WorldWideScience

Sample records for range interest opinion

  1. 42 CFR 1008.59 - Range of the advisory opinion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Range of the advisory opinion. 1008.59 Section 1008... AUTHORITIES ADVISORY OPINIONS BY THE OIG Scope and Effect of OIG Advisory Opinions § 1008.59 Range of the advisory opinion. (a) An advisory opinion will state only the OIG's opinion regarding the subject matter of...

  2. Interest group opinions about fuel reduction in southern Appalachia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carin E. Vadala; Robert D. Bixler; Thomas A. Waldrop

    2013-01-01

    Opinions of interested publics and interest groups (n = 640) about fuel reduction (FR) in the Southern Appalachian Mountains were investigated through social survey using both pictorial and written questions. The study identified three discrete groups based on knowledge of forest history in the Southern Appalachian Mountains, attitudes toward social and ecological...

  3. RANGE ECONOMICS RESEARCH (THE NATIONAL INTEREST)

    OpenAIRE

    Crom, Richard J.

    1985-01-01

    Increasing interest in range economics research calls for a more tightly defined set of issues and a menu of research projects addressing these issues. This paper identifies major issues of national importance followed by a brief description of suggested research projects.

  4. Was Walter Lippmann interested in stereotyping?: Public Opinion and cognitive social psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Leonard S

    2009-02-01

    Walter Lippmann's Public Opinion is much cited but little read. A review of references to Public Opinion by social psychologists over the last 20 years reveals the widespread beliefs that (1) the book focuses primarily on group stereotypes and prejudice, and (2) the concept of stereotyping originated with Lippmann. However, stereotypes, as currently conceived--as opposed to schemata more generally--do not play a central role in the book, and Lippmann did not introduce the concept (although he may have broadened it). In addition, throughout his long and distinguished career, he showed little interest in stereotyping, prejudice, and discrimination. Nonetheless, Public Opinion is a seminal work in the area of cognitive social psychology and (like other little read citation classics) still deserves to be read-including, ironically, by students of stereotyping and prejudice.

  5. STEM field courses that increase interest, opinions and confidence in conservation- related fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, B. A.; Freeman, A. S.; Donovan, C.; Cooperstein, D.; Foellmer, M.; Ward, A.

    2016-12-01

    Students in the Environmental Studies and Biology programs at Adelphi University, situated in the NYC metropolitan area, have had little exposure to the outdoors or nature and are often reluctant to engage in field activities. We developed three courses to provide outdoor experiences at different levels of intensity, financial and travel/ time commitments. Adelphi in Australia is a three-week field course taught mostly at a marine station that includes day and night hikes, snorkeling on the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) and independent research. Adelphi in the U.S. Virgin Islands is a one-week field `starter course' focusing on snorkeling and hiking. Observing Nature is an on-campus, once a week course with nature-based readings, weekend hikes and camping. It was developed after Hurricane Sandy revealed a lack of experience and confidence living without some modern infrastructure. We evaluated student opinions, interests and career goals in a survey administered at the start and at the end of the course that focused on knowledge, skills, opinion, and interest in STEM. Opinion questions addressed confidence, awareness of conservation issues, and interest in outdoor activities. The survey confirmed most of our students have a limited relationship with the outdoors when they start our field classes. More than half had never camped. Most had learned about nature through school trips and family. When asked to rank hiking against other activities, the majority regularly placed hiking below `going to the beach' and 'watching a movie'. The post-survey asked how students would apply what they had learned (interest in the environment; staying in the sciences). The generally positive results indicate the courses play an important role in connecting our students with the outdoors, and may have a lasting impact if they in turn connect others or get involved with local conservation programs.

  6. [Medical opinion leaders conflict of interests: effects of disclosures on the trust of the public and general practitioners].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakroun, R; Milhabet, I

    2011-08-01

    Key medical opinion leaders influence the behaviors of physicians and patients. By law, they have to disclose their interests with pharmaceutical companies when they communicate in the media. Up to now, it appears that no study has explored the effect of opinion leaders' disclosures despite their potential impact on public health and economy. The study objective was to assess the effects of opinion leaders' disclosures of interest on the public and general practitioners' trust in opinion leader by comparison with the overall medical community. In an experimental setting, three opinion leader profiles were built that differed only by the disclosure of their interests (hidden vs. weak vs. strong interests). One of the three profiles was randomly assigned to the subjects of two groups: 67 students and 60 general practitioners. According to an Anova analysis, the main effects and interactions of the disclosure of interests, of the message recipients, and of the assessed targets on the level of trust were measured. The results show that the average level of trust expressed by general practitioners was lower than that expressed by the general public. The level of trust in the opinion leader was lower than that of the overall medical community. The level of trust of exposed subjects fell much lower with stronger disclosed interests. While the general public did not distinguish trust between opinion leaders and the overall medical community, practitioners showed a significantly lower level of trust in opinion leaders with increasingly strong levels of disclosed interests. These study results refute the assertion that public trust would be reduced by the disclosure of interests. They reinforce the importance of the "who judges who" and "which kind of disclosure impacts who ?" effects and draw attention to further research on the role of social interactions in both mass and group communications. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Surgeon-industry conflict of interest: survey of opinions regarding industry-sponsored educational events and surgeon teaching: clinical article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiPaola, Christian P; Dea, Nicolas; Dvorak, Marcel F; Lee, Robert S; Hartig, Dennis; Fisher, Charles G

    2014-03-01

    Conflict of interest (COI) as it applies to medical education and training has become a source of considerable interest, debate, and regulation in the last decade. Companies often pay surgeons as faculty for educational events and often sponsor and give financial support to major professional society meetings. Professional medical societies, industry, and legislators have attempted to regulate potential COI without consideration for public opinion. The practice of evidence-based medicine requires the inclusion of patient opinion along with best available evidence and expert opinion. The primary goal of this study was to assess the opinion of the general population regarding surgeon-industry COI for education-related events. A Web-based survey was administered, with special emphasis on the surgeon's role in industry-sponsored education and support of professional societies. A survey was constructed to sample opinions on reimbursement, disclosure, and funding sources for educational events. There were 501 completed surveys available for analysis. More than 90% of respondents believed that industry funding for surgeons' tuition and travel for either industry-sponsored or professional society educational meetings would either not affect the quality of care delivered or would cause it to improve. Similar results were generated for opinions on surgeons being paid by industry to teach other surgeons. Moreover, the majority of respondents believed it was ethical or had no opinion if surgeons had such a relationship with industry. Respondents were also generally in favor of educational conferences for surgeons regardless of funding source. Disclosures of a surgeon-industry relationship, especially if it involves specific devices that may be used in their surgery, appears to be important to respondents. The vast majority of respondents in this study do not believe that the quality of their care will be diminished due to industry funding of educational events, for surgeon

  8. Physician-industry conflict of interest: public opinion regarding industry-sponsored research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Charles G; DiPaola, Christian P; Noonan, Vanessa K; Bailey, Christopher; Dvorak, Marcel F S

    2012-07-01

    The nature of physician-industry conflict of interest (COI) has become a source of considerable concern, but is often not discussed in the research setting. With reduced funding available from government and nonprofit sources, industry support has enthusiastically grown, but along with this comes the potential for COI that must be regulated. In this era of shared decision making in health care, society must have input into this regulation. The purpose of this study was to assess the opinions of a North American population sample on COI regarding industry-funded research and to analyze population subgroups for trends. A survey was developed for face and content validity, underwent focus group evaluation for clarity and bias reduction, and was administered via the World Wide Web. Demographic and general survey results were summarized as a percentage for each answer, and subgroup analysis was done using logistic regression. Generalizability of the sample to the US population was also assessed. Of 541 surveys, 40 were excluded due to missing information, leaving 501 surveys for analysis. The sample population was composed of more females, was older, and was more educated than a representative cross-section of the American population. Respondents support multidisciplinary surgeon-industry COI regulation and trust doctors and their professional societies the most to head this effort. Respondents trust government officials and company representatives the least with respect to regulation of COI. Most respondents feel that industry-sponsored research can involve physicians and be both objective and beneficial to patients. Most respondents in this study felt that surgeons should be involved in industry-sponsored research and that more research, regardless of funding source, will ultimately benefit patients. The majority of respondents distrust government or industry to regulate COI. The development of evidence-based treatment recommendations requires the inclusion of patient

  9. Nurses' opinions on appropriate administration of PRN range opioid analgesic orders for acute pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Debra B; Pellino, Teresa A; Higgins, Gerry Ann; Pasero, Chris; Murphy-Ende, Kathleen

    2008-09-01

    The use of "as needed" or "pro re nata" (PRN) range opioid analgesic orders is a common clinical practice in the management of acute pain, designed to provide flexibility in dosing to meet an individual's unique needs. Range orders enable necessary adjustments in doses based on individual response to treatment. However, PRN range opioid orders have recently come under scrutiny as a source of confusion and as a medication management safety issue. How nurses administer range orders may vary based on their interpretation of the intent of an order, inadequate knowledge of analgesic titration, or exaggerated concerns about opioid safety. The purpose of this study was to investigate nurses' opinions of the appropriate implementation of range orders. Six hundred two nurses from one large academic medical center and one multihospital system completed an online survey using theoretic clinical vignettes to examine their opinions of appropriate analgesic administration practices. The majority of participants chose appropriate responses to the vignettes; however, there was a great deal of variability in responses. Those who had attended pain management courses were more likely to have a higher percentage of appropriate responses than those who had not attended courses. Years in practice and educational level were not significantly related to percentage of appropriate responses; however, there was a trend for nurses with a master's degree to have a higher percentage than nurses with other educational preparation. Consideration of opioid pharmacokinetics can provide logic to develop a new paradigm where range orders are replaced with orders that provide more explicit instructions to titrate an opioid to the most effective dose.

  10. A novel opinion dynamics model based on expanded observation ranges and individuals’ social influences in social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Su-Meng; Liu, Yun; Zeng, Qing-An; Luo, Gui-Xun; Xiong, Fei

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we propose an opinion dynamics model in order to investigate opinion evolution and interactions and the behavior of individuals. By introducing social influence and its feedback mechanism, the proposed model can highlight the heterogeneity of individuals and reproduce realistic online opinion interactions. It can also expand the observation range of affected individuals. Combining psychological studies on the social impact of majorities and minorities, affected individuals update their opinions by balancing social impact from both supporters and opponents. It can be seen that complete consensus is not always obtained. When the initial density of either side is greater than 0.8, the enormous imbalance leads to complete consensus. Otherwise, opinion clusters consisting of a set of tightly connected individuals who hold similar opinions appear. Moreover, a tradeoff is discovered between high interaction intensity and low stability with regard to observation ranges. The intensity of each interaction is negatively correlated with observation range, while the stability of each individual’s opinion positively affects the correlation. Furthermore, the proposed model presents the power-law properties in the distribution of individuals’ social influences, which is in agreement with people’s daily cognition. Additionally, it is proven that the initial distribution of individuals’ social influences has little effect on the evolution.

  11. Conflicts of interest and critiques of the use of systematic reviews in policymaking: an analysis of opinion articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Strong opinions for or against the use of systematic reviews to inform policymaking have been published in the medical literature. The purpose of this paper was to examine whether funding sources and author financial conflicts of interest were associated with whether an opinion article was supportive or critical of the use of systematic reviews for policymaking. We examined the nature of the arguments within each article, the types of disclosures present, and whether these articles are being cited in the academic literature. Methods We searched for articles that expressed opinions about the use of systematic reviews for policymaking. We included articles that presented opinions about the use of systematic reviews for policymaking and categorized each article as supportive or critical of such use. We extracted all arguments regarding the use of systematic reviews from each article and inductively coded each as internal or external validity argument, categorized disclosed funding sources, conflicts of interest, and article types, and systematically searched for undisclosed financial ties. We counted the number of times each article has been cited in the “Web of Science.” We report descriptive statistics. Results Articles that were critical of the use of systematic reviews (n = 25) for policymaking had disclosed or undisclosed industry ties 2.3 times more often than articles that were supportive of the use (n = 34). We found that editorials, comments, letters, and perspectives lacked published disclosures nearly twice as often (60% v. 33%) as other types of articles. We also found that editorials, comments, letters, and perspectives were less frequently cited in the academic literature than other article types (median number of citations = 5 v. 19). Conclusions It is important to consider whether an article has industry ties when evaluating the strength of the argument for or against the use of systematic reviews for policymaking. We found that journal

  12. Conflicts of interest in research: is clinical decision-making compromised? An opinion paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adibi, Shawn; Abidi, Shawn; Bebermeyer, Richard D

    2010-08-01

    Lack of transparency in funded research can compromise clinical decision-making in an evidence-based practice. Transparency can be defined as full disclosure of all financial assistance and support to authors and investigators. There is a perception that ethical principles are eroding and that research data can be biased due to conflicts of interest. These research outcomes biased or not, are used for clinical decision-making in the evidence-based practice. One suggested solution to this common ethical dilemma is to continue the dialogue on transparency in research and to create oversight bodies which include representatives from business and industry, private practice, academia, and research. There is increasing evidence of the need for more ethics education at all levels.

  13. The Behavior of Contemporary Journalist Oscillates between Socially Responsible Behavior Journalist and the Journalist who Voluntarily Conform Public Opinion and Public Interest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Stefanov

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The contemporary journalist usually acts on the six pillars of social responsibility and in order to serve the public interest and public information and training. New media, the new status of the journalist and new implications of global phenomena determine changing the role of the journalist and mostly voluntary compliance of his needs and dues community to which he belongs. The risk of the future is the appearance of the journalist who is acting only under pressure from the community which will cause deformation of public interest and public opinion under the pressure of selfish and individualistic communities.

  14. The Importance and Interest of Introductory Psychology Textbook Topics: Student Opinions at Technical College, 2-, and 4-Year Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Lee I.; Immel, Kathy R.; Kadah-Ammeter, Tammy L.; Adelson, Sarah K.

    2016-01-01

    Introductory psychology students at a technical college, 2-year community college, and a regional university rated how important textbook chapters or topics were to them now and in the future and how interesting they were. Importance and interest ratings were highly correlated, and the whole course was rated of greater importance and interest than…

  15. A comparison of interest point and region detectors on structured, range and texture images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazmi, Wajahat; Andersen, Hans Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    )) and corner based detectors (such as Hessian and Harris with both Affine/Laplace variants, SURF with determinant of Hessian based corners and SIFT with difference of Gaussians) acquired more than 90% mean average precision, whereas on range images, homogeneous region detector did not work well. TLR offered...... and textured images. It is also shown that in a bi-channel approach, combining surface and edge regions (MSER and TLR) boosts the overall performance. Among the descriptors, SIFT and SURF generally offer higher performance but low dimensional descriptors such as Steerable Filters follow closely.......This article presents an evaluation of the image retrieval and classification potential of local features. Several affine invariant region and scale invariant interest point detectors in combination with well known descriptors were evaluated. Tests on building, range and texture databases were...

  16. Maximizing the Nutritional Value of Produce Post-Harvest: Consumer Knowledge Gaps, Interests, and Opinions Regarding Nutrition Education Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remley, Dan; Goard, Linnette Mizer; Taylor, Christopher A.; Ralston, Robin A.

    2015-01-01

    Although many consumers perceive locally produced, fresh fruits and vegetables to be healthier, they might not have the knowledge and skills to retain optimal nutritional quality following harvest or purchase. We surveyed Ohio farmers market consumers' and managers' knowledge and interests related to maximizing nutritional value of produce.…

  17. Interesting Interest Points

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aanæs, Henrik; Dahl, Anders Lindbjerg; Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup

    2012-01-01

    Not all interest points are equally interesting. The most valuable interest points lead to optimal performance of the computer vision method in which they are employed. But a measure of this kind will be dependent on the chosen vision application. We propose a more general performance measure based...... position. The LED illumination provides the option for artificially relighting the scene from a range of light directions. This data set has given us the ability to systematically evaluate the performance of a number of interest point detectors. The highlights of the conclusions are that the fixed scale...

  18. Opinion dynamics in activity-driven networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dandan; Han, Dun; Ma, Jing; Sun, Mei; Tian, Lixin; Khouw, Timothy; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2017-10-01

    Social interaction between individuals constantly affects the development of their personal opinions. Previous models such as the Deffuant model and the Hegselmann-Krause (HK) model have assumed that individuals only update their opinions after interacting with neighbors whose opinions are similar to their own. However, people are capable of communicating widely with all of their neighbors to gather their ideas and opinions, even if they encounter a number of opposing attitudes. We propose a model in which agents listen to the opinions of all their neighbors. Continuous opinion dynamics are investigated in activity-driven networks with a tolerance threshold. We study how the initial opinion distribution, tolerance threshold, opinion-updating speed, and activity rate affect the evolution of opinion. We find that when the initial fraction of positive opinion is small, all opinions become negative by the end of the simulation. As the initial fraction of positive opinions rises above a certain value —about 0.45— the final fraction of positive opinions sharply increases and eventually equals 1. Increased tolerance threshold δ is found to lead to a more varied final opinion distribution. We also find that if the negative opinion has an initial advantage, the final fraction of negative opinion increases and reaches its peak as the updating speed λ approaches 0.5. Finally we show that the lower the activity rate of individuals, the greater the fluctuation range of their opinions.

  19. 49 CFR 604.18 - Request for an advisory opinion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Request for an advisory opinion. 604.18 Section... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CHARTER SERVICE Advisory Opinions and Cease and Desist Orders § 604.18 Request for an advisory opinion. (a) An interested party may request an advisory opinion from the...

  20. Opinion Change: Information or Partisanship?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Mogens K.; Klemmensen, Robert; Leavitt, Thomas

    Currently two paradigms seek to explain how voters change their opinion when they are confronted with new information. One school argues that voters are bayesian updaters who rationally change their opinion. Another school argues that voters are inherently biased in their evaluation of new...... information. According to this line of thought voters are more likely to accept information that con_rms their opinion compared to information that contradict their point of view. Using a quasi experiment we investigate the extent to which voters rely on bayesian updating or on motivated reasoning when...... changing their opinions. We show that environmental concerns are more likely to change for voters who are moderately interested in politics and voters who are not strong partisans....

  1. LOS MAPAS CONCEPTUALES COMO RECURSO DE INTERÉS PARA LA FORMACIÓN INICIAL DEL PROFESORADO DE ENSEÑANZA SECUNDARIA: OPINIONES DEL ALUMNADO DE CIENCIAS SOCIALES Y HUMANIDADES (CONCEPT MAPS AS A RESOURCE OF INTEREST FOR INITIAL TRAINING OF SECONDARY SCHOOL TEACHERS: OPINIONS OF STUDENTS IN THE AREA OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alfonso Pontes Pedrajas; Rocío Serrano Rodríguez; Juan Manuel Muñoz González

    2015-01-01

    ... resources for education and teacher training. Over two years we have collected the opinions of 107 students of the area of social sciences and humanities, in a subject of postgraduate studies of teacher training...

  2. Dose distribution in water for monoenergetic photon point sources in the energy range of interest in brachytherapy: Monte Carlo simulations with PENELOPE and GEANT4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almansa, Julio F. [Servicio de Radiofisica y Proteccion Radiologica, Hospital Universitario ' Puerta del Mar' , E-11009 Cadiz (Spain)]. E-mail: juliof.almansa.sspa@juntadeandalucia.es; Guerrero, Rafael [Servicio de Radiofisica, Hospital Universitario ' San Cecilio' , Avda. Dr. Oloriz, 16, E-18012 Granada (Spain)]. E-mail: rafael.guerrero.alcalde.sspa@juntadeandalucia.es; Al-Dweri, Feras M.O. [Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain)]. E-mail: faldweri@ugr.es; Anguiano, Marta [Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain)]. E-mail: mangui@ugr.es; Lallena, Antonio M. [Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain)]. E-mail: lallena@ugr.es

    2007-05-15

    Monte Carlo calculations using the codes PENELOPE and GEANT4 have been performed to characterize the dosimetric properties of monoenergetic photon point sources in water. The dose rate in water has been calculated for energies of interest in brachytherapy, ranging between 10keV and 2MeV. A comparison of the results obtained using the two codes with the available data calculated with other Monte Carlo codes is carried out. A {chi}{sup 2}-like statistical test is proposed for these comparisons. PENELOPE and GEANT4 show a reasonable agreement for all energies analyzed and distances to the source larger than 1cm. Significant differences are found at distances from the source up to 1cm. A similar situation occurs between PENELOPE and EGS4.

  3. OpinionFlow: Visual Analysis of Opinion Diffusion on Social Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yingcai; Liu, Shixia; Yan, Kai; Liu, Mengchen; Wu, Fangzhao

    2014-12-01

    It is important for many different applications such as government and business intelligence to analyze and explore the diffusion of public opinions on social media. However, the rapid propagation and great diversity of public opinions on social media pose great challenges to effective analysis of opinion diffusion. In this paper, we introduce a visual analysis system called OpinionFlow to empower analysts to detect opinion propagation patterns and glean insights. Inspired by the information diffusion model and the theory of selective exposure, we develop an opinion diffusion model to approximate opinion propagation among Twitter users. Accordingly, we design an opinion flow visualization that combines a Sankey graph with a tailored density map in one view to visually convey diffusion of opinions among many users. A stacked tree is used to allow analysts to select topics of interest at different levels. The stacked tree is synchronized with the opinion flow visualization to help users examine and compare diffusion patterns across topics. Experiments and case studies on Twitter data demonstrate the effectiveness and usability of OpinionFlow.

  4. Opinion Integration and Summarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yue

    2011-01-01

    As Web 2.0 applications become increasingly popular, more and more people express their opinions on the Web in various ways in real time. Such wide coverage of topics and abundance of users make the Web an extremely valuable source for mining people's opinions about all kinds of topics. However, since the opinions are usually expressed as…

  5. Explaining opinion polarisation with opinion copulas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askitas, Nikolaos

    2017-01-01

    An empirically founded and widely established driving force in opinion dynamics is homophily i.e. the tendency of "birds of a feather" to "flock together". The closer our opinions are the more likely it is that we will interact and converge. Models using these assumptions are called bounded confidence models (BCM) as they assume a tolerance threshold after which interaction is unlikely. They are known to produce one or more clusters, depending on the size of the bound, with more than one cluster being possible only in the deterministic case. Introducing noise, as is likely to happen in a stochastic world, causes BCM to produce consensus which leaves us with the open problem of explaining the emergence and sustainance of opinion clusters and polarisation. We investigate the role of heterogeneous priors in opinion formation, introduce the concept of opinion copulas, argue that it is well supported by findings in Social Psychology and use it to show that the stochastic BCM does indeed produce opinion clustering without the need for extra assumptions.

  6. The public's opinions on a new school meals policy for childhood obesity prevention in the U.S.: A social media analytics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yin; Wang, Youfa; Zhang, Dongsong; Zhou, Lina

    2017-07-01

    This study investigates the public's opinions on a new school meals policy for childhood obesity prevention, discovers aspects concerning those opinions, and identifies possible gender and regional differences in the U.S. We collected 14,317 relevant tweets from 11,715 users since the national policy enactment on Feb 9, 2010 through Dec 31, 2015. We applied opinion mining techniques to classify tweets into positive, negative, and neutral categories, and conducted content analysis to gain insights into aspects of opinions in terms of target, holder, source, and function. There were more negative tweets about the school meals policy than positive ones (16.8% vs. 12.9%), in addition to neutral tweets (70.3%). The main targets for negative opinions were campaign and food, and those for positive opinions were policy and health benefits. The opinion holders represent a wide range of policy stakeholders. The first-hand source dominated the opinions. Statement accounted for the function of most opinions. Females (62.5%) were more involved than males (37.5%), and people in the South and the West regions (64.2%) engaged themselves more than people in the Northeast and the Midwest (35.8%) of the U.S. Negative opinions about the school meals policy consistently outnumbered positive ones. The findings discovered the public's opinions for policy improvement, contributed to the evidence base of health benefits for policy promotion and community collaboration, and revealed interesting gender and regional differences in the opinions. The social media analytics offers significant methodological implications for discovering the public opinions on food policies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Information Filtering Based on Users' Negative Opinions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qiang; Li, Yang; Liu, Jian-Guo

    2013-05-01

    The process of heat conduction (HC) has recently found application in the information filtering [Zhang et al., Phys. Rev. Lett.99, 154301 (2007)], which is of high diversity but low accuracy. The classical HC model predicts users' potential interested objects based on their interesting objects regardless to the negative opinions. In terms of the users' rating scores, we present an improved user-based HC (UHC) information model by taking into account users' positive and negative opinions. Firstly, the objects rated by users are divided into positive and negative categories, then the predicted interesting and dislike object lists are generated by the UHC model. Finally, the recommendation lists are constructed by filtering out the dislike objects from the interesting lists. By implementing the new model based on nine similarity measures, the experimental results for MovieLens and Netflix datasets show that the new model considering negative opinions could greatly enhance the accuracy, measured by the average ranking score, from 0.049 to 0.036 for Netflix and from 0.1025 to 0.0570 for Movielens dataset, reduced by 26.53% and 44.39%, respectively. Since users prefer to give positive ratings rather than negative ones, the negative opinions contain much more information than the positive ones, the negative opinions, therefore, are very important for understanding users' online collective behaviors and improving the performance of HC model.

  8. Foreign Policy: Public Opinion and Political Legacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Aaron T.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available To the degree that public opinion, as domestic variable, influences a leaders decision-making in the area of foreign affairs is significant. Political leaders use public opinion polling to support government position or in attempts to mold policy position(s in the affirmative. The following article investigates how public opinion affects U.S. presidential foreign policy decisions and to the degree those decisions are the base for political legacy. The theoretical argument is that domestic variables and leaders decisions often act in mutual support of each others in complementary interests and when not the case, it is the leader whose agenda setting or creating a frame impacts public opinion.

  9. Do Others’ Opinion Matter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Fei; Xiao, Bo Sophia; Lim, Eric T. K.

    2016-01-01

    rating and opinionated review, consumers can perceive cognitive dissonance between the former and the latter. This cognitive dissonance can hinder the formation of consumers’ trust and compel them to resolve the conflict. Guided by confirmation bias theory, we propose that, to maintain trusting beliefs...... when experiencing dissonance in e-WOM, male consumers value opinionated review over numerical rating and vice versa for their female counterparts. The results of our field survey on a custom developed website with 115 college students empirically validated our hypothesized relationships and also...... unveiled male’s general bias towards opinionated review. Our findings can contribute to both research and practice....

  10. OPINION GIVING SERVICES AS A SOURCE OF CONSUMER INFORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Wyrwisz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article is to determine the place and role of opinion giving services in consumer behaviours. The discussion is conducted around the thesis saying that in the information society, opinion giving services constitute an important source of information for consumers in the process of selecting and purchasing both products and services. In the article the research approach based on the theoretical and empirical examinations was presented. The discussion starts with presenting a defi nition and types of opinion giving services which constitute the base for the characteristics of activities and usefulness of web portals collecting consumers opinions. The use of opinion giving services provided in the purchase process was evaluated. An essential interest in other consumers opinions, placed in Internet, was observed together with perceiving them as credible. Positive assessment of the functionality of opinion giving services was noticed.

  11. Public Opinion Polling with Twitter

    CERN Document Server

    Cody, Emily M; Dodds, Peter Sheridan; Danforth, Christopher M

    2016-01-01

    Solicited public opinion surveys reach a limited subpopulation of willing participants and are expensive to conduct, leading to poor time resolution and a restricted pool of expert-chosen survey topics. In this study, we demonstrate that unsolicited public opinion polling through sentiment analysis applied to Twitter correlates well with a range of traditional measures, and has predictive power for issues of global importance. We also examine Twitter's potential to canvas topics seldom surveyed, including ideas, personal feelings, and perceptions of commercial enterprises. Two of our major observations are that appropriately filtered Twitter sentiment (1) predicts President Obama's job approval three months in advance, and (2) correlates well with surveyed consumer sentiment. To make possible a full examination of our work and to enable others' research, we make public over 10,000 data sets, each a seven-year series of daily word counts for tweets containing a frequently used search term.

  12. Geriatric assessment in daily oncology practice for nurses and allied health care professionals: Opinion paper of the Nursing and Allied Health Interest Group of the International Society of Geriatric Oncology (SIOG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burhenn, Peggy S; McCarthy, Alexandra L; Begue, Aaron; Nightingale, Ginah; Cheng, Karis; Kenis, Cindy

    2016-09-01

    The management of older persons with cancer has become a major public health concern in developed countries because of the aging of the population and the steady increase in cancer incidence with advancing age. Nurses and allied health care professionals are challenged to address the needs of this growing population. The International Society of Geriatric Oncology (SIOG) Nursing and Allied Health (NAH) Interest Group described key issues that nurses and allied health care professionals face when caring for older persons with cancer. The domains of the Geriatric Assessment (GA) are used as a guiding framework. The following geriatric domains are described: demographic data and social support, functional status, cognition, mental health, nutritional status, fatigue, comorbidities, polypharmacy, and other geriatric syndromes (e.g. falls, delirium). In addition to these geriatric domains, quality of life (QoL) is described based on the overall importance in this particular population. Advice for integration of assessment of these geriatric domains into daily oncology practice is made. Research has mainly focused on the role of treating physicians but the involvement of nurses and allied health care professionals is crucial in the care of older persons with cancer through the GA process. The ability of nurses and allied health care professionals to perform this assessment requires specialized training and education beyond standard oncology knowledge. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. PageRank model of opinion formation on social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandiah, Vivek; Shepelyansky, Dima L.

    2012-11-01

    We propose the PageRank model of opinion formation and investigate its rich properties on real directed networks of the Universities of Cambridge and Oxford, LiveJournal, and Twitter. In this model, the opinion formation of linked electors is weighted with their PageRank probability. Such a probability is used by the Google search engine for ranking of web pages. We find that the society elite, corresponding to the top PageRank nodes, can impose its opinion on a significant fraction of the society. However, for a homogeneous distribution of two opinions, there exists a bistability range of opinions which depends on a conformist parameter characterizing the opinion formation. We find that the LiveJournal and Twitter networks have a stronger tendency to a totalitarian opinion formation than the university networks. We also analyze the Sznajd model generalized for scale-free networks with the weighted PageRank vote of electors.

  14. Comparative Opinion Mining: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Varathan, Kasturi Dewi; Giachanou, Anastasia; Crestani, Fabio

    2017-01-01

    Opinion mining refers to the use of natural language processing, text analysis and computational linguistics to identify and extract subjective information in textual material. Opinion mining, also known as sentiment analysis, has received a lot of attention in recent times, as it provides a number of tools to analyse the public opinion on a number of different topics. Comparative opinion mining is a subfield of opinion mining that deals with identifying and extracting information that is exp...

  15. Topological evolution of the internet public opinion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Ying; Dong, Xuefan; Liu, Yijun

    2017-11-01

    The Internet forms a platform featured with high liquidity, accessibility and concealment for the public to express their respective views on certain events, thus leading to a large network graph. Due to such environmental features, the public opinions formed on the Internet are different from those on traditional media. Studies focusing on the former area are relatively fewer. In addition, the majority of existing methods proposed for constructing the Internet public opinion topological structure are based on the classic BA model, thus resulting in drawbacks in the range of simplicity and a lack of strict deduction. Therefore, based on the complex networks theory, a model applied to describe the topology of the Internet public opinion is deduced with rigorous derivation in the present paper. Results show that the proposed expression could well reflect the degree distribution of Internet public opinion which follows an analogous power law distribution, and that the peak value and the degree distribution are not correlative to each other. Moreover, it has been also proved that compared to the classic BA model, the proposed model has better accuracy performance in the description of the degree distribution of the Internet public opinion, which contributes to future studies focusing on this area. Thus, an attempt has been made to give the first theoretical description of the Internet public opinion topology in the present paper. In addition, it is also the first paper focusing on the solution of networks degree distribution with an exponential growth form.

  16. Issue-Relevant Values and Opinions About Gay Rights: Beyond Equality and Morality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodebeck, Laurie

    2018-01-01

    Although many studies have examined the role of values in shaping public opinion, the number of values that inform this research is limited. This article employs the concept of issue-relevant values as a means to explore the broader range of values associated with policy issues. After discussing the concept in general terms, the article explores issue-relevant values pertinent to public opinion about gay rights. Using the policy examples of employment nondiscrimination and same-sex couple adoption, the present study identifies, measures, and assesses several values that add to the very short list previously used to explain public opinion about gay rights issues. Content from interest-group Web sites and news media coverage of the two issues aided in identifying the values. Data from an original Internet survey yield valid measures of the values. Multivariate analyses indicate that the values behave in predictable ways: they are strongly influenced by partisanship, and they strongly affect opinions about the two issues. The performance of the values is consistent with findings from previous research on the partisan basis of values and the value-based nature of opinions. The article concludes with suggestions for further empirical and theoretical work that could apply and extend the concept of issue-relevant values.

  17. WEEKLY BULLETIN : WE ARE INTERESTED IN YOUR OPINION !

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The Weekly Bulletin publication team has prepared a questionnaire that finally allows you to say all you think, good or bad, about CERN's in-house journal. The aim of this survey is to improve the Bulletin and make it more readable and more practical. In short, we want it to be more useful to you! We will be publishing the results of this survey in a few weeks' time. Between now and then we invite you to fill out the web form, or the form just before the last page of this issue. Just 5 minutes of your time!

  18. Anisotropic opinion dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neirotti, Juan

    2016-07-01

    We consider the process of opinion formation in a society of interacting agents, where there is a set B of socially accepted rules. In this scenario, we observed that agents, represented by simple feed-forward, adaptive neural networks, may have a conservative attitude (mostly in agreement with B ) or liberal attitude (mostly in agreement with neighboring agents) depending on how much their opinions are influenced by their peers. The topology of the network representing the interaction of the society's members is determined by a graph, where the agents' properties are defined over the vertexes and the interagent interactions are defined over the bonds. The adaptability of the agents allows us to model the formation of opinions as an online learning process, where agents learn continuously as new information becomes available to the whole society (online learning). Through the application of statistical mechanics techniques we deduced a set of differential equations describing the dynamics of the system. We observed that by slowly varying the average peer influence in such a way that the agents attitude changes from conservative to liberal and back, the average social opinion develops a hysteresis cycle. Such hysteretic behavior disappears when the variance of the social influence distribution is large enough. In all the cases studied, the change from conservative to liberal behavior is characterized by the emergence of conservative clusters, i.e., a closed knitted set of society members that follow a leader who agrees with the social status quo when the rule B is challenged.

  19. Modelling opinion formation driven communities in social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iñiguez, Gerardo; Barrio, Rafael A.; Kertész, János; Kaski, Kimmo K.

    2011-09-01

    In a previous paper we proposed a model to study the dynamics of opinion formation in human societies by a co-evolution process involving two distinct time scales of fast transaction and slower network evolution dynamics. In the transaction dynamics we take into account short range interactions as discussions between individuals and long range interactions to describe the attitude to the overall mood of society. The latter is handled by a uniformly distributed parameter α, assigned randomly to each individual, as quenched personal bias. The network evolution dynamics is realised by rewiring the societal network due to state variable changes as a result of transaction dynamics. The main consequence of this complex dynamics is that communities emerge in the social network for a range of values in the ratio between time scales. In this paper we focus our attention on the attitude parameter α and its influence on the conformation of opinion and the size of the resulting communities. We present numerical studies and extract interesting features of the model that can be interpreted in terms of social behaviour.

  20. 29 CFR 1601.91 - Request for title VII interpretation or opinion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Request for title VII interpretation or opinion. 1601.91... PROCEDURAL REGULATIONS Title VII Interpretations and Opinions by the Commission § 1601.91 Request for title VII interpretation or opinion. Any interested person desiring a written title VII interpretation or...

  1. Expert opinion vs. empirical evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Herman, Rod A.; Raybould, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Expert opinion is often sought by government regulatory agencies when there is insufficient empirical evidence to judge the safety implications of a course of action. However, it can be reckless to continue following expert opinion when a preponderance of evidence is amassed that conflicts with this opinion. Factual evidence should always trump opinion in prioritizing the information that is used to guide regulatory policy. Evidence-based medicine has seen a dramatic upturn in recent years sp...

  2. Political opinion formation: Initial opinion distribution and individual heterogeneity of tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Cheng; Li, Yifu; Jin, Xiaogang

    2017-02-01

    Opinion dynamics on networks have received serious attention for its profound prospects in social behaviours and self-organized systems. However, political opinion formation, as one typical and significant case, remains lacking in discussion. Previous agent-based simulations propose various models that are based on different mechanisms like the coevolution between network topology and status transition. Nonetheless, even under the same network topology and with the same simple mechanism, forming opinions can still be uncertain. In this work, we propose two features, the initial distribution of opinions and the individual heterogeneity of tolerances on opinion changing, in political opinion formation. These two features are imbedded in the network construction phase of a classical model. By comparing multi simple-party systems, along with a detailed analysis on the two-party system, we capture the critical phenomenon of fragmentation, polarization and consensus both in the persistent stable stage and in-process. We further introduce the average ratio of nearest neighbours to characterize the stage of opinion formation. The results show that the initial distribution of opinions leads to different evolution results on similar random networks. In addition, the existence of stubborn nodes plays a special role: only nodes that are extremely stubborn can cause the change of final opinion distribution while in other cases they only delay the time to reach stability. If stubborn nodes are small in number, their effects are confined within a small range. This theoretical work goes deeper on an existing model, it is an early exploration on qualitative and quantitative simulation of party competition.

  3. Extracting Gamers' Opinions from Reviews

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sirbu, Dorinela; Secui, Ana; Dascalu, Mihai; Crossley, Scott; Ruseti, Stefan; Trausan-Matu, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Opinion mining and sentiment analysis are a trending research domain in Natural Language Processing focused on automatically extracting subjective information, feelings, opinions, ideas or emotions from texts. Our study is centered on identifying sentiments and opinions, as well as other latent

  4. On the opinion formation of mobile agents with memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunhong; Liu, Qipeng; Wang, Zhenling; Zhang, Siying

    2018-02-01

    This paper studies the opinion formation problem in a group of mobile agents using a multi-agent modeling method. Suppose that all agents move in a two-dimensional space following a certain rule. The interaction range of each agent is determined by its physical location and its opinion similarity with other agents. Moreover, agents have memory of the opinions of their previous interactive neighbors. We investigate the influence of three factors on the formation of group opinion: moving probability, interactive radius, and population density. Using simulations, we find that an opinion consensus can be achieved easily under a small moving probability and a small interactive radius, which is a relatively counterintuitive phenomenon. We also find that a large interactive radius or the model with memory can facilitate the convergence of opinions in a group to either consensus or clusters.

  5. Practical problems in aggregating expert opinions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booker, J.M.; Picard, R.R.; Meyer, M.A.

    1993-11-01

    Expert opinion is data given by a qualified person in response to a technical question. In these analyses, expert opinion provides information where other data are either sparse or non-existent. Improvements in forecasting result from the advantageous addition of expert opinion to observed data in many areas, such as meteorology and econometrics. More generally, analyses of large, complex systems often involve experts on various components of the system supplying input to a decision process; applications include such wide-ranging areas as nuclear reactor safety, management science, and seismology. For large or complex applications, no single expert may be knowledgeable enough about the entire application. In other problems, decision makers may find it comforting that a consensus or aggregation of opinions is usually better than a single opinion. Many risk and reliability studies require a single estimate for modeling, analysis, reporting, and decision making purposes. For problems with large uncertainties, the strategy of combining as diverse a set of experts as possible hedges against underestimation of that uncertainty. Decision makers are frequently faced with the task of selecting the experts and combining their opinions. However, the aggregation is often the responsibility of an analyst. Whether the decision maker or the analyst does the aggregation, the input for it, such as providing weights for experts or estimating other parameters, is imperfect owing to a lack of omniscience. Aggregation methods for expert opinions have existed for over thirty years; yet many of the difficulties with their use remain unresolved. The bulk of these problem areas are summarized in the sections that follow: sensitivities of results to assumptions, weights for experts, correlation of experts, and handling uncertainties. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the sources of these problems and describe their effects on aggregation.

  6. An Investigation of the Intellectual Structure of Opinion Mining Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yongjun; Kim, Meen Chul; Chen, Chaomei

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Opinion mining has been receiving increasing attention from a broad range of scientific communities since early 2000s. The present study aims to systematically investigate the intellectual structure of opinion mining research. Method: Using topic search, citation expansion, and patent search, we collected 5,596 bibliographic records…

  7. Opinion strength influences the spatial dynamics of opinion formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgaertner, Bert O; Tyson, Rebecca T; Krone, Stephen M

    2016-01-01

    Opinions are rarely binary; they can be held with different degrees of conviction, and this expanded attitude spectrum can affect the influence one opinion has on others. Our goal is to understand how different aspects of influence lead to recognizable spatio-temporal patterns of opinions and their strengths. To do this, we introduce a stochastic spatial agent-based model of opinion dynamics that includes a spectrum of opinion strengths and various possible rules for how the opinion strength of one individual affects the influence that this individual has on others. Through simulations, we find that even a small amount of amplification of opinion strength through interaction with like-minded neighbors can tip the scales in favor of polarization and deadlock.

  8. Travel opinion leaders and seekers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yoo, Kyung-Hyan; Gretzel, Ulrike; Zach, Florian

    2011-01-01

    While opinion leadership has been recognized as important in tourism, there has been very little empirical research investigating the phenomenon. Given new developments in social media technologies, it is especially important to understand whether travel opinion leadership and seeking are drivers...... of specific social media perceptions and behaviours. Based on an online survey of US online travellers, this paper seeks to identify travel opinion leaders and seekers and their characteristics. Further, the research conducted investigated linkages between travel opinion leadership/seeking and travel social...... media use. The findings suggest that travel opinion leadership and seeking are distinct but connected. Both opinion leaders and seekers are technology savvy, young, educated, involved in travel planning and engaged in social media use for travel. What distinguishes opinion leaders is their greater...

  9. Opinion leadership types or continuous opinion leadership traits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnambs, Timo

    2017-07-04

    Opinion leadership is typically conceptualised as a continuous personality trait. However, many authors adhere to the view of qualitatively different opinion leadership types and apply arbitrary criteria to split continuous trait scores into two groups (i.e., opinion leaders vs. non-leaders). The present study is the first to empirically evaluate this approach. A sample of N = 3812 adults (67% women) was administered a validated opinion leadership scale. Finite mixture models examined whether the latent trait distribution can be represented by a set of discrete trait levels that reflected distinct opinion leadership types. The results did not give support to a discrete typology that distinguished leaders from non-leaders. Rather, opinion leadership was best characterised as a continuous trait. © 2017 International Union of Psychological Science.

  10. [Advance directives. Representatives' opinions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busquets I Font, J M; Hernando Robles, P; Font I Canals, R; Diestre Ortin, G; Quintana, S

    The use and usefulness of Advance Directives has led to a lot of controversy about their validity and effectiveness. Those areas are unexplored in our country from the perspective of representatives. To determine the opinion of the representatives appointed in a registered Statement of Advance Directives (SAD) on the use of this document. Telephone survey of representatives of 146 already dead people and who, since February 2012, had registered a SAD document. More the two-thirds (98) of respondents recalled that the SAD was consulted, with 86 (58.9%) saying that their opinion as representative was consulted, and 120 (82.1%) believe that the patient's will was respected. Of those interviewed, 102 (69.9%) believe that patients who had previously planned their care using a SAD had a good death, with 33 (22.4%) saying it could have been better, and 10 (6.9%) believe they suffered greatly. The SAD were mostly respected and consulted, and possibly this is related to the fact that most of the representatives declare that the death of those they represented was perceived as comfortable. It would be desirable to conduct further studies addressed at health personnel in order to know their perceptions regarding the use of Advance Directives in the process of dying. Copyright © 2016 SECA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. An Opinion Interactive Model Based on Individual Persuasiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xin; Chen, Bin; Liu, Liang; Ma, Liang; Qiu, Xiaogang

    2015-01-01

    In order to study the formation process of group opinion in real life, we put forward a new opinion interactive model based on Deffuant model and its improved models in this paper because current models of opinion dynamics lack considering individual persuasiveness. Our model has following advantages: firstly persuasiveness is added to individual's attributes reflecting the importance of persuasiveness, which means that all the individuals are different from others; secondly probability is introduced in the course of interaction which simulates the uncertainty of interaction. In Monte Carlo simulation experiments, sensitivity analysis including the influence of randomness, initial persuasiveness distribution, and number of individuals is studied at first; what comes next is that the range of common opinion based on the initial persuasiveness distribution can be predicted. Simulation experiment results show that when the initial values of agents are fixed, no matter how many times independently replicated experiments, the common opinion will converge at a certain point; however the number of iterations will not always be the same; the range of common opinion can be predicted when initial distribution of opinion and persuasiveness are given. As a result, this model can reflect and interpret some phenomena of opinion interaction in realistic society.

