Sample records for range ii generate

  1. Method for generating exact Bianchi type II cosmological models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hajj-Boutros, J.


    A method for generating exact Bianchi type II cosmological models with a perfect fluid distribution of matter is presented. Two new classes of Bianchi type II solutions have been generated from Lorenz's solution (D. Lorenz, Phys. Lett. A 79, 19 (1980)). A detailed study of physical and kinematic properties of one of them has been carried out.

  2. MEDEA II two-pulse generator development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bieniosek, F.M.; Honig, J.; Theby, E.A. (McDonnell Douglas Research Laboratories, P. O. Box 516, St. Louis, Missouri 63166 (USA))


    This article discusses improvements in the efficiency, output power, and operational flexibility of MEDEA II, a double-pulse electron beam accelerator at McDonnell Douglas Research Laboratories. A modified charging circuit, based on the triple-resonance pulse transformer concept, was implemented on both of MEDEA II's two stages. The output switches were modified to increase maximum output voltages, and a new, second output switch with asymmetric breakdown characteristics was developed. To avoid degradation of the second-pulse output waveform at the diode, a keep-alive circuit was installed. The effects of diode closure on double-pulse operation are also discussed.

  3. MEDEA II two-pulse generator development (United States)

    Bieniosek, F. M.; Honig, J.; Theby, E. A.


    This article discusses improvements in the efficiency, output power, and operational flexibility of MEDEA II, a double-pulse electron beam accelerator at McDonnell Douglas Research Laboratories. A modified charging circuit, based on the triple-resonance pulse transformer concept, was implemented on both of MEDEA II's two stages. The output switches were modified to increase maximum output voltages, and a new, second output switch with asymmetric breakdown characteristics was developed. To avoid degradation of the second-pulse output waveform at the diode, a keep-alive circuit was installed. The effects of diode closure on double-pulse operation are also discussed.

  4. Shadow correction in high dynamic range images for generating orthophotos (United States)

    Suzuki, Hideo; Chikatsu, Hirofumi


    High dynamic range imagery is widely used in remote sensing. With the widespread use of aerial digital cameras such as the DMC, ADS40, RMK-D, and UltraCamD, high dynamic range imaging is generally expected for generating minuteness orthophotos in digital aerial photogrammetry. However, high dynamic range images (12-bit, 4,096 gray levels) are generally compressed into an 8-bit depth digital image (256 gray levels) owing to huge amount of data and interface with peripherals such as monitors and printers. This means that a great deal of image data is eliminated from the original image, and this introduces a new shadow problem. In particular, the influence of shadows in urban areas causes serious problems when generating minuteness orthophotos and performing house detection. Therefore, shadow problems can be solved by addressing the image compression problems. There is a large body of literature on image compression techniques such as logarithmic compression and tone mapping algorithms. However, logarithmic compression tends to cause loss of details in dark and/or light areas. Furthermore, the logarithmic method intends to operate on the full scene. This means that high-resolution luminance information can not be obtained. Even though tone mapping algorithms have the ability to operate over both full scene and local scene, background knowledge is required. To resolve the shadow problem in digital aerial photogrammetry, shadow areas should be recognized and corrected automatically without the loss of luminance information. To this end, a practical shadow correction method using 12-bit real data acquired by DMC is investigated in this paper.

  5. 78 FR 32385 - Exelon Generation Company, LLC; CER Generation II, LLC; Constellation Mystic Power, LLC... (United States)


    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Exelon Generation Company, LLC; CER Generation II, LLC; Constellation Mystic Power, LLC; Constellation NewEnergy, Inc.; Constellation Power Source Generation, Inc.; Criterion Power... Commission's (Commission) Rules of Practice and Procedure, 18 CFR 385.207, Exelon Generation Company, LLC...

  6. Alternative pathways for angiotensin II generation in the cardiovascular system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Becari


    Full Text Available The classical renin-angiotensin system (RAS consists of enzymes and peptides that regulate blood pressure and electrolyte and fluid homeostasis. Angiotensin II (Ang II is one of the most important and extensively studied components of the RAS. The beneficial effects of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE inhibitors in the treatment of hypertension and heart failure, among other diseases, are well known. However, it has been reported that patients chronically treated with effective doses of these inhibitors do not show suppression of Ang II formation, suggesting the involvement of pathways alternative to ACE in the generation of Ang II. Moreover, the finding that the concentration of Ang II is preserved in the kidney, heart and lungs of mice with an ACE deletion indicates the important role of alternative pathways under basal conditions to maintain the levels of Ang II. Our group has characterized the serine protease elastase-2 as an alternative pathway for Ang II generation from Ang I in rats. A role for elastase-2 in the cardiovascular system was suggested by studies performed in heart and conductance and resistance vessels of normotensive and spontaneously hypertensive rats. This mini-review will highlight the pharmacological aspects of the RAS, emphasizing the role of elastase-2, an alternative pathway for Ang II generation.

  7. Probing Gravity with Next Generation Lunar Laser Ranging (United States)

    Martini, Manuele; Dell'Agnello, Simone

    Lunar and satellite laser ranging (LLR/SLR) are consolidated techniques which provide a precise, and at the same time, cost-effective method to determine the orbits of the Moon and of satellites equipped with laser retroreflectors with respect to the International Celestial Reference System. We describe the precision tests of general relativity and of new theories of gravity that can be performed with second-generation LLR payloads on the surface of the Moon (NASA/ASI MoonLIGHT project), and with SLR/LLR payloads deployed on spacecraft in the Earth-Moon system. A new wave of lunar exploration and lunar science started in 2007-2008 with the launch of three missions (Chang'e by China, Kaguya by Japan, Chandrayaan by India), missions in preparation (LCROSS, LRO, GRAIL/LADEE by NASA) and other proposed missions (like MAGIA in Italy). This research activity will be greatly enhanced by the future robotic deployment of a lunar geophysics network (LGN) on the surface of the Moon. A scientific concept of the latter is the International Lunar Network (ILN, see The LLR retroreflector payload developed by a US-Italy team described here and under space qualification at the National Laboratories of Frascati (LNF) is the optimum candidate for the LGN, which will be populated in the future by any lunar landing mission.

  8. The echo-enabled harmonic generation options for FLASH II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Haixiao [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Shanghai Inst. of Applied Physics (China); Decking, Winfried; Faatz, Bart [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)


    FLASH II is an upgrade to the existing free electron laser (FEL) FLASH. The echo-enabled harmonic generation (EEHG) scheme is proposed to be a potential seeding option of FLASH II. In this paper, the possibility of EEHG operation of FLASH II is investigated for the first time. With a combination of existing numerical codes, i.e. a laser-beam interaction code in an undulator (LBICU), a beam tracking code in a chicane (ELEGANT) and an universal FEL simulating code (GENESIS), the effects of beam energy chirp and coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) on EEHG operation are studied as well. In addition, several interesting issues concerning EEHG simulation are discussed. (orig.)

  9. Generating controllable type-II Weyl points via periodic driving (United States)

    Bomantara, Raditya Weda; Gong, Jiangbin


    Type-II Weyl semimetals are a novel gapless topological phase of matter discovered recently in 2015. Similar to normal (type-I) Weyl semimetals, type-II Weyl semimetals consist of isolated band touching points. However, unlike type-I Weyl semimetals which have a linear energy dispersion around the band touching points forming a three-dimensional (3D) Dirac cone, type-II Weyl semimetals have a tilted conelike structure around the band touching points. This leads to various novel physical properties that are different from type-I Weyl semimetals. In order to study further the properties of type-II Weyl semimetals and perhaps realize them for future applications, generating controllable type-II Weyl semimetals is desirable. In this paper, we propose a way to generate a type-II Weyl semimetal via a generalized Harper model interacting with a harmonic driving field. When the field is treated classically, we find that only type-I Weyl points emerge. However, by treating the field quantum mechanically, some of these type-I Weyl points may turn into type-II Weyl points. Moreover, by tuning the coupling strength, it is possible to control the tilt of the Weyl points and the energy difference between two Weyl points, which makes it possible to generate a pair of mixed Weyl points of type-I and type-II. We also discuss how to physically distinguish these two types of Weyl points in the framework of our model via the Landau level structures in the presence of an artificial magnetic field. The results are of general interest to quantum optics as well as ongoing studies of Floquet topological phases.

  10. Current range of the eastern population of Painted Bunting (Passerina ciris). Part II: Winter range (United States)

    Sykes, P.W.; Holzman, S.; Iñigo-Elias, Eduardo E.


    The importance of wintering areas for Neotropical migrants is well established. The wintering range of the eastern population of Painted Bunting (Passerina ciris) is described in detail and presented in maps. The paper also discusses extralimital records from islands in the Caribbean Basin as well as scattered wintering individuals outside the winter range. The possibility of eastern birds wintering on the Yucatan Peninsula and adjacent Central America is considered. An extensive treatment of the protected areas of Peninsular Florida, the northern Bahamas, and Cuba describes the importance of upland habitats within these protected areas for wintering buntings. This information should be useful to land management agencies, conservation organizations, and private landholders for the welfare of the bunting and biodiversity in general and may also be of interest to ornithologists, other biological disciplines, naturalists, and birders.

  11. ERP II - Next-generation Extended Enterprise Resource Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Charles


    ERP II (ERP/2) systems is a new concept introduced by Gartner Group in 2000 in order to label the latest extensions of the ERP-systems. The purpose of this paper is to explore the next-generation of ERP systems, the Extended Enterprise Resource Planning (EERP or as we prefer to use: eERP). The re...... impact on extended enterprise architecture.......ERP II (ERP/2) systems is a new concept introduced by Gartner Group in 2000 in order to label the latest extensions of the ERP-systems. The purpose of this paper is to explore the next-generation of ERP systems, the Extended Enterprise Resource Planning (EERP or as we prefer to use: e...

  12. ERP II: Next-generation Extended Enterprise Resource Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Charles


    ERP II (ERP/2) systems is a new concept introduced by Gartner Group in 2000 in order to label the latest extensions of the ERP-systems. The purpose of this paper is to explore the next-generation of ERP systems, the Extended Enterprise Resource Planning (EERP or as we prefer to use: eERP). The re......ERP II (ERP/2) systems is a new concept introduced by Gartner Group in 2000 in order to label the latest extensions of the ERP-systems. The purpose of this paper is to explore the next-generation of ERP systems, the Extended Enterprise Resource Planning (EERP or as we prefer to use: e...

  13. TRU Waste Sampling Program: Volume II. Gas generation studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clements, T.L. Jr.; Kudera, D.E.


    Volume II of the TRU Waste Sampling Program report contains the data generated from evaluating the adequacy of venting/filtering devices for maintaining safe hydrogen levels in plutonium contaminated waste drums. Additional studies reported in this volume include gas generation rates, selected waste form monitoring, and evaluation of hydrogen migration from sealed 90-mil rigid polyethylene drum liners containing /sup 238/Pu-contaminated wastes. All wastes used in the studies were newly-generated, and the waste drums were under controlled, experimental conditions. Studies using /sup 239/Pu-contaminated wastes were conducted at the Rocky Flats Plant. Studies using /sup 238/Pu-contaminated wastes were conducted at the Los Alamos National Laboratory.

  14. Design considerations of a linear generator for a range extender application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seo Un-Jae


    Full Text Available The free piston linear generator is a new range extender concept for the application in a full electric vehicle. The free piston engine driven linear generators can achieve high efficiency at part and full load which is suitable for the range extender application. This paper presents requirements for designing a linear generator deduced from a basic analysis of a free piston linear generator.

  15. Generation of Transgenic Xenopus laevis: II. Sperm Nuclei Preparation. (United States)

    Ishibashi, Shoko; Kroll, Kristin L; Amaya, Enrique


    INTRODUCTIONManipulating genes specifically during later stages of amphibian embryonic development requires fine control over the time and place of expression. These protocols describe an efficient nuclear-transplantation-based method of transgenesis developed for Xenopus laevis. The approach enables stable expression of cloned gene products in Xenopus embryos. Because the transgene integrates into the genome prior to fertilization, the resulting embryos are not chimeric, eliminating the need to breed to the next generation to obtain nonmosaic transgenic animals. The procedure is based on restriction-enzyme-mediated integration (REMI) and can be divided into three parts: (I) high-speed preparation of egg extracts, (II) sperm nuclei preparation, and (III) nuclear transplantation. This protocol describes a method for the preparation of sperm nuclei from Xenopus laevis. Sperm suspensions are prepared by filtration and centrifugation, and then treated with lysolecithin to disrupt the plasma membrane of the cells. Sperm nuclei can be stored frozen in small aliquots at -80°C.

  16. Orbital analysis of LAGEOS and LAGEOS II laser ranged satellites: relativistic effects and geophysical issues (United States)

    Peron, Roberto


    We present here the results of a recent analysis of LAGEOS and LAGEOS II laser range data. The higher accuracy in determining the orbits of these satellites makes it possible to see very tiny relativistic effects like frame-dragging and a wide variety of other phenomena at work. In particular, it is apparent the need of better understanding some effects of non-gravitational origin. The importance of these orbital fits as a geophysical probe is also stressed with a particular example. The analysis is carried out with GEODYN II Software, whose broad structure and use is described.

  17. Solar Electric Generating System II finite element analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dohner, J.L.; Anderson, J.R.


    On June 2, 1992, Landers` earthquake struck the Solar Electric Generating System II, located in Daggett, California. The 30 megawatt power station, operated by the Daggett Leasing Corporation (DLC), suffered substantial damage due to structural failures in the solar farm. These failures consisted of the separation of sliding joints supporting a distribution of parabolic glass mirrors. At separation, the mirrors fell to the ground and broke. It was the desire of the DLC and the Solar Thermal Design Assistance Center (STDAC) of Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and to redesign these joints so that, in the event of future quakes, costly breakage will be avoided. To accomplish this task, drawings of collector components were developed by the STDAC, from which a detailed finite element computer model of a solar collector was produced. This nonlinear dynamic model, which consisted of over 8,560 degrees of freedom, underwent model reduction to form a low order nonlinear dynamic model containing only 40 degrees of freedom. This model was then used as a design tool to estimate joint dynamics. Using this design tool, joint configurations were modified, and an acceptable joint redesign determined. The results of this analysis showed that the implementation of metal stops welded to support shafts for the purpose of preventing joint separation is a suitable joint redesign. Moreover, it was found that, for quakes of Landers` magnitude, mirror breakage due to enhanced vibration in the trough assembly is unlikely.


    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.


  19. A Fast Component-Tree Algorithm for High Dynamic-Range Images and Second Generation Connectivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilkinson, Michael H. F.


    Component trees are important data structures for computation of connected attribute filters. Though some of the available algorithms are suitable for high-dynamic range, and in particular floating point data, none are suitable for computation of component trees for so-called second-generation, and

  20. Study of Long-range Collisions and Wire Compensation for Tevatron Run-II

    CERN Document Server

    Zimmermann, Frank; Erdelyi, B; Boocha, V


    This report summarizes studies of long-range collisions and their compensation by current carrying wires for the Tevatron Run-II, which were performed during a two-week stay at Fermilab, February 22 to March 8, 2004. The weak-strong code WSDIFF was significantly extended to simulate the actual long-range encounters at the Tevatron for different antiproton bunches in the train at injection and in collision. Tune footprints and diffusive apertures simulated by this code are presented for various cases, differing in the bunch position, the energy, the number of long-range and head-on collisions, the presence of additional compensating wires and the momentum deviation. It is confirmed that the solution of 4 wires for injection, previously found by B. Erdelyi, raises the dynamic aperture, by about 1.0-1.5sigma. For both injection and collision an ideal compensation of the 6 or 3 closest long-range encounters was modeled, by removing these collisions altogether. At collision, an improvement in the dynamic aperture ...

  1. Gas Generation from K East Basin Sludges - Series II Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryan, Samuel A.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Sell, Rachel L.; Silvers, Kurt L.; Gano, Susan R.; Thornton, Brenda M.


    This report describes work to examine the gas generation behavior of actual K East (KE) Basin floor, pit and canister sludge. Mixed and unmixed and fractionated KE canister sludge were tested, along with floor and pit sludges from areas in the KE Basin not previously sampled. The first report in this series focused on gas generation from KE floor and canister sludge collected using a consolidated sampling technique. The third report will present results of gas generation testing of irradiated uranium fuel fragments with and without sludge addition. The path forward for management of the K Basin Sludge is to retrieve, ship, and store the sludge at T Plant until final processing at some future date. Gas generation will impact the designs and costs of systems associated with retrieval, transportation and storage of sludge.

  2. Hybrid infrared scene projector (HIRSP): a high dynamic range infrared scene projector, part II (United States)

    Cantey, Thomas M.; Bowden, Mark; Cosby, David; Ballard, Gary


    This paper is a continuation of the merging of two dynamic infrared scene projector technologies to provide a unique and innovative solution for the simulation of high dynamic temperature ranges for testing infrared imaging sensors. This paper will present some of the challenges and performance issues encountered in implementing this unique projector system into a Hardware-in-the-Loop (HWIL) simulation facility. The projection system combines the technologies of a Honeywell BRITE II extended voltage range emissive resistor array device and an optically scanned laser diode array projector (LDAP). The high apparent temperature simulations are produced from the luminescent infrared radiation emitted by the high power laser diodes. The hybrid infrared projector system is being integrated into an existing HWIL simulation facility and is used to provide real-world high radiance imagery to an imaging infrared unit under test. The performance and operation of the projector is presented demonstrating the merit and success of the hybrid approach. The high dynamic range capability simulates a 250 Kelvin apparent background temperature to 850 Kelvin maximum apparent temperature signatures. This is a large increase in radiance projection over current infrared scene projection capabilities.

  3. Calibration and GEANT4 Simulations of the Phase II Proton Compute Tomography (pCT) Range Stack Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uzunyan, S. A. [Northern Illinois Univ., DeKalb, IL (United States); Blazey, G. [Northern Illinois Univ., DeKalb, IL (United States); Boi, S. [Northern Illinois Univ., DeKalb, IL (United States); Coutrakon, G. [Northern Illinois Univ., DeKalb, IL (United States); Dyshkant, A. [Northern Illinois Univ., DeKalb, IL (United States); Francis, K. [Northern Illinois Univ., DeKalb, IL (United States); Hedin, D. [Northern Illinois Univ., DeKalb, IL (United States); Johnson, E. [Northern Illinois Univ., DeKalb, IL (United States); Kalnins, J. [Northern Illinois Univ., DeKalb, IL (United States); Zutshi, V. [Northern Illinois Univ., DeKalb, IL (United States); Ford, R. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Rauch, J. E. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Rubinov, P. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Sellberg, G. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Wilson, P. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Naimuddin, M. [Univ. of Delhi, New Delhi (India)


    Northern Illinois University in collaboration with Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL) and Delhi University has been designing and building a proton CT scanner for applications in proton treatment planning. The Phase II proton CT scanner consists of eight planes of tracking detectors with two X and two Y coordinate measurements both before and after the patient. In addition, a range stack detector consisting of a stack of thin scintillator tiles, arranged in twelve eight-tile frames, is used to determine the water equivalent path length (WEPL) of each track through the patient. The X-Y coordinates and WEPL are required input for image reconstruction software to find the relative (proton) stopping powers (RSP) value of each voxel in the patient and generate a corresponding 3D image. In this Note we describe tests conducted in 2015 at the proton beam at the Central DuPage Hospital in Warrenville, IL, focusing on the range stack calibration procedure and comparisons with the GEANT~4 range stack simulation.

  4. The next generation of frontend readout at COMPASS-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grussenmeyer, Tobias; Buechele, Maximilian; Fischer, Horst; Gorzellik, Matthias; Herrmann, Florian; Joerg, Philipp; Koenigsmann, Kay; Kremser, Paul; Schopferer, Sebastian [Physikalisches Institut, Albert-Ludwigs-Universitaet Freiburg (Germany)


    The GANDALF framework, a high precision, high performance detector readout system, capable of highspeed pulse and logic signal digitization, has been extended by a new mezzanine card with optical connectors. Using the GTP transceivers of the Spartan-6 SLX45T on the mezzanine card in a special configuration allows high speed data transmission to frontend electronics with fixed latency. In the reverse direction, measured data is transmitted at the maximum speed of 3 GBit/s. At the COMPASS-II experiment at CERN SPS this will be used for the TDC frontend readout of new drift chambers and RICH Thick-GEM detectors.

  5. A convection-driven long-range linear gradient generator with dynamic control. (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Chen, Chia-Hung; Xiang, Zhuolin; Wang, Ming; Lee, Chengkuo


    We developed a novel gradient generator to achieve long range and linear chemical gradients with a dynamic control function. The length of the gradient can be on the centimetre scale. The gradient profile can be tuned by changing the flow rates. The device can work in both high flow rate regimes with large shear stress and low flow rate regimes with minimum shear stress. The drug screening function was demonstrated by the viability test of PC-9 cancer cells.

  6. Study of Particle Motion in He II Counterflow Across a Wide Heat Flux Range (United States)

    Mastracci, Brian; Takada, Suguru; Guo, Wei


    Some discrepancy exists in the results of He II counterflow experiments obtained using particle image velocimetry (PIV) when compared with those obtained using particle tracking velocimetry (PTV): using PIV, it was observed that tracer particles move at roughly half the expected normal fluid velocity, v_n/2, while tracer particles observed using PTV moved at approximately v_n. A suggested explanation is that two different flow regimes were examined since the range of heat flux applied in each experiment was adjacent but non-overlapping. Another PTV experiment attempted to test this model, but the applied heat flux did not overlap with any PIV experiments. We report on the beginnings of a study of solid {D}_2 particle motion in counterflow using PTV, and the heat flux range overlaps that of all previous visualization studies. The observed particle velocity distribution transitions from a two-peak structure to a single peak as the heat flux is increased. Furthermore, the mean value of one peak in the bi-modal distributions grows at approximately the same rate as v_n, while the mean value of the single-peak distributions grows at roughly 0.4v_n, in reasonable agreement with both previous experiments and with the suggested model.

  7. Surface treatment by the ion flow from electron beam generated plasma in the forevacuum pressure range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klimov Aleksandr


    Full Text Available The paper presents research results of peculiarities of gas ion flows usage and their generation from large plasma formation (>50 obtained by electron beam ionization of gas in the forevacuum pressure range. An upgraded source was used for electron beam generation, which allowed obtaining ribbon electron beam with no transmitting magnetic field. Absence of magnetic field in the area of ion flow formation enables to obtain directed ion flows without distorting their trajectories. In this case, independent control of current and ion energy is possible. The influence of electron beam parameters on the parameters of beam plasma and ion flow – current energy and density – was determined. The results of alumina ceramics treatment with a beam plasma ions flow are given.

  8. Advanced technologies in the ASI MLRO towards a new generation laser ranging system (United States)

    Varghese, Thomas; Bianco, Giuseppe


    Matera Laser Ranging Observatory (MLRO) is a high performance, highly automated optical and astronomical observatory currently under design and development by AlliedSignal for the Italian Space Agency (ASI). It is projected to become operational at the Centro Geodesia Spaziale in Matera, Italy, in 1997. MLRO, based on a 1.5-meter astronomical quality telescope, will perform ranging to spacecraft in earthbound orbits, lunar reflectors, and specially equipped deep space missions. The primary emphasis during design is to incorporate state-of-the-art technologies to produce an intelligent, automated, high accuracy ranging system that will mimic the characteristic features of a fifth generation laser ranging system. The telescope has multiple ports and foci to support future experiments in the areas of laser communications, lidar, astrometry, etc. The key features providing state-of-the-art ranging performance include: a diode-pumped picosecond (50 ps) laser, high speed (3-5 GHz) optoelectronic detection and signal processing, and a high accuracy (6 ps) high resolution (less than 2 ps) time measurement capability. The above combination of technologies is expected to yield millimeter laser ranging precision and accuracy on targets up to 300,000 km, surpassing the best operational instrument performance to date by a factor of five or more. Distributed processing and control using a state-of-the-art computing environment provides the framework for efficient operation, system optimization, and diagnostics. A computationally intelligent environment permits optimal planning, scheduling, tracking, and data processing. It also supports remote access, monitor, and control for joint experiments with other observatories.

  9. Depth maps and high-dynamic range image generation from alternating exposure multiview images (United States)

    Heo, Yong Seok; Lee, Kyoung Mu; Lee, Sang Uk


    For stereo matching, it is hard to find accurate correspondence for saturated regions, such as too dark or too bright regions, because there is rarely reliable information to match. In this situation, conventional high-dynamic range (HDR) imaging techniques combining multiple exposures for each viewpoint can be adopted to generate well-exposed stereo images. This approach is, however, time-consuming and needs much memory to store multiple exposures for each viewpoint. We propose an efficient method to generate HDR multiview images as well as corresponding accurate depth maps. First, we take a single exposure for each viewpoint with alternating exposure setting, such as short and long exposure, as functions of viewpoint changes. Then, we compute an initial depth map for each view only using neighboring images that have the same exposure. To reduce the error of the initial depth maps for the saturated regions, we adopt the fusion move algorithm fusing neighboring depth maps that have different error regions. Finally, using the enhanced depth maps, we generate artifact-free and sharp HDR images using the joint bilateral filtering and a detail-transfer technique. Experimental results show that our method produces both consistent HDR images and accurate depth maps for various indoor and outdoor multiview images.

  10. Angiotensin converting enzyme-independent, local angiotensin II-generation in human pancreatic ductal cancer tissues. (United States)

    Ohta, Tetsuo; Amaya, Kohji; Yi, Shuangqin; Kitagawa, Hirohisa; Kayahara, Masato; Ninomiya, Itasu; Fushida, Sachio; Fujimura, Takashi; Nishimura, Gen-Ichi; Shimizu, Koichi; Miwa, Koichi


    Hypovascularity is an outstanding characteristic of pancreatic ductal cancer by diagnostic imaging: most pancreatic ductal cancers are hypovascular or avascular, and tumor vessels are seldom seen on angiography. However, we found that the vasculature was not always poor on angiography of surgically resected specimens of locally advanced pancreatic ductal cancers. To elucidate these controversial findings, we focused on angiotensin II, a vasoconstrictor which is directly produced from angiotensinogen at acidic pH by active trypsin. We examined whether a local angiotensin II-generating system exists in pancreatic ductal cancer tissue. We measured angiotensin II concentration and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity in tissues from normal pancreas, pancreatic ductal cancers, colon cancers, and hepatocellular carcinomas. After surgically resected specimens were homogenized, angiotensin II concentration and ACE activity in tissues were measured using the florisil method and the Kasahara method, respectively. Tissue angiotensin II levels in pancreatic ductal cancer (n=13) were significantly higher than those of normal pancreas (n=7), colon cancers (n=7), or hepatocellular carcinomas (n=7). However, there was no significant difference in the ACE activity in tissue between them. This study provides in vivo evidence of an ACE-independent, angiotensin II-generating system in pancreatic ductal cancer tissues and suggests that locally formed angiotensin II may act on the pre-existing pancreatic arteries around the tumor, leading to formation of hypovascular or avascular regions.

  11. Dem Generation from Close-Range Photogrammetry Using Extended Python Photogrammetry Toolbox (United States)

    Belmonte, A. A.; Biong, M. M. P.; Macatulad, E. G.


    Digital elevation models (DEMs) are widely used raster data for different applications concerning terrain, such as for flood modelling, viewshed analysis, mining, land development, engineering design projects, to name a few. DEMs can be obtained through various methods, including topographic survey, LiDAR or photogrammetry, and internet sources. Terrestrial close-range photogrammetry is one of the alternative methods to produce DEMs through the processing of images using photogrammetry software. There are already powerful photogrammetry software that are commercially-available and can produce high-accuracy DEMs. However, this entails corresponding cost. Although, some of these software have free or demo trials, these trials have limits in their usable features and usage time. One alternative is the use of free and open-source software (FOSS), such as the Python Photogrammetry Toolbox (PPT), which provides an interface for performing photogrammetric processes implemented through python script. For relatively small areas such as in mining or construction excavation, a relatively inexpensive, fast and accurate method would be advantageous. In this study, PPT was used to generate 3D point cloud data from images of an open pit excavation. The PPT was extended to add an algorithm converting the generated point cloud data into a usable DEM.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Belmonte


    Full Text Available Digital elevation models (DEMs are widely used raster data for different applications concerning terrain, such as for flood modelling, viewshed analysis, mining, land development, engineering design projects, to name a few. DEMs can be obtained through various methods, including topographic survey, LiDAR or photogrammetry, and internet sources. Terrestrial close-range photogrammetry is one of the alternative methods to produce DEMs through the processing of images using photogrammetry software. There are already powerful photogrammetry software that are commercially-available and can produce high-accuracy DEMs. However, this entails corresponding cost. Although, some of these software have free or demo trials, these trials have limits in their usable features and usage time. One alternative is the use of free and open-source software (FOSS, such as the Python Photogrammetry Toolbox (PPT, which provides an interface for performing photogrammetric processes implemented through python script. For relatively small areas such as in mining or construction excavation, a relatively inexpensive, fast and accurate method would be advantageous. In this study, PPT was used to generate 3D point cloud data from images of an open pit excavation. The PPT was extended to add an algorithm converting the generated point cloud data into a usable DEM.

  13. Generating method-specific Reference Ranges – A harmonious outcome?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham R. Lee


    Full Text Available Objectives: When laboratory Reference Ranges (RR do not reflect analytical methodology, result interpretation can cause misclassification of patients and inappropriate management. This can be mitigated by determining and implementing method-specific RRs, which was the main objective of this study. Design and methods: Serum was obtained from healthy volunteers (Male + Female, n > 120 attending hospital health-check sessions during June and July 2011. Pseudo-anonymised aliquots were stored (at − 70 °C prior t° analysis on Abbott ARCHITECT c16000 chemistry and i2000SR immunoassay analysers. Data were stratified by gender where appropriate. Outliers were excluded statistically (Tukey method to generate non-parametric RRs (2.5th + 97.5th percentiles. RRs were compared to those quoted by Abbott and UK Pathology Harmony (PH where possible. For 7 selected tests, RRs were verified using a data mining approach. Results: For chemistry tests (n = 23, Upper or Lower Reference Limits (LRL or URL were > 20% different from Abbott ranges in 25% of tests (11% from PH ranges but in 38% for immunoassay tests (n = 13. RRs (mmol/L for sodium (138−144, potassium (3.8–4.9 and chloride (102−110 were considerably narrower than PH ranges (133–146, 3.5–5.0 and 95–108, respectively. The gender difference for ferritin (M: 29–441, F: 8–193 ng/mL was more pronounced than reported by Abbott (M: 22–275, F: 5–204 ng/mL. Verification studies showed good agreement for chemistry tests (mean [SD] difference = 0.4% [1.2%] but less so for immunoassay tests (27% [29%], particularly for TSH (LRL. Conclusion: Where resource permits, we advocate using method-specific RRs in preference to other sources, particularly where method bias and lack of standardisation limits RR transferability and harmonisation. Keywords: Reference Ranges, Method-specific, Harmonisation

  14. Next generation retroreflector for lunar laser ranging: science, design and flight status (United States)

    Currie, Douglas; Richards, Robert; Delle Monache, Giovanni


    The retroreflectors deployed during the Apollo Mission are still operating after 45 years. Analysis of the ranging data has resulted in the discovery and measurement of the liquid core of the moon about 15 years ago. This lunar laser ranging (LLR) program has also produced most of the best tests of Gravitation and General Relativity. However, over the years the ground stations have improved by a factor of ~200 so today the limit in ranging accuracy is due to the combination of the libration of the moon and the design of the Cube Corner Reflector (CCR) arrays. To address this, the University of Maryland, College Park (UMCP) and the INFN-LNF are developing the Next Generation Retroreflectors (NGR. Recently the UMCP and the LNF have signed an agreement with Moon Express, Inc., a commercial company pursuing the Google Lunar X Prize and a space transport business, to deploy four NGRs on the lunar surface, the first of which is expected to fly in the second quarter of 2017. A brief discussion will address the expected improvements in the understanding of Gravitational and General Relativity and the impact this may have on the multiple theories that have been proposed to explain Dark Matter and Dark Energy. The basic objectives, requirements and design will be reviewed. In particular, in order to maintain a signal level similar to that of Apollo 15, thermal gradients within the CCR must be maintain to less than 0.2oK. Since during lunar morning the CCR is at about 70oK and the housing is more than 300oK, the thermal design is critical. The structure and results of the required simulation programs will be reviewed. Finally, the current design of the entire package will be addressed. Looking toward the future, two areas look particularly interesting in extending the coverage of the theories of Gravitation, General Relativity, Dark Matter and Dark Energy. They will support even greater ranging accuracy, additional ground stations and increased coverage. The first is to

  15. A Trial Intercomparison of Humidity Generators at Extremes of Range Using Relative Humidity Transmitters (United States)

    Stevens, M.; Benyon, R.; Bell, S. A.; Vicente, T.


    In order to effectively implement the Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA) of the International Committee for Weights and Measures (CIPM), national metrology institutes (NMIs) are required to support their claims of calibration and measurement capability (CMC) with a quality system compliant with ISO/IEC 17025, and with suitable evidence of participation in key or supplementary comparisons. The CMC review process, both at regional and inter-regional levels, uses criteria that combine the provisions mentioned above, together with additional evidence demonstrating scientific and technical competence of the institutes. For dew-point temperatures, there are key comparisons in progress under the Consultative Committee for Thermometry (CCT) and under the European regional metrology organisation (EUROMET), together with information available on past regional supplementary comparisons. However, for relative humidity there are, to date, no such comparisons available to support CMC entries. This paper presents and discusses the results of a preliminary investigation of the use of relative humidity and temperature transmitters in order to determine their suitability for the intercomparison of standard humidity generators in support of CMC claims for the calibration of relative humidity instruments. The results of a recent bilateral comparison between 2 NMIs at the extremes of the range up to 98%rh at 70 °C, and down to 1%rh at -40 °C are reported. Specific precautions and recommendations on the use of the devices as transfer standards are presented.

  16. ION Production and RF Generation in the DARHT-II Beam Dump (United States)


    possibly explain this difference 2D beam envelope simulations were made using LAMDA [8]. Using the magnet setting and measured fields if the magnets ...ION PRODUCTION AND RF GENERATION IN THE DARHT -II BEAM DUMP  M. E. Schulze  , C.A. Ekdahl Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM... DARHT -II accelerator produces a 2-kA, 17-MeV beam in a 1600-ns pulse. After exiting the accelerator, the pulse is sliced into four short pulses by a

  17. Reference ranges and determinants of total hCG levels during pregnancy: the Generation R Study. (United States)

    Korevaar, Tim I M; Steegers, Eric A P; de Rijke, Yolanda B; Schalekamp-Timmermans, Sarah; Visser, W Edward; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Tiemeier, Henning; Visser, Theo J; Medici, Marco; Peeters, Robin P


    Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a pregnancy hormone secreted by the placental synctiotrophoblast cell layer that has been linked to fetal growth and various placental, uterine and fetal functions. In order to investigate the effects of hCG on clinical endpoints, knowledge on reference range (RR) methodology and determinants of gestational hCG levels is crucial. Moreover, a better understanding of gestational hCG physiology can improve current screening programs and future clinical management. Serum total hCG levels were determined in 8195 women participating in the Generation R Study. Gestational age specific RRs using 'ultrasound derived gestational age' (US RRs) were calculated and compared with 'last menstrual period derived gestational age' (LMP RRs) and a model-based RR. We also investigated which pregnancy characteristics were associated with hCG levels. Compared to the US RRs, the LMP RRs were lower, most notably for the median and lower limit levels. No considerable differences were found between RRs calculated in the general population or in uncomplicated pregnancies only. Maternal smoking, BMI, parity, ethnicity, fetal gender, placental weight and hyperemesis gravidarum symptoms were associated with total hCG. We provide gestational RRs for total hCG and show that total hCG values and RR cut-offs during pregnancy vary depending on pregnancy dating methodology. This is likely due to the influence of hCG on embryonic growth, suggesting that ultrasound based pregnancy dating might be less reliable in women with high/low hCG levels. Furthermore, we identify different pregnancy characteristics that influence total hCG levels considerably and should therefore be accounted for in clinical studies.

  18. A comparative investigation of three PM-less MW power range wind generator topologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bratiloveanu, Catalin-Rauti; Traian Cosmin Anghelus, Dumitru; Boldea, I.


    heteropolar-rotor (standard) synchronous generators, especially for direct drives (very low speed) and multibrid (with single stage transmission (5/1-8/1 ratio)), new topologies have to be investigated to reduce initial costs and weights for high enough efficiency and energy annual yield. The present paper......, with sensitivity design inquires, the claw pole synchronous generator topology for a multibrid wind generator of 3 MW ,75rpm generator for a 15 rpm wind turbine with above 94 % efficiency for unity power factor (diode rectified output) for around 10 tons of copper and iron core materials. Though the case studies...

  19. ERP II: a conceptual framework for next-generation enterprise systems?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Charles


    concludes that the ERP research needs to broaden its perspective in order to accommodate itself to the new issues of next-generation enterprise systems. Practical implications - The model is seen as a first step towards a tool to analyse and design complex enterprise systems architecture. Originality......The purpose of this paper is to frame next-generation enterprise systems (ES). Design/methodology/approach - The model is based on a retrospective analysis of the evolution of enterprise systems, enterprise resource planning (ERP) research and emerging business requirements. Findings - The paper...... proposes a conceptual framework for extended enterprise resource planning (ERP II). The aim of this model is to compile present ES concepts into a comprehensive outline of ERP II, thus composing a generic map and taxonomy for corporate-wide enterprise systems. Research limitations/implications - The paper...

  20. MHC class II diversity of koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) populations across their range. (United States)

    Lau, Q; Jaratlerdsiri, W; Griffith, J E; Gongora, J; Higgins, D P


    Major histocompatibility complex class II (MHCII) genes code for proteins that bind and present antigenic peptides and trigger the adaptive immune response. We present a broad geographical study of MHCII DA β1 (DAB) and DB β1 (DBB) variants of the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus; n=191) from 12 populations across eastern Australia, with a total of 13 DAB and 7 DBB variants found. We identified greater MHCII variation and, possibly, additional gene copies in koala populations in the north (Queensland and New South Wales) relative to the south (Victoria), confirmed by STRUCTURE analyses and genetic differentiation using analysis of molecular variance. The higher MHCII diversity in the north relative to south could potentially be attributed to (i) significant founder effect in Victorian populations linked to historical translocation of bottlenecked koala populations and (ii) increased pathogen-driven balancing selection and/or local genetic drift in the north. Low MHCII genetic diversity in koalas from the south could reduce their potential response to disease, although the three DAB variants found in the south had substantial sequence divergence between variants. This study assessing MHCII diversity in the koala with historical translocations in some populations contributes to understanding the effects of population translocations on functional genetic diversity.

  1. The effect of sacro occipital technique category II blocking on spinal ranges of motion: a case series. (United States)

    Hochman, Jerry I


    To describe changes in lumbar and cervical range of motion measurements after supine pelvic blocking as used in Sacro Occipital Technique (SOT). Five subjects with sacroiliac distortion and instability were recruited and selected for SOT. Cervical and lumbar ranges of motion were measured before and after category II blocking procedures used to change pelvic mechanics. Pre- and post-measurements were taken by a blinded assessor using a Zebris ultrasonic motion detector. Changes were found in the lumbar spine only. Increased ranges of lumbar motion occurred in all planes except extension (21%-57%). Supine pelvic blocking as used in SOT affected lumbar ranges of motion in these 5 cases. This may indicate that functional change in the pelvis results in changes in lumbar motion, especially lumbar flexion. Larger data sets are needed for further study.

  2. Image analysis of gunshot residue on entry wounds. II--A statistical estimation of firing range. (United States)

    Brown, H; Cauchi, D M; Holden, J L; Allen, F C; Cordner, S; Thatcher, P


    A statistical investigation of the relationship between firing range and the amount and distribution of gunshot residue (GSR), used automated image analysis (IA) to quantify GSR deposit resulting from firings into pig skin, from distances ranging between contact and 45 cm. Overall, for a Ruger .22 semi-automatic rifle using CCI solid point, high velocity ammunition, the total area of GSR deposit on the skin sections decreased in a non-linear fashion with firing range. More specifically there were significant differences in the amount of GSR deposited from shots fired at contact compared with shots fired from distances between 2.5 and 45 cm; and between shots fired from a distance of 20 cm or less, with shots fired at a distance of 30 cm or more. In addition, GSR particles were heavily concentrated in the wound tract only for contact and close range shots at 2.5 cm, while the particle distribution was more uniform between the wound tract and the skin surfaces for shots fired from distances greater than 2.5 cm. Consequently, for future scientific investigations of gunshot fatalities, once standards have been established for the weapon and ammunition type in question, image analysis quantification of GSR deposited in and around the gunshot wound may be capable of providing a reliable, statistical basis for estimating firing range.

  3. Comparison of linear gain and wide dynamic range compression hearing aid circuits II: aided loudness measures. (United States)

    Jenstad, L M; Pumford, J; Seewald, R C; Cornelisse, L E


    The goal of this study was to test the theoretical advantages of a single-channel wide dynamic range compression (WDRC) circuit fitted using the DSL method for increased dynamic range and normalized loudness growth. Ten adolescents and young adults with moderate to severe sensorineural hearing loss were fitted monaurally with the Siemens Viva 2 Pro behind-the-ear instrument set to DSL 4.0 targets for both linear gain and WDRC processing. Threshold, upper limit of comfort and loudness growth were measured in the unaided, linear gain and WDRC conditions for warble tones, environmental sounds and speech. Twelve adult listeners with normal hearing also were tested monaurally in the unaided condition to provide normative data for comparison purposes. The WDRC hearing aid provided a greater input dynamic range than the linear circuit for all stimuli. The dynamic range was normalized for more subjects with the WDRC than the linear hearing aid. In addition, exponential loudness growth functions fitted to the loudness growth data showed that, on average, loudness growth was more normalized with the WDRC hearing aid fitted to DSL[i/o] targets than the linear hearing aid fitted to DSL[i/o] targets. WDRC processing, fitted using the DSL[i/o] method, has potential applications in hearing aid fittings for listeners with moderate to severe hearing loss because it provides an audible, comfortable and tolerable amplified signal across a wider range of inputs than linear gain processing, without the need for volume control adjustments.

  4. Voltage Stabilization Control of Wide-Speed-Range Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Generator Systems


    Miao, Dongmin


    DC power systems have a constant DC-link voltage, as well as the advantages such as high stability, high efficiency, small size and light weight; therefore, they are widely used in stand-alone power systems, e.g. the power systems in aircrafts and automobiles, isolated wind power generation systems, etc. Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Generators (PMSGs) possess the advantages including high power density, high efficiency, and high control precision, and have obtained great attention and have be...

  5. Long-range correlations during plasma transitions in the TJ-II stellarator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedrosa, M.A.; Carreras, B.A.; Carralero, D. [Laboratorio Nacional de Fusion, Asociacion EURATOM-CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Hidalgo, C. [Associacaeo EURATOM-IST, Centro de Fusaeo Nuclear, Lisboa (Portugal); Silva, C. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Carlos III, Madrid (Spain); Calvo, I.


    The mechanism underlying the development of edge transport barriers is still one of the fundamental issues con-fronting the magnetic fusion community. The results presented show the importance of long-range correlation as approaching plasma bifurcations in different plasma scenarios, including biasing induced and spontaneous edge transport bifurcations in ECRH and NBI plasmas. These findings are consistent with the theory of zonal flows, pointing out the importance of both mean and fluctuating electric fields during the development of edge plasma transitions. (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  6. An Evaluation of a Wide Range of Job-Generating Activities for Rural Counties. (United States)

    Finsterbusch, Kurt; And Others


    Examines the job-generating activities in 15 rural counties in Maryland through 175 interviews and field work. Those ranking high included industrial park development, economic development activities, and tourism. Special financial arrangements for relocating and new businesses also received high marks. Includes 48 references. (JOW)

  7. New long-range speed record with next-generation internet

    CERN Multimedia


    "Scientists at CERN and the California Institute of Technology have set a new Internet2 land speed record using the next-generation Internet protocol IPv6. The team sustained a single stream Transfer Control Protocol (TCP) rate of 983 megabits per second for more than one hour between CERN and Chicago, a distance of more than 7,000 kilometres" (1 page).

  8. Visualization of grid-generated turbulence in He II using PTV (United States)

    Mastracci, B.; Guo, W.


    Due to its low viscosity, cryogenic He II has potential use for simulating large-scale, high Reynolds number turbulent flow in a compact and efficient apparatus. To realize this potential, the behavior of the fluid in the simplest cases, such as turbulence generated by flow past a mesh grid, must be well understood. We have designed, constructed, and commissioned an apparatus to visualize the evolution of turbulence in the wake of a mesh grid towed through He II. Visualization is accomplished using the particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) technique, where μm-sized tracer particles are introduced to the flow, illuminated with a planar laser sheet, and recorded by a scientific imaging camera; the particles move with the fluid, and tracking their motion with a computer algorithm results in a complete map of the turbulent velocity field in the imaging region. In our experiment, this region is inside a carefully designed He II filled cast acrylic channel measuring approximately 16 × 16 × 330 mm. One of three different grids, which have mesh numbers M = 3, 3.75, or 5 mm, can be attached to the pulling system which moves it through the channel with constant velocity up to 600 mm/s. The consequent motion of the solidified deuterium tracer particles is used to investigate the energy statistics, effective kinematic viscosity, and quantized vortex dynamics in turbulent He II.

  9. Propagation in a shearing plasma. II - Turbulence and the frequency range of pulsar microstructure (United States)

    Harding, A. K.; Tademaru, E.


    Numerical calculations are presented which explore the propagation of radio waves and pulses through a turbulent shearing plasma. A stochastic model is used to describe the turbulent velocity field, in which random fluctuations are superposed on a mean profile. Both Gaussian wave packets and shot-noise pulses polarized in the plane of shearing acquire quasi-periodic intensity modulations above the rest-frame plasma frequency. The frequency range over which these modulations appear is shown to depend on the spatial correlation length of the turbulent fluctuations and on their standard deviation from the mean velocity. The period of the modulations is variable from one realization of the random process to the next, and the average period is frequency dependent. The results of these calculations lend further support to a model for pulsar microstructure in which periodic micropulses are pure temporal modulations of the emitted radiation due to propagation effects in magnetospheric shearing regions. It is shown that turbulence on a scale of approximately 10 cm can produce these quasi-periodic modulations over a frequency range comparable to that of observed microstructure.

  10. Reference ranges for serum total and monomeric prolactin for the current generation Abbott Architect assay. (United States)

    Whitehead, S J; Cornes, M P; Ford, C; Gama, R


    Exclusion of macroprolactinaemia, a well-recognised interference, as the cause of hyperprolactinaemia is essential to avoid potential misdiagnosis and mismanagement of patients. We have derived gender-specific serum total and post-polyethylene glycol (PEG) precipitation monomeric reference ranges for the recently re-standardised Abbott Architect prolactin assay. Prolactin was measured in serum samples obtained from males (n=49) and females (n=52) using the current Abbott Architect immunoassay pre- and post-PEG precipitation. Gender-specific reference ranges were derived for total and monomeric (post-PEG) prolactin. Routine patients' samples (n=175) with a serum total prolactin >700 mIU/L were screened for macroprolactinaemia to assess classification compared with our previous post-PEG precipitation percentage recovery-based approach. Reference ranges for serum total prolactin were 58-419 mIU/L (male) and 63-561 mIU/L (female). Male and female monomeric prolactin reference ranges were 32-309 mIU/L and 39-422 mIU/L, respectively. Mean (SD) post-PEG percentage recovery of the IS 84/500 prolactin standard was 80 (2.3)%. Of 175 patients' samples screened for macroprolactinaemia, 149 had monomeric prolactin concentrations (median monomeric prolactin=1035 mIU/L; median recovery=83%) above the gender-specific reference range. Monomeric prolactin concentrations (median monomeric prolactin=162 mIU/L; median recovery=20%) in the remaining 26 were within the reference ranges. One patient classified as macroprolactin positive and another classified as macroprolactin negative would not have been identified as such using the previous recovery-based approach. The use of post-PEG monomeric reference ranges not only identifies hyperprolactinaemia due solely to macroprolactinaemia but has the added advantage of identifying patients who have simultaneous true monomeric hyperprolactinaemia and elevated concentrations of macroprolactin. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions

  11. Second-harmonic generation in AlGaAs microdisks in the telecom range. (United States)

    Mariani, S; Andronico, A; Lemaître, A; Favero, I; Ducci, S; Leo, G


    We report on second-harmonic generation in whispering-gallery-mode AlGaAs microcavities suspended on a GaAs pedestal. Frequency doubling of a 1.58 μm pump is observed with 7×10(-4)   W(-1) conversion efficiency. This device can be integrated in a monolithic photonic chip for classical and quantum applications in the telecom band.

  12. Fusing range and intensity images for generating dense models of three-dimensional environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellekilde, Lars-Peter; Miró, Jaime Valls; Dissanayake., Gamini

    This paper presents a novel strategy for the construction of dense three-dimensional environment models by combining images from a conventional camera and a range imager. Ro- bust data association is ?rst accomplished by exploiting the Scale Invariant Feature Transformation (SIFT) technique on th...

  13. The Blood Pressure "Uncertainty Range" – a pragmatic approach to overcome current diagnostic uncertainties (II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pater Cornel


    Full Text Available Abstract A tremendous amount of scientific evidence regarding the physiology and physiopathology of high blood pressure combined with a sophisticated therapeutic arsenal is at the disposal of the medical community to counteract the overall public health burden of hypertension. Ample evidence has also been gathered from a multitude of large-scale randomized trials indicating the beneficial effects of current treatment strategies in terms of reduced hypertension-related morbidity and mortality. In spite of these impressive advances and, deeply disappointingly from a public health perspective, the real picture of hypertension management is overshadowed by widespread diagnostic inaccuracies (underdiagnosis, overdiagnosis as well as by treatment failures generated by undertreatment, overtreatment, and misuse of medications. The scientific, medical and patient communities as well as decision-makers worldwide are striving for greatest possible health gains from available resources. A seemingly well-crystallised reasoning is that comprehensive strategic approaches must not only target hypertension as a pathological entity, but rather, take into account the wider environment in which hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease carrying a great deal of our inheritance, and its interplay in the constellation of other, well-known, modifiable risk factors, i.e., attention is to be switched from one's "blood pressure level" to one's absolute cardiovascular risk and its determinants. Likewise, a risk/benefit assessment in each individual case is required in order to achieve best possible results. Nevertheless, it is of paramount importance to insure generalizability of ABPM use in clinical practice with the aim of improving the accuracy of a first diagnosis for both individual treatment and clinical research purposes. Widespread adoption of the method requires quick adjustment of current guidelines, development of appropriate technology

  14. A thermoelectric power generating heat exchanger: Part II – Numerical modeling and optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarhadi, Ali; Bjørk, Rasmus; Lindeburg, N.


    In Part I of this study, the performance of an experimental integrated thermoelectric generator (TEG)-heat exchanger was presented. In the current study, Part II, the obtained experimental results are compared with those predicted by a finite element (FE) model. In the simulation of the integrated...... TEG-heat exchanger, the thermal contact resistance between the TEG and the heat exchanger is modeled assuming either an ideal thermal contact or using a combined Cooper–Mikic–Yovanovich (CMY) and parallel plate gap formulation, which takes into account the contact pressure, roughness and hardness...

  15. Orbital-angular-momentum mixing in type-II second-harmonic generation (United States)

    Pereira, Leonardo J.; Buono, Wagner T.; Tasca, Daniel S.; Dechoum, Kaled; Khoury, Antonio Z.


    We investigate the nonlinear mixing of orbital angular momentum in type-II second-harmonic generation with arbitrary topological charges imprinted on two orthogonally polarized beams. Starting from the basic nonlinear equations for the interacting fields, we derive the selection rules determining the set of paraxial modes taking part in the interaction. Conservation of orbital angular momentum naturally appears as the topological charge selection rule. However, a less intuitive rule applies to the radial orders when modes carrying opposite helicities are combined in the nonlinear crystal, an intriguing feature confirmed by experimental measurements.

  16. Peculiarities of magnetization of second generation high-temperature superconducting tapes in a wide temperature range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudnev, I; Komarova, A; Bobin, P, E-mail: [National Research Nuclear University ' MEPHI' , Moscow (Russian Federation)


    We present the results of study of magnetization and critical current of coated conductors with magnetic and nonmagnetic substrates. The measurements of magnetization curves were done in a wide temperature range from 4,2 to 100 K and magnetic field up to 14 T. To determine the dependence of transport critical current on the magnetic field we measured a set of current-voltage characteristics in the range of magnetic field from 0 to 8 T at T = 77 K with perpendicular to the tape field orientation. It was obtained that the substrates magnetism dramatically changes the form of magnetization curves but not influence the value of critical current. Comparison of field dependence of critical current, obtained by contact and contactless method at T = 77 K shows that for both samples is observed coincidence of the curves at low fields and a strong divergence at H> 1 Tesla.



    A. A. Belmonte; M. M. P. Biong; Macatulad, E. G.


    Digital elevation models (DEMs) are widely used raster data for different applications concerning terrain, such as for flood modelling, viewshed analysis, mining, land development, engineering design projects, to name a few. DEMs can be obtained through various methods, including topographic survey, LiDAR or photogrammetry, and internet sources. Terrestrial close-range photogrammetry is one of the alternative methods to produce DEMs through the processing of images using photogrammetry softwa...

  18. Chymase-dependent generation of angiotensin II from angiotensin-(1-12 in human atrial tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarfaraz Ahmad

    Full Text Available Since angiotensin-(1-12 [Ang-(1-12] is a non-renin dependent alternate precursor for the generation of cardiac Ang peptides in rat tissue, we investigated the metabolism of Ang-(1-12 by plasma membranes (PM isolated from human atrial appendage tissue from nine patients undergoing cardiac surgery for primary control of atrial fibrillation (MAZE surgical procedure. PM was incubated with highly purified ¹²⁵I-Ang-(1-12 at 37°C for 1 h with or without renin-angiotensin system (RAS inhibitors [lisinopril for angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE, SCH39370 for neprilysin (NEP, MLN-4760 for ACE2 and chymostatin for chymase; 50 µM each]. ¹²⁵I-Ang peptide fractions were identified by HPLC coupled to an inline γ-detector. In the absence of all RAS inhibitor, ¹²⁵I-Ang-(1-12 was converted into Ang I (2±2%, Ang II (69±21%, Ang-(1-7 (5±2%, and Ang-(1-4 (2±1%. In the absence of all RAS inhibitor, only 22±10% of ¹²⁵I-Ang-(1-12 was unmetabolized, whereas, in the presence of the all RAS inhibitors, 98±7% of ¹²⁵I-Ang-(1-12 remained intact. The relative contribution of selective inhibition of ACE and chymase enzyme showed that ¹²⁵I-Ang-(1-12 was primarily converted into Ang II (65±18% by chymase while its hydrolysis into Ang II by ACE was significantly lower or undetectable. The activity of individual enzyme was calculated based on the amount of Ang II formation. These results showed very high chymase-mediated Ang II formation (28±3.1 fmol × min⁻¹ × mg⁻¹, n = 9 from ¹²⁵I-Ang-(1-12 and very low or undetectable Ang II formation by ACE (1.1±0.2 fmol×min⁻¹ × mg⁻¹. Paralleling these findings, these tissues showed significant content of chymase protein that by immunocytochemistry were primarily localized in atrial cardiac myocytes. In conclusion, we demonstrate for the first time in human cardiac tissue a dominant role of cardiac chymase in the formation of Ang II from Ang-(1-12.

  19. Squeezing and entanglement in doubly resonant, type II, second-harmonic generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ulrik Lund; Buchhave, Preben


    We investigate, theoretically, the generation of bright and vacuum-squeezed light as well as entanglement in intracavity, type II, phase-matched second-harmonic generation. The cavity in which the crystal is embedded is resonant at the fundamental frequency but not at the second-harmonic frequency....... A simple model for the process using semiclassical theory is derived, and quadrature-squeezing spectra of the involved fundamental fields are deduced. The analysis shows that vacuum squeezing reminiscent of subthreshold optical parametric oscillator squeezing is present and, in the ideal case, perfect....... Under slight modifications of the operational conditions, the system is shown to produce efficient bright, squeezed light. Furthermore, we investigate the degree of polarization squeezing and find that three Stokes parameters can be squeezed simultaneously. Finally, we gauge the process for possible...

  20. Numerical simulation of supercontinuum generation in GeO II doped fiber (United States)

    Liu, Yuexin; Sharping, Jay E.; Cicerone, Marcus T.


    Broadband coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy promises non-invasive, high information content microscopic imaging for live cells and tissues. Generation of a broadband continuum with appropriate characteristics to be used for Stokes light has been a roadblock for bringing this promise to fruition. Here we present numerical and experimental work towards generation of a suitable Stokes light continuum from a femtosecond pulse laser. In the simulations, the pulse propagation along the fiber is governed by the generalized nonlinear Schroedinger equation, including linear effects from the group velocity dispersion and the nonlinear effects from self phase modulation, delayed Raman scattering process and self-steepening. The equations are integrated using a symmetrized split-step Fourier method. Optimal fiber-related simulation parameters used in the model, such as the nonlinear coefficient, dispersion coefficients and the fraction of the stimulated Raman scattering contribution etc, are systematically investigated and determined for the GeO II doped fiber.

  1. Application potential of thermoelectric power generation in the high-temperature range; Anwendungspotential der thermoelektrischen Stromerzeugung im Hochtemperaturbereich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froehlich, K.; Eisenhut, Ch.; Bitschi, A.


    This final report for the Swiss Office of Energy (SFOE) discusses the potential offered by thermo-electrical electricity generation. New, efficient materials, especially in the high temperature range above 150 {sup o}C, are discussed. Various relevant scenarios of thermoelectric power generation systems have been evaluated and compared with conventional energy conversion technologies. It is noted that with today's materials the utilisation of thermoelectric generators for high temperature applications is not competitive. The advances of material science promise the availability of significantly improved materials in medium term. It is noted that thermoelectric power generation has the potential to convert low-temperature and high-temperature thermal energy into electrical power in an efficient and competitive way

  2. Development of the second generation Berry Impact Recording Device (BIRD II). (United States)

    Xu, Rui; Li, Changying


    To quantitatively measure the impacts during blueberry harvesting and post-harvest handling, this study designed the second generation Berry Impact Recording Device (BIRD II) sensor with a size of 21 mm in diameter and a weight of 3.9 g, which reduced the size by 17% and the weight by 50% compared to the previous prototype. The sensor was able to measure accelerations up to 346 g at a maximum frequency of 2 KHz. Universal Serial Bus (USB) was used to directly connect the sensor with the computer, removing the interface box used previously. LabVIEW-based PC software was designed to configure the sensor, download and process the data. The sensor was calibrated using a centrifuge. The accuracy of the sensor was between -1.76 g to 2.17 g, and the precision was between 0.21 g to 0.81 g. Dynamic drop tests showed that BIRD II had smaller variance in measurements than BIRD I. In terms of size and weight, BIRD II is more similar to an average blueberry fruit than BIRD I, which leads to more accurate measurements of the impacts for blueberries.

  3. Deformation and the timing of gas generation and migration in the eastern Brooks Range foothills, Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska (United States)

    Parris, T.M.; Burruss, R.C.; O'Sullivan, P. B.


    Along the southeast border of the 1002 Assessment Area in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska, an explicit link between gas generation and deformation in the Brooks Range fold and thrust belt is provided through petrographic, fluid inclusion, and stable isotope analyses of fracture cements integrated with zircon fission-track data. Predominantly quartz-cemented fractures, collected from thrusted Triassic and Jurassic rocks, contain crack-seal textures, healed microcracks, and curved crystals and fluid inclusion populations, which suggest that cement growth occurred before, during, and after deformation. Fluid inclusion homogenization temperatures (175-250??C) and temperature trends in fracture samples suggest that cements grew at 7-10 km depth during the transition from burial to uplift and during early uplift. CH4-rich (dry gas) inclusions in the Shublik Formation and Kingak Shale are consistent with inclusion entrapment at high thermal maturity for these source rocks. Pressure modeling of these CH4-rich inclusions suggests that pore fluids were overpressured during fracture cementation. Zircon fission-track data in the area record postdeposition denudation associated with early Brooks Range deformation at 64 ?? 3 Ma. With a closure temperature of 225-240??C, the zircon fission-track data overlap homogenization temperatures of coeval aqueous inclusions and inclusions containing dry gas in Kingak and Shublik fracture cements. This critical time-temperature relationship suggests that fracture cementation occurred during early Brooks Range deformation. Dry gas inclusions suggest that Shublik and Kingak source rocks had exceeded peak oil and gas generation temperatures at the time structural traps formed during early Brooks Range deformation. The timing of hydrocarbon generation with respect to deformation therefore represents an important exploration risk for gas exploration in this part of the Brooks Range fold and thrust belt. The persistence of gas high at


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. K. Kohoutek


    Full Text Available Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs are more and more used in civil areas like geomatics. Autonomous navigated platforms have a great flexibility in flying and manoeuvring in complex environments to collect remote sensing data. In contrast to standard technologies such as aerial manned platforms (airplanes and helicopters UAVs are able to fly closer to the object and in small-scale areas of high-risk situations such as landslides, volcano and earthquake areas and floodplains. Thus, UAVs are sometimes the only practical alternative in areas where access is difficult and where no manned aircraft is available or even no flight permission is given. Furthermore, compared to terrestrial platforms, UAVs are not limited to specific view directions and could overcome occlusions from trees, houses and terrain structures. Equipped with image sensors and/or laser scanners they are able to provide elevation models, rectified images, textured 3D-models and maps. In this paper we will describe a UAV platform, which can carry a range imaging (RIM camera including power supply and data storage for the detailed mapping and monitoring of complex structures, such as alpine riverbed areas. The UAV platform NEO from Swiss UAV was equipped with the RIM camera CamCube 2.0 by PMD Technologies GmbH to capture the surface structures. Its navigation system includes an autopilot. To validate the UAV-trajectory a 360° prism was installed and tracked by a total station. Within the paper a workflow for the processing of UAV-RIM data is proposed, which is based on the processing of differential GNSS data in combination with the acquired range images. Subsequently, the obtained results for the trajectory are compared and verified with a track of a UAV (Falcon 8, Ascending Technologies carried out with a total station simultaneously to the GNSS data acquisition. The results showed that the UAV's position using differential GNSS could be determined in the centimetre to the decimetre

  5. A new control strategy with saturation effect compensation for an autonomous induction generator driven by wide speed range turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margato, Elmano, E-mail: efmargato@isel.ipl.p [Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Lisboa, DEEA, Av. Cons. Emidio Navarro 1, 1950-062 Lisboa (Portugal); Centro de Electrotecnia e Electronica Industrial, Av. Cons. Emidio Navarro 1, 1950-062 Lisboa (Portugal); Center for Inovation in Electrical and Energy Engineering, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Faria, Jose, E-mail: josefaria@netvisao.p [Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Lisboa, DEEA, Av. Cons. Emidio Navarro 1, 1950-062 Lisboa (Portugal); Centro de Electrotecnia e Electronica Industrial, Av. Cons. Emidio Navarro 1, 1950-062 Lisboa (Portugal); Resende, M.J., E-mail: mresende@ist.utl.p [Center for Inovation in Electrical and Energy Engineering, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Instituto Superior Tecnico, DEEC, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Palma, Joao, E-mail: jpalma@lnec.p [Centro de Electrotecnia e Electronica Industrial, Av. Cons. Emidio Navarro 1, 1950-062 Lisboa (Portugal); Laboratorio Nacional de Engenharia Civil, LNEC, Av. Brasil 101, 1700-066 (Portugal)


    Research highlights: {yields} A novel control strategy for autonomous induction generators with variable rotor speed. {yields} Generator excitation achieved using a current controlled voltage source inverter. {yields} Machine optimized use with stability and saturation effect compensation. {yields} Both saturation and cross-saturation effects discussed upon generator modeling. {yields} Efficient excitation and continuous load voltage control in a wide rotor speed range. -- Abstract: This paper presents a variable speed autonomous squirrel cage generator excited by a current-controlled voltage source inverter to be used in stand-alone micro-hydro power plants. The paper proposes a system control strategy aiming to properly excite the machine as well as to achieve the load voltage control. A feed-forward control sets the appropriate generator flux by taking into account the actual speed and the desired load voltage. A load voltage control loop is used to adjust the generated active power in order to sustain the load voltage at a reference value. The control system is based on a rotor flux oriented vector control technique which takes into account the machine saturation effect. The proposed control strategy and the adopted system models were validated both by numerical simulation and by experimental results obtained from a laboratory prototype. Results covering the prototype start-up, as well as its steady-state and dynamical behavior are presented.

