric age data, lead mineralogy and paragenesis data, and lead-isotope data supplement the geochemical and geologic data, providing further insight into timing, sources, and controls on mineralization. Major zones of mineralization are centered on structural margins of calderas and principal northwest-striking fault zones, as at Round Mountain, Manhattan, and Jefferson mining districts, and on intersections of low-angle and steep structures, as at Belmont mining district. Paleozoic sedimentary rocks, mostly limestones (at Manhattan, Jefferson, and Belmont districts), and porous Oligocene ash-flow tuffs (at Round Mountain district) host the major deposits, although all rock types have been mineralized as evidenced by numerous prospects throughout the area. Principal mineral systems are gold-silver at Round Mountain where about 7 million ounces of gold and more than 4 million ounces of silver has been produced; gold at Gold Hill in the west part of the Manhattan district where about a half million ounces of gold has been produced; gold-mercury-arsenic-antimony in the east (White Caps) part of the Manhattan district where a few hundred thousand ounces of gold has been produced; and silver-lead-antimony at Belmont where more than 150,000 ounces of silver has been produced. Lesser amounts of gold and silver have been produced from the Jefferson district and from scattered mines elsewhere in the southern Toquima Range. A small amount of tungsten was produced from mines in the granite of the Round Mountain pluton exposed east of Round Mountain, and small amounts of arsenic, antimony, and mercury have been produced elsewhere in the southern Toquima Range. All elements show unique

  10. 30 CFR 57.14130 - Roll-over protective structures (ROPS) and seat belts for surface equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... belts for surface equipment. 57.14130 Section 57.14130 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH....14130 Roll-over protective structures (ROPS) and seat belts for surface equipment. (a) Equipment included. Roll-over protective structures (ROPS) and seat belts shall be installed on— (1) Crawler tractors...

  11. 30 CFR 75.1101 - Deluge-type water sprays, foam generators; main and secondary belt-conveyor drives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and secondary belt-conveyor drives. 75.1101 Section 75.1101 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... Fire Protection § 75.1101 Deluge-type water sprays, foam generators; main and secondary belt-conveyor... and secondary belt-conveyor drives. ...

  12. Geospatial compilation of results from field sample collection in support of mineral resource investigations, Western Alaska Range, Alaska, July 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Michaela R.; Graham, Garth E.; Hubbard, Bernard E.; Benzel, William M.

    2015-07-16

    This Data Series summarizes results from July 2013 sampling in the western Alaska Range near Mount Estelle, Alaska. The fieldwork combined in situ and camp-based spectral measurements of talus/soil and rock samples. Five rock and 48 soil samples were submitted for quantitative geochemi­cal analysis (for 55 major and trace elements), and the 48 soils samples were also analyzed by x-ray diffraction to establish mineralogy and geochemistry. The results and sample photo­graphs are presented in a geodatabase that accompanies this report. The spectral, mineralogical, and geochemical charac­terization of these samples and the sites that they represent can be used to validate existing remote-sensing datasets (for example, ASTER) and future hyperspectral studies. Empiri­cal evidence of jarosite (as identified by x-ray diffraction and spectral analysis) corresponding with gold concentrations in excess of 50 parts per billion in soil samples suggests that surficial mapping of jarosite in regional surveys may be use­ful for targeting areas of prospective gold occurrences in this sampling area.

  13. Handbook Timing Belts Principles, Calculations, Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Perneder, Raimund

    2012-01-01

    Timing belts offer a broad range of innovative drivetrain solutions; they allow low-backlash operation in robot systems, they are widely used in automated processes and industrial handling involving highly dynamic start-up loads, they are low-maintenance solutions for continuous operation applications, and they can guarantee exact positioning at high operating speeds. Based on his years of professional experience, the author has developed concise guidelines for the dimensioning of timing belt drives and presents proven examples from the fields of power transmission, transport and linear transfer technology. He offers definitive support for dealing with and compensating for adverse operating conditions and belt damage, as well as advice on drive optimization and guidelines for the design of drivetrain details and supporting systems. All market-standard timing belts are listed as brand neutral. Readers will discover an extensive bibliography with information on the various manufacturers and their websites. This...

  14. Ring current and radiation belts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, D. J.

    1987-01-01

    Studies performed during 1983-1986 on the ring current, the injection boundary model, and the radiation belts are discussed. The results of these studies yielded the first observations on the composition and charge state of the ring current throughout the ring-current energy range, and strong observational support for an injection-boundary model accounting for the origins of radiation-belt particles, the ring current, and substorm particles observed at R less than about 7 earth radii. In addition, the results have demonstrated that the detection of energetic neutral atoms generated by charge-exchange interactions between the ring current and the hydrogen geocorona can provide global images of the earth's ring current and its spatial and temporal evolution.

  15. Kuiper Belt Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewitt, David

    The region of the solar system immediately beyond Neptune's orbit is densely populated with small bodies. This region, known as the Kuiper Belt, consists of objects that may predate Neptune, the orbits of which provide a fossil record of processes operative in the young solar system. The Kuiper Belt contains some of the Solar System's most primitive, least thermally processed matter. It is probably the source of the short-period comets and Centaurs, and may also supply collisionally generated interplanetary dust. I discuss the properties of the Kuiper Belt and provide an overview of the outstanding scientific issues.

  16. Conveyor belt service machine

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1984-01-01

    ... in. and thicker that could reduce the time, cost and injury potential inherent in extending and retracting mine wide section belt conveyors while eliminating the need to use additional machinery in accomplishing such moves...

  17. In situ Re-Os isotopic analysis of platinum-group minerals from the Mayarí-Cristal ophiolitic massif (Mayarí-Baracoa Ophiolitic Belt, eastern Cuba): implications for the origin of Os-isotope heterogeneities in podiform chromitites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchesi, Claudio; González-Jiménez, José María; Gervilla, Fernando; Garrido, Carlos J.; Griffin, William L.; O'Reilly, Suzanne Y.; Proenza, Joaquín A.; Pearson, Norman J.

    2011-06-01

    Chromitite pods in the Mayarí-Cristal ophiolitic massif (eastern Cuba) were formed in the Late Cretaceous when island arc tholeiites and MORB-like back-arc basin basalts reacted with residual mantle peridotites and generated chromite-rich bodies enclosed in dunite envelopes. Platinum-group minerals (PGM) in the podiform chromitites exhibit important Os-isotope heterogeneities at the kilometric, hand sample and thin section scales. 187Os/188Os calculated at the time of chromitite crystallization (~90 Ma) ranges between 0.1185 and 0.1295 (γOs = -7.1 to +1.6, relative to enstatite chondrite), and all but one PGM have subchondritic 187Os/188Os. Grains in a single hand sample have initial 187Os/188Os that spans from 0.1185 to 0.1274, and in one thin section it varies between 0.1185 and 0.1232 in two PGM included in chromite which are only several millimeters apart. As the Os budget of a single micrometric grain derives from a mantle region that was at least several m3 in size, the variable Os isotopic composition of PGM in the Mayarí-Cristal chromitites probably reflects the heterogeneity of their mantle sources on the 10-100 m scale. Our results show that this heterogeneity was not erased by pooling and mingling of individual melt batches during chromitite crystallization but was transferred to the ore deposits on mineral scale. The distribution of the Os model ages calculated for PGM shows four main peaks, at ~100, 500, 750 and 1,000 Ma. These variable Os model ages reflect the presence of different depleted domains in the oceanic (Pacific-related) upper mantle of the Greater Antilles paleo-subduction zone. The concordance between the age of crystallization of the Mayarí-Cristal chromitites and the most recent peak of the Os model age distribution in PGM supports that Os in several grains was derived from fertile domains of the upper mantle, whose bulk Os isotopic composition is best approximated by that of enstatite chondrites; on the other hand, most PGM are

  18. Radiation Belt Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-27

    Distributions Recent analysis of Van Allen Probes observations has forced a reevaluation of models and our understanding of the inner electron radiation belt ...challenge” studies of four chosen recent events well-observed by the Van Allen Probes satellites, with participation by the radiation belt research...work, recently augmented by observations made by the currently orbiting NASA Van Allen Probes satellites, has revealed unexpected behavior and

  19. Galactic Radiation Belts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-15

    was formulated by Ortwein et al. 13for analysis of the Jovian radio emission. These authors de- rived their results for an arbitrary dipole-axis...galactic radio sources with the Jovian radiation-belt source, 17suggests a=. intriguing similarity. The related questions of why galactic radiation belts...Space Sciences Laboratory: Atmospheric and ionospheric physics, radiation from the atmosphere, densfty and composition of the upper atmosphere, aurorae

  20. Belt conveyor apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley, David J.; Bogart, Rex L.

    1987-01-01

    A belt conveyor apparatus according to this invention defines a conveyance path including a first pulley and at least a second pulley. An endless belt member is adapted for continuous travel about the pulleys and comprises a lower portion which engages the pulleys and an integral upper portion adapted to receive objects therein at a first location on said conveyance path and transport the objects to a second location for discharge. The upper belt portion includes an opposed pair of longitudinally disposed crest-like members, biased towards each other in a substantially abutting relationship. The crest-like members define therebetween a continuous, normally biased closed, channel along the upper belt portion. Means are disposed at the first and second locations and operatively associated with the belt member for urging the normally biased together crest-like members apart in order to provide access to the continuous channel whereby objects can be received into, or discharged from the channel. Motors are in communication with the conveyance path for effecting the travel of the endless belt member about the conveyance path. The conveyance path can be configured to include travel through two or more elevations and one or more directional changes in order to convey objects above, below and/or around existing structures.

  1. Numerical modeling of water spray suppression of conveyor belt fires in a large-scale tunnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Liming; Smith, Alex C

    2015-05-01

    Conveyor belt fires in an underground mine pose a serious life threat to miners. Water sprinkler systems are usually used to extinguish underground conveyor belt fires, but because of the complex interaction between conveyor belt fires and mine ventilation airflow, more effective engineering designs are needed for the installation of water sprinkler systems. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was developed to simulate the interaction between the ventilation airflow, the belt flame spread, and the water spray system in a mine entry. The CFD model was calibrated using test results from a large-scale conveyor belt fire suppression experiment. Simulations were conducted using the calibrated CFD model to investigate the effects of sprinkler location, water flow rate, and sprinkler activation temperature on the suppression of conveyor belt fires. The sprinkler location and the activation temperature were found to have a major effect on the suppression of the belt fire, while the water flow rate had a minor effect.

  2. Serum concentration comparisons of amino acids, fatty acids, lipoproteins, vitamins A and E, and minerals between zoo and free-ranging giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Debra A; Koutsos, Elizabeth A; Ellersieck, Mark R; Griffin, Mark E

    2009-03-01

    Serum concentrations of amino acids, fatty acids, lipoproteins, vitamins A and E, and minerals in zoo giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis) were compared to values obtained from free-ranging giraffes in an effort to identify potential nutritional differences in the zoo population. Zoo giraffes have a specific set of maladies that may be nutritionally related, including peracute mortality, energy malnutrition, pancreatic disease, urolithiasis, hoof disease, and severe intestinal parasitism. Dietary requirements for giraffes are not known; invasive studies used with domestic animals cannot be performed on zoo animals. Though domestic animal standards are often used to evaluate nutritional health of exotic animals, they may not be the most appropriate standards to use. Serum samples from 20 zoo giraffes at 10 zoological institutions in the United States were compared to previously collected samples from 24 free-ranging giraffes in South Africa. Thirteen of the zoo animal samples were collected from animals trained for blood collection, and seven were banked samples obtained from a previous serum collection. Dietary information was also collected on each zoo giraffe; most zoo giraffe diets consisted of alfalfa-based pellets (acid detergent fiber-16), alfalfa hay, and browse in varying quantities. Differences between zoo and free-ranging giraffes, males and females, and adults and subadults were analyzed with the use of a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial and Fisher's Least Significant Difference (LSD) for mean separation. Of the 84 parameters measured, 54 (60%) were significantly different (P giraffes. Nine (11%) items were significantly different (P giraffe diets is needed to address the differences seen in this study and the potentially related health problems.

  3. MARA GREENSTONE BELT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    negative anomalies of Nb and Ti relative to adjacent elements in multi-element spidergrams. ... that Fe-rich tholeiites associated with rare ..... metabasalts from the Southern Musoma –Mara greenstone belt … 78. *Zimbabwe. *Canada. Simba Sirori Mg-rich metabasalts. Komatiite. Kom. Basalt. Komatiite Kom Basalt. Pb. 7. 5.

  4. Paired Magmatic-Metallogenic Belts in Myanmar - an Andean Analogue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, Nicholas; Robb, Laurence; Searle, Michael; Morley, Christopher

    2015-04-01

    Myanmar (Burma) is richly endowed in precious and base metals, having one of the most diverse collections of natural resources in SE Asia. Its geological history is dominated by the staged closing of Tethys and the suturing of Gondwana-derived continental fragments onto the South China craton during the Mesozoic-Cenozoic. The country is located at a crucial geologic juncture where the main convergent Tethyan collision zone swings south around the Namche Barwa Eastern Himalayan syntaxis. However, despite recent work, the geological and geodynamic history of Myanmar remains enigmatic. Plate margin processes, magmatism, metasomatism and the genesis of mineral deposits are intricately linked, and there has long been recognized a relationship between the distribution of certain mineral deposit types, and the tectonic settings which favour their genesis. A better knowledge of the regional tectonic evolution of a potential exploration jurisdiction is therefore crucial to understanding its minerals prospectivity. This strong association between tectonics and mineralization can equally be applied in reverse. By mapping out the spatial, and temporal, distribution of presumed co-genetic mineral deposits, coupled with an understanding of their collective metallogenetic origin, a better appreciation of the tectonic evolution of a terrane may be elucidated. Identification and categorization of metallotects within a geodynamically-evolving terrane thus provides a complimentary tool to other methodologies (e.g. geochemical, geochronological, structural, geophysical, stratigraphical), for determining the tectonic history and inferred geodynamic setting of that terrane through time. Myanmar is one such study area where this approach can be undertaken. Here are found two near-parallel magmatic belts, which together contain a significant proportion of that country's mineral wealth of tin, tungsten, copper, gold and silver. Although only a few 100 km's apart, these belts exhibit a

  5. The empty primordial asteroid belt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Sean N; Izidoro, Andre

    2017-09-01

    The asteroid belt contains less than a thousandth of Earth's mass and is radially segregated, with S-types dominating the inner belt and C-types the outer belt. It is generally assumed that the belt formed with far more mass and was later strongly depleted. We show that the present-day asteroid belt is consistent with having formed empty, without any planetesimals between Mars and Jupiter's present-day orbits. This is consistent with models in which drifting dust is concentrated into an isolated annulus of terrestrial planetesimals. Gravitational scattering during terrestrial planet formation causes radial spreading, transporting planetesimals from inside 1 to 1.5 astronomical units out to the belt. Several times the total current mass in S-types is implanted, with a preference for the inner main belt. C-types are implanted from the outside, as the giant planets' gas accretion destabilizes nearby planetesimals and injects a fraction into the asteroid belt, preferentially in the outer main belt. These implantation mechanisms are simple by-products of terrestrial and giant planet formation. The asteroid belt may thus represent a repository for planetary leftovers that accreted across the solar system but not in the belt itself.

  6. Deconstructing the conveyor belt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozier, M Susan

    2010-06-18

    For the past several decades, oceanographers have embraced the dominant paradigm that the ocean's meridional overturning circulation operates like a conveyor belt, transporting cold waters equatorward at depth and warm waters poleward at the surface. Within this paradigm, the conveyor, driven by changes in deepwater production at high latitudes, moves deep waters and their attendant properties continuously along western boundary currents and returns surface waters unimpeded to deepwater formation sites. A number of studies conducted over the past few years have challenged this paradigm by revealing the vital role of the ocean's eddy and wind fields in establishing the structure and variability of the ocean's overturning. Here, we review those studies and discuss how they have collectively changed our view of the simple conveyor-belt model.

  7. Metamorphic belts of Anatolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberhänsli, Roland; Prouteau, Amaury; Candan, Osman; Bousquet, Romain

    2015-04-01

    Investigating metamorphic rocks from high-pressure/low-temperature (HP/LT) belts that formed during the closure of several oceanic branches, building up the present Anatolia continental micro-plate gives insight to the palaeogeography of the Neotethys Ocean in Anatolia. Two coherent HP/LT metamorphic belts, the Tavşanlı Zone (distal Gondwana margin) and the Ören-Afyon-Bolkardağ Zone (proximal Gondwana margin), parallel their non-metamorphosed equivalent (the Tauride Carbonate Platform) from the Aegean coast in NW Anatolia to southern Central Anatolia. P-T conditions and timing of metamorphism in the Ören-Afyon-Bolkardağ Zone (>70?-65 Ma; 0.8-1.2 GPa/330-420°C) contrast those published for the overlying Tavşanlı Zone (88-78 Ma; 2.4 GPa/500 °C). These belts trace the southern Neotethys suture connecting the Vardar suture in the Hellenides to the Inner Tauride suture along the southern border of the Kirşehir Complex in Central Anatolia. Eastwards, these belts are capped by the Oligo-Miocene Sivas Basin. Another HP/LT metamorphic belt, in the Alanya and Bitlis regions, outlines the southern flank of the Tauride Carbonate Platform. In the Alanya Nappes, south of the Taurides, eclogites and blueschists yielded metamorphic ages around 82-80 Ma (zircon U-Pb and phengite Ar-Ar data). The Alanya-Bitlis HP belt testifies an additional suture not comparable to the northerly Tavşanlı and Ören-Afyon belts, thus implying an additional oceanic branch of the Neotethys. The most likely eastern lateral continuation of this HP belt is the Bitlis Massif, in SE Turkey. There, eclogites (1.9-2.4 GPa/480-540°C) occur within calc-arenitic meta-sediments and in gneisses of the metamorphic (Barrovian-type) basement. Zircon U-Pb ages revealed 84.4-82.4 Ma for peak metamorphism. Carpholite-bearing HP/LT metasediments representing the stratigraphic cover of the Bitlis Massif underwent 0.8-1.2 GPa/340-400°C at 79-74 Ma (Ar-Ar on white mica). These conditions compares to the Tav

  8. Mineralogy, Geochemistry and Stable Isotope Investigation of Gürkuyu Sb Mineralization (Gediz-Kütahya-NW Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeşim ÖZEN

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The Gürkuyu Sb mineralization is located in the western part of Anatolian tectonic belt, in southern part of İzmir-Ankara zone and in northern part of Menderes Massif. The mineralization located at west of the Koca hill in east of Gürkuyu village of Gediz (Kütahya-Turkey has been characterized through the detailed examinations involving sulfur and oxygen isotope. Serpentinites of Dağardı melange and crystallized limestones of Budağan limestone were hydrothermally altered by hydrothermal solutions, come from fissures and fractures due to tectonic movement during the thrust of melange and occurred silicified zone. Gürkuyu Sb mineralization suggest that occurred in this silicified zone. In Gürkuyu mineralization, primary ore minerals are antimonite and pyrite, secondary ore minerals are senarmontite, valentinite, orpiment and realgar. Quartz and calcite are the most common gangue minerals. In Gürkuyu Sb mineralization, δ34S values of stibnite are ranged from 1.0 ‰ to 1.3 ‰. δ18O values of quartz are ranged is 15.8 ‰ in Gürkuyu mineralization. Sulfur and oxygen isotope values are similar to the values for magmatic rocks and to the values for fluids of magmatic origin.Keywords: Stable isotope, Gürkuyu, Sb mineralization, Gediz, Kütahya, NW Turkey.

  9. MARA GREENSTONE BELT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    nearly flat (La/SmCN = 0.71 – 1.08) and light REE enriched (La/SmCN = 2.89). They also show negative anomalies of ..... Jahrb. B72: 109-229. Borg G and Krogh T 1999 Isotopic age data of single zircons from the Archaean. Sukumalnd Greenstone belt, Tanzania. J. Afr. Earth Sci. 29: 301-312. Borg G and Shackleton RM ...

  10. Indicator minerals as guides to base metal sulphide mineralisation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Zn-bearing minerals that act as indicator minerals for base metal sulphide mineralization from the Proterozoic Betul Belt,central India with special emphasis on their genetic significance have been discussed.Sulphide mineralisation is hosted by the felsic volcanic rocks and has similarities with volcanic-hosted massive ...

  11. Lap belt injuries in children.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGrath, N

    2010-07-01

    The use of adult seat belts without booster seats in young children may lead to severe abdominal, lumbar or cervical spine and head and neck injuries. We describe four characteristic cases of lap belt injuries presenting to a tertiary children\\'s hospital over the past year in addition to a review of the current literature. These four cases of spinal cord injury, resulting in significant long-term morbidity in the two survivors and death in one child, arose as a result of lap belt injury. These complex injuries are caused by rapid deceleration characteristic of high impact crashes, resulting in sudden flexion of the upper body around the fixed lap belt, and consequent compression of the abdominal viscera between the lap belt and spine. This report highlights the dangers of using lap belts only without shoulder straps. Age-appropriate child restraint in cars will prevent these injuries.

  12. NASA's Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Nicola; Mauk, Barry; Ukhorskiy, Aleksandr; Takahashi, Kazue; Sibeck, David; Grebowsky, Joseph; Kessel, Ramona

    Understanding of radiation belt physics has matured to the extent that we have identified a set of processes which interplay to cause the creation and variation of radiation populations. These universal processes operate coherently across the planetary radiation belts of the solar system, and have far reaching impacts even beyond. Improvements in our understanding of these processes will substantially enhance our ability to predict radiation dynamics and mitigate the impacts on space assets. An important link in developing fully predictive understanding of such processes is the Radiation Belt Storm Probes mission to be launched into Earth's radiation belts in 2012 as a part of NASA's Living with a Star program. RBSP comprises two spacecraft making in situ measurements for at least 2 years in nearly the same highly elliptical, low inclination orbits (1.1 x 5.8 RE, 10 degrees). The orbits are slightly different so that 1 spacecraft laps the other spacecraft about every 2.5 months, allowing separation of spatial from temporal affects over spatial scales ranging from 0.1 to 5 RE. The unusually comprehensive suite of instruments, identical on the two spacecraft, measures the particle spectra (electrons, ions, ion compositions), fields (E and B), and wave distributions (dE and dB) that are needed to resolve the most critical science questions. Here we describe the RBSP mission characteristics, review the most pressing science issues that need to be resolved to develop predictive understanding, and describe how RBSP will be used to resolve those issues.

  13. SLH Timing Belt Powertrain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Abe

    2014-04-09

    The main goal of this proposal was to develop and test a novel powertrain solution for the SLH hydroEngine, a low-cost, efficient low-head hydropower technology. Nearly two-thirds of U.S. renewable electricity is produced by hydropower (EIA 2010). According to the U.S. Department of Energy; this amount could be increased by 50% with small hydropower plants, often using already-existing dams (Hall 2004). There are more than 80,000 existing dams, and of these, less than 4% generate power (Blankinship 2009). In addition, there are over 800 irrigation districts in the U.S., many with multiple, non-power, low-head drops. These existing, non-power dams and irrigation drops could be retrofitted to produce distributed, baseload, renewable energy with appropriate technology. The problem is that most existing dams are low-head, or less than 30 feet in height (Ragon 2009). Only about 2% of the available low-head hydropower resource in the U.S. has been developed, leaving more than 70 GW of annual mean potential low-head capacity untapped (Hall 2004). Natel Energy, Inc. is developing a low-head hydropower turbine that operates efficiently at heads less than 6 meters and is cost-effective for deployment across multiple low-head structures. Because of the unique racetrack-like path taken by the prime-movers in the SLH, a flexible powertrain is required. Historically, the only viable technological solution was roller chain. Despite the having the ability to easily attach blades, roller chain is characterized by significant drawbacks, including high cost, wear, and vibration from chordal action. Advanced carbon- fiber-reinforced timing belts have been recently developed which, coupled with a novel belt attachment system developed by Natel Energy, result in a large reduction in moving parts, reduced mass and cost, and elimination of chordal action for increased fatigue life. The work done in this project affirmatively addressed each of the following 3 major uncertainties concerning

  14. Radiation Belt Storm Probes Ion Composition Experiment (RBSPICE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, D. G.; Lanzerotti, L. J.; Kim, C. K.; Stokes, M.; Ho, G.; Cooper, S.; Ukhorskiy, A.; Manweiler, J. W.; Jaskulek, S.; Haggerty, D. K.; Brandt, P.; Sitnov, M.; Keika, K.; Hayes, J. R.; Brown, L. E.; Gurnee, R. S.; Hutcheson, J. C.; Nelson, K. S.; Paschalidis, N.; Rossano, E.; Kerem, S.

    2013-11-01

    The Radiation Belt Storm Probes Ion Composition Experiment (RBSPICE) on the two Van Allen Probes spacecraft is the magnetosphere ring current instrument that will provide data for answering the three over-arching questions for the Van Allen Probes Program: RBSPICE will determine "how space weather creates the storm-time ring current around Earth, how that ring current supplies and supports the creation of the radiation belt populations," and how the ring current is involved in radiation belt losses. RBSPICE is a time-of-flight versus total energy instrument that measures ions over the energy range from ˜20 keV to ˜1 MeV. RBSPICE will also measure electrons over the energy range ˜25 keV to ˜1 MeV in order to provide instrument background information in the radiation belts. A description of the instrument and its data products are provided in this chapter.

  15. Geochemical and isotopic constraints on the genesis of the Jueluotage native copper mineralized basalt, Eastern Tianshan, Northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dayu; Zhou, Taofa; Yuan, Feng; Fiorentini, Marco L.; Said, Nuru; Lu, Yongjun; Pirajno, Franco

    2013-09-01

    The Jueluotage native copper mineralized basalt is located in the Jueluotage Volcanic-sedimentary Belt, Eastern Tianshan, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous region. The basalt, amygdaloidal basalt and tuff, which host native copper mineralization, were erupted in the lower strata of the Late Carboniferous Matoutan Formation. Whole-rock geochemistry shows that the basaltic occurrences at Shilipo, Heilongfeng, Changchengshan and Dongjianfeng have fractionated chondrite-normalized REE distributions and distinctly negative primitive mantle-normalized Nb, Ta and Ti anomalies. The whole-rock strontium, neodymium and lead isotopic data indicate low εSr(t) (-7.9 to +23.6), high εNd(t) (+2.5 to +7.1), with restricted 206Pb/204Pb (18.152-18.491), 207Pb/204Pb (15.521-15.562) and 208Pb/204Pb (37.978-38.251) ranges. On the basis of these data, we report that the Cu-bearing basalt is associated with high-iron tholeiitic basalts that were sourced from depleted continental lithosphere mantle garnet-bearing peridotite. The primary magma of the Cu-bearing basalt was: (1) relatively low in silica and magnesium; and (2) underwent only slight olivine and clinopyroxene crystal fractionation during the magmatic evolution process. In the Jueluotage belt, the Shilipo basalt lavas display significant geochemical similarities to numerous mafic intrusions that are present throughout the Jueluotage belt. Those mafic lavas and intrusions probably represent successive pulses of mafic magmatism, which lasted between ca. 310 and 270 Ma. A crucial empirical observation is that the Jueluotage volcanic-sedimentary belt is a well-known metallogenic province that contains a wide range of copper, nickel, gold, and iron mineral deposits. These mineral systems were formed at different times and are associated with radically different ore-forming processes. However, they are all within the Jueluotage belt, which is interpreted to be a suture zone between the Junggar and Tarim plates, northwestern China. We

  16. The age of Au-Cu-Pb-bearing veins in the poly-orogenic Ubendian Belt (Tanzania): U-Th-total Pb dating of hydrothermally altered monazite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazimoto, Emmanuel Owden; Schenk, Volker; Appel, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The age of gold-copper-lead mineralization in the Katuma Block of the Ubendian Belt remains controversial because of the lack of radiometric ages that correlate with the age of tectonothermal events of this poly-orogenic belt. Previous studies reported whole rock and mineral Pb-Pb ages ranging between 1,660 and 720 Ma. In this study, we report U-Th-total Pb ages of monazite from hydrothermally altered metapelites that host the Au-Cu-Pb-bearing veins. Three types of chemically and texturally distinct types of monazite grains or zones of grains were identified: monazite cores, which yielded a metamorphic age of 1,938 ± 11 Ma ( n = 40), corresponding to known ages of a regional metamorphic event, deformation and granitic plutonism in the belt; metamorphic overgrowths that date a subsequent metamorphic event at 1,827 ± 10 Ma ( n = 44) that postdates known eclogite metamorphism (at ca. 1,880 Ma) in the belt; hydrothermally altered poikilitic monazite, formed by dissolution-precipitation processes, representing the third type of monazite, constrain the age of a hydrothermal alteration event at 1,171 ± 17 Ma ( n = 19). This Mesoproterozoic age of the hydrothermal alteration coincides with the first amphibolite grade metamorphism of metasediments in the Wakole Block, which adjoins with a tectonic contact the vein-bearing Katuma Block to the southwest. The obtained distinct monazite ages not only constrain the ages of metamorphic events in the Ubendian Belt, but also provide a link between the metamorphism of the Wakole metasediments and the generation of the hydrothermal fluids responsible for the formation of the gold-copper-lead veins in the Katuma Block.

  17. The 2010-2011 revival of Jupiter's South Equatorial Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, R. S.; Fletcher, L. N.; Irwin, P. G. J.; Orton, G. S.; Rogers, J. H.

    2013-09-01

    In 2009-2010, Jupiter's South Equatorial Belt (SEB) faded to a very pale colour before the 2010-2011 revival restored the belt to its ordinary dark appearance. Mid-infrared images of the revival were taken using VISIR (VLT) across a range of wavelengths from 7 to 25 μm. These were used to retrieve changes in temperature and aerosol optical depth as the revival proceeded between November 2010 and September 2011.

  18. PROFILE DESIGN OF NONCIRCULAR BELT PULLEYS

    OpenAIRE

    Krawiec, Piotr; Marlewski, Adam

    2017-01-01

    During design of the envelope of a noncircular belt pulley one should take into account several conditions resulting from kinematics and geometry of the uneven-running strand transmission. Design of proper values of pitches for a belt pulley, which enable good cooperation between the belt pulley and the belt, should be carefully done. In available Polish literature and catalogues offered by belt manufacturers, one can find only detailed dimensions of belts with a trapezoidal profile. Informat...

  19. Geography of the asteroid belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zellner, B. H.

    1978-01-01

    The CSM classification serves as the starting point on the geography of the asteroid belt. Raw data on asteroid types are corrected for observational biases (against dark objects, for instance) to derive the distribution of types throughout the belt. Recent work on family members indicates that dynamical families have a true physical relationship, presumably indicating common origin in the breakup of a parent asteroid.

  20. Mineral resources

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Valsangkar, A.B.

    Marine minerals have been center of attraction to mankind since ancient times. The technological advances in the recent years show that the retrieval of underwater minerals from deep-sea can no longer be a dream. Marine minerals are terrigenous...

  1. Origin and pathways of the mineral dust transport to two Spanish EARLINET sites: Effect on the observed columnar and range-resolved dust optical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandija, Florian; Sicard, Michaël; Comerón, Adolfo; Alados-Arboledas, Lucas; Guerrero-Rascado, Juan Luis; Barragan, Ruben; Bravo-Aranda, Juan Antonio; Granados-Muñoz, Maria Jose; Lyamani, Hassan; Muñoz Porcar, Constantino; Rocadenbosch, Francisco; Rodríguez, Alejandro; Valenzuela, Antonio; García Vizcaíno, David

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, is presented a method for estimation of the effect of the transport process to aerosol optical properties. Aerosol optical data retrieved by lidars and sun-photometer measurements, are applied to Saharan dust events observed simultaneously at the two EARLINET/AERONET sites of Barcelona and Granada during the periods of June-September of 2012 and 2013. For this purpose, elastic lidar profiles and sun-photometer columnar retrievals are analyzed together with satellite observations and dust forecast models. Granada presents more than twice Saharan dust outbreaks compared to Barcelona. The scenarios favoring the Saharan dust outbreaks are identified in both places. The mineral dust originating in the Sahara region and arriving at both stations is usually transport wither over the Atlas Mountains or through an Atlantic pathway. Analyses of dust events affecting both stations reveal how differences in the transport process lead to differences in the aerosol optical properties measured at each station. Mean dust related Ångström exponent is 1.8 times higher in Barcelona than in Granada. This difference is a result of the additional contribution of anthropogenic aerosol, mainly in the aerosol fine mode, during the transport of the mineral dust plume over the Iberian Peninsula.

  2. Age constraints of the Wassa and Benso mesothermal gold deposits, Ashanti Belt, Ghana, West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra-Avila, Luis A.; Bourassa, Yan; Miller, John; Perrouty, Stéphane; Fiorentini, Marco L.; Campbell McCuaig, T.

    2015-12-01

    The Ashanti Belt in Ghana hosts numerous multi-million ounce gold deposits and is one of the most richly gold endowed Paleoproterozoic belts of the West African Craton. This work shows that the Wassa mineralized intrusion is part of the Sefwi Group. This unit at Wassa is strongly magnetic and show a distinctly high response in regional magnetic data sets compared to other units of equivalent age within the belt. The unit is inferred to be a lateral extension of an exposed fragment of what defines the substrate to the Tarkwa Basin sediments. The Wassa deposit, located in the eastern limb of the belt, is hosted within mafic to intermediate volcanic flows that are interbedded with minor horizons of volcaniclastics, clastic sediments. The clastic sediments include wackes and magnetite rich sedimentary layers, presumably derived from banded iron formations. The previously described sequence is intruded by syn-volcanic mafic intrusives and felsic porphyries rocks that are all part of the Birimian stratigraphy. Two new key SHRIMP II U-Pb ages were determined as part of this study: a new age of 2191 ± 6 Ma was determined on magmatic zircon grains of the Wassa porphyry host rock, which now represents the oldest known felsic intrusion hosting gold mineralization in the Ashanti Belt region. The Benso gold deposit system, which is located in the eastern limb of the Ashanti Belt approximately 38 km southwest of Wassa is hosted within a series of volcanic units intruded by mafic to intermediate units. A SHRIMP II U-Pb age of 2157 ± 5 Ma was determined from magmatic zircons obtained from a granodiorite of the G-Zone of the Benso deposit. This granodiorite is the main host rock for gold mineralization and thus the age provides an upper constraint for mineral emplacement. The newly determined ages provide an upper constraint for the gold mineralization within this region of the Ashanti Belt. They also support recent structural studies that have interpreted that the Wassa

  3. "Abomination"--life as a Bible belt gay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Bernadette

    2010-01-01

    Drawing on observation, autoethnography, and audio-taped interviews, this article explores the religious backgrounds and experiences of Bible Belt gays. In the Bible Belt, Christianity is not confined to Sunday worship. Christian crosses, messages, paraphernalia, music, news, and attitudes permeate everyday settings. Consequently, Christian fundamentalist dogma about homosexuality-that homosexuals are bad, diseased, perverse, sinful, other, and inferior-is cumulatively bolstered within a variety of other social institutions and environments in the Bible Belt. Of the 46 lesbians and gay men interviewed for this study (age 18-74 years), most describe living through spirit-crushing experiences of isolation, abuse, and self-loathing. This article argues that the geographic region of the Bible Belt intersects with religious-based homophobia. Informants explained that negative social attitudes about homosexuality caused a range of harmful consequences in their lives including the fear of going to hell, depression, low self-esteem, and feelings of worthlessness.

  4. Jupiter's radiation belt ions - A comparison of theory and observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, Danny; Thorne, Richard M.; Mei, YI

    1989-01-01

    Radial profiles are constructed for the Jovian radiation belt flux-tube content Y-asterisk from the reported phase-space density of energetic particles obtained from Voyager 1 data over the range L = 6 to L = 9. These experimental profiles are compared with theoretical solutions for Y-asterisk from an interchange-diffusion model of the coupled radiation belt and Iogenic ion populations. Subject to certain limitations of the Voyager 1 data, the model solutions are found to be consistent with the data for a variety of input parameters. Model solutions are also found corresponding to radiation belt ions that are expected to be mainly responsible for the auroral energy input. Comparison of the present theoretical profiles with the data implies that the energetic radiation belt ions should have a peak loss rate within a factor of three of that for strong diffusion scattering.

  5. Calculated limits for particle fluxes in Jupiter's Van Allen belts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haffner, J.

    1972-01-01

    Electron and proton fluxes in Jupiter's radiation belts are calculated, along with the envelopes of dose rates. The following assumptions are made: the particles in the Jupiter belts are influenced only by the magnetic field of the planet; the particles act correspondingly to the particles in the Earth's belts and the Earth's belts can be used as a model; the magnetic field of Jupiter is essentially a dipole; the radiation of a decimetric nature received from Jupiter is synchrotron radiation due to the electrons, and to a first approximation it is emitted isotropically; and the strength of the emission in the decimetric wavelength range gives an upper bound considering how strong the field can be and how many electrons there are. The point dose rates for tissue and 0.1 gram/cm aluminum shielding at about 3 Jupiter radii are 10000 rads/hr for electrons and 1000 rads/hr for protons.

  6. Ionic composition of the earth's radiation belts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spjeldvik, W. N.

    1983-01-01

    Several different ion species have been positively identified in the earth's radiation belts. Besides protons, there are substantial fluxes of helium, carbon and oxygen ions, and there are measurable quantities of even heavier ions. European, American and Soviet space experimenters have reported ion composition measurements over wide ranges of energies: at tens of keV (ring-current energies) and below, and at hundreds of keV and above. There is still a gap in the energy coverage from several tens to several hundreds of keV where little observational data are available. In this review emphasis is placed on the radiation belt ionic structure above 100 keV. Both quiet time conditions and geomagnetic storm periods are considered, and comparison of the available space observations is made with theoretical analysis of geomagnetically trapped ion spatial, energy and charge state distributions.

  7. Magnetic susceptibilities of minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblum, Sam; Brownfield, I.K.

    2000-01-01

    Magnetic separation of minerals is a topic that is seldom reported in the literature for two reasons. First, separation data generally are byproducts of other projects; and second, this study requires a large amount of patience and is unusually tedious. Indeed, we suspect that most minerals probably are never investigated for this property. These data are timesaving for mineralogists who concentrate mono-mineralic fractions for chemical analysis, age dating, and for other purposes. The data can certainly be used in the ore-beneficiation industries. In some instances, magnetic-susceptibility data may help in mineral identification, where other information is insufficient. In past studies of magnetic separation of minerals, (Gaudin and Spedden, 1943; Tille and Kirkpatrick, 1956; Rosenblum, 1958; Rubinstein and others, 1958; Flinter, 1959; Hess, 1959; Baker, 1962; Meric and Peyre, 1963; Rojas and others, 1965; and Duchesne, 1966), the emphasis has been on the ferromagnetic and paramagnetic ranges of extraction. For readers interested in the history of magnetic separation of minerals, Krumbein and Pettijohn (1938, p. 344-346) indicated nine references back to 1848. The primary purpose of this paper is to report the magnetic-susceptibility data on as many minerals as possible, similar to tables of hardness, specific gravity, refractive indices, and other basic physical properties of minerals. A secondary purpose is to demonstrate that the total and best extraction ranges are influenced by the chemistry of the minerals. The following notes are offered to help avoid problems in separating a desired mineral concentrate from mixtures of mineral grains.

  8. Chaos on the conveyor belt

    OpenAIRE

    Sándor, Bulcsú; Járai-Szabó, Ferenc; Tél, Tamás; Néda, Zoltán

    2013-01-01

    The dynamics of a spring-block train placed on a moving conveyor belt is investigated both by simple experiments and computer simulations. The first block is connected by spring to an external static point, and due to the dragging effect of the belt the blocks undergo complex stick-slip dynamics. A qualitative agreement with the experimental results can only be achieved by taking into account the spatial inhomogeneity of the friction force on the belt's surface, modeled as noise. As a functio...

  9. AUTOMATION OF CONVEYOR BELT TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenad Marinović

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available Belt conveyor transport, although one of the most economical mining transport system, introduce many problems to mantain the continuity of the operation. Every stop causes economical loses. Optimal operation require correct tension of the belt, correct belt position and velocity and faultless rolls, which are together input conditions for automation. Detection and position selection of the faults are essential for safety to eliminate fire hazard and for efficient maintenance. Detection and location of idler roll faults are still open problem and up to now not solved successfully (the paper is published in Croatian.

  10. Textural, compositional, and sulfur isotope variations of sulfide minerals in the Red Dog Zn-Pb-Ag deposits, Brooks Range, Alaska: Implications for Ore Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, K.D.; Leach, D.L.; Johnson, C.A.; Clark, J.L.; Fayek, M.; Slack, J.F.; Anderson, V.M.; Ayuso, R.A.; Ridley, W.I.

    2004-01-01

    The Red Dog Zn-Pb deposits are hosted in organic-rich mudstone and shale of the Mississippian Kuna Formation. A complex mineralization history is defined by four sphalerite types or stages: (1) early brown sphalerite, (2) yellow-brown sphalerite, (3) red-brown sphalerite, and (4) late tan sphalerite. Stages 2 and 3 constitute the main ore-forming event and are volumetrically the most important. Sulfides in stages 1 and 2 were deposited with barite, whereas stage 3 largely replaces barite. Distinct chemical differences exist among the different stages of sphalerite. From early brown sphalerite to later yellow-brown sphalerite and red-brown sphalerite, Fe and Co content generally increase and Mn and Tl content generally decrease. Early brown sphalerite contains no more than 1.9 wt percent Fe and 63 ppm Co, with high Mn (up to 37 ppm) and Tl (126 ppm), whereas yellow-brown sphalerite and red-brown sphalerite contain high Fe (up to 7.3 wt %) and Co (up to 382 ppm), and low Mn (sulfur isotope analyses show a progression from extremely low ??34S values for stage 1 (as low as -37.20???) to much higher values for yellow-brown sphalerite (mean of 3.3???; n = 30) and red-brown sphalerite (mean of 3.4; n = 20). Late tan sphalerite is isotopically light (-16.4 to -27.2???). The textural, chem ical, and isotopic data indicate the following paragenesis: (1) deposition of early brown sphalerite with abundant barite, minor pyrite, and trace galena immediately beneath the sea floor in unconsolidated mud; (2) deposition of yellow-brown sphalerite during subsea-floor hydrothermal recrystallization and coarsening of preexisting barite; (3) open-space deposition of barite, red-brown sphalerite and other sulfides in veins and coeval replacement of barite; and (4) postore sulfide deposition, including the formation of late tan sphalerite breccias. Stage 1 mineralization took place in a low-temperature environment where fluids rich in Ba mixed with pore water or water-column sulfate to

  11. Chaos on the conveyor belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sándor, Bulcsú; Járai-Szabó, Ferenc; Tél, Tamás; Néda, Zoltán

    2013-04-01

    The dynamics of a spring-block train placed on a moving conveyor belt is investigated both by simple experiments and computer simulations. The first block is connected by a spring to an external static point and, due to the dragging effect of the belt, the blocks undergo complex stick-slip dynamics. A qualitative agreement with the experimental results can be achieved only by taking into account the spatial inhomogeneity of the friction force on the belt's surface, modeled as noise. As a function of the velocity of the conveyor belt and the noise strength, the system exhibits complex, self-organized critical, sometimes chaotic, dynamics and phase transition-like behavior. Noise-induced chaos and intermittency is also observed. Simulations suggest that the maximum complexity of the dynamical states is achieved for a relatively small number of blocks (around five).

  12. Chaos on the conveyor belt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sándor, Bulcsú; Járai-Szabó, Ferenc; Tél, Tamás; Néda, Zoltán

    2013-04-01

    The dynamics of a spring-block train placed on a moving conveyor belt is investigated both by simple experiments and computer simulations. The first block is connected by a spring to an external static point and, due to the dragging effect of the belt, the blocks undergo complex stick-slip dynamics. A qualitative agreement with the experimental results can be achieved only by taking into account the spatial inhomogeneity of the friction force on the belt's surface, modeled as noise. As a function of the velocity of the conveyor belt and the noise strength, the system exhibits complex, self-organized critical, sometimes chaotic, dynamics and phase transition-like behavior. Noise-induced chaos and intermittency is also observed. Simulations suggest that the maximum complexity of the dynamical states is achieved for a relatively small number of blocks (around five).

  13. Audio magnetotelluric Investigation of Sulfide Mineralization in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    70

    Dhanjori Volcanics along with high geothermal gradient and rifted margin gives rise to metallogeny in form of rifted phase greenstone belts with gold enriched sulfide mineralization. The conductivity model indicated the presence of shallow conductors but could not be resolved due to lack of high frequency data. However ...

  14. How will organic carbon stocks in mineral soils evolve under future climate? Global projections using RothC for a range of climate change scenarios

    OpenAIRE

    Gottschalk, P.; Smith, J.U.; Wattenbach, M.; Bellarby, J.; Stehfest, E.; Arnell, N.; Osborn, T. J.; Jones, C.; Smith, P.

    2012-01-01

    We use a soil carbon (C) model (RothC), driven by a range of climate models for a range of climate scenarios to examine the impacts of future climate on global soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks. The results suggest an overall global increase in SOC stocks by 2100 under all scenarios, but with a different extent of increase among the climate model and emissions scenarios. The impacts of projected land use changes are also simulated, but have relatively minor impacts at the global scale. Whether...

  15. Cenozoic intracontinental deformation of the Kopeh Dagh Belt, Northeastern Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Yang; Wan, Bo; Chen, Ling; Talebian, Morteza

    2016-04-01

    Compressional intracontinental orogens represent large tectonic zones far from plate boundaries. Since intracontinental mountain belts cannot be framed in the conventional plate tectonics theory, several hypotheses have been proposed to account for the formations of these mountain belts. The far-field effect of collision/subduction at plate margins is now well accepted for the origin and evolution of the intracontinental crust thickening, as exemplified by the Miocene tectonics of central Asia. In northern Iran, the Binalud-Alborz mountain belt witnessed the Triassic tectonothermal events (Cimmerian orogeny), which are interpreted as the result of the Paleotethys Ocean closure between the Eurasia and Central Iran blocks. The Kopeh Dagh Belt, located to the north of the Binalud-Alborz Belt, has experienced two significant tectonic phases: (1) Jurassic to Eocene rifting with more than 7 km of sediments; and (2) Late Eocene-Early Oligocene to Quaternary continuous compression. Due to the high seismicity, deformation associated with earthquakes has received more and more attention; however, the deformation pattern and architecture of this range remain poorly understood. Detailed field observations on the Cenozoic deformation indicate that the Kopeh Dagh Belt can be divided into a western zone and an eastern zone, separated by a series of dextral strike-slip faults, i.e. the Bakharden-Quchan Fault System. The eastern zone characterized by km-scale box-fold structures, associated with southwest-dipping reverse faults and top-to-the NE kinematics. In contrast, the western zone shows top-to-the SW kinematics, and the deformation intensifies from NE to SW. In the northern part of this zone, large-scale asymmetrical anticlines exhibit SW-directed vergence with subordinate thrusts and folds, whereas symmetrical anticlines are observed in the southern part. In regard to its tectonic feature, the Kopeh Dagh Belt is a typical Cenozoic intracontinental belt without ophiolites or

  16. Radiometric Correction and 3D Integration of Long-Range Ground-Based Hyperspectral Imagery for Mineral Exploration of Vertical Outcrops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Lorenz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, ground-based hyperspectral imaging has come to the fore, supporting the arduous task of mapping near-vertical, difficult-to-access geological outcrops. The application of outcrop sensing within a range of one to several hundred metres, including geometric corrections and integration with accurate terrestrial laser scanning models, is already developing rapidly. However, there are few studies dealing with ground-based imaging of distant targets (i.e., in the range of several kilometres such as mountain ridges, cliffs, and pit walls. In particular, the extreme influence of atmospheric effects and topography-induced illumination differences have remained an unmet challenge on the spectral data. These effects cannot be corrected by means of common correction tools for nadir satellite or airborne data. Thus, this article presents an adapted workflow to overcome the challenges of long-range outcrop sensing, including straightforward atmospheric and topographic corrections. Using two datasets with different characteristics, we demonstrate the application of the workflow and highlight the importance of the presented corrections for a reliable geological interpretation. The achieved spectral mapping products are integrated with 3D photogrammetric data to create large-scale now-called “hyperclouds”, i.e., geometrically correct representations of the hyperspectral datacube. The presented workflow opens up a new range of application possibilities of hyperspectral imagery by significantly enlarging the scale of ground-based measurements.

  17. Beryllium resources of the tin-spodumene belt, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffitts, Wallace R.

    1954-01-01

    Pegmatite dikes in the tin-spodumene belt of North and South Carolina uniformly contain about 0.05 percent BeO. The most abundant minerals in the pegmatite contain from 0. 0001 to 0.01 percent BeO. Beryl, having 12.0 to 12.3 percent BeO, is the only beryllium-rich mineral and contains more than 80 percent of the total beryllium in the rock. Beryl-bearing pegmatite crops out on hillsides near streams that flow through the pegmatite belt. Much of the pegmatite contains spodumene, feldspar, mica, cassiterite, and columbite, as well as beryl, but separating these minerals will require milling. The minable spodumene ore in the Kings Mountain area, above a depth of 300 feet contains about 40,000 tons of beryl, equivalent to 6, 000 tons of BeO, if 80 percent of the BeO is assumed to be in beryl. Other pegmatite in that area contains an additional 238,000 tons of beryl, or 35, 900 tons of BeO. On the basis of the same assumptions the spodumene ore above a depth of 300 feet 1 in the Beaverdam Creek area contains 6, 000 tons of beryl, or 800 tons of BeO, and all other pegmatite in that area contains an additional 13, 000 tons of beryl, or 1, 700 tons of BeO. The entire tin-spodumene belt contains 823, 000 tons of beryl, equivalent to 122,800 tons of BeO. Little beryllium was found in the Piedmont province outside of the tin-spodumene belt.

  18. Tools used in mineral exploration for measuring the conductivity and the resistivity in drillholes and on drill core: observations on their range of sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, Devon; Smith, Richard S.; Mahmoodi, Omid

    2016-07-01

    A study has been undertaken to acquire conductivity data using the EM39 low-induction-number conductivity tool. Measurements were taken in three holes in the Sudbury, Ontario, area: at Victoria in the south-west part of the Sudbury structure; at Levack, in the north range; and at the Lady Violet deposit near Copper Cliff. These data were compared with pre-existing data acquired using four other tools and measurements taken on core extracted from the holes. The four tools are the DGI galvanic downhole resistivity tool, the IFG downhole conductivity tool, and the handheld KT-10 and GDD meters. The comparison shows that each tool has a finite range of sensitivity. The resistivity tool used by DGI Geoscience is sensitive to conductivities primarily in the range 0.01 to 100 mS/m; the EM39 tool is sensitive to conductivities in the range of ~30 mS/m to 3000 mS/m and the IFG tool to conductivities greater than 30 mS/m. In the sub-ranges where the ranges of two instruments overlap, one might expect a good correlation between the measurements derived from the two tools. However, this is not always the case, as the instruments can have a different volume of sensitivity: the EM39 has a coil separation of 50 cm and will see material greater than 20 cm away from the hole; whereas the IFG conductivity tool seems to have a smaller spatial scale of sensitivity due to its 10 cm coil size. The handheld instruments used to log the conductivity of the core are sensitive to more conductive material (greater than ~1 S/m). The scale of the sensors of these handheld instruments is a few cm, so they are focussing on a very local estimate. The spatial characteristics of the handheld instruments are similar to the IFG tool, so there is a reasonable linear correlation between the conductivities derived from these three different instruments. However, the slopes are not unity; for example, the GDD instrument gives values three times greater than the KT-10. When selecting tools for measuring

  19. Timing belts - development milestones and innovations; Meilensteine und Innovationen der Zahnriemenentwicklung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulte, H. [ContiTech Antriebssysteme GmbH, Hannover (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    Modern Timing Belts made of high temperature resistant elastomers for camshaft drives are designed for engine lifetime. Timing Belt drives gained in Europe 75% market share because of their advantages. The Belt drives generate up to 25% less friction than chain drives and create significantly lower noise levels. The new generation of Timing Belts are manufactured using: - special fibre glass types to transmit high forces with very high length stability - reinforced and Teflon treated fabrics to reduce friction and noise -high temperature resistant HNBR Elastomer to cover the temperature range (-40 C to +150 C) New belt drive developments are using Oval sprocket technology to eliminate unwanted vibrations and to reduce drive forces by 35%. Oil resistant Belts can substitute oil lubricated chains used for oil pump and camshaft drives to reduce the friction and noise level of the chain drives. (orig.)