  12. Expert opinion vs. empirical evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Rod A; Raybould, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Expert opinion is often sought by government regulatory agencies when there is insufficient empirical evidence to judge the safety implications of a course of action. However, it can be reckless to continue following expert opinion when a preponderance of evidence is amassed that conflicts with this opinion. Factual evidence should always trump opinion in prioritizing the information that is used to guide regulatory policy. Evidence-based medicine has seen a dramatic upturn in recent years spurred by examples where evidence indicated that certain treatments recommended by expert opinions increased death rates. We suggest that scientific evidence should also take priority over expert opinion in the regulation of genetically modified crops (GM). Examples of regulatory data requirements that are not justified based on the mass of evidence are described, and it is suggested that expertise in risk assessment should guide evidence-based regulation of GM crops. PMID:24637724

  13. Social judgment theory based model on opinion formation, polarization and evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, H. F.; Wong, C. Y.; Chow, F. K.; Fung, Chi-Hang Fred

    2014-12-01

    The dynamical origin of opinion polarization in the real world is an interesting topic that physical scientists may help to understand. To properly model the dynamics, the theory must be fully compatible with findings by social psychologists on microscopic opinion change. Here we introduce a generic model of opinion formation with homogeneous agents based on the well-known social judgment theory in social psychology by extending a similar model proposed by Jager and Amblard. The agents’ opinions will eventually cluster around extreme and/or moderate opinions forming three phases in a two-dimensional parameter space that describes the microscopic opinion response of the agents. The dynamics of this model can be qualitatively understood by mean-field analysis. More importantly, first-order phase transition in opinion distribution is observed by evolving the system under a slow change in the system parameters, showing that punctuated equilibria in public opinion can occur even in a fully connected social network.

  14. Influential opinion leaders

    OpenAIRE

    Steiner, Jakub; Stewart, Colin

    2010-01-01

    We present a two-stage coordination game in which early choices of experts with special interests are observed by followers who move in the second stage. We show that the equilibrium outcome is biased toward the experts' interests even though followers know the distribution of expert interests and account for it when evaluating observed experts' actions. Expert influence is fully decentralized in the sense that each individual expert has a negligible impact. The bias in favor of experts resul...

  15. Your opinion counts

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    The Human Resources Department will soon be launching an opinion poll for CERN staff members In his message to the CERN personnel, the new Director-General said "My New Year’s resolution involves managing CERN in a participative, democratic and inclusive manner". In the same spirit, the Human Resources (HR) Department plans to develop new channels of communication with CERN personnel. Dialogue is not always easy in an organization the size of CERN and, with this, its first survey, HR hopes to contribute towards it. In March this year, the HR Department will be sending an on-line questionnaire to all staff, giving you the opportunity to comment on your personal experiences of working life at CERN, your expectations and your commitment to the Organization. The initiative is the brainchild of the Head of the HR Department, Enrico Chiaveri, and the Deputy Department Head, Anne-Sylvie Catherin. A...

  16. GEOGRAPHY HOMEWORK. STUDENTS’ OPINIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius-Alin NICOLAE

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The topic of homework is constantly brought into discussion, not only by researchers or curriculum designers, but also by students, teachers and parents, its importance for learning quality being generally recognised. The present study aims to identify the views of a sample of 30 students from a high school with a vocational profile (economic. Their opinions are related to some aspects referring to the Geography homework: attractiveness, content (the types of tasks, the usefulness of homework in learning Geography, time spent by students in doing their homework, working methods, etc. Data were collected using a 30-item questionnaire. The responses received from the students acknowledge the importance of homework in the process of learning Geography.

  17. Opinion Formation by Social Influence: From Experiments to Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacoma, Andrés; Zanette, Damián H

    2015-01-01

    Predicting different forms of collective behavior in human populations, as the outcome of individual attitudes and their mutual influence, is a question of major interest in social sciences. In particular, processes of opinion formation have been theoretically modeled on the basis of a formal similarity with the dynamics of certain physical systems, giving rise to an extensive collection of mathematical models amenable to numerical simulation or even to exact solution. Empirical ground for these models is however largely missing, which confine them to the level of mere metaphors of the real phenomena they aim at explaining. In this paper we present results of an experiment which quantifies the change in the opinions given by a subject on a set of specific matters under the influence of others. The setup is a variant of a recently proposed experiment, where the subject's confidence on his or her opinion was evaluated as well. In our realization, which records the quantitative answers of 85 subjects to 20 questions before and after an influence event, the focus is put on characterizing the change in answers and confidence induced by such influence. Similarities and differences with the previous version of the experiment are highlighted. We find that confidence changes are to a large extent independent of any other recorded quantity, while opinion changes are strongly modulated by the original confidence. On the other hand, opinion changes are not influenced by the initial difference with the reference opinion. The typical time scales on which opinion varies are moreover substantially longer than those of confidence change. Experimental results are then used to estimate parameters for a dynamical agent-based model of opinion formation in a large population. In the context of the model, we study the convergence to full consensus and the effect of opinion leaders on the collective distribution of opinions.

  18. Media Securitization and Public Opinion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roslyng-Jensen, Palle

    2015-01-01

    Pressedebatten om placering af og godkendelse af nye NATO-mellemdistanceraketter i Vesteuropa set ud fra den politiske debat og den offentlige opinion.......Pressedebatten om placering af og godkendelse af nye NATO-mellemdistanceraketter i Vesteuropa set ud fra den politiske debat og den offentlige opinion....

  19. EDITORIAL: Interesting times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson Honorary Editor, Ken

    1996-01-01

    `May you live in interesting times' - old Chinese curse. First, many thanks to John Avison, the retiring Honorary Editor, for his hard work over the last five years, and the steady development in style and content under his stewardship. I can only hope to live up to the standards that he set. The next five years will take us into a new millenium, an event preceded - in England and Wales at least - by a period of stability, reflection and consolidation in education. Or so we are told - but whether such a self-denying ordinance will actually be maintained by the Government both before and after an election in 1997 remains to be seen. Nevertheless, we shall be thankful for any mercies, however small, that permit forward thinking rather than instant response. One of the things that readers of a journal called Physics Education should be thinking about is the continued decline in the numbers of students studying physics post-16. This is not a purely local phenomenon; most European countries are finding a similar decline. There are exceptions, of course: in Scotland numbers studying physics for Highers are increasing. Is such a decline a good thing or a bad thing? Only a minority of post-16 physics students go on to use the bulk of what they have learned in further studies or vocations. Does a knowledge and understanding of physics contribute to the mental well-being and cultural level - let alone material comfort - of any except those who use physics professionally? Is physics defensible as a contribution to the mental armoury of the educated citizen - compared with chemistry, biology - or Latin, say? Or should one rephrase that last question as `Is physics as we teach it today defensible...?' Such questions, and many others no doubt, may well be in the mind of the new Curriculum Officer appointed by the Institute of Physics `to engage in a wide-ranging consultation throughout the entire physics community on the nature and style of post-16 physics programmes, with a

  20. Your opinion counts

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    Would you say that your work is stimulating? How do you feel about your working environment and working relationships? Are you proud to be part of this Organization? To find the answers to these questions, the Human Resources Department (HR) will be launching, for the first time, a staff member survey. Via an on-line questionnaire, you will have the opportunity to express your opinions about how you see your work, your expectations and your commitment to the Organization. This will promote dialogue at a turning point in CERN’s history with the start-up of the LHC. An HR steering group is now working on the preparation of this survey. A partnership is being developed with a university, which will play an active role in drawing up the questionnaire and will then carry out a confidential and objective analysis of your replies. Your participation will help the Management, in collaboration with HR, to identify action plans in line with the Organization’s aspirations and t...

  1. Opinion dynamics with confirmation bias.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armen E Allahverdyan

    Full Text Available Confirmation bias is the tendency to acquire or evaluate new information in a way that is consistent with one's preexisting beliefs. It is omnipresent in psychology, economics, and even scientific practices. Prior theoretical research of this phenomenon has mainly focused on its economic implications possibly missing its potential connections with broader notions of cognitive science.We formulate a (non-Bayesian model for revising subjective probabilistic opinion of a confirmationally-biased agent in the light of a persuasive opinion. The revision rule ensures that the agent does not react to persuasion that is either far from his current opinion or coincides with it. We demonstrate that the model accounts for the basic phenomenology of the social judgment theory, and allows to study various phenomena such as cognitive dissonance and boomerang effect. The model also displays the order of presentation effect-when consecutively exposed to two opinions, the preference is given to the last opinion (recency or the first opinion (primacy -and relates recency to confirmation bias. Finally, we study the model in the case of repeated persuasion and analyze its convergence properties.The standard Bayesian approach to probabilistic opinion revision is inadequate for describing the observed phenomenology of persuasion process. The simple non-Bayesian model proposed here does agree with this phenomenology and is capable of reproducing a spectrum of effects observed in psychology: primacy-recency phenomenon, boomerang effect and cognitive dissonance. We point out several limitations of the model that should motivate its future development.

  2. Opinion dynamics with confirmation bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allahverdyan, Armen E; Galstyan, Aram

    2014-01-01

    Confirmation bias is the tendency to acquire or evaluate new information in a way that is consistent with one's preexisting beliefs. It is omnipresent in psychology, economics, and even scientific practices. Prior theoretical research of this phenomenon has mainly focused on its economic implications possibly missing its potential connections with broader notions of cognitive science. We formulate a (non-Bayesian) model for revising subjective probabilistic opinion of a confirmationally-biased agent in the light of a persuasive opinion. The revision rule ensures that the agent does not react to persuasion that is either far from his current opinion or coincides with it. We demonstrate that the model accounts for the basic phenomenology of the social judgment theory, and allows to study various phenomena such as cognitive dissonance and boomerang effect. The model also displays the order of presentation effect-when consecutively exposed to two opinions, the preference is given to the last opinion (recency) or the first opinion (primacy) -and relates recency to confirmation bias. Finally, we study the model in the case of repeated persuasion and analyze its convergence properties. The standard Bayesian approach to probabilistic opinion revision is inadequate for describing the observed phenomenology of persuasion process. The simple non-Bayesian model proposed here does agree with this phenomenology and is capable of reproducing a spectrum of effects observed in psychology: primacy-recency phenomenon, boomerang effect and cognitive dissonance. We point out several limitations of the model that should motivate its future development.

  3. Lithuanian public opinion and the EU membership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Dragomir

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available During the early 1990s, following the restoration of independence, Lithuania reoriented in terms of foreign policy towards West. One of the state’s main foreign policy goals became the accession to the EU and NATO. Acknowledging that the ‘opinion of the people’ is a crucial factor in today’s democracy as it is important and necessary for politicians to know and take into consideration the ‘public opinion’, that is the opinion of the people they represent, this paper brings into attention the public support for the political pro-West project. The paper is structured in two main parts. The first one presents in short the politicians’ discourse regarding Lithuania’s accession to the EU and its general ‘returning to Europe’, in the general context of the state’s new foreign policy, while the second part presents the results of different public opinion surveys regarding the same issue. Comparing these two sides, in the end, the paper provides the answer that the Lithuanian people backed the political elites in their European projects. Although, the paper does not represent a breakthrough for the scientific community, its findings could be of interest for those less familiarized with the Lithuanian post-Cold War history, and especially for the Romanian public to whom this journal mainly addresses.

  4. Are extinction opinions extinct?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tamsin E; Bowman, Clive; Roberts, David L

    2017-01-01

    Extinction models vary in the information they require, the simplest considering the rate of certain sightings only. More complicated methods include uncertain sightings and allow for variation in the reliability of uncertain sightings. Generally extinction models require expert opinion, either as a prior belief that a species is extinct, or to establish the quality of a sighting record, or both. Is this subjectivity necessary? We present two models to explore whether the individual quality of sightings, judged by experts, is strongly informative of the probability of extinction: the 'quality breakpoint method' and the 'quality as variance method'. For the first method we use the Barbary lion as an exemplar. For the second method we use the Barbary lion, Alaotra grebe, Jamaican petrel and Pohnpei starling as exemplars. The 'quality breakpoint method' uses certain and uncertain sighting records, and the quality of uncertain records, to establish whether a change point in the rate of sightings can be established using a simultaneous Bayesian optimisation with a non-informative prior. For the Barbary lion, there is a change in subjective quality of sightings around 1930. Unexpectedly sighting quality increases after this date. This suggests that including quality scores from experts can lead to irregular effects and may not offer reliable results. As an alternative, we use quality as a measure of variance around the sightings, not a change in quality. This leads to predictions with larger standard deviations, however the results remain consistent across any prior belief of extinction. Nonetheless, replacing actual quality scores with random quality scores showed little difference, inferring that the quality scores from experts are superfluous. Therefore, we deem the expensive process of obtaining pooled expert estimates as unnecessary, and even when used we recommend that sighting data should have minimal input from experts in terms of assessing the sighting quality

  5. Opinion Dynamics and Wisdom under Conformity

    OpenAIRE

    Buechel, Berno; Hellmann, Tim; Kölßner, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    We present a model of opinion formation where individuals repeatedly engage in discussion and update their opinion in a social network similarly to the DeGroot model. Abstracting from the standard assumption that individuals always report their opinion truthfully, agents in our model may state an opinion that differs from their true opinion. The incentive to do so is induced by agents' preferences for conformity. We model opinion formation as a dynamic process and identify conditions for conv...

  6. How does public opinion become extreme?

    CERN Document Server

    Ramos, Marlon; Reis, Saulo D S; Anteneodo, Celia; Andrade, José S; Havlin, Shlomo; Makse, Hernán A

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the emergence of extreme opinion trends in society by employing statistical physics modeling and analysis on polls that inquire about a wide range of issues such as religion, economics, politics, abortion, extramarital sex, books, movies, and electoral vote. The surveys lay out a clear indicator of the rise of extreme views. The precursor is a nonlinear relation between the fraction of individuals holding a certain extreme view and the fraction of individuals that includes also moderates, e.g., in politics, those who are "very conservative" versus "moderate to very conservative" ones. We propose an activation model of opinion dynamics with interaction rules based on the existence of individual "stubbornness" that mimics empirical observations. According to our modeling, the onset of nonlinearity can be associated to an abrupt bootstrap-percolation transition with cascades of extreme views through society. Therefore, it represents an early-warning signal to forecast the transition from moderate ...

  7. Leader's opinion priority bounded confidence model for network opinion evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Meixia; Xie, Guangqiang

    2017-08-01

    Aiming at the weight of trust someone given to participate in the interaction in Hegselmann-Krause's type consensus model is the same and virtual social networks among individuals with different level of education, personal influence, etc. For differences between agents, a novelty bounded confidence model was proposed with leader's opinion considered priority. Interaction neighbors can be divided into two kinds. The first kind is made up of "opinion leaders" group, another kind is made up of ordinary people. For different groups to give different weights of trust. We also analyzed the related characteristics of the new model under the symmetrical bounded confidence parameters and combined with the classical HK model were analyzed. Simulation experiment results show that no matter the network size and initial view is subject to uniform distribution or discrete distribution. We can control the "opinion-leader" good change the number of views and values, and even improve the convergence speed. Experiment also found that the choice of "opinion leaders" is not the more the better, the model well explain how the "opinion leader" in the process of the evolution of the public opinion play the role of the leader.

  8. [The opinions of employees about smoking in the workplace].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuchowski, Filip; Penar-Zadarko, Beata; Bukała-Siedlecka, Iwona; Binkowska-Bury, Monika

    2009-01-01

    Smoking is now a serious social problem in Poland and abroad. Unfortunately, adverse effects also affect the businesses in which the crews smoke tobacco. For several years a wide-ranging measures aimed at reducing the population of smoking employees can be observed, unfortunately their results are significantly below expectations. What must be noted is that the effectiveness of these projects to a large extent is determined by the opinion of the smoking part of the crew about the problem of smoking in the workplace. The aim of this work was to analyze the opinions of employees about smoking in the workplace. The selection of study group was expedient. The people tested were permanent employees of a large plant in Rzeszow. The research materials were the answers to the questions given to an anonymous survey. The survey contained 21 questions about their opinions to smokers and 17 questions about their opinions to non-smokers. The perception of risks arising from the smoking of tobacco by smokers and non-smokers was asked for, and their expectations towards the company. They were asked also the willingness to join special programs helping in quitting the addiction of smoking. The individuals who smoke at least one cigarette a day were recognized as daily smokers of tobacco (as defined by WHO). Those who used to smoke every day in the past or occasionally were considered as ex-smokers. (less than one cigarette per day). 4200 surveys were distributed in the plant. The filled - in forms with replies were received from 1412 workers, representing 33.6% of questionnaires distributed. All the surveys were put in order and checked on its merits. 1291 were classified as correct, what represented 30.7% of questionnaires distributed. The latest version of the program Statistica 8.0 was used for the statistical calculations. Test results show that 14.9% of employees smoke tobacco, and every third smoker is worried about the consequences of smoking. As far as opinions on the

  9. Communication and common interest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Godfrey-Smith

    Full Text Available Explaining the maintenance of communicative behavior in the face of incentives to deceive, conceal information, or exaggerate is an important problem in behavioral biology. When the interests of agents diverge, some form of signal cost is often seen as essential to maintaining honesty. Here, novel computational methods are used to investigate the role of common interest between the sender and receiver of messages in maintaining cost-free informative signaling in a signaling game. Two measures of common interest are defined. These quantify the divergence between sender and receiver in their preference orderings over acts the receiver might perform in each state of the world. Sampling from a large space of signaling games finds that informative signaling is possible at equilibrium with zero common interest in both senses. Games of this kind are rare, however, and the proportion of games that include at least one equilibrium in which informative signals are used increases monotonically with common interest. Common interest as a predictor of informative signaling also interacts with the extent to which agents' preferences vary with the state of the world. Our findings provide a quantitative description of the relation between common interest and informative signaling, employing exact measures of common interest, information use, and contingency of payoff under environmental variation that may be applied to a wide range of models and empirical systems.

  10. Opinion mining in Dutch Hansards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grijzenhout, S.; Jijkoun, V.; Marx, M.

    2010-01-01

    The question is addressed if opinion mining techniques can be successfully used to automatically retrieve political viewpoints in Dutch parliamentary publications. Two specific tasks are identified: automatically determining subjectivity in the publications and automatically determining the semantic

  11. Framework for Evaluating Camera Opinions

    OpenAIRE

    K.M. Subramanian; Venkatachalam, K

    2015-01-01

    Opinion mining plays a most important role in text mining applications in brand and product positioning, customer relationship management, consumer attitude detection and market research. The applications lead to new generation of companies/products meant for online market perception, online content monitoring and reputation management. Expansion of the web inspires users to contribute/express opinions via blogs, videos and social networking sites. Such platforms provide valuable information ...

  12. Balancer effects in opinion dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Cheon, Taksu

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a novel type of contrarian agent, the balancer, to Galam model of opinion dynamics, in order to account for the skepticism over one-sidedness and for the sense of fairness. We find that the inclusion of balancers along with floaters and inflexibles brings about a critical point on parametric plane of the dynamical system, which results in the new kind of stable final states of the opinion dynamics, that seem to capture several intriguing features found often in mature democracies.

  13. 24 CFR 570.611 - Conflict of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR COMMUNITY PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND... opinion of the recipient's attorney that the interest for which the exception is sought would not violate...

  14. Key Opinion Leaders - SMi's Second Conference Knowledge Leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Vicki L

    2009-12-01

    The Key Opinion Leaders (KOLs) conference, held in London, included topics covering new developments regarding the role of KOLs in the pharmaceutical industry. This conference report highlights selected presentations on insights from KOLs regarding their relationship with drug companies, conflicts of interest and negative aspects of the use of KOLs, and the role of patient advocacy groups.

  15. Opinion Dynamics with Confirmation Bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allahverdyan, Armen E.; Galstyan, Aram

    2014-01-01

    Background Confirmation bias is the tendency to acquire or evaluate new information in a way that is consistent with one's preexisting beliefs. It is omnipresent in psychology, economics, and even scientific practices. Prior theoretical research of this phenomenon has mainly focused on its economic implications possibly missing its potential connections with broader notions of cognitive science. Methodology/Principal Findings We formulate a (non-Bayesian) model for revising subjective probabilistic opinion of a confirmationally-biased agent in the light of a persuasive opinion. The revision rule ensures that the agent does not react to persuasion that is either far from his current opinion or coincides with it. We demonstrate that the model accounts for the basic phenomenology of the social judgment theory, and allows to study various phenomena such as cognitive dissonance and boomerang effect. The model also displays the order of presentation effect–when consecutively exposed to two opinions, the preference is given to the last opinion (recency) or the first opinion (primacy) –and relates recency to confirmation bias. Finally, we study the model in the case of repeated persuasion and analyze its convergence properties. Conclusions The standard Bayesian approach to probabilistic opinion revision is inadequate for describing the observed phenomenology of persuasion process. The simple non-Bayesian model proposed here does agree with this phenomenology and is capable of reproducing a spectrum of effects observed in psychology: primacy-recency phenomenon, boomerang effect and cognitive dissonance. We point out several limitations of the model that should motivate its future development. PMID:25007078

  16. Teachers', Pupils', and Parents' Opinions on Primary Textbooks: Their Selection, Quality and Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalau, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Textbooks' importance and usefulness in primary education is emphasized in the literature. Our interest for this subject was determined by the opinion that, if the textbooks are well-chosen, being taken into account the users' opinions, then the textbook achieves its goal: it becomes not only a source of information and a tool for pupils, but also…

  17. Peer Truth Serum: Incentives for Crowdsourcing Measurements and Opinions

    OpenAIRE

    Faltings, Boi; Jurca, Radu; Radanovic, Goran

    2017-01-01

    Modern decision making tools are based on statistical analysis of abundant data, which is often collected by querying multiple individuals. We consider data collection through crowdsourcing, where independent and self-interested agents, non-experts, report measurements, such as sensor readings, opinions, such as product reviews, or answers to human intelligence tasks. Since the accuracy of information is positively correlated with the effort invested in obtaining it, self-interested agents te...

  18. Current Opinions on Tendinopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaux, Jean-François; Forthomme, Bénédicte; Goff, Caroline Le; Crielaard, Jean-Michel; Croisier, Jean-Louis

    2011-01-01

    Tendinopathy is characterized by pain in the tendon and impaired performance sometimes associated with swelling of the tendon. Its diagnosis is usually clinical but ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging can refine the diagnosis. Tendinopathy is highly prevalent and is one of the most frequently self reported musculoskeletal diseases in physical workers and sports people. Nevertheless, it is very difficult to carry out general epidemiologic studies on tendinopathy because of the varying sports cultures and sports habits in different countries. The aetiology of tendinopathy seems to be multi-factorial, involving intrinsic and extrinsic factors. The role of inflammation is still debated but the absence of inflammatory cells does not mean that inflammatory mediators are not implicated. Different theories have been advanced to explain pain and chronicity mechanisms, but these mechanisms remain largely unknown. “Conventional ”treatments are generally employed empirically to fight pain and inflammation but they do not modify the histological structure of the tendon. However, these treatments are not completely satisfactory and the recurrence of symptoms is common. Currently, eccentric training remains the treatment of choice for tendinopathy, even though some studies are contradictory. Moreover, many interesting new treatments are now being developed to treat tendinopathy, but there is little evidence to support their use in clinical practice. Key points The word “tendinopathy ”is the correct term for the clinical diagnosis of pain accompanied by impaired performance, and sometimes swelling in the tendon. The aetiology of tendinopathy seems to be a multi-factorial process, involving promoting factors that are intrinsic or extrinsic, working either alone or in combination. US (with color Doppler) and MRI are usually prescribed when tendinopathy is unresponsive to treatment and entails lingering symptoms. Eccentric training is currently considered to be the

  19. Sentiment Analysis and Opinion Mining

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Bing

    2012-01-01

    Sentiment analysis and opinion mining is the field of study that analyzes people's opinions, sentiments, evaluations, attitudes, and emotions from written language. It is one of the most active research areas in natural language processing and is also widely studied in data mining, Web mining, and text mining. In fact, this research has spread outside of computer science to the management sciences and social sciences due to its importance to business and society as a whole. The growing importance of sentiment analysis coincides with the growth of social media such as reviews, forum discussions

  20. Public opinion and terrorist acts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malečková, Jitka; Stanišić, Dragana

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 27, Sup. 1 (2011), S107-S121 ISSN 0176-2680 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : support for terrorism * public opinion * international terrorism Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.437, year: 2011

  1. Opinion Summarizationof CustomerComments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Miao; Wu, Guoshi

    Web 2.0 technologies have enabled more and more customers to freely comment on different kinds of entities, such as sellers, products and services. The large scale of information poses the need and challenge of automatic summarization. In many cases, each of the user-generated short comments implies the opinions which rate the target entity. In this paper, we aim to mine and to summarize all the customer comments of a product. The algorithm proposed in this researchis more reliable on opinion identification because it is unsupervised and the accuracy of the result improves as the number of comments increases. Our research is performed in four steps: (1) mining the frequent aspects of a product that have been commented on by customers; (2) mining the infrequent aspects of a product which have been commented by customers (3) identifying opinion words in each comment and deciding whether each opinion word is positive, negative or neutral; (4) summarizing the comments. This paper proposes several novel techniques to perform these tasks. Our experimental results using comments of a number of products sold online demonstrate the effectiveness of the techniques.

  2. EXTENSION WORKERS' OPINIONS REGARDING THE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The primary purpose of the study was to determine extension worker's opinions regarding the influence of the National Maize Competition (NAMCOM) on the farmers' agricultural practices and experiences in the Manzini region. A census population of front-line extension workers in charge of the participating areas in ...

  3. Opinions, Bots, and Public Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiewiura, Joachim Schmidt; Hendricks, Vincent Fella

    2017-01-01

    What is the real distribution of various attitudes or opinions across social media? A lesson from social psychology gives reason to believe that people, with negligible exceptions, assess and navigate socially on the basis of what other people express to believe or know. This is in line with the ...

  4. Gathering Opinions on Depression Information Needs and Preferences: Samples and Opinions in Clinic Versus Web-Based Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Matthew T; Walker, John R; Sexton, Kathryn A; Katz, Alan; Beatie, Brooke E

    2017-04-24

    important. Those who had received or thought they would have benefited in the past from medication treatment saw fewer topics as important. Participants in both groups expressed an interest in receiving information through discussion with a counselor or a physician, through written brochures, or through a recommended website. The recruitment strategies were helpful in obtaining opinions from members of the public with different concerns and perspectives, and the results from the two methods were complementary. Persons coping with emotional distress and individuals not specifically seeking help for depression would be interested in information to answer a wide range of important questions about depression treatment. The Clinic sample yielded more cultural diversity that is a closer match to the population. The Web sample was less costly to recruit and included persons who were most interested in receiving information.

  5. Gathering Opinions on Depression Information Needs and Preferences: Samples and Opinions in Clinic Versus Web-Based Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Matthew T; Sexton, Kathryn A; Katz, Alan; Beatie, Brooke E

    2017-01-01

    past saw more information topics as very important. Those who had received or thought they would have benefited in the past from medication treatment saw fewer topics as important. Participants in both groups expressed an interest in receiving information through discussion with a counselor or a physician, through written brochures, or through a recommended website. Conclusions The recruitment strategies were helpful in obtaining opinions from members of the public with different concerns and perspectives, and the results from the two methods were complementary. Persons coping with emotional distress and individuals not specifically seeking help for depression would be interested in information to answer a wide range of important questions about depression treatment. The Clinic sample yielded more cultural diversity that is a closer match to the population. The Web sample was less costly to recruit and included persons who were most interested in receiving information. PMID:28438729

  6. Students’ opinions about modern lecture: development path

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana A. Astashova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As an objective of the research, the author set the task of identifying students’ opinion and opinion of lecturers about the purpose of the lectures at the university, about the role of the lecturer and preferred form of lectures. As a result of the research, it was necessary to answer the following important questions: What are the objectives of the lecture and the role of the lecturer? Which lectures are more preferable: traditional or interactive? What do lecturers expect from the lecture, do they consider it an advantage or an unnecessary educational activity?The materials were developed for the survey (questionnaire to conduct the research and analyze the results obtained. The students were surveyed before training and after completion of the semester. The study involved 200 students of all areas of Mechanics and Technology Faculty of Novosibirsk State Technical University. Statistical analysis was used for the analysis of the results.As a result, the experiment revealed nonconformity of opinions of students about the purpose of the lecture and the role of a lecturer before the training and after the end of the semester. Lectures, according to students, should help to implement all kinds of practical and independent assignments.Educational standards imply a reduction in the hours of classroom training and an increase in independent work, and the majority of students are not ready (do not want to to study the materials on the topics of discipline completely independently or partially.It revealed a contradiction in opinion, what form of organization of the lecture classes is more interesting to students, which can increase the motivation of the visit and work on the lectures.The technology of designing the educational process in the conditions of the mixed training is proposed, applying the technological map.The technological map is presented in the form of stages of designing the educational process, including recommendations on the use of

  7. Office of the Solicitor Solicitor Opinions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of the Solicitor, Department of the Interior — List of opinions issued by the Department of Interior Office of the Solicitor, organized by opinion number, as a part of decision-making by administrative...

  8. Serbian public opinion on child imagination and its correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksić Slavica

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Child imagination is considered in developmental theories as a desirable precondition for later creative production, though in everyday use, imagination is viewed as fantasy, unreal, not practical and not important. The topic of interest in this paper is public opinion of imagination as the quality that can be encouraged to learn at home and the factors which influence this opinion. The data for the analysis were collected from the Third and Fourth Wave of World Values Survey. The findings suggest that imagination has a very low status among other child qualities which have to be supported. The increase in interest for imagination in the world and in Europe between the Third and Fourth Wave of the survey can indicate larger compliance with the actual demands of educational reform for democratization of education and encouragement of creativity of the young. Stagnation of child imagination status in the opinion of Serbian respondents is understandable in the framework of social crisis which happened at the time when the survey was conducted. The preference of imagination is positively correlated with respondents' postmaterialist orientation and educational level, but negatively with their age. The implications of findings for nurturing creativity in formative period are discussed. It is concluded that the school is invited to offer special programs to compensate for public opinion effects.

  9. Does the weather influence public opinion about climate change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donner, S. D.; McDaniel, J.

    2010-12-01

    Public opinion in North America about the science of anthropogenic climate change and the motivation for policy action has been variable over the past twenty years. The trends in public opinion over time have been attributed the general lack of pressing public concern about climate change to a range of political, economic and psychological factors. One driving force behind the variability in polling data from year to year may be the weather itself. The difference between what we “expect” - the climate - and what we “get” - the weather - can be a major source of confusion and obfuscation in the public discourse about climate change. For example, reaction to moderate global temperatures in 2007 and 2008 may have helped prompt the spread of a “global cooling” meme in the public and the news media. At the same time, a decrease in the belief in the science of climate change and the need for action has been noted in opinion polls. This study analyzes the relationship between public opinion about climate change and the weather in the U.S. since the mid-1980s using historical polling data from several major organizations (e.g. Gallup, Pew, Harris Interactive, ABC News), historical monthly air temperature (NCDC) and a survey of opinion articles from major U.S. newspapers (Washington Post, New York Times, Wall Street Journal, Houston Chronicle, USA Today). Seasonal and annual monthly temperature anomalies for the northeastern U.S and the continental U.S are compared with available national opinion data for three general categories of questions: i) Is the climate warming?, ii) Is the observed warming due to human activity?, and iii) Are you concerned about climate change? The variability in temperature and public opinion over time is also compared with the variability in the fraction of opinion articles in the newspapers (n ~ 7000) which express general agreement or disagreement with IPCC Summary for Policymakers consensus statements on climate change (“most of

  10. Galen. On My Own Opinions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny Afonasin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Galen’s last work, De propriis placitis (On my own opinions has a very complex textual history. Except to few extracts, the Greek original of the treatise is lost. The last two chapters of the treatise, entitled On the substance of natural faculties, circulated independently in a fourteenth century translation into Latin by Niccolò da Reggio. The main body of treatise is preserved in a medieval Latin translation made from an Arabic translation (as numerous words, transliterated from the Arabic, testify. There is also a quote in Hebrew. Fortunately, some time ago V. Nutton (1999 published an excellent commented edition of the treatise. It was proven indispensable for the present study, as well as a recent publication of a newly discovered Greek text by Boudon-Millot and Pietrobelli (2005. The treatise, important for understanding of Galen’s various opinions, certainly deserves a close study. It is now translated into the Russian for the first time.

  11. Nursing opinion leadership: a preliminary model derived from philosophic theories of rational belief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Christine A; Whall, Ann L

    2013-10-01

    Opinion leaders are informal leaders who have the ability to influence others' decisions about adopting new products, practices or ideas. In the healthcare setting, the importance of translating new research evidence into practice has led to interest in understanding how opinion leaders could be used to speed this process. Despite continued interest, gaps in understanding opinion leadership remain. Agent-based models are computer models that have proven to be useful for representing dynamic and contextual phenomena such as opinion leadership. The purpose of this paper is to describe the work conducted in preparation for the development of an agent-based model of nursing opinion leadership. The aim of this phase of the model development project was to clarify basic assumptions about opinions, the individual attributes of opinion leaders and characteristics of the context in which they are effective. The process used to clarify these assumptions was the construction of a preliminary nursing opinion leader model, derived from philosophical theories about belief formation. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. What is a leader of opinion formation in bounded confidence models?

    CERN Document Server

    Kurmyshev, E

    2013-01-01

    Taking a decision in democratic social groups is based on the opinion of the majority or on the consensus. So, the study of opinion dynamics is of great interest in analyzing social phenomena. Among the different models of opinion dynamics, bounded confidence models have been studied in different contexts and shown interesting dynamics [1-3]. In [E. Kurmyshev, H.A. Ju\\'arez, and R.A. Gonz\\'alez-Silva, Phys. A 390, 16 (2011)] we proposed a new bounded confidence model and studied the self-formation of opinion in heterogeneous societies composed by agents of two psychological types, concord (C-) and partial antagonism (PA-) agents. In this work we study the influence of "leaders" on the clustering of opinions. Mixed C/PA-societies along with the pure C- and PA-society are studied. The influence of the leader's connectivity in the network, his toughness or tolerance and his opinion on the opinion dynamics is studied as a function of the initial opinion uncertainty (tolerance) of the population. Numerical results...

  13. Elite Polarization and Public Opinion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robison, Joshua; Mullinix, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Elite polarization has reshaped American politics and is an increasingly salient aspect of news coverage within the United States. As a consequence, a burgeoning body of research attempts to unravel the effects of elite polarization on the mass public. However, we know very little about how polar...... of the consequences of elite polarization—and how polarization is communicated—for public opinion and political behavior in democratic politics....

  14. How does public opinion become extreme?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Marlon; Shao, Jia; Reis, Saulo D S; Anteneodo, Celia; Andrade, José S; Havlin, Shlomo; Makse, Hernán A

    2015-05-19

    We investigate the emergence of extreme opinion trends in society by employing statistical physics modeling and analysis on polls that inquire about a wide range of issues such as religion, economics, politics, abortion, extramarital sex, books, movies, and electoral vote. The surveys lay out a clear indicator of the rise of extreme views. The precursor is a nonlinear relation between the fraction of individuals holding a certain extreme view and the fraction of individuals that includes also moderates, e.g., in politics, those who are "very conservative" versus "moderate to very conservative" ones. We propose an activation model of opinion dynamics with interaction rules based on the existence of individual "stubbornness" that mimics empirical observations. According to our modeling, the onset of nonlinearity can be associated to an abrupt bootstrap-percolation transition with cascades of extreme views through society. Therefore, it represents an early-warning signal to forecast the transition from moderate to extreme views. Moreover, by means of a phase diagram we can classify societies according to the percolative regime they belong to, in terms of critical fractions of extremists and people's ties.

  15. How does public opinion become extreme?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Marlon; Shao, Jia; Reis, Saulo D. S.; Anteneodo, Celia; Andrade, José S.; Havlin, Shlomo; Makse, Hernán A.

    2015-05-01

    We investigate the emergence of extreme opinion trends in society by employing statistical physics modeling and analysis on polls that inquire about a wide range of issues such as religion, economics, politics, abortion, extramarital sex, books, movies, and electoral vote. The surveys lay out a clear indicator of the rise of extreme views. The precursor is a nonlinear relation between the fraction of individuals holding a certain extreme view and the fraction of individuals that includes also moderates, e.g., in politics, those who are “very conservative” versus “moderate to very conservative” ones. We propose an activation model of opinion dynamics with interaction rules based on the existence of individual “stubbornness” that mimics empirical observations. According to our modeling, the onset of nonlinearity can be associated to an abrupt bootstrap-percolation transition with cascades of extreme views through society. Therefore, it represents an early-warning signal to forecast the transition from moderate to extreme views. Moreover, by means of a phase diagram we can classify societies according to the percolative regime they belong to, in terms of critical fractions of extremists and people’s ties.

  16. Opinion

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    raoul

    23 mai 2011 ... coût due au fait que ces prestations de services ont lieu en milieu rural ou dans des zones faiblement peuplées. De même en Ouganda, les allocations de ressources aux districts dans le cadre du budget pour les soins de santé primaire prennent en compte l'indice de développement humain et le niveau ...

  17. Opinion

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2012-07-24

    Jul 24, 2012 ... response to errors. This article identifies the peculiar socioeconomic and cultural challenges that may hinder disclosure and proposes strategies for instituting disclosure of errors and adverse events services in Sub-Saharan Africa. Pan African Medical Journal. 2012; 12:82. This article is available online at: ...

  18. Opinion

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2017-06-08

    Jun 8, 2017 ... candidate. This individual assessment policy seems less discriminatory and can assess potential donors regardless of their sexual orientation and strictly based on what is described as "risky sexual behavior". Conclusion. The lesbian, bisexual, transgender/two-spirited and queer. (LGBTQ+) community has ...

  19. Opinion

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    raoul

    2011-10-03

    Oct 3, 2011 ... Key words: Evidence based planning, Nigeria, Cost analysis, Nigeria ... With scaling up effective health interventions towards achieving the health-related ... which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any ...

  20. Opinion

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2012-06-21

    Jun 21, 2012 ... Abstract. In the Kenyan medical educations system, one has to go through one year of internship after graduating from medical school in order to be licensed to practise medicine. This internship period is laden with work to the extent of overwhelming and stressing the medical officer interns. Irrespective of ...

  1. OPINION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-03-01

    Mar 1, 2012 ... Chris Kenyon, MB ChB, MA, MPH. Sizwe Zondo, MA. Robert Colebunders, MD, PhD. Sipho Dlamini, MB ChB, FCP .... Pettifor A, Levandowski B, Macphail C, Miller W, Tabor J. A tale of two countries: rethinking sexual risk for HIV among young people in South Africa and the United States. J Adolesc Health ...

  2. Opinion

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Raoul

    2012-03-19

    Mar 19, 2012 ... Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted ... the huge cost it would incur. ... In the case of active case detection, the health care workers actively search for the cases and help.

  3. Opinion

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2016-09-21

    Sep 21, 2016 ... The Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), caused by the. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) remains a major global public health problem; particularly in the Sub-Saharan region. Despite the fact that incidence shows declining trends (2.1 million new HIV infections in 2013; a decline of 38% ...

  4. Opinion

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2016-09-21

    article/25/18/full/ ... The Pan African Medical Journal - ISSN 1937-8688. .... The construction and maintenance of heavy industries as well as the processes involved in drug manufacturing requires extensive man power. This.

  5. Opinion

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2017-06-08

    Jun 8, 2017 ... During the 1980s the HIV/AIDS epidemic outbreak occurred. Due to the high ... 2017; 27:99 doi:10.11604/pamj.2017.27.99.12891. This article is .... hand, heterosexual men who had multiple sexual partners and unprotected ...

  6. Modelling the public opinion transmission on social networks under opinion leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zuozhi; Li, Meng; Ji, Wanwan

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, based on Social Network Analysis (SNA), the social network model of opinion leaders influencing the public opinion transmission is explored. The hot event, A Female Driver Was Beaten Due To Lane Change, has characteristics of individual short-term and non-government intervention, which is used to data extraction, and formed of the network structure on opinion leaders influencing the public opinion transmission. And the evolution mechanism are analyzed in the three evolutionary situations. Opinion leaders influence micro-blogging public opinion on social network evolution model shows that this type of network public opinion transmission is largely constrained by opinion leaders, so the opinion leaders behavior supervising on the spread of this public opinion is pivotal, and which has a guiding significance.

  7. Whites' Opposition to "Busing": Self-Interest of Symbolic Politics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, David O.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Examines whether opposition to busing springs from self-interest (such as having children susceptible to busing) or merely racial attitudes on the part of those not involved. Concludes that self-interest is overestimated as a determinant of public opinion. Available from The American Political Science Association, 1527 New Hampshire Ave., N.W.,…

  8. Opinion dynamics: inhomogeneous Boltzmann-type equations modelling opinion leadership and political segregation

    CERN Document Server

    Düring, Bertram

    2015-01-01

    We propose and investigate different kinetic models for opinion formation, when the opinion formation process depends on an additional independent variable, e.g. a leadership or a spatial variable. More specifically, we consider:(i) opinion dynamics under the effect of opinion leadership, where each individual is characterised not only by its opinion, but also by another independent variable which quantifies leadership qualities; (ii) opinion dynamics modelling political segregation in the `The Big Sort', a phenomenon that US citizens increasingly prefer to live in neighbourhoods with politically like-minded individuals. Based on microscopic opinion consensus dynamics such models lead to inhomogeneous Boltzmann-type equations for the opinion distribution. We derive macroscopic Fokker-Planck-type equations in a quasi-invariant opinion limit and present results of numerical experiments.

  9. Entropy based classifier for cross-domain opinion mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti S. Deshmukh

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the growth of social network has increased the interest of people in analyzing reviews and opinions for products before they buy them. Consequently, this has given rise to the domain adaptation as a prominent area of research in sentiment analysis. A classifier trained from one domain often gives poor results on data from another domain. Expression of sentiment is different in every domain. The labeling cost of each domain separately is very high as well as time consuming. Therefore, this study has proposed an approach that extracts and classifies opinion words from one domain called source domain and predicts opinion words of another domain called target domain using a semi-supervised approach, which combines modified maximum entropy and bipartite graph clustering. A comparison of opinion classification on reviews on four different product domains is presented. The results demonstrate that the proposed method performs relatively well in comparison to the other methods. Comparison of SentiWordNet of domain-specific and domain-independent words reveals that on an average 72.6% and 88.4% words, respectively, are correctly classified.

  10. 48 CFR 3.104-6 - Ethics advisory opinions regarding prohibitions on a former official's acceptance of compensation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ethics advisory opinions... BUSINESS PRACTICES AND PERSONAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST Safeguards 3.104-6 Ethics advisory opinions regarding... advice from the appropriate agency ethics official before accepting such compensation. (b) The request...

  11. Modelling opinion formation driven communities in social networks

    CERN Document Server

    Iñiguez, Gerardo; Kertész, János; Kaski, Kimmo K

    2010-01-01

    In a previous paper we proposed a model to study the dynamics of opinion formation in human societies by a co-evolution process involving two distinct time scales of fast transaction and slower network evolution dynamics. In the transaction dynamics we take into account short range interactions as discussions between individuals and long range interactions to describe the attitude to the overall mood of society. The latter is handled by a uniformly distributed parameter $\\alpha$, assigned randomly to each individual, as quenched personal bias. The network evolution dynamics is realized by rewiring the societal network due to state variable changes as a result of transaction dynamics. The main consequence of this complex dynamics is that communities emerge in the social network for a range of values in the ratio between time scales. In this paper we focus our attention on the attitude parameter $\\alpha$ and its influence on the conformation of opinion and the size of the resulting communities. We present numer...

  12. Identifying the characteristics of nurse opinion leaders to aid the integration of genetics in nursing practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Verity; Tonkin, Emma; Lancastle, Deborah; Kirk, Maggie

    2014-11-01

    To identify the characteristics of nurses opinion leaders in the context of genetics in health care and consider the findings for the integration of genetics in nursing practice. Nurses need a basic understanding of the role genetics plays in their practice and about how best to support patients using genetic knowledge. Opinion leaders have been used previously to incorporate change initiatives and increase educational application. Identifying the characteristics of nurse opinion leaders may aid the engagement and continued integration of genetics into nursing practice. A primarily quantitative approach over two phases, using online surveys conducted during 2011. This article focuses on Phase 2 of a wider study. Oncology and primary care nurses were surveyed to identify the characteristics and demographic indicators of nurse opinion leaders. Tests for data normality followed by the suitable test for group comparison was applied with significance level set at Genetic Opinion Leaders and Opinion Leaders with an Interest in Genetics. Seven characteristics were deemed statistically significant (Mann-Whitney, Chi-Square, t-test) in identifying nurse opinion leaders, including being open to experience and having a perceived level of influence over others. The identified characteristics could be used to enhance the integration of genetics into nursing practice through the use of opinion leaders. Further thought needs to be given to the refinement of the identified characteristics and to the use of such a unique group of nurses. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Erectile dysfunction and the internet: drug company manipulation of public and professional opinion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, John; Mati, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Given that the Internet is now a major source of information regarding health and mental health problems, and that it is in the interest of the pharmaceutical industry to influence public and professional opinion, this study evaluated 70 websites about erectile dysfunction. The 31 drug company-funded websites (44%) were, compared with the 39 websites that are not industry funded, significantly more biased toward biological factors in general, and toward medication in particular (p manipulate public and professional opinion on the Internet.