  6. Can ethograms be automatically generated using body acceleration data from free-ranging birds?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kentaro Q Sakamoto

    Full Text Available An ethogram is a catalogue of discrete behaviors typically employed by a species. Traditionally animal behavior has been recorded by observing study individuals directly. However, this approach is difficult, often impossible, in the case of behaviors which occur in remote areas and/or at great depth or altitude. The recent development of increasingly sophisticated, animal-borne data loggers, has started to overcome this problem. Accelerometers are particularly useful in this respect because they can record the dynamic motion of a body in e.g. flight, walking, or swimming. However, classifying behavior using body acceleration characteristics typically requires prior knowledge of the behavior of free-ranging animals. Here, we demonstrate an automated procedure to categorize behavior from body acceleration, together with the release of a user-friendly computer application, "Ethographer". We evaluated its performance using longitudinal acceleration data collected from a foot-propelled diving seabird, the European shag, Phalacrocorax aristotelis. The time series data were converted into a spectrum by continuous wavelet transformation. Then, each second of the spectrum was categorized into one of 20 behavior groups by unsupervised cluster analysis, using k-means methods. The typical behaviors extracted were characterized by the periodicities of body acceleration. Each categorized behavior was assumed to correspond to when the bird was on land, in flight, on the sea surface, diving and so on. The behaviors classified by the procedures accorded well with those independently defined from depth profiles. Because our approach is performed by unsupervised computation of the data, it has the potential to detect previously unknown types of behavior and unknown sequences of some behaviors.

  7. Elastase-2, an angiotensin II-generating enzyme, contributes to increased angiotensin II in resistance arteries of mice with myocardial infarction. (United States)

    Becari, Christiane; Silva, Marcondes A B; Durand, Marina T; Prado, Cibele M; Oliveira, Eduardo B; Ribeiro, Mauricio S; Salgado, Helio C; Salgado, Maria Cristina O; Tostes, Rita C


    Angiotensin II (Ang II), whose generation largely depends on angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity, mediates most of the renin-angiotensin-system (RAS) effects. Elastase-2 (ELA-2), a chymotrypsin-serine protease elastase family member 2A, alternatively generates Ang II in rat arteries. Myocardial infarction (MI) leads to intense RAS activation, but mechanisms involved in Ang II-generation in resistance arteries are unknown. We hypothesized that ELA-2 contributes to vascular Ang II generation and cardiac damage in mice subjected to MI. Concentration-effect curves to Ang I and Ang II were performed in mesenteric resistance arteries from male wild type (WT) and ELA-2 knockout (ELA-2KO) mice subjected to left anterior descending coronary artery ligation (MI). MI size was similar in WT and ELA-2KO mice. Ejection fraction and fractional shortening after MI similarly decreased in both strains. However, MI decreased stroke volume and cardiac output in WT, but not in ELA-2KO mice. Ang I-induced contractions increased in WT mice subjected to MI (MI-WT) compared with sham-WT mice. No differences were observed in Ang I reactivity between arteries from ELA-2KO and ELA-2KO subjected to MI (MI-ELA-2KO). Ang I contractions increased in arteries from MI-WT versus MI-ELA-2KO mice. Chymostatin attenuated Ang I-induced vascular contractions in WT mice, but did not affect Ang I responses in ELA-2KO arteries. These results provide the first evidence that ELA-2 contributes to increased Ang II formation in resistance arteries and modulates cardiac function after MI, implicating ELA-2 as a key player in ACE-independent dysregulation of the RAS. © 2017 The British Pharmacological Society.

  8. ADMET rules of thumb II: A comparison of the effects of common substituents on a range of ADMET parameters. (United States)

    Gleeson, Paul; Bravi, Gianpaolo; Modi, Sandeep; Lowe, Daniel


    A systematic analysis of data generated in key in vitro assays within GSK has been undertaken to identify what impact a range of common substituents have on a range of ADMET parameters. These include; P450 1A2, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6 and 3A4 inhibition, hERG inhibition, phosphate buffer solubility and artificial membrane permeability. We do this by identifying all matched molecular pairs, differing by the replacement of a hydrogen atom with a list of predefined substituents. For each substituent we calculate the mean difference in the ADMET parameter for all the matched molecular pairs identified, making a statistical assessment of the difference, as well as assessing the diversity for each example to ensure that the results can be generalized. We also relate the change in activity observed for each substituent to differences in their molecular properties in an effort to identify any structural alerts.

  9. Coordination functionalization of graphene oxide with tetraazamacrocyclic complexes of nickel(II): Generation of paramagnetic centers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basiuk, Vladimir A., E-mail: [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito Exterior C.U., 04510 México D.F. (Mexico); Department of Chemistry,Tufts University, 62 Talbot Avenue, Medford, MA 02155 (United States); Alzate-Carvajal, Natalia [Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas y Desarrollo Tecnológico, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito Exterior C.U., 04510 México D.F. (Mexico); Henao-Holguín, Laura V. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito Exterior C.U., 04510 México D.F. (Mexico); Rybak-Akimova, Elena V. [Department of Chemistry,Tufts University, 62 Talbot Avenue, Medford, MA 02155 (United States); Basiuk, Elena V., E-mail: [Department of Chemistry,Tufts University, 62 Talbot Avenue, Medford, MA 02155 (United States); Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas y Desarrollo Tecnológico, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito Exterior C.U., 04510 México D.F. (Mexico)


    Highlights: • [Ni(cyclam)]{sup 2+} and [Ni(tet b)]{sup 2+} cations coordinate to carboxylic groups of GO. • The coordination takes place under basic conditions in aqueous-based medium. • The coordination results in the conversion from low-spin to high-spin Ni(II). • Functionalized GO samples were characterized by various instrumental techniques. - Abstract: We describe a novel approach to functionalization of graphene oxide (GO) which allows for a facile generation of paramagnetic centers from two diamagnetic components. Coordination attachment of [Ni(cyclam)]{sup 2+} or [Ni(tet b)]{sup 2+} tetraazamacrocyclic cations to carboxylic groups of GO takes place under basic conditions in aqueous-based reaction medium. The procedure is very straightforward and does not require high temperatures or other harsh conditions. Changing the coordination geometry of Ni(II) from square-planar tetracoordinated to pseudooctahedral hexacoordinated brings about the conversion from low-spin to high-spin state of the metal centers. Even though the content of tetraazamacrocyclic complexes in functionalized GO samples was found to be relatively low (nickel content of ca. 1 wt%, as determined by thermogravimetric analysis, elemental analysis and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy), room temperature magnetic susceptibility measurements easily detected the appearance of paramagnetic properties in GO + [Ni(cyclam)] and GO + [Ni(tet b)] nanohybrids, with effective magnetic moments of 1.95 BM and 2.2 BM for, respectively. According to density functional theory calculations, the main spin density is localized at the macrocyclic complexes, without considerable extension to graphene sheet, which suggests insignificant ferromagnetic coupling in the nanohybrids, in agreement with the results of magnetic susceptibility measurements. The coordination attachment of Ni(II) tetraazamacrocycles to GO results in considerable changes in Fourier-transform infrared and X-ray photoelectron spectra

  10. Proposed Tenaska Washington II Generation Project : Final Environmental Impact Statement. Volume 2: Public Involvement.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.


    In regard to the proposed Tenaska Washington II Generation Project, the goal of the Bonneville Power Administration`s (BPA) Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) public involvement process is to determine the issues to be examined and pertinent analyses to be conducted and to solicit comments on the content and quality of information presented in the Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS). Comments and questions are solicited from the public and government agencies during the scoping process and during the comment period and public hearing on the DEIS, to find out what is of most concern to them. The end product of the public involvement process is the Comment Report which follows in part of this volume on Public Involvement.

  11. Photonics-based real-time ultra-high-range-resolution radar with broadband signal generation and processing. (United States)

    Zhang, Fangzheng; Guo, Qingshui; Pan, Shilong


    Real-time and high-resolution target detection is highly desirable in modern radar applications. Electronic techniques have encountered grave difficulties in the development of such radars, which strictly rely on a large instantaneous bandwidth. In this article, a photonics-based real-time high-range-resolution radar is proposed with optical generation and processing of broadband linear frequency modulation (LFM) signals. A broadband LFM signal is generated in the transmitter by photonic frequency quadrupling, and the received echo is de-chirped to a low frequency signal by photonic frequency mixing. The system can operate at a high frequency and a large bandwidth while enabling real-time processing by low-speed analog-to-digital conversion and digital signal processing. A conceptual radar is established. Real-time processing of an 8-GHz LFM signal is achieved with a sampling rate of 500 MSa/s. Accurate distance measurement is implemented with a maximum error of 4 mm within a range of ~3.5 meters. Detection of two targets is demonstrated with a range-resolution as high as 1.875 cm. We believe the proposed radar architecture is a reliable solution to overcome the limitations of current radar on operation bandwidth and processing speed, and it is hopefully to be used in future radars for real-time and high-resolution target detection and imaging.

  12. Pulsed Bessel-Gauss beams: a depleted wave model for type II second-harmonic generation. (United States)

    Sabaeian, Mohammad; Motazedian, Alireza; Mohammad Rezaee, Mostafa; Jalil-Abadi, Fatemeh Sedaghat


    In this work, a three-dimensional and time-dependent nonlinear wave model to describe the generation of pulsed Bessel-Gauss second-harmonic waves (SHWs) is presented. Three coupled equations, two for ordinary and extraordinary fundamental waves and one for extraordinary SHWs, describing type II second-harmonic generation (SHG) in a KTiOPO4 (KTP) crystal were solved by considering the depletion of fundamental waves (FWs). The results examined the validity of nondepleted wave approximation against the energy of pulses, beam spot size, and interaction length. It was shown that for pulses with spot sizes of ωf=80  μm and energy of 0.8j, the nonlinear interaction was accomplished over a distance of ∼5  mm. Therefore, for KTP crystals with lengths longer than 5 mm, the nondepleted wave approximation can no longer be valid. To be valid, the crystal must be shorter than the interaction length, i.e., 5 mm.

  13. Selection, diversity and evolutionary patterns of the MHC class II DAB in free-ranging Neotropical marsupials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otten Celine


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research on the genetic architecture and diversity of the MHC has focused mainly on eutherian mammals, birds and fish. So far, studies on model marsupials used in laboratory investigations indicated very little or even no variation in MHC class II genes. However, natural levels of diversity and selection are unknown in marsupials as studies on wild populations are virtually absent. We used two endemic South American mouse opossums, Gracilinanus microtarsus and Marmosops incanus, to investigate characteristic features of MHC selection. This study is the first investigation of MHC selection in free-ranging Neotropical marsupials. In addition, the evolutionary history of MHC lineages within the group of marsupials was examined. Results G. microtarsus showed extensive levels of MHC diversity within and among individuals as 47 MHC-DAB alleles and high levels of sequence divergence were detected at a minimum of four loci. Positively selected codon sites were identified, of which most were congruent with human antigen binding sites. The diversity in M. incanus was rather low with only eight observed alleles at presumably two loci. However, these alleles also revealed high sequence divergence. Again, positive selection was identified on specific codon sites, all congruent with human ABS and with positively selected sites observed in G. microtarsus. In a phylogenetic comparison alleles of M. incanus interspersed widely within alleles of G. microtarsus with four alleles being present in both species. Conclusion Our investigations revealed extensive MHC class II polymorphism in a natural marsupial population, contrary to previous assumptions. Furthermore, our study confirms for the first time in marsupials the presence of three characteristic features common at MHC loci of eutherian mammals, birds and fish: large allelic sequence divergence, positive selection on specific sites and trans-specific polymorphism.

  14. Particle dynamics in self-generated dunes over a range of hydraulic and sediment transport conditions using LES--DEM

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Rui; Strom, Kyle


    Direct measurement of vertical and longitudinal sediment fluxes on migrating sandy bedforms are extremely difficult to perform in both the field and laboratory. In this study we use the LES--DEM (large eddy simulation--discrete element method) solver SediFoam to examine the individual particle motions and resulting fluxes in a domain of self-generated dunes. In SediFoam, the motions of, and collisions among, the sediment grains as well as their interactions with surrounding turbulent flows are resolved. The numerical simulations are performed over a range of transport settings, spanning bedform inception through washout conditions, to examine the individual particle dynamics. The space-time evolution of dune surfaces is demonstrated. The self-generated dunes are stable at relatively low Reynolds numbers, but then become increasingly unstable at higher Reynolds numbers; eventually washing out as the number of bypass grains and particles in suspension increase. Data from the simulation are used to examine the v...

  15. COMDES-II: A Component-Based Framework for Generative Development of Distributed Real-Time Control Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ke, Xu; Sierszecki, Krzysztof; Angelov, Christo K.


    The paper presents a generative development methodology and component models of COMDES-II, a component-based software framework for distributed embedded control systems with real-time constraints. The adopted methodology allows for rapid modeling and validation of control software at a higher level...... methodology for COMDES-II from a general perspective, describes the component models in details and demonstrates their application through a DC-Motor control system case study....

  16. A computational method to model radar return range in a polygonally based, computer-generated-imagery simulation (United States)

    Moran, F. J.; Phillips, J. D.


    Described is a method for modeling a ground-mapping radar system for use in simulations where the terrain is in a polygonal form commonly used with computer generated imagery (CGI). The method employs a unique approach for rapidly rejecting polygons not visible to the radar to facilitate the real-time simulation of the radar return. This rapid rejection of the nonvisible polygons requires the precalculation and storage of a set of parameters that do not vary during the simulation. The calculation of a radar range as a function of the radar forward-looking angle to the CGI terrain is carried out only for the visible polygons. This method was used as part of a simulation for terrain-following helicopter operations on the vertical motion simulator at the NASA Ames Research Center. It proved to be an efficient means for returning real-time simulated radar range data.

  17. Spatial Autocorrelation Can Generate Stronger Correlations between Range Size and Climatic Niches Than the Biological Signal - A Demonstration Using Bird and Mammal Range Maps. (United States)

    Boucher-Lalonde, Véronique; Currie, David J


    Species' geographic ranges could primarily be physiological tolerances drawn in space. Alternatively, geographic ranges could be only broadly constrained by physiological climatic tolerances: there could generally be much more proximate constraints on species' ranges (dispersal limitation, biotic interactions, etc.) such that species often occupy a small and unpredictable subset of tolerable climates. In the literature, species' climatic tolerances are typically estimated from the set of conditions observed within their geographic range. Using this method, studies have concluded that broader climatic niches permit larger ranges. Similarly, other studies have investigated the biological causes of incomplete range filling. But, when climatic constraints are measured directly from species' ranges, are correlations between species' range size and climate necessarily consistent with a causal link? We evaluated the extent to which variation in range size among 3277 bird and 1659 mammal species occurring in the Americas is statistically related to characteristics of species' realized climatic niches. We then compared how these relationships differed from the ones expected in the absence of a causal link. We used a null model that randomizes the predictor variables (climate), while retaining their broad spatial autocorrelation structure, thereby removing any causal relationship between range size and climate. We found that, although range size is strongly positively related to climatic niche breadth, range filling and, to a lesser extent, niche position in nature, the observed relationships are not always stronger than expected from spatial autocorrelation alone. Thus, we conclude that equally strong relationships between range size and climate would result from any processes causing ranges to be highly spatially autocorrelated.

  18. Spatial Autocorrelation Can Generate Stronger Correlations between Range Size and Climatic Niches Than the Biological Signal — A Demonstration Using Bird and Mammal Range Maps (United States)

    Boucher-Lalonde, Véronique; Currie, David J.


    Species’ geographic ranges could primarily be physiological tolerances drawn in space. Alternatively, geographic ranges could be only broadly constrained by physiological climatic tolerances: there could generally be much more proximate constraints on species’ ranges (dispersal limitation, biotic interactions, etc.) such that species often occupy a small and unpredictable subset of tolerable climates. In the literature, species’ climatic tolerances are typically estimated from the set of conditions observed within their geographic range. Using this method, studies have concluded that broader climatic niches permit larger ranges. Similarly, other studies have investigated the biological causes of incomplete range filling. But, when climatic constraints are measured directly from species’ ranges, are correlations between species’ range size and climate necessarily consistent with a causal link? We evaluated the extent to which variation in range size among 3277 bird and 1659 mammal species occurring in the Americas is statistically related to characteristics of species’ realized climatic niches. We then compared how these relationships differed from the ones expected in the absence of a causal link. We used a null model that randomizes the predictor variables (climate), while retaining their broad spatial autocorrelation structure, thereby removing any causal relationship between range size and climate. We found that, although range size is strongly positively related to climatic niche breadth, range filling and, to a lesser extent, niche position in nature, the observed relationships are not always stronger than expected from spatial autocorrelation alone. Thus, we conclude that equally strong relationships between range size and climate would result from any processes causing ranges to be highly spatially autocorrelated. PMID:27855201

  19. Reference manual for generation and analysis of Habitat Time Series: version II (United States)

    Milhous, Robert T.; Bartholow, John M.; Updike, Marlys A.; Moos, Alan R.


    by the Aquatic Systems Branch of the National Ecology Research Center. For more information about the TSLIB software, refer to the Memorandum of Understanding. Chapter 1 provides a brief introduction to the Instream Flow Incremental Methodology and TSLIB. Other chapters in this manual provide information on the different aspects of using the models. The information contained in the other chapters includes (2) acquisition, entry, manipulation, and listing of streamflow data; (3) entry, manipulation, and listing of the habitat-versus-streamflow function; (4) transferring streamflow data; (5) water resources systems analysis; (6) generation and analysis of daily streamflow and habitat values; (7) generation of the time series of monthly habitats; (8) manipulation, analysis, and display of month time series data; and (9) generation, analysis, and display of annual time series data. Each section includes documentation for the programs therein with at least one page of information for each program, including a program description, instructions for running the program, and sample output. The Appendixes contain the following: (A) sample file formats; (B) descriptions of default filenames; (C) alphabetical summary of batch-procedure files; (D) installing and running TSLIB on a microcomputer; (E) running TSLIB on a CDC Cyber computer; (F) using the TSLIB user interface program (RTSM); and (G) running WATSTORE on the USGS Amdahl mainframe computer. The number for this version of TSLIB--Version II-- is somewhat arbitrary, as the TSLIB programs were collected into a library some time ago; but operators tended to use and manage them as individual programs. Therefore, we will consider the group of programs from the past that were only on the CDC Cyber computer as Version 0; the programs from the past that were on both the Cyber and the IBM-compatible microcomputer as Version I; and the programs contained in this reference manual as Version II.

  20. Determining the bounds of skilful forecast range for probabilistic prediction of system-wide wind power generation (United States)

    Cannon, Dirk; Brayshaw, David; Methven, John; Drew, Daniel


    State-of-the-art wind power forecasts beyond a few hours ahead rely on global numerical weather prediction models to forecast the future large-scale atmospheric state. Often they provide initial and boundary conditions for nested high resolution simulations. In this work, both upper and lower bounds on forecast range are identified within which global ensemble forecasts provide skilful information for system-wide wind power applications. An upper bound on forecast range is associated with the limit of predictability, beyond which forecasts have no more skill than predictions based on climatological statistics. A lower bound is defined at the lead time beyond which the resolved uncertainty associated with estimating the future large-scale atmospheric state is larger than the unresolved uncertainty associated with estimating the system-wide wind power response to a given large-scale state. The bounds of skillful ensemble forecast range are quantified for three leading global forecast systems. The power system of Great Britain (GB) is used as an example because independent verifying data is available from National Grid. The upper bound defined by forecasts of GB-total wind power generation at a specific point in time is found to be 6-8 days. The lower bound is found to be 1.4-2.4 days. Both bounds depend on the global forecast system and vary seasonally. In addition, forecasts of the probability of an extreme power ramp event were found to possess a shorter limit of predictability (4.5-5.5 days). The upper bound on this forecast range can only be extended by improving the global forecast system (outside the control of most users) or by changing the metric used in the probability forecast. Improved downscaling and microscale modelling of the wind farm response may act to decrease the lower bound. The potential gain from such improvements have diminishing returns beyond the short-range (out to around 2 days).

  1. Search for a fourth generation b'-quark at LEP-II at sqrt{s}=196-209 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Abdallah, J.; Adam, W.; Adzic, P.; Albrecht, T.; Alemany-Fernandez, R.; Allmendinger, T.; Allport, P.P.; Amaldi, U.; Amapane, N.; Amato, S.; Anashkin, E.; Andreazza, A.; Andringa, S.; Anjos, N.; Antilogus, P.; Apel, W-D.; Arnoud, Y.; Ask, S.; Asman, B.; Augustin, J.E.; Augustinus, A.; Baillon, P.; Ballestrero, A.; Bambade, P.; Barbier, R.; Bardin, D.; Barker, G.J.; Baroncelli, A.; Battaglia, M.; Baubillier, M.; Becks, K-H.; Begalli, M.; Behrmann, A.; Ben-Haim, E.; Benekos, N.; Benvenuti, A.; Berat, C.; Berggren, M.; Berntzon, L.; Bertrand, D.; Besancon, M.; Besson, N.; Bloch, D.; Blom, M.; Bluj, M.; Bonesini, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Booth, P.S.L.; Borisov, G.; Botner, O.; Bouquet, B.; Bowcock, T.J.V.; Boyko, I.; Bracko, M.; Brenner, R.; Brodet, E.; Bruckman, P.; Brunet, J.M.; Buschbeck, B.; Buschmann, P.; Calvi, M.; Camporesi, T.; Canale, V.; Carena, F.; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Cavallo, F.; Chapkin, M.; Charpentier, Ph.; Charpentier, Ph.; Checchia, P.; Chierici, R.; Chudoba, J.; Chliapnikov, P.; Chudoba, J.; Chung, S.U.; Cieslik, K.; Collins, P.; Contri, R.; Cosme, G.; Cossutti, F.; Costa, M.J.; Crennell, D.; Cuevas, J.; D'Hondt, J.; Dalmau, J.; da Silva, T.; Da Silva, W.; Della Ricca, G.; De Angelis, A.; De Boer, W.; De Clercq, C.; De Lotto, B.; De Maria, N.; De Min, A.; de Paula, L.; Di Ciaccio, L.; Di Simone, A.; Doroba, K.; Eigen, G.; Ekelof, T.; Ellert, M.; Elsing, M.; Santo, M.C.Espirito; Fanourakis, G.; Feindt, M.; Fernandez, J.; Ferrer, A.; Ferro, F.; Flagmeyer, U.; Foeth, H.; Fokitis, E.; Fulda-Quenzer, F.; Fuster, J.; Gandelman, M.; Garcia, C.; Gavillet, Ph.; Gazis, E.; Gomez-Ceballos, G.; Goncalves, P.; Graziani, E.; Grosdidier, G.; Grzelak, K.; Guy, J.; Haag, C.; Hallgren, A.; Hamacher, K.; Hamilton, K.; Haug, S.; Hauler, F.; Hedberg, V.; Hennecke, M.; Herr, H.; Hoffman, J.; Holmgren, S-O.; Holt, P.J.; Houlden, M.A.; Jackson, John Neil; Jarlskog, G.; Jarry, P.; Jeans, D.; Johansson, Erik Karl; Johansson, P.D.; Jonsson, P.; Joram, C.; Jungermann, L.; Kapusta, F.; Katsanevas, S.; Katsoufis, E.; Kernel, G.; Kerzel, U.; King, B.T.; Kjaer, N.J.; Kluit, P.; Kokkinias, P.; Kourkoumelis, C.; Kouznetsov, O.; Krumstein, Z.; Kucharczyk, M.; Lamsa, J.; Leder, G.; Ledroit, F.; Leinonen, L.; Leitner, R.; Lemonne, J.; Lepeltier, V.; Lesiak, T.; Liebig, W.; Liko, D.; Lipniacka, A.; Lopes, J.H.; Lopez, J.M.; Loukas, D.; Lutz, P.; Lyons, L.; MacNaughton, J.; Malek, A.; Maltezos, S.; Mandl, F.; Marco, J.; Marco, R.; Marechal, B.; Margoni, M.; Marin, J-C.; Mariotti, C.; Markou, A.; Martinez-Rivero, C.; Masik, J.; Mastroyiannopoulos, N.; Matorras, F.; Matteuzzi, C.; Mazzucato, F.; Mazzucato, M.; Nulty, R.Mc; Meroni, C.; Migliore, E.; Mitaroff, W.; Mjoernmark, U.; Moa, T.; Moch, M.; Monge, R.; Montenegro, J.; Moraes, D.; Moreno, S.; Morettini, P.; Mueller, U.; Muenich, K.; Mulders, M.; Mundim, L.; Murray, W.; Muryn, B.; Myatt, G.; Myklebust, T.; Nassiakou, M.; Navarria, F.; Nawrocki, K.; Nicolaidou, R.; Oliveira, O.; Oblakowska-Mucha, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Oliveira, O.; Oliveira, S.M.; Olshevski, A.; Onofre, A.; Orava, R.; Osterberg, K.; Ouraou, A.; Oyanguren, A.; Paganoni, M.; Paiano, S.; Palacios, J.P.; Palka, H.; Papadopoulou, Th.D.; Pape, L.; Parkes, C.; Parodi, F.; Parzefall, U.; Passeri, A.; Passon, O.; Peralta, L.; Perepelitsa, V.; Perrotta, A.; Petrolini, A.; Piedra, J.; Pieri, L.; Pierre, F.; Pimenta, M.; Piotto, E.; Poireau, V.; Pol, M.E.; Polok, G.; Pozdniakov, V.; Pukhaeva, N.; Pullia, A.; Rames, J.; Read, A.; Rebecchi, P.; Rehn, J.; Reid, D.; Reinhardt, R.; Renton, P.; Richard, F.; Ridky, J.; Rivero, M.; Rodriguez, D.; Romero, A.; Ronchese, P.; Roudeau, P.; Sadovsky, A.; Rovelli, T.; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V.; Ryabtchikov, D.; Sadovsky, A.; Salmi, L.; Salt, J.; Sander, C.; Santos, R.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Schwickerath, U.; Sekulin, R.; Siebel, M.; Sopczak, A.; Sisakian, A.; Smadja, G.; Smirnova, O.; Sokolov, A.; Sopczak, A.; Sosnowski, R.; Spassov, T.; Stanitzki, M.; Stocchi, A.; Strauss, J.; Stugu, B.; Szczekowski, M.; Szeptycka, M.; Szumlak, T.; Tabarelli, T.; Taffard, A.C.; Tegenfeldt, F.; Timmermans, Jan; Tkatchev, L.; Tobin, M.; Todorovova, S.; Tome, B.; Tonazzo, A.; Tortosa, P.; Travnicek, P.; Treille, D.; Tristram, G.; Trochimczuk, M.; Troncon, C.; Valenti, G.; Turluer, M-L.; Tyapkin, I.A.; Tyapkin, P.; Tzamarias, S.; Uvarov, V.; Valenti, G.; Van Dam, Piet; Van Eldik, J.; van Remortel, N.; Van Vulpen, I.; Vegni, G.; Veloso, F.; Venus, W.; Verdier, P.; Verzi, V.; Vilanova, D.; Vitale, L.; Vrba, V.; Wahlen, H.; Washbrook, A.J.; Weiser, C.; Zalewska, A.; Wicke, D.; Wickens, J.; Wilkinson, G.; Winter, M.; Witek, M.; Yushchenko, O.; Zalewska, A.; Zalewski, P.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zhuravlov, V.; Zimine, N.I.; Zintchenko, A.


    A search for the pair production of fourth generation b'-quarks was performed using data taken by the DELPHI detector at LEP-II. The analysed data were collected at centre-of-mass energies ranging from 196 to 209 GeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 420 pb^{-1}. No evidence for a signal was found. Upper limits on BR(b' -> bZ) and BR(b' -> cW) were obtained for b' masses ranging from 96 to 103 GeV/c^2. These limits, together with the theoretical branching ratios predicted by a sequential four generations model, were used to constrain the value of R_{CKM}=|V_{cb'}/V_{tb'}V_{tb}|, where V_{cb'}, V_{tb'} and V_{tb} are elements of the extended CKM matrix.

  2. High performance photoelectrochemical hydrogen generation and solar cells with a double type II heterojunction. (United States)

    Lai, Lai-Hung; Gomulya, Widianta; Protesescu, Loredana; Kovalenko, Maksym V; Loi, Maria A


    We report on the fabrication of CdSe quantum dot (QD) sensitized electrodes by direct adsorption of colloidal QDs on mesoporous TiO2 followed by 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) ligand exchange. High efficiency photoelectrochemical hydrogen generation is demonstrated by means of these electrodes. The deposition of ZnS on TiO2/CdSe further improves the external quantum efficiency from 63% to 85% at 440 nm under -0.5 V vs. SCE. Using the same photoelectrodes, solar cells with the internal quantum efficiency approaching 100% are fabricated. The ZnS deposition increases the photocurrent and chemical stability of the electrodes. Investigation of the carrier dynamics of the solar cells shows that ZnS enhances the exciton separation rate in CdSe nanocrystals, which we ascribe to the formation of a type II heterojunction between ZnS and CdSe QDs. This finding is confirmed by the dynamics of the CdSe photoluminescence, which in the presence of ZnS becomes noticeably faster.

  3. Assessment of the health and environmental effects of power generation in the Midwest. Volume II. Ecological effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dvorak, A J; Pentecost, E D


    This report presents an initial evaluation of the major health and environmental issues associated with increased coal use in the six Midwestern states of Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, and Wisconsin. Using an integrated assessment approach, the evaluation proceeds from a base-line scenario of energy demand and facility siting for the period 1975 to 2020. Emphasis is placed on impacts from coal extraction, land reclamation, coal combustion for electrical generation, and coal gasification. The range of potential impacts and constraints is illustrated by a second scenario that represents an expected upper limit for coal utilization in Illinois. Volume I of the report includes a characterization of the energy demand and siting scenarios, coal related technologies, and coal resources, and the related impacts on air quality, water quality, and human health. Volume II includes background information on the native ecosystems, climate, soils, and agricultural land use and a description of the ecological impacts expected from coal utilization in southern Illinois, which as ecosystems representative of a large segment of the six-state area.

  4. Lower switch rate in depressed patients with bipolar II than bipolar I disorder treated adjunctively with second-generation antidepressants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altshuler, LL; Suppes, T; Nolen, WA; Leverich, G; Keck, PE; Frye, MA; Kupka, R; McElroy, SL; Grunze, H; Kitchen, CMR; Post, R; Black, D.O.

    Objectives: The authors compared the switch rate into hypomania/mania in depressed patients treated with second-generation antidepressants who had either bipolar I or bipolar II disorder. Method: In a 10-week trial, 184 outpatients with bipolar depression (134 with bipolar I disorder, 48 with

  5. Tofacitinib in patients with ankylosing spondylitis: a phase II, 16-week, randomised, placebo-controlled, dose-ranging study (United States)

    Wei, James C; Drescher, Edit; Fleishaker, Dona; Hendrikx, Thijs; Li, David; Menon, Sujatha; Kanik, Keith S


    Objectives To compare efficacy and safety of various doses of tofacitinib, an oral Janus kinase inhibitor, with placebo in patients with active ankylosing spondylitis (AS, radiographic axial spondyloarthritis). Methods In this 16-week (12-week treatment, 4-week washout), phase II, multicentre, dose-ranging trial, adult patients with active AS were randomised (N=51, 52, 52, 52, respectively) to placebo or tofacitinib 2, 5 or 10 mg twice daily. The primary efficacy endpoint was Assessment of SpondyloArthritis International Society 20% improvement (ASAS20) response rate at week 12. Secondary endpoints included objective measures of disease activity, patient-reported outcomes and MRI of sacroiliac joints and spine. Safety was monitored. Results Emax model analysis of the primary endpoint predicted a tofacitinib 10 mg twice daily ASAS20 response rate of 67.4%, 27.3% higher than placebo. Supportive normal approximation analysis demonstrated tofacitinib 5 mg twice daily ASAS20 response rate significantly higher than placebo (80.8% vs 41.2%; p<0.001); tofacitinib 2 and 10 mg twice daily demonstrated greater response rate than placebo (51.9% and 55.8%, respectively; not significant). Secondary endpoints generally demonstrated greater improvements with tofacitinib 5 and 10 mg twice daily than placebo. Objective (including MRI) endpoints demonstrated clear dose response. Adverse events were similar across treatment groups with no unexpected safety findings. Dose-dependent laboratory outcome changes returned close to baseline by week 16. Conclusions Tofacitinib 5 and 10 mg twice daily demonstrated greater clinical efficacy versus placebo in reducing signs, symptoms and objective endpoints of active AS in adult patients with a similar 12-week safety profile as reported in other indications. Trial registration number NCT01786668. PMID:28130206

  6. Revived STIS. II. Properties of Stars in the Next Generation Spectral Library (United States)

    Heap, Sara R.; Lindler, D.


    Spectroscopic surveys of galaxies at high redshift will bring the rest-frame ultraviolet into view of large, ground-based telescopes. The UV-blue spectral region is rich in diagnostics, but these diagnostics have not yet been calibrated in terms of the properties of the responsible stellar population(s). Such calibrations are now possible with Hubble's Next Generation Spectral Library (NGSL). The NGSL contains UV-optical spectra (0.2 - 1.0 microns) of 374 stars having a wide range in temperature, luminosity, and metallicity. We will describe our work to derive basic stellar parameters from NGSL spectra using modern model spectra and to use these stellar parameters to develop UV-blue spectral diagnostics.

  7. Biofouling community composition across a range of environmental conditions and geographical locations suitable for floating marine renewable energy generation. (United States)

    Macleod, Adrian K; Stanley, Michele S; Day, John G; Cook, Elizabeth J


    Knowledge of biofouling typical of marine structures is essential for engineers to define appropriate loading criteria in addition to informing other stakeholders about the ecological implications of creating novel artificial environments. There is a lack of information regarding biofouling community composition (including weight and density characteristics) on floating structures associated with future marine renewable energy generation technologies. A network of navigation buoys were identified across a range of geographical areas, environmental conditions (tidal flow speed, temperature and salinity), and deployment durations suitable for future developments. Despite the perceived importance of environmental and temporal factors, geographical location explained the greatest proportion of the observed variation in community composition, emphasising the importance of considering geography when assessing the impact of biofouling on device functioning and associated ecology. The principal taxa associated with variation in biofouling community composition were mussels (Mytilus edulis), which were also important when determining loading criteria.

  8. Short-range order in ab initio computer generated amorphous and liquid Cu–Zr alloys: A new approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galván-Colín, Jonathan, E-mail: [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 70-360, México, D.F. 04510, México (Mexico); Valladares, Ariel A., E-mail: [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 70-360, México, D.F. 04510, México (Mexico); Valladares, Renela M.; Valladares, Alexander [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 70-542, México, D.F. 04510, México (Mexico)


    Using ab initio molecular dynamics and a new approach based on the undermelt-quench method we generated amorphous and liquid samples of Cu{sub x}Zr{sub 100−x} (x=64, 50, 36) alloys. We characterized the topology of our resulting structures by means of the pair distribution function and the bond-angle distribution; a coordination number distribution was also calculated. Our results for both amorphous and liquids agree well with experiment. Dependence of short-range order with the concentration is reported. We found that icosahedron-like geometry plays a major role whenever the alloys are Cu-rich or Zr-rich disregarding if the samples are amorphous or liquid. The validation of these results, in turn would let us calculate other properties so far disregarded in the literature.

  9. Short-range order in ab initio computer generated amorphous and liquid Cu-Zr alloys: A new approach (United States)

    Galván-Colín, Jonathan; Valladares, Ariel A.; Valladares, Renela M.; Valladares, Alexander


    Using ab initio molecular dynamics and a new approach based on the undermelt-quench method we generated amorphous and liquid samples of CuxZr100-x (x=64, 50, 36) alloys. We characterized the topology of our resulting structures by means of the pair distribution function and the bond-angle distribution; a coordination number distribution was also calculated. Our results for both amorphous and liquids agree well with experiment. Dependence of short-range order with the concentration is reported. We found that icosahedron-like geometry plays a major role whenever the alloys are Cu-rich or Zr-rich disregarding if the samples are amorphous or liquid. The validation of these results, in turn would let us calculate other properties so far disregarded in the literature.

  10. Determining the bounds of skilful forecast range for probabilistic prediction of system-wide wind power generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Cannon


    Full Text Available State-of-the-art wind power forecasts beyond a few hours ahead rely on global numerical weather prediction models to forecast the future large-scale atmospheric state. Often they provide initial and boundary conditions for nested high resolution simulations. In this paper, both upper and lower bounds on forecast range are identified within which global ensemble forecasts provide skilful information for system-wide wind power applications. An upper bound on forecast range is associated with the limit of predictability, beyond which forecasts have no more skill than predictions based on climatological statistics. A lower bound is defined at the lead time beyond which the resolved uncertainty associated with estimating the future large-scale atmospheric state is larger than the unresolved uncertainty associated with estimating the system-wide wind power response to a given large-scale state.The bounds of skilful ensemble forecast range are quantified for three leading global forecast systems. The power system of Great Britain (GB is used as an example because independent verifying data is available from National Grid. The upper bound defined by forecasts of GB-total wind power generation at a specific point in time is found to be 6–8 days. The lower bound is found to be 1.4–2.4 days. Both bounds depend on the global forecast system and vary seasonally. In addition, forecasts of the probability of an extreme power ramp event were found to possess a shorter limit of predictability (4.5–5.5 days. The upper bound on this forecast range can only be extended by improving the global forecast system (outside the control of most users or by changing the metric used in the probability forecast. Improved downscaling and microscale modelling of the wind farm response may act to decrease the lower bound. The potential gain from such improvements have diminishing returns beyond the short-range (out to around 2 days.

  11. Predicting the velocity and azimuth of fragments generated by the range destruction or random failure of rocket casings and tankage (United States)

    Eck, M.; Mukunda, M.

    The proliferation of space vehicle launch sites and the projected utilization of these facilities portends an increase in the number of on-pad, ascent, and on-orbit solid-rocket motor (SRM) casings and liquid-rocket tanks which will randomly fail or will fail from range destruct actions. Beyond the obvious safety implications, these failures may have serious resource implications for mission system and facility planners. SRM-casing failures and liquid-rocket tankage failures result in the generation of large, high velocity fragments which may be serious threats to the safety of launch support personnel if proper bunkers and exclusion areas are not provided. In addition, these fragments may be indirect threats to the general public's safety if they encounter hazardous spacecraft payloads which have not been designed to withstand shrapnel of this caliber. They may also become threats to other spacecraft if, by failing on-orbit, they add to the ever increasing space-junk collision cross-section. Most prior attempts to assess the velocity of fragments from failed SRM casings have simply assigned the available chamber impulse to available casing and fuel mass and solved the resulting momentum balance for velocity. This method may predict a fragment velocity which is high or low by a factor of two depending on the ratio of fuel to casing mass extant at the time of failure. Recognizing the limitations of existing methods, the authors devised an analytical approach which properly partitions the available impulse to each major system-mass component. This approach uses the Physics International developed PISCES code to couple the forces generated by an Eulerian modeled gas flow field to a Lagrangian modeled fuel and casing system. The details of a predictive analytical modeling process as well as the development of normalized relations for momentum partition as a function of SRM burn time and initial geometry are discussed in this paper. Methods for applying similar modeling

  12. Infection with Trypanosoma cruzi TcII and TcI in free-ranging population of lion tamarins (Leontopithecus spp: an 11-year follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Varella Lisboa


    Full Text Available Here, we present a review of the dataset resulting from the 11-years follow-up of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in free-ranging populations of Leontopithecus rosalia (golden lion tamarin and Leontopithecus chrysomelas (golden-headed lion tamarin from distinct forest fragments in Atlantic Coastal Rainforest. Additionally, we present new data regarding T. cruzi infection of small mammals (rodents and marsupials that live in the same areas as golden lion tamarins and characterisation at discrete typing unit (DTU level of 77 of these isolates. DTU TcII was found to exclusively infect primates, while TcI infected Didelphis aurita and lion tamarins. The majority of T. cruzi isolates derived from L. rosalia were shown to be TcII (33 out 42 Nine T. cruzi isolates displayed a TcI profile. Golden-headed lion tamarins demonstrated to be excellent reservoirs of TcII, as 24 of 26 T. cruzi isolates exhibited the TcII profile. We concluded the following: (i the transmission cycle of T. cruzi in a same host species and forest fragment is modified over time, (ii the infectivity competence of the golden lion tamarin population fluctuates in waves that peak every other year and (iii both golden and golden-headed lion tamarins are able to maintain long-lasting infections by TcII and TcI.

  13. Second Harmonic Generation Studies of Fe(II) Interactions with Hematite (α-Fe2O3)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, David S.; Hull, Christopher J.; Troiano, Julianne M.; Riha, Shannon C.; Martinson, Alex B.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Geiger, Franz M.


    Iron oxides are a ubiquitous class of compounds that are involved in many biological, geological, and technological processes, and the Fe(III)/Fe(II) redox couple is a fundamental transformation pathway; however, the study of iron oxide surfaces in aqueous solution by powerful spectroscopic techniques has been limited due to "strong absorber problem". In this work, atomic layer deposition (ALD) thin films of polycrystalline alpha-Fe2O3 were analyzed using the Eisenthal chi((3)) technique, a variant of second harmonic generation that reports on interfacial potentials. By determining the surface charge densities at multiple pH values, the point of zero charge was found to be 5.5 +/- 0.3. The interaction of aqueous Fe(II) at pH 4 and in 1 mM NaCl with ALD-prepared hematite was found to be fully reversible and to lead to about 4 times more ferrous iron ions adsorbed per square centimeter than on fused-silica surfaces under the same conditions. The data are consistent with a recently proposed conceptual model for net Fe(II) uptake or release that is underlain by a dynamic equilibrium between Fe(II) adsorbed onto hematite, electron transfer into favorable surface sites with attendant Fe(III) deposition, and electron conduction to favorable remote sites that release and replenish aqueous Fe(II).

  14. Vortex Formation and Force Generation Mechanisms of the DelFly II in Hovering Flight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tenaglia, A.; Persin, M.; Van Oudheusden, B.W.; Deng, S.; Remes, B.


    This paper addresses the unsteady aerodynamic mechanisms in the hovering flight of the DelFly II flapping-wing Micro Aerial Vehicle (MAV). Stereoscopic Particle Image Velocimetry (Stereo-PIV) were carried out around the wings at a high framing rate. Thrust-force was measured to investigate the

  15. Generational influences in academic emergency medicine: structure, function, and culture (Part II). (United States)

    Mohr, Nicholas M; Smith-Coggins, Rebecca; Larrabee, Hollynn; Dyne, Pamela L; Promes, Susan B


    Strategies for approaching generational issues that affect teaching and learning, mentoring, and technology in emergency medicine (EM) have been reported. Tactics to address generational influences involving the structure and function of the academic emergency department (ED), organizational culture, and EM schedule have not been published. Through a review of the literature and consensus by modified Delphi methodology of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine Aging and Generational Issues Task Force, the authors have developed this two-part series to address generational issues present in academic EM. Understanding generational characteristics and mitigating strategies can address some common issues encountered in academic EM. By understanding the differences and strengths of each of the cohorts in academic EM departments and considering simple mitigating strategies, faculty leaders can maximize their cooperative effectiveness and face the challenges of a new millennium. © 2011 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  16. Design and development of Stirling engines for stationary-power-generation applications in the 500- to 3000-hp range. Phase I final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The first phase of the design and development of Stirling engines for stationary power generation applications in the 373 kW (500 hp) to 2237 kW (3000 hp) range was completed. The tasks in Phase I include conceptual designs of large Stirling cycle stationary engines and program plan for implementing Phases II through V. Four different heater head designs and five different machine designs were prepared in sufficient detail to select a design recommended for development in the near future. A second order analysis was developed for examining the various loss mechanisms in the Stirling engine and for predicting the thermodynamic performance of these engines. The predicted engine thermal brake efficiency excluding combustion efficiency is approximately 42% which exceeds the design objective of 40%. The combustion system designs were prepared for both a clean fuel combustion system and a two-stage atmospheric fluidized bed combustion system. The calculated combustion efficiency of the former is 90% and of the latter is 80%. Heat transport systems, i.e., a heat exchanger for the clean fuel combustion system and a sodium heat pipe system for coal and other nonclean fuel combustion systems were selected. The cost analysis showed that for clean fuels combustion the proposed 2237 kW (3000 hp) system production cost is $478,242 or $214/kW ($159/hp) which is approximately 1.86 times the cost of a comparable size diesel engine. For solid coal combustion the proposed 2237 kW (3000 hp) system production cost is approximately $2,246,242 which corresponds to a cost to power capacity ratio of $1004/kW ($749/hp). The two-stage atmospheric fluidized bed combustion system represents 81% of the total cost; the engine represents 14% depending on the future price differential between coal and conventional clean fuels, a short payback period of the proposed Stirling cycle engine/FBC system may justify the initial cost. (LCL)

  17. Core map generation for the ITU TRIGA Mark II research reactor using Genetic Algorithm coupled with Monte Carlo method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Türkmen, Mehmet, E-mail: [Nuclear Engineering Department, Hacettepe University, Beytepe Campus, Ankara (Turkey); Çolak, Üner [Energy Institute, Istanbul Technical University, Ayazağa Campus, Maslak, Istanbul (Turkey); Ergün, Şule [Nuclear Engineering Department, Hacettepe University, Beytepe Campus, Ankara (Turkey)


    Highlights: • Optimum core maps were generated for the ITU TRIGA Mark II Research Reactor. • Calculations were performed using a Monte Carlo based reactor physics code, MCNP. • Single-Objective and Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithms were used for the optimization. • k{sub eff} and ppf{sub max} were considered as the optimization objectives. • The generated core maps were compared with the fresh core map. - Abstract: The main purpose of this study is to present the results of Core Map (CM) generation calculations for the İstanbul Technical University TRIGA Mark II Research Reactor by using Genetic Algorithms (GA) coupled with a Monte Carlo (MC) based-particle transport code. Optimization problems under consideration are: (i) maximization of the core excess reactivity (ρ{sub ex}) using Single-Objective GA when the burned fuel elements with no fresh fuel elements are used, (ii) maximization of the ρ{sub ex} and minimization of maximum power peaking factor (ppf{sub max}) using Multi-Objective GA when the burned fuels with fresh fuels are used. The results were obtained when all the control rods are fully withdrawn. ρ{sub ex} and ppf{sub max} values of the produced best CMs were provided. Core-averaged neutron spectrum, and variation of neutron fluxes with respect to radial distance were presented for the best CMs. The results show that it is possible to find an optimum CM with an excess reactivity of 1.17 when the burned fuels are used. In the case of a mix of burned fuels and fresh fuels, the best pattern has an excess reactivity of 1.19 with a maximum peaking factor of 1.4843. In addition, when compared with the fresh CM, the thermal fluxes of the generated CMs decrease by about 2% while change in the fast fluxes is about 1%.Classification: J. Core physics.

  18. Reference Values for the Revised Anti-Müllerian Hormone Generation II Assay: Infertile Population-based Study. (United States)

    Lee, Joong Yeup; Ahn, Soyeon; Lee, Jung Ryeol; Jee, Byung Chul; Kim, Chung Hyon; Seo, Soyeon; Suh, Chang Suk; Kim, Seok Hyun


    Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is now accepted as an important clinical marker of ovarian reserve and is increasingly measured as an initial evaluation at infertility clinics. The aim of this study was to establish reference values for the revised second generation (Gen II) assay using population-based data. In this population-based cohort study, AMH data from unselected infertile women aged 25-45 years from June 2013 to June 2014 (n = 15,801) were collected. The AMH values were measured using the revised Gen II assay. We established and validated 5 AMH-age regression models. Based on the optimal AMH-age model, reference values and centile charts were obtained. The quadratic model (log AMH = 0.410 × age -0.008 × age² -3.791) was the most appropriate for describing the age-dependent decrease in AMH measured using the revised Gen II assay. This is the largest population-based study to establish age-specific reference values of AMH using the revised Gen II assay. These reference values may provide more specific information regarding the ovarian reserve estimation of infertile women. © 2017 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  19. An apparatus for generation and quantitative measurement of homogeneous isotropic turbulence in He ii (United States)

    Mastracci, Brian; Guo, Wei


    The superfluid phase of helium-4, known as He ii, exhibits extremely small kinematic viscosity and may be a useful tool for economically producing and studying high Reynolds number turbulent flow. Such applications are not currently possible because a comprehensive understanding of the complex two-fluid behavior of He ii is lacking. This situation could be remedied by a systematic investigation of simple, well controlled turbulence that can be directly compared with theoretical models. To this end, we have developed a new apparatus that combines flow visualization with second sound attenuation to study turbulence in the wake of a mesh grid towed through a He ii filled channel. One of three mesh grids (mesh number M = 3, 3.75, or 5 mm) can be pulled at speeds between 0.1 and 60 cm/s through a cast acrylic flow channel which has a 16 mm × 16 mm cross section and measures 330 mm long. The motion of solidified deuterium tracer particles, with diameter of the order 1 μm, in the resulting flow is captured by a high speed camera, and a particle tracking velocimetry algorithm resolves the Lagrangian particle trajectories through the turbulent flow field. A pair of oscillating superleak second sound transducers installed in the channel allows complementary measurement of vortex line density in the superfluid throughout the turbulent decay process. Success in early experiments demonstrates the effectiveness of both probes, and preliminary analysis of the data shows that both measurements strongly correlate with each other. Further investigations will provide comprehensive information that can be used to address open questions about turbulence in He ii and move toward the application of this fluid to high Reynolds number fluid research.

  20. Sugar cane bagasse as feedstock for second generation ethanol production. Part II: Hemicellulose hydrolysate fermentability

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Betancur, Gabriel J. Vargas; Pereira Jr., Nei


    .... This lignocellulosic material is a potential source for second-generation ethanol production; however a pretreatment stage is essential, which aims at removing the hemicellulose component by disorganizing the lignocellulosic complex...

  1. Study of second-generation Proximity Gap Suction Development System (PGSD-II) for mask fabrication (United States)

    Sakurai, Hideaki; Terayama, Masatoshi; Sakai, Mari; Itoh, Masamitsu; Ikenaga, Osamu; Funakoshi, Hideo; Sato, Norifumi; Nakamizo, Kenji; Nomura, Masato; Saito, Yoshihiko; Nakao, Junji; Hayashi, Naoya


    Development process for 3x nm node devices and beyond is becoming a great issue in mask fabrication. The following items, such as uniformity, repeatability, loading effect and defect must be improved. To evolve the development process, TEL, DNP Omron and Toshiba have been jointly developed next generation equipment which is called "Second-generation PGSD (Gen.2)". In this paper, PGSD Gen.2 concept is introduced and its performance is reported.

  2. Linear viscoelasticity of emulsions : II. Measurements of the linear viscoelastic behavior of emulsions in the kilohertz range

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterbroek, M.; Mellema, J.; Lopulissa, J.S.


    Linear viscoelasticity of emulsions in shear deformation in the kilohertz range is demonstrated experimentally. In order to avoid complications due to inertia effects, emulsions with small droplet sizes are studied. The preliminary measurements are interpreted as being the result of droplet

  3. Estimating the generation interval of influenza A (H1N1) in a range of social settings. (United States)

    te Beest, Dennis E; Wallinga, Jacco; Donker, Tjibbe; van Boven, Michiel


    A proper understanding of the infection dynamics of influenza A viruses hinges on the availability of reliable estimates of key epidemiologic parameters such as the reproduction number, intrinsic growth rate, and generation interval. Often the generation interval is assumed to be similar in different settings although there is little evidence justifying this. Here we estimate the generation interval for stratifications based on age, cluster size, and social setting (camp, school, workplace, household) using data from 16 clusters of Novel Influenza A (H1N1) in the Netherlands. Our analyses are based on a Bayesian inferential framework, enabling flexible handling of both missing infection links and missing times of symptoms onset. The analysis indicates that a stratification that allows the generation interval to differ by social setting fits the data best. Specifically, the estimated generation interval was shorter in households (2.1 days [95% credible interval = 1.6-2.9]) and camps (2.3 days [1.4-3.4]) than in workplaces (2.7 days [1.9-3.7]) and schools (3.4 days [2.5-4.5]). Our findings could be the result of differences in the number of contacts between settings, differences in prophylactic use of antivirals between settings, and differences in underreporting.

  4. Tridentate facial ligation of tris(pyridine-2-aldoximato)nickel(II) and tris(imidazole-2-aldoximato)nickel(II) To generate NiIIFeIIINiII, MnIIINiII, NiIINiII, and ZnIINiII and the electrooxidized MnIVNiII, NiIINiIII, and ZnIINiIII species: a magnetostructural, electrochemical, and EPR spectroscopic study. (United States)

    Chaudhuri, Phalguni; Weyhermüller, Thomas; Wagner, Rita; Khanra, Sumit; Biswas, Biplab; Bothe, Eberhard; Bill, Eckhard


    Eight hetero- and homometal complexes 1-6, containing the metal centers Ni(II)Fe(III)Ni(II) (1), Mn(III)Ni(II) (2), Ni(II)Ni(II) (3a-c and 4), Zn(II)Ni(II) (5), and Zn(II)Zn(II) (6), are described. The tridentate ligation property of the metal complexes tris(pyridine-2-aldoximato)nickel(II) and tris(1-methylimidazole-2-aldoximato)nickel(II) with three facially disposed pendent oxime O atoms has been utilized to generate the said complexes. Complex 1 contains metal centers in a linear arrangement, as is revealed by X-ray diffraction. Complexes were characterized by various physical methods including cyclic voltammetry (CV), variable-temperature (2-290 K) magnetic susceptibility, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements, and X-ray diffraction methods. Binuclear complexes 2-6 are isostructural in the sense that they all contain a metal ion in a distorted octahedral environment MN(3)O(3) and a second six-coordinated Ni(II) ion in a trigonally distorted octahedral NiN(6) geometry. Complexes 1-4 display antiferromagnetic exchange coupling of the neighboring metal centers. The order of the strength of exchange coupling in the isostructural Ni(II)2 complexes, 3a-c, and 4, demonstrates the effects of the remote substituents on the spin coupling. The electrochemical measurements CV and square wave voltammograms (SQW) reveal two reversible metal-centered oxidations, which have been assigned to the Ni center ligated to the oxime N atoms, unless a Mn ion is present. Complex 2, Mn(III)Ni(II), exhibits a reduction of Mn(III) to Mn(II) and two subsequent oxidations of Mn(III) and Ni(II) to the corresponding higher states. These assignments of the redox processes have been complemented by the X-band EPR measurements. That the electrooxidized species [3a]+, [3b]+, [3c]+, and [4]+ contain the localized mixed-valent NiIINiIII system resulting from the spin coupling, a spin quartet ground state, S(t) = 3/2, has been confirmed by the X-band EPR measurements.

  5. Generation of an activation map for decommissioning planning of the Berlin Experimental Reactor-II (United States)

    Lapins, Janis; Guilliard, Nicole; Bernnat, Wolfgang


    The BER-II is an experimental facility with 10 MW that was operated since 1974. Its planned operation will end in 2019. To support the decommissioning planning, a map with the overall distribution of relevant radionuclides has to be created according to the state of the art. In this paper, a procedure to create these 3-d maps using a combination of MCNP and deterministic methods is presented. With this approach, an activation analysis is performed for the whole reactor geometry including the most remote parts of the concrete shielding.

  6. Measurement of the Range Component Directional Signature in a DRIFT-II Detector using 252Cf Neutrons

    CERN Document Server

    Burgos, S; Forbes, J; Ghag, C; Gold, M; Hagemann, C; Kudryavtsev, V A; Lawson, T B; Loomba, D; Majewski, P; Muna, D; Murphy, A St J; Nicklin, G G; Paling, S M; Petkov, A; Plank, S J S; Robinson, M; Sanghi, N; Snowden-Ifft, D P; Spooner, N J C; Turk, J; Tziaferi, E


    The DRIFT collaboration utilizes low pressure gaseous detectors to search for WIMP dark matter with directional signatures. A 252Cf neutron source was placed on each of the principal axes of a DRIFT detector in order to test its ability to measure directional signatures from the three components of very low energy (~keV/amu) recoil ranges. A high trigger threshold and the event selection procedure ensured that only sulfur recoils were analyzed. Sulfur recoils produced in the CS2 target gas by the 252Cf source closely match those expected from massive WIMP induced sulfur recoils. For each orientation of the source a directional signal from the range components was observed, indicating that the detector is directional along all 3 axes. An analysis of these results yields an optimal orientation for DRIFT detectors when searching for a directional signature from WIMPs. Additional energy dependent information is provided to aid in understanding this effect.

  7. On a Finite Range Decomposition of the Resolvent of a Fractional Power of the Laplacian II. The Torus (United States)

    Mitter, P. K.


    In previous papers, Mitter (J Stat Phys 163:1235-1246, 2016; Erratum: J Stat Phys 166:453-455, 2017; On a finite range decomposition of the resolvent of a fractional power of the Laplacian,, we proved the existence as well as regularity of a finite range decomposition for the resolvent G_{α } (x-y,m^2) = ((-Δ )^{α \\over 2} + m2)^{-1} (x-y) , for 0<α <2 and all real m, in the lattice Zd for dimension d≥ 2. In this paper, which is a continuation of the previous one, we extend those results by proving the existence as well as regularity of a finite range decomposition for the same resolvent but now on the lattice torus Zd/L^{N+1}Zd for d≥ 2 provided m≠ 0 and 0<α <2. We also prove differentiability and uniform continuity properties with respect to the resolvent parameter m2. Here L is any odd positive integer and N≥ 2 is any positive integer.

  8. Water Oxidation by In Situ Generated [RuII(OH2)(NCNHCO)(pic)2]. (United States)

    Su, Wei; Zhou, Kui; Cai, Fanglin; Chen, Cheng; Mousavi, Bibimaryam; Chaemchuen, Somboon; Verpoort, Francis


    A dinuclear ruthenium complex [Ru II (NC NHC O)(pic) 2 ] 2 2+ (2) was firstly prepared and characterized spectroscopically and electrochemically. Instead of the conventional ligand exchange, complex 2 dissociates in situ to afford two single-site Ru aqua complexes, [Ru II (OH 2 )(NC NHC O)(pic) 2 ] + , which mediates water oxidation through proton-coupled electron transfer events. In electrokinetic studies, complex 2 demonstrated a TOF of 150.3 s -1 comparable to those state-of-the-art catalysts at neutral conditions. TONs of 2173 and 217 were attained in chemical and photochemical water oxidation when 2 was used as a catalyst, exhibiting good stability. Notably, a TOF of 1.3 s -1 was achieved at CAN-driven water oxidation, which outperformed most of the reported single-site Ru complexes, indicating that complex 2 is one of most active water oxidation catalysts (WOCs) to date. The unique coordination configuration and outstanding catalytic performance of complex 2 might shed light on the design of novel molecular WOCs. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. High performance photoelectrochemical hydrogen generation and solar cells with a double type II heterojunction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lai, Lai-Hung; Gomulya, Widianta; Protesescu, Loredana; Kovalenko, Maksym V.; Loi, Maria A.


    We report on the fabrication of CdSe quantum dot (QD) sensitized electrodes by direct adsorption of colloidal QDs on mesoporous TiO2 followed by 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) ligand exchange. High efficiency photoelectrochemical hydrogen generation is demonstrated by means of these electrodes. The

  10. Compositional generative mapping for tree-structured data--part II: topographic projection model. (United States)

    Bacciu, D; Micheli, A; Sperduti, A


    We introduce GTM-SD (Generative Topographic Mapping for Structured Data), which is the first compositional generative model for topographic mapping of tree-structured data. GTM-SD exploits a scalable bottom-up hidden-tree Markov model that was introduced in Part I of this paper to achieve a recursive topographic mapping of hierarchical information. The proposed model allows efficient exploitation of contextual information from shared substructures by a recursive upward propagation on the tree structure which distributes substructure information across the topographic map. Compared to its noncompositional generative counterpart, GTM-SD is shown to allow the topographic mapping of the full sample tree, which includes a projection onto the lattice of all the distinct subtrees rooted in each of its nodes. Experimental results show that the continuous projection space generated by the smooth topographic mapping of GTM-SD yields a finer grained discrimination of the sample structures with respect to the state-of-the-art recursive neural network approach.


    Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.


  12. Sustaining knowledge in the neutron generator community and benchmarking study. Phase II.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huff, Tameka B.; Stubblefield, William Anthony; Cole, Benjamin Holland, II; Baldonado, Esther


    This report documents the second phase of work under the Sustainable Knowledge Management (SKM) project for the Neutron Generator organization at Sandia National Laboratories. Previous work under this project is documented in SAND2008-1777, Sustaining Knowledge in the Neutron Generator Community and Benchmarking Study. Knowledge management (KM) systems are necessary to preserve critical knowledge within organizations. A successful KM program should focus on people and the process for sharing, capturing, and applying knowledge. The Neutron Generator organization is developing KM systems to ensure knowledge is not lost. A benchmarking study involving site visits to outside industry plus additional resource research was conducted during this phase of the SKM project. The findings presented in this report are recommendations for making an SKM program successful. The recommendations are activities that promote sharing, capturing, and applying knowledge. The benchmarking effort, including the site visits to Toyota and Halliburton, provided valuable information on how the SEA KM team could incorporate a KM solution for not just the neutron generators (NG) community but the entire laboratory. The laboratory needs a KM program that allows members of the workforce to access, share, analyze, manage, and apply knowledge. KM activities, such as communities of practice (COP) and sharing best practices, provide a solution towards creating an enabling environment for KM. As more and more people leave organizations through retirement and job transfer, the need to preserve knowledge is essential. Creating an environment for the effective use of knowledge is vital to achieving the laboratory's mission.

  13. Analysis of subpulse generation from delayed-interference signal-wavelength converter for wide carrier recovery rate range

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakaguchi, J.; Nielsen, Mads Lønstrup; Ohira, T.


    The generation of subpulses in delayed-interference signal-wavelength converters (DISCS) had been suspected as a Curse of waveform degradation in their application in ultrafast (similar to 160GHz) optical time division multiplexing (OTDM) communication systems. We reported its first observation i...

  14. Molecular magnetism of a linear Fe(III)-Mn(II)-Fe(III) complex. Influence of long-range exchange interaction (United States)

    Lengen, M.; Bill, E.; Butzlaff, C.; Trautwein, A. X.; Winter, M.; Chaudhuri, P.


