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Sample records for range ground motions

  1. Empirical ground motion prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. Archuleta

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available New methods of site-specific ground motion prediction in the time and frequency domains are presented. A large earthquake is simulated as a composite (linear combination of observed small earthquakes (subevents assuming Aki-Brune functional models of the source time functions (spectra. Source models incorporate basic scaling relations between source and spectral parameters. Ground motion predictions are consistent with the entire observed seismic spectrum from the lowest to the highest frequencies. These methods are designed to use all the available empirical Green’s functions (or any subset of observations at a site. Thus a prediction is not biased by a single record, and different possible source-receiver paths are taken into account. Directivity is accounted for by adjusting the apparent source duration at each site. Our time-series prediction algorithm is based on determination of a non-uniform distribution of rupture times of subevents. By introducing a specific rupture velocity we avoid the major problem of deficiency of predictions around the main event's corner frequency. A novel notion of partial coherence allows us to sum subevents' amplitude spectra directly without using any information on their rupture times and phase histories. Predictions by this spectral method are not Jependent on details of rupture nucleation and propagation, location of asperities and other predominantly phase-affecting factors, responsible for uncertainties in time-domain simulations.

  2. Earthquake ground motion: Chapter 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luco, Nicolas; Kircher, Charles A.; Crouse, C. B.; Charney, Finley; Haselton, Curt B.; Baker, Jack W.; Zimmerman, Reid; Hooper, John D.; McVitty, William; Taylor, Andy

    2016-01-01

    Most of the effort in seismic design of buildings and other structures is focused on structural design. This chapter addresses another key aspect of the design process—characterization of earthquake ground motion into parameters for use in design. Section 3.1 describes the basis of the earthquake ground motion maps in the Provisions and in ASCE 7 (the Standard). Section 3.2 has examples for the determination of ground motion parameters and spectra for use in design. Section 3.3 describes site-specific ground motion requirements and provides example site-specific design and MCER response spectra and example values of site-specific ground motion parameters. Section 3.4 discusses and provides an example for the selection and scaling of ground motion records for use in various types of response history analysis permitted in the Standard.

  3. Broadband Synthetic Ground Motion Records

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The dataset contains broadband synthetic ground motion records for three events: 1) 1994 M6.7 Northridge, CA, 2) 1989 M7.0 Loma Prieta, CA, and 3) 1999 M7.5 Izmit,...

  4. Ground motion: An introduction for accelerator builders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, G.E.

    1992-02-01

    In this seminar we will review some of the characteristics of the major classes of ground motion in order to determine whether their effects must be considered or place fundamental limits on the sitting and/or design of modern storage rings and linear colliders. The classes discussed range in frequency content from tidal deformation and tectonic motions through earthquakes and microseisms. Countermeasures currently available are briefly discussed.

  5. Orientation-independent measures of ground motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boore, D.M.; Watson-Lamprey, Jennie; Abrahamson, N.A.

    2006-01-01

    The geometric mean of the response spectra for two orthogonal horizontal components of motion, commonly used as the response variable in predictions of strong ground motion, depends on the orientation of the sensors as installed in the field. This means that the measure of ground-motion intensity could differ for the same actual ground motion. This dependence on sensor orientation is most pronounced for strongly correlated motion (the extreme example being linearly polarized motion), such as often occurs at periods of 1 sec or longer. We propose two new measures of the geometric mean, GMRotDpp, and GMRotIpp, that are independent of the sensor orientations. Both are based on a set of geometric means computed from the as-recorded orthogonal horizontal motions rotated through all possible non-redundant rotation angles. GMRotDpp is determined as the ppth percentile of the set of geometric means for a given oscillator period. For example, GMRotDOO, GMRotD50, and GMRotD100 correspond to the minimum, median, and maximum values, respectively. The rotations that lead to GMRotDpp depend on period, whereas a single-period-independent rotation is used for GMRotIpp, the angle being chosen to minimize the spread of the rotation-dependent geometric mean (normalized by GMRotDpp) over the usable range of oscillator periods. GMRotI50 is the ground-motion intensity measure being used in the development of new ground-motion prediction equations by the Pacific Earthquake Engineering Center Next Generation Attenuation project. Comparisons with as-recorded geometric means for a large dataset show that the new measures are systematically larger than the geometric-mean response spectra using the as-recorded values of ground acceleration, but only by a small amount (less than 3%). The theoretical advantage of the new measures is that they remove sensor orientation as a contributor to aleatory uncertainty. Whether the reduction is of practical significance awaits detailed studies of large

  6. Identification of resonant earthquake ground motion

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Resonant ground motion has been observed in earthquake records measured at several parts of the world. This class of ground motion is characterized by its energy being contained in a narrow frequency band. This paper develops measures to quantify the frequency content of the ground motion using the entropy ...

  7. Ground Motion and Air Overpressure Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael K. Sharp

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A seismic attenuation and air overpressure study was conducted to determine the attenuation of explosion induced ground motions and air overpressures as a function of distance from shallow subsurface detonated charges, and to derive parameters to predict blast effects at distances beyond the ordinance disposal facility boundary. A total of 210 explosive shots were monitored producing 2048 time histories of ground motions recorded in the vertical, radial, and transverse directions, in addition to recording air overpressures. The data were analyzed for peak particle velocities and peak air overpressures, then plotted versus scaled range. A best fit line was determined for the data to give average, 95% non-exceedance, and upper bound predictive equations which can be used in the disposal operations to avoid damage to adjacent structures.

  8. Ground Motions Due to Earthquakes on Creeping Faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, R.; Abrahamson, N. A.

    2014-12-01

    We investigate the peak ground motions from the largest well-recorded earthquakes on creeping strike-slip faults in active-tectonic continental regions. Our goal is to evaluate if the strong ground motions from earthquakes on creeping faults are smaller than the strong ground motions from earthquakes on locked faults. Smaller ground motions might be expected from earthquakes on creeping faults if the fault sections that strongly radiate energy are surrounded by patches of fault that predominantly absorb energy. For our study we used the ground motion data available in the PEER NGA-West2 database, and the ground motion prediction equations that were developed from the PEER NGA-West2 dataset. We analyzed data for the eleven largest well-recorded creeping-fault earthquakes, that ranged in magnitude from M5.0-6.5. Our findings are that these earthquakes produced peak ground motions that are statistically indistinguishable from the peak ground motions produced by similar-magnitude earthquakes on locked faults. These findings may be implemented in earthquake hazard estimates for moderate-size earthquakes in creeping-fault regions. Further investigation is necessary to determine if this result will also apply to larger earthquakes on creeping faults. Please also see: Harris, R.A., and N.A. Abrahamson (2014), Strong ground motions generated by earthquakes on creeping faults, Geophysical Research Letters, vol. 41, doi:10.1002/2014GL060228.

  9. Ground Motion Models for Future Linear Colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seryi, Andrei

    2000-06-28

    Optimization of the parameters of a future linear collider requires comprehensive models of ground motion. Both general models of ground motion and specific models of the particular site and local conditions are essential. Existing models are not completely adequate, either because they are too general, or because they omit important peculiarities of ground motion. The model considered in this paper is based on recent ground motion measurements performed at SLAC and at other accelerator laboratories, as well as on historical data. The issues to be studied for the models to become more predictive are also discussed.

  10. Preliminary results of ground-motion characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Bozzoni

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The preliminary results are presented herein for the engineering applications of the characteristics of the ground motion induced by the May 20, 2012, Emilia earthquake. Shake maps are computed to provide estimates of the spatial distribution of the induced ground motion. The signals recorded at the Mirandola (MRN station, the closest to the epicenter, have been processed to obtain acceleration, velocity and displacement response spectra. Ground-motion parameters from the MRN recordings are compared with the corresponding estimates from recent ground-motion prediction equations, and with the spectra prescribed by the current Italian Building Code for different return periods. The records from the MRN station are used to plot the particle orbit (hodogram described by the waveform. The availability of results from geotechnical field tests that were performed at a few sites in the Municipality of Mirandola prior to this earthquake of May 2012 has allowed preliminary assessment of the ground response. The amplification effects at Mirandola are estimated using fully stochastic site-response analyses. The seismic input comprises seven actual records that are compatible with the Italian code-based spectrum that refers to a 475-year return period. The computed acceleration response spectrum and the associated dispersion are compared to the spectra calculated from the recordings of the MRN station. Good agreement is obtained for periods up to 1 s, especially for the peak ground acceleration. For the other periods, the spectral acceleration of the MRN recordings exceeds that of the computed spectra.

  11. Ground-motion prediction from tremor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltay, Annemarie S.; Beroza, Gregory C.

    2013-01-01

    The widespread occurrence of tremor, coupled with its frequency content and location, provides an exceptional opportunity to test and improve strong ground-motion attenuation relations for subduction zones. We characterize the amplitude of thousands of individual 5 min tremor events in Cascadia during three episodic tremor and slip events to constrain the distance decay of peak ground acceleration (PGA) and peak ground velocity (PGV). We determine the anelastic attenuation parameter for ground-motion prediction equations (GMPEs) to a distance of 150 km, which is sufficient to place important constraints on ground-motion decay. Tremor PGA and PGV show a distance decay that is similar to subduction-zone-specific GMPEs developed from both data and simulations; however, the massive amount of data present in the tremor observations should allow us to refine distance-amplitude attenuation relationships for use in hazard maps, and to search for regional variations and intrasubduction zone differences in ground-motion attenuation.

  12. Strong ground motion prediction using virtual earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denolle, M A; Dunham, E M; Prieto, G A; Beroza, G C

    2014-01-24

    Sedimentary basins increase the damaging effects of earthquakes by trapping and amplifying seismic waves. Simulations of seismic wave propagation in sedimentary basins capture this effect; however, there exists no method to validate these results for earthquakes that have not yet occurred. We present a new approach for ground motion prediction that uses the ambient seismic field. We apply our method to a suite of magnitude 7 scenario earthquakes on the southern San Andreas fault and compare our ground motion predictions with simulations. Both methods find strong amplification and coupling of source and structure effects, but they predict substantially different shaking patterns across the Los Angeles Basin. The virtual earthquake approach provides a new approach for predicting long-period strong ground motion.

  13. Identification of resonant earthquake ground motion

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rom pave the way for better ... identified critical ground motion for nonlinear structures using inelastic time-history analysis. The effect of energy .... of earthquake records for time-history analysis of structures (Moustafa et al 2010). To gain more ...

  14. The NTS Ground Motion Data Base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    App, F.N.

    1994-04-01

    The NTS (Nevada Test Site) Ground Motion Data Base is composed of strong motion data recorded during the normal execution of the US underground test program. It contains surface, subsurface, and structure motion data as digitized waveforms. Currently the data base contains information from 148 underground explosions This represents about 4200 measurements and nearly 12,000 individual digitized waveforms. Most of the data was acquired by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in connection with LANL sponsored underground tests. Some was acquired by Los Alamos on tests conducted by the Defense Nuclear Agency (DNA) and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and there are some measurements which were acquired by the other test sponsors on their events and provided to us for inclusion in this data base. Included in the data set is the Los Alamos motion data from the Non-Proliferation Experiment (NPE).

  15. Evaluation of Ground-Motion Modeling Techniques for Use in Global ShakeMap - A Critique of Instrumental Ground-Motion Prediction Equations, Peak Ground Motion to Macroseismic Intensity Conversions, and Macroseismic Intensity Predictions in Different Tectonic Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Trevor I.; Wald, David J.

    2009-01-01

    Regional differences in ground-motion attenuation have long been thought to add uncertainty in the prediction of ground motion. However, a growing body of evidence suggests that regional differences in ground-motion attenuation may not be as significant as previously thought and that the key differences between regions may be a consequence of limitations in ground-motion datasets over incomplete magnitude and distance ranges. Undoubtedly, regional differences in attenuation can exist owing to differences in crustal structure and tectonic setting, and these can contribute to differences in ground-motion attenuation at larger source-receiver distances. Herein, we examine the use of a variety of techniques for the prediction of several ground-motion metrics (peak ground acceleration and velocity, response spectral ordinates, and macroseismic intensity) and compare them against a global dataset of instrumental ground-motion recordings and intensity assignments. The primary goal of this study is to determine whether existing ground-motion prediction techniques are applicable for use in the U.S. Geological Survey's Global ShakeMap and Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response (PAGER). We seek the most appropriate ground-motion predictive technique, or techniques, for each of the tectonic regimes considered: shallow active crust, subduction zone, and stable continental region.

  16. Trampoline effect in extreme ground motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoi, Shin; Kunugi, Takashi; Fujiwara, Hiroyuki

    2008-10-31

    In earthquake hazard assessment studies, the focus is usually on horizontal ground motion. However, records from the 14 June 2008 Iwate-Miyagi earthquake in Japan, a crustal event with a moment magnitude of 6.9, revealed an unprecedented vertical surface acceleration of nearly four times gravity, more than twice its horizontal counterpart. The vertical acceleration was distinctly asymmetric; the waveform envelope was about 1.6 times as large in the upward direction as in the downward direction, which is not explained by existing models of the soil response. We present a simple model of a mass bouncing on a trampoline to account for this asymmetry and the large vertical amplitude. The finding of a hitherto-unknown mode of strong ground motion may prompt major progress in near-source shaking assessments.

  17. Compression of ground-motion data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, J.W.

    1981-04-01

    Ground motion data has been recorded for many years at Nevada Test Site and is now stored on thousands of digital tapes. The recording format is very inefficient in terms of space on tape. This report outlines a method to compress the data onto a few hundred tapes while maintaining the accuracy of the recording and allowing restoration of any file to the original format for future use. For future digitizing a more efficient format is described and suggested.

  18. Hip strength and range of motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosler, Andrea B.; Crossley, Kay M.; Thorborg, Kristian

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To determine the normal profiles for hip strength and range of motion (ROM) in a professional football league in Qatar, and examine the effect of leg dominance, age, past history of injury, and ethnicity on these profiles. Design Cross-sectional cohort study. Methods Participants...... values are documented for hip strength and range of motion that can be used as reference profiles in the clinical assessment, screening, and management of professional football players. Leg dominance, recent past injury history and ethnicity do not need to be accounted for when using these profiles...... included 394 asymptomatic, male professional football players, aged 18–40 years. Strength was measured using a hand held dynamometer with an eccentric test in side-lying for hip adduction and abduction, and the squeeze test in supine with 45° hip flexion. Range of motion measures included: hip internal...

  19. Earthquake Hazards Program: Risk-Targeted Ground Motion Calculator

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This tool is used to calculate risk-targeted ground motion values from probabilistic seismic hazard curves in accordance with the site-specific ground motion...

  20. Analysis of strong ground motions to evaluate regional attenuation relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Montaldo

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Italian attenuation relationships at regional scale have been refined using a data set of 322 horizontal components of strong ground motions recorded mainly during the 1997-1998 Umbria-Marche, Central Italy, earthquake sequence. The data set includes records generated by events with local magnitude (M L ranging between 4.5 and 5.9, recorded at rock or soil sites and epicentral distance smaller than 100 km. Through a multiple step regression analysis, we calculated empirical equations for the peak ground acceleration and velocity, the Arias Intensity and for the horizontal components of the 5% damped velocity pseudo response spectra, corresponding to 14 frequencies ranging from 0.25 to 25 Hz. We compared our results with well known predictive equations, widely used on the national territory for Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis. The results obtained in this study show smaller values for all the analyzed ground motion indicators compared to other predictive equations.

  1. Range of motion and cervical myofascial pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilke, J; Niederer, D; Fleckenstein, J; Vogt, L; Banzer, W

    2016-01-01

    Several studies investigating myofascial pain syndrome include assessments of range of motion (ROM) as a diagnostic criterion. However, the value of ROM in this context has not yet been evaluated in controlled clinical studies. We aimed to examine whether patients with myofascial pain syndrome display alterations of ROM when compared to healthy subjects. Twenty-two individuals (13 females, 9 males; aged 33.4 ± 13.9 yrs) afflicted with active myofascial trigger points in the upper trapezius muscle as well as 22 age and sex matched healthy controls were included. All subjects underwent an examination of maximal active cervical ROM in flexion/extension assessed by means of a 3D ultrasonic movement analysis system (30 Hz; Zebris CMS 70). In the patients group, pressure pain threshold (PPT) of the trigger points was determined using a pressure algometer. Maximum range of motion in the sagittal plane did not differ between individuals with MTrP (125.9 ± 23.2°, 95% CI: 116.2-135.6°) and asymptomatic subjects (128.2 ± 20.4°, 95% CI: 119.7-136.7°; p > .05). In patients, PPT (1.7 ± .6, 95% CI: 1.5-1.9) was not correlated with cervical mobility (r = -.13; p > .05). Based on these pilot data, range of motion in flexion/extension is not a valid criterion for the detection of myofascial trigger points. Additional research incorporating movement amplitudes in other anatomical planes and additional afflicted muscles should be conducted in order to further delineate the relative impact of MTrP on range of motion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Regional differences in subduction ground motions

    CERN Document Server

    Beauval, Céline; Abrahamson, N; Theodulidis, N; Delavaud, E; Rodriguez, L; Scherbaum, F; Haendel, A

    2012-01-01

    A few ground-motion prediction models have been published in the last years, for predicting ground motions produced by interface and intraslab earthquakes. When one must carry out a probabilistic seismic hazard analysis in a region including a subduction zone, GMPEs must be selected to feed a logic tree. In the present study, the aim is to identify which models provide the best fit to the dataset M6+, global or local models. The subduction regions considered are Japan, Taiwan, Central and South America, and Greece. Most of the data comes from the database built to develop the new BCHydro subduction global GMPE (Abrahamson et al., submitted). We show that this model is among best-fitting models in all cases, followed closely by Zhao et al. (2006), whereas the local Lin and Lee (2008) is well predicting the data in Taiwan and also in Greece. The Scherbaum et al. (2009) LLH method prove to be efficient in providing one number quantifying the overall fit, but additional analysis on the between-event and within-ev...