  14. Beyond KOL Marketing: Tapping Digital Opinion Influencers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gregg Fisher; Kevin Michels-Kim

    2017-01-01

    With healthcare professionals and patients now collecting much of their information online, there is new opportunity for "digital opinion influencers" to amplify traditional KOL messaging-or create...

  15. Interest rate derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenstrup, Mikkel

    This Ph.D. thesis consists of four self-contained essays on valuation of interest rate derivatives. In particular derivatives related to management of interest rate risk care are considered.......This Ph.D. thesis consists of four self-contained essays on valuation of interest rate derivatives. In particular derivatives related to management of interest rate risk care are considered....

  16. Phase change in an opinion-dynamics model with separation of time scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iñiguez, Gerardo; Kertész, János; Kaski, Kimmo K.; Barrio, R. A.

    2011-01-01

    We define an opinion formation model of agents in a one-dimensional ring, where the opinion of an agent evolves due to its interactions with close neighbors and due to its either positive or negative attitude toward the overall mood of all the other agents. While the dynamics of the agent’s opinion is described with an appropriate differential equation, from time to time pairs of agents are allowed to change their locations to improve the homogeneity of opinion (or comfort feeling) with respect to their short-range environment. In this way the timescale of transaction dynamics and that of environment update are well separated and controlled by a single parameter. By varying this parameter we discovered a phase change in the number of undecided individuals. This phenomenon arises from the fact that too frequent location exchanges among agents result in frustration in their opinion formation. Our mean field analysis supports this picture.

  17. Opinion evolution in different social acquaintance networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Zhang, Xiao; Wu, Zhan; Wang, Hongwei; Wang, Guohua; Li, Wei

    2017-11-01

    Social acquaintance networks influenced by social culture and social policy have a great impact on public opinion evolution in daily life. Based on the differences between socio-culture and social policy, three different social acquaintance networks (kinship-priority acquaintance network, independence-priority acquaintance network, and hybrid acquaintance network) incorporating heredity proportion ph and variation proportion pv are proposed in this paper. Numerical experiments are conducted to investigate network topology and different phenomena during opinion evolution, using the Deffuant model. We found that in kinship-priority acquaintance networks, similar to the Chinese traditional acquaintance networks, opinions always achieve fragmentation, resulting in the formation of multiple large clusters and many small clusters due to the fact that individuals believe more in their relatives and live in a relatively closed environment. In independence-priority acquaintance networks, similar to Western acquaintance networks, the results are similar to those in the kinship-priority acquaintance network. In hybrid acquaintance networks, similar to the Chinese modern acquaintance networks, only a few clusters are formed indicating that in modern China, opinions are more likely to reach consensus on a large scale. These results are similar to the opinion evolution phenomena in modern society, proving the rationality and applicability of network models combined with social culture and policy. We also found a threshold curve pv+2 ph=2.05 in the results for the final opinion clusters and evolution time. Above the threshold curve, opinions could easily reach consensus. Based on the above experimental results, a culture-policy-driven mechanism for the opinion dynamic is worth promoting in this paper, that is, opinion dynamics can be driven by different social cultures and policies through the influence of heredity and variation in interpersonal relationship networks. This

  18. Opinion evolution in different social acquaintance networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Zhang, Xiao; Wu, Zhan; Wang, Hongwei; Wang, Guohua; Li, Wei

    2017-11-01

    Social acquaintance networks influenced by social culture and social policy have a great impact on public opinion evolution in daily life. Based on the differences between socio-culture and social policy, three different social acquaintance networks (kinship-priority acquaintance network, independence-priority acquaintance network, and hybrid acquaintance network) incorporating heredity proportion ph and variation proportion pv are proposed in this paper. Numerical experiments are conducted to investigate network topology and different phenomena during opinion evolution, using the Deffuant model. We found that in kinship-priority acquaintance networks, similar to the Chinese traditional acquaintance networks, opinions always achieve fragmentation, resulting in the formation of multiple large clusters and many small clusters due to the fact that individuals believe more in their relatives and live in a relatively closed environment. In independence-priority acquaintance networks, similar to Western acquaintance networks, the results are similar to those in the kinship-priority acquaintance network. In hybrid acquaintance networks, similar to the Chinese modern acquaintance networks, only a few clusters are formed indicating that in modern China, opinions are more likely to reach consensus on a large scale. These results are similar to the opinion evolution phenomena in modern society, proving the rationality and applicability of network models combined with social culture and policy. We also found a threshold curve pv+2ph=2.05 in the results for the final opinion clusters and evolution time. Above the threshold curve, opinions could easily reach consensus. Based on the above experimental results, a culture-policy-driven mechanism for the opinion dynamic is worth promoting in this paper, that is, opinion dynamics can be driven by different social cultures and policies through the influence of heredity and variation in interpersonal relationship networks. This finding

  19. Understanding Public Opinions from Geosocial Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanqi Zhang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Increasingly, social media data are linked to locations through embedded GPS coordinates. Many local governments are showing interest in the potential to repurpose these firsthand geo-data to gauge spatial and temporal dynamics of public opinions in ways that complement information collected through traditional public engagement methods. Using these geosocial data is not without challenges since they are usually unstructured, vary in quality, and often require considerable effort to extract information that is relevant to local governments’ needs from large data volumes. Understanding local relevance requires development of both data processing methods and their use in empirical studies. This paper addresses this latter need through a case study that demonstrates how spatially-referenced Twitter data can shed light on citizens’ transportation and planning concerns. A web-based toolkit that integrates text processing methods is used to model Twitter data collected for the Region of Waterloo (Ontario, Canada between March 2014 and July 2015 and assess citizens’ concerns related to the planning and construction of a new light rail transit line. The study suggests that geosocial media can help identify geographies of public perceptions concerning public facilities and services and have potential to complement other methods of gauging public sentiment.

  20. survey of opinions in a paediatric department

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1991-05-04

    May 4, 1991 ... Questions were posed relating to the need for consent before human ... seldom based on the opinions of dOctors in the 'firing-line'. A survey was undertaken to .... OPINIONS ON WHETHER PRE-TEST INFORMED CONSENT IS NECESSARY IN 3 GROUPS* OF CHILDREN. Group 1. Group 2. Group 3.

  1. Swedish Opinion on Nuclear Power 1986 - 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmberg, Soeren

    2012-11-01

    This report contains the Swedish opinion on Nuclear Power and European Attitudes on Nuclear Power. It also includes European Attitudes Towards the Future of Three Energy Sources; Nuclear Energy, Wind Power and Solar Power - with a focus on the Swedish opinion. Results from measurements done by the SOM Inst. are presented.

  2. Internet Censorship in Turkey: University Students' Opinions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkan, Hasan; Arikan, Arda

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to study university students' opinions toward online censorship with references to their socio-political and economic variables. Considering the upwards trend and the increasing number of online restrictions in Turkey, the opinions of university students (n=138) are thought to give significant findings. The questionnaire…

  3. Competing opinion diffusion on social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Haibo

    2017-11-01

    Opinion competition is a common phenomenon in real life, such as with opinions on controversial issues or political candidates; however, modelling this competition remains largely unexplored. To bridge this gap, we propose a model of competing opinion diffusion on social networks taking into account degree-dependent fitness or persuasiveness. We study the combined influence of social networks, individual fitnesses and attributes, as well as mass media on people's opinions, and find that both social networks and mass media act as amplifiers in opinion diffusion, the amplifying effect of which can be quantitatively characterized. We analytically obtain the probability that each opinion will ultimately pervade the whole society when there are no committed people in networks, and the final proportion of each opinion at the steady state when there are committed people in networks. The results of numerical simulations show good agreement with those obtained through an analytical approach. This study provides insight into the collective influence of individual attributes, local social networks and global media on opinion diffusion, and contributes to a comprehensive understanding of competing diffusion behaviours in the real world.

  4. Opinion competition dynamics on multiplex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, R.; Kouvaris, N. E.; San Miguel, M.; Díaz-Guilera, A.

    2017-12-01

    Multilayer and multiplex networks represent a good proxy for the description of social phenomena where social structure is important and can have different origins. Here, we propose a model of opinion competition where individuals are organized according to two different structures in two layers. Agents exchange opinions according to the Abrams–Strogatz model in each layer separately and opinions can be copied across layers by the same individual. In each layer a different opinion is dominant, so each layer has a different absorbing state. Consensus in one opinion is not the only possible stable solution because of the interaction between the two layers. A new mean field solution has been found where both opinions coexist. In a finite system there is a long transient time for the dynamical coexistence of both opinions. However, the system ends in a consensus state due to finite size effects. We analyze sparse topologies in the two layers and the existence of positive correlations between them, which enables the coexistence of inter-layer groups of agents sharing the same opinion.

  5. Applied Linguists and Institutions of Opinion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Greg

    2005-01-01

    Public opinion research is not an area that has received much attention from applied linguists. But language lies at the heart of the procedures used to define, elicit, and report opinions, whether through such methods as polling, interviews, and focus groups, or through the less obvious channels of vox pop interviews, letters to the editor, radio…

  6. Model of Opinion Spreading in Social Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Kanovsky, Igor

    2011-01-01

    We proposed a new model, which capture the main difference between information and opinion spreading. In information spreading additional exposure to certain information has a small effect. Contrary, when an actor is exposed to 2 opinioned actors the probability to adopt the opinion is significant higher than in the case of contact with one such actor (called by J. Kleinberg "the 0-1-2 effect"). In each time step if an actor does not have an opinion, we randomly choose 2 his network neighbors. If one of them has an opinion, the actor adopts opinion with some low probability, if two - with a higher probability. Opinion spreading was simulated on different real world social networks and similar random scale-free networks. The results show that small world structure has a crucial impact on tipping point time. The "0-1-2" effect causes a significant difference between ability of the actors to start opinion spreading. Actor is an influencer according to his topological position in the network.

  7. Survey Methods, Traditional, Public Opinion Polling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmelund-Præstekær, Christian; Hopmann, David Nicolas; Pedersen, Rasmus Tue

    2017-01-01

    Traditional public opinion polls are surveys in which a random sample of a given population is asked questions about their attitudes, knowledge, or behavior. If conducted properly, the answers from such surveys are approximately representative of the entire population. Traditional public opinion...... polling is typically based on four different methods of data gathering, or combinations hereof: face-to-face, postal surveys, phone surveys, and web surveys. Given that opinion polls are based on a sample, we cannot be sure that the sample reflects public opinion perfectly, however—even if randomness...... is perfect. Moreover, responses may be highly dependent on the contextual information provided with the question. Also, it may be difficult to capture past or complex causes of attitudes or behavior. In short, surveys are a precise way of measuring public opinion, but they do not come without challenges....

  8. Studies in Swedish Energy Opinion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmberg, Soeren; Hedberg, Per

    2012-07-01

    -length studies of Swedish mass attitudes toward nuclear power appeared already in the late 1970-ies. Since then all SNES surveys have included measurements of Swedish opinions on various energy issues. A special election study was done in 1980 covering the nuclear power referendum. Beginning in 1986, SNES's election year measurements were supplemented by annual studies done by the newly founded SOM Institute at Univ. of Gothenburg. These annual measurements were from the start designed and coordinated by the research project Energy Opinion in Sweden, originally financially supported by the now non-existent National Board for Spent Fuel, but since 1999 financed by The Swedish Energy Agency. The analyses in the chapters in this English language book compendium have all been done and published under the auspices of the research project Energy Opinion in Sweden. The time span is quite long, over twenty years. The writing in Chapter 1 appeared already in 1991, while the results in Chapters 7 and 8 are from 2011.

  9. 28 CFR 80.13 - Scope of FCPA Opinion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scope of FCPA Opinion. 80.13 Section 80.13 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) FOREIGN CORRUPT PRACTICES ACT OPINION PROCEDURE § 80.13 Scope of FCPA Opinion. An FCPA Opinion will state only the Attorney General's opinion as...

  10. Points of Interest: What Determines Interest Rates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Tim

    Interest rates can significantly influence people's behavior. When rates decline, homeowners rush to buy new homes and refinance old mortgages; automobile buyers scramble to buy new cars; the stock market soars, and people tend to feel more optimistic about the future. But even though individuals respond to changes in rates, they may not fully…

  11. Extracting product features and opinion words using pattern knowledge in customer reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Htay, Su Su; Lynn, Khin Thidar

    2013-01-01

    Due to the development of e-commerce and web technology, most of online Merchant sites are able to write comments about purchasing products for customer. Customer reviews expressed opinion about products or services which are collectively referred to as customer feedback data. Opinion extraction about products from customer reviews is becoming an interesting area of research and it is motivated to develop an automatic opinion mining application for users. Therefore, efficient method and techniques are needed to extract opinions from reviews. In this paper, we proposed a novel idea to find opinion words or phrases for each feature from customer reviews in an efficient way. Our focus in this paper is to get the patterns of opinion words/phrases about the feature of product from the review text through adjective, adverb, verb, and noun. The extracted features and opinions are useful for generating a meaningful summary that can provide significant informative resource to help the user as well as merchants to track the most suitable choice of product.

  12. Extracting Product Features and Opinion Words Using Pattern Knowledge in Customer Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Su Htay

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the development of e-commerce and web technology, most of online Merchant sites are able to write comments about purchasing products for customer. Customer reviews expressed opinion about products or services which are collectively referred to as customer feedback data. Opinion extraction about products from customer reviews is becoming an interesting area of research and it is motivated to develop an automatic opinion mining application for users. Therefore, efficient method and techniques are needed to extract opinions from reviews. In this paper, we proposed a novel idea to find opinion words or phrases for each feature from customer reviews in an efficient way. Our focus in this paper is to get the patterns of opinion words/phrases about the feature of product from the review text through adjective, adverb, verb, and noun. The extracted features and opinions are useful for generating a meaningful summary that can provide significant informative resource to help the user as well as merchants to track the most suitable choice of product.

  13. Opinion Impact Models and Opinion Consensus Methods in Ad Hoc Tactical Social Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demin Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ad hoc social networks are special social networks, such as ad hoc tactical social networks, ad hoc firefighter social networks, and ad hoc vehicular social networks. The social networks possess both the properties of ad hoc network and social network. One of the challenge problems in ad hoc social networks is opinion impact and consensus, and the opinion impact plays a key role for information fusion and decision support in ad hoc social networks. In this paper, consider the impact of physical and logical distance on the opinions of individuals or nodes in heterogeneous social networks; we present a general opinion impact model, discuss the local and global opinion impact models in detail, and point out the relationship between the local opinion impact model and the global opinion impact model. For understanding the opinion impact models easily, we use the general opinion impact model to ad hoc tactical social networks and discuss the opinion impact and opinion consensus for ad hoc tactical social networks in the end.

  14. [Limited Data for Second Opinion Programs: a Systematic Review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, J; Pieper, D

    2017-10-01

    Objective: According to a new legislation that will be set up in 2016, patients with an indication for elective surgery have the right to obtain a second opinion. The Federal Joint Committee has to provide a list of indications where this legislation will come into effect. The aim of this systematic review is to summarize available data on second opinion programs and to analyze the indications that should be covered by the new legislation. Methods: Medline, Embase, Proquest and Google scholar were searched for relevant studies in March 2015. To be included, primary studies had to deal with a surgical, orthopedic or gynecological elective procedure, and report agreement between first and second opinion. Study selection and critical appraisal were carried out by 2 reviewers independently. Disagreements were resolved by discussion. Data were extracted and analyzed. Results: In total, 17 studies fulfilled all inclusion criteria. All but one study were from the United States and only 3 studies have been published since 2000. The majority of studies were published in the 70 s and 80 s. Overall, agreement rates varied substantially from 43.0% to 95.5%. Most studies dealt with hysterectomy (n=6), cholecystectomy (n=5) and knee surgery (n=5). Median agreement rates for these procedures were 77.9% (range: 72.7-92.0%), 92.0% (88.2-95.5%) and 85.6% (76.1-93.5%), respectively, in obligatory second opinion programs and 63.0% (58.0-66.7%) and 87.0% (78.0-87.9%) in voluntary second opinion programs. Not enough data were available for knee surgery. Conclusions: Current data on second opinion programs is very limited. There is no data for Germany. Following this, it remains unclear which data or evidence will be used by the Federal Joint Committee to set up the new legislation. However, the findings suggest a potential for second opinion programs. They should be investigated in controlled trials in future. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Defining and Classifying Interest Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baroni, Laura; Carroll, Brendan; Chalmers, Adam

    2014-01-01

    The interest group concept is defined in many different ways in the existing literature and a range of different classification schemes are employed. This complicates comparisons between different studies and their findings. One of the important tasks faced by interest group scholars engaged...... in large-N studies is therefore to define the concept of an interest group and to determine which classification scheme to use for different group types. After reviewing the existing literature, this article sets out to compare different approaches to defining and classifying interest groups with a sample...... of lobbying actors coded according to different coding schemes. We systematically assess the performance of different schemes by comparing how actor types in the different schemes differ with respect to a number of background characteristics. This is done in a two-stage approach where we first cluster actors...

  16. Choice Shift in Opinion Network Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbay, Michael

    Choice shift is a phenomenon associated with small group dynamics whereby group discussion causes group members to shift their opinions in a more extreme direction so that the mean post-discussion opinion exceeds the mean pre-discussion opinion. Also known as group polarization, choice shift is a robust experimental phenomenon and has been well-studied within social psychology. In opinion network models, shifts toward extremism are typically produced by the presence of stubborn agents at the extremes of the opinion axis, whose opinions are much more resistant to change than moderate agents. However, we present a model in which choice shift can arise without the assumption of stubborn agents; the model evolves member opinions and uncertainties using coupled nonlinear differential equations. In addition, we briefly describe the results of a recent experiment conducted involving online group discussion concerning the outcome of National Football League games are described. The model predictions concerning the effects of network structure, disagreement level, and team choice (favorite or underdog) are in accord with the experimental results. This research was funded by the Office of Naval Research and the Defense Threat Reduction Agency.

  17. Undergraduate medical students' interest in specialising in Family ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Undergraduate medical students' interest in specialising in Family Medicine at the University of the Free State, 2014. ... The students had to rate the likelihood of them selecting 15 different specialties as a future career according to a five-point Likert scale. Opinions concerning Family Medicine were tested with a yes/no ...

  18. Contrasting Public Opinion Dynamics and Emotional Response during Crisis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkova, Svitlana; Chetviorkin, Ilia; Arendt, Dustin L.; Van Durme, Ben

    2016-11-15

    We propose an approach for contrasting spatiotemporal dynamics of public opinions expressed toward targeted entities, also known as stance detection task, in Russia and Ukraine during crisis. Our analysis relies on a novel corpus constructed from posts on the VKontakte social network, centered on local public opinion of the ongoing Russian-Ukrainian crisis, along with newly annotated resources for predicting expressions of fine-grained emotions including joy, sadness, disgust, anger, surprise and fear. Akin to prior work on sentiment analysis we align traditional public opinion polls with aggregated automatic predictions of sentiments for contrastive geo-locations. We report interesting observations on emotional response and stance variations across geo-locations. Some of our findings contradict stereotypical misconceptions imposed by media, for example, we found posts from Ukraine that do not support Euromaidan but support Putin, and posts from Russia that are against Putin but in favor USA. Furthermore, we are the first to demonstrate contrastive stance variations over time across geo-locations using storyline visualization technique.

  19. Internet Surveillance: Consumers Opinion about Certain Products or Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Iftene

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper approaches and tries to offer a solution to a modern day concern: relevant information retrieval and surveillance through the internet. The increasing volume of information that exists on web sites, forums or personal web pages, makes the process of searching for information that is relevant for us to become very complex and time consuming. In addition to their success, social networks like Twitter, MySpace, Facebook, Flickr have more and more users with common interests, and their gathered information has an increasing volume. In such social networks starting from a topic, users can freely express their opinions, add links or relevant photos. The system that we have built uses information collected from the Internet and offers users an easier way to find out positive and negative opinions about a topic. Information is searched on web pages (we prefer blogs, forums or users comments and on Twitter. Identifying and classifying opinions is done by identifying some emotional triggers and by calculating some valences related to the context in which they appear.

  20. Public opinion and organ donation suggestions for overcoming barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantarovich, Félix

    2005-01-01

    Getting organs for transplantation depends on people's decision; thus, public opinion is essential to finding a solution to this problem. Efforts to improve organ shortage focus on: 1) Living, unrelated donation, 2) increasing marginal donors and 3) proposing economic support for donors. Paradoxically, no initiative has been suggested to modify public opinion towards cadaver donors. Several reasons explain the resistance to donating cadaver organs: Lack of awareness, religious uncertainties, distrust of medicine, hostility to new ideas, and misinformation. Education should be used to reshape public opinion about the use of organs for transplantation. Society should accept that "using" body parts is moral and offers a source of health for everybody. The concept that using cadaver organs implies sharing a source of health might be a social agreement between all members of Society. Suggestions for improving organ shortage include: 1) Society should understand that during one's life one may be just as easily a potential organ receiver as one is an organ donor. 2) Cadaver organs are an irreplaceable source of health. 3) As self-interest is one obstacle to donating cadaver organs, the "concept that allowing the use of our organs after death represents a chance of sharing health for everybody" may be useful for a change of attitude. Even though a poll among transplant professionals supported this suggestion, an international public survey should be carried out to evaluate people's reaction to this message.

  1. Understanding Interest Rate Volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volker, Desi

    This thesis is the result of my Ph.D. studies at the Department of Finance of the Copenhagen Business School. It consists of three essays covering topics related to the term structure of interest rates, monetary policy and interest rate volatility. The rst essay, \\Monetary Policy Uncertainty...... and Interest Rates", examines the role of monetary policy uncertainty on the term structure of interest rates. The second essay, \\A Regime-Switching A ne Term Structure Model with Stochastic Volatility" (co-authored with Sebastian Fux), investigates the ability of the class of regime switching models...... with and without stochastic volatility to capture the main stylized features of U.S. interest rates. The third essay, \\Variance Risk Premia in the Interest Rate Swap Market", investigates the time-series and cross-sectional properties of the compensation demanded for holding interest rate variance risk. The essays...

  2. News media framing sets public opinion that drugs is the country's most important problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, D P

    1996-08-01

    Responses by the public to the question of whether drugs was the United States' most important problem ranged from under 5% to over 60% during the 9 years from 1985 to 1994. Time series analysis showed that changes in this opinion could be explained by the press describing drugs as a crisis. Other types of drug discussion contributed negligibly. In the reverse direction, public opinion about drugs was a weak but significant contributor to press coverage.

  3. Investigation the opinions of the primary science teachers toward practice of teaching and learning activities in science learning area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamnanwong, Pornpaka; Thathong, Kongsak

    2018-01-01

    In preparing a science lesson plan, teachers may deal with numerous difficulties. Having a deep understanding of their problems and their demands is extremely essential for the teachers in preparing themselves for the job. Moreover, it is also crucial for the stakeholders in planning suitable and in-need teachers' professional development programs, in school management, and in teaching aid. This study aimed to investigate the primary school science teachers' opinion toward practice of teaching and learning activities in science learning area. Target group was 292 primary science teachers who teach Grade 4 - 6 students in Khon Kaen Province, Thailand in the academic year of 2014. Data were collected using Questionnaire about Investigation the opinions of the primary science teachers toward practice of teaching and learning activities in science learning area. The questionnaires were consisted of closed questions scored on Likert scale and open-ended questions that invite a sentence response to cover from LS Process Ideas. Research findings were as follow. The primary science teachers' level of opinion toward teaching and learning science subject ranged from 3.19 - 3.93 (mean = 3.43) as "Moderate" level of practice. The primary school science teachers' needs to participate in a training workshop based on LS ranged from 3.66 - 4.22 (mean = 3.90) as "High" level. The result indicated that they were interested in attending a training course under the guidance of the Lesson Study by training on planning of management of science learning to solve teaching problems in science contents with the highest mean score 4.22. Open-ended questions questionnaire showed the needs of the implementation of the lesson plans to be actual classrooms, and supporting for learning Medias, innovations, and equipment for science experimentation.

  4. National interest to TLCAN

    OpenAIRE

    Witker Velásquez, Jorge

    2017-01-01

    In this article the author reflects on the concept of national interest, considering its basic referents: State, nation and power. His analysis describes and examines aspects related to the vulnerability of the Mexican national interest on informal policies of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA.). This article explores, through a series of antithetical elements, such Mexico’s national interest, in the context of NAFTA, producing chiaroscuro effects for the country. The author prov...

  5. Social opinion dynamics is not chaotic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Chjan; Zhang, Weituo

    2016-08-01

    Motivated by the research on social opinion dynamics over large and dense networks, a general framework for verifying the monotonicity property of multi-agent dynamics is introduced. This allows a derivation of sociologically meaningful sufficient conditions for monotonicity that are tailor-made for social opinion dynamics, which typically have high nonlinearity. A direct consequence of monotonicity is that social opinion dynamics is nonchaotic. A key part of this framework is the definition of a partial order relation that is suitable for a large class of social opinion dynamics such as the generalized naming games. Comparisons are made to previous techniques to verify monotonicity. Using the results obtained, we extend many of the consequences of monotonicity to this class of social dynamics, including several corollaries on their asymptotic behavior, such as global convergence to consensus and tipping points of a minority fraction of zealots or leaders.

  6. The Auditor's Going-Concern Opinion Decision

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tae G Ryu; Chul-Young Roh

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we expand on several previous studies related to the materiality judgments and the auditor's propensity to issue a going-concern opinion to financially troubled but non-bankrupt companies...

  7. A hybrid model for opinion formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borra, Domenica; Lorenzi, Tommaso

    2013-06-01

    This paper presents a hybrid model for opinion formation in a large group of agents exposed to the persuasive action of a small number of strong opinion leaders. The model is defined by coupling a finite difference equation for the dynamics of leaders opinion with a continuous integro-differential equation for the dynamics of the others. Such a definition stems from the idea that the leaders are few and tend to retain original opinions, so that their dynamics occur on a longer time scale with respect to the one of the other agents. A general well-posedness result is established for the initial value problem linked to the model. The asymptotic behavior in time of the related solution is characterized for some general parameter settings, which mimic distinct social scenarios, where different emerging behaviors can be observed. Analytical results are illustrated and extended through numerical simulations.

  8. OGC Precedent Opinion 2-2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — Osborn v. Nicholson 21 Vet. App. 223 (2007) - Effect on Existing General Counsel Opinions, Application to other Benefit Programs, and Applicability to Series HH U.S....

  9. Determination of student opinions in augmented reality

    OpenAIRE

    Huseyin Bicen; Erkan Bal

    2016-01-01

    The rapid development of the new technology has changed classroom teaching methods and tools in a positive way. This study investigated the classroom learning with augmented reality and the impact of student opinions. 97 volunteer undergraduate students took part in this study. Results included data in the form of frequencies, percentages and descriptive statistics. The results show that, with gamification methods, augmented reality content affected students’ opinions in a positive way. When ...

  10. Automatic Detection of Dominance and Expected Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalera, Sergio; Pujol, Oriol; Radeva, Petia; Vitrià, Jordi; Anguera, M. Teresa

    2010-12-01

    Social Signal Processing is an emergent area of research that focuses on the analysis of social constructs. Dominance and interest are two of these social constructs. Dominance refers to the level of influence a person has in a conversation. Interest, when referred in terms of group interactions, can be defined as the degree of engagement that the members of a group collectively display during their interaction. In this paper, we argue that only using behavioral motion information, we are able to predict the interest of observers when looking at face-to-face interactions as well as the dominant people. First, we propose a simple set of movement-based features from body, face, and mouth activity in order to define a higher set of interaction indicators. The considered indicators are manually annotated by observers. Based on the opinions obtained, we define an automatic binary dominance detection problem and a multiclass interest quantification problem. Error-Correcting Output Codes framework is used to learn to rank the perceived observer's interest in face-to-face interactions meanwhile Adaboost is used to solve the dominant detection problem. The automatic system shows good correlation between the automatic categorization results and the manual ranking made by the observers in both dominance and interest detection problems.

  11. Discrete Opinion Dynamics on Online Social Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yan-Li; Bai, Liang; Zhang, Wei-Ming

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on the dynamics of binary opinions {+1, -1} on online social networks consisting of heterogeneous actors. In our model, actors update their opinions under the interplay of social influence and self- affirmation, which leads to rich dynamical behaviors on online social networks. We find that the opinion leading to the consensus features an advantage of the initially weighted fraction based on actors' strength over the other, instead of the population. For the role of specific actors, the consensus converges towards the opinion that a small fraction of high-strength actors hold, and individual diversity of self-affirmation slows down the ordering process of consensus. These indicate that high-strength actors play an essential role in opinion formation with strong social influence as well as high persistence. Further investigations show that the initial fraction of high-strength actors to dominate the evolution depends on the heterogeneity of the strength distribution, and less high-strength actors are needed in the case of a smaller exponent of power-law distribution of actors' strength. Our study provides deep insights into the role of social influence and self-affirmation on opinion formation on online social networks.

  12. Setting health research priorities using the CHNRI method: VI. Quantitative properties of human collective opinion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Sachiyo; Rudan, Igor; Cousens, Simon

    2016-06-01

    Crowdsourcing has become an increasingly important tool to address many problems - from government elections in democracies, stock market prices, to modern online tools such as TripAdvisor or Internet Movie Database (IMDB). The CHNRI method (the acronym for the Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative) for setting health research priorities has crowdsourcing as the major component, which it uses to generate, assess and prioritize between many competing health research ideas. We conducted a series of analyses using data from a group of 91 scorers to explore the quantitative properties of their collective opinion. We were interested in the stability of their collective opinion as the sample size increases from 15 to 90. From a pool of 91 scorers who took part in a previous CHNRI exercise, we used sampling with replacement to generate multiple random samples of different size. First, for each sample generated, we identified the top 20 ranked research ideas, among 205 that were proposed and scored, and calculated the concordance with the ranking generated by the 91 original scorers. Second, we used rank correlation coefficients to compare the ranks assigned to all 205 proposed research ideas when samples of different size are used. We also analysed the original pool of 91 scorers to to look for evidence of scoring variations based on scorers' characteristics. The sample sizes investigated ranged from 15 to 90. The concordance for the top 20 scored research ideas increased with sample sizes up to about 55 experts. At this point, the median level of concordance stabilized at 15/20 top ranked questions (75%), with the interquartile range also generally stable (14-16). There was little further increase in overlap when the sample size increased from 55 to 90. When analysing the ranking of all 205 ideas, the rank correlation coefficient increased as the sample size increased, with a median correlation of 0.95 reached at the sample size of 45 experts (median of the rank

  13. READING FOR YOUTH INTEREST DURING CURRENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelia-Camelia, MARIN

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Virtual reality and images conquer them permanently and irrevocably even children from the earliest age. For instance, I can say that as they grow departs books. So many young people arrive at teens refuse to read a book, even electronically. Children considered mandatory reading something imposed by adults and tries to escape, finding other concerns. They also have no motivation, the universe discovered through books hardly seems interesting, which is, in their opinion, obsolete. The environment in which I work led me to satisfy my curiosity namely that of finding out to what extent reading is among the priorities of young people today. This research considers the study of attitudes, behaviors, opinions and intentions of young people their interest in reading, be it physical or books in electronic format. Then I directed a questionnaire to students of the Faculty of Management Marketing in Economic Affairs Rm. Valcea. For example, we chose a target group of young people aged between 18 and 25 years.

  14. An analysis of determinants of going concern audit opinion: Evidence from Spain stock exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Luis Gallizo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The main objective of this article is to go in-depth into the relationship between going concern audit opinion and certain characteristics of the company and auditor, including financial decline. Design/methodology/approach: A Logit analysis was carried out in order to enable us to discover the probability of receiving a going concern audit opinion. Findings: Characteristics of the company and characteristics of the auditor are discussed, and the analysis indicates that it is not financial decline, but rather registering losses and being audited by a small-scale auditor, that increase the likelihood of a company receiving a going concern audit opinion. Practical implications: The results obtained are interesting for the profession and users because they provide evidence of the reasons that converge in the cases where a going concern audit opinion is included in the auditing reports of companies characterised by being immersed in a financial crisis. Originality/value: This article considers the circumstances of both the company and the auditing process, which influence the fact that the auditing report includes a going concern audit opinion. In addition, the article includes the financial decline, and let us to analyze if the decline of the company’s financial position between t-1 and t causes the auditor to include a going concern audit opinion.

  15. Building legitimacy by criticising the pharmaceutical industry: a qualitative study among prescribers and local opinion leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittet, Anne-Laure; Saraga, Michael; Stiefel, Friedrich

    2015-01-01

    The literature has described opinion leaders not only as marketing tools of the pharmaceutical industry, but also as educators promoting good clinical practice. This qualitative study addresses the distinction between the opinion-leader-as-marketing-tool and the opinion-leader-as-educator, as it is revealed in the discourses of physicians and experts, focusing on the prescription of antidepressants. We explore the relational dynamic between physicians, opinion leaders and the pharmaceutical industry in an area of French-speaking Switzerland. Qualitative content analysis of 24 semistructured interviews with physicians and local experts in psychopharmacology, complemented by direct observation of educational events led by the experts, which were all sponsored by various pharmaceutical companies. Both physicians and experts were critical of the pharmaceutical industry and its use of opinion leaders. Local experts, in contrast, were perceived by the physicians as critical of the industry and, therefore, as a legitimate source of information. Local experts did not consider themselves opinion leaders and argued that they remained intellectually independent from the industry. Field observations confirmed that local experts criticised the industry at continuing medical education events. Local experts were vocal critics of the industry, which nevertheless sponsor their continuing education. This critical attitude enhanced their credibility in the eyes of the prescribing physicians. We discuss how the experts, despite their critical attitude, might still be beneficial to the industry's interests.

  16. Examining Characteristics of Opinion Leaders in Social Media: A Motivational Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Winter

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Social networking sites offer various opportunities to express opinions on politics and public affairs and to disseminate information to a large circle of acquaintances. The present research aims to identify the characteristics of people who consider themselves as opinion leaders on these new channels, the features they use in order to influence others, and the psychological motives they pursue. A survey (N = 527 among Facebook users identified political interest and personality strength as significant predictors of perceived Facebook opinion leadership, while the influence of extraversion was not significant. Those who write private messages on political debates do this in order to raise awareness of specific topics, while opinion expression in public status updates is also strongly connected to self-presentational goals (impression motivation. Moreover, the motives of presenting oneself positively and convincing others are particularly important for people with high personality strength. The present findings extend previous knowledge by redefining the concept of opinion leadership in new media environments and describing motivational links between individuals’ predispositions and their activities to influence others’ opinions. On a practical level, the pronounced role of self-presentational motives is likely to have important implications for the dynamics of public debates in social media.

  17. Examining Characteristics of Opinion Leaders in Social Media: A Motivational Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Winter

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Social networking sites offer various opportunities to express opinions on politics and public affairs and to disseminate information to a large circle of acquaintances. The present research aims to identify the characteristics of people who consider themselves as opinion leaders on these new channels, the features they use in order to influence others, and the psychological motives they pursue. A survey ( N  = 527 among Facebook users identified political interest and personality strength as significant predictors of perceived Facebook opinion leadership, while the influence of extraversion was not significant. Those who write private messages on political debates do this in order to raise awareness of specific topics, while opinion expression in public status updates is also strongly connected to self-presentational goals (impression motivation. Moreover, the motives of presenting oneself positively and convincing others are particularly important for people with high personality strength. The present findings extend previous knowledge by redefining the concept of opinion leadership in new media environments and describing motivational links between individuals’ predispositions and their activities to influence others’ opinions. On a practical level, the pronounced role of self-presentational motives is likely to have important implications for the dynamics of public debates in social media.

  18. On Opinion and Persuasive Writing: Teaching English through Editorials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naeem Afzal

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Learning a language becomes easier when it is interpreted through certain contexts, of which, the sociocultural ones are the most important. Sociocultural interests, norms, customs and values are represented by the language as forms of “persuasive social acts”. Media discourses can be cited as one example in this regard where language is an inevitable means of communicating opinions, making one’s voice heard. Persuasive use makes media discourse interesting to explore in the classroom given the specificities in editorial writing.  This paper brings forth a comparative analysis of editorial contents from two newspaper editorials published in Pakistan and Saudi Arabia. The analysis draws attention to rhetorical strategies and persuasive type of language used by the editors which can be sourced to help in the teaching and learning of English in the classroom.

  19. Humanitarian interventions and public opinion: from demands to disillusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Ajangiz Sánchez

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the end of the Cold War, foreign and defence policies of the NATO member states have been focussed on missions intervening in third countries, a circumstance that has led to far-reaching reforms in military structures and a new discourse of legitimacy. Public opinion has played a decisive role in the push toward humanitarian and peacemaking interventions and, has backed a new line of action. The scant resolution and effectiveness shown by the governments in these missions and their interest in carrying out others most motivated by interests of state, however, have discouraged that mighthave been a way to a real democratization of foreign policy and produces disillusionment. Evidence is for an end to this cycle and a return to the traditional divorce between governments and societies in this area.

  20. Geographic variation in opinions on climate change at state and local scales in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Peter D.; Mildenberger, Matto; Marlon, Jennifer R.; Leiserowitz, Anthony

    2015-06-01

    Addressing climate change in the United States requires enactment of national, state and local mitigation and adaptation policies. The success of these initiatives depends on public opinion, policy support and behaviours at appropriate scales. Public opinion, however, is typically measured with national surveys that obscure geographic variability across regions, states and localities. Here we present independently validated high-resolution opinion estimates using a multilevel regression and poststratification model. The model accurately predicts climate change beliefs, risk perceptions and policy preferences at the state, congressional district, metropolitan and county levels, using a concise set of demographic and geographic predictors. The analysis finds substantial variation in public opinion across the nation. Nationally, 63% of Americans believe global warming is happening, but county-level estimates range from 43 to 80%, leading to a diversity of political environments for climate policy. These estimates provide an important new source of information for policymakers, educators and scientists to more effectively address the challenges of climate change.

  1. An erroneous opinion on a cause of death in a forensic autopsy: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To highlight the problem of accuracy in determining the cause of death in forensic autopsy. Case history: A 19- ... and manner of death. Conclusion: An erroneous opinion was reached regarding cause and manner of death in this autopsy report. ..... covered with black ink in the sketch diagram. Conflict of interest.

  2. How, when and where can Spatial Segregation Induce Opinion Polarization? Two Competing Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feliciani, Thomas; Flache, Andreas; Tolsma, Jochem

    2017-01-01

    Increasing ethnic diversity fosters scholarly interest in how the spatial segregation of groups affects opinion polarization in a society. Despite much empirical and theoretical research, there is little consensus in the literature on the causal link between the spatial segregation of two groups and

  3. How, when and where can spatial segregation induce opinion polarization? Two competing models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feliciani, T.; Flache, A.; Tolsma, J.

    2017-01-01

    Increasing ethnic diversity fosters scholarly interest in how the spatial segregation of groups affects opinion polarization in a society. Despite much empirical and theoretical research, there is little consensus in the literature on the causal link between the spatial segregation of two groups and

  4. The SAPO Campus Recommender System: A Study about Students' and Teachers' Opinions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedro, Luís; Santos, Carlos; Almeida, Sara Filipa; Ramos, Fernando; Moreira, António; Almeida, Margarida; Antunes, Maria João

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to assess the relevance and usefulness of the SAPO Campus recommender system, through the analysis of students' and teachers' opinions. Recommender systems, assuming a "technology-driven" approach, have been designed with the primary goal of predicting user interests based on the implicit analysis of their actions and…

  5. The Influence of Secondary Social Studies Teachers' Opinions on Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumpf, Emily

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine whether secondary social studies teachers' opinions impact the way they teach and how that impacts the students' learning. Neutrality is important within a classroom, but passion is rarely neutral and can spark interest and motivation in some students but it is also possible it can have a negative…

  6. Privatizing Public Interest Law

    OpenAIRE

    Cummings, Scott L

    2011-01-01

    Financial and legal constraints on nonprofit public interest organizations have focused attention on possibilities for pursuing public interest goals from within market-driven private practice. In this context, the private public interest law firm has been held out as an alternative site for “doing well” and “doing good,” allowing lawyers to take on large-scale social change litigation that nonprofit groups cannot because of resource limits—and big-firm pro bono programs will not because of b...

  7. Symmetry breaking in the opinion dynamics of a multi-group project organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhen-Tao; Zhou, Jing; Li, Ping; Chen, Xing-Guang

    2012-10-01

    A bounded confidence model of opinion dynamics in multi-group projects is presented in which each group's opinion evolution is driven by two types of forces: (i) the group's cohesive force which tends to restore the opinion back towards the initial status because of its company culture; and (ii) nonlinear coupling forces with other groups which attempt to bring opinions closer due to collaboration willingness. Bifurcation analysis for the case of a two-group project shows a cusp catastrophe phenomenon and three distinctive evolutionary regimes, i.e., a deadlock regime, a convergence regime, and a bifurcation regime in opinion dynamics. The critical value of initial discord between the two groups is derived to discriminate which regime the opinion evolution belongs to. In the case of a three-group project with a symmetric social network, both bifurcation analysis and simulation results demonstrate that if each pair has a high initial discord, instead of symmetrically converging to consensus with the increase of coupling scale as expected by Gabbay's result (Physica A 378 (2007) p. 125 Fig. 5), project organization (PO) may be split into two distinct clusters because of the symmetry breaking phenomenon caused by pitchfork bifurcations, which urges that apart from divergence in participants' interests, nonlinear interaction can also make conflict inevitable in the PO. The effects of two asymmetric level parameters are tested in order to explore the ways of inducing dominant opinion in the whole PO. It is found that the strong influence imposed by a leader group with firm faith on the flexible and open minded follower groups can promote the formation of a positive dominant opinion in the PO.

  8. 31 CFR 10.35 - Requirements for covered opinions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the opinion; and (ii) The taxpayer should seek advice based on the taxpayer's particular circumstances... opinion with regard to the tax issues in question and the taxpayer's good faith reliance on the opinion... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirements for covered opinions. 10...

  9. 32 CFR 1698.8 - Effect of advisory opinion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effect of advisory opinion. 1698.8 Section 1698... OPINIONS § 1698.8 Effect of advisory opinion. The Selective Service System will not take action with respect to any person concerning whom the Director has issued an advisory opinion insonsistent with that...

  10. 49 CFR 604.20 - Effect of an advisory opinion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Effect of an advisory opinion. 604.20 Section 604... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CHARTER SERVICE Advisory Opinions and Cease and Desist Orders § 604.20 Effect of an advisory opinion. (a) An advisory opinion represents the formal position of FTA on a...

  11. 28 CFR 80.11 - Effect of FCPA Opinion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effect of FCPA Opinion. 80.11 Section 80.11 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) FOREIGN CORRUPT PRACTICES ACT OPINION PROCEDURE § 80.11 Effect of FCPA Opinion. Except as specified in § 80.10, an FCPA Opinion will not bind or...

  12. Effects of Groups’ Spatial Segregation on Processes of Opinion Polarization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feliciani, Thomas; Flache, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    We contribute to the literature about processes of opinion formation, investigating theoretically how the spatial segregation of two groups affects opinion polarization as a possible outcome of opinion formation. We focus on two processes of opinion polarization (negative influence and persuasive

  13. 29 CFR 101.39 - Initiation of advisory opinion case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Initiation of advisory opinion case. 101.39 Section 101.39... Opinions and Declaratory Orders Regarding Board Jurisdiction § 101.39 Initiation of advisory opinion case... advisory opinion determining whether it would or would not assert jurisdiction on the basis of the facts...

  14. A Self-Categorization Explanation for Opinion Consensus Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinguang; Reid, Scott A.

    2013-01-01

    The public expression of opinions (and related communicative activities) hinges upon the perception of opinion consensus. Current explanations for opinion consensus perceptions typically focus on egocentric and other biases, rather than functional cognitions. Using self-categorization theory we showed that opinion consensus perceptions flow from…

  15. FWS Interest Simplified

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These boundaries are simplified from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Real Estate Interest data layer containing polygons representing tracts of land (parcels) in...

  16. Debenture Interest Rates

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Interest rates to be paid on debentures issued with respect to a loan or mortgage insured by the Federal Housing Commissioner under the provisions of the National...

  17. Gaps in Political Interest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robison, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    Political interest fundamentally influences political behavior, knowledge, and persuasion (Brady, Verba, & Schlozman, 1995; Delli Carpini & Keeter, 1996; Luskin, 1990; Zukin, Andolina, Keeter, Jenkins, & Delli Carpini, 2006). Since the early 1960s, the American National Election Studies (ANES) has...