  20. Radiation Belts of Antiparticles in Planetary Magnetospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugacheva, G. I.; Gusev, A. A.; Jayanthi, U. B.; Martin, I. M.; Spjeldvik, W. N.

    2007-05-01

    The Earth's radiation belts could be populated, besides with electrons and protons, also by antiparticles, such as positrons (Basilova et al., 1982) and antiprotons (pbar). Positrons are born in the decay of pions that are directly produced in nuclear reactions of trapped relativistic inner zone protons with the residual atmosphere at altitudes in the range of about 500 to 3000 km over the Earth's surface. Antiprotons are born by high energy (E > 6 GeV) cosmic rays in p+p - p+p+p+ pbar and in p+p - p+p+n+nbar reactions. The trapping and storage of these charged anti-particles in the magnetosphere result in radiation belts similar to the classical Van Allen belts of protons and electrons. We describe the mathematical techniques used for numerical simulation of the trapped positron and antiproton belt fluxes. The pion and antiproton yields were simulated on the basis of the Russian nuclear reaction computer code MSDM, a Multy Stage Dynamical Model, Monte Carlo code, (i.e., Dementyev and Sobolevsky, 1999). For estimates of positron flux there we have accounted for ionisation, bremsstrahlung, and synchrotron energy losses. The resulting numerical estimates show that the positron flux with energy >100 MeV trapped into the radiation belt at L=1.2 is of the order ~1000 m-2 s-1 sr-1, and that it is very sensitive to the shape of the trapped proton spectrum. This confined positron flux is found to be greater than that albedo, not trapped, mixed electron/positron flux of about 50 m-2 s-1 sr-1 produced by CR in the same region at the top of the geomagnetic field line at L=1.2. As we show in report, this albedo flux also consists mostly of positrons. The trapped antiproton fluxes produced by CR in the Earth's upper rarified atmosphere were calculated in the energy range from 10 MeV to several GeV. In the simulations we included a mathematic consideration of the radial diffusion process, both an inner and an outer antiproton source, losses of particles due to ionization process

  1. Pilot tests of a seat belt gearshift delay on the belt use of commercial fleet drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    the seat belt was buckled. Participants, commercial drivers from the United States and Canada who did not consistently wear their seat belts, could avoid the delay by fastening their seat belts. Unbelted participants experienced a delay of either a c...

  2. Mineralogical Mapping using Field and Image Based Spectra in Parts of Delhi-Aravalli Fold Belt, Rajasthan, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmuda Khatun

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to retrieve reflectance utilizing the raw (radiance data from EO-1 Hyperion dataset and to evaluate its application potential in mineral exploration in parts of Delhi-Aravalli Fold Belt region of western India. The area is marked by basement Precambrian gneissic rocks, overlain by supra crustal cover of the Aravalli Super group, Delhi Super group, Vindhyan Super group and younger rocks. These rocks are highly metamorphosed, structurally deformed and show sporadic occurrences of important ore minerals deposits of metallic (Pb, Zn, Cu and non metallic minerals (Apatite and Marbles. This paper involves generation of hyperspectral image spectra and field spectra to identify spectral characteristics of minerals. FLAASH (expansion atmospheric correction model was applied to retrieve reflectance image from the radiance data. Preprocessing techniques involved selection of good spectral bands, correction of missing lines and pixels before application of FLAASH atmospheric model. Using image processing techniques suitable for hyperspectral image analysis (Spectral Angle Mapper, MNF, End-member matching, Hyperion data over Udaipur, Dungarpur and Chittorgarh districts was analysed and minerals were identified such as rectorite, pyrope, dolomite, montmorillonite, erionite, talc, phologopite, pyrrohite, hematite,olivine, diopside, pyrite, tephrite, lepidolite, andalusite and Fe-rich chlorite. The end member map generated by using advance techniques like SAM was validated using ground truth and spot sample collected, therein, was further analyzed using spectro radiometer in VNIR range. Keeping view on the ubiquitous hydrothermal origin of base metals, special emphasis was put to clay-mica group of minerals as they often proxy for the zone of alteration. This lead to defining the exact zone of hydrothermal alteration throwing light on proximity with igneous intrusion and type associated of metal. Application of such technology

  3. Mineral oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furby, N. W.

    1973-01-01

    The characteristics of lubricants made from mineral oils are discussed. Types and compositions of base stocks are reviewed and the product demands and compositions of typical products are outlined. Processes for commercial production of mineral oils are examined. Tables of data are included to show examples of product types and requirements. A chemical analysis of three types of mineral oils is reported.

  4. Regional mapping of hydrothermally altered igneous rocks along the Urumieh-Dokhtar, Chagai, and Alborz Belts of western Asia using Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data and Interactive Data Language (IDL) logical operators: a tool for porphyry copper exploration and assessment: Chapter O in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mars, John L.; Zientek, M.L.; Hammarstrom, J.M.; Johnson, K.M.; Pierce, F.W.

    2014-01-01

    Regional maps of phyllic and argillic hydrothermal alteration were compiled using Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data and logical operator algorithms. The area mapped extends from northwestern Iran to southeastern Pakistan and includes volcanic and magmatic arcs that make up the Urumieh-Dokhtar volcanic belt (UDVB), the Chagai volcanic belt (CVB), and the central part of the Alborz magmatic belt (AMB). The volcanic belts span the Zagros-Makran transform zone and the present day Baluchistan (Makran) volcanic arc. ASTER visible near infrared (VNIR) data contain three bands between 0.52 and 0.86 micrometers (μm) and the short-wave infrared (SWIR) data consist of six bands spanning 1.6 to 2.43 μm with 15-meter (m), and 30-m resolution, respectively.

  5. Optimization and limits of electrostatic sorting by bi-polar charge of mineral mixtures in the fine grain size range. Final report. Optimierung und Grenzen der elektrostatischen Sortierung durch bipolare Aufladung von Mineralgemischen im Feinkornbereich. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    In this work, the charge distribution in mineral mixtures and the electrostatic sorting according to tribo-charging is examined on R-10 fractions in the particle size range of 50-200 {mu}m. The purpose of the investigations was combinations of pairs from quartz, calcite, heavy spar, river spar and the pairing anthracite/quartz. Separation experiments were also carried out for the quartz/calcite pair in the particle size range of 20-50 {mu}m. After a survey of the literature and the electrical processes in the contact of two materials, some theoretical considerations procede the investigations, which are concerned with the maximum surface charge density on particles, the electrostatic agglomeration and the calculation of particle track curves in an homogeneous electrical field. It is shown that in principle, electrostatic agglomerates can always be separated in an electrical field. (orig.).

  6. Geochemistry of altered and mineralized rocks from the Morey and Fandango Wilderness Study Areas, northern Hot Creek Range, Nye County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, J.T.; John, D.A.; Malcolm, M.J.; Briggs, P.H.; Crock, J.G.

    1986-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and the St. Johns River Water Management District are investigating the hydrogeology of the Floridan aquifer system. An essential element of this investigation is the design and construction of a monitor well network in the lower saline water-bearing zone which occurs at about 2,000 ft below land surface. During 1985, a well near Ponte Vedra in northeast St. Johns County was completed into the lower saline water-bearing zone at a depth of 1,980 to 2,035 ft below land surface. This well and other wells drilled under this or other programs will be used to monitor water levels and water chemistry of the lower saline zone. Chloride concentrations in water above the lower saline zone ranged from 14 to 270 mg/L and specific conductance ranged from 450 to 1,440 micromhos/cm c. In the lower zone, chloride concentrations were as much as 16,210 mg/L and specific conductance as much as 46,000 micromhos per centimeter. Aquifer head and artesian flow from the well generally increased with depth. Water temperatures also increased from 23 C in the upper part of the aquifer to more than 28 C in the lower saline zone. (USGS)

  7. Paleotethyan subduction process revealed from Triassic blueschists in the Lancang tectonic belt of Southwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Weiming; Wang, Yuejun; Zhang, Yanhua; Zhang, Yuzhi; Jourdan, Fred; Zi, Jianwei; Liu, Huichuan

    2015-11-01

    The subduction of the Paleotethyan Ocean and subsequent continental collision along the Lancang tectonic belt of the southeastern Paleotethyan belt is a major tectonic event in Southwest China, but the event of the subduction preceding the final collision is still not well-constrained. The mafic blueschists exposed in the Lancang accretionary complex provide crucial records of the Paleotethyan subduction process. In this paper, we present a set of new petrologic, geochronological and geochemical data for the Suyi mafic blueschists in the Lancang metamorphic zone. The mineral assemblage of these blueschists consists of zoned sodic amphibole (25-30%), albite (15-20%), epidote (25-30%), phengite (5-10%), chlorite (~ 5-10%), and minor amounts of actinolite, apatite, sphene, zircon, ilmenite, quartz and secondary limonite. This suggests a prograde metamorphism from ~ 0.5 to ~ 0.9 GPa and retrograde metamorphic overprinting (back to ~ 0.6 GPa) within the temperature range of 300-450 °C. The Suyi blueschists give a zircon U-Pb age of 260 ± 4 Ma and glaucophane minerals formed during prograde metamorphism yield a 40Ar/39Ar plateau age of 242 ± 5 Ma (MSWD = 0.77; P = 0.54). The blueschists have geochemical compositions of subalkaline basalt and show typical OIB-type REE and multi-elemental patterns and εNd(t) values ranging from + 3.35 to + 4.85. Based on available data, it is inferred that the protolith formed at 260 Ma and originated from a basaltic seamount. The basaltic rocks subducted down to 30-35 km depths beneath the Lincang arc to form the epidote blueschists at ~ 242 Ma. The blueschists were subsequently transported to shallower crustal levels in response to the continuous underthrust of the subducted slab and the continent-continent collision in the middle-late Triassic. These results provide a systematic constraint on the tectonic evolution and temporal framework of the southeastern Paleotethyan belt in Southwest China.

  8. Effects of Low-Impact Dance on Blood Biochemistry, Bone Mineral Density, the Joint Range of Motion of Lower Extremities, Knee Extension Torque, and Fall in Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hui Ying; Tu, Jui Hung; Hsu, Chin Hsing; Tsao, Te Hung

    2016-01-01

    The effect of low-impact dance on blood metabolites, the joint range of motion (ROM) of the lower extremities, knee extension torque, bone mass density (BMD), the number of falls, and the confidence to perform daily activities (Modified Falls Efficacy Scale [MFES]) was examined in older sedentary women (age: 59 ± 4 years) before and after a 16-week intervention. Results showed that the average score for the MFES, some parameters of blood chemistry, and joint ROM were significantly improved after low-impact intervention. In addition to improvements in blood lipids and body fat percentages, the increases shown in the parameters regarding the lower extremities may contribute to confidence in performing common daily activities in older women, although the number of falls did not significantly differ between the two groups during the 16-week period.

  9. How will organic carbon stocks in mineral soils evolve under future climate? Global projections using RothC for a range of climate change scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Gottschalk

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We use a soil carbon (C model (RothC, driven by a range of climate models for a range of climate scenarios to examine the impacts of future climate on global soil organic carbon (SOC stocks. The results suggest an overall global increase in SOC stocks by 2100 under all scenarios, but with a different extent of increase among the climate model and emissions scenarios. The impacts of projected land use changes are also simulated, but have relatively minor impacts at the global scale. Whether soils gain or lose SOC depends upon the balance between C inputs and decomposition. Changes in net primary production (NPP change C inputs to the soil, whilst decomposition usually increases under warmer temperatures, but can also be slowed by decreased soil moisture. Underlying the global trend of increasing SOC under future climate is a complex pattern of regional SOC change. SOC losses are projected to occur in northern latitudes where higher SOC decomposition rates due to higher temperatures are not balanced by increased NPP, whereas in tropical regions, NPP increases override losses due to higher SOC decomposition. The spatial heterogeneity in the response of SOC to changing climate shows how delicately balanced the competing gain and loss processes are, with subtle changes in temperature, moisture, soil type and land use, interacting to determine whether SOC increases or decreases in the future. Our results suggest that we should stop looking for a single answer regarding whether SOC stocks will increase or decrease under future climate, since there is no single answer. Instead, we should focus on improving our prediction of the factors that determine the size and direction of change, and the land management practices that can be implemented to protect and enhance SOC stocks.

  10. The Overthrust Belt of Western North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verrall, P.

    1993-02-01

    The Overthrust Belt extends for 5000 mi (8000 km) from the Brooks Range in Alaska to the Sierra Madre Oriental in Mexico. It consists of northeastward vergent thrust and fold structures involving late Precambrian to early Tertiary sedimentary section. These sediments represent deposition off the western rift margin, formed in late Precambrian time, of the North American Precambrian craton. The northeastward thrusting continued throughout the Mesozoic as a response to the convergence of the East Pacific Plate with the North American Plate. This convergence resulted in subduction beneath the North American Plate except at the northwest end (the Brooks Range) where the result was obduction. Convergence ceased when the west edge of the East Pacific Plate reached the subduction zone. The sedimentary section involved in the Thrust Belt contains good Devonian to Cretaceous hydrocarbon source rocks, and Ordovician to traps related to the thrusting (simple thrust sheets, imbricate thrust sheets, folded thrust sheets, step anticlines, footwall cutoffs, footwall anticlines, etc.). Field methods involved in exploration for hydrocarbons include field geological mapping, remote sensing (aerial photography and Landsat imagery), various seismic refraction and seismic reflection techniques (including modern detailed three dimension surveys) and potential field methods such as gravity and magnetic surveying. Studies of the field data include paleontology, source rock and hydrocarbon migration studies, structural and stratigraphic analyses, and the processing of geophysical data. This work has succeeded in two major areas: the Western Canadian Rocky Mountain Foothills, a major gas province producing mainly from Paleozoic reservoirs; and the Wyoming-Idaho-Utah portion of the thrust belt, also a major gas producer from Paleozoic reservoirs and, in addition, a major oil producer from the Jurassic Nugget Sandstone.

  11. Complex fragmentation and silicification structures in fault zones: quartz mineralization and repeated fragmentation along the Fountain Range Fault (Mt. Isa Inlier, Australia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seybold, Lina; Blenkinsop, Tom; Heuss, Soraya; Ord, Alison; Kruhl, Jörn H.

    2015-04-01

    In large-scale fault zones fracture networks are commonly generated by high volumes of pressurized fluids, followed by quartz precipitation. In this way large amounts of quartz are formed as microcrystalline masses and as complex vein systems, with partly highly different textures, as a result of different formation processes. Based on field and microstructural data and the quantification of vein patterns, the spatial and temporal connection between fragmentation, quartz crystallization and fluid and material flow along the Fountain Range Fault at Fountain Springs was investigated. Dextral strike-slip led to up to 25 km horizontal displacement along the fault. Due to various fragmentation and quartz formation processes, a ca. 100 m high, 80 - 100 m wide and km-long quartz ridge with numerous vein systems and variable microfabrics was formed. Locally, lenses of highly altered metamorphic wall-rocks occur in the quartz zone. Where exposed, the contact to wall rocks is sharp. Millimetre- to decimetre-thick quartz veins penetrate the wall-rocks only within metre distance from the contact. Several clearly distinguishable fine-grained reddish, brownish to dark and pigment-rich quartz masses form up to 50 m wide and up to several 100 m long steep lenses that build the major part of the silicified fault zone. A chronology can be established. Some of these lenses are oriented slightly oblique to the general trend of the quartz zone, in agreement with the supposed dextral strike slip along the fault. Numerous generations of typically µm-cm thick quartz veins transect the microcrystalline quartz masses and, locally, form anisotropic networks. In the quartz masses, angular fragments often composed of quartz with, again, internal fragmentation structures, indicate earlier fracturing and silicification events. Within the veins, quartz forms geodes, locally filled with fine-grained reddish quartz and palisade structures with feathery textures and fluid-inclusion zoning

  12. Electrospun nanofiber belts made from high performance copolyimide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuiliang; Hu, Ping; Greiner, Andreas; Cheng, Chuyun; Cheng, Haofang; Chen, Fangfang; Hou, Haoqing

    2008-01-09

    Electrospun nanofibers based on copolyimides were made, aiming at finding a promising method for improving the mechanical properties of electrospun polyimide nanofibers. The copolyimide had a backbone consisting of 3,3',4,4'-biphenyl-tetracarboxylic dianhydride (BPDA), biphenylamide (BPA) and 4,4'-oxydianiline (ODA) residues. The structure and composition of the copolyimide was controlled by the ratio of rigid BPA and flexible ODA moieties. The electrospun copolyimide nanofibers were collected in the form of a belt using a rotating disc with a rim of 8 mm width. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), infrared (IR) spectroscopy, x-ray scattering and tensile testing, dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were used to characterize the nanofiber belts. The nanofibers had a diameter range from 80 to 300 nm and were well aligned in the belts. The thermal stability of the nanofiber belts was over 460 °C. The tensile test showed that the copolyimide nanofiber belts had much better mechanical properties than either of the flexible and rigid homo-polyimide (homo-PI) nanofiber belts. The tensile strength, modulus and elongation to break of the copolyimide nanofiber belt with BPA/ODA ratio of 40/60 are respectively 1.1 ± 0.1 GPa, 6.2 ± 0.7 GPa and 20.8 ± 1.2%, compared to 459 ± 36 MPa, 2.1 ± 0.3 GPa and 41.3 ± 2.2% for BPDA/ODA homo-PI as well as 384 ± 18 MPa, 11.5 ± 0.6 GPa and 3.9 ± 0.1% for BPDA/BPA homo-PI. The important feature is that the electrospun polymer nanofibers can be made very strong by using copolyimides as spinning materials.

  13. The evolution of Saturn's radiation belts modulated by changes in radial diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollmann, P.; Roussos, E.; Kotova, A.; Paranicas, C.; Krupp, N.

    2017-12-01

    Globally magnetized planets, such as the Earth1 and Saturn2, are surrounded by radiation belts of protons and electrons with kinetic energies well into the million electronvolt range. The Earth's proton belt is supplied locally from galactic cosmic rays interacting with the atmosphere3, as well as from slow inward radial transport4. Its intensity shows a relationship with the solar cycle4,5 and abrupt dropouts due to geomagnetic storms6,7. Saturn's proton belts are simpler than the Earth's because cosmic rays are the principal source of energetic protons8 with virtually no contribution from inward transport, and these belts can therefore act as a prototype to understand more complex radiation belts. However, the time dependence of Saturn's proton belts had not been observed over sufficiently long timescales to test the driving mechanisms unambiguously. Here we analyse the evolution of Saturn's proton belts over a solar cycle using in-situ measurements from the Cassini Saturn orbiter and a numerical model. We find that the intensity in Saturn's proton radiation belts usually rises over time, interrupted by periods that last over a year for which the intensity is gradually dropping. These observations are inconsistent with predictions based on a modulation in the cosmic-ray source, as could be expected4,9 based on the evolution of the Earth's proton belts. We demonstrate that Saturn's intensity dropouts result instead from losses due to abrupt changes in magnetospheric radial diffusion.

  14. Mineral resource of the month: boron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crangle, Robert D.

    2012-01-01

    The article offers information on the mineral, boron. Boron compounds, particularly borates, have more commercial applications than its elemental relative which is a metalloid. Making up the 90% of the borates that are used worldwide are colemanite, kernite, tincal, and ulexite. The main borate deposits are located in the Mojave Desert of the U.S., the Tethyan belt in southern Asia, and the Andean belt of South America. Underground and surface mining are being used in gathering boron compounds. INSETS: Fun facts;Boron production and consumption.

  15. Petrology of the Horoman Ultramafic Rocks in the Hidaka Metamorphic Belt, Hokkaido, Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Niida, Kiyoaki

    1984-01-01

    The Horoman ultramafic massif, covering more than 8×10 km in the Hidaka Metamorphic Belt, is an "alpine-type" peridotite which is a gently warped sheet about 3,000 m in thickness. The massif exhibits a conspicuous layered structure which consists of layers of dunite, lherzolite, plagioclase lherzolite, and a small amount of gabbro and pyroxenite. Coexisting minerals from all the rock types of the layered ultramafic to mafic sequence were analysed by EPMA. The ferromagnesian minerals show larg...

  16. Rotationally driven 'zebra stripes' in Earth's inner radiation belt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukhorskiy, A Y; Sitnov, M I; Mitchell, D G; Takahashi, K; Lanzerotti, L J; Mauk, B H

    2014-03-20

    Structured features on top of nominally smooth distributions of radiation-belt particles at Earth have been previously associated with particle acceleration and transport mechanisms powered exclusively by enhanced solar-wind activity. Although planetary rotation is considered to be important for particle acceleration at Jupiter and Saturn, the electric field produced in the inner magnetosphere by Earth's rotation can change the velocity of trapped particles by only about 1-2 kilometres per second, so rotation has been thought inconsequential for radiation-belt electrons with velocities of about 100,000 kilometres per second. Here we report that the distributions of energetic electrons across the entire spatial extent of Earth's inner radiation belt are organized in regular, highly structured and unexpected 'zebra stripes', even when the solar-wind activity is low. Modelling reveals that the patterns are produced by Earth's rotation. Radiation-belt electrons are trapped in Earth's dipole-like magnetic field, where they undergo slow longitudinal drift motion around the planet because of the gradient and curvature of the magnetic field. Earth's rotation induces global diurnal variations of magnetic and electric fields that resonantly interact with electrons whose drift period is close to 24 hours, modifying electron fluxes over a broad energy range into regular patterns composed of multiple stripes extending over the entire span of the inner radiation belt.

  17. 49 CFR 393.93 - Seats, seat belt assemblies, and seat belt assembly anchorages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Seats, seat belt assemblies, and seat belt... § 393.93 Seats, seat belt assemblies, and seat belt assembly anchorages. (a) Buses—(1) Buses... on or after January 1, 1965, and before July 1, 1971, must be equipped with a Type 1 or Type 2 seat...

  18. French experience in seat belt use.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lassarre, S. & Page, Y.

    1992-01-01

    This paper concerns the French experience in seat belt use. As well as the seat belt regulations, the strategies employed to reinforce the wearing of seat belts by using information and encouragement campaigns and checks by the police and gendarmerie are described here along with their timetables

  19. 36 CFR 4.15 - Safety belts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety belts. 4.15 Section 4... TRAFFIC SAFETY § 4.15 Safety belts. (a) Each operator and passenger occupying any seating position of a motor vehicle in a park area will have the safety belt or child restraint system properly fastened at...

  20. 36 CFR 1004.15 - Safety belts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety belts. 1004.15 Section... belts. (a) Each operator and passenger occupying any seating position of a motor vehicle in the area administered by the Presidio Trust will have the safety belt or child restraint system properly fastened at all...

  1. 46 CFR 169.723 - Safety belts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Safety belts. 169.723 Section 169.723 Shipping COAST... Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment § 169.723 Safety belts. Each vessel must carry a harness type safety belt conforming to Offshore Racing Council (ORC) standards for each person on watch or...

  2. 14 CFR 27.1413 - Safety belts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Safety belts. 27.1413 Section 27.1413 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Safety Equipment § 27.1413 Safety belts. Each safety belt...

  3. Kuiper belts around nearby stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nilsson, R.; Liseau, R.; Brandeker, A.; Olofsson, G.; Pilbratt, G. L.; Risacher, C.; Rodmann, J.; Augereau, J-C.; Bergman, P.; Eiroa, C.; Fridlund, M.; Thebault, P.; White, G. J.

    2010-01-01

    Context. The existence of dusty debris disks around a large fraction of solar type main-sequence stars, inferred from excess far-IR and submillimetre emission compared to that expected from stellar photospheres, suggests that leftover planetesimal belts analogous to the asteroid-and comet reservoirs

  4. Seat Belts: 1949-1956

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-04-01

    The study assesses the impact of the consumer misconceptions, the lack of a seat belt standard, corporate attitudes towards safety, and the role of safety advocates. In addition, the study assesses the validity of the oft-stated hypothesis "safety do...

  5. Tectonic superposition of the Kurosegawa Terrane upon the Sanbagawa metamorphic belt in eastern Shikoku, southwest Japan; K-Ar ages of weakly metamorphosed rocks in northeastern Kamikatsu town, Tokushima Prefecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Hisashi; Isozaki, Yukio (Yamaguchi Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Science); Itaya, Tetsumaru

    1990-02-01

    Weakly metamorphosed pre-Cenozoic accretionary complex in the northern part of the Chichibu Belt in Kamikatsu Town, eastern Shikoku, consists of two distinct geologic units; the Northern Unit and Southern Unit. The Northern Unit is composed mainly of phyllitic pelites and basic tuff with allochthonous blocks of chert and limestone, and possesses mineral paragenesis of the glaucophane schist facies. The Southern Unit is composed mainly of phyllitic pelites with allochthonous blocks of sandstone, limestone, massive green rocks, and chert, and possesses mineral paragenesis of the pumpellyite-actinolite facies. The Southern Unit tectonically overlies the Northern Univ by the south-dipping Jiganji Fault. K-Ar ages were dated for the recrystallized white micas from 11 samples of pelites and basic tuff in the Northern Unit, and from 6 samples of pelites in the Southern Unit. The K-Ar ages of the samples from the Northern Unit range in 129-112 Ma, and those from the Southern Unit in 225-194 Ma. In terms of metamorphic ages, the Northern Unit and Southern Unit are referred to the constituents of the Sanbagawa Metamorphic Belt, and to those of the Kurosegawa Terrane, respectively. Thus, tectonic superposition of these two units in the study area suggests that the Kurosegawa Terrane occurs in a higher structural position over the Sanbagawa Metamorphic Belt in eastern Shikoku. (author).

  6. Mineral resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henckens, M.L.C.M.; Ierland, van E.C.; Driessen, P.P.J.; Worrell, E.

    2016-01-01

    The extractable ores of the world's geologically scarcest mineral resources (e.g. antimony, molybdenum and zinc) may be exhausted within several decades to a century, if their extraction continues to increase. This paper explores the likelihood that these scarce mineral resources can be conserved

  7. Characterization of airborne float coal dust emitted during continuous mining, longwall mining and belt transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahan, M.R.; Seaman, C.E.; Beck, T.W.; Colinet, J.F.; Mischler, S.E.

    2017-01-01

    Float coal dust is produced by various mining methods, carried by ventilating air and deposited on the floor, roof and ribs of mine airways. If deposited, float dust is re-entrained during a methane explosion. Without sufficient inert rock dust quantities, this float coal dust can propagate an explosion throughout mining entries. Consequently, controlling float coal dust is of critical interest to mining operations. Rock dusting, which is the adding of inert material to airway surfaces, is the main control technique currently used by the coal mining industry to reduce the float coal dust explosion hazard. To assist the industry in reducing this hazard, the Pittsburgh Mining Research Division of the U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health initiated a project to investigate methods and technologies to reduce float coal dust in underground coal mines through prevention, capture and suppression prior to deposition. Field characterization studies were performed to determine quantitatively the sources, types and amounts of dust produced during various coal mining processes. The operations chosen for study were a continuous miner section, a longwall section and a coal-handling facility. For each of these operations, the primary dust sources were confirmed to be the continuous mining machine, longwall shearer and conveyor belt transfer points, respectively. Respirable and total airborne float dust samples were collected and analyzed for each operation, and the ratio of total airborne float coal dust to respirable dust was calculated. During the continuous mining process, the ratio of total airborne float coal dust to respirable dust ranged from 10.3 to 13.8. The ratios measured on the longwall face were between 18.5 and 21.5. The total airborne float coal dust to respirable dust ratio observed during belt transport ranged between 7.5 and 21.8. PMID:28936001

  8. Characterization of airborne float coal dust emitted during continuous mining, longwall mining and belt transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahan, M R; Seaman, C E; Beck, T W; Colinet, J F; Mischler, S E

    2017-09-01

    Float coal dust is produced by various mining methods, carried by ventilating air and deposited on the floor, roof and ribs of mine airways. If deposited, float dust is re-entrained during a methane explosion. Without sufficient inert rock dust quantities, this float coal dust can propagate an explosion throughout mining entries. Consequently, controlling float coal dust is of critical interest to mining operations. Rock dusting, which is the adding of inert material to airway surfaces, is the main control technique currently used by the coal mining industry to reduce the float coal dust explosion hazard. To assist the industry in reducing this hazard, the Pittsburgh Mining Research Division of the U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health initiated a project to investigate methods and technologies to reduce float coal dust in underground coal mines through prevention, capture and suppression prior to deposition. Field characterization studies were performed to determine quantitatively the sources, types and amounts of dust produced during various coal mining processes. The operations chosen for study were a continuous miner section, a longwall section and a coal-handling facility. For each of these operations, the primary dust sources were confirmed to be the continuous mining machine, longwall shearer and conveyor belt transfer points, respectively. Respirable and total airborne float dust samples were collected and analyzed for each operation, and the ratio of total airborne float coal dust to respirable dust was calculated. During the continuous mining process, the ratio of total airborne float coal dust to respirable dust ranged from 10.3 to 13.8. The ratios measured on the longwall face were between 18.5 and 21.5. The total airborne float coal dust to respirable dust ratio observed during belt transport ranged between 7.5 and 21.8.

  9. Dynamics of the low altitude secondary proton radiation belt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusev, A A; Kohno, T; Spjeldvik, W N; Martin, I M; Pugacheva, G I; Turtelli, A

    1998-01-01

    At the interface between the upper atmosphere and the radiation belt region, there exists a secondary radiation belt consisting mainly of energetic ions that have become neutralized in the ring current and the main radiation belt and then re-ionized by collisions in the inner exosphere. The time history of the proton fluxes in the 0.64-35 MeV energy range was traced in the equatorial region beneath the main radiation belts during the three year period from 21 February 1984 to 26 March 1987 using data obtained with the HEP experiment on board the Japanese OHZORA satellite. During most of this period a fairly small proton flux of -1.2 cm-2 S-1 sr-1 was detected on geomagnetic field lines in the range 1.05 < L < 1.15. We report a few surprisingly deep and rapid flux decreases (flux reduction by typically two orders of magnitude). These flux decreases were also long in duration (lasting up to three months). We also registered abrupt flux increases where the magnitude of the proton flux enhancements could reach three orders of magnitude with an enhancement duration of 1-3 days. Possible reasons for these unexpected phenomena are discussed.

  10. Saturation of Van Allen's belts

    CERN Document Server

    Le Bel, E

    2002-01-01

    The maximum number of electrons that can be trapped in van Allen's belts has been evaluated at CEA-DAM more precisely than that commonly used in the space community. The modelization that we have developed allows to understand the disagreement (factor 50) observed between the measured and predicted electrons flux by US satellites and theory. This saturation level allows sizing-up of the protection on a satellite in case of energetic events. (authors)

  11. Use of seatbelts in cars with automatic belts.

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, A F; Wells, J K; Lund, A K; Teed, N J

    1992-01-01

    Use of seatbelts in late model cars with automatic or manual belt systems was observed in suburban Washington, DC, Chicago, Los Angeles, and Philadelphia. In cars with automatic two-point belt systems, the use of shoulder belts by drivers was substantially higher than in the same model cars with manual three-point belts. This finding was true in varying degrees whatever the type of automatic belt, including cars with detachable nonmotorized belts, cars with detachable motorized belts, and esp...

  12. Sulfur, carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen isotope geochemistry of the Idaho cobalt belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Craig A.; Bookstrom, Arthur A.; Slack, John F.

    2012-01-01

    Cobalt-copper ± gold deposits of the Idaho cobalt belt, including the deposits of the Blackbird district, have been analyzed for their sulfur, carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen isotope compositions to improve the understanding of ore formation. Previous genetic hypotheses have ranged widely, linking the ores to the sedimentary or diagenetic history of the host Mesoproterozoic sedimentary rocks, to Mesoproterozoic or Cretaceous magmatism, or to metamorphic shearing. The δ34S values are nearly uniform throughout the Blackbird dis- trict, with a mean value for cobaltite (CoAsS, the main cobalt mineral) of 8.0 ± 0.4‰ (n = 19). The data suggest that (1) sulfur was derived at least partly from sedimentary sources, (2) redox reactions involving sulfur were probably unimportant for ore deposition, and (3) the sulfur was probably transported to sites of ore for- mation as H2S. Hydrogen and oxygen isotope compositions of the ore-forming fluid, which are calculated from analyses of biotite-rich wall rocks and tourmaline, do not uniquely identify the source of the fluid; plausible sources include formation waters, metamorphic waters, and mixtures of magmatic and isotopically heavy meteoric waters. The calculated compositions are a poor match for the modified seawaters that form vol- canogenic massive sulfide (VMS) deposits. Carbon and oxygen isotope compositions of siderite, a mineral that is widespread, although sparse, at Blackbird, suggest formation from mixtures of sedimentary organic carbon and magmatic-metamorphic carbon. The isotopic compositions of calcite in alkaline dike rocks of uncertain age are consistent with a magmatic origin. Several lines of evidence suggest that siderite postdated the emplacement of cobalt and copper, so its significance for the ore-forming event is uncertain. From the stable isotope perspective, the mineral deposits of the Idaho cobalt belt contrast with typical VMS and sedimentary exhalative deposits. They show characteristics of deposit

  13. Hydrothermal minerals

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nath, B.N.

    , radon etc. to locate active venting site 4. Seabed sampling for rocks and minerals looking for indications of hydrothermal mineralization 5. TV and still Photographic surveys with real- time imaging on board 6. Submersible/ROVs for direct... thriving in this unique environments. However, the study of hydrothermal systems is still relatively young, and there are many fundamental questions that remain to be addressed in the forthcoming years. Suggested reading 1. Seafloor hydrothermal...

  14. Cofilin activation during podosome belt formation in osteoclasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blangy, Anne; Touaitahuata, Heiani; Cres, Gaelle; Pawlak, Geraldine

    2012-01-01

    Podosomes are dynamic actin-based structures found constitutively in cells of monocytic origin such as macrophages, dendritic cells and osteoclasts. They have been involved in osteoclast cell adhesion, motility and matrix degradation, and all these functions rely on the ability of podosomes to form supra-molecular structures called podosome belts or sealing zones on mineralized substrates. Podosomes contain two distinct domains, an actin-rich core enriched in actin polymerization regulators, surrounded by a ring of signaling and plaque molecules. The organization of podosome arrays into belts is linked to actin dynamics. Cofilin is an actin-severing protein that is known to regulate cytoskeleton architecture and cell migration. Cofilin is present in lamellipodia and invadopodia where it regulates actin polymerization. In this report, we show that cofilin is a novel component of the podosome belt, the mature osteoclast adhesion structure. Time-course analysis demonstrated that cofilin is activated during primary osteoclast differentiation, at the time of podosome belt assembly. Immunofluorescence studies reveal a localization of active cofilin in the podosome core structure, whereas phosphorylated, inactive cofilin is concentrated in the podosome cloud. Pharmacological studies unraveled the role of a specific cofilin phosphatase to achieve cofilin activation during osteoclast differentiation. We ruled out the implication of PP1/PP2A and PTEN in this process, and rather provided evidence for the involvement of SSH1. In summary, our data involve cofilin as a regulator of podosome organization that is activated during osteoclast differentiation by a RANKL-mediated signaling pathway targeting the SSH1 phosphatase.

  15. Cofilin activation during podosome belt formation in osteoclasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Blangy

    Full Text Available Podosomes are dynamic actin-based structures found constitutively in cells of monocytic origin such as macrophages, dendritic cells and osteoclasts. They have been involved in osteoclast cell adhesion, motility and matrix degradation, and all these functions rely on the ability of podosomes to form supra-molecular structures called podosome belts or sealing zones on mineralized substrates. Podosomes contain two distinct domains, an actin-rich core enriched in actin polymerization regulators, surrounded by a ring of signaling and plaque molecules. The organization of podosome arrays into belts is linked to actin dynamics. Cofilin is an actin-severing protein that is known to regulate cytoskeleton architecture and cell migration. Cofilin is present in lamellipodia and invadopodia where it regulates actin polymerization. In this report, we show that cofilin is a novel component of the podosome belt, the mature osteoclast adhesion structure. Time-course analysis demonstrated that cofilin is activated during primary osteoclast differentiation, at the time of podosome belt assembly. Immunofluorescence studies reveal a localization of active cofilin in the podosome core structure, whereas phosphorylated, inactive cofilin is concentrated in the podosome cloud. Pharmacological studies unraveled the role of a specific cofilin phosphatase to achieve cofilin activation during osteoclast differentiation. We ruled out the implication of PP1/PP2A and PTEN in this process, and rather provided evidence for the involvement of SSH1. In summary, our data involve cofilin as a regulator of podosome organization that is activated during osteoclast differentiation by a RANKL-mediated signaling pathway targeting the SSH1 phosphatase.

  16. Aggregate and Mineral Resources - Minerals

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — This point occurrence data set represents the current mineral and selected energy resources of Utah. The data set coordinates were derived from USGS topographic maps...

  17. Synchronous and Cogged Fan Belt Performance Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cutler, D.; Dean, J.; Acosta, J.

    2014-02-01

    The GSA Regional GPG Team commissioned the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to perform monitoring of cogged V-belts and synchronous belts on both a constant volume and a variable air volume fan at the Byron G. Rodgers Federal Building and U.S. Courthouse in Denver, Colorado. These motor/fan combinations were tested with their original, standard V-belts (appropriately tensioned by an operation and maintenance professional) to obtain a baseline for standard operation. They were then switched to the cogged V-belts, and finally to synchronous belts. The power consumption by the motor was normalized for both fan speed and air density changes. This was necessary to ensure that the power readings were not influenced by a change in rotational fan speed or by the power required to push denser air. Finally, energy savings and operation and maintenance savings were compiled into an economic life-cycle cost analysis of the different belt options.

  18. ALMA Discovery of Dust Belts around Proxima Centauri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anglada, Guillem; Amado, Pedro J.; Ortiz, Jose L.; Gómez, José F.; Macías, Enrique; Alberdi, Antxon; Osorio, Mayra; Gómez, José L.; de Gregorio-Monsalvo, Itziar; Pérez-Torres, Miguel A.; Anglada-Escudé, Guillem; Berdiñas, Zaira M.; Jenkins, James S.; Jimenez-Serra, Izaskun; Lara, Luisa M.; López-González, Maria J.; López-Puertas, Manuel; Morales, Nicolas; Ribas, Ignasi; Richards, Anita M. S.; Rodríguez-López, Cristina; Rodriguez, Eloy

    2017-11-01

    Proxima Centauri, the star closest to our Sun, is known to host at least one terrestrial planet candidate in a temperate orbit. Here we report the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) detection of the star at 1.3 mm wavelength and the discovery of a belt of dust orbiting around it at distances ranging between 1 and 4 au, approximately. Given the low luminosity of the Proxima Centauri star, we estimate a characteristic temperature of about 40 K for this dust, which might constitute the dust component of a small-scale analog to our solar system’s Kuiper Belt. The estimated total mass, including dust and bodies up to 50 km in size, is of the order of 0.01 Earth masses, which is similar to that of the solar Kuiper Belt. Our data also show a hint of warmer dust closer to the star. We also find signs of two additional features that might be associated with the Proxima Centauri system that still require further observations to be confirmed: an outer extremely cold (about 10 K) belt around the star at about 30 au, with an orbital plane that is tilted about 45° with respect to the plane of the sky; additionally, we marginally detect a compact 1.3 mm emission source at a projected distance of about 1.2 arcsec from the star, the nature of which is still unknown.

  19. A model of the secondary radiation belt

    OpenAIRE

    Selesnick, R. S.; Looper, M. D.; Mewaldt, R. A.

    2008-01-01

    Products of nuclear reactions between primary radiation belt protons and constituents of the tenuous upper atmosphere form a collocated secondary radiation belt. A calculation of the time-dependent secondary intensity provides a model specification of this environmental component for low- and medium-altitude satellite orbits. It is based on an earlier model of the radiation belt protons, the novel feature being a determination of the secondary source function from nuclear reaction cross secti...

  20. Explaining state-to-state differences in seat belt use : an analysis of socio-demographic variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    "Despite the extensive evidence about the benefits of seat belt use, there is a great deal of variation in use within the US. For example, the national average for seat belt use in 2009 was 84 percent while the state-level averages ranged from 68 per...

  1. Condition-Based Conveyor Belt Replacement Strategy in Lignite Mines with Random Belt Deterioration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazej, Ryszard; Jurdziak, Leszek

    2017-12-01

    In Polish lignite surface mines, condition-based belt replacement strategies are applied in order to assure profitable refurbishment of worn out belts performed by external firms specializing in belt maintenance. In two of three lignite mines, staff asses belt condition subjectively during visual inspections. Only one mine applies specialized diagnostic device (HRDS) allowing objective magnetic evaluation of belt core condition in order to choose the most profitable moment for the dismantling of worn out belt segments from conveyors and sending them to the maintenance firm which provides their refurbishment. This article describes the advantages of a new diagnostic device called DiagBelt. It was developed at the Faculty of Geoengineering, Mining and Geology, Wroclaw University of Science and Technology. Economic gains from its application are calculated for the lignite mine and for the belt maintenance firm, taking into account random life (durability) of new and reconditioned belts (after the 1st and the 2nd refurbishment). Recursive calculations for following years allow the estimation of the length and costs of replaced, reconditioned and purchased belts on an annual basis, while the use of the Monte Carlo method allows the estimation of their variability caused by random deterioration of belts. Savings are obtained due to better selection of moments (times) for the replacement of belt segments and die to the possibility to qualify worn out belts for refurbishment without the need to remove their covers. In effect, increased belt durability and lowered share of waste belts (which were not qualified for reconditioning) create savings which can quickly cover expenditures on new diagnostic tools and regular belt inspections in the mine.

  2. Bismuth-silver mineralization in the Sergozerskoe gold occurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalinin A. A.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Bismuth-silver mineralization attendant to gold mineralization in the Sergozerskoe gold occurrence has been studied in detail. Bi-Ag mineralization is connected with diorite porphyry dykes, which cut volcanic-sedimentary Lopian complexes of the Strel'ninsky greenstone belt – hornblendite and actinolite-chlorite amphibolites, biotite and bi-micaceous gneisses. Distribution of Bi-Ag mineralization similar to gold mineralization is controlled by 80 m thick zone of silicification. Bi minerals are found in brecciated diorite porphyry. Bismuth-silver mineralization includes native metals (bismuth, electrum, silver, tellurides (hedleyite, hessite, selenides (ikunolite, sulfides and sulfosalts of Bi and Ag (matildite, lillianite, eckerite, jalpaite, prustite, acanthite, a few undiagnosed minerals. All Bi and Ag minerals associate with galena. Composition of mineralization evolved from early to late stages of development, depending on intensity of rock alteration. The earliest Bi-Ag minerals were native bismuth and hedleyite formed dissemination in galena, and electrum with 30-45 mass.% Au. Later native bismuth was partly substituted by silver and bismuth sulfosalts and bismuth sulfides. The latest minerals were low-temperature silver sulfides eckerite, jalpaite, and acanthite, which were noted only in the most intensively altered rocks. As soon as the process of formation of Bi-Ag mineralization is the same as formation of gold, findings of bismuth-silver mineralization can serve as a positive exploration sign for gold in the region.

  3. Puzzling Snowballs: Main Belt Comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bin; Meech, Karen

    2015-03-01

    Main belt comets (MBCs) are a class of newly discovered objects that exhibit comet-like appearances and yet are dynamically indistinguishable from ordinary main belt asteroids. The measured size and albedo of MBCs are similar to those of classical comets. At present, six MBCs have been discovered, namely 133P/Elst-Pizarro, 176P/LINEAR, 238P/Read, P/2008 R1, P/La Sagra and P/2006 VW139. The total number of active MBCs is estimated to be at the level of a few hundreds (Hsieh & Jewitt, 2006). Several explanations for the activity of MBCs have been suggested. These include impact ejection, sublimation and rotational instability. However, since renewed activity has been observed in 133P and 238P at successive perihelion passages, the most likely explanation may be a thermally-driven process - e.g sublimation of exposed surface ice. Although the proximity of MBCs to the Sun (r ~ 3 AU) makes the survival of surface ice improbable, thermal models have shown that water ice is thermally stable under a regolith layer a few meters thick. The study of MBCs has recently been complicated by the discoveries of two asteroid collisional events (P/2010 A2 (LINEAR) and (596) Scheila) in 2010, where comet-like dust coma/tail have been attributed to recent impacts. If MBCs are indeed icy, they represent the closest and the third established reservoir of comets (after the Oort cloud and the Kuiper belt). As such, they may have been an important source of water for the Earth's oceans. I will review the current state of MBC studies, present the latest observational results and discuss possible mechanisms that could produce the observed activity. I will also talk about current and future space missions that are dedicated or closely related to MBC studies.

  4. Mineral Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Ababsa, Myriam

    2014-01-01

    Jordan’s natural resources are very limited: water is scarce, there is little arable land and the country has few sources of energy (fig. I.11). Jordan’s mineral industry has a long history: flint was used in prehistoric times and early copper mining started in Wadi Faynan during the Chalcolithic Period. The following is a brief presentation of Jordan’s resources. Mining and investments will be studied in Part 3. Figure I.11 — Jordan Mineral Resources. NRA 2012 Phosphates The Jordanian Natur...

  5. New component of radiation belts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigorov, N.L.; Kurnosova, L.V.; Razorenov, L.A.; Remizov, A.S.; Fradkin, M.I. (AN SSSR, Moscow. Fizicheskij Inst.; Moskovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (USSR). Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Inst. Yadernoj Fiziki)

    1982-09-01

    The mechanism of electron radiation belt filling with high-energy particles is discussed. Experimental data on particle fluxes in the Earth magnetosphere are presented. The experiments are carried out using the Cherenkov scintillation telescope installed on the ''Lightning-1'' satellite. Values of secondary particle flux obtained during the measurement at a height of 500 km and 30-40 th. km. coincide within the limits of errors. It is noted that secondary particle flux, equal to the albedo electron flux, is registered on large heights. This reason indicates the fact of forbidden angle filling with electrons with energies above 10 MeV.

  6. Ranging Behaviour of Commercial Free-Range Laying Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonard Ikenna Chielo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the range use and behaviour of laying hens in commercial free-range flocks was explored. Six flocks were each visited on four separate days and data collected from their outdoor area (divided into zones based on distance from shed and available resources. These were: apron (0–10 m from shed normally without cover or other enrichments; enriched belt (10–50 m from shed where resources such as manmade cover, saplings and dust baths were provided; and outer range (beyond 50 m from shed with no cover and mainly grass pasture. Data collection consisted of counting the number of hens in each zone and recording behaviour, feather condition and nearest neighbour distance (NND of 20 birds per zone on each visit day. In addition, we used techniques derived from ecological surveys to establish four transects perpendicular to the shed, running through the apron, enriched belt and outer range. Number of hens in each 10 m × 10 m quadrat was recorded four times per day as was the temperature and relative humidity of the outer range. On average, 12.5% of hens were found outside. Of these, 5.4% were found in the apron; 4.3% in the enriched zone; and 2.8% were in the outer range. This pattern was supported by data from quadrats, where the density of hens sharply dropped with increasing distance from shed. Consequently, NND was greatest in the outer range, least in the apron and intermediate in the enriched belt. Hens sampled in outer range and enriched belts had better feather condition than those from the apron. Standing, ground pecking, walking and foraging were the most commonly recorded activities with standing and pecking most likely to occur in the apron, and walking and foraging more common in the outer range. Use of the outer range declined with lower temperatures and increasing relative humidity, though use of apron and enriched belt was not affected by variation in these measures. These data support previous findings that outer range

  7. Ranging Behaviour of Commercial Free-Range Laying Hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chielo, Leonard Ikenna; Pike, Tom; Cooper, Jonathan

    2016-04-26

    In this study, the range use and behaviour of laying hens in commercial free-range flocks was explored. Six flocks were each visited on four separate days and data collected from their outdoor area (divided into zones based on distance from shed and available resources). These were: apron (0-10 m from shed normally without cover or other enrichments); enriched belt (10-50 m from shed where resources such as manmade cover, saplings and dust baths were provided); and outer range (beyond 50 m from shed with no cover and mainly grass pasture). Data collection consisted of counting the number of hens in each zone and recording behaviour, feather condition and nearest neighbour distance (NND) of 20 birds per zone on each visit day. In addition, we used techniques derived from ecological surveys to establish four transects perpendicular to the shed, running through the apron, enriched belt and outer range. Number of hens in each 10 m × 10 m quadrat was recorded four times per day as was the temperature and relative humidity of the outer range. On average, 12.5% of hens were found outside. Of these, 5.4% were found in the apron; 4.3% in the enriched zone; and 2.8% were in the outer range. This pattern was supported by data from quadrats, where the density of hens sharply dropped with increasing distance from shed. Consequently, NND was greatest in the outer range, least in the apron and intermediate in the enriched belt. Hens sampled in outer range and enriched belts had better feather condition than those from the apron. Standing, ground pecking, walking and foraging were the most commonly recorded activities with standing and pecking most likely to occur in the apron, and walking and foraging more common in the outer range. Use of the outer range declined with lower temperatures and increasing relative humidity, though use of apron and enriched belt was not affected by variation in these measures. These data support previous findings that outer range areas tend to be

  8. SNOWY RANGE WILDERNESS, WYOMING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Robert S.; Bigsby, Philip R.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey of the Snowy Range Wilderness in Wyoming was undertaken and was followed up with more detailed geologic and geochemical surveys, culminating in diamond drilling of one hole in the Snowy Range Wilderness. No mineral deposits were identified in the Snowy Range Wilderness, but inasmuch as low-grade uranium and associated gold resources were identified in rocks similar to those of the northern Snowy Range Wilderness in an area about 5 mi northeast of the wilderness boundary, the authors conclude that the northern half of the wilderness has a probable-resource potential for uranium and gold. Closely spaced drilling would be required to completely evaluate this mineral potential. The geologic terrane precludes the occurrence of fossil fuels.

  9. Measurement and monitoring of electrocardiogram belt tension in premature infants for assessment of respiratory function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hegyi Thomas

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Monitoring of the electrocardiogram (ECG in premature infants with conventional adhesive-backed electrodes can harm their sensitive skin. Use of an electrode belt prevents skin irritation, but the effect of belt pressure on respiratory function is unknown. A strain gauge sensor is described which measures applied belt tension. Method The device frame was comprised of an aluminum housing and slide to minimize the device weight. Velcro tabs connected housing and slide to opposite tabs located at the electrode belt ends. The slide was connected to a leaf spring, to which were bonded two piezoresistive transducers in a half-bridge circuit configuration. The device was tested for linearity and calibrated. The effect on infant respiratory function of constant belt tension in the normal range (30 g–90 g was determined. Results The mechanical response to a step input was second order (fn = 401 Hz, ζ = 0.08. The relationship between applied tension and output voltage was linear in the range 25–225 gm of applied tension (r2 = 0.99. Measured device sensitivity was 2.18 mV/gm tension using a 5 V bridge excitation voltage. When belt tension was increased in the normal range from 30 gm to 90 gm, there was no significant change in heart rate and most respiratory functions during monitoring. At an intermediate level of tension of 50 gm, pulmonary resistance and work of breathing significantly decreased. Conclusion The mechanical and electrical design of a device for monitoring electrocardiogram electrode belt tension is described. Within the typical range of application tension, cardiovascular and respiratory function are not substantially negatively affected by electrode belt force.