  3. Extreme ground motions and Yucca Mountain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanks, Thomas C.; Abrahamson, Norman A.; Baker, Jack W.; Boore, David M.; Board, Mark; Brune, James N.; Cornell, C. Allin; Whitney, John W.

    2013-01-01

    Yucca Mountain is the designated site of the underground repository for the United States' high-level radioactive waste (HLW), consisting of commercial and military spent nuclear fuel, HLW derived from reprocessing of uranium and plutonium, surplus plutonium, and other nuclear-weapons materials. Yucca Mountain straddles the western boundary of the Nevada Test Site, where the United States has tested nuclear devices since the 1950s, and is situated in an arid, remote, and thinly populated region of Nevada, ~100 miles northwest of Las Vegas. Yucca Mountain was originally considered as a potential underground repository of HLW because of its thick units of unsaturated rocks, with the repository horizon being not only ~300 m above the water table but also ~300 m below the Yucca Mountain crest. The fundamental rationale for a geologic (underground) repository for HLW is to securely isolate these materials from the environment and its inhabitants to the greatest extent possible and for very long periods of time. Given the present climate conditions and what is known about the current hydrologic system and conditions around and in the mountain itself, one would anticipate that the rates of infiltration, corrosion, and transport would be very low—except for the possibility that repository integrity might be compromised by low-probability disruptive events, which include earthquakes, strong ground motion, and (or) a repository-piercing volcanic intrusion/eruption. Extreme ground motions (ExGM), as we use the phrase in this report, refer to the extremely large amplitudes of earthquake ground motion that arise at extremely low probabilities of exceedance (hazard). They first came to our attention when the 1998 probabilistic seismic hazard analysis for Yucca Mountain was extended to a hazard level of 10-8/yr (a 10-4/yr probability for a 104-year repository “lifetime”). The primary purpose of this report is to summarize the principal results of the ExGM research program

  4. Statistical study of ground motion amplification in the Mississippi embayment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malekmohammadi, Mojtaba

    Three important topics have been studied in this dissertation. First, the effects of deep soil deposits of the Mississippi embayment in ground motion amplification have been studied. Using the results of one-dimensional analyses, a parametric model is developed for the region to estimate the ground motion amplification. The averaged shear-wave velocity in the upper 30 meter, Vs30, ranging from 220 to 800 m/s and deposit thickness varying from 70 to 750m, are considered in the estimation of the ground motion amplification with respect to a generic bedrock profile of the Mississippi embayment. Results indicate that site factors suggested by seismic codes cannot capture the site properties of the Mississippi embayment and are not appropriate for the region. In the second part, a new step-by-step method is developed to select a set of ground motions which takes into account a site-specific Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis (PSHA) and the associated uncertainties through the defined logic tree. In the proposed method, after capturing the variability of the Uniform Hazard Response Spectrum (UHRS), I used a Monte Carlo procedure to produce a set of response spectra that has mean equals to the target and variability close to the variability of the target at all the spectral periods. Each member of the generated set is called individual target response spectra, and ground motions from the database of real data and also synthetic ground motions are selected based on their similarity with the individual target response spectra. The method's procedure is defined through studying a sample site in North of the Mississippi embayment. In the last part of the study I developed a model for the ratio of Vertical to Horizontal component of earthquakes (V/H ratio) for the Mississippi embayment. This model can be used in developing the site-specific vertical design spectrum for the region by scaling the horizontal design spectrum resulting from a PSHA. The input parameters of the

  5. Normal values for cervical range of motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinkels, Raymond A H M; Swinkels-Meewisse, Ilse E J C M

    2014-03-01

    Cohort study. To generate normal values for active range of motion (ACROM) of the cervical spine in asymptomatic persons. There is a lack of normal values for ACROM based on large groups and stratified for different age categories. Four hundred asymptomatic persons were included, 100 for each decade of age from 20 years to 60 years and in each subgroup 50 males and 50 females. ACROM was measured with the cervical range of motion (CROM) device. Analysis of variance and the Scheffé post hoc test was used to investigate the differences of ACROM between the decades of age. Linear regression analysis was performed to examine the influence of age and sex on ACROM. The results of this study show that the ACROM decreases significantly in persons older than 50 years for all directions except extension and side flexion compared with that in the subgroup aged 40 to 50. Age had an overall significant effect on the ACROM for all directions. Sex proved to have no significant effect on the ACROM. Normal values were established for ACROM in a group of 400 persons without neck complaints. It was demonstrated that age has a significant influence on the ACROM, but sex has no influence. N/A.

  6. Ground motion studies in a backfilled stope at West Driefontein

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Goldbach, OD

    1991-10-01

    Full Text Available according to peak ground velocity, spectral peaks and vibration times. The results from this study, together with the results from previous work on ground motion analyses in backfilled and conventionally filled stopes, show how backfill can reduce...

  7. Overview of Ground-Motion Issues for Cascadia Megathrust Events: Simulation of Ground-Motions and Earthquake Site Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Ghofrani

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Ground motions for earthquakes of M7.5 to 9.0 on the Cascadia subduction interface are simulated based on a stochastic finite-fault model and used to estimate average response spectra for reference firm soil conditions. The simulations are first validated by modeling the wealth of ground-motion data from the 2011 M9.0 Tohoku earthquake of Japan. Adjustments to the calibrated model are then made to consider average source, attenuation and site parameters for the Cascadia region. This includes an evaluation of the likely variability in stress drop for large interface earthquakes and an assessment of regional attenuation and site effects. We perform best-estimate simulations for a preferred set of input parameters. Typical results suggest mean values of 5%-damped pseudoacceleration in the range from about 100 to 200 cm/s2, at frequencies from 1 to 4 Hz, for firm-ground conditions in Vancouver. Uncertainty in most-likely value of the parameter representing stress drop causes variability in simulated response spectra of about ±50%. Uncertainties in the attenuation model produce even larger variability in response spectral amplitudes—a factor of about two at a closest distance to the rupture plane (Rcd of 100 km, becoming even larger at greater distances. It is thus important to establish the regional attenuation model for ground-motion simulations and to bound the source properties controlling radiation of ground motion. We calculate theoretical one-dimensional spectral amplification estimates for four selected Fraser River Delta sites to show how the presence of softer sediments in the region may alter the predicted ground motions. The amplification functions are largely consistent with observed spectral amplification at Fraser River delta sites, suggesting amplification by factors of 2.5–5 at the peak frequency of the site; we note that deep sites in the delta have a low peak frequency, ∼0.3 Hz. This work will aid in seismic hazard

  8. Seismic ground motion variations resulting from site conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Silacheva

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Amplification of seismic ground motions in the territory of Almaty city is evaluated by using different methods. The pattern and probable causes of ground motion variations in different engineering-geological conditions are characterized. An expeditious application of these techniques within a complex methodical approach for Almaty city microzonation is considered.

  9. Description of ground motion data processing codes: Volume 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanders, M.L.

    1988-02-01

    Data processing codes developed to process ground motion at the Nevada Test Site for the Weapons Test Seismic Investigations Project are used today as part of the program to process ground motion records for the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations Project. The work contained in this report documents and lists codes and verifies the ``PSRV`` code. 39 figs.

  10. Ground motion observations of the 2014 South Napa earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltay, Annemarie S.; Boatwright, John

    2015-01-01

    Ground motions of the South Napa earthquake (24 August 2014; M 6.0) were recorded at 19 stations within 20 km and 292 stations within 100 km of the rupture surface trace, generating peak ground motions in excess of 50%g and 50  cm/s in and near Napa Valley. This large dataset allows us to compare the ground motion from the earthquake to existing ground‐motion prediction equations (GMPEs) in considerable detail.

  11. An Improved Approach for Nonstationary Strong Ground Motion Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanan; Wang, Guoxin

    2016-05-01

    A new stochastic ground motion model for generating a suite of ground motion time history with both temporal and frequency nonstationarities for specified earthquake and site characteristics is proposed based on the wavelet method. This new model is defined in terms of 6 key parameters that characterize the duration, evolving intensity, predominant frequency, bandwidth and frequency variation of the ground acceleration process. All parameters, except for peak ground acceleration (PGA), are identified manually from a database of 2444 recorded horizontal accelerations. The two-stage regression analysis method is used to investigate the inter- and intra-event residuals. For any given earthquake and site characteristics in terms of the fault mechanism, moment magnitude, Joyner and Boore distance and site shear-wave velocity, sets of the model parameters are generated and used, in turn, by the stochastic model to generate strong ground motion accelerograms, which can capture and properly embody the primary features of real strong ground motions, including the duration, evolving intensity, spectral content, frequency variation and peak values. In addition, it is shown that the characteristics of the simulated and observed response spectra are similar, and the amplitude of the simulated response spectra are in line with the predicted values from the published seismic ground motion prediction equations (SGMPE) after a systematic comparison. The proposed method can be used to estimate the strong ground motions as inputs for structural seismic dynamic analysis in engineering practice in conjunction with or instead of recorded ground motions.

  12. Hazard-consistent ground motions generated with a stochastic fault-rupture model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishida, Akemi, E-mail: nishida.akemi@jaea.go.jp [Center for Computational Science and e-Systems, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 178-4-4, Wakashiba, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-0871 (Japan); Igarashi, Sayaka, E-mail: igrsyk00@pub.taisei.co.jp [Technology Center, Taisei Corporation, 344-1 Nase-cho, Totsuka-ku, Yokohama 245-0051 (Japan); Sakamoto, Shigehiro, E-mail: shigehiro.sakamoto@sakura.taisei.co.jp [Technology Center, Taisei Corporation, 344-1 Nase-cho, Totsuka-ku, Yokohama 245-0051 (Japan); Uchiyama, Yasuo, E-mail: yasuo.uchiyama@sakura.taisei.co.jp [Technology Center, Taisei Corporation, 344-1 Nase-cho, Totsuka-ku, Yokohama 245-0051 (Japan); Yamamoto, Yu, E-mail: ymmyu-00@pub.taisei.co.jp [Technology Center, Taisei Corporation, 344-1 Nase-cho, Totsuka-ku, Yokohama 245-0051 (Japan); Muramatsu, Ken, E-mail: kmuramat@tcu.ac.jp [Department of Nuclear Safety Engineering, Tokyo City University, 1-28-1 Tamazutsumi, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 158-8557 (Japan); Takada, Tsuyoshi, E-mail: takada@load.arch.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Architecture, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)

    2015-12-15

    Conventional seismic probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs) of nuclear power plants consist of probabilistic seismic hazard and fragility curves. Even when earthquake ground-motion time histories are required, they are generated to fit specified response spectra, such as uniform hazard spectra at a specified exceedance probability. These ground motions, however, are not directly linked with seismic-source characteristics. In this context, the authors propose a method based on Monte Carlo simulations to generate a set of input ground-motion time histories to develop an advanced PRA scheme that can explain exceedance probability and the sequence of safety-functional loss in a nuclear power plant. These generated ground motions are consistent with seismic hazard at a reference site, and their seismic-source characteristics can be identified in detail. Ground-motion generation is conducted for a reference site, Oarai in Japan, the location of a hypothetical nuclear power plant. A total of 200 ground motions are generated, ranging from 700 to 1100 cm/s{sup 2} peak acceleration, which corresponds to a 10{sup −4} to 10{sup −5} annual exceedance frequency. In the ground-motion generation, seismic sources are selected according to their hazard contribution at the site, and Monte Carlo simulations with stochastic parameters for the seismic-source characteristics are then conducted until ground motions with the target peak acceleration are obtained. These ground motions are selected so that they are consistent with the hazard. Approximately 110,000 simulations were required to generate 200 ground motions with these peak accelerations. Deviations of peak ground motion acceleration generated for 1000–1100 cm/s{sup 2} range from 1.5 to 3.0, where the deviation is evaluated with peak ground motion accelerations generated from the same seismic source. Deviations of 1.0 to 3.0 for stress drops, one of the stochastic parameters of seismic-source characteristics, are required to

  13. Broadband Ground Motion Simulations for the Puente Hills Fault System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, R. W.

    2005-12-01

    Recent geologic studies have identified the seismic potential of the Puente Hills fault system. This system is comprised of multiple blind thrust segments, a portion of which ruptured in the Mw 5.9 Whittier-Narrows earthquake. Rupture of the entire system could generate a Mw 7.2 (or larger) earthquake. To assess the potential hazard posed by the fault system, we have simulated the response for several earthquake scenarios. These simulations are unprecedented in scope and scale. Broadband (0-10 Hz) ground motions are computed at 66,000 sites, covering most of the LA metropolitan region. Low frequency (f 1 Hz) motions are calculated using a stochastic approach. We consider scenarios ranging from Mw 6.7 to Mw 7.2, including both high and low stress drop events. Finite-fault rupture models for these scenarios are generated following a wavenumber filtering technique (K-2 model) that has been calibrated against recent earthquakes. In all scenarios, strong rupture directivity channels large amplitude pulses of motion directly into the Los Angeles basin, which then propagate southward as basin surface waves. Typically, the waveforms near downtown Los Angeles are dominated by a strong, concentrated pulse of motion. At Long Beach (across the LA basin from the rupture) the waveforms are dominated by late arriving longer period surface waves. The great density of sites used in the calculation allows the construction of detailed maps of various ground motion parameters (PGA, PGV, SA), as well as full animations of the propagating broadband wave field. Additionally, the broadband time histories are available for use in non-linear response analyses of built structures.

  14. Evaluation of Nevada Test Site Ground Motion and Rock Property Data to Bound Ground Motions at the Yucca Mountain Repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchings, L J; Foxall, W; Rambo, J; Wagoner, J L

    2005-02-14

    Yucca Mountain licensing will require estimation of ground motions from probabilistic seismic hazard analyses (PSHA) with annual probabilities of exceedance on the order of 10{sup -6} to 10{sup -7} per year or smaller, which correspond to much longer earthquake return periods than most previous PSHA studies. These long return periods for the Yucca Mountain PSHA result in estimates of ground motion that are extremely high ({approx} 10 g) and that are believed to be physically unrealizable. However, there is at present no generally accepted method to bound ground motions either by showing that the physical properties of materials cannot maintain such extreme motions, or the energy release by the source for such large motions is physically impossible. The purpose of this feasibility study is to examine recorded ground motion and rock property data from nuclear explosions to determine its usefulness for studying the ground motion from extreme earthquakes. The premise is that nuclear explosions are an extreme energy density source, and that the recorded ground motion will provide useful information about the limits of ground motion from extreme earthquakes. The data were categorized by the source and rock properties, and evaluated as to what extent non-linearity in the material has affected the recordings. They also compiled existing results of non-linear dynamic modeling of the explosions carried out by LLNL and other institutions. They conducted an extensive literature review to outline current understanding of extreme ground motion. They also analyzed the data in terms of estimating maximum ground motions at Yucca Mountain.

  15. Evaluation of Nevada Test Site Ground Motion and Rock Property Data to Bound Ground Motions at the Yucca Mountain Repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchings, L H; Foxall, W; Rambo, J; Wagoner, J L

    2005-03-09

    Yucca Mountain licensing will require estimation of ground motions from probabilistic seismic hazard analyses (PSHA) with annual probabilities of exceedance on the order of 10{sup -6} to 10{sup -7} per year or smaller, which correspond to much longer earthquake return periods than most previous PSHA studies. These long return periods for the Yucca Mountain PSHA result in estimates of ground motion that are extremely high ({approx} 10 g) and that are believed to be physically unrealizable. However, there is at present no generally accepted method to bound ground motions either by showing that the physical properties of materials cannot maintain such extreme motions, or the energy release by the source for such large motions is physically impossible. The purpose of this feasibility study is to examine recorded ground motion and rock property data from nuclear explosions to determine its usefulness for studying the ground motion from extreme earthquakes. The premise is that nuclear explosions are an extreme energy density source, and that the recorded ground motion will provide useful information about the limits of ground motion from extreme earthquakes. The data were categorized by the source and rock properties, and evaluated as to what extent non-linearity in the material has affected the recordings. They also compiled existing results of non-linear dynamic modeling of the explosions carried out by LLNL and other institutions. They conducted an extensive literature review to outline current understanding of extreme ground motion. They also analyzed the data in terms of estimating maximum ground motions at Yucca Mountain.

  16. Attenuation of ground-motion spectral amplitudes in southeastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, T.I.; Cummins, P.R.; Dhu, T.; Schneider, J.F.

    2007-01-01

    A dataset comprising some 1200 weak- and strong-motion records from 84 earthquakes is compiled to develop a regional ground-motion model for southeastern Australia (SEA). Events were recorded from 1993 to 2004 and range in size from moment magnitude 2.0 ??? M ??? 4.7. The decay of vertical-component Fourier spectral amplitudes is modeled by trilinear geometrical spreading. The decay of low-frequency spectral amplitudes can be approximated by the coefficient of R-1.3 (where R is hypocentral distance) within 90 km of the seismic source. From approximately 90 to 160 km, we observe a transition zone in which the seismic coda are affected by postcritical reflections from midcrustal and Moho discontinuities. In this hypocentral distance range, geometrical spreading is approximately R+0.1. Beyond 160 km, low-frequency seismic energy attenuates rapidly with source-receiver distance, having a geometrical spreading coefficient of R-1.6. The associated regional seismic-quality factor can be expressed by the polynomial: log Q(f) = 3.66 - 1.44 log f + 0.768 (log f)2 + 0.058 (log f)3 for frequencies 0.78 ??? f ??? 19.9 Hz. Fourier spectral amplitudes, corrected for geometrical spreading and anelastic attenuation, are regressed with M to obtain quadratic source scaling coefficients. Modeled vertical-component displacement spectra fit the observed data well. Amplitude residuals are, on average, relatively small and do not vary with hypocentral distance. Predicted source spectra (i.e., at R = 1 km) are consistent with eastern North American (ENA) Models at low frequencies (f less than approximately 2 Hz) indicating that moment magnitudes calculated for SEA earthquakes are consistent with moment magnitude scales used in ENA over the observed magnitude range. The models presented represent the first spectral ground-motion prediction equations develooed for the southeastern Australian region. This work provides a useful framework for the development of regional ground-motion relations

  17. Measurement of ground motion in various sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bialowons, W.; Amirikas, R.; Bertolini, A.; Kruecker, D.