    The magnetic properties of [L-Fe(III)-dmg3Mn(II)-Fe(III)-L] (ClO4)2 have been characterized by magnetic susceptibility, EPR, and Mössbauer studies. L represents 1,4,7-trimethyl-, 1,4,7-triazacyclononane and dmg represents dimethylglyoxime. X-ray diffraction measurements yield that the arrangement of the three metal centers is strictly linear with atomic distances d Fe-Mn=0.35 nm and d Fe-Fe=0.7 nm. Magnetic susceptibility measurements (3 295 K) were analyzed in the framework of the spin-Hamiltonian formalism considering Heisenberg exchange and Zeeman interaction: Ĥ= J Fe-Mn( S Fe1+ S Fe2) S Mn + J Fe-Fe( S Fe1 S Fe2) +gΜB S total B. The spins S Fe1= S Fe2 = S Mn=5/2 of the complex are antiferromagnetically coupled, yielding a total spin of S total=5/2 with exchange coupling constants F Fe-Mn=13.4 cm-1 and J Fe-Fe= 4.5 cm-1. Magnetically split Mössbauer spectra were recorded at 1.5 K under various applied fields (20 m T, 170 mT, 4T). The spin-Hamiltonian analysis of these spectra yields isotropic magnetic hyperfine coupling with A total/( g N Μ N)=-18.5 T. The corresponding local component A Fe is related to A total via spin-projection: A total=(6/7)AFe. The resulting A Fe/( g NΜN)=-21.6 T is in agreement with standard values of ferric high-spin complexes. Spin-Hamiltonian parameters as obtained from Mössbauer studies and exchange coupling constants as derived from susceptibility measurements are corroborated by temperature-dependent EPR studies.

  15. Sample problems for the novice user of the AMPX-II system. [For generating coupled multigroup neutron--gamma libraries, in FORTRAN IV for IBM 360/91

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, W.E. III; Roussin, R.W.; Petrie, L.M.; Diggs, B.R.; Comolander, H.E.


    Contents of the IBM version of the APMX system distributed by the Radiation Shielding Information Center (APMX-II) are described. Sample problems which demonstrate the procedure for implementing AMPX-II modules to generate point cross sections; generate multigroup neutron, photon production, and photon interaction cross sections for various transport codes; collapse multigroup cross sections; check, edit, and punch multigroup cross sections; and execute a one-dimensional discrete ordinates transport calculation are detailed. 25 figures, 9 tables.

  16. Optical timing receiver for the NASA Spaceborne Ranging System. Part II: high precision event-timing digitizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leskovar, Branko; Turko, Bojan


    Position-resolution capabilities of the NASA Spaceborne Laser Ranging System are essentially determined by the timeresolution capabilities of its optical timing receiver. The optical timing receiver consists of a fast photoelectric device; (e.g., photomultiplier or an avalanche photodiode detector), a timing discriminator, a high-precision event-timing digitizer, and a signal-processing system. The time-resolution capabilities of the receiver are determined by the photoelectron time spread of the photoelectric device, the time walk and resolution characteristics of the timing discriminator, and the resolution of the event-timing digitizer. It is thus necessary to evaluate available fast photoelectronic devices with respect to the time-resolution capabilities, and to develop a very low time walk timing discriminator and a high-resolution event-timing digitizer to be used in the high-resolution spaceborne laser ranging system receiver. This part of the report describes the development of a high precision event-timing digitizer. The event-timing digitizer is basically a combination of a very accurate high resolution real time digital clock and an interval timer. The timing digitizer is a high resolution multiple stop clock, counting the time up to 131 days in 19.5 ps increments.

  17. Molecular magnetism of a linear Fe(III)-Mn(II)-Fe(III) complex. Influence of long-range exchange interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lengen, M. [Medizinische Univ. Luebeck (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; Bill, E. [Medizinische Univ. Luebeck (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; Butzlaff, C. [Medizinische Univ. Luebeck (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; Trautwein, A.X. [Medizinische Univ. Luebeck (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; Winter, M. [Anorganische Chemie 1, Ruhr-Univ., Bochum (Germany); Chaudhuri, P. [Anorganische Chemie 1, Ruhr-Univ., Bochum (Germany)


    The magnetic properties of [L-Fe(III)-dmg{sub 3}Mn(II)-Fe(III)-L] (ClO{sub 4}){sub 2} have been characterized by magnetic susceptibility, EPR, and Moessbauer studies. L represents 1,4,7-trimethyl-,1,4,7-triazacyclononane and dmg represents dimethylglyoxime. X-ray diffraction measurements yield that the arrangement of the three metal centers is strictly linear with atomic distances d{sub Fe-Mn} = 0.35 nm and d{sub Fe-Fe} = 0.7 nm. Magnetic susceptibility measurements (3-295 K) were analyzed in the framework of the spin-Hamiltonian formalism considering Heisenberg exchange and Zeeman interaction: H = J{sub Fe-Mn} (S{sub Fe1} + S{sub Fe2})S{sub Mn} + J{sub Fe-Fe}S{sub Fe1}S{sub Fe2} + g{mu}{sub B}S{sub total}B. The spins S{sub Fe1} = S{sub Fe2} = S{sub Mn} = 5/2 of the complex are antiferromagnetically coupled, yielding a total spin of S{sub total} = 5/2 with exchange coupling constants F{sub Fe-Mn} = 13.4 cm{sup -1} and J{sub Fe-Fe} = 4.5 cm{sup -1}. Magnetically split Moessbauer spectra were recorded at 1.5 K under various applied fields (20 mT, 170 mT, 4 T). The spin-Hamiltonian analysis of these spectra yields isotropic magnetic hyperfine coupling with A{sub total}/(g{sub N}{mu}{sub N}) = -18.5 T. The corresponding local component A{sub Fe} is related to A{sub total} via spin-projection: A{sub total} = (6/7)A{sub Fe}. The resulting A{sub Fe}/(g{sub N}{mu}{sub N}) = -21.6 T is in agreement with standard values of ferric high-spin complexes. Spin-Hamiltonian parameters as obtained from Moessbauer studies and exchange coupling constants as derived from susceptibility measurements are corroborated by temperature-dependent EPR studies. (orig.)

  18. Reactive oxygen species generation by copper(II) oxide nanoparticles determined by DNA damage assays and EPR spectroscopy. (United States)

    Angelé-Martínez, Carlos; Nguyen, Khanh Van T; Ameer, Fathima S; Anker, Jeffrey N; Brumaghim, Julia L


    Copper(II) oxide nanoparticles ((NP)CuO) have many industrial applications, but are highly cytotoxic because they generate reactive oxygen species (ROS). It is unknown whether the damaging ROS are generated primarily from copper leached from the nanoparticles, or whether the nanoparticle surface plays a significant role. To address this question, we separated nanoparticles from the supernatant containing dissolved copper, and measured their ability to damage plasmid DNA with addition of hydrogen peroxide, ascorbate, or both. While DNA damage from the supernatant (measured using an electrophoresis assay) can be explained solely by dissolved copper ions, damage by the nanoparticles in the presence of ascorbate is an order of magnitude higher than can be explained by dissolved copper and must, therefore, depend primarily upon the nanoparticle surface. DNA damage is time-dependent, with shorter incubation times resulting in higher EC50 values. Hydroxyl radical ((•)OH) is the main ROS generated by (NP)CuO/hydrogen peroxide as determined by EPR measurements; (NP)CuO/hydrogen peroxide/ascorbate conditions generate ascorbyl, hydroxyl, and superoxide radicals. Thus, (NP)CuO generate ROS through several mechanisms, likely including Fenton-like and Haber-Weiss reactions from the surface or dissolved copper ions. The same radical species were observed when (NP)CuO suspensions were replaced with the supernatant containing leached copper, washed (NP)CuO, or dissolved copper solutions. Overall, (NP)CuO generate significantly more ROS and DNA damage in the presence of ascorbate than can be explained simply from dissolved copper, and the (NP)CuO surface must play a large role.

  19. Generation of membrane potential beyond the conceptual range of Donnan theory and Goldman-Hodgkin-Katz equation. (United States)

    Tamagawa, Hirohisa; Ikeda, Kota


    Donnan theory and Goldman-Hodgkin-Katz equation (GHK eq.) state that the nonzero membrane potential is generated by the asymmetric ion distribution between two solutions separated by a semipermeable membrane and/or by the continuous ion transport across the semipermeable membrane. However, there have been a number of reports of the membrane potential generation behaviors in conflict with those theories. The authors of this paper performed the experimental and theoretical investigation of membrane potential and found that (1) Donnan theory is valid only when the macroscopic electroneutrality is sufficed and (2) Potential behavior across a certain type of membrane appears to be inexplicable on the concept of GHK eq. Consequently, the authors derived a conclusion that the existing theories have some limitations for predicting the membrane potential behavior and we need to find a theory to overcome those limitations. The authors suggest that the ion adsorption theory named Ling's adsorption theory, which attributes the membrane potential generation to the mobile ion adsorption onto the adsorption sites, could overcome those problems.

  20. One-level modeling for diagnosing surface winds over complex terrain. II - Applicability to short-range forecasting (United States)

    Alpert, P.; Getenio, B.; Zak-Rosenthal, R.


    The Alpert and Getenio (1988) modification of the Mass and Dempsey (1985) one-level sigma-surface model was used to study four synoptic events that included two winter cases (a Cyprus low and a Siberian high) and two summer cases. Results of statistical verification showed that the model is not only capable of diagnosing many details of surface mesoscale flow, but might also be useful for various applications which require operative short-range prediction of the diurnal changes of high-resolution surface flow over complex terrain, for example, in locating wildland fires, determining the dispersion of air pollutants, and predicting changes in wind energy or of surface wind for low-level air flights.

  1. 2 μm wavelength range InP-based type-II quantum well photodiodes heterogeneously integrated on silicon photonic integrated circuits. (United States)

    Wang, Ruijun; Sprengel, Stephan; Muneeb, Muhammad; Boehm, Gerhard; Baets, Roel; Amann, Markus-Christian; Roelkens, Gunther


    The heterogeneous integration of InP-based type-II quantum well photodiodes on silicon photonic integrated circuits for the 2 µm wavelength range is presented. A responsivity of 1.2 A/W at a wavelength of 2.32 µm and 0.6 A/W at 2.4 µm wavelength is demonstrated. The photodiodes have a dark current of 12 nA at -0.5 V at room temperature. The absorbing active region of the integrated photodiodes consists of six periods of a "W"-shaped quantum well, also allowing for laser integration on the same platform.

  2. Growth of Mashona cattle on range in Zimbabwe. II. Estimates of genetic parameters and predicted response to selection. (United States)

    Tawonezvi, H P


    For 1,456 Mashona calves sired by 88 bulls heritability estimates from paternal half-sibs were 0.44 +/- 0.11 for birth weight, 0.38 +/- 0.10 for 205-day weaning weight, 0.39 +/- 0.10 for 18-month weight, 0.37 +/- 0.10 for pre-weaning daily liveweight gain and 0.41 +/- 0.11 for daily gain from weaning to 18 months of age. Genetic correlations were relatively low for birth weight with weaning weight (0.42 +/- 0.18), 18-month weight (0.56 +/- 0.16), pre-weaning gain (0.33 +/- 0.19) and post-weaning gain (0.36 +/- 0.19). Higher genetic correlations were observed for pre-weaning gain with weaning weight (0.98 +/- 0.01) and 18-month weight (0.59 +/- 0.14) and for 18-month weight with weaning weight (0.67 +/- 0.12) and post-weaning gain (0.73 +/- 0.10). Post-weaning daily gain was not significantly correlated genetically with both pre-weaning gain (-0.11 +/- 0.22) and weaning weight (-0.03 +/- 0.22). With 10% retention of males and 60% of females expected genetic improvements per generation from direct selection for weaning weight or 18-month weight were 8.11 kg and 12.12 kg respectively. These improvements would be reduced by 18% and 35% if selection indices were used to produce no correlated change in birth weight.

  3. Environmental control implications of generating electric power from coal. Technology status report. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This is the first in a series of reports evaluating environmental control technologies applicable to the coal-to-electricity process. The technologies are described and evaluated from an engineering and cost perspective based upon the best available information obtained from utility experience and development work in progress. Environmental control regulations and the health effects of pollutants are also reviewed. Emphasis is placed primarily upon technologies that are now in use. For SO/sub 2/ control, these include the use of low sulfur coal, cleaned coal, or flue-gas desulfurization systems. Electrostatic precipitators and fabric filters used for the control of particulate matter are analyzed, and combustion modifications for NO/sub x/ control are described. In each area, advanced technologies still in the development stage are described briefly and evaluated on the basis of current knowledge. Fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) is a near-term technology that is discussed extensively in the report. The potential for control of SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub x/ emissions by use of FBC is analyzed, as are the resulting solid waste disposal problems, cost estimates, and its potential applicability to electric utility systems. Volume II presents the detailed technology analyses complete with reference citations. This same material is given in condensed form in Volume I without references. A brief executive summary is also given in Volume I.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magdalenic, J.; Marque, C.; Zhukov, A. N. [Solar-Terrestrial Center of Excellence, SIDC, Royal Observatory of Belgium, Avenue Circulaire 3, B-1180 Brussels (Belgium); Vrsnak, B. [Hvar Observatory, Faculty of Geodesy, Kaciceva 26, HR-10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Veronig, A., E-mail: [IGAM/Kanzelhoehe Observatory, Institut of Physics, Universitaet Graz, Universitaetsplatz 5, A-8010 Graz (Austria)


    We present a study of the solar coronal shock wave on 2005 November 14 associated with the GOES M3.9 flare that occurred close to the east limb (S06 Degree-Sign E60 Degree-Sign ). The shock signature, a type II radio burst, had an unusually high starting frequency of about 800 MHz, indicating that the shock was formed at a rather low height. The position of the radio source, the direction of the shock wave propagation, and the coronal electron density were estimated using Nancay Radioheliograph observations and the dynamic spectrum of the Green Bank Solar Radio Burst Spectrometer. The soft X-ray, H{alpha}, and Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager observations show that the flare was compact, very impulsive, and of a rather high density and temperature, indicating a strong and impulsive increase of pressure in a small flare loop. The close association of the shock wave initiation with the impulsive energy release suggests that the impulsive increase of the pressure in the flare was the source of the shock wave. This is supported by the fact that, contrary to the majority of events studied previously, no coronal mass ejection was detected in association with the shock wave, although the corresponding flare occurred close to the limb.

  5. Association of the World War II Finnish Evacuation of Children With Psychiatric Hospitalization in the Next Generation. (United States)

    Santavirta, Torsten; Santavirta, Nina; Gilman, Stephen E


    Although there is evidence that adverse childhood experiences are associated with worse mental health in adulthood, scarce evidence is available regarding an emerging concern that the next generation might also be affected. To compare the risk of psychiatric hospitalization in cousins whose parents were vs were not exposed to the Finnish evacuation policy that involved a mean 2-year stay with a Swedish foster family. This multigenerational, population-based cohort study of Finnish individuals and their siblings born between January 1, 1933, and December 31, 1944, analyzed the association of evacuee status as a child during World War II in the first generation with the risk of psychiatric hospitalization among offspring in the second generation. Evacuee status during World War II was determined using the Finnish National Archive's registry of participants in the Finnish evacuation. Data on evacuee status were linked to the psychiatric diagnoses in the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register from January 1, 1971, through December 31, 2012, for offspring (n = 93 391) born between January 1, 1950, and December 31, 2010. Sex-specific Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios for risk of psychiatric hospitalization during the follow-up period. Because offspring of evacuees and their nonevacuated siblings are cousins, the Cox proportional hazards regression models included fixed effects to adjust for confounding factors in families. Data analysis was performed from June 15, 2016, to August 26, 2017. Parental participation in the evacuation during World War II (coded 1 for parents who were evacuated and placed in foster care and 0 for those not evacuated). Offspring's initial admission to the hospital for a psychiatric disorder, obtained from the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register from January 1, 1971, through December 31, 2012. Of the 93 391 study persons, 45 955 (49.2%) were women and 47 436 (50.8) were men; mean (SD) age in

  6. Derived and displayed power consumption, flow, and pulsatility over a range of HeartMate II left ventricular assist device settings. (United States)

    Lund, Lars H; Gabrielsen, Anders; Tirén, Linnea; Hallberg, Ann; El Karlsson, Kerstin; Eriksson, Maria J


    Continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices/systems (LVADs/LVASs) reduce symptoms and mortality in severe heart failure. The impeller or centrifugal designs provide challenges in assessing and titrating pump speed (revolutions per minute [RPM]), flow, and native heart pulsatility, and contribution to cardiac output. The Thoratec HeartMate II (HM II) LVAS is the most commonly used LVAD worldwide. The user sets the RPM and the monitor provides online data on RPM, power consumption, flow, and pulsatility. These parameters are routinely used by clinicians to assess native heart function and to optimize pump settings. However, little is known about their reliability, reproducibility, and variability. Therefore, we assessed HM II controller parameters and concurrent echocardiography during titrations of RPM to low and high values. We found that data displayed on the monitor and logged in the controller are consistent for power consumption and for flow at settings above 8,000 RPM but inconsistent and unreliable for flow at or below 8,000 RPM and for pulsatility throughout a range of common settings and specifically at 9,000 RPM. These findings have implications for clinicians attempting to optimize settings and assess pump and native heart function.

  7. Potential of Power Generation from Biogas. Part II: Municipal Solid Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera-Romero Iván


    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to estimate the amount of biogas that could be obtained from the anaerobic decomposition of the organic fraction of the municipal solid waste (MSW disposed in a sanitary landfill, by capturing and taking advantage of it to generate electricity which can be consumed by Ciénega Region of Chapala in the state of Michoacán, México. To estimate the biogas captured, the Mexican Model of Biogas version 2.0 was used; capturing MSW for 11 years with a project life of 21 years. For the analysis of power generation an average cost for schedule rate 5-A from the CFE for public service was used. Four possible scenarios were evaluated: optimal, intermediate optimal, intermediate pessimistic and pessimistic; varying characteristics such as adequate handling site, fire presence, coverage, leachate, among others. Each of the scenarios, economically justify the construction of an inter-municipal landfill obtaining substantial long-term economic benefits. (26.5×106 USD, 22.8×106 , 17.9×106 and 11.7×106 respectively, while contributing to climate change mitigation and prevention of diseases.

  8. Elastic strain relaxation in interfacial dislocation patterns: II. From long- and short-range interactions to local reactions (United States)

    Vattré, A.


    The long- and short-range interactions as well as planar reactions between two infinitely periodic sets of crossing dislocations are investigated using anisotropic elasticity theory in face- (fcc) and body- (bcc) centered cubic materials. Two preliminary cases are proposed to examine the substantial changes in the elastic stress states and the corresponding strain energies due to a slight rearrangement in the internal dislocation geometries and characters. In general, significant differences and discrepancies resulting from the considered cubic crystal structure and the approximation of isotropic elasticity are exhibited. In a third scenario, special attention is paid to connecting specific internal dislocation structures from the previous cases with non-equilibrium configurations predicted by the quantized Frank-Bilby equation for the (111) fcc and (110) bcc twist grain boundaries. The present solutions lead to the formation of energetically favorable dislocation junctions with non-randomly strain-relaxed configurations of lower energy. In particular, the local dislocation interactions and reactions form equilibrium hexagonal-shaped patterns with planar three-fold dislocation nodes without producing spurious far-field stresses.Numerical application results are presented from a selection of cubic metals including aluminum, copper, tantalum, and niobium. In contrast to the fcc materials, asymmetric dislocation nodes occur in the anisotropic bcc cases, within which the minimum-energy paths for predicting the fully strain-relaxed dislocation patterns depend on the Zener anisotropic factor with respect to unity. The associated changes in the dislocation structures as well as the removal of the elastic strain energy upon relaxations are quantified and also discussed.

  9. Kinetics and mechanism of the manganese(II) catalysed Calmagite dye oxidation using in situ generated hydrogen peroxide. (United States)

    Sheriff, Tippu S; Cope, Steven; Varsani, Dhimal S


    The kinetics and mechanism for the bleaching of Calmagite (H3CAL, 3-hydroxy-4-(2-hydroxy-5-methylphenylazo)naphthalene-1-sulfonic acid) in aqueous solution at pH 8.00 and 23 ± 1 °C using in situ generated H2O2 is described. Complete mineralisation of H3CAL results with turnover frequencies (TOF = moles of H3CAL bleached per mole of manganese per hour) of 40 h(-1). The monohydroxy azo dyes Me-H2CAL, Orange G and Orange II are not bleached which indicates that a requirement of dye bleaching is the coordination of the dye to the Mn centre. Spectroscopic studies show the formation of Mn(CAL)2 and Mn(CAL) species but in the presence of Tiron (1,2-dihydroxybenzene-3,5-disulfonate, disodium salt, monohydrate, Na2TH2·H2O), [Mn(CAL)(T)] is formed. It is proposed that a Mn(III)-hydroperoxide species is generated, [Mn(O2H)(CAL)(TQ)] from the in situ generated H2O2, where TQ represents the o-quinone form of Tiron, and this is the active species in the bleaching of coordinated CAL; the formation of this hydroperoxide species is supported by UV/VIS and ESI-MS data. The formation of a Mn(III) species is supported by EPR studies which also show some evidence for the presence of a labile d(5) Mn(II) species in the presence of the reducing substrate hydroxylamine (NH2OH). This would enable rapid ligand exchange for both in situ H2O2 generation and dye bleaching to occur; there is no evidence for the presence of Mn(IV)=O species. The virtue of low local concentrations of in situ generated H2O2 is shown to be important in preventing over oxidation of the catalyst and thus contributing to a robust catalytic system.

  10. Scaling the Teflon Peaks: Rock type and the generation of extreme relief in the glaciated western Alaska Range (United States)

    Ward, Dylan J.; Anderson, Robert S.; Haeussler, Peter J.


    Parts of the Alaska Range (Alaska, USA) stand in prominent exception to the “glacial buzzsaw hypothesis,” which postulates that terrain raised above the ELA is rapidly denuded by glaciers. In this paper, we discuss the role of a strong contrast in rock type in the development of this exceptional terrain. Much of the range is developed on pervasively fractured flysch, with local relief of 1000–1500 m, and mean summit elevations that are similar to modern snow line elevations. In contrast, Cretaceous and Tertiary plutons of relatively intact granite support the range's tallest mountains (including Mt. McKinley, or Denali, at 6194 m), with 2500–5000 m of local relief. The high granitic peaks protrude well above modern snow lines and support many large glaciers. We focus on the plutons of the Denali massif and the Kichatna Mountains, to the west. We use field observations, satellite photos, and digital elevation data to demonstrate how exhumation of these plutons affects glacier longitudinal profiles, the glacial drainage network, and the effectiveness of periglacial processes. In strong granite, steep, smooth valley walls are maintained by detachment of rock slabs along sheeting joints. These steep walls act as low-friction surfaces (“Teflon”), efficiently shedding snow. Simple scaling calculations show that this avalanching may greatly enhance the health of the modern glaciers. We conclude that, in places such as Denali, unusual combinations of rapid tectonic uplift and great rock strength have created the highest relief in North America by enhancing glacial erosion in the valleys while preserving the peaks.

  11. Fundamental investigations of natural and laboratory generated SAR dose response curves for quartz OSL in the high dose range

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timar-Gabor, Alida; Constantin, Daniela; Buylaert, Jan-Pieter


    saturation much earlier. Analysis of time resolved spectra indicated similar luminescence lifetimes for both fine and coarse quartz grains, and natural and laboratory generated OSL signals seem to use the same non-dosedependent recombination pathways. The natural signals of a sample with an expected......SAR-OSL investigations on quartz from Romanian loess resulted in non concordant fine and coarse-grain ages for equivalent doses higher than ~100 Gy. The laboratory dose response for both grain sizes is well represented by a sum of two saturating exponential functions, fine and coarse grains...... equivalent dose of 2000e2500 Gy were found to be below the saturation level of the laboratory dose response curve for both grain sizes; this also applied to the luminescence signals measured after >5000 Gy given on top of natural doses. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  12. Predicting the Velocity and Azimuth of Fragments Generated by the Range Destruction or Random Failure of Rocket Casings and Tankage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eck, Marshall B.; Mukunda, Meera


    The details of a predictive analytical modeling process as well as the development of normalized relations for momentum partition as a function of SRM burn time and initial geometry are discussed in this paper. Methods for applying similar modeling techniques to liquid-tankage-over-pressure failures are also discussed. These methods have been calibrated against observed SRM ascent failures and on-orbit tankage failures. Casing-quadrant sized fragments with velocities exceeding 100 m/s resulted from Titan 34D-SRM range destruct actions at 10 sec mission elapsed time (MET). Casing-quadrant sized fragments with velocities of approximately 200 m/s resulted from STS-SRM range destruct actions at 110 sec MET. Similar sized fragments for Ariane third stage and Delta second stage tankage were predicted to have maximum velocities of 260 m/s and 480 m/s respectively. Good agreement was found between the predictions and observations for five specific events and it was concluded that the methods developed have good potential for use in predicting the fragmentation process of a number of generically similar casing and tankage systems. There are three copies in the file, one of these is loose.

  13. Two colonisation stages generate two different patterns of genetic diversity within native and invasive ranges of Ulex europaeus. (United States)

    Hornoy, B; Atlan, A; Roussel, V; Buckley, Y M; Tarayre, M


    Genetic diversity and the way a species is introduced influence the capacity of populations of invasive species to persist in, and adapt to, their new environment. The diversity of introduced populations affects their evolutionary potential, which is particularly important for species that have invaded a wide range of habitats and climates, such as European gorse, Ulex europaeus. This species originated in the Iberian peninsula and colonised Europe in the Neolithic; over the course of the past two centuries it was introduced to, and has become invasive in, other continents. We characterised neutral genetic diversity and its structure in the native range and in invaded regions. By coupling these results with historical data, we have identified the way in which gorse populations were introduced and the consequences of introduction history on genetic diversity. Our study is based on the genotyping of individuals from 18 populations at six microsatellite loci. As U. europaeus is an allohexaploid species, we used recently developed tools that take into account genotypic ambiguity. Our results show that genetic diversity in gorse is very high and mainly contained within populations. We confirm that colonisation occurred in two stages. During the first stage, gorse spread out naturally from Spain towards northern Europe, losing some genetic diversity. During the second stage, gorse was introduced by humans into different regions of the world, from northern Europe. These introductions resulted in the loss of rare alleles but did not significantly reduce genetic diversity and thus the evolutionary potential of this invasive species.

  14. On the dispersion management of fluorite whispering-gallery mode resonators for Kerr optical frequency comb generation in the telecom and mid-infrared range. (United States)

    Lin, Guoping; Chembo, Yanne K


    Optical whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonators have been very attracting platforms for versatile Kerr frequency comb generations. We report a systematic study on the material dispersion of various optical materials that are capable of supporting quality factors above 109. Using an analytical approximation of WGM resonant frequencies in disk resonators, we investigate the effect of the geometry and transverse mode order on the total group-velocity dispersion (GVD). We demonstrate that the major radii and the radial mode indices play an important role in tailoring the GVD of WGM resonators. In particular, our study shows that in WGM disk-resonators, the polar families of modes have very similar GVD, while the radial families of modes feature dispersion values that can differ by up to several orders of magnitude. The effect of these giant dispersion shifts are experimentally evidenced in Kerr comb generation with magnesium fluoride. From a more general perspective, this critical feature enables to push the zero-dispersion wavelength of fluorite crystals towards the mid-infrared (mid-IR) range, thereby allowing for efficient Kerr comb generation in that spectral range. We show that barium fluoride is the most interesting crystal in this regard, due to its zero dispersion wavelength (ZDW) at 1.93 μm and an optimal dispersion profile in the mid-IR regime. We expect our results to facilitate the design of different platforms for Kerr frequency comb generations in both telecommunication and mid-IR spectral ranges.

  15. Opto-electronic device for frequency standard generation and terahertz-range optical demodulation based on quantum interference (United States)

    Georgiades, Nikos P.; Polzik, Eugene S.; Kimble, H. Jeff


    An opto-electronic system and technique for comparing laser frequencies with large frequency separations, establishing new frequency standards, and achieving phase-sensitive detection at ultra high frequencies. Light responsive materials with multiple energy levels suitable for multi-photon excitation are preferably used for nonlinear mixing via quantum interference of different excitation paths affecting a common energy level. Demodulation of a carrier with a demodulation frequency up to 100's THZ can be achieved for frequency comparison and phase-sensitive detection. A large number of materials can be used to cover a wide spectral range including the ultra violet, visible and near infrared regions. In particular, absolute frequency measurement in a spectrum from 1.25 .mu.m to 1.66 .mu.m for fiber optics can be accomplished with a nearly continuous frequency coverage.

  16. SIMBOL X, a new generation X-ray telescope for the 0.5-70 keV range (United States)

    Ferrando, P.

    SIMBOL-X is a high energy ``mini" satellite class mission that is proposed by a French-Italian-English collaboration for a launch in 2009. SIMBOL-X is making use of a classical X-ray mirror, of ~ 600 cm2 maximum effective area, with a 30 m focal length in order to cover energies up to several tens of keV. This focal length will be achieved through the use of two spacecrafts in a formation flying configuration. This will give to SIMBOL-X unprecedented spatial resolution (20" HEW) and sensitivity in the hard X-ray range. By its coverage, from 0.5 to 70 keV, and sensitivity, SIMBOL-X will be an excellent instrument for the study of high energy processes in a large number of sources, as in particular accreting black-holes, extragalactic jets and AGNs.

  17. Unusual features associated with dentinogenesis imperfecta type II: report of two cases affecting the family over three generations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruthi Rao


    Full Text Available Dentinogenesis imperfecta (DI is an autosomal dominant genetic disease. It has a high degree of penetrance and a very low mutation rate. DI is characterized by opalescent dentin and discoloration of the teeth. The exposed dentin may undergo severe attrition. Early diagnosis and management of this condition is essential for the prevention of further complications and for the aesthetic purpose. We present clinical and radiographic features of two cases of DI type II affecting the family over three generations. This report also highlights rare features such as odontome, multiple impacted teeth and retained deciduous teeth along with features of DI in a 16-years old male.. [Cukurova Med J 2017; 42(1.000: 155-160

  18. Neutron measurements of the fuel remaining in the TMI II once-through steam generators (OTSG'S)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geelhood, B.D.; Abel, K.H.


    Polypropylene tubes containing a string of 18 copper rods were inserted into the lower head region and each J-leg of the two once-through steam generators (OTSG) of the unit two reactor at Three Mile Island. The object was to measure the neutron flux present in those regions and estimate the amount of residual fuel remaining in each OTSG. The neutron flux from any residual fuel induces a radioisotope, /sup 64/Cu, in the copper coupons. The /sup 64/Cu activity is detected by coincidence counting the two 511-keV gamma rays produced by the annihilation of the positron emitted in the decay of /sup 64/Cu. The copper coupons were placed between two 6-inch diameter, 6-inch long NaI(Tl) crystals and the electronics produced a coincidence count whenever the two gamma rays were uniquely detected. The net coincidence count is proportional to the amount of /sup 64/Cu activity in the coupon. This document discusses calculation methods, statistical methods, and results of this research. 3 figs., 30 tabs.

  19. Corpuls CPR Generates Higher Mean Arterial Pressure Than LUCAS II in a Pig Model of Cardiac Arrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Eichhorn


    Full Text Available According to the European Resuscitation Council guidelines, the use of mechanical chest compression devices is a reasonable alternative in situations where manual chest compression is impractical or compromises provider safety. The aim of this study is to compare the performance of a recently developed chest compression device (Corpuls CPR with an established system (LUCAS II in a pig model. Methods. Pigs (n = 5/group in provoked ventricular fibrillation were left untreated for 5 minutes, after which 15 min of cardiopulmonary resuscitation was performed with chest compressions. After 15 min, defibrillation was performed every 2 min if necessary, and up to 3 doses of adrenaline were given. If there was no return of spontaneous circulation after 25 min, the experiment was terminated. Coronary perfusion pressure, carotid blood flow, end-expiratory CO2, regional oxygen saturation by near infrared spectroscopy, blood gas, and local organ perfusion with fluorescent labelled microspheres were measured at baseline and during resuscitation. Results. Animals treated with Corpuls CPR had significantly higher mean arterial pressures during resuscitation, along with a detectable trend of greater carotid blood flow and organ perfusion. Conclusion. Chest compressions with the Corpuls CPR device generated significantly higher mean arterial pressures than compressions performed with the LUCAS II device.

  20. Class I and Class II restorations of resin composite: an FE analysis of the influence of modulus of elasticity on stresses generated by occlusal loading. (United States)

    Asmussen, Erik; Peutzfeldt, Anne


    It was the aim of the study to analyze by the FE method stresses generated in tooth and restoration by occlusal loading of Class I and Class II restorations of resin composite. On the basis of available information on the influence of the modulus of elasticity, the research hypothesis was that the marginal stresses would decrease with increasing modulus of elasticity of the restoration. A cylindrical tooth was modelled in enamel and dentin and fitted with a Class I or a Class II restoration of resin composite. In one scenario the restoration was bonded to the tooth, in another the restoration was left nonbonded. The resin composite was modelled with a modulus of elasticity of 5, 10, 15 or 20 GPa and loaded occlusally with 100 N. By means of the soft-ware program ABAQUS the von Mises stresses in enamel and dentin were calculated. In the bonded scenario, the maximum stresses in the enamel were located at the occlusal margins (range 7-11 MPa), and in the dentin centrally at the pulpal floor (range 3.4-5.5MPa). The stresses decreased with increasing modulus of elasticity of the resin composite. In the nonbonded scenario, the stresses were higher in the dentin and lower in the enamel than in the bonded cases, and the influence of the modulus of elasticity was less pronounced. The marginal stresses in the restoration were below 6 MPa in the bonded scenario and below 3 MPa in the nonbonded scenario. Occlusal restorations of resin composite should have a high modulus of elasticity in order to reduce the risk of marginal deterioration.

  1. An all-solid-state microsecond-range quasi-square pulse generator based on fractional-turn ratio saturable pulse transformer and anti-resonance network. (United States)

    Chen, Rong; Yang, Jianhua; Cheng, Xinbing; Pan, Zilong


    High voltage pulse generators are widely applied in a number of fields. Defense and industrial applications stimulated intense interests in the area of pulsed power technology towards the system with high power, high repetition rate, solid state characteristics, and compact structure. An all-solid-state microsecond-range quasi-square pulse generator based on a fractional-turn ratio saturable pulse transformer and anti-resonance network is proposed in this paper. This generator consists of a charging system, a step-up system, and a modulating system. In this generator, the fractional-turn ratio saturable pulse transformer is the key component since it acts as a step-up transformer and a main switch during the working process. Demonstrative experiments show that if the primary storage capacitors are charged to 400 V, a quasi-square pulse with amplitude of about 29 kV can be achieved on a 3500 Ω resistive load, as well as the pulse duration (full width at half maximum) of about 1.3 μs. Preliminary repetition rate experiments are also carried out, which indicate that this pulse generator could work stably with the repetition rates of 30 Hz and 50 Hz. It can be concluded that this kind of all-solid-state microsecond-range quasi-square pulse generator can not only lower both the operating voltage of the primary windings and the saturable inductance of the secondary windings, thus ideally realizing the magnetic switch function of the fractional-turn ratio saturable pulse transformer, but also achieve a quasi-square pulse with high quality and fixed flat top after the modulation of a two-section anti-resonance network. This generator can be applied in areas of large power microwave sources, sterilization, disinfection, and wastewater treatment.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pronskikh, V. [Fermilab; Glenzinski, D. [Fermilab; Knoepfel, K. [Fermilab; Mokhov, N. [Fermilab; Tschirhart, Tschirhart [Fermilab


    The Mu2e experiment at Fermilab is being designed to study the coherent neutrino-less conversion of a negative muon into an electron in the field of a nucleus. This process has an extremely low probability in the Standard Model, and its observation would provide unambiguous evidence for beyond the standard model physics. The Mu2e design aims to reach a single-event-sensitivity of about 2.5 x $10^{-17}$ and will probe effective new physics mass scales in the $10^{3}-10^{4}$ TeV range, well beyond the reach of the LHC. This work will examine the maximum beam power that can be tolerated for beam energies in the 0.5-8 GeV range. This has implications for how the sensitivity might be further improved with a second generation experiment using an upgraded proton beam from the PIP-II project, which will be capable of providing MW beams to Fermilab experiments later in the next decade.

  3. Scanning Optical Head with Nontilted Reference Beam: Assuring Nanoradian Accuracy for a New Generation Surface Profiler in the Large-Slope Testing Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinan Qian


    Full Text Available Nanoradian Surface Profilers (NSPs are required for state-of-the-art synchrotron radiation optics and high-precision optical measurements. Nano-radian accuracy must be maintained in the large-angle test range. However, the beams' notable lateral motions during tests of most operating profilers, combined with the insufficiencies of their optical components, generate significant errors of ∼1 μrad rms in the measurements. The solution to nano-radian accuracy for the new generation of surface profilers in this range is to apply a scanning optical head, combined with nontilted reference beam. I describe here my comparison of different scan modes and discuss some test results.

  4. Next Generation Metallic Iron Nodule Technology in Electric Arc Steelmaking - Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donald R. Fosnacht; Iwao Iwasaki; Richard F. Kiesel; David J. Englund; David W. Hendrickson; Rodney L. Bleifuss


    -bituminous coal as a reductant. From over 4000 laboratory tube and box furnace tests, it was established that the correct combination of additives, fluxes, and reductant while controlling the concentration of CO and CO2 in the furnace atmosphere (a) lowers the operating temperature, (b) decreases the use of reductant coal (c) generates less micro nodules of iron, and (d) promotes desulphurization. The laboratory scale work was subsequently verified on 12.2 m (40 ft) long pilot scale furnace. High quality NRI could be produced on a routine basis using the pilot furnace facility with energy provided from oxy-gas or oxy-coal burner technologies. Specific strategies were developed to allow the use of sub-bituminous coals both as a hearth material and as part of the reaction mixture. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modeling was used to study the overall carbothermic reduction and smelting process. The movement of the furnace gas on a pilot hearth furnace and larger simulated furnaces and various means of controlling the gas atmosphere were evaluated. Various atmosphere control methods were identified and tested during the course of the investigation. Based on the results, the appropriate modifications to the furnace were made and tested at the pilot scale. A series of reduction and smelting tests were conducted to verify the utility of the processing conditions. During this phase, the overall energy use characteristics, raw materials, alternative fuels, and the overall economics predicted for full scale implementation were analyzed. The results indicate that it should be possible to lower reaction temperatures while simultaneously producing low sulfur, high carbon NRI if the right mix chemistry and atmosphere are employed. Recommendations for moving the technology to the next stage of commercialization are presented.

  5. GENII (Generation II): The Hanford Environmental Radiation Dosimetry Software System: Volume 3, Code maintenance manual: Hanford Environmental Dosimetry Upgrade Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napier, B.A.; Peloquin, R.A.; Strenge, D.L.; Ramsdell, J.V.


    The Hanford Environmental Dosimetry Upgrade Project was undertaken to incorporate the internal dosimetry models recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in updated versions of the environmental pathway analysis models used at Hanford. The resulting second generation of Hanford environmental dosimetry computer codes is compiled in the Hanford Environmental Dosimetry System (Generation II, or GENII). This coupled system of computer codes is intended for analysis of environmental contamination resulting from acute or chronic releases to, or initial contamination of, air, water, or soil, on through the calculation of radiation doses to individuals or populations. GENII is described in three volumes of documentation. This volume is a Code Maintenance Manual for the serious user, including code logic diagrams, global dictionary, worksheets to assist with hand calculations, and listings of the code and its associated data libraries. The first volume describes the theoretical considerations of the system. The second volume is a Users' Manual, providing code structure, users' instructions, required system configurations, and QA-related topics. 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. Post-Newtonian Reference Frames for Advanced Theory of the Lunar Motion and a New Generation of Lunar Laser Ranging (United States)

    Xie, Yi; Kopeikin, Sergei Affiliaiton: AB(Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri, USA


    We overview a set of post-Newtonian reference frames for a comprehensive study of the orbital dynamics and rotational motion of Moon and Earth by means of lunar laser ranging (LLR). We employ a scalar-tensor theory of gravity depending on two post-Newtonian parameters, and , and utilize the relativistic resolutions on reference frames adopted by the International Astronomical Union (IAU) in 2000. We assume that the solar system is isolated and space-time is asymptotically flat at infinity. The primary reference frame covers the entire space-time, has its origin at the solar-system barycenter (SSB) and spatial axes stretching up to infinity. The SSB frame is not rotating with respect to a set of distant quasars that are forming the International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF). The secondary reference frame has its origin at the Earth-Moon barycenter (EMB). The EMB frame is locally-inertial and is not rotating dynamically in the sense that equation of motion of a test particle moving with respect to the EMB frame, does not contain the Coriolis and centripetal forces. Two other local frames geocentric (GRF) and selenocentric (SRF) have their origins at the center of mass of Earth and Moon respectively and do not rotate dynamically. Each local frame is subject to the geodetic precession both with respect to other local frames and with respect to the ICRF because of their relative motion with respect to each other. Theoretical advantage of the dynamically non-rotating local frames is in a more simple mathematical description. Each local frame can be aligned with the axes of ICRF after applying the matrix of the relativistic precession. The set of one global and three local frames is introduced in order to fully decouple the relative motion of Moon with respect to Earth from the orbital motion of the Earth-Moon barycenter as well as to connect the coordinate description of the lunar motion, an observer on Earth, and a retro-reflector on Moon to directly measurable

  7. NKS NordRisk II: Atlas of long-range atmospheric dispersion and deposition of radionuclides from selected risk sites in the Northern Hemisphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith Korsholm, U.; Havskov Soerensen, J. (Danish Meteorological Institute (DMI), Copenhagen (Denmark)); Astrup, P.; Lauritzen, B. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Risoe National Lab. for Sustainable Energy. Radiation Research Div., Roskilde (Denmark))


    The present atlas has been developed within the NKS/NordRisk-II project 'Nuclear risk from atmospheric dispersion in Northern Europe'. The atlas describes risks from hypothetical long-range dispersion and deposition of radionuclides from 16 nuclear risk sites on the Northern Hemisphere. The atmospheric dispersion model calculations cover a period of 30 days following each release to ensure almost complete deposition of the dispersed material. The atlas contains maps showing the total deposition and time-integrated air concentration of Cs-137 and I-131 based on three years of meteorological data spanning the climate variability associated with the North Atlantic Oscillation, and corresponding time evolution of the ensemble mean atmospheric dispersion. (Author)

  8. Transient dominant host-range selection using Chinese hamster ovary cells to generate marker-free recombinant viral vectors from vaccinia virus. (United States)

    Liu, Liang; Cooper, Tamara; Eldi, Preethi; Garcia-Valtanen, Pablo; Diener, Kerrilyn R; Howley, Paul M; Hayball, John D


    Recombinant vaccinia viruses (rVACVs) are promising antigen-delivery systems for vaccine development that are also useful as research tools. Two common methods for selection during construction of rVACV clones are (i) co-insertion of drug resistance or reporter protein genes, which requires the use of additional selection drugs or detection methods, and (ii) dominant host-range selection. The latter uses VACV variants rendered replication-incompetent in host cell lines by the deletion of host-range genes. Replicative ability is restored by co-insertion of the host-range genes, providing for dominant selection of the recombinant viruses. Here, we describe a new method for the construction of rVACVs using the cowpox CP77 protein and unmodified VACV as the starting material. Our selection system will expand the range of tools available for positive selection of rVACV during vector construction, and it is substantially more high-fidelity than approaches based on selection for drug resistance.

  9. Structure of short-range-ordered iron(III)-precipitates formed by iron(II) oxidation in water containing phosphate, silicate, and calcium (United States)

    Voegelin, A.; Frommer, J.; Vantelon, D.; Kaegi, R.; Hug, S. J.


    The oxidation of Fe(II) in water leads to the formation of Fe(III)-precipitates that strongly affect the fate of nutrients and contaminants in natural and engineered systems. Examples include the cycling of As in rice fields irrigated with As-rich groundwater or the treatment of drinking water for As removal. Knowledge of the types of Fe(III)-precipitates forming in such systems is essential for the quantitative modeling of nutrient and contaminant dynamics and for the optimization of water purification techniques on the basis of a mechanistic understanding of the relevant biogeochemical processes. In this study, we investigated the local coordination of Fe, P, and Ca in Fe(III)-precipitates formed by aeration of synthetic Fe(II)-containing groundwater with variable composition (pH 7, 2-30 mg/L Fe(II), 2-20 mg/L phosphate-P, 2-20 mg/L silicate-Si, 8 mM Na-bicarbonate or 2.5 mM Ca-&1.5 mM Mg-bicarbonate). After 4 hours of oxidation, Fe(III)-precipitates were collected on 0.2 µm nylon filters and dried. The precipitates were analyzed by Fe K-edge EXAFS (XAS beamline, ANKA, Germany) and by P and Ca K-edge XANES spectroscopy (LUCIA beamline, SLS, Switzerland). The Fe K-edge EXAFS spectra indicated that local Fe coordination in the precipitates systematically shifted with water composition. As long as water contained P, mainly short-range-ordered Fe(III)-phosphate formed (with molar P/Fe ~0.5). In the absence of P, Fe(III) precipitated as hydrous ferric oxide at high Si/Fe>0.5, as ferrihydrite at intermediate Si/Fe, and mainly as lepidocrocite at Si/Fepatterns. The P K-edge XANES spectra revealed that phosphate was bound to both Fe as well as Ca (if present). The Ca K-edge XANES spectra showed that the mode of Ca uptake by the Fe(III)-precipitates shifted from mainly adsorption at high Fe/P to coprecipitation at low Fe/P ratio. Despite oversaturation, neither calcite nor hydroxyapatite formed to a significant extent. The results from this study indicated that

  10. Drift Rather than Selection Dominates MHC Class II Allelic Diversity Patterns at the Biogeographical Range Scale in Natterjack Toads Bufo calamita (United States)

    Zeisset, Inga; Beebee, Trevor J. C.


    Study of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) loci has gained great popularity in recent years, partly due to their function in protecting vertebrates from infections. This is of particular interest in amphibians on account of major threats many species face from emergent diseases such as chytridiomycosis. In this study we compare levels of diversity in an expressed MHC class II locus with neutral genetic diversity at microsatellite loci in natterjack toad (Bufo (Epidalea) calamita) populations across the whole of the species’ biogeographical range. Variation at both classes of loci was high in the glacial refugium areas (REF) and much lower in postglacial expansion areas (PGE), especially in range edge populations. Although there was clear evidence that the MHC locus was influenced by positive selection in the past, congruence with the neutral markers suggested that historical demographic events were the main force shaping MHC variation in the PGE area. Both neutral and adaptive genetic variation declined with distance from glacial refugia. Nevertheless, there were also some indications from differential isolation by distance and allele abundance patterns that weak effects of selection have been superimposed on the main drift effect in the PGE zone. PMID:24937211

  11. Drift rather than selection dominates MHC class II allelic diversity patterns at the biogeographical range scale in natterjack toads Bufo calamita.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga Zeisset

    Full Text Available Study of major histocompatibility complex (MHC loci has gained great popularity in recent years, partly due to their function in protecting vertebrates from infections. This is of particular interest in amphibians on account of major threats many species face from emergent diseases such as chytridiomycosis. In this study we compare levels of diversity in an expressed MHC class II locus with neutral genetic diversity at microsatellite loci in natterjack toad (Bufo (Epidalea calamita populations across the whole of the species' biogeographical range. Variation at both classes of loci was high in the glacial refugium areas (REF and much lower in postglacial expansion areas (PGE, especially in range edge populations. Although there was clear evidence that the MHC locus was influenced by positive selection in the past, congruence with the neutral markers suggested that historical demographic events were the main force shaping MHC variation in the PGE area. Both neutral and adaptive genetic variation declined with distance from glacial refugia. Nevertheless, there were also some indications from differential isolation by distance and allele abundance patterns that weak effects of selection have been superimposed on the main drift effect in the PGE zone.

  12. Proposed Tenaska Washington II Generation Project : Final Environmental Impact Statement. Volume 1: Environmental Analysis and Technical Appendices.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.


    BPA is considering whether to purchase electrical power from a proposed privately-owned combustion-turbine electrical generation plant in Washington. The plant would be fired by natural gas and would use combined-cycle technology to generate 240 average megawatts (aMW) of energy. The plant would be developed, owned, and operated by Tenaska Washington Partners II, L.P. The project would be located about 19 kilometers (12 miles) southeast of downtown Tacoma in the Frederickson Industrial Area, Pierce County. The proposed plant would occupy about half of a 6.4-hectare (16-acre) parcel and would be consistent with the industrial character of its surroundings. The proposed site is currently undeveloped and zoned for industrial use by the county. Main environmental concerns identified in the scoping process and in comments on the Draft Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) include: (1) potential air quality impacts, such as emissions and their contribution to the {open_quotes}greenhouse{close_quotes} effect; (2) potential health and safety impacts, such as nuisance odors, plant safety, visibility and heat-emission systems which may affect low-flying planes and potential health effects of electric and magnetic fields; and (3) potential water quality and quantity impacts, such as the amount of wastewater to be discharged, the source and amount of water required for plant operation. These and other issues are discussed in detail in the EIS. The proposed project already includes many features designed to reduce environmental impacts. Based on investigations performed for the EIS, no significant unavoidable adverse environmental impacts associated with the proposed project were identified, and no evidence emerged to suggest that the proposed action is controversial. The EIS is being mailed to numerous agencies, groups, and individuals (see Section 8.0). There will be a 30-day no-action period before any decisions are made and the Record of Decision is signed.

  13. Growth, structure, crystalline perfection and characterization of Mg(II)-incorporated tris(thiourea)Zn(II) sulfate crystals: Enhanced second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muthu, K. [Department of Chemistry, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar-608 002 (India); Bhagavannarayana, G. [Crystal Growth and X-ray Analysis Activity, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi-110 012 (India); Meenakshisundaram, S.P., E-mail: [Department of Chemistry, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar-608 002 (India)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A small quantity incorporation of Mg(II)- enhances the SHG efficiency of ZTS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Crystal stress is observed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Structure of Mg(II)-incorporated ZTS is elucidated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Crystalline perfection is evaluated by HRXRD. - Abstract: Single crystals of Mg(II)-incorporated tris(thiourea)Zn(II) sulfate (MZTS) have been grown from aqueous solution at room temperature by slow evaporation solution growth technique. The incorporation of Mg(II)- into the crystalline lattice was well confirmed by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and by single crystal X-ray diffraction technique. The reduction in the intensities observed in powder X-ray diffraction patterns of doped specimen and slight shifts in vibrational frequencies in FT-IR indicate the lattice stress as a result of doping. Thermal studies reveal the purity of the material and no decomposition is observed up to the melting point. High transmittance is observed in the visible region and the band gap energy is estimated by Kubelka-Munk algorithm. Surface morphology of doped material was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Decreased crystalline perfection by doping observed by high-resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD) analysis is justified by the crystal stress. Even a small quantity incorporation of Mg(II)- enhances the SHG efficiency significantly. The as-grown crystal is further characterized by microhardness and dielectric studies.

  14. A range of newly developed mobile generators to dynamically produce SI-traceable reference gas mixtures for reactive compounds at atmospheric concentrations (United States)

    Leuenberger, Daiana; Pascale, Céline; Guillevic, Myriam; Ackermann, Andreas; Niederhauser, Bernhard


    Three new mobile facilities have been developed at METAS to dynamically generate SI-traceable reference gas mixtures for a variety of reactive compounds at atmospheric amount of substance fractions and at very low levels of uncertainty (Ux designed and manufactured at METAS in the framework of the three EMRP projects MetNH3, KEY-VOCs and HIGHGAS. The method is based on permeation and subsequent dynamic dilution: A permeation tube containing the pure substance (e.g. NH3) is stored in the permeation chamber at constant temperature, pressure and matrix gas flow (N2, purified air, synthetic air). Under such conditions the pure substance permeates at constant rate into the matrix gas and can be diluted thereafter to the desired amount fractions in one or two subsequent steps. The permeation rate (mass loss over time) of the permeation tube is precisely calibrated in a fully traceable magnetic suspension balance. The carrier gas is previously purified from the compounds of interest using commercially available purification cartridges. The permeation chambers of ReGaS2 and ReGaS3 have multiple individual cells allowing for the generation of mixtures containing up to 5 different components if required. ReGaS1 allows for the generation of one-component mixtures only. These primary mixtures are then diluted to the required amount of substance fractions using thermal mass flow controllers for full flexibility and adaptability of the generation process over the entire range of possible concentrations. In order to considerably reduce adsorption/desorption processes and thus stabilisation time, all electro-polished stainless steel parts of ReGaS1 and ReGaS2 in contact with the reference gas mixtures are passivated with SilcoNert2000® surface coating. These three state-of-the-art mobile reference gas generators are applicable under both, laboratory and field conditions. Moreover the dynamic generation method can be adapted and applied to a large variety of molecules (e.g. BTEX

  15. Generation of auroral kilometric radiation by a finite-size source in a dipole magnetic field. Part II (United States)

    Burinskaya, T. M.; Shevelev, M. M.


    Propagation and amplification of extraordinary electromagnetic waves in a dipole magnetic field in a narrow 3D plasma cavity in which a weakly relativistic electron beam propagates along the magnetic field in the direction of the gradient of the magnetic field strength is investigated. The domain of wave vectors at the starting point for which the wave amplification factors at the output of the density cavity reach their maximum values is found, and the amplification factor as a function of the wave frequency is determined. It is shown that the longitudinal velocity of fast electrons, which enables generation of waves in a broader frequency range, plays an important role in the formation of the spectrum of the auroral kilometric radiation (AKR). In this case, waves with the largest amplification factors at the output of the cavity have frequencies exceeding the cutoff frequency of the background plasma at the wave generation altitude. The global inhomogeneity of the magnetic field and plasma density, which governs the residence time of the waves in the amplification region, plays a key role in the formation of the AKR spectrum. It is shown that this time is the main factor determining the energy of the waves emerging from the source.

  16. Preliminary report of an ongoing phase I/II dose range, safety and efficacy study of iodine-123-phenylpentadecanoic acid for the identification of viable myocardium. (United States)

    Hansen, C L


    An agent that can accurately and cost-effectively identify viable myocardium is needed to select the patients most likely to benefit from myocardial revascularization. Iodine-123-phenylpentadecanoic acid (IPPA) is a synthetic radiolabeled fatty acid that has shown promise in evaluating patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). IPPA has unique metabolic properties that may make it superior to other single-photon agents used for this task. A Phase I/II study is underway to evaluate safety, dose range and efficacy of IPPA in assessing viability and predicting functional recovery after revascularization. Patients between the ages of 21 and 75 with angiographically documented CAD, who were being referred for coronary revascularization, were recruited. The patients were randomized to receive 2, 4 or 6 mCi of IPPA and then underwent sequential SPECT imaging at 4, 12, 20, 28 and 36 min after injection. Radionuclide ventriculography and perfusion imaging were performed before and again 8 wk after revascularization. Myocardial metabolic activity of IPPA was analyzed and compared to the preinjection and postejection fractions. There were no significant adverse effects from the administration of IPPA. Image quality was dose-dependent; the 2-mCi dose was not consistently acceptable for quantitative analysis. These preliminary data show that IPPA is safe and can produce myocardial images of good quality when 4 mCi or more are used. Early results are encouraging but more experience will be needed to define the role of IPPA in identifying myocardial viability.

  17. Cataloging of the Northern Sky from the POSS-II using a Next-Generation Software Technology (United States)

    Djorgovski, S. G.; Weir, N.; Fayyad, U.

    Digitization of the Second Palomar Observatory Sky Survey (POSS-II) is now in progress at STScI. The resulting data set, the Palomar-STScI Digital Sky Survey (DPOSS), will consist of about 3 TB of pixel data. In order to extract useful information from this data set quickly, uniformly, and efficiently, we have developed a software system to catalog, calibrate, classify, maintain, and analyse the scans, called Sky Image Cataloging and Analysis Tool (SKICAT). It is a suite of programs designed to facilitate the maintenance and analysis of astronomical surveys comprised of multiple, overlapping images and/or catalogs. The system serves three principal functions: catalog construction (including object classification), catalog management, and catalog analysis. It provides a powerful, integrated environment for the manipulation and scientific investigation of catalogs from virtually any source. The system is a testbed for practical astronomical applications of AI technology, including machine learning, expert systems, etc., used for astronomical catalog generation and analysis. The system also provides tools to merge these catalogs into a large, complex database which may be easily queried, modified, and upgraded (e.g., as more or better calibration data are added). For example, we make a considerable use of the GID3* decision tree induction software. The resulting Palomar Northern Sky Catalog (PNSC) is expected to contain galaxies, and stars, in 3 colors ( ), down to the limiting magnitude , with the star-galaxy classification accurate to 90 -- 95 percent down to . The catalog will be continuously upgraded as more calibration data become available. It will be made available to the community via computer networks and/or suitable media, probably in installments, as soon as scientific validation and quality checks are completed. Analysis software (parts of SKICAT) will also be freely available. A vast variety of scientific projects will be possible with this data base

  18. Differential prevalence and demographic and clinical correlates of second-generation antipsychotic use in bipolar I versus bipolar II disorder. (United States)

    Park, Dong Yeon; Goffin, Kathryn C; Shah, Saloni; Yuen, Laura D; Holtzman, Jessica N; Hooshmand, Farnaz; Miller, Shefali; Wang, Po W; Ketter, Terence A


    To assess second-generation antipsychotic (SGA) use, demographics, and clinical correlates in patients with bipolar I disorder (BDI) versus bipolar II disorder (BDII). Stanford Bipolar Disorder (BD) Clinic outpatients enrolled during 2000-2011 were assessed with the Systematic Treatment Enhancement Program for BD (STEP-BD) Affective Disorders Evaluation. Current SGA use, demographics, and clinical correlates were assessed for BDI versus BDII. Among 503 BD outpatients, in BDI versus BDII, SGA use was more than twice as common (44.0% versus 21.2%), and doses were approximately twice as high. BDI patients taking (N = 107) versus not taking (N = 136) SGAs less often had current full time employment and college degree; and more often had lifetime psychiatric hospitalization, current depression, and current complex pharmacotherapy, and had a higher mean current Clinical Global Impression for Bipolar Version Overall Severity score, and these persisted significantly after covarying for employment and education. Prior psychiatric hospitalization was the most robust correlate of SGA use in BDI patients. In contrast, these demographic and clinical correlates of SGA use were not statistically significant among patients with BDII, although BDII (but not BDI) patients taking (N = 55) versus not taking (N = 205) SGAs were more likely to have current mood stabilizer use (67.3% versus 51.7%). American tertiary bipolar disorder clinic referral sample, cross-sectional design. Current SGA use was robustly associated with prior psychiatric hospitalization in BDI and to a more limited extent with current mood stabilizer use in BDII. SGA use associations with other unfavorable illness characteristics in BDI were less robust. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Reactivity of an iron-oxygen oxidant generated upon oxidative decarboxylation of biomimetic iron(II) α-hydroxy acid complexes. (United States)

    Paria, Sayantan; Chatterjee, Sayanti; Paine, Tapan Kanti


    Three biomimetic iron(II) α-hydroxy acid complexes, [(Tp(Ph2))Fe(II)(mandelate)(H2O)] (1), [(Tp(Ph2))Fe(II)(benzilate)] (2), and [(Tp(Ph2))Fe(II)(HMP)] (3), together with two iron(II) α-methoxy acid complexes, [(Tp(Ph2))Fe(II)(MPA)] (4) and [(Tp(Ph2))Fe(II)(MMP)] (5) (where HMP = 2-hydroxy-2-methylpropanoate, MPA = 2-methoxy-2-phenylacetate, and MMP = 2-methoxy-2-methylpropanoate), of a facial tridentate ligand Tp(Ph2) [where Tp(Ph2) = hydrotris(3,5-diphenylpyrazole-1-yl)borate] were isolated and characterized to study the mechanism of dioxygen activation at the iron(II) centers. Single-crystal X-ray structural analyses of 1, 2, and 5 were performed to assess the binding mode of an α-hydroxy/methoxy acid anion to the iron(II) center. While the iron(II) α-methoxy acid complexes are unreactive toward dioxygen, the iron(II) α-hydroxy acid complexes undergo oxidative decarboxylation, implying the importance of the hydroxyl group in the activation of dioxygen. In the reaction with dioxygen, the iron(II) α-hydroxy acid complexes form iron(III) phenolate complexes of a modified ligand (Tp(Ph2)*), where the ortho position of one of the phenyl rings of Tp(Ph2) gets hydroxylated. The iron(II) mandelate complex (1), upon decarboxylation of mandelate, affords a mixture of benzaldehyde (67%), benzoic acid (20%), and benzyl alcohol (10%). On the other hand, complexes 2 and 3 react with dioxygen to form benzophenone and acetone, respectively. The intramolecular ligand hydroxylation gets inhibited in the presence of external intercepting agents. Reactions of 1 and 2 with dioxygen in the presence of an excess amount of alkenes result in the formation of the corresponding cis-diols in good yield. The incorporation of both oxygen atoms of dioxygen into the diol products is confirmed by (18)O-labeling studies. On the basis of reactivity and mechanistic studies, the generation of a nucleophilic iron-oxygen intermediate upon decarboxylation of the coordinated α-hydroxy acids is

  20. Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 413: Clean Slate II Plutonium Dispersion (TTR) Tonopah Test Range, Nevada. Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, Patrick [Navarro, Las Vegas, NV (United States)


    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan provides the rationale and supporting information for the selection and implementation of corrective actions at Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 413, Clean Slate II Plutonium Dispersion (TTR). CAU 413 is located on the Tonopah Test Range and includes one corrective action site, TA-23-02CS. CAU 413 consists of the release of radionuclides to the surface and shallow subsurface from the Clean Slate II (CSII) storage–transportation test conducted on May 31, 1963. The CSII test was a non-nuclear detonation of a nuclear device located inside a concrete bunker covered with 2 feet of soil. To facilitate site investigation and the evaluation of data quality objectives decisions, the releases at CAU 413 were divided into seven study groups: 1 Undisturbed Areas 2 Disturbed Areas 3 Sedimentation Areas 4 Former Staging Area 5 Buried Debris 6 Potential Source Material 7 Soil Mounds Corrective action investigation (CAI) activities, as set forth in the CAU 413 Corrective Action Investigation Plan, were performed from June 2015 through May 2016. Radionuclides detected in samples collected during the CAI were used to estimate total effective dose using the Construction Worker exposure scenario. Corrective action was required for areas where total effective dose exceeded, or was assumed to exceed, the radiological final action level (FAL) of 25 millirem per year. The results of the CAI and the assumptions made in the data quality objectives resulted in the following conclusions: The FAL is exceeded in surface soil in SG1, Undisturbed Areas; The FAL is assumed to be exceeded in SG5, Buried Debris, where contaminated debris and soil were buried after the CSII test; The FAL is not exceeded at SG2, SG3, SG4, SG6, or SG7. Because the FAL is exceeded at CAU 413, corrective action is required and corrective action alternatives (CAAs) must be evaluated. For CAU 413, three CAAs were evaluated: no further action, clean closure, and

  1. Absolute, pressure-dependent validation of a calibration-free, airborne laser hygrometer transfer standard (SEALDH-II from 5 to 1200 ppmv using a metrological humidity generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Buchholz


    Full Text Available Highly accurate water vapor measurements are indispensable for understanding a variety of scientific questions as well as industrial processes. While in metrology water vapor concentrations can be defined, generated, and measured with relative uncertainties in the single percentage range, field-deployable airborne instruments deviate even under quasistatic laboratory conditions up to 10–20 %. The novel SEALDH-II hygrometer, a calibration-free, tuneable diode laser spectrometer, bridges this gap by implementing a new holistic concept to achieve higher accuracy levels in the field. We present in this paper the absolute validation of SEALDH-II at a traceable humidity generator during 23 days of permanent operation at 15 different H2O mole fraction levels between 5 and 1200 ppmv. At each mole fraction level, we studied the pressure dependence at six different gas pressures between 65 and 950 hPa. Further, we describe the setup for this metrological validation, the challenges to overcome when assessing water vapor measurements on a high accuracy level, and the comparison results. With this validation, SEALDH-II is the first airborne, metrologically validated humidity transfer standard which links several scientific airborne and laboratory measurement campaigns to the international metrological water vapor scale.