  10. High thallium content in rocks associated with Au-As-Hg-Tl and coal mineralization and its adverse environmental potential in SW Guizhou, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, T.F.; Guha, J.; Boyle, D. [Chinese Academy of Science, Guiyang (China)

    2004-08-15

    This study is focused on high concentrations of Tl in rocks in SW Guizhou, China, that are related to several widely scattered disseminated gold-mercury-arsenic and coal deposits, and a primary Tl deposit within an Au-As-Hg-Tl metallogenic belt of the Huijiabao anticline. The Tl, Hg and As in the Lanmuchang Hg-Tl deposit area are associated with the abundant occurrence of sulfide minerals such as lorandite, realgar, orpiment and cinnabar. Concentrations of Tl range from 100 to 35 000 ppm in sulfide ores, and 39-490 ppm in host rocks. The enrichment of Au, Tl, Hg, As, and Sb in the Yanshang gold mineralized area reflects the occurrence of Au mineralization and its mineral assemblage of Tl-Hg-As-Sb sulfides. Thallium ranges from 0.22 to 16 ppm in Au ores and host rocks. Thallium in coals is enriched up to 46 ppm within the Au-As-Hg-TI metallogenic belt, and is derived from the regional Au-As-Hg-Tl mineralization. Mercury and As show a similar distribution to Tl with high concentrations in sulfide ores, coals and host rocks. Human populations living near and downstream of Tl deposits and Tl-bearing ore deposits are susceptible to Tl contamination because of its high toxicity and high uptake rate by crops. The dispersion of Tl, Hg and As associated with the primary mineralization of Au-As-Hg-TI can be traced through physical erosion and chemical weathering, producing secondary dispersion into sods, groundwater and surface water and crops. Mining activities compound the natural processes, readily dispersing Tl into the surface environment.

  11. Use of seat belt and enforcement of seat belt laws in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klair, Ashfaq Ahmad; Arfan, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    Traffic crashes are a leading cause of deaths and injuries in Pakistan. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that approximately 30,131 people die in road crashes annually on Pakistani roads (WHO 2013). The use of seat belts can be effective in reducing road crash fatalities in Pakistan but under existing seat belt laws, seat belt use is mandatory only for drivers and is limited to specific vehicles and roads. Primarily, this study was aimed to measure seat belt use rates among Pakistani vehicle occupants. It was meant to investigate the factors influencing the compliance behavior of seat belt use among vehicle drivers. The second objective was to gauge the enforcement of seat belt laws and their effectiveness in Pakistan. A first ever national survey was conducted for the systematic recording of seat belt use rates among Pakistani drivers and front passengers on 5 different kinds of roads. Factors influencing compliance with seat belt use were gauged through a questionnaire for 5 different kinds of roads. Commitment level of different traffic police organizations to enforce seat belt laws was also measured through their previous year's enforcement data. Average seat belt use rates were 20% with the highest on motorways (53%) and the lowest on rural roads (5%). Unawareness of the law/usefulness, seat belt not fitted, discomfort, forgetfulness, low speed, and careless attitude were major reasons for noncompliance with seat belt laws among Pakistani drivers. Seat belt use rates were directly proportional to law enforcement strength and the National Highways and Motorways Police (NH&MP) showed maximum enforcement on M-2. There is a dire need to revise existing seat belt laws in order to raise seat belt use rates in Pakistan.

  12. Using haptic feedback to increase seat belt use : traffic tech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    The legacy of research on increasing seat belt use has : focused on enactment of seat belt legislation, public education, : high-visibility police enforcement, and seat belt : reminder systems. Several behavioral programs have : produced large, susta...

  13. Geochemical constraints on the genesis of the Scheelite dome intrusion-related gold deposit, Tombstone gold belt, Yukon, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mair, J.L.; Goldfarb, R.J.; Johnson, C.A.; Hart, C.J.R.; Marsh, E.E.

    2006-01-01

    The Scheelite dome intrusion-related gold deposit, western Selwyn basin, Yukon, is hosted in hornfelsed metasedimentary strata that lie adjacent to the exposed apices of a monzogranite to quartz monzonite plutonic complex of the mid-Cretaceous Tombstone-Tungsten magmatic belt, Tintina gold province, Alaska and Yukon. A variety of mineralization styles occur throughout a 10- ?? 3-km east-trending corridor and include reduced Au- and W-rich skarns, Au, W- and Ag-Pb-Zn-Sb-rich quartz tension-vein arrays, and multiphase fault veins and isolated zones of Au-rich sericite-carbonate altered rock. Integrated U-Pb SHRIMP data for magmatic zircon and Ar-Ar data for magmatic and hydrotbermal biotite indicate that gold mineralization occurred within 1 to 2 m.y. of magma emplacement. Fluid inclusion, oxygen isotope, and arsenopyrite geothermometry data indicate that hydrothermal minerals formed at depths of 6 to 9 km over a temperature range from 550??C. High-temperature Au-rich skarns formed at >400??C, whereas vein-hosted mineralization formed at 280?? to 380??C. In skarns, Au is strongly associated with enrichments of Bi, Te, W, and As, whereas a variety of Au-rich veins occur, with Asrich (type 1), and Te- and W-rich (type 2) end members. Silver-Pb-Zn-Sb veins are typically Au poor and represent the latest and lowest temperature phase in the hydrothermal paragenesis. The fluid inclusion data indicate that all mineralization styles were formed from low-salinity (???4 wt % NaCl equiv) aqueous-carbonic fluids, consistent with the composition of fluid inclusions within infilled miarolitic cavities in the intrusive rocks. However, the nonaqueous fluid was predominantly CH4 in skarn, CO2 in Au-Te and Au-W veins, and a fluid with roughly equal amounts Of CO2, CH4, and N2 in Au-As and Ag-Pb-Zn-Sb veins. Oxygen isotope data are consistent with a mineralizing fluid of predominantly magmatic origin that was variably modified to more positive ??18O values during interaction with 18O

  14. The Administrator's "Handy Dandy" Tool Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Terry

    2012-01-01

    Every good leader needs a tool belt. Throughout the author's years of building early childhood programs, she has acquired a number of tools for her personal belt. These tools have helped her sharpen her skills in supporting teachers and staff, connecting with families, and educating children. This article focuses on those leadership skills that…

  15. Understanding Quaternions and the Dirac Belt Trick

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staley, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The Dirac belt trick is often employed in physics classrooms to show that a 2n rotation is not topologically equivalent to the absence of rotation whereas a 4n rotation is, mirroring a key property of quaternions and their isomorphic cousins, spinors. The belt trick can leave the student wondering if a real understanding of quaternions and spinors…

  16. Intelligent Belt Conveyor Monitoring and Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pang, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Belt conveyors have been used worldwide in continuous material transport for about 250 years. Traditional inspection and monitoring of large-scale belt conveyors focus on individual critical components and response to catastrophic system failures. To prevent operational problems caused by the lack

  17. Combined Radiation Belt - Plasma Sheet System Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aseev, Nikita; Shprits, Yuri; Kellerman, Adam; Drozdov, Alexander; Zhu, Hui

    2017-04-01

    Recent years have given rise to numerous mathematical models of the Earth's radiation belt dynamics. Driven by observations at geosynchronous orbit (GEO) where satellites (e.g. GOES and LANL) provide extensive in-situ measurements, radiation belt models usually take into account only diffusion processes in the energetic electron belts (100 keV and greater), leaving aside the dynamics of colder source population (tens of keV). Such models are able to reconstruct the radiation belt state, but they are not capable of predicting the electron dynamics at GEO, where many communication and navigation satellites currently operate. In this work we present combined four-dimensional electron radiation belt - plasma sheet model accounting for adiabatic advective transport, radial diffusion due to interaction with ULF waves, local acceleration of electrons, scattering into the atmosphere, magnetopause shadowing, and adiabatic effects due to contraction and expansion of the magnetic field. The developed model is applicable to energetic, relativistic and ultrarelativistic electrons as well as to source electron population. The model provides spatial particle distribution allowing us to compare and validate the model with multiple satellite measurements at different MLT sectors (e.g. Van Allen Probes, GOES, LANL, THEMIS). The model can be helpful for the prediction of crucial for satellite operators geosynchronous electron fluxes and electron radiation belt dynamics including the heart of the outer belt, slot region and inner belt.

  18. On-conveyor belt analysis of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheryl Lim; David Abernethy; S. Rainey; L.K. Noack [CSIRO Minerals (Australia)

    2007-09-15

    The report describes the design and plant-testing of a prototype commercial on-belt ash analyser at the Bengalla CHPP (Muswellbrook, NSW). This analyser uses the Neutron Inelastic Scatter (NIS) and Thermal Neutron Capture (TNC) Analysis (NITA) technique, which has been investigated extensively in earlier ACARP projects C5051 (laboratory feasibility study) and the previous stage of C9042 (development and lab testing of a field prototype and evaluate the suitability of the technique for specific energy and sulphur measurement). The NITA analyser has been demonstrated to be capable of achieving an accuracy of 0.46 %ash. Specifically, a measured value for total r.m.s. error of 0.77 %ash, measured r.m.s error includes various uncertainties (estimated to be 0.61 %ash) associated with the chemical analysis and sample collection procedures used to generate the chemical laboratory data provided for calibration. In earlier laboratory work it was demonstrated that a measured r.m.s error of 0.75 %ash corresponded to an actual accuracy of 0.53 %ash after much smaller laboratory sampling errors had been excluded. Accurate measurement of ash value can be achieved in material which is expected to have significant variability in mineralogy, and in the past has not been amenable to analysis using the DUET technique. Accurate measurement of ash value is possible in the presence of significant levels of segregation and changes in mineral matter composition. CSIRO is collaborating with a commercial partner to demonstrate and complete the implementation of the NITA technology in industry. A commercial prototype analyser (NITA II) is under development and a plant installation is expected to occur in mid 2008.

  19. Minimising the fire hazard from the use of belt conveyors in intake roadways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leeming, J.R. [Health and Safety Executive, Sheffield, S. Yorkshire (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-01

    The fire that occurred a the Creswell underground coal mine in Derbyshire in 1950 in which 90 miners lost their lives was caused by a damaged rubber conveyor belt that ignited after being friction heated. The fire propagated along the intake trunk roadway by the burning belt itself, which ignited the timber roadway supports and hampered fire-fighting efforts. This paper demonstrated that operating conveyors in intake trunk roadways presents a risk that products of combustion can be carried to the working areas of a mine via ventilation pathways, thus creating a hazard to the underground miners. In North America, the use of belt air is not commonly used to ventilate working areas. However, these arrangements are common in the United Kingdom. As such, installation, inspection and maintenance standards have been created to minimize the risk of fire in underground, remotely operated belt conveyors in underground mines. Monitoring systems are also in place for early detection of any fire. A review of recent underground fires in the United Kingdom has shown that the measures adopted have been successful in avoiding uncontrollable fires. 13 refs., 5 figs.

  20. Use of seatbelts in cars with automatic belts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, A F; Wells, J K; Lund, A K; Teed, N J

    1992-01-01

    Use of seatbelts in late model cars with automatic or manual belt systems was observed in suburban Washington, DC, Chicago, Los Angeles, and Philadelphia. In cars with automatic two-point belt systems, the use of shoulder belts by drivers was substantially higher than in the same model cars with manual three-point belts. This finding was true in varying degrees whatever the type of automatic belt, including cars with detachable nonmotorized belts, cars with detachable motorized belts, and especially cars with nondetachable motorized belts. Most of these automatic shoulder belts systems include manual lap belts. Use of lap belts was lower in cars with automatic two-point belt systems than in the same model cars with manual three-point belts; precisely how much lower could not be reliably estimated in this survey. Use of shoulder and lap belts was slightly higher in General Motors cars with detachable automatic three-point belts compared with the same model cars with manual three-point belts; in Hondas there was no difference in the rates of use of manual three-point belts and the rates of use of automatic three-point belts. PMID:1561301

  1. Petrological Characteristics on NW of Ladakh Batholith and its enclaves around the Trans-Himalayan Belt (India)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, A., IV; Ilbeyli, N.

    2016-12-01

    The Ladakh Batholith is part of the Trans-Himalayan Plutonic Belt (a Cretaceous-Palaeogene Andean-type arc) extending over 2500 km along the southern margin of the Eurasian continent. Although extensive studies have performed in Ladakh (geotectonic implications and geochronology of the granitic rocks) mineralogy and petrogenesis of source area have remained poorly studied. Here we present the petrography and petrology of Taru and Umla granites, which is located about 50 to 60 km Westside of Leh district of Ladakh region (NW India). The intrusive rocks are medium- to coarse-grained and porphyritic with feldspar. They are composed of biotite granodiorite, hornblende granodiorite, quartz granodiorite, leucogranite, biotite-hornblende granite and amphibole biotite monzodiorite. The predominant minerals are alkali feldspar, plagioclase, quartz, biotite, and hornblende. The accessory minerals consist of apatite, zircon, microcline, rutile, monazite, allanite, titanite and opaques. Secondary minerals are mainly chlorite, sericite, epidote, and muscovite. Growth zones of plagioclase are accentuated by secondary sericite, muscovite, clay minerals and epidote. The process of alteration is sericitization, saussuritization and epidotization. Biotite or amphibole is completely altered by chlorite and subordinate epidote. Fine prismatic zircons are surrounded by apatite and having inclusions in biotite and plagioclase. Intergrowth textures (i.e. antiperthitic, perthitic, graphic, granophyric, myrmekites). Mafic enclave having sharp, crenulate and rounded to elongate structures ranges from 5 to 10 cm in length. Plagioclase xenocrysts, quartz and acicular apatite indicate the formation of hybridization. Field observation indicates that the Ladakh Batholith and their enclaves could be the products of multistage mixing and mingling processes consequent fractional differentiation of various batches of mafic and felsic magmas are formed in open magma chamber of subduction setting.

  2. New Quality Standards of Testing Idlers for Highly Effective Belt Conveyors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Król, Robert; Gladysiewicz, Lech; Kaszuba, Damian; Kisielewski, Waldemar

    2017-12-01

    The paper presents result of research and analyses carried out into the belt conveyors idlers’ rotational resistance which is one of the key factor indicating the quality of idlers. Moreover, idlers’ rotational resistance is important factor in total resistance to motion of belt conveyor. The evaluation of the technical condition of belt conveyor idlers is carried out in accordance with actual national and international standards which determine the methodology of measurements and acceptable values of measured idlers’ parameters. Requirements defined by the standards, which determine the suitability of idlers to a specific application, despite the development of knowledge on idlers and quality of presently manufactured idlers maintain the same level of parameters values over long periods of time. Nowadays the need to implement new, efficient and economically justified solution for belt conveyor transportation systems characterized by long routes and energy-efficiency is often discussed as one of goals in belt conveyors’ future. One of the basic conditions for achieving this goal is to use only carefully selected idlers with low rotational resistance under the full range of operational loads and high durability. Due to this it is necessary to develop new guidelines for evaluation of the technical condition of belt conveyor idlers in accordance with actual standards and perfecting of existing and development of new methods of idlers testing. The changes in particular should concern updating of values of parameters used for evaluation of the technical condition of belt conveyor idlers in relation to belt conveyors’ operational challenges and growing demands in terms of belt conveyors’ energy efficiency.

  3. Kinematics of pediatric crash dummies seated on vehicle seats with realistic belt geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinich, Kathleen D; Reed, Matthew P; Ebert, Sheila M; Rupp, Jonathan D

    2014-01-01

    A series of sled tests was performed using vehicle seats and Hybrid-III 6-year-old (6YO) and 10YO anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs) to explore possibilities for improving occupant protection for children who are not using belt-positioning booster seats. Cushion length was varied from production length of 450 mm to a shorter length of 350 mm. Lap belt geometry was set to rear, mid, and forward anchorage locations that span the range of lap belt angles found in vehicles. Six tests each were performed with the 6YO and 10YO Hybrid III ATDs. One additional test was performed using a booster seat with the 6YO. The ATDs were positioned using an updated version of the University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute (UMTRI) seating procedure that positions the ATD hips further forward with longer seat cushions to reflect the effect of cushion length on posture that has been measured with child volunteers. ATD kinematics were evaluated using peak head excursion, peak knee excursion, the difference between peak head and peak knee excursion, and the maximum torso angle. Shortening the seat cushion improved kinematic outcomes, particularly for the 10YO. Lap belt geometry had a greater effect on kinematics with the longer cushion length, with mid or forward belt geometries producing better kinematics than the rearward belt geometry. The worst kinematics for both ATDs occurred with the long cushion length and rearward lap belt geometry. The improvements in kinematics from shorter cushion length or more forward belt geometry are smaller than those provided by a booster seat. The results show potential benefits in occupant protection from shortening cushion length and increasing lap belt angles, particularly for children the size of the 10YO ATD.

  4. Mineral bioprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torma, A.E.

    1993-05-01

    In the last 25 years, the introduction of biotechnological methods in hydrometallurgy has created new opportunities and challenges for the mineral processing industry. This was especially true for the production of metal values from mining wastes and low-and-complex-grade mineral resources, which were considered economically not amenable for processing by conventional extraction methods. Using bio-assisted heap, dump and in-situ leaching technologies, copper and uranium extractions gained their first industrial applications. The precious metal industries were the next to adopt the bio-preoxidation technique in the extraction of gold from refractory sulfide-bearing ores and concentrates. A variety of other bioleaching opportunities exist for nickel, cobalt, cadmium and zinc sulfide leaching. Recently developed bioremediation methods and biosorption technologies have shown a good potential for industrial applications to remove trace heavy metal and radionuclide concentrations from contaminated soils, and mining and processing effluents.

  5. Recurrent metalliferous fluid flow, Khetri Copper Belt, northern Rajasthan, NW India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Holly J.; Pandit, Manoj K.; Hannah, Judith L.; Torsvik, Trond H.

    2013-04-01

    Proterozoic copper deposits in deformed sedimentary rocks present a challenging geologic environment for unraveling ore history. Typically, copper ores are broadly but not strictly stratabound and show deformed, less deformed and undeformed generations. A common observation is a late oxidation episode, unrelated to modern weathering, which affects primary sulfides. Thus, formation of Proterozoic copper deposits may span intervals of time within larger orogenic histories, with ores episodically upgraded or even downgraded by multiple generations of introduced fluids moving at regional scales. U-Pb dating of standard minerals (monazite, titanite, zircon) in Proterozoic copper belts is challenging as the isotope systematics may respond unfavorably to post-depositional ingress of fluids. Re-Os dating, on the other hand, can be used to target specific generations of sulfide minerals, thereby directly dating fluid-flow events that move metals. Application of Re-Os dating in multiply-deformed Proterozoic terranes is not without challenge, however, especially when a record of oxidation is clearly visible in the ore-forming history. Utmost care in sampling within a well-defined paragenesis and regional geologic setting is essential. Sulfide mineralization is well known from the Archean-Proterozoic Aravalli-Delhi fold belt in NW India. The northern Delhi fold belt contains the rich Khetri Cu belt, which is hosted in the Ajabgarh Group (quartz-biotite schists, retrograde chlorite-garnet-magnetite-hematite schists, banded amphibolite-quartzites, graphitic schists, calc-silicate units) within the Middle Proterozoic Delhi Supergroup. Recent U-Pb dating of key units in the southern Aravalli-Delhi fold belt reveals a complex history of Neoproterozoic magmatism (1 Ga and 850-750 Ma) along the western side. The northern Delhi fold belt, in contrast, has far fewer radiometric ages other than 1.8 to 1.7 Ga ages for basement granitoids. We provide some of the first geochronology for

  6. Simulation of high-energy radiation belt electron fluxes using NARMAX-VERB coupled codes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakhotin, I P; Drozdov, A Y; Shprits, Y Y; Boynton, R J; Subbotin, D A; Balikhin, M A

    2014-10-01

    This study presents a fusion of data-driven and physics-driven methodologies of energetic electron flux forecasting in the outer radiation belt. Data-driven NARMAX (Nonlinear AutoRegressive Moving Averages with eXogenous inputs) model predictions for geosynchronous orbit fluxes have been used as an outer boundary condition to drive the physics-based Versatile Electron Radiation Belt (VERB) code, to simulate energetic electron fluxes in the outer radiation belt environment. The coupled system has been tested for three extended time periods totalling several weeks of observations. The time periods involved periods of quiet, moderate, and strong geomagnetic activity and captured a range of dynamics typical of the radiation belts. The model has successfully simulated energetic electron fluxes for various magnetospheric conditions. Physical mechanisms that may be responsible for the discrepancies between the model results and observations are discussed.

  7. Rajkonkoski gold-telluride ore occurrence: A new high prospective type of complex noble metal mineralization in the Karelian Proterozoic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivashchenko, V. I.; Sundblad, K.; Toritsin, A. N.; Golubev, A. I.; Lavrov, O. B.

    2008-11-01

    The Rajkonkoski ore occurrence is located within the region of the Karelian craton (AR2) and the Svecofennian folded belt (PR1) conjugation. It is presented by quartz-carbonate veins in metadoleriles and a zone of brecciation, crumple, and silification of carbonaceous shales within the volcanites of the Soanlakhtinsky suite (PR1). Ore mineralization in black shales and quartz veins has features of genetic similarity presenting different levels of the ore system controlled by different range strike-slip fault dislocations. At the Rajkonkoski ore occurrence, 41 ore minerals have been identified: 12 tellurides (native tellurium, hedleyite, pilsenite, tsumoite, tellurobismuthite, hessite, stuetzite, radclidzhite, joseite-B, altaite, volynskite, petzite); 4 bismuth-tellurides of the following compositions Bi3Te, Bi3Te2, BiTe4, PbBiTe; 3 selenides (clausthalite, tellurolaitakarite, native selenium); and 12 native metals (gold, silver, electrum, copper, iron, lead, tin, bismuth, osmiridium). The contents of the main ore minerals in places exceed 10%, and the concentrations of elements reach as follows: Cu and Pb, 5%; Zn, Bi, 1%; Se, 219 ppm; Te, 171 ppm; Sb, 3 ppm; As, 5 ppm; Ag, >0.1%; Au, 35.28 ppm. Ore mineralization is formed during the temperature interval from 550°C up to 300°C) complete miscibilities galenite-clausthalite and galenite-altaite are observed. In aggregate with a wide temperature interval (>400°C) of ore process evolution and mineral specia variety of telluride and native metal mineralizations, the original “torsion” of different temperature mineralizations makes it possible to determine the affiliation of the Rajkonkoski ore occurrence to the xenothermal type deposits or epithermal “alkaline,” gold-telluride A-type characterized by a close connection with magmatism of increased alkalinity and the original geochemical (Te-V-F) and mineral (tellurides of gold, silver and other metals, fluorite, roscoelite, vanadium-containing sulfides

  8. Thermobarometry in the Hadean: The Nuvvuagittuq Greenstone Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scher, S.; Minarik, W.

    2009-05-01

    The 4.28 Ga 142Nd model age of the faux-amphibolite formation makes it the oldest assemblage of the Nuvvuagittuq Greenstone Belt (Northeastern Superior Province, Quebec, Canada) and the oldest rocks yet found on Earth. The protolith of the faux-amphibolite, however, is uncertain. The bulk chemistry suggests that it is most likely mafic and basaltic to basaltic-andesite in composition (samples have 36-63 wt% SiO2 and 3.5- 14 wt% MgO), although it has very low Ca-content compared to typical basalt. This low-Ca content is reflected in the crystallization of the amphibole cummingtonite, as opposed to hornblende, that is characteristic of the faux-amphibolite's adjacent gabbro sill. This suggests that Ca and other elements were mobile, perhaps during metamorphism. On the other hand, we do not see low-Ca in the adjacent gabbro sill suggesting either a more complex history for the faux-amphibolite, i.e. a metamorphic event before the emplacement of the gabbro sill, or Ca-depletion as the result of weathering processes. The faux-amphibolite is a heterogeneous gneiss with the mineral assemblage: cummingtonite + quartz + biotite + plagioclase ± anthophyllite ± garnet ± alkali-feldspar with the majority of the biotite replaced by retrograde chlorite. The garnets are heavily fractured, poikioblastic and, apart from the rims, are not zoned with respect to Fe and Mg. The garnets, as well as the groundmass, contain inclusions of zircon, rutile, ilmenite, monazite and other REE phosphates, and iron sulfides. Preliminary garnet-biotite geothermometry has been done that supports upper amphibolite to granulite facies metamorphism. Unzoned garnets from different parts of the faux-amphibolite record distinct Fe-Mg exchange temperatures that range from 730 to 940 °C (assuming a constant pressure of 5 kbar) suggesting the preservation of a metamorphic field gradient. Further geothermobarometry with trace element and accessory phases will be used to further describe the PT path as the

  9. From transmission error measurement to Pulley-Belt slip determination in serpentine belt drives : influence of tensioner and belt characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Manin, Lionel; Michon, Guilhem; Rémond, Didier; Dufour, Regis

    2009-01-01

    Serpentine belt drives are often used in front end accessory drive of automotive engine. The accessories resistant torques are getting higher within new technological innovations as stater-alternator, and belt transmissions are always asked for higher capacity. Two kind of tensioners are used to maintain minimum tension that insure power transmission and minimize slip: dry friction or hydraulic tensioners. An experimental device and a specific transmission error measurement method have been u...

  10. Compliance with Seat Belt Use in Makurdi, Nigeria: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-03-24

    Mar 24, 2011 ... and injuries can be reduced drastically because seat belts retain occupants in ... has been estimated that using seat belts can reduce the risk of fatalities in a ..... were about three times more likely to wear seatbelts than. Table 2: Availability of seat belts in the vehicles. Seat belt available. Car (%). Bus (%).

  11. 29 CFR 1926.104 - Safety belts, lifelines, and lanyards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety belts, lifelines, and lanyards. 1926.104 Section... Saving Equipment § 1926.104 Safety belts, lifelines, and lanyards. (a) Lifelines, safety belts, and lanyards shall be used only for employee safeguarding. Any lifeline, safety belt, or lanyard actually...

  12. Compliance with Seat Belt Use in Makurdi, Nigeria: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Seat belts are designed to reduce injuries due to road crash among vehicle occupants. Aims: This study aims to determine the availability of seat belt in vehicles and compliance with seat belt use among vehicle occupants. Materials and methods: This was a 24‑h direct observational study of seat belt usage ...

  13. Investigating radiation belt losses though numerical modelling of precipitating fluxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Rodger

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that whistler-induced electron precipitation (WEP may be the most significant inner radiation belt loss process for some electron energy ranges. One area of uncertainty lies in identifying a typical estimate of the precipitating fluxes from the examples given in the literature to date. Here we aim to solve this difficulty through modelling satellite and ground-based observations of onset and decay of the precipitation and its effects in the ionosphere by examining WEP-produced Trimpi perturbations in subionospheric VLF transmissions. In this study we find that typical Trimpi are well described by the effects of WEP spectra derived from the AE-5 inner radiation belt model for typical precipitating energy fluxes. This confirms the validity of the radiation belt lifetimes determined in previous studies using these flux parameters. We find that the large variation in observed Trimpi perturbation size occurring over time scales of minutes to hours is primarily due to differing precipitation flux levels rather than changing WEP spectra. Finally, we show that high-time resolution measurements during the onset of Trimpi perturbations should provide a useful signature for discriminating WEP Trimpi from non-WEP Trimpi, due to the pulsed nature of the WEP arrival.

  14. Dynamics Analysis and Modeling of Rubber Belt in Large Mine Belt Conveyors

    OpenAIRE

    Gao Yang

    2014-01-01

    Rubber belt not only is one of the key components of belt conveyor, but also affects the overall performance of the core part. Research on dynamics analysis of large conveyor not only helps to improve the reliability and design level, but also can guide the rational selection of conveyor safety factor, and effectively reduce the cost of the conveyor belt. Based on unique viscoelastic properties of belt conveyor, it was simplified as one-dimensional viscoelastic rod in this study, and then a d...

  15. Radiation Belt and Plasma Model Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Janet L.

    2005-01-01

    Contents include the following: Radiation belt and plasma model environment. Environment hazards for systems and humans. Need for new models. How models are used. Model requirements. How can space weather community help?

  16. Radiation Belt Electron Dynamics: Modeling Atmospheric Losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selesnick, R. S.

    2003-01-01

    The first year of work on this project has been completed. This report provides a summary of the progress made and the plan for the coming year. Also included with this report is a preprint of an article that was accepted for publication in Journal of Geophysical Research and describes in detail most of the results from the first year of effort. The goal for the first year was to develop a radiation belt electron model for fitting to data from the SAMPEX and Polar satellites that would provide an empirical description of the electron losses into the upper atmosphere. This was largely accomplished according to the original plan (with one exception being that, for reasons described below, the inclusion of the loss cone electrons in the model was deferred). The main concerns at the start were to accurately represent the balance between pitch angle diffusion and eastward drift that determines the dominant features of the low altitude data, and then to accurately convert the model into simulated data based on the characteristics of the particular electron detectors. Considerable effort was devoted to achieving these ends. Once the model was providing accurate results it was applied to data sets selected from appropriate periods in 1997, 1998, and 1999. For each interval of -30 to 60 days, the model parameters were calculated daily, thus providing good short and long term temporal resolution, and for a range of radial locations from L = 2.7 to 3.9. .

  17. Trepça Ore Belt and Stan Terg mine – Geological overview and interpretation, Kosovo (SE Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylejman Hyseni

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The Trepça Belt of Pb-Zn-Ag mineralization is located within the NNW-SSE trending Vardar zone. The Beltextends for over 80 km, and supported five mines during the period 1930-2008. It contains a number of the otherPb-Zn occurrences too. The replacement and vein type mineralization is hosted primarily by Mesozoic carbonates,but also occasionally by amphibolites, and displays a clear structural control. Mineralization is spatially and geneticallyrelated to Neogene andesite-dacite extrusives and sub-volcanic intrusives. Only Stan Terg mine is presentedin this paper.

  18. Anomalous heat flow belt along the continental margin of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamza, Valiya M.; Vieira, Fabio P.; Silva, Raquel T. A.

    2018-01-01

    A comprehensive analysis of thermal gradient and heat flow data was carried out for sedimentary basins situated in the continental margin of Brazil (CMB). The results point to the existence of a narrow belt within CMB, where temperature gradients are higher than 30 °C/km and the heat flow is in excess of 70 mW/m2. This anomalous geothermal belt is confined between zones of relatively low to normal heat flow in the adjacent continental and oceanic regions. The width of the belt is somewhat variable, but most of it falls within the range of 100-300 km. The spatial extent is relatively large in the southern (in the basins of Pelotas, Santos and Campos) and northern (in the basins of Potiguar and Ceará) parts, when compared with those in the central parts (in the basins of South Bahia, Sergipe and Alagoas). The characteristics of heat flow anomalies appear to be compatible with those produced by thermal sources at depths in the lower crust. Hence, magma emplacement at the transition zone between lower crust and upper mantle is considered the likely mechanism producing such anomalies. Seismicity within the belt is relatively weak, with focal depths less than 10 km for most of the events. Such observations imply that "tectonic bonding" between continental and oceanic segments, at the transition zone of CMB, is relatively weak. Hence, it is proposed that passive margins like CMB be considered as constituting a type of plate boundary that is aseismic at sub-crustal levels, but allows for escape of significant amounts of earth's internal heat at shallow depths.

  19. Eccentricity distribution in the main asteroid belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Renu; Wang, Xianyu

    2017-03-01

    The observationally complete sample of the main belt asteroids now spans more than two orders of magnitude in size and numbers more than 64 000 (excluding collisional family members). We undertook an analysis of asteroids' eccentricities and their interpretation with simple physical models. We find that a century old conclusion that the asteroids' eccentricities follow a Rayleigh distribution holds for the osculating eccentricities of large asteroids, but the proper eccentricities deviate from a Rayleigh distribution; there is a deficit of eccentricities smaller than ∼0.1 and an excess of larger eccentricities. We further find that the proper eccentricities do not depend significantly on asteroid size but have strong dependence on heliocentric distance; the outer asteroid belt follows a Rayleigh distribution, but the inner belt is strikingly different. Eccentricities in the inner belt can be modelled as a vector sum of a primordial eccentricity vector of random orientation and magnitude drawn from a Rayleigh distribution of parameter ∼0.06, and an excitation of random phase and magnitude ∼0.13. These results imply that when a late dynamical excitation of the asteroids occurred, it was independent of asteroid size and was stronger in the inner belt than in the outer belt. We discuss implications for the primordial asteroid belt and suggest that the observationally complete sample size of main belt asteroids is large enough that more sophisticated model-fitting of the eccentricities is warranted and could serve to test alternative theoretical models of the dynamical excitation history of asteroids and its links to the migration history of the giant planets.

  20. The Stability of the Conveyor Belt Pontoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří PODEŠVA

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available To lead the conveyor belt transport cross water area the pontoon are used to support the carrying structure of the belts. The accident can happen when the pontoon turnover. For this reason the pontoon stability is investigated. The stability is described by the Reed’s diagram. This can be constructed analytically or via numerical modeling. Both methods are described in the paper.

  1. Decay rate of the second radiation belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badhwar, G. D.; Robbins, D. E.

    1996-01-01

    Variations in the Earth's trapped (Van Allen) belts produced by solar flare particle events are not well understood. Few observations of increases in particle populations have been reported. This is particularly true for effects in low Earth orbit, where manned spaceflights are conducted. This paper reports the existence of a second proton belt and it's subsequent decay as measured by a tissue-equivalent proportional counter and a particle spectrometer on five Space Shuttle flights covering an eighteen-month period. The creation of this second belt is attributed to the injection of particles from a solar particle event which occurred at 2246 UT, March 22, 1991. Comparisons with observations onboard the Russian Mir space station and other unmanned satellites are made. Shuttle measurements and data from other spacecraft are used to determine that the e-folding time of the peak of the second proton belt. It was ten months. Proton populations in the second belt returned to values of quiescent times within eighteen months. The increase in absorbed dose attributed to protons in the second belt was approximately 20%. Passive dosimeter measurements were in good agreement with this value.

  2. Decay rate of the second radiation belt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badhwar, G D; Robbins, D E

    1996-01-01

    Variations in the Earth's trapped (Van Allen) belts produced by solar flare particle events are not well understood. Few observations of increases in particle populations have been reported. This is particularly true for effects in low Earth orbit, where manned spaceflights are conducted. This paper reports the existence of a second proton belt and it's subsequent decay as measured by a tissue-equivalent proportional counter and a particle spectrometer on five Space Shuttle flights covering an eighteen-month period. The creation of this second belt is attributed to the injection of particles from a solar particle event which occurred at 2246 UT, March 22, 1991. Comparisons with observations onboard the Russian Mir space station and other unmanned satellites are made. Shuttle measurements and data from other spacecraft are used to determine that the e-folding time of the peak of the second proton belt. It was ten months. Proton populations in the second belt returned to values of quiescent times within eighteen months. The increase in absorbed dose attributed to protons in the second belt was approximately 20%. Passive dosimeter measurements were in good agreement with this value.

  3. Jupiter's magnetosphere and radiation belts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennel, C. F.; Coroniti, F. V.

    1979-01-01

    Radioastronomy and Pioneer data reveal the Jovian magnetosphere as a rotating magnetized source of relativistic particles and radio emission, comparable to astrophysical cosmic ray and radio sources, such as pulsars. According to Pioneer data, the magnetic field in the outer magnetosphere is radially extended into a highly time variable disk-shaped configuration which differs fundamentally from the earth's magnetosphere. The outer disk region, and the energetic particles confined in it, are modulated by Jupiter's 10 hr rotation period. The entire outer magnetosphere appears to change drastically on time scales of a few days to a week. In addition to its known modulation of the Jovian decametric radio bursts, Io was found to absorb some radiation belt particles and to accelerate others, and most importantly, to be a source of neutral atoms, and by inference, a heavy ion plasma which may significantly affect the hydrodynamic flow in the magnetosphere. Another important Pioneer finding is that the Jovian outer magnetosphere generates, or permits to escape, fluxes of relativistic electrons of such intensities that Jupiter may be regarded as the dominant source of 1 to 30 MeV cosmic ray electrons in the heliosphere.

  4. The volcanic-sedimentary sequence of the Lousal deposit, Iberian Pyrite Belt (Portugal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Carlos; Rosa, Diogo; Matos, Joao; Relvas, Jorge

    2010-05-01

    The Iberian Pyrite Belt (IPB) is a massive sulfide province that is located in the south of Portugal and Spain, and hosts more than 90 massive sulfide deposits that amount to more than 1850 million metric tonnes of sulfide ore (Tornos, 2006). The ore deposits size, vary from ~1Mt to >100Mt (e.g. Neves Corvo and Aljustrel in Portugal, and Rio Tinto and Tharsis in Spain). The ore deposits are hosted by a submarine sedimentary and volcanic, felsic dominated, succession that constitutes the Upper Devonian to Lower Carboniferous Volcanic and Sedimentary Complex (VSC). The VSC ranges in thickness from approximately 600 to 1300 m (Tornos 2006). The VSC overlies the Phyllite-Quartzite Group (PQ) (Upper Devonian, base unknown) and is overlain by the Baixo Alentejo Flysch Group (Lower to Upper Carboniferous). The Lousal massive sulfide deposit is located in the western part of the IPB and occurs mostly interbedded with black mudstone. The VSC sequence at Lousal mine consists of a mudstone and quartzite sequence (PQ Group) in the lower part of the succession, over which a thick sequence of rhyolitic lavas (>300 m) occurs. Above the rhyolitic lavas there is a thick sequence of black and grey mudstone that hosts the massive sulfide ore bodies, and a rhyolitic sill. The upper part of the VSC sequence consists of a thick mudstone interval that hosts two thick basaltic units, locally with pillows. The rhyolites have small coherent cores, locally with flow bands, that grade to surrounding massive clastic intervals, with large lateral extent. The clasts show jigsaw-fit arrangement in many places and have planar or curviplanar margins and locally are perlitic at the margin. The top contact of these units is in most locations not exposed, which makes difficult to interpret the mode of emplacement. However, the thick clastic intervals, above described, are in accordance with quenching of volcanic glass with abundant water and therefore indicate that quenching of the rhyolites was the

  5. Seat belts, airbags and child protection devices. [previously: Seat belts and child restraint seats.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2010-01-01

    In the Netherlands, the use of seat belts results in a yearly reduction of hundreds of fatalities. Seat belts reduce the risk of fatal injury by 37 to 48%, depending on the position in the car. At 50%, the effect of child protection devices is even slightly higher. When last measured (in 2010), 97%

  6. Microfluidic magnetic bead conveyor belt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Pelt, Stijn; Frijns, Arjan; den Toonder, Jaap

    2017-11-07

    Magnetic beads play an important role in the miniaturization of clinical diagnostics systems. In lab-on-chip platforms, beads can be made to link to a target species and can then be used for the manipulation and detection of this species. Current bead actuation systems utilize complex on-chip coil systems that offer low field strengths and little versatility. We demonstrate a novel system based on an external rotating magnetic field and on-chip soft-magnetic structures to focus the field locally. These structures were designed and optimized using finite element simulations in order to create a number of local flux density maxima. These maxima, to which the magnetic beads are attracted, move over the chip surface in a continuous way together with the rotation of the external field, resulting in a mechanism similar to that of a conveyor belt. A prototype was fabricated using PDMS molding techniques mixed with iron powder for the magnetic structures. In the subsequent experiments, a quadrupole electromagnet was used to create the rotating external field. We observed that beads formed agglomerates that rolled over the chip surface, just above the magnetic structures. Field rotation frequencies between 0.1-50 Hz were tested resulting in magnetic bead speeds of over 1 mm s -1 for the highest frequency. With this, we have shown that our novel concept works, combining a simple design and simple operation with a powerful and versatile method for bead actuation. This makes it a promising method for further research and utilization in lab-on-chip systems.

  7. The Yellowstone sage belts 1958 to 2008: 50 years of change in the big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) communities of Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamela G. Sikkink

    2011-01-01

    In 1958, 13 belt transects were established within the ungulate winter range in the northern portion of Yellowstone National Park to study how shrub communities were affected by grazing from ungulate populations. Between 1958 and 2008, the belts have been measured and photographed by different researchers at least once per decade, which has resulted in a comprehensive...

  8. Mineral resource of the month: vermiculite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Arnold O.

    2014-01-01

    Vermiculite comprises a group of hydrated, laminar magnesium-aluminum-iron silicate minerals resembling mica. They are secondary minerals, typically altered biotite, iron-rich phlogopite or other micas or clay-like minerals that are themselves sometimes alteration products of amphibole, chlorite, olivine and pyroxene. Vermiculite deposits are associated with volcanic ultramafic rocks rich in magnesium silicate minerals, and flakes of the mineral range in color from black to shades of brown and yellow. The crystal structure of vermiculite contains water molecules, a property that is critical to its processing for common uses.

  9. The genesis of the slab window-related Arzular low-sulfidation epithermal gold mineralization (eastern Pontides, NE Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enver Akaryalı

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Arzular mineralization is one of the best examples of epithermal gold deposits in the eastern Pontides orogenic belt. The mineralization is hosted by the subduction-related basaltic andesites and is mainly controlled by E–W and NE–SW trending fracture zones. The main ore minerals are galena, sphalerite, pyrite, chalcopyrite, tetrahedrite and gold. Homogenization temperatures of fluid inclusions are between 130 and 295 °C for quartz and between 90 and 133 °C for sphalerite. Sulphur isotope values obtained from pyrite, galena and sphalerite vary between −1.2‰ and 3‰, indicating that sulphur belongs to magmatic origin and was derived from the Lutetian non-adakitic granitic intrusions in the region. Oxygen isotope values are between 15.0‰ and 16.7‰, and hydrogen isotope values are between −87‰ and −91‰. The sulphur isotope thermometer yielded temperatures in the range of 244–291 °C for the ore formation. Our results support the hypothesis that the Arzular mineralization is a low-sulfidation epithermal gold deposit associated with non-adakitic subduction-related granitic magmas that were generated by slab window-related processes in a south-dipping subduction zone during the Lutetian.

  10. Orebody geometry, fluid and metal sources of the Omitiomire Cu deposit in the Ekuja Dome of the Damara Belt in Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitt, Shawn; Kisters, Alexander; Vennemann, Torsten; Steven, Nick

    2017-04-01

    The Omitiomire Cu deposit (resource of 137 Mt at 0.54% Cu) in the Ekuja Dome of the Damara Belt in Namibia is hosted by an anastomosing, low-angle Pan-African (ca. 520 Ma) shear zone system developed around an older (ca. 1100-1060 Ma), late Mesoproterozoic intrusive breccia between a suite of mafic rocks (originally lava flows) and later tonalitic gneisses. High-grade ore shoots preferentially formed along contacts between tectonically interleaved biotite-epidote-quartz-chalcocite schists and felsic gneisses, and are directly related to an increase in the number and cumulative thickness of thin, contact-parallel mineralized shear zones. Alteration and mineralization are associated with elevated concentrations of K2O, Cr, Rb, S, and Cu and a loss of Na2O, CaO, and MgO. Oxygen isotope fractionation for quartz-biotite, quartz-feldspar, and quartz-amphibole mineral pairs support equilibrium temperatures of between 500 and 650 °C during the fluid/rock interaction. Mineral separates from amphibole-biotite gneisses and mineralized schists have similar ranges in δ18O values of about 1.2 to 2 ‰ relative to VSMOW. Coexisting minerals are arranged in an order of increasing δ18O values from biotite, to epidote, amphibole, and quartz, suggesting that the Omitiomire Shear Zone was a rock-dominated system. Similarly, H-isotope results for mineral separates from biotite-epidote schists and amphibole gneisses do not show any reversals for D/H fractionations, with δD values of between -48 and -82 ‰, typical of metamorphic-magmatic rocks. The homogeneous and low δ34S values (-6.1 to -4.7 ‰ CDT) are compatible with a local redistribution of sulfur from magmatic rocks and interaction with sulfur derived from metamorphic fluids of metasedimentary origin. The relatively low fluid/rock ratios and elevated Cu values (>1500 ppm) from unaltered amphibolite point to a local redistribution of an earlier (late Mesoproterozoic) Keweenaw-type Cu mineralization into later Pan

  11. High-pressure metamorphism in the Chinshuichi area, Yuli belt, eastern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyser, William; Tsai, Chin-Ho; Iizuka, Yoshiyuki; Oberhänsli, Roland; Ernst, W. G.

    2016-12-01

    Tectonic blocks and slabs of mafic-ultramafic rocks are distributed discontinuously in the Yuli metamorphic belt of Taiwan. The blocks include rare omphacite metagabbros and garnet-epidote blueschists in the Wanjung and Juisui (Tamayen) areas, respectively. Such high-pressure (HP) mineral assemblages have been attributed to a mid-Miocene subduction event. However, the surrounding psammitic, pelitic and chloritic schists are the dominant greenschist-facies lithologies of the Yuli belt. In the Chinshuichi area, tectonic blocks are enclosed in garnet-bearing metapelites, suggesting elevated pressures. In this area, we recently discovered meta-plagiogranite containing the assemblage glaucophane + omphacite (XJd up to 0.39) + rutile + quartz, indicating P-T conditions near 13 kbar/550 °C. New equilibrium phase modeling of a garnet-paragonite mica schist and compositional isopleths for peak assemblage minerals garnet and phengite (Si = 3.33-3.37 pfu) indicate metamorphic conditions of 15.5-17 kbar/530-550 °C. These P-T estimates are higher than previously reported in the Yuli belt and suggest that both tectonic blocks and host metapelites underwent HP metamorphism. The juxtaposition of tectonic blocks and metapelites apparently occurred during the formation of a subduction-accretionary complex, followed by exhumation facilitated by a collisional event. These new findings imply that HP metamorphism was not limited to tectonic blocks, and instead played a significant role attending orogenesis in eastern Taiwan.

  12. Minerals Yearbook, volume I, Metals and Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2018-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Minerals Yearbook discusses the performance of the worldwide minerals and materials industries and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. Content of the individual Minerals Yearbook volumes follows:Volume I, Metals and Minerals, contains chapters about virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. Chapters on survey methods, summary statistics for domestic nonfuel minerals, and trends in mining and quarrying in the metals and industrial mineral industries in the United States are also included.Volume II, Area Reports: Domestic, contains a chapter on the mineral industry of each of the 50 States and Puerto Rico and the Administered Islands. This volume also has chapters on survey methods and summary statistics of domestic nonfuel minerals.Volume III, Area Reports: International, is published as four separate reports. These regional reports contain the latest available minerals data on more than 180 foreign countries and discuss the importance of minerals to the economies of these nations and the United States. Each report begins with an overview of the region’s mineral industries during the year. It continues with individual country chapters that examine the mining, refining, processing, and use of minerals in each country of the region and how each country’s mineral industry relates to U.S. industry. Most chapters include production tables and industry structure tables, information about Government policies and programs that affect the country’s mineral industry, and an outlook section.The USGS continually strives to improve the value of its publications to users. Constructive comments and suggestions by readers of the Minerals Yearbook are welcomed.

  13. Theoretical study of influence of belt tension of intermediate belt conveyor drive on value of zone of relative slip of traction and carrying belts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncharov, K. A.; Grishin, A. V.

    2017-10-01

    The issue of the influence of tension of the traction belt of intermediate drive of the multi-drive belt conveyor on the value of zones of relative rest and sliding of the traction and carrying belts is considered. A variety of values of proportional band of tractive effort regulation of the intermediate drive of belt conveyor while it is being controlled by the tensioning device was obtained in percentage terms. Recommendations on the control of the intermediate drive of belt conveyor by means of the tensioning device when starting and productivity changes are provided.

  14. Trade in mineral resources

    OpenAIRE

    Graham A. Davis

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides a review of current thinking on the economics of international trade in mineral resources. I first define what is meant by trade in mineral resources. I then discuss patterns of trade in mineral resources. The paper then moves on to the five topics requested by the World Trade Organization: theoretical and empirical literature on international trade in minerals; trade impacts of mineral abundance and the resource curse; the political economy of mineral trade in resource-ab...

  15. Data assimilation in the radiation belts using the Salammbô code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maget, Vincent; Bourdarie, Sébastien

    2017-04-01

    The natural energetic electron environment in the Earth's radiation belts is of general importance as dynamic variations in this environment can impact space hardware and contribute significantly to background signals in a range of other instruments flying in that region. The most dramatic changes in the relativistic electron populations occur during enhanced periods of geomagnetic activity. The relative importance of all competing physical processes involved in the radiation belt dynamics changes from storm to storm and the net result on particle distribution might then be very different. Modeling Earth's radiation belts still constitutes an active field of research. The most common practice is to deduce empirical formulae of physical processes amplitudes versus one or more proxies like Kp, Dst or solar wind parameters from statistical studies. Although this allows us to reproduce the mean dynamics of the radiation belts, this may introduce errors in the system, which becomes even more important for high magnetic activity conditions for which statistics are usually poor. In parallel, it has been shown in the recent years that a data assimilation scheme based on an Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF) may lead to great improvements in (1) the accuracy of modeling the different regions of Earth's radiation belts, (2) the possibility to accurately predict the state of the radiation belts, and (3) in accurately reanalyzing a long time period as a basis for specification model and climatology. This talk aims at presenting a global overview of the recent efforts undergone at ONERA concerning data assimilation in the radiation belts based on the Salammbô code and an EnKF. We will in particular focus our attention on the benefits of being able to accurately assimilate different types of measurements in our data assimilation tool.

  16. Upper limit on the inner radiation belt MeV electron intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X; Selesnick, RS; Baker, DN; Jaynes, AN; Kanekal, SG; Schiller, Q; Blum, L; Fennell, J; Blake, JB

    2015-01-01

    No instruments in the inner radiation belt are immune from the unforgiving penetration of the highly energetic protons (tens of MeV to GeV). The inner belt proton flux level, however, is relatively stable; thus, for any given instrument, the proton contamination often leads to a certain background noise. Measurements from the Relativistic Electron and Proton Telescope integrated little experiment on board Colorado Student Space Weather Experiment CubeSat, in a low Earth orbit, clearly demonstrate that there exist sub-MeV electrons in the inner belt because their flux level is orders of magnitude higher than the background, while higher-energy electron (>1.6 MeV) measurements cannot be distinguished from the background. Detailed analysis of high-quality measurements from the Relativistic Electron and Proton Telescope on board Van Allen Probes, in a geo-transfer-like orbit, provides, for the first time, quantified upper limits on MeV electron fluxes in various energy ranges in the inner belt. These upper limits are rather different from flux levels in the AE8 and AE9 models, which were developed based on older data sources. For 1.7, 2.5, and 3.3 MeV electrons, the upper limits are about 1 order of magnitude lower than predicted model fluxes. The implication of this difference is profound in that unless there are extreme solar wind conditions, which have not happened yet since the launch of Van Allen Probes, significant enhancements of MeV electrons do not occur in the inner belt even though such enhancements are commonly seen in the outer belt. Key Points Quantified upper limit of MeV electrons in the inner belt Actual MeV electron intensity likely much lower than the upper limit More detailed understanding of relativistic electrons in the magnetosphere PMID:26167446

  17. Upper limit on the inner radiation belt MeV electron intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X; Selesnick, R S; Baker, D N; Jaynes, A N; Kanekal, S G; Schiller, Q; Blum, L; Fennell, J; Blake, J B

    2015-02-01

    No instruments in the inner radiation belt are immune from the unforgiving penetration of the highly energetic protons (tens of MeV to GeV). The inner belt proton flux level, however, is relatively stable; thus, for any given instrument, the proton contamination often leads to a certain background noise. Measurements from the Relativistic Electron and Proton Telescope integrated little experiment on board Colorado Student Space Weather Experiment CubeSat, in a low Earth orbit, clearly demonstrate that there exist sub-MeV electrons in the inner belt because their flux level is orders of magnitude higher than the background, while higher-energy electron (>1.6 MeV) measurements cannot be distinguished from the background. Detailed analysis of high-quality measurements from the Relativistic Electron and Proton Telescope on board Van Allen Probes, in a geo-transfer-like orbit, provides, for the first time, quantified upper limits on MeV electron fluxes in various energy ranges in the inner belt. These upper limits are rather different from flux levels in the AE8 and AE9 models, which were developed based on older data sources. For 1.7, 2.5, and 3.3 MeV electrons, the upper limits are about 1 order of magnitude lower than predicted model fluxes. The implication of this difference is profound in that unless there are extreme solar wind conditions, which have not happened yet since the launch of Van Allen Probes, significant enhancements of MeV electrons do not occur in the inner belt even though such enhancements are commonly seen in the outer belt. Quantified upper limit of MeV electrons in the inner beltActual MeV electron intensity likely much lower than the upper limitMore detailed understanding of relativistic electrons in the magnetosphere.