    2007-04-15

    Ground vibrations may affect low emittance beam transport in linear colliders, Free Electron Lasers (FEL) and synchrotron radiation facilities. This paper is an overview of a study program to measure ground vibrations in various sites which can be used for site characterization in relation to accelerator design. Commercial broadband seismometers have been used to measure ground vibrations and the resultant database is available to the scientific community. The methodology employed is to use the same equipment and data analysis tools for ease of comparison. This database of ground vibrations taken in 19 sites around the world is first of its kind. (orig.)

  18. Engineering uses of physics-based ground motion simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Jack W.; Luco, Nicolas; Abrahamson, Norman A.; Graves, Robert W.; Maechling, Phillip J.; Olsen, Kim B.

    2014-01-01

    This paper summarizes validation methodologies focused on enabling ground motion simulations to be used with confidence in engineering applications such as seismic hazard analysis and dynmaic analysis of structural and geotechnical systems. Numberical simullation of ground motion from large erthquakes, utilizing physics-based models of earthquake rupture and wave propagation, is an area of active research in the earth science community. Refinement and validatoin of these models require collaboration between earthquake scientists and engineering users, and testing/rating methodolgies for simulated ground motions to be used with confidence in engineering applications. This paper provides an introduction to this field and an overview of current research activities being coordinated by the Souther California Earthquake Center (SCEC). These activities are related both to advancing the science and computational infrastructure needed to produce ground motion simulations, as well as to engineering validation procedures. Current research areas and anticipated future achievements are also discussed.

  19. Seismic Ground Motion Hazards with 2 Percent Probability

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer shows seismic hazard in the United States. The data represent a model showing the probability that ground motion will reach a certain level. This map...

  20. Seismic Ground Motion Hazards with 10 Percent Probability

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer shows seismic hazard in the United States. The data represent a model showing the probability that ground motion will reach a certain level. This map...

  1. Model and parametric uncertainty in source-based kinematic models of earthquake ground motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartzell, Stephen; Frankel, Arthur; Liu, Pengcheng; Zeng, Yuehua; Rahman, Shariftur

    2011-01-01

    Four independent ground-motion simulation codes are used to model the strong ground motion for three earthquakes: 1994 Mw 6.7 Northridge, 1989 Mw 6.9 Loma Prieta, and 1999 Mw 7.5 Izmit. These 12 sets of synthetics are used to make estimates of the variability in ground-motion predictions. In addition, ground-motion predictions over a grid of sites are used to estimate parametric uncertainty for changes in rupture velocity. We find that the combined model uncertainty and random variability of the simulations is in the same range as the variability of regional empirical ground-motion data sets. The majority of the standard deviations lie between 0.5 and 0.7 natural-log units for response spectra and 0.5 and 0.8 for Fourier spectra. The estimate of model epistemic uncertainty, based on the different model predictions, lies between 0.2 and 0.4, which is about one-half of the estimates for the standard deviation of the combined model uncertainty and random variability. Parametric uncertainty, based on variation of just the average rupture velocity, is shown to be consistent in amplitude with previous estimates, showing percentage changes in ground motion from 50% to 300% when rupture velocity changes from 2.5 to 2.9 km/s. In addition, there is some evidence that mean biases can be reduced by averaging ground-motion estimates from different methods.

  2. Ground Motion in Central Mexico: A Comprehensive Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Guzman, L.; Juarez, A.; Rábade, S.; Aguirre, J.; Bielak, J.

    2015-12-01

    This study presents a detailed analysis of the ground motion in Central Mexico based on numerical simulations, as well as broadband and strong ground motion records. We describe and evaluate a velocity model for Central Mexico derived from noise and regional earthquake cross-correlations, which is used throughout this research to estimate the ground motion in the region. The 3D crustal model includes a geotechnical structure of the Valley of Mexico (VM), subduction zone geometry, and 3D velocity distributions. The latter are based on more than 200 low magnitude (Mw earthquakes and two years of noise recordings. We emphasize the analysis on the ground motion in the Valley of Mexico originating from intra-slab deep events and temblors located along the Pacific coast. Also, we quantify the effects Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB) and the low-velocity deposits on the ground motion. The 3D octree-based finite element wave propagation computations, valid up to 1 Hz, reveal that the inclusion of a basin with a structure as complex as the Valley of Mexico dramatically enhances the regional effects induced by the TMVB. Moreover, the basin not only produces ground motion amplification and anomalous duration, but it also favors the energy focusing into zones of Mexico City where structures typically undergo high levels of damage.

  3. Ankle-dorsiflexion range of motion and landing biomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Chun-Man; Blackburn, J Troy; Norcross, Marc F; McGrath, Melanie; Padua, Darin A

    2011-01-01

    A smaller amount of ankle-dorsiflexion displacement during landing is associated with less knee-flexion displacement and greater ground reaction forces, and greater ground reaction forces are associated with greater knee-valgus displacement. Additionally, restricted dorsiflexion range of motion (ROM) is associated with greater knee-valgus displacement during landing and squatting tasks. Because large ground reaction forces and valgus displacement and limited knee-flexion displacement during landing are anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury risk factors, dorsiflexion ROM restrictions may be associated with a greater risk of ACL injury. However, it is unclear whether clinical measures of dorsiflexion ROM are associated with landing biomechanics. To evaluate relationships between dorsiflexion ROM and landing biomechanics. Descriptive laboratory study. Research laboratory. Thirty-five healthy, physically active volunteers. Passive dorsiflexion ROM was assessed under extended-knee and flexed-knee conditions. Landing biomechanics were assessed via an optical motion-capture system interfaced with a force plate. Dorsiflexion ROM was measured in degrees using goniometry. Knee-flexion and knee-valgus displacements and vertical and posterior ground reaction forces were calculated during the landing task. Simple correlations were used to evaluate relationships between dorsiflexion ROM and each biomechanical variable. Significant correlations were noted between extended-knee dorsiflexion ROM and knee-flexion displacement (r  =  0.464, P  =  .029) and vertical (r  =  -0.411, P  =  .014) and posterior (r  =  -0.412, P  =  .014) ground reaction forces. All correlations for flexed-knee dorsiflexion ROM and knee-valgus displacement were nonsignificant. Greater dorsiflexion ROM was associated with greater knee-flexion displacement and smaller ground reaction forces during landing, thus inducing a landing posture consistent with reduced ACL injury risk and

  4. Research on Ground Motion Metal Target Based on Rocket Projectile by Using Millimeter Wave Radiometer Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Dongyang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available How to detect the ground motion metal target effectively is an important guarantee for precision strike in the process of Rocket Projectile flight. Accordingly and in view of the millimeter- wave radiation characteristic of the ground motion metal target, a mathematical model was established based on Rocket Projectile about millimeter-wave detection to the ground motion metal target. Through changing various parameters in the process of Rocket Projectile flight, the detection model was studied by simulation. The parameters variation and effective range of millimeter wave radiometer were obtained in the process of rotation and horizontal flight. So a certain theoretical basis was formed for the precision strike to the ground motion metal target.

  5. Near-Fault Strong Ground Motions during the 2016 Kumamoto, Japan, Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, T.; Asano, K.

    2016-12-01

    The 2016 Kumamoto mainshock (Mw7.0) produced a surface ruptured fault of about 20km long with maximum 2m offset, and identified as a surface ruptured event. Two strong motion records were observed near the surface ruptured fault at Mashiki town hall and Nishihara village hall. We investigated characteristics of those strong ground motions. As the acceleration records consisted of the baseline errors caused by nonzero initial acceleration and tilting of the accelerograph, we carefully removed the baseline errors (c.f. Chiu, 2001, Boore and Bommer, 2005) so as to obtain velocity and displacements. The observed permanent displacements were about 1.2m in horizontal direction and about 0.7m sinking in vertical direction at Mashiki town hall, and about 1.7m and 1.8m, respectively, at Nishihara village hall. Those permanent displacements almost coincide to results by GNSS and InSAR analysis (e.g., GSI, 2016). It takes about only 3 s to reach the permanent displacement. Somerville (2003) pointed out that ground motions from earthquakes producing large surface ruptures appeared to have systematically weaker ground motions than ground motions from earthquakes whose rupture were confined to the subsurface using the Ground Motion Prediction Equation (GMPE) for response spectra (Abrahamson and Silva, 1997). We calculated the response spectra of those records, compared them to the GMPE with the same manner and found two records were systematically larger than the expected from the GMPE in the period range of 0.3 s to 5 s. We need to re-consider the working hypothesis that the near-fault ground motions are weaker and to separate the near-fault and site effects on ground motions. Strong motions in the longer period range would be mainly caused by the near-fault (near-field term) effect.We used the acceleration data of the Kumamoto seismic intensity information network, provided by JMA.

  6. Ground motion improvements in SPEAR3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safranek, James A.; Yan, Yiton T.; Dell’Orco, Domenico; Gassner, Georg; Sunilkumar, Nikita

    2016-09-01

    SPEAR3 is a third-generation synchrotron light source storage ring, about 234 meters in circumference. To meet the beam stability requirement, our goal is to ultimately achieve an orbit variation (relative to the photon beam lines) of less than 10% of the beam size, which is about 1 micron in the vertical plane. Hydrostatic leveling system (HLS) measurements show that the height of the SPEAR3 tunnel floor can vary by tens of microns daily without thermal insulation improvements. We present an analysis of the HLS data that shows that adding thermal insulation to the concrete walls of the storage ring tunnel dramatically decreased diurnal tunnel floor motion.

  7. A synthetic GMPE based on deterministic simulated ground motion data obtained from dynamic rupture models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalguer, L. A.; Baumann, C.; Cauzzi, C.

    2013-12-01

    Empirical ground motion prediction in the very near-field and for large magnitudes is often based on extrapolation of ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs) outside the range where they are well constrained by recorded data. With empirical GMPEs it is also difficult to capture source-dominated ground motion patterns, such as the effects of velocity pulses induced by subshear and supershear rupture directivity, buried and surface-rupturing, hanging-wall and foot-wall, weak shallow layers, complex geometry faults and stress drop. A way to cope at least in part with these shortcomings is to augment the calibration datasets with synthetic ground motions. To this aim, physics-based dynamic rupture models - where the physical bases involved in the fault rupture are explicitly considered - appear to be a suitable approach to produce synthetic ground motions. In this contribution, we first perform an assessment of a database of synthetic ground motions generated by a suite of dynamic rupture simulations to verify compatibility of the peak ground amplitudes with current GMPEs. The synthetic data-set is composed by 360 earthquake scenarios with moment magnitudes in the range of 5.5-7, for three mechanisms of faulting (reverse, normal and strike-slip) and for both buried faults and surface rupturing faults. Second, we parameterise the synthetic dataset through a GMPE. For this purpose, we identify the basic functional forms by analyzing the variation of the synthetic peak ground motions and spectral ordinates as a function of different explanatory variables related to the earthquake source characteristics, in order to account for some of the source effects listed above. We argue that this study provides basic guidelines for the developments of future GMPEs including data from physics-based numerical simulations.

  8. Broad-band near-field ground motion simulations in 3-dimensional scattering media

    KAUST Repository

    Imperatori, W.

    2012-12-06

    The heterogeneous nature of Earth\\'s crust is manifested in the scattering of propagating seismic waves. In recent years, different techniques have been developed to include such phenomenon in broad-band ground-motion calculations, either considering scattering as a semi-stochastic or purely stochastic process. In this study, we simulate broad-band (0–10 Hz) ground motions with a 3-D finite-difference wave propagation solver using several 3-D media characterized by von Karman correlation functions with different correlation lengths and standard deviation values. Our goal is to investigate scattering characteristics and its influence on the seismic wavefield at short and intermediate distances from the source in terms of ground motion parameters. We also examine scattering phenomena, related to the loss of radiation pattern and the directivity breakdown. We first simulate broad-band ground motions for a point-source characterized by a classic ω2 spectrum model. Fault finiteness is then introduced by means of a Haskell-type source model presenting both subshear and super-shear rupture speed. Results indicate that scattering plays an important role in ground motion even at short distances from the source, where source effects are thought to be dominating. In particular, peak ground motion parameters can be affected even at relatively low frequencies, implying that earthquake ground-motion simulations should include scattering also for peak ground velocity (PGV) calculations. At the same time, we find a gradual loss of the source signature in the 2–5 Hz frequency range, together with a distortion of the Mach cones in case of super-shear rupture. For more complex source models and truly heterogeneous Earth, these effects may occur even at lower frequencies. Our simulations suggests that von Karman correlation functions with correlation length between several hundred metres and few kilometres, Hurst exponent around 0.3 and standard deviation in the 5–10 per cent

  9. Ground motions at the outermost limits of seismically triggered landslides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jibson, Randall W.; Harp, Edwin L.

    2016-01-01

    Over the last few decades, we and our colleagues have conducted field investigations in which we mapped the outermost limits of triggered landslides in four earthquakes: 1987 Whittier Narrows, California (M 5.9), 1987 Superstition Hills, California (M 6.5), 1994 Northridge, California (M 6.7), and 2011 Mineral, Virginia (M 5.8). In an additional two earthquakes, 1976 Guatemala (M 7.5) and 1983 Coalinga, California (M 6.5), we determined limits using high‐resolution aerial‐photographic interpretation in conjunction with more limited ground investigation. Limits in these earthquakes were defined by the locations of the very smallest failures (landslide limits with peak ground accelerations (PGAs) from ShakeMap models of each earthquake. For the four earthquakes studied by field investigation, the minimum PGA values associated with farthest landslide limits ranged from 0.02g to 0.08g. The range for the two earthquakes investigated using aerial‐photographic interpretations was 0.05–0.11g. Although PGA values at landslide limits depend on several factors, including material strength, topographic amplification, and hydrologic conditions, these values provide an empirically useful lower limiting range of PGA needed to trigger the smallest failures on very susceptible slopes. In a well‐recorded earthquake, this PGA range can be used to identify an outer boundary within which we might expect to find landsliding; in earthquakes that are not well recorded, mapping the outermost landslide limits provides a useful clue about ground‐motion levels at the mapped limits.

  10. Strong ground motion from the michoacan, Mexico, earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J G; Bodin, P; Brune, J N; Prince, J; Singh, S K; Quaas, R; Onate, M

    1986-09-05

    The network of strong motion accelerographs in Mexico includes instruments that were installed, under an international cooperative research program, in sites selected for the high potenial of a large earthquake. The 19 September 1985 earthquake (magnitude 8.1) occurred in a seismic gap where an earthquake was expected. As a result, there is an excellent descripton of the ground motions that caused the disaster.

  11. Ground motion modeling of Hayward fault scenario earthquakes II:Simulation of long-period and broadband ground motions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aagaard, B T; Graves, R W; Rodgers, A; Brocher, T M; Simpson, R W; Dreger, D; Petersson, N A; Larsen, S C; Ma, S; Jachens, R C

    2009-11-04

    We simulate long-period (T > 1.0-2.0 s) and broadband (T > 0.1 s) ground motions for 39 scenarios earthquakes (Mw 6.7-7.2) involving the Hayward, Calaveras, and Rodgers Creek faults. For rupture on the Hayward fault we consider the effects of creep on coseismic slip using two different approaches, both of which reduce the ground motions compared with neglecting the influence of creep. Nevertheless, the scenario earthquakes generate strong shaking throughout the San Francisco Bay area with about 50% of the urban area experiencing MMI VII or greater for the magnitude 7.0 scenario events. Long-period simulations of the 2007 Mw 4.18 Oakland and 2007 Mw 4.5 Alum Rock earthquakes show that the USGS Bay Area Velocity Model version 08.3.0 permits simulation of the amplitude and duration of shaking throughout the San Francisco Bay area, with the greatest accuracy in the Santa Clara Valley (San Jose area). The ground motions exhibit a strong sensitivity to the rupture length (or magnitude), hypocenter (or rupture directivity), and slip distribution. The ground motions display a much weaker sensitivity to the rise time and rupture speed. Peak velocities, peak accelerations, and spectral accelerations from the synthetic broadband ground motions are, on average, slightly higher than the Next Generation Attenuation (NGA) ground-motion prediction equations. We attribute at least some of this difference to the relatively narrow width of the Hayward fault ruptures. The simulations suggest that the Spudich and Chiou (2008) directivity corrections to the NGA relations could be improved by including a dependence on the rupture speed and increasing the areal extent of rupture directivity with period. The simulations also indicate that the NGA relations may under-predict amplification in shallow sedimentary basins.

  12. Modal-pushover-based ground-motion scaling procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkan, Erol; Chopra, Anil K.

    2011-01-01

    Earthquake engineering is increasingly using nonlinear response history analysis (RHA) to demonstrate the performance of structures. This rigorous method of analysis requires selection and scaling of ground motions appropriate to design hazard levels. This paper presents a modal-pushover-based scaling (MPS) procedure to scale ground motions for use in a nonlinear RHA of buildings. In the MPS method, the ground motions are scaled to match to a specified tolerance, a target value of the inelastic deformation of the first-mode inelastic single-degree-of-freedom (SDF) system whose properties are determined by the first-mode pushover analysis. Appropriate for first-mode dominated structures, this approach is extended for structures with significant contributions of higher modes by considering elastic deformation of second-mode SDF systems in selecting a subset of the scaled ground motions. Based on results presented for three actual buildings-4, 6, and 13-story-the accuracy and efficiency of the MPS procedure are established and its superiority over the ASCE/SEI 7-05 scaling procedure is demonstrated.

  13. Subterranean ground motion studies for the Einstein Telescope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beker, M.G.; van den Brand, J.F.J.; Rabeling, D.S.