  2. ACE-versus chymase-dependent angiotensin II generation in human coronary arteries: a matter of efficiency?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Tom (Beril); I.M. Garrelds (Ingrid); E. Scalbert; A.P.A. Stegmann (Sander); F. Boomsma (Frans); P.R. Saxena (Pramod Ranjan); A.H.J. Danser (Jan)


    textabstractOBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate ACE- and chymase-dependent angiotensin I-to-II conversion in human coronary arteries (HCAs). METHODS AND RESULTS: HCA rings were mounted in organ baths, and concentration-response curves to angiotensin II,

  3. Mentorship: A Generational Perspective (United States)

    Shadle, Eric


    Three major generations are represented in today's workforce: Baby Boomers, Gen X, and Millennials. Each of these groups has a wide range of definitions, but here they are defined according to their most common definitions: Baby boomers include those born in the decade following the end of World War II and are between the ages of 50 and 70 years.…

  4. Syntheses and structures of two new coordination polymers generated from a 4-aminotriazole-bridged organic ligand and CoII salts. (United States)

    Wang, Xue Ru; Ma, Jian Ping; Dong, Yu Bin


    Organic ligands and counter-anions influence the coordination spheres of metal cations and hence the construction of coordination polymers (CPs). The specific bent geometries of five-membered heterocyclic triazole bridging organic ligands are capable of generating CPs with novel patterns not easily obtained using rigid linear ligands. A multidentate 4-aminotriazole-bridged organic ligand, namely 4-amino-3,5-bis(4,3'-bipyridyl-5'-yl)-4H-1,2,4-triazole (L) has been prepared and used to synthesize two CoII coordination polymers, namely poly[[[μ2-4-amino-3,5-bis(4,3'-bipyridyl-5'-yl)-4H-1,2,4-triazole-κ2N:N']bis(methanol-κO)cobalt(II)] bis(perchlorate)], {[Co(C22H16N8)2(CH3OH)2](ClO4)2}n, (I), and poly[[μ3-4-amino-3,5-bis(4,3'-bipyridyl-5'-yl)-4H-1,2,4-triazole-κ3N:N':N'']dichloridocobalt(II)], [CoCl2(C22H16N8)]n, (II), using CoX2 salts [X = ClO4 for (I) and Cl for (II)] under solvothermal conditions. Single-crystal X-ray structure analysis revealed that they both feature two-dimensional networks. Cobalt is located on an inversion centre in (I) and in a general position in (II). In (I), L functions as a bidentate cis-conformation ligand linking CoII ions, while it functions as a tridentate trans-conformation linker binding CoII ions in (II). In addition, O-H...N and N-H...O hydrogen bonds and C-H...π interactions exist in (I), while N-H...Cl and π-π interactions exist in (II), and these weak interactions play an important role in aligning the two-dimensional nets of (I) and (II) in the solid state. As the compounds were synthesized under the same conditions, the significant structural variations between (I) and (II) are believed to be determined by the different sizes and coordination abilities of the counter-anions. IR spectroscopy and diffuse reflectance UV-Vis spectra were also used to investigate the title compounds.

  5. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 413: Clean Slate II Plutonium Dispersion (TTR) Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, Patrick; Burmeister, Mark; Gallo, Patricia


    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 413 is located on the Tonopah Test Range, which is approximately 130 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, and approximately 40 miles southeast of Tonopah, Nevada. The CAU 413 site consists of the release of radionuclides to the surface and shallow subsurface from the conduct of the Clean Slate II (CSII) storage–transportation test conducted on May 31, 1963. CAU 413 includes one corrective action site (CAS), TA-23-02CS (Pu Contaminated Soil). The known releases at CAU 413 are the result of the atmospheric deposition of contamination from the 1963 CSII test. The CSII test was a non-nuclear detonation of a nuclear device located inside a reinforced concrete bunker covered with 2 feet of soil. This test dispersed radionuclides, primarily plutonium, on the ground surface. The presence and nature of contamination at CAU 413 will be evaluated based on information collected from a corrective action investigation (CAI). The investigation is based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on June 17, 2015, by representatives of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection; the U.S. Air Force; and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective actions for CAU 413. The CAI will include radiological surveys, geophysical surveys, collection and analyses of soil samples, and assessment of investigation results. The collection of soil samples will be accomplished using both probabilistic and judgmental sampling approaches. To facilitate site investigation and the evaluation of DQO decisions, the releases at CAU 413 have been divided into seven study groups.

  6. Dietary nitrate improves age-related hypertension and metabolic abnormalities in rats via modulation of angiotensin II receptor signaling and inhibition of superoxide generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hezel, M.; Peleli, Maria; Liu, M.


    glucose tolerance in aged rats, via attenuation of NADPH oxidase activity and ANG II receptor signaling. Dietary nitrate supplementation for two weeks reduced blood pressure (10–15 mmHg) and improved glucose clearance in old, but not in young rats. These favorable effects were associated with increased....... Finally, nitrate treatment in aged rats normalized the gene expression profile of ANG II receptors (AT1A, AT2, AT1A/AT2 ratio) in the renal and cardiovascular systems without altering plasma levels of renin or ANG II. Our results show that boosting the nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway can partly compensate......Advanced age is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. A proposed central event is diminished amounts of nitric oxide (NO) due to reduced generation by endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) and increased oxidative stress. In addition, it is widely accepted...

  7. Evaluation and Ranking of Geothermal Resources for Electrical Generation or Electrical Offset in Idaho, Montana, Oregon and Washington. Volume II.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloomquist, R. Gordon


    This volume contains appendices on: (1) resource assessment - electrical generation computer results; (2) resource assessment summary - direct use computer results; (3) electrical generation (high temperature) resource assessment computer program listing; (4) direct utilization (low temperature) resource assessment computer program listing; (5) electrical generation computer program CENTPLANT and related documentation; (6) electrical generation computer program WELLHEAD and related documentation; (7) direct utilization computer program HEATPLAN and related documentation; (8) electrical generation ranking computer program GEORANK and related documentation; (9) direct utilization ranking computer program GEORANK and related documentation; and (10) life cycle cost analysis computer program and related documentation. (ACR)

  8. Probing ultra-fast processes with high dynamic range at 4th-generation light sources: Arrival time and intensity binning at unprecedented repetition rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kovalev


    Full Text Available Understanding dynamics on ultrafast timescales enables unique and new insights into important processes in the materials and life sciences. In this respect, the fundamental pump-probe approach based on ultra-short photon pulses aims at the creation of stroboscopic movies. Performing such experiments at one of the many recently established accelerator-based 4th-generation light sources such as free-electron lasers or superradiant THz sources allows an enormous widening of the accessible parameter space for the excitation and/or probing light pulses. Compared to table-top devices, critical issues of this type of experiment are fluctuations of the timing between the accelerator and external laser systems and intensity instabilities of the accelerator-based photon sources. Existing solutions have so far been only demonstrated at low repetition rates and/or achieved a limited dynamic range in comparison to table-top experiments, while the 4th generation of accelerator-based light sources is based on superconducting radio-frequency technology, which enables operation at MHz or even GHz repetition rates. In this article, we present the successful demonstration of ultra-fast accelerator-laser pump-probe experiments performed at an unprecedentedly high repetition rate in the few-hundred-kHz regime and with a currently achievable optimal time resolution of 13 fs (rms. Our scheme, based on the pulse-resolved detection of multiple beam parameters relevant for the experiment, allows us to achieve an excellent sensitivity in real-world ultra-fast experiments, as demonstrated for the example of THz-field-driven coherent spin precession.

  9. Design and development of Stirling engines for stationary power generation applications in the 500 to 3000 horsepower range. First quarterly report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This project is Phase I of a multi-phased program for the design and development of Stirling engines for stationary power generation applications in the 500 to 3000 horsepower range. Phase I comprises the conceptual design and associated cost estimates of a stationary Stirling engine capable of being fueled by a variety of heat sources, with emphasis on coal firing, followed by the preparation of a plan for implementing the design, fabrication and testing of a demonstration engine by 1985. The main effort in Phase I is the generation of state-of-the-art conceptual designs having greatest potential for prototype testing in 1985. The conceptual designs include a heat transport system for integrating the engine heater head with such energy sources as conventional oil/gas combustors, fluidized bed and other coal combustors, and combustors using coal-derived liquid fuels, and low/medium BTU gases. The heat transport systems being investigated include forced convection with gases or liquids, heat pipes, and direct firing. Currently, the leading choice for the solid fuel combustion system is the atmospheric fluidized bed, with low BTU gasification still a viable alternative. Both systems will continue to be evaluated further, but with greater emphasis on FBC. To date, there appears no clear choice among the heat pipe, forced convection gas loop, or direct firing as the prime candidate for the heat transport sub-system. Conceptual design and analysis will continue on all three sub-systems. Scale-up of United Stirling's P-75 engine to serve as the conceptual design of the 500 HP engine module is continuing. (LCL)

  10. Implantation of a essential diesel generator CN Vandellos II and fifth emergency diesel generator Asco; Implantacion de un 3er generador diesel esencial en C.N. Vandellos II y un 5 generador diesel de emergencia en Asco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cambra, M.


    This article describes the project for the installation of an additional emergency diesel generator in both Asco and Vandellos NPPs. The basic objectives of this project are to improve the availability of the emergency generation system, in order to provide greater ability to address potential contingencies, and also to increase the flexibility of the preventive periodic maintenance of the emergency diesel generators. This maintenance, that is currently a milestone of the critical path of the refueling outage, will be performed on-line. The new diesel generator will be sized to support all the loads considered in the safety case and also the consumption of its own auxiliary systems, and will be tested for operability assessment on the same periodical basis than the existing ones. The solution adopted will also permit that the N diesel generator may be connected to any bus bar class 1E in a station black-out scenario. (Author)

  11. The Cobalt chromium STent with Antiproliferative for Restenosis II (COSTAR II) trial study design: advancing the active-control evaluation of second-generation drug-eluting stents. (United States)

    Wang, Tracy Y; Hasselblad, Vic; Peterson, John L; Wijns, William; Parhizgar, Azin; Kereiakes, Dean J; Krucoff, Mitchell W


    Randomized clinical trials have demonstrated the superiority of drug-eluting stents (DESs) compared with bare-metal stents in reducing the need for revascularization and major adverse cardiac events (MACEs) in low-risk patients with single-vessel lesions. Rapid DES uptake has necessitated shifting the paradigm to active DES-controlled noninferiority study models with most studies using surrogate angiographic measurements to attain adequate statistical power. No previous prospective trial has specifically compared a new DES with an active-control DES in a high-risk patient population using primary clinical end points. COSTAR II is designed to compare use of the investigational Costar stent (Conor MedSystems, Palo Alto, CA) with the Taxus (Boston Scientific, Maple Grove, MN) stent in single- and multivessel percutaneous coronary intervention. The primary end point is the clinical composite of MACE at 8 months supported by consistent results in the evaluation of 8-month MACE rates in the single- and multivessel cohorts and of in-segment late loss in a small angiographic substudy at 9 months. A total of 1700 patients, 50% with single-vessel and 50% with multivessel disease, are randomized in a 3:2 ratio to receive either Costar or Taxus stent(s) in this prospective, multicenter, noninferiority study design. Because no prior data were available to determine control multivessel MACE rates, an imputed placebo statistical analysis plan incorporating a variable delta based on actually observed control DES MACE rates will be implemented. The results of COSTAR II will provide information about a novel coronary stent device as well as unique data regarding both control and test DES use in more complex "real-world" patients.

  12. A family of vortex wakes generated by a thrush nightingale in free flight in a wind tunnel over its entire natural range of flight speeds. (United States)

    Spedding, G R; Rosén, M; Hedenström, A


    In view of the complexity of the wing-beat kinematics and geometry, an important class of theoretical models for analysis and prediction of bird flight performance entirely, or almost entirely, ignores the action of the wing itself and considers only the resulting motions in the air behind the bird. These motions can also be complicated, but some success has previously been recorded in detecting and measuring relatively simple wake structures that can sometimes account for required quantities used to estimate aerodynamic power consumption. To date, all bird wakes, measured or presumed, seem to fall into one of two classes: the closed-loop, discrete vortex model at low flight speeds, and the constant-circulation, continuous vortex model at moderate to high speeds. Here, novel and accurate quantitative measurements of velocity fields in vertical planes aligned with the freestream are used to investigate the wake structure of a thrush nightingale over its entire range of natural flight speeds. At most flight speeds, the wake cannot be categorised as one of the two standard types, but has an intermediate structure, with approximations to the closed-loop and constant-circulation models at the extremes. A careful accounting for all vortical structures revealed with the high-resolution technique permits resolution of the previously unexplained wake momentum paradox. All the measured wake structures have sufficient momentum to provide weight support over the wingbeat. A simple model is formulated and explained that mimics the correct, measured balance of forces in the downstroke- and upstroke-generated wake over the entire range of flight speeds. Pending further work on different bird species, this might form the basis for a generalisable flight model.

  13. Hydrothermally generated aromatic compounds are consumed by bacteria colonizing in Atlantis II Deep of the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Yong


    Hydrothermal ecosystems have a wide distribution on Earth and many can be found in the basin of the Red Sea. Production of aromatic compounds occurs in a temperature window of 60-150 °C by utilizing organic debris. In the past 50 years, the temperature of the Atlantis II Deep brine pool in the Red Sea has increased from 56 to 68 °C, whereas the temperature at the nearby Discovery Deep brine pool has remained relatively stable at about 44 °C. In this report, we confirmed the presence of aromatic compounds in the Atlantis II brine pool as expected. The presence of the aromatic compounds might have disturbed the microbes in the Atlantis II. To show shifted microbial communities and their metabolisms, we sequenced the metagenomes of the microbes from both brine pools. Classification based on metareads and the 16S rRNA gene sequences from clones showed a strong divergence of dominant bacterial species between the pools. Bacteria capable of aromatic degradation were present in the Atlantis II brine pool. A comparison of the metabolic pathways showed that several aromatic degradation pathways were significantly enriched in the Atlantis II brine pool, suggesting the presence of aromatic compounds. Pathways utilizing metabolites derived from aromatic degradation were also significantly affected. In the Discovery brine pool, the most abundant genes from the microbes were related to sugar metabolism pathways and DNA synthesis and repair, suggesting a different strategy for the utilization of carbon and energy sources between the Discovery brinse pool and the Atlantis II brine pool. © 2011 International Society for Microbial Ecology. All rights reserved.

  14. Performance testing of the Ford/GE Second Generation Single-Shaft Electric Propulsion (ETX-II) System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacDowall, R.D.; Burke, A.F.


    System-level-operational testing of the ETX-II test-bed electric vehicle is described and the results discussed. Because the traction battery is a major factor in the performance of an electric vehicle, previously reported work on the sodium-sulfur battery designed for use with the ETX-II is reviewed in detail. Chassis dynamometer performance of the test-bed vehicle met or exceeded design goals and compared reasonably well with SIMPLEV computer modeling results. Areas are identified wherein further work is needed to establish a firmer basis for comparison of the simulation and the observed results.

  15. Gravitational wave generation by interaction of high power lasers with matter. Part II: Ablation and Piston models

    CERN Document Server

    Kadlecová, Hedvika; Weber, Stefan; Korn, Georg


    We analyze theoretical models of gravitational waves generation in the interaction of high intensity laser with matter, namely ablation and piston models. We analyse the generated gravitational waves in linear approximation of gravitational theory. We derive the analytical formulas and estimates for the metric perturbations and the radiated power of generated gravitational waves. Furthermore we investigate the characteristics of polarization and the behaviour of test particles in the presence of gravitational wave which will be important for the detection.

  16. Generating tunable optical pulses over the ultrabroad range of 1.6-2.5 μm in GeO2-doped silica fibers with an Er:fiber laser source. (United States)

    Anashkina, E A; Andrianov, A V; Koptev, M Yu; Mashinsky, V M; Muravyev, S V; Kim, A V


    We report generation of femtosecond optical pulses tunable in the 1.6-2.5 μm range using GeO2-doped core silica-cladding fibers. Optical solitons with a duration of 80-160 fs have been measured by the FROG technique in the 2-2.3 μm range. To the best of our knowledge, these are the longest wavelength temporally characterized solitons generated in silica-based fibers. We have also demonstrated more than octave-spanning femtosecond supercontinuum generation in the 1.0-2.6 μm range.

  17. Class I and Class II restorations of resin composite: an FE analysis of the influence of modulus of elasticity on stresses generated by occlusal loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmussen, Erik; Peutzfeldt, Anne


    OBJECTIVES: It was the aim of the study to analyze by the FE method stresses generated in tooth and restoration by occlusal loading of Class I and Class II restorations of resin composite. On the basis of available information on the influence of the modulus of elasticity, the research hypothesis...... was that the marginal stresses would decrease with increasing modulus of elasticity of the restoration. METHODS: A cylindrical tooth was modelled in enamel and dentin and fitted with a Class I or a Class II restoration of resin composite. In one scenario the restoration was bonded to the tooth, in another...... the restoration was left nonbonded. The resin composite was modelled with a modulus of elasticity of 5, 10, 15 or 20 GPa and loaded occlusally with 100 N. By means of the soft-ware program ABAQUS the von Mises stresses in enamel and dentin were calculated. RESULTS: In the bonded scenario, the maximum stresses...

  18. Design and combinatorial library generation of 1H 1,4 benzodiazepine 2,5 diones as photosystem-II inhibitors: A public QSAR approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purusottam Banjare


    Full Text Available Exponential rise in the population around the word increased the demand of food grains/crops with limited expansion of the agricultural land. To meet the demand, generation of new herbicidal agents is of primary need for the manufacturing firm. In silico tool like QSAR is one of the regularly used in designing newer compounds along with wet experiment. Photosystem-II (PS-II regarded as one of the major target for the herbicidal agents. With this aim in the present study a series of 1H, 1,4 benzodiazepine 2,5-dione analogues as herbicidal (PS-II inhibitors agents were subjected to QSAR analysis using 2D PaDEL descriptors (open source. Two different splitting techniques namely, kennard stone based and k-means clustering splitting were used to divide the whole data set and GFA based on MAE criteria was used a statistical method to develop a model to investigate the physicochemical and structural requirement of potential PS-II inhibitors. All the models are statistically robust both internally and externally (Q2: 0.540–0.693, R2pred: 0.722–0.810. The activity is mostly affected by polarizabilities, electro negativities as well as substituents at the phenyl ring. Based on the results, a library of compounds was generated using SmiLib v2.0 tool (open source and better predicted inside applicability domain compounds were identified by applying three different applicability domain (AD approaches. Therefore the developed public QSAR models may be helpful for the scientific community for the further research.

  19. The Effect of Cholesterol on the Long-Range Network of Interactions Established among Sea Anemone Sticholysin II Residues at the Water-Membrane Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara García-Linares


    Full Text Available Actinoporins are α-pore forming proteins with therapeutic potential, produced by sea anemones. Sticholysin II (StnII from Stichodactyla helianthus is one of its most extensively characterized members. These proteins remain stably folded in water, but upon interaction with lipid bilayers, they oligomerize to form a pore. This event is triggered by the presence of sphingomyelin (SM, but cholesterol (Chol facilitates pore formation. Membrane attachment and pore formation require changes involving long-distance rearrangements of residues located at the protein-membrane interface. The influence of Chol on membrane recognition, oligomerization, and/or pore formation is now studied using StnII variants, which are characterized in terms of their ability to interact with model membranes in the presence or absence of Chol. The results obtained frame Chol not only as an important partner for SM for functional membrane recognition but also as a molecule which significantly reduces the structural requirements for the mentioned conformational rearrangements to occur. However, given that the DOPC:SM:Chol vesicles employed display phase coexistence and have domain boundaries, the observed effects could be also due to the presence of these different phases on the membrane. In addition, it is also shown that the Arg51 guanidinium group is strictly required for membrane recognition, independently of the presence of Chol.

  20. Generator. Generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knoedler, R.; Bossmann, H.P.


    The invention refers to a thermo-electric generator, whose main part is a sodium concentration cell. In conventional thermo-electric generators of this kind, the sodium moving from a hot space to a colder space must be transported back to the hot space via a circulation pipe and a pump. The purpose of the invention is to avoid the disadvantages of this return transport. According to the invention, the thermo-electric generator is supported so that it can rotate, so that the position of each space relative to its propinquity to the heat source can be changed at any time.

  1. CLIMABR parte II: geração do perfil de precipitação CLIMABR part II: generation of precipitation profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente de P. S. de Oliveira


    generation associated to synthetic precipitation series, for the climatic conditions of the State of Rio de Janeiro. In the generated synthetic series were obtained for each simulated day, among other informations, the duration of the events, the standardized values of the instantaneous maximum precipitation and the time of its occurrence throughout the events. The last two values were utilized to get the precipitation profile represented by a double exponential function that was adjusted to each daily event.

  2. Autosomal dominant familial neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus caused by a mutation in the arginine-vasopressin II gene in four generations of a Korean family. (United States)

    Kim, Myo-Jing; Kim, Young-Eun; Ki, Chang-Seok; Yoo, Jae-Ho


    Autosomal dominant neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus is a rare form of central diabetes insipidus that is caused by mutations in the vasopressin-neurophysin II (AVP-NPII) gene. It is characterized by persistent polydipsia and polyuria induced by deficient or absent secretion of arginine vasopressin (AVP). Here we report a case of familial neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus in four generations of a Korean family, caused by heterozygous missense mutation in exon 2 of the AVP-NPII gene (c.286G>T). This is the first report of such a case in Korea.

  3. Concentrating colloids with electric field gradients. II. Phase transitions and crystal buckling of long-ranged repulsive charged spheres in an electric bottle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leunissen, M.E.; van Blaaderen, A.


    We explored the usefulness of electric field gradients for the manipulation of the particle concentration in suspensions of charged colloids, which have long-ranged repulsive interactions. In particular, we studied the compression obtained by ``negative'' dielectrophoresis, which drives the

  4. Type-II GaSb/GaAs quantum-dot intermediate band with extended optical absorption range for efficient solar cells (United States)

    Boustanji, Hela; Jaziri, Sihem


    GaSb/GaAs type-II quantum-dot solar cells (QD SCs) have attracted attention as highly efficient intermediate band SCs due to their infrared absorption. Type-II QDs exhibited a staggered confinement potential, where only holes are strongly confined within the dots. Long wavelength light absorption of the QDSCs is enhanced through the improved carriers number in the IB. The absorption of dots depends on their shape, material quality, and composition. Therefore, the optical properties of the GaSbGaAs QDs before and after thermal treatment are studied. Our intraband studies have shown an extended absorption into the long wavelength region 1.77 μ {m}. The annealed QDs have shown significantly more infrared response of 7.2 μ {m} compared to as-grown sample. The photon absorption and hole extraction depend strongly on the thermal annealing process. In this context, emission of holes from localized states in GaSb QDs has been studied using conductance-voltage ( G- V ) characteristics.

  5. Generator. Generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bossmann, H.P.; Knoedler, R.


    The invention refers to a thermo-electric generator, which contains sodium as the means of heat transport. The sodium moves from the space of higher temperature through a space into the space of lower temperature. One can do without a pump for transporting the sodium back from the space of lower temperature to the space of higher temperature, as the thermo-electric generator can rotate around an axis. It is therefore possible to interchange the position of the two spaces relative to the heat source.

  6. Sound generated by instability waves of supersonic flows. I Two-dimensional mixing layers. II - Axisymmetric jets (United States)

    Tam, C. K. W.; Burton, D. E.


    An investigation is conducted of the phenomenon of sound generation by spatially growing instability waves in high-speed flows. It is pointed out that this process of noise generation is most effective when the flow is supersonic relative to the ambient speed of sound. The inner and outer asymptotic expansions corresponding to an excited instability wave in a two-dimensional mixing layer and its associated acoustic fields are constructed in terms of the inner and outer spatial variables. In matching the solutions, the intermediate matching principle of Van Dyke and Cole is followed. The validity of the theory is tested by applying it to an axisymmetric supersonic jet and comparing the calculated results with experimental measurements. Very favorable agreements are found both in the calculated instability-wave amplitude distribution (the inner solution) and the near pressure field level contours (the outer solution) in each case.

  7. Nutrients generated by livestock applied to farm land, pasture land, and range land in the United States Pacific Northwest for 2002 summarized for NHDPlus v2 catchments (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This spatial data set was created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to represent the amount of nitrogen and phosphorus that was generated by livestock and applied...

  8. Using Next-Generation Sequencing to Identify a Mutation in Human MCSU that is Responsible for Type II Xanthinuria


    Yunan Zhou; Xueguang Zhang; Rui Ding; Zuoxiang Li; Quan Hong; Yan Wang; Wei Zheng; Xiaodong Geng; Meng Fan; Guangyan Cai; Xiangmei Chen; Di Wu


    Background: Hypouricemia is caused by various diseases and disorders, such as hepatic failure, Fanconi renotubular syndrome, nutritional deficiencies and genetic defects. Genetic defects of the molybdoflavoprotein enzymes induce hypouricemia and xanthinuria. Here, we identified a patient whose plasma and urine uric acid levels were both extremely low and aimed to identify the pathogenic gene and verify its mechanism. Methods: Using next-generation sequencing (NGS), we detected a mutation in t...

  9. Evaluation of a new generation synthetic peptide combination assay for detection of antibodies to HIV-1, HIV-2, HTLV-I, and HTLV-II simultaneously. (United States)

    Zhang, X; Constantine, N T; Bansal, J; Callahan, J D; Marsiglia, V C


    A new generation combination test (Detect-Plus, IAF BioChem, Montreal, Canada) based on synthetic peptides for HIV-1, HIV-2, HTLV-I, and HTLV-II was compared with three routine commercial screening assays and confirmatory assays to determine its sensitivity and specificity and to evaluate it as a substitute screening method. Samples from 356 sexually transmitted disease (STD) patients were tested by the four screening tests. All initially reactive samples were retested in duplicate by the corresponding EIA and repeatedly reactive samples were confirmed by Western blots for HIV-1, HIV-2, and HTLV-I/II. The confirmed positives detected by each screening assay were HIV-1 (23/356, 6.46%), HIV-2 (11/356, 3.09%), and HTLV-I/II (5/356, 1.4%). The new generation Detect-Plus test produced only two results (2/356, 0.56%) that were presumed to be false-positives in comparison to the screening tests, but the OD/CO values were just slightly high (1.5 and 1.9). There were no false-negative results, indicating that the sensitivity of the new combination test was excellent (100%). Compared with routine retroviral EIA assays, the test is easy to perform--the total time requirement is only 2 hr and there is no need for incubation equipment. The OD/CO values were very high when samples were positive, making even visual interpretation possible. We conclude that this new combination assay is an excellent screening method for detection of antibodies to the human retroviruses, and may be particularly useful for screening blood for transfusion and in epidemiological investigations.

  10. On the use of big-bang method to generate low-energy structures of atomic clusters modeled with pair potentials of different ranges. (United States)

    Marques, J M C; Pais, A A C C; Abreu, P E


    The efficiency of the so-called big-bang method for the optimization of atomic clusters is analysed in detail for Morse pair potentials with different ranges; here, we have used Morse potentials with four different ranges, from long- ρ = 3) to short-ranged ρ = 14) interactions. Specifically, we study the efficacy of the method in discovering low-energy structures, including the putative global minimum, as a function of the potential range and the cluster size. A new global minimum structure for long-ranged ρ = 3) Morse potential at the cluster size of n= 240 is reported. The present results are useful to assess the maximum cluster size for each type of interaction where the global minimum can be discovered with a limited number of big-bang trials. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Estimation of Potential Interference Immunity of Radio Reception with Spatial Signal Processing in Mutipath Radio-Communication Channels. Part II. Meter and Decimeter Ranges (United States)

    Lvov, A. V.; Metelev, S. L.


    We propose simulation models for estimating the interference immunity of radio reception using the spatial processing of signals in the airborne and ground-based communication channels of the meter and decimeter wavelength ranges. The ultimate achievable interference immunity under various radio-wave propagation conditions is studied.

  12. Space Weather Effects on Range Operations (United States)


    War II, with heavy reliance on radar and radio as war-fighting tools, we encountered unexplained outages. You may have seen movies showing soldiers...individual meteorology offices, and the issues that each range might possibly encounter. You may have radars that can be directly affected by solar radio...may interact with atomic nuclei thus imparting a certain recoil energy and generating secondary particles. Both the recoiling nucleus and secondary

  13. Synthesis, DNA interactions and antibacterial PDT of Cu(II) complexes of phenanthroline based photosensitizers via singlet oxygen generation (United States)

    Sudhamani, C. N.; Bhojya Naik, H. S.; Sangeetha Gowda, K. R.; Giridhar, M.; Girija, D.; Prashanth Kumar, P. N.


    Cu(II) complexes [Cu(mqt)(B)H2O]ClO4(1-3) of 2-thiol 4-methylquinoline and phenanthroline bases (B), viz 1,10-phenanthroline (phen in 1), Dipyrido[3,2-d:2‧,3‧-f]quinoxaline (dpq in 2) and Dipyrido[3,2-a:2‧,3‧-c]phenazine (dppz in 3) have been prepared and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, UV-Vis, magnetic moment values, EPR spectra and conductivity measurements. The spectral data reveal that all the complexes exhibit square-pyramidal geometry. The DNA-binding behaviors of the three complexes were investigated by absorption spectra, viscosity measurements and thermal denaturation studies. The DNA binding constants for complexes (1), (2) and (3) were determined to 2.2 × 103, 1.3 × 104 and 8.6 × 104 M-1 respectively. The experimental results suggest that these complexes interact with DNA through groove-binding mode. The photo induced cleavage studies shows that the complexes possess photonuclease property against pUC19 DNA under UV-Visible irradiation via a mechanistic pathway involving formation of singlet oxygen as the reactive species. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy was studied using photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT) assay against Escherichiacoli and all complexes exhibited significant reduction in bacterial growth on photoirradiation.

  14. Angiotensin II-AT1–receptor signaling is necessary for cyclooxygenase-2–dependent postnatal nephron generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frölich, Stefanie; Slattery, Patrick; Thomas, Dominique


    Deletion of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) causes impairment of postnatal kidney development. Here we tested whether the renin angiotensin system contributes to COX-2–dependent nephrogenesis in mice after birth and whether a rescue of impaired renal development and function in COX-2-/- mice was achieva......Deletion of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) causes impairment of postnatal kidney development. Here we tested whether the renin angiotensin system contributes to COX-2–dependent nephrogenesis in mice after birth and whether a rescue of impaired renal development and function in COX-2-/- mice...... was achievable. Plasma renin concentration in mouse pups showed a birth peak and a second peak around day P8 during the first 10 days post birth. Administration of the angiotensin II receptor AT1 antagonist telmisartan from day P1 to P3 did not result in cortical damage. However, telmisartan treatment from day P...... development. Inhibition of the renin angiotensin system by aliskiren and enalapril caused similar glomerular defects as telmisartan. Administration of the AT1 receptor agonist L162313 to COX-2-/- pups improved kidney growth, ameliorated renal defects, but had no beneficial effect on reduced cortical mass. L...

  15. The electron spectro-microscopy beamline at National Synchrotron Light Source II: a wide photon energy range, micro-focusing beamline for photoelectron spectro-microscopies. (United States)

    Reininger, R; Hulbert, S L; Johnson, P D; Sadowski, J T; Starr, D E; Chubar, O; Valla, T; Vescovo, E


    A comprehensive optical design for a high-resolution, high-flux, wide-energy range, micro-focused beamline working in the vacuum ultraviolet and soft x-ray photon energy range is proposed. The beamline is to provide monochromatic radiation to three photoelectron microscopes: a full-field x-ray photoelectron emission microscope and two scanning instruments, one dedicated to angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy (μ-ARPES) and one for ambient pressure x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning photoelectron microscopy (AP-XPS/SPEM). Microfocusing is achieved with state of the art elliptical cylinders, obtaining a spot size of 1 μm for ARPES and 0.5 μm for AP-XPS/SPEM. A detailed ray tracing analysis quantitatively evaluates the overall beamline performances.

  16. MHC class II/ESO tetramer-based generation of in vitro primed anti-tumor T-helper lines for adoptive cell therapy of cancer. (United States)

    Poli, Caroline; Raffin, Caroline; Dojcinovic, Danijel; Luescher, Immanuel; Ayyoub, Maha; Valmori, Danila


    Generation of tumor-antigen specific CD4(+) T-helper (T(H)) lines through in vitro priming is of interest for adoptive cell therapy of cancer, but the development of this approach has been limited by the lack of appropriate tools to identify and isolate low frequency tumor antigen-specific CD4(+) T cells. Here, we have used recently developed MHC class II/peptide tetramers incorporating an immunodominant peptide from NY-ESO-1 (ESO), a tumor antigen frequently expressed in different human solid and hematologic cancers, to implement an in vitro priming platform allowing the generation of ESO-specific T(H) lines. We isolated phenotypically defined CD4(+) T-cell subpopulations from circulating lymphocytes of DR52b(+) healthy donors by flow cytometry cell sorting and stimulated them in vitro with peptide ESO(119-143), autologous APC and IL-2. We assessed the frequency of ESO-specific cells in the cultures by staining with DR52b/ESO(119-143) tetramers (ESO-tetramers) and TCR repertoire of ESO-tetramer(+) cells by co-staining with TCR variable β chain (BV) specific antibodies. We isolated ESO-tetramer(+) cells by flow cytometry cell sorting and expanded them with PHA, APC and IL-2 to generate ESO-specific T(H) lines. We characterized the lines for antigen recognition, by stimulation with ESO peptide or recombinant protein, cytokine production, by intracellular staining using specific antibodies, and alloreactivity, by stimulation with allo-APC. Using this approach, we could consistently generate ESO-tetramer(+) T(H) lines from conventional CD4(+)CD25(-) naïve and central memory populations, but not from effector memory populations or CD4(+)CD25(+) Treg. In vitro primed T(H) lines recognized ESO with affinities comparable to ESO-tetramer(+) cells from patients immunized with an ESO vaccine and used a similar TCR repertoire. In this study, using MHC class II/ESO tetramers, we have implemented an in vitro priming platform allowing the generation of ESO

  17. Production traits of artificially and naturally hatched geese in intensive and free-range systems - II: slaughter, carcass and meat quality traits. (United States)

    Boz, M A; Sarıca, M; Yamak, U S


    1. This study investigates the slaughter, carcass and meat quality traits of artificially and naturally hatched geese in intensive and free-range production systems. 2. The study was conducted with 114 naturally hatched and 102 artificially hatched geese. From each replicate of the intensive and free-range systems, one female and one male goose were slaughtered at the ages of 14, 16 and 18 weeks (a total of 32 geese per slaughter week). 3. Artificially hatched geese had higher slaughter weights (5280 vs. 4404 g), carcass weights (3520 vs. 2863), dressing percentages (66.6-65.2% vs. 65.0-63.6%) and carcass part, feather and edible inner organ weights. The ratio of both edible inner organs and abdominal fat was higher in naturally hatched geese. Breast meat L*, a* and pH values and thigh meat dry matter values were higher in artificially hatched geese, whereas thigh meat b* and pH values were higher in naturally hatched geese. 4. Intensively reared geese had higher slaughter weights (4900 vs. 4783 g), carcass weights (3253 vs. 3130 g) and abdominal fat weights (280 vs. 250 g), as well as higher dressing percentages (66.3-64.9% vs. 65.3-63.9%). Breast meat b* and thigh meat L* values were higher in the intensive system, while breast and thigh pH values, dripping loss and cooking loss were higher in the free-range system. Water-holding capacity was higher in the intensive system. 5. In conclusion, artificially hatched, intensively reared geese had the highest slaughter weights; however, both artificially and naturally hatched geese raised in a free-range system reached acceptable slaughter weights and can thus be recommended for use with this type of production system.

  18. On the universality of the long-/short-range separation in multiconfigurational density-functional theory. II. Investigating f0 actinide species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fromager, Emmanuel; Réal, Florent; Wåhlin, Pernilla


    the universality of this value by considering "extreme" study cases, namely, neutral and charged isoelectronic f0 actinide compounds (ThO2, PaO2+, UO22+, UN2, CUO, and NpO23+). We find for these compounds that μ(opt)=0.3 a.u. but show that 0.4 a.u. is still acceptable. This is a promising result...... in the investigation of a universal range separation. The accuracy of the currently best MC-srDFT (μ=0.3 a.u.) approach has also been tested for equilibrium geometries. Though it performs as well as wave function theory and DFT for static-correlation-free systems, it fails in describing the neptunyl (VII) ion NpO23......+ where static correlation is significant; bending is preferred at the MC-srDFT (μ=0.3 a.u.) level, whereas the molecule is known to be linear. This clearly shows the need for better short-range functionals, especially for the description of the short-range exchange. It also suggests that the bending...

  19. A new generation of x-ray spectrometry UHV instruments at the SR facilities BESSY II, ELETTRA and SOLEIL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lubeck, J., E-mail:; Fliegauf, R.; Holfelder, I.; Hönicke, P.; Müller, M.; Pollakowski, B.; Ulm, G.; Weser, J.; Beckhoff, B. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Abbestr. 2-12, 10587 Berlin (Germany); Bogovac, M.; Kaiser, R. B.; Karydas, A. G.; Leani, J. J.; Migliori, A.; Sghaier, H. [Nuclear Science and Instrumentation Laboratory, IAEA Laboratories, A-2444, Seibersdorf (Austria); Boyer, B.; Lépy, M. C.; Ménesguen, Y. [CEA, LIST, Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel, Bât. 602 PC 111, CEA-Saclay 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette c. (France); Detlefs, B. [CEA-LETI, Minatec Campus, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble (France); Eichert, D. [Elettra - Sincrotrone Trieste (EST) S.C.p.A., 34149 Basovizza, Trieste (Italy); and others


    A novel type of ultra-high vacuum instrument for X-ray reflectometry and spectrometry-related techniques for nanoanalytics by means of synchrotron radiation (SR) has been constructed and commissioned at BESSY II. This versa-tile instrument was developed by the PTB, Germany’s national metrology institute, and includes a 9-axis manipulator that allows for an independent alignment of the samples with respect to all degrees of freedom. In addition, it integrates a rotational and translational movement of several photodiodes as well as a translational movement of a beam-geometry-defining aperture system. Thus, the new instrument enables various analytical techniques based on energy dispersive X-ray detectors such as reference-free X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) analysis, total-reflection XRF, grazing-incidence XRF, in addition to optional X-Ray Reflectometry (XRR) measurements or polarization-dependent X-ray absorption fine structure analyses (XAFS). Samples having a size of up to (100 × 100) mm{sup 2}; can be analyzed with respect to their mass deposition, elemental, spatial or species composition. Surface contamination, nanolayer composition and thickness, depth pro-file of matrix elements or implants, nanoparticles or buried interfaces as well as molecular orientation of bonds can be accessed. Three technology transfer projects of adapted instruments have enhanced X-Ray Spectrometry (XRS) research activities within Europe at the synchrotron radiation facilities ELETTRA (IAEA) and SOLEIL (CEA/LNE-LNHB) as well as at the X-ray innovation laboratory BLiX (TU Berlin) where different laboratory sources are used. Here, smaller chamber requirements led PTB in cooperation with TU Berlin to develop a modified instrument equipped with a 7-axis manipulator: reduced freedom in the choice of experimental geometry modifications (absence of out-of-SR-plane and reference-free XRS options) has been compensated by encoder-enhanced angular accuracy for GIXRF and XRR.

  20. Performance of Different Tomato Genotypes in the Arid Tropics of Sudan during the Summer Season. II. Generative Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adil H.A. Abdelmageed


    Full Text Available Eleven tomato genotypes of diverse origin were grown in Shambat, University of Khartoum, Sudan, in a randomized block design with three replications for two successive seasons (2002/2003, 2003/2004. The same genotypes were firstly evaluated under glasshouse conditions at the Humboldt University of Berlin, Germany during 2002. Highly significant differences were encountered among the different genotypes for most of the generative characters, such as number of days to flowering, number of flowers per plant, number of fruits per plant, fruit fresh weight per plant and fruit set percentage. Based on results obtained from this study, the genotype ‘Summerset’ proved to be high yielding under high temperature conditions in comparison to other genotypes.

  1. Design and calculated performance and cost of the ECAS Phase II open cycle MHD power generation system (United States)

    Harris, L. P.


    A 2000 MWe MHD/steam plant for central station applications has been designed and costed as part of the Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS). This plant is fueled by Illinois No. 6 coal, rejects heat through mechanical draft wet cooling towers, and includes coal processing equipment, seed reprocessing, electrical inversion of the MHD generator output and emission controls to current EPA standards. It yields an estimated overall efficiency of 0.483 (7066 Btu/kWe-hr), a capital cost of $718 per kWe (1975 dollars), and a cost of electricity at 65% capacity factor of 32 mills per kWe-hr. If the assumed life and reliability could be achieved with these performance parameters, the MHD system should prove attractive.

  2. Metal-complexes as ligands to generate asymmetric homo- and heterodinuclear M(A)(III)M(B)(II) species: a magneto-structural and spectroscopic comparison of imidazole-N versus pyridine-N. (United States)

    Biswas, Biplab; Salunke-Gawali, Sunita; Weyhermüller, Thomas; Bachler, Vinzenz; Bill, Eckhard; Chaudhuri, Phalguni


    Ten hetero- and homodinuclear M(A)(III)M(B)(III) complexes, 1-10, containing the metal centers Fe(III)Zn(II) (1), Fe(III)Cu(II) (2), Fe(III)Ni(II) (3), Fe(III)Fe(II) (4), Fe(III)Mn(II) (5), Cr(III)Ni(II) (6), Cr(III)Zn(II) (7), Ga(III)Ni(II) (8), Co(III)Fe(II) (9), and Mn(III)Mn(II) (10) are described. The tridentate ligation property of the divalent metal complexes tris(1-methylimidazole-2-aldoximato)metal(II) with three facially disposed pendent oxime O-atoms has been utilized to generate the said complexes. Complexes were characterized by various physical methods including MS, IR, UV-vis, Mossbauer and EPR spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry (CV), variable-temperature (2-290 K) magnetic susceptibility, and X-ray diffraction techniques. Binuclear complexes 1-10 contain three oximato anions as bridging ligands and are isostructural in the sense that they all contain a metal(III) ion, LM(A)(III) (L = 1,4,7-trimethyl-1,4,7-triazacyclononane), in a distorted octahedral environment M(A)(III)N(3)O(3) and a second six-coordinated divalent metal ion, M(B)(II), in a trigonally distorted M(B)(II)N(6) geometry. A comparison of the cyclic voltammograms of the complexes with those of similar systems reveal both ligand-centered and metal-centered redox processes. Complexes 2, 3, 5, and 6 display antiferromagnetic exchange coupling of the neighboring metal centers in the order Fe(III)Mn(II) (5) III)Ni(II) (3) III)Cu(II) (2) whereas Fe(III)Ni(II) (3) > Cr(III)Ni(II) (6). On the contrary, complex 10, containing high-spin Mn(III) and Mn(II) centers, exhibits ferromagnetic coupling yielding a "high-spin" molecule with an S(t) = (9)/(2) ground state. X-band electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy for 6, Cr(III)Ni(II) and 3, Fe(III)Ni(II) has been used to establish the electronic ground state in great detail and to complement the magnetic susceptibility measurements. Moreover, computational results have been included to compare the sigma-bonding character of the nitrogen lone

  3. On the generation of magnetohydrodynamic waves in a stratified and magnetized fluid. II - Magnetohydrodynamic energy fluxes for late-type stars (United States)

    Musielak, Z. E.; Rosner, R.


    Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) wave energy fluxes for late-type stars are calculated, using previously obtained formulae for the source functions for the generation of MHD waves in a stratified, but otherwise uniform, turbulent atmosphere; the magnetic fields in the wave generation region are assumed to be homogeneous. In contradiction to previous results, it is shown that in this uniform magnetic field case there is no significant increase in the efficiency of MHD wave generation, at least within the theory's limits of applicability. The major results are that the MHD energy fluxes calculated for late-type stars are less than those obtained for compressible modes in the magnetic field-free case, and that these MHD energy fluxes do not vary enough for a given spectral type to explain the observed range of UV and X-ray fluxes from such stars. It is therefore concluded that MHD waves in stellar atmospheres with homogeneous magnetic fields in the wave generation region cannot explain the observed stellar coronal emissions; if such MHD waves are responsible for a significant component of stellar coronal heating, then nonuniform fields within the generation region must be appealed to.

  4. Final Report on Utilization of TRU TRISO Fuel as Applied to HTR Systems Part II: Prismatic Reactor Cross Section Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vincent Descotes


    The deep-burn prismatic high temperature reactor is made up of an annular core loaded with transuranic isotopes and surrounded in the center and in the periphery by reflector blocks in graphite. This disposition creates challenges for the neutronics compared to usual light water reactor calculation schemes. The longer mean free path of neutrons in graphite affects the neutron spectrum deep inside the blocks located next to the reflector. The neutron thermalisation in the graphite leads to two characteristic fission peaks at the inner and outer interfaces as a result of the increased thermal flux seen in those assemblies. Spectral changes are seen at least on half of the fuel blocks adjacent to the reflector. This spectral effect of the reflector may prevent us from successfully using the two step scheme -lattice then core calculation- typically used for light water reactors. We have been studying the core without control mechanisms to provide input for the development of a complete calculation scheme. To correct the spectrum at the lattice level, we have tried to generate cross-sections from supercell calculations at the lattice level, thus taking into account part of the graphite surrounding the blocks of interest for generating the homogenised cross-sections for the full-core calculation. This one has been done with 2 to 295 groups to assess if increasing the number of groups leads to more accurate results. A comparison with a classical single block model has been done. Both paths were compared to a reference calculation done with MCNP. It is concluded that the agreement with MCNP is better with supercells, but that the single block model remains quite close if enough groups are kept for the core calculation. 26 groups seems to be a good compromise between time and accu- racy. However, some trials with depletion have shown huge variations of the isotopic composition across a block next to the reflector. It may imply that at least an in- core depletion for the

  5. On the dispersion management of fluorite whispering-gallery mode resonators for Kerr optical frequency comb generation in the telecom and mid-infrared range

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Guoping


    Optical whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonators have been very attracting platforms for versatile Kerr frequency comb generations. We report a systematic study on the material dispersion of various optical materials that are capable of supporting quality factors above $10^9$. Using an analytical approximation of WGM resonant frequencies in disk resonators, we investigate the effect of the geometry and transverse mode order on the total group-velocity dispersion ($GVD$). We demonstrate that the major radii and the radial mode indices play an important role in tailoring the $GVD$ of WGM resonators. In particular, our study shows that in WGM disk-resonators, the polar families of modes have very similar $GVD$, while the radial families of modes feature dispersion values that can differ by up to several orders of magnitude. The effect of these giant dispersion shifts are experimentally evidenced in Kerr comb generation with magnesium fluoride. From a more general perspective, this critical feature enables to pus...

  6. Charge carrier generation potential of graphene/Si-TiO2 based solar cell device in UV-Vis wavelength range spectra (United States)

    Rosikhin, Ahmad; Syuhada, Ibnu; Hidayat, Aulia Fikri; Winata, Toto


    Charges carrier generation potential of graphene/Si solar cell performing TiO2 layer has been elucidated via simple analytical mathematical calculation. Optical electric field both as wavelength function and position of any points at light propagation direction performed by transfer matrix method while dissipated energy profile has observed using electromagnetic theory. Furthermore potential of excitons generation has explored by dividing dissipated energy by photon of wavelength λ then integrating to overall UV-Vis spectra. By this calculation it was revealed that silicon semiconductor material is responsive enough in visible region while by adding TiO2 layer the excitons production is significantly increased until more than 1024/s. Such metal oxide layer is entrusted able to enhance photons absorption in short wavelength spectra. Therefore the role of this metal oxide material should increase the performance in wider wavelength area.

  7. Using Next-Generation Sequencing to Identify a Mutation in Human MCSU that is Responsible for Type II Xanthinuria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunan Zhou


    Full Text Available Background: Hypouricemia is caused by various diseases and disorders, such as hepatic failure, Fanconi renotubular syndrome, nutritional deficiencies and genetic defects. Genetic defects of the molybdoflavoprotein enzymes induce hypouricemia and xanthinuria. Here, we identified a patient whose plasma and urine uric acid levels were both extremely low and aimed to identify the pathogenic gene and verify its mechanism. Methods: Using next-generation sequencing (NGS, we detected a mutation in the human molybdenum cofactor sulfurase (MCSU gene that may cause hypouricemia. We cultured L02 cells, knocked down MCSU with RNAi, and then detected the uric acid and MCSU concentrations, xanthine oxidase (XOD and xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH activity levels, and xanthine/hypoxanthine concentrations in cell lysates and culture supernatants. Results: The NGS results showed that the patient had a mutation in the human MCSU gene. The in vitro study showed that RNAi of MCSU caused the uric acid, human MCSU concentrations, the XOD and XDH activity levels among cellular proteins and culture supernatants to be extremely low relative to those of the control. However, the xanthine/hypoxanthine concentrations were much higher than those of the control. Conclusions: We strongly confirmed the pathogenicity of the human MCSU gene.

  8. Using Next-Generation Sequencing to Identify a Mutation in Human MCSU that is Responsible for Type II Xanthinuria. (United States)

    Zhou, Yunan; Zhang, Xueguang; Ding, Rui; Li, Zuoxiang; Hong, Quan; Wang, Yan; Zheng, Wei; Geng, Xiaodong; Fan, Meng; Cai, Guangyan; Chen, Xiangmei; Wu, Di


    Hypouricemia is caused by various diseases and disorders, such as hepatic failure, Fanconi renotubular syndrome, nutritional deficiencies and genetic defects. Genetic defects of the molybdoflavoprotein enzymes induce hypouricemia and xanthinuria. Here, we identified a patient whose plasma and urine uric acid levels were both extremely low and aimed to identify the pathogenic gene and verify its mechanism. Using next-generation sequencing (NGS), we detected a mutation in the human molybdenum cofactor sulfurase (MCSU) gene that may cause hypouricemia. We cultured L02 cells, knocked down MCSU with RNAi, and then detected the uric acid and MCSU concentrations, xanthine oxidase (XOD) and xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) activity levels, and xanthine/hypoxanthine concentrations in cell lysates and culture supernatants. The NGS results showed that the patient had a mutation in the human MCSU gene. The in vitro study showed that RNAi of MCSU caused the uric acid, human MCSU concentrations, the XOD and XDH activity levels among cellular proteins and culture supernatants to be extremely low relative to those of the control. However, the xanthine/hypoxanthine concentrations were much higher than those of the control. We strongly confirmed the pathogenicity of the human MCSU gene. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Effect of wind-generated bubbles on fixed range acoustic attenuation in shallow water at 1-4 kHz

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ainslie, M.A.


    Long-range acoustic propagation in isothermal conditions is considered, involving multiple reflections from the sea surface. If the sea is calm there is almost perfect reflection and hence little loss of acoustic energy or coherence. The effect of wind is to increase propagation loss due to rough

  10. A new laser-ranged satellite for General Relativity and space geodesy: II. Monte Carlo simulations and covariance analyses of the LARES 2 experiment (United States)

    Ciufolini, Ignazio; Pavlis, Erricos C.; Sindoni, Giampiero; Ries, John C.; Paolozzi, Antonio; Matzner, Richard; Koenig, Rolf; Paris, Claudio


    In the previous paper we have introduced the LARES 2 space experiment. The LARES 2 laser-ranged satellite is planned for a launch in 2019 with the new VEGA C launch vehicle of the Italian Space Agency (ASI), ESA and ELV. The main objectives of the LARES 2 experiment are accurate measurements of General Relativity, gravitational and fundamental physics and accurate determinations in space geodesy and geodynamics. In particular LARES 2 is aimed to achieve a very accurate test of frame-dragging, an intriguing phenomenon predicted by General Relativity. Here we report the results of Monte Carlo simulations and covariance analyses fully confirming an error budget of a few parts in one thousand in the measurement of frame-dragging with LARES 2 as calculated in our previous paper.

  11. On the role of vertical electron density gradients in the generation of type II irregularities associated with blanketing Es during counter electrojet events - a case study (United States)

    Devasia, C.; Jyoti, N.; Sridharan, R.; Raghava Reddi, C.; Diwakar, T.; Subba Rao, K.

    The characteristics of different types of Sporadic E (ES) layers and the associated plasma density irregularities over the magnetic equator have been studied in a campaign mode, using VHF backscatter radar, digital ionosonde and ground magnetometer data from Trivandrum (dip lat. 0.5°N, geog. lat. 8.5°N, geog. long. 77°E), India. Blanketing type Es (ESb) with varying intensity and duration were observed in association with afternoon counter electrojet (CEJ). ESb was associated with intense backscatter returns and with either very low zonal electric fields and/or with distortion present in the altitude profile of the phase velocity of the type II irregularities. The results of the coordinator study indicate the possible role of electron density gradients and the role of local winds in their generation, eventually resulting in the ESb layers. Evidences for the local winds to be responsible for the generation of steep vertical gradients based on the VHF backscatter radar data are provided and discussed.

  12. NPRL-Z-1, as a new topoisomerase II poison, induces cell apoptosis and ROS generation in human renal carcinoma cells. (United States)

    Wu, Szu-Ying; Pan, Shiow-Lin; Xiao, Zhi-Yan; Hsu, Jui-Ling; Chen, Mei-Chuan; Lee, Kuo-Hsiung; Teng, Che-Ming


    NPRL-Z-1 is a 4β-[(4"-benzamido)-amino]-4'-O-demethyl-epipodophyllotoxin derivative. Previous reports have shown that NPRL-Z-1 possesses anticancer activity. Here NPRL-Z-1 displayed cytotoxic effects against four human cancer cell lines (HCT 116, A549, ACHN, and A498) and exhibited potent activity in A498 human renal carcinoma cells, with an IC50 value of 2.38 µM via the MTT assay. We also found that NPRL-Z-1 induced cell cycle arrest in G1-phase and detected DNA double-strand breaks in A498 cells. NPRL-Z-1 induced ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) protein kinase phosphorylation at serine 1981, leading to the activation of DNA damage signaling pathways, including Chk2, histone H2AX, and p53/p21. By ICE assay, the data suggested that NPRL-Z-1 acted on and stabilized the topoisomerase II (TOP2)-DNA complex, leading to TOP2cc formation. NPRL-Z-1-induced DNA damage signaling and apoptotic death was also reversed by TOP2α or TOP2β knockdown. In addition, NPRL-Z-1 inhibited the Akt signaling pathway and induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. These results demonstrated that NPRL-Z-1 appeared to be a novel TOP2 poison and ROS generator. Thus, NPRL-Z-1 may present a significant potential anticancer candidate against renal carcinoma.

  13. Search for Third Generation Squarks in the Missing Transverse Energy plus Jet Sample at CDF Run II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marono, Miguel Vidal [Complutense Univ. of Madrid (Spain)


    lightest SUSY particle (LSP) which would provide a candidate for cold dark matter, that account for 23% of the universe content, as strongly suggested by recent astrophysical data [1]. The Tevatron is a hadron collider operating at Fermilab, USA. This accelerator provides proton-antiproton (p$\\bar{p}$) collisions with a center of mass energy of √s = 1.96 TeV. CDF and D0 are the detectors built to analyse the products of the collisions provided by the Tevatron. Both experiments have produced a very significant scientific output in the last few years, like the discovery of the top quark or the measurement of the Bs mixing. The Tevatron experiments are also reaching sensitivity to the SM Higgs boson. The scientific program of CDF includes a broad spectrum on searches for physics signatures beyond the Standard Model. Tevatron is still the energy frontier, what means an unique opportunity to produce a discovery in physic beyond the Standard Model. The analyses presented in this thesis focus on the search for third generation squarks in the missing transverse energy plus jets final state. The production of sbottom ($\\tilde{b}$) and stop ($\\tilde{t}$) quarks could be highly enhanced at the Tevatron, giving the possibility of discovering new physics or limiting the parameter space available in the theory. No signal is found over the predicted Standard Model background in both searches. Instead, 95% confidence level limits are set on the production cross section, and then translated into the mass plane of the hypothetical particles. This thesis sketches the basic theory concepts of the Standard Model and the Minimal Supersymmetric Extension in Chapter 2. Chapter 3, describes the Tevatron and CDF. Based on the CDF subsystems information, Chapter 4 and 5 describe the analysis objet reconstruction and the heavy flavor tagging tools. The development of the analyses is shown in Chapter 6 and Chapter 7. Finally, Chapter 8 is devoted to discuss the results and conclusions

  14. Long-term patterns of air temperatures, daily temperature range, precipitation, grass-reference evapotranspiration and aridity index in the USA great plains: Part II. Temporal trends (United States)

    Kukal, M.; Irmak, S.


    Detection of long-term changes in climate variables over large spatial scales is a very important prerequisite to the development of effective mitigation and adaptation measures for the future potential climate change and for developing strategies for future hydrologic balance analyses under changing climate. Moreover, there is a need for effective approaches of providing information about these changes to decision makers, water managers and stakeholders to aid in efficient implementation of the developed strategies. This study involves computation, mapping and analyses of long-term (1968-2013) county-specific trends in annual, growing-season (1st May-30th September) and monthly air temperatures [(maximum (Tmax), minimum (Tmin) and average (Tavg)], daily temperature range (DTR), precipitation, grass reference evapotranspiration (ETo) and aridity index (AI) over the USA Great Plains region using datasets from over 800 weather station sites. Positive trends in annual Tavg, Tmax and Tmin, DTR, precipitation, ETo and AI were observed in 71%, 89%, 85%, 31%, 61%, 38% and 66% of the counties in the region, respectively, whereas these proportions were 48%, 89%, 62%, 20%, 57%, 28%, and 63%, respectively, for the growing-season averages of the same variables. On a regional average basis, the positive trends in growing-season Tavg, Tmax and Tmin, DTR, precipitation, ETo and AI were 0.18 °C decade-1, 0.19 °C decade-1, 0.17 °C decade-1, 0.09 °C decade-1, 1.12 mm yr-1, 0.4 mm yr-1 and 0.02 decade-1, respectively, and the negative trends were 0.21 °C decade-1, 0.06 °C decade-1, 0.09 °C decade-1, 0.22 °C decade-1, 1.16 mm yr-1, 0.76 mm yr-1 and 0.02 decade-1, respectively. The temporal trends were highly variable in space and were appropriately represented using monthly, annual and growing-season maps developed using Geographic Information System (GIS) techniques. The long-term and spatial and temporal information and data for a large region provided in this study can be

  15. Generation of free radicals from model lipid hydroperoxides and H[sub 2]O[sub 2] by Co(II) in the presence of cysteinyl and histidyl chelators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, X.; Kasprzak, K.S. (National Cancer Institute, Frederick, MD (United States)); Dalal, N.S. (West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States))

    Electron spin resonance spin trapping was utilized to investigate the generation of free radicals from cumene hydroperoxide (cumene-OOH), tert-butyl hydroperoxide (tert-butyl-OOH), and H[sub 2]O[sub 2] at pH 7.2 by Co(II) in the presence of cysteinyl and histidyl chelating agents. The spin trap used was 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide. Incubation of Co(II) with cumene-OOH or tert-butyl-OOH did not generate any detectable amounts of free radicals. However, in the presence of glutathione, cysteine, penicillamine, or N-acetylcysteine, Co(II) generated cumene-OOH-derived carbon-centered radicals, cumene alkoxyl radicals, and hydroxy (OH) radicals. Oxidized glutathione and cysteine used instead of reduced glutathione or cysteine did not generate any free radical, indicating an important role of the -SH group in radical generation. While the addition of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) prevented radical generation, deferoxamine had only a slightly inhibitory effect. Similar results to those obtained using cumene-OOH were obtained utilizing tert-butyl-OOH in place of cumene-OOH. The yields of free radicals were in the order of glutathione > cysteine > penicillamine > N-acetylcysteine. Incubation of Co(II) with cumene-OOH or t-butyl-OOH in the presence of the histidyl oligopeptide Gly-Gly-His also generated lipid hydroperoxide-derived free radicals, with the yield being comparable to that obtained using thiols. In contrast, histidine, anserine, homocarnosine, or carnosine did not cause any free radical generation from Co(II) and lipid hydroperoxides. Incubation of Co(II) with H[sub 2]O[sub 2] produced only a small amount of OH radicals. Addition of glutathione to the mixture of Co(II) and H[sub 2]O[sub 2] resulted in generation of both glutathionyl (GS) and OH radicals, which could be inhibited by DTPA and deferoxamine. Deferoxamine nitroxide radical was produced from deferoxamine incubated with Co(II) and H[sub 2]O[sub 2]. 36 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Faixa de suficiência para a cultura do algodão no centro-oeste do Brasil: II. micronutrientes Sufficiency range for cotton cropped in Brazil midwest: II. micronutrients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Antonio Camacho


    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de estabelecer a faixa de suficiência dos micronutrientes para o algodoeiro, foi utilizado o método da chance matemática para dados de monitoramento nutricional de três localidades produtoras de algodão no cerrado brasileiro, avaliando 152 áreas. O método da chance matemática foi adequado para estabelecer padrões de referência nutricional no algodoeiro, podendo subsidiar parâmetros que a pesquisa convencional não alcançaria em curto espaço de tempo. As faixas encontradas para os micronutrientes com o método da chance matemática tendo como referência a produtividade de 4000kg ha-1 foram, em mg kg-1, de 41-89; 4-14; 90-230; 23-110 e 25-50 para B, Cu, Fe, Mn e Zn, respectivamente, enquanto para a produtividade de 4500kg ha-1 foram, em mg kg-1, de 53-83; 4-12; 110-440; 40-60 e 25-50 para B, Cu, Fe, Mn e Zn, respectivamente. As faixas indicadas, embora semelhantes às recomendações existentes, demonstram aperfeiçoamento para obtenção de altas produtividades. As limitações do método poderão ser atenuadas com a ampliação do sistema de monitoramento nutricional nas lavouras de algodoeiro.For to establish the micronutrients sufficiency range for the cotton, was used the method of mathematical chance for nutritional monitory data of three cotton growth locations in the Midwest of the Brazil, evaluating 152 areas. The method of mathematical chance was adequate for to establish cotton micronutrients references values, can be to help parameters were the conventional research cannot to prove in the short time. The micronutrients sufficiency range for productivity of 4000kg ha-1 were, in the mg kg-1, 41-89; 4-14; 90-230; 23-100; 25-50, and for 4500kg ha-1 was 53-83; 4-12; 110-440; 40-60 e 25-50 for B, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn, respectively. The sufficiency ranges indicated was similar to the existing official recommendations, however, is indicated the approach for to supply the specifics of the systems. The limitations of

  17. Geologic and hydrologic characterization and evaluation of the Basin and Range Province relative to the disposal of high-level radioactive waste: Part II, Geologic and hydrologic characterization (United States)

    Sargent, Kenneth A.; Bedinger, M.S.