  18. Cleaning of conveyor belt materials using ultrasound in a thin layer of water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelsson, L; Holck, A; Rud, I; Samah, D; Tierce, P; Favre, M; Kure, C F

    2013-08-01

    Cleaning of conveyor belts in the food industry is imperative for preventing the buildup of microorganisms that can contaminate food. New technologies for decreasing water and energy consumption of cleaning systems are desired. Ultrasound can be used for cleaning a wide range of materials. Most commonly, baths containing fairly large amounts of water are used. One possibility to reduce water consumption is to use ultrasonic cavitation in a thin water film on a flat surface, like a conveyor belt. In order to test this possibility, a model system was set up, consisting of an ultrasound transducer/probe with a 70-mm-diameter flat bottom, operating at 19.8 kHz, and contaminated conveyor belt materials in the form of coupons covered with a thin layer of water or water with detergent. Ultrasound was then applied on the water surface at different power levels (from 46 to 260 W), exposure times (10 and 20 s), and distances (2 to 20 mm). The model was used to test two different belt materials with various contamination types, such as biofilms formed by bacteria in carbohydrate- or protein-fat-based soils, dried microorganisms (bacteria, yeasts, and mold spores), and allergens. Ultrasound treatment increased the reduction of bacteria and yeast by 1 to 2 log CFU under the most favorable conditions compared with water or water-detergent controls. The effect was dependent on the type of belt material, the power applied, the exposure time, and the distance between the probe and the belt coupon. Generally, dried microorganisms were more easily removed than biofilms. The effect on mold spores was variable and appeared to be species and material dependent. Spiked allergens were also efficiently removed by using ultrasound. The results in this study pave the way for new cleaning designs for flat conveyor belts, with possibilities for savings of water, detergent, and energy consumption.

  19. Lubricants for Metal Belt Continuously Variable Transmissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiichi Narita

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the effects of lubricant additives and base stock used in metal belt continuously variable transmissions (CVT fluids on the CVT transmission torque capacity. Additive formulation composed of phosphorus anti-wear agent, calcium detergent, and dispersant improved the friction coefficient between the metals. The analysis on the post-test surface suggests that the friction behavior strongly depends on the local morphology of the tribofilms derived from lubricant additives. Examining the effect of base stock on the torque capacity in actual belt CVTs revealed that SN (synthetic naphthene exhibited 10% higher torque capacity than that of PAO (polyalphaolefin. It is believed that the difference in the torque capacity is due to the difference in the oil-film shearing force generated by the relative sliding between the belt and pulley.

  20. Structure of the Kuiper Belt Dust Disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, J.-C.; Kaufmann, D. E.

    An overview of the Kuiper belt dust disk is provided in this chapter. Mutual collisions among Kuiper belt objects should produce a dust disk in the outer solar system similar to the observed circumstellar dust disks. As the Kuiper belt dust particles migrate toward the Sun due to Poynting-Robertson drag, they are perturbed by the giant planets. Mean-motion resonances with Neptune and gravitational scattering by Saturn and Jupiter alter their orbital evolution dramatically. Asa result, large-scale structures are created in the disk. Descriptions of the dynamics involved, and the numerical simulations required to unveil the disk features, are included. Implications for extrasolar planet detection from circumstellar dust disk modeling are also discussed.

  1. Miscellaneous Industrial Mineral Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer includes miscellaneous industrial minerals operations in the United States. The data represent commodities covered by the Minerals Information Team...

  2. CALCULATION OF TENSION FORCE OF BELT CONVEYOR

    OpenAIRE

    Ismet Ibishi; Ahmet Latifi; Gzim Ibishi; Kadri Sejdiu; Melihate Shala-Galica; Bekim Latifi

    2012-01-01

    In this paper is done the explanation on tension fashion of the belt conveyor which is employed in Kosovo Energy Corporation – KEK, for coal transportation to provide electric power plant. The aim of the paper enables to recognize tension forces not to pass with deformation of belt so that this problem will damage the workingprocess. Work principle is based on initial tension and tension during working process. The fact is known that the tension starts from the carriage on the way to tension ...

  3. Constraining thrust-belt thermal histories from partially reset zircon (U-Th)/He datasets: An "inheritance envelope" approach with examples from the Sevier belt of central Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenthner, W.; Reiners, P. W.; DeCelles, P. G.; Kendall, J. J.

    2015-12-01

    Low-temperature thermochronology has become an established tool for deciphering the time-temperature (t-T) histories of sedimentary units involved in basin burial and thrust-belt exhumation. However, thermochronologic datasets from detrital samples can be complex and difficult to interpret if these samples contain grains with different pre-depositional t-T histories that are only partially reset. Here, we present an approach for interpreting complex detrital zircon (U-TH)/He datasets to constrain the maximum foreland basin burial temperatures and timing of thrust-belt related exhumation in the Sevier belt of central Utah. Using forward modeling of t-T paths, we combine the radiation-damage based kinetic model for He diffusion in zircon with a series of pre-depositional He ages to construct "inheritance envelopes" that encompass a wide range of age variation. A forward model is successful if an inheritance envelope captures or bounds the observed age variation in a given dataset. We highlight this approach with two datasets collected from sedimentary units in the Oquirrh Mountains and Wasatch Range near Provo, UT. For the Oquirrh Mtns. dataset, large observed age variation is modeled using a maximum burial temperature of ~173 °C, and an initial Sevier-belt related exhumation event at 110 Ma. The Wasatch Range samples are more straight-forward, with a lack of partially reset ages but some observed variation caused by radiation damage effects. For these samples, our model results constrain a maximum burial temperature of ~230 °C, with a subsequent exhumation event at 100 Ma. Combined, these results suggest a steady eastward migration of exhumation in the Sevier belt during the Late Cretaceous and demonstrate that our inheritance envelope approach is most sensitive to maximum burial temperatures and the timing of initial exhumation.

  4. Ore genesis constraints on the Idaho Cobalt Belt from fluid inclusion gas, noble gas isotope, and ion ratio analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstra, Albert H.; Landis, Gary P.

    2012-01-01

    The Idaho cobalt belt is a 60-km-long alignment of deposits composed of cobaltite, Co pyrite, chalcopyrite, and gold with anomalous Nb, Y, Be, and rare-earth elements (REEs) in a quartz-biotite-tourmaline gangue hosted in Mesoproterozoic metasedimentary rocks of the Lemhi Group. It is the largest cobalt resource in the United States with historic production from the Blackbird Mine. All of the deposits were deformed and metamorphosed to upper greenschist-lower amphibolite grade in the Cretaceous. They occur near a 1377 Ma anorogenic bimodal plutonic complex. The enhanced solubility of Fe, Co, Cu, and Au as chloride complexes together with gangue biotite rich in Fe and Cl and gangue quartz containing hypersaline inclusions allows that hot saline fluids were involved. The isotopes of B in gangue tourmaline are suggestive of a marine source, whereas those of Pb in ore suggest a U ± Th-enriched source. The ore and gangue minerals in this belt may have trapped components in fluid inclusions that are distinct from those in post-ore minerals and metamorphic minerals. Such components can potentially be identified and distinguished by their relative abundances in contrasting samples. Therefore, we obtained samples of Co and Cu sulfides, gangue quartz, biotite, and tourmaline and post-ore quartz veins as well as Cretaceous metamorphic garnet and determined the gas, noble gas isotope, and ion ratios of fluid inclusion extracts by mass spectrometry and ion chromatography. The most abundant gases present in extracts from each sample type are biased toward the gas-rich population of inclusions trapped during maximum burial and metamorphism. All have CO2/CH4 and N2/Ar ratios of evolved crustal fluids, and many yield a range of H2-CH4-CO2-H2S equilibration temperatures consistent with the metamorphic grade. Cretaceous garnet and post-ore minerals have high RH and RS values suggestive of reduced sulfidic conditions. Most extracts have anomalous 4He produced by decay of U and Th and

  5. BELTING AND POP, NONCLASSICAL APPROACHES TO THE FEMALE MIDDLE VOICE - SOME PRELIMINARY CONSIDERATIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SCHUTTE, HK; MILLER, DG

    There is a commonly perceived difference in the sound produced in the approximate range D4-D5 by female singers in the western opera and concert tradition, on the one hand, and certain other styles, including rock, pop, folk, and some Broadway musicals, on the other. The term ''belting'' is

  6. Lignite zone as an indicator to lost circulation belt: a case study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eighteen (18) water boreholes were studied for lost circulation. When locations of the boreholes associated with lost circulation were plotted on the map of Anambra State a lost circulation belt was observed around the River Niger – Onitsha – Oba – Nnewi axis. Lost circulation intervals range between 20-50m and 75-90m ...

  7. Theory for charge states of energetic oxygen ions in the earth's radiation belts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spjeldvik, W. N.; Fritz, T. A.

    1978-01-01

    Fluxes of geomagnetically trapped energetic oxygen ions have been studied in detail. Ion distributions in radial locations below the geostationary orbit, energy spectra between 1 keV and 100 MeV, and the distribution over charge states have been computed for equatorially mirroring ions. Both ionospheric and solar wind oxygen ion sources have been considered, and it is found that the charge state distributions in the interior of the radiation belts are largely independent of the charge state characteristics of the sources. In the MeV range, oxygen ions prove to be a more sensitive probe for radiation belt dynamics than helium ions and protons.

  8. Analytic expressions for ULF wave radiation belt radial diffusion coefficients

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ozeke, Louis G; Mann, Ian R; Murphy, Kyle R; Jonathan Rae, I; Milling, David K

    2014-01-01

    We present analytic expressions for ULF wave‐derived radiation belt radial diffusion coefficients, as a function of L and Kp , which can easily be incorporated into global radiation belt transport models...

  9. Chain Versus Belt – System Comparison of Future Timing Drives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Howlett, Michael; Ausserhofer, Norbert; Schoeffmann, Wolfgang; Truffinet, Caroline; Zurk, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    ... and the quality requirements of timing drives. In the paper the main timing drive concepts, chain drive, dry belt and wet belt were analyzed and rated based on the functional influencing factors as target parameters to allow a scientifically...

  10. Evaluation of safety belt education program for employees

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-01

    This research was designed to determine the effectiveness of a nine-month safety belt educational program, utilizing various informational materials developed by NHTSA, in increasing safety belt usage among corporate employees. The materials used inc...

  11. SMALL MAIN-BELT ASTEROID SPECTROSCOPIC SURVEY, PHASE II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains visible-wavelength (0.435-0.925 micron) spectra for 1341 main-belt asteroids observed during the second phase of the Small Main-belt Asteroid...

  12. Numerical modelling of hydrothermal convection within a permeable mineralized zone: application to orogenic gold mineralization in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonneville, A.; Harcouët, V.; Guillou-Frottier, L.; Adler, P.

    2006-12-01

    Fluid convection in faulted zones is recognized as an important mechanism for mineralization as it leads to fluid flow and mass transport. In order to investigate if 3D free convection in faults could be at the origin of a giant ore deposits such as the Palaeoproterozoic ore deposits of the Ashanti belt in Ghana, we have conducted several numerical simulations of heat and fluid flow applied to a realistic geological model. Such deposits are generally late orogenic and most of them are located at the vicinity of or within major structural accidents associated with particular fluid circulations and temperature distributions. In Ghana, deposits are concentrated along the western flank of the Ashanti greenstone belt where fault concentration is the highest and connection between them is maximal. In this region, several factors, identified in the field, are expected to affect hydrothermal fluid flows : (1) a 10 km-wide faulted zone is associated with a lateral permeability gradient ; (2) sedimentary and conglomeratic basins surround the faulted zone;(3) magmatic intrusions are located within the fault and at its vicinity. Our approach is defined by two steps: first, the numerical code solves equations related to heat transfer and fluid-flow in porous media with the above-cited appropriate boundary conditions; second, from the results of the modelling, we calculated the rock alteration index, RAI, which is proportional to the scalar product of the velocity by the temperature gradient. This index illustrates the geochemical alteration potential and depends on parameters such as gold solubility; it is used to identify regions where precipitation or dissolution can occur. Hydrothermal circulations are first investigated by the study of different synthetic cases corresponding to simplified models applicable to situations similar to the ones encountered in Ghana. In the case of a simple geometry, implying a fault zone surrounded by a sedimentary basin, transitions from 2D

  13. Petrology and geobarometry of Admiralty-Revillagigedo belt granitoids near Petersburg, southeastern Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammarstrom, J.M. (Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States)); Brew, D.A. (Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States))

    1993-04-01

    The Admiralty-Revillagigedo belt (ARB) of southeastern Alaska is an approximately 400 mile long northwest-trending belt of Late Cretaceous ([approximately]95 Ma) calcalkalic plutons that extends from Juneau to Ketchikan. The ARB is bounded on the east by the younger Coast plutonic complex sill and on the west by the mid-Cretaceous Muir-Chichagof plutonic belt. Near Petersburg, the ARB consists of a variety of plutons that include equigranular and porphyritic quartz diorite, tonalite, quartz monzodiorite, and granodiorite. Minerals in these plutons are: hornblende, biotite, plagioclase, potassium feldspar, quartz, apatite, zircon, titanite, and ilmenite [+-] epidote, minor allanite, magnetite, grossular-almandine garnet, clinopyroxene, and locally trace amounts of sulfide minerals. New geochemical data for six samples from three plutons near Petersburg overlap data for the rest of the ARB, which is metaluminous to slightly peraluminous. The central ARB granitoids are moderately LREE-enriched with slightly negative to slightly positive europium anomalies. High strontium (700 to 800 ppm) and low rubidium contents in central ARB plutons overlap compositions of ARB plutons to the north and south, and magmatic epidote-bearing plutons elsewhere. Pressure estimates for pluton emplacement based on hornblende geobarometry (6 to 9 kbars) are compatible with pressure estimates for plutons to the south and for metamorphic aureole assemblages around ARB plutons elsewhere in the western metamorphic belt of southeastern Alaska. These data support the chemical consanguinity of plutons along the length of the magmatic arc now preserved as the ARB and suggest that the whole ARB has been uplifted and eroded to expose plutons emplaced at relatively deep crustal levels.

  14. Main-belt Comet P/2012 T1 (PANSTARRS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Henry H.; Kaluna, Heather M.; Novaković, Bojan; Yang, Bin; Haghighipour, Nader; Micheli, Marco; Denneau, Larry; Fitzsimmons, Alan; Jedicke, Robert; Kleyna, Jan; Vereš, Peter; Wainscoat, Richard J.; Ansdell, Megan; Elliott, Garrett T.; Keane, Jacqueline V.; Meech, Karen J.; Moskovitz, Nicholas A.; Riesen, Timm E.; Sheppard, Scott S.; Sonnett, Sarah; Tholen, David J.; Urban, Laurie; Kaiser, Nick; Chambers, K. C.; Burgett, William S.; Magnier, Eugene A.; Morgan, Jeffrey S.; Price, Paul A.

    2013-07-01

    We present initial results from observations and numerical analyses aimed at characterizing the main-belt comet P/2012 T1 (PANSTARRS). Optical monitoring observations were made between 2012 October and 2013 February using the University of Hawaii 2.2 m telescope, the Keck I telescope, the Baade and Clay Magellan telescopes, Faulkes Telescope South, the Perkins Telescope at Lowell Observatory, and the Southern Astrophysical Research Telescope. The object's intrinsic brightness approximately doubles from the time of its discovery in early October until mid-November and then decreases by ~60% between late December and early February, similar to photometric behavior exhibited by several other main-belt comets and unlike that exhibited by disrupted asteroid (596) Scheila. We also used Keck to conduct spectroscopic searches for CN emission as well as absorption at 0.7 μm that could indicate the presence of hydrated minerals, finding an upper limit CN production rate of Q CN 100 Myr and is unlikely to be a recently implanted interloper from the outer solar system, while a search for potential asteroid family associations reveals that it is dynamically linked to the ~155 Myr old Lixiaohua asteroid family. Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation, the Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile, and the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope, which is a joint project of the Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia, e Inovação (MCTI) da República Federativa do Brasil, the U.S. National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC), and Michigan State University (MSU).

  15. Ice Caps and Ice Belts: The Effects of Obliquity on Ice−Albedo Feedback

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, Brian E. J. [Department of Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences, University at Albany (State University of New York), 1400 Washington Avenue, Albany, NY 12222 (United States); Cronin, Timothy W. [Program in Atmospheres, Oceans, and Climate, Massachusetts Institute of Technology 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Bitz, Cecilia M., E-mail: brose@albany.edu [Department of Atmospheric Sciences, MS 351640, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-1640 (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Planetary obliquity determines the meridional distribution of the annual mean insolation. For obliquity exceeding 55°, the weakest insolation occurs at the equator. Stable partial snow and ice cover on such a planet would be in the form of a belt about the equator rather than polar caps. An analytical model of planetary climate is used to investigate the stability of ice caps and ice belts over the widest possible range of parameters. The model is a non-dimensional diffusive Energy Balance Model, representing insolation, heat transport, and ice−albedo feedback on a spherical planet. A complete analytical solution for any obliquity is given and validated against numerical solutions of a seasonal model in the “deep-water” regime of weak seasonal ice line migration. Multiple equilibria and unstable transitions between climate states (ice-free, Snowball, or ice cap/belt) are found over wide swaths of parameter space, including a “Large Ice-Belt Instability” and “Small Ice-Belt Instability” at high obliquity. The Snowball catastrophe is avoided at weak radiative forcing in two different scenarios: weak albedo feedback and inefficient heat transport (favoring stable partial ice cover), or efficient transport at high obliquity (favoring ice-free conditions). From speculative assumptions about distributions of planetary parameters, three-fourths to four-fifths of all planets with stable partial ice cover should be in the form of Earth-like polar caps.

  16. Ice Caps and Ice Belts: The Effects of Obliquity on Ice-Albedo Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Brian E. J.; Cronin, Timothy W.; Bitz, Cecilia M.

    2017-09-01

    Planetary obliquity determines the meridional distribution of the annual mean insolation. For obliquity exceeding 55°, the weakest insolation occurs at the equator. Stable partial snow and ice cover on such a planet would be in the form of a belt about the equator rather than polar caps. An analytical model of planetary climate is used to investigate the stability of ice caps and ice belts over the widest possible range of parameters. The model is a non-dimensional diffusive Energy Balance Model, representing insolation, heat transport, and ice-albedo feedback on a spherical planet. A complete analytical solution for any obliquity is given and validated against numerical solutions of a seasonal model in the “deep-water” regime of weak seasonal ice line migration. Multiple equilibria and unstable transitions between climate states (ice-free, Snowball, or ice cap/belt) are found over wide swaths of parameter space, including a “Large Ice-Belt Instability” and “Small Ice-Belt Instability” at high obliquity. The Snowball catastrophe is avoided at weak radiative forcing in two different scenarios: weak albedo feedback and inefficient heat transport (favoring stable partial ice cover), or efficient transport at high obliquity (favoring ice-free conditions). From speculative assumptions about distributions of planetary parameters, three-fourths to four-fifths of all planets with stable partial ice cover should be in the form of Earth-like polar caps.

  17. Explaining occurrences of auroral kilometric radiation in Van Allen radiation belts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Fuliang; Zhou, Qinghua; Su, Zhenpeng; He, Zhaoguo; Yang, Chang; Liu, Si; He, Yihua; Gao, Zhonglei

    2016-12-01

    Auroral kilometric radiation (AKR) is a strong terrestrial radio emission and dominates at higher latitudes because of reflection in vicinities of the source cavity and plasmapause. Recently, Van Allen Probes have observed occurrences of AKR emission in the equatorial region of Earth's radiation belts but its origin still remains an open question. Equatorial AKR can produce efficient acceleration of radiation belt electrons and is a risk to space weather. Here we report high-resolution observations during two small storm periods 4-6 April and 18-20 May 2013 and show, using a 3-D ray tracing simulation, that AKR can propagate downward all the way into the equatorial plane in the radiation belts under appropriate conditions. The simulated results can successfully explain the observed AKR's spatial distribution and frequency range, and the current results have a wide application to all other magnetized astrophysical objects in the universe.

  18. Radioactive mineral occurences of Colorado and bibliography. [2500 citations in bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson-Moore, J.L.; Collins, D.B.; Hornbaker, A.L.

    1978-01-01

    This two-part report provides an essentially complete listing of radioactive occurrences in Colorado, with a comprehensive bibliography and bibliographic cross-indexes. Part 1 lists approximately 3000 known radioactive occurrences with their locations and brief accounts of the geology, mineralogy, radioactivity, host rock, production data, and source of data for each. The occurrences are classified by host rock and plotted on U.S. Geological Survey 1/sup 0/ x 2/sup 0/ topographic quadrangle maps with a special 1 : 100,000-scale base map for the Uravan mineral belt. Part 2 contains the bibliography of approximately 2500 citations on radioactive mineral occurrences in the state, with cross-indexes by county, host rock, and the special categories of ''Front Range,'' ''Colorado Plateau,'' and ''thorium.'' The term ''occurrence'' as used in this report is defined as any site where the concentration of uranium or thorium is at least 0.01% or where the range of radioactivity is greater than twice the background radioactivity. All citations and occurrence data are stored on computer diskettes for easy retrieval, correction, and updating.

  19. Phosphorus K-edge XANES spectroscopy of mineral standards

    OpenAIRE

    Ingall, Ellery D.; Brandes, Jay A.; Diaz, Julia M.; de Jonge, Martin D.; Paterson, David; McNulty, Ian; Elliott, W. Crawford; Northrup, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Phosphorus K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy was performed on phosphate mineral specimens including (a) twelve specimens from the apatite group covering a range of compositional variation and crystallinity; (b) six non-apatite calcium-rich phosphate minerals; (c) 15 aluminium-rich phosphate minerals; (d) ten phosphate minerals rich in either reduced iron or manganese; (e) four phosphate minerals rich in either oxidized iron or manganese; (f) eight phosphate mine...

  20. Structural setting of Neoproterozoic mineralization, Asmara district, Eritrea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghebreab, Woldai; Greiling, Reinhard O.; Solomon, Semere

    2009-12-01

    Late Neoproterozoic collision between East and West Gondwana concentrated transpressional deformation in the juvenile crust of the Nubian Shield in Eritrea along at least two steep, curvilinear crustal-scale belts, the Augaro-Adobha Belt (AAB) and the Asmara-Nakfa Belt (ANB). Volcanosedimentary rocks dominantly metamorphosed at greenschist-facies conditions characterize the belts. Each of these belts comprises a complex network of syn-metamorphic shear-fold structures. Steep strike-slip shear zones and accompanying vertical to steeply plunging folds dominated the latest phase of deformation. Quartz vein-hosted gold ± sulphide type and volcanic-hosted massive sulphide type deposits and occurrences are either deformed or hosted by these steep shear zones and folds. The deposits are broadly grouped into three major mineral districts, Asmara, Augaro and Bisha. The Asmara district, the main focus of this study, is located where the southern part of the Asmara-Nakfa Belt changes in strike from NNE-SSW to NNW-SSE. Combined field, micro-structural, and magnetic fabric studies are conducted in the sheared host rocks of a series of the mineral deposits and/or occurrences of the Asmara mineral district. These combined studies revealed that the Asmara area was subjected to a transpressional deformation accommodated in a complex and curved flower structure. Both the quartz vein and massive sulphide types of deposits are sheared, folded and generally spatially associated. The ore-bearing quartz veins are often concentrated along dilatant-extensional en-echelon fracture arrays in reverse and normal sense shear zones, and they either cut through or structurally overlie, the massive sulphide deposits. The massive sulphides that formed at the same time as the Neoproterozoic volcanosedimentary rocks were later deformed and metamorphosed with them. This study, along with previous investigations, further implies that the Asmara area represents an intra-arc, palaeo-oceanic trough or

  1. A comparison of outer electron radiation belt dropouts during solar ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Energetic electrons are trapped in the Earth's radiation belts which occupy a toroidal region between 3 and 7 RE above the Earth's surface. Rapid loss of electrons from the radiation belts is known as dropouts. The source and loss mechanisms regulating the radiation belts population are not yet understood entirely, ...

  2. 33 CFR 142.42 - Safety belts and lifelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety belts and lifelines. 142... § 142.42 Safety belts and lifelines. (a) Except when moving from one location to another, personnel engaged in an activity where there is a hazard of falling 10 or more feet shall wear a safety belt or...

  3. 49 CFR 392.16 - Use of seat belts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of seat belts. 392.16 Section 392.16... VEHICLES Driving of Commercial Motor Vehicles § 392.16 Use of seat belts. A commercial motor vehicle which has a seat belt assembly installed at the driver's seat shall not be driven unless the driver has...

  4. Seat belts and shoulder harnesses : smart protection in small airplanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-05-01

    Seat belts alone will protect you only in minor impacts. : Using shoulder belts in small aircraft would reduce major injuries by 88% and fatalities by 20%. Shoulder belt kits are now available for most airplanes. : Proper use and installation of chil...

  5. 14 CFR 29.1413 - Safety belts: passenger warning device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Safety belts: passenger warning device. 29....1413 Safety belts: passenger warning device. (a) If there are means to indicate to the passengers when safety belts should be fastened, they must be installed to be operated from either pilot seat. (b) Each...

  6. Gravity inferred subsurface structure of Gadwal Schist belt, Andhra ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Detailed gravity data collected across the Gadwal schist belt in the state of Andhra Pradesh show an 8.4 mgal residual gravity anomaly associated with meta-sediments/volcanics of the linear NNW-SSE trending schist belt that shows metamorphism from green schist to amphibolite facies. This schist belt is flanked on either ...

  7. Green operations of belt conveyors by means of speed control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, D.; Pang, Y.; Lodewijks, G.

    2017-01-01

    Belt conveyors can be partially loaded due to the variation of bulk material flow loaded onto the conveyor. Speed control attempts to reduce the belt conveyor energy consumption and to enable the green operations of belt conveyors. Current research of speed control rarely takes the conveyor dynamics

  8. Collisions and drag in debris discs with eccentric parent belts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löhne, T.; Krivov, A. V.; Kirchschlager, F.; Sende, J. A.; Wolf, S.

    2017-08-01

    Context. High-resolution images of circumstellar debris discs reveal off-centred rings that indicate past or ongoing perturbation, possibly caused by secular gravitational interaction with unseen stellar or substellar companions. The purely dynamical aspects of this departure from radial symmetry are well understood. However, the observed dust is subject to additional forces and effects, most notably collisions and drag. Aims: To complement the studies of dynamics, we therefore aim to understand how the addition of collisional evolution and drag forces creates new asymmetries and strengthens or overrides existing ones. Methods: We augmented our existing numerical code Analysis of Collisional Evolution (ACE) by an azimuthal dimension, the longitude of periapse. A set of fiducial discs with global eccentricities ranging from 0 to 0.4 was evolved over gigayear timescales. Size distribution and spatial variation of dust were analysed and interpreted. We discuss the basic impact of belt eccentricity on spectral energy distributions and images. Results: We find features imposed on characteristic timescales. First, radiation pressure defines size cut-offs that differ between periapse and apoapse, resulting in an asymmetric halo. The differences in size distribution make the observable asymmetry of the halo depend on wavelength. Second, collisional equilibrium prefers smaller grains on the apastron side of the parent belt, reducing the effect of pericentre glow and the overall asymmetry. Third, Poynting-Robertson drag fills the region interior to an eccentric belt such that the apastron side is more tenuous. Interpretation and prediction of the appearance in scattered light is problematic when spatial and size distribution are coupled.

  9. 14 CFR 31.63 - Safety belts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Safety belts. 31.63 Section 31.63 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS..., harness, or other restraining means for each occupant, unless the Administrator finds it unnecessary. If...

  10. Green Belt Europe - borders separate, nature unites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uwe Friedel

    2015-01-01

    During the period of the Cold War between 1945 and 1989, a "Green Belt" of valuable pristine landscapes developed along the border line between Eastern and Western Europe, the intensively fortified and guarded so called Iron Curtain. Due to the remoteness of the border areas, a high number of national parks and other large conservation areas can be found...

  11. Research on an Active Seat Belt System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Takeshi

    In a car crash, permanent injury can be avoided if deformation of an occupant's rib cage is maintained within the allowable value. In order to realize this condition, the occupant's seat belt tension must be instantaneously adjusted by a feedback control system. In this study, a seat belt tension control system based on the active shock control system is proposed. The semi-active control law used is derived from the sliding mode control method. One advantage of this proposed system is that it does not require a large power actuator because the seat belt tension is controlled by a brake mechanism. The effectiveness is confirmed by numerical simulation using general parameters of a human thorax and a passenger car in a collision scenario with a wall at a velocity of 100 km/h. The feasibility is then confirmed with a control experiment using a scale model of about 1/10 scale. The relative displacement of the thorax model approaches the allowable value smoothly along the control reference and settles near this value. Thus, the proposed seat belt tension control system design is established.

  12. Composite Microdiscs with a Magnetic Belt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knaapila, Matti; Høyer, Henrik; Helgesen, Geir

    2015-01-01

    We describe an emulsion-based preparation of patchy composite particles (diameter of 100-500 mu m) consisting of a disclike epoxy core and a belt of porous polystyrene particles (diameter of 30 mu m) with magnetite within the pores. Compared to the magnetically uniform polystyrene particles, the ...

  13. Design aspects of multiple driven belt conveyors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nuttall, A.J.G.

    2007-01-01

    Worldwide belt conveyors are used to transport a great variety of bulk solid materials. The desire to carry higher tonnages over longer distances and more diverse routes, while keeping exploitation costs as low as possible, has fuelled many technological advances. An interesting development in the

  14. Survey of ELF-VLF plasma waves in outer radiation belt observed by Cluster STAFF-SA experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Pokhotelov

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Various types of plasma waves have profound effects on acceleration and scattering of radiation belt particles. For the purposes of radiation belt modeling it is necessary to know statistical distributions of plasma wave parameters. This paper analyzes four years of plasma wave observations in the Earth's outer radiation belt obtained by the STAFF-SA experiment on board Cluster spacecraft. Statistical distributions of spectral density of different plasma waves observed in ELF-VLF range (chorus, plasmaspheric hiss, magnetosonic waves are presented as a function of magnetospheric coordinates and geomagnetic activity indices. Comparison with other spacecraft studies supports some earlier conclusions about the distribution of chorus and hiss waves and helps to remove the long-term controversy regarding the distribution of equatorial magnetosonic waves. This study represents a step towards the development of multi-spacecraft database of plasma wave activity in radiation belts.

  15. Mineral chemistry, Thermo-barometry and Crystal Size Distribution of volcanic rocks from Shirinak: Implication for genesis of volcanic rocks in the southeast of Urumieh-Dokhtar (Kerman province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Sepidbar

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Shirinak volcanic rocks, known as Dahaj-Sarduieh belt in Kerman province, are exposed southeast of Urumieh-Dokhtar volcanic belt. Petrographically, the volcanic rocks are basalts and andesite, which consist mainly of plagioclase, clinopyroxene, olivine as well as calcite, quartz and chlorite as the secondary minerals.  All of these minerals set in fine grain matrix with porphyric and glomeroporphyric textures. Based on mineral chemistry data, plagioclases range from labradorite to bytownite and have been undergone compositional and thermal mixing. They mostly show sieve texture.  CSD (crystal size distribution study shows that the shape of plagioclase microlites is tablet with aspect ratio of 1:7:10 for short:intermediate:long axes, respectively. Moreover, three-dimensional shape of plagioclase crystals, nucleation and growth time were estimated 40.27 years, which is completely consistent with the nature of basalt. Based on dip of CSD diagram, magma mixing process has been clearly involved in the magma genesis. The pyroxenes studied are augite in composition that were physically crystalized in moderate to high pressure and temperature of 550-1110 ̊ C. They crystallized from a magma likely with about 10% fluid and in variable fO2 condition. On the base of pyroxene chemistry, the basic rocks from Shirinak belong to tholeiitic to calcalkaline series in volcanic arc setting (Neo-Tethys subduction.

  16. Creation of the Project of a Logistic System for Transportation of Minerals - Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Marasova

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the possibilities how to maintain the competitiveness of mining and processing undertakings on the minerals market is to increase the efficiency of the minerals recovery and processing process with the focus on the operating costs reduction. Intra-plant transportation plays an important role in this process. Optimization of minerals transportation and implementation of the logistic approach can result in significant saving of operating costs pertaining to the recovered number of valuable mineral. The article presents a logistic approach to the belt conveyor system designing, proposes possible modifications of selected parameters of belt conveyors in a particular processing plant, and monitors their impact on the improvement of operating, but mainly economic parameters of transportation of clay and limestone, while maintaining the required transportation capacity.

  17. Properties and Implications of Radial Transport in the Outer Electron Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukhorskiy, A. Y.; Sitnov, M. I.; Millan, R. M.; Kress, B. T.

    2011-12-01

    Earth's outer radiation belt extends above approximately 3.5 Re and is populated by relativistic electrons trapped in the geomagnetic field. Radiation levels across the belt can vary by multiple orders of magnitude on the time scales ranging from minutes to days. One of the basic processes leading to global variability of radiation levels in the belt is radial transport of electrons across their drift shell. The inward radial diffusion followed by "adiabatic" acceleration was the first mechanism put forward to explain creation of the outer belt. This paper reviews the results of recent analysis of basic properties of radial transport and discusses their implications to the global state of the belt. We will focus on stochastic transport which traditionally is referred to as radial diffusion. Stochastic radial transport is driven by interactions of the gradient curvature motion of the electron guiding center with ULF waves. Long-term electron motion can become stochastic due to non-linearity of electron interaction with the waves as well as to the random nature of their solar-wind driver. In spite of the underlying stochasticity the radial diffusion limit is not fully attainable in the outer radiation belt. This is attributed to the fact that phase correlations in electron motion do not have time to decay due to finite size of the system. As a result collective motion of the outer belt electrons can exhibit large deviations from radial diffusion. We will also discuss how the electron belt is affected by drift orbit bifurcations (DOBs). In a day-side compressed geomagnetic field electron orbits around Earth can exhibit bifurcations which violate their second adiabatic invariant and produce complex non-diffusive radial transport. Consequently, the third invariant is undefined for the bifurcating orbits, which means that electron motion can no not be analyzed in terms of adiabatic invariants. Even during quiet solar wind conditions DOBs affect a broad region of the belt

  18. The Influence of Frontal and Lateral Ramps in Fold Thrust Belts on Structural Architecture and Erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, D. M.; McQuarrie, N.

    2016-12-01

    In fold thrust belts, horizontal and vertical motions (or flow) define the path that a particular rock or mineral takes to the surface of the Earth, which is dictated by the location of frontal and lateral ramps. Horizontal flow occurs between ramp locations while the vertical component of motion (or flow) dominates when rocks are traveling over the ramps. Frontal ramps are common features near the front (foreland) of a fold thrust belt. Foreland frontal ramps are the easiest to obtain data for, and from these data predict ramp geometry, because they are shallow and the ramp geometry is commonly expressed as changes in the dip of strata in the mapped geology. Less constrainable are the frontal ramps at depth in the hinterland of a fold thrust belt. However, these deep frontal ramps control the architecture of a fold thrust belt, influence the mapped surface geology, control active uplift and thus, are locations of focused erosion. We show kinematic models from Nepal that illustrate how the architecture (geometry of structures, dips of strata) changes in the fold thrust belt when the location of a frontal ramp is moved and how both thermochronologic data and accurate mapping limit the possibilities for the location of these hinterland frontal ramps. Lateral ramps at depth provide limits on the width of horizontal flow paths and encourage vertical flow paths that have orientations strongly oblique to the strike of the orogen. A challenge in fold thrust belts is to determine the most logical location for lateral ramps. We use examples from Nepal that highlight characteristics that can be used to define the location of lateral ramps. Both lateral and frontal ramps produce significant structural elevation and changes in topographic elevation and thus, are locations of focused erosion through time. Additionally, because material is moving both laterally and vertically in a brittle fold thrust belt, frontal and lateral ramps can control the origin of earthquakes as well

  19. Comparison of lighting activity and inner radiation belt particle fluxes perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez Calderon, C.; Bortnik, J.; Li, W.; Spence, H. E.; Rodger, C. J.

    2016-12-01

    Lightning discharges are known to inject whistlers into the inner magnetosphere over a wide range of latitudes around their source. When a discharge occurs, it radiates electromagnetic energy, some of which propagates in the whistler-mode wave through the ionospheric plasma travelling away from the Earth. Previous studies have discussed the effects of whistler-induced electron precipitation and radiation belt losses associated with lightning but there has been little research on the long term effects of these precipitation on the inner radiation belts [Rodger et al. (2004), Clilverd et al. (2004)].Here, we use data from the World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN), which has continuously monitored global lightning since 2004, to examine one year of lightning data and locate the L-shells with high lighting activity. We use Van Allen Probes' Energetic Particle, Composition, and Thermal Plasma Suite (ECT) from both satellites (RBSP-A/B) to measure electron fluxes in the inner radiation belt at the L-shells of interest. We compare these fluxes to a globally-integrated count of lightning strikes and investigate the relationship between global lightning occurrence and RBSP electron fluxes. We examine several factors, such as different energy ranges, timescales ranging from a few weeks to the entire year and seasonal changes in order to quantify the loss process driven by lightning in the inner radiation belts.

  20. VERO cells harbor a poly-ADP-ribose belt partnering their epithelial adhesion belt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Lafon-Hughes

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Poly-ADP-ribose (PAR is a polymer of up to 400 ADP-ribose units synthesized by poly-ADP-ribose-polymerases (PARPs and degraded by poly-ADP-ribose-glycohydrolase (PARG. Nuclear PAR modulates chromatin compaction, affecting nuclear functions (gene expression, DNA repair. Diverse defined PARP cytoplasmic allocation patterns contrast with the yet still imprecise PAR distribution and still unclear functions. Based on previous evidence from other models, we hypothesized that PAR could be present in epithelial cells where cadherin-based adherens junctions are linked with the actin cytoskeleton (constituting the adhesion belt. In the present work, we have examined through immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy, the subcellular localization of PAR in an epithelial monkey kidney cell line (VERO. PAR was distinguished colocalizing with actin and vinculin in the epithelial belt, a location that has not been previously reported. Actin filaments disruption with cytochalasin D was paralleled by PAR belt disruption. Conversely, PARP inhibitors 3-aminobenzamide, PJ34 or XAV 939, affected PAR belt synthesis, actin distribution, cell shape and adhesion. Extracellular calcium chelation displayed similar effects. Our results demonstrate the existence of PAR in a novel subcellular localization. An initial interpretation of all the available evidence points towards TNKS-1 as the most probable PAR belt architect, although TNKS-2 involvement cannot be discarded. Forthcoming research will test this hypothesis as well as explore the existence of the PAR belt in other epithelial cells and deepen into its functional implications.

  1. Development of damage detector for coal conveyor belt; Sekitan conveyor belt sonsho tanchiki no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oshima, S. [Chubu Electric Power Co. Inc., Nagoya (Japan)

    1996-11-01

    To realize the automatic detection of disconnection of conveyor belt steel cords used at a coal handling facility in thermal power plants, a damage detector for conveyor belt with a non-contact magnetic balance type highly sensitive sensor and a data processing system having real-time display function of detected signals has been developed in a cooperation with Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries (IHI). A detection method of steel cord disconnection has been designed, by which the disconnection can be detected using a detecting coil as a change of magnetic balance with equivalent magnetic fields in opposite direction generated by two magnetic coils. Detecting performance was confirmed by making dummy disconnection with width of 2 mm in the steel cords of conveyor belt at the Numazu large-capacity coal handling and storage demonstration plant of IHI. Joint observation performance using an actually working conveyor belt was also confirmed at the Hekinan Thermal Power Plant of Chubu Electric Power Co., Inc. Through the tests under four different velocities of conveyor belt, it was confirmed that disconnection and belt joints can be detected accurately. 9 figs.

  2. Dynamics Analysis and Modeling of Rubber Belt in Large Mine Belt Conveyors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Yang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Rubber belt not only is one of the key components of belt conveyor, but also affects the overall performance of the core part. Research on dynamics analysis of large conveyor not only helps to improve the reliability and design level, but also can guide the rational selection of conveyor safety factor, and effectively reduce the cost of the conveyor belt. Based on unique viscoelastic properties of belt conveyor, it was simplified as one-dimensional viscoelastic rod in this study, and then a discrete element model of conveyor systems was established. The kinetic equations of each discrete unit was derived using kinetic energy, potential energy of driving segment, bearing segment and return segment and equation of energy dissipation and Lagrange equation. Based on Wilson-q algorithm, the kinetic equation of DT1307-type ST2000's conveyor belt was solved by using Matlab to write computer programs. Research on the change rule of conveyor displacement, velocity, acceleration and dynamic tension during the boot process revealed the working mechanism of nonlinear viscoelastic, which lay the theoretical foundation for dynamic performance optimization of large belt conveyor. The calculation results were used to optimize design and analysis of conveyor system, the result showed that it could reduce the driven tension peaks about 12 %, save 5 % of overall manufacturing cost, which bring considerable profits for enterprises.

  3. Determination of relative immobile and sliding areas between carrying and tractive belts in using of belt conveyor intermediate drives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goncharov K.A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Method of determination of relative immobile and sliding areas between carrying and tractive belts in places of mount-ing of belt conveyor intermediate drives made in the form of tractive contours is proposed. The example shows potential of this method in multidrive belt conveyor design process.

  4. Fractal Dimension Change Point Model for Hydrothermal Alteration Anomalies in Silk Road Economic Belt, the Beishan Area, Gansu, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, H. H.; Wang, Y. L.; Ren, G. L.; LI, J. Q.; Gao, T.; Yang, M.; Yang, J. L.

    2016-11-01

    Remote sensing plays an important role in mineral exploration of “One Belt One Road” plan. One of its applications is extracting and locating hydrothermal alteration zones that are related to mines. At present, the extracting method for alteration anomalies from principal component image mainly relies on the data's normal distribution, without considering the nonlinear characteristics of geological anomaly. In this study, a Fractal Dimension Change Point Model (FDCPM), calculated by the self-similarity and mutability of alteration anomalies, is employed to quantitatively acquire the critical threshold of alteration anomalies. The realization theory and access mechanism of the model are elaborated by an experiment with ASTER data in Beishan mineralization belt, also the results are compared with traditional method (De-Interfered Anomalous Principal Component Thresholding Technique, DIAPCTT). The results show that the findings produced by FDCPM are agree with well with a mounting body of evidence from different perspectives, with the extracting accuracy over 80%, indicating that FDCPM is an effective extracting method for remote sensing alteration anomalies, and could be used as an useful tool for mineral exploration in similar areas in Silk Road Economic Belt.

  5. Initial Highlights from the Herschel Gould Belt Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, Philippe; Men'shchikov, Alexander

    The Herschel Space Observatory provides a unique opportunity to improve our global un-derstanding of the earliest phases of star formation. I will present an overview of the first results from the Gould Belt survey (cf. http://gouldbelt-herschel.cea.fr/), one of the largest key projects with Herschel. The immediate objective of this SPIRE/PACS imaging survey is to obtain complete samples of nearby prestellar cores and Class 0 protostars with well char-acterized luminosities, temperatures, and density profiles, as well as robust core mass func-tions and protostar luminosity functions, in a variety of star-forming environments. Thanks to its high sensitivity and large spatial dynamic range, this survey can also probe, for the first time, the link between diffuse cirrus-like structures and compact self-gravitating cores. The main scientific goal is to elucidate the physical mechanisms responsible for the formation of prestellar cores out of the diffuse interstellar medium, crucial for understanding the origin of the stellar initial mass function. The first results, obtained toward the Aquila Rift and Polaris Flare regions during the 'Science Demonstration Phase' (SDP), are very promising (cf. http://herschel.esac.esa.int/SDPw kshops/presentations/IR/25A ndreG ouldBeltS DP 2009.pdf ).Basedonth

  6. Short-Term Forecasting of Radiation Belt and Ring Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fok, Mei-Ching

    2007-01-01

    A computer program implements a mathematical model of the radiation-belt and ring-current plasmas resulting from interactions between the solar wind and the Earth s magnetic field, for the purpose of predicting fluxes of energetic electrons (10 keV to 5 MeV) and protons (10 keV to 1 MeV), which are hazardous to humans and spacecraft. Given solar-wind and interplanetary-magnetic-field data as inputs, the program solves the convection-diffusion equations of plasma distribution functions in the range of 2 to 10 Earth radii. Phenomena represented in the model include particle drifts resulting from the gradient and curvature of the magnetic field; electric fields associated with the rotation of the Earth, convection, and temporal variation of the magnetic field; and losses along particle-drift paths. The model can readily accommodate new magnetic- and electric-field submodels and new information regarding physical processes that drive the radiation-belt and ring-current plasmas. Despite the complexity of the model, the program can be run in real time on ordinary computers. At present, the program can calculate present electron and proton fluxes; after further development, it should be able to predict the fluxes 24 hours in advance

  7. Simulations of inner radiation belt proton loss during geomagnetic storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, M. A.; Kress, B. T.; Hudson, M. K.; Selesnick, R. S.

    2015-11-01

    The loss of protons in the outer part of the inner radiation belt (L = 2 to 3) during the 6 April 2000 solar energetic particles event has been investigated using test particle simulations that follow full Lorentz trajectories with both magnetic and electric fields calculated from an empirical model. The electric fields are calculated as inductive fields generated by the time-changing magnetic field, which is achieved by time stepping analytic magnetic fields. The simulation results are compared with proton measurements from the highly elliptical orbit satellite for three different energy ranges (8.5-35 MeV, 16-40 MeV, and 27-45 MeV) as well as previous modeling work done. In previous work, inner zone radiation belt loss during geomagnetic storms has been modeled by simulating field line curvature scattering in static magnetic field snapshots with no electric field. The inclusion of the inductive electric field causes an increase in loss to lower L shells, improving the agreement with the satellite data.

  8. Seat Belt Use Among Adult Workers - 21 States, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boal, Winifred L; Li, Jia; Rodriguez-Acosta, Rosa L

    2016-06-17

    Roadway incidents involving motorized vehicles accounted for 24% of fatal occupational injuries in the United States during 2013 and were the leading cause of fatal injuries among workers.* In 2013, workers' compensation costs for serious, nonfatal injuries among work-related roadway incidents involving motorized land vehicles were estimated at $2.96 billion.(†) Seat belt use is a proven method to reduce injuries to motor vehicle occupants (1). Use of lap/shoulder seat belts reduces the risk for fatal injuries to front seat occupants of cars by 45% and the risk to light truck occupants by 60%.(§) To characterize seat belt use among adult workers by occupational group, CDC analyzed data from the 2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) and found that not always using a seat belt was significantly associated with occupational group after controlling for factors known to influence seat belt use. Occupational groups with the highest prevalences of not always using a seat belt included construction and extraction; farming, fishing, and forestry; and installation, maintenance, and repair. To increase seat belt use among persons currently employed, states can enact and enforce primary seat belt laws, employers can set and enforce safety policies requiring seat belt use by all vehicle occupants, and seat belt safety advocates can target interventions to workers in occupational groups with lower reported seat belt use.

  9. Proton induced luminescence of minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvo del Castillo, H.; Millan, A.; Calderon, T. [Depto. Geologia y Geoquimica, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Ctra. Colmenar, km. 15, 28049, Madrid (Spain); Beneitez, P. [Departamento Quimica Fisica Aplicada, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain); Ruvalcaba S, J.L. [lFUNAM, Circuito de la lnvestigacion Cientifica s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2008-07-01

    This paper presents a summary of Ionoluminescence (IL) for several minerals commonly found in jewellery pieces and/or artefacts of historical interest. Samples including silicates and non-silicates (native elements, halide, oxide, carbonate and phosphate groups) have been excited with a 1.8 MeV proton beam, and IL spectra in the range of 200- 900 nm have been collected for each one using a fiber optic coupled spectrometer. Light emissions have been related to Cr{sup 3+}, Mn{sup 2+} and Pr{sup 3+} ions, as well as intrinsic defects in these minerals. Results show the potential of IL for impurity characterization with high detection limits, local symmetry studies, and the study of the origin of minerals. (Author)

  10. Near-infrared spectra of high-albedo outer main-belt asteroids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasuga, Toshihiro; Shirahata, Mai [National Institutes of Natural Science, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo, 181-8588 (Japan); Usui, Fumihiko [Department of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Kuroda, Daisuke [Okayama Astrophysical Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 3037-5 Honjo, Kamogata-cho, Asakuchi, Okayama 719-0232 (Japan); Ootsubo, Takafumi [Department of Earth Science and Astronomy, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 3-8-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo, 153-8902 (Japan); Okamura, Natsuko [Department of Complexity Science and Engineering, The University of Tokyo Kiban Bldg. 408, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8561 (Japan); Hasegawa, Sunao, E-mail: toshi.kasuga@nao.ac.jp [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan)

    2015-02-01

    Most outer main-belt asteroids have low albedos because of their carbonaceouslike bodies. However, infrared satellite surveys have revealed that some asteroids have high albedos, which may suggest the presence of unusual surface minerals for those primitive objects. We present new near-infrared (1.1–2.5 μm) spectra of four outer main-belt asteroids with albedos ≥ 0.1. The C-complex asteroids (555) Norma and (2542) Calpurnia are featureless and have (50%–60%) amorphous Mg pyroxenes that might explain the high albedos. Asteroids (701) Oriola (which is a C-complex asteroid) and (2670) Chuvashia (a D/T-type or M-type asteroid) show possible broad absorption bands (1.5–2.1 μm). The feature can be reproduced by either Mg-rich amorphous pyroxene (with 50%–60% and 80%–95% Mg, respectively) or orthopyroxene (crystalline silicate), which might be responsible for the high albedos. No absorption features of water ice (near 1.5 and 2.0 μm) are detected in the objects. We discuss the origin of high albedo components in the outer main-belt asteroids and their physical relations to comets.