    2015-01-01

    Seismic motion limits the low-frequency sensitivity of ground-based gravitational wave detectors. A conceptual design study into the feasibility of a future-generation gravitational wave observatory, coined the Einstein Telescope, has been completed. As part of this design phase, we performed a

  14. Analysis of ground-motion simulation big data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, T.; Fujiwara, H.

    2016-12-01

    We developed a parallel distributed processing system which applies a big data analysis to the large-scale ground motion simulation data. The system uses ground-motion index values and earthquake scenario parameters as input. We used peak ground velocity value and velocity response spectra as the ground-motion index. The ground-motion index values are calculated from our simulation data. We used simulated long-period ground motion waveforms at about 80,000 meshes calculated by a three dimensional finite difference method based on 369 earthquake scenarios of a great earthquake in the Nankai Trough. These scenarios were constructed by considering the uncertainty of source model parameters such as source area, rupture starting point, asperity location, rupture velocity, fmax and slip function. We used these parameters as the earthquake scenario parameter. The system firstly carries out the clustering of the earthquake scenario in each mesh by the k-means method. The number of clusters is determined in advance using a hierarchical clustering by the Ward's method. The scenario clustering results are converted to the 1-D feature vector. The dimension of the feature vector is the number of scenario combination. If two scenarios belong to the same cluster the component of the feature vector is 1, and otherwise the component is 0. The feature vector shows a `response' of mesh to the assumed earthquake scenario group. Next, the system performs the clustering of the mesh by k-means method using the feature vector of each mesh previously obtained. Here the number of clusters is arbitrarily given. The clustering of scenarios and meshes are performed by parallel distributed processing with Hadoop and Spark, respectively. In this study, we divided the meshes into 20 clusters. The meshes in each cluster are geometrically concentrated. Thus this system can extract regions, in which the meshes have similar `response', as clusters. For each cluster, it is possible to determine

  15. Vertical ground motion from tide gauges and satellite altimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostanciaux, Emilie; Husson, Laurent; Pedoja, Kevin

    2010-05-01

    Studying the evolution of Earth's shape which deforms in response to external processes such as erosion or sediment load and internal processes governed by mantle convection helps to better understand the Earth's internal dynamics. To do this one needs to study changes in relative and absolute sea level. Indeed, sea level is the intersection between the geoid and the solid Earth that are simultaneously deforming. Thus, sea level variations mirror the evolution of the Earth's shape. Tide gauges record apparent sea level since the XIXth century for oldest stations, relative to a terrestrial reference. They are attached to the coasts so part of the signal is due to vertical ground motion. Conversely, satellite altimetry only measures true sea level change, starting with TOPEX/POSEIDON since 1992. Subtraction of tide gauges measurements to those of satellites give an estimate of the magnitude of current vertical ground motion. Here we review the variety in methods of calculation and data selection. While some authors choose to use only data that corresponds to the recording period of TOPEX/POSEIDON (1992 to 2000) and work with the sea level height like Cazenave et al. (1999) and Nerem & Mitchum (2002), others like Kuo et al. (2008) and Bouin & Wöppelmann (2010) take into take advantage of the long record of tide gauges which provide estimates of apparent sea level change more accurately than those based on shorter timescales. All previous studies perform a drastic site selection for their quality. Because individual tide gauge records are nevertheless highly variable, we instead prefer the brute force approach to go towards a statistical evaluation of global ground motion and therefore consider all stations. We subsequently extract general trends by region, which indicate that vertical movements are not satisfactorily explained by estimates of glacio-hydro-isostatic readjustment (model ICE_5G, Peltier, 2004). Comparisons with previous methods and other records such as

  16. Postoperative range of motion trends following total ankle arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajis, Adam; Henriquez, Hugo; Myerson, Mark

    2013-05-01

    It is still unknown how ankle range of motion changes following total ankle arthroplasty. This study was undertaken to more accurately address patient expectations, guide postoperative rehabilitation, and improve our understanding of how ankle range of motion changes with time. 119 total ankle replacements of 3 different prosthetic designs from 1 surgeon were retrospectively examined and compared. Ankle dorsiflexion and plantar flexion ranges of motion were calculated and analyzed preoperatively and postoperatively at 6 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year. The different ankle replacement systems were analyzed individually and together to determine whether trends were replicated. No significant increase in ankle range of motion was found 6 months postoperatively (P = .75). Mean combined postoperative range of motion did not change significantly from 24.3 degrees at 1 year versus a preoperative mean of 22.7 degrees (P = .75). Mean dorsiflexion improved significantly at the 6-week postoperative stage by 5.5 degrees (P dorsiflexion improved from preoperative levels by 5.4 degrees (P = .001), whereas mean plantar flexion decreased by 3.7 degrees (P = .004). We found no notable improvement in ankle range of motion after 6 months following total ankle arthroplasty. We also found a disproportionately higher increase in dorsiflexion compared with plantar flexion following surgery and an overall reduction in mean plantar flexion range compared with preoperative values. Notwithstanding this discrepancy, total mean ankle range of motion 1 year postoperatively was similar to preoperative values. Reasons for the discrepancy between dorsiflexion and plantar flexion are unclear. Level III, retrospective comparative study.

  17. Interaction between stope support and ground motion in the hangingwall and footwall Project.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cichowicz, A

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available and limitations were verified by detailed testing with the strong ground motion data. The support response may be simulated using SDOF model when PGA is in the range 18 - 100 m/s2 ; for this data model shows that the maximal value of the stiffness is 120,000 k...

  18. Glenohumeral Range of Motion in Major League Pitchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freehill, Michael T.; Ebel, Brian G.; Archer, Kristin R.; Bancells, Richard L.; Wilckens, John H.; McFarland, Edward G.; Cosgarea, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Although overhead throwing athletes may develop unique glenohumeral range of motion characteristics, to our knowledge these characteristics have not been studied longitudinally in major league pitchers. Hypothesis: Major league pitchers (starters and relievers) experience an increase in glenohumeral external rotation and a decrease in internal rotation and total range of motion. Glenohumeral internal rotation deficit worsens over a regular playing season. Study Design: Retrospective cohort study. Methods: In 21 major league baseball pitchers (29 individual playing seasons), glenohumeral range of motion was measured in external and internal rotation for the throwing and nonthrowing shoulders before and at the conclusion of the regular season. The total range of motion (the sum of external rotation and internal rotation) and the glenohumeral internal rotation deficit were calculated (the difference between internal rotation of the nonthrowing shoulder minus that of the throwing shoulder), and data were compared between starting and relief pitchers. Results: The overall mean changes in external rotation (+1.5°), internal rotation (+2.7°), and total range of motion (+3.3°) were not statistically significant. However, starting pitchers showed statistically significant increases in internal rotation (+6.5°, P = 0.01) and total range of motion (+7.9°, P = 0.04), whereas relief pitchers had significant worsening of glenohumeral internal rotation deficit (+5.3°, P = 0.04). Conclusions: The characteristics of glenohumeral range of motion in major league pitchers did not differ significantly from the beginning to the end of a season, but significant changes did occur between starting and relief pitchers. Clinical Relevance: Adaptations to the daily routines of starter and reliever pitchers may be warranted on the basis of these findings. PMID:23015997

  19. Tectonic stability and expected ground motion at Yucca Mountain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1984-10-02

    A workshop was convened on August 7-8, 1984 at the direction of DOE to discuss effects of natural and artificial earthquakes and associated ground motion as related to siting of a high-level radioactive waste (HLW) repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. A panel of experts in seismology and tectonics was assembled to review available data and analyses and to assess conflicting opinions on geological and seismologic data. The objective of the meeting was to advise the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) Project about how to present a technically balanced and scientifically credible evaluation of Yucca Mountain for the NNWSI Project EA. The group considered two central issues: the magnitude of ground motion at Yucca Mountain due to the largest expected earthquake, and the overall tectonic stability of the site given the current geologic and seismologic data base. 44 refs.

  20. Directivity in NGA earthquake ground motions: Analysis using isochrone theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spudich, P.; Chiou, B.S.J.

    2008-01-01

    We present correction factors that may be applied to the ground motion prediction relations of Abrahamson and Silva, Boore and Atkinson, Campbell and Bozorgnia, and Chiou and Youngs (all in this volume) to model the azimuthally varying distribution of the GMRotI50 component of ground motion (commonly called 'directivity') around earthquakes. Our correction factors may be used for planar or nonplanar faults having any dip or slip rake (faulting mechanism). Our correction factors predict directivity-induced variations of spectral acceleration that are roughly half of the strike-slip variations predicted by Somerville et al. (1997), and use of our factors reduces record-to-record sigma by about 2-20% at 5 sec or greater period. ?? 2008, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.

  1. Seismic Safety Program: Ground motion and structural response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-01

    In 1964, John A. Blume & Associates Research Division (Blume) began a broad-range structural response program to assist the Nevada Operations Office of the US Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) in ensuring the continued safe conduct of underground nuclear detonation testing at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and elsewhere. Blume`s long experience in earthquake engineering provided a general basis for the program, but much more specialized knowledge was required for the AEC`s purposes. Over the next 24 years Blume conducted a major research program to provide essential understanding of the detailed nature of the response of structures to dynamic loads such as those imposed by seismic wave propagation. The program`s results have been embodied in a prediction technology which has served to provide reliable advanced knowledge of the probable effects of seismic ground motion on all kinds of structures, for use in earthquake engineering and in building codes as well as for the continuing needs of the US Department of Energy`s Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV). This report is primarily an accounting of the Blume work, beginning with the setting in 1964 and the perception of the program needs as envisioned by Dr. John A. Blume. Subsequent chapters describe the structural response program in detail and the structural prediction procedures which resulted; the intensive data acquisition program which, as is discussed at some length, relied heavily on the contributions of other consultant-contractors in the DOE/NV Seismic Safety Support Program; laboratory and field studies to provide data on building elements and structures subjected to dynamic loads from sources ranging from testing machines to earthquakes; structural response activities undertaken for testing at the NTS and for off-NTS underground nuclear detonations; and concluding with an account of corollary studies including effects of natural forces and of related studies on building response.

  2. Detect ground motion effects on the trajectory at ATF2

    CERN Document Server

    Rénier, Yves; Garcia, Rogelio

    2011-01-01

    The Accelerator Test Facility 2 (ATF2) commissioning group aims to demonstrate the feasibility of the Beam Delivery System (BDS) of the next linear colliders (ILC and CLIC) as well as to define and to test the tunning methods. As the design vertical beam sizes of the linear colliders are about few nanometers, the stability of the trajectory as well as the control of the aberrations are very critical. The magnet displacements induced by ground motion are large enough for CLIC to perturb the beam stability above requirements. It is planned to measure the displacement of the magnets and implement a feed-forward correcting the effects on the beam trajectory with correctors (dipoles). This article studies the possibility to detect ground motion effects on the beam trajectory at ATF2. Characteristics of the ground motion at ATF2 are presented, the effects of the magnet displacements on the beam trajectory are simulated and an algorithm predicting the induced trajectory fluctuations is evaluated. After the estimated...

  3. Guidelines for ground motion definition for the eastern United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gwaltney, R.C.; Aramayo, G.A.; Williams, R.T.

    1985-06-01

    Guidelines for the determination of earthquake ground motion definition for the eastern United States are established here. Both far-field and near-field guidelines are given. The guidelines were based on an extensive review of the current procedures for specifying ground motion in the United States. Both empirical and theoretical procedures were used in establishing the guidelines because of the low seismicity in the eastern United States. Only a few large- to great-sized earthquakes (M/sub s/ > 7.5) have occurred in this region, no evidence of tectonic surface ruptures related to historic or Holocene earthquakes has been found, and no currently active plate boundaries of any kind are known in this region. Very little instrumented data have been gathered in the East. Theoretical procedures are proposed so that in regions of almost no data, a reasonable level of seismic ground motion activity can be assumed. The guidelines are to be used to develop the safe shutdown earthquake (SSE). A new procedure for establishing the operating basis earthquake (OBE) is proposed, in particular for the eastern United States. The OBE would be developed using a probabilistic assessment of the geological conditions and the recurrence of seismic events at a site. These guidelines should be useful in development of seismic design requirements for future reactors. 17 refs., figs., tabs.

  4. Forearm Range of Motion in Australovenator wintonensis (Theropoda, Megaraptoridae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt A White

    Full Text Available The hypertrophied manual claws and modified manus of megaraptoran theropods represent an unusual morphological adaptation among carnivorous dinosaurs. The skeleton of Australovenator wintonensis from the Cenomanian of Australia is among the most complete of any megaraptorid. It presents the opportunity to examine the range of motion of its forearm and the function of its highly modified manus. This provides the basis for behavioural inferences, and comparison with other Gondwanan theropod groups. Digital models created from computed tomography scans of the holotype reveal a humerus range of motion that is much greater than Allosaurus, Acrocanthosaurus, Tyrannosaurus but similar to that of the dromaeosaurid Bambiraptor. During flexion, the radius was forced distally by the radial condyle of the humerus. This movement is here suggested as a mechanism that forced a medial movement of the wrist. The antebrachium possessed a range of motion that was close to dromaeosaurids; however, the unguals were capable of hyper-extension, in particular manual phalanx I-2, which is a primitive range of motion characteristic seen in allosaurids and Dilophosaurus. During flexion, digits I and II slightly converge and diverge when extended which is accentuated by hyperextension of the digits in particular the unguals. We envision that prey was dispatched by its hands and feet with manual phalanx I-2 playing a dominant role. The range of motion analysis neither confirms nor refutes current phylogenetic hypotheses with regards to the placement of Megaraptoridae; however, we note Australovenator possessed, not only a similar forearm range of motion to some maniraptorans and basal coelurosaurs, but also similarities with Tetanurans (Allosauroids and Dilophosaurus.

  5. A database of instrumentally recorded ground motion intensity measurements from induced earthquakes in Oklahoma and Kansas

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The database contains uniformly processed ground motion intensity measurements (peak horizontal ground motions and 5-percent-damped pseudospectral accelerations for...

  6. Shear Wave Generation and Modeling Ground Motion From a Source Physics Experiment (SPE) Underground Explosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitarka, Arben; Mellors, Robert; Rodgers, Arthur; Vorobiev, Oleg; Ezzedine, Souheil; Matzel, Eric; Ford, Sean; Walter, Bill; Antoun, Tarabay; Wagoner, Jeffery; Pasyanos, Mike; Petersson, Anders; Sjogreen, Bjorn

    2014-05-01

    We investigate the excitation and propagation of far-field (epicentral distance larger than 20 m) seismic waves by analyzing and modeling ground motion from an underground chemical explosion recorded during the Source Physics Experiment (SPE), Nevada. The far-field recorded ground motion is characterized by complex features, such as large azimuthal variations in P- and S-wave amplitudes, as well as substantial energy on the tangential component of motion. Shear wave energy is also observed on the tangential component of the near-field motion (epicentral distance smaller than 20 m) suggesting that shear waves were generated at or very near the source. These features become more pronounced as the waves propagate away from the source. We address the shear wave generation during the explosion by modeling ground motion waveforms recorded in the frequency range 0.01-20 Hz, at distances of up to 1 km. We used a physics based approach that combines hydrodynamic modeling of the source with anelastic modeling of wave propagation in order to separate the contributions from the source and near-source wave scattering on shear motion generation. We found that wave propagation scattering caused by the near-source geological environment, including surface topography, contributes to enhancement of shear waves generated from the explosion source. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-06NA25946/ NST11-NCNS-TM-EXP-PD15.

  7. New Ground Motion Prediction Models for Caucasus Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorjiashvili, N.

    2012-12-01

    The Caucasus is a region of numerous natural hazards and ensuing disasters. Analysis of the losses due to past disasters indicates the those most catastrophic in the region have historically been due to strong earthquakes. Estimation of expected ground motion is a fundamental earthquake hazard assessment. The most commonly used parameter for attenuation relation is peak ground acceleration because this parameter gives useful information for Seismic Hazard Assessment. Because of this, many peak ground acceleration attenuation relations have been developed by different authors. Besides, a few attenuation relations were developed for Caucasus region: Ambraseys et al. (1996,2005) which were based on entire European region and they were not focused locally on Caucasus Region; Smit et.al. (2000) that was based on a small amount of acceleration data that really is not enough. Since 2003 construction of Georgian Digital Seismic Network has started with the help of number of International organizations, Projects and Private companies. The works conducted involved scientific as well as organizational activities: Resolving technical problems concerning communication and data transmission. Thus, today we have a possibility to get real time data and make scientific research based on digital seismic data. Generally, ground motion and damage are influenced by the magnitude of the earthquake, the distance from the seismic source to site, the local ground conditions and the characteristics of buildings. Estimation of expected ground motion is a fundamental earthquake hazard assessment. This is the reason why this topic is emphasized in this study. In this study new GMP models are obtained based on new data from Georgian seismic network and also from neighboring countries. Estimation of models are obtained by classical, statistical way, regression analysis. Also site ground conditions are considered because the same earthquake recorded at the same distance may cause different damage

  8. Ground motion modeling of the 1906 San Francisco earthquake II: Ground motion estimates for the 1906 earthquake and scenario events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aagaard, B; Brocher, T; Dreger, D; Frankel, A; Graves, R; Harmsen, S; Hartzell, S; Larsen, S; McCandless, K; Nilsson, S; Petersson, N A; Rodgers, A; Sjogreen, B; Tkalcic, H; Zoback, M L

    2007-02-09

    We estimate the ground motions produced by the 1906 San Francisco earthquake making use of the recently developed Song et al. (2008) source model that combines the available geodetic and seismic observations and recently constructed 3D geologic and seismic velocity models. Our estimates of the ground motions for the 1906 earthquake are consistent across five ground-motion modeling groups employing different wave propagation codes and simulation domains. The simulations successfully reproduce the main features of the Boatwright and Bundock (2005) ShakeMap, but tend to over predict the intensity of shaking by 0.1-0.5 modified Mercalli intensity (MMI) units. Velocity waveforms at sites throughout the San Francisco Bay Area exhibit characteristics consistent with rupture directivity, local geologic conditions (e.g., sedimentary basins), and the large size of the event (e.g., durations of strong shaking lasting tens of seconds). We also compute ground motions for seven hypothetical scenarios rupturing the same extent of the northern San Andreas fault, considering three additional hypocenters and an additional, random distribution of slip. Rupture directivity exerts the strongest influence on the variations in shaking, although sedimentary basins do consistently contribute to the response in some locations, such as Santa Rosa, Livermore, and San Jose. These scenarios suggest that future large earthquakes on the northern San Andreas fault may subject the current San Francisco Bay urban area to stronger shaking than a repeat of the 1906 earthquake. Ruptures propagating southward towards San Francisco appear to expose more of the urban area to a given intensity level than do ruptures propagating northward.