    The geology and hydrology of the Basin and Range Province of the western conterminous United States are characterized in a series of data sets depicted in maps compiled for evaluation of prospective areas for further study of geohydrologic environments for isolation of high-level radioactive waste. The data sets include: (1) Average precipitation and evaporation; (2) surface distribution of selected rock types; (3) tectonic conditions; and (4) surface- and ground -water hydrology and Pleistocene lakes and marshes.Rocks mapped for consideration as potential host media for the isolation of high-level radioactive waste are widespread and include argillaceous rocks, granitic rocks, tuffaceous rocks, mafic extrusive rocks, evaporites, and laharic breccias. The unsaturated zone, where probably as thick as 150 meters (500 feet), was mapped for consideration as an environment for isolation of high-level waste. Unsaturated rocks of various lithologic types are widespread in the Province.Tectonic stability in the Quaternary Period is considered the key to assessing the probability of future tectonism with regard to high-level radioactive waste disposal. Tectonic conditions are characterized on the basis of the seismic record, heat-flow measurements, the occurrence of Quaternary faults, vertical crustal movement, and volcanic features. Tectonic activity, as indicated by seismicity, is greatest in areas bordering the western margin of the Province in Nevada and southern California, the eastern margin of the Province bordering the Wasatch Mountains in Utah and in parts of the Rio Grande valley. Late Cenozoic volcanic activity is widespread, being greatest bordering the Sierra Nevada in California and Oregon, and bordering the Wasatch Mountains in southern Utah and Idaho.he arid to semiarid climate of the Province results in few perennial streams and lakes. A large part of the surface drainage is interior and the many closed basins commonly are occupied by playas or dry lake

  18. The role of active and ancient geothermal processes in the generation, migration, and entrapment of oil in the basin and Range Province, western USA. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hulen, J.B.; Collister, J.W.; Curtiss, D.K. [and others


    The Basin and Range (B&R) physiographic province of the western USA is famous not only for its geothermal and precious-metal wealth, but also for its thirteen oil fields, small but in some cases highly productive. The Grant Canyon field in Railroad Valley, for example, for years boasted production of more than 6000 barrels of oil (BO) per day from just two wells; aggregate current production from the Blackburn field in Pine Valley commonly exceeds 1000 BO per day. These two and several other Nevada oil fields are unusually hot at reservoir depth--up to 130{degrees}C at depths as shallow as 1.1 km, up to three times the value expected from the prevailing regional geothermal gradient.

  19. Comparison of Aerodynamic Particle Size Distribution Between a Next Generation Impactor and a Cascade Impactor at a Range of Flow Rates. (United States)

    Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Kuwana, Akemi; Shibata, Hiroko; Izutsu, Ken-Ichi; Goda, Yukihiro


    Wide variation in respiratory flow rates between patients emphasizes the importance of evaluating the aerodynamic particle size distribution (APSD) of dry powder inhaler (DPI) using a multi-stage impactor at different flow rates. US Pharmacopeia recently listed modified configurations of the Andersen cascade impactor (ACI) and new sets of cut-off diameter specifications for the operation at flow rates of 60 and 90 L/min. The purpose of this study was to clarify the effect of these changes on the APSD of DPI products at varied flow rates. We obtained APSD profiles of four DPIs and device combinations, Relenza®-Diskhaler® (GlaxoSmithKline Co.), Seebri®-Breezhaler® (Novartis Pharma Co.), Pulmicort®-Turbuhaler® (Astrazeneca Co.), and Spiriva®-Handihaler® (Nippon Boehringer Ingelheim Co.) using Next Generation Impactors (NGIs) and ACIs at flow rates from 28.3 to 90 L/min to evaluate the difference in the use of previous and new sets of cut-off diameter specifications. Processing the data using the new specifications for ACI apparently reduced large differences in APSD obtained by NGI and ACI with the previous specifications at low and high flow rates in all the DPIs. Selecting the appropriate configuration of ACI corresponding to the flow rate provided comparable APSD profiles of Pulmicort®-Turbuhaler® to those using NGIs at varied flow rates. The results confirmed the relevance of the current US Pharmacopeia specifications for ACI analysis in obtaining APSD profiles of DPI products at wide flow rates.

  20. Generation of a square pulse with ultra-wide tuning range in a passively mode-locked Yb-doped fiber laser. (United States)

    Cao, Yafei; Jia, Dongfang; Liu, Tonghui; Yang, Tianxin; Wang, Zhaoying; Ge, Chunfeng


    We have experimentally demonstrated a square pulse in a passively mode-locked Yb-doped fiber ring laser operating in the dissipative soliton resonance (DSR) region based on the nonlinear polarization rotation technique. In our experiment, a 1.5-km long single-mode fiber (SMF) is inserted into the cavity to increase the cavity length. The total cavity is 1501.8 m. With increasing pump power, the pulse duration can be tuned from 209.8 ns to 812.4 ns without wave-breaking, and the maximum output single pulse energy is 42.34 nJ. To the best of our knowledge, this is the widest pulse in any Yb-doped mode-locked fiber laser. Moreover, the relationship between pulse width and cavity length is investigated. When the total cavity length is decreased to 1001.8 m and 501.8 m, the tuning range of square pulse is 372.4 ns (from 58.6 ns to 431 ns) and 138 ns (from 26 ns to 164 ns), respectively, and the maximum output single pulse energy is 13.85 nJ and 8.75 nJ, respectively.

  1. FRET-Mediated Long-Range Wavelength Transformation by Photoconvertible Fluorescent Proteins as an Efficient Mechanism to Generate Orange-Red Light in Symbiotic Deep Water Corals (United States)

    Bollati, Elena; Plimmer, Daniel; D’Angelo, Cecilia; Wiedenmann, Jörg


    Photoconvertible fluorescent proteins (pcRFPs) are a group of fluorophores that undergo an irreversible green-to-red shift in emission colour upon irradiation with near-ultraviolet (near-UV) light. Despite their wide application in biotechnology, the high-level expression of pcRFPs in mesophotic and depth-generalist coral species currently lacks a biological explanation. Additionally, reduced penetration of near-UV wavelengths in water poses the question whether light-driven photoconversion is relevant in the mesophotic zone, or whether a different mechanism is involved in the post-translational pigment modification in vivo. Here, we show in a long-term mesocosm experiment that photoconversion in vivo is entirely dependent on near-UV wavelengths. However, a near-UV intensity equivalent to the mesophotic underwater light field at 80 m depth is sufficient to drive the process in vitro, suggesting that photoconversion can occur near the lower distribution limits of these corals. Furthermore, live coral colonies showed evidence of efficient Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET). Our simulated mesophotic light field maintained the pcRFP pool in a partially photoconverted state in vivo, maximising intra-tetrameric FRET and creating a long-range wavelength conversion system with higher quantum yield than other native RFPs. We hypothesise that efficient conversion of blue wavelengths, abundant at depth, into orange-red light could constitute an adaptation of corals to life in light-limited environments. PMID:28677653

  2. FRET-Mediated Long-Range Wavelength Transformation by Photoconvertible Fluorescent Proteins as an Efficient Mechanism to Generate Orange-Red Light in Symbiotic Deep Water Corals. (United States)

    Bollati, Elena; Plimmer, Daniel; D'Angelo, Cecilia; Wiedenmann, Jörg


    Photoconvertible fluorescent proteins (pcRFPs) are a group of fluorophores that undergo an irreversible green-to-red shift in emission colour upon irradiation with near-ultraviolet (near-UV) light. Despite their wide application in biotechnology, the high-level expression of pcRFPs in mesophotic and depth-generalist coral species currently lacks a biological explanation. Additionally, reduced penetration of near-UV wavelengths in water poses the question whether light-driven photoconversion is relevant in the mesophotic zone, or whether a different mechanism is involved in the post-translational pigment modification in vivo. Here, we show in a long-term mesocosm experiment that photoconversion in vivo is entirely dependent on near-UV wavelengths. However, a near-UV intensity equivalent to the mesophotic underwater light field at 80 m depth is sufficient to drive the process in vitro, suggesting that photoconversion can occur near the lower distribution limits of these corals. Furthermore, live coral colonies showed evidence of efficient Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET). Our simulated mesophotic light field maintained the pcRFP pool in a partially photoconverted state in vivo, maximising intra-tetrameric FRET and creating a long-range wavelength conversion system with higher quantum yield than other native RFPs. We hypothesise that efficient conversion of blue wavelengths, abundant at depth, into orange-red light could constitute an adaptation of corals to life in light-limited environments.

  3. Analysis of high-depth sequence data for studying viral diversity: a comparison of next generation sequencing platforms using Segminator II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archer John


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Next generation sequencing provides detailed insight into the variation present within viral populations, introducing the possibility of treatment strategies that are both reactive and predictive. Current software tools, however, need to be scaled up to accommodate for high-depth viral data sets, which are often temporally or spatially linked. In addition, due to the development of novel sequencing platforms and chemistries, each with implicit strengths and weaknesses, it will be helpful for researchers to be able to routinely compare and combine data sets from different platforms/chemistries. In particular, error associated with a specific sequencing process must be quantified so that true biological variation may be identified. Results Segminator II was developed to allow for the efficient comparison of data sets derived from different sources. We demonstrate its usage by comparing large data sets from 12 influenza H1N1 samples sequenced on both the 454 Life Sciences and Illumina platforms, permitting quantification of platform error. For mismatches median error rates at 0.10 and 0.12%, respectively, suggested that both platforms performed similarly. For insertions and deletions median error rates within the 454 data (at 0.3 and 0.2%, respectively were significantly higher than those within the Illumina data (0.004 and 0.006%, respectively. In agreement with previous observations these higher rates were strongly associated with homopolymeric stretches on the 454 platform. Outside of such regions both platforms had similar indel error profiles. Additionally, we apply our software to the identification of low frequency variants. Conclusion We have demonstrated, using Segminator II, that it is possible to distinguish platform specific error from biological variation using data derived from two different platforms. We have used this approach to quantify the amount of error present within the 454 and Illumina platforms in

  4. Mineral and Vegetation Maps of the Bodie Hills, Sweetwater Mountains, and Wassuk Range, California/Nevada, Generated from ASTER Satellite Data (United States)

    Rockwell, Barnaby W.


    Multispectral remote sensing data acquired by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) were analyzed to identify and map minerals, vegetation groups, and volatiles (water and snow) in support of geologic studies of the Bodie Hills, Sweetwater Mountains, and Wassuk Range, California/Nevada. Digital mineral and vegetation mapping results are presented in both portable document format (PDF) and ERDAS Imagine format (.img). The ERDAS-format files are suitable for integration with other geospatial data in Geographic Information Systems (GIS) such as ArcGIS. The ERDAS files showing occurrence of 1) iron-bearing minerals, vegetation, and water, and 2) clay, sulfate, mica, carbonate, Mg-OH, and hydrous quartz minerals have been attributed according to identified material, so that the material detected in a pixel can be queried with the interactive attribute identification tools of GIS and image processing software packages (for example, the Identify Tool of ArcMap and the Inquire Cursor Tool of ERDAS Imagine). All raster data have been orthorectified to the Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) projection using a projective transform with ground-control points selected from orthorectified Landsat Thematic Mapper data and a digital elevation model from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Elevation Dataset (1/3 arc second, 10 m resolution). Metadata compliant with Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) standards for all ERDAS-format files have been included, and contain important information regarding geographic coordinate systems, attributes, and cross-references. Documentation regarding spectral analysis methodologies employed to make the maps is included in these cross-references.

  5. Melanie II--a third-generation software package for analysis of two-dimensional electrophoresis images: I. Features and user interface. (United States)

    Appel, R D; Palagi, P M; Walther, D; Vargas, J R; Sanchez, J C; Ravier, F; Pasquali, C; Hochstrasser, D F


    Although two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) computer analysis software packages have existed ever since 2-DE technology was developed, it is only now that the hardware and software technology allows large-scale studies to be performed on low-cost personal computers or workstations, and that setting up a 2-DE computer analysis system in a small laboratory is no longer considered a luxury. After a first attempt in the seventies and early eighties to develop 2-DE analysis software systems on hardware that had poor or even no graphical capabilities, followed in the late eighties by a wave of innovative software developments that were possible thanks to new graphical interface standards such as XWindows, a third generation of 2-DE analysis software packages has now come to maturity. It can be run on a variety of low-cost, general-purpose personal computers, thus making the purchase of a 2-DE analysis system easily attainable for even the smallest laboratory that is involved in proteome research. Melanie II 2-D PAGE, developed at the University Hospital of Geneva, is such a third-generation software system for 2-DE analysis. Based on unique image processing algorithms, this user-friendly object-oriented software package runs on multiple platforms, including Unix, MS-Windows 95 and NT, and Power Macintosh. It provides efficient spot detection and quantitation, state-of-the-art image comparison, statistical data analysis facilities, and is Internet-ready. Linked to proteome databases such as those available on the World Wide Web, it represents a valuable tool for the "Virtual Lab" of the post-genome area.

  6. CuSO4-glucose for in situ generation of controlled Cu(I)-Cu(II) bicatalysts: Multicomponent reaction of heterocyclic azine and aldehyde with alkyne, and cycloisomerization toward synthesis of N-fused imidazoles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guchhait, Sankar K.; Chandgude, Ajay L.; Priyadarshani, Garima


    The catalytic efficiency of mixed Cu(I)-Cu(II) system in situ generated by partial reduction of CuSO4 with glucose in ethanol (nonanhydrous) under open air has been explored. With this catalysis, the multicomponent cascade reaction of A3-coupling of heterocyclic amidine with aldehyde and alkyne,

  7. Comprehensive investigation of the corrosion state of the heat exchanger tubes of steam generators. Part II. Chemical composition and structure of tube surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homonnay, Z. [Department of Nuclear Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Eoetvoes University, H-1518 Budapest, P.O. Box 32 (Hungary)]. E-mail:; Kuzmann, E. [Research Group for Nuclear Methods in Structural Chemistry, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Eoetvoes University, Budapest (Hungary); Varga, K. [Department of Radiochemistry, University of Veszprem, H-8201 Veszprem, PO Box: 158 (Hungary)]. E-mail:; Nemeth, Z. [Department of Radiochemistry, University of Veszprem, H-8201 Veszprem, PO Box: 158 (Hungary); Szabo, A. [Department of Radiochemistry, University of Veszprem, H-8201 Veszprem, PO Box: 158 (Hungary); Rado, K. [Department of Radiochemistry, University of Veszprem, H-8201 Veszprem, PO Box: 158 (Hungary); Mako, K.E. [Department of Silicate and Materials Engineering, University of Veszprem, Veszprem (Hungary); Koever, L. [Section of Electron Spectroscopy, Institute of Nuclear Research, H-4001 Debrecen (Hungary); Cserny, I. [Section of Electron Spectroscopy, Institute of Nuclear Research, H-4001 Debrecen (Hungary); Varga, D. [Section of Electron Spectroscopy, Institute of Nuclear Research, H-4001 Debrecen (Hungary); Toth, J. [Section of Electron Spectroscopy, Institute of Nuclear Research, H-4001 Debrecen (Hungary); Schunk, J. [Paks NPP, Paks (Hungary); Tilky, P. [Paks NPP, Paks (Hungary); Patek, G. [Paks NPP, Paks (Hungary)


    In the frame of a project dealing with the comprehensive study of the corrosion state of the steam generators of the Paks Nuclear Power Plant, Hungary, surface properties (chemical and phase compositions) of the heat exchanger tubes supplied by the power plant were studied by Moessbauer spectroscopy (CEMS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) methods. The work presented in this series provides evidence that chemical decontamination of the steam generators by the AP-CITROX technology does exert a detrimental effect on the chemical composition and structure of the protective oxide film grown-on the inner surfaces of heat exchanger piping. As an undesired consequence of the decontamination technology, a 'hybrid' structure of the amorphous and crystalline phases is formed in the outermost surface region (within a range of 11 {mu}m). The constituents of this 'hybrid' structure exhibit great mobility into the primary coolant under normal operation of the VVER type reactor.

  8. The Henryville Bed of the New Albany shale: II. Comparison of the nickel and vanadyl porphyrins in the bitumen with those generated from the kerogen during simulated catagenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berkel, G.J.V.; Filby, R.H. (Washington State Univ., Pullman (USA)); Quirke, J.M.E. (Florida International Univ., Miami (USA))


    The Ni(II) and VO(II) porphyrin distributions in the bitumen from the Henryville Bed of New Albany shale (Clark County, Indiana) are compared with those of porphyrins isolated from a single New Albany shale kerogen aliquot by five sequential pyrolyses (110-450C). Both the bitumen and the pyrolsates contained Ni(II) and VO(II) complexes of at least three skeletal types: deoxophylloerythroetioporphyrin (DPEP), etioporphyrin (etio), and tetrahydrobenzo-DPEP (THBD). Ni(II) Benzo-DPEP and VO(II) benzo-DPEP and VO(II) benzo type porphyrins were detected in the pyrolysates but not in the bitumen. It was concluded from a comparison of porphyrin distributions in the pyrolysates that porphyrins were liberated from the kerogen by enhanced solubilization and/or desorption into the solvent rather than by kerogen-porphyrin carbon-carbon bond cleavages. Substantial amounts of organically combined nickel and vanadium remain in the kerogen after pyrolysis and may comprise porphyrin and non-porphyrin complexes. The similarity of the porphyrins in the bitumen and the pyrolysis indicates that porphyrins in the bitumen were released as a result of kerogen maturation. The similarity of the Ni(II) etio and DPEP species to the corresponding VO(II) porphyrins indicates that both metal complexes had a common premetallation tetrapyrrole precursor and that this precursor may have been associated with the evolving kerogen.

  9. A novel mechanism for Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II targeting to L-type Ca2+channels that initiates long-range signaling to the nucleus. (United States)

    Wang, Xiaohan; Marks, Christian R; Perfitt, Tyler L; Nakagawa, Terunaga; Lee, Amy; Jacobson, David A; Colbran, Roger J


    Neuronal excitation can induce new mRNA transcription, a phenomenon called excitation-transcription (E-T) coupling. Among several pathways implicated in E-T coupling, activation of voltage-gated L-type Ca 2+ channels (LTCCs) in the plasma membrane can initiate a signaling pathway that ultimately increases nuclear CREB phosphorylation and, in most cases, expression of immediate early genes. Initiation of this long-range pathway has been shown to require recruitment of Ca 2+ -sensitive enzymes to a nanodomain in the immediate vicinity of the LTCC by an unknown mechanism. Here, we show that activated Ca 2+ /calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) strongly interacts with a novel binding motif in the N-terminal domain of Ca V 1 LTCC α1 subunits that is not conserved in Ca V 2 or Ca V 3 voltage-gated Ca 2+ channel subunits. Mutations in the Ca V 1.3 α1 subunit N-terminal domain or in the CaMKII catalytic domain that largely prevent the in vitro interaction also disrupt CaMKII association with intact LTCC complexes isolated by immunoprecipitation. Furthermore, these same mutations interfere with E-T coupling in cultured hippocampal neurons. Taken together, our findings define a novel molecular interaction with the neuronal LTCC that is required for the initiation of a long-range signal to the nucleus that is critical for learning and memory. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  10. Generation of intense high harmonics: (i) To test and improve resolution of accumulative X-ray streak camera; (ii) To study the effects of Carrier envelope phase on XUV super continuum generation by polarization gating (United States)

    Shakya, Mahendra Man

    polarization gating process has been studied so far. We measured the maximum phase matching pressure to be ˜ 55 Torr which is the pressure above which quadratic increase in intensity of the high harmonics spectrum ceases to appear. At this pressure the number of photons per laser shot was 104 which is sufficient for measuring the single shot XUV spectrum in the range 34 to 45 eV. The spectral profile was a super-continuum for some shots and discrete high harmonics for other shots. It is believed that the shot to shot variation of the spectra is due to the changes of the carrier envelope phase of the few-cycle laser pulses used for the polarization gating. An improved CE phase stabilization system in KLS further eliminated the statistical noise in our observation by allowing us to integrate data over several laser cycles for each CE phase value. The effect of CE phase on a polarization gated XUV spectrum was tested by changing the CE phase with two different methods. In the first method, the CE phase was changed by changing the thickness of fused silica plates on the beam path, and the result shows the shift in the spectral peak of the XUV when the gate width approached less than one optical cycle. As gate width was made less than half the optical cycle, the spectrum was observed with continuum harmonics separated by pi radians. We believe that the presence of continuum and discrete harmonics spectra in the observation is due to single and double attosecond pulses generated in the polarization gating. In the second method the carrier-envelope phase of pulses from a grating-based chirped pulse amplification laser was varied smoothly to cover a 2pi range by controlling the grating separation. The phase is measured simultaneously by an f-to-2f setup and by the variation of XUV spectra from polarization gated high harmonic generation. A very good similarity between the effect of single and double slits in Yong's experiment and that of CE phase on the XUV spectrum in the

  11. Third-harmonic generation in silicon and photonic crystals of macroporous silicon in the spectral intermediate-IR range; Erzeugung der Dritten Harmonischen in Silizium und Photonischen Kristallen aus makroporoesem Silizium im spektralen mittleren IR-Bereich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitzschke, Kerstin


    Nonlinear optical spectroscopy is a powerful method to study surface or bulk properties of condensed matter. In centrosymmetric materials like silicon even order nonlinear optical processes are forbidden. Besides self-focussing or self phase modulation third-harmonic-generation (THG) is the simplest process that can be studied. This work demonstrates that THG is a adapted non-contact and non-invasive optical method to get information about bulk structures of silicon and Photonic crystals (PC), consisting of silicon. Until now most studies are done in the visible spectral range being limited by the linear absorption losses. So the extension of THG to the IR spectral range is extremely useful. This will allow the investigation of Photonic Crystals, where frequencies near a photonic bandgap are of special interest. 2D- photonic structures under investigation were fabricated via photoelectrochemical etching of the Si (100) wafer (thickness 500 {mu}m) receiving square and hexagonal arranged pores. The typical periodicity of the structures used is 2 {mu}m and the length of the pores reached to 400 {mu}m. Because of stability the photonic structures were superimposed on silicon substrate. The experimental set-up used for the THG experiments generates tuneable picosecond IR pulses (tuning range 1500-4000 cm{sup -1}). The IR-pulse hit the sample either perpendicular to the sample surface or under an angle {theta}. The sample can be rotated (f) around the surface normal. The generated third harmonic is analysed by a polarizer, spectrally filtered by a polychromator and registered by a CCD camera. The setup can be used either in transmission or in reflection mode. Optical transmission and reflection spectra of the Si bulk correspond well with the theoretical description, a 4-fold and a 8-fold dependencies of the azimuth angle resulting in the structure of the x{sup (3)}-tensor of (100)-Si. The situation changes dramatically if the PC with hexagonal structure is investigated

  12. Motion of the dayside polar cap boundary during substorm cycles: II. Generation of poleward-moving events and polar cap patches by pulses in the magnetopause reconnection rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lockwood


    Full Text Available Using data from the EISCAT (European Incoherent Scatter VHF and CUTLASS (Co-operative UK Twin-Located Auroral Sounding System HF radars, we study the formation of ionospheric polar cap patches and their relationship to the magnetopause reconnection pulses identified in the companion paper by Lockwood et al. (2005. It is shown that the poleward-moving, high-concentration plasma patches observed in the ionosphere by EISCAT on 23 November 1999, as reported by Davies et al. (2002, were often associated with corresponding reconnection rate pulses. However, not all such pulses generated a patch and only within a limited MLT range (11:00-12:00 MLT did a patch result from a reconnection pulse. Three proposed mechanisms for the production of patches, and of the concentration minima that separate them, are analysed and evaluated: (1 concentration enhancement within the patches by cusp/cleft precipitation; (2 plasma depletion in the minima between the patches by fast plasma flows; and (3 intermittent injection of photoionisation-enhanced plasma into the polar cap. We devise a test to distinguish between the effects of these mechanisms. Some of the events repeat too frequently to apply the test. Others have sufficiently long repeat periods and mechanism (3 is shown to be the only explanation of three of the longer-lived patches seen on this day. However, effect (2 also appears to contribute to some events. We conclude that plasma concentration gradients on the edges of the larger patches arise mainly from local time variations in the subauroral plasma, via the mechanism proposed by Lockwood et al. (2000.

  13. Heritable differences in the dopaminergic regulation of sensorimotor gating. II. Temporal, pharmacologic and generational analyses of apomorphine effects on prepulse inhibition. (United States)

    Swerdlow, Neal R; Shoemaker, Jody M; Auerbach, Pamela P; Pitcher, Leia; Goins, Jana; Platten, Amanda


    The disruption of prepulse inhibition (PPI) of startle in rats by dopamine agonists has been used in a predictive model for antipsychotics, and more recently, to study the neural basis of strain differences in dopaminergic function. We have previously reported that Sprague-Dawley (SDH) and Long Evans (LEH) rats differed in their sensitivity to the PPI-disruptive effects of the D(1)/D(2) agonist apomorphine (APO) in two distinct ways: 1) compared to LEH rats, SDH rats were more sensitive to the ability of APO to disrupt PPI with relatively long prepulse intervals (60-120 ms), and 2) APO enhanced PPI in LEH rats with 10-30 ms prepulse intervals, but this effect was limited to 10 ms prepulse intervals in SDH rats. In the present study, we replicated this temporal profile in SDH versus LEH rats, assessed the role of D(1) versus D(2) substrates in the two components of this strain difference, and assessed the heritability of these temporally distinct processes. Pharmacologic studies revealed that: 1) D(2) blockade prevented the long interval PPI-disruptive effects of APO in both strains, and extended the temporal range of the PPI-enhancing effects of APO from 10 to 30 ms in SDH rats, and 2) D(1) blockade increased PPI and blocked the PPI-enhancing effects of APO at short intervals in both strains. Generational studies in adult F0 (SDH and LEH), F1 (SDHxLEH) and N2 (SDHxF1) rats demonstrated that sensitivity to APO of both short and long interval PPI were inherited in a manner suggestive of relatively simple additive effects of multiple genes. The present findings demonstrate that inherited differences in the dopaminergic regulation of sensorimotor gating are manifested not only in quantitative shifts (more versus less), but also in qualitative shifts in the temporal properties of sensorimotor gating that appear to be under separate control of D(1) and D(2) substrates.

  14. Fourth-generation epac-based FRET sensors for cAMP feature exceptional brightness, photostability and dynamic range: characterization of dedicated sensors for FLIM, for ratiometry and with high affinity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Klarenbeek

    Full Text Available Epac-based FRET sensors have been widely used for the detection of cAMP concentrations in living cells. Originally developed by us as well as others, we have since then reported several important optimizations that make these sensors favourite among many cell biologists. We here report cloning and characterization of our fourth generation of cAMP sensors, which feature outstanding photostability, dynamic range and signal-to-noise ratio. The design is based on mTurquoise2, currently the brightest and most bleaching-resistant donor, and a new acceptor cassette that consists of a tandem of two cp173Venus fluorophores. We also report variants with a single point mutation, Q270E, in the Epac moiety, which decreases the dissociation constant of cAMP from 9.5 to 4 μM, and thus increases the affinity ~ 2.5-fold. Finally, we also prepared and characterized dedicated variants with non-emitting (dark acceptors for single-wavelength FLIM acquisition that display an exceptional near-doubling of fluorescence lifetime upon saturation of cAMP levels. We believe this generation of cAMP outperforms all other sensors and therefore recommend these sensors for all future studies.

  15. Solar Generator (United States)


    The Vanguard I dish-Stirling module program, initiated in 1982, produced the Vanguard I module, a commercial prototype erected by the Advanco Corporation. The module, which automatically tracks the sun, combines JPL mirrored concentrator technology, an advanced Stirling Solar II engine/generator, a low cost microprocessor-controlled parabolic dish. Vanguard I has a 28% sunlight to electricity conversion efficiency. If tests continue to prove the system effective, Advanco will construct a generating plant to sell electricity to local utilities. An agreement has also been signed with McDonnell Douglas to manufacture a similar module.

  16. Combination treatment with mirabegron and solifenacin in patients with overactive bladder: exploratory responder analyses of efficacy and evaluation of patient-reported outcomes from a randomized, double-blind, factorial, dose-ranging, Phase II study (SYMPHONY). (United States)

    Abrams, P; Kelleher, C; Staskin, D; Kay, R; Martan, A; Mincik, I; Newgreen, D; Ridder, A; Paireddy, A; van Maanen, R


    This large dose-ranging study explored the benefits of different combinations of mirabegron and solifenacin on health-related quality of life (HRQoL), based on patient-reported outcomes (PROs), and patients ('responders') achieving clinically meaningful improvements in efficacy and HRQoL. SYMPHONY (NCT01340027) was a Phase II, placebo- and monotherapy-controlled, dose-ranging, 12-week trial. Adult patients with overactive bladder (OAB) for ≥3 months were randomized to 1 of 12 groups: 6 combination (solifenacin 2.5/5/10 mg + mirabegron 25/50 mg), 5 monotherapy (solifenacin 2.5/5/10 mg, or mirabegron 25/50 mg), or placebo. Change from baseline to end of treatment was assessed, versus placebo and solifenacin 5 mg in: PROs (OAB-q [Symptom Bother/total HRQoL] and Patient Perception of Bladder Condition score), and responders achieving minimally important differences (MIDs) in PROs and predetermined clinically meaningful improvements in efficacy (e.g. <8 micturitions/24 h). Changes in PROs and responders were analysed using an ANCOVA model and logistic regression, respectively. The Full Analysis Set included 1278 patients. Combination therapy of solifenacin 5/10 mg + mirabegron 25/50 mg significantly improved PROs versus solifenacin 5 mg and placebo, and significantly more responders achieved MIDs in PROs and efficacy. Micturition frequency normalization was approximately twofold greater with 10 + 25 mg (OR 2.06 [95 % CI 1.11, 3.84; p = 0.023]) and 5 + 50 mg (OR 1.91 [95 % CI 1.14, 3.21; p = 0.015]) versus solifenacin 5 mg. Combining mirabegron 25/50 mg and solifenacin 5/10 mg improves objective and subjective efficacy outcomes compared with placebo or solifenacin 5 mg.

  17. Artificial intelligence used for the interpretation of combined spectral data *1 : Part II. PEGASUS: a PROLOG program for the generation of acyclic molecular structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleywegt, G.J.; Luinge, H.J.; Klooster, H.A. van 't


    A computer program, PEGASUS (PROLOG-based EXSPEC Generator for Acyclic StrUctureS), has been developed which can be used to generate exhaustively and non-redundantly all possible acyclic isomers that satisfy a given molecular weight or formula PEGASUS was written in PROLOG and implemented on an

  18. Generation in vivo of peptide-specific cytotoxic T cells and presence of regulatory T cells during vaccination with hTERT (class I and II peptide-pulsed DCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satthaporn Sukchai


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Optimal techniques for DC generation for immunotherapy in cancer are yet to be established. Study aims were to evaluate: (i DC activation/maturation milieu (TNF-α +/- IFN-α and its effects on CD8+ hTERT-specific T cell responses to class I epitopes (p540 or p865, (ii CD8+ hTERT-specific T cell responses elicited by vaccination with class I alone or both class I and II epitope (p766 and p672-pulsed DCs, prepared without IFN-α, (iii association between circulating T regulatory cells (Tregs and clinical responses. Methods Autologous DCs were generated from 10 patients (HLA-0201 with advanced cancer by culturing CD14+ blood monocytes in the presence of GM-CSF and IL-4 supplemented with TNF-α [DCT] or TNF-α and IFN-α [DCTI]. The capacity of the DCs to induce functional CD8+ T cell responses to hTERT HLA-0201 restricted nonapeptides was assessed by MHC tetramer binding and peptide-specific cytotoxicity. Each DC preparation (DCT or DCTI was pulsed with only one type of hTERT peptide (p540 or p865 and both preparations were injected into separate lymph node draining regions every 2–3 weeks. This vaccination design enabled comparison of efficacy between DCT and DCTI in generating hTERT peptide specific CD8+ T cells and comparison of class I hTERT peptide (p540 or p865-loaded DCT with or without class II cognate help (p766 and p672 in 6 patients. T regulatory cells were evaluated in 8 patients. Results (i DCTIs and DCTs, pulsed with hTERT peptides, were comparable (p = 0.45, t-test in inducing peptide-specific CD8+ T cell responses. (ii Class II cognate help, significantly enhanced (p (iii Clinical responders had significantly lower (p Conclusion Addition of IFN-α to ex vivo monocyte-derived DCs, did not significantly enhance peptide-specific T cell responses in vivo, compared with TNF-α alone. Class II cognate help significantly augments peptide-specific T cell responses. Clinically favourable responses were seen in patients

  19. Snake venomics of Crotalus tigris: the minimalist toxin arsenal of the deadliest Nearctic rattlesnake venom. Evolutionary Clues for generating a pan-specific antivenom against crotalid type II venoms [corrected]. (United States)

    Calvete, Juan J; Pérez, Alicia; Lomonte, Bruno; Sánchez, Elda E; Sanz, Libia


    We report the proteomic and antivenomic characterization of Crotalus tigris venom. This venom exhibits the highest lethality for mice among rattlesnakes and the simplest toxin proteome reported to date. The venom proteome of C. tigris comprises 7-8 gene products from 6 toxin families; the presynaptic β-neurotoxic heterodimeric PLA(2), Mojave toxin, and two serine proteinases comprise, respectively, 66 and 27% of the C. tigris toxin arsenal, whereas a VEGF-like protein, a CRISP molecule, a medium-sized disintegrin, and 1-2 PIII-SVMPs each represent 0.1-5% of the total venom proteome. This toxin profile really explains the systemic neuro- and myotoxic effects observed in envenomated animals. In addition, we found that venom lethality of C. tigris and other North American rattlesnake type II venoms correlates with the concentration of Mojave toxin A-subunit, supporting the view that the neurotoxic venom phenotype of crotalid type II venoms may be described as a single-allele adaptation. Our data suggest that the evolutionary trend toward neurotoxicity, which has been also reported for the South American rattlesnakes, may have resulted by pedomorphism. The ability of an experimental antivenom to effectively immunodeplete proteins from the type II venoms of C. tigris, Crotalus horridus , Crotalus oreganus helleri, Crotalus scutulatus scutulatus, and Sistrurus catenatus catenatus indicated the feasibility of generating a pan-American anti-Crotalus type II antivenom, suggested by the identification of shared evolutionary trends among South and North American Crotalus species.

  20. Design and generation of extended zeolitic metal-organic frameworks (ZMOFs): synthesis and crystal structures of zinc(II) imidazolate polymers with zeolitic topologies. (United States)

    Tian, Yun-Qi; Zhao, Yu-Ming; Chen, Zhen-Xia; Zhang, Guang-Ning; Weng, Lin-Hong; Zhao, Dong-Yuan


    Attempts to create metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with zeolitic topologies, metal (zinc(II) and cobalt(II)) imidazolates have repeatedly been used as the metal-organic motifs of inorganic silicate analogues. By modulating the synthetic strategy based on the solvothermal and liquid diffusion method, seven further MOFs (including at least three zeolitic MOFs) of zinc(II) imidazolates, [Zn(im)2.x G] (G=guest molecule, x=0.2-1) 1 a-7 a, have been successfully synthesized. Of these, 1 a-3 a are isostructural with the previously reported cobalt analogues 1 b-3 b, respectively, while 4 a-7 a are new members of the metal imidazolate MOF family. Complex 4 a exhibits a structure related to silicate CaAl2Si2O8 of CrB4 topology, but with a higher network symmetry; complex 5 a has a structure with zeolitic DFT topology that was discovered in zeolite-related materials of DAF-2, UCSB-3, and UCSB-3GaGe; complex 6 a demonstrates an unprecedented zeolite-like topology with one dimensional channels with 10-rings; and 7 a displays a structure of natural zeolite GIS (gismondine) topology. All of these polymorphous MOFs were created only by using certain solvents as structure-directing agents (SDAs). Further extensive metal-organic frameworks with zeolitic topologies can be envisaged if other solvents were to be used.

  1. Leo II PC (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — LEO II is a second-generation software system developed for use on the PC, which is designed to convert location references accurately between legal descriptions and...

  2. Cu (II), Zn (II) andMn (II) complexes of poly (methyl vinyl ether-alt ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MVE-alt-MA)) with Zn(II), Mn(II) and Cu(II) ions were synthesized from the reaction of the aqueous solution of copolymer and metal(II) chlorides at different temperatures ranging from 25° to 40°C. Elemental analysis of themetal-polymer complexes ...

  3. A comparison between electric field strengths similarly generated and measured in the open air, in a shielded enclosure and in a large aircraft hangar, over frequency range 10 to 110 MHz (United States)

    Dew, M.; Harrison, F.


    Field strength measurements over 10 to 110 MHz were made using a tracking generator counter, a spectrum analyzer, and a biconal antenna. The dimensions of the shielded enclosure were 6.1 x 3.66 x 3.0 m, and the concrete floored, metal hangar 80 x 40 x 10 m. It was found that in each polarization the hangar performance deviated much less from that in the open air than did the shielded enclosure performance. The latter shows deviations with modulus as great as 38 dB (certical pol) and 26 dB (horizontal pol). For any electric field strength measured in the shielded enclosure (in 10 kHz bandwidth in the range 10 to 110 MHz) the probability that the result would be at least 6 dB different from that similary obtained in the open air was 38% or 43.5% according to polarization and that when similarly measured in the hangar the corresponding probabilities were 0% and 1%. Hangar results were shown to lie much closer to the open air results than do the shielded enclosure results. This is further demonstrated by the rms deviations of the shielded enclosure and hangar readings from those of the open air.

  4. Design and development of Stirling Engines for stationary power generation applications in the 500 to 3000 hp range. Subtask 1A report: state-of-the-art conceptual design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The first portion of the Conceptual Design Study of Stirling Engines for Stationary Power Application in the 500 to 3000 hp range which was aimed at state-of-the-art stationary Stirling engines for a 1985 hardware demonstration is summarized. The main goals of this effort were to obtain reliable cost data for a stationary Stirling engine capable of meeting future needs for total energy/cogeneration sysems and to establish a pragmatic and conservative base design for a first generation hardware. Starting with an extensive screening effort, 4 engine types, i.e., V-type crank engine, radial engine, swashplate engine, and rhombic drive engine, and 3 heat transport systems, i.e., heat pipe, pressurized gas heat transport loop, and direct gas fired system, were selected. After a preliminary layout cycle, the rhombic drive engine was eliminated due to intolerable maintenance difficulties on the push rod seals. V, radial and swashplate engines were taken through a detailed design/layout cycle, to establish all important design features and reliable engine weights. After comparing engine layouts and analyzing qualitative and quantitative evaluation criteria, the V-crank engine was chosen as the candidate for a 1985 hardware demonstration.

  5. Value of flexible resources, virtual bidding, and self-scheduling in two-settlement electricity markets with wind generation - Part II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazempour, Jalal; Hobbs, Benjamin F.


    commitment decisions based upon deterministic wind forecasts, while virtual bidders arbitrage the two markets (Seq and SeqSS). The latter two models differ in terms of whether some slow-start generators can self-schedule in the DA market while anticipating probabilities of RT prices. Models in Seq and Seq...

  6. Perceptual Objective Listening Quality Assessment (POLQA), The Third Generation ITU-T Standard for End-to-End Speech Quality Measurement : Part II – Perceptual Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beerends, J.G.; Schmidmer, C.; Berger, J.; Obermann, M.; Ullman, R.; Pomy, J.; Keyhl, M.


    In this and the companion paper Part I, the authors present the Perceptual Objective Listening Quality Assessment (POLQA), the third-generation speech quality measurement algorithm, standardized by the International Telecommunication Union in 2011 as Recommendation P.863. This paper describes the

  7. Next generation sequencing analysis reveals that the ribonucleases RNase II, RNase R and PNPase affect bacterial motility and biofilm formation in E. coli. (United States)

    Pobre, Vânia; Arraiano, Cecília M


    The RNA steady-state levels in the cell are a balance between synthesis and degradation rates. Although transcription is important, RNA processing and turnover are also key factors in the regulation of gene expression. In Escherichia coli there are three main exoribonucleases (RNase II, RNase R and PNPase) involved in RNA degradation. Although there are many studies about these exoribonucleases not much is known about their global effect in the transcriptome. In order to study the effects of the exoribonucleases on the transcriptome, we sequenced the total RNA (RNA-Seq) from wild-type cells and from mutants for each of the exoribonucleases (∆rnb, ∆rnr and ∆pnp). We compared each of the mutant transcriptome with the wild-type to determine the global effects of the deletion of each exoribonucleases in exponential phase. We determined that the deletion of RNase II significantly affected 187 transcripts, while deletion of RNase R affects 202 transcripts and deletion of PNPase affected 226 transcripts. Surprisingly, many of the transcripts are actually down-regulated in the exoribonuclease mutants when compared to the wild-type control. The results obtained from the transcriptomic analysis pointed to the fact that these enzymes were changing the expression of genes related with flagellum assembly, motility and biofilm formation. The three exoribonucleases affected some stable RNAs, but PNPase was the main exoribonuclease affecting this class of RNAs. We confirmed by qPCR some fold-change values obtained from the RNA-Seq data, we also observed that all the exoribonuclease mutants were significantly less motile than the wild-type cells. Additionally, RNase II and RNase R mutants were shown to produce more biofilm than the wild-type control while the PNPase mutant did not form biofilms. In this work we demonstrate how deep sequencing can be used to discover new and relevant functions of the exoribonucleases. We were able to obtain valuable information about the

  8. On the role of vertical electron density gradients in the generation of type II irregularities associated with blanketing ES (ESb) during counter equatorial electrojet events: A case study (United States)

    Devasia, C. V.; Jyoti, N.; Subbarao, K. S. V.; Tiwari, Diwakar; Reddi, C. Raghava; Sridharan, R.


    The characteristics of different types of Sporadic E (ES) layers and the associated plasma density irregularities over the magnetic equator have been studied in a campaign mode using VHF backscatter radar, digital ionosonde, and ground magnetometer data from Trivandrum (dip latitude 0.5°N, geographic latitude 8.5°N, geographic longitude 77°E), India. The presence of blanketing type ES (ESb) in the ionograms with varying intensity and duration were observed in association with afternoon Counter Equatorial Electrojet (CEEJ) events. ESb was associated with intense backscatter returns and with either very low zonal electric field and/or with distortions present in the altitude profile of the drift velocity of the type II irregularities. The results of the coordinated study indicate the possible role of vertical electron density gradients in ESb layers in addition to providing evidence for the local winds to be responsible for the vertical gradients themselves.

  9. Exploring new potentials and generating hypothesis for management of locally advanced head neck cancer: Analysis of pooled data from two phase II trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chufal Kundan


    Full Text Available Background: To study the long term results of two phase II concurrent chemoradiotherapy protocols and conduct pooled data analysis with special emphasis on nodal density. Materials and Methods: In the period from April 2001 to May 2003, phase II Mitomycin C (MMC and late chemo-intensification (LCI protocols were started in the same institute, enrolling 69 and 74 patients respectively. Long term results for these individual trials are reported along with pooled data analysis. Results: Median follow-up time for whole group, MMC protocol and LCI protocol was 43.8 months (SD619.8, 55 months (SD 618.5 and 47.5 months (SD 620.9 respectively. LRFS, DFS and OS at five years for whole group was 59.4, 43.5 and 47.1% respectively, for MMC protocol was 59.9, 45.5 and 49.5% respectively and for LCI, protocol was 53.6%, 41.5% and 44.4% respectively. Subgroup analysis revealed that MMC protocol was more effective than LCI protocol in terms of DFS and OS in patients with hypo dense nodes while opposite was true for Isodense nodes. Multivariate analysis revealed nodal density as an independent variable that had an impact on treatment outcome. Risk of death in patients with hypo dense nodes was 2.91 times that of Isodense nodes. Conclusions: Innovative and pragmatic approach is required to address locally advanced head neck cancer. Long term results for MMC and LCI protocols are encouraging. Integrating the basic concepts of these protocols may help develop new protocols, which will facilitate the search for the optimal solution.

  10. Boxberg III-2 x 500 MW units: Refurbishing and environmental protection measures on the 815 T/H steam generator of works II in Boxberg Power Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cossman, R.; Fritz, M.; Bauchmueller, R. [L& C Steinmueller GmbH, Gummersbach (Germany)


    The object of the upgrading measures on the steam generators is: (1) To comply with the requirements of the German antipollution law, which imposes a permissible NO{sub x} content in the flue gas of less than 200 Mg/m{sup 3} STP and a CO content of less than 250 Mg/m{sup 3} STP. (2) To increase the boiler efficiency and availability and the efficiency of the water/steam cycle.

  11. Chemical Feature-Based Molecular Modeling of Urotensin-II Receptor Antagonists: Generation of Predictive Pharmacophore Model for Early Drug Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anubhuti Pandey


    Full Text Available For a series of 35 piperazino-phthalimide and piperazino-isoindolinone based urotensin-II receptor (UT antagonists, a thoroughly validated 3D pharmacophore model has been developed, consisting of four chemical features: one hydrogen bond acceptor lipid (HBA_L, one hydrophobe (HY, and two ring aromatic (RA. Multiple validation techniques like CatScramble, test set prediction, and mapping analysis of advanced known antagonists have been employed to check the predictive power and robustness of the developed model. The results demonstrate that the best model, Hypo 1, shows a correlation (r of 0.902, a root mean square deviation (RMSD of 0.886, and the cost difference of 39.69 bits. The model obtained is highly predictive with good correlation values for both internal (r2=0.707 as well as external (r2=0.614 test set compounds. Moreover, the pharmacophore model has been used as a 3D query for virtual screening which served to detect prospective new lead compounds which can be further optimized as UT antagonists with potential for treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

  12. X-ray Production by Cascading Stages of a High-Gain Harmonic Generation Free-Electron Laser II: Special Topics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, J


    In this paper, we study the tolerance of a new approach to produce coherent x-ray by cascading several stages of a High-Gain Harmonic Generation (HGHG) Free-Electron Laser (FEL). Being a harmonic generation process, a small noise in the initial fundamental signal will lead to a significant noise-to-signal (NTS) ratio in the final harmonic, so the noise issue is studied in this paper. We study two sources of noise: the incoherent undulator radiation, which is a noise with respect to the seed laser; and the noise of the seed laser itself. In reality, the electron beam longitudinal current profile is not uniform. Since the electron beam is the amplification medium for the FEL, this non- uniformity will induce phase error in the FEL. Therefore, this effect is studied. Phase error due to the wakefield and electron beam self-field is also studied. Synchrotronization of the electron beam and the seed laser is an important issue determining the success of the HGHG. We study the timing jitter induced frequency jitter in this paper. We also show that an HGHG FEL poses a less stringent requirement on the emittance than a SASE FEL does, due to a Natural Emittance Effect Reduction (NEER) mechanism. This NEER mechanism suggests a new operation mode, i.e., the HGHG FEL could adopt a high current, though unavoidable, a high emittance electron beam. Study in this paper shows that, production of hard x-rays with good longitudinal coherence by cascading stages of a HGHG FEL is promising. However, technical improvement is demanded.

  13. Thermodynamic stability and energetics of DNA duplexes containing major intrastrand cross-links of second-generation antitumor dinuclear Pt(II) complexes. (United States)

    Florian, Jakub; Kasparkova, Jana; Farrell, Nicholas P; Brabec, Viktor


    The effects of major DNA intrastrand cross-links of antitumor dinuclear Pt(II) complexes [{trans-PtCl(NH(3))(2)}(2)-μ-{trans-(H(2)N(CH(2))(6)NH(2)(CH(2))(2)NH(2)(CH(2))(6)NH(2))}](4+) (1) and [{PtCl(DACH)}(2)-μ-{H(2)N(CH(2))(6)NH(2)(CH(2))(2)NH(2)(CH(2))(6)NH(2))}](4+) (2) (DACH is 1,2-diaminocyclohexane) on DNA stability were studied with emphasis on thermodynamic origins of that stability. Oligodeoxyribonucleotide duplexes containing the single 1,2, 1,3, or 1,5 intrastrand cross-links at guanine residues in the central TGGT, TGTGT, or TGTTTGT sequences, respectively, were prepared and analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry. The unfolding of the platinated duplexes was accompanied by unfavorable free energy terms. The efficiency of the cross-links to thermodynamically destabilize the duplex depended on the number of base pairs separating the platinated bases. The trend was 1,5→1,2→1,3 cross-link of 1 and 1,5→1,3→1,2 cross-link of 2. Interestingly, the results showed that the capability of the cross-links to reduce the thermodynamic stability of DNA (ΔG(298)(0)) correlated with the extent of conformational distortions induced in DNA by various types of intrastrand cross-links of 1 or 2 determined by chemical probes of DNA conformation. We also examined the efficiency of the mammalian nucleotide excision repair systems to remove from DNA the intrastrand cross-links of 1 or 2. The efficiency of the excinucleases to remove the cross-links from DNA depended on the length of the cross-link; the trend was identical to that observed for the efficiency of the intrastrand cross-links to thermodynamically destabilize the duplex. Thus, the results are consistent with the thesis that an important factor that determines the susceptibility of the intrastrand cross-links of dinuclear platinum complexes 1 and 2 to be removed from DNA by nucleotide excision repair is the efficiency of these lesions to thermodynamically destabilize DNA.

  14. Sulphate radical generation through interaction of peroxymonosulphate with Co(II) for in-line sample preparation aiming at spectrophotometric flow-based determination of phosphate and phosphite in fertilizers. (United States)

    Crispino, Carla C; Kamogawa, Marcos Y; Ferreira, José R; Zagatto, Elias A G


    An advanced oxidative process relying on the interaction of peroxymonosulphate and cobalt(II) was implemented for generating the sulphate radicals in flow analysis, in order to accomplish in-line sample preparation thus improving the spectrophotometric determination of phosphate and phosphite in liquid foliar fertilizers. To this end, a flow-batch system with a heated chamber was designed. The sample was handled twice, with and without the step of phosphite oxidation to phosphate, and the formed orthophosphate was quantified after interaction with the vanadate-molybdate reagent. Phosphite was determined as the difference in analytical signals corresponding to sample handling with and without the oxidation step. Influence of Co(II) on the peroxymonosulphate activation, reagent concentrations and added volumes, acidity, temperature and heating time were investigated like aiming at to improve analytical recovery and measurement repeatability, as well as the and system ruggedness. The 6.6-20.0mgL(-1) P2O5 standards were in-line prepared from a single stock solution. Detection limits were estimated as 0.8 and 0.1mgL(-1) for P2O5 and P-PO4. Twenty-four samples are were run per hour, and results are were in agreement with those obtained by the official procedure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Range profiles of low energy (100 to 1500 eV) implanted /sup 3/He and /sup 4/He in tungsten. II. Analysis and discussion. Materials Science Center Report No. 4108

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amano, J; Wagner, A; Seidman, D N


    The identifiable sources of possible systematic error in the measurement of the mean range (x bar) and the straggling ( of the /sup 3/He and /sup 4/He range profiles, reported on in a previous paper were modeled mathematically and the resulting expressions numerically evaluated. The evaluations showed that these possible sources of systematic error were not of significant magnitude to affect the range parameters x bar and The role of the transfer of energy, either indirectly or directly, from the incoming beam of He ions to those He atoms that had already been implanted was also considered as a possible source of systematic error. It was shown that there was a possibility of radiation-induced diffusion or the simple collisional displacement of He atoms at an implantation energy of 100 eV and a dose of 4 x 10/sup 15/ cm/sup -2/. It was also demonstrated that for the sample sizes employed in the experimental work (Part I) the integral profiles were characterized with a reasonable degree of statistical significance. The experimental results presented in Part I were compared with the calculated results of Biersack's and Haggmark's TRIM simulation program. There was qualitative agreement between the experimental and calculated values of the range parameters but not quantitative. In general, the experimental values of the dimensionless range parameters were greater then the calculated values. The possible sources of this discrepancy were attributed to: the use of the Moliere interatomic potential in the TRIM program; and possible low-energy channeling effects along the (110) direction of W. Simple expressions were given for the experimental range-energy data and the effective stopping powers of both /sup 3/He and /sup 4/He in W in the energy range 100 to 1500 eV.

  16. Computing at Belle II (United States)

    Kuhr, Thomas


    Belle II, a next-generation B-factory experiment, will search for new physics effects in a data sample about 50 times larger than the one collected by its predecessor, the Belle experiment. To match the advances in accelerator and detector technology, the computing system and the software have to be upgraded as well. The Belle II computing model is presented and an overview of the distributed computing system and the offline software framework is given.

  17. Characteristics of gravity waves generated in a convective and a non-convective environment revealed from hourly radiosonde observation under CPEA-II campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Dhaka


    Full Text Available Analyses of hourly radiosonde data of temperature, wind, and relative humidity during four days (two with convection and two with no convection as a part of an intensive observation period in CPEA-2 campaign over Koto Tabang (100.32° E, 0.20° S, Indonesia, are presented. Characteristics of gravity waves in terms of dominant wave frequencies at different heights and their vertical wavelengths are shown in the lower stratosphere during a convective and non-convective period. Gravity waves with periods ~10 h and ~4–5 h were found dominant near tropopause (a region of high stability on all days of observation. Vertical propagation of gravity waves were seen modified near heights of the three identified strong wind shears (at ~16, 20, and 25 km heights due to wave-mean flow interaction. Between 17 and 21 km heights, meridional wind fluctuations dominated over zonal wind, whereas from 22 to 30 km heights, wave fluctuations with periods ~3–5 h and ~8–10 h in zonal wind and temperature were highly associated, suggesting zonal orientation of wave propagation. Gravity waves from tropopause region to 30 km heights were analyzed. In general, vertical wavelength of 2–5 km dominated in all the mean-removed (~ weekly mean wind and temperature hourly profiles. Computed vertical wavelength spectra are similar, in most of the cases, to the source spectra (1–16 km height except that of zonal wind spectra, which is broad during active convection. Interestingly, during and after convection, gravity waves with short vertical wavelength (~2 km and short period (~2–3 h emerged, which were confined in the close vicinity of tropopause, and were not identified on non-convective days, suggesting convection to be the source for them. Some wave features near strong wind shear (at 25 km height were also observed with short vertical wavelengths in both convective and non-convective days, suggesting wind shear to be the sole cause of generation and seemingly not

  18. Stellar-mass black holes in young massive and open stellar clusters and their role in gravitational-wave generation - II (United States)

    Banerjee, Sambaran


    The study of stellar-remnant black holes (BH) in dense stellar clusters is now in the spotlight, especially due to their intrinsic ability to form binary black holes (BBH) through dynamical encounters, which potentially coalesce via gravitational-wave (GW) radiation. In this work, which is a continuation from a recent study (Paper I), additional models of compact stellar clusters with initial masses ≲ 105 M⊙ and also those with small fractions of primordial binaries (≲ 10 per cent) are evolved for long term, applying the direct N-body approach, assuming state-of-the-art stellar-wind and remnant-formation prescriptions. That way, a substantially broader range of computed models than that in Paper I is achieved. As in Paper I, the general-relativistic BBH mergers continue to be mostly mediated by triples that are bound to the clusters rather than happen among the ejected BBHs. In fact, the number of such in situ BBH mergers, per cluster, tends to increase significantly with the introduction of a small population of primordial binaries. Despite the presence of massive primordial binaries, the merging BBHs, especially the in situ ones, are found to be exclusively dynamically assembled and hence would be spin-orbit misaligned. The BBHs typically traverse through both the LISA's and the LIGO's detection bands, being audible to both instruments. The 'dynamical heating' of the BHs keeps the electron-capture-supernova (ECS) neutron stars (NS) from effectively mass segregating and participating in exchange interactions; the dynamically active BHs would also exchange into any NS binary within ≲1 Gyr. Such young massive and open clusters have the potential to contribute to the dynamical BBH merger detection rate to a similar extent as their more massive globular-cluster counterparts.

  19. (II) complexes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    activities of Schiff base tin (II) complexes. Neelofar1 ... Conclusion: All synthesized Schiff bases and their Tin (II) complexes showed high antimicrobial and ...... Singh HL. Synthesis and characterization of tin (II) complexes of fluorinated Schiff bases derived from amino acids. Spectrochim Acta Part A: Molec Biomolec.

  20. Newest-generation drug-eluting and bare-metal stents combined with prasugrel-based antiplatelet therapy in large coronary arteries: the BAsel Stent Kosten Effektivitäts Trial PROspective Validation Examination part II (BASKET-PROVE II) trial design. (United States)

    Jeger, Raban; Pfisterer, Matthias; Alber, Hannes; Eberli, Franz; Galatius, Søren; Naber, Christoph; Pedrazzini, Giovanni; Rickli, Hans; Jensen, Jan Skov; Vuilliomenet, André; Gilgen, Nicole; Kaiser, Christoph


    In the BAsel Stent Kosten Effektivitäts Trial PROspective Validation Examination (BASKET-PROVE), drug-eluting stents (DESs) had similar 2-year rates of death and myocardial infarction but lower rates of target vessel revascularization and major adverse cardiac events compared with bare-metal stents (BMSs). However, comparative clinical effects of newest-generation DES with biodegradable polymers vs second-generation DES or newest-generation BMS with biocompatible coatings, all combined with a prasugrel-based antiplatelet therapy, on 2-year outcomes are not known. In BASKET-PROVE II, 2,400 patients with de novo lesions in native vessels ≥3 mm in diameter are randomized 1:1:1 to receive a conventional DES, a DES with a biodegradable polymer, or a BMS with biocompatible coating. In addition to aspirin, stable patients with BMS will receive prasugrel for 1 month, whereas all others will receive prasugrel for 12 months. The primary end point will be combined cardiac death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and target vessel revascularization up to 2 years. Secondary end points include stent thrombosis and major bleeding. The primary aim is to test (1) the noninferiority of a biodegradable-polymer DES to a conventional DES and (2) the superiority of both DESs to BMS. A secondary aim is to compare the outcomes with those of BASKET-PROVE regarding the effects of prasugrel-based vs clopidogrel-based antiplatelet therapy. By the end of 2010, 878 patients (37% of those planned) were enrolled. This study will test the comparative long-term safety and efficacy of newest-generation stents on the background of contemporary antiplatelet therapy in a large all-comer population undergoing large native coronary artery stenting. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Wind power systems in the MW range. Part 2. Digital control of a double-fed asynchronous generator without position control; Windkraftanlagen fuer den Megawatt-Bereich. Teil 2. Digitale Steuerung eines doppelt gespeisten Asynchrongenerators ohne Lagegeber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehrenberg, J. [sci-worx GmbH, Braunschweig (Germany); Andresen, B.; Rebsdorf, A.V. [Vestas Wind Systems A/S (Denmark)


    While the first part investigated the characteristics of synchronous and asynchronous generators for wind power system development and presented theoretical fundamentals, part 2 discusses practical problems of synchronisation with the network and interpretation of measurements as illustrated by a prototype 2 MW wind power plant. [German] Nach einem Vergleich der Eignung von Synchron- und Asynchrongeneratoren fuer die Konzeption von Windkraftanlagen und einer Darstellung der Theoretischen Grundlagen im Teil 1 widmet sich der zweite Teil des Beitrages den praktischen Fragen der Synchronisation zum Netz und der Interpretation der Messergebnisse an dem Prototyp einer 2-MW-Windkraftanlage. (org.)

  2. Improved Efficiency Type II Second Harmonic Generation (United States)

    Barnes, Norman P.; Walsh, Brian M.; Reichle, Donald J., Jr.


    Second harmonic efficiency is limited by lateral and temporal separation of the ordinary and extraordinary components of the fundamental. A mode locked dual beam laser demonstrated these effects and a novel method to minimize them.

  3. Photosystem II and photoinhibition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feikema, Willem Onno


    Plants harvest light energy and convert it into chemical energy. Light absorption by photosystems I and II (PSI and PSII) results in charge separations in their reaction centers (RCs), initiating a chain of redox reactions with PSI generating the reducing power for CO2 assimilation into sugars, and

  4. The Belle II Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Kahn, J


    Set to begin data taking at the end of 2018, the Belle II experiment is the next-generation B-factory experiment hosted at KEK in Tsukuba, Japan. The experiment represents the cumulative effort from the collaboration of experimental and detector physics, computing, and software development. Taking everything learned from the previous Belle experiment, which ran from 1998 to 2010, Belle II aims to probe deeper than ever before into the field of heavy quark physics. By achieving an integrated luminosity of 50 ab−1 and accumulating 50 times more data than the previous experiment across its lifetime, along with a rewritten analysis framework, the Belle II experiment will push the high precision frontier of high energy physics. This paper will give an overview of the key components and development activities that make the Belle II experiment possible.

  5. Software Development at Belle II (United States)

    Kuhr, Thomas; Hauth, Thomas


    Belle II is a next generation B-factory experiment that will collect 50 times more data than its predecessor Belle. This requires not only a major upgrade of the detector hardware, but also of the simulation, reconstruction, and analysis software. The challenges of the software development at Belle II and the tools and procedures to address them are reviewed in this article.

  6. Copper (II)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    ABSTRACT: A Schiff base was prepared from the reaction of 2 - amino - 3 – methylbutanoic acid and 2, 4 - pentanedione. The reaction of the prepared Schiff base with ethanolic solution of copper (II) chloride formed diaquo bis( N – 2 – amino – 3 - methylbutyl - 2, 4 - pentanedionato) copper (II) complex. The Schiff base is ...

  7. Range management visual impacts (United States)

    Bruce R. Brown; David Kissel


    Historical overgrazing of western public rangelands has resulted in the passage of the Public Rangeland Improvement Act of 1978. The main purpose of this Act is to improve unsatisfactory range conditions. A contributing factor to unfavorable range conditions is adverse visual impacts. These visual impacts can be identified in three categories of range management: range...

  8. Type II Supernova Spectral Diversity. II. Spectroscopic and Photometric Correlations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gutierrez, Claudia P.; Anderson, Joseph P.; Hamuy, Mario


    We present an analysis of observed trends and correlations between a large range of spectral and photometric parameters of more than 100 type II supernovae (SNe II), during the photospheric phase. We define a common epoch for all SNe of 50 days post-explosion, where the majority of the sample is ...

  9. Additions to generating capacity 1978--1987 for the contiguous United States: as projected by the Regional Electric Reliability Councils in their April 1, 1978 long-range coordinated planning reports to the Department of Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Comparison of the 1978 projections of the Reliability Councils with those made the previous year indicates three major changes in electric utility planning: (1) a reduction in total capacity additions for the 10-year planning period, (2) a significant decrease in nuclear additions, and (3) a shift from oil and gas to coal as a source of primary energy. Nuclear capacity continues to far overshadow fossil-fuel capacity in the unit-size range 1000 MW and up, with the reverse true for unit sizes less than 1000 MW. Although the total 10-year new-unit capacity drops from 326,624 MW (1977 to 1986) to 308,017 (1978 to 1987), new capacity planned that would use coal as a primary energy source increases from 136,763 MW to 146,206 MW. Nuclear capacity, in terms of total new units projected for the two 10-year periods, decreases from 130,532 MW to 116,177 MW, and capacity with oil as the primary source drops from 32,837 MW to 21,072 MW. For 1977 to 1986, no capacity was planned with oil as a primary source and coal as an alternate fuel but for 1978 to 1987, 1220 MW of such capacity is projected. Therefore, the total new capacity projected that could use coal as a fuel (primary or alternate) is 147,426 MW. In addition, one 700-MW unit is planned for which the primary fuel will be a blend of coal and refuse. There is a decrease in the capacity planned that would use natural gas a a primary source, from 2,089 MW in 1977 to 1986 to 502 MW in 1978 to 1987.

  10. Minnesota Pheasant Range (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This dataset delineates the spatial range of wild pheasant populations in Minnesota as of 2002 by dividing the MN state boundary into 2 units: pheasant range and...

  11. Substring Range Reporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li


    We revisit various string indexing problems with range reporting features, namely, position-restricted substring searching, indexing substrings with gaps, and indexing substrings with intervals. We obtain the following main results. We give efficient reductions for each of the above problems...... to a new problem, which we call substring range reporting. Hence, we unify the previous work by showing that we may restrict our attention to a single problem rather than studying each of the above problems individually. We show how to solve substring range reporting with optimal query time and little...... for substring range reporting generalize to substring range counting and substring range emptiness variants. We also obtain non-trivial time-space trade-offs for these problems. Our bounds for substring range reporting are based on a novel combination of suffix trees and range reporting data structures...

  12. Entropy generation minimization: A practical approach for performance evaluation of temperature cascaded co-generation plants

    KAUST Repository

    Myat, Aung


    We present a practical tool that employs entropy generation minimization (EGM) approach for an in-depth performance evaluation of a co-generation plant with a temperature-cascaded concept. Co-generation plant produces useful effect production sequentially, i.e., (i) electricity from the micro-turbines, (ii) low pressure steam at 250 °C or about 8-10 bars, (iii) cooling capacity of 4 refrigeration tones (Rtons) and (iv) dehumidification of outdoor air for air conditioned space. The main objective is to configure the most efficient configuration of producing power and heat. We employed entropy generation minimization (EGM) which reflects to minimize the dissipative losses and maximize the cycle efficiency of the individual thermally activated systems. The minimization of dissipative losses or EGM is performed in two steps namely, (i) adjusting heat source temperatures for the heat-fired cycles and (ii) the use of Genetic Algorithm (GA), to seek out the sensitivity of heat transfer areas, flow rates of working fluids, inlet temperatures of heat sources and coolant, etc., over the anticipated range of operation to achieve maximum efficiency. With EGM equipped with GA, we verified that the local minimization of entropy generation individually at each of the heat-activated processes would lead to the maximum efficiency of the system. © 2012.