  11. Ranging Behaviour of Commercial Free-Range Laying Hens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chielo, Leonard Ikenna; Pike, Tom; Cooper, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    to the shed in free-range flocks. This study suggests that hens in the outer range engaged more in walking and foraging activities and showed signs of better welfare than those closer to the shed. Abstract In this study, the range use and behaviour of laying hens in commercial free-range flocks was explored. Six flocks were each visited on four separate days and data collected from their outdoor area (divided into zones based on distance from shed and available resources). These were: apron (0–10 m from shed normally without cover or other enrichments); enriched belt (10–50 m from shed where resources such as manmade cover, saplings and dust baths were provided); and outer range (beyond 50 m from shed with no cover and mainly grass pasture). Data collection consisted of counting the number of hens in each zone and recording behaviour, feather condition and nearest neighbour distance (NND) of 20 birds per zone on each visit day. In addition, we used techniques derived from ecological surveys to establish four transects perpendicular to the shed, running through the apron, enriched belt and outer range. Number of hens in each 10 m × 10 m quadrat was recorded four times per day as was the temperature and relative humidity of the outer range. On average, 12.5% of hens were found outside. Of these, 5.4% were found in the apron; 4.3% in the enriched zone; and 2.8% were in the outer range. This pattern was supported by data from quadrats, where the density of hens sharply dropped with increasing distance from shed. Consequently, NND was greatest in the outer range, least in the apron and intermediate in the enriched belt. Hens sampled in outer range and enriched belts had better feather condition than those from the apron. Standing, ground pecking, walking and foraging were the most commonly recorded activities with standing and pecking most likely to occur in the apron, and walking and foraging more common in the outer range. Use of the outer range declined with lower

  12. Drivers' attitudes toward front or rear child passenger belt use and seat belt reminders at these seating positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, David G; McCartt, Anne T

    2014-01-01

    Passengers, especially those in rear seating positions, use seat belts less frequently than drivers. In-vehicle technology can inform drivers when their passengers are unbuckled and encourage passengers to use belts. The current study collected information about drivers' attitudes toward passenger belt use and belt reminders for front passengers and children in back seats. A national telephone survey of 1218 people 18 and older was conducted, of which 477 respondents were drivers who transport a front seat passenger at least once a week and 254 were drivers who transport an 8- to 15-year-old child in the back seat. Respondents were asked about their attitudes toward belt use by their front passengers or rear child passengers and preferences for different passenger belt reminder features. Ninety percent of drivers who regularly transport front seat passengers said that the passengers always use seat belts. Reported belt use was even higher among 8- to 15-year-old children in the back seat (97%). Among the drivers whose children do not always buckle up, about half said their child unbuckled the belt during the trip. Almost every full-time belt use driver (96%) would encourage front passengers to buckle up if not belted, compared to 57 percent of part-time belt users and nonusers. In contrast, nearly every driver who transports children in the back seat would encourage their belt use, regardless of the driver's belt use habits. Most drivers who transport front passengers wanted passenger belt reminders to encourage passengers to buckle up. Most of these drivers wanted a chime/buzzer or warning light or text display and wanted the reminder to last indefinitely. Most drivers who transport child passengers in the rear seat wanted the vehicle to indicate whether child passengers are unbuckled. A large majority of these drivers wanted notifications via a visual diagram of seating positions and belt use, a chime/buzzer, and a warning light or text display. These drivers

  13. Substyles of belting: phonatory and resonatory characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundberg, Johan; Thalén, Margareta; Popeil, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Belting has been described as speechlike, yell-like, or shouting voice production commonly used in contemporary commercial music genres and substantially differing from the esthetic of the Western classical voice tradition. This investigation attempts to describe phonation and resonance characteristics of different substyles of belting (heavy, brassy, ringy, nasal, and speechlike) and the classical style. A professional singer and voice teacher, skilled in these genres, served as the single subject. The recorded material was found representative according to a classification test performed by an expert panel. Subglottal pressure was measured as the oral pressure during the occlusion for the consonant /p/. The voice source and formant frequencies were analyzed by inverse filtering the audio signal. The subglottal pressure and measured flow glottogram parameters differed clearly between the styles heavy and classical assuming opposite extremes in most parameters. The formant frequencies, by contrast, showed fewer less systematic differences between the substyles but were clearly separated from the classical style with regard to the first formant. Thus, the differences between the belting substyles mainly concerned the voice source. Copyright © 2012 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A binary main-belt comet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Jessica; Jewitt, David; Mutchler, Max; Weaver, Harold; Larson, Stephen

    2017-09-01

    Asteroids are primitive Solar System bodies that evolve both collisionally and through disruptions arising from rapid rotation. These processes can lead to the formation of binary asteroids and to the release of dust, both directly and, in some cases, through uncovering frozen volatiles. In a subset of the asteroids called main-belt comets, the sublimation of excavated volatiles causes transient comet-like activity. Torques exerted by sublimation measurably influence the spin rates of active comets and might lead to the splitting of bilobate comet nuclei. The kilometre-sized main-belt asteroid 288P (300163) showed activity for several months around its perihelion 2011 (ref. 11), suspected to be sustained by the sublimation of water ice and supported by rapid rotation, while at least one component rotates slowly with a period of 16 hours (ref. 14). The object 288P is part of a young family of at least 11 asteroids that formed from a precursor about 10 kilometres in diameter during a shattering collision 7.5 million years ago. Here we report that 288P is a binary main-belt comet. It is different from the known asteroid binaries in its combination of wide separation, near-equal component size, high eccentricity and comet-like activity. The observations also provide strong support for sublimation as the driver of activity in 288P and show that sublimation torques may play an important part in binary orbit evolution.

  15. Rapid Rebuilding of the Outer Radiation Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glocer, A.; Fok, M.-C.; Nagai, T.; Toth, G.; Guild, T.; Bkake, J.

    2011-01-01

    Recent observations by the radiation monitor (RDM) on the spacecraft Akebono have shown several cases of greater than 2.5 MeV radiation belt electron enhancements occurring on timescales of less than a few hours. Similar enhancements are also seen in detectors on board the NOAA/POES and TWINS 1 satellites. These intervals are shorter than typical radial diffusion or wave-particle interactions can account for. We choose two so-called "rapid rebuilding" events that occur during high speed streams (4 September 2008 and 22 July 2009) and simulated them with the Space Weather Modeling Framework configured with global magnetosphere, radiation belt, ring current, and ionosphere electrodynamics model. Our simulations produce a weaker and delayed dipolarization as compared to observations, but the associated inductive electric field in the simulations is still strong enough to rapidly transport and accelerate MeV electrons resulting in an energetic electron flux enhancement that is somewhat weaker than is observed. Nevertheless, the calculated flux enhancement and dipolarization is found to be qualitatively consistent with the observations. Taken together, the modeling results and observations support the conclusion that storm-time dipolarization events in the magnetospheric magnetic field result in strong radial transport and energization of radiation belt electrons.

  16. The atmospheric implications of radiation belt remediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Rodger

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available High altitude nuclear explosions (HANEs and geomagnetic storms can produce large scale injections of relativistic particles into the inner radiation belts. It is recognised that these large increases in >1 MeV trapped electron fluxes can shorten the operational lifetime of low Earth orbiting satellites, threatening a large, valuable population. Therefore, studies are being undertaken to bring about practical human control of the radiation belts, termed "Radiation Belt Remediation" (RBR. Here we consider the upper atmospheric consequences of an RBR system operating over either 1 or 10 days. The RBR-forced neutral chemistry changes, leading to NOx enhancements and Ox depletions, are significant during the timescale of the precipitation but are generally not long-lasting. The magnitudes, time-scales, and altitudes of these changes are no more significant than those observed during large solar proton events. In contrast, RBR-operation will lead to unusually intense HF blackouts for about the first half of the operation time, producing large scale disruptions to radio communication and navigation systems. While the neutral atmosphere changes are not particularly important, HF disruptions could be an important area for policy makers to consider, particularly for the remediation of natural injections.

  17. The atmospheric implications of radiation belt remediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Rodger

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available High altitude nuclear explosions (HANEs and geomagnetic storms can produce large scale injections of relativistic particles into the inner radiation belts. It is recognised that these large increases in >1 MeV trapped electron fluxes can shorten the operational lifetime of low Earth orbiting satellites, threatening a large, valuable population. Therefore, studies are being undertaken to bring about practical human control of the radiation belts, termed "Radiation Belt Remediation" (RBR. Here we consider the upper atmospheric consequences of an RBR system operating over either 1 or 10 days. The RBR-forced neutral chemistry changes, leading to NOx enhancements and Ox depletions, are significant during the timescale of the precipitation but are generally not long-lasting. The magnitudes, time-scales, and altitudes of these changes are no more significant than those observed during large solar proton events. In contrast, RBR-operation will lead to unusually intense HF blackouts for about the first half of the operation time, producing large scale disruptions to radio communication and navigation systems. While the neutral atmosphere changes are not particularly important, HF disruptions could be an important area for policy makers to consider, particularly for the remediation of natural injections.

  18. Mineral Resources Data System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Mineral resource occurrence data covering the world, most thoroughly within the U.S. This database contains the records previously provided in the Mineral Resource...

  19. Efficacy of ultraviolet light exposure against survival of Listeria monocytogenes on conveyor belts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morey, Amit; McKee, Shelly R; Dickson, James S; Singh, Manpreet

    2010-06-01

    Listeria monocytogenes has been repeatedly isolated from foods and food-processing facilities including food contact surfaces such as conveyor belts (CB). CBs are often difficult to clean and require rigorous sanitation programs for decontamination. Ultraviolet (UV) light has exhibited microbicidal properties on food contact surfaces and this study was conducted to determine the efficacy of UV against L. monocytogenes on CB made of different materials. A four-strain cocktail of L. monocytogenes (serotypes 3A, 4A, 4B, and 4C) was made to give a suspension of approximately 10(7) CFU/mL. CBs made from four different types of materials, (1) Ropanyl DM 8/2 A2 + 04 (belt 1), (2) Volta FRMW-3.0 (belt 2), (3) Volta FRMB-3.0 (belt 3), and (4) Ropanyl DM (belt 4), were inoculated with 1 mL of the four-strain cocktail (approximately 10(7) CFU/mL) of the bacterial suspension. CBs were treated with UV light (254 nm) for 1 and 3 sec at 5.53 and 5.95 mW/cm(2). Three replications of the experiments were conducted. Two-way analysis of variance of survival populations of L. monocytogenes showed that bacterial counts were significantly reduced (p < 0.05) on all belt types irrespective of UV light intensities and times of exposure. L. monocytogenes populations were reduced (p < 0.05) to below detection limits on belts 1, 2, and 3 after exposure to 5.95 mW/cm(2) UV light intensity for 3 sec. L. monocytogenes-inoculated CBs that were exposed to 5.53 mW/cm(2) showed higher (p < 0.05) survival populations of L. monocytogenes compared with 5.95 mW/cm(2) on all the four CBs. Belt 4 showed survival populations of L. monocytogenes ranging from 1.42 to 1.73 log(10) CFU/cm(2) after UV light treatment for 1 and 3 sec. UV light can be effectively used to reduce L. monocytogenes contamination on CBs.

  20. Normative misperceptions of peer seat belt use among high school students and their relationship to personal seat belt use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litt, Dana M; Lewis, Melissa A; Linkenbach, Jeffrey W; Lande, Gary; Neighbors, Clayton

    2014-01-01

    This research examined gender-specific perceptions of peer seat belt use norms among high school students and their relationship with one's own seat belt use. We expected that students would underestimate the seat belt use of their peers and that these perceptions would be positively associated with their own seat belt use. High school students from 4 schools (N = 3348; 52% male) completed measures assessing perceived seat belt use and personal seat belt use. Findings demonstrated that students perceived that others engaged in less seat belt use than they do and that perceived norms were positively associated with one's own seat belt use. Peer influences are a strong predictor of behavior, especially among adolescents. Ironically, adolescents' behaviors are often influenced by inaccurate perceptions of their peers. This research establishes the presence of a misperception related to seat belt use and suggests that misperception is associated with own behaviors. This research provides a foundation for social norms-based interventions designed to increase seat belt use by correcting normative misperceptions among adolescents.

  1. Random Deterioration Process of Conveyor Belt Evaluated by Statistical Analysis of Core Failures Detected Along Belt Axis and Elapsed Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazej, Ryszard; Jurdziak, Leszek; Kirjanów, Agata; Kozlowski, Tomasz

    2017-12-01

    Magnetic diagnostic methods are used for steel cord belt condition evaluation since the beginning of 1970s. Initially they generated an analogue signal for several tens of centimetres of conveyor belts scanned sequentially with one measuring head in several cycles or the whole width of the belt at one time thanks to the installation of many measuring heads across the entire cross section. This did not allow identification of single centimetre failures, but rather an aggregate assessment of the state of quite wide waist. Modern diagnostic devices, thanks to miniaturization, allow up to 200 heads per belt width to identify damage of individual cords. Instead of analogue signals, they generate a zero-one digital signal corresponding to a change in the magnetic field sign, which can illustrate damage on 2D images. This makes it easier to identify the location and size of the damage in the belt image. Statistical analysis of digital signals summed up for consecutive sections along the belt axis allows to present both the source signal and its aggregation for band of a given width to form aggregate measures of belt damage such as the damage density per 1 meter of belt. Observation of changes in these measurements at different times allows on evaluation of its rate of change over time, which can be used to forecast future belt condition and to select the proper moment of preventive belt replacement to another one to avoid emergency downtimes (egg in underground mines) or to recondition of belts (egg. in lignite surface mines). The paper presents the results of investigations of the damage condition of a core of a single belt segment working in one of the copper ore underground mines. Scanning of the belt condition was performed few times at intervals of several months. The paper presents the results of the analysis of the changes in core condition, showing the random character of the damage process along the axis and its change over time.

  2. Reconnaissance exploration geochemistry in the central Brooks Range, northern Alaska: Implications for exploration of sediment-hosted zinc-lead-silver deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, K.D.; Kelley, D.L.

    1992-01-01

    A reconnaissance geochemical survey was conducted in the southern Killik River quadrangle, central Brooks Range, northern Alaska. The Brooks Range lies within the zone of continuous permafrost which may partially inhibit chemical weathering and oxidation. The minus 30-mesh and nonmagnetic heavy-mineral concentrate fractions of sediment samples were chosen as the sample media for the survey so that mechanical rather than chemical dispersion patterns would be enhanced. A total of 263 sites were sampled within the southern half of the Killik River quadrangle at an average sample density of approximately one sample per 12 km2. All samples were submitted for multi-element analyses. In the western and central Brooks Range, several known sediment-hosted Zn-Pb-Ag(-Ba) deposits occur within a belt of Paleozoic rocks of the Endicott Mountains allochthon. Exploration for this type of deposit in the Brook Range is difficult, due to the inherently high background values for Ba, Zn and Pb in shale and the common occurrence of metamorphic quartz-calcite veins, many of which contain traces of sulfide minerals. Stream sediments derived from these sources produce numerous geochemical anomalies which are not necessarily associated with significant mineralization. R-mode factor analysis provides a means of distinguishing between element associations related to lithology and those related to possible mineralization. Factor analysis applied to the multi-element data from the southern Killik River quadrangle resulted in the discovery of two additional Zn-Pb-Ag mineral occurrences of considerable areal extent which are 80-100 km east of any previously known deposit. These have been informally named the Kady and Vidlee. Several lithogeochemical element associations, or factors, and three factors which represent sulfide mineralization were identified: Ag-Pb-Zn (galena and sphalerite) and Fe-Ni-Co-Cu (pyrite ?? chalcopyrite) in the concentrate samples and Cd-Zn-Pb-As-Mn in the sediment

  3. U-Pb and Pb-Pb study of the Murchison Greenstone Belt and of the Evander gold-bearing basin, South Africa. Implications for the evolution of the Kaapvaal craton; Etude U-Pb et Pb-Pb de la Murchison Greenstone Belt et du bassin aurifere d'Evander, Afrique du Sud. Implications pour l'evolution du Kaapvaal craton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poujol, M

    1997-12-01

    This study presents new U-Pb and Pb-Pb isotopic data for both the Central Rand Group from the Evander Goldfield and the Murchison Greenstone Belt (Republic of South Africa). The Evander Goldfield, where no previous isotopic data have been derived, is located in the eastern side of the Witwatersrand basin. The oldest age measured is ca. 3180 Ma, while the majority of detritus falls in the range 3050-2850 Ma. New growth of zircon (or isotopic resetting of older detritus) appears to have been associated with deposition of the Ventersdorp lavas at ca. 2.7 Ga. A small proportion of the pyrite, mainly extracted from unaltered sediments in the Kimberley Reef footwall, yields ages that are in excess of the minimum depositional age of the Witwatersrand Basin. Authigenic pyrite, as well as detrital grains from highly altered portions of the Kimberley Reef, define two main events. The Pb signature of the 2370 Ma event is probably associated with burial of the basin by the upper portion of the Transvaal sequence, and suggests circulation of highly radiogenic fluids. Isotopic signatures for the 2020 Ma event are probably related to Bushveld intrusion and/or Vredefort catastrophism, and appear to be associate with a fluid that was less radiogenic. The present study shows a number of new results which support a complex, multi-stage evolution and genesis of the Au-U deposits within the Witwatersrand Basin. The Murchison Greenstone Belt constitutes one of the world's largest antimony producing areas and also hosts gold, as well as volcanogenic massive sulfide Cu-Zn mineralization and emeralds. The goal of this study is to determine the age of the belt as well as the timing of mineralization and, also, to assess the potential role of granitoids in the ore-forming processes. The data identify an episode of greenstone formation between 3.09 Ga and 2.97 Ga. Three main magmatic events are identified at ca. 2.97, 2.82 and 2.68 Ga. Pyrites associated with both Sb-Au and Cu

  4. Mineral mapping in the western Kunlun Mountains using Tiangong-1 hyperspectral imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, W.; Cheng, Q.; Jing, L.; Chen, Y.; Guo, X.; Ding, H.; Liu, Q.

    2016-04-01

    The unmanned Chinese space module Tiangong-1 was launched in September 2011 with a hyperspectral sensor on board. The sensor combines high spatial and spectral resolution suitable for mineral mapping. In this study, Tiangong-1 hyperspectral data were employed for mineral mapping in the western Kunlun Mountains, an important metallogenic belt in China. A Spectral Hourglass Wizard method was applied to detect common minerals from the Tiangong- 1 shortwave infrared data with reference to a set of spectral libraries. Spectral information on minerals, such as zoisite, mica, quartz, sodalite, dolomite, and actinolite, was extracted from the data. The resulting mineral interpretation maps were highly correlated with the reference geological maps and information from ASTER satellite imagery, suggesting that the hyperspectral data are suitable for mineral mapping.

  5. Minerals in the foods eaten by mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma C Cancelliere

    Full Text Available Minerals are critical to an individual's health and fitness, and yet little is known about mineral nutrition and requirements in free-ranging primates. We estimated the mineral content of foods consumed by mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei in the Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda. Mountain gorillas acquire the majority of their minerals from herbaceous leaves, which constitute the bulk of their diet. However, less commonly eaten foods were sometimes found to be higher in specific minerals, suggesting their potential importance. A principal component analysis demonstrated little correlation among minerals in food items, which further suggests that mountain gorillas might increase dietary diversity to obtain a full complement of minerals in their diet. Future work is needed to examine the bioavailability of minerals to mountain gorillas in order to better understand their intake in relation to estimated needs and the consequences of suboptimal mineral balance in gorilla foods.

  6. Minerals in the Foods Eaten by Mountain Gorillas (Gorilla beringei)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancelliere, Emma C.; DeAngelis, Nicole; Nkurunungi, John Bosco; Raubenheimer, David; Rothman, Jessica M.

    2014-01-01

    Minerals are critical to an individual’s health and fitness, and yet little is known about mineral nutrition and requirements in free-ranging primates. We estimated the mineral content of foods consumed by mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei) in the Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda. Mountain gorillas acquire the majority of their minerals from herbaceous leaves, which constitute the bulk of their diet. However, less commonly eaten foods were sometimes found to be higher in specific minerals, suggesting their potential importance. A principal component analysis demonstrated little correlation among minerals in food items, which further suggests that mountain gorillas might increase dietary diversity to obtain a full complement of minerals in their diet. Future work is needed to examine the bioavailability of minerals to mountain gorillas in order to better understand their intake in relation to estimated needs and the consequences of suboptimal mineral balance in gorilla foods. PMID:25372712

  7. An Estimate of Recoverable Heavy Oil Resources of the Orinoco Oil Belt, Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Cook, Troy A.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Klett, Timothy R.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Kirschbaum, Mark A.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Pitman, Janet K.

    2009-01-01

    The Orinoco Oil Belt Assessment Unit of the La Luna-Quercual Total Petroleum System encompasses approximately 50,000 km2 of the East Venezuela Basin Province that is underlain by more than 1 trillion barrels of heavy oil-in-place. As part of a program directed at estimating the technically recoverable oil and gas resources of priority petroleum basins worldwide, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated the recoverable oil resources of the Orinoco Oil Belt Assessment Unit. This estimate relied mainly on published geologic and engineering data for reservoirs (net oil-saturated sandstone thickness and extent), petrophysical properties (porosity, water saturation, and formation volume factors), recovery factors determined by pilot projects, and estimates of volumes of oil-in-place. The U.S. Geological Survey estimated a mean volume of 513 billion barrels of technically recoverable heavy oil in the Orinoco Oil Belt Assessment Unit of the East Venezuela Basin Province; the range is 380 to 652 billion barrels. The Orinoco Oil Belt Assessment Unit thus contains one of the largest recoverable oil accumulations in the world.

  8. Elastic Properties of Mantle Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, T. S.; Stan, C. V.

    2012-12-01

    The most direct information about the interior structure of the Earth comes from seismic wave velocities. Interpretation of seismic data requires an understanding of how sound velocities and elastic properties of minerals vary with pressure, temperature, crystal structure, and composition as well as the role of anelasticity, melts, etc. More generally, elastic moduli are important for understanding many solid-state phenomena including mechanical stability, interatomic interactions, material strength, compressibility, and phase transition mechanisms. The database of mineral elasticity measurements has been growing rapidly in recent years. In this work, we report initial results of an ongoing survey of our current knowledge of mineral elasticity at both ambient conditions and high pressures and temperatures. The analysis is selective, emphasizing single crystal measurements but also incorporating polycrystalline measurements and volume compression data as appropriate. The goal is to synthesize our current understanding of mineral elasticity in terms of structure and composition, and to identify the major remaining needs for experimental and theoretical work. Clinopyroxenes (Cpx) provide an example of our approach. A wide range of clinopyroxene compositions are found geologically and Mg-, Ca-, and Na-rich clinopyroxenes are expected to be important components in the upper mantle. The single-crystal elastic properties of a number of endmember Cpx compositions have been measured and these exhibit a range of ~25% in shear velocity. Those with monovalent cations (spodumene, jadeite) in the M2 site exhibit the highest velocities while Fe-rich (hendenbergit, acmite) compositions have the lowest velocities. The effects on velocity due to a wide range of chemical substitutions can be defined, but there are important discrepancies and omissions in the database. New measurements of omphacites, intermediate diopside-hedenbergite compositions, aegerine/acmite, augite, etc. are

  9. Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy for bulk minerals online analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaft, M.; Sapir-Sofer, I.; Modiano, H.; Stana, R. [LDS, Petah Tiqwa (Israel). Research Dept.

    2007-12-15

    The purpose of the work was to prove the ability of LIBS to provide on-line analyses for raw ores in field conditions. An industrial LIBS machine was developed and successfully tested for on-belt evaluation of phosphate measuring Mg, Fe, Al, Bone Phosphate Lime (BPL), Insoluble phase and Metal Impurity Ratio (MER) and of coal measuring its ash content. The comparison of LIBS on-line data with control analyses revealed good correlation, which corresponds to the required detection limits and accuracy. With frequent elemental data from a LIBS system, process engineers have the tools to best optimize the process. These processes could be minerals blending and separation to meet customer specifications, monitoring and controlling the efficiency of a minerals process, or a minerals accounting function.

  10. Geology, mineralization, mineral chemistry, and ore-fluid conditions of Irankuh Pb-Zn mining district, south of Isfahan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hassan Karimpour

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The Irankuh mining district area located at the southern part of the Malayer-Isfahan metallogenic belt, south of Isfahan, consists of several Zn-Pb deposits and occurrences such as Tappehsorkh, Rowmarmar 5, Kolahdarvazeh, Blind ore, and Gushfil deposits as well as Rowmarmar 1-4 and Gushfil 1 prospects. Based on geology, alteration, form and texture of mineralization, and paragenesis assemblages, Pb-Zn mineralization is Mississippi-type deposit (Rastad, 1981; Ghazban et al., 1994; Ghasemi, 1995; Reichert, 2007; Timoori-Asl (2010; Ayati et al., 2013; Hosseini-Dinani et al., 2015. Geology of the area consists of Jurassic siltstone and shale and different types of Cretaceous dolostone and limestone. The aim of this research is new geological studies such as revision of old geologic map, study of different types of textures and mineral assemblages within carbonate and clastic host rocks, and chemistry of galena, sphalerite, and dolomite. Finally, we combined these results with isotopic and fluid inclusion data and discussed on ore-fluid conditions. Materials and Methods In order to achieve the aims of this work, at first field surveying and sampling were done. Then, 200 thin and 70 polished thin sections were prepared. Some of the samples were selected for microprobe analysis and galena and sphalerite minerals were analyzed by using JEOL- JAX-8230 analyzer at Colorado University, USA. The chemistry of dolomite and fluid inclusion data are used after Boveiri Konari and Rastad (2016 and stable isotope is used after Ghazban et al. (1994. Discussion The Irankuh mineralization is hosted by carbonate rocks (dolostone and limestone and minor clastic rocks as epigenetic. Mineralization has occurred as breccia, veinlet, open space filling, spoted, dessiminated, and replacement (carbonate hosted rock. The mineral assemblages are Fe-rich sphalerite, galena, minor pyrite, Fe- and Mn-rich dolomite, bituminous, ankrite, calcite ± quartz ± barite

  11. Characterization and origin of low-T willemite (Zn2SiO4) mineralization: the case of the Bou Arhous deposit (High Atlas, Morocco)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choulet, Flavien; Barbanson, Luc; Buatier, Martine; Richard, James; Vennemann, Torsten; Ennaciri, Aomar; Zouhair, Mohamed

    2017-10-01

    Willemite (Zn2SiO4) usually reported in hypogene non-sulfide deposits is described as the main ore mineral in the carbonate-hosted Bou Arhous zinc deposit. This deposit is located in the High Atlas intracontinental range that formed during the Tertiary. Based on a set of microscopic observations, it was possible to establish that willemite replaces primary sphalerite. On the basis of cathodoluminescence imaging, three successive generations of willemite are distinguished, with evidence of dissolution-reprecipitation processes. Willemite is also variably enriched in Ge (up to 1000 ppm), while Ge contents lower than 100 ppm are reported in the primary sulfide minerals. Depending on the willemite generation, this substitution was positively or negatively correlated to the Zn-Pb substitution. According to the nature of zoning (sector versus oscillatory), the incorporation of Ge was either controlled by crystallographic factors or by the nature of the mineralizing fluids. Willemite is associated with other oxidation-related mineral species, like cerussite (PbCO3) but is not in isotopic equilibrium and therefore not considered to be cogenetic. Oxygen isotope compositions support the formation of willemite at temperatures below 130 °C, from mixed meteoric and deeper, hydrothermal fluids. The formation of the High Atlas Belt during the Tertiary has contributed to the exhumation of the sulfide minerals and the development of vertical conduits for percolation of meteoric water and ascending hydrothermal fluids. In addition to a local contribution of silicate minerals of the host limestone, hydrothermal fluids probably transported Si and Ge that are incorporated in willemite.

  12. Archaean lode gold mineralisation in banded iron formation at the Kalahari Goldridge deposit, Kraaipan Greenstone Belt, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Napoleon Q.; Moore, John M.

    2006-08-01

    The Kalahari Goldridge Mine is located within the Archaean Kraaipan Greenstone Belt, about 60 km southwest of Mafikeng in the North West Province, South Africa. The ore body thickness varies from 15 to 45 m along a strike length of about 1.5 km within approximately N-S striking banded iron formation (BIF). The stratabound ore body is hosted primarily by BIF, which consists of alternating chert and magnetite-chlorite-stilpnomelane-sulphide-carbonate bands of millimetre- to centimetre scale. A footwall of sericite-carbonate-chlorite schist underlain by mafic amphibolite occurs to the west and carbonaceous metapelites in the hanging wall to the east. Overlying the hanging wall, carbonaceous metapelites, units of coarse-grained metagreywackes fining upwards, become increasingly conglomeratic up the stratigraphy. Small-scale isoclinal folds, brecciation, extension fractures and boudinage of cherty BIF units reflect brittle-ductile deformation. Fold axial planes have foliation, with subvertical plunges parallel to prominent rodding and mineral lineation in the footwall rocks. Gold mineralisation is associated with two generations of quartz-carbonate veins, dipping approximately 20° to 40° W. The first generation consists of ladder-vein sets (group IIA) preferentially developed in centimetre-scale Fe-rich mesobands, whereas the second generation consists of large quartz-carbonate veins (group IIB), which locally crosscut the entire ore body and extend into the footwall and hanging wall. The ore body is controlled by mesoscale isoclinal folds approximately 67° E, orthogonal to the plane of mineralised, gently dipping veins, defining the principal stretching direction and development of fluid-focussing conduits. The intersections of the mineralised veins and foliation planes of the host rock plunges approximately 08° to the north. Pervasive hydrothermal alteration is characterised by chloritisation, carbonatisation, sulphidation and K-metasomatism. Gold is closely

  13. Modeling Resonant Structure in the Kuiper Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, E. K.; Dermott, S. F.; Grogan, K.

    1999-12-01

    There is a possible connection between structure in circumstellar disks and the presence of planets, our own zodiacal cloud being the prime example. Asymmetries in such a disk could be diagnostic of planets which would be otherwise undetectable. At least three different types of asymmetries can serve to indicate bodies orbiting a star in a disk: (1) a warp in the plane of symmetry of the disk, (2) an offset in the center of symmetry of the disk with respect to the central star, and (3) density anomalies in the plane of the disk due to resonant trapping of dust particles. In the asteroid belt, collisions between asteroids supply dust particles to the zodiacal cloud. By comparison, it has been postulated that collisions between KBOs could initiate a collisional cascade which would produce a Kuiper dust disk. In fact, the Kuiper Belt is the region of our solar system that is most analogous to the planetary debris disks we see around other stars such as Vega, β Pic, Fomalhaut, and ɛ Eridani (Backman and Paresce 1993). A Kuiper Disk would most likely have a resonant structure, with two concentrations in brightness along the ecliptic longitude. This large scale structure arises because many of the KBOs, the Plutinos, are in the 2:3 mean motion resonance with Neptune. By running numerical integrations of particles in Pluto-like orbits, the resonant structure of the Kuiper belt can be studied by determining the percentage of particles trapped in the resonance as a function of their initial velocity and beta, where β = Frad}/F{grav. The dynamical evolution of the particles is followed from source to sink with Poynting Robertson light drag, solar wind drag, radiation pressure, and the effects of planetary gravitational perturbations included. This research was funded in part by a NASA GSRP grant.

  14. Escape of asteroids from the main belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granvik, Mikael; Morbidelli, Alessandro; Vokrouhlický, David; Bottke, William F.; Nesvorný, David; Jedicke, Robert

    2017-02-01

    Aims: We locate escape routes from the main asteroid belt, particularly into the near-Earth-object (NEO) region, and estimate the relative fluxes for different escape routes as a function of object size under the influence of the Yarkovsky semimajor-axis drift. Methods: We integrated the orbits of 78 355 known and 14 094 cloned main-belt objects and Cybele and Hilda asteroids (hereafter collectively called MBOs) for 100 Myr and recorded the characteristics of the escaping objects. The selected sample of MBOs with perihelion distance q > 1.3 au and semimajor axis a random spin obliquities (either 0 deg or 180 deg) for each test asteroid. Results: We find more than ten obvious escape routes from the asteroid belt to the NEO region, and they typically coincide with low-order mean-motion resonances with Jupiter and secular resonances. The locations of the escape routes are independent of the semimajor-axis drift rate and thus are also independent of the asteroid diameter. The locations of the escape routes are likewise unaffected when we added a model for Yarkovsky-O'Keefe-Radzievskii-Paddack (YORP) cycles coupled with secular evolution of the rotation pole as a result of the solar gravitational torque. A Yarkovsky-only model predicts a flux of asteroids entering the NEO region that is too high compared to the observationally constrained flux, and the discrepancy grows larger for smaller asteroids. A combined Yarkovsky and YORP model predicts a flux of small NEOs that is approximately a factor of 5 too low compared to an observationally constrained estimate. This suggests that the characteristic timescale of the YORP cycle is longer than our canonical YORP model predicts.

  15. An Evaluation Study of a CALL Application: With BELT or without BELT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genc, Humeyra

    2012-01-01

    The present study tried to evaluate the 6th grade students' attitudes towards the use of a CALL program which is called BELT Success used in English language learning course in a private school, the relationship to students' attitudes to their English language proficiency level, and finally teachers` experiences and opinions towards the use of…

  16. The Radiation Belt Storm Probes Mission: Advancing Our Understanding of the Earth's Radiation Belts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibeck, David; Kanekal, Shrikanth; Kessel, Ramona; Fox, Nicola; Mauk, Barry

    2012-01-01

    We describe NASA's Radiation Belt Storm Probe (RBSP) mission, whose primary science objective is to understand, ideally to the point of predictability, the dynamics of relativistic electrons and penetrating ions in the Earth's radiation belts resulting from variable solar activity. The overarching scientific questions addressed include: 1. the physical processes that produce radiation belt enhancement events, 2. the dominant mechanisms for relativistic electron loss, and 3. how the ring current and other geomagnetic processes affect radiation belt behavior. The RBSP mission comprises two spacecraft which will be launched during Fall 2012 into low inclination lapping equatorial orbits. The orbit periods are about 9 hours, with perigee altitudes and apogee radial distances of 600 km and 5.8 RE respectively. During the two-year primary mission, the spacecraft orbits precess once around the Earth and lap each other twice in each local time quadrant. The spacecraft are each equipped with identical comprehensive instrumentation packages to measure, electrons, ions and wave electric and magnetic fields. We provide an overview of the RBSP mission, onboard instrumentation and science prospects and invite scientific collaboration.

  17. Period Determination of Six Main Belt Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero, Andrea

    2014-07-01

    Observations of six main-belt asteroids (MBA) produced lightcurve parameters of: 487 Venetia, P = 13.34 ± 0.01 h, A = 0.20 mag; 684 Hildburg, P = 15.89 ± 0.01 h, A = 0.22 mag; 772 Tanete, P = 8.629 ± 0.001 h, A = 0.18 mag.; 1181 Lilith, P = 15.04 ± 0.01 h, A = 0.11 mag.; 1246 Chaka, P = 25.44 ± 0.01 h, A = 0.25 mag.; and 2834 Christy Carol, P = 12.79 ± 0.01 h, A = 0.39 mag.

  18. Spectral properties of weathered and fresh rock surfaces in the Xiemisitai metallogenic belt, NW Xinjiang, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ke-Fa; Wang, Shan-Shan

    2017-10-01

    Surfaces weathering of rocks in which mineral materials may be similar to or quite different from the minerals in the underlying parent rock completely control the reflectance spectra of the terrain. Our study of typical weathered and fresh rock samples from the Xiemisitai metallogenic belt, Western Junggar region, Xinjiang, found that weathering results in the formation of new materials that cause differences in the spectral features of fresh and weathered rock surfaces. Alterations induce variations in spectrum brightness, presence and intensity of characteristic absorption features, and spectral slope. Spectral differences between weathered and fresh rock surfaces are small for rhyolite, granite, and tuffaceous sandstone, but large for andesite, basalt, and diorite. Spectral changes in the 350-1000 nm wavelength region are attributed to alteration of iron oxides by atmospheric processes or secondary alteration of iron-rich minerals. Spectral features between 1000-2500 nm are caused by O-H vibrations, with features at 2200-2500 nm solely attributed to hydroxyl groups. The strongest Al-OH bands appear near 2200 nm, while Mg-OH bands are found near 2300 nm and 2350 nm. Results from this study can be used to better characterize and discriminate lithological units and potential mineral zones using hyperspectral and multispectral remote sensing techniques.

  19. Pelvic belt effects on sacroiliac joint ligaments: a computational approach to understand therapeutic effects of pelvic belts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sichting, Freddy; Rossol, Jerome; Soisson, Odette; Klima, Stefan; Milani, Thomas; Hammer, Niels

    2014-01-01

    The sacroiliac joint is a widely described source of low back pain. Therapeutic approaches to relieve pain include the application of pelvic belts. However, the effects of pelvic belts on sacroiliac joint ligaments as potential pain generators are mostly unknown. The aim of our study was to analyze the influence of pelvic belts on ligament load by means of a computer model. Experimental computer study using a finite element method. A computer model of the human pelvis was created, comprising bones, ligaments, and cartilage. Detailed geometries, material properties of ligaments, and in-vivo pressure distribution patterns of a pelvic belt were implemented. The effects of pelvic belts on ligament strain were computed in the double-leg stance. Pelvic belts increase sacroiliac joint motion around the sagittal axis but decrease motion around the transverse axis. With pelvic belt application, most of the strained sacroiliac joint ligaments were relieved, especially the sacrospinous, sacrotuberous, and the interosseous sacroiliac ligaments. Sacroiliac joint motion and ligament strains were minute. These results agree with validation data from other studies. Assigning homogenous and linear material properties and excluding muscle forces are clear simplifications of the complex reality. Pelvic belts alter sacroiliac joint motion and provide partial relief of ligament strain that is subjectively marked, although minimal in absolute terms. These findings confirm theories that besides being mechanical stabilizers, the sacroiliac joint ligaments are likely involved in neuromuscular feedback mechanisms. The results from our computer model help with unraveling the therapeutic mechanisms of pelvic belts.

  20. Geology of Tenderfoot Creek Experimental Forest Little Belt Mountains, Meagher County, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell W. Reynolds

    1975-01-01

    The Tenderfoot Creek Experimental Forest in the west-central part of the Little Belt Mountains occupies a transition zone in the west-central part of the Mountains-a transition from rolling mountain parks with rounded peaks that rise about 500 feet above the upland of the range to deeply incised canyons that drain the west end of the Mountains. The Experimental Forest...

  1. Are Energetic Electrons in the Solar Wind the Source of the Outer Radiation Belt?

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xinlin; Baker, D. N.; Temerin, M.; Larson, D.; Lin, R. P.; Reeves, G. D.; Looper, M.; Kanekal, S. G.; Mewaldt, R. A.

    1997-01-01

    Using data from WIND, SAMPEX (Solar Anomalous, and Magnetospheric Particle Explorer), and the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) sensors onboard geostationary satellites, we investigate the correlation of energetic electrons in the 20–200 keV range in the solar wind and of high speed solar wind streams with relativistic electrons in the magnetosphere to determine whether energetic electrons in the solar wind are the source of the outer relativistic electron radiation belt. Though there is ...

  2. Variations of Synchrotron Radio Emissions from Jupiter's Inner Radiation Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Y.-Q.

    2017-09-01

    Variations of Synchrotron Radio Emissions from Jupiter's Inner Radiation Belt Yu-Qing Lou* Physics Department, Tsinghua Centre for Astrophysics (THCA), Tsinghua-National Astronomical Observatories of China (NAOC) joint Research Centre for Astrophysics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China We describe the basic phenommenology of quasi-periodic 40 minute (QP-40) polar burst activities of Jupiter and their close correlation with the solar wind speed variations at the Jovian magnetosphere. Physically, relativistic electrons of QP-40 bursts most likely come from the circumpolar regions of the inner radiation belt (IRB) which gives off intense synchroton radio emissions in a wide wavelength range. Such relativistic electron bursts also give rise to beamed low-frequency radio bursts along polar magnetic field lines with distinct polarizations from Jupiter's two polar regions. Jovian aurora activities are expected to be also affected by such QP-40 burst activities. We present evidence of short-term (typical timescales shorter than an hour) variabilities of the IRB at 6cm wavelength and describe recent joint radio telescope observation campaign to monitor Jupiter in coordination with JUNO spacecraft. Except for low-frequency polarization features, we anticipate JUNO to detect QP-40 activities from both polar regions during the arrival of high-speed solar wind with intermittency. References 1. Y.-Q. Lou, The Astrophysical Journal, 548, 460 (2001). 2. Y.-Q. Lou, and C. Zheng, Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc. Letters, 344, L1 (2003). 3. Y.-Q. Lou, H. G. Song, Y.Y. Liu, and M. Yang, Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc. Letters, 421, L62 (2012). 4. Y.-Q. Lou, Geophysical Research Letters, 23, 609 (1996). 5. Y.-Q. Lou, Journal of Geophysical Research, 99, 14747 (1994). 6. G. R. Gladstone, et al., Nature, 415, 1000 (2002).

  3. Shaping HR8799's outer dust belt with an unseen planet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, M. J.; Wyatt, M. C.; Marino, S.; Kennedy, G. M.

    2018-01-01

    HR8799 is a benchmark system for direct imaging studies. It hosts two debris belts, which lie internally and externally to four giant planets. This paper considers how the four known planets and a possible fifth planet, interact with the external population of debris through N-body simulations. We find that when only the known planets are included, the inner edge of the outer belt predicted by our simulations is much closer to the outermost planet than recent ALMA observations suggest. We subsequently include a fifth planet in our simulations with a range of masses and semi-major axes, which is external to the outermost known planet. We find that a fifth planet with a mass and semi-major axis of 0.1MJ and 138au predicts an outer belt that agrees well with ALMA observations, whilst remaining stable for the lifetime of HR8799 and lying below current direct imaging detection thresholds. We also consider whether inward scattering of material from the outer belt can input a significant amount of mass into the inner belt. We find that for the current age of HR8799, only ˜1% of the mass loss rate of the inner disk can be replenished by inward scattering. However we find that the higher rate of inward scattering during the first ˜10Myr of HR8799 would be expected to cause warm dust emission at a level similar to that currently observed, which may provide an explanation for such bright emission in other systems at ˜10Myr ages.

  4. The Living with a Star Radiation Belt Storm Probes Mission and Related Missions of Opportunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibeck, David G.; Mauk, Barry H.; Grebowsky, Joseph M.; Fox, Nicola J.

    2006-01-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the Living With a Star (LWS) Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) mission in the context of the broader Geospace program. Missions to Geospace offer an opportunity to observe in situ the fundamental processes that operate throughout the solar system and in particular those that generate hazardous space weather effects in the vicinity of Earth. The recently selected investigations on NASA's LWS program's RBSP will provide the measurements needed to characterize and quantify the processes that supply and remove energetic particles from the Earth's Van Allen radiation belts. Instruments on the RBSP spacecraft will observe charged particles that comprise the Earth's radiation belts over the full energy range from 1 eV to more than 10 MeV (including composition), the plasma waves which energize them, the electric fields which transport them, and the magnetic fields which guide their motion. The two-point measurements by the RBSP spacecraft will enable researchers to discriminate between spatial and temporal effects, and therefore between the various proposed mechanisms for particle acceleration and loss. The measurements taken by the RBSP spacecraft will be used in data modeling projects in order to improve the understanding of these fundamental processes and allow better predictions to be made. NASA's LWS program has also recently selected three teams to study concepts for Missions of Opportunity that will augment the RBSP program, by (1) providing an instrument for a Canadian spacecraft in the Earth's radiation belts, (2) quantifying the flux of particles precipitating into the Earth's atmosphere from the Earth's radiation belts, and (3) remotely sensing both spatial and temporal variations in the Earth's ionosphere and thermosphere.

  5. Evaluation of Criteria for the Detection of Fires in Underground Conveyor Belt Haulageways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litton, Charles D; Perera, Inoka Eranda

    2012-07-01

    Large-scale experiments were conducted in an above-ground gallery to simulate typical fires that develop along conveyor belt transport systems within underground coal mines. In the experiments, electrical strip heaters, imbedded ~5 cm below the top surface of a large mass of coal rubble, were used to ignite the coal, producing an open flame. The flaming coal mass subsequently ignited 1.83-meter-wide conveyor belts located approximately 0.30 m above the coal surface. Gas samples were drawn through an averaging probe located approximately 20 m downstream of the coal for continuous measurement of CO, CO 2 , and O 2 as the fire progressed through the stages of smoldering coal, flaming coal, and flaming conveyor belt. Also located approximately 20 m from the fire origin and approximately 0.5 m below the roof of the gallery were two commercially available smoke detectors, a light obscuration meter, and a sampling probe for measurement of total mass concentration of smoke particles. Located upstream of the fire origin and also along the wall of the gallery at approximately 14 m and 5 m upstream were two video cameras capable of both smoke and flame detection. During the experiments, alarm times of the smoke detectors and video cameras were measured while the smoke obscuration and total smoke mass were continually measured. Twelve large-scale experiments were conducted using three different types of fire-resistant conveyor belts and four air velocities for each belt. The air velocities spanned the range from 1.0 m/s to 6.9 m/s. The results of these experiments are compared to previous large-scale results obtained using a smaller fire gallery and much narrower (1.07-m) conveyor belts to determine if the fire detection criteria previously developed (1) remained valid for the wider conveyor belts. Although some differences between these and the previous experiments did occur, the results, in general, compare very favorably. Differences are duly noted and their impact on fire

  6. 43 CFR 19.8 - Prospecting, mineral locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest Wilderness. 19.8 Section 19.8 Public Lands: Interior... § 19.8 Prospecting, mineral locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest... locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest Wilderness are contained in parts...

  7. Fading of Jupiter's South Equatorial Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sola, Michael A.; Orton, Glenn; Baines, Kevin; Yanamandra-Fisher, Padma

    2011-01-01

    One of Jupiter's most dominant features, the South Equatorial Belt, has historically gone through a "fading" cycle. The usual dark, brownish clouds turn white, and after a period of time, the region returns to its normal color. Understanding this phenomenon, the latest occurring in 2010, will increase our knowledge of planetary atmospheres. Using the near infrared camera, NSFCAM2, at NASA's Infrared Telescope Facility in Hawaii, images were taken of Jupiter accompanied by data describing the circumstances of each observation. These images are then processed and reduced through an IDL program. By scanning the central meridian of the planet, graphs were produced plotting the average values across the central meridian, which are used to find variations in the region of interest. Calculations using Albert4, a FORTRAN program that calculates the upwelling reflected sunlight from a designated cloud model, can be used to determine the effects of a model atmosphere due to various absorption, scattering, and emission processes. Spectra that were produced show ammonia bands in the South Equatorial Belt. So far, we can deduce from this information that an upwelling of ammonia particles caused a cloud layer to cover up the region. Further investigations using Albert4 and other models will help us to constrain better the chemical make up of the cloud and its location in the atmosphere.

  8. Seat belt utilisation and awareness in UAE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendak, S; Al-Saleh, K

    2013-01-01

    Seat belts (SBs) are effective devices for reducing injury risk due to traffic accidents. Seat belt wearing was made compulsory in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) in January 1999 for drivers and front seat passengers (FSPs). No comprehensive study has ever assessed SB wearing rates across the country. Also, little is known on drivers' awareness of the importance of wearing seatbelts and how human factors affect wearing habits. This study aims to determine SB wearing rates for drivers and FSPs in UAE through an observational field study. It also aims to investigate perceptions and behaviour of drivers on this issue as well as human factors that affect wearing rate through a randomly distributed questionnaire. The results of the field study show that the overall SB wearing rate across the country was 61% for drivers and 43.4% for FSPs and that there were significant differences between the seven emirates that constitute the country. The questionnaire results show that age, education level, gender, marital status and nationality of drivers affect wearing habits and perceptions. Future implications in terms of improving traffic safety awareness are discussed.

  9. Mineral Processing Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Find environmental regulatory and compliance information for the nonmetallic mineral processing sector (NAICS 327), including NESHAPs for asbestos and hazardous waste, and wastewater permit information.

  10. Mineralization Characteristics and Ore Fluid of Huai Kham on Gold Deposit, Northern Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khositanont, Somboon; Zaw, Khin; Ounchanum, Prayote

    2009-03-01

    Huai Kham On gold deposit is located within the Lampang-Phrae volcanic belt of the Sukhothai Fold Belt in northern Thailand. The gold deposit is hosted by Triassic andesitic tuff and intercalated rhyolitic welded tuff. The host sequence is overlain by sedimentary sequences including Triassic calcareous sandstone of the Wang Chin Formation and Middle Triassic limestone of the Kang Pla Formation. Gold nuggets and electrum were found in quartz-rich veins with associated pyrite, chalcopyrite, galena and bournonite cutting across the andesitic tuff and underlying rhyolitic tuff. Sulfur isotope analyses indicate that the gold-ore forming fluids vary in sulfur isotopic values from -5.3 to -3.5 per mil. Fluid inclusion studies indicate that the ore-forming fluids were typically enriched in CO2 which is evidenced by the occurrence of carbonic (CO2(L)-H2O(L)-CO2(V)) inclusions in quartz adjacent to the gold-bearing sulfide minerals. Three types of fluid inclusions including Type I (L-V) aqueous inclusions, Type II (L-L-V) aqueous-carbonic inclusions, and Type III (V) vapor rich inclusions, were classified in vein quartz. Results from a preliminary microthermometry study of fluid inclusions in ore-bearing vein quartz indicate that the melting temperature of CO2 solid varies from -56.8°C to -56.6°C and that the homogenization of the carbonic phase varies from 28°C to 31°C suggesting that the carbonic phase contains pure CO2. This interpretation is supported by Laser Raman Spectroscopy analyses. The homogenization temperatures of the carbonic inclusions in quartz vary from 280°C to 300°C Salinities of ore fluids range from 1 to 7 wt.% NaCl equiv. On the basis of available data such as vein texture, alteration, and fluid inclusion data, the Huai Kham On gold deposit is comparable to orogenic gold deposits.

  11. Tracing sources of crustal contamination using multiple S and Fe isotopes in the Hart komatiite-associated Ni-Cu-PGE sulfide deposit, Abitibi greenstone belt, Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiebert, R. S.; Bekker, A.; Houlé, M. G.; Wing, B. A.; Rouxel, O. J.

    2016-10-01

    Assimilation by mafic to ultramafic magmas of sulfur-bearing country rocks is considered an important contributing factor to reach sulfide saturation and form magmatic Ni-Cu-platinum group element (PGE) sulfide deposits. Sulfur-bearing sedimentary rocks in the Archean are generally characterized by mass-independent fractionation of sulfur isotopes that is a result of atmospheric photochemical reactions, which produces isotopically distinct pools of sulfur. Likewise, low-temperature processing of iron, through biological and abiotic redox cycling, produces a range of Fe isotope values in Archean sedimentary rocks that is distinct from the range of the mantle and magmatic Fe isotope values. Both of these signals can be used to identify potential country rock assimilants and their contribution to magmatic sulfide deposits. We use multiple S and Fe isotopes to characterize the composition of the potential iron and sulfur sources for the sulfide liquids that formed the Hart deposit in the Shaw Dome area within the Abitibi greenstone belt in Ontario (Canada). The Hart deposit is composed of two zones with komatiite-associated Ni-Cu-PGE mineralization; the main zone consists of a massive sulfide deposit at the base of the basal flow in the komatiite sequence, whereas the eastern extension consists of a semi-massive sulfide zone located 12 to 25 m above the base of the second flow in the komatiite sequence. Low δ56Fe values and non-zero δ34S and Δ33S values of the komatiitic rocks and associated mineralization at the Hart deposit is best explained by mixing and isotope exchange with crustal materials, such as exhalite and graphitic argillite, rather than intrinsic fractionation within the komatiite. This approach allows tracing the extent of crustal contamination away from the deposit and the degree of mixing between the sulfide and komatiite melts. The exhalite and graphitic argillite were the dominant contaminants for the main zone of mineralization and the eastern

  12. The Social Construction of the Great Belt Fixed Link

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Birgitte

    1994-01-01

    Working paper in Technology Management. Actor Network theory (ANT) used upon the process of negotiating legislation and constructing the Great Belt fixed link.......Working paper in Technology Management. Actor Network theory (ANT) used upon the process of negotiating legislation and constructing the Great Belt fixed link....