  9. Validation of Broadband Ground Motion Simulations for Japanese Crustal Earthquakes by the Recipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwaki, A.; Maeda, T.; Morikawa, N.; Miyake, H.; Fujiwara, H.

    2015-12-01

    The Headquarters for Earthquake Research Promotion (HERP) of Japan has organized the broadband ground motion simulation method into a standard procedure called the "recipe" (HERP, 2009). In the recipe, the source rupture is represented by the characterized source model (Irikura and Miyake, 2011). The broadband ground motion time histories are computed by a hybrid approach: the 3-D finite-difference method (Aoi et al. 2004) and the stochastic Green's function method (Dan and Sato, 1998; Dan et al. 2000) for the long- (> 1 s) and short-period (sites are well reproduced by the simulations. Then we evaluate 5% damped pseudo acceleration spectra (PSA) in the framework of the SCEC Broadband Platform (BBP) validation (Dreger et al. 2015). The validation results are generally acceptable in the period range 0.1 - 10 s, whereas those in the shortest period range (0.01-0.1 s) are less satisfactory. We also evaluate the simulations with the 1-D velocity structure models used in the SCEC BBP validation exercise. Although the goodness-of-fit parameters for PSA do not significantly differ from those for the 3-D velocity structure model, noticeable differences in velocity waveforms are observed. Our results suggest the importance of 1) well-constrained 3-D velocity structure model for broadband ground motion simulations and 2) evaluation of time series of ground motion as well as response spectra.

  10. Evaluating Late Pleistocene and Holocene Rupture, Seismic Hazards and Ground Motion in the Lake Tahoe Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmauder, Gretchen Cathleen

    Chapter two in this study is a reevaluation of active faulting across the Tahoe basin a combination of airborne LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) imagery, high-resolution seismic CHIRP profiles, multibeam bathymetric mapping, and field mapping. The combined lateral and vertical resolution has allowed a straight forward identification of the landward extension of fault scarps associated with the three major active fault zones in the Tahoe basin: the West Tahoe-Dollar Point fault, Stateline-North Tahoe fault, and Incline Village fault. Chapter 3 in this study evaluates seismic hazard within the basin as a result of earthquake rupture on the faults identified in the first part of this study. The Ground motions modeled using Nevada ShakeZoning, a physics-based method incorporating geotechnical information and basin shape determined from geophysical methods, peak ground velocity (PGV) maps considerably different (and more accurate) than those obtained from ShakeMap, a standard USGS tool for ground motion estimation. Although ShakeMap over-predicts ground shaking outside the Lake Tahoe basin, it substantially under-predicts ground motions within the basin. eWave propagation models indicate strong, sustained shaking in the basin, threatening several communities. Annual rates of exceedance maps show the higher rates of exceedance of key ground-motion levels strongly correlate with the basin shape. The purpose of this study is to provide both better ground motion estimates and more useful shaking maps to local communities. Chapter 4 begins the validation process of the models developed as part of Chapter 3 to events recorded at Nevada Seismological Laboratory seismic stations.

  11. Seismic design technology for breeder reactor structures. Volume 1. Special topics in earthquake ground motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, D.P.

    1983-04-01

    This report is divided into twelve chapters: seismic hazard analysis procedures, statistical and probabilistic considerations, vertical ground motion characteristics, vertical ground response spectrum shapes, effects of inclined rock strata on site response, correlation of ground response spectra with intensity, intensity attenuation relationships, peak ground acceleration in the very mean field, statistical analysis of response spectral amplitudes, contributions of body and surface waves, evaluation of ground motion characteristics, and design earthquake motions. (DLC)

  12. Strong Ground Motion Database System for the Mexican Seismic Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Yanez, C.; Ramirez-Guzman, L.; Ruiz, A. L.; Delgado, R.; Macías, M. A.; Sandoval, H.; Alcántara, L.; Quiroz, A.

    2014-12-01

    A web-based system for strong Mexican ground motion records dissemination and archival is presented. More than 50 years of continuous strong ground motion instrumentation and monitoring in Mexico have provided a fundamental resource -several thousands of accelerograms- for better understanding earthquakes and their effects in the region. Lead by the Institute of Engineering (IE) of the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM), the engineering strong ground motion monitoring program at IE relies on a continuously growing network, that at present includes more than 100 free-field stations and provides coverage to the seismic zones in the country. Among the stations, approximately 25% send the observed acceleration to a processing center in Mexico City in real-time, and the rest require manual access, remote or in situ, for later processing and cataloguing. As part of a collaboration agreement between UNAM and the National Center for Disaster Prevention, regarding the construction and operation of a unified seismic network, a web system was developed to allow access to UNAM's engineering strong motion archive and host data from other institutions. The system allows data searches under a relational database schema, following a general structure relying on four databases containing the: 1) free-field stations, 2) epicentral location associated with the strong motion records available, 3) strong motion catalogue, and 4) acceleration files -the core of the system. In order to locate and easily access one or several records of the data bank, the web system presents a variety of parameters that can be involved in a query (seismic event, region boundary, station name or ID, radial distance to source or peak acceleration). This homogeneous platform has been designed to facilitate dissemination and processing of the information worldwide. Each file, in a standard format, contains information regarding the recording instrument, the station, the corresponding earthquake

  13. New Ground motions relations for Portugal Mainland using a stochastic finite fault modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Alexandra; Campos Costa, Alfredo

    2010-05-01

    In Portugal, being located at a moderate/low seismicity intraplate area, insufficient accelerograms have been recorded to satisfactory undertake any regional empirical study. Portugal has experienced several large earthquakes in the past, before the instrumental time so there are no strong ground motion data recorded by instruments. As prediction cannot be based on empirical analyses, well-founded physical models must be used as the basis for the predictions of strong motion in Portugal. These models should provide the means to make extrapolations to the range of magnitudes and distances of interest, and over the entire frequency range of engineering interest, with confidence. The development of stochastic based ground motion synthesis associated to a seismological finite-fault modeling is a worldwide approach that can be used for representation of future large magnitude earthquakes occurring in Portugal, allowing the reproducing of specific source effects like directivity and asperities distribution, and path and crustal effects. This modeling technique is now being used to develop regional ground motions prediction equations in many regions of the world (eg. Atkinson & Boore, 2006; Motazedian & Atkinson, 2005; Sihua & Lung, 2004). The model parameters calibration has been obtained with a dataset that includes horizontal components of ground acceleration records (at rock sites) obtained by the Portuguese digital accelerometer network. With regional parameters established, the calibrated model was used to create a data-base with a magnitudes and distance range of interest, allowing then to derive ground motions predictions equations for Portugal. This work presents the first spectral ground motions prediction equations for Portugal mainland. Equations are presented for the two different tectonic environments that describe seismic input in Portugal (intraplate and interplate environment), using either the closest distance to the fault or the hypocentral distance

  14. SM-ROM-GL (Strong Motion Romania Ground Level Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Sorin BORCIA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The SM-ROM-GL database includes data obtained by the processing of records performed at ground level by the Romanian seismic networks, namely INCERC, NIEP, NCSRR and ISPH-GEOTEC, during recent seismic events with moment magnitude Mw ≥ 5 and epicenters located in Romania. All the available seismic records were re-processed using the same basic software and the same procedures and options (filtering and baseline correction, in order to obtain a consistent dataset. The database stores computed parameters of seismic motions, i.e. peak values: PGA, PGV, PGD, effective peak values: EPA, EPV, EPD, control periods, spectral values of absolute acceleration, relative velocity and relative displacement, as well as of instrumental intensity (as defined bz Sandi and Borcia in 2011. The fields in the database include: coding of seismic events, stations and records, a number of associated fields (seismic event source parameters, geographical coordinates of seismic stations, links to the corresponding ground motion records, charts of the response spectra of absolute acceleration, relative velocity, relative displacement and instrumental intensity, as well as some other representative parameters of seismic motions. The conception of the SM-ROM-GL database allows for an easy maintenance; such that elementary knowledge of Microsoft Access 2000 is sufficient for its operation.

  15. Hazard assessment of long-period ground motions for the Nankai Trough earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, T.; Morikawa, N.; Aoi, S.; Fujiwara, H.

    2013-12-01

    100 m in horizontal and vertical, respectively. The grid spacing for the deep region is three times coarser. The total number of grid points is about three billion. The 3-D underground structure model used in the FD simulation is the Japan integrated velocity structure model (ERC, 2012). Our simulation is valid for period more than two seconds due to the lowest S-wave velocity and grid spacing. However, because the characterized source model may not sufficiently support short period components, we should be interpreted the reliable period of this simulation with caution. Therefore, we consider the period more than five seconds instead of two seconds for further analysis. We evaluate the long-period ground motions using the velocity response spectra for the period range between five and 20 second. The preliminary simulation shows a large variation of response spectra at a site. This large variation implies that the ground motion is very sensitive to different scenarios. And it requires studying the large variation to understand the seismic hazard. Our further study will obtain the hazard curves for the Nankai Trough earthquake (M 8~9) by applying the probabilistic seismic hazard analysis to the simulation results.

  16. Ground Motion Prediction Model Using Artificial Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanya, J.; Raghukanth, S. T. G.

    2017-12-01

    This article focuses on developing a ground motion prediction equation based on artificial neural network (ANN) technique for shallow crustal earthquakes. A hybrid technique combining genetic algorithm and Levenberg-Marquardt technique is used for training the model. The present model is developed to predict peak ground velocity, and 5% damped spectral acceleration. The input parameters for the prediction are moment magnitude (M w), closest distance to rupture plane (R rup), shear wave velocity in the region (V s30) and focal mechanism (F). A total of 13,552 ground motion records from 288 earthquakes provided by the updated NGA-West2 database released by Pacific Engineering Research Center are utilized to develop the model. The ANN architecture considered for the model consists of 192 unknowns including weights and biases of all the interconnected nodes. The performance of the model is observed to be within the prescribed error limits. In addition, the results from the study are found to be comparable with the existing relations in the global database. The developed model is further demonstrated by estimating site-specific response spectra for Shimla city located in Himalayan region.

  17. Assessment of potential strong ground motions in the city of Rome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Malagnini

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available A methodology is used which combines stochastic generation of random series with a finite-difference technique to estimate the expected horizontal ground motion for the city of Rome as induced by a large earthquake in the Central Apennines. In this approach, source properties and long-path propagation are modelled through observed spectra of ground motion in the region, while the effects of the near-surface geology in the city are simulated by means of a finite-difference technique applied to 2-D models including elastic and anelastic properties of geologic materials and topographic variations. The parameters commonly used for earthquake engineering purposes are estimated from the simulated time histories of horizontal ground motion. We focus our attention on peak ground acceleration and velocity, and on the integral of the squared acceleration and velocity (that are proportional to the Arias intensity and seismic energy flux, respectively. Response spectra are analyzed as well. Parameter variations along 2-D profiles visualize the effects of the small-scale geological heterogeneities and topography irregularities on ground motion in the case of a strong earthquake. Interestingly, the largest amplification of peak ground acceleration and Arias intensity does not necessarily occur at the same sites where peak ground velocity and flux of seismic energy reach their highest values, depending on the frequency band of amplification. A magnitude 7 earthquake at a distance of 100 km results in peak ground accelerations ranging from 30 to 70 gals while peak ground velocities are estimated to vary from 5 to 7 cm/s; moreover, simulated time histories of horizontal ground motion yield amplitudes of 5% damped pseudovelocity response spectra as large as 15-20 cm/s for frequencies from 1to 3 Hz. In this frequency band, the mean value is 7 cm/s for firm sites and ranges from 10 to 13 cm/s for soil sites. All these results are in good agreement with predictions

  18. Dynamic Time Warping Distance Method for Similarity Test of Multipoint Ground Motion Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingmin Li

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The reasonability of artificial multi-point ground motions and the identification of abnormal records in seismic array observations, are two important issues in application and analysis of multi-point ground motion fields. Based on the dynamic time warping (DTW distance method, this paper discusses the application of similarity measurement in the similarity analysis of simulated multi-point ground motions and the actual seismic array records. Analysis results show that the DTW distance method not only can quantitatively reflect the similarity of simulated ground motion field, but also offers advantages in clustering analysis and singularity recognition of actual multi-point ground motion field.

  19. Simulation of Near-Fault High-Frequency Ground Motions from the Representation Theorem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beresnev, Igor A.

    2017-11-01

    "What is the maximum possible ground motion near an earthquake fault?" is an outstanding question of practical significance in earthquake seismology. In establishing a possible theoretical cap on extreme ground motions, the representation integral of elasticity, providing an exact, within limits of applicability, solution for fault radiation at any frequency, is an under-utilized tool. The application of a numerical procedure leading to synthetic ground displacement, velocity, and acceleration time histories to modeling of the record at the Lucerne Valley hard-rock station, uniquely located at 1.1 km from the rupture of the M w 7.2 Landers, California event, using a seismologically constrained temporal form of slip on the fault, reveals that the shape of the displacement waveform can be modeled closely, given the simplicity of the theoretical model. High precision in the double integration, as well as carefully designed smoothing and filtering, are necessary to suppress the numerical noise in the high-frequency (velocity and acceleration) synthetic motions. The precision of the integration of at least eight decimal digits ensures the numerical error in the displacement waveforms generally much lower than 0.005% and reduces the error in the peak velocities and accelerations to the levels acceptable to make the representation theorem a reliable tool in the practical evaluation of the magnitude of maximum possible ground motions in a wide-frequency range of engineering interest.

  20. Generation of a mixture model ground-motion prediction equation for Northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haendel, A.; Kuehn, N. M.; Scherbaum, F.

    2012-12-01

    In probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) empirically derived ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs) are usually applied to estimate the ground motion at a site of interest as a function of source, path and site related predictor variables. Because GMPEs are derived from limited datasets they are not expected to give entirely accurate estimates or to reflect the whole range of possible future ground motion, thus giving rise to epistemic uncertainty in the hazard estimates. This is especially true for regions without an indigenous GMPE where foreign models have to be applied. The choice of appropriate GMPEs can then dominate the overall uncertainty in hazard assessments. In order to quantify this uncertainty, the set of ground motion models used in a modern PSHA has to capture (in SSHAC language) the center, body, and range of the possible ground motion at the site of interest. This was traditionally done within a logic tree framework in which existing (or only slightly modified) GMPEs occupy the branches of the tree and the branch weights describe the degree-of-belief of the analyst in their applicability. This approach invites the problem to combine GMPEs of very different quality and hence to potentially overestimate epistemic uncertainty. Some recent hazard analysis have therefore resorted to using a small number of high quality GMPEs as backbone models from which the full distribution of GMPEs for the logic tree (to capture the full range of possible ground motion uncertainty) where subsequently generated by scaling (in a general sense). In the present study, a new approach is proposed to determine an optimized backbone model as weighted components of a mixture model. In doing so, each GMPE is assumed to reflect the generation mechanism (e. g. in terms of stress drop, propagation properties, etc.) for at least a fraction of possible ground motions in the area of interest. The combination of different models into a mixture model (which is learned from

  1. Hysteresis and Soil Site Dependent Input and Hysteretic Energy Spectra for Far-Source Ground Motions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mebrahtom Gebrekirstos Mezgebo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Earthquake input energy spectra for four soil site classes, four hysteresis models, and five ductility levels are developed for far-source ground motion effect. These energy spectra are normalized by a quantity called velocity index (VI. The use of VI allows for the creation of dimensionless spectra and results in smaller coefficients of variation. Hysteretic energy spectra are then developed to address the demand aspect of an energy-based seismic design of structures with 5% critical damping and ductility that ranges from 2 to 5. The proposed input and hysteretic energy spectra are then compared with response spectra generated using nonlinear time history analyses of real ground motions and are found to produce reasonably good results over a relatively large period range.

  2. Observing tectonic plate motions and deformations from satellite laser ranging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christodoulidis, D. C.; Smith, D. E.; Kolenkiewicz, R.; Klosko, S. M.; Torrence, M. H.

    1985-01-01

    The scope of geodesy has been greatly affected by the advent of artificial near-earth satellites. The present paper provides a description of the results obtained from the reduction of data collected with the aid of satellite laser ranging. It is pointed out that dynamic reduction of satellite laser ranging (SLR) data provides very precise positions in three dimensions for the laser tracking network. The vertical components of the stations, through the tracking geometry provided by the global network and the accurate knowledge of orbital dynamics, are uniquely related to the center of mass of the earth. Attention is given to the observations, the methodologies for reducing satellite observations to estimate station positions, Lageos-observed tectonic plate motions, an improved temporal resolution of SLR plate motions, and the SLR vertical datum.

  3. Source Rupture Process and Near-Fault Ground Motions of the 2016 Kumamoto Earthquake Sequence Estimated from Strong Motion Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, K.; Iwata, T.