  13. Methodological update of the guideline for radiological analysis and assessment of mining residues. Pt. B: Extension of the range of applications to NORM residues. Report II. Investigation of model areas. Final report; Methodische Weiterentwicklung des Leitfadens zur radiologischen Untersuchung und Bewertung bergbaulicher Altlasten und Erweiterung des Anwendungsbereiches. T. B: Erweiterung des Anwendungsbereichs auf NORM-Rueckstaende. Bericht II. Untersuchung von Modellgebieten. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gellermann, Rainer; Schulz, Hartmut (comps.)


    This is the final report II to amend the guideline /BfS 05/; it describes model investigations in two sites, i.e. urban areas in the city of Oranienburg and a backwater area of the river Rhine in the lower Rhine region (Rheinberger Altrehein). The Oranienburg site is dominated by thorium, which makes it different from other contaminated sites where uranium or radium prevail, but it is a typical example of soil contamination in an abandoned industrial site in urban areas. The Rheinberger Altrhein site is a sedimentation area for effluents of coal mining, and the soils in this area are contaminated with significant concentrations of radium. The site was selected because radium contamination occurs also elsewhere in Germany but there have been hardly any systematic investigations so far. The data from earlier investigations and the new findings provided a knowledge base for investigating aspects of the application of the BglBb and the corresponding guideline /BfS 05/. (orig.) [German] Im vorliegenden Abschlussbericht II zur Weiterentwicklung des Leitfadens /BfS 05/ werden modellhafte Untersuchungen an 2 Standorten beschrieben. Als Modellgebiete wurden Flaechen im Stadtgebiet Oranienburg und eine Flaeche am Rheinberger Altrhein im Niederrheingebiet gewaehlt. Das Stadtgebiet Oranienburg stellt mit einer ueberwiegend durch Thorium dominierten Altlast einen Fall dar, der sich von den sonstigen Hinterlassenschaften mit uran- oder radiumdominierten Kontaminationen deutlich unterscheidet und als typisches Beispiel einer industriellen Hinterlassenschaft in einem staedtischen Umfeld anzusehen ist. Das Gebiet am Rheinberger Altrhein ist Sedimentationsgebiet fuer Ableitungen des Steinkohlenbergbaus und weist als solches eine deutliche Radiumkontamination der Boeden in Ueberschwemmungsgebieten auf. Dieses Gebiet wurde ausgewaehlt, da Radiumkontaminationen von Gewaessersedimenten mehrfach in Deutschland vorkommen, es andererseits dazu aber fuer diese spezifische Kontamination

  14. Photoinactivation of Photosystem II in Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cole D Murphy

    Full Text Available The marine picocyanobacteria Synechococcus and Prochlorococcus numerically dominate open ocean phytoplankton. Although evolutionarily related they are ecologically distinct, with different strategies to harvest, manage and exploit light. We grew representative strains of Synechococcus and Prochlorococcus and tracked their susceptibility to photoinactivation of Photosystem II under a range of light levels. As expected blue light provoked more rapid photoinactivation than did an equivalent level of red light. The previous growth light level altered the susceptibility of Synechococcus, but not Prochlorococcus, to this photoinactivation. We resolved a simple linear pattern when we expressed the yield of photoinactivation on the basis of photons delivered to Photosystem II photochemistry, plotted versus excitation pressure upon Photosystem II, the balance between excitation and downstream metabolism. A high excitation pressure increases the generation of reactive oxygen species, and thus increases the yield of photoinactivation of Photosystem II. Blue photons, however, retained a higher baseline photoinactivation across a wide range of excitation pressures. Our experiments thus uncovered the relative influences of the direct photoinactivation of Photosystem II by blue photons which dominates under low to moderate blue light, and photoinactivation as a side effect of reactive oxygen species which dominates under higher excitation pressure. Synechococcus enjoyed a positive metabolic return upon the repair or the synthesis of a Photosystem II, across the range of light levels we tested. In contrast Prochlorococcus only enjoyed a positive return upon synthesis of a Photosystem II up to 400 μmol photons m-2 s-1. These differential cost-benefits probably underlie the distinct photoacclimation strategies of the species.

  15. Diversity and evolutionary patterns of immune genes in free-ranging Namibian leopards (Panthera pardus pardus). (United States)

    Castro-Prieto, Aines; Wachter, Bettina; Melzheimer, Joerg; Thalwitzer, Susanne; Sommer, Simone


    The genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) are a key component of the mammalian immune system and have become important molecular markers for fitness-related genetic variation in wildlife populations. Currently, no information about the MHC sequence variation and constitution in African leopards exists. In this study, we isolated and characterized genetic variation at the adaptively most important region of MHC class I and MHC class II-DRB genes in 25 free-ranging African leopards from Namibia and investigated the mechanisms that generate and maintain MHC polymorphism in the species. Using single-stranded conformation polymorphism analysis and direct sequencing, we detected 6 MHC class I and 6 MHC class II-DRB sequences, which likely correspond to at least 3 MHC class I and 3 MHC class II-DRB loci. Amino acid sequence variation in both MHC classes was higher or similar in comparison to other reported felids. We found signatures of positive selection shaping the diversity of MHC class I and MHC class II-DRB loci during the evolutionary history of the species. A comparison of MHC class I and MHC class II-DRB sequences of the leopard to those of other felids revealed a trans-species mode of evolution. In addition, the evolutionary relationships of MHC class II-DRB sequences between African and Asian leopard subspecies are discussed.

  16. The type II collagen fragments Helix-II and CTX-II reveal different enzymatic pathways of human cartilage collagen degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charni-Ben Tabassi, N; Desmarais, S; Jensen, Anne-Christine Bay


    that they may be generated through different collagenolytic pathways. In this study we analyzed the release of Helix-II and CTX-II from human cartilage collagen by the proteinases reported to play a role in cartilage degradation. METHODS: In vitro, human articular cartilage extract was incubated with activated...... sections were then incubated for up to 84h in the presence or absence of E-64 and GM6001, inhibitors of cysteine proteases and MMPs, respectively. RESULTS: In vitro, Cats K, L and S generated large amount of Helix-II, but not CTX-II. Cat B generated CTX-II fragment, but destroyed Helix-II immunoreactivity...

  17. Generating Units (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Generating Units are any combination of physically connected generators, reactors, boilers, combustion turbines, and other prime movers operated together to produce...

  18. Substring Range Reporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li


    We revisit various string indexing problems with range reporting features, namely, position-restricted substring searching, indexing substrings with gaps, and indexing substrings with intervals. We obtain the following main results. – We give efficient reductions for each of the above problems...... to a new problem, which we call substring range reporting. Hence, we unify the previous work by showing that we may restrict our attention to a single problem rather than studying each of the above problems individually. – We show how to solve substring range reporting with optimal query time and little...... range reporting are based on a novel combination of suffix trees and range reporting data structures. The reductions are simple and general and may apply to other combinations of string indexing with range reporting....

  19. An abiotic analogue of the diiron(IV)oxo "diamond core" of soluble methane monooxygenase generated by direct activation of O2 in aqueous Fe(II)/EDTA solutions: thermodynamics and electronic structure. (United States)

    Bernasconi, Leonardo; Belanzoni, Paola; Baerends, Evert Jan


    We study the generation of a dinuclear Fe(IV)oxo species, [EDTAH·FeO·OFe·EDTAH](2-), in aqueous solution at room temperature using Density Functional Theory (DFT) and Ab Initio Molecular Dynamics (AIMD). This species has been postulated as an intermediate in the multi-step mechanism of autoxidation of Fe(II) to Fe(III) in the presence of atmospheric O(2) and EDTA ligand in water. We examine the formation of [EDTAH·FeO·OFe·EDTAH](2-) by direct cleavage of O(2), and the effects of solvation on the spin state and O-O cleavage barrier. We also study the reactivity of the resulting dinuclear Fe(IV)oxo system in CH(4) hydroxylation, and its tendency to decompose to mononuclear Fe(IV)oxo species. The presence of the solvent is shown to play a crucial role, determining important changes in all these processes compared to the gas phase. We show that, in water solution, [EDTAH·FeO·OFe·EDTAH](2-) (as well as its precursor [EDTAH·Fe·O(2)·Fe·EDTAH](2-)) exists as stable species in a S = 4 ground spin state when hydrogen-bonded to a single water molecule. Its structure comprises two facing Fe(IV)oxo groups, in an arrangement similar to the one evinced for the active centre of intermediate Q of soluble Methane Monooxygenase (sMMO). The inclusion of the water molecule in the complex decreases the overall symmetry of the system, and brings about important changes in the energy and spatial distribution of orbitals of the Fe(IV)oxo groups relative to the gas phase. In particular, the virtual 3σ* orbital of one of the Fe(IV)oxo groups experiences much reduced repulsive orbital interactions from ligand orbitals, and its consequent stabilisation dramatically enhances the electrophilic character of the complex, compared to the symmetrical non-hydrated species, and its ability to act as an acceptor of a H atom from the CH(4) substrate. The computed free energy barrier for H abstraction is 28.2 kJ mol(-1) (at the BLYP level of DFT), considerably below the gas phase value for

  20. Compact Antenna Range (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Facility consists of a folded compact antenna range including a computer controlled three axis position table, parabolic reflector and RF sources for the measurement...

  1. Dryden Aeronautical Test Range (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Recently redesignated to honor Dr. Hugh L. Dryden, NASA's Dryden Aeronautical Test Range (DATR) supports aerospace flight research and technology integration, space...

  2. Generational diversity. (United States)

    Kramer, Linda W


    Generational diversity has proven challenges for nurse leaders, and generational values may influence ideas about work and career planning. This article discusses generational gaps, influencing factors and support, and the various generational groups present in today's workplace as well as the consequences of need addressing these issues. The article ends with a discussion of possible solutions.

  3. On Range of Skill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Dueholm; Miltersen, Peter Bro; Sørensen, Troels Bjerre


    size (and doubly exponential in its depth). We also provide techniques that yield concrete bounds for unbalanced game trees and apply these to estimate the Range of Skill of Tic-Tac-Toe and Heads-Up Limit Texas Hold'em Poker. In particular, we show that the Range of Skill of Tic-Tac-Toe is more than...

  4. Range Scheduling Aid (RSA) (United States)

    Logan, J. R.; Pulvermacher, M. K.


    Range Scheduling Aid (RSA) is presented in the form of the viewgraphs. The following subject areas are covered: satellite control network; current and new approaches to range scheduling; MITRE tasking; RSA features; RSA display; constraint based analytic capability; RSA architecture; and RSA benefits.

  5. Home range and travels (United States)

    Stickel, L.F.; King, John A.


    The concept of home range was expressed by Seton (1909) in the term 'home region,' which Burr (1940, 1943) clarified with a definition of home range and exemplified in a definitive study of Peromyscus in the field. Burt pointed out the ever-changing characteristics of home-range area and the consequent absence of boundaries in the usual sense--a finding verified by investigators thereafter. In the studies summarized in this paper, sizes of home ranges of Peromyscus varied within two magnitudes, approximately from 0.1 acre to ten acres, in 34 studies conducted in a variety of habitats from the seaside dunes of Florida to the Alaskan forests. Variation in sizes of home ranges was correlated with both environmental and physiological factors; with habitat it was conspicuous, both in the same and different regions. Food supply also was related to size of home range, both seasonally and in relation to habitat. Home ranges generally were smallest in winter and largest in spring, at the onset of the breeding season. Activity and size also were affected by changes in weather. Activity was least when temperatures were low and nights were bright. Effects of rainfall were variable. Sizes varied according to sex and age; young mice remained in the parents' range until they approached maturity, when they began to travel more widely. Adult males commonly had larger home ranges than females, although there were a number of exceptions. An inverse relationship between population density and size of home range was shown in several studies and probably is the usual relationship. A basic need for activity and exploration also appeared to influence size of home range. Behavior within the home range was discussed in terms of travel patterns, travels in relation to home sites and refuges, territory, and stability of size of home range. Travels within the home range consisted of repeated use of well-worn trails to sites of food, shelter, and refuge, plus more random exploratory travels

  6. Ni(II), Mn(II), Zn(II)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Abstract. Neutral tetradentate N2O2 type complexes of Cu(II), Ni(II), Mn(II),. Zn(II) and VO(II) have been synthesised using a Schiff base formed by the condensation of o-phenylenediamine with acetoacetanilide in alcohol medium. All the complexes were characterised on the basis of their microanalytical data, molar.

  7. Pb II

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Windows User

    used was oven-dried till constant weight and were ground to fine powder in a pestle and mortar. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION. Screening for lead sorption. 15 fungal isolates were screened for Pb(II) biosorption potential at initial pH value of 4.5 and temperature 30°C by incubating freshly harvested wet biomass corres-.

  8. Heat transfer II essentials

    CERN Document Server

    REA, The Editors of


    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Heat Transfer II reviews correlations for forced convection, free convection, heat exchangers, radiation heat transfer, and boiling and condensation.

  9. Transport phenomena II essentials

    CERN Document Server

    REA, The Editors of


    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Transport Phenomena II covers forced convention, temperature distribution, free convection, diffusitivity and the mechanism of mass transfer, convective mass transfer, concentration

  10. Numerical analysis II essentials

    CERN Document Server

    REA, The Editors of; Staff of Research Education Association


    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Numerical Analysis II covers simultaneous linear systems and matrix methods, differential equations, Fourier transformations, partial differential equations, and Monte Carlo methods.

  11. Algebra & trigonometry II essentials

    CERN Document Server

    REA, Editors of


    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Algebra & Trigonometry II includes logarithms, sequences and series, permutations, combinations and probability, vectors, matrices, determinants and systems of equations, mathematica

  12. Long range image enhancement

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Duvenhage, B


    Full Text Available and Vision Computing, Auckland, New Zealand, 23-24 November 2015 Long Range Image Enhancement Bernardt Duvenhage Council for Scientific and Industrial Research South Africa Email: Abstract Turbulent pockets of air...


    Houston, Robert S.; Bigsby, Philip R.


    A mineral survey of the Snowy Range Wilderness in Wyoming was undertaken and was followed up with more detailed geologic and geochemical surveys, culminating in diamond drilling of one hole in the Snowy Range Wilderness. No mineral deposits were identified in the Snowy Range Wilderness, but inasmuch as low-grade uranium and associated gold resources were identified in rocks similar to those of the northern Snowy Range Wilderness in an area about 5 mi northeast of the wilderness boundary, the authors conclude that the northern half of the wilderness has a probable-resource potential for uranium and gold. Closely spaced drilling would be required to completely evaluate this mineral potential. The geologic terrane precludes the occurrence of fossil fuels.

  14. Atlantic Test Range (ATR) (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — ATR controls fully-instrumented and integrated test ranges that provide full-service support for cradle-to-grave testing. Airspace and surface target areas are used...

  15. Light Detection And Ranging (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) discrete-return point cloud data are available in the American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ASPRS) LAS format....

  16. On Range of Skill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Dueholm; Miltersen, Peter Bro; Sørensen, Troels Bjerre


    is a small number, but only gave heuristic arguments for this. In this paper, we provide the first methods for rigorously estimating the Range of Skill of a given game. We provide some general, asymptotic bounds that imply that the Range of Skill of a perfectly balanced game tree is almost exponential in its......At AAAI'07, Zinkevich, Bowling and Burch introduced the Range of Skill measure of a two-player game and used it as a parameter in the analysis of the running time of an algorithm for finding approximate solutions to such games. They suggested that the Range of Skill of a typical natural game...... size (and doubly exponential in its depth). We also provide techniques that yield concrete bounds for unbalanced game trees and apply these to estimate the Range of Skill of Tic-Tac-Toe and Heads-Up Limit Texas Hold'em Poker. In particular, we show that the Range of Skill of Tic-Tac-Toe is more than...

  17. Instant Generation (United States)

    Loveland, Elaina


    Generation Z students (born between 1995-2010) have replaced millennials on college campuses. Generation Z students are entrepreneurial, desire practical skills with their education, and are concerned about the cost of college. This article presents what need to be known about this new generation of students.

  18. Radio pill antenna range test (United States)

    Cummins, W. F.; Kane, R. J.


    In order to investigate the potential of a proposed 'radio pill' beacon transmitter, a range test experiment was devised and carried out in the VHF frequency range. Calculations and previous work indicated that optimum sensitivity and, thus, distance would be obtained in this frequency range provided body radio-frequency (RF) absorption was not too great. A ferrite-core loop antenna is compatible with a pill geometry and has better radiation efficiency than an air core loop. The ferrite core may be a hollow cylinder with the electronics and batteries placed inside. However, this range test was only concerned with experimentally developing test range data on the ferrite core antenna itself. A one turn strap loop was placed around a 9.5 mm diameter by 18.3 mm long stack of ferrite cores. This was coupled to a 50 Omega transmission line by 76 mm of twisted pair line and a capacitive matching section. This assembly was excited by a signal generator at output levels of -10 to +10 dBm. Signals were received on a VHF receiver and tape recorder coupled to a 14 element, circularly polarized Yagi antenna at a height of 2.5 m. Field strength measurements taken at ranges of 440, 1100, and 1714 m. Maximum field strengths referenced to 0 dBm transmitter level were -107 to -110 dB at 440 m, -124 to -127 dBm at 1100 m, and -116 to -119 dBm at 1714 m when the antenna cylinder was horizontal. Field strengths with a vertical antenna were about 6 dB below these values. The latter transmit site was elevated and had a clear line-of-site path to the receiving site. The performance of this test antenna was better than that expected from method-of-moment field calculations. When this performance data is scaled to a narrow bandwidth receiving system, ground level receiving ranges of a few to 10 km can be expected. Clear line-of-sight ranges where either or both the transmitter and receiver are elevated could vary from several km to 100 km.

  19. Range Selection and Median

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Allan Grønlund; Larsen, Kasper Green


    that supports queries in constant time, needs n1+ (1) space. For data structures that uses n logO(1) n space this matches the best known upper bound. Additionally, we present a linear space data structure that supports range selection queries in O(log k= log log n + log log n) time. Finally, we prove that any...

  20. Electric vehicles: Driving range (United States)

    Kempton, Willett


    For uptake of electric vehicles to increase, consumers' driving-range needs must be fulfilled. Analysis of the driving patterns of personal vehicles in the US now shows that today's electric vehicles can meet all travel needs on almost 90% of days from a single overnight charge.

  1. Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chemical speciation of citric acid complexes of Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) was investigated pH-metrically in 0.0-2.5% anionic, cationic and neutral micellar media. The primary alkalimetric data were pruned with SCPHD program. The existence of different binary species was established from modeling studies using the ...

  2. Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jun 15, 2010 ... physico-chemical techniques. A square planar geometry was suggested for Cu(II) and octahedral geometry proposed for Co(II),. Ni(II) and Zn(II). TG curves indicated that the complexes decompose in three to four steps. The presence of coordinated water in metal complexes was confirmed by thermal and ...

  3. Simultaneous Determination of Cobalt (II and Nickel (II By First Order Derivative Spectrophotometry in Micellar Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajni Rohilla


    Full Text Available A first-derivative spectrophotometry method for the simultaneous determination of Co (II and Ni (II with Alizarin Red S in presence of Triton X-100 is described. Measurements were made at the zero-crossing wavelengths at 549.0 nm for Co (II and 546.0 nm for Ni (II. The linearity is obtained in the range of 0.291- 4.676 μg/ml of Ni (II and 0.293- 4.124 μg/ml of Co (II in the presence of each other by using first derivative spectrophotometric method. The possible interfering effects of various ions were studied. The validity of the method was examined by using synthetic mixtures of Co (II and Ni (II. The developed derivative procedure, using the zero crossing technique, has been successfully applied for the simultaneous analysis of Co (II and Ni (II in spiked water samples.

  4. Evolution of Topography in Glaciated Mountain Ranges (United States)

    Brocklehurst, Simon H.


    This thesis examines the response of alpine landscapes to the onset of glaciation. The basic approach is to compare fluvial and glacial laudscapes, since it is the change from the former to the latter that accompanies climatic cooling. This allows a detailed evaluation of hypotheses relating climate change to tectonic processes in glaciated mountain belts. Fieldwork was carried out in the eastern Sierra Nevada, California, and the Sangre de Cristo Range, Colorado, alongside digital elevation model analyses in the western US, the Southern Alps of New Zealand, and the Himalaya of northwestern Pakistan. hypothesis is overstated in its appeal to glacial erosion as a major source of relief production and subsequent peak uplift. Glaciers in the eastern Sierra Nevada and the western Sangre de Cristos have redistributed relief, but have produced only modest relief by enlarging drainage basins at the expense of low-relief topography. Glaciers have lowered valley floors and ridgelines by similar amounts, limiting the amount of "missing mass' that can be generated, and causing a decrease in drainage basin relief. The principal response of glaciated landscapes to rapid rock uplift is the development of towering cirque headwalls. This represents considerable relief production, but is not caused by glacial erosion alone. Large valley glaciers can maintain their low gradient regardless of uplift rate, which supports the "glacial buzzsaw" hypothesis. However, the inability of glaciers to erode steep hillslopes as rapidly can cause mean elevations to rise. Cosmogenic isotope dating is used to show that (i) where plucking is active, the last major glaciation removed sufficient material to reset the cosmogenic clock; and (ii) former glacial valley floors now stranded near the crest of the Sierra Nevada are at varying stages of abandonment, suggesting a cycle of drainage reorganiszation and relief inversion due to glacial erosion similar to that observed in river networks. Glaciated

  5. Distributed generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ness, E.


    Distributed generation, locating electricity generators close to the point of consumption, provides some unique benefits to power companies and customers that are not available from centralized electricity generation. Photovoltaic (PV) technology is well suited to distributed applications and can, especially in concert with other distributed resources, provide a very close match to the customer demand for electricity, at a significantly lower cost than the alternatives. In addition to augmenting power from central-station generating plants, incorporating PV systems enables electric utilities to optimize the utilization of existing transmission and distribution.

  6. Application of solar energy for the generation and supply of industrial-process low-to intermediate-pressure steam ranging from 300/sup 0/F-550/sup 0/F (high-temperature steam). Final report, September 30, 1978-June 30, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matteo, M.; Kull, J.; Luddy, W.; Youngblood, S.


    A detailed design was developed for a solar industrial process heat system to be installed at the ERGON, Inc. Bulk Oil Storage Terminal in Mobile, Alabama. The 1874 m/sup 2/ (20160 ft/sup 2/) solar energy collector field will generate industrial process heat at temperatures ranging from 150 to 290/sup 0/C (300 to 550/sup 0/F). The heat will be used to reduce the viscosity of stored No. 6 fuel oil, making it easier to pump from storage to transport tankers. Heat transfer oil is circulated in a closed system, absorbing heat in the collector field and delivering it through immersed heat exchangers to the stored fuel oil. The solar energy system will provide approximately 44 percent of the process heat required.

  7. Metallothionein (MT)-III: generation of polyclonal antibodies, comparison with MT-I+II in the freeze lesioned rat brain and in a bioassay with astrocytes, and analysis of Alzheimer's disease brains. (United States)

    Carrasco, J; Giralt, M; Molinero, A; Penkowa, M; Moos, T; Hidalgo, J


    Metallothionein-III is a low molecular weight, heavy-metal binding protein expressed mainly in the central nervous system. First identified as a growth inhibitory factor (GIF) of rat cortical neurons in vitro, it has subsequently been shown to be a member of the metallothionein (MT) gene family and renamed as MT-III. In this study we have raised polyclonal antibodies in rabbits against recombinant rat MT-III (rMT-III). The sera obtained reacted specifically against recombinant zinc-and cadmium-saturated rMT-III, and did not cross-react with native rat MT-I and MT-II purified from the liver of zinc injected rats. The specificity of the antibody was also demonstrated in immunocytochemical studies by the elimination of the immunostaining by preincubation of the antibody with brain (but not liver) extracts, and by the results obtained in MT-III null mice. The antibody was used to characterize the putative differences between the rat brain MT isoforms, namely MT-I+II and MT-III, in the freeze lesion model of brain damage, and for developing an ELISA for MT-III suitable for brain samples. In the normal rat brain, MT-III was mostly present primarily in astrocytes. However, lectin staining indicated that MT-III immunoreactivity was also present in microglia, monocytes and/or macrophages in the leptomeninges and lying adjacent to major vessels. In freeze lesioned rats, both MT-I+II and MT-III immunoreactivities increased in the ipsilateral cortex. The pattern of MT-III immunoreactivity significantly differed from that of MT-I+II, since the latter was evident in both the vicinity of the lesioned tissue and deeper cortical layers, whereas that of the former was located only in the deeper cortical layers. This suggests different roles for these MT isoforms, and indeed in a new bioassay measuring astrocyte migration in vitro, rMT-III promoted migration to a higher extent than MT-I+II. Thus, MT-III could not only affect neuronal sprouting as previously suggested, but also

  8. Long-range antigravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macrae, K.I.; Riegert, R.J. (Maryland Univ., College Park (USA). Center for Theoretical Physics)


    We consider a theory in which fermionic matter interacts via long-range scalar, vector and tensor fields. In order not to be in conflict with experiment, the scalar and vector couplings for a given fermion must be equal, as is natural in a dimensionally reduced model. Assuming that the Sun is not approximately neutral with respect to these new scalar-vector charges, and if the couplings saturate the experimental bounds, then their strength can be comparable to that of gravity. Scalar-vector fields of this strength can compensate for a solar quadrupole moment contribution to Mercury's anomalous perihelion precession.

  9. Passive ranging of boost-phase missiles (United States)

    Hawks, Michael; Perram, Glen


    The depth of absorption bands in observed spectra of distant, bright sources can be used to estimate range to the source. Previous efforts in this area relied on Beer's Law to estimate range from observations of infrared CO II bands, with disappointing results. A modified approach is presented that uses band models and observations of the O II absorption band near 762 nm. This band is spectrally isolated from other atmospheric bands, which enables direct estimation of molecular absorption from observed intensity. Range is estimated by comparing observed values of band-average absorption, (see manuscript), against predicted curves derived from either historical data or model predictions. Accuracy of better than 0.5% has been verified in short-range (up to 3km) experiments using a Fourier transform interferometer at 1cm -1 resolution. A conceptual design is described for a small, affordable passive ranging sensor suitable for use on tactical aircraft for missile attack warning and time-to-impact estimation. Models are used to extrapolate experimental results (using 1 cm -1 resolution data) to analyze expected performance of this filter-based system.

  10. Online Sorted Range Reporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Fagerberg, Rolf; Greve, Mark


    We study the following one-dimensional range reporting problem: On an arrayA of n elements, support queries that given two indices i ≤ j and an integerk report the k smallest elements in the subarray A[i..j] in sorted order. We present a data structure in the RAM model supporting such queries...... in optimal O(k) time. The structure uses O(n) words of space and can be constructed in O(n logn) time. The data structure can be extended to solve the online version of the problem, where the elements in A[i..j] are reported one-by-one in sorted order, in O(1) worst-case time per element. The problem...... is motivated by (and is a generalization of) a problem with applications in search engines: On a tree where leaves have associated rank values, report the highest ranked leaves in a given subtree. Finally, the problem studied generalizes the classic range minimum query (RMQ) problem on arrays....

  11. Factor Xa generation by computational modeling: an additional discriminator to thrombin generation evaluation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen E Brummel-Ziedins

    Full Text Available Factor (fXa is a critical enzyme in blood coagulation that is responsible for the initiation and propagation of thrombin generation. Previously we have shown that analysis of computationally generated thrombin profiles is a tool to investigate hemostasis in various populations. In this study, we evaluate the potential of computationally derived time courses of fXa generation as another approach for investigating thrombotic risk. Utilizing the case (n = 473 and control (n = 426 population from the Leiden Thrombophilia Study and each individual's plasma protein factor composition for fII, fV, fVII, fVIII, fIX, fX, antithrombin and tissue factor pathway inhibitor, tissue factor-initiated total active fXa generation was assessed using a mathematical model. FXa generation was evaluated by the area under the curve (AUC, the maximum rate (MaxR and level (MaxL and the time to reach these, TMaxR and TMaxL, respectively. FXa generation was analyzed in the entire populations and in defined subgroups (by sex, age, body mass index, oral contraceptive use. The maximum rates and levels of fXa generation occur over a 10- to 12- fold range in both cases and controls. This variation is larger than that observed with thrombin (3-6 fold in the same population. The greatest risk association was obtained using either MaxR or MaxL of fXa generation; with an ∼2.2 fold increased risk for individuals exceeding the 90(th percentile. This risk was similar to that of thrombin generation(MaxR OR 2.6. Grouping defined by oral contraceptive (OC use in the control population showed the biggest differences in fXa generation; a >60% increase in the MaxR upon OC use. FXa generation can distinguish between a subset of individuals characterized by overlapping thrombin generation profiles. Analysis of fXa generation is a phenotypic characteristic which may prove to be a more sensitive discriminator than thrombin generation among all individuals.

  12. Active laser ranging with frequency transfer using frequency comb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Hongyuan; Wei, Haoyun; Yang, Honglei; Li, Yan, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Precision Measurement Technology and Instruments, Department of Precision Instruments, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)


    A comb-based active laser ranging scheme is proposed for enhanced distance resolution and a common time standard for the entire system. Three frequency combs with different repetition rates are used as light sources at the two ends where the distance is measured. Pulse positions are determined through asynchronous optical sampling and type II second harmonic generation. Results show that the system achieves a maximum residual of 379.6 nm and a standard deviation of 92.9 nm with 2000 averages over 23.6 m. Moreover, as for the frequency transfer, an atom clock and an adjustable signal generator, synchronized to the atom clock, are used as time standards for the two ends to appraise the frequency deviation introduced by the proposed system. The system achieves a residual fractional deviation of 1.3 × 10{sup −16} for 1 s, allowing precise frequency transfer between the two clocks at the two ends.

  13. Lightning detection and ranging (United States)

    Lennon, C. L.; Poehler, H. A.


    A lightning detector and ranging (LDAR) system developed at the Kennedy Space Center and recently transferred to Wallops Island is described. The system detects pulsed VHF signals due to electrical discharges occurring in a thunderstorm by means of 56-75 MHz receivers located at the hub and at the tips of 8 km radial lines. Incoming signals are transmitted by wideband links to a central computing facility which processes the times of arrival, using two independent calculations to determine position in order to guard against false data. The results are plotted on a CRT display, and an example of a thunderstorm lightning strike detection near Kennedy Space Center is outlined. The LDAR correctly identified potential ground strike zones and additionally provided a high correlation between updrafts and ground strikes.

  14. Thermodynamics II essentials

    CERN Document Server

    REA, The Editors of


    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Thermodynamics II includes review of thermodynamic relations, power and refrigeration cycles, mixtures and solutions, chemical reactions, chemical equilibrium, and flow through nozzl

  15. Physical chemistry II essentials

    CERN Document Server

    REA, The Editors of


    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Physical Chemistry II includes reaction mechanisms, theoretical approaches to chemical kinetics, gravitational work, electrical and magnetic work, surface work, kinetic theory, collisional and transport properties of gases, statistical mechanics, matter and waves, quantum mechanics, and rotations and vibrations of atoms and molecules.

  16. Data structures II essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Smolarski, Dennis C


    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Data Structures II includes sets, trees, advanced sorting, elementary graph theory, hashing, memory management and garbage collection, and appendices on recursion vs. iteration, alge

  17. Computer science II essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Raus, Randall


    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Computer Science II includes organization of a computer, memory and input/output, coding, data structures, and program development. Also included is an overview of the most commonly

  18. Statistics II essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Milewski, Emil G


    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Statistics II discusses sampling theory, statistical inference, independent and dependent variables, correlation theory, experimental design, count data, chi-square test, and time se

  19. Complex variables II essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Solomon, Alan D


    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Complex Variables II includes elementary mappings and Mobius transformation, mappings by general functions, conformal mappings and harmonic functions, applying complex functions to a

  20. Electronics II essentials

    CERN Document Server

    REA, The Editors of


    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Electronics II covers operational amplifiers, feedback and frequency compensation of OP amps, multivibrators, logic gates and families, Boolean algebra, registers, counters, arithmet

  1. New Generator Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Roy S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    New generator technology project is driven by the need to be able to remotely deploy generator technology where it is needed, when it is needed. Both the military and aid programs that provide assistance after disasters could use the ability to deploy energy generation that fits the needs of the situation. Currently, pre-specified generators are deployed, sometime more than half way around the world to provide electricity. Through our Phase-I to Phase III DARPA grant, we will provide a mechanism where a 3d print station and raw materials could be shipped to a deployment site and remotely deployed personnel. These remote personnel can collaborate with engineers at a home location where 3d print plans can be optimized for the remote purpose. The plans can then be sent electronically to the remote location for printing, much like NASA sent the plans for a socket wrench to the International Space Station for printing in . If multiple generators need to be deployed at different remote locations, within miles of each other the printer rig can be moved to print the generators where they are needed. 3d printing is growing in the field of manufacturing. 3d printing has matured to the point where many types of materials are now available for many types of manufacturing. Both magnetic and electrically conductive material materials have recently been developed which can now lead to 3d printing of engines and generators. Our project will provide a successful printer rig that can be remotely deployed, to print a generator design in the field as well as provide a process for deploying the printed generator as well. This Systems Engineering Management Plan(SEMP) will provide the planning required for a Phase I DARPA grant that may also include goals for Phase II and Phase II grants. The SEMP provides a proposed project schedule, references, system engineering processes, specialty engineering system deployment and product support sections. Each section will state how our company

  2. Toxoplasma gondii sexual cross in a single naturally infected feline host: Generation of highly mouse-virulent and avirulent clones, genotypically different from clonal types I, II and III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herrmann Daland C


    Full Text Available Abstract Tachyzoite clones obtained from a single Toxoplasma gondii oocyst field sample were genotyped and characterized regarding mouse virulence. PCR-RFLP genotyping of tachyzoites initially isolated from interferon-γ-knockout (GKO mice, BALB/c mice and VERO cell culture using the nine independent, unlinked genetic markers nSAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1 and Apico revealed mixed T. gondii infections showing combinations of type II and type III alleles at different loci. Forty-five individual clones were obtained from all mixed T. gondii tachyzoite cell cultures by limiting dilution. Sixteen T. gondii clones showed type III alleles at all loci and 29 clones displayed a combination of type II and type III alleles at different loci. Five clone groups were identified in total, four of which include T. gondii clones that showed a non-canonical allele pattern and have never been described in natural infections before. All tested clones, except two, were highly virulent in BALB/c mice. The isolation of different non-canonical T. gondii clones originating from an oocyst sample of a single naturally infected cat demonstrate that sexual recombination as well as re-assortment of chromosomes via a sexual cross of T. gondii occur under natural conditions and result in the emergence of clones with increased virulence in mice.

  3. Oxidized amino acid residues in the vicinity of Q(A and Pheo(D1 of the photosystem II reaction center: putative generation sites of reducing-side reactive oxygen species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurie K Frankel

    Full Text Available Under a variety of stress conditions, Photosystem II produces reactive oxygen species on both the reducing and oxidizing sides of the photosystem. A number of different sites including the Mn4O5Ca cluster, P680, PheoD1, QA, QB and cytochrome b559 have been hypothesized to produce reactive oxygen species in the photosystem. In this communication using Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry we have identified several residues on the D1 and D2 proteins from spinach which are oxidatively modified and in close proximity to QA (D1 residues (239F, (241Q, (242E and the D2 residues (238P, (239T, (242E and (247M and PheoD1 (D1 residues (130E, (133L and (135F. These residues may be associated with reactive oxygen species exit pathways located on the reducing side of the photosystem, and their modification may indicate that both QA and PheoD1 are sources of reactive oxygen species on the reducing side of Photosystem II.

  4. Hydrogen Generator (United States)


    A unit for producing hydrogen on site is used by a New Jersey Electric Company. The hydrogen is used as a coolant for the station's large generator; on-site production eliminates the need for weekly hydrogen deliveries. High purity hydrogen is generated by water electrolysis. The electrolyte is solid plastic and the control system is electronic. The technology was originally developed for the Gemini spacecraft.

  5. Physicochemical properties of 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoates of Mn(II, Co(II, Ni(II and Zn(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The complexes of Mn(II, Co(II, Ni(II, Cu(II and Zn(II with 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoic acid anion of the formula: M(C10H11O52·nH2O, where n = 6 for Ni(II, n = 1 for Mn(II, Co(II, Cu(II, and n = 0 for Zn, have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectroscopy, X–ray diffraction measurements, thermogravimetry and magnetic studies. They are crystalline compounds characterized by various symmetry. They decompose in various ways when heated in air to 1273 K. At first, they dehydrate in one step and form anhydrous salts. The final products of decomposition are oxides of the respective metals (Mn2O3, Co3O4, NiO, CuO, ZnO. The solubilities of the analysed complexes in water at 293 K are in the orders of 10-2 – 10-4 mol dm-3. The magnetic susceptibilities of the Mn(II, Co(II, Ni(II and Cu(II complexes were measured over the range of 76–303 K and the magnetic moments were calculated. The results show that the 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoates of Mn(II, Co(II and Ni(II are high-spin complexes but that of Cu(II forms a dimer [Cu2(C10H11O54(H2O2]. The carboxylate groups bind as monodentate or bidentate chelating or bridging ligands.

  6. Multicenter performance evaluation of a second generation cortisol assay. (United States)

    Vogeser, Michael; Kratzsch, Jürgen; Ju Bae, Yoon; Bruegel, Mathias; Ceglarek, Uta; Fiers, Tom; Gaudl, Alexander; Kurka, Hedwig; Milczynski, Christoph; Prat Knoll, Cristina; Suhr, Anna C; Teupser, Daniel; Zahn, Ingrid; Ostlund, Richard E


    Untreated disorders of the adrenocortical system, such as Cushing's or Addison's disease, can be fatal, and accurate quantification of a patient's cortisol levels is vital for diagnosis. The objective of this study was to assess the analytical performance of a new fully-automated Elecsys® Cortisol II assay (second generation) to measure cortisol levels in serum and saliva. Four European investigational sites assessed the intermediate precision and reproducibility of the Cortisol II assay (Roche Diagnostics) under routine conditions. Method comparisons of the Cortisol II assay vs. liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), the gold standard for cortisol measurement, were performed. Cortisol reference ranges from three US sites were determined using samples from self-reported healthy individuals. The coefficients of variation (CVs) for repeatability, intermediate precision, and reproducibility for serum samples were ≤2.6%, ≤5.8%, and ≤9.5%, respectively, and for saliva were ≤4.4% and ≤10.9%, and ≤11.4%, respectively. Agreement between the Cortisol II assay and LC-MS/MS in serum samples was close, with a slope of 1.02 and an intercept of 4.473 nmol/L. Reference range samples were collected from healthy individuals (n=300) and serum morning cortisol concentrations (5-95th percentile) were 166.1-507 nmol/L and afternoon concentrations were 73.8-291 nmol/L. Morning, afternoon, and midnight saliva concentrations (95th percentile) were 20.3, 6.94, and 7.56 nmol/L, respectively. The Cortisol II assay had good precision over the entire measuring range and had excellent agreement with LC-MS/MS. This test was found suitable for routine diagnostic application and will be valuable for the diagnosis of adrenocortical diseases.

  7. Next Generation Inverter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Zilai [General Motors LLC, Detroit, MI (United States); Gough, Charles [General Motors LLC, Detroit, MI (United States)


    The goal of this Cooperative Agreement was the development of a Next Generation Inverter for General Motors’ electrified vehicles, including battery electric vehicles, range extended electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles. The inverter is a critical electronics component that converts battery power (DC) to and from the electric power for the motor (AC).

  8. Determination of Ultra-Trace Amounts of Selenium(IV) by Flow Injection Hydride Generation Atomic Absorption Spectrometry with On-line Preconcentration by Co-precipitation with Lanthanium Hydroxide. Part II. On-line Addition of Coprecipating Agent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Steffen; Sloth, Jens Jørgen; Hansen, Elo Harald


    with hydrochloric acid, allowing an ensuing determination via hydride generation. At different sample flow rates, i.e., 4.8, 6.4 and 8.8 ml/min, enrichment factors of 30, 40 and 46, respectively, were obtained at a sampling frequency of 33 samples/h. The detection limit (3s) was 0.005 µg/l at a sample flow rate...

  9. Idea generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tollestrup, Christian H. T.; Laursen, Linda Nhu


    as having new sociocultural meaning in line with Vergantis definition of radical innovation. This paper discusses the results of an experiment with 32 students on idea generation and product concept development. The experiment was setup as and A-B comparison between two set of students with the same...... of an idea generation whether the outset is ill defined and questioned as opposed to straightforward ideation on a proposal for a solution? The hypothesis is that an approach to ideation where ambiguity and discrepancy deliberately is sought creates more radical innovation that an approach without this...

  10. The PM3 beamline at BESSY II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torsten Kachel


    Full Text Available PM3 merges the developments of the former BESSY I SX700 III monochromator for elliptically polarized VUV radiation and of BESSY II collimated plane grating monochromators. This way it is possible to achieve circular polarization from a BESSY II dipole in the range 20 – 2000 eV with high photon flux, high energy resolution and high stability.

  11. Next-generation mid-infrared sources (United States)

    Jung, D.; Bank, S.; Lee, M. L.; Wasserman, D.


    The mid-infrared (mid-IR) is a wavelength range with a variety of technologically vital applications in molecular sensing, security and defense, energy conservation, and potentially in free-space communication. The recent development and rapid commercialization of new coherent mid-infrared sources have spurred significant interest in the development of mid-infrared optical systems for the above applications. However, optical systems designers still do not have the extensive optical infrastructure available to them that exists at shorter wavelengths (for instance, in the visible and near-IR/telecom wavelengths). Even in the field of optoelectronic sources, which has largely driven the growing interest in the mid-infrared, the inherent limitations of state-of-the-art sources and the gaps in spectral coverage offer opportunities for the development of new classes of lasers, light emitting diodes and emitters for a range of potential applications. In this topical review, we will first present an overview of the current state-of-the-art mid-IR sources, in particular thermal emitters, which have long been utilized, and the relatively new quantum- and interband-cascade lasers, as well as the applications served by these sources. Subsequently, we will discuss potential mid-infrared applications and wavelength ranges which are poorly served by the current stable of mid-IR sources, with an emphasis on understanding the fundamental limitations of the current source technology. The bulk of the manuscript will then explore both past and recent developments in mid-infrared source technology, including narrow bandgap quantum well lasers, type-I and type-II quantum dot materials, type-II superlattices, highly mismatched alloys, lead-salts and transition-metal-doped II-VI materials. We will discuss both the advantages and limitations of each of the above material systems, as well as the potential new applications which they might serve. All in all, this topical review does not aim

  12. Removal of Cu(II) and Cd(II) from aqueous solution by seafood processing waste sludge. (United States)

    Lee, S M; Davis, A P


    Dried waste slurry generated in seafood processing factories has been shown to be an effective adsorbent for the removal of heavy metals from dilute solutions. Characterization of the sludge surface with scanning electron microscope and X-ray microanalyzer were carried out to evaluate the components on the sludge surface that are related to the adsorption of metal ions. Aluminum and calcium, as well as organic carbon are distributed on the surface of sludge. Alkalimetric titration was used to characterize the surface acidity of the sludge sample. The surface acidity constants, pKa1s and pKa2s, were 5.80 and 9.55, respectively. Batch as well as dynamic adsorption studies were conducted with 10(-5) to 5 x 10(-3) M Cu(II) and Cd(II). A surface complexation model with the diffuse layer model successfully predicted Cu(II) and Cd(II) removals in single metal solutions. Predictions of sorption in binary-adsorbate systems based on single-adsorbate data fits represented competitive sorption data reasonably well over a wide range of conditions. The breakthrough capacity found from column studies was different for each metal ion and the data reflect the order of metal affinity for the adsorbent material very well.

  13. (ii) and ni (ii) complexes with n

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    II) complexes with a. Schiff base derived from. 4-dimetylamino benzaldehyde and primary amines. The chemical analysis data showed the formation of (1:1) metal - ligand ratio and a square planar geometry was suggested for Co(II) and Ni(II) ...

  14. manganese(II) and uranyl(II)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Paper electrophoresis is used for the study of equilibria in binary complex systems in solution. The stability constants of ML and ML2 complex species of some metal ions copper(II), manganese(II) and uranyl(II) with a-aminobutenoic acid and hydroxyproline were determined at an ionic strength of 0.1 M and 35 ºC.

  15. Elizabeth II uus kunstigalerii

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae


    Tähistamaks oma troonile asumise 50. aastapäeva, avab Elizabeth II 6. II 2002 Buckinghami palees uue kunstigalerii, mis ehitatakse palee tiibhoonena. Arhitekt John Simpson. Elizabeth II kunstikogust

  16. Pavement performance evaluation, phase II : data collection. (United States)


    Phase I and II of this study tested approximately 1500 rehabilitated pavements (asphalt and PCC) : throughout the State. These pavements ranged from 5 to 15 years old and were intended to develop a : snapshot of how various rehabilitations were perfo...

  17. Generative Contexts (United States)

    Lyles, Dan Allen

    Educational research has identified how science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) practice and education have underperforming metrics in racial and gender diversity, despite decades of intervention. These disparities are part of the construction of a culture of science that is alienating to these populations. Recent studies in a social science framework described as "Generative Justice" have suggested that the context of social and scientific practice might be modified to bring about more just and equitable relations among the disenfranchised by circulating the value they and their non-human allies create back to them in unalienated forms. What is not known are the underlying principles of social and material space that makes a system more or less generative. I employ an autoethnographic method at four sites: a high school science class; a farm committed to "Black and Brown liberation"; a summer program geared towards youth environmental mapping; and a summer workshop for Harlem middle school students. My findings suggest that by identifying instances where material affinity, participatory voice, and creative solidarity are mutually reinforcing, it is possible to create educational contexts that generate unalienated value, and circulate it back to the producers themselves. This cycle of generation may help explain how to create systems of justice that strengthen and grow themselves through successive iterations. The problem of lack of diversity in STEM may be addressed not merely by recruiting the best and the brightest from underrepresented populations, but by changing the context of STEM education to provide tools for its own systematic restructuring.

  18. An eleven amino acid residue deletion expands the substrate specificity of acetyl xylan esterase II (AXE II) from Penicillium purpurogenum (United States)

    Colombres, Marcela; Garate, José A.; Lagos, Carlos F.; Araya-Secchi, Raúl; Norambuena, Patricia; Quiroz, Soledad; Larrondo, Luis; Pérez-Acle, Tomas; Eyzaguirre, Jaime


    The soft-rot fungus Penicillium purpurogenum secretes to the culture medium a variety of enzymes related to xylan biodegradation, among them three acetyl xylan esterases (AXE I, II and III). AXE II has 207 amino acids; it belongs to family 5 of the carbohydrate esterases and its structure has been determined by X-ray crystallography at 0.9 Å resolution (PDB 1G66). The enzyme possesses the α/β hydrolase fold and the catalytic triad typical of serine esterases (Ser90, His187 and Asp175). AXE II can hydrolyze esters of a large variety of alcohols, but it is restricted to short chain fatty acids. An analysis of its three-dimensional structure shows that a loop that covers the active site may be responsible for this strict specificity. Cutinase, an enzyme that hydrolyzes esters of long chain fatty acids and shows a structure similar to AXE II, lacks this loop. In order to generate an AXE II with this broader specificity, the preparation of a mutant lacking residues involving this loop (Gly104 to Ala114) was proposed. A set of molecular simulation experiments based on a comparative model of the mutant enzyme predicted a stable structure. Using site-directed mutagenesis, the loop's residues have been eliminated from the AXE II cDNA. The mutant protein has been expressed in Aspergillus nidulans A722 and Pichia pastoris, and it is active towards a range of fatty acid esters of up to at least 14 carbons. The availability of an esterase with broader specificity may have biotechnological applications for the synthesis of sugar esters.

  19. Birth cohort effects on abdominal obesity in the United States: the Silent Generation, Baby Boomers and Generation X. (United States)

    Robinson, W R; Utz, R L; Keyes, K M; Martin, C L; Yang, Y


    Abdominal obesity predicts a wide range of adverse health outcomes. Over the past several decades, prevalence of abdominal obesity has increased markedly in industrialized countries like the United States No previous analyses, however, have evaluated whether there are birth cohort effects for abdominal obesity. Estimating cohort effects is necessary to forecast future health trends and understand the past population-level trends. This analysis evaluated whether there were birth cohort effects for abdominal obesity for the Silent Generation (born 1925-1945), children of the Great Depression; Baby Boomers (born 1946-1964); or Generation X (born 1965-1980). Cohort effects for prevalence of abdominal obesity were estimated using the median polish method with data collected from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) between 1988 and 2008. Respondents were aged 20-74 years. After taking into account age effects and ubiquitous secular changes, the Silent Generation and Generation X had higher cohort-specific prevalence of abdominal obesity than the Baby Boomers. Effects were more pronounced in women than men. This work presents a novel finding: evidence that the birth cohorts of the post-World War II Baby Boom appeared to have uniquely low cohort effects on abdominal obesity. The growing prosperity of the post-World War II US may have exposed the baby-boom generation to lower levels of psychosocial and socioeconomic stress than the previous or subsequent generations. By identifying factors associated with the Baby Boomers' low cohort-specific sensitivity to the obesogenic environment, the obesity prevention community can identify early-life factors that can protect future generations from excess weight gain.

  20. Comparison of range migration correction algorithms for range-Doppler processing (United States)

    Uysal, Faruk


    The next generation digital radars are able to provide high-range resolution by the advancement of radar hardware technologies. These systems take advantage of coherent integration and Doppler processing technique to increase the target's signal-to-noise ratio. Due to the high-range resolution (small range cells) and fast target motion, a target migrates through multiple range cells within a coherent processing interval. Range cell migration (also known as range walk) occurs and degrades the coherent integration gain. There are many approaches in the literature to correct these unavoidable effects and focus the target in the range-Doppler domain. We demonstrate some of these methods on an operational frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FMCW) radar and point out practical issues in the application.

  1. Fuel management inside the reactor. Project AZ-101 (ININ). Report of the generation of the nuclear bank 'L1PG3826' of the assemblies GE5 and GE9B 'collapsed' of the CNLV for the FCS-II program of the FMS system; Administracion de combustible dentro del reactor. Proyecto AZ-101 (ININ). Reporte de generacion del banco nuclear 'L1PG3826' de los ensambles GE5 y GE9B 'colapsados' de la CNLV para el programa FCS-II del FMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso V, G.; Torres A, C


    In order to be able to carry out studies but next to the operation of the reactor of the CNLV with the program FCS-II of the package of codes for the fuel management FMS, it was generated a 'collapsed' nuclear bank integrating the generated information with RECORD of each one of those assemblies of the initial load and of the first recharge. To generate the bank, the different ones RECORD 'cells' that compose each assemble were 'collapsed' to an alone one, representing this, to the one complete assemble in what refers to the fuel bars distribution and enrichments. The one collapsed of each assemble it is made averaging the content of UO{sub 2} and Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} in each fuel bar by the volumetric fraction occupied by each axial section of the fuel bar where the content of UO{sub 2} and Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} were constant, by this way the x-y fuel bars arrangement is conserved but a representative fuel cell of all the assemble is obtained. Of the five different assemblies that will be load in the reactor of the CNLV (3 of the initial load and 2 of the first recharge), only 4 were collapsed; the remaining one to be totally formed by natural uranium it was not necessary to collapse. From the collapsing process new enrichment values in U-235 and in content of Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} for each fuel bar, for what according to the generation procedure of nuclear information it was generated the required information by RECORD for each fuel bar with Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} with the ECLIPSE code. Once generated this information it was proceeded to generate the homogenized nuclear information, with RECORD, for the whole cell. According to the requirements of nuclear information of FCS-II, the nuclear Information generated with RECORD only was of the defined type as series 1 in the procedure of generation of nuclear banks '6F3/1/CN029/90/P1'; that which means that only it was generated nuclear information as function of the burnup of the fuel and of

  2. Delaunay mesh generation

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, Siu-Wing; Shewchuk, Jonathan


    Written by authors at the forefront of modern algorithms research, Delaunay Mesh Generation demonstrates the power and versatility of Delaunay meshers in tackling complex geometric domains ranging from polyhedra with internal boundaries to piecewise smooth surfaces. Covering both volume and surface meshes, the authors fully explain how and why these meshing algorithms work.The book is one of the first to integrate a vast amount of cutting-edge material on Delaunay triangulations. It begins with introducing the problem of mesh generation and describing algorithms for constructing Delaunay trian

  3. Advances in generative lexicon theory

    CERN Document Server

    Pustejovsky, James; Isahara, Hitoshi; Kanzaki, Kyoko


    This book offers papers addressing models of linguistic composition from a Generative Lexicon perspective, showing how GL has developed to account for a range of linguistic phenomena, including argument alternation, polysemy, discourse phenomena and metaphor.

  4. Next-Generation Tools For Next-Generation Surveys (United States)

    Murray, S. G.


    The next generation of large-scale galaxy surveys, across the electromagnetic spectrum, loom on the horizon as explosively game-changing datasets, in terms of our understanding of cosmology and structure formation. We are on the brink of a torrent of data that is set to both confirm and constrain current theories to an unprecedented level, and potentially overturn many of our conceptions. One of the great challenges of this forthcoming deluge is to extract maximal scientific content from the vast array of raw data. This challenge requires not only well-understood and robust physical models, but a commensurate network of software implementations with which to efficiently apply them. The halo model, a semi-analytic treatment of cosmological spatial statistics down to nonlinear scales, provides an excellent mathematical framework for exploring the nature of dark matter. This thesis presents a next-generation toolkit based on the halo model formalism, intended to fulfil the requirements of next-generation surveys. Our toolkit comprises three tools: (i) hmf, a comprehensive and flexible calculator for halo mass functions (HMFs) within extended Press-Schechter theory, (ii) the MRP distribution for extremely efficient analytic characterisation of HMFs, and (iii) halomod, an extension of hmf which provides support for the full range of halo model components. In addition to the development and technical presentation of these tools, we apply each to the task of physical modelling. With hmf, we determine the precision of our knowledge of the HMF, due to uncertainty in our knowledge of the cosmological parameters, over the past decade of cosmic microwave background (CMB) experiments. We place rule-of-thumb uncertainties on the predicted HMF for the Planck cosmology, and find that current limits on the precision are driven by modeling uncertainties rather than those from cosmological parameters. With the MRP, we create and test a method for robustly fitting the HMF to observed

  5. Cooling Strings of Superconducting Devices below 2 K the Helium II Bayonet Heat Exchanger

    CERN Document Server

    Lebrun, P; Tavian, L; Van Weelderen, R


    High-energy particle accelerators and colliders contain long strings of superconducting devices - acceleration RF cavities and magnets - operating at high field, which may require cooling in helium II below 2 K. In order to maintain adequate operating conditions, the applied or generated heat loads must be extracted and transported with minimum temperature difference. Conventional cooling schemes based on conductive or convective heat transport in pressurized helium II very soon reach their intrinsic limits of thermal impedance over extended lengths. We present the concept of helium II bayonet heat exchanger, which has been developed at CERN for the magnet cooling scheme of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), and describe its specific advantages as a slim, quasi-isothermal heat sink. Experimental results obtained on several test set-ups, and a prototype magnet string have permitted to validate its performance and sizing rules, for transporting linear heat loads in the W.m-1 range over distances of several tens o...

  6. Investigations of the Ligand Electronic Effects on α-Diimine Nickel(II Catalyzed Ethylene Polymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihua Guo


    Full Text Available The synthesis and characterization of a series of dibenzhydryl-based α-diimine Ni(II complexes bearing a range of electron-donating or -withdrawing groups are described. Polymerization with ethylene is investigated in detail, involving the activator effect, influence of polymerization conditions on catalyst activity, thermal stability, polymer molecular weight and melting point. All of these Ni(II complexes show great activity (up to 6 × 106 g of PE (mol of Ni−1·h−1, exceptional thermal stability (stable at up to 100 °C and generate polyethylene with very high molecular weight (Mn up to 1.6 × 106 and very narrow molecular weight distribution. In the dibromo Ni(II system, the electronic perturbations exhibit little variation on the ethylene polymerization. In the Ni(acac system, dramatic ligand electronic effects are observed in terms of catalytic activity and polyethylene molecular weight.

  7. Evaluation of a modified APACHE II Scoring System in the Intensive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MAPA II format was designed from the APA II. The APA II score consists of 12 sets of acute physiological variables (A), age points (B) and chronic health points (C). Total APACHE II score of 71 was generated by adding A, B and C. (Appendix I). MAPA II score was generated by adding A, B and C but substituting PaO2 with ...

  8. Non-muscle myosin II regulates neuronal actin dynamics by interacting with guanine nucleotide exchange factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Young Shin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Non-muscle myosin II (NM II regulates a wide range of cellular functions, including neuronal differentiation, which requires precise spatio-temporal activation of Rho GTPases. The molecular mechanism underlying the NM II-mediated activation of Rho GTPases is poorly understood. The present study explored the possibility that NM II regulates neuronal differentiation, particularly morphological changes in growth cones and the distal axon, through guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs of the Dbl family. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: NM II colocalized with GEFs, such as βPIX, kalirin and intersectin, in growth cones. Inactivation of NM II by blebbistatin (BBS led to the increased formation of short and thick filopodial actin structures at the periphery of growth cones. In line with these observations, FRET analysis revealed enhanced Cdc42 activity in BBS-treated growth cones. BBS treatment also induced aberrant targeting of various GEFs to the distal axon where GEFs were seldom observed under physiological conditions. As a result, numerous protrusions and branches were generated on the shaft of the distal axon. The disruption of the NM II-GEF interactions by overexpression of the DH domains of βPIX or Tiam1, or by βPIX depletion with specific siRNAs inhibited growth cone formation and induced slender axons concomitant with multiple branches in cultured hippocampal neurons. Finally, stimulation with nerve growth factor induced transient dissociation of the NM II-GEF complex, which was closely correlated with the kinetics of Cdc42 and Rac1 activation. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that NM II maintains proper morphology of neuronal growth cones and the distal axon by regulating actin dynamics through the GEF-Rho GTPase signaling pathway.

  9. Biologically relevant mono- and di-nuclear manganese II/III/IV complexes of mononegative pentadentate ligands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baffert, Carole; Collomb, Marie-Nöelle; Deronzier, Alain


    ,2-diamine) have been prepared. The crystal structure of the Mn(II)-aqua complex of 1, shows it to be dimeric via (mu-kappaO)-bridging through one carboxylate oxygen atom of each of the two ligands. The non-coordinated carboxylate oxygen atoms are H-bonded to the water ligands on the adjacent Mn ion...... were characterised by UV-visible spectroscopy, ESI mass spectrometry and cyclic voltammetry. In addition, III-IV and II-III species were electrochemically generated. Thus the new mononegative pentadentate ligand systems display significant flexibility in the range of Mn oxidation states and species...

  10. In vivo serial invasive imaging of the second-generation drug-eluting absorbable metal scaffold (Magmaris - DREAMS 2G) in de novo coronary lesions: Insights from the BIOSOLVE-II First-In-Man Trial. (United States)

    Garcia-Garcia, Hector M; Haude, Michael; Kuku, Kayode; Hideo-Kajita, Alexandre; Ince, Hüseyin; Abizaid, Alexandre; Tölg, Ralph; Lemos, Pedro Alves; von Birgelen, Clemens; Christiansen, Evald Høj; Wijns, William; Escaned, Javier; Dijkstra, Jouke; Waksman, Ron


    Bioresorbable scaffolds may confer clinical benefit in long-term studies; early mechanistic studies using intravascular imaging have provided insightful information about the immediate and mid-term local serial effects of BRS on the coronary vessel wall. We assessed baseline, 6- and 12-month imaging data of the drug-eluting absorbable metal scaffold (DREAMS 2G). The international, first-in-man BIOSOLVE-II trial enrolled 123 patients with up to 2 de novo lesions (in vessels of 2.2 to 3.7mm). Angiographic based vasomotion, curvature and angulation were assessed; intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) derived radiofrequency (RF) data analysis and echogenicity were evaluated; optical coherence tomography (OCT) attenuation and backscattering analysis were also performed. There was hardly any difference in curvature between pre-procedure and 12months (-0.0019; p=0.48). The change in angulation from pre- to 12months was negligible (-3.58°; 95% CI [-5.97, -1.20]), but statistically significant. At 6months, the change in QCA based minimum lumen diameter in response to high dose of acetylcholine and IVUS-RF necrotic core percentage showed an inverse relationship (estimate of -0.489; p=0.055) and with fibrous volume a positive relationship (estimate of 0.53, p=0.035). Bioresorption analysis by OCT showed that the maximum attenuation values decreased significantly from post-procedure at 6months (Δ 6months vs. post-proc. is -13.5 [95% CI -14.6, -12.4]) and at 12months (Δ 12months vs. post-proc. is -14.0 [95% CI -15.4, -12.6]). By radiofrequency data, the percentage of dense calcium decreased significantly from post-procedure at 6months and at 12months. Likewise, by echogenicity, hyperechogenic structures decreased significantly from post-procedure at 6months; thereafter, they remained unchanged. Following implantation of DREAMS 2G, restoration of the vessel geometry, vasomotion and bioresorption signs were observed at up to 12months; importantly, these changes occurred with

  11. Magnet Free Generators - 3rd Generation Wind Turbine Generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bogi Bech; Mijatovic, Nenad; Henriksen, Matthew Lee


    This paper presents an introduction to superconducting wind turbine generators, which are often referred to as 3rd generation wind turbine generators. Advantages and challenges of superconducting generators are presented with particular focus on possible weight and efficiency improvements. A comp....... A comparison of the rare earth usage in different topologies of permanent magnet generators and superconducting generators is also presented....

  12. and ni(ii)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    with nickel(II) and cobalt(II) chloride in 2:1 mole ratio yielded Ni(II) and Co(II) complexes respectively. The synthesized compounds were characterized based on melting point/decomposition temperature, solubility, molar conductance, magnetic susceptibility and infrared spectral analyses. The complexes have low molar ...

  13. Preparation and Antimicrobial Screeningof Cu (II, Ni (II, Zn (II Cd (II Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Desai


    Full Text Available The metal complexes of Ni(II, Cu(II, Zn(II Cd(II with organic ligands viz Hydrazine hydrate, 1,2-N,N'-Bisammonium thiocarbamoyl ethane and 1,4-N,N'-Bisammonium thiocarbamoyl benzene have been prepared. These ligands and metal complexes of dithiocarbamates were screened for their antimicrobial activity against various microbs.

  14. Copper (II), cobalt (II), nickel (II) and zinc (II) complexes of Schiff ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. New Schiff base chelates of Cu(II), Co(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II) derived from benzil-2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazone with aniline have been synthesised. Microanalytical data, molar conductance, and magnetic susceptibility values have been obtained, and IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, UV-Vis, CV and EPR spectral studies have ...

  15. Topological groups with dense compactly generated subgroups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Fujita


    Full Text Available A topological group G is: (i compactly generated if it contains a compact subset algebraically generating G, (ii -compact if G is a union of countably many compact subsets, (iii 0-bounded if arbitrary neighborhood U of the identity element of G has countably many translates xU that cover G, and (iv finitely generated modulo open sets if for every non-empty open subset U of G there exists a finite set F such that F  U algebraically generates G. We prove that: (1 a topological group containing a dense compactly generated subgroup is both 0-bounded and finitely generated modulo open sets, (2 an almost metrizable topological group has a dense compactly generated subgroup if and only if it is both 0-bounded and finitely generated modulo open sets, and (3 an almost metrizable topological group is compactly generated if and only if it is -compact and finitely generated modulo open sets.