  18. Public opinion and hazardous waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyons, W.; Fitzgerald, M.R.; McCabe, A.

    1987-01-01

    Citizen's anxiety over the prospects of a hazardous waste facility in their backyard is a nationwide phenomenon. While at one time communities vied mercilessly for the fruits of public sector spending, changes in US society and technology have created a new attitude toward government projects. Time and again, siting attempts result in anguished local protests and project vetoes. It is nonetheless clear that society's overall interests must eventually prevail over protesting local interests if these essential facilities are to be provided. Therefore, lawmaking bodies both at the state and federal level must formulate siting strategies that are perceived as responsible, effective, and equitable. This inevitably will involve enticements to local communities and a legitimate set of location criteria. Any proposal for a hazardous waste site will likely meet staunch local opposition. When it comes to siting decisions, the public apparently finds federal officials more trustworthy than state and local officials, believing the federal government will render a more rational, objective decision. At the same time, the public believes safety measures are the most important elements in swaying their views toward a proposed site, far outdistancing economic incentives. Safety policies and programs are primarily the responsibility of state and local governments. Thus, the public's point of greatest distrust is also the point of greatest concern. It is therefore not surprising that state legislators find hazardous waste siting one of the most perplexing policy issues today. Unless public trust in state and local government rises, solutions to the not-in-my-backyard syndrome will remain difficult if not impossible, to achieve.

  19. ORACLE Stroke Study: Opinion Regarding Acceptable Outcome Following Decompressive Hemicraniectomy for Ischemic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeybul, Stephen; Ho, Kwok M; Blacker, David W

    2016-08-01

    There continues to be considerable interest in the use of decompressive hemicraniectomy in the management of malignant cerebral artery infarction; however, concerns remain about long-term outcome. To assess opinion on consent and acceptable outcome among a wide range of healthcare workers. Seven hundred seventy-three healthcare workers at the 2 major public neurosurgical centers in Western Australia participated. Participants were asked to record their opinion on consent and acceptable outcome based on the modified Rankin Score (mRS). The evidence for clinical efficacy of the procedure was presented, and participants were then asked to reconsider their initial responses. Of the 773 participants included in the study, 407 (52.7%) initially felt that they would provide consent for a decompressive craniectomy as a lifesaving procedure, but only a minority of them considered an mRS score of 4 or 5 an acceptable outcome (for mRS score ≤4, n = 67, 8.7%; for mRS score = 4, n = 57, 7.4%). After the introduction of the concept of the disability paradox and the evidence for the clinical efficacy of decompressive craniectomy, more participants were unwilling to accept decompressive craniectomy (18.1% vs 37.8%), but at the same time, more were willing to accept an mRS score ≤4 as an acceptable outcome (for mRS score ≤4, n = 92, 11.9%; for mRS score = 4, n = 79, 10.2%). Most participants felt survival with dependency to be unacceptable. However, many would be willing to provide consent for surgery in the hopes that they may survive with some degree of independence. DESTINY, Decompressive Surgery for the Treatment of Malignant Infarction of the Middle Cerebral ArterymRS, modified Rankin Scale.

  20. PVMapper: Report on the Second Public Opinion Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlisle, Juliet [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Joe, Jeffrey [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kane, Stephanie [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Koehler, Dave [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Solan, David [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2013-06-24

    This report has been developed as an integral part of the PVMapper project, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy’s SunShot program. The objective of the SunShot program is to reduce the total costs of solar energy systems. The scope of PVMapper is to develop a geographic information system (GIS) based project planning tool to identify optimal utility-scale solar facility sites. The specific objectives of the project are to 1) develop the software on an open-source platform; 2) integrate the appropriate data sets and GIS layers; 3) include a measure of social risk and public acceptance; 4) enable customization of variable weights; 5) provide a free and accessible platform for software download; and 6) provide a sustainability plan to ensure future relevance of the software. When completed, PVMapper is intended to be used by solar developers, Authorities Having Jurisdiction (AHJs), and other interested parties. This project supports SunShot’s objective by reducing the non-hardware balance of system costs (“soft costs”) for utility-scale solar project development. In order to accomplish the third project objective – including a measure of social risk and public acceptance within PVMapper – the project team has developed a time-series public opinion survey, administered yearly over the course of the three-year project. This report highlights the results and preliminary analyses from the second survey in this series. While the results of this survey are valuable to both PVMapper and future utility-scale solar development, the time-series design is extremely important. The completion of the series enables the extension of the dataset to much richer information. For example, the research team altered this iteration to sharpen the focus on specific topics (those posing potentially higher risks) and target specific locations in the oversample (such as communities near existing facilities). Using similar

  1. Public opinion and communicative action around renewable energy projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fast, Stewart

    This thesis investigates how rural communities negotiate the development of renewable energy projects. Public and local community acceptance of these new technologies in rural areas around the world is uncertain and spatially uneven and represents an area of emerging public policy interest and one where scholarly theory is rapidly developing. This thesis uses Habermasian concepts of public sphere, communicative action and deliberative democracy, as well as the concept of "wicked problems" from the planning studies literature combined with geographical concepts of place and scale to advance theoretical and empirical understanding of how public opinion on renewable energy technologies is formed in place. It documents energy use patterns, attitudes and socio-political relations at a time when considerable state and business efforts are directed at the construction of solar, wind, biomass and small-hydro technologies in rural regions. These concepts and theories are applied in a case study of rural communities in the Eastern Ontario Highlands, an impoverished area undergoing rapid restructuring driven by centralization of services and amenity migration but with abundant natural resources in form of forests, numerous waterways and open space which have attracted a broad range of new energy developments. Overall high levels of support for alternative energy development particularly for solar power were found, albeit for reasons of local energy security and not for reasons of preventing climate change. There was some evidence that seasonal residents are less supportive of hydro and biomass projects than permanent residents possibly reflecting broader trends in rural economies away from productive uses of land to consumptive appreciation of rural landscapes. The thesis suggests that collective action to advance energy projects in the case study area require agreement along three world-claims (truth, rightness and truthfulness) and that communication leading to discourse

  2. Probability encoding of hydrologic parameters for basalt. Elicitation of expert opinions from a panel of five consulting hydrologists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Runchal, A.K.; Merkhofer, M.W.; Olmsted, E.; Davis, J.D.

    1984-11-01

    The Columbia River basalts underlying the Hanford Site in Washington State are being considered as a possible location for a geologic repository for high-level nuclear waste. To investigate the feasibility of a repository at this site, the hydrologic parameters of the site must be evaluated. Among hydrologic parameters of particular interest are the effective porosity of the Cohassett basalt flow top and flow interior and the vertical-to-horizontal hydraulic conductivity, or anisotropy ratio, of the Cohassett basalt flow interior. The Cohassett basalt flow is the prime candidate horizon for repository studies. Site-specific data for these hydrologic parameters are currently inadequate for the purpose of preliminary assessment of candidate repository performance. To obtain credible, auditable, and independently derived estimates of the specified hydrologic parameters, a panel of five nationally recognized hydrologists was assembled. Their expert judgments were quantified during two rounds of Delphi process by means of a probability encoding method developed to estimate the probability distributions of the selected hydrologic variables. The results indicate significant differences of expert opinion for cumulative probabilities of less than 10% and greater than 90%, but relatively close agreement in the middle ranges of values. The principal causes of the diversity of opinion are believed to be the lack of site-specific data and the absence of a single, widely accepted, conceptual or theoretical basis for analyzing these variables.

  3. Opinion dynamics: models, extensions and external effects

    CERN Document Server

    Sîrbu, Alina; Servedio, Vito D P; Tria, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Recently, social phenomena have received a lot of attention not only from social scientists, but also from physicists, mathematicians and computer scientists, in the emerging interdisciplinary field of complex system science. Opinion dynamics is one of the processes studied, since opinions are the drivers of human behaviour, and play a crucial role in many global challenges that our complex world and societies are facing: global financial crises, global pandemics, growth of cities, urbanisation and migration patterns, and last but not least important, climate change and environmental sustainability and protection. Opinion formation is a complex process affected by the interplay of different elements, including the individual predisposition, the influence of positive and negative peer interaction (social networks playing a crucial role in this respect), the information each individual is exposed to, and many others. Several models inspired from those in use in physics have been developed to encompass many of t...

  4. Opinion formation with time-varying bounded confidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, YunHong; Liu, QiPeng; Zhang, SiYing

    2017-01-01

    When individuals in social groups communicate with one another and are under the influence of neighbors' opinions, they typically revise their own opinions to adapt to such peer opinions. The individual threshold of bounded confidence will thus be affected by both a change in individual confidence and by neighbor influence. Individuals thus update their own opinions with new bounded confidence, while their updated opinions also influence their neighbors' opinions. Based on this reasoned factual assumption, we propose an opinion dynamics model with time-varying bounded confidence. A directed network is formed by the rule of the individual bounded confidence threshold. The threshold of individual bounded confidence involves both confidence variation and the in/out degree of the individual node. When the confidence variation is greater, an individual's confidence in persisting in his own opinion in interactions is weaker, and the individual is more likely to adopt neighbors' opinions. In networks, the in/out degree is determined by individual neighbors. Our main research involves the process of opinion evolution and the basic laws of opinion cluster formation. Group opinions converge exponentially to consensus with stable neighbors. An individual opinion evolution is determined by the average neighbor opinion effect strength. We also explore the conditions involved in forming a stable neighbor relationship and the influence of the confidence variation in the convergence of the threshold of bounded confidence. The results show that the influence on opinion evolution is greater with increased confidence variation.

  5. Determination of student opinions in augmented reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huseyin Bicen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The rapid development of the new technology has changed classroom teaching methods and tools in a positive way. This study investigated the classroom learning with augmented reality and the impact of student opinions. 97 volunteer undergraduate students took part in this study. Results included data in the form of frequencies, percentages and descriptive statistics. The results show that, with gamification methods, augmented reality content affected students’ opinions in a positive way. When QR codes are used in the classroom, students feel independent from classroom materials and can access various resources. Moreover, students think that, when augmented reality in the classroom is used, education is more enjoyable.

  6. Analysing Customer Opinions with Text Mining Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consoli, Domenico

    2009-08-01

    Knowing what the customer thinks of a particular product/service helps top management to introduce improvements in processes and products, thus differentiating the company from their competitors and gain competitive advantages. The customers, with their preferences, determine the success or failure of a company. In order to know opinions of the customers we can use technologies available from the web 2.0 (blog, wiki, forums, chat, social networking, social commerce). From these web sites, useful information must be extracted, for strategic purposes, using techniques of sentiment analysis or opinion mining.

  7. Changing opinions about research by Saudi medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abulaban, Ahmad; Alharbi, Abdulrahman; BinDajam, Osama; Al Jarbou, Mohammed; Alharbi, Hatem; Alanazi, Faiz; Aldamiri, Khalid; Althobaiti, Ahmed; Al Sayyari, Abdulla

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate and compare the opinions and attitudes of medical students toward medical research in five Saudi universities and examine the changes observed in these opinions and attitudes in one of these universities over a period of time. This is a cross-sectional study conducted among medical students in five Saudi universities. This study was based on a survey undertaken in 2015. The survey consisted of five questions inquiring about the opinions and attitudes of medical students toward medical research. The same survey was carried out 8 years earlier in one of these universities (King Abdulaziz University [KAU]), and the results obtained during the two periods (2007 and 2015) were compared. A convenient sample of 924 students was selected from five Saudi universities. Ninety-five (10.3%) of the medical students were not aware of the usefulness and importance scientific research will have on their future careers. A total of 409 (44.3%) stated that they had no knowledge on how to conduct scientific research. On the other hand, a vast majority of medical students (98.1%) expressed a willingness and interest to participate in scientific research if provided with an opportunity. The percentage of students from KAU strongly agreeing to participate in research rose from 33.1% in 2007 to 81.5% in 2015 (P=0.001). Of all the students surveyed, 431 (46.6%) had participated in scientific research as undergraduates. Most students in five Saudi universities expressed enthusiasm for participating in a research project, but only a few of them had sufficient knowledge on basic research. There was considerable improvement in students' perception of research in KAU when comparing their responses in 2007 to those in 2015.

  8. Interest in politics modulates neural activity in the amygdala and ventral striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozzi, Marta; Zamboni, Giovanna; Krueger, Frank; Grafman, Jordan

    2010-11-01

    Studies on political participation have found that a person's interest in politics contributes to the likelihood that he or she will be involved in the political process. Here, we looked at whether or not interest in politics affects patterns of brain activity when individuals think about political matters. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we scanned individuals (either interested or uninterested in politics based on a self-report questionnaire) while they were expressing their agreement or disagreement with political opinions. After scanning, participants were asked to rate each political opinion presented in the scanner for emotional valence and emotional intensity. Behavioral results showed that those political opinions participants agreed with were perceived as more emotionally intense and more positive by individuals interested in politics relative to individuals uninterested in politics. In addition, individuals interested in politics showed greater activation in the amygdala and the ventral striatum (ventral putamen) relative to individuals uninterested in politics when reading political opinions in accordance with their own views. This study shows that having an interest in politics elicits activations in emotion- and reward-related brain areas even when simply agreeing with written political opinions. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Gathering opinion leader data for a tailored implementation intervention in secondary healthcare: a randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Katherine; Hanbury, Andria; Thompson, Carl

    2014-03-10

    Health professionals' behaviour is a key component in compliance with evidence-based recommendations. Opinion leaders are an oft-used method of influencing such behaviours in implementation studies, but reliably and cost effectively identifying them is not straightforward. Survey and questionnaire based data collection methods have potential and carefully chosen items can - in theory - both aid identification of opinion leaders and help in the design of an implementation strategy itself. This study compares two methods of identifying opinion leaders for behaviour-change interventions. Healthcare professionals working in a single UK mental health NHS Foundation Trust were randomly allocated to one of two questionnaires. The first, slightly longer questionnaire, asked for multiple nominations of opinion leaders, with specific information about the nature of the relationship with each nominee. The second, shorter version, asked simply for a list of named "champions" but no more additional information. We compared, using Chi Square statistics, both the questionnaire response rates and the number of health professionals likely to be influenced by the opinion leaders (i.e. the "coverage" rates) for both questionnaire conditions. Both questionnaire versions had low response rates: only 15% of health professionals named colleagues in the longer questionnaire and 13% in the shorter version. The opinion leaders identified by both methods had a low number of contacts (range of coverage, 2-6 each). There were no significant differences in response rates or coverage between the two identification methods. The low response and population coverage rates for both questionnaire versions suggest that alternative methods of identifying opinion leaders for implementation studies may be more effective. Future research should seek to identify and evaluate alternative, non-questionnaire based, methods of identifying opinion leaders in order to maximise their potential in organisational

  10. Interacting opinion and disease dynamics in multiplex networks: Discontinuous phase transition and nonmonotonic consensus times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velásquez-Rojas, Fátima; Vazquez, Federico

    2017-05-01

    Opinion formation and disease spreading are among the most studied dynamical processes on complex networks. In real societies, it is expected that these two processes depend on and affect each other. However, little is known about the effects of opinion dynamics over disease dynamics and vice versa, since most studies treat them separately. In this work we study the dynamics of the voter model for opinion formation intertwined with that of the contact process for disease spreading, in a population of agents that interact via two types of connections, social and contact. These two interacting dynamics take place on two layers of networks, coupled through a fraction q of links present in both networks. The probability that an agent updates its state depends on both the opinion and disease states of the interacting partner. We find that the opinion dynamics has striking consequences on the statistical properties of disease spreading. The most important is that the smooth (continuous) transition from a healthy to an endemic phase observed in the contact process, as the infection probability increases beyond a threshold, becomes abrupt (discontinuous) in the two-layer system. Therefore, disregarding the effects of social dynamics on epidemics propagation may lead to a misestimation of the real magnitude of the spreading. Also, an endemic-healthy discontinuous transition is found when the coupling q overcomes a threshold value. Furthermore, we show that the disease dynamics delays the opinion consensus, leading to a consensus time that varies nonmonotonically with q in a large range of the model's parameters. A mean-field approach reveals that the coupled dynamics of opinions and disease can be approximately described by the dynamics of the voter model decoupled from that of the contact process, with effective probabilities of opinion and disease transmission.

  11. Special Interest Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degi, Bruce J.

    1999-01-01

    Offers a reflection on the shootings at Columbine High School in Littleton, Colorado, on April 20, 1999. Notes how every special-interest group has used the tragedy to support its own point of view, and concludes that teachers have become bystanders in the education of America's children. (SR)

  12. Innovations in e-business – new ways of delivery of food products over the Internet in the opinion of potential customers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miroslaw Moroz

    2012-01-01

    Innovations in e-business - new ways of delivery of food products over the Internet in the opinion of potential customers According to research online sales of food enjoy bigger and bigger Internet users interest...

  13. Opinion formation on social media: an empirical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Fei; Liu, Yun

    2014-03-01

    Opinion exchange models aim to describe the process of public opinion formation, seeking to uncover the intrinsic mechanism in social systems; however, the model results are seldom empirically justified using large-scale actual data. Online social media provide an abundance of data on opinion interaction, but the question of whether opinion models are suitable for characterizing opinion formation on social media still requires exploration. We collect a large amount of user interaction information from an actual social network, i.e., Twitter, and analyze the dynamic sentiments of users about different topics to investigate realistic opinion evolution. We find two nontrivial results from these data. First, public opinion often evolves to an ordered state in which one opinion predominates, but not to complete consensus. Second, agents are reluctant to change their opinions, and the distribution of the number of individual opinion changes follows a power law. Then, we suggest a model in which agents take external actions to express their internal opinions according to their activity. Conversely, individual actions can influence the activity and opinions of neighbors. The probability that an agent changes its opinion depends nonlinearly on the fraction of opponents who have taken an action. Simulation results show user action patterns and the evolution of public opinion in the model coincide with the empirical data. For different nonlinear parameters, the system may approach different regimes. A large decay in individual activity slows down the dynamics, but causes more ordering in the system.

  14. Opinion formation on social media: An empirical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Fei; Liu, Yun

    2014-03-01

    Opinion exchange models aim to describe the process of public opinion formation, seeking to uncover the intrinsic mechanism in social systems; however, the model results are seldom empirically justified using large-scale actual data. Online social media provide an abundance of data on opinion interaction, but the question of whether opinion models are suitable for characterizing opinion formation on social media still requires exploration. We collect a large amount of user interaction information from an actual social network, i.e., Twitter, and analyze the dynamic sentiments of users about different topics to investigate realistic opinion evolution. We find two nontrivial results from these data. First, public opinion often evolves to an ordered state in which one opinion predominates, but not to complete consensus. Second, agents are reluctant to change their opinions, and the distribution of the number of individual opinion changes follows a power law. Then, we suggest a model in which agents take external actions to express their internal opinions according to their activity. Conversely, individual actions can influence the activity and opinions of neighbors. The probability that an agent changes its opinion depends nonlinearly on the fraction of opponents who have taken an action. Simulation results show user action patterns and the evolution of public opinion in the model coincide with the empirical data. For different nonlinear parameters, the system may approach different regimes. A large decay in individual activity slows down the dynamics, but causes more ordering in the system.

  15. A comparative study of open domain and opinion question answering systems for factual and opinionated queries

    OpenAIRE

    Balahur Dobrescu, Alexandra; Boldrini, Ester; Montoyo Guijarro, Andrés; Martínez Barco, Patricio

    2009-01-01

    The development of the Web 2.0 led to the birth of new textual genres such as blogs, reviews or forum entries. The increasing number of such texts and the highly diverse topics they discuss make blogs a rich source for analysis. This paper presents a comparative study on open domain and opinion QA systems. A collection of opinion and mixed fact-opinion questions in English is defined and two Question Answering systems are employed to retrieve the answers to these queries. The first one is gen...

  16. The Peace Mediator effect: Heterogeneous agents can foster consensus in continuous opinion models

    CERN Document Server

    Carletti, Daniele Vilone Timoteo; Guazzini, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Statistical mechanics has proven to be able to capture the fundamental rules underlying phenomena of social aggregation and opinion dynamics, well studied in disciplines like sociology and psychology. This approach is based on the underlying paradigm that the interesting dynamics of multi-agent systems emerge from then correct definition of few parameters governing the evolution of each individual. Into this context, we propose a particular model of opinion dynamics based on the psychological construct named "cognitive dissonance". Our system is made of interacting individuals, the agents, each bearing only two dynamical variables (respectively opinion and affinity) self-consistently adjusted during time evolution. We also define two special classes of interacting entities, both acting for a peace mediation process but via different course of action: diplomats and auctoritates. The behaviour of the system with and without peace mediators (PMs) is investigated and discussed with reference to corresponding psyc...

  17. The Peace Mediator effect: Heterogeneous agents can foster consensus in continuous opinion models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilone, Daniele; Carletti, Timoteo; Bagnoli, Franco; Guazzini, Andrea

    2016-11-01

    Statistical mechanics has proven to be able to capture the fundamental rules underlying phenomena of social aggregation and opinion dynamics, well studied in disciplines like sociology and psychology. This approach is based on the underlying paradigm that the interesting dynamics of multi-agent systems emerge from the correct definition of few parameters governing the evolution of each individual. In this context, we propose a particular model of opinion dynamics based on the psychological construct named ;cognitive dissonance;. Our system is made of interacting individuals, the agents, each bearing only two dynamical variables (respectively ;opinion; and ;affinity;) self-consistently adjusted during time evolution. We also define two special classes of interacting entities, both acting for a peace mediation process but via different course of action: ;diplomats; and ;auctoritates;. The behavior of the system with and without peace mediators (PMs) is investigated and discussed with reference to corresponding psychological and social implications.

  18. 5 CFR 2636.103 - Advisory opinions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... he determines that the ethics opinion previously issued is incorrect, either as a matter of law or....103 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF GOVERNMENT ETHICS GOVERNMENT ETHICS LIMITATIONS ON OUTSIDE... from an agency ethics official as to whether specific conduct which has not yet occurred would violate...

  19. FY 2017 Kazakhstan Country Opinion Survey

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2017-01-01

    The Country opinion survey for 2017 in Kazakhstan assists the World Bank Group (WBG) in gaining a better understanding of how stakeholders in Kazakhstan perceive the WBG. The survey explored:(i) general issues facing Kazakhstan; (ii) overall attitudes toward the World Bank Group; (iii) World Bank Group’s effectiveness and results; (iv) The World Bank Group’s knowledge work and activities; ...

  20. Secondary School Students' Opinions about Readers' Theatre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabag, S. Gulin

    2015-01-01

    In this article, a teaching strategy which not only blends yesterday and today in a meaningful way but also powerfully integrates literacy and history will be examined. Firstly Readers' Theatre as a technique will be introduced. Secondly, the usage guidelines of Readers' Theatre will be presented. Finally the opinions of secondary school students…

  1. FACTORS INFLUENCING AUDITORS' GOING CONCERN OPINION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasnah Haron

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of our study is to provide evidence the practically consideration of auditor judgement on going concern opinion. By using quasi experimental, we found strong evidence that auditors' judgement is affected by financial indicators, evidence, and disclosure. We have another finding that consensus among auditors' judgement and the interaction effects between the three independent variables is significant.

  2. OPINION PIECE Rethinking responsibility in radiography: Some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OPINION PIECE. Introduction. The field of radiography in South Africa is complex and presents a multitude of ethical issues. The discipline is often regarded as a supporting function in the healthcare chain, and a stepping-stone in the diagnostic process. This status of the discipline seems to have left many radiographers in ...

  3. A model of public opinion management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patacconi, Andrea; Vikander, Nicholas Edward

    2015-01-01

    information is always unbiased, may also not be socially optimal. A biased information-gathering process can benefit the government by helping it to shape public opinion. But it can also benefit the public, by curbing the government's tendency to implement its ex ante favored policy, thus mitigating...

  4. Determination of Student Opinions in Augmented Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicen, Huseyin; Bal, Erkan

    2016-01-01

    The rapid development of the new technology has changed classroom teaching methods and tools in a positive way. This study investigated the classroom learning with augmented reality and the impact of student opinions. 97 volunteer undergraduate students took part in this study. Results included data in the form of frequencies, percentages and…

  5. FY16 Uzbekistan Country Opinion Survey Report

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2016-01-01

    The Country Opinion Survey in Uzbekistan assists the World Bank Group (WBG) in gaining a better understanding of how stakeholders in Uzbekistan perceive the WBG. It provides the WBG with systematic feedback from national and local governments, multilateral/bilateral agencies, media, academia, the private sector, and civil society in Uzbekistan on 1) their views regarding the general enviro...

  6. FY15 Ethiopia Country Opinion Survey Report

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2015-01-01

    The Country Opinion Survey in Ethiopia assists the World Bank Group (WBG) in gaining a better understanding of how stakeholders in Ethiopia perceive the WBG. It provides the WBG with systematic feedback from national and local governments, multilateral/bilateral agencies, media, academia, the private sector, and civil society in Ethiopia on 1) their views regarding the general environment ...

  7. Experts' Opinion: A Powerful Evaluation Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevo, David

    Experts' opinion is proposed as a valuable evaluation tool. Advantages of this method include the relative cost effectiveness when compared with other data collection methods. It is a time-saving method important in formative evaluation when a decision must be made concerning implementation of a course of action. When experts are carefully…

  8. Farmers' Opinions about Third-Wave Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasley, Paul; Bultena, Gordon

    The opinions of 1,585 Iowa farmers about 8 emergent agricultural technologies (energy production from feed grains and oils; energy production from livestock waste; genetic engineering research on plants, livestock, and humans; robotics for on-farm use; confinement livestock facilities; and personal computers for farm families) were found to be…

  9. Public opinion factors regarding nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, B.

    1991-01-01

    This paper is an effort to identify, as comprehensively as possible, public concerns about nuclear power, and to assess, where possible, the relative importance of these concerns as they relate to government regulation of and policy towards nuclear power. It is based on some two dozen in-depth interviews with key communicators representing the nuclear power industry, the environmental community, and government, as well as on the parallel efforts in our research project: (1) review of federal court case law, (2) a selective examination of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) administrative process, and (3) the preceding George Mason University research project in this series. The paper synthesizes our findings about public attitudes towards nuclear power as expressed through federal court case law, NRC administrative law, public opinion surveys, and direct personal interviews. In so doing, we describe the public opinion environment in which the nuclear regulatory process must operate. Our premise is that public opinion ultimately underlies the approaches government agencies take towards regulating nuclear power, and that, to the degree that the nuclear power industry's practices are aligned with public opinion, a more favorable regulatory climate is possible.

  10. Public opinion factors regarding nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, B.

    1991-12-31

    This paper is an effort to identify, as comprehensively as possible, public concerns about nuclear power, and to assess, where possible, the relative importance of these concerns as they relate to government regulation of and policy towards nuclear power. It is based on some two dozen in-depth interviews with key communicators representing the nuclear power industry, the environmental community, and government, as well as on the parallel efforts in our research project: (1) review of federal court case law, (2) a selective examination of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) administrative process, and (3) the preceding George Mason University research project in this series. The paper synthesizes our findings about public attitudes towards nuclear power as expressed through federal court case law, NRC administrative law, public opinion surveys, and direct personal interviews. In so doing, we describe the public opinion environment in which the nuclear regulatory process must operate. Our premise is that public opinion ultimately underlies the approaches government agencies take towards regulating nuclear power, and that, to the degree that the nuclear power industry`s practices are aligned with public opinion, a more favorable regulatory climate is possible.

  11. Polling and public opinion: a Canadian perspective

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Butler, Peter Marshall

    2007-01-01

    ..., advertising, and government policy. Using such controversial issues such as free trade, health care, same-sex marriage, and national security, Butler argues that popular opinion on such hot-button topics as these can be guided and changed according to how polls are interpreted for and presented to the public. As well as analysing the impact of po...

  12. Interesting Questions in Freakonomics

    OpenAIRE

    John DiNardo

    2007-01-01

    Freakonomics is more about "entertainment" than it is a serious attempt at popularization. Consequently, rather than conduct a comprehensive fact check, I use the book as a springboard for a broader inquiry into social science research and take issue with the book's surprising premise that "Economics is a science with excellent tools for gaining answers but a serious shortage of interesting questions." Using examples from Freakonomics , I argue that some of the questions the book addresses ar...

  13. Influence of political parties and the media on the formation of public opinion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Horniak

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose and Originality: This article deals with political parties, mass media and public opinion. It is exploring, how the political parties and mass media influence the decisions made by the public. Method The research was done by the method of observation. We observed the influence of political parties and the media to shape public opinion. The observation was made in the Slovak Republic. Results: The aim of this paper work is to analyze and examine how reaction of the public opinion changes by receiving the information from the political parties and media. Society: The study enables easier orientation in manipulation of public opinion that can improve the social order as well as social responsibility and the environment indirectly. Limitations / further research: The study is restricted performance enhancers political parties intervene in public opinion. The study is based on data from the Statistical Office of the Slovak Republic and the agency FOCUS. Further research could explore influence of interest groups on political parties.

  14. Breaking The Traditional Communication Flow: Exploration of Social Media Opinion Leaders in Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Emma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Opinion leaders play an important role in mitigating health issues and are able to influence attitudes and health behaviors to a certain extent. However, in the world we are living today, individual health decision making no longer rely fully on doctor’s advice, but often persuaded by people or organisations deemed reliable and trustworthy. Interestingly, one does not have to have a medical degree to be seen as “reliable” or “trustworthy” in giving out medical advices. Computer-mediated-communication changes the way opinion leaders emerge in virtual communities, specifically in the context of health. Through increased access to both traditional and online media, people have a fair access to communication technology and therefore, our definition of opinion leaders have shifted from how we used to understand it through Lazarsfeld’s two-steps flow theory. In fact, the way opinion leaders operate via social media platform is very different from how it used to be through the traditional mass media. This paper will discuss on the characteristics of new media opinion leaders, particularly in the context of health, in hopes to learn new ways to promote health in future communication campaigns.

  15. Iraqi public opinion on the Web: An exploratory study of opinions on invasion and election

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haidar Moukdad

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an exploratory study of a selection of user contributions to a news feedback forum on the Web provided by the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC World Service to its Arab listeners. Contributions representing Iraqi public opinion on a variety of topics covering Iraq under occupation were categorized and analyzed to provide a glimpse of how access to the Web has allowed Iraqis to freely express their opinions, and of how Iraqi public opinion manifests itself throughout these contributions. The results provided insights into the feelings of Iraqis towards the invasion and occupation of their country, and they highlighted the role played by the Web as a vital communication vehicle for public opinion and political debates.

  16. Opinion leaders and changes over time: a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doumit, Gaby; Wright, Frances C; Graham, Ian D; Smith, Andrew; Grimshaw, Jeremy

    2011-10-11

    Opinion leaders represent one way to disseminate new knowledge and influence the practice behaviors of physicians. This study explored the stability of opinion leaders over time, whether opinion leaders were polymorphic (i.e., influencing multiple practice areas) or monomorphic (i.e., influencing one practice area), and reach of opinion leaders in their local network. We surveyed surgeons and pathologists in Ontario to identify opinion leaders for colorectal cancer in 2003 and 2005 and to identify opinion leaders for breast cancer in 2005. We explored whether opinion leaders for colorectal cancer identified in 2003 were re-identified in 2005. We examined whether opinion leaders were considered polymorphic (nominated in 2005 as opinion leaders for both colorectal and breast cancer) or monomorphic (nominated in 2005 for only one condition). Social-network mapping was used to identify the number of local colleagues identifying opinion leaders. Response rates for surgeons were 41% (2003) and 40% (2005); response rates for pathologists were 42% (2003) and 37% (2005). Four (25%) of the surgical opinion leaders identified in 2003 for colorectal cancer were re-identified in 2005. No pathology opinion leaders for colorectal cancer were identified in both 2003 and 2005. Only 29% of surgical opinion leaders and 17% of pathology opinion leaders identified in the 2005 survey were considered influential for both colorectal cancer and breast cancer. Social-network mapping revealed that only a limited number of general surgeons (12%) or pathologists (7%) were connected to the social networks of identified opinion leaders. Opinion leaders identified in this study were not stable over a two-year time period and generally appear to be monomorphic, with clearly demarcated areas of expertise and limited spheres of influence. These findings may limit the practicability of routinely using opinion leaders to influence practice.

  17. Opinion Impact Models and Opinion Consensus Methods in Ad Hoc Tactical Social Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Demin Li; Jie Zhou; Jingjuan Zhu; Jiacun Wang

    2013-01-01

    Ad hoc social networks are special social networks, such as ad hoc tactical social networks, ad hoc firefighter social networks, and ad hoc vehicular social networks. The social networks possess both the properties of ad hoc network and social network. One of the challenge problems in ad hoc social networks is opinion impact and consensus, and the opinion impact plays a key role for information fusion and decision support in ad hoc social networks. In this paper, consider the impact of physic...

  18. Treating criminal offenders in correctional contexts: identifying interests and distributing responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schopp, Robert F

    2009-01-01

    In Panetti v. Quarterman, three professional associations advocated commutation of capital sentences for offenders who are incompetent to face execution. Some judicial opinions deny that convicted offenders have any protected interest in avoiding a legally imposed sentence, and other opinions have found that the Eighth Amendment requires treatment for prisoners with serious mental health needs. This article examines some circumstances in which health care providers in the context of criminal punishment encounter apparent conflicts among the treatment interests of the individuals, the comprehensive interests of these individuals, legally protected interests, and the public interest. This analysis pursues clarification of these interests and of potential tensions among legal and professional obligations of health care providers. This article does not provide comprehensive resolution of this tension. Rather, it is intended to promote rigorous ongoing inquiry by clarifying the relevant interests at stake and the responsibilities of various participants in the complex interaction of health care and corrections. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Chaotic Modes in Scale Free Opinion Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusmartsev, Feo V.; Kürten, Karl E.

    2010-12-01

    In this paper, we investigate processes associated with formation of public opinion in varies directed random, scale free and small-world social networks. The important factor of the opinion formation is the existence of contrarians which were discovered by Granovetter in various social psychology experiments1,2,3 long ago and later introduced in sociophysics by Galam.4 When the density of contrarians increases the system behavior drastically changes at some critical value. At high density of contrarians the system can never arrive to a consensus state and periodically oscillates with different periods depending on specific structure of the network. At small density of the contrarians the behavior is manifold. It depends primary on the initial state of the system. If initially the majority of the population agrees with each other a state of stable majority may be easily reached. However when originally the population is divided in nearly equal parts consensus can never be reached. We model the emergence of collective decision making by considering N interacting agents, whose opinions are described by two state Ising spin variable associated with YES and NO. We show that the dynamical behaviors are very sensitive not only to the density of the contrarians but also to the network topology. We find that a phase of social chaos may arise in various dynamical processes of opinion formation in many realistic models. We compare the prediction of the theory with data describing the dynamics of the average opinion of the USA population collected on a day-by-day basis by varies media sources during the last six month before the final Obama-McCain election. The qualitative ouctome is in reasonable agreement with the prediction of our theory. In fact, the analyses of these data made within the paradigm of our theory indicates that even in this campaign there were chaotic elements where the public opinion migrated in an unpredictable chaotic way. The existence of such a phase

  20. Discrepancy and Disliking Do Not Induce Negative Opinion Shifts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Takács, Károly; Flache, Aneas; Maes, Michael

    2016-01-01

    .... Results confirm that similarities induce attraction, but results do not support that discrepancy or disliking entails negative influence. Instead, our findings suggest a robust positive linear relationship between opinion distance and opinion shifts.

  1. Your cancer diagnosis: Do you need a second opinion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your cancer diagnosis: Do you need a second opinion? To use the sharing features on this page, ... treat your cancer. Should You Get a Second Opinion? You should not worry about asking your doctor ...

  2. AIDS education in schools - awareness, attitudes and opinions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , attitudes towards AIDS and opinions as to how and whether education programmes for schoolchildren should be planned. Opinions were canvassed initially by means of a questionnaire to three groups of professionals who could become ...

  3. Discrepancy and Disliking Do Not Induce Negative Opinion Shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takács, Károly; Flache, Andreas; Mäs, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Both classical social psychological theories and recent formal models of opinion differentiation and bi-polarization assign a prominent role to negative social influence. Negative influence is defined as shifts away from the opinion of others and hypothesized to be induced by discrepancy with or disliking of the source of influence. There is strong empirical support for the presence of positive social influence (a shift towards the opinion of others), but evidence that large opinion differences or disliking could trigger negative shifts is mixed. We examine positive and negative influence with controlled exposure to opinions of other individuals in one experiment and with opinion exchange in another study. Results confirm that similarities induce attraction, but results do not support that discrepancy or disliking entails negative influence. Instead, our findings suggest a robust positive linear relationship between opinion distance and opinion shifts.

  4. European dental students' opinions on their local anaesthesia education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, H.S.; Tan, L.L.S.; van der Spek, S.J.; Baart, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate students’ opinion about theoretical and clinical training in local anaesthesia at different European dental schools. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire was designed to collect information about local anaesthesia teaching. Students’ opinion was quantified with five-point

  5. Rangifer and human interests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G. Anderson

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews biological and anthropological literatute on wild and tame Rangifer to demonstrate the powerful effect that this species has had on the imaginations of biologists, social scientists and local hunters. Through identifying a general 'human interest' in Rangifer, the author argues that there is great potential for these three communities to work together. To demonstrate this idea, the paper reviews several examples of successful and unsuccessful 'alliances' between local peoples and both natural and social scientists which have had a fundamental impact upon the history of these sciences. The paper examines recent theorerical models which suggest that human action is a major factor in the behaviour and ecology of the animals. The paper also analyses the ideas of many indigenous people for whom there is no categorical difference between semi-domesticated, semi-sedentary and migratory Rangifer through comparison with many 'anomalous' texts in English and Russian language wildlife biology. By reviewing the history of scholarly interest in Rangifer, the author argues that contemporary models of Rangifer behaviour and identity could be 'revitalised' and 'recalibrated' through the establishment of that dialogue between scientists and local peoples which so characterised the 19th century. Such a dialogue, it is argued, would help mediate many of the political conflicts now appearing in those districts where Rangifer migrate.

  6. A Survey of Key Technology of Network Public Opinion Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Li Su Ying

    2016-01-01

    The internet has become an important base for internet users to make comments because of its interactivity and fast dissemination. The outbreak of internet public opinion has become a major risk for network information security. Domestic and foreign researchers had carried out extensive and in-depth study on public opinion. Fruitful results have achieved in the basic theory research and emergency handling and other aspects of public opinion. But research on the public opinion in China is stil...

  7. Opinions of Female Juvenile Delinquents on Language-Based Literacy Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanger, Dixie; Ritzman, Mitzi; Stremlau, Aliza; Fairchild, Lindsey; Brunken, Cindy

    2009-01-01

    A mixed methods study was conducted to examine female juvenile delinquents' opinions and reactions on nine language-based literacy activities. Forty-one participants ranging in age from 13 to 18 years responded to a survey consisting of nine multiple-choice items and one open-ended question concerning the usefulness of activities. Quantitative and…

  8. A teledentistry system for the second opinion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambino, Orazio; Lima, Fausto; Pirrone, Roberto; Ardizzone, Edoardo; Campisi, Giuseppina; di Fede, Olga

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present a Teledentistry system aimed to the Second Opinion task. It make use of a particular camera called intra-oral camera, also called dental camera, in order to perform the photo shooting and real-time video of the inner part of the mouth. The pictures acquired by the Operator with such a device are sent to the Oral Medicine Expert (OME) by means of a current File Transfer Protocol (FTP) service and the real-time video is channeled into a video streaming thanks to the VideoLan client/server (VLC) application. It is composed by a HTML5 web-pages generated by PHP and allows to perform the Second Opinion both when Operator and OME are logged and when one of them is offline.

  9. Internet censorship in Turkey: University students' opinions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Ozkan, Arda Arikan

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to study university students’ opinions toward online censorship with references to their socio‐political and economic variables. Considering the upwards trend and the increasing number of online restrictions in Turkey,the opinions of university students (n=138 are thought to give significant findings. The questionnaire aimed to collect dataon some chosen aspects of censorship which are internet access regulation by legal authorities, online pornographiccontent, websites distributing illegal and crime related information and the political and religious aspects of the internetcensorship. The findings about these four basic aspects toward the online censorship revealed that despite the highproportion of approval, participants have a confused and inconsistent attitude towards the issue especially within theapplication and the idea of censorship. In a broader aspect, the findings can be interpreted as a sign of university students’insufficient knowledge and understanding towards the current situation and the possible future of online censorship inTurkey

  10. 29 CFR 18.610 - Religious beliefs or opinions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Religious beliefs or opinions. 18.610 Section 18.610 Labor... OFFICE OF ADMINISTRATIVE LAW JUDGES Rules of Evidence Witnesses § 18.610 Religious beliefs or opinions. Evidence of the beliefs or opinions of a witness on matters of religion is not admissible for the purpose...

  11. Factors contributing to the accessibility of opinion leaders in Lesotho ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... opinion leaders identified by means of sociometric methods with the number of nominations as the major indicator of degree of influence or strength of opinion leadership. The findings reveal that socio-psychological accessibility is not a serious constraint in the diffusion of innovations through opinion leaders, because the ...

  12. Opinion Dynamics with Heterogeneous Interactions and Information Assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mir Tabatabaei, Seydeh Anahita

    2013-01-01

    In any modern society, individuals interact to form opinions on various topics, including economic, political, and social aspects. Opinions evolve as the result of the continuous exchange of information among individuals and of the assimilation of information distributed by media. The impact of individuals' opinions on each other forms a network,…

  13. Opinion data mining based on DNA method and ORA software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Ru-Ya; Wu, Lei; Liang, Xiao-He; Zhang, Xue-Fu

    2018-01-01

    Public opinion, especially the online public opinion is a critical issue when it comes to mining its characteristics. Because it can be formed directly and intensely in a short time, and may lead to the outbreak of online group events, and the formation of online public opinion crisis. This may become the pushing hand of a public crisis event, or even have negative social impacts, which brings great challenges to the government management. Data from the mass media which reveal implicit, previously unknown, and potentially valuable information, can effectively help us to understand the evolution law of public opinion, and provide a useful reference for rumor intervention. Based on the Dynamic Network Analysis method, this paper uses ORA software to mine characteristics of public opinion information, opinion topics, and public opinion agents through a series of indicators, and quantitatively analyzed the relationships between them. The results show that through the analysis of the 8 indexes associating with opinion data mining, we can have a basic understanding of the public opinion characteristics of an opinion event, such as who is important in the opinion spreading process, the information grasping condition, and the opinion topics release situation.

  14. 28 CFR 80.9 - No oral opinion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false No oral opinion. 80.9 Section 80.9 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) FOREIGN CORRUPT PRACTICES ACT OPINION PROCEDURE § 80.9 No oral opinion. No oral clearance, release or other statement purporting to limit the...

  15. Multi-level opinion dynamics under bounded confidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Gang; Zhao, Yiyi; Peng, Yi; Shi, Yong

    2012-01-01

    Opinion dynamics focuses on the opinion evolution in a social community. Recently, some models of continuous opinion dynamics under bounded confidence were proposed by Deffuant and Krause, et al. In the literature, agents were generally assumed to have a homogeneous confidence level. This paper proposes an extended model for a group of agents with heterogeneous confidence levels. First, a social differentiation theory is introduced and a social group is divided into opinion subgroups with distinct confidence levels. Second, a multi-level heterogeneous opinion formation model is formulated under the framework of bounded confidence. Finally, computer simulations are conducted to study the collective opinion evolution, focusing on three key factors: the fractions of heterogeneous agents, the initial opinions, and the group size. The simulation results demonstrate that the number of final opinions depends on the fraction of close-minded agents when the group size and the initial opinions are fixed; the final opinions converge more easily when the initial opinions are closer; and the number of final opinions can be approximately modeled by a linear increasing function of the group size and the increasing rate is the fraction of close-minded agents.

  16. 28 CFR 80.8 - Attorney General opinion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Attorney General opinion. 80.8 Section 80.8 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) FOREIGN CORRUPT PRACTICES ACT OPINION PROCEDURE § 80.8 Attorney General opinion. The Attorney General or his designee shall, within 30 days after...

  17. Non-consensus opinion models on complex networks

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Qian; Wang, Huijuan; Shao, Jia; Stanldy, H Eugene; Havline, Shlomo

    2012-01-01

    We focus on non-consensus opinion models in which above a certain threshold two opinions coexist in a stable relationship. We revisit and extend the non-consensus opinion (NCO) model introduced by Shao. We generalize the NCO model by adding a weight factor W to individual's own opinion when determining its future opinion (NCOW model). We find that as W increases the minority opinion holders tend to form stable clusters with a smaller initial minority fraction compared to the NCO model. We also revisit another non-consensus opinion, the inflexible contrarian opinion (ICO) model, which introduces inflexible contrarians to model a competition between two opinions in the steady state. In the ICO model, the inflexible contrarians effectively decrease the size of the largest cluster of the rival opinion. All of the above models have previously been explored in terms of a single network. However opinions propagate not only within single networks but also between networks, we study here the opinion dynamics in couple...