    2016-12-01

    The 2016 Kumamoto earthquake sequence started with an MJMA 6.5 foreshock on April 14, 2016 occurring along the northern part of the Hinagu fault, central Kyushu, Japan, and the MJMA 7.3 mainshock occurred just 28 h after the foreshock. Both events brought severe ground motions to the near-source region. We analyzed the kinematic source rupture processes of the foreshock and mainshock by the multiple time window linear waveform inversion using strong motion data (e.g., Hartzell and Heaton, 1983). The foreshock (Mw 6.1) was characterized by right-lateral strike-slip occurring on a nearly vertical fault plane along the northern part of the Hinagu fault, and it had two large-slip areas: one near the hypocenter and another at a shallow depth. These two large-slip areas mainly contribute ground motions in the near-source area. For the analysis of the mainshock, we assumed a fault geometry changing strike and dip angles along the Hinagu and Futagawa faults in accordance with the surface ruptures mapped by emergency field surveys (Kumahara et al., 2016). We assigned point sources densely with an interval of 0.2 km on the assumed fault planes in order to reproduce appropriately near-fault ground motions, and estimated spatiotemporal slip history, which was discretized with an interval of 1.8 km on the fault planes. The estimated source model reveals that the rupture of the mainshock started at a northwest-dipping fault plane along the Hinagu fault, which is close to the vertical fault plane of the foreshock, and almost continuously propagated across the junction of the Hinagu and Futagawa faults. Then the rupture propagated northeastward along the Futagawa fault, and stopped to rupture in the western part of the Aso caldera. The significant slip with 3-5 m were observed on the Futagawa fault, and shallowest part has slip ranging from 1 to 2 m. We also tried to reproduce ground motions observed at some near-fault strong motion stations, which recorded significant coseismic

  4. Site-specific uniform hazard spectrum in Eastern Turkey based on simulated ground motions including near-field directivity and detailed site effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azari Sisi, Aida; Askan, Ayşegül; Erberik, Murat Altuğ

    2017-04-01

    In this study, stochastic earthquake catalog of the Erzincan region in Turkey is generated based on synthetic ground motions. Monte Carlo simulation method is used to identify the spatial and temporal distribution of events. Ground motion time histories are generated using stochastic simulation methodology. Annual exceedance rate of each ground motion amplitude is calculated through statistical distribution of the complete set of ground motions. The results are compared with classical probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA). Classical PSHA generally produces larger spectral amplitudes than the proposed study due to wide range of aleatory variability. The effects of near-field forward directivity and detailed site response are also investigated on the results.

  5. Motion Estimation Utilizing Range Detection-Enhanced Visual Odometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, Paul Russell (Inventor); Chen, Qi (Inventor); Chang, Hong (Inventor); Morris, Daniel Dale (Inventor); Graf, Jodi Seaborn (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A motion determination system is disclosed. The system may receive a first and a second camera image from a camera, the first camera image received earlier than the second camera image. The system may identify corresponding features in the first and second camera images. The system may receive range data comprising at least one of a first and a second range data from a range detection unit, corresponding to the first and second camera images, respectively. The system may determine first positions and the second positions of the corresponding features using the first camera image and the second camera image. The first positions or the second positions may be determined by also using the range data. The system may determine a change in position of the machine based on differences between the first and second positions, and a VO-based velocity of the machine based on the determined change in position.

  6. Smartphone photography utilized to measure wrist range of motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Eric R; Conti Mica, Megan; Shin, Alexander Y

    2018-02-01

    The purpose was to determine if smartphone photography is a reliable tool in measuring wrist movement. Smartphones were used to take digital photos of both wrists in 32 normal participants (64 wrists) at extremes of wrist motion. The smartphone measurements were compared with clinical goniometry measurements. There was a very high correlation between the clinical goniometry and smartphone measurements, as the concordance coefficients were high for radial deviation, ulnar deviation, wrist extension and wrist flexion. The Pearson coefficients also demonstrated the high precision of the smartphone measurements. The Bland-Altman plots demonstrated 29-31 of 32 smartphone measurements were within the 95% confidence interval of the clinical measurements for all positions of the wrists. There was high reliability between the photography taken by the volunteer and researcher, as well as high inter-observer reliability. Smartphone digital photography is a reliable and accurate tool for measuring wrist range of motion. II.

  7. Broadband Ground Motion Simulation of the 2004 and 1977 Vrancea, Romania, Earthquakes Using Empirical Green's Function Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poiata, Natalia; Miyake, Hiroe

    2017-09-01

    We estimated the parameters of strong motion generation areas and simulated broadband ground motions for the moderate October 27, 2004 ( M w 5.8) and damaging March 4, 1977 ( M w 7.4) Vrancea (Romania) intermediate-depth subduction earthquakes using the empirical Green's function method. The method allows the simulation of ground motions in a broadband frequency range by summing up the subevent records, corresponding to small magnitude events in the near-source areas, which are assumed to follow the source-scaling relationship and the omega-square source spectral model. We first estimated the strong motion generation area that reproduces near-source ground motions in a broadband frequency range of 0.3-10 Hz for the 2004 earthquake, by fitting the synthetic acceleration, velocity, and displacement waveforms to the observed data. The source properties of the obtained strong motion generation area are in agreement with the predictions made using an empirical source scaling relationship for crustal earthquakes, implying a stress drop of approximately 10 MPa for the 2004 earthquake. We then modeled the strong motion generation area for the 1977 damaging earthquake using the 2004 earthquake as an empirical Green's function and constructing a source model based on its estimated source parameters. To simulate the unique record at Bucharest, capital city of Romania, the rupture was assumed to have propagated from the northeast bottom of the strong motion generation area having a stress drop of 50 MPa. Broadband ground motion simulations were further compared in terms of the modified Mercalli intensity values, calculated from the peak ground accelerations and peak ground velocities of synthetic waveforms, with the observed Medvedev-Sponheuer-Karnik intensity values. Our estimates of the source properties for the 2004 and 1977 Vrancea intermediate-depth earthquakes support the size-dependent stress drop.

  8. Ground Motion Selection and Scaling for the Seismic Investigation of the Concrete Gravity Dams for Near Fault Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arici, Y.; Bybordiani, M.

    2016-12-01

    The use of time histories for the seismic design and analysis of dams is becoming increasingly common given the state of the art of the computational tools for assessing the seismic demands on these systems. Determination of the ground motions that will be used in time history analysis is a crucial task since the results usually show a wide variability in the required quantity due to the stochastic nature of the applied earthquake record. In order to reduce this variability and predict the "true" demand related to the seismic hazard conditions of the site, the ground motions are usually carefully selected and subjected to scaling procedures. A separate but equally important goal in this regard is to obtain the required demand with a small number of representative motions reducing the considerable analysis workload for these large systems. In this regard, the common ground motion scaling techniques are evaluated in this study in a robust dam-foundation-reservoir interaction (DFRI) setting for determining the efficiency and accuracy of the scaling techniques for predicting the target demands for concrete gravity dams. A large ensemble of ground motions were used on a range of systems with different canyon geometries and moduli ratios in order to consider the effect of the soil-structure interaction (SSI) on the motion selection for concrete gravity dams. The frequency response of different systems and their interaction with the frequency content of the ground motions were henceforth considered. The required number of ground motions for consistent and efficient analyses of such systems was investigated considering different engineering demand parameters on the dam systems. The choice of EDP, and the corresponding effect of the scaling procedure on the analyses were evaluated in order to provide guidelines on the scaling of the ground motions for the seismic analyses of these systems.

  9. Ground motion simulations for seismic stations in southern and eastern Romania and seismic hazard assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavel, Florin; Vacareanu, Radu

    2017-09-01

    This research focuses on the evaluation of soil conditions for seismic stations in southern and eastern Romania, their influence on stochastic finite-fault simulations, and the impact of using them on the seismic hazard assessment. First, the horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratios (HVSR) are evaluated using ground motions recorded in 32 seismic stations during small magnitude ( M W ≤ 6.0) Vrancea seismic events. Most of the seismic stations situated in the southern part of Romania exhibit multiple HVSR peaks over a broad period range. However, only the seismic stations in the eastern-most part of Romania have clear short-period predominant periods. Subsequently, stochastic finite-fault simulations are performed in order to evaluate the influence of the soil conditions on the ground motion amplitudes. The analyses show that the earthquake magnitude has a larger influence on the computed ground motion amplitudes for the short- and medium-period range, while the longer-period spectral ordinates tend to be influenced more by the soil conditions. Next, the impact of the previously evaluated soil conditions on the seismic hazard results for Romania is also investigated. The results reveal a significant impact of the soil conditions on the seismic hazard levels, especially for the sites characterized by long-period amplifications (sites situated mostly in southern Romania), and a less significant influence in the case of sites which have clear short predominant periods.

  10. Update of the Graizer-Kalkan ground-motion prediction equations for shallow crustal continental earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graizer, Vladimir; Kalkan, Erol

    2015-01-01

    A ground-motion prediction equation (GMPE) for computing medians and standard deviations of peak ground acceleration and 5-percent damped pseudo spectral acceleration response ordinates of maximum horizontal component of randomly oriented ground motions was developed by Graizer and Kalkan (2007, 2009) to be used for seismic hazard analyses and engineering applications. This GMPE was derived from the greatly expanded Next Generation of Attenuation (NGA)-West1 database. In this study, Graizer and Kalkan’s GMPE is revised to include (1) an anelastic attenuation term as a function of quality factor (Q0) in order to capture regional differences in large-distance attenuation and (2) a new frequency-dependent sedimentary-basin scaling term as a function of depth to the 1.5-km/s shear-wave velocity isosurface to improve ground-motion predictions for sites on deep sedimentary basins. The new model (GK15), developed to be simple, is applicable to the western United States and other regions with shallow continental crust in active tectonic environments and may be used for earthquakes with moment magnitudes 5.0–8.0, distances 0–250 km, average shear-wave velocities 200–1,300 m/s, and spectral periods 0.01–5 s. Directivity effects are not explicitly modeled but are included through the variability of the data. Our aleatory variability model captures inter-event variability, which decreases with magnitude and increases with distance. The mixed-effects residuals analysis shows that the GK15 reveals no trend with respect to the independent parameters. The GK15 is a significant improvement over Graizer and Kalkan (2007, 2009), and provides a demonstrable, reliable description of ground-motion amplitudes recorded from shallow crustal earthquakes in active tectonic regions over a wide range of magnitudes, distances, and site conditions.

  11. Astym therapy improves function and range of motion following mastectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davies CC

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Claire C Davies,1 Dorothy Brockopp,2 Krista Moe2 1Baptist Health Rehabilitation, 2Research Department, Baptist Health Lexington, Lexington, KY, USA Abstract: Hypersensitive scar tissue formation along the incision line and drain site is a common side effect following mastectomy. If this scar tissue is not addressed, it can lead to decreased flexibility and function in the involved upper quadrant. Astym® treatment is a new approach to soft tissue injuries, and is evidenced in animal studies to promote the healing and regeneration of soft tissues. It has also been found to reduce pain and increase function in people with soft tissue dysfunction. The aim of Astym treatment is to engage the regenerative mechanisms of the body in order to resorb scar tissue, stimulate tissue turnover, and regenerate soft tissues. Handheld instrumentation is applied topically to locate and treat the underlying dysfunctional soft tissue through specific protocols for the application of particular pressures and shear forces. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of Astym treatment on activities of daily living in women who had undergone a mastectomy following a diagnosis of breast cancer. A quasi-experiment involving 40 women, following a mastectomy, evaluated five outcome measures pre- and post-Astym treatment. All five measurement scores: Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand Outcome Measure; a clothing questionnaire on their ability to wear a bra; Patient-Specific Functional Scale; active range of motion of shoulder flexion; and active range of motion of abduction were also measured and all demonstrated significant changes. In this study, Astym treatment improved active range of motion in the involved quadrant and also improved function in patients following a mastectomy. Keywords: breast cancer, quality of life, scar tissue treatment, physical therapy

  12. Dorsiflexion range of motion significantly influences dynamic balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoch, Matthew C; Staton, Geoffrey S; McKeon, Patrick O

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between dorsiflexion range of motion on the weight-bearing lunge test (WBLT) and normalized reach distance in three directions on the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT). Thirty-five healthy adults (14 males, 21 females, age: 25.9±6.7 years, height: 166.7±22.9 cm, weight: 76.7±22.8 kg) participated. All subjects performed three trials of maximum lower extremity reach in the anterior, posteromedial, and posterolateral directions of the SEBT on each limb to assess dynamic balance. Subjects performed three trials of the WBLT to measure maximum dorsiflexion range of motion. Dependent variables included the means of the SEBT normalized reach distances in the anterior, posteromedial, and posterolateral directions and the mean of the WBLT. Only the anterior direction (mean: 79.0±5.8%) of the SEBT was significantly related to the WBLT (mean: 11.9±2.7 cm), r=0.53 (p=0.001). The r² for this simple linear regression was 0.28, indicating that the WBLT explained 28% of the variance in the anterior normalized reach distance. The WBLT explained a significant proportion of the variance within the anterior reach distance signifying this direction of the SEBT may be a good clinical test to assess the effects of dorsiflexion range of motion restrictions on dynamic balance. Copyright © 2010 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparison of methods of measuring active cervical range of motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitcroft, Katherine L; Massouh, Laura; Amirfeyz, Rouin; Bannister, Gordon

    2010-09-01

    Experimental study. Cervical range of motion (CROM) was measured using different clinical methods. To compare the reliability and accuracy of visual estimation, tape measurement, and the universal goniometer (UG) with that of the CROM goniometer in measuring active CROM in healthy volunteers. The secondary objective was to identify the single neck movement that best represents overall range of motion. Neck movement is affected by pathology in the spine and shoulder. A reliable and accurate measurement of neck movement is required to quantify injury, recovery, and disability. Various methods of measuring neck movement have been described of which radiography remains the accepted reference standard. However, radiography is impractical for routine clinical assessment. Visual estimation, tape measurement, and the UG are convenient alternatives. To date, the accuracy and reliability of these methods have not been compared in healthy subjects, and the single neck movement that best reflects overall range has not yet been identified. Active cervical flexion, extension, right and left lateral flexion and rotation were measured in 100 healthy volunteers. Visual estimation, tape measurement between fixed landmarks, and the UG aligned on fixed and anatomic landmarks were compared with the CROM goniometer, which was used as the reference standard. Compared with the CROM goniometer, the UG aligned on fixed landmarks was the most accurate method, followed by the UG on anatomic landmarks. The reliability of the UG was between substantial and perfect. Visual estimation was reproducible but measured range of movement inaccurately. Tape measurement was inaccurate. Extension best reflected overall range. The UG aligned on a fixed landmark is most reliable method of measuring neck movement clinically. Where range must be quickly assessed, extension should be measured.

  14. Detection of Ground Motion effects on the beam trajectory at ATF2

    CERN Document Server

    Renier, Y; Tomas, R; Schulte, D

    2012-01-01

    The ATF2 experiment is currently demonstrating the feasibility of the beam delivery system for the future linear collider. The orbit feedback is very critical to obtain the nanometer vertical beam size at the interaction point and in the case of CLIC, ground motion effects on the beam must be corrected. In this respect, as a proof of principle of a ground motion feed forward, the ground motion effects on the beam trajectory are extracted from the beam position monitor readings.

  15. Energy-Based Response of Simple Structural Systems by using Simulated Ground Motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    karimzadeh Naghshineh, S.; Erberik, M. A.; Askan, A.

    2016-12-01

    For the last two decades, there has been a growing and remarkable attention on the energy-based design and assessment approaches for structural systems. These approaches have also been implemented to some of the national seismic design codes as alternative methods in addition to the traditional force-based design methodology. The underlying research has been often carried out by using actual ground motion records taken from many different earthquakes all over the world. However, such an attempt impairs the validity of the obtained results since it is generally not possible to construct a homogeneous ground motion record database with well-distributed source and ground motion parameters. In this study, in order to overcome the aforementioned disadvantage, a large set of simulated ground motion records are used in a parametric study to examine the influence of different intensity measures on the energy-based response of simple structural systems, i.e. single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) systems. The simulated records are obtained using the stochastic finite-fault methodology that is efficient in simulating the frequencies of engineering interest. A set of ground motions is formed from simulation of potential events with a certain moment magnitude range, source-to-site distances and soil conditions. The simulations are performed on active faults around Erzincan city center located on the Eastern sections of North Anatolian Fault zone in Turkey. In the parametric study, time history analyses on SDOF systems are conducted with simulated records to obtain the response statistics. The output parameters are input energy, hysteretic energy and damping energy. The results show that the energy is a relatively stable parameter when compared to other response parameters, i.e. force and displacement. According to the energy balance equation, after estimating the input energy imparted to a structural system, the rest is to find ways to dissipate this energy through damping and

  16. Structure-specific scalar intensity measures for near-source and ordinary earthquake ground motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luco, N.; Cornell, C.A.

    2007-01-01

    Introduced in this paper are several alternative ground-motion intensity measures (IMs) that are intended for use in assessing the seismic performance of a structure at a site susceptible to near-source and/or ordinary ground motions. A comparison of such IMs is facilitated by defining the "efficiency" and "sufficiency" of an IM, both of which are criteria necessary for ensuring the accuracy of the structural performance assessment. The efficiency and sufficiency of each alternative IM, which are quantified via (i) nonlinear dynamic analyses of the structure under a suite of earthquake records and (ii) linear regression analysis, are demonstrated for the drift response of three different moderate- to long-period buildings subjected to suites of ordinary and of near-source earthquake records. One of the alternative IMs in particular is found to be relatively efficient and sufficient for the range of buildings considered and for both the near-source and ordinary ground motions. ?? 2007, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.

  17. Engineering characterization of ground motion. Task I. Effects of characteristics of free-field motion on structural response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, R.P.; Short, S.A.; Merz, K.L.; Tokarz, F.J.; Idriss, I.M.; Power, M.S.; Sadigh, K.

    1984-05-01

    This report presents the results of the first task of a two-task study on the engineering characterization of earthquake ground motion for nuclear power plant design. The overall objective of this study is to develop recommendations for methods for selecting design response spectra or acceleration time histories to be used to characterize motion at the foundation level of nuclear power plants. Task I of the study develops a basis for selecting design response spectra, taking into account the characteristics of free-field ground motion found to be significant in causing structural damage.