  13. Respiratory Belt Transducer Constructed Using a Singing Greeting Card Beeper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskar, Anand; Subramani, Selvam; Ojha, Rajdeep

    2013-01-01

    An article by Belusic and Zupancic described the construction of a finger pulse sensor using a singing greeting card beeper. These authors felt that this beeper made of piezoelectric material could be easily modified to function as a respiratory belt transducer to monitor respiratory movements. Commercially available respiratory belt transducers,…

  14. Energy Saving for Belt Conveyors by Speed Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, D.

    2017-01-01

    Belt conveyors are widely used in bulk solids handling and conveying systems. Considering the extensive use of belt conveyors, their operations involve a large amount of energy. Taking the relevant economic and social challenges into account, there is a strong demand for lowering the energy

  15. Estimates of effectiveness of safety belts under discussion.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegman, F.C.M.

    1988-01-01

    The use of safety belts reduces the change to be injured or killed in an accident. It has been proven in laboratories by impact tests. To determine the effectivety of safety belts in real terms before- and- after comparisons are made with adjustments for other influences. It seems probable that

  16. Seat Belt Use During Pregnancy in a Nigerian Community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to determine compliance with car seat belt amongst antenatal patients and also identify the reasons for poor compliance with seat belt use. Ethical clearance was obtained from the Ethical Committee of the hospital prior to carrying out this study. This study was conducted between October and ...

  17. 46 CFR 169.825 - Wearing of safety belts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wearing of safety belts. 169.825 Section 169.825 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Operations § 169.825 Wearing of safety belts. The master of each vessel shall ensure that each person wears...

  18. Ambient Response Analysis of the Great Belt Bridge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune; Frandsen, J. B.; Andersen, P.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper an ambient response analysis of the Great Belt Bridge is presented. The Great Belt Bridge is one of the largest suspension bridges in the world, and the analysis was carried out in order to investigate the possibilities of estimating reliable damping values from the ambient response...

  19. Increasing of horizontal velocity of particles leaving a belt conveyor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Abraão; Faria, Allbens

    2017-06-01

    We investigate the transport of granular materials by a conveyor belt via numerical simulations. We report an unusual increasing of particles horizontal velocity when they leave the belt and initiate free-fall. Using Discrete Elements Method, the mechanism underlying this phenomenon were investigated, and a study on how particle and system properties influences this effect were conducted.

  20. Design and Selection of a Belt Conveyor System for Increased ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main aim of the modifications could not be realised as any increase in plant capacity beyond 850 t/h resulted in increased spillage on belt conveyor CB among a series of conveyors in the plant flow sheet. In this paper, the causes of the spillage on conveyor CB were investigated and a belt conveyor system capable of

  1. Increasing of horizontal velocity of particles leaving a belt conveyor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tavares Abraão

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the transport of granular materials by a conveyor belt via numerical simulations. We report an unusual increasing of particles horizontal velocity when they leave the belt and initiate free-fall. Using Discrete Elements Method, the mechanism underlying this phenomenon were investigated, and a study on how particle and system properties influences this effect were conducted.

  2. Belt conveyor dynamics in transient operation for speed control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, D.; Pang, Y.; Lodewijks, G.

    2016-01-01

    Belt conveyors play an important role in continuous dry bulk material transport, especially at the mining industry. Speed control is expected to reduce the energy consumption of belt conveyors. Transient operation is the operation of increasing or decreasing conveyor speed for speed control.

  3. Performance approximation of pick-to-belt orderpicking systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.B.M. de Koster (René)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper, an approximation method is discussed for the analysis of pick-to-belt orderpicking systems. The aim of the approximation method is to provide an instrument for obtaining rapid insight in the performance of designs of pick-to-belt orderpicking systems. It can be used to

  4. Optimizing protection for rear seat occupants : assessing booster performance with realistic belt geometry using the hybrid III 6YO ATD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    A series of sled tests was conducted to examine the performance of booster seats under belt geometries representing the range found in the rear seats of current vehicles. Twelve tests were performed with the standard 6YO Hybrid III ATD and 29 tests w...

  5. Why style matters - uncertainty and structural interpretation in thrust belts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Rob; Bond, Clare; Watkins, Hannah

    2016-04-01

    lithified systems will be drawn from the foothills of the Colombian Andes and the Papuan fold-belt. These show major forelimb structures with segmented steep-limbs containing substantial oil-columns, suggesting forelimb complexity in lithified sections maybe more common than predicted by idealised models. As with individual fold-thrust structures, regional cross-sections are commonly open to multiple interpretations. To date the over-reliance on comparative approaches with a narrow range of published studies (e.g. Canadian cordilleran foothills) has biased global interpretations of thrust systems. Perhaps the most significant issues relate to establishing a depth to detachment - specifically the involvement of basement at depth - especially the role of pre-existing (rift-originated) faults and their inversion. Not only do these choices impact on the local interpretation, the inferred shortening values, obtained by comparing restored section-lengths, can be radically different. Further issues arise for emergent, syn-depositional thrust systems where sedimentation prohibits flat-on-flat thrusting in favour of continuously ramping thrust trajectories. Inappropriate adoption of geometries gathered from buried (duplex) systems can create geometric interpretations that are tectono-stratigraphically invalid. This presentation illustrates these topics using a variety of thrust systems with the aim of promoting discussion on developing better interpretative strategies than those adopted hitherto.

  6. The geology of the Morro Velho gold deposit in the Archean Rio das Velhas greenstone belt, Quadrilátero Ferrífero, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vial, Diogenes Scipioni; DeWitt, Ed; Lobato, Lydia Maria; Thorman, Charles H.

    2007-01-01

    The Morro Velho gold deposit, Quadrilátero Ferrífero region, Minas Gerais, Brazil, is hosted by rocks at the base of the Archean Rio das Velhas greenstone belt. The deposit occurs within a thick carbonaceous phyllite package, containing intercalations of felsic and intermediate volcaniclastic rocks and dolomites. Considering the temporal and spatial association of the deposit with the Rio das Velhas orogeny, and location in close proximity to a major NNW-trending fault zone, it can be classified as an orogenic gold deposit. Hydrothermal activity was characterized by intense enrichment in alteration zones of carbonates, sulfides, chlorite, white mica±biotite, albite and quartz, as described in other Archean lode-type gold ores. Two types of ore occur in the deposit: dark gray quartz veins and sulfide-rich gold orebodies. The sulfide-rich orebodies range from disseminated concentrations of sulfide minerals to massive sulfide bodies. The sulfide assemblage comprises (by volume), on average, 74% pyrrhotite, 17% arsenopyrite, 8% pyrite and 1% chalcopyrite. The orebodies have a long axis parallel to the local stretching lineation, with continuity down the plunge of fold axis for at least 4.8 km. The group of rocks hosting the Morro Velho gold mineralization is locally referred to as lapa seca. These were isoclinally folded and metamorphosed prior to gold mineralization. The lapa seca and the orebodies it hosts are distributed in five main tight folds related to F1 (the best examples are the X, Main and South orebodies, in level 25), which are disrupted by NE- to E-striking shear zones. Textural features indicate that the sulfide mineralization postdated regional peak metamorphism, and that the massive sulfide ore has subsequently been neither metamorphosed nor deformed. Lead isotope ratios indicate a model age of 2.82 ± 0.05 Ga for both sulfide and gold mineralization. The lapa seca are interpreted as the results of a pre-gold alteration process and may be

  7. Lithosphere profiles across Central Asian Orogenic Belt in Uzbekistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidorova, Irina

    2014-05-01

    This study was made with complex geophysical and geological observations by the DSS-MRW seismic profiles, which cross CAOB in the southern Tien Shan in part of Uzbekistan. The southern Tien Shan is situated along the SW margin of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt-one of key region for understanding both the amalgamation of Eurasia and the Phanerozoic growth of the CAOB itself. The aim of our study was to reveal new features, which characteristic of the upper mantle rocks, related to morphology of bodies. their physical properties, consisting mainly in their contrasting values for contiguous blocks, and general increased velocity and density of the rocks they contain. The most interesting results were obtained by three DSS profiles in Central Kyzylkum: anomalous geological objects (Muruntau, Kokpatas, Kuldjuktau and other) having anomalous high velocity and density values, have been mapped at different depths within the part of CAOB. The alteration zones, the tectonic faults and circular structures related to the cones and calderas determined these methods and checked by group truth studies may the target areas to explore for some new deposits.New regional features have been revealed:they include peculiarities of the Earth's crust's deep geological structure and spatial distribution of deposits:they are contrast areas of the earth's crust geoblocks with anomalously high and low seismic and density parameters. Mapping of these zones helps select new ways in th search for mineral deposits. All the final products was created using ArcGIS and RS methodologies:1)DEM on the base of SRTM dataset;2) 3-D models of crustal basement and Moho surface;3) 3-D potential fields modeling;4) tabular database of tectonic, boreholes data;5)various types of original geological information concerning the Paleozoic to present geological evolution of the region.

  8. Yellow Dragon, Green Belt and Alternative Ecosystem States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazartseren Boldgiv

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This note briefly discusses different aspects of dust storm and issues surrounding the Green Belt Eco- Strip National Program (GBESNP initiated by the Government of Mongolia in March 2005. Increases in dust storm intensity and magnitude might be an indicator for deteriorating ecosystem states. If there is such an increase, it is only a consequence of unsustainable resource use by humans, including proximately the overgrazing, mining, agriculture and deforestation and ultimately climate change. Additionally, the effects of dust storms are not all bad, but there are other aspects of it that should be considered when one wants to address the issue. Apparently, dust storms play an important role in global circulation of nutrient and minerals as they have always been. Thus they do have positive effects in ecosystem states elsewhere on Earth. It seems however these other effects of dust storms are largely ignored. The note also points out some of the important theoretical and practical aspects that need to be seriously considered before taking on such a large scale environmental engineering effort as GBESNP. If dust storm is increasing in frequency and magnitude, it is crucial to pinpoint causative factors and implement efforts aimed at improving and enforcing laws and regulations on those causative environmental practices. Acting before thinking is not the smartest habit and we have reasons to believe that implementing the GBESNP (with its name basically copied from elsewhere without good plan and management is not a solution, but it may even add to the problem. Therefore, we urge environmental managers and scientists, especially policy- makers to seriously weigh the pros and cons of the project. If policy-makers seek a short-term public relations benefit from a largely uninformed general public, it is the scientists’ obligation to intervene.

  9. Neptune's Eccentricity and the Nature of the Kuiper Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, William R.; Hahn, Joseph M.

    1998-01-01

    The small eccentricity of Neptune may be a direct consequence of apsidal wave interaction with the trans-Neptune population of debris called the Kuiper belt. The Kuiper belt is subject to resonant perturbations from Neptune, so that the transport of angular momentum by density waves can result in orbital evolution of Neptune as well as changes in the structure of the Kuiper belt. In particular, for a belt eroded out to the vicinity of Neptune's 2:1 resonance at about 48 astronomical units, Neptune's eccentricity can damp to its current value over the age of the solar system if the belt contains slightly more than an earth mass of material out to about 75 astronomical units.

  10. Survey of current situation in radiation belt modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Shing F.

    2004-01-01

    The study of Earth's radiation belts is one of the oldest subjects in space physics. Despite the tremendous progress made in the last four decades, we still lack a complete understanding of the radiation belts in terms of their configurations, dynamics, and detailed physical accounts of their sources and sinks. The static nature of early empirical trapped radiation models, for examples, the NASA AP-8 and AE-8 models, renders those models inappropriate for predicting short-term radiation belt behaviors associated with geomagnetic storms and substorms. Due to incomplete data coverage, these models are also inaccurate at low altitudes (e.g., radiation data from modern space missions and advancement in physical modeling and data management techniques have now allowed the development of new empirical and physical radiation belt models. In this paper, we will review the status of modern radiation belt modeling. Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of COSPAR.

  11. The rate of seat belt use and its related factors among car drivers in Tehran, Iran after imposing new regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabipour, Amir Reza; Khanjani, Narges; Soltani, Zahrasadat; Akbari, Morteza

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of road crash deaths is high in Iran. Seat belts can reduce the risk of death or serious injury. This study aimed to estimate the rate of seat belt use and its related factors for car drivers in Tehran, Iran after proclamation of the 2011 legislation. A roadside observational study was conducted in 2012 and 10,752 cars and taxis commuting in different streets of Tehran were screened in regard to drivers' seat belt wearing. Other variables including gender, age range, type of street, district, time of day and day of week were also collected. The rate of seat belt use was 70.9%, and was significantly higher in females, elders and on freeways and significantly less in afternoon hours, side streets and in taxi drivers. The rate of seat belt use in Tehran (a representative of Iran) is still low despite the implementation of new legislations. More initiatives are needed to increase this rate especially in certain groups and areas.

  12. Geochemical and zircon U-Pb dating analysis of metamagmatic rocks from the Yuli belt in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Chia-Chia

    2016-04-01

    The Tananao Schist Complex of the oldest rocks in Taiwan is exposed at the eastern limb of Backbone Range. Based on the lithologic and metamorphic characteristics, the complex can be divided into the Tailuko and Yuli belts. The Tailuko belt consists of marble, gneiss, and subordinate scattered metabasite; the Yuli belt is composed of greenschist, serpentinite, meta-tuff, meta-gabbro, metabasite, and glaucophane-schist blocks which enclosed by spotted schist of the host rocks. The metamorphic belts were inferred as a Mesozoic mélange. It's still controversial due to the difficulty of analyzing metamorphic rocks. In this study, we focus on the zircon U-Pb dating, geochemistry, and petrographic analysis of spotted schist, metabasite, meta-gabbro, and meta-tuff in order to constrain the formation and crystallization ages and interpret its tectonic setting. Based on zircon U-Pb dating, the host rocks of spotted schist and the exotic blocks of meta-tuff, meta-gabbro (the peak age of 14.4, 15.8, and 16.7 Ma), and metabasite occurred at Miocene. Geochemical characteristics for metabasite and meta-gabbro blocks show Ta-Nd-Ti depletion and LREE depletion in spidergram occurring volcanic arc and N-MORB type affinities, respectively. Results as above mentioned, we suggest that the metamagmatic rocks in the Yuli belt occur within a mélange during the Eurasia continental margin subduction at the Middle-Late Miocene.

  13. Pilot tests of a seat belt gearshift delay on the belt use of commercial fleet drivers : traffic tech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    Wearing a seat belt has been shown effective in avoiding : or reducing serious injury due to traffic crashes. While : belt use rates in the United States increased from under : 60% in 1994 to 83% in 2008, a substantial number of drivers : still drive...

  14. Wampum Belts with Initials and/or Dates as Design Elements: A Preliminary Review of One Subcategory of Political Belts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Marshall Joseph; Lainey, Jonathan

    2004-01-01

    Data on seventeen relatively well-documented examples as a preliminary review to an ongoing study of all that is known about belts that are a subcategory of the secular-political category is discussed. Evidence indicates that Wampum belts with initials and/or dates as design elements can clearly be demonstrated as but one subcategory of…

  15. Equilibria and Free Vibration of a Two-Pulley Belt-Driven System with Belt Bending Stiffness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jieyu Ding

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonlinear equilibrium curvatures and free vibration characteristics of a two-pulley belt-driven system with belt bending stiffness and a one-way clutch are investigated. With nonlinear dynamical tension, the transverse vibrations of the translating belt spans and the rotation motions of the pulleys and the accessory shaft are coupled. Therefore, nonlinear piecewise discrete-continuous governing equations are established. Considering the bending stiffness of the translating belt spans, the belt spans are modeled as axially moving beams. The pattern of equilibria is a nontrivial solution. Furthermore, the nontrivial equilibriums of the dynamical system are numerically determined by using two different approaches. The governing equations of the vibration near the equilibrium solutions are derived by introducing a coordinate transform. The natural frequencies of the dynamical systems are studied by using the Galerkin method with various truncations and the differential and integral quadrature methods. Moreover, the convergence of the Galerkin truncation is investigated. Numerical results reveal that the study needs 16 terms after truncation in order to determine the free vibration characteristics of the pulley-belt system with the belt bending stiffness. Furthermore, the first five natural frequencies are very sensitive to the bending stiffness of the translating belt.

  16. Geologic and geochemical insights into the formation of the Taiyangshan porphyry copper–molybdenum deposit, Western Qinling Orogenic Belt, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kun-Feng Qiu,; Taylor, Ryan D.; Yao-Hui Song,; Hao-Cheng Yu,; Kai-Rui Song,; Nan Li,

    2016-01-01

    Taiyangshan is a poorly studied copper–molybdenum deposit located in the Triassic Western Qinling collisional belt of northwest China. The intrusions exposed in the vicinity of the Taiyangshan deposit record episodic magmatism over 20–30 million years. Pre-mineralization quartz diorite porphyries, which host some of the deposit, were emplaced at 226.6 ± 6.2 Ma. Syn-collisional monzonite and quartz monzonite porphyries, which also host mineralization, were emplaced at 218.0 ± 6.1 Ma and 215.0 ± 5.8 Ma, respectively. Mineralization occurred during the transition from a syn-collisional to a post-collisional setting at ca. 208 Ma. A barren post-mineralization granite porphyry marked the end of post-collisional magmatism at 200.7 ± 5.1 Ma. The ore-bearing monzonite and quartz monzonite porphyries have a εHf(t) range from − 2.0 to + 12.5, which is much more variable than that of the slightly older quartz diorite porphyries, with TDM2 of 1.15–1.23 Ga corresponding to the positive εHf(t) values and TDM1 of 0.62–0.90 Ga corresponding to the negative εHf(t) values. Molybdenite in the Taiyangshan deposit with 27.70 to 38.43 ppm Re suggests metal sourced from a mantle–crust mixture or from mafic and ultramafic rocks in the lower crust. The δ34S values obtained for pyrite, chalcopyrite, and molybdenite from the deposit range from + 1.3‰ to + 4.0‰, + 0.2‰ to + 1.1‰, and + 5.3‰ to + 5.9‰, respectively, suggesting a magmatic source for the sulfur. Calculated δ18Ofluid values for magmatic K-feldspar from porphyries (+ 13.3‰), hydrothermal K-feldspar from stockwork veins related to potassic alteration (+ 11.6‰), and hydrothermal sericite from quartz–pyrite veins (+ 8.6 to + 10.6‰) indicate the Taiyangshan deposit formed dominantly from magmatic water. Hydrogen isotope values for hydrothermal sericite ranging from − 85 to − 50‰ may indicate that magma degassing progressively depleted residual liquid in

  17. The Miner's Canary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinier, Lani

    2005-01-01

    Miners used canaries as early warning signals: when a canary gasped for breath, the miners knew there was a problem with the atmosphere in the mine. The experience of people of color in higher education can be used similarly as a diagnostic tool.

  18. Mineral Fiber Toxicology

    Science.gov (United States)

    The chemical and physical properties of different forms of mineral fibers impact biopersistence and pathology in the lung. Fiber chemistry, length, aspect ratio, surface area and dose are critical factors determining mineral fiber-associated health effects including cancer and as...

  19. Minerals of Pohorje marbles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miha Jeršek

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the Pohorje Mts, mostly outcrops of calcite marble can be found, which in places turn into dolomite marbles.The protolith carbonate rocks contained also detritical minerals, which remained unchanged or formed new mineralsduring metamorphosis. Minerals in the Pohorje marbles that can be seen as crystals with the naked eye or 10x magnifyingloupe and with binocular microscope were investigated. With the aid of Raman microspectroscopy, SEM-EDSanalysis and on the basis of morphological characteristics, the presence of 17 different minerals or group of mineralswas confirmed. The most numerous and also the most significant were, apart from calcite, tremolite, diopside, grossularand epidote. For the first time, vesuvianite and scapolite were described in the Pohorje Mts. Particularly rich, as faras crystal faces are concerned, were the crystals of quartz that contained needle-like amphiboles. Other minerals thatwell supplemented the mineral paragenesis were different minerals of mica and chlorite group, feldspars, magnetite,titanite, pyrite and graphite. The determined mineral association revealed the mineral diversity of Pohorje marbles,offering us a new challenge for the investigation of the characteristics and conditions during the origin of this noblerock, which was highly esteemed already by the Romans, while today it is regaining its value and recognisability.

  20. Mineral Commodity Summaries 2018

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ober, Joyce A.

    2018-01-31

    This report is the earliest Government publication to furnish estimates covering 2017 nonfuel mineral industry data. Data sheets contain information on the domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, and 5-year salient statistics for more than 90 individual minerals and materials.

  1. Vitamins, Minerals, and Mood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Bonnie J.; Crawford, Susan G.; Field, Catherine J.; Simpson, J. Steven A.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors explore the breadth and depth of published research linking dietary vitamins and minerals (micronutrients) to mood. Since the 1920s, there have been many studies on individual vitamins (especially B vitamins and Vitamins C, D, and E), minerals (calcium, chromium, iron, magnesium, zinc, and selenium), and vitamin-like…

  2. Marine Mineral Exploration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    resources was negotiated by the United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS III). A most important outcome of this conference was the establishment of an Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of at least 200 nautical miles for all coastal states and the recognition of a deep-sea regime. Mineral deposits......The past 20 years have seen extensive marine exploration work by the major industrialized countries. Studies have, in part, been concentrated on Pacific manganese nodule occurrences and on massive sulfides on mid-oceanic ridges. An international jurisdictional framework of the sea-bed mineral...... in EEZ areas are fairly unknown; many areas need detailed mapping and mineral exploration, and the majority of coastal or island states with large EEZ areas have little experience in exploration for marine hard minerals. This book describes the systematic steps in marine mineral exploration...

  3. Main-belt comets: sublimation-driven activity in the asteroid belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Henry H.

    2016-01-01

    Our knowledge of main-belt comets (MBCs), which exhibit comet-like activity likely due to the sublimation of volatile ices, yet orbit in the main asteroid belt, has increased greatly since the discovery of the first known MBC, 133P/Elst-Pizarro, in 1996, and their recognition as a new class of solar system objects after the discovery of two more MBCs in 2005. I review work that has been done over the last 10 years to improve our understanding of these enigmatic objects, including the development of systematic discovery methods and diagnostics for distinguishing MBCs from disrupted asteroids (which exhibit comet-like activity due to physical disruptions such as impacts or rotational destabilization). I also discuss efforts to understand the dynamical and thermal properties of these objects.

  4. The JCMT Gould Belt Survey: Understanding the influence of outflows on Gould Belt clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drabek-Maunder, E.; Hatchell, J.; Buckle, J. V.; Di Francesco, J.; Richer, J.

    2016-03-01

    Using James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) Gould Belt Survey data from CO J = 3 → 2 isotopologues, we present a meta-analysis of the outflows and energetics of star-forming regions in several Gould Belt clouds. The majority of the regions are strongly gravitationally bound. There is evidence that molecular outflows transport large quantities of momentum and energy. Outflow energies are at least 20 per cent of the total turbulent kinetic energies in all of the regions studied and greater than the turbulent energy in half of the regions. However, we find no evidence that outflows increase levels of turbulence, and there is no correlation between the outflow and turbulent energies. Even though outflows in some regions contribute significantly to maintaining turbulence levels against dissipation, this relies on outflows efficiently coupling to bulk motions. Other mechanisms (e.g. supernovae) must be the main drivers of turbulence in most if not all of these regions.

  5. Iron mineralization at the Songhu deposit, Chinese Western Tianshan: a type locality with regional metallogenic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chun-Long; Wang, Yi-Tian; Dong, Lian-Hui; Qin, Ke-Zhang; Evans, Noreen J.; Zhang, Bing; Ren, Yi

    2017-06-01

    Hosted by volcaniclastics of the Carboniferous Dahalajunshan Formation, the Songhu iron deposit is located in the central segment of the Awulale metallogenic belt, Chinese Western Tianshan. Mineralization and alteration are structurally controlled by orogen-parallel NWW-striking faults. Integrating with mineralogical and stable isotopic analyses based on paragenetic relationships, two types of iron mineralization have been identified. The deuteric mineralization (Type I) represented by brecciated, banded, and disseminated-vein ores juxtaposed with potassic-calcic alteration in the inner zone, which was formed from a magmatic fluid generated during the late stages of regional volcanism. In contrast, the volcanic-hydrothermal mineralization (Type II) is characterized by hydrothermal features occurring in massive and agglomerated ores with abundant sulfides, and was generated from the magmatic fluid with seawater contamination. Two volcaniclastic samples from the hanging and footwall of the main orebody yield zircon U-Pb ages of 327.8 ± 3.1 and 332.0 ± 2.0 Ma, respectively, which indicate Middle Carboniferous volcanism. Timing for iron mineralization can be broadly placed in the same epoch. By reviewing geological, mineralogical, and geochemical features of the primary iron deposits in the Awulale metallogenic belt, we propose that the two types of iron mineralization in the Songhu iron deposit are representative regionally. A summary of available geochronological data reveals Middle-Late Carboniferous polycyclic ore-related volcanism, and nearly contemporaneous iron mineralization along the belt. Furthermore, petro-geochemistry of volcanic-volcaniclastic host rocks indicates that partial melting of a metasomatized mantle wedge under a continental arc setting could have triggered the continuous volcanic activities and associated metallogenesis.

  6. First Results from the Herschel Gould Belt Survey in Taurus and Comparison with Other Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Jason

    The unparalleled sensitivity and mapping speed of the ESA Herschel Space Observatory makes it possible to now map entire star formation regions in the time it would once have taken to map a single prestellar core. The Herschel Gould Belt Survey is a key program designed to fully map the clouds of the Gould Belt at five wavelengths between 70 and 500 μm. These clouds span a range of physical conditions from the sterility of Polaris to the active cluster forming complexes of Orion and Aquila. These clouds allow us to examine the genesis of the core mass function and how the history of star formation in different regions varies. The early results have demonstrated the markedly different populations of cores in these regions and have revealed the nearly ubiquitous relationship of those cores with dense filaments.

  7. Enhanced radial transport and energization of radiation belt electrons due to drift orbit bifurcations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukhorskiy, A Y; Sitnov, M I; Millan, R M; Kress, B T; Smith, D C

    2014-01-01

    [1]Relativistic electron intensities in Earth's outer radiation belt can vary by multiple orders of magnitude on the time scales ranging from minutes to days. One fundamental process contributing to dynamic variability of radiation belt intensities is the radial transport of relativistic electrons across their drift shells. In this paper we analyze the properties of three-dimensional radial transport in a global magnetic field model driven by variations in the solar wind dynamic pressure. We use a test particle approach which captures anomalous effects such as drift orbit bifurcations. We show that the bifurcations lead to an order of magnitude increase in radial transport rates and enhance the energization at large equatorial pitch angles. Even at quiet time fluctuations in dynamic pressure, radial transport at large pitch angles exhibits strong deviations from the diffusion approximation. The radial transport rates are much lower at small pitch angle values which results in a better agreement with the diffusion approximation.

  8. Simulation of the dust suppression process with foam in the areas of belt conveyors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bespalov Vadim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article provides the analysis of the physical essence and simulation of the process of dust retention with foam in the air of working zones of belt conveyors transporting sand, crushed stone, gravel, coal, grain. In accordance with the proposed physical-energy concept of simulation of the process of dust control its physical essence is in a deliberate sequential action on the dust particles with previously prepared by the parameters external (additional dispersed systems. Use of dust retention technology foam method provides high efficiency of reducing the concentration of dust in the air of working areas of belt conveyors, which varies in the range of 85.0–99.0 %, which provides the standard level of dust contamination (MPC in air of working areas of listed industrial sources of formation and emission of dust.

  9. Very energetic protons in Saturn's radiation belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillius, W.; Mcilwain, C.

    1980-01-01

    Very energetic protons are trapped in the inner Saturnian radiation belt. The University of California at San Diego instrument on Pioneer 11 has definitely identified protons of energy greater than 80 MeV on channel M3 and has tentatively detected protons of energy greater than 600 MeV on channel C3. The spatial distribution of the protons is distinct from that of the trapped electrons, the main difference being that the protons are strongly absorbed by the innermost moons and that the electrons are not. The source strength for injecting protons by the decay of cosmic ray albedo neutrons generated in the rings of Saturn has been estimated. The required proton lifetime is approximately 20 years.

  10. NASA's Radiation Belt Storm Probe Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibeck, David G.

    2011-01-01

    NASA's Radiation Belt Storm Probe (RBSP) mission, comprising two identically-instrumented spacecraft, is scheduled for launch in May 2012. In addition to identifying and quantifying the processes responsible for energizing, transporting, and removing energetic particles from the Earth's Van Allen radiation, the mission will determine the characteristics of the ring current and its effect upon the magnetosphere as a whole. The distances separating the two RBSP spacecraft will vary as they move along their 1000 km altitude x 5.8 RE geocentric orbits in order to enable the spacecraft to separate spatial from temporal effects, measure gradients that help identify particle sources, and determine the spatial extent of a wide array of phenomena. This talk explores the scientific objectives of the mission and the manner by which the mission has been tailored to achieve them.

  11. Measuring and modeling twilight's Belt of Venus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Raymond L

    2015-02-01

    The Belt of Venus (or antitwilight arch) is a reddish band often seen above the antisolar horizon during clear civil twilights, and immediately beneath it is the bluish-gray earth's shadow (or dark segment) cast on the atmosphere. Although both skylight phenomena have prompted decades of scientific research, surprisingly few measurements exist of their spectral, colorimetric, and photometric structure. Hyperspectral imaging of several clear twilights supplies these missing radiometric details and reveals some common spectral features of the antisolar sky at twilight: (1) color differences between the dark segment and the sunlit sky above the antitwilight arch are small or nil; (2) antisolar color and luminance extremes usually occur at different elevation angles; and (3) the two twilight phenomena are most vivid for modest aerosol optical depths. A second-order scattering model that includes extinction by aerosols and ozone provides some preliminary radiative transfer explanations of these twilight features' color and brightness.

  12. Colours of the Outer Solar System Origins Survey (Col-OSSOS): New Insights into Kuiper belt Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwamb, M. E.; Fraser, W. C.; Bannister, M. T.; Pike, R. E.; Marsset, M.; Kavelaars, J. J.; Benecchi, S.; Delsanti, A.; Lehner, M. J.; Thirouin, A.; Guilbert-Lepoutre, A.; Peixinho, N.; Vernazza, P.

    2016-12-01

    The icy planetesimals of the Kuiper belt inform our knowledge about the growth of planetary embryos and our Solar System's dynamical history. The majority of the known Pluto-sized Kuiper belt objects (KBOs) are bright enough for their surfaces to be studied through optical and infrared spectroscopy. But for the typical smaller r mag > 22 mag KBOs, we must rely on what colors reveal by proxy, and this picture of Kuiper belt surfaces remains incomplete. Previous studies in this size range examined the hodgepodge set of KBOs discovered by surveys with varying and sometimes unknown detection biases that make it challenging to explore the true frequency of surface colors within the Kuiper belt. The Colours of the Outer Solar System Origins Survey (Col-OSSOS) aims to explore and explain the compositional variety within the Kuiper belt through near simultaneous u, g,r and J colors with the Gemini North Telescope and the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope. The survey targets KBOs brighter than 23.6 r' mag ( 50-300 km) found by the Outer Solar System Origins Survey (OSSOS). With Col-OSSOS, we have a set of colors measured for a KBO sample discovered in a brightness limited survey, with a well-measured detection efficiency. Col-OSSOS will provide a compositional-dynamical map of the Kuiper belt in which to study the end of stages of Neptune migration and the conditions of the early planetesimal disk where these small icy bodies formed. We will give an overview of Col-OSSOS and an update on the program's current status. We will present the photometry from the first 30 KBOs studied from the first complete OSSOS block and examine the implications for Kuiper belt surfaces. We derive the observed and debiased ratio of neutral to red KBOs, measure the masses of the three color populations within the Kuiper belt (the red and neutral dynamically excited population and the red cold classical belt), and explore the radial color distribution in the primordial planetesimal disk before

  13. Petrogenesis of the Kabanga-Musongati layered mafic-ultramafic intrusions in Burundi (Kibaran Belt): geochemical, Sr-Nd isotopic constraints and Cr-Ni behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Duchesne, Jean-Clair; Liégeois, Jean-Paul; Deblond, André; Tack, Luc

    2004-01-01

    A succession of mafic-ultramafic layered intrusions forms an alignment in the boundary zone between the Kibaran belt and the Tanzania craton. The intrusions represent a continuous series of cumulate rocks. For instance, in the Mukanda-Buhoro and Musongati (MBM) contiguous bodies, the series starts with dunite and passes to lherzolite, pyroxenite, norite, gabbronorite and anorthosite on top. Cumulate textures are conspicuous in all rock types and cryptic layering characterises cumulus mineral ...

  14. Examination of chloritization of biotite as a tool for reconstructing the physicochemical parameters of mineralization and associated alteration in the Zafarghand porphyry copper system, Ardestan, Central Iran: mineral-chemistry and stable isotope analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminroayaei Yamini, Maryam; Tutti, Faramarz; Aminoroayaei Yamini, Mohammad Reza; Ahmadian, Jamshid; Wan, Bo

    2017-10-01

    The chloritization of biotite and stable isotopes of silicate have been studied for the Zafarghand porphyry copper deposit, Ardestan, Iran. The studied area, in the central part of the Urumieh-Dokhtar magmatic belt, contains porphyry-style Cu mineralization and associated hydrothermal alteration within the Miocene (19-26 Ma, Zircon U-Pb age) granodioritc stock and adjacent andesitic to rhyodacitic volcanic rocks (ca. 56 Ma, zircon U-Pb age). The primary and secondary biotite that formed during potassic alteration in this porphyry and these volcanic host rocks are variably chloritized. Chloritization of biotite pseudomorphically is characterized by an increase in MgO, FeOt, and MnO, with decreasing in SiO2, K2O, and TiO2. Based on the Ti-in-biotite geothermometer of Henry et al. (Am Mineral 90:316-328, 2005) and Al-in-chlorite geothermometer of Cathelineau (Clay Miner 23:417-485, 1988), crystallization temperatures of primary biotite representative of magmatic conditions and later chloritization temperature range from 617° to 675 °C ± 24 °C and 177° to 346 °C, respectively. Calculated isotopic compositions of fluids that chloritized primary and secondary biotite display isotopic compositions of 1.1 to 1.7 per mil for δ18O and -19.9 to -20.5 per mil for δD consistent with meteoric water. Sericite, barren, and A-type-quartz veins from phyllic alteration were produced by mixed magmatic and meteoric water with δ18O values from -2.8 to 2.5 and δD values of ˜ -23 per mil; the narrow range of δD values of the propylitic epidote may be due to a meteoric water with δ18O values from 0.8 to 1.6 and δD values from -14.6 to -16.9 per mil.

  15. A new indicator mineral methodology based on a generic Bi-Pb-Te-S mineral inclusion signature in detrital gold from porphyry and low/intermediate sulfidation epithermal environments in Yukon Territory, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, R. J.; Allan, M. M.; Mortensen, J. K.; Wrighton, T. M.; Grimshaw, M. R.

    2017-12-01

    Porphyry-epithermal and orogenic gold are two of the most important styles of gold-bearing mineralization within orogenic belts. Populations of detrital gold resulting from bulk erosion of such regions may exhibit a compositional continuum wherein Ag, Cu, and Hg in the gold alloy may vary across the full range exhibited by natural gold. This paper describes a new methodology whereby orogenic and porphyry-epithermal gold may be distinguished according to the mineralogy of microscopic inclusions observed within detrital gold particles. A total of 1459 gold grains from hypogene, eluvial, and placer environments around calc-alkaline porphyry deposits in Yukon (Nucleus-Revenue, Casino, Sonora Gulch, and Cyprus-Klaza) have been characterized in terms of their alloy compositions (Au, Ag, Cu, and Hg) and their inclusion mineralogy. Despite differences in the evolution of the different magmatic hydrothermal systems, the gold exhibits a clear Bi-Pb-Te-S mineralogy in the inclusion suite, a signature which is either extremely weak or (most commonly) absent in both Yukon orogenic gold and gold from orogenic settings worldwide. Generic systematic compositional changes in ore mineralogy previously identified across the porphyry-epithermal transition have been identified in the corresponding inclusion suites observed in samples from Yukon. However, the Bi-Te association repeatedly observed in gold from the porphyry mineralization persists into the epithermal environment. Ranges of P-T-X conditions are replicated in the geological environments which define generic styles of mineralization. These parameters influence both gold alloy composition and ore mineralogy, of which inclusion suites are a manifestation. Consequently, we propose that this methodology approach can underpin a widely applicable indicator methodology based on detrital gold.

  16. Control of Cambrian evaporites on fracturing in fault-related anticlines in the Zagros fold-and-thrust belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carminati, Eugenio; Aldega, Luca; Bigi, Sabina; Corrado, Sveva; D'Ambrogi, Chiara; Mohammadi, Peyman; Shaban, Ali; Sherkati, Shahram

    2013-07-01

    Orientation and distribution of fractures in the Oligocene-Early Miocene Asmari Formation (a major reservoir rock of the Zagros petroleum system) were investigated in two anticlines of the Zagros fold-and-thrust belt. The Sim and Kuh-e-Asmari anticlines developed in the areas of the Zagros characterized by the occurrence and absence of Cambrian evaporites at the bottom of the stratigraphic pile, respectively. The aim was to outline major differences in terms of fracture spacing and saturation. Organic matter maturity and clay minerals-based geothermometers suggest that the depth of deformation for the top of the Asmari Formation in the Kuh-e-Asmari anticline was in the range of 1.5-2.7 km assuming a geothermal gradient of 22.5 °C/km. The Asmari Formation in the Sim anticline probably experienced a slightly deeper sedimentary burial (maximum 3 km) with a geothermal gradient of 20 °C/km. The spacing of fractures is generally 2-3 times larger (i.e., strain accommodated by fracturing is smaller) in the Sim anticline than in the Kuh-e-Asmari anticline. This is consistent with regional geological studies, analogue, and numerical models that suggest that thrust faults geometry and related folds are markedly different in the absence or presence of a weak decòllement (evaporites). The larger spacing in the Sim anticline is also consistent with higher temperature predicted for the Asmari Formation in this area. By contrast, the orientation of fractures with respect to the fold axes is the same in both anticlines. The fracture systems are rather immature in both anticlines. The amount and density of fractures in the twofolds are controlled by regional (occurrence/absence of salt and probably different burial), rather than local features (fold geometry).

  17. Radiation Belt Indices from NOAA's Geostationary Weather Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Juan; Kress, Brian; Boudouridis, Athanasios; Onsager, Terrance

    2017-04-01

    This paper reviews the current radiation belt indices produced from observations by NOAA's geostationary weather satellites and describes their future with the recent launch of the first in the new GOES-R series of satellites (GOES-16). Currently, SWPC issues a radiation belt alert when the >2 MeV electron fluxes observed by the GOES-East satellite exceed 1000 electrons/(cm**2 s sr). This alert threshold was determined in consultation with the satellite industry. The current instrument is a dome detector with a 0.123 g/cm**2 aluminum moderator and two 1500-micron, 25 mm**2 silicon detectors connected in parallel, and coincidence logic involving three discriminator levels on this detector combination. This is a relatively simple instrument with demonstrated good consistency among various flight units. However, it provides no pitch angle resolution and moreover suffers from serious contamination during SEP events as well as large dead time corrections during extreme events. Also, highly relativistic electrons are measured in only three integral channels (>0.8, >2 and >4 MeV), providing only crude spectral resolution. Starting with GOES-16 (launched 19 November 2016), the >2 MeV channel is provided by a five-telescope instrument for which pitch angles are derived from the GOES-16 magnetometer observations. This instrument exhibits reduced dead time at extreme event levels and improved energetic proton rejection. Besides the integral channel, the new instrument has several differential channels above 0.8 MeV, providing improved spectral resolution for internal charging diagnosis. In addition to improved spectral resolution in the GOES 13-15 energy ranges, the GOES-R series also flies a new electrostatic analyzer-based electron and ion spectrometer providing observations at 15 energies in the 0.03-30 keV range and 14 angular zones. These observations will support a real-time indication of surface charging on the GOES satellites and therefore will provide useful

  18. Space Weather Effects in the Earth's Radiation Belts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, D. N.; Erickson, P. J.; Fennell, J. F.; Foster, J. C.; Jaynes, A. N.; Verronen, P. T.

    2018-02-01

    The first major scientific discovery of the Space Age was that the Earth is enshrouded in toroids, or belts, of very high-energy magnetically trapped charged particles. Early observations of the radiation environment clearly indicated that the Van Allen belts could be delineated into an inner zone dominated by high-energy protons and an outer zone dominated by high-energy electrons. The energy distribution, spatial extent and particle species makeup of the Van Allen belts has been subsequently explored by several space missions. Recent observations by the NASA dual-spacecraft Van Allen Probes mission have revealed many novel properties of the radiation belts, especially for electrons at highly relativistic and ultra-relativistic kinetic energies. In this review we summarize the space weather impacts of the radiation belts. We demonstrate that many remarkable features of energetic particle changes are driven by strong solar and solar wind forcings. Recent comprehensive data show broadly and in many ways how high energy particles are accelerated, transported, and lost in the magnetosphere due to interplanetary shock wave interactions, coronal mass ejection impacts, and high-speed solar wind streams. We also discuss how radiation belt particles are intimately tied to other parts of the geospace system through atmosphere, ionosphere, and plasmasphere coupling. The new data have in many ways rewritten the textbooks about the radiation belts as a key space weather threat to human technological systems.

  19. Rural and Urban Differences in Passenger-Vehicle-Occupant Deaths and Seat Belt Use Among Adults - United States, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Laurie F; Downs, Jonathan; Stevens, Mark R; Sauber-Schatz, Erin K

    2017-09-22

    increased as rurality increased. Self-reported seat belt use in the United States decreased with increasing rurality, ranging from 88.8% in the most urban counties to 74.7% in the most rural counties. Similar differences in age-adjusted death rates and seat belt use were observed in states with primary and secondary seat belt enforcement laws. Rurality was associated with higher age-adjusted passenger-vehicle-occupant death rates, a higher proportion of unrestrained passenger-vehicle-occupant deaths, and lower seat belt use among adults in all census regions and regardless of state seat belt enforcement type. Seat belt use decreases and age-adjusted passenger-vehicle-occupant death rates increase with increasing levels of rurality. Improving seat belt use remains a critical strategy to reduce crash-related deaths in the United States, especially in rural areas where seat belt use is lower and age-adjusted death rates are higher than in urban areas. States and communities can consider using evidence-based interventions to reduce rural-urban disparities in seat belt use and passenger-vehicle-occupant death rates.

  20. Mineral facilities of Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almanzar, Francisco; Baker, Michael S.; Elias, Nurudeen; Guzman, Eric

    2010-01-01

    This map displays over 1,700 records of mineral facilities within the countries of Europe and western Eurasia. Each record represents one commodity and one facility type at a single geographic location. Facility types include mines, oil and gas fields, and plants, such as refineries, smelters, and mills. Common commodities of interest include aluminum, cement, coal, copper, gold, iron and steel, lead, nickel, petroleum, salt, silver, and zinc. Records include attributes, such as commodity, country, location, company name, facility type and capacity (if applicable), and latitude and longitude geographical coordinates (in both degrees-minutes-seconds and decimal degrees). The data shown on this map and in table 1 were compiled from multiple sources, including (1) the most recently available data from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Minerals Yearbook (Europe and Central Eurasia volume), (2) mineral statistics and information from the USGS Minerals Information Web site (http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/country/europe.html), and (3) data collected by the USGS minerals information country specialists from sources, such as statistical publications of individual countries, annual reports and press releases of operating companies, and trade journals. Data reflect the most recently published table of industry structure for each country at the time of this publication. Additional information is available from the country specialists listed in table 2.

  1. The tendencies in the condition of field-protecting shelter belts in southern Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. S. Varaksin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available It is proposed to analyze the stands’ condition to use the method of tendencies, which occupies an intermediate position between a static evaluation of the life conditions and the dynamic assessment of the condition. The trends take into account the totality of the factors, affecting the condition of the trees. The basis for the method is the analysis of tree distribution by the categories of condition. This approach allowed us to identify a set of factors affecting the condition of the trees, depending on the growth conditions of soil and tree species. Siberian larch is characterized by healthy condition, regardless of the method of planting, density, number of rows and soil conditions. This situation can be explained by shelterbelts’ age not exceeding 20 years. At older ages, the soil conditions influence field-protecting forest belts. The best conditions are formed in the stands on the southern chernozems of pure composition, with a row and chess-type of planting. In clean multi-row pine stands, the trees are more healthy condition, compared to mixed stands. The living condition of birch stands is weakened. Favorable conditions found in pure Siberian elm stands with a 3-row and chess-type planting, compared to mixed stands. Relatively favorable conditions for the growth of black poplar trees were observed in pure 4-row stands, growing on ordinary chernozems. Point scale assessment of the stands shows that healthy state have larch belts in the steppe of Shira lake. Field-protecting shelter belts in the Republics of Khakassia and Tyva, with some exceptions, are in weakened and badly weakened condition. In those stands conducting agronomic and silvicultural treatments to improve mineral nutrition and moisture supply is the urgent need.

  2. Review of GEM Radiation Belt Dropout and Buildup Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Weichao; Li, Wen; Morley, Steve; Albert, Jay

    2017-04-01

    In Summer 2015 the US NSF GEM (Geospace Environment Modeling) focus group named "Quantitative Assessment of Radiation Belt Modeling" started the "RB dropout" and "RB buildup" challenges, focused on quantitative modeling of the radiation belt buildups and dropouts. This is a community effort which includes selecting challenge events, gathering model inputs that are required to model the radiation belt dynamics during these events (e.g., various magnetospheric waves, plasmapause and density models, electron phase space density data), simulating the challenge events using different types of radiation belt models, and validating the model results by comparison to in situ observations of radiation belt electrons (from Van Allen Probes, THEMIS, GOES, LANL/GEO, etc). The goal is to quantitatively assess the relative importance of various acceleration, transport, and loss processes in the observed radiation belt dropouts and buildups. Since 2015, the community has selected four "challenge" events under four different categories: "storm-time enhancements", "non-storm enhancements", "storm-time dropouts", and "non-storm dropouts". Model inputs and data for each selected event have been coordinated and shared within the community to establish a common basis for simulations and testing. Modelers within and outside US with different types of radiation belt models (diffusion-type, diffusion-convection-type, test particle codes, etc.) have participated in our challenge and shared their simulation results and comparison with spacecraft measurements. Significant progress has been made in quantitative modeling of the radiation belt buildups and dropouts as well as accessing the modeling with new measures of model performance. In this presentation, I will review the activities from our "RB dropout" and "RB buildup" challenges and the progresses achieved in understanding radiation belt physics and improving model validation and verification.

  3. An Effective Belt Conveyor for Underground Ore Transportation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krol, Robert; Kawalec, Witold; Gladysiewicz, Lech

    2017-12-01

    Raw material transportation generates a substantial share of costs in the mining industry. Mining companies are therefore determined to improve the effectiveness of their transportation system, focusing on solutions that increase both its energy efficiency and reliability while keeping maintenance costs low. In the underground copper ore operations in Poland’s KGHM mines vast and complex belt conveyor systems have been used for horizontal haulage of the run-of-mine ore from mining departments to shafts. Basing upon a long-time experience in the field of analysing, testing, designing and computing of belt conveyor equipment with regard to specific operational conditions, the improvements to the standard design of an underground belt conveyor for ore transportation have been proposed. As the key elements of a belt conveyor, the energy-efficient conveyor belt and optimised carrying idlers have been developed for the new generation of underground conveyors. The proposed solutions were tested individually on the specially constructed test stands in the laboratory and in the experimental belt conveyor that was built up with the use of prototype parts and commissioned for the regular ore haulage in a mining department in the KGHM underground mine “Lubin”. Its work was monitored and the recorded operational parameters (loadings, stresses and strains, energy dissipation, belt tracking) were compared with those previously collected on a reference (standard) conveyor. These in-situ measurements have proved that the proposed solutions will return with significant energy savings and lower maintenance costs. Calculations made on the basis of measurement results in the specialized belt conveyor designing software allow to estimate the possible savings if the modernized conveyors supersede the standard ones in a large belt conveying system.

  4. Provenance and geochemical behavior of fluorine in the soils of an endemic fluorosis belt, central Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehbandi, Reza; Moore, Farid; Keshavarzi, Behnam

    2017-05-01

    The concentration of fluorine, major, trace and rare earth elements (REEs) were used to estimate the probable sources and provenance of fluorine in the soils of an endemic fluorosis belt in central Iran. Total fluorine (TF) in soils varied from 146 to 406 mg/kg with a mean of 277.5 mg/kg. Calculated enrichment factor (EF) and single factor pollution index (SFPI) revealed that the majority of soil samples were moderately contaminated by fluorine. The very strong positive correlation of TF with weathering indices and soil's fine sized fractions indicated that chemical weathering and alteration of parent rocks/soils are the main controlling factors of fluorine behavior in soils. Fluorine affinity to immobile transition trace elements and REEs suggested the role of heavy minerals as the potential F host phases. Modal mineralogy along with SEM-EDX analysis indicated that apatite, fluorapophyllite, epidote, biotite, muscovite and chlorite, as well as, clay minerals are the main F-bearing minerals in the studied soils. Discriminant, bivariate and ternary diagrams of elemental compositions displayed similar geochemical signature of soils to intermediate-acidic rocks and local shales. Based on the weathering indices, soils were immature and showed a non-steady state weathering trend from upper continental crust (UCC), acidic and intermediate igneous source rocks towards shale composition possibly due to mixing of moderately weathered and un-weathered sources of different primary compositions.

  5. Mid-Late Triassic metamorphic event for Changhai meta-sedimentary rocks from the SE Jiao-Liao-Ji Belt, North China Craton: Evidence from monazite U-Th-Pb and muscovite Ar-Ar dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fulai; Wang, Fang; Liou, J. G.; Meng, En; Liu, Jianhui; Yang, Hong; Xiao, Lingling; Cai, Jia; Shi, Jianrong

    2014-11-01

    The precise constraints on the timing of metamorphism of the Changhai metamorphic complex is of great importance considering the prolonged controversial issue of the north margin and the extension of the Sulu-Dabie HP-UHP Belt. While the monazite U-Th-Pb and muscovite 40Ar/39Ar techniques are widely accepted as two of the most powerful dating tools for revealing the thermal histories of medium-low grade metamorphic rocks and precisely constraining the timing of metamorphism. The Changhai metamorphic complex at the SE Jiao-Liao-Ji Belt, North China Craton consists of a variety of pelitic schist and Grt-Ky-bearing paragneiss, and minor quartzite and marble. Analyses of mineral inclusions and back-scattered electric (BSE) images of monazites, combined with LA-ICP-MS U-Th-Pb ages for monazites and 40Ar/39Ar ages for muscovites, provide evidence of the origin and metamorphic age of the Changhai metamorphic complex. Monazites separates from various Grt-Mus schists and Grt-Ky-St-Mus paragneisses exhibit homogeneous BSE images from cores to rims, and contain inclusion assemblages of Grt + Mus + Qtz ± Ctd ± Ky in schist, and Grt + Ky + St + Mus + Pl + Kfs + Qtz inclusions in paragneiss. These inclusion assemblages are very similar to matrix minerals of host rocks, indicating they are metamorphic rather than inherited or detrital in origin. LA-ICP-MS U-Th-Pb dating reveals that monazites of schist and paragneiss have consistent 206Pb/238U ages ranging from 228.1 ± 3.8 to 218.2 ± 3.7 Ma. In contrast, muscovites from various schists show slightly older 40Ar/39Ar plateau ages of 236.1 ± 1.5 to 230.2 ± 1.2 Ma. These geochronological and petrological data conclude that the pelitic sediments have experienced a metamorphic event at the Mid-Late Triassic (236.1-218.2 Ma) rather than the Paleoproterozoic (1950-1850 Ma), commonly regarded as the Precambrian basement for the Jiao-Liao-Ji Belt. Hence, the Changhai metamorphic complex should be considered as a discrete

  6. Structure and Evolution of Kuiper Belt Objects and Dwarf Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinnon, W. B.; Prialnik, D.; Stern, S. A.; Coradini, A.

    the melting-point depression afforded by the presence of salts, ammonia, etc. (we review the case for Charon in particular). The surface color and compositional classes of KBOs are usually discussed in terms of "nature vs. nurture," i.e., a generic primordial composition vs. surface processing, but the true nature of KBOs also depends on how they have evolved. The broad range of albedos now found in the Kuiper belt, deep water-ice absorptions on some objects, evidence for differentiation of Pluto and 2003 EL61, and a range of densities incompatible with a single, primordial composition and variable porosity strongly imply significant, intrinsic compositional differences among KBOs. The interplay of formation zone (accretion rate), body size, and dynamical (collisional) history may yield KBO compositional classes (and their spectral correlates) that recall the different classes of asteroids in the inner solar system, but whose members are broadly distributed among the KBO dynamical subpopulations.