  16. Solar generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barkats, G.; Chenin, C.; Foucras, J.; Marnay, L.


    The present invention relates to a solar generator for producing electrical energy from solar energy, mounted in particular on board an artificial satellite and constituted by a plurality of pivoted panels, stacked but unfoldable, each of which comprises a thick frame inside which is disposed a thin flexible support carrying solar cells, said frame comprising intermediate stiffeners connecting two opposite sides of the frame, wherein each panel comprises, between two intermediate stiffeners and between the end intermediate stiffeners and the sides of the frame there-opposite, a plurality of wide, flat auxiliary stiffeners, transverse with respect to the intermediate stiffeners and on which said flexible support is fixed at least partially.

  17. Dynamic instability of collective myosin II motors (United States)

    Li, Jin-Fang; Wang, Zi-Qing; Li, Qi-Kun; Xing, Jian-Jun; Wang, Guo-Dong


    Some kinds of muscles can oscillate spontaneously, which is related to the dynamic instability of the collective motors. Based on the two-state ratchet model and with consideration of the motor stiffness, the dynamics of collective myosin II motors are studied. It is shown that when the motor stiffness is small, the velocity of the collective motors decreases monotonically with load increasing. When the motor stiffness becomes large, dynamic instability appears in the force-velocity relationship of the collective-motor transport. For a large enough motor stiffness, the zero-velocity point lies in the unstable range of the force-velocity curve, and the motor system becomes unstable before the motion is stopped, so spontaneous oscillations can be generated if the system is elastically coupled to its environment via a spring. The oscillation frequency is related to the motor stiffness, motor binding rate, spring stiffness, and the width of the ATP excitation interval. For a medium motor stiffness, the zero-velocity point lies outside the unstable range of the force-velocity curve, and the motion will be stopped before the instability occurs. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11205123).

  18. Inside ISIS II

    CERN Multimedia


    ISIS stands for Identification of Secondaries by Ionization Sampling. It was a drift chamber with an active volume of about 40 m3 built by Oxford University as a particle identifier for the European Hybrid Spectrometer (EHS). The photo shows the electrostatic grading structure and the central anode-wire plane, with Roger Giles standing just under it (Annual Report 1981 p. 57, Fig. 4). ISIS-II differed from the prototype ISIS-I only in the depth of the track (4 m instead of 1 m) thus extending the momentum range for particle identification to 50 GeV/c. See Nucl. Instr. and Meth. 224 (1984) 396, and Nucl. Instr. and Meth. 258 (1987) 26.

  19. Rank range test for equality of dispersion | Odiase | Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper exploits the computational simplicity of the range of a set of data to formulate a twosample scale test called the Rank Range test. The performance of the test statistic is compared with other tests of scale. The exact distribution of the Rank Range test statistic is generated empirically through the unconditional ...

  20. Grid generation methods

    CERN Document Server

    Liseikin, Vladimir D


    This new edition provides a description of current developments relating to grid methods, grid codes, and their applications to actual problems. Grid generation methods are indispensable for the numerical solution of differential equations. Adaptive grid-mapping techniques, in particular, are the main focus and represent a promising tool to deal with systems with singularities. This 3rd edition includes three new chapters on numerical implementations (10), control of grid properties (11), and applications to mechanical, fluid, and plasma related problems (13). Also the other chapters have been updated including new topics, such as curvatures of discrete surfaces (3). Concise descriptions of hybrid mesh generation, drag and sweeping methods, parallel algorithms for mesh generation have been included too. This new edition addresses a broad range of readers: students, researchers, and practitioners in applied mathematics, mechanics, engineering, physics and other areas of applications.

  1. Short Rayleigh Range Free Electron Laser Amplifiers

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, L H; Murphy, J B; Rose, J; Shaftan, T V; Wang, X J; Watanabe, T


    An important requirement for a high average power laser system is a manageable power density on the first optical element. One possibility to achieve this is a single pass amplifier which generates a short Rayleigh range (SRL) light beam. We present design parameters and calculated performances for several SRL configurations. These include a simulation of the optically guided (pinched) MW class FEL [1], the scalloped beam FEL amplifier [2] and high gain TOK amplifiers we propose to explore at our SDL facility.

  2. Avalanche effect and gain saturation in high harmonic generation

    CERN Document Server

    Serrat, Carles; Budesca, Josep M; Seres, Jozsef; Seres, Enikoe; Aurand, Bastian; Hoffmann, Andreas; Namba, Shinichi; Kuehl, Thomas; Spielmann, Christian


    Optical amplifiers in all ranges of the electromagnetic spectrum exhibit two essential characteristics: i) the input signal during the propagation in the medium is multiplied by the avalanche effect of the stimulated emission to produce exponential growth and ii) the amplification saturates at increasing input signal. We demonstrate that the strong-field theory in the frame of high harmonic generation fully supports the appearance of both the avalanche and saturation effects in the amplification of extreme ultraviolet attosecond pulse trains. We confirm that the amplification takes place only if the seed pulses are perfectly synchronized with the driving strong field in the amplifier. We performed an experimental study and subsequent model calculation on He gas driven by intense 30-fs-long laser pulses, which was seeded with an attosecond pulse train at 110 eV generated in a separated Ne gas jet. The comparison of the performed calculations with the measurements clearly demonstrates that the pumped He gas med...

  3. Kinetically controlled separation of cadmium(II) from zinc(II) with dithizone in the presence of nitrilotriacetic acid. (United States)

    Itabashi, H; Yoshida, M; Kawamoto, H


    The extraction rates of cadmium(II) and zinc(II) with dithizone (H2dz) in the presence of nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) were measured, and the possible kinetic separation of cadmium(II) from zinc(II) was investigated. Upon the addition of NTA, the difference in the extraction rate between cadmium(II) and zinc(II) became large. Based on the observed rate constant under the condition [NTA] = 1 x 10(-2) mol dm-3, [H2dz]org = 1 x 10(-3) mol dm-3, and pH = 7.0, the shaking time required for the quantitative separation of cadmium(II) from zinc(II) was calculated to be between 326 and 995 s. The experimental results agreed with the prediction, and the quantitative separation of cadmium(II) from zinc(II) was performed within the above-mentioned range of shaking times.

  4. The spatially resolved [C II] Cooling line deficit in galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, J. D T; Croxall, Kevin; Draine, Bruce; Looze, Ilse De; Sandstrom, Karin; Armus, Lee; Beirão, Pedro; Bolatto, Alberto; Boquien, Mederic; Brandl, B.R.; Crocker, Alison; Dale, Daniel A.; Galametz, Maud; Groves, Brent; Helou, George; Herrera-Camus, Rodrigo; Hunt, Leslie; Kennicutt, Robert; Walter, Fabian; Wolfire, Mark


    We present [C ii] 158 μm measurements from over 15,000 resolved regions within 54 nearby galaxies of the Kingfish program to investigate the so-called [C ii] "line-cooling deficit" long known to occur in galaxies with different luminosities. The [C ii]/TIR ratio ranges from above 1% to below 0.1%

  5. Distributed Energy Generation for Climate Resilience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stout, Sherry; Hotchkiss, Eliza


    Distributed generation can play a critical role in supporting climate adaptation goals. This infographic style poster will showcase the role of distributed generation in achieving a wide range of technical and policy goals and social services associated with climate adaptation.

  6. Lead(II) Binding in Natural and Artificial Proteins. (United States)

    Cangelosi, Virginia; Ruckthong, Leela; Pecoraro, Vincent L


    This article describes recent attempts to understand the biological chemistry of lead using a synthetic biology approach. Lead binds to a variety of different biomolecules ranging from enzymes to regulatory and signaling proteins to bone matrix. We have focused on the interactions of this element in thiolate-rich sites that are found in metalloregulatory proteins such as Pbr, Znt, and CadC and in enzymes such as δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD). In these proteins, Pb(II) is often found as a homoleptic and hemidirectic Pb(II)(SR)3- complex. Using first principles of biophysics, we have developed relatively short peptides that can associate into three-stranded coiled coils (3SCCs), in which a cysteine group is incorporated into the hydrophobic core to generate a (cysteine)3 binding site. We describe how lead may be sequestered into these sites, the characteristic spectral features may be observed for such systems and we provide crystallographic insight on metal binding. The Pb(II)(SR)3- that is revealed within these α-helical assemblies forms a trigonal pyramidal structure (having an endo orientation) with distinct conformations than are also found in natural proteins (having an exo conformation). This structural insight, combined with 207Pb NMR spectroscopy, suggests that while Pb(II) prefers hemidirected Pb(II)(SR)3- scaffolds regardless of the protein fold, the way this is achieved within α-helical systems is different than in β-sheet or loop regions of proteins. These interactions between metal coordination preference and protein structural preference undoubtedly are exploited in natural systems to allow for protein conformation changes that define function. Thus, using a design approach that separates the numerous factors that lead to stable natural proteins allows us to extract fundamental concepts on how metals behave in biological systems.

  7. SSTL I/O Standard Based Green Communication Using Fibonacci Generator Design on Ultra Scale FPGA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nagah, Sumi; Kaur, Ravinder; Pandey, Bishwajeet


    comparison it is observed that, SSTL15 is the most energy efficient and S18IIDis the worst energy efficient. Then on comparison of SSTL15 with SSTL18_II_DCI (S18IID), it is found that, when Fibonacci generator is operated at different frequencies like 1GHz, 10GHz, 100GHz and 1THz, the reduction in I/O power...... communication or green communication possible. Six SSTL I/O standards include SSTL18_I, SSTL18_II, SSTL18_I_DCI (S18ID), SS18IID (S18IID), SSTL15 and SSTL15_DCI. We compared I/O power of SSTL18_I with SSTL18_II, S18ID with S18IID and SSTL15 with SSTL15_DCI on different frequencies ranging from 1GHz-1THz. After...

  8. Comparative analysis of planetary laser ranging concepts (United States)

    Dirkx, D.; Bauer, S.; Noomen, R.; Vermeersen, B. L. A.; Visser, P. N.


    Laser ranging is an emerging technology for tracking interplanetary missions, offering improved range accuracy and precision (mm-cm), compared to existing DSN tracking. The ground segment uses existing Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) technology, whereas the space segment is modified with an active system. In a one-way system, such as that currently being used on the LRO spacecraft (Zuber et al., 2010), only an active detector is required on the spacecraft. For a two-way system, such as that tested by using the laser altimeter system on the MESSENGER spacecraft en route to Mercury (Smith et al., 2006), a laser transmitter system is additionally placed on the space segment, which will asynchronously fire laser pulses towards the ground stations. Although the one-way system requires less hardware, clock errors on both the space and ground segments will accumulate over time, polluting the range measurements. For a two-way system, the range measurements are only sensitive to clock errors integrated over the the two-way light time.We investigate the performance of both one- and two-way laser range systems by simulating their operation. We generate realizations of clock error time histories from Allan variance profiles, and use them to create range measurement error profiles. We subsequently perform the orbit determination process from this data to quanitfy the system's performance. For our simulations, we use two test cases: a lunar orbiter similar to LRO and a Phobos lander similar to the Phobos Laser Ranging concept (Turyshev et al., 2010). For the lunar orbiter, we include an empirical model for unmodelled non-gravitational accelerations in our truth model to include errors ihe dynamics. We include the estimation of clock parameters over a number of arc lengths for our simulations of the one-way range system and use a variety of state arc durations for the lunar orbiter simulations.We perform Monte Carlo simulations and generate true error distributions for both

  9. [O II] nebular emission from Mg II absorbers: star formation associated with the absorbing gas (United States)

    Joshi, Ravi; Srianand, Raghunathan; Petitjean, Patrick; Noterdaeme, Pasquier


    We present nebular emission associated with 198 strong Mg II absorbers at 0.35 ≤z ≤ 1.1 in the fibre spectra of quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Measured [O II] luminosities (L_[O II]) are typical of sub-L⋆ galaxies with derived star formation rate (uncorrected for fibre losses and dust reddening) in the range of 0.5-20 M⊙ yr-1. Typically less than ∼3 per cent of the Mg II systems with rest equivalent width, W2796≥2Å, show L_[O II] ≥0.3 L^{\\star }_[O II]. The detection rate is found to increase with increasing W2796 and z. No significant correlation is found between W2796 and L_[O II] even when we restrict the samples to narrow z ranges. A strong correlation is seen between L_[O II] and z. While this is expected from the luminosity evolution of galaxies, we show that finite fibre size plays a very crucial role in this correlation. The measured nebular line ratios (like [O III]/[O II] and [O III]/H β) and their z evolution are consistent with those of galaxies detected in deep surveys. Based on the median stacked spectra, we infer the average metallicity (log Z ∼8.3), ionization parameter (log q∼7.5) and stellar mass (log (M/M⊙) ∼ 9.3). The Mg II systems with nebular emission typically have W2796 ≥2 Å, Mg II doublet ratio close to 1 and W(Fe II λ2600)/W2796∼0.5 as often seen in damped Ly α and 21-cm absorbers at these redshifts. This is the biggest reported sample of [O II] emission from Mg II absorbers at low-impact parameters ideally suited for probing various feedback processes at play in z ≤ 1 galaxies.

  10. High Precision Ranging and Range-Rate Measurements over Free-Space-Laser Communication Link (United States)

    Yang, Guangning; Lu, Wei; Krainak, Michael; Sun, Xiaoli


    We present a high-precision ranging and range-rate measurement system via an optical-ranging or combined ranging-communication link. A complete bench-top optical communication system was built. It included a ground terminal and a space terminal. Ranging and range rate tests were conducted in two configurations. In the communication configuration with 622 data rate, we achieved a two-way range-rate error of 2 microns/s, or a modified Allan deviation of 9 x 10 (exp -15) with 10 second averaging time. Ranging and range-rate as a function of Bit Error Rate of the communication link is reported. They are not sensitive to the link error rate. In the single-frequency amplitude modulation mode, we report a two-way range rate error of 0.8 microns/s, or a modified Allan deviation of 2.6 x 10 (exp -15) with 10 second averaging time. We identified the major noise sources in the current system as the transmitter modulation injected noise and receiver electronics generated noise. A new improved system will be constructed to further improve the system performance for both operating modes.

  11. Storm surge and tidal range energy (United States)

    Lewis, Matthew; Angeloudis, Athanasios; Robins, Peter; Evans, Paul; Neill, Simon


    The need to reduce carbon-based energy sources whilst increasing renewable energy forms has led to concerns of intermittency within a national electricity supply strategy. The regular rise and fall of the tide makes prediction almost entirely deterministic compared to other stochastic renewable energy forms; therefore, tidal range energy is often stated as a predictable and firm renewable energy source. Storm surge is the term used for the non-astronomical forcing of tidal elevation, and is synonymous with coastal flooding because positive storm surges can elevate water-levels above the height of coastal flood defences. We hypothesis storm surges will affect the reliability of the tidal range energy resource; with negative surge events reducing the tidal range, and conversely, positive surge events increasing the available resource. Moreover, tide-surge interaction, which results in positive storm surges more likely to occur on a flooding tide, will reduce the annual tidal range energy resource estimate. Water-level data (2000-2012) at nine UK tide gauges, where the mean tidal amplitude is above 2.5m and thus suitable for tidal-range energy development (e.g. Bristol Channel), were used to predict tidal range power with a 0D modelling approach. Storm surge affected the annual resource estimate by between -5% to +3%, due to inter-annual variability. Instantaneous power output were significantly affected (Normalised Root Mean Squared Error: 3%-8%, Scatter Index: 15%-41%) with spatial variability and variability due to operational strategy. We therefore find a storm surge affects the theoretical reliability of tidal range power, such that a prediction system may be required for any future electricity generation scenario that includes large amounts of tidal-range energy; however, annual resource estimation from astronomical tides alone appears sufficient for resource estimation. Future work should investigate water-level uncertainties on the reliability and

  12. Multireversible redox processes in pentanuclear bis(triple-helical) manganese complexes featuring an oxo-centered triangular {Mn(II)2Mn(III)(μ3-O)}5+ or {Mn(II)Mn(III)2(μ3-O)}6+ core wrapped by two {Mn(II)2(bpp)3}-. (United States)

    Romain, Sophie; Rich, Jordi; Sens, Cristina; Stoll, Thibaut; Benet-Buchholz, Jordi; Llobet, Antoni; Rodriguez, Montserrat; Romero, Isabel; Clérac, Rodolphe; Mathonière, Corine; Duboc, Carole; Deronzier, Alain; Collomb, Marie-Noëlle


    A new pentanuclear bis(triple-helical) manganese complex has been isolated and characterized by X-ray diffraction in two oxidation states: [{Mn(II)(μ-bpp)(3)}(2)Mn(II)(2)Mn(III)(μ-O)](3+) (1(3+)) and [{Mn(II)(μ-bpp)(3)}(2)Mn(II)Mn(III)(2)(μ-O)](4+) (1(4+)). The structure consists of a central {Mn(3)(μ(3)-O)} core of Mn(II)(2)Mn(III) (1(3+)) or Mn(II)Mn(III)(2) ions (1(4+)) which is connected to two apical Mn(II) ions through six bpp(-) ligands. Both cations have a triple-stranded helicate configuration, and a pair of enantiomers is present in each crystal. The redox properties of 1(3+) have been investigated in CH(3)CN. A series of five distinct and reversible one-electron waves is observed in the -1.0 and +1.50 V potential range, assigned to the Mn(II)(4)Mn(III)/Mn(II)(5), Mn(II)(3)Mn(III)(2)/Mn(II)(4)Mn(III), Mn(II)(2)Mn(III)(3)/Mn(II)(3)Mn(III)(2), Mn(II)Mn(III)(4)/Mn(II)(2)Mn(III)(3), and Mn(III)(5)/Mn(II)Mn(III)(4) redox couples. The two first oxidation processes leading to Mn(II)(3)Mn(III)(2) (1(4+)) and Mn(II)(2)Mn(III)(3) (1(5+)) are related to the oxidation of the Mn(II) ions of the central core and the two higher oxidation waves, close in potential, are thus assigned to the oxidation of the two apical Mn(II) ions. The 1(4+) and 1(5+) oxidized species and the reduced Mn(4)(II) (1(2+)) species are quantitatively generated by bulk electrolyses demonstrating the high stability of the pentanuclear structure in four oxidation states (1(2+) to 1(5+)). The spectroscopic characteristics (X-band electron paramagnetic resonance, EPR, and UV-visible) of these species are also described as well as the magnetic properties of 1(3+) and 1(4+) in solid state. The powder X- and Q-band EPR signature of 1(3+) corresponds to an S = 5/2 spin state characterized by a small zero-field splitting parameter (|D| = 0.071 cm(-1)) attributed to the two apical Mn(II) ions. At 40 K, the magnetic behavior is consistent for 1(3+) with two apical S = 5/2 {Mn(II)(bpp)(3)}(-) and one S

  13. Generational Differences in Work Attitudes : A comparative analysis of Generation Y and preceding generations from companies in Sweden


    Sajjadi, Amir; Åkesson Castillo, Lars Christian Felipe; Sun, Bicen


    Introduction: A population that can live and work longer has resulted in a wider range of generations being active in the workplace simultaneously and the diverse multi-generational work environment is a new challenge for human resource management. The most recent generation that is entering the job market is Generation Y, which is also referred to as Millennials. Currently, organizations and Human Resource departments are facing the issue of Generation Y entering the workforce and the issue ...

  14. Heights of Coronal Mass Ejections and Shocks Inferred from Metric and DH Type II Radio Bursts (United States)

    Shanmugaraju, A.; Bendict Lawrance, M.; Moon, Y. J.; Lee, Jae-Ok; Suresh, K.


    A set of 27 continuous events that showed extension of metric Type-II radio bursts (m-Type IIs) into the deca-hectometric (DH) domain is considered. The coronal mass ejections (CMEs) associated with this type of continuous event supply more energy to produce space-weather effects than the CMEs that produce Type-II bursts in any one region. Since the heights of shock formation at the start of m-Type IIs were not available from observations, they were estimated using kinematic modeling in previous studies. In the present study, the heights of shock formation during metric and DH Type-II bursts are determined using two methods: i) the CME leading-edge method and ii) a method employing known electron-density models and start/end frequencies. In the first method, assuming that the shocks are generated by the associated CMEs at the leading edge, the height of the CME leading edge (LE) is calculated at the onset and end of m-Type IIs using the kinematic equation with constant acceleration or constant speed. The LE heights of CMEs that are assumed to be the heights of shock formation/end of nearly 79% of m-Type IIs are found to be within the acceptable range of 1 - 3 R_{⊙}. For other events, the heights are beyond this range, for which the shocks might either have been generated at the CME flanks/flare-blast waves, or the initial CME height might have been different. The CME/shock height at the onset and end of 17 DH Type IIs are found to be in the range of 2 - 6 R_{⊙} and within 30 R_{⊙}, respectively. In addition, the CME LE heights from observations at the onset and end of metric/DH Type IIs are compared with the heights corresponding to the observed frequency that is determined using the known electron-density models, and they are in agreement with the model results. The heights are also estimated using the space speed available for 15 halo CMEs, and it is found that the difference is smaller at the m-Type II start/end (0.02 to 0.66 R_{⊙}) and slightly greater

  15. Electro-peroxone treatment of Orange II dye wastewater. (United States)

    Bakheet, Belal; Yuan, Shi; Li, Zhaoxin; Wang, Huijiao; Zuo, Jiane; Komarneni, Sridhar; Wang, Yujue


    Degradation of a synthetic azo dye, Orange II, by electro-peroxone (E-peroxone) treatment was investigated. During the E-peroxone process, ozone generator effluent (O2 and O3 gas mixture) was continuously sparged into an electrolysis reactor, which was equipped with a carbon-polytetrafluorethylene (carbon-PTFE) cathode to electrochemically convert the sparged O2 to H2O2. The in-situ generated H2O2 then reacted with the sparged O3 to produce •OH, which can oxidize ozone-refractory organic pollutants effectively. Thus, by simply combining conventional ozonation and electrolysis processes, and using a cathode that can effectively convert O2 to H2O2, the E-peroxone process degraded Orange II much more effectively than the two processes individually. Complete decolorization and 95.7% total organic carbon (TOC) mineralization were obtained after 4 and 45 min of the E-peroxone treatment, respectively. In comparison, only 55.6 and 15.3% TOC were mineralized after 90 min of the individual ozonation and electrolysis treatments, respectively. In addition to its high efficiency, the E-peroxone process was effective over a wide range of pH (3-10) and did not produce any secondary pollutants. The E-peroxone process can thus provide an effective and environmentally-friendly alternative for wastewater treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Ranging Behaviour of Commercial Free-Range Laying Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonard Ikenna Chielo


    Full Text Available In this study, the range use and behaviour of laying hens in commercial free-range flocks was explored. Six flocks were each visited on four separate days and data collected from their outdoor area (divided into zones based on distance from shed and available resources. These were: apron (0–10 m from shed normally without cover or other enrichments; enriched belt (10–50 m from shed where resources such as manmade cover, saplings and dust baths were provided; and outer range (beyond 50 m from shed with no cover and mainly grass pasture. Data collection consisted of counting the number of hens in each zone and recording behaviour, feather condition and nearest neighbour distance (NND of 20 birds per zone on each visit day. In addition, we used techniques derived from ecological surveys to establish four transects perpendicular to the shed, running through the apron, enriched belt and outer range. Number of hens in each 10 m × 10 m quadrat was recorded four times per day as was the temperature and relative humidity of the outer range. On average, 12.5% of hens were found outside. Of these, 5.4% were found in the apron; 4.3% in the enriched zone; and 2.8% were in the outer range. This pattern was supported by data from quadrats, where the density of hens sharply dropped with increasing distance from shed. Consequently, NND was greatest in the outer range, least in the apron and intermediate in the enriched belt. Hens sampled in outer range and enriched belts had better feather condition than those from the apron. Standing, ground pecking, walking and foraging were the most commonly recorded activities with standing and pecking most likely to occur in the apron, and walking and foraging more common in the outer range. Use of the outer range declined with lower temperatures and increasing relative humidity, though use of apron and enriched belt was not affected by variation in these measures. These data support previous findings that outer range

  17. Ranging Behaviour of Commercial Free-Range Laying Hens. (United States)

    Chielo, Leonard Ikenna; Pike, Tom; Cooper, Jonathan


    In this study, the range use and behaviour of laying hens in commercial free-range flocks was explored. Six flocks were each visited on four separate days and data collected from their outdoor area (divided into zones based on distance from shed and available resources). These were: apron (0-10 m from shed normally without cover or other enrichments); enriched belt (10-50 m from shed where resources such as manmade cover, saplings and dust baths were provided); and outer range (beyond 50 m from shed with no cover and mainly grass pasture). Data collection consisted of counting the number of hens in each zone and recording behaviour, feather condition and nearest neighbour distance (NND) of 20 birds per zone on each visit day. In addition, we used techniques derived from ecological surveys to establish four transects perpendicular to the shed, running through the apron, enriched belt and outer range. Number of hens in each 10 m × 10 m quadrat was recorded four times per day as was the temperature and relative humidity of the outer range. On average, 12.5% of hens were found outside. Of these, 5.4% were found in the apron; 4.3% in the enriched zone; and 2.8% were in the outer range. This pattern was supported by data from quadrats, where the density of hens sharply dropped with increasing distance from shed. Consequently, NND was greatest in the outer range, least in the apron and intermediate in the enriched belt. Hens sampled in outer range and enriched belts had better feather condition than those from the apron. Standing, ground pecking, walking and foraging were the most commonly recorded activities with standing and pecking most likely to occur in the apron, and walking and foraging more common in the outer range. Use of the outer range declined with lower temperatures and increasing relative humidity, though use of apron and enriched belt was not affected by variation in these measures. These data support previous findings that outer range areas tend to be

  18. Osprey Range - CWHR [ds601 (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model for...

  19. Short-range fundamental forces

    CERN Document Server

    Antoniadis, I; Buchner, M; Fedorov, V V; Hoedl, S; Lambrecht, A; Nesvizhevsky, V V; Pignol, G; Protasov, K V; Reynaud, S; Sobolev, Yu


    We consider theoretical motivations to search for extra short-range fundamental forces as well as experiments constraining their parameters. The forces could be of two types: 1) spin-independent forces, 2) spin-dependent axion-like forces. Differe nt experimental techniques are sensitive in respective ranges of characteristic distances. The techniques include measurements of gravity at short distances, searches for extra interactions on top of the Casimir force, precision atomic and neutron experim ents. We focus on neutron constraints, thus the range of characteristic distances considered here corresponds to the range accessible for neutron experiments.

  20. Cascade Mountain Range in Oregon (United States)

    Sherrod, David R.


    The Cascade mountain system extends from northern California to central British Columbia. In Oregon, it comprises the Cascade Range, which is 260 miles long and, at greatest breadth, 90 miles wide (fig. 1). Oregon’s Cascade Range covers roughly 17,000 square miles, or about 17 percent of the state, an area larger than each of the smallest nine of the fifty United States. The range is bounded on the east by U.S. Highways 97 and 197. On the west it reaches nearly to Interstate 5, forming the eastern margin of the Willamette Valley and, farther south, abutting the Coast Ranges

  1. and Cu(II)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    thereby enhancing higher affinity for the metal ions when compared to the monodentate ligands. Stability constant values of various metal ion complexes involving chelating ligands such as. Ni(II) – famotidine C8H15N7O2S3 complex, Cu-. Dapsone complex, Co(II), and Ni(II) – mixed ligand complexes of amino acids and ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Truba


    Full Text Available First, the complexes MCl2*HTMA*xH2O/SiO2 (M = Cu(II, Co(II, Mn(II with hexa-methylenetetramine (HMTA molecule weakly bound with a central M atom (CM ranging from 5.010-7 to 5.010-6 mol/g have been found to catalyse the ozone decomposition. Their activity and turnover number exceeded much those for MCl2*хН2О/ SiO2 acido complexes

  3. Ranging Behaviour of Commercial Free-Range Laying Hens (United States)

    Chielo, Leonard Ikenna; Pike, Tom; Cooper, Jonathan


    Simple Summary Commercial free-range production has become a significant sector of the fresh egg market due to legislation banning conventional cages and consumer preference for products perceived as welfare friendly, as access to outdoor range can lead to welfare benefits such as greater freedom of movement and enhanced behavioural opportunities. This study investigated dispersal patterns, feather condition and activity of laying hens in three distinct zones of the range area; the apron area near shed; enriched zone 10–50 m from shed; and outer range beyond 50 m, in six flocks of laying hens under commercial free-range conditions varying in size between 4000 and 24,000 hens. Each flock was visited for four days to record number of hens in each zone, their behaviour, feather condition and nearest neighbour distances (NND), as well as record temperature and relative humidity during the visit. Temperature and relative humidity varied across the study period in line with seasonal variations and influenced the use of range with fewer hens out of shed as temperature fell or relative humidity rose. On average, 12.5% of the hens were observed on the range and most of these hens were recorded in the apron zone as hen density decreased rapidly with increasing distance from the shed. Larger flocks appeared to have a lower proportion of hens on range. The hens used the range more in the early morning followed by a progressive decrease through to early afternoon. The NND was greatest in the outer range and decreased towards the shed. Feather condition was generally good and hens observed in the outer range had the best overall feather condition. Standing, pecking, walking and foraging were the most commonly recorded behaviours and of these, standing occurred most in the apron whereas walking and foraging behaviours were recorded most in the outer range. This study supported the findings of previous studies that reported few hens in the range and greater use of areas closer

  4. Lead poisoning in shooting-range workers in Gauteng Province ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    private indoor shooting range in greater Johannesburg. Blood lead levels were determined using a LeadCare II (Magellan Diagnostics,. USA) portable testing system, with a 50 μL aliquot of whole blood obtained from a finger prick following the thorough washing of hands with soap and water. Ethical approval for this work, ...

  5. Generators for renewable energy applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, C.


    Generators for renewable energy applications were discussed in this presentation. These applications included: hydel, wind, biomass, and solar thermal. Generators can be designed and manufactured to match the type of prime movers and their characteristics with basic design experience in the rotating electrical machines. Though the output power with these renewable systems range from small kilowatts to megawatts, the controls systems required are quite different depending on the site and the type of customers. There are many types of generators, including synchronous or asynchronous generators, or those with or without permanent magnets. They could also be with controls or without controls and with the grid or without the grid. They could also be slow speed or high speed; direct coupled or indirect; or single or dual or DFIG systems. Most of the generators being used are designed as generators meant for the specific prime movers characteristics. In many cases prime mover alone are not designed for prime mover applications.

  6. Achievement report for fiscal 1998 on development of power generation using fuel cells. Research and development of molten carbonate fuel cell (II-2, text of the achievement); 1998 nendo nenryo denchi hatsuden gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Yoyu tansan'engata nenryo denchi hatsuden system no kenkyu kaihatsu (II-2, kenkyu seika no honbun)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The effort aims at developing a 1000kW-class power plant and also at using gasified coal as fuel in the future. The fuel system facilities include a high-temperature blower. The exhaust heat recovery facilities comprise a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) and a turbine compressor. As for the electrical system facilities, an inverter is installed, tested, and adjusted. Control system facilities are also tested and adjusted. In relation with the operation of the plant, coordination is conducted about technological and process-related matters with the Kawagoe thermal power station of Chubu Electric Power Co., Inc., where the fuel cell power plant is to be constructed, which is for the smooth execution of a test run. Ceramic-based cathode materials are being developed, which is for the fabrication of stacks improved in performance, higher in current density, longer in life, and lower in cost. Also exerted are efforts at developing multiple-function electrolyte plates and metallic materials (for example for separator plating). The extent of the acceptability of impurities concentration and gas refining systems are also under study, which is to prepare for future coal gasification. Reference is also made to the study of a total system. (NEDO)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Guidi


    Full Text Available Since the advent of the first Kinect as motion controller device for the Microsoft XBOX platform (November 2010, several similar active and low-cost range sensing devices have been introduced on the mass-market for several purposes, including gesture based interfaces, 3D multimedia interaction, robot navigation, finger tracking, 3D body scanning for garment design and proximity sensors for automotive. However, given their capability to generate a real time stream of range images, these has been used in some projects also as general purpose range devices, with performances that for some applications might be satisfying. This paper shows the working principle of the various devices, analyzing them in terms of systematic errors and random errors for exploring the applicability of them in standard 3D capturing problems. Five actual devices have been tested featuring three different technologies: i Kinect V1 by Microsoft, Structure Sensor by Occipital, and Xtion PRO by ASUS, all based on different implementations of the Primesense sensor; ii F200 by Intel/Creative, implementing the Realsense pattern projection technology; Kinect V2 by Microsoft, equipped with the Canesta TOF Camera. A critical analysis of the results tries first of all to compare them, and secondarily to focus the range of applications for which such devices could actually work as a viable solution.

  8. D Capturing Performances of Low-Cost Range Sensors for Mass-Market Applications (United States)

    Guidi, G.; Gonizzi, S.; Micoli, L.


    Since the advent of the first Kinect as motion controller device for the Microsoft XBOX platform (November 2010), several similar active and low-cost range sensing devices have been introduced on the mass-market for several purposes, including gesture based interfaces, 3D multimedia interaction, robot navigation, finger tracking, 3D body scanning for garment design and proximity sensors for automotive. However, given their capability to generate a real time stream of range images, these has been used in some projects also as general purpose range devices, with performances that for some applications might be satisfying. This paper shows the working principle of the various devices, analyzing them in terms of systematic errors and random errors for exploring the applicability of them in standard 3D capturing problems. Five actual devices have been tested featuring three different technologies: i) Kinect V1 by Microsoft, Structure Sensor by Occipital, and Xtion PRO by ASUS, all based on different implementations of the Primesense sensor; ii) F200 by Intel/Creative, implementing the Realsense pattern projection technology; Kinect V2 by Microsoft, equipped with the Canesta TOF Camera. A critical analysis of the results tries first of all to compare them, and secondarily to focus the range of applications for which such devices could actually work as a viable solution.

  9. Parallel Polarization State Generation

    CERN Document Server

    She, Alan


    The control of polarization, an essential property of light, is of wide scientific and technological interest. The general problem of generating arbitrary time-varying states of polarization (SOP) has always been mathematically formulated by a series of linear transformations, i.e. a product of matrices, imposing a serial architecture. Here we show a parallel architecture described by a sum of matrices. The theory is experimentally demonstrated by modulating spatially-separated polarization components of a laser using a digital micromirror device that are subsequently beam combined. This method greatly expands the parameter space for engineering devices that control polarization. Consequently, performance characteristics, such as speed, stability, and spectral range, are entirely dictated by the technologies of optical intensity modulation, including absorption, reflection, emission, and scattering. This opens up important prospects for polarization state generation (PSG) with unique performance characteristi...

  10. Desert Experimental Range: Annotated bibliography (United States)

    E. Durant McArthur; Stanley G. Kitchen


    Entries qualify for inclusion if they were conducted in whole or part at the Desert Experimental Range (DER, also known as the Desert Range Experiment Station) or were based on DER research in whole or part. They do not qualify merely by the author having worked at the DER when the research was performed or prepared. Entries were drawn from the original abstracts or...

  11. A one-dimensional HgII coordination polymer based on bis(pyridin-3-ylmethylsulfane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suk-Hee Moon


    Full Text Available The reaction of mercury(II chloride with bis(pyridin-3-ylmethylsulfane (L, C12H12N2S in methanol afforded the title crystalline coordination polymer catena-poly[[dichloridomercury(II]-μ-bis(pyridin-3-ylmethylsulfane-κ2N:N′], [HgCl2L]n. The asymmetric unit consists of one HgII cation, one L ligand and two chloride anions. Each HgII ion is coordinated by two pyridine N atoms from separate L ligands and two chloride anions. The metal adopts a highly distorted tetrahedral geometry, with bond angles about the central atom in the range 97.69 (12–153.86 (7°. Each L ligand bridges two HgII ions, forming an infinite –(Hg–Ln– zigzag chain along the b axis, with an Hg...Hg separation of 10.3997 (8 Å. In the crystal, adjacent chains are connected by intermolecular C—H...Cl hydrogen bonds, together with Hg—Cl...π interactions [chloride-to-centroid distance = 3.902 (3 Å], that form between a chloride anion and the one of the pyridine rings of L, generating a two-dimensional layer extending parallel to (101. These layers are further linked by intermolecular C—H...π hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional supramolecular network.

  12. Foraging optimally for home ranges (United States)

    Mitchell, Michael S.; Powell, Roger A.


    Economic models predict behavior of animals based on the presumption that natural selection has shaped behaviors important to an animal's fitness to maximize benefits over costs. Economic analyses have shown that territories of animals are structured by trade-offs between benefits gained from resources and costs of defending them. Intuitively, home ranges should be similarly structured, but trade-offs are difficult to assess because there are no costs of defense, thus economic models of home-range behavior are rare. We present economic models that predict how home ranges can be efficient with respect to spatially distributed resources, discounted for travel costs, under 2 strategies of optimization, resource maximization and area minimization. We show how constraints such as competitors can influence structure of homes ranges through resource depression, ultimately structuring density of animals within a population and their distribution on a landscape. We present simulations based on these models to show how they can be generally predictive of home-range behavior and the mechanisms that structure the spatial distribution of animals. We also show how contiguous home ranges estimated statistically from location data can be misleading for animals that optimize home ranges on landscapes with patchily distributed resources. We conclude with a summary of how we applied our models to nonterritorial black bears (Ursus americanus) living in the mountains of North Carolina, where we found their home ranges were best predicted by an area-minimization strategy constrained by intraspecific competition within a social hierarchy. Economic models can provide strong inference about home-range behavior and the resources that structure home ranges by offering falsifiable, a priori hypotheses that can be tested with field observations.

  13. Trip generation characteristics of special generators (United States)


    Special generators are introduced in the sequential four-step modeling procedure to represent certain types of facilities whose trip generation characteristics are not fully captured by the standard trip generation module. They are also used in the t...

  14. Commissioning of NSLS-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willeke, F.


    NSLS-II, the new 3rd generation light source at BNL was designed for a brightness of 1022 photons s-1mm-2mrad-2 (0.1%BW)-1. It was constructed between 2009 and 2014. The storage ring was commissioned in April 2014 which was followed by insertion device and beamline commissioning in the fall of 2014. All ambitious design parameters of the facility have already been achieved except for commissioning the full beam intensity of 500mA which requires more RF installation. This paper reports on the results of commissioning.

  15. Late Mesozoic basin and range tectonics and related magmatism in Southeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dezi Wang


    Full Text Available During the Late Mesozoic Middle Jurassic–Late Cretaceous, basin and range tectonics and associated magmatism representative of an extensional tectonic setting was widespread in southeastern China as a result of Pacific Plate subduction. Basin tectonics consists of post-orogenic (Type I and intra-continental extensional basins (Type II. Type I basins developed in the piedmont and intraland during the Late Triassic to Early Jurassic, in which coarse-grained terrestrial clastic sediments were deposited. Type II basins formed during intra-continental crustal thinning and were characterized by the development of grabens and half-grabens. Graben basins were mainly generated during the Middle Jurassic and were associated with bimodal volcanism. Sediments in half-grabens are intercalated with rhyolitic tuffs and lavas and are Early Cretaceous in age with a dominance of Late Cretaceous–Paleogene red beds. Ranges are composed of granitoids and bimodal volcanic rocks, A-type granites and dome-type metamorphic core complexes. The authors analyzed lithological, geochemical and geochronological features of the Late Mesozoic igneous rock assemblages and proposed some geodynamical constraints on forming the basin and range tectonics of South China. A comparison of the similarities and differences of basin and range tectonics between the eastern and western shores of the Pacific is made, and the geodynamical evolution model of the Southeast China Block during Late Mesozoic is discussed. Studied results suggest that the basin and range terrane within South China developed on a pre-Mesozoic folded belt was derived from a polyphase tectonic evolution mainly constrained by subduction of the western Pacific Plate since the Late Mesozoic, leading to formation of various magmatism in a back-arc extensional setting. Its geodynamic mechanism can compare with that of basin and range tectonics in the eastern shore of the Pacific. Differences of basin and range

  16. Influence of different mineral and Organic pesticide treatments on Cd(II), Cu(II), Pb(II), and Zn(II) contents determined by derivative potentiometric stripping analysis in Italian white and red wines. (United States)

    Salvo, Francesco; La Pera, Lara; Di Bella, Giuseppa; Nicotina, Mariano; Dugo, Giacomo


    This paper deals with the use of derivative potentiometric stripping analysis (dPSA) as a rapid and precise method to determine Cd(II), Cu(II), Pb(II), and Zn(II) levels in red and white wine samples from Sicily, Campania, and Tuscany and to investigate the possible connection between the content of these metals and the pesticide treatments used in vine-growing to control plant diseases and pests. dPSA allowed direct quantitation of heavy metals in acidified wines without any sample pretreatment. Mean recoveries of Cd(II), Cu(II), Pb(II), and Zn(II) ranged from 95.5 to 99.2% for white wine samples and from 96.1 to 100.0% for red wine samples. The obtained results showed that Cd(II) was not found in any sample and that Cu(II), Pb(II), and Zn(II) levels were always lower than the toxicity limits in both fungicide- and water-treated wines. Nevertheless, the contents of metals were increased in samples from organic and inorganic pesticides treatment with respect to the water-treated samples. In particular, quinoxyfen, dinocap-penconazole, and dinocap applications considerably increased Cu(II) and Zn(II) contents in white and red wines. The levels of lead were significantly raised by azoxystrobin and sulfur treatments.

  17. Time series of weekly TRF realizations from laser ranging to LAGEOS 1 and 2 (United States)

    Pavlis, E.


    The JCET/GSFC Associate Analysis Center for the International Laser Ranging Service (ILRS) has for many years generated weekly solutions for the Terrestrial Reference Frame (TRF) on the basis of satellite laser ranging (SLR) data from LAGEOS 1 and 2. A complete series of such solutions has been generated in the form of SINEX files, suitable for combination with similar results from other techniques. We present here the results of a new re-analysis of the expanded data set 1993 to present, for the definition of the TRF and its crust-fixed orientation (EOP). The TRF plays an important role in the multi-technique monitoring of temporal variations in the gravitational field and its very low degree and order components, as well as changes in the inertia tensor as a result of angular momentum exchanges in the Earth system. This work is being done in the framework of the ILRS Pilot Project for, amongst other things, the precise estimation of the EOP from SLR data in a routine fashion, and the combination of various contributions (SLR and others) into a single, robust and consistent realization. The SLR data were reduced using NASA Goddard’s GEODYN/SOLVE II software. We will discuss our solution for the TRF, EOP and the geocenter, compare them to results from other techniques, and give examples of results obtained through the combination of such series.

  18. The fourth generation in supergravity (United States)

    Enqvist, K.; Nanopoulos, D. V.; Zwirner, F.


    We consider model-independent constraints on the fourth-generation fermion masses and the magnitude of the D-term contribution to the scalar masses. We find that the ratio of vacuum expectation values is limited to the range 1/5 ~ 150 GeV. A general feature of the four-generation models is thus a heavy spectrum of sparticles. On leave from International School for Advanced Studies, Trieste, and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Padua, Italy.

  19. Entropy generation analysis of an adsorption cooling cycle

    KAUST Repository

    Thu, Kyaw


    This paper discusses the analysis of an adsorption (AD) chiller using system entropy generation as a thermodynamic framework for evaluating total dissipative losses that occurred in a batch-operated AD cycle. The study focuses on an adsorption cycle operating at heat source temperatures ranging from 60 to 85 °C, whilst the chilled water inlet temperature is fixed at 12.5 °C,-a temperature of chilled water deemed useful for dehumidification and cooling. The total entropy generation model examines the processes of key components of the AD chiller such as the heat and mass transfer, flushing and de-superheating of liquid refrigerant. The following key findings are observed: (i) The cycle entropy generation increases with the increase in the heat source temperature (10.8 to 46.2 W/K) and the largest share of entropy generation or rate of energy dissipation occurs at the adsorption process, (ii) the second highest energy rate dissipation is the desorption process, (iii) the remaining energy dissipation rates are the evaporation and condensation processes, respectively. Some of the noteworthy highlights from the study are the inevitable but significant dissipative losses found in switching processes of adsorption-desorption and vice versa, as well as the de-superheating of warm condensate that is refluxed at non-thermal equilibrium conditions from the condenser to the evaporator for the completion of the refrigeration cycle. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Reference Ranges & What They Mean (United States)

    ... Chains Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG) Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli Sickle Cell Tests Sirolimus Smooth Muscle ... If you're trying to follow a healthy lifestyle, take test results that are within range as ...

  1. Kenai National Moose Range Alaska (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This book presents a summary of the history, wildlife, recreational opportunities, economic uses, and future plans for Kenai National Moose Range.

  2. Spectrophotometric study of Co(II, Ni(II, Cu(II, Zn(II, Pd(II and Hg(II complexes with isatin- β-thiosemicarbazone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The composition and stability of the complexes of isatin-b-thiosemicarba­zone with Co(II, Ni(II, Cu(II, Zn(II, Pd(II and Hg(II have been investigated us­ing spectrophotometric method at 30 °C and constant ionic strength of 0.1 mol dm-3 (KNO3 in 70 % ethanol. Experimental results indicate the formation of MeL and MeL2 complexes for Ni(II and Co(II, and MeL for Cu(II, Zn(II, Pd(II and Hg(II complexes, whose stability constants, bn, have been calculated using a com­puteri­zed iterative method of successive approximation.

  3. RADAP II, an interim radar data processor (United States)

    Greene, D. R.; Nilsen, J. D.; Saffle, R. E.; Holmes, D. W.; Hudlow, M. D.; Ahnert, P. R.

    The RADAP (radar data processor) II system, which is developed by the National Weather Service and is a follow-up of the D/RADEX (Digitized Radar Experiment) is described. RADAP maintains the present automatic digital processing capabilities at the D/RADEX sites and extends these capabilities to include 10 network sites in order to fulfill the digital radar data requirements during the period before the production of the Next-Generation Weather Radar (NEXRAD) systems. Consideration is given to the current and future users of the RADAP II data, to the system capability, operational requirements, and hardware; to the installation schedule, and to the products of RADAP II. RADAP II is used for the continued development and testing of applications software to provide feedback on the operational usefulness of the software which is critical to the successful design and development of the NEXRAD system.

  4. Range doppler dynamic range considerations for dechirp on receive radar

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Witt, JJ


    Full Text Available [1 + epsilon1(t−∆t) + κ(t−∆t)] (14) where epsilon1(t) denotes the amplitude error function introduced by the signal path shared by both signals, while κ(t) denotes the error affecting only the transmitted signal. As suggested in [3], we may once again write...-B). II. MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF DECHIRP PROCESSING We start by writing the expression for the LFM LO signal as sLO(t) = A1 cos[ω1t+ a/2t 2] (1) where A1 denotes the amplitude, ω1 the centre frequency in rad/s and a the chriprate in rad/s2. We model...

  5. Characteristics of different frequency ranges in scanning electron microscope images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sim, K. S., E-mail:; Nia, M. E.; Tan, T. L.; Tso, C. P.; Ee, C. S. [Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Multimedia University, 75450 Melaka (Malaysia)


    We demonstrate a new approach to characterize the frequency range in general scanning electron microscope (SEM) images. First, pure frequency images are generated from low frequency to high frequency, and then, the magnification of each type of frequency image is implemented. By comparing the edge percentage of the SEM image to the self-generated frequency images, we can define the frequency ranges of the SEM images. Characterization of frequency ranges of SEM images benefits further processing and analysis of those SEM images, such as in noise filtering and contrast enhancement.

  6. Laboratory development TPV generator (United States)

    Holmquist, Glenn A.; Wong, Eva M.; Waldman, Cye H.


    A laboratory model of a TPV generator in the kilowatt range was developed and tested. It was based on methane/oxygen combustion and a spectrally matched selective emitter/collector pair (ytterbia emitter-silicon PV cell). The system demonstrated a power output of 2.4 kilowatts at an overall efficiency of 4.5% without recuperation of heat from the exhaust gases. Key aspects of the effort include: 1) process development and fabrication of mechanically strong selective emitter ceramic textile materials; 2) design of a stirred reactor emitter/burner capable of handling up to 175,000 Btu/hr fuel flows; 3) support to the developer of the production silicon concentrator cells capable of withstanding TPV environments; 4) assessing the apparent temperature exponent of selective emitters; and 5) determining that the remaining generator efficiency improvements are readily defined combustion engineering problems that do not necessitate breakthrough technology. The fiber matrix selective emitter ceramic textile (felt) was fabricated by a relic process with the final heat-treatment controlling the grain growth in the porous ceramic fiber matrix. This textile formed a cylindrical cavity for a stirred reactor. The ideal stirred reactor is characterized by constant temperature combustion resulting in a uniform reactor temperature. This results in a uniform radiant emission from the emitter. As a result of significant developments in the porous emitter matrix technology, a TPV generator burner/emitter was developed that produced kilowatts of radiant energy.

  7. Angiotensin II attenuates the natriuresis of water immersion in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Morten; Gabrielsen, Anders; Bruun, Niels Eske


    The hypothesis was tested that suppression of generation of ANG II is one of the mechanisms of the water immersion (WI)-induced natriuresis in humans. In one protocol, eight healthy young males were subjected to 3 h of 1) WI (WI + placebo), 2) WI combined with ANG II infusion of 0.5 ng. kg(-1). m...

  8. Quininium tetrachloridozinc(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Zhuang Chen


    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title compound {systematic name: 2-[hydroxy(6-methoxyquinolin-1-ium-4-ylmethyl]-8-vinylquinuclidin-1-ium tetrachloridozinc(II}, (C20H26N2O2[ZnCl4], consists of a double protonated quininium cation and a tetrachloridozinc(II anion. The ZnII ion is in a slightly distorted tetrahedral coordination environment. The crystal structure is stabilized by intermolecular N—H...Cl and O—H...Cl hydrogen bonds.

  9. Burkina Faso - BRIGHT II (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — Millennium Challenge Corporation hired Mathematica Policy Research to conduct an independent evaluation of the BRIGHT II program. The three main research questions...

  10. Type II universal spacetimes (United States)

    Hervik, S.; Málek, T.; Pravda, V.; Pravdová, A.


    We study type II universal metrics of the Lorentzian signature. These metrics simultaneously solve vacuum field equations of all theories of gravitation with the Lagrangian being a polynomial curvature invariant constructed from the metric, the Riemann tensor and its covariant derivatives of an arbitrary order. We provide examples of type II universal metrics for all composite number dimensions. On the other hand, we have no examples for prime number dimensions and we prove the non-existence of type II universal spacetimes in five dimensions. We also present type II vacuum solutions of selected classes of gravitational theories, such as Lovelock, quadratic and L({{Riemann}}) gravities.

  11. Coronal magnetic fields from multiple type II bursts (United States)

    Honnappa, Vijayakumar; Raveesha, K. H.; Subramanian, K. R.

    Coronal magnetic fields from multiple type II bursts Vijayakumar H Doddamani1*, Raveesha K H2 and Subramanian3 1Bangalore University, Bangalore, Karnataka state, India 2CMR Institute of Technology, Bangalore, Karnataka state, India 3 Retd, Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Bangalore, Karnataka state, India Abstract Magnetic fields play an important role in the astrophysical processes occurring in solar corona. In the solar atmosphere, magnetic field interacts with the plasma, producing abundant eruptive activities. They are considered to be the main factors for coronal heating, particle acceleration and the formation of structures like prominences, flares and Coronal Mass Ejections. The magnetic field in solar atmosphere in the range of 1.1-3 Rsun is especially important as an interface between the photospheric magnetic field and the solar wind. Its structure and time dependent change affects space weather by modifying solar wind conditions, Cho (2000). Type II doublet bursts can be used for the estimation of the strength of the magnetic field at two different heights. Two type II bursts occur sometimes in sequence. By relating the speed of the type II radio burst to Alfven Mach Number, the Alfven speed of the shock wave generating type II radio burst can be calculated. Using the relation between the Alfven speed and the mean frequency of emission, the magnetic field strength can be determined at a particular height. We have used the relative bandwidth and drift rate properties of multiple type II radio bursts to derive magnetic field strengths at two different heights and also the gradient of the magnetic field in the outer corona. The magnetic field strength has been derived for different density factors. It varied from 1.2 to 2.5 gauss at a solar height of 1.4 Rsun. The empirical relation of the variation of the magnetic field with height is found to be of the form B(R) = In the present case the power law index ‘γ’ varied from -3 to -2 for variation of

  12. Wide Operational Range Thermal Sensor (United States)

    Goebel, John H. (Inventor); McMurray, Robert E., Jr. (Inventor)


    Bolometer system and method for detecting, at BLIP levels, presence of radiation over a broad range of wavelengths in an infrared spectrum and in a temperature range from 20 K to as high as room temperature. The radiation is received by a Si crystal having a region that is doped with one or more of In, Ga, S, Se, Te, B, Al, P, As and Sb in a concentration ratio in a range such as 5 x 10(exp -11) to 5 x 10(exp -6). Change in electrical resistance delta R due to receipt of the radiation is measured through a change in voltage difference or current within the crystal, and the quantity delta R is converted to an estimate of the amount of radiation received. Optionally, incident radiation having an energy high enough to promote photoconductivity is removed before detection.

  13. GEA CRDA Range Data Analysis (United States)


    E1, July-August 1998 18 3.3. Example 3: SatMex, Solidaridad 2, May-June 1998 27 3.4. Example 4: PanAmSat, Galaxy IV, May-June 1998 33 3.5...17 Millstone measurements residuals for Telstar 401 on Days 181-263. 26 3-18 Millstone measurement residuals for Solidaridad 1 on Days 141-153...with 29 SatMex range data. 3-19 Hermosillo B-- Solidaridad 1 range residuals through Days 135-144 with bias 30 removed. 3-20 Iztapalapa D

  14. Parallel Track Initiation for Optical Space Surveillance Using Range and Range Rate Bounds (United States)

    Schumacher, P.; Roscoe, C.; Wilkins, M.


    As new optical sensors come online and more optical observations become available for space objects previously too small or too far away to detect, the space surveillance community is presented with the computationally challenging problem of generating initial orbit solutions (data association hypotheses) for a large number of short-arc line-of-sight observations. Traditional methods of angles-only orbit determination do not scale well to large problems because of the large number of combinations of observations that must be evaluated, since these methods require at least 3 observations for each initial orbit determination (IOD). On the other hand, if unique ranges are known (or assumed) then IOD can be performed with 2 observations using a Lambert-based approach. Furthermore, if angles and angle rates are available and range and range rate are both known (or assumed) then a complete orbit solution can be obtained for a single observation and the IOD computational load is only O(N). One possible method to deal with line-of-sight data is to assign a number of range hypotheses to each angles-only observation and develop data association hypotheses to be either confirmed or eliminated for each one. This approach would allow the use of the already proven Search and Determine (SAD) algorithm and software that was designed for generating and testing data association hypotheses for position-type observations typical of radar sensors. If the number of range hypotheses can be limited then this method will be more computationally efficient than performing pure angles-only IOD. If angle rates are available or can be derived from the observation data then another possible approach is to assign range and range rate hypotheses to each angle-angle rate pair and develop data association hypotheses based on their corresponding orbit solutions, which will be extremely efficient if the range-range rate hypothesis set can be limited. For both of these methods, once range and range


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chemical speciation of Pb(II), Cd(II), Hg(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) complexes of L-methionine in 0.0-60 % v/v 1,2-propanediol-water mixtures maintaining an ionic strength of 0.16 M at 303 K has been studied pH metrically. The active forms of ligand are LH2+, LH and L-. The predominant species detected are ML, ...

  16. (Diethylenetriaminebis(theophyllinatozinc(II dihydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila-Zsolt Kun


    Full Text Available In the title compound, [Zn(C7H7N4O22(C4H13N3]·2H2O, the ZnII ion is pentacoordinated by three N atoms of the diethylenetriamine ligand and one N atom of each of the two theophyllinate anions in a distorted trigonal-bipyramidal geometry. The Zn—N distances range from 2.076 (3 to 2.221 (3 Å. The crystal packing is stabilized by O—H...O, O—H...N and N—H...O hydrogen bonds involving the theophylline and diethylenetriamine ligands and uncoordinated water molecules.

  17. Current Trends in Satellite Laser Ranging (United States)

    Pearlman, M. R.; Appleby, G. M.; Kirchner, G.; McGarry, J.; Murphy, T.; Noll, C. E.; Pavlis, E. C.; Pierron, F.


    Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) techniques are used to accurately measure the distance from ground stations to retroreflectors on satellites and the moon. SLR is one of the fundamental techniques that define the international Terrestrial Reference Frame (iTRF), which is the basis upon which we measure many aspects of global change over space, time, and evolving technology. It is one of the fundamental techniques that define at a level of precision of a few mm the origin and scale of the ITRF. Laser Ranging provides precision orbit determination and instrument calibration/validation for satellite-borne altimeters for the better understanding of sea level change, ocean dynamics, ice budget, and terrestrial topography. Laser ranging is also a tool to study the dynamics of the Moon and fundamental constants. Many of the GNSS satellites now carry retro-reflectors for improved orbit determination, harmonization of reference frames, and in-orbit co-location and system performance validation. The GNSS Constellations will be the means of making the reference frame available to worldwide users. Data and products from these measurements support key aspects of the GEOSS 10-Year implementation Plan adopted on February 16, 2005, The ITRF has been identified as a key contribution of the JAG to GEOSS and the ILRS makes a major contribution for its development since its foundation. The ILRS delivers weekly additional realizations that are accumulated sequentially to extend the ITRF and the Earth Orientation Parameter (EOP) series with a daily resolution. Additional products are currently under development such as precise orbits of satellites, EOP with daily availability, low-degree gravitational harmonics for studies of Earth dynamics and kinematics, etc. SLR technology continues to evolve toward the next generation laser ranging systems as programmatic requirements become more stringent. Ranging accuracy is improving as higher repetition rate, narrower pulse lasers and faster

  18. Leading Generation Y

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Newman, Jill M


    .... Whether referred to as the Millennial Generation, Generation Y or the Next Generation, the Army needs to consider the gap between Boomers, Generation X and the Soldiers that fill our junior ranks...

  19. Capability curve analysis of photovoltaic generation systems


    Cabrera Tobar, Ana; Bullich Massagué, Eduard; Aragüés Peñalba, Mònica; Gomis Bellmunt, Oriol


    The present article assesses the study of the PV generator capability curves for use in large scale photovoltaic power plants (LS-PVPPs). For this purpose, the article focuses on three main aspects: (i) the modelling of the main components of the PV generator, (ii) the operational limits analysis of the PV array together with the inverter, and (iii) the capability curve analysis considering variable solar irradiance and temperature. To validate this study a PVPP of 1 MW is designed, modelled ...

  20. NSLS-II storage ring insertion device and front-end commissioning and operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, G., E-mail:; Shaftan, T.; Amundsen, C.; Bassi, G.; Bengtsson, J.; Blednykh, A.; Blum, E.; Cheng, W.; Choi, J.; Chubar, O.; Corwin, T.; Davidsaver, M.; Doom, L.; Guo, W.; Harder, D.; Hidaka, Y.; Hu, Y.; Ilinski, P.; Kitegi, C.; Kramer, S. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); and others


    The National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II) is a state of the art 3 GeV third generation light source at Brookhaven National Laboratory. During spring/ summer of 2014, the storage ring was commissioned up to 50 mA without insertion devices. In the fall of 2014, we began commissioning of the project beamlines, which included seven insertion devices on six ID ports. Beamlines IXS, HXN, CSX-1, CSX-2, CHX, SRX, and XPD-1 consist of elliptically polarized undulator (EPU), damping wigglers (DW) and in-vacuum undulators (IVU) covering from VUV to hard x-ray range. In this paper, experience with commissioning and operation is discussed. We focus on reaching storage ring performance with IDs, including injection, design emittance, compensation of orbit distortions caused by ID residual field, source point stability, beam alignment and tools for control, monitoring and protection of the ring chambers from ID radiation.

  1. Improved Range Searching Lower Bounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kasper Green; Nguyen, Huy L.


    by constructing a hard input set and query set, and then invoking Chazelle and Rosenberg's [CGTA'96] general theorem on the complexity of navigation in the pointer machine. For the group model, we show that input sets and query sets that are hard for range reporting in the pointer machine (i.e. by Chazelle...

  2. Anatomy of a Mountain Range. (United States)

    Chew, Berkeley


    Provides written tour of Colorado Rockies along San Juan Skyway in which the geological features and formation of the mountain range is explored. Discusses evidence of geologic forces and products such as plate tectonic movement and the Ancestral Rockies; subduction and the Laramide Orogeny; volcanism and calderas; erosion, faulting, land…

  3. Mobile Lunar Laser Ranging Station (United States)

    Intellect, 1977


    Harlan Smith, chairman of the University of Texas's Astronomy Department, discusses a mobile lunar laser ranging station which could help determine the exact rates of movement between continents and help geophysicists understand earthquakes. He also discusses its application for studying fundamental concepts of cosmology and physics. (Editor/RK)

  4. Range Compressed Holographic Aperture Ladar (United States)


    step 1. This image can be obtained through any digital holography processing technique and contains no range information. Since the penny has a... digital holography, laser, active imaging , remote sensing, laser imaging 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT: SAR 8...30 15. Digital Hologram Image

  5. Mandibular movement range in children. (United States)

    Machado, Barbara Cristina Zanandréa; Medeiros, Ana Paula Magalhães; Felício, Cláudia Maria de


    identification of the mandibular movement range is an important procedure in the evaluation of the stomatognathic system. However, there are few studies in children that focus on normal parameters or abnormalities. to determine the average range of mandibular movements in Brazilian children aged 6 to 12 years; to verify the difference between genders, in each age group, and between the different age groups: 6-8 years; 8.1-10 years; and 10.1-12 years. participants of the study were 240 healthy children selected among regular students from local schools of São Paulo State. The maximum mandibular opening, lateral excursion and protrusive movements, and deviation of the medium line, if present, were measured using a digital caliper. Student T test, Analysis of variance and Tukey test were considered significant for p mandibular opening; 7.71mm for lateral excursion to the right; 7.92mm for lateral excursion to the left; 7.45mm for protrusive movements. No statistical difference was observed between genders. There was a gradual increase in the range of mandibular movements, with significant differences mainly between the ages of 6-8 years and 10.1-12 years. during childhood the range of mandibular movements increases. Age should be considered in this analysis for a greater precision in the diagnosis.