  18. A method to extract successive velocity pulses governing structural response from long-period ground motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuoyu; Li, Yingmin; Wang, Guojue

    2017-11-01

    A series of relatively long-period velocity pulses appearing in the later part of ground motion, which is the characterization of far-source long-period ground motions in basin ("long-period ground motion" for short), is mainly influenced by focal mechanism, basin effect, and dispersion. It was supposed that the successive low-frequency velocity pulses in long-period ground motion caused the resonance of long-period structures in basin, which are of special concern to designers of super high-rise buildings. The authors proposed a wavelet-based successive frequency-dependent pulse extraction (WSFPE) method to identify and extract these pulses with dominant period of interest from long-period ground motions. The pulses extracted by using two frequently used methods (zero-crossing analysis, empirical mode decomposition) were compared to the pulses extracted by using WSFPE. The results demonstrate that the WSFPE provides higher resolution in time-frequency domain than the other two methods do. The velocity pulses extracted by using WSFPE are responsible for the resonance and maximum response of structure subjected to long-period ground motions. WSFPE can be used to make a better understanding of long-period ground motions and to promote the formation of long-period ground motion model which will help the seismic design of long-period structures built in sedimentary basin.

  19. State of the Art in Input Ground Motions for Seismic Fragility and Risk Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jung Han; Choi, In Kil; Kim, Min Kyu [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The purpose of a Seismic Probabilistic Safety Analysis (SPSA) is to determine the probability distribution of core damage due to the potential effects of earthquakes. The SPSA is performed based on four steps, a seismic hazard analysis, a component fragility evaluation, a plant system and accident sequence analysis, and a consequence analysis. There are very different spectrum shapes in every ground motions. The structural response and the seismic load applied to equipment are greatly influenced by a spectral shape of the input ground motion. Therefore the input ground motion need to be determined under the same assumption in risk calculation. Several technic for the determination of input ground motions has developed and reviewed in this study. In this research, the methodologies of the determination of input ground motion for the seismic risk assessment are reviewed and discussed. It has developed to reduce the uncertainty in fragility curves and to remove the conservatism in risk values.

  20. On the coherence of ground motion in the San Fernando valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hough, S.E.; Field, E.H.

    1996-01-01

    We present an analysis of the coherence of seismic ground motion recorded on alluvial sediments in the San Fernando Valley, California. Using aftershocks of the 17 January 1994 Mw6.7 earthquake recorded at a quasi-dense array of portable stations, we analyze the coherence of three well-recorded magnitude 3.7 to 4.0 events over the frequency range 0.5 to 15 Hz and a distance range of 0.5 to 5.3 km. All stations are located at sites with broadly similar near-site geology, characterized by medium to fine-grain Quaternary alluvial sediments. On average, relatively high values of coherence are observed for distances up to 3 to 4 km and frequencies up to 2 to 3 Hz; coherence drops sharply at frequencies near and above 3 Hz. Although average coherence functions are described reasonably well by a log-linear relationship with frequency, the curves at all distances exhibit a flattening at low frequencies that is not consistent with previous observations of coherence at hardrock sites. The distance decay of coherence is also markedly less strong, with high coherence values observed over station separations corresponding to multiple wavelengths. This may reflect fundamental differences in shallow-wave propagation in the two environments, with high-frequency scattering relatively more dominant in regions of hard-rock near-surface geology. Within a sedimentary basin or valley, the site response itself generally reflects a resonance phenomenon that may tend to give rise to more uniform ground motions. However, previous studies have demonstrated the existence of pathological focusing and amplification effects within complex sedimentary basin environments such as the greater Los Angeles region; our results undoubtedly do not quantify the full range of ground-motion variability at all sites, but rather represent the level of that variability that can be expected, and quantified, for typical source/receiver paths.

  1. The 2011 Mineral, VA M5.8 Earthquake Ground Motions and Stress Drop: An Important Contribution to the NGA East Ground Motion Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, C. H.; Kutliroff, J.; Dangkua, D.

    2011-12-01

    The M5.8 Mineral, Virginia earthquake of August 23, 2011 is the largest instrumentally recorded earthquake in eastern North America since the 1988 M5.9 Saguenay, Canada earthquake. Historically, a similar magnitude earthquake occurred on May 31, 1897 at 18:58 UCT in western Virginia west of Roanoke. Paleoseismic evidence for larger magnitude earthquakes has also been found in the central Virginia region. The Next Generation Attenuation (NGA) East project to develop new ground motion prediction equations for stable continental regions (SCRs), including eastern North America (ENA), is ongoing at the Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center funded by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the U.S. Geological Survey, the Electric Power Research Institute, and the U.S. Department of Energy. The available recordings from the M5.8 Virginia are being added to the NGA East ground motion database. Close in (less than 100 km) strong motion recordings are particularly interesting for both ground motion and stress drop estimates as most close-in broadband seismometers clipped on the mainshock. A preliminary estimate for earthquake corner frequency for the M5.8 Virginia earthquake of ~0.7 Hz has been obtained from a strong motion record 57 km from the mainshock epicenter. For a M5.8 earthquake this suggests a Brune stress drop of ~300 bars for the Virginia event. Very preliminary comparisons using accelerometer data suggest the ground motions from the M5.8 Virginia earthquake agree well with current ENA ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs) at short periods (PGA, 0.2 s) and are below the GMPEs at longer periods (1.0 s), which is the same relationship seen from other recent M5 ENA earthquakes. We will present observed versus GMPE ground motion comparisons for all the ground motion observations and stress drop estimates from strong motion recordings at distances less than 100 km. A review of the completed NGA East ENA ground motion database will also be provided.

  2. Within-Event and Between-Events Ground Motion Variability from Earthquake Rupture Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crempien, Jorge G. F.; Archuleta, Ralph J.

    2017-09-01

    Measurement of ground motion variability is essential to estimate seismic hazard. Over-estimation of variability can lead to extremely high annual hazard estimates of ground motion exceedance. We explore different parameters that affect the variability of ground motion such as the spatial correlations of kinematic rupture parameters on a finite fault and the corner frequency of the moment-rate spectra. To quantify the variability of ground motion, we simulate kinematic rupture scenarios on several vertical strike-slip faults and compute ground motion using the representation theorem. In particular, for the entire suite of rupture scenarios, we quantify the within-event and the between-events ground motion variability of peak ground acceleration (PGA) and response spectra at several periods, at 40 stations—all approximately at an equal distance of 20 and 50 km from the fault. Both within-event and between-events ground motion variability increase when the slip correlation length on the fault increases. The probability density functions of ground motion tend to truncate at a finite value when the correlation length of slip decreases on the fault, therefore, we do not observe any long-tail distribution of peak ground acceleration when performing several rupture simulations for small correlation lengths. Finally, for a correlation length of 6 km, the within-event and between-events PGA log-normal standard deviations are 0.58 and 0.19, respectively, values slightly smaller than those reported by Boore et al. (Earthq Spectra, 30(3):1057-1085, 2014). The between-events standard deviation is consistently smaller than the within-event for all correlations lengths, a feature that agrees with recent ground motion prediction equations.

  3. Physically-Based Ground Motion Prediction and Validation A Case Study: Mid-sized Marmara Sea Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mert, A.

    2015-12-01

    In this study we have two main purposes. The first one is to simulate five midsize earthquakes (Mw≈5.0) recorded in the Marmara region, which has a geologically complex and heterogeneous crustal structure. We synthesize ground motion for the full wave train on three components, and applied a 'physics based' solution of earthquake rupture. The simulation methodology is based on the studies by Hutchings et al. (2007), Scognamiglio and Hutchings (2009). For each earthquake, we synthesized seismograms using by 500 different rupture scenarios that were generated by Monte Carlo selection of parameters within the range. Synthetic ground motion is a major challenge for seismic hazard assessment studies. Especially after the adoption of performance-based design approach with the Earthquake resistant design of engineering structures. To compute realistic time histories for different locations around Marmara region can be helpful for engineering design, retrofitting the existing structures, hazard and risk management studies and developing new seismic codes and standards.The second purpose is to validate synthetic seismograms with real seismograms. We follow the methodology presented by Anderson (2003) for validation. This methodology proposes a similarity score based on averages of the quality of fit measuring ground motion characteristics and uses a suite of measurements. Namely, the synthetics are compared to real data by ten representative ground motion criteria. The applicability of Empirical Green's functions methodology and physics based solution of earthquake rupture had been assessed in terms of modeling in complex geologic structure. Because the methodology produces source and site specific synthetic ground motion time histories and goodness-of-fit scores of obtained synthetics is between 'fair' to 'good' range based on Anderson's score, we concluded that it can be tried to produce ground motion that has not previously been recorded during catastrophic earthquake

  4. Hybrid Broadband Ground-Motion Simulation Using Scenario Earthquakes for the Istanbul Area

    KAUST Repository

    Reshi, Owais A.

    2016-04-13

    Seismic design, analysis and retrofitting of structures demand an intensive assessment of potential ground motions in seismically active regions. Peak ground motions and frequency content of seismic excitations effectively influence the behavior of structures. In regions of sparse ground motion records, ground-motion simulations provide the synthetic seismic records, which not only provide insight into the mechanisms of earthquakes but also help in improving some aspects of earthquake engineering. Broadband ground-motion simulation methods typically utilize physics-based modeling of source and path effects at low frequencies coupled with high frequency semi-stochastic methods. I apply the hybrid simulation method by Mai et al. (2010) to model several scenario earthquakes in the Marmara Sea, an area of high seismic hazard. Simulated ground motions were generated at 75 stations using systematically calibrated model parameters. The region-specific source, path and site model parameters were calibrated by simulating a w4.1 Marmara Sea earthquake that occurred on November 16, 2015 on the fault segment in the vicinity of Istanbul. The calibrated parameters were then used to simulate the scenario earthquakes with magnitudes w6.0, w6.25, w6.5 and w6.75 over the Marmara Sea fault. Effects of fault geometry, hypocenter location, slip distribution and rupture propagation were thoroughly studied to understand variability in ground motions. A rigorous analysis of waveforms reveal that these parameters are critical for determining the behavior of ground motions especially in the near-field. Comparison of simulated ground motion intensities with ground-motion prediction quations indicates the need of development of the region-specific ground-motion prediction equation for Istanbul area. Peak ground motion maps are presented to illustrate the shaking in the Istanbul area due to the scenario earthquakes. The southern part of Istanbul including Princes Islands show high amplitudes

  5. Grounded theory: building a middle-range theory in nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria João Fernandes

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of nursing as a discipline results from a boom of investigations underway for nearly a century, and of the construction of theories that have arisen during the 1950’s, with greater relevance since the 1960’s. Giving continuation to the production of knowledge in nursing and seeking to contribute to the increase in the number of explanatory theories of the functional content of nurses, there is interest in answering the question: how can a middle-range theory in nursing be built that explains the nurse-elderly interaction in a successful aging process? As well, we address the goal of describing the process of building a middle-range theory in nursing. Middle-range theory refers to a qualitative paradigm study of inductive thinking, developed in the context of primary health care. The information was collected through participant observation and interviews. Method of analysis grounded theory by Corbin and Strauss(1 was followed, utilizing the triangulation of data and theoretical sampling. Grounded theory has become a method of analysis which facilitates the understanding and explanation of the phenomenon under study. By making clear the nature and process of the nurse-elderly interaction in the selected context and within the context of successful aging, a middle-range theory proposal emerged.

  6. Seismology and Earthquake Ground Motions of the August 24, 2014 M6 South Napa Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishida, T.; Wang, S.; Mazzoni, S.; Markam, C.; Lu, Y.; Bozorgnia, Y.; Mahin, S.; Bray, J.; Panagiotou, M.; Stewart, J. P.; Darragh, R. B.; Abrahamson, N. A.; Hollenback, J. C.; Gutierrez, C.; Chiou, B.; Muin, S.; Dreger, D. S.

    2014-12-01

    The M6.0 South Napa earthquake produced strong ground motions in the northern San Francisco Bay area. A total of 214 three-component uncorrected digital accelerograms were downloaded from the CESMD website and processed following the PEER standard procedure (Ancheta et al. 2014). Intense ground motions were recorded in the heavily damaged area of Napa with peak acceleration greater than 0.3 g. Pulse-like waveforms were observed in several of the velocity time series at the near-fault stations. Near-fault velocity time series were rotated into fault normal and fault parallel directions and then characterized as pulse-like or non pulse-like according to previous studies by Hayden et al. (2014), Shahi (2013), and Lu and Panagiotou (2014). The near-fault velocity time series at five stations contained pulses with periods within the expected range of 0.7 s to 2.0 s for soil sites (Bray et al. 2009). However, they also contained longer period pulses than the expected range. High-frequency spikes were recorded at Carquinez Bridge Geotechnical Array #1 (CBGA1) of approximately 1.0 g on the NS component. These spikes were in the S-wave portion and were consistently observed in the downhole arrays and several other sites along the same azimuth from the source. The spikes increase in amplitude both from the Hwy 37/Napa River East Geotechnical Array to CBGA1 and from a depth below 100 m to the surface. This suggests that the spikes could be a result of path effects and site amplification through the surficial soft soil deposits. However, these observations do not exclude the possibility of soil-structure interaction effects on the measured recordings. The 5% damped pseudo-spectral accelerations (PSA) from the recorded ground motions compared well to those estimated from the recent NGA-West2 GMPEs. The exceptions are that PSA is under predicted from 1 to 3 seconds at several near fault records due to the velocity pulses and for short periods at Carquinez Bridge where the large

  7. What do data used to develop ground-motion prediction equations tell us about motions near faults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boore, David M.

    2014-01-01

    A large database of ground motions from shallow earthquakes occurring in active tectonic regions around the world, recently developed in the Pacific Earthquake Engineering Center’s NGA-West2 project, has been used to investigate what such a database can say about the properties and processes of crustal fault zones. There are a relatively small number of near-rupture records, implying that few recordings in the database are within crustal fault zones, but the records that do exist emphasize the complexity of ground-motion amplitudes and polarization close to individual faults. On average over the whole data set, however, the scaling of ground motions with magnitude at a fixed distance, and the distance dependence of the ground motions, seem to be largely consistent with simple seismological models of source scaling, path propagation effects, and local site amplification. The data show that ground motions close to large faults, as measured by elastic response spectra, tend to saturate and become essentially constant for short periods. This saturation seems to be primarily a geometrical effect, due to the increasing size of the rupture surface with magnitude, and not due to a breakdown in self similarity.

  8. Hip joint range of motion improvements using three different interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreside, Janice M; McGill, Stuart M

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of 3 different exercise interventions plus a control group on passive hip range of motion (ROM). Previous research studies into the methods of improving passive hip mobility have focused on stretching protocols aimed specifically at the hip joint. The effect of core stabilization, motor training, and myofascial stretching techniques on hip mobility in a selected asymptomatic group with limited hip mobility is unclear. In this study, 24 young men with limited hip mobility (stretching, stretching with motor control exercises for the hip and trunk, core endurance with motor control exercises, and the control group. Six-week home exercise programs were individually prescribed based on the assigned group, hip ROM, movement patterns, and timed core endurance. Two-way analyses of variances were conducted to analyze the effect of group assignment on hip ROM improvements. Both stretching groups demonstrated significant improvements in hip ROM (p stretching also demonstrated a moderate increase in ROM but only significantly so in rotation. Average core endurance holding times improved 38-53%. These results indicate that stretches aimed at the myofascial components of the upper body, in addition to the hip joint, resulted in dramatic increases in hip ROM in a group of young men with limited hip mobility. Hip ROM also improved in the group that did no active stretching, highlighting the potential role of including stabilization or "proximal stiffening training" when rehabilitating the extremities.

  9. Relationship between neck disability and mandibular range of motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packer, Amanda Carine; Dibai-Filho, Almir Vieira; de Souza Costa, Ana Cláudia; dos Santos Berni, Kelly Cristina; Rodrigues-Bigaton, Delaine

    2014-01-01

    There is a close interaction between the mandibular and cervical systems due to the existing neurological and biomechanical communications. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between neck disability and mandibular range of motion (ROM). Fifty-two women aged between 18 and 40 years were recruited and allocated to four groups using two outcome measures: the Neck Disability Index (NDI) and the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD): Group I (n=13), healthy volunteers; Group II (n=13), volunteers with TMD and neck disability; Group III (n=13), volunteers with TMD and without neck disability; and Group IV (n=13), volunteers with neck disability and without TMD. Mandibular ROM was evaluated as part of the RDC/TMD clinical examination. Statistical analysis involved one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's test for comparisons between groups. Spearman's correlation coefficients were calculated to determined correlations among the variables. Significant differences were found in the mandibular ROM of functional opening in the comparisons between Groups I and III (p=0.009) and between Groups III and IV (p=0.024). No significant association was found between mandibular ROM and the NDI score (p > 0.05). Based on the methodology employed, there is no association between mandibular ROM and neck disability in university women. In this sense, clinical interventions focusing on the flexibility of the temporomandibular joint does not have repercussions on the neck disability and vice versa.

  10. Reliability of five methods for assessing shoulder range of motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, K; Walton, J R; Szomor, Z R; Murrell, G A

    2001-01-01

    In symptomatic subjects, the reliability of tests for shoulder joint range of motion has yet to be determined. For this reason, inter-rater and intra-rater agreement trials were undertaken to ascertain the reliability of visual estimation, goniometry, still photography, "stand and reach" and hand behind back reach for six different shoulder movements. Intra-class correlation coefficients (Rho) were derived by using a random effects model. For flexion, abduction and external rotation fair to good reliability was demonstrated for both trials using visual estimation (Inter-rater Rho = 0.57-0.70; Intra-rater Rho = 0.59-0.67), goniometry (Inter-rater Rho = 0.64-0.69; Intra-rater Rho = 0.53-0.65) and still photography (Inter-rater Rho = 0.62-0.73; Intra-rater Rho = 0.56-0.61). The tests had standard errors of measurement of between 14 and 25 degrees (inter-rater trial) and 11 and 23 degrees (intra-rater trial).