  7. Geodetic measurement of tectonic deformation in the Santa Maria Fold and Thrust Belt, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feigl, Kurt L.; King, Robert W.; Jordan, Thomas H.

    1990-01-01

    Geodetic observations taken over the last 100 years were analyzed to quantify active tectonic deformations in the Santa Maria Fold and Thrust Belt (SMFTB), California. Three different types of data were combined to estimate two-dimensioanl station positions and strain rate parameters simultaneously: (1) historical triangulation from the 1880s, 1920s, and 1950s; (2) electronic distance measurement trilateration from 1971 and 1985; and (3) GPS observations from 1986 and 1987. Results imply that the SMFTB is the primary active element in transforming motion from the Coast Ranges to the western Transverse Ranges and the Santa Barbara Channel.

  8. Power Transmission Through Timing Belt In Two Wheeler Motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurumurthy Veerapathiran

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the effect of noise and friction on performance of the chain drive system for motor bikes. Experiment shows that chain transmission in chain drive system leads to poor overall performance, due to its noise and chain gets loose due to aging and sprockets wear due to chain friction etc., the proposed system consists of drive and driven pulley with timing belt transmission. Compared to conventional method, proposed method give improved tension in pulleys and belt by the additional arrangement called belt tensioner. This gives good overall performance of the system, and reduces noise, vibration and gives high transmission speed.

  9. Radiation Belt Storm Probes: Resolving Fundamental Physics with Practical Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukhorskiy, Aleksandr Y.; Mauk, Barry H.; Fox, Nicola J.; Sibeck, David G.; Grebowsky, Joseph M.

    2011-01-01

    The fundamental processes that energize, transport, and cause the loss of charged particles operate throughout the universe at locations as diverse as magnetized planets, the solar wind, our Sun, and other stars. The same processes operate within our immediate environment, the Earth's radiation belts. The Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) mission will provide coordinated two-spacecraft observations to obtain understanding of these fundamental processes controlling the dynamic variability of the near-Earth radiation environment. In this paper we discuss some of the profound mysteries of the radiation belt physics that will be addressed by RBSP and briefly describe the mission and its goals.

  10. Formation and Decay of the Inner Electron Radiation Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-09

    Wave acceleration of electrons in the Van Allen radiation belts , Nature, 437, 227–230, doi:10.1038/nature03939. Kessel, R. L., N. J. Fox...prime mission of the Van Allen Probes Key Points: • Quantified upper limit of MeV electrons in the inner belt • Actual MeV electron intensity likely...have not happened yet since the launch of Van Allen Probes, significant enhancements of MeV electrons do not occur in the inner belt even

  11. Making the cold Kuiper belt in a planetary instability migration model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Rodney S.

    2017-06-01

    Numerical integrations of the equations of motion of Jupiter, Saturn, three ice cores and a disk of planetesimals are undertaken. Two of the ice planets stand for Uranus and Neptune and a third one is expected to be ejected from the solar system. The planets start in compact cold orbits and each one is in mean motion resonance with its neighbor(s). The disk of planetesimals is placed just outside the outermost planet and is extended to 45 au. Five hundred integrations are done for each of four masses assigned to the disk, which are 25, 30, 35 and 40 Earth masses. The integrations are extended to 100 My. After that, I choose the successful runs in which there are four planets left in closed orbits around the Sun and I separate the good runs among the successful ones, defined by semi-major axes ranges around and not too far from the real ones. Among these good runs, I further choose by visual inspection those that yield an orbital distribution of planetesimals at the Kuiper belt region that resembles the real cold Kuiper belt. I extend these runs to 1 Gy and, after that, to 4.5 Gy. These last integrations for 3.5 Gy are done after replacing the orbits of the planets in the end of the 1 Gy integrations by their current orbits, changing the semi-major axes of the planetesimals so as to keep the same mean motion ratio with Neptune and assigning null masses for the planetesimals. Orbital distributions of the cold Kuiper belt obtained in some of the runs at 4.5 Gy are quite similar to that of the real cold Kuiper belt. The mass in the Kuiper belt region can be dynamically eroded to up to 90% of the original mass. The main conclusion is that the cold Kuiper belt is compatible with a past planetary instability phase even though in some of these runs Neptune's semi-major axis and eccentricity attained values simultaneously larger than 20 au and 0.2 for over 1 My.

  12. Phosphorus K-edge XANES spectroscopy of mineral standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingall, Ellery D; Brandes, Jay A; Diaz, Julia M; de Jonge, Martin D; Paterson, David; McNulty, Ian; Elliott, W Crawford; Northrup, Paul

    2011-03-01

    Phosphorus K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy was performed on phosphate mineral specimens including (a) twelve specimens from the apatite group covering a range of compositional variation and crystallinity; (b) six non-apatite calcium-rich phosphate minerals; (c) 15 aluminium-rich phosphate minerals; (d) ten phosphate minerals rich in either reduced iron or manganese; (e) four phosphate minerals rich in either oxidized iron or manganese; (f) eight phosphate minerals rich in either magnesium, copper, lead, zinc or rare-earth elements; and (g) four uranium phosphate minerals. The identity of all minerals examined in this study was independently confirmed using X-ray powder diffraction. Minerals were distinguished using XANES spectra with a combination of pre-edge features, edge position, peak shapes and post-edge features. Shared spectral features were observed in minerals with compositions dominated by the same specific cation. Analyses of apatite-group minerals indicate that XANES spectral patterns are not strongly affected by variations in composition and crystallinity typical of natural mineral specimens.

  13. Provenance discrimination of sediments in the Zhejiang-Fujian mud belt, East China Sea: Implications for the development of the mud depocenter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiting; Li, Anchun; Dong, Jiang; Lu, Jian; Huang, Jie; Wan, Shiming

    2018-01-01

    In the past decade, the 800 km elongated mud belt off Zhejiang-Fujian coast, East China Sea (ECS), has been extensively studied for understanding the source to sink processes on the East Asian continental margin in the context of the Asian monsoon. However, to better understand the sediment source and dispersal pattern, the existing mineralogical and geochemical data of adjacent river systems, including the Changjiang River (CJR) and local rivers in Zhejiang, Fujian and Taiwan, need to be systematically reviewed. Therefore, various indicators from published literatures for the provenance discrimination in the mud belt have been summarised in this article. The results show that high diversity of clay mineral assemblages in fluvial sediments being supplied into the mud belt, e.g., dominant illite and chlorite in the CJR, absence of smectite in Taiwan rivers, similar amounts of the four clay mineral species in Zhejiang rivers, and dominant kaolinite in Fujian rivers. On heavy mineralogy, the CJR is dominated by dolomite, hornblende, and flaky minerals; and among of them, dolomite is distinctive for the CJR. For geochemical approaches, elemental compositions, combined with strontium and neodymium isotopes, reflect strong provenance control. However, geochemical and mineralogical compositions are found to vary with grain size, and thus extra caution should be taken when using these parameters as provenance indicator to discriminate the marine sediments with variety of grain-size fractions. In addition, pyrrhotite, occurred in fluvial sediments from western Taiwan, has not been found in sediments derived from mainland China, indicating that magnetic parameters could be used to discriminate sediment provenance. The mud belt formed during sea-level highstand, when modern current system in the ECS has been established, resulting in sediments derived from the CJR have been transported southward since 8 ka. In addition, sediment provenances have not been constant since

  14. Petrographic study of the Miocene-Pleistocene sandstone in the Western Foothills, northern Taiwan: implication for the unroofing history of Taiwan orogenic belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia-Jhih, Yeh; Wen-Shan, Chen

    2017-04-01

    The Taiwan orogeny belt developed due to the arc-continental collision since about 6 Ma. Plio-Pleistocene foreland basin deposits are eroded from adjacent orogenic belt that provides much information about orogenic tectonics. In this study, sandstone petrography is enabled to trace orogenic exhumation history of the northern Taiwan. It indicates that late Miocene-early Pliocene strata were composed dominantly of monocrystalline quartz and feldspar deriving from the Eurasia continent. Late Pliocene-early Pleistocene sandstone (3.6-2Ma) contains lithic fragments which consist dominantly of sandstone fragments. It suggests that the sediments were derived from sedimentary province (Miocene strata) of the orogenic belt. The middle Pleistocene sandstone (1.5Ma) consists of argillite and metasandstone fragments (Oligocene strata) deriving from low-grade metamorphic province (the Hsuehshan Range). The late Pleistocene sandstone consists of quartzite fragments (Eocene strata) which were derived from metamorphic province (the Hsuehshan Range). The exhumation history of orogenic belt is revealed significant changes from sedimentary to metamorphic provinces during the middle Pleistocene. It suggests that the Hsuehshan Range exposed since middle Pleistocene. Lithic fragments derived from the Taiwan orogenic belt that corresponded with the unroofing history of the northern Hsuehshan Range by apatite and zircon fission track dating (1.2-2.6Ma and 4.6-6.4Ma).

  15. Mineral resources of the southern half of Zone III Santander, Norte de Santander and Boyaca, Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Dwight Edward; Goldsmith, Richard; Cruz, Bruna B.; Restrepo, Jaime; Hernan, A.

    1970-01-01

    The areas covered by this report lies in the eastern Cordillera of the Colombian Andes in the region around Bucaramanga. This part of the eastern Cordillera consists of a structurally complex core of metamorphic and igneous rocks of Precambrian to Mesozoic age, flanked to east and west by faulted and folded sedimentary strata of late Paleozoic to Tertiary age. Infaulted blocks of sedimentary rocks are locally present in the massif. Unconsolidated deposits of Quaternary age, primarily terraced alluvium, are 10cally extensive in valleys on the flanks of the range. The crystalline central core of the range is called the Santander massif. In it are located the principal sold deposits and scattered deposits of copper, lead, zinc, and fluorite. The sedimentary rocks flanking the massif contain significant deposits of phosphate rock and gypsum, as well as other nonmetallic industrial minerals such as limestone, barite, glass sand, and coal. A belt of lead-zinc prospects in carbonate and sandstone beds of Cretaceous age on the east side of the range warrants further investigation. Gold and silver are the only important metallic minerals that have been produced in the Santander massif. Mining dates back to colonial and possibly to pre-colonial times and continues on a small scale at present. The California and Vetas district was the main area of investigation of metallic minerals during the present project. Results of geochemical sampling of stream sediments and assays of vein material indicate that the main potential of the area is in gold with lesser potentials in copper, lead, zinc, and silver. Mineralization of the district is probably younger than Early Cretaceous. Although no copper minerals have been mined elsewhere in the massif, small amounts of copper minerals in various rocks in scattered areas is revealed by green and blue stains of copper carbonates and sulfates. Deposits of greatest areal extent are in arkosic conglomeratic beds of the Giron Formation. These

  16. Feasibility of electro-osmotic belt filter dewatering technology at pilot scale

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Snyman, HG

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available -effective dewatering technologies, electro-osmotic belt filtering was developed by Smollen and Kafaar in 1995. The mechanical equipment resembles a belt filter press but the belts are stainless steel, woven belts, which act as the electrodes. In this study...

  17. MACRO MODEL OF SEAT BELT USE BY CAR DRIVERS AND PASSENGERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazimierz JAMROZ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents some problems of seat belt use by car drivers and passengers. It looks in particular at seat belt use and effectiveness in selected countries. Next, factors of seat belt use are presented and methodology of model development. A macro model of seat belt use is presented based on data from around fifty countries from different continents.

  18. Practical and medical aspects of the use of car seat belts.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edelman, A. & Kampen, L.T.B. van

    1974-01-01

    An analysis is made of the influence of use and non-use of seat belts on type and severity of injuries to drivers and of the influence of seat belt type on type and severity of injuries to drivers. Users of lap belts and users of 3-point belts enjoy a comparable and considerable reduction of injury

  19. sequenceMiner algorithm

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Detecting and describing anomalies in large repositories of discrete symbol sequences. sequenceMiner has been open-sourced! Download the file below to try it out....

  20. Mineral spirits poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    These substances may be found in: Mineral spirits ( Stoddard solvent ) Some paints Some floor and furniture waxes and polishes Some dry cleaning fluids White spirits Note: This list may not be all-inclusive.

  1. Multivitamin/Mineral Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit Search NIH Office of Dietary Supplements Consumer Datos en español Health Professional Other Resources Multivitamin/mineral ... Vitamin K lowers the drug's effectiveness and doctors base the medicine dose partly on the amount of ...

  2. Mineral Commodity Summaries 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2009-01-01

    Each chapter of the 2009 edition of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Commodity Summaries (MCS) includes information on events, trends, and issues for each mineral commodity as well as discussions and tabular presentations on domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, 5-year salient statistics, and world production and resources. The MCS is the earliest comprehensive source of 2008 mineral production data for the world. More than 90 individual minerals and materials are covered by two-page synopses. For mineral commodities for which there is a Government stockpile, detailed information concerning the stockpile status is included in the two-page synopsis. Because specific information concerning committed inventory was no longer available from the Defense Logistics Agency, National Defense Stockpile Center, that information, which was included in earlier Mineral Commodity Summaries publications, has been deleted from Mineral Commodity Summaries 2009. National reserves and reserve base information for most mineral commodities found in this report, including those for the United States, are derived from a variety of sources. The ideal source of such information would be comprehensive evaluations that apply the same criteria to deposits in different geographic areas and report the results by country. In the absence of such evaluations, national reserves and reserve base estimates compiled by countries for selected mineral commodities are a primary source of national reserves and reserve base information. Lacking national assessment information by governments, sources such as academic articles, company reports, common business practice, presentations by company representatives, and trade journal articles, or a combination of these, serve as the basis for national reserves and reserve base information reported in the mineral commodity sections of this publication. A national estimate may be assembled from the following: historically reported

  3. Systematic review of seat-belt trauma to the female breast: a new diagnosis and management classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Christopher Tam; Teo, Isabel; Song, Colin

    2015-03-01

    Legislation, education and technology have led to a rise in the use of seat belts. This has significantly reduced automobile accident-related mortality, but it has increased seat belt-associated injuries. The aim of this study was to review all publications on seat-belt injury to the female breast and to analyse patterns of presentation, management and outcomes. A literature search was performed by two independent reviewers using the PubMed, Scopus and EMBASE databases. The MeSH terms included 'seat belt breast' or 'breast traffic accident' or 'safety belt breast'. This study was supported by Level V evidence. In this review, 26 articles describing 42 patients were included. A total of 13 patients (31.0%) presented immediately after the road traffic accident (RTA) with pain, swelling, open wounds and/or haemorrhage of the breast. Active arterial extravasations were treated with angiographic embolization while wounds were mostly treated with dressings. Twenty-nine (69.0%) patients presented late, with a mean time of 6.77 months (3 weeks-5 years) after the RTA. This ranged from a palpable lump in the area of trauma to a worsening cleft deformity. Most late presentations were diagnosed with fat necrosis while five patients (17.2%) were found to have breast cancer. From this review, we propose a four-tier classification system that categorizes patients based on timing to presentation and symptoms, with recommended investigation and management options for each category. This is the most comprehensive systemic review to date of seat-belt injuries to the female breast, and our proposed classification may be useful in the management of such patients. Copyright © 2014 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. [Synthetic mineral fibers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boillat, M A

    1999-03-27

    The group of man-made mineral fibres includes slagwool, glasswool, rockwool, glass filaments and microfibres, as well as refractory ceramic fibres. The toxicity of mineral fibres is determined by several factors such as the diameter (< or = 3-3.5 microns) and the length of the fibres (< 100 microns), their biopersistence, which is much shorter for man-made mineral fibres than for asbestos fibres, their physicochemical structure and surface properties, and the exposure level. The chemical composition of the various types of man-made mineral fibres depends directly on the raw material used to manufacture them. While naturally occurring fibres are crystalline in structure, most man-made mineral fibres are amorphous silicates combined with various metal oxides and additives. Observations using intracavitary administration have provided evidence that some types of man-made mineral fibres are bioactive in cellular and animal experiments and may induce lung tumours and mesothelioma. It is difficult to extrapolate these results to humans since they bypass inhalation, deposition, clearance and translocation mechanisms. Inhalation studies show more realistic results but differences are observed between animal species regarding their sensibility to tumours. There is no firm evidence that exposure to various wools is associated with lung fibrosis, pleural lesions or nonspecific respiratory disease in humans. A possible exception may be mentioned for refractory ceramic fibres. A slightly elevated standard mortality ratio for lung cancer has been documented in large cohorts of workers (USA, Europe and Canada) exposed to man-made mineral fibres, especially in the early technological phase. It is not possible to determine from these data whether the risk of lung cancer is due to the man-made mineral fibres themselves, in particular due to the lack of data on smoking habits. No increased risk of mesothelioma has been demonstrated in these cohorts. Epidemiological data are

  5. Isotope age of the rare metal pegmatite formation in the Kolmozero-Voron'ya greenstone belt (Kola region of the Fennoscandian shield): U-Pb (TIMS) microlite and tourmaline dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudryashov, Nikolay; Lyalina, Ludmila; Mokrushin, Artem; Zozulya, Dmitry; Groshev, Nikolay; Steshenko, Ekaterina; Kunakkuzin, Evgeniy

    2016-04-01

    The Kolmozero-Voron'ya greenstone belt is located in the central suture zone, which separates the Murmansk block from the Central-Kola and the Keivy blocks. The belt is represented by volcano-sedimentary rocks of Archaean age of 2.9-2.5 Ga. Rare metal pegmatites (Li, Cs with accessory Nb, Ta, and Be) occur among amphibolite and gabbroid intrusions in the northwestern and southeastern parts of the belt. According to the Rb-Sr data, the age of pegmatites was considered to be 2.7 Ga. Until recently there was no generally accepted point of view on the origin of pegmatites. Now we have isotopic data for a range of rock complexes that could pretend to be parental granites for the rare metal pegmatites. These are granodiorites with the zircon age of 2733±Ma, and microcline and tourmaline granites, which Pb-Pb isochronal age on tourmaline from the tourmaline granite located near the deposit is estimated to be 2520±70 Ma. The pegmatite field of the Vasin Myl'k deposit with the lepidolite--albite--microcline--spodumene--pollucite association is located among amphibolites in the northwestern part of the belt. The deposit is represented by subparallel low-angle zoned veins up to 220 m long and 5 m thick dipping in the southeastern direction at an angle of 10° too 30°. The minerals of the columbite--tonalite group from Vasin Myl'k deposit include microlite, simpsonite, and torolite, and are the oldest among different minerals represented by several generations in pegmatites under consideration. Zircons from the pegmatites are mostly represented by crystals with the structure affected by the action of fluids that put certain restrictions on its use as a geochronometer of the crystallization process. Microlite from the pegmatite taken from the dump of a prospecting drill hole was used for U--Pb (TIMS). The mineral is represented by 0.5--1.0 mm long euhedral octahedral crystals. It is brown in color, and transparent. The microlite crystals were preliminarily cleaned from

  6. Evolution of Mineral-Organic Matter Associations in Sediments: From (Bio)mineralization to Burial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, E.; Nordlund, D.; Wankel, S. D.; Hansel, C. M.

    2014-12-01

    Physical and chemical associations with mineral surfaces may protect organic matter (OM) from oxidative degradation and allow its preservation in soils and sediments. This study evaluates the mechanism of mineral-based preservation (MBP) and the time scale on which MBP is operative by tracking the co-evolution of oxide minerals and associated OM during mineral precipitation and ripening. Scanning transmission X-ray microscopy coupled to near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (STXM-NEXAFS) as well as bulk NEXAFS demonstrate that, in laboratory systems using cell-free filtrate from pure bacterial cultures, an association between OM and biogenic manganese oxides is rapidly established. OM associated with freshly precipitated biominerals consists of proteinaceous carbon and nitrogen consistent with a microbial origin; this composition remains constant over the course of 96 hours, despite mineral aggregation and structural evolution from hexagonal to triclinic birnessite. We predict that, in natural systems, oxide minerals simultaneously drive remineralization and offer MBP. Different minerals will promote a different balance between the two, imparting a mineral-specific signature on the concentration and composition of preserved OM. We test this idea by conducting incubations of natural estuary waters spiked with compositionally and structurally diverse synthetic oxide minerals. The concentration and composition of mineral-associated OM were tracked by element analyzer-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (EA-IRMS) and STXM-NEXAFS in multiple experiments lasting between 4 weeks and 1 year. Results from incubation experiments are contrasted with natural sediment samples from a range of depositional environments in order to evaluate the potential for long-term sequestration of organic carbon in sediments facilitated by minerals.

  7. Fluid-rock interaction: mineral stability, mineral equilibria, and the propagation of metastable phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlov, D.

    2006-12-01

    The role of fluids in promoting mineral equilibria as a function of P-T-X has been documented for a variety of mineral systems both in nature as well as experimentally. In each of these cases, the rate at which equilibration occurs depends on fluid-mineral reactivity and upon the subsequent rate of dissolution- reprecipitation of the participating mineral phases (cf. review in Putnis, 2002, Mineral Mag, 66, 689). In rocks without a fluid phase, equilibration between mineral phases is entirely diffusion controlled. As a consequence, complete equilibration tends not to occur. This can then lead to the propagation of metastable mineral phases far beyond their P-T-X stability field over geological time scales. Examples of fluid-induced re-equilibration in mineral systems include formation of monazite inclusions in fluorapatite (Harlov et al., 2005, Contrib Mineral Petrol, 150, 268), metasomatically induced replacement of plagioclase by K-feldspar (Putnis et al., 2006, Lithos, in press online), solid-state transformation of biotite and amphibole to pyroxenes (Harlov et al., 2006, J Petrol, 47, 3), formation of titantite reaction rims on ilmenite (Harlov et al., Lithos, 88, 72), and replacement of fluorapatite by Fe-bearing chlorapatite (Harlov et al., 2006, Eur J Mineral, 18, 233). In each of these examples, fluids of varying compositions, pH, and H2O activities are required to achieve both the re-equilibration of the mineral phases involved, via dissolution-reprecipitation, as well as whatever subsequent mass transfer may be required. In general this process, whether from nature or experimental, can be investigated on both the micron and nanometer scale utilizing a variety of techniques including SEM, TEM, EBSD, LA-ICPMS, SIMS and EMP analysis. Such procedures, coupled with textural analysis, then allows for a more complete understanding of fluid-rock interaction and mass transfer on scales ranging from nanometers to kilometers.

  8. Mineral Deposits and Mineral Potential of the Randsburg Wash Test Range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-01

    with realgar and abundant hematite that have impregnated irregular and discontinuous veins and bodies of milky white opal. Most of what people assumed to...small blotches, the colors of realgar , orpiment and sulfur. Detailed analysis of this material showed sufficient traces of arsenic to verify the

  9. Belts Evaluated as Limb Tourniquets: BELT Study Comparing Trouser Supporters Used as Medical Devices in a Manikin Model of Wound Bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bequette, Blake W; Kragh, John F; Aden, James K; Dubick, Michael A

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of the present study is to compare several models of commercially designed belts as used as a tourniquet. In the Belts Evaluated as Limb Tourniquets (BELT) study, an experiment was designed to test the effectiveness of pants belts as nonimprovised medical devices to control hemorrhage in a manikin. Models of belts included Tourni-belt, Tourniquet Belt, ParaBelt, and Battle Buddy. Data collected included effectiveness, time to stop bleeding, total time of application, pressure, blood loss, and composite results (score count of good results; composite outcome good if every component was good). Differences in effectiveness percentages among models were not statistically significant. The difference in mean between users was statistically significant for stop time, total time, pressure, blood loss, composite score, and composite outcome. Mean time to stop bleeding differed for only 1 pair of models after the Tukey-Kramer adjustment; ParaBelt was faster than Tourniquet Belt. Mean total time of application differed between ParaBelt-Tourniquet Belt and Tourni-belt-Tourniquet Belt; the former model in both pairs was faster. No significant difference in mean blood loss measured by model was found. For composite outcome score, no pairwise difference between models was significant. For composite outcome (good-bad), ParaBelt had good results in 75% of tests; the other 3 models had significantly worse results. In a preliminary laboratory analysis of belt tourniquet models using a manikin, performance differed by model. ParaBelt performed better than other models for the composite outcome. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. The performance of one belt and one road exchange rate: Based on improved singular spectrum analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Lin; Guo, Kun

    2017-10-01

    ;One Belt and One Road; strategy in China is on push of foreign trade openness at northwest, southwest and northeast, absorption of the excess capacity and new support for economic increase. However, the fluctuation in RMB exchange rate with the countries along the road is unstable so related Chinese enterprises will face high risk of exchange rate. Precise explanation or prediction for exchange rate has been the challengeable hop point in the international finance. This paper decomposed the One Belt One Road Exchange Rate Index (OBORR) and the RMB Effective Exchange Rate Index (CNYX) into trend term, market fluctuation term and noise term using improved singular spectrum analysis (SSA). It turns out that the increasing velocity of OBORR is greater than that of CNYX in the long term, and there is dynamic lead-lag structure in the medium term. In the short term, the fluctuation range and frequency of OBORR are greater than those of CNYX, which means there will be more exchange rate risks in One Belt and One Road countries.

  11. Experimental verification and comparison of the rubber V- belt continuously variable transmission models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzegożek, W.; Dobaj, K.; Kot, A.

    2016-09-01

    The paper includes the analysis of the rubber V-belt cooperation with the CVT transmission pulleys. The analysis of the forces and torques acting in the CVT transmission was conducted basing on calculated characteristics of the centrifugal regulator and the torque regulator. The accurate estimation of the regulator surface curvature allowed for calculation of the relation between the driving wheel axial force, the engine rotational speed and the gear ratio of the CVT transmission. Simplified analytical models of the rubber V-belt- pulley cooperation are based on three basic approaches. The Dittrich model assumes two contact regions on the driven and driving wheel. The Kim-Kim model considers, in addition to the previous model, also the radial friction. The radial friction results in the lack of the developed friction area on the driving pulley. The third approach, formulated in the Cammalleri model, assumes variable sliding angle along the wrap arch and describes it as a result the belt longitudinal and cross flexibility. Theoretical torque on the driven and driving wheel was calculated on the basis of the known regulators characteristics. The calculated torque was compared to the measured loading torque. The best accordance, referring to the centrifugal regulator range of work, was obtained for the Kim-Kim model.

  12. Rapid local acceleration of relativistic radiation-belt electrons by magnetospheric chorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, R M; Li, W; Ni, B; Ma, Q; Bortnik, J; Chen, L; Baker, D N; Spence, H E; Reeves, G D; Henderson, M G; Kletzing, C A; Kurth, W S; Hospodarsky, G B; Blake, J B; Fennell, J F; Claudepierre, S G; Kanekal, S G

    2013-12-19

    Recent analysis of satellite data obtained during the 9 October 2012 geomagnetic storm identified the development of peaks in electron phase space density, which are compelling evidence for local electron acceleration in the heart of the outer radiation belt, but are inconsistent with acceleration by inward radial diffusive transport. However, the precise physical mechanism responsible for the acceleration on 9 October was not identified. Previous modelling has indicated that a magnetospheric electromagnetic emission known as chorus could be a potential candidate for local electron acceleration, but a definitive resolution of the importance of chorus for radiation-belt acceleration was not possible because of limitations in the energy range and resolution of previous electron observations and the lack of a dynamic global wave model. Here we report high-resolution electron observations obtained during the 9 October storm and demonstrate, using a two-dimensional simulation performed with a recently developed time-varying data-driven model, that chorus scattering explains the temporal evolution of both the energy and angular distribution of the observed relativistic electron flux increase. Our detailed modelling demonstrates the remarkable efficiency of wave acceleration in the Earth's outer radiation belt, and the results presented have potential application to Jupiter, Saturn and other magnetized astrophysical objects.

  13. Electron flux enhancement in the inner radiation belt during moderate magnetic storms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Tadokoro

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available During moderate magnetic storms, an electron channel (300–1100 keV of the NOAA satellite has shown sudden electron flux enhancements in the inner radiation belt. After examinating the possibility of contamination by different energetic particles, we conclude that these electron flux enhancements are reliable enough to be considered as natural phenomena, at least for the cases of small to moderate magnetic storms. Here, we define small and moderate storms to be those in which the minimum Dst ranges between −30 and −100 nT. The electron flux enhancements appear with over one order of magnitude at L~2 during these storms. The enhancement is not accompanied by any transport of electron flux from the outer belt. Statistical analysis shows that these phenomena have a duration of approximately 1 day during the period, starting with the main phase to the early recovery phase of the storms. The flux enhancement shows a dawn-dusk asymmetry; the amount of increased flux is larger in the dusk side. We suggest that this phenomenon could not be caused by the radial diffusion but would be due to pitch-angle scattering at the magnetic equator. The inner belt is not in a stationary state, as was previously believed, but is variable in response to the magnetic activity.

  14. Electron flux enhancement in the inner radiation belt during moderate magnetic storms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Tadokoro

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available During moderate magnetic storms, an electron channel (300–1100 keV of the NOAA satellite has shown sudden electron flux enhancements in the inner radiation belt. After examinating the possibility of contamination by different energetic particles, we conclude that these electron flux enhancements are reliable enough to be considered as natural phenomena, at least for the cases of small to moderate magnetic storms. Here, we define small and moderate storms to be those in which the minimum Dst ranges between −30 and −100 nT. The electron flux enhancements appear with over one order of magnitude at L~2 during these storms. The enhancement is not accompanied by any transport of electron flux from the outer belt. Statistical analysis shows that these phenomena have a duration of approximately 1 day during the period, starting with the main phase to the early recovery phase of the storms. The flux enhancement shows a dawn-dusk asymmetry; the amount of increased flux is larger in the dusk side. We suggest that this phenomenon could not be caused by the radial diffusion but would be due to pitch-angle scattering at the magnetic equator. The inner belt is not in a stationary state, as was previously believed, but is variable in response to the magnetic activity.

  15. Resonant Scattering of Radiation Belt Electrons by Off-Equatorial Magnetosonic Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Binbin; Zou, Zhengyang; Fu, Song; Cao, Xing; Gu, Xudong; Xiang, Zheng

    2018-02-01

    Fast magnetosonic (MS) waves are commonly regarded as electromagnetic waves that are characteristically confined within ±3° of the geomagnetic equator. We report two typical off-equatorial MS events observed by Van Allen Probes, that is, the 8 May 2014 event that occurred at the geomagnetic latitudes of 7.5°-9.2° both inside and outside the plasmasphere with the wave amplitude up to 590 pT and the 9 January 2014 event that occurred at the latitudes of—(15.7°-17.5°) outside the plasmasphere with a smaller amplitude about 81 pT. Detailed test particle simulations quantify the electron resonant scattering rates by the off-equatorial MS waves to find that they can cause the pitch angle scattering and momentum diffusion of radiation belt electrons with equatorial pitch angles belt electron butterfly distributions for a broad energy range from 100 keV to >1 MeV within an hour. Our study clearly demonstrates that the presence of off-equatorial MS waves, in addition to equatorial MS waves, can contribute importantly to the dynamical variations of radiation belt electron fluxes and their pitch angle distribution.

  16. REDDY MAIN BELT ASTEROID SPECTRA V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains low-resolution (R~150) near-infrared (0.7-2.5 microns) spectra of 90 main belt asteroids observed with the SpeX instrument on the NASA...

  17. CRED REA Fish Team Belt Transect Survey at Laysan 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 3 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 3 sites at Laysan in the Northwest...

  18. CRED REA Fish Team Belt Transect Survey at Maug, 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 3 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 10 sites at Maug in the...

  19. May 2006 Click It or Ticket seat belt mobilization evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    Click It or Ticket (CIOT) mobilizations are intense, short-duration, seat belt publicity and enforcement programs. The 2006 national mobilization involved approximately $27 million of purchased media. Law enforcement agencies across the nation report...

  20. Evolution of the Bhandara-Balaghat granulite belt along the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    100. Huin A K, Chattopadhyay A and Khan A S 1998 A reappraisal of stratigraphy and structure of the Sausar mobile belt around Deolapar-Pauni-Manegaon area,. Nagpur district, Maharashtra, India; In: International. Seminar on Precambrian ...

  1. Restraint use (seat belt and child passenger seat) survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    In Arizona, lack of restraint usage (seat belts and child passenger seats) was a contributing factor to an average of 687 fatalities per year which is nearly 60% of total fatalities. These tragic statistics could be dramatically decreased if effectiv...

  2. Basaltic dykes of the Eastern Belt of Peninsular Malaysia: The effects of the difference in crustal thickness of Sibumasu and Indochina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghani, Azman A.; Lo, Ching-Hua; Chung, Sun-Lin

    2013-11-01

    Basaltic dykes of Peninsular Malaysia are confined to the Eastern Belt (Indochina/East Malaya block) as compared with the Western Belt (Sibumasu Block). The dyke intruded through a crustal fracture formed by stress developed from the evolution of two offshore basins (Malay and Penyu basins) east of Peninsular Malaysia. The Ar-Ar dating from the present study combined with the previous geochronological data indicate that the ages of dykes range from 79 ± 2 Ma to 179 ± 2 Ma. Thus it is difficult to correlate the dykes with the closure of Tethys during Permo-Triassic time because of the younger age of the dykes. The majority of the dykes exposed in the Eastern Belt may have been attributed to the difference of crustal thickness between the Eastern and Western belt of Peninsular Malaysia. A thicker Western Belt crust (13 km more than both Eastern and Central belts) is difficult to rupture with normal plate tectonic stress and therefore serves to contain the rise of a mantle derived melt. The chemistry indicates the basalts are olivine to quartz normative and are of the continental within-plate category.

  3. The Late Paleozoic magmatic evolution of the Aqishan-Yamansu belt, Eastern Tianshan: Constraints from geochronology, geochemistry and Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotopes of igneous rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liandang; Chen, Huayong; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Weifeng; Yang, Juntao; Yan, Xuelu

    2018-03-01

    The Aqishan-Yamansu belt in the Eastern Tianshan (Xinjiang, NW China) is an important mineralization belt. The belt mainly comprises Carboniferous volcanic, volcaniclastic and clastic rocks, and hosts many intermediate-felsic intrusions and Fe (-Cu) deposits. The biotite diorite, felsic brecciated tuff, granodiorite and syenite from the western Aqishan-Yamansu belt are newly zircon U-Pb dated to be 316.7 ± 1.4 Ma, 315.6 ± 2.6 Ma, 305.8 ± 1.9 Ma and 252.5 ± 1.4 Ma, respectively. The mafic rocks (mafic brecciated tuff and diabase porphyry) are tholeiitic to calc-alkaline series, LILE-rich (e.g., Rb, Ba and Pb), HFSE-depleted (e.g., Nb and Ta), and have high Mg#(44-60), Nb/Ta (15.0-20.0), Ba/La (>30) and Ba/Nb (>57) values/ratios, and low Th/Yb ratios (2.10) and positive εNd(t) (>5.7), combined with variable Nb/Ta ratios (9.52-21.4), Y/Nb ratios (1.47-39.7) and Pb isotopes (206Pb/204Pb = 16.225-17.640, 207Pb/204Pb = 15.454-15.520, 208Pb/204Pb = 37.097-38.025) suggest that these rocks were magma mixing products between juvenile crustal-derived magmas and minor mantle-derived magmas. Combined published works with our new ages, geochemical and isotopic data, we propose that the Aqishan-Yamansu belt was an Early Carboniferous fore-arc basin during the southward subduction of the Kangguer oceanic slab beneath the Yili-Central Tianshan block. With the continuing southward subduction, the Aqishan-Yamansu fore-arc basin initiated to close, which generated the mafic and intensive intermediate-felsic magmatism associated with regional Fe (-Cu) mineralization.

  4. Granite ascent in convergent orogenic belts: Testing a model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solar, Gary S.; Pressley, Rachel A.; Brown, Michael; Tucker, Robert D.

    1998-08-01

    The common spatial relationship in convergent orogenic belts between a crustal-scale shear-zone system, high-grade metamorphic rocks, and granites suggests a feedback relation between crustal anatexis and contractional deformation that helps granite extraction and focuses granite ascent. Such a feedback relation has been proposed for ascent of Early Devonian granites in west-central Maine. This interpretation requires that deformation, metamorphism, and plutonism were synchronous. We have determined precise U-Pb zircon and monazite ages that we interpret to record time of crystallization of syntectonic granite in metric to decametric sheets and kilometric plutons, and of schlieric granite within migmatites. Ages are in the range ca. 408 404 Ma, within 1 m.y. at 95% confidence limits. These ages are similar to extant U-Pb monazite ages of ca. 405 399 ± 2 Ma for syntectonic regional metamorphism in the same area. The coincidence between the age of peak metamorphism and crystallization ages of granite shows tectonics, metamorphism, and magmatism were contemporaneous, in support of the feedback model.

  5. Acid mine drainage in the Iberian Pyrite Belt: 1. Hydrochemical characteristics and pollutant load of the Tinto and Odiel rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, Jose M; Sarmiento, Aguasanta M; Canovas, Carlos R; Olias, Manuel; Ayora, Carlos

    2013-11-01

    Acid mine drainage in the Iberian Pyrite Belt is probably the worst case in the world of surface water pollution associated with mining of sulphide mineral deposits. The Iberian Pyrite Belt is located in SW Iberian Peninsula, and it has been mined during the last 4,500 years. The central and eastern part of the Iberian Pyrite Belt is drained by the Tinto and Odiel rivers, which receive most of the acidic leachates from the mining areas. As a result, the main channels of the Tinto and Odiel rivers are very rich in metals and highly acidic until reaching the Atlantic Ocean. A significant amount of the pollutant load transported by these two rivers is delivered during the rainy season, as is usual in rivers of Mediterranean climate regions. Therefore, in order to have an accurate estimation of the pollutant loads transported by the Tinto and Odiel rivers, a systematic sampling on a weekly basis and a high temporal resolution sampling of floods events were both performed. Results obtained show that metal fluxes are strongly dependent on the study period, highlighting the importance of inter-annual studies involving dry and wet years.

  6. Human-Related Forest Fires in the Subalpine Belt of the Spanish Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanjuán, Yasmina; María García-Ruiz, José; Beguería, Santiago; Serrano-Muela, María Pilar; González-Sampériz, Penélope; Valero-Garcés, Blas; Arnáez, José

    2014-05-01

    The subalpine belt of the Central Pyrenees ranges approximately between 1700 and 2200 m a.s.l. This area should be covered with dense forests of Pinus sylvestris and P. uncinata, with increasingly open formations towards the upper forest limit. At present, most of the subalpine belt is occupied with grasslands due to human-induced deforestation for enlarging the area occupied by summer pastures. Two are the most important scientific problems related to deforestation of the subalpine belt: (i) the timing of deforestation, and (ii) the geomorphic consequences of a sudden substitution of forests by grasslands. Up to now, intense deforestation is clearly recorded in regional palaeoenvironmental sequences since the Middle Ages and, traditionally, this practice was usually attributed to large fires with the purpose of balance the winter and summer pasture resources. Nevertheless, the presence of abundant remnants of prehistoric monuments (dolmens, cromlechs, tumulus) in the subalpine belt induced to think in a previous seasonal presence of human populations, most probably practicing some primitive type of transhumance. This would only be possible if part of the subalpine forests would be burnt to allow a limited expansion of grasslands, despite the consequences in the landscape of this kind of practices were not permanent in time. We present here new dates of fire occurrence from charcoal obtained from soils in the hillslopes and from lacustrine sediments. Two periods of human-induced fires have been identified: (i) between 2500 and 2000 cal. yr BP, and (ii) between 1100 and 900 cal yr BP. The consequences of deforestation can be easily observed in the landscape, particularly shallow landslide activity, gelifluction, solifluction and the rapid development of parallel incisions in the steepest slopes.

  7. Resonance zones for interactions of magnetosonic waves with radiation belt electrons and protons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenxun; Zhou, Ruoxian; Yi, Juan; Gu, Xudong; Ni, Binbin; Zheng, Chengyao; Hua, Man

    2017-12-01

    As an important plasma wave mode in the geospace, magnetosonic waves can interact with both radiation belt electrons and protons, thereby impacting the dynamics of magnetospheric particles. Based on the Doppler-shifted resonance condition and the cold plasma dispersion relation, we investigate the profiles of resonance zone and resonant frequency of the Landau resonance between radiation belt electrons and magnetosonic waves and the cyclotron resonances with protons. The results demonstrate that resonant interactions between magnetosonic waves and magnetospheric charged particles largely rely on L-shell, wave normal angle, and kinetic energy and equatorial pitch angle of particles. Resonance zones for the Landau resonance between magnetosonic waves and radiation belt electrons are confined to a very narrow (mostly less than 1°) extent of magnetic latitude, which tends to shift to lower latitudes with increasing equatorial pitch angle and decreasing electron energy. Landau resonance frequencies also increase with magnetosonic wave normal angle. In contrast, higher order cyclotron resonances of magnetosonic waves with protons are much easier to occur in a broad range of magnetic latitude. As the resonance order increases, the coverage of the resonance zone shrinks overall and occupies the geomagnetic equatorial region. In addition, resonant frequencies increase with resonance order. Corresponding to higher order cyclotron resonances, protons are more likely to interact with magnetosonic waves at intermediate to high frequencies. Our study can be useful to elaborate the resonant interaction processes between magnetosonic waves and radiation belt electrons and protons and improve the current understanding of the multi-aspect impact of magnetosonic waves on the magnetospheric particle dynamics.

  8. Mathematical model for bone mineralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana V Komarova

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Defective bone mineralization has serious clinical manifestations, including deformities and fractures, but the regulation of this extracellular process is not fully understood. We have developed a mathematical model consisting of ordinary differential equations that describe collagen maturation, production and degradation of inhibitors, and mineral nucleation and growth. We examined the roles of individual processes in generating normal and abnormal mineralization patterns characterized using two outcome measures: mineralization lag time and degree of mineralization. Model parameters describing the formation of hydroxyapatite mineral on the nucleating centers most potently affected the degree of mineralization, while the parameters describing inhibitor homeostasis most effectively changed the mineralization lag time. Of interest, a parameter describing the rate of matrix maturation emerged as being capable of counter-intuitively increasing both the mineralization lag time and the degree of mineralization. We validated the accuracy of model predictions using known diseases of bone mineralization such as osteogenesis imperfecta and X-linked hypophosphatemia. The model successfully describes the highly non-linear mineralization dynamics, which includes an initial lag phase when osteoid is present but no mineralization is evident, then fast primary mineralization, followed by secondary mineralization characterized by a continuous slow increase in bone mineral content. The developed model can potentially predict the function for a mutated protein based on the histology of pathologic bone samples from mineralization disorders of unknown etiology.

  9. Observer-based fault diagnosis for trucks belt tensioner

    OpenAIRE

    Dubuc, Donatien; Sename, Olivier; Bresch-Pietri, Delphine; Gauthier, Christophe

    2017-01-01

    International audience; This paper deals with the monitoring of a serpentine belt tensioner performance, a critical automotive engine component guaranteeing the cooling system efficiency. A belt tensioner fault will affect the transmission, deteriorate the water pump efficiency, and eventually, lead the engine to stall. Monitoring this component is thus a key to design predictive or corrective maintenance. In this paper, we propose to estimate a parameter which is shown to be characteristic o...

  10. Preparation and characterization of highly planar flexible silver crystal belts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varade, Dharmesh; Haraguchi, Kazutoshi

    2014-01-21

    We report a novel simple one-pot strategy for fabricating pure and highly planar silver (Ag) crystal belts. Unique single-crystal Ag belts (high width-to-thickness ratio ~50) were successfully synthesized in high yield (80 wt%) by reducing AgNO3 using N,N,N',N'-tetramethylethylenediamine (TEMED) as a reducing and a structure-determining agent in the presence of polyethylene glycol (PEG) under mild conditions.

  11. Shear zones of the Verkhoyansk fold-and-thrust belt, Northeast Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridovsky, Valery; Polufuntikova, Lena

    2017-04-01

    The Verkhoyansk fold-and-thrust belt is situated on the submerged eastern margin of the North Asian craton, and is largely composed of the Ediacaran - Middle Paleozoic carbonate and the Upper Paleozoic-Mesozoic terrigenous rocks. The Upper Carboniferous - Jurassic sediments constitute the Verkhoyansk terrigenous complex containing economically viable orogenic gold deposits. The structure of the belt is mainly controlled by thrusts and associated diagonal strike slips. Linear concentric folds are common all over the area of the belt. Shear zones with associated similar folds are confined to long narrow areas. Shear zones were formed during the early stages of the Oxfordian-Kimmeridgian collisional and accretionary events prior to the emplacement of large orogenic granitoid plutons. The main ore-controlling structures are shear zones associated with slaty cleavage, shear folds, mullion- and boudinage-structures, and transposition features. The shear zones are listric-type, and represent branches of a detachment structure, which is assumed to be present at the base of the Verkhoyansk fold-and-thrust belt. A vertical zonation of shear zones is correlated with the distance to the detachment. Changes in the dip angle of the shear zones (as indicated mainly by cleavage), structural paragenesis, the degree of microdeformation of the host rocks, and the type of ore-controlling structures can be clearly observed in the direction away from the detachment. Structural zoning is evidenced, among other things, by changing morphologic types of microstructures and by strain-indicators of the degree of rock metamorphism. Four morphologic types of microstructures are identified. The first platy-shear type is characterized by aggregate cleavage and the coefficient of deformation (Cd) of single grains from 1.0 to 2.0. Irregular angular fragments of variously oriented grains can be observed in thin sections. The second shear-cataclastic morphologic type (Cd from 2.0 to 3.0) exhibits

  12. Geodetic measurement of tectonic deformation in the Santa Maria Fold and Thrust Belt, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feigl, K.L.; King, R.W.; Jordan, T.H. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge (United States))

    1990-03-10

    The authors have analyzed geodetic observations to resolve tectonic deformation across the Belt, northwest of Santa Barbara, California. The data include (1) historical triangulation from the 1880s, 1920s and 1950s; (2) electronic distance measurement trilateration from 1971 and 1985; and (3) Global Positioning System observations from 1986 and 1987. They combine the three different types of data to estimate two-dimensional station positions and strain rate parameters simultaneously. Using a model which constrains the relative velocity field to be linear in space and constant in time, they find significant strain rates. The maximum compressive strain is oriented N17{degree}E {plus minus} 5{degree}E, and the compressive strain rate in this direction is 0.13 {plus minus} 0.03 {mu}strain/yr. Under the assumption that the unresolved rotational component of the velocity field is zero, they estimate that the integrated rate of deformation across the basin is 7 {plus minus} 1 mm/yr oriented at N 03{degree}E {plus minus} 13{degree}. This vector can be decomposed into 6 {plus minus} 2 mm/yr of crustal shortening on the general structural trend of N 30{degree}E and 3 {plus minus} 1 mm/yr of right-lateral shear across this axis. On the basis of these values and earthquake focal mechanisms in the area, they infer that the deformation occurs on northwest trending folds and thrusts within the belt. These results are consistent with the rate and direction of deformation across the central California Coast Ranges inferred by balancing Pacific-North America plate motion against San Andreas slip and Basin and Range extension. They imply that the Santa Maria Fold and Thrust Belt is the primary active element in transforming motion from the Coast Ranges to the western Transverse Ranges and the Santa Barbara Channel.

  13. Denouement of Jovian radiation belt theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coroniti, F. V.

    1975-01-01

    Predictions of theoretical models of Jupiter's radiation belts are compared with Pioneer 10 measurements. A brief quasi-historical review is given of the evolution of the basic theoretical ideas with emphasis on the three physical processes that were believed to be dominant in the Jovian electron fluxes: radial-diffusion transport, limitation of particle fluxes by plasma wave turbulence, and particle losses from collisional sweep-up by the Galilean satellites. Pioneer 10 data on the inner zone are discussed which yield the clearest evidence for radial diffusion being the dominant transport process, the synchrotron flux density is estimated using Pioneer 10 measurements, and the observed outer-zone electron fluxes are favorably compared with the qualitative and quantitative predictions of the whistler-mode stable-trapping model. The outer-zone electron-precipitation flux is estimated, and it is suggested that precipitation could affect the structure of the Jovian ionosphere. Satellite sweep-up is shown to be less severe than had been anticipated.

  14. Trapped radiation belts of Saturn - First look

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillius, W.; Ip, W. H.; Mcilwain, C. E.

    1980-01-01

    Data on the magnetosphere of Saturn obtained with the trapped radiation detector package on board the Pioneer 11 spacecraft is reported. Radiation belt profiles determined by the trapped radiation detectors on Pioneer 10 and 11 indicate that Saturn's magnetosphere is intermediate in size between those of the earth and Jupiter, with particle intensities similar to those of the earth. The outer region of the Saturn magnetosphere is found to contain particles of lower energy than the outer region, being strongly influenced by the time-varying solar wind. The moons and rings of Saturn are observed to be effective absorbers of trapped particles, confirming the discoveries of the F ring, the Pioneer ring division and the moon 1979 S 2. Particle diffusion rates are used to estimate a cross-sectional area of greater than 7 x 10 to the 13th sq cm and an opacity greater than 0.00001 for the F ring. It is suggested that cosmic-ray albedo neutron decay be studied as a possible source of energetic particles in the inner magnetosphere of Saturn.

  15. Dark nebulae, dark lanes, and dust belts

    CERN Document Server

    Cooke, Antony

    2012-01-01

    As probably the only book of its type, this work is aimed at the observer who wants to spend time with something less conventional than the usual fare. Because we usually see objects in space by means of illumination of one kind or another, it has become routine to see them only in these terms. However, part of almost everything that we see is the defining dimension of dark shading, or even the complete obscuration of entire regions in space. Thus this book is focused on everything dark in space: those dark voids in the stellar fabric that mystified astronomers of old; the dark lanes reported in many star clusters; the magical dust belts or dusty regions that have given so many galaxies their identities; the great swirling 'folds' that we associate with bright nebulae; the small dark feature detectable even in some planetary nebulae; and more. Many observers pay scant attention to dark objects and details. Perhaps they are insufficiently aware of them or of the viewing potential they hold, but also it may be...

  16. Minerals safeguarding areas and mineral consultation areas for West Sussex

    OpenAIRE

    Hannis, S.D.; Steadman, E. J.; Linley, K.A.; Newsham, R.