  18. 42 CFR 1008.15 - Facts subject to advisory opinions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Facts subject to advisory opinions. 1008.15 Section... Requesting Party § 1008.15 Facts subject to advisory opinions. (a) The OIG will consider requests from a requesting party for advisory opinions regarding the application of specific facts to the subject matters set...

  19. 12 CFR 211.11 - Advisory opinions under Regulation K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advisory opinions under Regulation K. 211.11... INTERNATIONAL BANKING OPERATIONS (REGULATION K) International Operations of U.S. Banking Organizations § 211.11 Advisory opinions under Regulation K. (a) Request for advisory opinion. Any person may submit a request to...

  20. The persuasion context and results in online opinion seeking: effects of message and source-the moderating role of network managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabezudo, Rebeca San José; Izquierdo, Carmen Camarero; Pinto, Javier Rodríguez

    2013-11-01

    Online opinion networks are areas for social exchange, or conversational networks, made up of individuals actively involved in sharing experiences and opinions concerning matters of mutual interest between consumers or concerning their experience with a given product or service. We pinpoint a gap in the literature regarding how the persuasion process occurs when individuals seek opinions online, including the results process. In an attempt to find an answer, we draw on traditional theories related to information processing. These are mostly taken from the field of psychology and enable us to identify which signals or aspects of communication or opinions the individuals focus their attention on (message and source) and the value attached to such communications as well as how much they impact individuals' purchase decisions, bearing in mind the medium (or online opinion network) in which the opinions are located. Findings from those interviewed support the idea that the quality of information on the Internet, as well as trust in the source of said information, or in the opinion of network users, have an impact on the informational value obtained from involvement in this online opinion seeking and on purchasing decisions. Moreover, depending on the kind of network (firm or brand controlled, review Web sites, and user-controlled nonofficial opinion networks), the quality of the information or trust in the users will have a different bearing in the persuasion process.

  1. Temporal stability of occupational interest inventories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarrella, K L; Schuerger, J M

    1990-06-01

    Test-retest reliability data gathered from 83 sources (62 independent samples) were analyzed using a multiple-regression method to estimate the effects of several factors on the temporal stability of occupational interest inventories. Seven self-report inventories were examined--the Act Interest Inventory, the Career Assessment Inventory, the California Occupational Preference System Interest Survey, the Strong Vocational Interest Blank, and the Strong-Campbell Interest Inventory, Form T325 of the Strong Vocational Interest Blank. Samples encompassed a wide range of subjects. Subjects' ages and retest intervals were significant predictors of reliability. Number of items and homogeneity had anomalous relations with stability. Subjects' sex and sample size did not significantly affect reliability. A summary table provides expected reliability coefficients tabulated for combinations of age by test-retest interval.

  2. Current opinions regarding care of the mature pediatric urology patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanski, K M; Misseri, R; Whittam, B; Large, T; Cain, M P

    2015-10-01

    With continued improvements in pediatric urology care of patients with complex congenital genitourinary conditions, many survive into adulthood. This fact has created a challenging situation of transitioning from pediatric to adult care. Establishing long-term follow-up with appropriate specialists is a critical part of a successful transition to adulthood for this population. This study sought to elucidate current practices and opinions regarding the management of adult complex genitourinary patients by pediatric urologists, in order to determine if a consensus for adult care exists. An anonymous, 15-question online survey was created to address practice patterns and opinions regarding the transition of care of complex genitourinary patients. An invitation to participate was distributed via email to 200 pediatric urologists who were members of the American Urological Association. Complex genitourinary patients were defined broadly as those with a history of: spina bifida, bladder exstrophy, cloacal exstrophy, cloacal anomalies, posterior urethral valves or disorders of sex development. Fisher's exact test was used for analysis. The response rate was 31.0% (62/200). Two-thirds (67.7%) cared for adults with complex genitourinary conditions. Overall, 51.6% of pediatric urologists felt that general urologists best follow adult patients, but only 6.5% recommended this for patients with prior complex genitourinary reconstruction (P urology who routinely performs such procedures would provide optimal care. Follow-up by a primary care physician alone was not recommended. Recommendations did not change if patients had developmental delay or lived independently (P = 0.47 and P = 0.72, respectively). Overall, 69.4% would refer mature complex genitourinary patients to a urologist with interest and training in adolescent/transitional urology, if one was available. However, only 45.2% had such an individual available in their practice (P urology community, responses from

  3. Globalization, values, interests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radojičić Mirjana S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The nature of the international politics, after the Cold War directed by the U.S. as the only current super-power, are considered in the text. The author’s intention is to stress the main points of divergence between moralistic-valuable rhetoric and the foreign policy practice of the U.S. In that sense, the examples of the American stand, i.e. the active treatment of the Yugoslav crisis, on the one hand, and the crisis in the Persian Gulf, on the other hand, is considered. The author’s conclusion is that the foreign policy of the only current super-power is still directed by interests rather then by values. In the concluding part, the author presents an anthropologic argument in favor of reestablishing "balance of power" as the only guarantee for peace and stability of the world.

  4. BANKING WITHOUT INTEREST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Ilieva

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been increased global awareness of Islamic finance. This topic is mainly opened with respect to the great financial crisis that mostly hit the banking system and the financial markets and caused many bank bankruptcies and state interventions. This paper analyzes the basic principles of Islamic banking. The absolute prohibition of receiving and giving interest (Riba and profit-and-loss sharing (PLS paradigms are elaborated in detail; they are primarily based on mudarabah (profit-sharing and musyarakah (joint venture concepts which nowadays are becoming an accepted way of doing business in several Western multinational banks. An overall comparison of the advantages of Islamic vs. conventional banking is also given. Islamic finance technology solutions have matured and they will face various challenges in the following decades, due to conventional banks offering, increasingly, Islamic products. The need for a more comprehensive environment and regulatory framework is emphasized, so that Islamic banking development can be ensured.

  5. An online survey of chiropractors' opinions of continuing education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Dean L

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Continuing Education (CE for chiropractors is mandatory for licensure in most North American jurisdictions. Numerous chiropractic colleges have begun collaborating with universities to offer master's degree programs. Distance education master's degree programs may be desirable to allow full-time practicing doctors to further their post-graduate education. The present survey sought to answer three questions. First, what is the level of satisfaction of chiropractors with their continuing education? Second, what is the level of interest of chiropractors in online master's degree programs? Lastly, what is the response rate of chiropractors to an online survey? Methods An online survey consisting of 22 multiple choice questions was e-mailed to 1000 chiropractors randomly selected from the mailing list of an online chiropractic newsletter. Upon completion of the questionnaire, participants' answers were saved on a secure site. Data analysis included evaluation of the demographic characteristics of the respondents, their opinions of and patterns of taking CE including online education, preferred learning formats, and their interest in proposed online master's degree programs. A survey response rate was determined. Results Nearly 86% of respondents felt their previously completed CE courses were either somewhat or extremely satisfactory. Over ninety percent of respondents who had completed online or distance CE coursesfound them to be somewhat or extremelysatisfactory. Almost half the respondents indicated that they most preferred online distance learning, while 34.08% most preferred face-to-face interaction. Fifty-three percent of respondents indicated an interest in starting a master's degree program; however 70.46% of respondents were interested in an online master's degree program that would offer CE credit. A response rate of 35.8% was obtained. Conclusion Satisfaction among chiropractors with CE programs is high. The notion of

  6. Time, science and consensus: the different times involving scientific research, political decision and public opinion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Aparecido de

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This essay analyses the asymmetrical relationship between the time of scientific research and the time of the different segments interested in their results, focusing mainly on necessity to establish technical consensus about the fields of science that require rigorous investigations and texts. In the last years, civil society sectors - mainly scientific journalism, legislative power, and public opinion - has shown growing interest in participating of the decision making process that regulates science routes. In this study, we analyzed the decision making process of the Biosafety Law, as it allows research with embryonic stem cells in Brazil. The results allow us to conclude that this asymmetrical relationship between the different times (of science, scientific disclosure, public opinion, and public power contribute to the maturing of the dialog on scientific policies, as well as to the establishment of a consensus concerning science routes, which aims at the democratization of scientific work.

  7. Discrete model of opinion changes using knowledge and emotions as control variables.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawel Sobkowicz

    Full Text Available We present a new model of opinion changes dependent on the agents emotional state and their information about the issue in question. Our goal is to construct a simple, yet nontrivial and flexible representation of individual attitude dynamics for agent based simulations, that could be used in a variety of social environments. The model is a discrete version of the cusp catastrophe model of opinion dynamics in which information is treated as the normal factor while emotional arousal (agitation level determining agent receptiveness and rationality is treated as the splitting factor. Both variables determine the resulting agent opinion, which itself can be in favor of the studied position, against it, or neutral. Thanks to the flexibility of implementing communication between the agents, the model is potentially applicable in a wide range of situations. As an example of the model application, we study the dynamics of a set of agents communicating among themselves via messages. In the example, we chose the simplest, fully connected communication topology, to focus on the effects of the individual opinion dynamics, and to look for stable final distributions of agents with different emotions, information and opinions. Even for such simplified system, the model shows complex behavior, including phase transitions due to symmetry breaking by external propaganda.

  8. The influence of local majority opinions on the dynamics of the Sznajd model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crokidakis, Nuno

    2014-03-01

    In this work we study a Sznajd-like opinion dynamics on a square lattice of linear size L. For this purpose, we consider that each agent has a convincing power C, that is a time-dependent quantity. Each high convincing power group of four agents sharing the same opinion may convince its neighbors to follow the group opinion, which induces an increase of the group's convincing power. In addition, we have considered that a group with a local majority opinion (3 up/1 down spins or 1 up/3 down spins) can persuade the agents neighboring the group with probability p, since the group's convincing power is high enough. The two mechanisms (convincing powers and probability p) lead to an increase of the competition among the opinions, which avoids dictatorship (full consensus, all spins parallel) for a wide range of model's parameters, and favors the occurrence of democratic states (partial order, the majority of spins pointing in one direction). We have found that the relaxation times of the model follow log-normal distributions, and that the average relaxation time τ grows with system size as τ ~ L5/2, independent of p. We also discuss the occurrence of the usual phase transition of the Sznajd model.

  9. Discrete model of opinion changes using knowledge and emotions as control variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobkowicz, Pawel

    2012-01-01

    We present a new model of opinion changes dependent on the agents emotional state and their information about the issue in question. Our goal is to construct a simple, yet nontrivial and flexible representation of individual attitude dynamics for agent based simulations, that could be used in a variety of social environments. The model is a discrete version of the cusp catastrophe model of opinion dynamics in which information is treated as the normal factor while emotional arousal (agitation level determining agent receptiveness and rationality) is treated as the splitting factor. Both variables determine the resulting agent opinion, which itself can be in favor of the studied position, against it, or neutral. Thanks to the flexibility of implementing communication between the agents, the model is potentially applicable in a wide range of situations. As an example of the model application, we study the dynamics of a set of agents communicating among themselves via messages. In the example, we chose the simplest, fully connected communication topology, to focus on the effects of the individual opinion dynamics, and to look for stable final distributions of agents with different emotions, information and opinions. Even for such simplified system, the model shows complex behavior, including phase transitions due to symmetry breaking by external propaganda.

  10. WhatsApp is an effective tool for obtaining second opinion in oral pathology practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarode, Sachin C; Sarode, Gargi S; Anand, Rahul; Patil, Shankargouda; Unadkat, Hemant

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to find out the efficacy of WhatsApp application for obtaining second opinion on histopathological diagnosis in oral pathology practice. A total of 247 cases comprising of 34 different oral pathologies were photomicrographed using smartphone cameras through compound microscopes and sent for second opinion diagnosis (SOD) to 20 different oral pathologists using WhatsApp. Of 4795 (97.06%) total second opinion received, correct SOD were received for 4710 (98.22%) cases. Hundred percent times correct SOD was received for lesions including adenomatoid odontogenic tumor, keratinizing cystic odontogenic tumor, odontome, and dentigerous cyst. Lesions such as myoepithelial carcinoma, osteosarcoma, fibrosarcoma, and intravascular papillary endothelial hyperplasia received less percentage of correct SOD (85.71-75.75%). Correct SOD was obtained for variants of ameloblastoma (99.01%), grading of epithelial dysplasia (87.54%), and squamous cell carcinoma (95.26%). A positive correlation was observed between correct SOD and age (P = 0.0143) and experience (P = 0.0189) of the pathologist. The time taken for giving second opinion by the pathologists ranged from 81.98 ± 32.89 to 90.72 ± 38.88 min. Smartphone camera is a handy and efficient tool in capturing photomicrographs from the compound microscope. Transfer of such photomicrograph via WhatsApp is an effective and convenient approach in procuring second opinion on histopathological diagnosis of oral pathologies. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. A Survey of Key Technology of Network Public Opinion Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Su Ying

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The internet has become an important base for internet users to make comments because of its interactivity and fast dissemination. The outbreak of internet public opinion has become a major risk for network information security. Domestic and foreign researchers had carried out extensive and in-depth study on public opinion. Fruitful results have achieved in the basic theory research and emergency handling and other aspects of public opinion. But research on the public opinion in China is still in the initial stage, the key technology of the public opinion analysis is still as a starting point for in-depth study and discussion.

  12. Gender and personality traits' (BFI-10) effect on opinion leadership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olexova, Cecilia; Sudzina, Frantisek

    2017-01-01

    Opinion leadership used to be perceived as a highly domain-specific trait but it was found to be multi-faceted, i.e. individuals are influential independent of a specific subject area. Another term is generalized opinion leadership. Impact of Big Five Inventory personality traits on domain......-specific opinion leadership mediated through objective knowledge and generalized opinion leadership was investigated by Gnambs and Batinic. According to them, generalized opinion leadership should be influenced by extraversion, neuroticism, and openness to experience. The paper can be perceived as a replication...

  13. Effects of Audit Opinion on Stock Prices: The case of Croatia and Slovenia

    OpenAIRE

    Arber H. Hoti; Hysen Ismajli; Skender Ahmeti; Arben Dermaku

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to determine the effects of stock prices following the announcement of audited financial reports of Slovenian and Croatian public interest entities. Our research is to study the importance of variables and their significance regarding the audit in explaining the reactions of stock price movements (fluctuations). In this study we have applied discriminant analysis and logit models. Discriminant analysis and logit were performed with type of opinion as the dependent var...

  14. South African consumers' opinions and consumption of soy and soy products

    OpenAIRE

    Badham, Jane; Jerling, Johann C.; Bosman, Magdalena J.C.; Harmse, Naomi; Bouwer, Susanna C; Ellis, Susanna M; Erasmus, Alet C

    2009-01-01

    Studies linking diet and health and consumers’ demand for health information, has led to an increasing awareness of the role of nutrition in health and disease. Interest in soy foods and an awareness of its health benefits has also increased. The objective was to assess South African (SA) consumers’ opinions and beliefs regarding the health benefits of soy and soy products using different statements. This cross-sectional study randomly selected 3001 respondents from metropolita...

  15. South African consumers’ opinions and beliefs regarding the health benefits of soy and soy products

    OpenAIRE

    Bosman, Magdalena J.C.; Ellis, Susanna M; Jerling, Johann C.; Badham, Jane; Van der Merwe, Daleen

    2011-01-01

    Studies linking diet and health and consumers’ demand for health information, has led to an increasing awareness of the role of nutrition in health and disease. Interest in soy foods and an awareness of its health benefits has also increased. The objective was to assess South African (SA) consumers’ opinions and beliefs regarding the health benefits of soy and soy products using different statements. This cross-sectional study randomly selected 3001 respondents from metropolita...

  16. South African consumers opinions and beliefs regarding the health benefits of soy and soy products

    OpenAIRE

    Badham, Jane Melissa; Bosman, Magdalena Johanna Catharina; Ellis, Susanna Maria; Jerling, Johann Carl; Van der Merwe, Magdalena

    2011-01-01

    Studies linking diet and health and consumers' demand for health information, has led to an increasing awareness of the role of nutrition in health and disease. Interest in soy foods and an awareness of its health benefits has also increased. The objective was to assess South African (SA) consumers' opinions and beliefs regarding the health benefits of soy and soy products using different statements. This cross-sectional study randomly selected 3001 respondents from metropolitan and rural...

  17. OpinionSeer: interactive visualization of hotel customer feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yingcai; Wei, Furu; Liu, Shixia; Au, Norman; Cui, Weiwei; Zhou, Hong; Qu, Huamin

    2010-01-01

    The rapid development of Web technology has resulted in an increasing number of hotel customers sharing their opinions on the hotel services. Effective visual analysis of online customer opinions is needed, as it has a significant impact on building a successful business. In this paper, we present OpinionSeer, an interactive visualization system that could visually analyze a large collection of online hotel customer reviews. The system is built on a new visualization-centric opinion mining technique that considers uncertainty for faithfully modeling and analyzing customer opinions. A new visual representation is developed to convey customer opinions by augmenting well-established scatterplots and radial visualization. To provide multiple-level exploration, we introduce subjective logic to handle and organize subjective opinions with degrees of uncertainty. Several case studies illustrate the effectiveness and usefulness of OpinionSeer on analyzing relationships among multiple data dimensions and comparing opinions of different groups. Aside from data on hotel customer feedback, OpinionSeer could also be applied to visually analyze customer opinions on other products or services.

  18. Non-consensus Opinion Models on Complex Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Braunstein, Lidia A.; Wang, Huijuan; Shao, Jia; Stanley, H. Eugene; Havlin, Shlomo

    2013-04-01

    Social dynamic opinion models have been widely studied to understand how interactions among individuals cause opinions to evolve. Most opinion models that utilize spin interaction models usually produce a consensus steady state in which only one opinion exists. Because in reality different opinions usually coexist, we focus on non-consensus opinion models in which above a certain threshold two opinions coexist in a stable relationship. We revisit and extend the non-consensus opinion (NCO) model introduced by Shao et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett. 103:01870, 2009). The NCO model in random networks displays a second order phase transition that belongs to regular mean field percolation and is characterized by the appearance (above a certain threshold) of a large spanning cluster of the minority opinion. We generalize the NCO model by adding a weight factor W to each individual's original opinion when determining their future opinion (NCO W model). We find that as W increases the minority opinion holders tend to form stable clusters with a smaller initial minority fraction than in the NCO model. We also revisit another non-consensus opinion model based on the NCO model, the inflexible contrarian opinion (ICO) model (Li et al. in Phys. Rev. E 84:066101, 2011), which introduces inflexible contrarians to model the competition between two opinions in a steady state. Inflexible contrarians are individuals that never change their original opinion but may influence the opinions of others. To place the inflexible contrarians in the ICO model we use two different strategies, random placement and one in which high-degree nodes are targeted. The inflexible contrarians effectively decrease the size of the largest rival-opinion cluster in both strategies, but the effect is more pronounced under the targeted method. All of the above models have previously been explored in terms of a single network, but human communities are usually interconnected, not isolated. Because opinions propagate not

  19. ICPD: in whose interest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiva, M

    1994-06-01

    The International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) is set for September 1994. Arms control and control of military interests are as crucial as population control. The expenditure on the military and arms should go to social measures and true socioeconomic development. Women are leading the movement against war and towards peace. Women make up 70% of current refugees of ethnic conflicts. The conquest of free trade with little or no restriction and globalization trends forces developing countries to accept nonessential luxury items which tend to be irrational, hazardous consumer articles and technologies from industrialized countries. The privileged elite in developing countries and the industrialized countries overconsume, while the basic needs of the poor majority are not being met. The rich view the poor as a global threat and a threat for environmental degradation. They believe that free trade will solve all problems, yet it only marginalizes the poor and the vulnerable. The pattern of overconsumption is the threat. The poor are characterized as demons responsible for the population explosion. Women are angry that population control policies are attempts to control women's fertility. Specifically, most contraceptive technologies and most family planning programs target women. Male responsibility is ignored. Religious fundamentalists tell women not to become pregnant, not to use contraception, and not to seek abortion, yet they allow male sex behavior, e.g., sexual violence. This attitude leaves women vulnerable to unwanted pregnancies, sexually transmitted diseases, and AIDS. Developing countries should be concerned about chapter III on Population, Environment, and Development in the ICPD text. Most countries, including India, have formed a consensus on this chapter. The Vatican and some Latin American countries have objections, however. The meeting in Cairo will likely continue to promote the view that the fertility of women in developing

  20. Changing opinions about research by Saudi medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abulaban A

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Ahmad Abulaban, Abdulrahman Alharbi, Osama BinDajam, Mohammed Al Jarbou, Hatem Alharbi, Faiz Alanazi, Khalid Aldamiri, Ahmed Althobaiti, Abdulla Al Sayyari Department of Medicine, Division of Neurology, King Saud bin-Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, King Abdulaziz Medical City, National Guard Health Affairs, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate and compare the opinions and attitudes of medical students toward medical research in five Saudi universities and examine the changes observed in these opinions and attitudes in one of these universities over a period of time.Methods: This is a cross-sectional study conducted among medical students in five Saudi universities. This study was based on a survey undertaken in 2015. The survey consisted of five questions inquiring about the opinions and attitudes of medical students toward medical research. The same survey was carried out 8 years earlier in one of these universities (King Abdulaziz University [KAU], and the results obtained during the two periods (2007 and 2015 were compared.Results: A convenient sample of 924 students was selected from five Saudi universities. Ninety-five (10.3% of the medical students were not aware of the usefulness and importance scientific research will have on their future careers. A total of 409 (44.3% stated that they had no knowledge on how to conduct scientific research. On the other hand, a vast majority of medical students (98.1% expressed a willingness and interest to participate in scientific research if provided with an opportunity. The percentage of students from KAU strongly agreeing to participate in research rose from 33.1% in 2007 to 81.5% in 2015 (P=0.001. Of all the students surveyed, 431 (46.6% had participated in scientific research as undergraduates.Conclusion: Most students in five Saudi universities expressed enthusiasm for participating in a research project, but only a few of them had

  1. Opinion polls and the U.S. civil space program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, Sylvia K.

    1993-11-01

    The conclusions that can be drawn from public opinion polls depend a great deal on what usually does not appear on the newspaper page or television screen. Subtle biases can result from the population interviewed, the time of day individuals were called, how a particular question was asked, or how the answer was interpreted. Examples are the 1961 Gallop Poll, the survey done for Rockwell International by the firm of Yankelovich, Skelly and White/Clancy Shulman, and the one done by Jon D. Miller of the International Center for the Advancement of Scientific Literacy. There is more to learn from opinion polls than that a good proportion of adult Americans support the space program. We can learn that social and economic security are not competing goals with space, but interdependent goals. If we want to increase public support for space, we must increase the number of Americans who have the economic freedom to take an interest in something besides getting by, day after day. We can also learn that the majority of those who support the space program can distinguish between the bread and circuses of space travel. They are content to experience extraordinary adventures in the movie theaters; for their tax dollars they want real return in expended scientific knowledge and understanding. Finally, we can learn that we need to increase that return, not just for scientific careers, but for the ordinary people who pay our bills and for their children, our children. Ultimately, the space program is for them, as all investments in the future must be.

  2. Opinions of nurses regarding conscientious objection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro-Flores, Rafael; Bravo-Agüi, Pilar; Catalán-Gómez, María Victoria; González-Hernando, Marisa; Guijarro-Cenisergue, María Jesús; Moreno-Vázquez, Margarita; Roch-Hamelin, Isabel; Velasco-Sanz, Tamara Raquel

    2017-01-01

    In the last decades, there have been important developments in the scientific and technological areas of healthcare. On certain occasions this provokes conflict between the patients' rights and the values of healthcare professionals which brings about, within this clinical relationship, the problem of conscientious objection. To learn the opinions that the Nurses of the Madrid Autonomous Community have regarding conscientious objection. Cross-cutting descriptive study. Participants and research context: The nurses of 9 hospitals and 12 Health Centers in the Madrid Autonomous Community. The study was done by means of an auto completed anonymous questionnaire. The variables studied were social-demographical and their opinions about conscientious objections. Ethical considerations: The study was approved by the Ethical Community of Clinical Research of the University Hospital Príncipe de Asturias. Participants were assured of maximum confidentiality and anonymity. A total of 421 nurses answered the questionnaire. In total, 55.6% of the nurses confirmed they were religious believers, and 64.3% declared having poor knowledge regarding conscientious objection. The matters that caused the greatest objections were voluntary abortions, genetic embryo selection, refusal of blood transfusions, and therapy refusal. Different authors state that the most significant cases of conscientious objections for health professionals are those regarding carrying out or assisting in abortions, euthanasia, the practice of assisted reproduction and, finally, the prescription and dispensing of the morning-after pill. In our study, the most significant cases in which the nurses would declare conscientious objections would be the refusal to accept treatment, the selection of embryos after genetic diagnosis preimplantation, the patient's refusal to receive blood transfusions due to religious reasons and pregnant women's request for voluntary abortions within the first 14 weeks. Nurses

  3. Rising Long-term Interest Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallett, Andrew Hughes

    Rather than chronicle recent developments in European long-term interest rates as such, this paper assesses the impact of increases in those interest rates on economic performance and inflation. That puts us in a position to evaluate the economic pressures for further rises in those rates......, the first question posed in this assignment, and the scope for overshooting (the second question), and then make some illustrative predictions of future interest rates in the euro area. We find a wide range of effects from rising interest rates, mostly small and mostly negative, focused on investment...... till the emerging European recovery is on a firmer basis and capable of overcoming increases in the cost of borrowing and shrinking fiscal space. There is also an implication that worries about rising/overshooting interest rates often reflect the fact that inflation risks are unequally distributed...

  4. Third graders` opinion of physical education

    OpenAIRE

    Petrušič, Tanja

    2015-01-01

    In the master’s thesis we researched what kind of an opinion pupils of the 3rd grade have about the Sport as a subject. In the theoretical part we identified the meaning of movement and sport and explained the difference between them. We focused on the importance of the quality of delivery of the Sport as a subject in elementary school and on ensuring safety and a positive class climate in this subject. We touched upon the reason why it is important to implement differentiation and indivi...

  5. The Hidden Lincoln in French Opinion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Portes

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abraham Lincoln has never served as a model for French politicians. He was indeed compared to Carnot, the organizer of the French Revolutionary wars. But when Clemenceau led France in WWI, when De Gaulle stood for France’s independence in WWII, nobody thought of comparing them to Lincoln. This essay analyzes French public opinion during the American Civil War with a focus on Lincoln, based on a study of the few French books published between 1860 and 1865 on the US, diaries, a sample of conservative and republican daily papers, weekly reviews and illustrated newspapers.

  6. 76 FR 77581 - Interest Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-13

    ... ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional... guaranteed fluctuating interest rate SBA loans. This rate will be 2.375 (2\\3/8\\) percent for the January-March quarter of FY 2012. Pursuant to 13 CFR 120.921(b), the maximum legal interest rate for any third...

  7. 76 FR 18821 - Interest Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-05

    ... ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional... guaranteed fluctuating interest rate SBA loans. This rate will be 3.750 (3\\3/4\\) percent for the April-June quarter of FY 2011. Pursuant to 13 CFR 120.921(b), the maximum legal interest rate for any third party...

  8. 78 FR 18664 - Interest Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-27

    ... ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional... guaranteed fluctuating interest rate SBA loans. This rate will be 2.500 (2\\1/2\\) percent for the April-June quarter of FY 2013. Pursuant to 13 CFR 120.921(b), the maximum legal interest rate for any third party...

  9. 75 FR 37872 - Interest Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-30

    ... ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional... guaranteed fluctuating interest rate SBA loans. This rate will be 4.000 (4) percent for the July-September quarter of FY 2010. Pursuant to 13 CFR 120.921(b), the maximum legal interest rate for any third party...

  10. 75 FR 17453 - Interest Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-06

    ... ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional... guaranteed fluctuating interest rate SBA loans. This rate will be 4.000 (4) percent for the April-June quarter of FY 2010. Pursuant to 13 CFR 120.921(b), the maximum legal interest rate for any third party...

  11. 75 FR 60152 - Interest Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-29

    ... ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional... guaranteed fluctuating interest rate SBA loans. This rate will be 3.250 (3\\1/4\\) percent for the October-December quarter of FY 2011. Pursuant to 13 CFR 120.921(b), the maximum legal interest rate for any third...

  12. 77 FR 20476 - Interest Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-04

    ... ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional... guaranteed fluctuating interest rate SBA loans. This rate will be 2.250 (2 \\1/4\\) percent for the April-June quarter of FY 2012. Pursuant to 13 CFR 120.921(b), the maximum legal interest rate for any third party...

  13. 77 FR 39560 - Interest Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-03

    ... ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional... guaranteed fluctuating interest rate SBA loans. This rate will be 2.500 (2\\1/2\\) percent for the July-September quarter of FY 2012. Pursuant to 13 CFR 120.921(b), the maximum legal interest rate for any third...

  14. 75 FR 81326 - Interest Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-27

    ... ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional... guaranteed fluctuating interest rate SBA loans. This rate will be 3.000 (3) percent for the January-March quarter of FY 2011. Pursuant to 13 CFR 120.921(b), the maximum legal interest rate for any third party...

  15. 78 FR 62932 - Interest Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ... ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional... guaranteed fluctuating interest rate SBA loans. This rate will be 3.125 (3\\1/8\\) percent for the October-December quarter of FY 2014. Pursuant to 13 CFR 120.921(b), the maximum legal interest rate for any third...

  16. 76 FR 38717 - Interest Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional... guaranteed fluctuating interest rate SBA loans. This ] rate will be 3.625 (3\\5/8\\) percent for the July-September quarter of FY 2011. Pursuant to 13 CFR 120.921(b), the maximum legal interest rate for any third...

  17. Forecasting interest rates with shifting endpoints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Dijk, Dick; Koopman, Siem Jan; Wel, Michel van der

    2014-01-01

    We consider forecasting the term structure of interest rates with the assumption that factors driving the yield curve are stationary around a slowly time-varying mean or ‘shifting endpoint’. The shifting endpoints are captured using either (i) time series methods (exponential smoothing) or (ii......) long-range survey forecasts of either interest rates or inflation and output growth, or (iii) exponentially smoothed realizations of these macro variables. Allowing for shifting endpoints in yield curve factors provides substantial and significant gains in out-of-sample predictive accuracy, relative...... to stationary and random walk benchmarks. Forecast improvements are largest for long-maturity interest rates and for long-horizon forecasts....

  18. The Opinions of Music Education Students about 20th and 21st Centuries Classical Music: Uludag University Exemplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakin, Ajda Senol

    2016-01-01

    The debates of music historians, composers, and performers on difficulties in understanding the 20th and 21st Centuries international classical music and the reasons have been ongoing for years. The opinions of music education students on this matter and their interests in music of these periods are a matter of curiosity. With this research,…

  19. Feature-opinion pair identification of product reviews in Chinese: a domain ontology modeling method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Pei; Wang, Hongwei; Guo, Kaiqiang

    2013-03-01

    With the emergence of the new economy based on social media, a great amount of consumer feedback on particular products are conveyed through wide-spreading product online reviews, making opinion mining a growing interest for both academia and industry. According to the characteristic mode of expression in Chinese, this research proposes an ontology-based linguistic model to identify the basic appraisal expression in Chinese product reviews-"feature-opinion pair (FOP)." The product-oriented domain ontology is constructed automatically at first, then algorithms to identify FOP are designed by mapping product features and opinions to the conceptual space of the domain ontology, and finally comparative experiments are conducted to evaluate the model. Experimental results indicate that the performance of the proposed approach in this paper is efficient in obtaining a more accurate result compared to the state-of-art algorithms. Furthermore, through identifying and analyzing FOPs, the unstructured product reviews are converted into structured and machine-sensible expression, which provides valuable information for business application. This paper contributes to the related research in opinion mining by developing a solid foundation for further sentiment analysis at a fine-grained level and proposing a general way for automatic ontology construction.

  20. Consensus Emerging from the Bottom-up: the Role of Cognitive Variables in Opinion Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giardini, Francesca; Vilone, Daniele; Conte, Rosaria

    2015-09-01

    The study of opinions - e.g., their formation and change, and their effects on our society - by means of theoretical and numerical models has been one of the main goals of sociophysics until now, but it is one of the defining topics addressed by social psychology and complexity science. Despite the flourishing of different models and theories, several key questions still remain unanswered. The aim of this paper is to provide a cognitively grounded computational model of opinions in which they are described as mental representations and defined in terms of distinctive mental features. We also define how these representations change dynamically through different processes, describing the interplay between mental and social dynamics of opinions. We present two versions of the model, one with discrete opinions (voter model-like), and one with continuous ones (Deffuant-like). By means of numerical simulations, we compare the behaviour of our cognitive model with the classical sociophysical models, and we identify interesting differences in the dynamics of consensus for each of the models considered.

  1. Consensus Emerging from the Bottom-up: the Role of Cognitive Variables in Opinion Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca eGiardini

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The study of opinions − e.g., their formation and change, and their effects on our society − by means of theoretical and numerical models has been one of the main goals of sociophysics until now, but it is one of the defining topics addressed by social psychology and complexity science. Despite the flourishing of different models and theories, several key questions still remain unanswered. The aim of this paper is to provide a cognitively grounded computational model of opinions in which they are described as mental representations and defined in terms of distinctive mental features. We also define how these representations change dynamically through different processes, describing the interplay between mental and social dynamics of opinions. We present two versions of the model, one with discrete opinions (voter model-like, and one with continuous ones (Deffuant-like. By means of numerical simulations, we compare the behaviour of our cognitive model with the classical sociophysical models, and we identify interesting differences in the dynamics of consensus for each of the models considered.

  2. Analysis and application of opinion model with multiple topic interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Fei; Liu, Yun; Wang, Liang; Wang, Ximeng

    2017-08-01

    To reveal heterogeneous behaviors of opinion evolution in different scenarios, we propose an opinion model with topic interactions. Individual opinions and topic features are represented by a multidimensional vector. We measure an agent's action towards a specific topic by the product of opinion and topic feature. When pairs of agents interact for a topic, their actions are introduced to opinion updates with bounded confidence. Simulation results show that a transition from a disordered state to a consensus state occurs at a critical point of the tolerance threshold, which depends on the opinion dimension. The critical point increases as the dimension of opinions increases. Multiple topics promote opinion interactions and lead to the formation of macroscopic opinion clusters. In addition, more topics accelerate the evolutionary process and weaken the effect of network topology. We use two sets of large-scale real data to evaluate the model, and the results prove its effectiveness in characterizing a real evolutionary process. Our model achieves high performance in individual action prediction and even outperforms state-of-the-art methods. Meanwhile, our model has much smaller computational complexity. This paper provides a demonstration for possible practical applications of theoretical opinion dynamics.

  3. Opinion formation of free speech on the directed social network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jiongming; Ma, Hongxu; Liu, Baohong; Li, Qi

    2014-12-01

    A dynamical model with continuous opinion is proposed to study how the speech order and the topology of directed social network affect the opinion formation of free speech. In the model, agents express their opinions one by one with random order (RO) or probability order (PO), other agents paying attentions to the speaking agent, receive provider's opinion, update their opinions and then express their new opinions in their turns. It is proved that with the same agent j repeats its opinion more, other agents who pay their attentions to j and include j's opinion in their confidence level at initial time, will continue approaching j's opinion. Simulation results reveal that on directed scale-free network: (1) the model for PO forms fewer opinion clusters, larger maximum cluster (MC), smaller standard deviation (SD), and needs less waiting time to reach a middle level of consensus than RO; (2) as the parameter of scale-free degree distribution decreases or the confidence level increases, the results often get better for both speech orders; (3) the differences between PO and RO get smaller as the size of network decreases.

  4. Intermittent exotropia: facts, opinions, and unknowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanchuk, Kenneth G

    2011-01-01

    Intermittent exotropia (IXT) can be a controversial topic, often eliciting lively discussion. This lecture will discuss its definition, incidence, age of onset, presentation, natural variation, criteria for deterioration, goals of treatment, effectiveness of surgical treatment, types of surgical treatment, and unwanted effects of surgical treatment. Results from the scientific literature, opinions of respected colleagues, the opinion of the author, and the results of live polling of the audience during the John Pratt-Johnson lecture are presented. IXT is defined as an exotropia that is present intermittently predominantly for distance. Its incidence is about 1% and it usually has an onset before age 5. Patients often present because of concern regarding the appearance of the eye misalignment. There is natural variation in the control of IXT, the angle of IXT, and the amount of stereopsis. Criteria that denote deterioration are increasing frequency of IXT, progressively and consistently increasing angle of IXT, loss of binocular vision, and increasing concern regarding the patient's appearance and its effect on social interaction. Goals of treatment are to retain equal or nearly equal vision, to obtain acceptable cosmesis, and to retain binocular vision. The long-term success of surgical treatment is not well proven. Persistent postoperative overcorrection is an unwanted effect of surgical treatment. The inherent biologic variation that occurs when measuring the components of IXT makes it difficult to be dogmatic about IXT, particularly when trying to decide when deterioration is occurring.

  5. Public opinion about energy: a literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farhar, B.C.; Weis, P.; Unseld, C.T.; Burns, B.A.

    1979-06-01

    A review and analysis of 115 surveys of the general population between 1973 and 1978 (before the Three Mile Island accident, sudden gasoline price increases, and spot gasoline shortages) are presented. The survey data are organized and analyzed according to a set of categories described in Chapter 2. The public's definition of the energy situation is the focus of Chapter 3. Chapter 4 describes public opinion concerning energy conservation pertaining to transportation and domestic energy use -- whether it is efficacious, how knowledgeable people are about conservation, whether they favor it, and whether they engage in it. Findings on the solar energy alternative are described in Chapter 5. Public opinion concerning more conventional sources of energy -- oil and natural gas, coal, and nuclear energy -- are discussed in Chapter 6. In Chapter 7, a summary of analytical findings by 10 major sociodemographic characteristics is presented. Chapter 8 describes analytical findings using various social-psychological variables. A summary is presented in Chapter 9.

  6. Indices of Interest Maturity in the Kuder Occupation Interest Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zytowski, Donald G.; England, Raymond J. L.

    1995-01-01

    A combination of high occupational score and a low men-in-general or women-in-general score on the Kuder Occupational Interest Survey is moderately predictive of interest stability and occupational consistency. (Author)

  7. How meta-analytic evidence impacts clinical decision making in oral implantology: a Delphi opinion poll.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pommer, Bernhard; Becker, Kathrin; Arnhart, Christoph; Fabian, Ferenc; Rathe, Florian; Stigler, Robert G

    2016-03-01

    To investigate the impact of meta-analytic evidence in scientific literature on clinical decision making in the field of oral implantology. A Delphi opinion poll was performed at the meeting of the "Next Generation" Committees of the Austrian, German and Swiss Societies for Implantology (ÖGI, DGI and SGI). First, the experts gave their opinion on 20 questions regarding routine implant treatment (uninformed decisions), then they were confronted with up-to-date Level I evidence from scientific literature on these topics and again asked to give their opinion (informed decisions) as well as to rate the available evidence as satisfactory or insufficient. Topics involved surgical issues, such as immediate implant placement, flapless surgery, tilted and short implants and bone substitute materials, as well as opinions on prosthodontic paradigms, such as immediate loading, abutment materials and platform switching. Compared to their uninformed decisions prior to confrontation with recent scientific literature, on average, 37% of experts (range: 15-50%) changed their opinion on the topic. When originally favoring one treatment alternative, less than half were still convinced after review of meta-analytic evidence. Discrepancy between uninformed and informed decisions was significantly associated with insufficient evidence (P = 0.014, 49% change of opinion vs. 26% on topics rated as sufficiently backed with evidence). Agreement regarding strength of evidence could be reached for eight topics (40%), in three issues toward sufficiency and in five issues toward lack of evidence. Confrontation with literature results significantly changes clinical decisions of implantologists, particularly in cases of ambiguous or lacking meta-analytic evidence. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Interest and Interest-Enhancing Strategies of Adolescent EFL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisniewska, Danuta

    2013-01-01

    This paper's focus is on the little researched and sometimes vague concept of interest, discussed here in relation to EFL learning and the potential interest-enhancing strategies that learners may employ if they do not find learning English interesting enough. The study was undertaken to investigate how adolescent EFL learners evaluate the…

  9. Conflict of interests, vested interests and health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, M

    2000-11-01

    This paper examines conflict of interest as it may arise in the activities of research advisory committees and ethical review committees. It distinguishes between vested interests and true conflict of interest. It also examines the ways in which stakeholdings differ from vested interests and conflicting interests differ from conflicts of interest. It explores the overlapping terrain of corruption and conflict of interest. The paper further examines the ways in which scientists, communities and the subjects of medical research all have legitimate stakeholdings in medical research. Each group thus has differently vested interests in the outcomes of the research. The vested interests of medical scientists are particularly complex because scientists have moral commitments to the welfare of patients that may compete with professional and personal interests in the outcome of research performed on those patients as research subjects. The more these interests diverge, the more opportunity will arise for conflict of interest. These observations have implications for the constitution of research advisory and ethical review committees, and the ways in which their discussions are conducted. Some practical help with protocols of discussion can be gained from philosophical and management writings.

  10. Upper secondary students’ situational interest:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dohn, Niels Bonderup

    2013-01-01

    interest was investigated by a descriptive interpretive approach, based on data from classroom and field trip observations, video recording, and interviews. The findings provided evidence that substantial situational interest can be generated during a fieldtrip to a zoo. Students’ interest was triggered......This paper comprises a presentation of the findings of a case study that investigated how situational factors triggered 12th grade students’ interest during a field trip to a zoo. The purpose was to identify sources of interest and to investigate the attributes that make them interesting. Students...

  11. Human opinion dynamics: An inspiration to solve complex optimization problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Rishemjit; Kumar, Ritesh; Bhondekar, Amol P.; Kapur, Pawan

    2013-10-01

    Human interactions give rise to the formation of different kinds of opinions in a society. The study of formations and dynamics of opinions has been one of the most important areas in social physics. The opinion dynamics and associated social structure leads to decision making or so called opinion consensus. Opinion formation is a process of collective intelligence evolving from the integrative tendencies of social influence with the disintegrative effects of individualisation, and therefore could be exploited for developing search strategies. Here, we demonstrate that human opinion dynamics can be utilised to solve complex mathematical optimization problems. The results have been compared with a standard algorithm inspired from bird flocking behaviour and the comparison proves the efficacy of the proposed approach in general. Our investigation may open new avenues towards understanding the collective decision making.