  6. Small Diameter Bomb Increment II (SDB II) (United States)


    Related Operations and Maintenance ACAT - Acquisition Category ADM - Acquisition Decision Memorandum APB - Acquisition Program Baseline APPN...DoN) ACAT ID program, with the USAF as the lead service. SDB II provides the warfighter the capability to attack mobile targets from stand-off, through

  7. Removal of nickel(II and palladium(II from surface waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Sharifzade


    Full Text Available A new sorbent was prepared using alumina and 5-Br-PADAP, and its adsorption ability for the removal of Ni(II and Pd(II from different waters was investigated. The procedure is based on retention of the analytes on the alumina load with 5-Br-PADAP at pH ~ 6. The separation/preconcentration conditions for the quantitative recoveries were investigated. The limit of detections (LOD based on three times the standard deviations of the blank, were 0.187 and 0.253 ng mL-1 for Ni(II and Pd(II, respectively. Obtained sorption capacities for 1 g sorbent were 6.0 mg Ni(II and 11.0 mg Pd(II. The linearity was maintained in the concentration range of 0.625 to 6.0 ng mL-1 for Ni(II and 0.416 to 7.0 ng mL-1 for Pd(II in the original solution. Eight replicate determinations of a mixture containing 2.0 µg mL-1 each of the elements in the final solution gave relative standard deviation of ±0.82 and ±1.12% for Ni(II and Pd(II, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination trace amounts of Ni(II and Pd(II in the surface water samples.DOI:

  8. Type II Supernova Spectral Diversity. II. Spectroscopic and Photometric Correlations (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Claudia P.; Anderson, Joseph P.; Hamuy, Mario; González-Gaitan, Santiago; Galbany, Lluis; Dessart, Luc; Stritzinger, Maximilian D.; Phillips, Mark M.; Morrell, Nidia; Folatelli, Gastón


    We present an analysis of observed trends and correlations between a large range of spectral and photometric parameters of more than 100 type II supernovae (SNe II), during the photospheric phase. We define a common epoch for all SNe of 50 days post-explosion, where the majority of the sample is likely to be under similar physical conditions. Several correlation matrices are produced to search for interesting trends between more than 30 distinct light-curve and spectral properties that characterize the diversity of SNe II. Overall, SNe with higher expansion velocities are brighter, have more rapidly declining light curves, shorter plateau durations, and higher 56Ni masses. Using a larger sample than previous studies, we argue that “Pd”—the plateau duration from the transition of the initial to “plateau” decline rates to the end of the “plateau”—is a better indicator of the hydrogen envelope mass than the traditionally used optically thick phase duration (OPTd: explosion epoch to end of plateau). This argument is supported by the fact that Pd also correlates with s 3, the light-curve decline rate at late times: lower Pd values correlate with larger s 3 decline rates. Large s 3 decline rates are likely related to lower envelope masses, which enables gamma-ray escape. We also find a significant anticorrelation between Pd and s 2 (the plateau decline rate), confirming the long standing hypothesis that faster declining SNe II (SNe IIL) are the result of explosions with lower hydrogen envelope masses and therefore have shorter Pd values. This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile; and the Gemini Observatory, Cerro Pachon, Chile (Gemini Program GS- 2008B-Q-56). Based on observations collected at the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, Chile (ESO Programs 076.A-0156, 078.D-0048, 080.A-0516, and 082.A-0526).

  9. Second harmonic generation from the `centrosymmetric' crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatram Nalla


    Full Text Available Second harmonic generation (SHG is a well known non-linear optical phenomena which can be observed only in non-centrosymmetric crystals due to non-zero hyperpolarizability. In the current work we observed SHG from a Zn(II complex which was originally thought to have crystallized in the centrosymmetric space group C2/c. This has been attributed to the unequal antiparallel packing of the metal complexes in the non-symmetric space group Cc or residual non-centrosymmetry in C2/c giving rise to polarizability leading to strong SHG. The enhancement of SHG by UV light has been attributed to the increase in non-centrosymmetry and hence polarity of packing due to strain induced in the crystals. The SHG signals measured from these crystals were as large as potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystals, KH2PO4 (KDP, and showed temperature dependence. The highest SHG efficiency was observed at 50 K. The SHG phenomenon was observed at broad wavelengths ranging from visible to below-red in these crystals.

  10. Copper (II) Complex

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    ABSTRACT: N – histidyl – 2, 4 – pentanedione Schiff base was prepared from the reaction of histidine and 2, 4 - pentandione. The reaction of methanolic solution of N – histidyl – 2, 4 – pentanedione Schiff base with ethanolic solution of copper (II) chloride gave diaquo bis( N – histidyl - 2, 4 - pentanedionato) copper (II) ...

  11. Synthesis and characterisation of Cu (II), Ni (II), Mn (II), Zn (II) and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... are square-planar except the Mn(II) and VO(II) chelates, which are of octahedral and square pyramidal geometry respectively. The monomeric and neutral nature of the complexes was confirmed by their magnetic susceptibility data and low conductance values. The ESR spectra of copper and vanadyl complexes in DMSO ...

  12. Rom II-forordningen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pii, Tine; Nielsen, Peter Arnt


    Artiklen redegør for de vigtigste regler i Europaparlamentets og Rådets forordning om lovvalgsregler for forpligtelser uden for kontraktforhold (Rom II) og sammenligner dem med dansk ret.......Artiklen redegør for de vigtigste regler i Europaparlamentets og Rådets forordning om lovvalgsregler for forpligtelser uden for kontraktforhold (Rom II) og sammenligner dem med dansk ret....

  13. Precision moisture generation and measurement.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornberg, Steven Michael; White, Michael I.; Irwin, Adriane Nadine


    In many industrial processes, gaseous moisture is undesirable as it can lead to metal corrosion, polymer degradation, and other materials aging processes. However, generating and measuring precise moisture concentrations is challenging due to the need to cover a broad concentration range (parts-per-billion to percent) and the affinity of moisture to a wide range surfaces and materials. This document will discuss the techniques employed by the Mass Spectrometry Laboratory of the Materials Reliability Department at Sandia National Laboratories to generate and measure known gaseous moisture concentrations. This document highlights the use of a chilled mirror and primary standard humidity generator for the characterization of aluminum oxide moisture sensors. The data presented shows an excellent correlation in frost point measured between the two instruments, and thus provides an accurate and reliable platform for characterizing moisture sensors and performing other moisture related experiments.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald C. Timpe; Michael D. Mann; Darren D. Schmidt


    evaluated through reactivity and product composition were carried out on thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) equipment. These tests were evaluated and then followed by bench-scale studies at 1123 K using an integrated bench-scale fluidized-bed gasifier (IBG) which can be operated in the semicontinuous batch mode. Products from tests were solid (ash), liquid (tar), and gas. Tar was separated on an open chromatographic column. Analysis of the gas product was carried out using on-line Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). For selected tests, gas was collected periodically and analyzed using a refinery gas analyzer GC (gas chromatograph). The solid product was not extensively analyzed. This report is a part of a search into emerging gasification technologies that can provide power under 30 MW in a distributed generation setting. Larger-scale gasification has been used commercially for more than 50 years to produce clean synthesis gas for the refining, chemical, and power industries, and it is probable that scaled-down applications for use in remote areas will become viable. The appendix to this report contains a list, description, and sources of currently available gasification technologies that could be or are being commercially applied for distributed generation. This list was gathered from current sources and provides information about the supplier, the relative size range, and the status of the technology.

  15. Reforming of fuel inside fuel cell generator (United States)

    Grimble, Ralph E.


    Disclosed is an improved method of reforming a gaseous reformable fuel within a solid oxide fuel cell generator, wherein the solid oxide fuel cell generator has a plurality of individual fuel cells in a refractory container, the fuel cells generating a partially spent fuel stream and a partially spent oxidant stream. The partially spent fuel stream is divided into two streams, spent fuel stream I and spent fuel stream II. Spent fuel stream I is burned with the partially spent oxidant stream inside the refractory container to produce an exhaust stream. The exhaust stream is divided into two streams, exhaust stream I and exhaust stream II, and exhaust stream I is vented. Exhaust stream II is mixed with spent fuel stream II to form a recycle stream. The recycle stream is mixed with the gaseous reformable fuel within the refractory container to form a fuel stream which is supplied to the fuel cells. Also disclosed is an improved apparatus which permits the reforming of a reformable gaseous fuel within such a solid oxide fuel cell generator. The apparatus comprises a mixing chamber within the refractory container, means for diverting a portion of the partially spent fuel stream to the mixing chamber, means for diverting a portion of exhaust gas to the mixing chamber where it is mixed with the portion of the partially spent fuel stream to form a recycle stream, means for injecting the reformable gaseous fuel into the recycle stream, and means for circulating the recycle stream back to the fuel cells.

  16. Short-range communication system (United States)

    Alhorn, Dean C. (Inventor); Howard, David E. (Inventor); Smith, Dennis A. (Inventor)


    A short-range communication system includes an antenna, a transmitter, and a receiver. The antenna is an electrical conductor formed as a planar coil with rings thereof being uniformly spaced. The transmitter is spaced apart from the plane of the coil by a gap. An amplitude-modulated and asynchronous signal indicative of a data stream of known peak amplitude is transmitted into the gap. The receiver detects the coil's resonance and decodes same to recover the data stream.

  17. Countering short range ballistic missiles


    Conner, George W.; Ehiers, Mark A.; Marshall, Kneale T.


    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Concepts commonly found in ASW search are used to model the flow and detection of mobile launchers for short range ballistic missiles. Emphasis is on detection and destruction of the launcher before launch. The benefit of pre-hostility intelligence and pre-missile-launch prosecution, the backbone of successful ASW, is revealed through the analysis of a circulation model which reflects the standard operations of a third world mobile mi...

  18. Engineering high reliability, low-jitter Marx generators (United States)

    Schneider, L. X.; Lockwood, G. J.

    Multimodule pulsed power accelerators typically require high module reliability and nanosecond simultaneity between modules. Energy storage using bipolar Marx generators can meet these requirements. Experience gained from computer simulations and the development of the DEMON II Marx generator led to a fundamental understanding of the operation of these multistage devices. As a result of this research, significant improvements in erection time jitter and reliability were realized in multistage, bipolar Marx generators. Erection time jitter was measured as low as 2.5 nanoseconds for the 3.2 MV, 16-stage PBFA I Marx and 3.5 nanoseconds for the 6.0 MV, 30-stage PBFA II (DEMON II) Marx, while maintaining exceptionally low prefire rates. Performance data are presented from the DEMON II Marx research program, as well as discussions on the use of computer simulations in designing low-jitter Marx generators.

  19. NOAA Next Generation Radar (NEXRAD) Level 2 Base Data (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset consists of Level II weather radar data collected from Next-Generation Radar (NEXRAD) stations located in the contiguous United States, Alaska, Hawaii,...

  20. Next Generation MK III Lightweight HUT/Hatch Assembly Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A prototype Next Generation MK III Lightweight HUT/Hatch Assembly will be fabricated and delivered during Phase II. Maximum weight reduction for the Hard Upper Torso...

  1. Expanded Operational Temperature Range for Space Rated Li-Ion Batteries Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Quallion's Phase II proposal calls for expanding the nominal operation range of its space rated lithium ion cells, while maintaining their long life capabilities. To...

  2. Middle Range Theory: A Perspective on Development and Use. (United States)

    Liehr, Patricia; Smith, Mary Jane

    This replication and critique addresses ongoing development and use of middle range theory since considering this body of nursing knowledge 18 years ago. Middle range theory is appreciated as essential to the structure of nursing knowledge. Nine middle range theories that demonstrate ongoing use by the theory authors are analyzed using the criteria of theory name, theory generation, disciplinary perspective, theory model, practice use and research use. Critique conclusions indicate the importance of staying with the theory over time, naming and development consistent with the disciplinary perspective, movement to an empirical level, and bringing middle range theory to the interdisciplinary table.

  3. Conventional alternating-current generators and engine generator sets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segaser, C.L.


    Available data and techniques relevant to the selection and analysis of appropriate electrical generating equipment for application in the ICES program are presented. Of the general classes of commercially available a-c generators, the synchronous, rotating field alternator is most suited to ICES applications, and the focus of this technology evaluation. Conventional 60-Hz, alternating-current generators, with standard ratings ranging from 1.25 kVA to 10,000 kVA at voltages from 125 single-phase to 14,400 volts three-phase and speeds up to 1800 rpm are covered. Technical data for representative diesel engine-generator sets for continuous prime power ratings up to 6445 kW are presented. Approximate 1976 costs of standard electrical generating equipment are given for: (1) standard conventional alternating current generators and (2) packaged engine-generator sets. The data indicate a decrease in unit costs as the power ratings increase, with the cost of the slow-speed units somewhat greater than that of the higher speed units. Maintenance data for a typical total energy plant presently in operation indicate that the average cost of maintenance amounts to 41 cents/kWh. A plot of available data also indicates a trend to decreasing operating costs with increasing unit size.

  4. Medium Range Forecasts Representation (and Long Range Forecasts?) (United States)

    Vincendon, J.-C.


    The progress of the numerical forecasts urges us to interest us in more and more distant ranges. We thus supply more and more forecasts with term of some days. Nevertheless, precautions of use are necessary to give the most reliable and the most relevant possible information. Available in a TV bulletin or on quite other support (Internet, mobile phone), the interpretation and the representation of a medium range forecast (5 - 15 days) must be different from those of a short range forecast. Indeed, the "foresee-ability” of a meteorological phenomenon decreases gradually in the course of the ranges, it decreases all the more quickly that the phenomenon is of small scale. So, at the end of some days, the probability character of a forecast becomes very widely dominating. That is why in Meteo-France the forecasts of D+4 to D+7 are accompanied with a confidence index since around ten years. It is a figure between 1 and 5: the more we approach 5, the more the confidence in the supplied forecast is good. In the practice, an indication is supplied for period D+4 / D+5, the other one for period D+6 / D+7, every day being able to benefit from a different forecast, that is be represented in a independent way. We thus supply a global tendency over 24 hours with less and less precise symbols as the range goes away. Concrete examples will be presented. From now on two years, we also publish forecasts to D+8 / J+9, accompanied with a sign of confidence (" good reliability " or " to confirm "). These two days are grouped together on a single map because for us, the described tendency to this term is relevant on a duration about 48 hours with a spatial scale slightly superior to the synoptic scale. So, we avoid producing more than two zones of types of weather over France and we content with giving an evolution for the temperatures (still, in increase or in decline). Newspapers began to publish this information, it should soon be the case of televisions. It is particularly

  5. Biologically active new Fe(II, Co(II, Ni(II, Cu(II, Zn(II and Cd(II complexes of N-(2-thienylmethylenemethanamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. SPÎNU


    Full Text Available Iron(II, cobalt(II, nickel (II, copper (II, zinc(II and cadmium(II complexes of the type ML2Cl2, where M is a metal and L is the Schiff base N-(2-thienylmethylenemethanamine (TNAM formed by the condensation of 2-thiophenecarboxaldehyde and methylamine, were prepared and characterized by elemental analysis as well as magnetic and spectroscopic measurements. The elemental analyses suggest the stoichiometry to be 1:2 (metal:ligand. Magnetic susceptibility data coupled with electronic, ESR and Mössbauer spectra suggest a distorted octahedral structure for the Fe(II, Co(II and Ni(II complexes, a square-planar geometry for the Cu(II compound and a tetrahedral geometry for the Zn(II and Cd(II complexes. The infrared and NMR spectra of the complexes agree with co-ordination to the central metal atom through nitrogen and sulphur atoms. Conductance measurements suggest the non-electrolytic nature of the complexes, except for the Cu(II, Zn(II and Cd(II complexes, which are 1:2 electrolytes. The Schiff base and its metal chelates were screened for their biological activity against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the metal chelates were found to possess better antibacterial activity than that of the uncomplexed Schiff base.

  6. Determination of Pb(II), Zn(II), Cd(II), and Co(II) ions by flame atomic absorption spectrometry in food and water samples after preconcentration by coprecipitation with Mo(VI)-diethyldithiocarbamate. (United States)

    Tufekci, Mehmet; Bulut, Volkan Numan; Elvan, Hamide; Ozdes, Duygu; Soylak, Mustafa; Duran, Celal


    A new, simple, and rapid separation and preconcentration procedure, for determination of Pb(II), Cd(II), Zn(II), and Co(II) ions in environmental real samples, has been developed. The method is based on the combination of coprecipitation of analyte ions by the aid of the Mo(VI)-diethyldithiocarbamate-(Mo(VI)-DDTC) precipitate and flame atomic absorption spectrometric determinations. The effects of experimental conditions like pH of the aqueous solution, amounts of DDTC and Mo(VI), standing time, centrifugation rate and time, sample volume, etc. and also the influences of some foreign ions were investigated in detail on the quantitative recoveries of the analyte ions. The preconcentration factors were found to be 150 for Pb(II), Zn(II) and Co(II), and 200 for Cd(II) ions. The detection limits were in the range of 0.1-2.2 μg L(-1) while the relative standard deviations were found to be lower than 5 % for the studied analyte ions. The accuracy of the method was checked by spiked/recovery tests and the analysis of certified reference material (CRM TMDW-500 Drinking Water). The procedure was successfully applied to seawater and stream water as liquid samples and baby food and dried eggplant as solid samples in order to determine the levels of Pb(II), Cd(II), Zn(II), and Co(II) ions.

  7. The Spectrum of Fe II (United States)

    Nave, Gillian; Johansson, Sveneric


    The spectrum of singly ionized iron (Fe II) has been recorded using high-resolution Fourier transform (FT) and grating spectroscopy over the wavelength range 900 Å to 5.5 μm. The spectra were observed in high-current continuous and pulsed hollow cathode discharges using FT spectrometers at the Kitt Peak National Observatory, Tucson, AZ and Imperial College, London and with the 10.7 m Normal Incidence Spectrograph at the National Institute of Standards and Technology. Roughly 12,900 lines were classified using 1027 energy levels of Fe II that were optimized to measured wavenumbers. The wavenumber uncertainties of lines in the FT spectra range from 10-4 cm-1 for strong lines around 4 μm to 0.05 cm-1 for weaker lines around 1500 Å. The wavelength uncertainty of lines in the grating spectra is 0.005 Å. The ionization energy of (130,655.4 ± 0.4) cm-1 was estimated from the 3d6(5D)5g and 3d6(5D)6h levels.


    Jensen, Roy A.; Haas, Felix L.


    Jensen, Roy A. (The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Hospital and Tumor Institute, Houston) and Felix L. Haas. Electrokinetics and cell physiology. II. Relationship of surface charge to onset of bacterial competence for genetic transformation. J. Bacteriol. 86:79–86. 1963.—A reliable cell fractionation scheme, which is sensitive to the electrokinetic properties of Bacillus subtilis cells, has been described in detail. Recipient cell populations, characterized by a wide range of competency for transformation to independence of nutritional markers, were subjected to electrokinetic fractionation. Results indicated that (i) physiological competency is directly related to the electrical charge on the cell surface, (ii) newly competent cells carry a maximal negative charge, (iii) the newly competent cell appears with spontaneous abruptness, (iv) a kinetic flow of competent cells from the highly charged fractions to the lower charged fractions indicates the progressive loss of the surface charge maintained by a competent cell, and (v), by token of the latter statement, cells competent to undergo transformation do so within a range of surface-charge values. PMID:14051826

  9. Generators for gearless wind energy converters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grauers, A. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Electric Power Engineering


    This paper discusses some design alternatives for directly driven generators, and one specific generator type is investigated for a wide range of rated power. First, the specification for a directly driven generator is presented, then different design alternatives are discussed. A radial-flux permanent magnet generator for frequency converter connection has been chosen for a more detailed investigation. The design, optimization and performance of that generator type are presented. Generators from 30 kW to 3 MW are designed and compared with conventional four-pole generators with gear. It is found that a directly driven generator can be more efficient than a conventional generator and gear and have a rather small diameter and a low active weight. 8 refs, 7 figs, 2 tabs

  10. A portable infrasound generator. (United States)

    Park, Joseph; Robertson, James


    The rotary subwoofer is a novel low frequency transducer capable of efficiently generating infrasound from a compact source. A field-deployable version of this device may find application as a calibration source for infrasound arrays of the International Monitoring System (IMS) [(2001). The Global Verification Regime and the International Monitoring System (CTBTO Preparatory Commission Vienna International Centre, Vienna, Austria)]. A prototype tested at the IMS infrasound array I59US demonstrated the ability to insonify all elements of the array from a standoff distance of 3.8 km. Signal-to-noise ratios of continuous wave signals ranged from 5 to 15 dB, indicating the utility of this source to transmit controllable infrasound signals over distances of 5 km.

  11. The Binary Fraction of Stars in Dwarf Galaxies: The Case of Leo II (United States)

    Spencer, Meghin E.; Mateo, Mario; Walker, Matthew G.; Olszewski, Edward W.; McConnachie, Alan W.; Kirby, Evan N.; Koch, Andreas


    We combine precision radial velocity data from four different published works of the stars in the Leo II dwarf spheroidal galaxy. This yields a data set that spans 19 years, has 14 different epochs of observation, and contains 372 unique red giant branch stars, 196 of which have repeat observations. Using this multi-epoch data set, we constrain the binary fraction for Leo II. We generate a suite of Monte Carlo simulations that test different binary fractions using Bayesian analysis and determine that the binary fraction for Leo II ranges from {0.30}-0.10+0.09 to {0.34}-0.11+0.11, depending on the distributions of binary orbital parameters assumed. This value is smaller than what has been found for the solar neighborhood (˜0.4-0.6) but falls within the wide range of values that have been inferred for other dwarf spheroidals (0.14-0.69). The distribution of orbital periods has the greatest impact on the binary fraction results. If the fraction we find in Leo II is present in low-mass ultra-faints, it can artificially inflate the velocity dispersion of those systems and cause them to appear more dark matter rich than in actuality. For a galaxy with an intrinsic dispersion of 1 km s-1 and an observational sample of 100 stars, the dispersion can be increased by a factor of 1.5-2 for Leo II-like binary fractions or by a factor of three for binary fractions on the higher end of what has been seen in other dwarf spheroidals.

  12. Synthesis of nanometer-sized fayalite and magnesium-iron(II) mixture olivines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qafoku, Odeta; Ilton, Eugene S.; Bowden, Mark E.; Kovarik, Libor; Zhang, Xin; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Thompson, Christopher J.; Schaef, Herbert T.; McGrail, Bernard Peter; Rosso, Kevin M.; Loring, John S.


    Olivines are divalent orthosilicates with important geologic, biological, and industrial significance and are typically comprised of mixtures of Mg2+ and Fe2+ ranging from forsterite (Mg2SiO4) to fayalite (Fe2SiO4). Investigating the role of Fe(II) in olivine reactivity requires the ability to synthesize olivines that are nanometer-sized, have different percentages of Mg2+ and Fe2+, and have good bulk and surface purity. This article demonstrates a new method for synthesizing nanosized fayalite and Mg-Fe mixture olivines. First, carbonaceous precursors are generated from sucrose, PVA, colloidal silica, Mg2+, and Fe3+. Second, these precursors are calcined in air to burn carbon and create mixtures of Fe(III)-oxides, forsterite, and SiO2. Finally, calcination in reducing CO-CO2 gas buffer leads to Fe(II)-rich olivines. XRD, Mössbauer, and IR analyses verify good bulk purity and composition. XPS indicates that surface iron is in its reduced Fe(II) form, and surface Si is consistent with olivine. SEM shows particle sizes predominately between 50 and 450 nm, and BET surface areas are 2.8-4.2 m2/g. STEM HAADF analysis demonstrates even distributions of Mg and Fe among the available M1 and M2 sites of the olivine crystals. These nanosized Fe(II)-rich olivines are suitable for laboratory studies with in situ probes that require mineral samples with high reactivity at short timescales.

  13. Interference of lee waves over mountain ranges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Makarenko


    Full Text Available Internal waves in the atmosphere and ocean are generated frequently from the interaction of mean flow with bottom obstacles such as mountains and submarine ridges. Analysis of these environmental phenomena involves theoretical models of non-homogeneous fluid affected by the gravity. In this paper, a semi-analytical model of stratified flow over the mountain range is considered under the assumption of small amplitude of the topography. Attention is focused on stationary wave patterns forced above the rough terrain. Adapted to account for such terrain, model equations involves exact topographic condition settled on the uneven ground surface. Wave solutions corresponding to sinusoidal topography with a finite number of peaks are calculated and examined.

  14. Copper(II and lead(II complexation by humic acid and humic-like ligands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The stability of metal–humate complexes is an important factor determining and predicting speciation, mobility and bioavailability of heavy metals in the environment. A comparative investigation of the complexation of Cu(II and Pb(II with humic acid and humic-like ligands, such as benzoic and salicylic acid, was performed. The analysis was realized at pH 4.0, a temperature of 25 °C and at an ionic strength of 0.01 mol dm-3 (NaCl using the Schubert ion-exchange method and its modified form. The stability constants were calculated from the experimental data by the Schubert method for complexes with benzoic and humic acid. A modified Schubert method was used for the determination of the stability constants of the complexes with salicylic acid. It was found that Cu(II and Pb(II form mononuclear complexes with benzoic and humic acid while with salicylic acid both metals form polynuclear complexes. The results indicate that Pb(II has a higher binding ability than Cu(II to all the investigated ligands. The Cu(II–salicylate and Pb(II–salicylate complexes showed noticeable higher stability constants compared with their complexes with humic acid, while the stabilities of the complexes with benzoic acid differed less. Salicylic and benzoic acids as humic-like ligands can be used for setting the range of stability constants of humic complexes with Cu(II and Pb(II.

  15. Distributed generation induction and permanent magnet generators

    CERN Document Server

    Lai, L


    Distributed power generation is a technology that could help to enable efficient, renewable energy production both in the developed and developing world. It includes all use of small electric power generators, whether located on the utility system, at the site of a utility customer, or at an isolated site not connected to the power grid. Induction generators (IGs) are the cheapest and most commonly used technology, compatible with renewable energy resources. Permanent magnet (PM) generators have traditionally been avoided due to high fabrication costs; however, compared with IGs they are more reliable and productive. Distributed Generation thoroughly examines the principles, possibilities and limitations of creating energy with both IGs and PM generators. It takes an electrical engineering approach in the analysis and testing of these generators, and includes diagrams and extensive case study examples o better demonstrate how the integration of energy sources can be accomplished. The book also provides the ...

  16. Cadmium(II) and lead(II) adsorption onto hetero-atom functional mesoporous silica and activated carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machida, Motoi, E-mail: [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faulty of Science and Engineering, Laurentian University, Sudbury, Ontario P3E 2C6 (Canada); Department of Applied Chemistry and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Engineering, Chiba University, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan); Safety and Health Organization, Chiba University, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan); Fotoohi, Babak [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faulty of Science and Engineering, Laurentian University, Sudbury, Ontario P3E 2C6 (Canada); Amamo, Yoshimasa [Department of Applied Chemistry and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Engineering, Chiba University, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan); Safety and Health Organization, Chiba University, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan); Mercier, Louis [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faulty of Science and Engineering, Laurentian University, Sudbury, Ontario P3E 2C6 (Canada)


    Adsorption of cadmium(II) and lead(II) on amino-, mercapto-functionalized mesoporous silica (HMS) and carboxylic-functionalized activated carbon (AC) were examined. The resultant isotherms fitted the Langmuir model and amino-functionalized HMS exhibited the highest adsorption capacity for both cadmium(II) and lead(II). Adsorption affinities for cadmium(II) were always greater than those for lead(II) in all three adsorbent types, while the difference between the two values was the largest for mercapto-functionalized HMS indicating a selective adsorption of cadmium(II). Influence of equilibrium solution pH on adsorption of cadmium(II), lead(II) and their binary mixtures was also studied. Carboxylic-functionalized AC adsorbed cadmium(II) and lead(II) in a wide pH range than conditions for the mercapto-functionalized HMS. It was concluded that each functional group had its own characteristics and advantages for adsorption of heavy metal ions; amino-groups showed high adsorption capacity, while mercapto-groups had good selectivity toward cadmium(II) adsorption and a wide solution pH in adsorption by carboxylic-groups were established in this study.

  17. Truthful approximations to range voting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filos-Ratsika, Aris; Miltersen, Peter Bro

    We consider the fundamental mechanism design problem of approximate social welfare maximization under general cardinal preferences on a finite number of alternatives and without money. The well-known range voting scheme can be thought of as a non-truthful mechanism for exact social welfare......-unilateral has an approximation ratio between 0.610 and 0.611, the best ordinal mechanism has an approximation ratio between 0.616 and 0.641, while the best mixed-unilateral mechanism has an approximation ratio bigger than 0.660. In particular, the best mixed-unilateral non-ordinal (i.e., cardinal) mechanism...

  18. Nonlinear dynamic range compression deconvolution (United States)

    Haji-Saeed, Bahareh; Sengupta, Sandip K.; Goodhue, William; Khoury, Jed; Woods, Charles L.; Kierstead, John


    We introduce a dynamic range image compression technique for nonlinear deconvolution; the impulse response of the distortion function and the noisy distorted image are jointly transformed to pump a clean reference beam in a two-beam coupling arrangement. The Fourier transform of the pumped reference beam contains the deconvolved image and its conjugate. In contrast to standard deconvolution approaches, for which noise can be a limiting factor in the performance, this approach allows the retrieval of distorted signals embedded in a very high-noise environment.

  19. The IRIS THz/Infrared beamline at BESSY II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljana Puskar


    Full Text Available At BESSY II a large acceptance angle, multipurpose infrared beamline is available, comprising several end stations suitable for material and life science investigations. The beamline provides highly brilliant infrared radiation over the energy range from about 20,000 down to 30 cm-1 and even lower when BESSY II is run in the so-called low-a mode.

  20. Synthesis, characterization and antimicrobial studies of Cu(II) and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... magnetic susceptibility, metal-ligand ratio determination, and antimicrobial activity. The low molar conductance values range (16.-27Ohm-1cm2mol-1) indicated that all the complexes are non-electrolytes. The magnetic susceptibility revealed that the Cu(II) complex is paramagnetic while Zn(II) complex is diamagnetic.

  1. Broadband light action on opportunistic microorganisms photosensitized by TiO II and Ag-SiO II nanoparticle films (United States)

    Tuchina, Elena S.; Rudik, Dmitry V.; Krylova, Galina V.; Smirnova, Natalia P.; Eremenko, Anna M.; Tuchin, Valery V.


    Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy strives for creation new photosensitizes providing effective formation of singlet oxygen at irradiation in various spectrum areas. Construction of a new generation of photosensitizes on the basis of nanoparticles, such as TiO II, Ag, Au, SiO II have great potential. We have showed that different nanoparticles used as photosensitizes lead to different effects during photodynamic action. Interaction of broadband light and Ag-SiO II nanoparticle film decreased bacterial CFU. Irradiation of the test-cultures, photosensitized by TiO II, stimulates microbial cell division.

  2. Optical supermicrosensor responses for simple recognition and sensitive removal of Cu (II) Ion target. (United States)

    El-Safty, Sherif A; Ismail, Adel A; Shahat, Ahmed


    The field of optical chemosensor technology demands a simple yet general design for fast, sensitive, selective, inexpensive, and specific recognition of a broad range of toxic metal ions. The suitable accommodation of chromogenic receptors onto ordered porous carriers have led to selective and sensitive chemosensors of target species. In this study, we offer real evidence on the potential use of two- and three-dimensional (2D and 3D) ordered supermicroporous monoliths as selective shape and size carriers for immobilizing the chromogenic probe. Among all the chemosensors, 3D supermicropore has exhibited easy accessibility of target ions, such as ion transports and high affinity responses of receptor-metal analyte binding events. This leads to an optical color signal that is easily generated and transduced even at trace levels of Cu(II) target ions. The supermicrosensors have shown the ability to create Cu(II) ion-sensing responses up to nanomolar concentrations (∼10(-9) mol/dm(3)) with rapid response time (in the order of seconds). Supermicrosensors have the ability to create easily modified sensing systems with multiple regeneration/reuse cycles of sensing systems of Cu(II) analytes. The simple treatment using ClO(4)(-) anion as a stripping agent has removed effectively the Cu(II) ions and formed a "metal-free" probe surface. The supermicrosensors have exhibited the specificity behavior permitting Cu(II) ion-selective determination in real-life samples, such as in wastewater, despite the presence of active component species. Extensive analytical results indicate that the use of the supermicrosensor as Cu(II) ion strips for field screening can be a time- and cost-alternative tool to current effective laboratory assays. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Copper(II), cobalt(II) and nickel(II) complexes of juglone: synthesis, structure, DNA interaction and enhanced cytotoxicity. (United States)

    Tabrizi, Leila; Fooladivanda, Mahrokh; Chiniforoshan, Hossein


    Three novel copper(II), cobalt(II), and nickel(II) complexes of juglone (Jug) containing 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) ligand, [M(Jug) 2 (phen)] (M = Cu(II), 1, Co(II), 2, and Ni(II), 3), have been synthesized and characterized using, elemental analysis and spectroscopic studies. Their interactions with calf thymus DNA were investigated using viscosity measurements, UV-visible and fluorescence spectrophotometric methods. The catalytic activities on DNA cleavage of the complexes 1-3 were studied, which copper complex 1 showed better catalyst activity in the DNA cleavage process than complexes 2 and 3. The in vitro cytotoxic potential of the complexes 1-3 against human cervical carcinoma (HeLa), human liver hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG-2), and human colorectal adenocarcinoma (HT-29) cells indicated their promising antitumor activity with quite low IC 50 values in the range of 0.09-1.89 μM, which are 75 times lower than those of cisplatin.

  4. Live Fire Range Environmental Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The Central Training Academy (CTA) is a DOE Headquarters Organization located in Albuquerque, New Mexico, with the mission to effectively and efficiently educate and train personnel involved in the protection of vital national security interests of DOE. The CTA Live Fire Range (LFR), where most of the firearms and tactical training occurs, is a complex separate from the main campus. The purpose of the proposed action is to expand the LFR to allow more options of implementing required training. The Department of Energy has prepared this Environmental Assessment (EA) for the proposed construction and operation of an expanded Live Fire Range Facility at the Central Training Academy in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Based on the analysis in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  5. Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) II (United States)

    ... Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) II To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Multiple endocrine neoplasia, type II (MEN II) is a disorder passed ...

  6. Human insulin-like growth factor II leader 2 mediates internal initiation of translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne K; Christiansen, Jan; Hansen, Thomas v O


    Insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) is a fetal growth factor, which belongs to the family of insulin-like peptides. During fetal life, the IGF-II gene generates three mRNAs with different 5' untranslated regions (UTRs), but identical coding regions and 3' UTRs. We have shown previously that IG...

  7. and ni(ii)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    decomposition ... and left in an ice bath for 3hours. The solid complexes ... Table 1. Physical Properties of the ligand and its corresponding metal (II) Complexes. Compound/Ligand. Colour. Percentage. Yield(%). Melting. Point (. °. C). Decomposition.

  8. NNDSS - Table II. Vibriosis (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Vibriosis - 2018. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding year), and...

  9. NNDSS - Table II. Vibriosis (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Vibriosis - 2017. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding year), and...

  10. Gamble II Facility (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Gamble II produces a high-voltage (2 MV), high-current (1 MA), short (100 ns) pulse of energy of either positive or negative polarity. This terawatt power...

  11. Hazardous Waste Generators (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The HazWaste database contains generator (companies and/or individuals) site and mailing address information, waste generation, the amount of waste generated etc. of...

  12. MHD Power Generation (United States)

    Kantrowitz, Arthur; Rosa, Richard J.


    Explains the operation of the Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generator and advantages of the system over coal, oil or nuclear powered generators. Details the development of MHD generators in the United States and Soviet Union. (CP)

  13. A barium(II)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    [(pentaaqua)(4-nitrobenzoato-O,O′)barium(II)] units are linked into an infinite one-dimensional chain along b-axis with the aid of the ... long Ba⋅⋅⋅Ba distance of 6⋅750(1) Å is observed between adjacent Ba(II) ions in the chain and the oxygen atoms of the ... The colour- less crystalline blocks that separated were filtered,.

  14. II Infused Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin L. Wilson


    Full Text Available The anti-inflammatory properties of PPAR-α plays an important role in attenuating hypertension. The current study determines the anti-hypertensive and anti-inflammatory role of PPAR-α agonist during a slow-pressor dose of Ang II (400 ng/kg/min. Ten to twelve week old male PPAR-α KO mice and their WT controls were implanted with telemetry devices and infused with Ang II for 12 days. On day 12 of Ang II infusion, MAP was elevated in PPAR-α KO mice compared to WT (161±4 mmHg versus 145±4 mmHg and fenofibrate (145 mg/kg/day reduced MAP in WT + Ang II mice (134±7 mmHg. Plasma IL-6 levels were higher in PPAR-α KO mice on day 12 of Ang II infusion (30±4 versus 8±2 pg/mL and fenofibrate reduced plasma IL-6 in Ang II-treated WT mice (10±3 pg/mL. Fenofibrate increased renal expression of CYP4A, restored renal CYP2J expression, reduced the elevation in renal ICAM-1, MCP-1 and COX-2 in WT + Ang II mice. Our results demonstrate that activation of PPAR-α attenuates Ang II-induced hypertension through up-regulation of CYP4A and CYP2J and an attenuation of inflammatory markers such as plasma IL-6, renal MCP-1, renal expression of ICAM-1 and COX-2.

  15. Technoshamanic Visions from the Underworld II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weinel, Jonathan


    such as painting, other materials are also designed by creating pixel-art and by programming generative computer animations. These are ultimately combined with psychedelic music to form composites, which are mixed live with audio-reactive effects, using the VJ software VDMX. Aesthetically the work draws upon......Technoshamanic Visions from the Underworld II is an audio-visual art installation by Jon Weinel. The artwork consists of a video projection in which various analogue and digital animations are created as a compliment to music. While parts of the animations are created with traditional techniques...... the artist’s extensive practice-based research regarding altered states of consciousness. -- The paper describes an audio-visual arts installation/VJ mix with accompanying paintings, which was presented at the Carbon Meets Silicon II exhibition, Glyndwr University, Wrexham. Carbon Meets Silicon II was an art...

  16. DARHT-II Downstream Beam Transport Beamline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westenskow, G A; Bertolini, L R; Duffy, P T; Paul, A C


    This paper describes the mechanical design of the downstream beam transport line for the second axis of the Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT II) Facility. The DARHT-II project is a collaboration between LANL, LBNL and LLNL. DARHT II is a 20-MeV, 2000-Amperes, 2-{micro}sec linear induction accelerator designed to generate short bursts of x-rays for the purpose of radiographing dense objects. The downstream beam transport line is approximately 20-meter long region extending from the end of the accelerator to the bremsstrahlung target. Within this proposed transport line there are 15 conventional solenoid, quadrupole and dipole magnets; as well as several specialty magnets, which transport and focus the beam to the target and to the beam dumps. There are two high power beam dumps, which are designed to absorb 80-kJ per pulse during accelerator start-up and operation. Aspects of the mechanical design of these elements are presented.

  17. Sister chromatid segregation in meiosis II (United States)

    Wassmann, Katja


    Meiotic divisions (meiosis I and II) are specialized cell divisions to generate haploid gametes. The first meiotic division with the separation of chromosomes is named reductional division. The second division, which takes place immediately after meiosis I without intervening S-phase, is equational, with the separation of sister chromatids, similar to mitosis. This meiotic segregation pattern requires the two-step removal of the cohesin complex holding sister chromatids together: cohesin is removed from chromosome arms that have been subjected to homologous recombination in meiosis I and from the centromere region in meiosis II. Cohesin in the centromere region is protected from removal in meiosis I, but this protection has to be removed—deprotected”—for sister chromatid segregation in meiosis II. Whereas the mechanisms of cohesin protection are quite well understood, the mechanisms of deprotection have been largely unknown until recently. In this review I summarize our current knowledge on cohesin deprotection. PMID:23574717

  18. Normal values for cervical range of motion. (United States)

    Swinkels, Raymond A H M; Swinkels-Meewisse, Ilse E J C M


    Cohort study. To generate normal values for active range of motion (ACROM) of the cervical spine in asymptomatic persons. There is a lack of normal values for ACROM based on large groups and stratified for different age categories. Four hundred asymptomatic persons were included, 100 for each decade of age from 20 years to 60 years and in each subgroup 50 males and 50 females. ACROM was measured with the cervical range of motion (CROM) device. Analysis of variance and the Scheffé post hoc test was used to investigate the differences of ACROM between the decades of age. Linear regression analysis was performed to examine the influence of age and sex on ACROM. The results of this study show that the ACROM decreases significantly in persons older than 50 years for all directions except extension and side flexion compared with that in the subgroup aged 40 to 50. Age had an overall significant effect on the ACROM for all directions. Sex proved to have no significant effect on the ACROM. Normal values were established for ACROM in a group of 400 persons without neck complaints. It was demonstrated that age has a significant influence on the ACROM, but sex has no influence. N/A.

  19. Dynamic range majority data structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmasry, Amr Ahmed Abd Elmoneim; He, Meng; Munro, J. Ian


    data structure for answering range α-majority queries on a dynamic set of points, where α ε (0,1). Our data structure uses O(n) space, supports queries in O((lg n)/α) time, and updates in O((lg n)/α) amortized time. If the coordinates of the points are integers, then the query time can be improved to O......((lg n/(α lglg n)). For constant values of α, this improved query time matches an existing lower bound, for any data structure with polylogarithmic update time. We also generalize our data structure to handle sets of points in d-dimensions, for d ≥ 2, as well as dynamic arrays, in which each entry...

  20. Inductive Pulse Generation


    Lindblom, Adam


    Pulsed power generators are a key component in compact systems for generation of high-power microwaves (HPM). HPM generation by virtual cathode devices such as Vircators put high demands on the source. The rise time and the pulse length of the source voltage are two key issues in the generation of HPM radiation. This thesis describes the construction and tests of several inductive high power pulse generators. The pulse generators were designed with the intent to deliver a pulse with fast rise...

  1. Next Generation Advanced Binder Chemistries for High Performance, Environmentally DurableThermal Control Material Systems Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This innovative SBIR Phase II proposal will develop next generation products for Thermal Control Material Systems (TCMS) an adhesives based on the next generation...

  2. Next-Generation Telemetry Workstation (United States)


    A next-generation telemetry workstation has been developed to replace the one currently used to test and control Range Safety systems. Improving upon the performance of the original system, the new telemetry workstation uses dual-channel telemetry boards for better synchronization of the two uplink telemetry streams. The new workstation also includes an Interrange Instrumentation Group/Global Positioning System (IRIG/GPS) time code receiver board for independent, local time stamping of return-link data. The next-generation system will also record and play back return-link data for postlaunch analysis.

  3. Power Generation for River and Tidal Generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muljadi, Eduard [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wright, Alan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gevorgian, Vahan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Donegan, James [Ocean Renewable Power Company (ORPC), Portland, ME (United States); Marnagh, Cian [Ocean Renewable Power Company (ORPC), Portland, ME (United States); McEntee, Jarlath [Ocean Renewable Power Company (ORPC), Portland, ME (United States)


    Renewable energy sources are the second largest contributor to global electricity production, after fossil fuels. The integration of renewable energy continued to grow in 2014 against a backdrop of increasing global energy consumption and a dramatic decline in oil prices during the second half of the year. As renewable generation has become less expensive during recent decades, and it becomes more accepted by the global population, the focus on renewable generation has expanded from primarily wind and solar to include new types with promising future applications, such as hydropower generation, including river and tidal generation. Today, hydropower is considered one of the most important renewable energy sources. In river and tidal generation, the input resource flow is slower but also steadier than it is in wind or solar generation, yet the level of water turbulent flow may vary from one place to another. This report focuses on hydrokinetic power conversion.

  4. Fitness declines towards range limits and local adaptation to climate affect dispersal evolution during climate‐induced range shifts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hargreaves, Anna; Bailey, Susan; Laird, Robert


    Dispersal ability will largely determine whether species track their climatic niches during climate change, a process especially important for populations at contracting (low-latitude/low-elevation) range limits that otherwise risk extinction. We investigate whether dispersal evolution at contrac......Dispersal ability will largely determine whether species track their climatic niches during climate change, a process especially important for populations at contracting (low-latitude/low-elevation) range limits that otherwise risk extinction. We investigate whether dispersal evolution...... at contracting range limits is facilitated by two processes that potentially enable edge populations to experience and adjust to the effects of climate deterioration before they cause extinction: (i) climate-induced fitness declines towards range limits and (ii) local adaptation to a shifting climate gradient...

  5. Design of a switched reluctance generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heese, T.; Pyrhoenen, J.


    This report presents the design of a low voltage switched reluctance generator for variable speed applications showing the design of its construction and commutation unit. For the realisation of the control system the control strategy is presented. The principle and the theory of switched reluctance generators are described in this context. Also an overview of existing generator technology for these applications is given. The results gained suggest that switched reluctance machines can also advantageously be used as generators if the generating operation is considered within the design process. Compared with the existing technology a higher output power and efficiency is reached over the whole speed range. (orig.)

  6. The Bionic Clicker Mark I & II. (United States)

    Magee, Elliott G; Ourselin, S; Nikitichev, Daniil; Vercauteren, T; Vanhoestenberghe, Anne


    In this manuscript, we present two 'Bionic Clicker' systems, the first designed to demonstrate electromyography (EMG) based control systems for educational purposes and the second for research purposes. EMG based control systems pick up electrical signals generated by muscle activation and use these as inputs for controllers. EMG controllers are widely used in prosthetics to control limbs. The Mark I (MK I) clicker allows the wearer to change the slide of a presentation by raising their index finger. It is built around a microcontroller and a bio-signals shield. It generated a lot of interest from both the public and research community. The Mark II (MK II) device presented here was designed to be a cheaper, sleeker, and more customizable system that can be easily modified and directly transmit EMG data. It is built using a wireless capable microcontroller and a muscle sensor.

  7. Natural and Enhanced Attenuation of Explosives on a Hand Grenade Range. (United States)

    Borden, Robert C; Won, Jongho; Yuncu, Bilgen


    2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (Royal Demolition Explosive, or RDX) deposited on hand grenade training ranges can leach through the soil and impact shallow groundwater. A 27-mo field monitoring project was conducted to evaluate the transport and attenuation of high explosives in variably saturated soils at an active grenade range located at Fort Bragg, NC. Two approaches were evaluated: (i) natural attenuation in grenade Bay C; and (ii) enhanced attenuation in Grenade Bay T. There was no evidence of TNT accumulation or leaching in surface soils or pore water in either bay, consistent with parallel laboratory studies showing aerobic and anaerobic biodegradation of TNT. In the untreated Bay C, the low saturated hydraulic conductivity () combined with high rainfall and warm summer temperatures resulted in reducing conditions (low oxidation-reduction potential), an increase in dissolved Mn, and a rapid decline in nitrate and RDX. In Bay T, the somewhat greater and lower soil organic C level resulted in more oxidizing conditions with greater RDX leaching. A single-spray application of glycerin and lignosulfonate to the soil surface in Bay T was effective in generating reducing conditions and stimulating RDX biodegradation for ∼1 yr. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  8. Nickel(II) biosorption by Rhodotorula glutinis. (United States)

    Suazo-Madrid, Alicia; Morales-Barrera, Liliana; Aranda-García, Erick; Cristiani-Urbina, Eliseo


    The present study reports the feasibility of using Rhodotorula glutinis biomass as an alternative low-cost biosorbent to remove Ni(II) ions from aqueous solutions. Acetone-pretreated R. glutinis cells showed higher Ni(II) biosorption capacity than untreated cells at pH values ranging from 3 to 7.5, with an optimum pH of 7.5. The effects of other relevant environmental parameters, such as initial Ni(II) concentration, shaking contact time and temperature, on Ni(II) biosorption onto acetone-pretreated R. glutinis were evaluated. Significant enhancement of Ni(II) biosorption capacity was observed by increasing initial metal concentration and temperature. Kinetic studies showed that the kinetic data were best described by a pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Among the two-, three-, and four-parameter isotherm models tested, the Fritz-Schluender model exhibited the best fit to experimental data. Thermodynamic parameters (activation energy, and changes in activation enthalpy, activation entropy, and free energy of activation) revealed that the biosorption of Ni(II) ions onto acetone-pretreated R. glutinis biomass is an endothermic and non-spontaneous process, involving chemical sorption with weak interactions between the biosorbent and Ni(II) ions. The high sorption capacity (44.45 mg g(-1) at 25°C, and 63.53 mg g(-1) at 70°C) exhibited by acetone-pretreated R. glutinis biomass places this biosorbent among the best adsorbents currently available for removal of Ni(II) ions from aqueous effluents.

  9. Characterization of aerosols containing Legionella generated upon nebulization (United States)

    Allegra, Séverine; Leclerc, Lara; Massard, Pierre André; Girardot, Françoise; Riffard, Serge; Pourchez, Jérémie


    Legionella pneumophila is, by far, the species most frequently associated with Legionnaires’ disease (LD). Human infection occurs almost exclusively by aerosol inhalation which places the bacteria in juxtaposition with alveolar macrophages. LD risk management is based on controlling water quality by applying standardized procedures. However, to gain a better understanding of the real risk of exposure, there is a need (i) to investigate under which conditions Legionella may be aerosolized and (ii) to quantify bacterial deposition into the respiratory tract upon nebulization. In this study, we used an original experimental set-up that enables the generation of aerosol particles containing L. pneumophila under various conditions. Using flow cytometry in combination with qPCR and culture, we determined (i) the size of the aerosols and (ii) the concentration of viable Legionella forms that may reach the thoracic region. We determined that the 0.26-2.5 μm aerosol size range represents 7% of initial bacterial suspension. Among the viable forms, 0.7% of initial viable bacterial suspension may reach the pulmonary alveoli. In conclusion, these deposition profiles can be used to standardize the size of inoculum injected in any type of respiratory tract model to obtain new insights into the dose response for LD.

  10. 45th Annual Targets, UAVs and Range Operations Symposium and Exhibition - Tools and Technologies for the Warfighter. Volume 1 (United States)


    Configuration #6: 1-box IM Common Framework Short Range Mid Range Extended Range High Throughput Encryption DeviceLevel I A Level I B Level II Level III...6’ System -Airfield area -2 Spirals for ground checks Laurel Mtn -6’ System -16’ System -North Range -ECR -Edwards AFB Parrot Peak -16’ System - Coso

  11. Competitive Fixed-Bed Adsorption of Pb(II, Cu(II, and Ni(II from Aqueous Solution Using Chitosan-Coated Bentonite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-Chi Tsai


    Full Text Available Fixed-bed adsorption studies using chitosan-coated bentonite (CCB as adsorbent media were investigated for the simultaneous adsorption of Pb(II, Cu(II, and Ni(II from a multimetal system. The effects of operational parameters such as bed height, flow rate, and initial concentration on the length of mass transfer zone, breakthrough time, exhaustion time, and adsorption capacity at breakthrough were evaluated. With increasing bed height and decreasing flow rate and initial concentration, the breakthrough and exhaustion time were observed to favorably increase. Moreover, the adsorption capacity at breakthrough was observed to increase with decreasing initial concentration and flow rate and increasing bed height. The maximum adsorption capacity at breakthrough of 13.49 mg/g for Pb(II, 12.14 mg/g for Cu(II, and 10.29 mg/g for Ni(II was attained at an initial influent concentration of 200 mg/L, bed height of 2.0 cm, and flow rate of 0.4 mL/min. Adsorption data were fitted with Adams-Bohart, Thomas, and Yoon-Nelson models. Experimental breakthrough curves were observed to be in good agreement (R2>0.85 and E%<50% with the predicted curves generated by the kinetic models. This study demonstrates the effectiveness of CCB in the removal of Pb(II, Cu(II, and Ni(II from a ternary metal solution.

  12. Cu(II) AND Zn(II)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    methyl benzimidazole (Mebzlh) have been used to catalyze the reaction of styrene oxide with acetone under reflux condition. The yield of the isolated product using various catalysts range from good to excellent and the efficiency of the recycled ...

  13. Intrafibrillar Mineral May be Absent in Dentinogenesis Imperfecta Type II (DI-II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pople, John A


    High-resolution synchrotron radiation computed tomography (SRCT) and small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) were performed on normal and dentinogenesis imperfecta type II (DI-II) teeth. Three normal and three DI-II human third molars were used in this study. The normal molars were unerupted and had intact enamel; donors were female and ranged in age from 18-21y. The DI-II specimens, which were also unerupted with intact enamel, came from a single female donor age 20y. SRCT showed that the mineral concentration was 33% lower on average in the DI-II dentin with respect to normal dentin. The SAXS spectra from normal dentin exhibited low-angle diffraction peaks at harmonics of 67.6 nm, consistent with nucleation and growth of the apatite phase within gaps in the collagen fibrils (intrafibrillar mineralization). In contrast, the low-angle peaks were almost nonexistent in the DI-II dentin. Crystallite thickness was independent of location in both DI-II and normal dentin, although the crystallites were significantly thicker in DI-II dentin (6.8 nm (s.d. = 0.5) vs 5.1 nm (s.d. = 0.6)). The shape factor of the crystallites, as determined by SAXS, showed a continuous progression in normal dentin from roughly one-dimensional (needle-like) near the pulp to two-dimensional (plate-like) near the dentin-enamel junction. The crystallites in DI-II dentin, on the other hand, remained needle-like throughout. The above observations are consistent with an absence of intrafibrillar mineral in DI-II dentin.

  14. Plasma wakefield acceleration experiments at FACET II (United States)

    Joshi, C.; Adli, E.; An, W.; Clayton, C. E.; Corde, S.; Gessner, S.; Hogan, M. J.; Litos, M.; Lu, W.; Marsh, K. A.; Mori, W. B.; Vafaei-Najafabadi, N.; O’shea, B.; Xu, Xinlu; White, G.; Yakimenko, V.


    During the past two decades of research, the ultra-relativistic beam-driven plasma wakefield accelerator (PWFA) concept has achieved many significant milestones. These include the demonstration of ultra-high gradient acceleration of electrons over meter-scale plasma accelerator structures, efficient acceleration of a narrow energy spread electron bunch at high-gradients, positron acceleration using wakes in uniform plasmas and in hollow plasma channels, and demonstrating that highly nonlinear wakes in the ‘blow-out regime’ have the electric field structure necessary for preserving the emittance of the accelerating bunch. A new 10 GeV electron beam facility, Facilities for Accelerator Science and Experimental Test (FACET) II, is currently under construction at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory for the next generation of PWFA research and development. The FACET II beams will enable the simultaneous demonstration of substantial energy gain of a small emittance electron bunch while demonstrating an efficient transfer of energy from the drive to the trailing bunch. In this paper we first describe the capabilities of the FACET II facility. We then describe a series of PWFA experiments supported by numerical and particle-in-cell simulations designed to demonstrate plasma wake generation where the drive beam is nearly depleted of its energy, high efficiency acceleration of the trailing bunch while doubling its energy and ultimately, quantifying the emittance growth in a single stage of a PWFA that has optimally designed matching sections. We then briefly discuss other FACET II plasma-based experiments including in situ positron generation and acceleration, and several schemes that are promising for generating sub-micron emittance bunches that will ultimately be needed for both an early application of a PWFA and for a plasma-based future linear collider.

  15. Dinuclear Metallacycles with Single M-X-M Bridges (X = Cl-, Br-; M = Fe(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II)): Strong Antiferromagnetic Superexchange Interactions. (United States)

    Reger, Daniel L; Pascui, Andrea E; Foley, Elizabeth A; Smith, Mark D; Jezierska, Julia; Wojciechowska, Agnieszka; Stoian, Sebastian A; Ozarowski, Andrew


    A series of monochloride-bridged, dinuclear metallacycles of the general formula [M2(μ-Cl)(μ-L)2](ClO4)3 have been prepared using the third-generation, ditopic bis(pyrazolyl)methane ligands L = m-bis[bis(1-pyrazolyl)methyl]benzene (Lm), M = Cu(II), Zn(II), and L = m-bis[bis(3,5-dimethyl-1-pyrazolyl)methyl]benzene (Lm*), M = Fe(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II). These complexes were synthesized from the direct reactions of M(ClO4)2·6H2O, MCl2, and the ligand, Lm or Lm*, in the appropriate stoichiometric amounts. Three analogous complexes of the formula [M2(μ-Cl)(μ-L)2](BF4)3, L = Lm, M = Cu(II), and L = Lm*, M = Co(II), Cu(II), were prepared from the reaction of [M2(μ-F)(μ-L)2](BF4)3 and (CH3)3SiCl. The bromide-bridged complex [Cu2(μ-Br)(μ-Lm*)2](ClO4)3 was prepared by the first method. Three acyclic complexes, [Co2(μ-Lm)μ-Cl4], [Co2(μ-Lm*)Cl4], and [Co2(μ-Lm*)Br4], were also prepared. The structures of all [M2(μ-X)(μ-L)2]3+ (X = Cl-, Br-) complexes have two ditopic bis(pyrazolyl)methane ligands bridging two metals in a metallacyclic arrangement. The fifth coordination site of the distorted trigonal bipyramidal metal centers is filled by a bridging halide ligand that has an unusual linear or nearly linear M-X-M angle. The NMR spectra of [Zn2(μ-Cl)(μ-Lm*)2](ClO4)3 and especially [Cd2(μ-Cl)(μ-Lm*)2](ClO4)3 demonstrate that the metallacycle structure is maintained in solution. Solid state magnetic susceptibility data for the copper(II) compounds show very strong antiferromagnetic exchange interactions, with -J values of 536 cm-1 for [Cu2(μ-Cl)(μ-Lm)2](ClO4)3·xCH3CN, 720 cm-1 for [Cu2(μ-Cl)(μ-Lm*)2](ClO4)3, and 945 cm-1 for [Cu2(μ-Br)(μ-Lm*)2](ClO4)3·2CH3CN. Smaller but still substantial antiferromagnetic interactions are observed with other first row transition metals, with -J values of 98 cm-1 for [Ni2(μ-Cl)(μ-Lm*)2](ClO4)3, 55 cm-1 for [Co2(μ-Cl)(μ-Lm*)2](ClO4)3, and 34 cm-1 for [Fe2(μ-Cl)(μ-Lm*)2](ClO4)3. EPR spectra of [Cu

  16. Biogeochemistry of Fe(II) oxidation in a photosynthetic microbial mat: Implications for Precambrian Fe(II) oxidation (United States)

    Trouwborst, Robert E.; Johnston, Anne; Koch, Gretchen; Luther, George W.; Pierson, Beverly K.


    We studied the role of microbial photosynthesis in the oxidation of Fe(II) to Fe(III) in a high Fe(II) and high Mn(II) hot spring devoid of sulfide and atmospheric oxygen in the source waters. In situ light and dark microelectrode measurements of Fe(II), Mn(II) and O 2 were made in the microbial mat consisting of cyanobacteria and anoxygenic photosynthetic Chloroflexus sp. We show that Fe(II) oxidation occurred when the mat was exposed to varying intensities of sunlight but not near infrared light. We did not observe any Mn(II) oxidation under any light or dark condition over the pH range 5-7. We observed the impact of oxygenic photosynthesis on Fe(II) oxidation, distinct from the influence of atmospheric O 2 and anoxygenic photosynthesis. In situ Fe(II) oxidation rates in the mats and cell suspensions exposed to light are consistent with abiotic oxidation by O 2. The oxidation of Fe(II) to form primary Fe(III) phases contributed to banded iron-formations (BIFs) during the Precambrian. Both oxygenic photosynthesis, which produces O 2 as an oxidizing waste product, and anoxygenic photosynthesis in which Fe(II) is used to fix CO 2 have been proposed as Fe(II) oxidation mechanisms. Although we do not know the specific mechanisms responsible for all Precambrian Fe(II) oxidation, we assessed the relative importance of both mechanisms in this modern hot spring environment. In this environment, cyanobacterial oxygen production accounted for all the observed Fe(II) oxidation. The rate data indicate that a modest population of cyanobacteria could have mediated sufficient Fe(II) oxidation for some BIFs.

  17. Wind Integration into Various Generation Mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maddaloni, J.D.; Rowe, A.M.; Kooten, van G.C.


    A load balance model is used to quantify the economic and environmental effects of integrating wind power into three typical generation mixtures. System operating costs over a specified period are minimized by controlling the operating schedule of the existing power generating facilities for a range

  18. Removal of Cd(II) and Pb(II) ions from aqueous solutions by synthetic mineral adsorbent: Performance and mechanisms (United States)

    Chen, Gongning; Shah, Kinjal J.; Shi, Lin; Chiang, Pen-Chi


    A synthetic mineral adsorbent (SMA) was prepared by mechanochemical treatments of a solid-state mixture containing illite, wollastonite, gypsum, limestone and dolomite powder at a molar ration of 1:1:1:12:3. The XRD patterns revealed that many newly-generated minerals, namely montmorillonite, laumonite and gismondine (zeolite facies), grossular, gehlenite and calcium silicate were observed in SMA residual after full hydration. The potential of SMA for the removal of Cd(II) and Pb(II) ions from aqueous solution was investigated by batch mode. The effects of pH, concentration of adsorbate, contact time, SMA concentration and temperature on adsorption performance of SMA for Cd(II) and Pb(II) over SMA were studied. The results indicate that the adsorption process was found to follow pseudo-second-order kinetic model and Freundlich isotherm model. The maximum monolayer capacity obtained from the Langmuir isotherm at 25 °C was 47.0 and 143.3 mg g-1 for Cd(II) and Pb(II) ions, respectively. The adsorbed Cd(II) and Pb(II) can hardly be recovered at pH 3.0 but can completely recovered at pH 1.0 and 0.5, respectively. Ion exchange of Cd(II) and Pb(II) for Ca2+ was found to be the principal mechanism in the removal of Cd(II) and Pb(II) from aqueous solution by SMA, followed by adsorption and precipitation. From the investigation, it is concluded that SMA could be a useful environment-friendly, inexpensive and effective tool for removal of high amounts of toxic Cd(II) and Pb(II) ions from aquatic ecosystems.

  19. Biosorption of copper(II) and lead(II) onto potassium hydroxide treated pine cone powder. (United States)

    Ofomaja, A E; Naidoo, E B; Modise, S J


    Pine cone powder surface was treated with potassium hydroxide and applied for copper(II) and lead(II) removal from solution. Isotherm experiments and desorption tests were conducted and kinetic analysis was performed with increasing temperatures. As solution pH increased, the biosorption capacity and the change in hydrogen ion concentration in solution increased. The change in hydrogen ion concentration for lead(II) biosorption was slightly higher than for copper(II) biosorption. The results revealed that ion-exchange is the main mechanism for biosorption for both metal ions. The pseudo-first order kinetic model was unable to describe the biosorption process throughout the effective biosorption period while the modified pseudo-first order kinetics gave a better fit but could not predict the experimentally observed equilibrium capacities. The pseudo-second order kinetics gave a better fit to the experimental data over the temperature range from 291 to 347 K and the equilibrium capacity increased from 15.73 to 19.22 mg g(-1) for copper(II) and from 23.74 to 26.27 for lead(II). Activation energy was higher for lead(II) (22.40 kJ mol(-1)) than for copper(II) (20.36 kJ mol(-1)). The free energy of activation was higher for lead(II) than for copper(II) and the values of DeltaH* and DeltaS* indicate that the contribution of reorientation to the activation stage is higher for lead(II) than copper(II). This implies that lead(II) biosorption is more spontaneous than copper(II) biosorption. Equilibrium studies showed that the Langmuir isotherm gave a better fit for the equilibrium data indicating monolayer coverage of the biosorbent surface. There was only a small interaction between metal ions when simultaneously biosorbed and cation competition was higher for the Cu-Pb system than for the Pb-Cu system. Desorption studies and the Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm and energy parameter, E, also support the ion-exchange mechanism. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. EASY-II: a system for modelling of n, d, p, γ and α activation and transmutation processes (United States)

    Sublet, Jean-Christophe; Eastwood, James; Morgan, Guy; Koning, Arjan; Rochman, Dimitri


    EASY-II is designed as a functional replacement for the previous European Activation System, EASY-2010. It has extended nuclear data and new software, FISPACT-II, written in object-style Fortran to provide new capabilities for predictions of activation, transmutation, depletion and burnup. The new FISPACT-II code has allowed us to implement many more features in terms of energy range, up to GeV; incident particles: alpha, gamma, proton, deuteron and neutron; and neutron physics: self-shielding effects, temperature dependence, pathways analysis, sensitivity and error estimation using covariance data. These capabilities cover most application needs: nuclear fission and fusion, accelerator physics, isotope production, waste management and many more. In parallel, the maturity of modern general-purpose libraries such as TENDL-2012 encompassing thousands of target nuclides, the evolution of the ENDF format and the capabilities of the latest generation of processing codes PREPRO-2012, NJOY2012 and CALENDF-2010 have allowed the FISPACT-II code to be fed with more robust, complete and appropriate data: cross-sections with covariance, probability tables in the resonance ranges, kerma, dpa, gas and radionuclide production and 24 decay types. All such data for the five most important incident particles are placed in evaluated data files up to an incident energy of 200 MeV. The resulting code and data system, EASY-II, includes many new features and enhancements. It has been extensively tested, and also benefits from the feedback from wide-ranging validation and verification activities performed with its predecessor