    2007-01-01

    This report describes work carried out by the British Geological Survey on behalf of West Sussex County Council to delineate its Minerals Safeguarding Areas and Mineral Consultation Areas. This is in accordance with the methodology outlined in “A guide to mineral safeguarding in England” (McEvoy et al., 2007), which is in line with the Communities and Local Government document, Mineral Policy Statement 1: Planning and Minerals. This was released in November 2006 and it introduc...

  17. The mineral economy of Brazil--Economia mineral do Brasil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurmendi, Alfredo C.; Barboza, Frederico Lopes; Thorman, Charles H.

    1999-01-01

    This study depicts the Brazilian government structure, mineral legislation and investment policy, taxation, foreign investment policies, environmental laws and regulations, and conditions in which the mineral industry operates. The report underlines Brazil's large and diversified mineral endowment. A total of 37 mineral commodities, or groups of closely related commodities, is discussed. An overview of the geologic setting of the major mineral deposits is presented. This report is presented in English and Portuguese in pdf format.

  18. Tectonothermal evolution in the core of an arcuate fold and thrust belt: the south-eastern sector of the Cantabrian Zone (Variscan belt, north-western Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valín, María Luz; García-López, Susana; Brime, Covadonga; Bastida, Fernando; Aller, Jesús

    2016-07-01

    The tectonothermal evolution of an area located in the core of the Ibero-Armorican Arc (Variscan belt) has been determined by using the conodont colour alteration index (CAI), Kübler index of illite (KI), the Árkai index of chlorite (AI) and the analysis of clay minerals and rock cleavage. The area is part of the Cantabrian Zone (CZ), which represents the foreland fold and thrust belt of the orogen. It has been thrust by several large units of the CZ, what resulted in the generation of a large number of synorogenic Carboniferous sediments. CAI, KI and AI values show an irregular distribution of metamorphic grade, independent of stratigraphic position. Two tectonothermal events have been distinguished in the area. The first one, poorly defined, is mainly located in the northern part. It gave rise to very-low-grade metamorphism in some areas and it was associated with a deformation event that resulted in the emplacement of the last large thrust unit and development of upright folds and associated cleavage (S1). The second tectonothermal event gave rise to low-grade metamorphism and cleavage (S2) crosscutting earlier upright folds in the central, western and southern parts of the study area. The event continued with the intrusion of small igneous rock bodies, which gave rise to contact metamorphism and hydrothermal alteration. This event was linked to an extensional episode due to a gravitational instability at the end of the Variscan deformation. This tectonothermal evolution occurred during the Gzhelian-Sakmarian. Subsequently, several hydrothermal episodes took place and local crenulation cleavage developed during the Alpine deformation.

  19. Metamorphic evolution of the Maud Belt: P- T- t path for high-grade gneisses in Gjelsvikfjella, Dronning Maud Land, East Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisnath, Avinash; Frimmel, Hartwig E.

    2005-12-01

    A metamorphic petrological study, in conjunction with recent precise geochronometric data, revealed a complex P- T- t path for high-grade gneisses in a hitherto poorly understood sector of the Mesoproterozoic Maud Belt in East Antarctica. The Maud Belt is an extensive high-grade, polydeformed, metamorphic belt, which records two significant tectono-thermal episodes, once towards the end of the Mesoproterozoic and again towards the late Neoproterozoic/Cambrian. In contrast to previous models, most of the metamorphic mineral assemblages are related to a Pan-African tectono-thermal overprint, with only very few relics of late Mesoproterozoic granulite-facies mineral assemblages (M 1) left in strain-protected domains. Petrological and mineral chemical evidence indicates a clockwise P- T- t path for the Pan-African orogeny. Peak metamorphic (M 2b) conditions recorded by most rocks in the area ( T = 709-785 °C and P = 7.0-9.5 kbar) during the Pan-African orogeny were attained subsequent to decompression from probably eclogite-facies metamorphic conditions (M 2a). The new data acquired in this study, together with recent geochronological and geochemical data, permit the development of a geodynamic model for the Maud Belt that involves volcanic arc formation during the late Mesoproterozoic followed by extension at 1100 Ma and subsequent high-grade tectono-thermal reworking once during continent-continent collision at the end of the Mesoproterozoic (M 1; 1090-1030 Ma) and again during the Pan-African orogeny (M 2a, M 2b) between 565 and 530 Ma. Post-peak metamorphic K-metasomatism under amphibolite-facies conditions (M 2c) followed and is ascribed to post-orogenic bimodal magmatism between 500 and 480 Ma.

  20. High-pressure minerals in shocked meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomioka, Naotaka; Miyahara, Masaaki

    2017-09-01

    Heavily shocked meteorites contain various types of high-pressure polymorphs of major minerals (olivine, pyroxene, feldspar, and quartz) and accessory minerals (chromite and Ca phosphate). These high-pressure minerals are micron to submicron sized and occur within and in the vicinity of shock-induced melt veins and melt pockets in chondrites and lunar, howardite-eucrite-diogenite (HED), and Martian meteorites. Their occurrence suggests two types of formation mechanisms (1) solid-state high-pressure transformation of the host-rock minerals into monomineralic polycrystalline aggregates, and (2) crystallization of chondritic or monomineralic melts under high pressure. Based on experimentally determined phase relations, their formation pressures are limited to the pressure range up to 25 GPa. Textural, crystallographic, and chemical characteristics of high-pressure minerals provide clues about the impact events of meteorite parent bodies, including their size and mutual collision velocities and about the mineralogy of deep planetary interiors. The aim of this article is to review and summarize the findings on natural high-pressure minerals in shocked meteorites that have been reported over the past 50 years.

  1. Undiscovered porphyry copper resources in the Urals—A probabilistic mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Mihalasky, Mark J.; Ludington, Stephen; Phillips, Jeffrey; Berger, Byron R.; Denning, Paul; Dicken, Connie; Mars, John; Zientek, Michael L.; Herrington, Richard J.; Seltmann, Reimar

    2017-01-01

    A probabilistic mineral resource assessment of metal resources in undiscovered porphyry copper deposits of the Ural Mountains in Russia and Kazakhstan was done using a quantitative form of mineral resource assessment. Permissive tracts were delineated on the basis of mapped and inferred subsurface distributions of igneous rocks assigned to tectonic zones that include magmatic arcs where the occurrence of porphyry copper deposits within 1 km of the Earth's surface are possible. These permissive tracts outline four north-south trending volcano-plutonic belts in major structural zones of the Urals. From west to east, these include permissive lithologies for porphyry copper deposits associated with Paleozoic subduction-related island-arc complexes preserved in the Tagil and Magnitogorsk arcs, Paleozoic island-arc fragments and associated tonalite-granodiorite intrusions in the East Uralian zone, and Carboniferous continental-margin arcs developed on the Kazakh craton in the Transuralian zone. The tracts range from about 50,000 to 130,000 km2 in area. The Urals host 8 known porphyry copper deposits with total identified resources of about 6.4 million metric tons of copper, at least 20 additional porphyry copper prospect areas, and numerous copper-bearing skarns and copper occurrences.Probabilistic estimates predict a mean of 22 undiscovered porphyry copper deposits within the four permissive tracts delineated in the Urals. Combining estimates with established grade and tonnage models predicts a mean of 82 million metric tons of undiscovered copper. Application of an economic filter suggests that about half of that amount could be economically recoverable based on assumed depth distributions, availability of infrastructure, recovery rates, current metals prices, and investment environment.

  2. Exploring the collisional evolution of the asteroid belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottke, W.; Broz, M.; O'Brien, D.; Campo Bagatin, A.; Morbidelli, A.

    2014-07-01

    The asteroid belt is a remnant of planet-formation processes. By modeling its collisional and dynamical history, and linking the results to constraints, we can probe how the planets and small bodies formed and evolved. Some key model constraints are: (i) The wavy shape of the main-belt size distribution (SFD), with inflection points near 100-km, 10--20-km, 1 to a few km, and ˜0.1-km diameter; (ii) The number of asteroid families created by the catastrophic breakup of large asteroid bodies over the last ˜ 4 Gy, with the number of disrupted D > 100 km bodies as small as ˜20 or as large as 60; (iii) the flux of small asteroids derived from the main belt that have struck the Moon over the last 3.5 Ga --- crater SFDs on lunar terrains with known ages suggest the D value may seem strange, considering the solar system is only 4.56 Gy old. One way to interpret it is that the main belt once had more mass that was eliminated by early dynamical processes between 4--4.56 Ga. This would allow for more early grinding, and it would suggest the main belt's wavy-shaped SFD is a ''fossil'' from a more violent early epoch. Simulations suggest that most D > 100 km bodies have been significantly battered, but only a fraction have been catastrophically disrupted. Conversely, most small asteroids today are byproducts of fragmentation events. These results are consistent with growing evidence that most of the prominent meteorite classes were produced by young asteroid families. The big question is how to use what we know to determine the main belt's original size and state. This work is ongoing, but dynamical models hint at many possibilities, including both the late arrival and late removal of material from the main belt. In addition, no model has yet properly accounted for the bombardment of the primordial main belt by leftover planetesimals in the terrestrial planet region. It is also possible to use additional constraints, such as the apparent paucity of Vesta-like or V

  3. Deformation and kinematics of the central Kirthar Fold Belt, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinsch, Ralph; Hagedorn, Peter; Asmar, Chloé; Nasim, Muhammad; Aamir Rasheed, Muhammad; Kiely, James M.

    2017-04-01

    The Kirthar Fold Belt is part of the lateral mountain belts in Pakistan linking the Himalaya orogeny with the Makran accretionary wedge. This region is deforming very oblique/nearly parallel to the regional plate motion vector. The study area is situated between the prominent Chaman strike-slip fault in the West and the un-deformed foreland (Kirthar Foredeep/Middle Indus Basin) in the East. The Kirthar Fold Belt is subdivided into several crustal blocks/units based on structural orientation and deformation style (e.g. Kallat, Khuzdar, frontal Kirthar). This study uses newly acquired and depth-migrated 2D seismic lines, surface geology observations and Google Earth assessments to construct three balanced cross sections for the frontal part of the fold belt. Further work was done in order to insure the coherency of the built cross-sections by taking a closer look at the regional context inferred from published data, simple analogue modelling, and constructed regional sketch sections. The Khuzdar area and the frontal Kirthar Fold Belt are dominated by folding. Large thrusts with major stratigraphic repetitions are not observed. Furthermore, strike-slip faults in the Khuzdar area are scarce and not observed in the frontal Kirthar Fold Belt. The regional structural elevation rises from the foreland across the Kirthar Fold Belt towards the hinterland (Khuzdar area). These observations indicate that basement-involved deformation is present at depth. The domination of folding indicates a weak decollement below the folds (soft-linked deformation). The fold pattern in the Khuzdar area is complex, whereas the large folds of the central Kirthar Fold Belt trend SSW-NNE to N-S and are best described as large detachment folds that have been slightly uplifted by basement involved transpressive deformation underneath. Towards the foreland, the deformation is apparently more hard-linked and involves fault-propagation folding and a small triangle zone in Cretaceous sediments

  4. Evaluation of legislation on seat belt use on rear seats : social persuasion as a new measure to promote seat belt use.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oei, H.-l.

    1996-01-01

    In the Netherlands, the use of seat belts for front seat passengers was made compulsory in 1975, and on April 1st 1992 the use of rear seat belts, if fitted, became a legal requirement. Since 1968, an annual survey of the presence and use of seat belts on front seats - extended in 1989 to include

  5. Predicting complex mineral structures using genetic algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohn, Chris E; Kob, Walter

    2015-10-28

    We show that symmetry-adapted genetic algorithms are capable of finding the ground state of a range of complex crystalline phases including layered- and incommensurate super-structures. This opens the way for the atomistic prediction of complex crystal structures of functional materials and mineral phases.

  6. From Present Surveying to Future Prospecting of the Asteroid Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, P. E.; Curtis, S. A.; Rilee, M.; Cheung, C.

    2004-01-01

    We have applied a future mission architecture, the Autonomous Nano-Technology Swarm (ANTS), to a proposed mission for in situ survey, or prospecting, of the asteroid belt, the Prospecting Asteroid Mission (PAM) as part of a NASA 2003 Revolutionary Aerospace Concept (RASC) study. ANTS architecture builds on and advances recent trends in robotics, artificial intelligence, and materials processing to minimize costs and maximize effectiveness of space operations. PAM and other applications have been proposed for the survey of inaccessible, high surface area populations of great interest from the standpoint of resources and/or solar system origin. The ANTS architecture is inspired by the success of social insect colonies, a success based on the division of labor within the colonies in two key ways: 1) within their specialties, individual specialists generally outperform generalists, and 2) with sufficiently efficient social interaction and coordination, the group of specialists generally outperforms the group of generalists. Thus systems designed as ANTS are built from potentially very large numbers of highly autonomous, yet socially interactive, elements. The architecture is self-similar in that elements and sub-elements of the system may also be recursively structured as ANTS on scales ranging from microscopic to interplanetary distances. Here, we analyze requirements for the mission application at the low gravity target end of the spectrum, the Prospecting Asteroid Mission (PAM), and for specialized autonomous operations which would support this mission. ANTS as applied to PAM involves the activities of hundreds of individual specialist 'sciencecraft'. Most of them, called Workers, carry and operate eight to nine different scientific instruments, as listed in the table, including spectrometers, ranging and radio science devices, and imagers. The remaining specialists, Messenger/Rulers, provide communication and coordination functions among specialists operating

  7. Minerals safeguarding areas for Warwickshire

    OpenAIRE

    Hannis, S.D.; Brown, T J

    2009-01-01

    This report describes work carried out by the British Geological Survey on behalf of Warwickshire County Council to delineate its Minerals Safeguarding Areas. This is in accordance with the methodology outlined in “A guide to mineral safeguarding in England” (McEvoy et al., 2007), which is in line with the Communities and Local Government document, Mineral Policy Statement 1: Planning and Minerals. This was released in November 2006 and it introduces the obligation on all Miner...

  8. The Great Belt coherence experiment. [Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, J.; Kristensen, L.; Courtney, M.S.

    1991-08-01

    We have studied theoretically and experimentally lateral spectral coherences of turbulent velocity components over water at the height of 70 m. Simple theoretical considerations show that if these coherences are known it is possible with just the knowledge of the spectra to calculate the power spectrum of the lift forces on the bridge deck. These considerations also show that the force spectrum at a particular frequency {omega} = {omega}{sub 0} grows with the mean wind speed U raised to a power which can be as large as 17/3, i.e. the r.m.s. amplitude of the force at that frequency is proportional to U{sup 17/6}. We have shown quantitatively that only if the displacement D between the measured wind speed components is small compared to the scale of the turbulence do we know for certain that the coherences are parameterless functions of the dimensionless variable {omega}D/U with the implication that the coherence of identical velocity components goes to one as {omega} goes to zero. The experimental data were obtained from three sonic anemometers mounted at the top of two 70 m masts on the island Sprogoe in the middle of the Great Belt between Zealand and Fyn. The displacements were 15.0, 32.5 and 47.5 m. The data shows that the coherences only for the smallest displacement approach one as the frequency goes to zero. The larger the displacement the smaller the coherence at zero frequency. A dynamic ''shear distortion'' model explains the behavior of the coherence quite well and makes it possible to predict the coherence on basis of velocity spectra measured at one point. Simple exponential fit to the actual data have been obtained. (author) 23 refs.

  9. A reinterpretation of the metamorphic Yuli belt: Evidence for a middle-late Miocene accretionary prism in eastern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Shan; Chung, Sun-Lin; Chou, Hsien-Yuan; Zugeerbai, Zul; Shao, Wen-Yu; Lee, Yuan-Hsi

    2017-02-01

    The Yuli metamorphic belt has been the topic of petrological and geochronological studies for over 40 years and has been interpreted as a Cretaceous mélange. Our study utilizes zircon U-Pb dating of schist and exotic blueschist blocks in the Yuli belt. These new ages indicate that these metamorphic rocks are actually middle Miocene in age and may represent the deeper structural levels of an accretionary prism. Several distinctive detrital zircon U-Pb age populations are recognized from 14 siliceous schists of mélange-hosted rocks that are similar in age population to the Cretaceous, Eocene-Oligocene, and Miocene strata of Taiwan. The wide range of ages is interpreted as a product mixing of various sedimentary strata prior to metamorphism. Three blueschists of a volcanic-arc protolith enclosed within the host rocks yield crystallization ages of 15.4 ± 0.4, 15.5 ± 0.3, and 16.0 ± 0.2 Ma based on zircon U-Pb dating. In consideration of the new data regarding the Cretaceous-Miocene host rocks and the middle Miocene exotic blueschist blocks, it strongly suggests that the Yuli belt formed at deeper levels of an accretionary wedge during subduction of South China Sea oceanic crust at the middle-late Miocene. Subsequently, the rapid uplift of the metamorphic belt was probably related to doubly vergent wedge extrusion due to the Pliocene arc-continent collision.

  10. Redefining the Australian Anthrax Belt: Modeling the Ecological Niche and Predicting the Geographic Distribution of Bacillus anthracis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alassane S Barro

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The ecology and distribution of B. anthracis in Australia is not well understood, despite the continued occurrence of anthrax outbreaks in the eastern states of the country. Efforts to estimate the spatial extent of the risk of disease have been limited to a qualitative definition of an anthrax belt extending from southeast Queensland through the centre of New South Wales and into northern Victoria. This definition of the anthrax belt does not consider the role of environmental conditions in the distribution of B. anthracis. Here, we used the genetic algorithm for rule-set prediction model system (GARP, historical anthrax outbreaks and environmental data to model the ecological niche of B. anthracis and predict its potential geographic distribution in Australia. Our models reveal the niche of B. anthracis in Australia is characterized by a narrow range of ecological conditions concentrated in two disjunct corridors. The most dominant corridor, used to redefine a new anthrax belt, parallels the Eastern Highlands and runs from north Victoria to central east Queensland through the centre of New South Wales. This study has redefined the anthrax belt in eastern Australia and provides insights about the ecological factors that limit the distribution of B. anthracis at the continental scale for Australia. The geographic distributions identified can help inform anthrax surveillance strategies by public and veterinary health agencies.

  11. Stable Isotope Characteristics of Akiri Vein Copper Mineralization ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Akiri vein copper mineralization was investigated for its carbon and oxygen isotopic composition to determine the characteristics of the mineralizing fluid. Carbon and oxygen isotope analyses of Akiri siderite range between δ13C values (-1.05 to -1.71‰) and δ13O values (-14.94 to -15.18) respectively. δ 13C isotopic ...

  12. Meningococcal carriage in the African meningitis belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    A meningococcal serogroup A polysaccharide/tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine (PsA-TT) (MenAfriVac#x2122;) is being deployed in countries of the African meningitis belt. Experience with other polysaccharide/protein conjugate vaccines has shown that an important part of their success has been their ability to prevent the acquisition of pharyngeal carriage and hence to stop transmission and induce herd immunity. If PsA-TT is to achieve the goal of preventing epidemics, it must be able to prevent the acquisition of pharyngeal carriage as well as invasive meningococcal disease and whether PsA-TT can prevent pharyngeal carriage needs to be determined. To address this issue, a consortium (the African Meningococcal Carriage (MenAfriCar) consortium) was established in 2009 to investigate the pattern of meningococcal carriage in countries of the African meningitis belt prior to and after the introduction of PsA-TT. This article describes how the consortium was established, its objectives and the standardised field and laboratory methods that were used to achieve these objectives. The experience of the MenAfriCar consortium will help in planning future studies on the epidemiology of meningococcal carriage in countries of the African meningitis belt and elsewhere. Un vaccin conjugué contenant un polysaccharide du sérogroupe A méningococcique et une anatoxine du tétanos (PsA-TT) (MenAfriVac™) est en cours de déploiement dans les pays de la ceinture africaine de la méningite. L’ expérience avec d’ autres vaccins conjugués polysaccharide/protéine a montré qu’ une partie importante de leur succès a été leur capacité à empêcher l’ acquisition du portage pharyngé et donc à arrêter la transmission et à induire une immunité de group. Si PsA-TT doit d’ atteindre l’ objectif de prévenir les épidémies, il devrait être en mesure d’ empêcher l’ acquisition du portage pharyngé ainsi que la méningococcie invasive et le fait que PsA-TT puisse emp

  13. Metamorphic evolution and geochronology of the Dunhuang orogenic belt in the Hongliuxia area, northwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao Y. C.; Wang, Juan; Wang, Guo-Dong; Lu, Jun-Sheng; Chen, Hong-Xu; Peng, Tao; Zhang, Hui C. G.; Zhang, Qian W. L.; Xiao, Wen-Jiao; Hou, Quan-Lin; Yan, Quan-Ren; Zhang, Qing; Wu, Chun-Ming

    2017-03-01

    Garnet-bearing mafic granulites and amphibolites from the Hongliuxia area of the southern Dunhuang orogenic belt, northwestern China, commonly occur as lenses or boudinages enclosed within metapelite or marble, which represent the block-in-matrix feature typical of orogenic mélange. Three to four generations of metamorphic mineral assemblages are preserved in these rocks. In the high-pressure amphibolites, prograde mineral assemblages (M1) occur as inclusions (hornblende + plagioclase + quartz ± chlorite ± epidote ± ilmenite) preserved within garnet porphyroblasts, and formed at 550-590 °C and 7.7-9.2 kbar based on geothermobarometry. The metamorphic peak mineral assemblages (M2) are composed of garnet + hornblende + plagioclase + quartz + clinopyroxene, as well as titanite + zircon + rutile + apatite as accessory minerals in the matrix, and are estimated to have formed at 640-720 °C and 14.1-16.0 kbar. The first retrograde assemblages (M3) are characterized by "white-eye socket" symplectites (hornblende + plagioclase + quartz ± biotite ± epidote ± magnetite) rimming garnet porphyroblasts, which formed at the expense of the garnet rims and adjacent matrix minerals during the decompression stage under P-T conditions of 610-630 °C and 5.6-11.8 kbar. The second retrograde assemblages (M4) are intergrowths of actinolite and worm-like quartz produced by the breakdown of the matrix hornblendes, and formed under P-T conditions of ∼490 °C and ∼2.8 kbar. For the high-pressure mafic granulites, the prograde assemblages (M1) are represented by plagioclase + quartz preserved within the garnet porphyroblasts. The metamorphic peak assemblages (M2) are garnet + matrix minerals (clinopyroxene + plagioclase + quartz + hornblende + rutile + zircon) and were estimated to have formed at ∼680 °C and ∼15.4 kbar. The retrograde assemblages (M3) are characterized by fine-grained patches of hornblende + plagioclase + quartz rimming the garnet porphyroblasts, as well as

  14. The JCMT Gould Belt Survey: Evidence for radiative heating and contamination in the W40 complex

    OpenAIRE

    Rumble, D.; Hatchell, J.; Pattle, K.; Kirk, H; Wilson, T; Buckle, J.; Berry, D. S.; Broekhoven-Fiene, H.; Currie, M. J.; Fich, M.; Jenness, T.; Johnstone, D.; Mottram, J. C.; Nutter, D.; Pineda, J. E.

    2016-01-01

    We present SCUBA-2 450 µm and 850 µm observations of the W40 complex in the Serpens-Aquila region as part of the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) Gould Belt Survey (GBS) of nearby star-forming regions. We investigate radiative heating by con- structing temperature maps from the ratio of SCUBA-2 fluxes using a fixed dust opacity\\ud spectral index, β = 1.8, and a beam convolution kernel to achieve a common 14.811 res- olution. We identify 82 clumps ranging between 10 and 36 K with a mean te...

  15. Energetic ionized helium in the quiet time radiation belts - Theory and comparison with observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spjeldvik, W. N.; Fritz, T. A.

    1978-01-01

    Theoretical calculations of helium ion distributions in the inner magnetosphere are compared to observations made by ATS-6 and Explorer-45. Coupled transport equations for equatorially mirroring singly and doubly ionized helium ions in the steady state limit with an outer boundary of L = 7 are solved. Radial profiles and energy spectra are computed at all lower L values. Theoretical quiet time predictions are compared to satellite observations of energetic helium ions in the lower MeV range. It is found that the theory adequately represents the principal characteristics of the radiation belt helium ion population.

  16. Vitamins and Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that they're packed with vitamins and minerals. Sports drinks claim they can rev up your flagging energy ... Vitamin D Figuring Out Fat and Calories Energy Drinks and Food Bars: Power or Hype? Vegan Food Guide Sports Supplements Food Labels Smart Snacking Calcium View more ...

  17. Fall Protection Characteristics of Safety Belts and Human Impact Tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hino, Yasumichi; Ohdo, Katsutoshi; Takahashi, Hiroki

    2014-08-23

    Many fatal accidents due to falls from heights have occurred at construction sites not only in Japan but also in other countries. This study aims to determine the fall prevention performance of two types of safety belts: a body belt1), which has been used for more than 40 yr in the Japanese construction industry as a general type of safety equipment for fall accident prevention, and a full harness2, 3), which has been used in many other countries. To determine human tolerance for impact trauma, this study discusses features of safety belts with reference4-9) to relevant studies in the medical science, automobile crash safety, and aircrew safety. For this purpose, simple drop tests were carried out in a virtual workplace to measure impact load, head acceleration, and posture in the experiments, the Hybrid-III pedestrian model10) was used as a human dummy. Hybrid-III is typically employed in official automobile crash tests (New Car Assessment Program: NCAP) and is currently recognized as a model that faithfully reproduces dynamic responses. Experimental results shows that safety performance strongly depends on both the variety of safety belts used and the shock absorbers attached onto lanyards. These findings indicate that fall prevention equipment, such as safety belts, lanyards, and shock absorbers, must be improved to reduce impact injuries to the human head and body during falls.

  18. SEAT BELT USE AMONG CAR USERS IN MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. KULANTHAYAN

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The car is the second (40% most common mode of transportation in Malaysia. In terms of fatal road accidents, car drivers constitute about 9.0% and passengers 13.6% of fatalities. The major cause of car occupants' fatality in such accidents is head injuries, which consist of more than half (56.4% of the fatalities. Thus restraining the head and body, the initial position is the most important injury control strategy for car users. The use of seat belts was deemed one of the most effective ways to reduce road accident fatalities in Malaysia and consequently the mandatory seat belt law was enforced in the early seventies. Therefore, a study on factors influencing the compliance behaviour of seat belt use among cars is needed as to date no such research has been undertaken in Malaysia. A questionnaire study was carried out in Selangor, Malaysia on the compliance behaviour of car occupants in relation to seat belt use. A total of 237 respondents were interviewed and the data analysed using logistic regression method. Six variables were found to be significant at 5 percent level (p<0.05: seating position, location of travel, education level, speeding, night-time driving and enforcement. Compliance with the seat belt law was higher among drivers, educated car users, in the presence of enforcement activities, travelling in city-center areas and car users with a positive attitude towards the risks of speeding and night driving.

  19. On static contact of belt and different pulleys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyaev, A. K.; Eliseev, V. V.; Irschik, H.; Oborin, E. A.

    2017-06-01

    The fitting of a looped belt on two pulleys with different radii is considered. A geometrically nonlinear model with account for tension and transverse shear is applied for modeling the belt. The pulleys are considered rigid bodies, and the belt-pulley contact is assumed frictionless. The problem has an axis of symmetry, therefore the boundary value problem is formulated and solved for a half of the belt. The considered part consists of three segments, two contact segments and a free span segment between them. The introduction of a dimensionless material coordinate at all segments leads to a system of ordinary differential equations of fifteenth order. The nonlinear boundary value problem for this system and boundary conditions is solved numerically with the shooting method and the finite difference method. As a result, the belt shape including the rotation angle, the forces, moments and contact pressure are determined. The contact pressure increases near the end point of contact areas, however no concentrated contact forces occur.

  20. Angle stations in or for endless conveyor belts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, Alan

    1987-04-07

    In an angle station for an endless conveyor belt, there are presented to each incoming run of the belt stationary curved guide members (18, 19) of the shape of a major segment of a right-circular cylinder and having in the part-cylindrical portion (16 or 17) thereof rectangular openings (15) arranged in parallel and helical paths and through which project small freely-rotatable rollers (14), the continuously-changing segments of the curved surfaces of which projecting through said openings (15) are in attitude to change the direction of travel of the belt (13) through 90.degree. during passage of the belt about the part-cylindrical portion (16 or 17) of the guide member (18 or 19). The rectangular openings (15) are arranged with their longer edges lengthwise of the diagonals representing the mean of the helix but with those of a plurality of the rows nearest to each end of the part-cylindrical portion (16 or 17) slightly out of axial symmetry with said diagonals, being slightly inclined in a direction about the intersections (40) of the diagonals of the main portion of the openings, to provide a "toe-in" attitude in relation to the line of run of the endless conveyor belt.

  1. Fall protection characteristics of safety belts and human impact tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hino, Yasumichi; Ohdo, Katsutoshi; Takahashi, Hiroki

    2014-01-01

    Many fatal accidents due to falls from heights have occurred at construction sites not only in Japan but also in other countries. This study aims to determine the fall prevention performance of two types of safety belts: a body belt, which has been used for more than 40 yr in the Japanese construction industry as a general type of safety equipment for fall accident prevention, and a full harness, which has been used in many other countries. To determine human tolerance for impact trauma, this study discusses features of safety belts with reference to relevant studies in the medical science, automobile crash safety, and aircrew safety. For this purpose, simple drop tests were carried out in a virtual workplace to measure impact load, head acceleration, and posture in the experiments, the Hybrid-III pedestrian model was used as a human dummy. Hybrid-III is typically employed in official automobile crash tests (New Car Assessment Program: NCAP) and is currently recognized as a model that faithfully reproduces dynamic responses. Experimental results shows that safety performance strongly depends on both the variety of safety belts used and the shock absorbers attached onto lanyards. These findings indicate that fall prevention equipment, such as safety belts, lanyards, and shock absorbers, must be improved to reduce impact injuries to the human head and body during falls.

  2. Inertial compensation for belt acceleration in an instrumented treadmill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hnat, Sandra K; van den Bogert, Antonie J

    2014-11-28

    Instrumented treadmills provide a convenient means for applying horizontal perturbations during gait or standing. However, varying the treadmill belt speed introduces inertial artifacts in the sagittal plane moment component of the ground reaction force. Here we present a compensation method based on a second-order dynamic model that predicts inertial pitch moment from belt acceleration. The method was tested experimentally on an unloaded treadmill at a slow belt speed with small random variations (1.20±0.10m/s) and at a faster belt speed with large random variations (2.00±0.50m/s). Inertial artifacts of up to 12Nm (root-mean-square, RMS) and 30Nm (peak) were observed. Coefficients of the model were calibrated on one trial and then used to predict and compensate the pitch moment of another trial with different random variations. Coefficients of determination (R(2)) were 72.08% and 96.75% for the slow and fast conditions, respectively. After compensation, the root-mean-square (RMS) of the inertial artifact was reduced by 47.37% for the slow speed and 81.98% for fast speed, leaving only 1.5Nm and 2.1Nm of artifact uncorrected, respectively. It was concluded that the compensation technique reduced inertial errors substantially, thereby improving the accuracy in joint moment calculations on an instrumented treadmill with varying belt speed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Development of method for the mineral water catalase activity determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena М. Nikipelova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Biological effects of mineral water depend not only on the chemical composition but also on the metabolic products of microbial cenosis. Among numerous microorganisms constituting the autochthonous microflora of mineral waters, we do evolve the saprophytic organisms producing the catalase, the saprophytes’ physiological and biological role being proven a long ago. The research aim was to develop a method for determination of mineral water catalase activity. Analyzed are various methods to determine the catalase activity in biological objects. Developed is a spectrophotometric method for determination of mineral water catalase activity. The method is efficiently tested with series of Ukrainian mineral waters. Calculated are the relative standard deviations which are significantly below normal errors, admitted at spectroscopic analysis and at the optic density range. The given method provides sufficient accuracy and convergence when estimating the mineral waters catalase activity, allowing to introduce a new index to assess the quality and biological value.

  4. Aggregate and Mineral Resources - Industrial Mineral Mining Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — An Industrial Mineral Mining Operation is a DEP primary facility type related to the Industrial Mineral Mining Program. The sub-facility types are listed below:Deep...

  5. Mineral composition and preferred orientation of minerals in shales from Palaeozoic Baltic Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gąsiński, Arkadiusz

    2017-04-01

    Ordovician and Silurian rocks from the Palaeozoic Baltic Basin in northern Poland, often described simply as "shale", embrace a wide range of siliceos and argillaceous rocks. The little knowledge that is available about their detailed mineralogical is mainly limited to qualitative data, so the main aim of this work was to obtain their quantitative mineral composition, based on analysis of thin sections with SEM, FIB and EDS techniques supported by XRD data. The mineral composition of shales dictates their chemical properties and is also a major factor determining their physical properties, especially relating to their stability during drilling, hydraulic fracturing, and hydrocarbon production. Knowledge of the mineral composition of different shales plays a very important role in identifying optimal proppants, fracture fluids and pumping schedules. The mineralogy of the shale is an important influence on total gas capacity. Carbonate-rich shales indicate adjacent carbonate platform and embayment succession origins, and commonly have a lower organic carbon content and porosity, and a corresponding lower gas capacity, than shales with lower carbonate content. All samples show a rather complex mineralogical composition with illite, micas, quartz, calcite, dolomite and chlorites as major minerals. It was possible to point out the microzones that contain higher amount of brittle minerals and therefore should be especially prone to cracking. Anisotropy in clay-rich sedimentary rocks is receiving increasing attention. This feature is very important for the prospecting for hydrocarbon deposits and for hydraulic fracturing. Anisotropy of diffusion has become relevant for environmental contaminants, including nuclear waste. In both cases, the orientation of component minerals is a critical ingredient. In this study I also show the orientation of different mineral components in shales with image analysis methods that allow me to characterize the shape of grains and its

  6. The electrical resistivity signature of a fault controlling gold mineralization and the implications for Mesozoic mineralization: a case study from the Jiaojia Fault, eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kun; Lü, Qingtian; Yan, Jiayong; Hu, Hao; Fu, GuangMing

    2017-08-01

    We use 3D audio magnetotelluric method to the south segment of Jiaojia fault belt, and obtain the 3D electrical model of this area. Regional geophysical data were combined in an analysis of strata and major structural distribution in the study area, and included the southern segment of the Jiaojia fault zone transformed into two fault assemblages. Together with the previous studies of the ore-controlling action of the Jiaojia fault belt and deposit characteristics, the two faults are considered to be favorable metallogenic provinces, because some important features coupled with them, such as the subordinate fault intersection zone and several fault assemblages in one fault zone. It was also suggested the control action of later fault with reversed downthrows to the ore distribution. These studies have enabled us to predict the presence of two likely target regions of mineralization, and are prospecting breakthrough in the southern section of Jiaojia in the Shandong Peninsula, China.

  7. Factors influencing students' usage of school bus seat belts: an empirical analysis of the Alabama pilot project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Yingyan; Mehta, Gaurav; Turner, Daniel S

    2011-09-01

    The Alabama State Department of Education and the Governor's Study Group on School Bus Seat Belts authorized and funded a research project to investigate the effects of lap-shoulder seat belts on Alabama school buses. This article performs an empirical analysis to address an important component of the study - factors that impact students' decisions about wearing seat belts or not on school buses. Discrete choice modeling framework is applied to quantify relative influences of various factors. To obtain the disaggregate level information on individual student's characteristics and trip properties, a new data collection protocol is developed. Eleven variables are investigated and eight of them are found to have significant impacts. They are age, gender, the home county of a student, a student's trip length, time of day, presence and active involvement of bus aide, and two levels of bus driver involvement. The resulting model fits the data well and reveals several trends that have been overlooked or underestimated in the literature. The model can also be used to predict the change of seat belt usage rate caused by the change of impact factors. This is helpful in identifying the most cost-effective ways to improve compliance rate, which is critical to bring the added safety benefit of seat belts into effect. This article is the first to quantify relative impacts of a range of variables using rigorous statistical modeling techniques. This study will contribute to the literature and provide valuable insights to the practice of school transportation management. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Role of detachments and thrust kinematics in Structural evolution of Kohat and Potwar fold thrust belt in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghani, Humaad; Zeilinger, Gerold; Sobel, Edward; Heidarzadeh, Ghasem

    2016-04-01

    The Kohat and Potwar fold thrust belts in Pakistan represent the outermost external zone of the Himalayan fold and thrust system. The Main Boundary thrust marks their northern extent, showing that they are genetically linked; however, both exhibit a distinct contrast between the structural style at the surface and subsurface. This contrast becomes more conspicuous at the leading edge of the thrust belt where the Potwar allochothon extends further south, linked to Kohat in the north via an active strike-slip fault. Previous workers explained the structural evolution of the two belts separately, disregarding the influence of similar fold and thrusts developed in both belts. This research focuses on the preparation of a 3D structural model at the boundary of the two thrust belts to understand similarities and differences in their structural style and evolution. The model is constrained by integrating field, seismic and well data for better subsurface interpretation. Cross sections show that Potwar evolved on thrust faults originating from a basal detachment in Precambrian (pC) salt and terminating in Miocene Molasse forming duplexes of pre Himalayan strata. To the south, the Potwar allochothon is glided over a salt detachment with rare internal deformation toward its leading edge, forming fault bend fold thrust structure known as Salt range. The structural evolution towards the west in Kohat results from deformation on multiple detachment horizons at the pC salt, Eocene evaporites and Miocene Molasse. Disharmonic folding over Eocene evaporites is evident from their presence in the cores of outcropping folds. In the subsurface, closely spaced thrusts cut up section from basal detachment terminates in Eocene evaporites forming duplex in northern part of area. In south change of lithological facies from evaporites to limestone shift detachment level upward in to molasse strata which resemble structural style in northern Potwar. Thrusts at the surface evolved from the

  9. Lamellar assembly of cadmium selenide nanoclusters into quantum belts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi-Hsin; Wang, Fudong; Wang, Yuanyuan; Gibbons, Patrick C; Buhro, William E

    2011-10-26

    Here, we elucidate a double-lamellar-template pathway for the formation of CdSe quantum belts. The lamellar templates form initially by dissolution of the CdX(2) precursors in the n-octylamine solvent. Exposure of the precursor templates to selenourea at room temperature ultimately affords (CdSe)(13) nanoclusters entrained within the double-lamellar templates. Upon heating, the nanoclusters are transformed to CdSe quantum belts having widths, lengths, and thicknesses that are predetermined by the dimensions within the templates. This template synthesis is responsible for the excellent optical properties exhibited by the quantum belts. We propose that the templated-growth pathway is responsible for the formation of the various flat, colloidal nanocrystals recently discovered, including nanoribbons, nanoplatelets, nanosheets, and nanodisks.

  10. Traffic restrictions due to wind on the Fehmarn Belt bridge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dellwik, E.; Mann, Jakob; Rosenhagen, G.

    2006-01-01

    is given both as a total percentage of time and as a mean distribution of restrictions over the year. We perform the same analysis for the Øresund and the Great Belt bridge and compare the result with the actualfractions. Only during the last year of operation of the Øresund bridge the criteria......This report documents the calculations carried out in order to estimate the wind climate at the site where the Fehmarn Belt bridge is planned. Further, an estimate of how often and for how long traffic restrictions will be enforced according to statedcriteria (sec. 3.2) is given. This estimate...... are the same as used in this report and here the comparison is satisfactory. We estimate that the prospective Fehmarn Belt bridge will be closed roughly 2% of the timefor light roadway vehicles (unloaded trucks and caravans), corresponding to 7 days per year. This is slightly less than for the Fehmarnsund...

  11. Recent Developments in the Radiation Belt Environment Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fok, M.-C.; Glocer, A.; Zheng, Q.; Horne, R. B.; Meredith, N. P.; Albert, J. M.; Nagai, T.

    2010-01-01

    The fluxes of energetic particles in the radiation belts are found to be strongly controlled by the solar wind conditions. In order to understand and predict the radiation particle intensities, we have developed a physics-based Radiation Belt Environment (RBE) model that considers the influences from the solar wind, ring current and plasmasphere. Recently, an improved calculation of wave-particle interactions has been incorporated. In particular, the model now includes cross diffusion in energy and pitch-angle. We find that the exclusion of cross diffusion could cause significant overestimation of electron flux enhancement during storm recovery. The RBE model is also connected to MHD fields so that the response of the radiation belts to fast variations in the global magnetosphere can be studied.Weare able to reproduce the rapid flux increase during a substorm dipolarization on 4 September 2008. The timing is much shorter than the time scale of wave associated acceleration.

  12. The Living with a Star Radiation Belt Storm Probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibeck, D. G.; Mauk, B. H.; Grebowsky, J. M.; Fox, N. J.

    2007-01-01

    The goal of NASA's Living With a Star Radiation Belt Storm Probe mission is to understand, ideally to the point of predictability, how populations of relativistic electrons and ions in space form or change in response to the variable inputs of energy from the Sun. The investigations selected for this 2-spacecraft mission scheduled for launch in early 2012 address this task by making extensive observations of the plasma waves, thermal, ring current, and relativistic particle populations, and DC electric and magnetic fields within the Earth's inner and outer radiation belts. We first describe the current mission concept within the scope of NASA's strategic plan and the Vision for Exploration, and then consider how its observations will be used to define and quantify the processes that accelerate, transport, and remove particles in the Earth's radiation belts.

  13. Radiation Belt Environment Model: Application to Space Weather and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fok, Mei-Ching H.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the dynamics and variability of the radiation belts are of great scientific and space weather significance. A physics-based Radiation Belt Environment (RBE) model has been developed to simulate and predict the radiation particle intensities. The RBE model considers the influences from the solar wind, ring current and plasmasphere. It takes into account the particle drift in realistic, time-varying magnetic and electric field, and includes diffusive effects of wave-particle interactions with various wave modes in the magnetosphere. The RBE model has been used to perform event studies and real-time prediction of energetic electron fluxes. In this talk, we will describe the RBE model equation, inputs and capabilities. Recent advancement in space weather application and artificial radiation belt study will be discussed as well.

  14. A minimalistic and optimized conveyor belt for neutral atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Ritayan; Condylis, Paul C; Prakash, Vindhiya; Sahagun, Daniel; Hessmo, Björn

    2017-10-20

    Here we report of a design and the performance of an optimized micro-fabricated conveyor belt for precise and adiabatic transportation of cold atoms. A theoretical model is presented to determine optimal currents in conductors used for the transportation. We experimentally demonstrate a fast adiabatic transportation of Rubidium ( 87 Rb) cold atoms with minimal loss and heating with as few as three conveyor belt conductors. This novel design of a multilayered conveyor belt structure is fabricated in aluminium nitride (AlN) because of its outstanding thermal and electrical properties. This demonstration would pave a way for a compact and portable quantum device required for quantum information processing and sensors, where precise positioning of cold atoms is desirable.

  15. RATIONALE FOR CENTERING CAPACITY OF REDISIGNED BELT CONVEYOR DRUMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Suglobov

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In the study is necessary: 1 to justify aligning drums of a new design of belt conveyors; 2 to develop a method for calculating and determining the rational design parameters of drums depending on the technical parameters of the conveyor belt (the length of the conveyor, belt width, the performance of the conveyor, the diameter of the drive and tension drums, etc.; 3 to carry out pilot studies of efficiency conveyor belt in a production environment in order to determine the magnitude of dynamic loads and a comparative evaluation of the effectiveness of the centering ability of conventional and new designs of drums. Methodology. To substantiate the effectiveness of the centering ability of the drums of a new design by the authors developed a mathematical model of interaction of the tape with the drum. Mathematical simulation of tape reels with new design comes to drawing up a differential equation of the belt based on the dynamic component and restoring force. This model allowed us to estimate the movement of the tape in the transverse direction based on the calculated additional dynamic loads and forces on the investigated centering a conveyor belt with given specifications. For the first time the technique of calculating and determining the rational parameters of the drums, which allows determining the design parameters of the centering portions, depending on the mechanical properties and geometric parameters of the tape. Findings. With the help of mathematical modeling the scientifically substantiated effect of centering the ability of the new design of the drum, which ensures stable tape running along the longitudinal axis of the conveyor. The authors made the following conclusions: 1 the mathematical model of interaction with the new belt design of the drum, which allowed to describe the belt in the transverse direction in view of additional dynamic loads and renewable power was developed; 2 the method of calculation and

  16. Adsorption of RNA on mineral surfaces and mineral precipitates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Biondi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The prebiotic significance of laboratory experiments that study the interactions between oligomeric RNA and mineral species is difficult to know. Natural exemplars of specific minerals can differ widely depending on their provenance. While laboratory-generated samples of synthetic minerals can have controlled compositions, they are often viewed as "unnatural". Here, we show how trends in the interaction of RNA with natural mineral specimens, synthetic mineral specimens, and co-precipitated pairs of synthetic minerals, can make a persuasive case that the observed interactions reflect the composition of the minerals themselves, rather than their being simply examples of large molecules associating nonspecifically with large surfaces. Using this approach, we have discovered Periodic Table trends in the binding of oligomeric RNA to alkaline earth carbonate minerals and alkaline earth sulfate minerals, where those trends are the same when measured in natural and synthetic minerals. They are also validated by comparison of co-precipitated synthetic minerals. We also show differential binding of RNA to polymorphic forms of calcium carbonate, and the stabilization of bound RNA on aragonite. These have relevance to the prebiotic stabilization of RNA, where such carbonate minerals are expected to have been abundant, as they appear to be today on Mars.

  17. Piezoelectric belts as a method for measuring chest and abdominal movement for obstructive sleep apnea diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Courtney M; Clemmons, Pamela

    2012-09-01

    Distinguishing obstructive sleep apnea from central apnea depends upon accurate measure of chest and abdominal movement. American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) polysomnography guidelines recommend the use of respiratory inductive plethysmography (RIP) belts but not piezoelectrode (PE) belts for measuring chest and abdominal movements. To compare these two sensors, we measured the signal amplitude for 10 RIP belts and 10 PE belts stretched by mechanical distraction across six distances (2.5 to 15.0 centimeters) and replicated 10 times for each belt. Amplitudes were measured using the Stellate Harmonie (Stellate Systems, Inc., Natus Medical, Inc., San Carlos, California, USA) recording system. A Pearson Product Moment Correlation coefficient was calculated. All RIP belts performed well at all distraction lengths and demonstrated linear performance. Eight of 10 PE belts performed well through all measures whereas, two showed nonlinear increase in signal on stretch of greater than 12.5 centimeters. Signals from PE belts highly correlated with the distance of distraction (r = 0.96 to 0.99) and the RIP belts (r = 0.98 to 0.99). These results suggest that PE belts perform similarly to RIP belts at distraction distances up to 10.0 centimeters. Further testing on biological models is needed to determine if PE belts are a suitable alternative for RIP belts in polysomnography.

  18. Predictors of rear seat belt use among U.S. adults, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Geeta; Beck, Laurie; Bergen, Gwen; Kresnow, Marcie-Jo

    2015-06-01

    Seat belt use reduces the risk of injuries and fatalities among motor vehicle occupants in a crash, but belt use in rear seating positions is consistently lower than front seating positions. Knowledge is limited concerning factors associated with seat belt use among adult rear seat passengers. Data from the 2012 ConsumerStyles survey were used to calculate weighted percentages of self-reported rear seat belt use by demographic characteristics and type of rear seat belt use enforcement. Multivariable regression was used to calculate prevalence ratios for rear seat belt use, adjusting for person-, household- and geographic-level demographic variables as well as for type of seat belt law in place in the state. Rear seat belt use varied by age, race, geographic region, metropolitan status, and type of enforcement. Multivariable regression showed that respondents living in states with primary (Adjusted Prevalence Ratio (APR): 1.23) and secondary (APR: 1.11) rear seat belt use enforcement laws were significantly more likely to report always wearing a seat belt in the rear seat compared with those living in a state with no rear seat belt use enforcement law. Several factors were associated with self-reported seat belt use in rear seating positions. Evidence suggests that primary enforcement covering all seating positions is an effective intervention that can be employed to increase seat belt use and in turn prevent motor vehicle injuries to rear-seated occupants. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Oxygen Extraction from Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscatello, Tony

    2017-01-01

    Oxygen, whether used as part of rocket bipropellant or for astronaut life support, is a key consumable for space exploration and commercialization. In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) has been proposed many times as a method for making space exploration more cost effective and sustainable. On planetary and asteroid surfaces the presence of minerals in the regolith that contain oxygen is very common, making them a potential oxygen resource. The majority of research and development for oxygen extraction from minerals has been for lunar regolith although this work would generally be applicable to regolith at other locations in space. This presentation will briefly survey the major methods investigated for oxygen extraction from regolith with a focus on the current status of those methods and possible future development pathways. The major oxygen production methods are (1) extraction from lunar ilmenite (FeTiO3) with either hydrogen or carbon monoxide, (2) carbothermal reduction of iron oxides and silicates with methane, and (3) molten regolith electrolysis (MRE) of silicates. Methods (1) and (2) have also been investigated in a two-step process using CO reduction and carbon deposition followed by carbothermal reduction. All three processes have byproducts that could also be used as resources. Hydrogen or carbon monoxide reduction produce iron metal in small amounts that could potentially be used as construction material. Carbothermal reduction also makes iron metal along with silicon metal and a glass with possible applications. MRE produces iron, silicon, aluminum, titanium, and glass, with higher silicon yields than carbothermal reduction. On Mars and possibly on some moons and asteroids, water is present in the form of mineral hydrates, hydroxyl (-OH) groups on minerals, andor water adsorbed on mineral surfaces. Heating of the minerals can liberate the water which can be electrolyzed to provide a source of oxygen as well. The chemistry of these processes, some key

  20. In-situ Fe and S isotope analyses of pyrite from the Lower Mapepe Formation (3.26-3.23 Ga), Barbeton Greenstone Belt, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galic, Aleksandra; Roerdink, Desiree L.; Mason, Paul. R. D.; Vroon, Pieter. Z.; Whitehouse, Martin. J.; Reimer, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    The Archaean oceans differed from today in being anoxic, Fe-rich and S-poor. Despite the low abundance of marine sulfate, significant amounts of sedimentary pyrite are associated with shales and sandstones deposited in Palaeoarchean time. Combined Fe and S isotopes can be used in pyrite to trace element sources as well as pathways of mineral formation and environmental redox processes since they record the changes in redox state in abiotic and biological processes. In this study, Fe and S isotopes were measured in pyrite from sedimentary rocks sampled by diamond drilling in the Lower Mapepe Formation (3.26-3.23 Ga, Lowe, 1999)1 of the Archean Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa. We performed in situ Fe and multiple S isotopic analysis by secondary ionization mass spectrometry (SIMS) of single mineral grains. The grain size range from 10 to several hundreds of micrometers. The stratigraphy consists of barite-chert units and barite-free terrigeneous clastic sediments with pyrites occurring in both types of lithologies. The complete range of pyrite δ56Fe data vary from -2.61 to +2.74 ‰ . Most individual pyrite samples showed iron isotopic variability of between 1.0-1.5 ‰, consistent with the range induced by abiotic pyrite precipitation (Guilbaud et al. 2012)2, whilst one sample contained more extreme variability of close to 5 ‰. Clear correlations with multiple S isotopes were not seen in individual samples, but there was a clear shift in average Fe isotope values and mixing trends in multiple S isotopes on going from the barite-free to the barite-rich part of the drill core. Pyrites in barite-free lithologies show slightly more positive δ56Fe value than those in close association with the barite. This suggests different sources of iron in the lower and upper parts of the stratigraphy, with a possible hydrothermal source for the pyrite associated with the barite. The origin of the more negative δ56Fe values (up to -2.61 ‰) is unclear but might result