  12. Exploring pharmacists' opinions regarding PHARMAC's interventions in promoting brand changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babar, Z U; Polwin, A; Kan, S W; Amerasinghe, N; McCarthy, S; Rasheed, F; Stewart, J; Lessing, C; Ragupathy, R; Scahill, S L

    2015-01-01

    In New Zealand, the use of generic medicines is advocated by the Pharmaceutical Management Agency of New Zealand (PHARMAC). Among other interventions, PHARMAC uses educational awareness campaigns to educate pharmacists to promote the uptake of generic medicines. However, the opinion of pharmacists regarding these interventions has not yet been evaluated. The objective of this study was to explore pharmacists' opinions regarding PHARMAC's interventions in promoting medicine brand changes. A cross-sectional study design was employed to explore pharmacists' opinions regarding brand changes. A questionnaire was sent to 500 randomly selected pharmacists in New Zealand. In second component of the study, five community pharmacies in the Auckland region were selected through convenience sampling, and a semi-structured interview was conducted with a pharmacist in each site. One-hundred and eighty seven questionnaires were returned and analyzed (response rate of 37.4%). Sixty-eight percent of pharmacists supported brand changes and 98.4% mentioned that PHARMAC is responsible for informing them of brand changes. Over half (51.3%) of pharmacists found the current interventions effective, and 39.6% were satisfied with the current brand change information provided by PHARMAC. The majority (94.7%) of pharmacists currently receive faxed information but many indicated (70.8%) that they prefer email notifications. Cilazapril was considered the least difficult medicine to substitute in the past 10 years and omeprazole the most difficult. Patient acceptance and claims about effectiveness were the main factors in determining the difficulty of brand substitution. Fewer than half of the respondents felt that interventions were implemented with enough preparation time for a brand change. The ideal lead-in time was in the range of three to six months. Pharmacists expressed a number of concerns about brand changes such as the frequency at which they occur and the lack of generic stock

  13. Four models of family interests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groll, Daniel

    2014-10-01

    In this article, I distinguish between 4 models for thinking about how to balance the interests of parents, families, and a sick child: (1) the oxygen mask model; (2) the wide interests model; (3) the family interests model; and (4) the direct model. The oxygen mask model - which takes its name from flight attendants' directives to parents to put on their own oxygen mask before putting on their child's - says that parents should consider their own interests only insofar as doing so is, ultimately, good for the sick child. The wide interests model suggests that in doing well by my child I am at the very same time doing well by myself. My interests can, and plausibly do, encompass the interests of others; they are, to that extent, wide. There is, then, no sharp separation between the interests of the sick child and the interests of other family members. In the family interests model, families themselves are seen as having interests that are neither identical to the sum, nor a simple function, of the interests of individual family members. The family has goals, values, and aspirations that are essentially corporate rather than individual. According to this model, these family interests can explain why sacrifices can sometimes be demanded of some family members for the sake of others in a medical setting. Finally, the direct model takes a simpler view of family members' interests; it claims that these interests matter simply on their own and should be taken into account in making treatment decisions for a sick child. This model openly considers the competing interests that parents and other family members often have when caring for a sick child, and advocates for weighing those interests when making decisions for and about the sick child. While there is room for all four models at the bedside, I argue that the direct model should be highlighted in clinical decision-making. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  14. FUSE BEE: Fusion of Subjective Opinions through Behavior Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    estimated behaviors of sources. Through extensive simulations, we have shown that our approach has a lower computational complexity, and achieves ...If the source is dishonest, it may not share its genuine opinion; instead, it may provide a random opinion (or an opinion un - correlated with the...that the proposed approach achieves very low error rate around 0.01 when more than 80 sources are queried. For lower number of source, the fusion

  15. How to Read a U.S. Supreme Court Opinion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Tiffany

    2013-01-01

    Reading U.S. Supreme Court opinions can be intimidating. Yet, in the digital age, it has never been easier to access them. The average opinion is about 4,750 words, and is one of approximately 75 issued by the Court each year. It might be reassuring to know that opinions contain similar parts and tend to follow a similar format. There are also…

  16. What is interesting? Exploring the appraisal structure of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvia, Paul J

    2005-03-01

    Relative to other emotions, interest is poorly understood. On the basis of theories of appraisal process and structure, it was predicted that interest consists of appraisals of novelty (factors related to unfamiliarity and complexity) and appraisals of coping potential (the ability to understand the new, complex thing). Four experiments, using in vivo rather than retrospective methods, supported this appraisal structure. The findings were general across measured and manipulated appraisals, interesting stimuli (random polygons, visual art, poetry), and measures of interest (self-reports, forced-choice, behavioral measures). Furthermore, the appraisal structure was specific to interest (it did not predict enjoyment, a related positive emotion), and appraisals predicted interest beyond relevant traits (curiosity, openness). The appraisal perspective offers a powerful way of construing the causes of interest. Copyright 2005 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. Native Americans' Interest in Horticulture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Mary Hockenberry

    1999-01-01

    Focus groups arranged by local Native American Master Gardeners on two Minnesota reservations determined community interest in extension-horticulture programs. Topics of interest included food preservation and historical Native-American uses of plants. (SK)

  18. PageRank model of opinion formation on Ulam networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakhmakhchyan, L.; Shepelyansky, D.

    2013-12-01

    We consider a PageRank model of opinion formation on Ulam networks, generated by the intermittency map and the typical Chirikov map. The Ulam networks generated by these maps have certain similarities with such scale-free networks as the World Wide Web (WWW), showing an algebraic decay of the PageRank probability. We find that the opinion formation process on Ulam networks has certain similarities but also distinct features comparing to the WWW. We attribute these distinctions to internal differences in network structure of the Ulam and WWW networks. We also analyze the process of opinion formation in the frame of generalized Sznajd model which protects opinion of small communities.

  19. The impact of competing zealots on opinion dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Gunjan; Swami, Ananthram; Chan, Kevin

    2014-02-01

    An individual’s opinion on an issue is greatly impacted by others in his or her social network. Most people are open-minded and ready to change their opinion when presented evidence; however, some are zealots or inflexibles, that is, individuals who refuse to change their opinion while staunchly advocating an opinion in hopes of convincing others. Zealotry is present in opinions of significant personal investment, such as political, religious or corporate affiliation; it tends to be less commonplace in opinions involving rumors or fashion trends. In this paper, we examine the effect that zealots have in a population whose opinion dynamics obey the naming game model. We present numerical and analytical results about the number and nature of steady state solutions, demonstrating the existence of a bifurcation in the space of zealot fractions. Our analysis indicates conditions under which a minority zealot opinion ultimately prevails, and conditions under which neither opinion attains a majority. We also present numerical and simulation analysis of finite populations and on networks with partial connectivity.

  20. Public Opinion on Canadian Arctic Sovereignty and Security

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mathieu Landriault

    2016-01-01

    .... An examination of 18 opinion polls conducted between 2006 and 2015 that questioned respondents directly or indirectly on circumpolar affairs concluded that Canadians do not prioritize the Arctic...

  1. Correlation between information diffusion and opinion evolution on social media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Fei; Liu, Yun; Zhang, Zhenjiang

    2014-12-01

    Information diffusion and opinion evolution are often treated as two independent processes. Opinion models assume the topic reaches each agent and agents initially have their own ideas. In fact, the processes of information diffusion and opinion evolution often intertwine with each other. Whether the influence between these two processes plays a role in the system state is unclear. In this paper, we collected more than one million real data from a well-known social platform, and analysed large-scale user diffusion behaviour and opinion formation. We found that user inter-event time follows a two-scaling power-law distribution with two different power exponents. Public opinion stabilizes quickly and evolves toward the direction of convergence, but the consensus state is prevented by a few opponents. We propose a three-state opinion model accompanied by information diffusion. Agents form and exchange their opinions during information diffusion. Conversely, agents' opinions also influence their diffusion actions. Simulations show that the model with a correlation of the two processes produces similar statistical characteristics as empirical results. A fast epidemic process drives individual opinions to converge more obviously. Unlike previous epidemic models, the number of infected agents does not always increase with the update rate, but has a peak with an intermediate value of the rate.

  2. A MULTI-AGENT BASED SOCIAL CRM FRAMEWORK FOR EXTRACTING AND ANALYSING OPINIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABDELAZIZ EL FAZZIKI

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Social media provide a wide space for people from around the world to communicate, share knowledge and personal experiences. They increasingly become an important data source for opinion mining and sentiment analysis, thanks to shared comments and reviews about products and services. And companies are showing a growing interest to harness their potential, in order to support setting up marketing strategies. Despite the importance of sentiment analysis in decision making, there is a lack of social intelligence integration at the level of customer relationship management systems. Thus, social customer relationship management (SCRM systems have become an interesting research area. However, they need deep analytic techniques to transform the large amount of data “Big Data” into actionable insights. Such systems also require an advanced modelling and data processing methods, and must consider the emerging paradigm related to proactive systems. In this paper, we propose an agent based social framework that extracts and consolidates the reviews expressed via social media, in order to help enterprises know more about customers’ opinions toward a particular product or service. To illustrate our approach, we present the case study of Twitter reviews that we use to extract opinions and sentiment about a set of products using SentiGem API. Data extraction, analysis and storage are performed using a framework based on Hadoop MapReduce and HBase.

  3. 77 FR 59447 - Interest Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-27

    ... Doc No: 2012-23732] SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120.214) on a quarterly basis. This rate... direct loan. This rate may be used as a base rate for guaranteed fluctuating interest rate SBA loans...

  4. 78 FR 39434 - Interest Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    ... Doc No: 2013-15648] SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120.214) on a quarterly basis. This rate... direct loan. This rate may be used as a base rate for guaranteed fluctuating interest rate SBA loans...

  5. 77 FR 76586 - Interest Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-28

    ... Doc No: 2012-31295] SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120.214) on a quarterly basis. This rate... direct loan. This rate may be used as a base rate for guaranteed fluctuating interest rate SBA loans...

  6. Advanced nuclear reactor public opinion project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, B.

    1991-07-25

    This Interim Report summarizes the findings of our first twenty in-depth interviews in the Advanced Nuclear Reactor Public Opinion Project. We interviewed 6 industry trade association officials, 3 industry attorneys, 6 environmentalists/nuclear critics, 3 state officials, and 3 independent analysts. In addition, we have had numerous shorter discussions with various individuals concerned about nuclear power. The report is organized into the four categories proposed at our April, 1991, Advisory Group meeting: safety, cost-benefit analysis, science education, and communications. Within each category, some change of focus from that of the Advisory Group has been required, to reflect the findings of our interviews. This report limits itself to describing our findings. An accompanying memo draws some tentative conclusions.

  7. Intensive care unit nurses' opinions about euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumaş, Gülşah; Oztunç, Gürsel; Nazan Alparslan, Z

    2007-09-01

    This study was conducted to gain opinions about euthanasia from nurses who work in intensive care units. The research was planned as a descriptive study and conducted with 186 nurses who worked in intensive care units in a university hospital, a public hospital, and a private not-for-profit hospital in Adana, Turkey, and who agreed to complete a questionnaire. Euthanasia is not legal in Turkey. One third (33.9%) of the nurses supported the legalization of euthanasia, whereas 39.8% did not. In some specific circumstances, 44.1% of the nurses thought that euthanasia was being practiced in our country. The most significant finding was that these Turkish intensive care unit nurses did not overwhelmingly support the legalization of euthanasia. Those who did support it were inclined to agree with passive rather than active euthanasia (P = 0.011).

  8. An experimental study of opinion influenceability

    CERN Document Server

    Grabowicz, Przemyslaw A; Lins, Theo; de Polavieja, Gonzalo G; Benevenuto, Fabrício; Gummadi, Krishna P

    2015-01-01

    Humans, like many other animal species, often make choices under social influence. Experiments in ants and fishes have shown that individuals choose according to estimations of which option to take given private and social information. Principled approaches based on probabilistic estimations by agents give mathematical formulas explaining experiments in these species. Here we test whether the same principled approaches can explain social influence in humans. We conduct a large online field experiment in which we measure opinion influenced by public comments about short movies in the most popular video-sharing website. We show that the basic principles of social influence in other species also apply to humans, with the added complexity that humans are heterogenous. We infer influenceability of each participant of the experiment, finding that individuals prone to social influence tend to agree with social feedback, read less comments, and are less educated than the persons who resist influence. We believe that ...

  9. Word of mouth and opinion leadership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žnideršić-Kovač Ružica

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The new, alternative thinking patterns in marketing highlight the fact that exchanges per se are not the focus of marketing analysis and researches; rather than that, they must surrender this position to relationships between different sides in the marketing setting - the company and consumers, internal relations within companies, and relations between consumers themselves. A new philosophy, relationship marketing, is taking over the position of the old transaction marketing philosophy. The greatest challenge for marketing professionals at the beginning of the 21st century is this third dimension of relationships - relations between consumers, their mutual impact on preferences and purchase decisions, and, most notably, the possibility of involving consumers in companies marketing mix programs. Opinion leaders - their identification, creation, their word-of-mouth communication, its emergence and impact are currently the focus of marketing theory and practice.

  10. Public opinion on childhood immunisations in Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Óskarsson, Ýmir; Guðnason, Þórólfur; Jónsdóttir, Guðbjörg A; Kristinsson, Karl G; Briem, Haraldur; Haraldsson, Ásgeir

    2015-12-16

    In recent years, vaccine preventable diseases such as measles and pertussis have been re-emerging in Western countries, maybe because of decreasing participation in childhood vaccination programs in some countries. There is clear evidence for vaccine efficacy and the risk of adverse effects is low. This needs to be communicated to the general public. The aim of the study was to evaluate the public opinion on childhood vaccinations in Iceland. An internet based study was used to evaluate the opinion on childhood immunisations in Iceland. The cohort was divided in three groups: (a) general public (b) employees of the University Hospital Iceland and (c) employees (teachers and staff) of the University of Iceland. The cohorts could be stratified according to age, gender, education, household income, parenthood and residency. Responses were received from 5584 individuals (53% response rate). When asked about childhood vaccinations in the first and second year of life, approximately 95% of participants were "positive" or "very positive", approximately 1% were "negative" or "very negative". When participants were asked whether they would have their child immunized according to the Icelandic childhood vaccination schedule, 96% were "positive" or "very positive", 1.2% were "negative" or "very negative". Similarly, 92% trust Icelandic Health authorities to decide on childhood vaccination schedule, 2.3% did not. In total, 9.3% "rather" or "strongly" agreed to the statement "I fear that vaccinations can cause severe adverse effects", 17.5% were undecided and 66.9% "disagreed" or "strongly disagreed". Individuals with higher education were more likely to disagree with this statement (OR=1.45, CI95=1.29-1.64, pIceland. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Compulsory Secondary Education Students’ Interests towards Physical Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Moreno

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Compulsory Secondary Education student’s opinion on Physical Education is a matter of great interest for teachers; there are numerous variables that determine it. This research analyzed the influence of the interest shown by students towards the course caused by different aspects: students’ grade level, gender, importance given to the class, their physical-sports practice, the context in which the class is given and the teacher’s Physical Education degree. To this end, a Questionnaire for Analyzing Students' Opinions on Physical Education (for its acronym in Spanish CAPAEF was applied to a sample of 1,499 students in first and second grades of Compulsory Secondary Education, in the Murcia Region; the questionnaire was designed specifically for this research. As a result of this study, it was concluded that among the students who showed great interest for Physical Education, the objectives that stood out were related to health, education, competition and the curriculum of the courses of Physical Condition and Health as well as Games and Sports, but not Corporal Expression. These same students chose it as their favorite class, they did not accept reduction of hours, they considered the classes were useful, easy and motivating; they found a lot of support from the teacher, given that he had a good nature, was pleasant, comprehensive, cheerful and fair, besides of the fact that he was committed to the class.

  12. Survey Regarding the Competence and Interest towards Research of Romanian University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demjén, Beátrix-Aletta; Ciascai, Liliana

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to find out the respondents' opinion regarding their abilities and interest towards research. The survey was carried out on a sample of 51 respondents that are involved in research activities in the universities of origin. The participants are students from Faculties of Real and Applied Sciences. The results highlight…

  13. The interplay of self-reflection, social interaction and random events in the dynamics of opinion flow in two-party democracies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenegger, Klaus; Hadzibeganovic, Tarik

    2016-01-01

    We propose a continuous process opinion formation model to study the dynamics of a multi-level relationship between voters, political parties, and facts in two-party democratic elections. In our model, opinions can take any real value between two extremes and an unaligned, moderate opinion state without a preference. Starting with a random opinion configuration, individual voter opinions evolve and change over time due to self-reflection, inter-personal communication, external media influence, and noise. Parties are influenced by their own ideologies, facts, and voters’ opinions. Elections are held periodically and the party that is closer in opinion to the majority of voters forms the new government. The government policy is then expected to be in proximity to the voter opinions and the policies of the currently ruling political party. We analyze the tension of opinions as a measure of how dramatically opinions can disagree within a given sample of voters and the success of the government and parties as the degree of coincidence between the policies and facts. Our model generates realistic quasi-periodic alternations between incumbents and challengers that are typical for two-party systems. Moreover, our model shows that relative to other voters’ strategies, conscious voting can lead to more successful governments of not only fact-oriented but also pragmatic and balanced political parties, irrespective of the strategies of the competing opposition parties. In addition, our simulations uncover several interesting features including less victories for strictly ideological or fact-oriented parties unless they include some aspects of populism or pragmatism. In this sense, our model can also describe situations where election outcomes are not necessarily based on votes for the current programs of competing parties and their placement on relevant issues, but instead result from voters’ dissatisfaction with the previous government and the votes against it.

  14. MARKET CHOICES FOR BROILER CHICKEN MEAT IN THE OPINION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Augustyńska-Prejsnar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently there has, been growing a increase in consumption of poultry meat in Poland. The most important material for slaughter poultry are broilers. Among factors that influence rising demand for poultry meat are: low price, availability of raw materials and promotional campaigns of safe nutrition. Its nutritional and sensory value makes it a choice product. University students are a specific group that has aroused the interest of nutritionists. The students’ lifestyle is characterised by high active social life and intense responsibilities, which ought to be augmented with a carefully chosen diet. The youth do not only have significant impact on the family purchasing decisions but display a strong purchasing power due to financial resources at their disposal and would in the future become mature and rational consumers. The article lists factors that determine purchasing needs, reasons for choice of markets and the consumption frequency of broiler meat. The feeling of lack of other products coupled with current sales promotions were, in the opinion of the students surveyed, often responsible for the decision to purchase of broiler chicken meat. Low price and the ease of preparation were also key reasons for the choice of this meat product. Responding students noted that skinless chicken breast fillet was most commonly consumed.

  15. Conformity, Anticonformity and Polarization of Opinions: Insights from a Mathematical Model of Opinion Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyll Krueger

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding and quantifying polarization in social systems is important because of many reasons. It could for instance help to avoid segregation and conflicts in the society or to control polarized debates and predict their outcomes. In this paper, we present a version of the q-voter model of opinion dynamics with two types of responses to social influence: conformity (like in the original q-voter model and anticonformity. We put the model on a social network with the double-clique topology in order to check how the interplay between those responses impacts the opinion dynamics in a population divided into two antagonistic segments. The model is analyzed analytically, numerically and by means of Monte Carlo simulations. Our results show that the system undergoes two bifurcations as the number of cross-links between cliques changes. Below the first critical point, consensus in the entire system is possible. Thus, two antagonistic cliques may share the same opinion only if they are loosely connected. Above that point, the system ends up in a polarized state.

  16. Cryonics in the Courtroom: Which Interests? Whose Interests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huxtable, Richard

    2017-10-25

    In an apparent international first, the High Court has allowed a terminally ill 14-year-old to be cryopreserved after her death. The patient, JS, requested this, as she hoped one day to be reanimated and cured. Jackson J focused on the welfare (or best interests) of JS as she approached the end of her life and particularly on her (apparently) competent wish to be cryopreserved. I consider the interests involved in a decision to undergo cryonics, specifically exploring which interests and whose interests are engaged. Starting with autonomy interests, the judgment implicitly supported a relational account of autonomy, but was dominated by a subjective interpretation of autonomy, which prioritized JS's wishes. Questions nevertheless arise about whether the dying person is entitled to legislate for the reanimated person he or she might become. Temporal concerns also feature when we interpret welfare in terms of happiness, because the dying person and the (potential) future reanimated person might have different interests at different times. Finally, I widen the analysis to accommodate the interests of others, by exploring whether cryonics is in, or contrary to, the public interest. Utilizing different accounts of the public interest, I argue that the case for cryonics is not entirely made out. These observations on autonomy, happiness and the public interest combine to suggest that, although there may not be a decisive case for denying a wish like JS's, there is a case for caution, at least while we seek to clarify and resolve the different interests in issue. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  17. Attitudes and Opinions of Classroom Teacher Candidates Regarding Multiculturalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akar, Cuneyt; Ulu, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is twofold. The first objective is to develop a valid and reliable measurement tool for measuring the attitudes and opinions of classroom teachers regarding multiculturalism. The second one is to study the classroom teachers' attitudes and opinions towards multiculturalism in terms of gender, socio-economic and devoutness…

  18. Expert opinions on SME Transfers Hazards for policymakers and entrepreneurs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lex van Teeffelen

    2009-01-01

    The EU and national governments rely on expert panels and opinions for their policies (EU, 2003; EU, 2006a; EU, 2006b) on SME ownership transfers. Also entrepreneurs depend on expert opinions and advice. We know from expert studies that expert judgment may lead to confusion and conflicting results.

  19. Multi-lingual Opinion Mining on YouTube

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Severyn, Aliaksei; Moschitti, Alessandro; Uryupina, Olga

    2015-01-01

    In order to successfully apply opinion mining (OM) to the large amounts of user-generated content produced every day, we need robust models that can handle the noisy input well yet can easily be adapted to a new domain or language. We here focus on opinion mining for YouTube by (i) modeling...

  20. Opinion Leadership Development: Context and Audience Characteristics Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamm, Kevan W.; Lamm, Alexa J.; Carter, Hannah S.

    2014-01-01

    Opinion leaders have been shown to have a significant amount of influence on their peers, yet there is little research examining how individual traits of opinion leaders are related. Generally the assumption is that these individuals share characteristics consistent with the literature; specifically that leaders tend to be optimistically oriented…

  1. The relevance of security analyst opinions for investment decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen, D.F.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/310595703

    2014-01-01

    Security analysts analyze information regarding publicly traded companies after which they publish their opinion regarding these companies’ stocks. In this dissertation the published opinions of two different types of analysts are analyzed. Technical analysts derive a recommendation to buy, hold, or

  2. 29 CFR 1601.93 - Opinions-title VII.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Opinions-title VII. 1601.93 Section 1601.93 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION PROCEDURAL REGULATIONS Title VII Interpretations and Opinions by the Commission § 1601.93 Opinions—title VII. Only the following...

  3. Students' Opinions on Facebook Supported Blended Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdem, Mukaddes; Kibar, Pinar Nuhoglu

    2014-01-01

    The first purpose of this study was to determine students' opinions on blended learning and its implementation. The other purpose was to explore the students' opinions on Facebook integration into blended learning environment. The participants of this study were 40 undergraduate students in their fourth semester of the program.…

  4. Essays of a peripheral mind: An opinion on policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strengthening the connections between science and policy is critical if science is to have meaningful impacts. Policy is often primarily based on arrays of opinion and experience. Science typically shapes some of these opinions. This essay addresses characteristics of science and its communicatio...

  5. The nature and determinants of opinion leadership in Lesotho ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research investigates the nature, the occurrence and the factors influencing opinion leadership in Lesotho. The focus is on a typical rural district where 200 maize farmers were randomly selected and their opinion leaders identified by means of sociometric methods with the number of nominations as the major indicator ...

  6. Motives for seeking a second opinion in orthopaedic surgery.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalen, I. van; Groothoff, J.; Stewart, R.; Spreeuwenberg, P.; Groenewegen, P.; Horn, J. van

    2001-01-01

    The number of second opinions in orthopaedic surgery is increading rapidly, yet the grounds on which patients and their doctors decide to seek a second opinion have been little studied. The goal of the study was to identify patient and consultant factors that appeared to contribute to a second

  7. Discrepancy between second and first opinion in surgical oncological patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mellink, WAM; Henzen-Logmans, SC; Bongaerts, AHH; Ooijen, BV; Rodenburg, CJ; Wiggers, T

    Purpose: To prospectively describe in a population of oncological second opinion patients: (1) the outcome of routine revisions of histopathological and radiological material, (2) the frequency and extent of discrepancy between the second and first opinion and (3) the location of further treatment

  8. Understanding public opinion regarding transit in southeast Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    This report presents findings from a study on public opinion regarding transit in Southeast Michigan. The overall goals of this : study were to assess the nature of public opinion regarding regional transit and to understand its relation to socio-dem...

  9. South African propaganda agencies and the battle for public opinion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In response, the Union authorities adopted a volunteer policy for military service and embarked on a massive drive to secure positive public opinion and national support for the war policy. This move led to the establishment of various publicity and propaganda organisations to influence public opinion and to stimulate ...

  10. Discrepancy and Disliking Do Not Induce Negative Opinion Shifts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takács, Károly; Flache, Andreas; Maes, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Both classical social psychological theories and recent formal models of opinion differentiation and bi-polarization assign a prominent role to negative social influence. Negative influence is defined as shifts away from the opinion of others and hypothesized to be induced by discrepancy with or

  11. AIDS education in schools - awareness, attitudes and opinions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract A project was undertaken in Graham.stown to assess the level of AIDS awareness, attitudes towards AIDS and opinions as to how and whether education programm.es for schoolchildren should be planned. Opinions were canvassed initially by m.eans of a questionnaire to three groups of pro- fessionals who could ...

  12. Demographic and Social Factors Influencing Public Opinion on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines countervailing South African public opinion on the subject of prostitution in South Africa, and identifies the factors which might influence these attitudes. It also investigates the complex relationship between public opinion and the law. Whilst engaging in prostitution constitutes a criminal offence under ...

  13. Foreign Policy and Public Opinion: An Assessment of Ijebu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Much has been said on the nexus between public opinion and foreign policy. There are those who believe that public opinion is the primary, if not the sole, molder of foreign policy. On the other hand, there are those who hold that the elite, rather than the general public, determine foreign policy. There are also others who ...

  14. Experiences and Opinions of Economically Active Women on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated experiences and opinions of economically active women in the urban area of Maseru district. One hundred and eight women were interviewed about their violence experiences as well as their opinions on ways of eliminating violence against women. Three forms of violence against women namely ...

  15. Opinions of Physical Education Teachers on the Concept of Sportsmanship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koç, Yakup; Esentürk, Oguz Kaan

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the opinions of physical education teachers on the concept of sportsmanship. This study, which has been based on the qualitative research paradigm, involves opinions of 13 physical education teachers (9 males and 4 females) which serve in public schools of Turkey and which have been specified through a…

  16. Cultural variations regarding the nature and determinants of opinion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper compares the findings from different countries regarding the nature and determinants of opinion leadership. The differences between white and black farmers in one country far exceed the differences between black cultures in different countries. White communities tend to have a bigger percentage of opinion ...

  17. Influence of opinion dynamics on the evolution of games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargiulo, Floriana; Ramasco, José J

    2012-01-01

    Under certain circumstances such as lack of information or bounded rationality, human players can take decisions on which strategy to choose in a game on the basis of simple opinions. These opinions can be modified after each round by observing own or others payoff results but can be also modified after interchanging impressions with other players. In this way, the update of the strategies can become a question that goes beyond simple evolutionary rules based on fitness and become a social issue. In this work, we explore this scenario by coupling a game with an opinion dynamics model. The opinion is represented by a continuous variable that corresponds to the certainty of the agents respect to which strategy is best. The opinions transform into actions by making the selection of an strategy a stochastic event with a probability regulated by the opinion. A certain regard for the previous round payoff is included but the main update rules of the opinion are given by a model inspired in social interchanges. We find that the fixed points of the dynamics of the coupled model are different from those of the evolutionary game or the opinion models alone. Furthermore, new features emerge such as the independence of the fraction of cooperators with respect to the topology of the social interaction network or the presence of a small fraction of extremist players.

  18. Opinions of the Geography Teacher Candidates toward Mind Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyihoglu, Aysegul

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to reveal the opinions of the teacher candidates about mind mapping technique used in Geography education of undergraduate program. In this study, the qualitative research techniques were used. The study group consists of 55 teacher candidates. The teacher candidates have been asked for their opinions about the process…

  19. Open Primary Education School Students' Opinions about Mathematics Television Programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yenilmez, Kursat

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine open primary education school students' opinions about mathematics television programmes. This study indicated that to determine differences among open primary education school students' opinions about mathematics television programmes point of view students' characteristics like gender, age, grade,…

  20. Opinions of College Students on Parent/Child Relations (Abstract).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Roger G.

    A study was conducted to obtain some data on the opinions of college students about statements in the area of parent/child and parent/young people relationships, aspects of family life, and individual needs and values. Students in a research seminar prepared a scale of 25 opinion items. Students in 7 diverse undergraduate classes marked responses…

  1. The Opinions of Economics Majors before and after Learning Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammock, Michael R.; Routon, P. Wesley; Walker, Jay K.

    2016-01-01

    Using longitudinal data on undergraduates from 463 American colleges and universities from 1994-99, the authors examine how majoring in economics affects student opinions on 13 social, political, and economic issues. Economics majors were found to begin and end their college tenure with differing opinions on several issues when compared to other…

  2. Factors contributing to the accessibility of opinion leaders in Lesotho ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors contributing to the accessibility of opinion leaders in Lesotho. RF Williams, GH Düvel. Abstract. Against the background of the importance of fellow farmers as the most frequent source of information, opinion leaders deserve special attention. This study is focused on accessibility, which, together with competence, ...

  3. Nanotechnology Awareness, Opinions and Risk Perceptions among Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Nurettin; Ekli, Emel

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigates awareness, factual knowledge, opinions, and risk perceptions of students from Turkish middle schools with regard to nanotechnology in a very general sense. The study was carried out among 1,396 middle school 6th, 7th, and 8th grade students. The students' perceptions of and opinions about nanotechnology were elicited…

  4. Analysis of Primary School Teachers' Opinions on Family Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Alvaro Capano; Massonnier, Natalie; González Tornaría, Maria del L.

    2016-01-01

    This article aims to do an analysis based on the opinion of primary school teachers on family models that are different from the traditional nuclear family. We worked with 60 teachers from Montevideo and the metropolitan area. They answered the Questionnaire: Teachers' Opinion on Family Diversity (CIDF for its Spanish acronym) (Morgado,…

  5. Knowledge of the Human Papilloma Virus vaccines, and opinions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Morhason-Bello et al. HPV Vaccine Knowledge and Opinion. African Journal of Reproductive Health June 2013; 17(2): 150. ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE. Knowledge of the Human Papilloma Virus vaccines, and opinions of. Gynaecologists on its implementation in Nigeria. Imran O. Morhason-Bello*. 1. , Olubukola A.

  6. 77 FR 76492 - Notice of Interest Rate on Overdue Debts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-28

    ... regulations (45 CFR part 30) provides that the Secretary shall charge an annual rate of interest, which is determined and fixed by the Secretary of the Treasury after considering private consumer rates of interest on... determined from the ``Schedule of Certified Interest Rates with Range of Maturities'' unless the Secretary...

  7. Interest Organizations across Economic Sectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berkhout, Joost; Carroll, Brendan; Braun, Caelesta

    2015-01-01

    on the basis of political and economic institutional factors. Focusing on business interest representation, we show that economic institutions structure the ‘supply’ of interest organizations by affecting the number of potential constituents, the resources available for lobbying and the geographical level......The number of interest organizations (density) varies across policy domains, political issues and economic sectors. This shapes the nature and outcomes of interest representation. In this contribution, we explain the density of interest organizations per economic sector in the European Union...... of collective action of businesses. In contrast, we do not find consistent evidence that political institutions produce ‘demand’ for interest organizations by making laws, developing public policy or spending money. This is in contrast to the extensive evidence that such factors affect lobbying practices...

  8. Upper secondary students’ situational interest:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dohn, Niels Bonderup

    2013-01-01

    This paper comprises a presentation of the findings of a case study that investigated how situational factors triggered 12th grade students’ interest during a field trip to a zoo. The purpose was to identify sources of interest and to investigate the attributes that make them interesting. Students......’ interest was investigated by a descriptive interpretive approach, based on data from classroom and field trip observations, video recording, and interviews. The findings provided evidence that substantial situational interest can be generated during a fieldtrip to a zoo. Students’ interest was triggered....... The study implies that zoo visits can provide students with affective experiences, which can be a powerful way to stimulate students’ learning motivation....

  9. Point of interest to region of interest conversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaff, V.; de By, R.A.; van Keulen, Maurice; Flokstra, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Trajectories of people contain a vast amount of information on users' interests and popularity of locations. To obtain this information, the places visited by the owner of the device on such a trajectory need to be recognized. However, the location information on a point of interest (POI) in a

  10. On the empirical relevance of the transient in opinion models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banisch, Sven; Araújo, Tanya

    2010-07-01

    While the number and variety of models to explain opinion exchange dynamics is huge, attempts to justify the model results using empirical data are relatively rare. As linking to real data is essential for establishing model credibility, this Letter develops an empirical confirmation experiment by which an opinion model is related to real election data. The model is based on a representation of opinions as a vector of k bits. Individuals interact according to the principle that similarity leads to interaction and interaction leads to still more similarity. In the comparison to real data we concentrate on the transient opinion profiles that form during the dynamic process. An artificial election procedure is introduced which allows to relate transient opinion configurations to the electoral performance of candidates for which data are available. The election procedure based on the well-established principle of proximity voting is repeatedly performed during the transient period and remarkable statistical agreement with the empirical data is observed.

  11. An opinion formation based binary optimization approach for feature selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamedmoghadam, Homayoun; Jalili, Mahdi; Yu, Xinghuo

    2018-02-01

    This paper proposed a novel optimization method based on opinion formation in complex network systems. The proposed optimization technique mimics human-human interaction mechanism based on a mathematical model derived from social sciences. Our method encodes a subset of selected features to the opinion of an artificial agent and simulates the opinion formation process among a population of agents to solve the feature selection problem. The agents interact using an underlying interaction network structure and get into consensus in their opinions, while finding better solutions to the problem. A number of mechanisms are employed to avoid getting trapped in local minima. We compare the performance of the proposed method with a number of classical population-based optimization methods and a state-of-the-art opinion formation based method. Our experiments on a number of high dimensional datasets reveal outperformance of the proposed algorithm over others.

  12. Mobility and social network effects on extremist opinions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, André C R

    2008-09-01

    Understanding the emergence of extreme opinions and in what kind of environment they might become less extreme is a central theme in our modern globalized society. A model combining continuous opinions and observed discrete actions (CODA) capable of addressing the important issue of measuring how extreme opinions might be has been recently proposed. In this paper I show extreme opinions to arise in a ubiquitous manner in the CODA model for a multitude of social network structures. Depending on network details reducing extremism seems to be possible. However, a large number of agents with extreme opinions is always observed. A significant decrease in the number of extremists can be observed by allowing agents to change their positions in the network.

  13. On the empirical relevance of the transient in opinion models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banisch, Sven, E-mail: sven.banisch@universecity.d [Mathematical Physics, Physics Department, Bielefeld University, 33501 Bielefeld (Germany); Institute for Complexity Science (ICC), 1249-078 Lisbon (Portugal); Araujo, Tanya, E-mail: tanya@iseg.utl.p [Research Unit on Complexity in Economics (UECE), ISEG, TULisbon, 1249-078 Lisbon (Portugal); Institute for Complexity Science (ICC), 1249-078 Lisbon (Portugal)

    2010-07-12

    While the number and variety of models to explain opinion exchange dynamics is huge, attempts to justify the model results using empirical data are relatively rare. As linking to real data is essential for establishing model credibility, this Letter develops an empirical confirmation experiment by which an opinion model is related to real election data. The model is based on a representation of opinions as a vector of k bits. Individuals interact according to the principle that similarity leads to interaction and interaction leads to still more similarity. In the comparison to real data we concentrate on the transient opinion profiles that form during the dynamic process. An artificial election procedure is introduced which allows to relate transient opinion configurations to the electoral performance of candidates for which data are available. The election procedure based on the well-established principle of proximity voting is repeatedly performed during the transient period and remarkable statistical agreement with the empirical data is observed.

  14. Which Positive Integers are Interesting?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Interesting positive integers; idoneal numbers; Carmichael numbers; Wieferich primes; Mersenne primes; Fermat primes; Bernoulli numbers; Kaprekar constant; Skewes constants; look-and-say sequence; Graham's constant.

  15. Nations: Formation and Interest Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A E Kafirin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The article gives a brief description of historic conditions leading to the formation of nations, and on the basis of attributive features of a nation the set of national interests is identified. Considering national interests as a variable, the author stresses that they depend both on the wishes of ordinary people and on the ability of the state to streamline them in a constructive manner. National interests are classified according to their dynamic characteristics, and the special role of the state as the mouthpiece of national interests is pointed out.

  16. An institutional embeddedness of welfare opinions? The link between public opinion and social policy in the Netherlands (1970-2004)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Raven (Judith); P.H.J. Achterberg (Peter); R.J. van der Veen (Romke); M.A. Yerkes (Mara)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractAbstract A major shortcoming in the existing literature on welfare state legitimacy is that it cannot explain when social policy designs follow public preferences and when public opinion follows existing policy designs and why. Scholars examining the influence of public opinion on

  17. "We Don't Want Your Opinion": Knowledge Construction and the Discourse of Opinion in the Equity Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diangelo, Robin; Sensoy, Ozlem

    2009-01-01

    As educators who teach courses that examine social power, we often struggle with a specific form of resistance in the equity-oriented classroom: "That's just [the author]'s opinion." This "opinion discourse" emerges when students study scholarship that unsettles dominant knowledge claims and methods or when students are themselves asked to situate…

  18. Quality Program: what influences the opinion of nursing team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Fernanda Mazzoni da; Souza, Irene Duarte; Monteiro, Maria Inês; Lopes, Maria Helena Baena de Moraes; Greco, Rosangela Maria

    2016-01-01

    To analyze the major impact variables in the opinion of nursing staff about the Quality Program of a teaching hospital. An exploratory-descriptive study was performed with 72 nursing staff. Data were collected through self-administered questionnaire containing 24 statements about the Quality Program; and the degree of agreement of the participants was expressed in a Likert scale. The collected data were analyzed by factor analysis and Pearson's correlation coefficient. The analysis grouped the statements in six factors. The Pearson's correlation coefficient defined a scale of influence of the variables within each factor, whose variable with the greatest impact in each factor is the priority issue for improving worker opinion about the Quality Program. The priority variables were to believe the Quality Program contributes to the hospital; to understand the program orientations; interest in hospital quality direction; and do not feel exhausted due to the program. These variables must be focused during the implementation and execution of Quality Program, as they have greater impact on improving opinion regarding the Quality Program and thus helping to increase compliance of the nursing staff to the program. Analisar as variáveis de maior impacto na opinião dos trabalhadores de enfermagem sobre um Programa de Qualidade de um hospital de ensino. Estudo exploratório-descritivo, desenvolvido com 72 trabalhadores de enfermagem, com dados coletados por meio de questionário autoaplicável, contendo 24 afirmações com escala Likert sobre o Programa de Qualidade. Para análise dos dados, foram utilizados análise fatorial e coeficiente de correlação de Pearson. A análise agrupou as afirmações em seis fatores. O coeficiente de correlação de Pearson definiu uma escala de influência das variáveis dentro de cada fator, cuja variável de maior impacto em cada fator representa a questão prioritária para a melhoria da opinião do trabalhador sobre o Programa de

  19. Italian Physicians’ Opinions on Rotavirus Vaccine Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Mita

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Rotavirus (RV infection is the main cause of severe acute gastroenteritis (GE in the pediatric population and has a major impact in both developing and industrialized countries. The reduction of severe RVGE cases, followed by death or hospitalization, is considered the main benefit of RV vaccination, even though its implementation often faces obstacles. In Italy, the recently approved National Immunization Plan aims to overcome the differences among regions, offering a universal free RV vaccination. The aim of the study was to evaluate the opinions on benefit and acceptability of RV vaccination related to the perception of the burden of RV disease. Data were collected from 108 physicians in 2015 by a questionnaire consisting of 12 questions; some answers were compared with those obtained with a similar tool in 2011. The majority of respondents (76.2% was convinced of the benefit of the vaccine and 57.4% recommended it routinely, but more than half indicated a <25% adherence to RV vaccination among their patients. As the main reasons of vaccine refusal, skepticism about the vaccine (60.4% and its cost (34.1% were indicated. Our data confirm that more information and counselling are needed to increase RV vaccine coverage.

  20. Attitude and opinion towards essential medicine formulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sangeeta; Kh, Reeta; Chaudhury, R Roy

    2010-06-01

    The Delhi State Drug Policy was adopted in 1994 following which the first Essential Medicines List (EML) was developed in 1996. The Delhi State Essential Medicines Formulary was brought out in 1997. A need was felt to revise the formulary to match with the EML as the EML is renewed every 2 years. A survey was undertaken to elicit the opinions of the doctors practicing in the state on the usefulness of the formulary before revising and printing the updated version. The survey covered dispensaries, 10-20 bedded hospitals, 100-bedded hospitals and two tertiary care hospitals. Discussions were focused on questionnaires on attitudes toward adopting Essential Medicines Formulary using a 10-point scale. Of the 200 doctors approached, only 90 doctors completed the questionnaire. Sixty-nine respondents (76.6%) had received the copy of the formulary. Most practitioners welcomed the formulary and were satisfied with the coverage and selection of the medicines. Most respondents (76.9%) agreed that a well-developed formulary would improve the quality of the public health care system, although they had reservations about the authority, relevance and effect on professional autonomy. About 74% of the respondents used the formulary in clinical practice as a source of medicine information, which makes its regular revision necessary.

  1. Current Opinions in Pediatric Septic Shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Irazuzta

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Our aim is to describe the current clinical practice related to the management of septic shock (SS. Methods: Review of medical literature using the MEDLINE database. Articles were selected according to their relevancy to the objective and according to the author’s opinion. Summary of the findings: The outcome from SS is dependent on an early recognition and a sequential implementation of time-sensitive goal-directed therapies. The goals of the resuscitation are rapid restoration of micro circulation and improved organ tissue perfusion. Clinical and laboratory markers are needed to assess the adequacy of the treatments. Initial resuscitation involves the use of isotonic solutions (>60ml/kg either crystalloid (normal saline or colloid infusion often followed by vasoactive medications. Altered pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics responses dictate that vasoactive agents should be adjusted to achieve predetermined goals. An assessment of central venous pressure complements clinical and serological findings to tailor therapies. Elective airway instrumentation and mechanical ventilation as well as adjunctive therapy with stress dose of corticosteroid are indicated in selected populations. In neonates, a special attention to the presence of electrolyte imbalance and increase pulmonary vascular resistance needs to be considered early. Conclusions: Septic shock hemodynamic is a changing process that requires frequent assessment and therapeutic adjustments.

  2. Opinions of town residents on organ transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobus, G; Popławska, W; Zbroch, E; Małyszko, Jacek; Bachórzewska-Gajewska, H; Małyszko, Jolanta

    2014-10-01

    Organ transplantation is connected with many very difficult ethical and social issues that evoke a lot of emotion. The aim of this work was to determine the knowledge and opinions of the 612 residents of selected towns in Podlaskie voivodeship (in northeastern Poland) on organ transplantation. A diagnostic poll with the use of a survey questionnaire was implemented in the study. The respondents were divided into 2 groups (towns 100,000 residents). Respondents from larger towns were more often willing to donate organs of close relatives for transplantation than those from small towns (67.1% vs 32.9%; P = .022). Respondents with higher education levels accepted organ donation from close relatives after their death significantly often than those with no more than a primary education (46.7% vs 22.2%; P small towns. Respondents with higher education significantly more often informed their family of such decision than persons with primary education (60.9% vs 42.9%; P small towns and people with primary and vocational education, because an adequate level of knowledge is a significant factor influencing the readiness to give one's organs for transplantation.

  3. Objectification of injuries and consequences in expert medical opinions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miran Vrabl

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Only unequivocal evidence confirming the total extent of injury. Biomechanical analysis, objectifications of permanent consequences after injury and objectification, whether such injuries influence life activities of an injured person, should be the basics for preparation of expert medical opinion. To make a necessary distinction from the previous injuries or illnesses that might have influence on current health state of a patient and its treatment, analysis of all medical records of a certain injured person is needed. Therefore this are inevitable steps in preparation of an expert medical opinion. In cases when medical opinion should explain disability of a patient as a consequence of a certain contractual relationship, the contract should be taken into consideration when such opinions is prepared.Methods: 500 opinions have been retrospectively analysed, selected at random out of 3452 opinions, submitted in claims for damages at Zavarovalnica Maribor, d. d., in the period from January 2001 until January 2006. Thirteen typical data have been analysed and evaluated on the basis of objective evidences.Results: On the basis of analyses it has been established that there is a great difference between principles of objectification and the data in analysed opinions. It has been noticed the most obvious deviation in biomechanical analysis (95 %, in records of decreased life activities (90 %, in all medical records of an injured person (65 % and in objectification of permanent consequences after injuries (55 %.Conclusions: As results of analysis demonstrate, there are significant differences in preparations of expert and medical opinions in Slovenia, particularly when basic principles are analysed that need to be considered when writing such opinions. Irrational avoidance of basic principle of objectification, nomination of experts without licence in certain fields of medicine, avoidance of objectification of subjective statements of injured

  4. Cryonics in the courtroom:Which interests? Whose interests?

    OpenAIRE

    Huxtable, Richard

    2017-01-01

    In an apparent international first, the High Court has allowed a terminally ill 14-year-old to be cryopreserved after her death. The patient, JS, requested this, as she hoped one day to be reanimated and cured. Jackson J focused on the welfare (or best interests) of JS as she approached the end of her life and particularly on her (apparently) competent wish to be cryopreserved. I consider the interests involved in a decision to undergo cryonics, specifically exploring which interests and whos...

  5. Medication interest in pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rok Antolič

    2011-12-01

    Medication interest is comparable to literature data: relatively high for acute problems, relatively low for iron supplementation and extremely low for preventative folic acid intake. As to our knowledge, we were the ones to introduce the term »medication interest« into professional literature in Slovenia.

  6. Interest in Mathematics = Interest in Mathematics? What General Measures of Interest Reflect When the Object of Interest Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ufer, Stefan; Rach, Stefanie; Kosiol, Timo

    2017-01-01

    Students' motivational characteristics, e.g., subject-related interest, are considered important predictors for successful learning processes. However, few empirical studies provide evidence for the assumed chain of effects between high interest and high achievement in mathematics. One reason for this result might be that the applied measures of…

  7. Monitoring Financial Conflict of Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickson, Lorraine

    2016-01-01

    Conflict of interest is heavily intertwined with research. The purpose of this study was to examine the literature and regulations in order to describe efforts required to properly monitor and disclose conflict of interest as researchers become steadily involved in innovation and discovery. The public assumes that when a conflict is disclosed, it…

  8. Interest Organisations and European Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ove K.

    . The paper focuses exclusively on the national policy processes that are involved with managing European Union (EU) issues. More specifically, this paper discusses two aspects of multi-level governance. First is the important role of private interests in the coordination of decision making at the national...... level preceding their government's representation of national interests in the European Council of Ministers and other EU organizations. Second is the effect of all this on national democratic systems.......This paper examines the influence of European integration on the relationship between state administration and private interests in the four Nordic countries - Sweden, Denmark, Norway and Finland. By private interests I mean interest organizations, private corporations and independent experts...

  9. Zealotry effects on opinion dynamics in the adaptive voter model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klamser, Pascal P.; Wiedermann, Marc; Donges, Jonathan F.; Donner, Reik V.

    2017-11-01

    The adaptive voter model has been widely studied as a conceptual model for opinion formation processes on time-evolving social networks. Past studies on the effect of zealots, i.e., nodes aiming to spread their fixed opinion throughout the system, only considered the voter model on a static network. Here we extend the study of zealotry to the case of an adaptive network topology co-evolving with the state of the nodes and investigate opinion spreading induced by zealots depending on their initial density and connectedness. Numerical simulations reveal that below the fragmentation threshold a low density of zealots is sufficient to spread their opinion to the whole network. Beyond the transition point, zealots must exhibit an increased degree as compared to ordinary nodes for an efficient spreading of their opinion. We verify the numerical findings using a mean-field approximation of the model yielding a low-dimensional set of coupled ordinary differential equations. Our results imply that the spreading of the zealots' opinion in the adaptive voter model is strongly dependent on the link rewiring probability and the average degree of normal nodes in comparison with that of the zealots. In order to avoid a complete dominance of the zealots' opinion, there are two possible strategies for the remaining nodes: adjusting the probability of rewiring and/or the number of connections with other nodes, respectively.

  10. Share Your Opinion With Other Eos Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimhan, T. N.

    2006-11-01

    Earlier this year, Robert Kitchen (Eos, 87(24), 235, 2006) drew attention to declining interest in Earth science education in public schools. The reason for a lack of interest in teaching Earth sciences in public schools may involve more than just the attitudes of parents who may wish for their children a better preparation for advanced placement courses later on. Part of the problem may lie with our present mind-set that technology can solve all the world's problems, from poverty, to better health, and to prosperity.

  11. Changing to NIPT as a first-tier screening test and future perspectives: opinions of health professionals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tamminga, S.; van Schendel, R.V.; Rommers, W.; Bilardo, C.M.; Pajkrt, E.; Dondorp, W.J.; van Maarle, M.; Cornel, M.C.; Henneman, L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate health professionals' opinions toward offering noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) as first-tier screening test regardless of pregnant women's risk, and toward a potential broader range of disorders. Methods: A questionnaire completed by obstetric

  12. Changing to NIPT as a first-tier screening test and future perspectives: opinions of health professionals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tamminga, Saskia; van Schendel, Rachèl V.; Rommers, Wieke; Bilardo, Caterina M.; Pajkrt, Eva; Dondorp, Wybo J.; van Maarle, Merel; Cornel, Martina C.; Henneman, Lidewij

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate health professionals' opinions toward offering noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) as first-tier screening test regardless of pregnant women's risk, and toward a potential broader range of disorders. A questionnaire completed by obstetric health professionals

  13. Changing to NIPT as a first-tier screening test and future perspectives : opinions of health professionals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tamminga, Saskia; van Schendel, Rachel V.; Rommers, Wieke; Bilardo, Caterina M.; Pajkrt, Eva; Dondorp, Wybo J.; van Maarle, Merel; Cornel, Martina C.; Henneman, Lidewij

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate health professionals' opinions toward offering noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) as first-tier screening test regardless of pregnant women's risk, and toward a potential broader range of disorders. Methods A questionnaire completed by obstetric

  14. Islamic founding principles on organ transplantation and the evolution of Islamic scholarly opinions on the subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuddus, R H

    2014-01-01

    Muslims constitute about one-fourth of the human population, and a significant fraction of the organ recipients identify themselves as Muslims. A large fraction of the Muslim population is devout but unclear regarding the religious principles on organ donation and transplantation and is dependent on scholars' and imams' opinions. The Qur'an, the authentic Prophetic Traditions, and expert opinions on the subject were investigated. The sources of the Islamic founding principles on organ donation and transplantation are the Qur'an, the Prophetic Traditions, Usulul Fiqh or expert opinions based on the Qur'an and Traditions, and Maslaha or the principles of public interest deduced by the scholars. Some Muslim scholars, mostly from the Indian subcontinent, opine that live organ donation, extraction of organs from dead persons, and transplantation are prohibited. Many Arab scholars and Muslim scholars settled in the western hemisphere opine that live organ donation, organ extraction from dead persons, and transplantation are permitted, but organ donation must be a voluntary act of charity. Of late, the Iranian imams/scholars have recognized that the national government may acquire live donor organs for a uniform compensation and equitably distribute the acquired organs to patients with failing organs. The current Islamic working principles on transplantation medicine are nonuniform, transitory, and somewhat detached from the bulk of the population. How such heterogeneity is affecting transplantation medicine, and organ donation in particular, among Muslim populations warrants further investigation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The Necessity of Opinion Polls for the Town Planning Analysis within Municipalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanova Zinaida Ilyinichna

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The authors prove the necessity of carrying out opinion polls for the assessment of town-planning decisions and the effectiveness of municipal authorities’ activity in the field of creating a comfortable environment. The authors come up with an idea that no decision can be made without preliminary studying public opinion as it is a question of public health and subjective perception of life and environmental space. In case, the inhabitants do not trust the authorities and each other, it is impossible to create modern living standards, to solve important social problems and to realize significant for the population town-planning projects. Therefore, opinions, interests, offers and preferences of citizens concerning developed town-planning projects taking into account the balance of the main indexes, evaluation test of realized state programs of housing construction, social, cultural and household facilities and the degree of satisfaction of the population with the actions of the local authorities are to become the main subject of further research of the sociologists.

  16. Applications of flow-networks to opinion-dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tupikina, Liubov; Kurths, Jürgen

    2015-04-01

    Networks were successfully applied to describe complex systems, such as brain, climate, processes in society. Recently a socio-physical problem of opinion-dynamics was studied using network techniques. We present the toy-model of opinion-formation based on the physical model of advection-diffusion. We consider spreading of the opinion on the fixed subject, assuming that opinion on society is binary: if person has opinion then the state of the node in the society-network equals 1, if the person doesn't have opinion state of the node equals 0. Opinion can be spread from one person to another if they know each other, or in the network-terminology, if the nodes are connected. We include into the system governed by advection-diffusion equation the external field to model such effects as for instance influence from media. The assumptions for our model can be formulated as the following: 1.the node-states are influenced by the network structure in such a way, that opinion can be spread only between adjacent nodes (the advective term of the opinion-dynamics), 2.the network evolution can have two scenarios: -network topology is not changing with time; -additional links can appear or disappear each time-step with fixed probability which requires adaptive networks properties. Considering these assumptions for our system we obtain the system of equations describing our model-dynamics which corresponds well to other socio-physics models, for instance, the model of the social cohesion and the famous voter-model. We investigate the behavior of the suggested model studying "waiting time" of the system, time to get to the stable state, stability of the model regimes for different values of model parameters and network topology.

  17. Social Influence and the Collective Dynamics of Opinion Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussaïd, Mehdi; Kämmer, Juliane E.; Analytis, Pantelis P.; Neth, Hansjörg

    2013-01-01

    Social influence is the process by which individuals adapt their opinion, revise their beliefs, or change their behavior as a result of social interactions with other people. In our strongly interconnected society, social influence plays a prominent role in many self-organized phenomena such as herding in cultural markets, the spread of ideas and innovations, and the amplification of fears during epidemics. Yet, the mechanisms of opinion formation remain poorly understood, and existing physics-based models lack systematic empirical validation. Here, we report two controlled experiments showing how participants answering factual questions revise their initial judgments after being exposed to the opinion and confidence level of others. Based on the observation of 59 experimental subjects exposed to peer-opinion for 15 different items, we draw an influence map that describes the strength of peer influence during interactions. A simple process model derived from our observations demonstrates how opinions in a group of interacting people can converge or split over repeated interactions. In particular, we identify two major attractors of opinion: (i) the expert effect, induced by the presence of a highly confident individual in the group, and (ii) the majority effect, caused by the presence of a critical mass of laypeople sharing similar opinions. Additional simulations reveal the existence of a tipping point at which one attractor will dominate over the other, driving collective opinion in a given direction. These findings have implications for understanding the mechanisms of public opinion formation and managing conflicting situations in which self-confident and better informed minorities challenge the views of a large uninformed majority. PMID:24223805

  18. Social influence and the collective dynamics of opinion formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussaïd, Mehdi; Kämmer, Juliane E; Analytis, Pantelis P; Neth, Hansjörg

    2013-01-01

    Social influence is the process by which individuals adapt their opinion, revise their beliefs, or change their behavior as a result of social interactions with other people. In our strongly interconnected society, social influence plays a prominent role in many self-organized phenomena such as herding in cultural markets, the spread of ideas and innovations, and the amplification of fears during epidemics. Yet, the mechanisms of opinion formation remain poorly understood, and existing physics-based models lack systematic empirical validation. Here, we report two controlled experiments showing how participants answering factual questions revise their initial judgments after being exposed to the opinion and confidence level of others. Based on the observation of 59 experimental subjects exposed to peer-opinion for 15 different items, we draw an influence map that describes the strength of peer influence during interactions. A simple process model derived from our observations demonstrates how opinions in a group of interacting people can converge or split over repeated interactions. In particular, we identify two major attractors of opinion: (i) the expert effect, induced by the presence of a highly confident individual in the group, and (ii) the majority effect, caused by the presence of a critical mass of laypeople sharing similar opinions. Additional simulations reveal the existence of a tipping point at which one attractor will dominate over the other, driving collective opinion in a given direction. These findings have implications for understanding the mechanisms of public opinion formation and managing conflicting situations in which self-confident and better informed minorities challenge the views of a large uninformed majority.

  19. Obesidad infantil: opiniones y actitudes de los pediatras Childhood obesity: pediatricians' attitudes and opinions

    OpenAIRE

    Alfredo Cano Garcinuño; Isabel Pérez García; Irene Casares Alonso

    2008-01-01

    Objetivos: Identificar las actitudes y opiniones de los pediatras respecto al tratamiento, la prevención y la organización asistencial de la obesidad, identificar las barreras que encuentran en el tratamiento de la obesidad y las herramientas que creen más útiles para prestar una atención más efectiva. Métodos: Encuesta postal a los pediatras de atención primaria de Castilla y León, explorando la necesidad de acción frente a la obesidad, la utilidad de medidas terapéuticas y estrategias preve...

  20. [The picture of malingered symptom presentation in public opinion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlicht, D; Merten, Thomas

    2014-09-01

    The views held by health experts on certain topics may differ drastically from what appears to be obvious from observations in daily living or public opinion. This is true for a number of myths which continue to haunt the literature with respect to feigned health problems. Such myths tend to ignore or to distort the results of modern research. We performed two pilot studies: first a content analysis of 67 German- and English-language articles from newspapers, magazines or internet journals, and second, a survey on the experience of, and beliefs related to, exaggeration and symptom invention in health care and forensic assessment. A non-representative sample of 15 adults from the general population was interviewed. Most of them reported their own experiences or incidents in their social networks involving feigned health problems. Base rate estimates of malingering in five prototypical contexts ranged between 46 and 67 percent of cases. While the participants showed a preference for an adaptational explanatory model of malingering (selected for about 53% of cases of malingering), journalistic sources often employed pejorative language and combat rhetoric, aiming to arouse indignation or outrage in the readership. The majority of articles were classified to adhere to a criminological explanatory model. While the pilot character of the studies limits their generalisability, the results may be suited to question the validity of some long-held expert beliefs.

  1. Financial "risk-sharing" or refund programs in assisted reproduction: an Ethics Committee opinion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Financial "risk-sharing" fee structures in assisted reproduction programs charge patients a higher initial fee but provide reduced fees for subsequent cycles and often a partial or complete refund if treatment fails. This opinion of the ASRM Ethics Committee analyzes the ethical issues raised by these fee structures, including patient selection criteria, conflicts of interest, success rate transparency, and patient informed consent. This document replaces the document of the same name, last published in 2013 (Fertil Steril 2013;100:334-6). Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. [State school children's opinions regarding violence in the media].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piedrahita S, Laura E

    2009-01-01

    To describe the opinion of schoolage children, from a public school, regarding the violence they perceive in the media. Descriptive-exploratory research with a sample, selected according to the child's age in a public school. Quantitative data were collected. There were found common issues related to the child's opinion about the violence present in the media such as frequent exposure to the media violence and lack of parental supervision. Social context and constant exposure to the media violence affect the children's opinion about the violence phenomenon and their predisposition to it.

  3. Making working in retailing interesting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars; Buck, Nuka; Grunert, Klaus G.

    2010-01-01

    This paper is about how five retail chains in the Danish grocery industry attempt to make low-wage, low-status store-level retail jobs as checkout operators and sales assistants interesting from the perspective of both retailers and employees. Following analysis of the social and institutional...... and make store-level retail jobs interesting to them. Although retailers mainly focus their attention on career seekers, we find that working in retailing is interesting for all employee types because the retailers are currently able to meet their respective motivations and aspirations. Nevertheless, we...

  4. Telepsychiatry in Polish patients' and doctors' opinion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtuszek, Magdalena; Kachnic, Justyna; Krysta, Krzysztof; Wutke, Joanna

    2015-09-01

    Telepsychiatry is a new method of medical care, using modern communication technologies and electronic informations. It consists of web pages, containing data about diseases and their treatment in the form of multimedia libraries with video- and audiobooks. This research concerns verification of knowledge and attitude to telepsychiatry amongst patients and psychiatrists. An anonymous survey was conducted amongst 105 psychiatrists aged 26-74, including 74 women and 31 men and 102 patients aged 21-79, including 61 women and 41 men. Research reveals that majority of patients never met with the concept of 'telepsychiatry' and do not know what it means. However, more than 50% of respondents answered positively to every question considering the utility of telepsychiatry. Furthermore according to 18% it is possible to replace eye-to-eye conversation by videoconferencing. Only 15% of doctors claim to have an extensive knowledge on telepsychiatry, and 10% do not know what it means. The vast majority of physicians perceive positive aspects of this method of medical care, but 63% would not want general insertion of telepsychiatry. Doctors are apprehensive of losing personal data and medical confidentiality, and of the necessity of legal changes as well. The obtained results allow us to conclude that Polish patients and doctors, regardless of their knowledge, age, gender or disease, perceive advantages of telepsychiatry. In connection with this, implementing this method into the Polish medical market makes sense and is in accordance with both patients' and doctors' opinion. Based on our research, we confirmed that there is a necessity of wider popularization of telepsychiatry in Polish therapeutics.

  5. Medical faculty opinions of peer tutoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudland, Joy R; Rennie, Sarah C

    2014-01-01

    Peer tutoring is a well-researched and established method of learning defined as 'a medical student facilitating the learning of another medical student'. While it has been adopted in many medical schools, other schools may be reluctant to embrace this approach. The attitude of the teaching staff, responsible for organizing and or teaching students in an undergraduate medical course to formal peer teaching will affect how it is introduced and operationalized. This study elicits faculty opinions on how best to introduce peer tutoring for medical students. Structured telephone interviews were recorded, transcribed and analyzed using thematic analysis. The interviews were with medically qualified staff responsible for organizing or teaching undergraduate medical students at a New Zealand medical school. Six questions were posed regarding perceived advantages and disadvantages of peer tutoring and how the school and staff could support a peer-tutoring scheme if one was introduced. Staff generally supported the peer tutoring concept, offering a safe environment for learning with its teachers being so close in career stage to the learners. They also say disadvantages when the student-teachers imparted wrong information and when schools used peer tutoring to justify a reduction in teaching staff. Subjects felt that faculty would be more accepting of peer tutoring if efforts were made to build staff 'buy in' and empowerment, train peer tutors and introduce a solid evaluation process. Staff of our school expressed some concerns about peer tutoring that are not supported in the literature, signaling a need for better communication about the benefits and disadvantages of peer tutoring.

  6. Violence on television. Unpleasant, interesting or morbid?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Fernández Villanueva

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Many research studies have contributed to the study of the effects of violence on TV, but very few of them have paid attention to the reasons why violence arouses interest or rejection among viewers. The objective of this article is to analyse the discourses, arguments and moral criteria used by the audience to justify their interest or disinterest in TV violence. Methods: The study is based on 16 focus groups carried out in Madrid and segmented by sex, age and education level. Results: The study indicates that audience’s attitudes towards representations of violence on TV range from rejection to morbid interest, including intolerance, lack of interest and self-protection. These attitudes vary depending on whether the representations of violence are real or fictional. Conclusions: The results contradict the popular idea that TV audiences are generally attracted to the TV representations of violence and indicate that this “emotional interest” in violence is actually accompanied by an interest in learning about this phenomenon and developing ethical reflections.

  7. Interests diffusion in social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agostino, Gregorio; D'Antonio, Fulvio; De Nicola, Antonio; Tucci, Salvatore

    2015-10-01

    We provide a model for diffusion of interests in Social Networks (SNs). We demonstrate that the topology of the SN plays a crucial role in the dynamics of the individual interests. Understanding cultural phenomena on SNs and exploiting the implicit knowledge about their members is attracting the interest of different research communities both from the academic and the business side. The community of complexity science is devoting significant efforts to define laws, models, and theories, which, based on acquired knowledge, are able to predict future observations (e.g. success of a product). In the mean time, the semantic web community aims at engineering a new generation of advanced services by defining constructs, models and methods, adding a semantic layer to SNs. In this context, a leapfrog is expected to come from a hybrid approach merging the disciplines above. Along this line, this work focuses on the propagation of individual interests in social networks. The proposed framework consists of the following main components: a method to gather information about the members of the social networks; methods to perform some semantic analysis of the Domain of Interest; a procedure to infer members' interests; and an interests evolution theory to predict how the interests propagate in the network. As a result, one achieves an analytic tool to measure individual features, such as members' susceptibilities and authorities. Although the approach applies to any type of social network, here it is has been tested against the computer science research community. The DBLP (Digital Bibliography and Library Project) database has been elected as test-case since it provides the most comprehensive list of scientific production in this field.

  8. Students’ opinions on working in rural practice in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rok Petrovcic

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. All over the world, there is a lack of interest for specialty training in family medicine and for work in rural practice. Objectives . The objective of our study was to survey the opinion of medical students of the Maribor Medical Faculty, Slovenia, about rural medicine. Material and methods . This was a qualitative study. A semi-structured questionnaire with open-ended questions was used. In the period from December 2013 to February 2014, an electronic form was forwarded via e-mail to a stratified sample of 30 students of the Maribor Medical Faculty. Results. 21 students (70% participated. Students stated several conditions that would make them work in rural practice. Their accounts were summarized as organizational (e.g. work hours, number of patients, infrastructural (e.g. equipment, local (e.g. cost of living or personal (e.g. employment opportunities for their partner. Students associate rural practice with hard work, where physicians have to rely on their own abilities. Students see rural doctors as versatile personalities, knowledgeable, resourceful, optimistic, hard working and smart, but also as unambitious and elderly. Students connect rural practice with greater responsibility, diverse pathology, less availability of equipment and with less support for diagnostics. 15 (71% of the surveyed students want more emphasis placed on rural medicine in the undergraduate curriculum and electives. The reasons for accepting a rural scholarship would generally depend on the location for which it was offered and if it was tendered for the desired specialist training. Conclusions . Students should be presented with opportunities for personal and professional development in rural areas during undergraduate programs. Rural scholarship programs need to be strengthened.

  9. Perception of risks by opinion leaders 2011; 2011 Perception des risques par des leaders d'opinion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    The authors report a survey made just after the Fukushima accident on a panel of opinion leaders (belonging to political, economical or media sector) in order to compare their perception of risks with that of the public. The questions addressed the perception of risks, the role of scientific experts, the usefulness and breaks on the diffusion of expertise results, the perception of pluralist bodies, and the Fukushima accident. The answers are analysed and discussed with respect to fifteen hazardous situations, to their opinion of expertise, and to their opinion on safety audit and information

  10. The opinions of nurses and physicians related to euthanasia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Beder, Alper

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The research was conducted to investigate the opinions of nurses and physicians pertaining to euthanasia who are working at Internal Medicine, Surgery and Intensive Care Unit departments at Baskent...

  11. Opinion on CCTV in slaughterhouses:Farm Animal Welfare Committee

    OpenAIRE

    Butterworth, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    This Opinion assesses the arguments and the evidence for the installation of Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) in approved slaughterhouses as an accompaniment to statutory and other observation procedures undertaken by both the Food Business Operator (FBO) and regulatory agencies.

  12. Discrete opinion dynamics on networks based on social influence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu Haibo; Wang Xiaofan [Complex Networks and Control Lab, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2009-06-05

    A model of opinion dynamics based on social influence on networks was studied. The opinion of each agent can have integer values i = 1, 2, ..., I and opinion exchanges are restricted to connected agents. It was found that for any I {>=} 2 and self-confidence parameter 0 {<=} u < 1, when u is a degree-independent constant, the weighted proportion (q{sub i}) of the population that hold a given opinion i is a martingale, and the fraction q{sub i} of opinion i will gradually converge to (q{sub i}). The tendency can slow down with the increase of degree assortativity of networks. When u is degree dependent, (q{sub i}) does not possess the martingale property, however q{sub i} still converges to it. In both cases for a finite network the states of all agents will finally reach consensus. Further if there exist stubborn persons in the population whose opinions do not change over time, it was found that for degree-independent constant u, both q{sub i} and (q{sub i}) will converge to fixed proportions which only depend on the distribution of initial obstinate persons, and naturally the final equilibrium state will be the coexistence of diverse opinions held by the stubborn people. The analytical results were verified by numerical simulations on Barabasi-Albert (BA) networks. The model highlights the influence of high-degree agents on the final consensus or coexistence state and captures some realistic features of the diffusion of opinions in social networks.

  13. Current opinion in the management in acute otitis media

    OpenAIRE

    Bhattacharyya, Abir K.; Ghodh, Sudip

    1998-01-01

    The management of Acute otitis media has been a subject of controversy. This paper discusses the the current opinion on the subject including a review of recent literature. The use and choice of antibiotics reflects the wide variation in opinion for both first line and second-line therapy. The role of tympanocentesis and prophylactic treatment is discussed. The introduction of vaccines holds new promise on the prevention of Acute otitis media. Factors affecting outcome influence the managemen...

  14. OPINION Is the repo a derivative?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    broker-dealer unwinds the repo deal and pays the pension fund R10 million plus interest at 10% pa for 7 days (R10 000 000 x 0.10 x 7 / 365 = R19 178.08), ie. R10 019 178.08. The broker-dealer then sells the NCD back to the speculator. 8 Above we said that repos are done with existing (i.e. secondary market) securities.

  15. Public authority control strategy for opinion evolution in social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Xiong, Xi; Zhang, Minghong; Li, Wei

    2016-08-01

    This paper addresses the need to deal with and control public opinion and rumors. Existing strategies to control public opinion include degree, random, and adaptive bridge control strategies. In this paper, we use the HK model to present a public opinion control strategy based on public authority (PA). This means utilizing the influence of expert or high authority individuals whose opinions we control to obtain the optimum effect in the shortest time possible and thus reach a consensus of public opinion. Public authority (PA) is only influenced by individuals' attributes (age, economic status, and education level) and not their degree distribution; hence, in this paper, we assume that PA complies with two types of public authority distribution (normal and power-law). According to the proposed control strategy, our experiment is based on random, degree, and public authority control strategies in three different social networks (small-world, scale-free, and random) and we compare and analyze the strategies in terms of convergence time (T), final number of controlled agents (C), and comprehensive efficiency (E). We find that different network topologies and the distribution of the PA in the network can influence the final controlling effect. While the effect of PA strategy differs in different network topology structures, all structures achieve comprehensive efficiency with any kind of public authority distribution in any network. Our findings are consistent with several current sociological phenomena and show that in the process of public opinion/rumor control, considerable attention should be paid to high authority individuals.

  16. Public authority control strategy for opinion evolution in social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Xiong, Xi; Zhang, Minghong; Li, Wei

    2016-08-01

    This paper addresses the need to deal with and control public opinion and rumors. Existing strategies to control public opinion include degree, random, and adaptive bridge control strategies. In this paper, we use the HK model to present a public opinion control strategy based on public authority (PA). This means utilizing the influence of expert or high authority individuals whose opinions we control to obtain the optimum effect in the shortest time possible and thus reach a consensus of public opinion. Public authority (PA) is only influenced by individuals' attributes (age, economic status, and education level) and not their degree distribution; hence, in this paper, we assume that PA complies with two types of public authority distribution (normal and power-law). According to the proposed control strategy, our experiment is based on random, degree, and public authority control strategies in three different social networks (small-world, scale-free, and random) and we compare and analyze the strategies in terms of convergence time (T), final number of controlled agents (C), and comprehensive efficiency (E). We find that different network topologies and the distribution of the PA in the network can influence the final controlling effect. While the effect of PA strategy differs in different network topology structures, all structures achieve comprehensive efficiency with any kind of public authority distribution in any network. Our findings are consistent with several current sociological phenomena and show that in the process of public opinion/rumor control, considerable attention should be paid to high authority individuals.

  17. Interest Traitedness as a Moderator of Interest-Occupation Congruence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracey, Terence J. G.

    2003-01-01

    The Unisex Edition of ACT Interest Inventory and career choice certainty measure were completed by 4,676 12th-graders. Hierarchical regressions were conducted on traitedness, measured by interitem consistency and construct similarity using Holland's personality types. All traitedness indices showed a significant moderating effect on…

  18. The Optimal Interest Rates and the Current Interest Rate System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis N. Kallianiotis

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the current target interest rate, which is closed to zero with the new experiment of quantitative easing since 2009 and has reduced the rate of return and the income and has made the real savings rate negative. This target rate has not reduced unemployment and has not improved growth (it is not optimal, but has increased the debt of individuals and the low taxes on businesses have magnified the budget deficits and the national debt. People were borrowing the present value of their uncertain future wealth and their high debt and low income raise the risk and this high risk premium heighten the interest rate on loans, especially on credit cards. The current monetary system needs to be changed and an interest rate floor on deposits (savings and an interest rate ceiling on individuals‟ loans (borrowings is necessary to improve social welfare, fairness, and justice in our society and not to support only disintermediation (financial markets. The middle class cannot work only to pay taxes and interest on its debt (redistribution of their wealth to government and banks or worse to be in chronic unemployment. Many home owners defaulted on their loans payments and their homes are foreclosed. They will end up without property (real assets. The unconcern towards the middle class will affect negatively the entire socio-economic structure of the nation and after losing its productive power, it will start declining, as history has shown to us with so many empires that do not exist anymore. We hope the leaders (the democratic governments to improve public policies, to regulate the financial market and institutions, and to satisfy their policy ultimate objective, which is citizens‟ perfection and the nation‟s highest point of prosperity.

  19. Federal Debt and Interests Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-05-01

    rowing at lower rates would save $0.6 billion The feedback effect of 5 basis points was arbi- in the first year, growing to $3 billion in 1998 trarily...estimate assumes no feedback effects in 1994 and $0.8 billion smaller in 1998 than on interest rates. Some analysts argue, they would have been with no...bread and butter of the Trea- in Britain (which, like other British govern- sury’s financing. Nominal interest rates are ment bonds, are nicknamed gilts

  20. COMPENDIUM: SURVEYS EVALUATING KNOWLEDGE AND OPINIONS CONCERNING HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL TECHNOLOGIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truett, Lorena Faith [ORNL; Cooper, Christy [U.S. Department of Energy; Schmoyer, Richard L [ORNL

    2008-10-01

    This compendium updates a 2003 literature review of surveys of knowledge and opinions of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies. Its purpose is to ensure that results of comparable surveys are considered in surveys conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Over twice as many studies related to the DOE survey have been published since 2003 than prior to that date. The fact that there have been significantly more studies implies that there have been further demonstration projects and/or increased interest in hydrogen and fuel cell technologies. The primary findings of these 15 new surveys, all of which were conducted in Europe (E) or North America (NA), to the DOE surveys are as follows: 1.Respondents who are more educated are more accepting of hydrogen technologies (NA). 2.Respondents who are more knowledgeable about hydrogen and/or fuel cells are more accepting of hydrogen technologies (E, NA). 3.When asked about issues of trust, respondents generally expressed distrust of the government or political parties but trusted scientists and environmental protection organizations (E). 4.Technical knowledge about hydrogen and fuel cell technologies is low (E, NA). 5.Respondents may express opinions about a technology even when they are lacking in knowledge of that technology (E). 6.Women and men have different priorities when deciding on an automobile purchase (E). 7.Public acceptance to hydrogen is vulnerable to perceptions of decreased safety (E, NA). 8.Public acceptance to hydrogen is vulnerable to perceptions of increased cost (E, NA). The DOE surveys are similar to surveys that examine technical knowledge of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies, although the technical questions are certainly different. The DOE surveys are also similar to the opinion surveys in that they address many of the same issues, such as safety, sources of energy information, or trust. There are many differences between the surveys reviewed in this compendium and the DOE surveys. The

  1. The Survey of Favorite Interests and Activities: Assessing and understanding restricted interests in children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smerbeck, A

    2017-11-01

    Restricted interests are an established diagnostic symptom of autism spectrum disorder. While there is considerable evidence that these interests have maladaptive consequences, they also provide a range of benefits. This article introduces a new instrument, the Survey of Favorite Interests and Activities, and uses it to examine the nature of restricted interests in autism spectrum disorder. Respondents report substantial benefits of restricted interests as well as areas of difficulty. The Survey of Favorite Interests and Activities assesses Social Flexibility, Perseveration, Respondent Discomfort, Adaptive Coping, and Atypicality. All scales have Cronbach's α > 0.70. Age and socioeconomic status have little effect on Survey of Favorite Interests and Activities scales; nor does gender with the exception of interest Atypicality. The expected pattern of correlations with existing scales was found. Research and clinical implications are discussed.

  2. Using Twitter to investigate opinions about multiple sclerosis treatments: a descriptive, exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramagopalan, Sreeram; Wasiak, Radek; Cox, Andrew P

    2014-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a common complex disorder, with new treatment options emerging each year. Social media is being increasingly used to investigate opinions about drugs, diseases and procedures. In this descriptive exploratory study, we sought to investigate opinions about currently available MS treatments. The Twitter resource Topsy was searched for tweets mentioning the following MS treatments: Aubagio, Avonex, Betaferon or Betaseron, Copaxone, Extavia, Gilenya, Lemtrada, Novantrone, Rebif, Tysabri and Tecfidera between 1 Jan 2006 to 31 Jul 2014. Tweets were normalised and sentiment analysis performed. In total, there were 60037 unique tweets mentioning an MS treatment. About half of the tweets contained non-neutral sentiment. Mean sentiment scores were different for treatments ranging from -0.191to 0.282 when investigating all tweets. These differences in sentiment scores between treatments were statistically significant (PSentiment scores tended to be higher for oral MS treatments than injectable treatments. Many tweets about MS treatments have a non-neutral sentiment. The analysis of social media appears to be a potential avenue for exploring patient opinion about MS treatments.

  3. Children's and parents' opinions on the sport-related food environment: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M; Signal, L; Edwards, R; Hoek, J

    2017-09-01

    Sport is a key setting for interventions to address child obesity given its obesogenic nature. Understanding children's and parents' opinions on the sport-related food environment is critical in developing effective programmes and policies to improve children's health. This systematic review synthesizes quantitative and qualitative research examining children's and parents' opinions on the sport-related food environment. During July 2016, a range of electronic databases of academic and grey literature were searched. Thirty-two publications (11 including children, 17 parents and 4 both) were included for review. The publications were assessed using the Analysis Grid for Environments Linked to Obesity framework to categorize the sport-related food environment into the physical, sociocultural, economic and political environments. The literature available investigating children's and parents' opinions of the sport-related food environment suggests that many children and parents consider the environment neither conducive to nor supportive of children's healthy food behaviours or wider health and well-being. Both groups would likely support actions to change and improve it. This systematic review found that original research specifically investigating children's and parents' perspectives on almost all aspects of the sport-related food environment is limited. Thus, there is scope for further investigation into this important part of children's food environments. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  4. Report to Congress on Sustainable Ranges, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Air Facility Quantico in FY2008. RAICUZ studies at Townsend Range, Chocolate Mountain Aerial Gunnery Range, and Barry M Goldwater Range-West are on...representatives from Arizona, California, Nevada, New Mexico and Utah and other interested stakeholders. Part of the working group’s tactical

  5. Organizational Change and Vested Interest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendrikse, G.W.J.

    1996-01-01

    The nature of organizational change and the value of headquarters is derived from a model with costs of delay, vested interests and costs of organizational change.The value of headquarters is derived from imposed organizational change. It is viewed as an institution which is able to prevent surplus

  6. Forecasting Interest Rates and Inflation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chun, Albert Lee

    the best overall for short horizon forecasts of short to medium term yields and inflation. Econometric models with shrinkage perform the best over longer horizons and maturities. Aggregating over a larger set of analysts improves inflation surveys while generally degrading interest rates surveys. We...

  7. CENTRE OF THE MAIN INTERESTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIANA DELEANU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The centre of the main interests of the debtor is a legal tool meant to settle conflicts that can arise between jurisdictions in cross-border insolvencies, based on the principles of mutual recognition and co-operation.

  8. Preventing Trustee Conflicts of Interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harpool, David

    1998-01-01

    The potential for conflict of interest in college and university trustees is high. A 1974 court decision (Stern vs. Sibley Memorial Hospital) established guidelines for trustees of nonprofit organizations, and a survey of 566 colleges and universities reveals how institutions are managing such conflicts through policy statements and…

  9. VOCATIONAL INTEREST, COUNSELLING, SOCIO- ECONOMIC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elizabeth

    contribute towards national development. Moreover, the concept of age is attracting more attention from educational psychologists. The girl child is expected to show some level of readiness, and interest in pursuing a vocation with increasing age. Super (1957) reported that reality factors play an increasingly important role ...

  10. Speculation, Hedging, and Interest Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buraschi, Andrea; Whelan, Paul

    of Treasury bond markets that the singleagent paradigm finds difficult to reconcile. Empirically, we test predictions from themodel using a large dataset on beliefs about fundamentals and find that: (i) shocksto disagreement lower short term interest rates; (ii) raise the slope of the yield curve;and (iii...

  11. Understanding public opinion in debates over biomedical research: looking beyond political partisanship to focus on beliefs about science and society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisbet, Matthew; Markowitz, Ezra M

    2014-01-01

    As social scientists have investigated the political and social factors influencing public opinion in science-related policy debates, there has been growing interest in the implications of this research for public communication and outreach. Given the level of political polarization in the United States, much of the focus has been on partisan differences in public opinion, the strategies employed by political leaders and advocates that promote those differences, and the counter-strategies for overcoming them. Yet this focus on partisan differences tends to overlook the processes by which core beliefs about science and society impact public opinion and how these schema are often activated by specific frames of reference embedded in media coverage and popular discourse. In this study, analyzing cross-sectional, nationally representative survey data collected between 2002 and 2010, we investigate the relative influence of political partisanship and science-related schema on Americans' support for embryonic stem cell research. In comparison to the influence of partisan identity, our findings suggest that generalized beliefs about science and society were more chronically accessible, less volatile in relation to media attention and focusing events, and an overall stronger influence on public opinion. Classifying respondents into four unique audience groups based on their beliefs about science and society, we additionally find that individuals within each of these groups split relatively evenly by partisanship but differ on other important dimensions. The implications for public engagement and future research on controversies related to biomedical science are discussed.

  12. ROLE, INTERESTS AND CRITICS OF CREDIT RATING AGENCIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Baresa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Key role of credit rating agencies is reducing the asymmetry information about credit quality (of governments, business entities or securities between issuers and investors, and ensuring a common standard of measuring the creditworthiness. Credit rating agencies are engaged in the sale of opinions about creditworthiness in the form of an alphabetical letter or symbol, which represents a unique ranking. Their opinion is not a guarantee, but it largely dictates the costs and the profits in the financial markets. This work shows the influence of credit rating agencies to investors and publishers, and their role as market regulators. Conflict of interest is a fundamental problem, which is caused by their way of doing business, it arises from their two main objectives: profit and market regulation, which will be explored in the work. Looking back in history credit rating agencies often selected goal of making a profit at the cost of market regulation, therefore they have caused the collapse of the market, and founded themselves criticized by the public.

  13. Are public opinion polls self-fulfilling prophecies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Rothschild

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Psychologists have long observed that people conform to majority opinion, a phenomenon sometimes referred to as the ‘bandwagon effect’. In the political domain people learn about prevailing public opinion via ubiquitous polls, which may produce a bandwagon effect. Newer types of information – published probabilities derived from prediction market contract prices and aggregated polling summaries – may have similar effects. Consequently, polls can become self-fulfilling prophecies whereby majorities, whether in support of candidates or policies, grow in a cascading manner. Despite increased attention to whether the measurement of public opinion can itself affect public opinion, the existing empirical literature is surprisingly limited on the bandwagon effects of polls. To address this gap, we conducted an experiment on a diverse national sample in which we randomly assigned people to receive information about different levels of support for three public policies. We find that public opinion as expressed through polls affects individual-level attitudes, although the size of the effect depends on issue characteristics.

  14. The Distribution of Climate Change Public Opinion in Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matto Mildenberger

    Full Text Available While climate scientists have developed high resolution data sets on the distribution of climate risks, we still lack comparable data on the local distribution of public climate change opinions. This paper provides the first effort to estimate local climate and energy opinion variability outside the United States. Using a multi-level regression and post-stratification (MRP approach, we estimate opinion in federal electoral districts and provinces. We demonstrate that a majority of the Canadian public consistently believes that climate change is happening. Belief in climate change's causes varies geographically, with more people attributing it to human activity in urban as opposed to rural areas. Most prominently, we find majority support for carbon cap and trade policy in every province and district. By contrast, support for carbon taxation is more heterogeneous. Compared to the distribution of US climate opinions, Canadians believe climate change is happening at higher levels. This new opinion data set will support climate policy analysis and climate policy decision making at national, provincial and local levels.

  15. Differing professional views or opinions: 1994 Special Review Panel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    In July 1994, the Executive Director for Operations of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) appointed a Special Review Panel to assess the Differing Professional View or Opinion (DPV/DPO) process, including its effectiveness, how well it is understood by employees, and the organizational climate for having such views aired and properly decided. An additional area within this review was to address the effectiveness of the DPO procedures as they pertain to public access and confidentiality. Further, the Panel was charged with the review of the submittals completed since the last review to identify employees who made significant contributions to the agency or to the public health and safety but had not been adequately recognized for this contribution. The report presents the Special Review Panel`s evaluation of the NRC`s current process for dealing with Differing Professional Views or Opinions. Provided in this report are the results of an employee opinion survey on the process; highlights and suggestions from interviews with individuals who had submitted a Differing Professional View or Opinion, as well as with agency managers directly involved with the Differing Professional Views or Opinions process; and the Special Review Panel`s recommendations for improving the DPV/DPO process.

  16. Opinion leaders and evidence-based medicine in craniofacial surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doumit, Gaby D; Papay, Frank A; Moores, Neal; Meisler, Eileen; Zins, James E

    2014-01-01

    In health care, it is widely known that evidence-based medicine (EBM) has a significant impact on clinical practice, and opinion leaders can enhance the clinician's application of EBM in various disciplines. In this article, we examine the existence and impact of opinion leaders in craniofacial surgery as well as barriers to evidence-based practice. We compiled the answers of an Internet questionnaire, which was sent to 102 craniofacial surgeons. Our results demonstrate that opinion leaders most definitely can be identified in craniofacial surgery. They are tightly connected to their field's social network and promote EBM. In this survey, 44% of craniofacial surgeons reported that their greatest obstacle to clinical decision making in the management of nonsyndromic synostosis was lack of surgical consensus. In addition, craniofacial surgeons stated that EBM and opinion leaders are the most influential factors that caused them to change their management of craniosynostosis. We expect that the use of opinion leaders can further enhance the uptake of EBM in craniofacial surgery.

  17. Interests versus morality in politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radojčić Mirjana S.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this individual project the relationship between interests and moral in politics will be considered, taking into consideration the disintegration of former Yugoslavia and the processes of globalization. The starting thesis of the research is that the main actors of global politics are still guided by the modern principles of real-politics with interests as its basic category and power as its supreme value. In that context the main elements of external politics of USA as the key actor of the processes will be specially considered. In the concluding part of the research author will be argue in favor of the affirmation of a new model of global politics, matching the character and scope of the problems faced by humanity at the turn of the century and the millenium.

  18. Informational pathologies and interest bubbles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendricks, Vincent Fella; Wiewiura, Joachim Schmidt

    2017-01-01

    This article contends that certain configurations of information networks facilitate specific cognitive states that are instrumental for decision and action on social media. Group-related knowledge and belief states—in particular common knowledge and pluralistic ignorance—may enable strong public...... signals. Indeed, some network configurations and attitude states foster informational pathologies that may fuel interest bubbles affecting agenda-setting and the generation of narratives in public spheres....

  19. One Nation...Indivisible? Ethnic Interest Groups and U.S. Foreign Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-04-01

    group’s efforts is the decision-maker possessing the power to influence events. Jürgen Habermas described the differences in public and quasi-public...Huntington, "The Erosion of American National Interests," Foreign Affairs, 76, no. 5 (September/October 1997): 40. 4 Jürgen Habermas , "On the...Concept of Public Opinion," in The Habermas Reader, ed. William Outhwaite (Oxford, U.K.: Blackwell Publishers Ltd, 1996), 37. 26 Chapter 6 Conclusion Will a

  20. Request Twin Screw Extruder to Enhance DoD Interested Polymer Nanocomposite Research and STEM Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-25

    Nanocomposite Research and STEM Program The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of the author(s) and should not contrued as an...Request Twin Screw Extruder to Enhance DoD Interested Polymer Nanocomposite Research and STEM Program Report Title In comparison to our existing melt...twin screw extruders will significantly enhance the polymer nanocomposite research such as anti-scratch coating, high k materials and tissue

  1. 27 CFR 70.93 - Interest rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Interest rate. 70.93... Excise and Special (Occupational) Tax Interest § 70.93 Interest rate. (a) In general. The interest rate... annual percentage rate of interest will exceed the prescribed rate of interest. (b) Applicability of...

  2. Opinion Formation and the Collective Dynamics of Risk Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussaïd, Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    The formation of collective opinion is a complex phenomenon that results from the combined effects of mass media exposure and social influence between individuals. The present work introduces a model of opinion formation specifically designed to address risk judgments, such as attitudes towards climate change, terrorist threats, or children vaccination. The model assumes that people collect risk information from the media environment and exchange them locally with other individuals. Even though individuals are initially exposed to the same sample of information, the model predicts the emergence of opinion polarization and clustering. In particular, numerical simulations highlight two crucial factors that determine the collective outcome: the propensity of individuals to search for independent information, and the strength of social influence. This work provides a quantitative framework to anticipate and manage how the public responds to a given risk, and could help understanding the systemic amplification of fears and worries, or the underestimation of real dangers. PMID:24386398

  3. Opinion Formation and the Collective Dynamics of Risk Perception

    CERN Document Server

    Moussaid, Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    The formation of collective opinion is a complex phenomenon that results from the combined effects of mass media exposure and social influence between individuals. The present work introduces a model of opinion formation specifically designed to address risk judgments, such as attitudes towards climate change, terrorist threats, or children vaccination. The model assumes that people collect risk information from the media environment and exchange them locally with other individuals. Even though individuals are initially exposed to the same sample of information, the model predicts the emergence of opinion polarization and clustering. In particular, numerical simulations highlight two crucial factors that determine the collective outcome: the propensity of individuals to search for independent information, and the strength of social influence. This work provides a quantitative framework to anticipate and manage how the public responds to a given risk, and could help understanding the systemic amplification of ...

  4. Moral opinion polarization and the erosion of trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, Carolin

    2016-07-01

    Since Puntam's seminal work on declining levels of social capital, the question of how social trust is formed has reached unprecedented heights of critical enquiry. While most of the current research concentrates on ethnic diversity and income inequality as the main influences driving down generalized trust, we focus on opinion polarization as another potential impact factor on trust. In more detail, we investigate the extent to which polarization over morally charged issues such as homsexuality, abortion and euthanasia affects individuals' likelihood to trust others. We hypothesize that moral issues have a natural tendency to divide societies' opinions into opposing poles and, thus, to challenge social cohesion in modern civil societies. Based on hierarchical analyses of the fifth wave of the World Values Survey (WVS) - comprising a sample of 39 countries - our results reveal that individuals living in countries characterized by more opinion polarization tend to have less trust in other people. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. OPEN PRIMARY EDUCATION SCHOOL STUDENTS’ OPINIONS ABOUT MATHEMATICS TELEVISION PROGRAMMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kursat YENILMEZ

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine open primary education school students’ opinions about mathematics television programmes. This study indicated that to determine differences among open primary education school students’ opinions about mathematics television programmes point of view students’ characteristics like gender, age, grade, frequency of watching mathematics television programmes and living place. The sample consists of 99 students which were selected randomly from open primary school students in Eskisehir in 2005-2006 education years. Data were collected by a questionnaire which consists of 15 items and a demographical information form. Frequency tables, t-test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA were employed to analyze data. According to the results of the study, open primary education school students have some negative opinions about language, terms, suitability for learning levels, expression speed, number of repeating broadcast and summaries of mathematics television programmes.

  6. An opinion-driven behavioral dynamics model for addictive behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Thomas W.; Finley, Patrick D.; Apelberg, Benjamin J.; Ambrose, Bridget K.; Brodsky, Nancy S.; Brown, Theresa J.; Husten, Corinne; Glass, Robert J.

    2015-04-01

    We present a model of behavioral dynamics that combines a social network-based opinion dynamics model with behavioral mapping. The behavioral component is discrete and history-dependent to represent situations in which an individual's behavior is initially driven by opinion and later constrained by physiological or psychological conditions that serve to maintain the behavior. Individuals are modeled as nodes in a social network connected by directed edges. Parameter sweeps illustrate model behavior and the effects of individual parameters and parameter interactions on model results. Mapping a continuous opinion variable into a discrete behavioral space induces clustering on directed networks. Clusters provide targets of opportunity for influencing the network state; however, the smaller the network the greater the stochasticity and potential variability in outcomes. This has implications both for behaviors that are influenced by close relationships verses those influenced by societal norms and for the effectiveness of strategies for influencing those behaviors.

  7. Mexican Public Opinion in the aftermath of the 2006 Elections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Moreno

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, I analyze public opinion about the 2006 Mexican presidential election in the context of the post–election conflict. My goal is to determine which individual–level variables influenced opinions about the post–election conflict. The analysis focuses on individual positions about the election fairness, confidence in the electoral Tribunal, claims for a full recount, and the public's stands on street protests and mobilization, among others. I use the Mexican component of the Comparative National Election Project (CNEP, conducted for the first time in Mexico in 2006 as a two–wave, preelection and postelection, panel design. The results highlight the importance of political predispositions in the analysis of public opinion in Mexico.

  8. Advertising and Irreversible Opinion Spreading in Complex Social Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candia, Julián

    Irreversible opinion spreading phenomena are studied on small-world and scale-free networks by means of the magnetic Eden model, a nonequilibrium kinetic model for the growth of binary mixtures in contact with a thermal bath. In this model, the opinion of an individual is affected by those of their acquaintances, but opinion changes (analogous to spin flips in an Ising-like model) are not allowed. We focus on the influence of advertising, which is represented by external magnetic fields. The interplay and competition between temperature and fields lead to order-disorder transitions, which are found to also depend on the link density and the topology of the complex network substrate. The effects of advertising campaigns with variable duration, as well as the best cost-effective strategies to achieve consensus within different scenarios, are also discussed.

  9. Opinion formation and the collective dynamics of risk perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussaïd, Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    The formation of collective opinion is a complex phenomenon that results from the combined effects of mass media exposure and social influence between individuals. The present work introduces a model of opinion formation specifically designed to address risk judgments, such as attitudes towards climate change, terrorist threats, or children vaccination. The model assumes that people collect risk information from the media environment and exchange them locally with other individuals. Even though individuals are initially exposed to the same sample of information, the model predicts the emergence of opinion polarization and clustering. In particular, numerical simulations highlight two crucial factors that determine the collective outcome: the propensity of individuals to search for independent information, and the strength of social influence. This work provides a quantitative framework to anticipate and manage how the public responds to a given risk, and could help understanding the systemic amplification of fears and worries, or the underestimation of real dangers.

  10. Opinion formation and the collective dynamics of risk perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Moussaïd

    Full Text Available The formation of collective opinion is a complex phenomenon that results from the combined effects of mass media exposure and social influence between individuals. The present work introduces a model of opinion formation specifically designed to address risk judgments, such as attitudes towards climate change, terrorist threats, or children vaccination. The model assumes that people collect risk information from the media environment and exchange them locally with other individuals. Even though individuals are initially exposed to the same sample of information, the model predicts the emergence of opinion polarization and clustering. In particular, numerical simulations highlight two crucial factors that determine the collective outcome: the propensity of individuals to search for independent information, and the strength of social influence. This work provides a quantitative framework to anticipate and manage how the public responds to a given risk, and could help understanding the systemic amplification of fears and worries, or the underestimation of real dangers.

  11. Discovering opinion leaders for medical topics using news articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonnalagadda, Siddhartha; Peeler, Ryan; Topham, Philip

    2012-03-15

    Rapid identification of subject experts for medical topics helps in improving the implementation of discoveries by speeding the time to market drugs and aiding in clinical trial recruitment, etc. Identifying such people who influence opinion through social network analysis is gaining prominence. In this work, we explore how to combine named entity recognition from unstructured news articles with social network analysis to discover opinion leaders for a given medical topic. We employed a Conditional Random Field algorithm to extract three categories of entities from health-related new articles: Person, Organization and Location. We used the latter two to disambiguate polysemy and synonymy for the person names, used simple rules to identify the subject experts, and then applied social network analysis techniques to discover the opinion leaders among them based on their media presence. A network was created by linking each pair of subject experts who are mentioned together in an article. The social network analysis metrics (including centrality metrics such as Betweenness, Closeness, Degree and Eigenvector) are used for ranking the subject experts based on their power in information flow. We extracted 734,204 person mentions from 147,528 news articles related to obesity from January 1, 2007 through July 22, 2010. Of these, 147,879 mentions have been marked as subject experts. The F-score of extracting person names is 88.5%. More than 80% of the subject experts who rank among top 20 in at least one of the metrics could be considered as opinion leaders in obesity. The analysis of the network of subject experts with media presence revealed that an opinion leader might have fewer mentions in the news articles, but a high network centrality measure and vice-versa. Betweenness, Closeness and Degree centrality measures were shown to supplement frequency counts in the task of finding subject experts. Further, opinion leaders missed in scientific publication network analysis

  12. Discovering opinion leaders for medical topics using news articles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonnalagadda Siddhartha

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rapid identification of subject experts for medical topics helps in improving the implementation of discoveries by speeding the time to market drugs and aiding in clinical trial recruitment, etc. Identifying such people who influence opinion through social network analysis is gaining prominence. In this work, we explore how to combine named entity recognition from unstructured news articles with social network analysis to discover opinion leaders for a given medical topic. Methods We employed a Conditional Random Field algorithm to extract three categories of entities from health-related new articles: Person, Organization and Location. We used the latter two to disambiguate polysemy and synonymy for the person names, used simple rules to identify the subject experts, and then applied social network analysis techniques to discover the opinion leaders among them based on their media presence. A network was created by linking each pair of subject experts who are mentioned together in an article. The social network analysis metrics (including centrality metrics such as Betweenness, Closeness, Degree and Eigenvector are used for ranking the subject experts based on their power in information flow. Results We extracted 734,204 person mentions from 147,528 news articles related to obesity from January 1, 2007 through July 22, 2010. Of these, 147,879 mentions have been marked as subject experts. The F-score of extracting person names is 88.5%. More than 80% of the subject experts who rank among top 20 in at least one of the metrics could be considered as opinion leaders in obesity. Conclusion The analysis of the network of subject experts with media presence revealed that an opinion leader might have fewer mentions in the news articles, but a high network centrality measure and vice-versa. Betweenness, Closeness and Degree centrality measures were shown to supplement frequency counts in the task of finding subject experts. Further

  13. Opinion and generic question answering systems: a performance analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Balahur Dobrescu, Alexandra; Boldrini, Ester; Montoyo Guijarro, Andrés; Martínez Barco, Patricio

    2009-01-01

    The importance of the new textual genres such as blogs or forum entries is growing in parallel with the evolution of the Social Web. This paper presents two corpora of blog posts in English and in Spanish, annotated according to the EmotiBlog annotation scheme. Furthermore, we created 20 factual and opinionated questions for each language and also the Gold Standard for their answers in the corpus. The purpose of our work is to study the challenges involved in a mixed fact and opinion question...

  14. Descriptive Opinion “Boja Have Skate” Community in Boja

    OpenAIRE

    Kinasih, Octy Ayu

    2016-01-01

    “Boja Have Skate” is a skateboard community in Boja. Boja is a district in Semarang. The discussion of this thesis is about member's opinion about “Boja Have Skate” community in Boja. Boja teenagers have experienced the new culture process through skateboard. This research purposes to know about the opinion of “Boja Have Skate” community. Ten members of “Boja Have Skate” are taken as the respondents. The analyze and research use theory of social community and the use of cultural product....

  15. Stochastic population forecasts based on conditional expert opinions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billari, F C; Graziani, R; Melilli, E

    2012-04-01

    The paper develops and applies an expert-based stochastic population forecasting method, which can also be used to obtain a probabilistic version of scenario-based official forecasts. The full probability distribution of population forecasts is specified by starting from expert opinions on the future development of demographic components. Expert opinions are elicited as conditional on the realization of scenarios, in a two-step (or multiple-step) fashion. The method is applied to develop a stochastic forecast for the Italian population, starting from official scenarios from the Italian National Statistical Office.

  16. How the Opinion of Others Affects our Valuation of Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell-Meiklejohn, Daniel; Bach, DR; Roepstorff, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    The opinions of others can easily affect how much we value things. We investigated what happens in our brain when we agree with others about the value of an object and whether or not there is evidence, at the neural level, for social con- formity through which we change object valuation. Using...... functional magnetic resonance imaging we independently modeled (1) learning reviewer opinions about a piece of music, (2) reward value while receiving a token for that music, and (3) their interaction in 28 healthy adults. We show that agreement with two ‘‘expert’’ reviewers on music choice produces activity...

  17. Fractures and alcohol abuse - patient opinion of alcohol intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bolette; Alva-Jørgensen, Peter; Raffing, Rie

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: To clarify patient opinions about alcohol intervention in relation to surgery before investigating the effect in a Scandinavian multi-centre randomized trial. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A qualitative study. Thirteen consecutive alcohol patients with fractures participated after informed consent...... intervention in relation to surgery as a good idea. They did not consider quit drinking as a major problem during their hospital stay and had all remained abstinent in this period. About half of the patients were ready or partly ready to participate in an alcohol intervention. Patient opinions...

  18. Designated-driver programs: college students' experiences and opinions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glascoff, M A; Knight, S M; Jenkins, L K

    1994-09-01

    We investigated the experiences and opinions of college students regarding the use of designated drivers. Although using designated drivers appeared to be common, results indicated that in many instances the designated driver did not abstain from drinking alcoholic beverages. The opinions of the participants indicated that the nondrivers in a drinking group may in fact drink more when there is a designated driver. Our findings lead us to question the overall value of currently practiced designated-driver programs for college student drinkers. Developing programs on how to be a designated driver are among our recommendations.

  19. Applying Supervised Opinion Mining Techniques on Online User Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion SMEUREANU

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the spectacular development of web technologies, lead to an enormous quantity of user generated information in online systems. This large amount of information on web platforms make them viable for use as data sources, in applications based on opinion mining and sentiment analysis. The paper proposes an algorithm for detecting sentiments on movie user reviews, based on naive Bayes classifier. We make an analysis of the opinion mining domain, techniques used in sentiment analysis and its applicability. We implemented the proposed algorithm and we tested its performance, and suggested directions of development.

  20. Special Interests and the Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Jesse M.

    2017-01-01

    A journalist reports to a voter on an unknown, policy-relevant state. Competing special interests can make claims that contradict the facts but seem credible to the voter. A reputational incentive to avoid taking sides leads the journalist to report special interests’ claims to the voter. In equilibrium, the voter can remain uninformed even when the journalist is perfectly informed. Communication is improved if the journalist discloses her partisan leanings. The model provides an account of persistent public ignorance on climate change that is consistent with narrative and quantitative evidence. PMID:28725092

  1. «Soft Power» as a Form of Indirect Application of «National Interest»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Yu Filimonov

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The article provides the information on American «soft power» that promotes U.S. national interests worldwide. There is an analysis of the evolution of «national interest» and new forms of U.S. influence on the world order. According to the authors' opinion, the importance of «soft power» issues in foreign policy strategies of the countries will be growing further due to overwhelming interdependence.

  2. IN MY OPINION: Bricks, buildings and brickbats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Ken

    1999-09-01

    You find that you want to erect a building. Presumably you know why - somewhere to live, somewhere to park a car, a kitchen extension, a shop, a gymnasium - a cathedral even. You explain your needs to an expert - an architect, someone who knows how to convert a (more or less) clearly defined aim into a workable plan. The architect consults with a builder, and together they estimate how many bricks, windows, pieces of wood, wires etc, etc they need to make the plan a reality. They should also give you a reasonably accurate estimate of the cost of the building. At least this is what happened when I had to get a new garage and wanted to extend a kitchen. It was all done professionally and both sides were satisfied. During the summer of 1999 interested parties are looking closely at the government's proposals for the next version of the National Curriculum. New National Curriculums appear much more often than I can afford to alter or extend my kitchen, and there seems to be a major difference in the way an educational system is constructed compared to the way a new building is built. If kitchen extensions were built using the educational method, the user (or customer, as I sometimes like to think of the teacher-pupil symbiosis) would find piles of bricks, window frames, wires and pieces of wood carefully dumped on the front garden. There would also be a rather brief set of instructions, plus some fairly rigid building regulations. We would then be asked to comment on this, and maybe a few extra bricks would be delivered or some taken away. As a nation of Do-it-Yourselfers we would of course cope. My experience of working with a team trying (with some success) to construct a coherent structure of learning based on the National Curriculum at Key Stage 4 was instructive and character-building. Some vital pieces seemed to be missing (but we couldn't put them in because that would have overloaded the content). Some bits couldn't be fitted in anywhere, so we relied on a

  3. Correlation between centrality metrics and their application to the opinion model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cong; Li, Qian; Van Mieghem, Piet; Stanley, H. Eugene; Wang, Huijuan

    2015-03-01

    In recent decades, a number of centrality metrics describing network properties of nodes have been proposed to rank the importance of nodes. In order to understand the correlations between centrality metrics and to approximate a high-complexity centrality metric by a strongly correlated low-complexity metric, we first study the correlation between centrality metrics in terms of their Pearson correlation coefficient and their similarity in ranking of nodes. In addition to considering the widely used centrality metrics, we introduce a new centrality measure, the degree mass. The mth-order degree mass of a node is the sum of the weighted degree of the node and its neighbors no further than m hops away. We find that the betweenness, the closeness, and the components of the principal eigenvector of the adjacency matrix are strongly correlated with the degree, the 1st-order degree mass and the 2nd-order degree mass, respectively, in both network models and real-world networks. We then theoretically prove that the Pearson correlation coefficient between the principal eigenvector and the 2nd-order degree mass is larger than that between the principal eigenvector and a lower order degree mass. Finally, we investigate the effect of the inflexible contrarians selected based on different centrality metrics in helping one opinion to compete with another in the inflexible contrarian opinion (ICO) model. Interestingly, we find that selecting the inflexible contrarians based on the leverage, the betweenness, or the degree is more effective in opinion-competition than using other centrality metrics in all types of networks. This observation is supported by our previous observations, i.e., that there is a strong linear correlation between the degree and the betweenness, as well as a high centrality similarity between the leverage and the degree.

  4. Current opinion: What is a nanoplastic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigault, Julien; Halle, Alexandra Ter; Baudrimont, Magalie; Pascal, Pierre-Yves; Gauffre, Fabienne; Phi, Thuy-Linh; El Hadri, Hind; Grassl, Bruno; Reynaud, Stéphanie

    2018-01-19

    With the large amount of attention being given to microplastics in the environment, several researchers have begun to consider the fragmentation of plastics down to lower scales (i.e., the sub-micrometer scale). The term "nanoplastics" is still under debate, and different studies have set the upper size limit at either 1000 nm or 100 nm. The aim of the present work is to propose a definition of nanoplastics, based on our recently published and unpublished research definition of nanoplastics. We define nanoplastics as particles unintentionally produced (i.e. from the degradation and the manufacturing of the plastic objects) and presenting a colloidal behavior, within the size range from 1 to 1000 nm. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Range management visual impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce R. Brown; David Kissel

    1979-01-01

    Historical overgrazing of western public rangelands has resulted in the passage of the Public Rangeland Improvement Act of 1978. The main purpose of this Act is to improve unsatisfactory range conditions. A contributing factor to unfavorable range conditions is adverse visual impacts. These visual impacts can be identified in three categories of range management: range...

  6. Can a 3-day preceptorship change first-year medical students' opinions about living and working in small towns?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, D C; Willis, S E

    2000-01-01

    Research of medical school initiatives that attempt to orient medical students toward rural medicine may facilitate development of initiatives to alleviate physician maldistribution. This study investigated the effect of a 3-day family medicine preceptorship in a small town on first-year medical students' opinions about a) living and working in small towns and b) plans to live in and practice medicine in small towns. Student feedback about the preceptorship was also examined. Questionnaires were administered to 137 first-year medical students using a separate sample pretest-posttest design. Student feedback indicated that the preceptorship was a valuable learning experience, but the preceptorship did not appear to influence students' opinions about or interest in living in and working in small towns or rural areas. Brief exposure to rural medicine early in the curriculum appears to have little effect on variables that might precede practice location decisions.

  7. Method for Atypical Opinion Extraction from Ungrammatical Answers in Open-ended Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiramatsu, Ayako; Tamura, Shingo; Oiso, Hiroaki; Komoda, Norihisa

    This paper presents a method for atypical opinion extraction from ungrammatical answers to open-ended questions supplied through cellular phones. The proposed system excludes typical opinions and extracts only atypical opinions. To cope with incomplete syntax of texts due to the input by cellular phones, the system treats the opinions as the sets of keywords. The combinations of words are established beforehand in a typical word database. Based on the ratio of typical word combinations in sentences of an opinion, the system classifies the opinion typical or atypical. When typical word combinations are sought in an opinion, the system considers the word order and the distance of difference between the positions of words to exclude unnecessary combinations. Furthermore, when an opinion includes meanings the system divides the opinion into phrases at each typical word combination. By applying questionnaire data supplied by users of a mobile game content when they cancel their account, the extraction accuracy of the proposed system was confirmed.

  8. [First results of a German second opinion program show high patient satisfaction and large discrepancies between initial therapy recommendations and second opinion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyerstraß, Jan; Prediger, Barbara; Neugebauer, Edmund; Pieper, Dawid

    2018-02-23

    Although legally anchored, there are no empirical results from German second opinion programs. In this study, various aspects within a population of a second opinion program are examined. In this study patients were analyzed who sought a second opinion in the period from August 2011 to December 2016. Differences in patient characteristics, differentiated by agreement of first and second opinion, were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression. Patients' satisfaction and quality of life were examined one, three and six months after obtaining the second opinion. In total, 1,414 patients sought a second opinion. Most frequent medical indications were the knee (38.7 %), the back (26.8 %), the hip (11.7 %), and the shoulder (10.2 %). Except for the indication (p=0.035), no patient characteristic had influence on the conformation of the second opinion. Approximately two out of three initial recommendations were not confirmed by the specialists. 89 % of the patients were satisfied or very satisfied with the second opinion and the service offered. The second opinion offers patients the opportunity to seek an additional independent medical opinion and thus provide support for decision making. Further research is needed to examine the reasons for the high discrepancies between the first and second opinions. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  9. IN MY OPINION: The how of physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibble, Bob

    2000-03-01

    't apply to your teaching. You are probably right on both counts. However, the fact that you are reading this journal indicates that you are likely to be taking a dynamic interest in your own teaching, more interest than most. As far as my sampling goes, you only have to speak to students who watch physics teaching in schools and to inspectors who do the same and to heads of departments who make it their job to get out and about into other classrooms. Yes, there is good teaching but there is so much that is simply as safe as houses, plodding through the syllabus, covering the material in a transmission style but so unimaginatively. Physics teaching looks tired. Is there an initiative to be taken? Recent curriculum developments have forged ahead with new materials for learners. But most of this amounts to developments in the WHAT of physics teaching. They offer either support for learners or new interpretations of syllabus content. There is no doubt that these initiatives are of considerable value and they will help to change the face of physics as a subject but I don't think in themselves they offer solutions that will change the HOW of physics teaching in the way that, for example, the Nuffield initiatives did in the 1970s. The original Nuffield programmes included teacher's handbooks that had pages devoted to teaching strategies. The guides encouraged reflection on such issues as the dangers of teaching theory, students reporting their findings, the value of discussion in helping students to `get ideas inside themselves' etc. There were pages about the HOW alongside pages about the WHAT. There is no doubt that a factor in this equation resides with national issues such as school resources, class sizes, contact hours and the drive to increase pass rates. However, even within these parameters can we identify ways forward that will enable professional change and revitalize classroom experiences? Schools have a long history of in-service professional development but I wonder

  10. Obesidad infantil: opiniones y actitudes de los pediatras Childhood obesity: pediatricians' attitudes and opinions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Cano Garcinuño

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Identificar las actitudes y opiniones de los pediatras respecto al tratamiento, la prevención y la organización asistencial de la obesidad, identificar las barreras que encuentran en el tratamiento de la obesidad y las herramientas que creen más útiles para prestar una atención más efectiva. Métodos: Encuesta postal a los pediatras de atención primaria de Castilla y León, explorando la necesidad de acción frente a la obesidad, la utilidad de medidas terapéuticas y estrategias preventivas, las barreras que obstaculizan el tratamiento, las herramientas útiles para el pediatra, la eficacia propia en el tratamiento de la obesidad y la utilidad de incorporar la obesidad a la cartera de servicios. Resultados: Se consideró la obesidad como un problema de salud importante que necesita una actuación por parte de los pediatras. Esta disposición a la acción era menor entre quienes manifestaron más barreras personales. Las barreras más frecuentes procedían del medio social: disponibilidad y publicidad de determinados alimentos y bebidas, dificultades en involucrar a los padres en el tratamiento, ausencia de percepción del problema por el niño y los padres. La herramienta mejor considerada fue la formación del personal sanitario. Los pediatras se consideraban algo o poco eficaces en el tratamiento de la obesidad. La efectividad de un servicio de atención a la obesidad en atención primaria pareció ligeramente superada por la carga de trabajo que requeriría. Conclusiones: Pese a su alta disposición a la acción frente a la obesidad, los pediatras se sienten limitados debido a las barreras que encuentran, sobre todo de tipo social o cultural, y demandan más formación como una herramienta frente a la epidemia de obesidad infantil.Objectives: To identify the Spanish pediatricians' opinions and attitudes towards obesity, in relation with its treatment, prevention, and care organization, barriers they find in its treatment

  11. Astrophysically Interesting Resonances; Another Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Roby; Jenkins, David

    2008-10-01

    R.A.E. Austin, R. Kanungo, A. Campbell, S. Colosimo, S. Reeve Saint Mary's University; D.G. Jenkins, C.Aa.Diget, A. Robinson, University of York, UK; P.J. Woods T. Davinson University of Edinburgh; C.-Y. Wu A. Hurst J.A. Becker Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; G.C. Ball M. Djongolov G. Hackman A.C. Morton, C. Pearson, S.J. Williams TRIUMF; A.A. Phillips, M. Schumaker, University of Guelph H.Boston, A. Grint, D. Oxley, University of Liverpool; D. Cline, A. Hayes, University of Rochester; We describe a prototype experiment to measure resonances of interest in astrophysical reactions. We use the TIGRESS to detect gamma rays in coincidence with charged particles, inelastically scattered in inverse kinematics. The particles are detected with the Bambino detector modified to a δE-E silicon telescope spanning 15-40 degrees in the lab.

  12. Information, Interests, and Environmental Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winter, Søren; May, Peter J.

    2002-01-01

    This study contributes to the understanding of informational approaches to bringing about compliance with environmental regulations with particular attention to differences in the influence of information provided by different information sources. Based on theorizing from a combination of informa......This study contributes to the understanding of informational approaches to bringing about compliance with environmental regulations with particular attention to differences in the influence of information provided by different information sources. Based on theorizing from a combination...... of information processing and interest group literatures, we develop hypotheses about regulatees' reliance upon and the influence of different sources of information. We test these hypotheses for Danish farmers’ compliance with agro-environmental rules. Our findings show that information plays a role in bringing...

  13. A survey of South African provincial netball coaches\\' opinions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    attributes. The opinions, abilities and limitations regarding MST, necessitate further coach education regarding MST programmes and the implementation thereof. Keywords: Coaches; Mental Skills Training; Netball. South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and Recreation Vol. 29 (2) 2007: pp. 27-40 ...

  14. Pre-Service Teachers' Opinions on Teaching Thinking Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinoglu, Orhan; Karsantik, Yasemin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to determine pre-service teachers' opinions on teaching thinking skills. 134 senior pre-service pre-school, English and mathematics teachers studying at a state university in Istanbul participated in the study which is designed based on survey model. A questionnaire which was developed by the researchers was…

  15. Changes in public opinion and the occurrence of international terrorism

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malečková, Jitka; Stanišić, Dragana

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 4 (2014), s. 631-653 ISSN 1079-2457 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP402/12/0510 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : public opinion * international terrorism * Middle East and North Africa Subject RIV: AH - Economics

  16. A Critical Turn in Public Opinion about Television and Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comstock, George

    1985-01-01

    Reviews Bower's "The Changing Television Audience in America," third in a benchmark series tracing public opinion from 1960 to 1980, which indicates that television audiences are better educated and more critical today than in 1960. Public acceptance remains high but there is an increased concern over television's effects on children. (MBR)

  17. Opinion dynamics on interacting networks: media competition and social influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrociocchi, Walter; Caldarelli, Guido; Scala, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    The inner dynamics of the multiple actors of the informations systems – i.e, T.V., newspapers, blogs, social network platforms, – play a fundamental role on the evolution of the public opinion. Coherently with the recent history of the information system (from few main stream media to the massive diffusion of socio-technical system), in this work we investigate how main stream media signed interaction might shape the opinion space. In particular we focus on how different size (in the number of media) and interaction patterns of the information system may affect collective debates and thus the opinions' distribution. We introduce a sophisticated computational model of opinion dynamics which accounts for the coexistence of media and gossip as separated mechanisms and for their feedback loops. The model accounts also for the effect of the media communication patterns by considering both the simple case where each medium mimics the behavior of the most successful one (to maximize the audience) and the case where there is polarization and thus competition among media memes. We show that plurality and competition within information sources lead to stable configurations where several and distant cultures coexist. PMID:24861995

  18. The influence of persuasion in opinion formation and polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Rocca, C. E.; Braunstein, L. A.; Vazquez, F.

    2014-05-01

    We present a model that explores the influence of persuasion in a population of agents with positive and negative opinion orientations. The opinion of each agent is represented by an integer number k that expresses its level of agreement on a given issue, from totally against k=-M to totally in favor k = M. Same-orientation agents persuade each other with probability p, becoming more extreme, while opposite-orientation agents become more moderate as they reach a compromise with probability q. The population initially evolves to (a) a polarized state for r=p/q\\gt 1 , where opinions' distribution is peaked at the extreme values k=+/- M , or (b) a centralized state for r < 1, with most opinions around k=+/- 1 . When r \\gg 1 , polarization lasts for a time that diverges as r^M \\ln N , where N is the population's size. Finally, an extremist consensus (k = M or -M ) is reached in a time that scales as r^{-1} for r \\ll 1 .

  19. Opinions of children about participation in medical genetic research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pal, S.M. van der; Sozanska, B.; Madden, D.; Kosmeda, A.; Debinska, A.; Danielewicz, H.; Boznanski, A.; Detmar, S.

    2011-01-01

    Aims: The objective was to evaluate children's opinions about their participation in a large research project. Methods: Polish children between 6 and 14 years of age completed a questionnaire about their participation in the Polish Gabriel study (which aims to identify genetic and environmental

  20. Teacher Candidates' Opinions on Erasmus Student Exchange Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unlu, Ihsan

    2015-01-01

    This study contains teacher candidates' opinions who spent a portion of their educational career abroad as participants in the Erasmus Program regarding the academic, cultural, and personal gains of the program. Using the Quantitative Research Method, this study focuses on phenomena that researchers are aware of, but on which they do not have…

  1. Automatic generation of matter-of-opinion video documentaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Bocconi; F.-M. Nack (Frank); L. Hardman (Lynda)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we describe a model for automatically generating video documentaries. This allows viewers to specify the subject and the point of view of the documentary to be generated. The domain is matter-of-opinion documentaries based on interviews. The model combines rhetorical

  2. Cameroonian Dentists' Opinion On Training And Quality Of Dental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective To assess Cameroonian dentists' opinion on training and quality of dental services rendered by dental auxiliaries. Material and Methods: The questionnaire-based cross-sectional survey was conducted amongst randomly selected dentists from six provinces in Cameroon in the first quarter of 2010. Results

  3. Opinion: Humanity as an end in itself, pharmaceutical companies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Opinion: Humanity as an end in itself, pharmaceutical companies and the pricing of antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) in Africa. Japhet Bakuwa. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE ...

  4. Casualties, Public Opinion, and Presidential Policy during the Vietnam War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-03-01

    34 Politica Science Quarterly, Vol. 90, No. 1, Spring 1975. Russett, Bruce, and Miroslav Nincic, "American Opinion on the Use o Military Force Abroad...Intervention, Sage Publica - tions, Beverly Hills, California, 1977. Strategic Requirements for the Army to the Year 2000, Georgetown University Center for

  5. School Principals' Opinions on In-Class Inspections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayikci, Kemal; Sahin, Ahmet; Canturk, Gokhan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research is to determine school principals' opinions on the in-class inspections carried out by inspectors of the Ministry of National Education of Turkey (MEB). The study was modeled as a convergent parallel design, one of the mixed methods which combined qualitative and quantitative methods. For data collection, the researchers…

  6. 42 CFR 403.258 - Statement of actuarial opinion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Statement of actuarial opinion. 403.258 Section 403.258 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... standing of the American Academy of Actuaries; or (2) A person who has otherwise demonstrated his or her...

  7. Survey of Students' Opinions as a Strategy for Improving Lerner ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of the subject discipline, the society and its culture, the ideas of educational philosophers and curriculum experts, and that no conscious effort is normally made to consult the learners for opinions even at the secondary and tertiary education levels, the deschoolers have accused the school of teaching a hidden curriculum.

  8. Obesity Prevention Opinions of School Stakeholders: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Torre, Sophie Bucher; Akre, Christina; Suris, Joan-Carles

    2010-01-01

    Background: In general, schools are an important setting to implement current recommendations for obesity prevention in children because the vast majority of children attend school. This study investigated the opinions of different school stakeholders on the feasibility and acceptability of current obesity prevention strategies that could be…

  9. Opinion dynamics on interacting networks: media competition and social influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrociocchi, Walter; Caldarelli, Guido; Scala, Antonio

    2014-05-27

    The inner dynamics of the multiple actors of the informations systems - i.e, T.V., newspapers, blogs, social network platforms, - play a fundamental role on the evolution of the public opinion. Coherently with the recent history of the information system (from few main stream media to the massive diffusion of socio-technical system), in this work we investigate how main stream media signed interaction might shape the opinion space. In particular we focus on how different size (in the number of media) and interaction patterns of the information system may affect collective debates and thus the opinions' distribution. We introduce a sophisticated computational model of opinion dynamics which accounts for the coexistence of media and gossip as separated mechanisms and for their feedback loops. The model accounts also for the effect of the media communication patterns by considering both the simple case where each medium mimics the behavior of the most successful one (to maximize the audience) and the case where there is polarization and thus competition among media memes. We show that plurality and competition within information sources lead to stable configurations where several and distant cultures coexist.

  10. Recommendations for Probiotic Use--2015 Update: Proceedings and Consensus Opinion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Floch, Martin H.; Walker, W. Allan; Sanders, Mary Ellen; Nieuwdorp, Max; Kim, Adam S.; Brenner, David A.; Qamar, Amir A.; Miloh, Tamir A.; Guarino, Alfredo; Guslandi, Mario; Dieleman, Levinus A.; Ringel, Yehuda; Quigley, Eamonn M. M.; Brandt, Lawrence J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the consensus opinion of the participants in the 4th Triennial Yale/Harvard Workshop on Probiotic Recommendations. The recommendations update those of the first 3 meetings that were published in 2006, 2008, and 2011. Recommendations for the use of probiotics in necrotizing

  11. Knowledge, Attitude and Opinion of Drug Misuse and Abuse by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To assess the knowledge, attitude and opinion of final-year undergraduate and postgraduate pharmacy students regarding inappropriate drug use in a university campus, Amman, Jordan. Methods: A cross-sectional survey using a self-completed validated anonymous questionnaire that consisted of two parts was ...

  12. Public opinion and nuclear power decision-making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, B.

    1991-08-06

    This document discusses public opinion regarding nuclear power which is particularly difficult to tie down because of five important paradoxes that characterize it: it can be based on sound reason, but also on intense emotion; it is both national and local in perspective; at varying times it has seen nuclear power as both clean'' and dirty''; it believes nuclear power is both economic, and uneconomic; and nuclear power is perceived as having a fairly safe record, but being potentially unsafe. Equally as complex as the process by which public opinion is formed is the process by which it is converted into public policy. The American political system has numerous checks and balances designed to moderate the power of public opinion. A complex series of legislative, judicial, and executive branch hurdles must be cleared before any idea, however popular, can become day-to-day operating reality in government. As a result, major changes in policy or programs are difficult, and we may expect that nuclear power will be no different; radical change in one direction or the other is unlikely. Nevertheless, carefully focused programs could achieve modest progress, and carefully designed public opinion surveys could support such programs.

  13. Public opinion and nuclear power decision-making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, B.

    1991-08-06

    This document discusses public opinion regarding nuclear power which is particularly difficult to tie down because of five important paradoxes that characterize it: it can be based on sound reason, but also on intense emotion; it is both national and local in perspective; at varying times it has seen nuclear power as both ``clean`` and ``dirty``; it believes nuclear power is both economic, and uneconomic; and nuclear power is perceived as having a fairly safe record, but being potentially unsafe. Equally as complex as the process by which public opinion is formed is the process by which it is converted into public policy. The American political system has numerous checks and balances designed to moderate the power of public opinion. A complex series of legislative, judicial, and executive branch hurdles must be cleared before any idea, however popular, can become day-to-day operating reality in government. As a result, major changes in policy or programs are difficult, and we may expect that nuclear power will be no different; radical change in one direction or the other is unlikely. Nevertheless, carefully focused programs could achieve modest progress, and carefully designed public opinion surveys could support such programs.

  14. Dynamic behavior of a social model for opinion formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordogna, Clelia M; Albano, Ezequiel V

    2007-12-01

    The dynamic behavior of a social group influenced by both a strong leader and the mass media, which is modeled according to the social impact theory, is studied under two situations: (i) The strong leader changes his/her state of opinion periodically while the mass media are not considered. In this case, the leader is capable of driving the group between a dynamically ordered state with a weak leader-group coupling (high-frequency regime) and a dynamically disordered state where the group follows the opinion of the leader (low-frequency regime). (ii) The mass-media change periodically their message and have to compete with a strong leader that keeps his/her state of opinion unchanged. In this case, the mass media require an amplitude threshold in order to overcome the influence of the leader and drive the system into a dynamically disordered state. The dynamic behavior characteristic of the studied social opinion model shares many features of physical systems that are relevant in the fields of statistical mechanics and condensed matter.

  15. The importance of opinion leaders in agricultural production among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper makes an assessment of the importance of opinion leaders in farming in three rural villages of Uganda. The basic premise is that peasant farmers in Uganda, particularly the women farmers do not have adequate access to extension services due to, amongst others, the wide change agent to client ratio. In view of ...

  16. Opinion Polling and the Measurement of Americans' Attitudes Regarding Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billingham, Chase M.; Kimelberg, Shelley McDonough

    2016-01-01

    The meaning, measurement, and implications of "public opinion" have long been a source of debate. In this paper, we examine the extent to which the educational priorities of elites in the US reflect the educational priorities of the American public. To do so, we focus on one particular segment of the education policy-making elite --…

  17. Cancer Prevention: Distinguishing Strength of Evidence from Strength of Opinion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett S. Kramer, MD, MPH, Associate Director for Disease Prevention and Director of the Office of Medical Applications of Research in the Office of Disease Prevention, Office of the Director, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, presented "Cancer Prevention: Distinguishing Strength of Evidence from Strength of Opinion".

  18. Opinion Humanity as an end in itself, pharmaceutical companies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Opinion. Humanity as an end in itself, pharmaceutical companies and the pricing of antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) in Africa. Japhet Bakuwa. Introduction. Twenty-five million people to date have died from AIDS. An estimated thirty- nine million people worldwide were living with HIV at the end of 2005. Twenty-five million of these ...

  19. Stakeholders' Opinions on the use of Code Switching/ Code Mixing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper focuses on the opinions of stakeholders on the use of codeswitching for teaching and learning in Tanzania secondary schools althoughexaminations are set in English. English-Kiswahili code switching is employedintensively in the classrooms by both teachers and learners, as a coping strategy toattain ...

  20. EFSA Scientific Committee; Scientific Opinion on Risk Assessment Terminology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine

    The Scientific Committee of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reviewed the use of risk assessment terminology within its Scientific Panels. An external report, commissioned by EFSA, analysed 219 opinions published by the Scientific Committee and Panels to recommend possible ways of improv......The Scientific Committee of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reviewed the use of risk assessment terminology within its Scientific Panels. An external report, commissioned by EFSA, analysed 219 opinions published by the Scientific Committee and Panels to recommend possible ways...... of improving the expression and communication of risk and/or uncertainties in the selected opinions. The Scientific Committee concluded that risk assessment terminology is not fully harmonised within EFSA. In part this is caused by sectoral legislation defining specific terminology and international standards...... of definitions to improve both the understanding and harmonisation of terminology across EFSA’s scientific opinions. Follow-up action by EFSA is identified to develop appropriate detailed guidance to the Scientific Panels. Recommendations are made to improve the clarity, consistency and where possible...

  1. Cameroonian Dentists' Opinion On Training And Quality Of Dental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    opinion on quality of dental services and training of dental auxiliaries in Cameroon. Materials and Methods. This research was conducted as a descriptive cross- sectional survey of dentists working in six provinces in. Cameroon. The list of registered dentists obtained from. Cameroon Dental Association showed that 143 out ...

  2. Knowledge, attitude and opinion of drug misuse and abuse by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To assess the knowledge, attitude and opinion of final-year undergraduate and postgraduate pharmacy students regarding inappropriate drug use in a university campus, Amman, Jordan. Methods: A cross-sectional survey using a self-completed validated anonymous questionnaire that consisted of two parts was ...

  3. Evaluation of prescription pattern and patients' opinion on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Inappropriate prescribing negatively impacts on health and economy of individual and the society. Objectives: To evaluate the prescribing patterns and patients' opinions on healthcare practices in selected primary healthcare centres (PHC) in Ibadan, South-Western Nigeria. Methods: A prospective ...

  4. Knowledge, opinions and practices of healthcare workers related to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The importance of healthcare workers' guidance for women infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) regarding infant feeding practices cannot be overemphasised. Objective: To determine the knowledge, opinions and practices of healthcare workers in maternity wards in a regional hospital in ...

  5. An exploratory survey of male and female learner opinions on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An exploratory survey was undertaken to determine whether secondary school learners have certain preferences regarding the biology they study at school and whether learners from co-educational and single-sex schools hold the same opinions. A survey schedule comprising two components was developed. The first ...

  6. Sustained Forced Sale Value Opinion Advice in Nigerian Valuation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sultan

    Sustained Forced Sale Value Opinion Advice in Nigerian. Valuation Practice: The Recurring Face of a Bad Coin. Terzungwe Timothy Dugeri. Department of Estate Management, Kaduna State Univeristy. Abstract. This study, the first in a series testing for standardisation of practice among professional Valuers, explores the ...

  7. Treating tension-type headache -- an expert opinion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Lars; Jensen, Rigmor

    2011-01-01

    treatment of chronic TTH. Mirtazapine and venlafaxine are second-choice drugs. EXPERT OPINION: There is an urgent need for more research in nonpharmacological as well as pharmacological treatment possibilities of TTH. Future studies should examine the relative efficacy of the various treatment modalities...

  8. Opinions on a strategy to promote nurses\\' health research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is the second article in a series of three articles on a strategy to promote nurses' health research contribution in South Africa. This article describes a Delphi study that was conducted to explore the panel of experts' opinions on nurses' health research contribution and to develop a strategy to promote this contribution.

  9. Plastination technology for anatomical studies in Nigeria: Opinion of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We set out to survey the knowledge and opinion of lecturers of anatomy about plastinated specimen use in medical schools through the administration of questionnaires to respondents who participated at the Society of Experimental and Clinical Anatomists of Nigeria (SECAN) conference in 2011. It was found that 50.0% ...

  10. Opinions of Nigerian students in tertiary institutions on family size ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the opinions of Nigerian students in tertiary institutions on their ideal family size. It was conducted among students in four tertiary institutions in Edo State of Nigeria. A sample size of 454 final year students was randomly drawn from the halls of residence in the institutions using the stratified sampling ...

  11. Opinions of Pre-Service Teachers towards Community Service ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examines the opinions of 41 teacher candidates taking a community service learning (CSL) course. The implementation of this course and its contributions to participants' personal, social and academic development were examined using qualitative methods. Data was collected using semi-structured interview ...

  12. Nigerian mothers opinion of reminder/recall for immunization

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. EZECHUKWU

    Sadoh AE. Okungbowa E. Nigerian mothers opinion of reminder/recall for immunization. Accepted: 23th June 2013. Sadoh AE. Okungbowa E. Institute Of Child Health,. University Of Benin,. Pmb 1154. Benin City, Nigeria. Email: Ayebosadoh@Yahoo.Com. ( ). DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/njp.v41i1,7. Abstract Introduction:.

  13. Scientific Opinion on erucic acid in feed and food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Annette

    Erucic acid is the trivial name of the fatty acid cis-13-docosenoic acid and occurs at high concentrations mainly in the seeds of species of the Brassicaceae (e.g. rape seed or mustard seed). The European Commission requested EFSA to deliver a scientific opinion on the risks for animal and human...

  14. Moral opinion polarization and the erosion of trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rapp, Carolin

    2016-01-01

    generalized trust, we focus on opinion polarization as another potential impact factor on trust. In more detail, we investigate the extent to which polarization over morally charged issues such as homsexuality, abortion and euthanasia affects individuals' likelihood to trust others. We hypothesize that moral...

  15. EEASA members opinion survey | Irwin | Southern African Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Southern African Journal of Environmental Education. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 9 (1988) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. EEASA members opinion survey. Pat Irwin. Abstract.

  16. Do Mothers' Opinions Matter in Teens' Sexual Activity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fingerson, Laura

    2005-01-01

    Using the Add Health data (N = 9,530 dyads), this study explores sexual socialization in the family using the theory of reasoned action by assessing how mothers' opinions are associated with their childrens' sexual behavior. Findings suggest that the more sexually liberal teens think their mothers are, the more likely the teens are to have higher…

  17. Expert opinion regarding environmental enrichment materials for pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bracke, M.B.M.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this article is to report on the expert opinion regarding the provision of environmental enrichment for pigs. A questionnaire was sent to 53 pig welfare scientists who were asked to specify which enrichment materials they considered sufficient to ensure pig welfare; 68% responded. 89%

  18. Opinions of elk viewers on a proposed Pennsylvania elk hunt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce E. Lord; Charles H. Strauss; Walter M. Tzilkowski

    2001-01-01

    The Pennsylvania elk herd has grown to the size where a hunting season is being considered. Visitors to the principal elk viewing areas were asked their opinions about an elk hunt. Their responses were analyzed with respect to their personal profile and the characteristics of their visit. While roughly half the public supports a hunt, specific subgroups were found to...

  19. The Opinions of Prospective Teachers on Peer Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdemir, Serpil

    2016-01-01

    This research was conducted to determine the opinions of prospective teachers on peer assessment. The study was carried out at a university in the West Black sea with forty-one prospective Turkish teachers. The prospective teachers presented a lesson on a subject they had decided on formerly, and were evaluated by their peers. The groups consisted…

  20. A Survey of Parental Opinions on Corporal Punishment in Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Patrick C.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    In a survey of 129 parents of military dependents, 51% supported the use of corporal punishment in schools and 37% disagreed. Analysis of the responses displayed a relationship between parental attitudes on the use of corporal punishment and opinion of the positive effects of physical punishment on children's behavior. (Author/CL)