  11. Effect of Ground Motion Directionality on Fragility Characteristics of a Highway Bridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swagata Banerjee Basu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available It is difficult to incorporate multidimensional effect of the ground motion in the design and response analysis of structures. The motion trajectory in the corresponding multi-dimensional space results in time variant principal axes of the motion and defies any meaningful definition of directionality of the motion. However, it is desirable to consider the directionality of the ground motion in assessing the seismic damageability of bridges which are one of the most vulnerable components of highway transportation systems. This paper presents a practice-oriented procedure in which the structure can be designed to ensure the safety under single or a pair of independent orthogonal ground motions traveling horizontally with an arbitrary direction to structural axis. This procedure uses nonlinear time history analysis and accounts for the effect of directionality in the form of fragility curves. The word directionality used here is different from “directivity” used in seismology to mean a specific characteristic of seismic fault movement.

  12. Representation of bidirectional ground motions for design spectra in building codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Jonathan P.; Abrahamson, Norman A.; Atkinson, Gail M.; Beker, Jack W.; Boore, David M.; Bozorgnia, Yousef; Campbell, Kenneth W.; Comartin, Craig D.; Idriss, I.M.; Lew, Marshall; Mehrain, Michael; Moehle, Jack P.; Naeim, Farzad; Sabol, Thomas A.

    2011-01-01

    The 2009 NEHRP Provisions modified the definition of horizontal ground motion from the geometric mean of spectral accelerations for two components to the peak response of a single lumped mass oscillator regardless of direction. These maximum-direction (MD) ground motions operate under the assumption that the dynamic properties of the structure (e.g., stiffness, strength) are identical in all directions. This assumption may be true for some in-plan symmetric structures, however, the response of most structures is dominated by modes of vibration along specific axes (e.g., longitudinal and transverse axes in a building), and often the dynamic properties (especially stiffness) along those axes are distinct. In order to achieve structural designs consistent with the collapse risk level given in the NEHRP documents, we argue that design spectra should be compatible with expected levels of ground motion along those principal response axes. The use of MD ground motions effectively assumes that the azimuth of maximum ground motion coincides with the directions of principal structural response. Because this is unlikely, design ground motions have lower probability of occurrence than intended, with significant societal costs. We recommend adjustments to make design ground motions compatible with target risk levels.

  13. Methods for evaluating cervical range of motion in trauma settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voss Sarah

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Immobilisation of the cervical spine is a common procedure following traumatic injury. This is often precautionary as the actual incidence of spinal injury is low. Nonetheless, stabilisation of the head and neck is an important part of pre-hospital care due to the catastrophic damage that may follow if further unrestricted movement occurs in the presence of an unstable spinal injury. Currently available collars are limited by the potential for inadequate immobilisation and complications caused by pressure on the patient’s skin, restricted airway access and compression of the jugular vein. Alternative approaches to cervical spine immobilisation are being considered, and the investigation of these new methods requires a standardised approach to the evaluation of neck movement. This review summarises the research methods and scientific technology that have been used to assess and measure cervical range of motion, and which are likely to underpin future research in this field. A systematic search of international literature was conducted to evaluate the methodologies used to assess the extremes of movement that can be achieved in six domains. 34 papers were included in the review. These studies used a range of methodologies, but study quality was generally low. Laboratory investigations and biomechanical studies have gradually given way to methods that more accurately reflect the real-life situations in which cervical spine immobilisation occurs. Latterly, new approaches using virtual reality and simulation have been developed. Coupled with modern electromagnetic tracking technology this has considerable potential for effective application in future research. However, use of these technologies in real life settings can be problematic and more research is needed.

  14. The cat vertebral column: stance configuration and range of motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, J. M.; Ye, Y.; Peterson, B. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    This study examined the configuration of the vertebral column of the cat during independent stance and in various flexed positions. The range of motion in the sagittal plane is similar across most thoracic and lumbar joints, with the exception of a lesser range at the transition region from thoracic-type to lumbar-type vertebrae. The upper thoracic column exhibits most of its range in dorsiflexion and the lower thoracic and lumbar in ventroflexion. Lateral flexion is limited to less than 5 degrees at all segments. The range in torsion is almost 180 degrees and occurs primarily in the midthoracic region, T4-T11. Contrary to the depiction in most atlases, the standing cat exhibits several curvatures, including a mild dorsiflexion in the lower lumbar segments, a marked ventroflexion in the lower thoracic and upper lumbar segments, and a profound dorsiflexion in the upper thoracic (above T9) and cervical segments. The curvatures are not significantly changed by altering stance distance but are affected by head posture. During stance, the top of the scapula lies well above the spines of the thoracic vertebrae, and the glenohumeral joint is just below the bodies of vertebrae T3-T5. Using a simple static model of the vertebral column in the sagittal plane, it was estimated that the bending moment due to gravity is bimodal with a dorsiflexion moment in the lower thoracic and lumbar region and a ventroflexion moment in the upper thoracic and cervical region. Given the bending moments and the position of the scapula during stance, it is proposed that two groups of scapular muscles provide the major antigravity support for the head and anterior trunk. Levator scapulae and serratus ventralis form the lateral group, inserting on the lateral processes of cervical vertebrae and on the ribs. The major and minor rhomboids form the medial group, inserting on the spinous tips of vertebrae from C4 to T4. It is also proposed that the hypaxial muscles, psoas major, minor, and quadratus

  15. The SCEC Broadband Platform: Open-Source Software for Strong Ground Motion Simulation and Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, F.; Goulet, C. A.; Maechling, P. J.; Callaghan, S.; Jordan, T. H.

    2016-12-01

    The Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) Broadband Platform (BBP) is a carefully integrated collection of open-source scientific software programs that can simulate broadband (0-100 Hz) ground motions for earthquakes at regional scales. The BBP can run earthquake rupture and wave propagation modeling software to simulate ground motions for well-observed historical earthquakes and to quantify how well the simulated broadband seismograms match the observed seismograms. The BBP can also run simulations for hypothetical earthquakes. In this case, users input an earthquake location and magnitude description, a list of station locations, and a 1D velocity model for the region of interest, and the BBP software then calculates ground motions for the specified stations. The BBP scientific software modules implement kinematic rupture generation, low- and high-frequency seismogram synthesis using wave propagation through 1D layered velocity structures, several ground motion intensity measure calculations, and various ground motion goodness-of-fit tools. These modules are integrated into a software system that provides user-defined, repeatable, calculation of ground-motion seismograms, using multiple alternative ground motion simulation methods, and software utilities to generate tables, plots, and maps. The BBP has been developed over the last five years in a collaborative project involving geoscientists, earthquake engineers, graduate students, and SCEC scientific software developers. The SCEC BBP software released in 2016 can be compiled and run on recent Linux and Mac OS X systems with GNU compilers. It includes five simulation methods, seven simulation regions covering California, Japan, and Eastern North America, and the ability to compare simulation results against empirical ground motion models (aka GMPEs). The latest version includes updated ground motion simulation methods, a suite of new validation metrics and a simplified command line user interface.

  16. Strong ground motion in the Taipei basin from the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Joe B.; Wen, K.-L.

    2005-01-01

    differences along the northwest edge that may indicate large strains across that edge of the basin. The length of each record after the main S wave are all longer at basin stations compared to those outside. This increase in duration of ground shaking is probably caused by amplification of ground motion at basin stations, although coda Q (0.67 - 1.30 Hz) is slightly larger inside the basin compared to those at local stations outside the basin. Durations correlate with depth to basement. These motions are in the range that can induce damage in buildings and may have contributed to the structural collapse of multistory buildings in the Taipei basin.

  17. Reliability of three measures of ankle dorsiflexion range of motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konor, Megan M; Morton, Sam; Eckerson, Joan M; Grindstaff, Terry L

    2012-06-01

    A variety of methods exist to measure ankle dorsiflexion range of motion (ROM). Few studies have examined the reliability of a novice rater. The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability of ankle ROM measurements using three different techniques in a novice rater. Twenty healthy subjects (mean±SD, age=24±3 years, height=173.2±8.1 cm, mass=72.6±15.2 kg) participated in this study. Ankle dorsiflexion ROM measures were obtained in a weight-bearing lunge position using a standard goniometer, digital inclinometer, and a tape measure using the distance-to-wall technique. All measures were obtained three times per side, with 10 minutes of rest between the first and second set of measures. Intrarater reliability was determined using an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC(2,3)) and associated 95% confidence intervals (CI). Standard error of measurement (SEM) and the minimal detectable change (MDC) for each measurement technique were also calculated. The within-session intrarater reliability (ICC(2,3)) estimates for each measure are as follows: tape measure (right 0.98, left 0.99), digital inclinometer (right 0.96; left 0.97), and goniometer (right 0.85; left 0.96). The SEM for the tape measure method ranged from 0.4-0.6 cm and the MDC was between 1.1-1.5 cm. The SEM for the inclinometer was between 1.3-1.4° and the MDC was 3.7-3.8°. The SEM for the goniometer ranged from 1.8-2.8° with an MDC of 5.0-7.7°. The results indicate that reliable measures of weight-bearing ankle dorsiflexion ROM can be obtained from a novice rater. All three techniques had good reliability and low measurement error, with the distance-to-wall technique using a tape measure and inclinometer methods resulting in higher reliability coefficients (ICC(2,3)=0.96 to 0.99) and a lower SEM compared to the goniometer (ICC(2,3)=0.85 to 0.96). 2b.

  18. Structural Calculations of Drip Shield Exposed to Vibratory Ground Motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Mastilovic

    2003-06-16

    The objective of this calculation is twofold. First, to determine whether or not separation of interlocking drip shield (DS) segments occurs during vibratory ground motion. Second, if DS separation does not occur, to estimate the area of the DS for which the residual 1st principal stress exceeds a certain limit. (The area of DS plate-1 and DS plate-2 [see Attachment I] where the residual 1st principal stress exceeds a certain limit will be, for brevity, referred to as ''the damaged area'' throughout this document; also, DS plate-1 and DS plate-2 will be referred to, for brevity, as ''DS plates'' henceforth.) The stress limit used throughout this document is defined as 50 percent of yield strength of the DS plate material, Titanium Grade 7 (Ti-7) (SB-265 R52400), at temperature of 150 C. A set of 15 calculations is performed at two different annual frequencies of occurrence (annual exceedance frequency): 10{sup -6} per year (1/yr) and 10{sup -7} 1/yr . (Note: Due to computational problems only five realizations at 10{sup -7} 1/yr are presented in this document.) Additionally, one calculation is performed at the annual frequency of occurrence of 5 {center_dot} 10{sup -4} 1/yr. The scope of this document is limited to reporting whether or not the DS separation occurs. If the DS separation does not occur the scope is limited to reporting the calculation results in terms of the damaged area. All these results are evaluated for the DS plates. This calculation is intended for use in support of the Total System Performance Assessment-License Application seismicity modeling. This calculation is associated with the DS design and was performed by the Waste Package Design group. AP-3.12Q, ''Design Calculations and Analyses'' (Ref. 1) is used to perform the calculation and develop the document. The DS is classified as Quality Level 1 (Ref. 5, p. 7). Therefore, this calculation is subject to the Quality Assurance

  19. Validation of strong-motion stochastic model using observed ground motion records in north-east India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipok K. Bora

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We focused on validation of applicability of semi-empirical technique (spectral models and stochastic simulation for the estimation of ground-motion characteristics in the northeastern region (NER of India. In the present study, it is assumed that the point source approximation in far field is valid. The one-dimensional stochastic point source seismological model of Boore (1983 (Boore, DM. 1983. Stochastic simulation of high frequency ground motions based on seismological models of the radiated spectra. Bulletin of Seismological Society of America, 73, 1865–1894. is used for modelling the acceleration time histories. Total ground-motion records of 30 earthquakes of magnitudes lying between MW 4.2 and 6.2 in NER India from March 2008 to April 2013 are used for this study. We considered peak ground acceleration (PGA and pseudospectral acceleration (response spectrum amplitudes with 5% damping ratio at three fundamental natural periods, namely: 0.3, 1.0, and 3.0 s. The spectral models, which work well for PGA, overestimate the pseudospectral acceleration. It seems that there is a strong influence of local site amplification and crustal attenuation (kappa, which control spectral amplitudes at different frequencies. The results would allow analysing regional peculiarities of ground-motion excitation and propagation and updating seismic hazard assessment, both the probabilistic and deterministic approaches.

  20. Contrasting accounts of direction and shape perception in short-range motion: Counterchange compared with motion energy detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Joseph; Hock, Howard; Schöner, Gregor

    2014-07-01

    It has long been thought (e.g., Cavanagh & Mather, 1989) that first-order motion-energy extraction via space-time comparator-type models (e.g., the elaborated Reichardt detector) is sufficient to account for human performance in the short-range motion paradigm (Braddick, 1974), including the perception of reverse-phi motion when the luminance polarity of the visual elements is inverted during successive frames. Human observers' ability to discriminate motion direction and use coherent motion information to segregate a region of a random cinematogram and determine its shape was tested; they performed better in the same-, as compared with the inverted-, polarity condition. Computational analyses of short-range motion perception based on the elaborated Reichardt motion energy detector (van Santen & Sperling, 1985) predict, incorrectly, that symmetrical results will be obtained for the same- and inverted-polarity conditions. In contrast, the counterchange detector (Hock, Schöner, & Gilroy, 2009) predicts an asymmetry quite similar to that of human observers in both motion direction and shape discrimination. The further advantage of counterchange, as compared with motion energy, detection for the perception of spatial shape- and depth-from-motion is discussed.

  1. Characteristics of ground motion at permafrost sites along the Qinghai-Tibet railway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L.; Wu, Z.; Sun, Jielun; Liu, Xiuying; Wang, Z.

    2009-01-01

    Based on 14 typical drilling holes distributed in the permafrost areas along the Qinghai-Tibet railway, the distribution of wave velocities of soils in the permafrost regions were determined. Using results of dynamic triaxial tests, the results of dynamic triaxiality test and time histories of ground motion acceleration in this area, characteristics of ground motion response were analyzed for these permafrost sites for time histories of ground accelerations with three exceedance probabilities (63%, 10% and 2%). The influence of ground temperature on the seismic displacement, velocity, acceleration and response spectrum on the surface of permafrost were also studied. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Closed-form critical earthquake response of elastic-plastic structures on compliant ground under near-fault ground motions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotaro eKojima

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The double impulse is introduced as a substitute of the fling-step near-fault ground motion. A closed-form solution of the elastic-plastic response of a structure on compliant (flexible ground by the ‘critical double impulse’ is derived for the first time based on the solution for the corresponding structure with fixed base. As in the case of fixed-base model, only the free-vibration appears under such double impulse and the energy approach plays an important role in the derivation of the closed-form solution of a complicated elastic-plastic response on compliant ground. It is remarkable that no iteration is needed in the derivation of the critical elastic-plastic response. It is shown via the closed-form expression that, in the case of a smaller input level of double impulse to the structural strength, as the ground stiffness becomes larger, the maximum plastic deformation becomes larger. On the other hand, in the case of a larger input level of double impulse to the structural strength, as the ground stiffness becomes smaller, the maximum plastic deformation becomes larger. The criticality and validity of the proposed theory are investigated through the comparison with the response analysis to the corresponding one-cycle sinusoidal input as a representative of the fling-step near-fault ground motion. The applicability of the proposed theory to actual recorded pulse-type ground motions is also discussed.

  3. Deaggregation of Probabilistic Ground Motions in the Central and Eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmsen, S.; Perkins, D.; Frankel, A.

    1999-01-01

    Probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) is a technique for estimating the annual rate of exceedance of a specified ground motion at a site due to known and suspected earthquake sources. The relative contributions of the various sources to the total seismic hazard are determined as a function of their occurrence rates and their ground-motion potential. The separation of the exceedance contributions into bins whose base dimensions are magnitude and distance is called deaggregation. We have deaggregated the hazard analyses for the new USGS national probabilistic ground-motion hazard maps (Frankel et al., 1996). For points on a 0.2?? grid in the central and eastern United States (CEUS), we show color maps of the geographical variation of mean and modal magnitudes (M??, M??) and distances (D??, D??) for ground motions having a 2% chance of exceedance in 50 years. These maps are displayed for peak horizontal acceleration and for spectral response accelerations of 0.2, 0.3, and 1.0 sec. We tabulate M??, D??, M??, and D?? for 49 CEUS cities for 0.2- and 1.0-sec response. Thus, these maps and tables are PSHA-derived estimates of the potential earthquakes that dominate seismic hazard at short and intermediate periods in the CEUS. The contribution to hazard of the New Madrid and Charleston sources dominates over much of the CEUS; for 0.2-sec response, over 40% of the area; for 1.0-sec response, over 80% of the area. For 0.2-sec response, D?? ranges from 20 to 200 km, for 1.0 sec, 30 to 600 km. For sites influenced by New Madrid or Charleston, D is less than the distance to these sources, and M?? is less than the characteristic magnitude of these sources, because averaging takes into account the effect of smaller magnitude and closer sources. On the other hand, D?? is directly the distance to New Madrid or Charleston and M?? for 0.2- and 1.0-sec response corresponds to the dominating source over much of the CEUS. For some cities in the North Atlantic states, short

  4. Development of guidelines for incorporation of vertical ground motion effects in seismic design of highway bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    This study was undertaken with the objective of assessing the current provisions in SDC-2006 for incorporating : vertical effects of ground motions in seismic evaluation and design of ordinary highway bridges. A : comprehensive series of simulations ...

  5. Rotational Response of Toe-Restrained Retaining Walls to Earthquake Ground Motions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ebeling, Robert M; White, Barry C

    2006-01-01

    This research report describes the engineering formulation and corresponding software developed for the rotational response of rock-founded, toe-restrained Corps retaining walls to earthquake ground motions...

  6. Refinements to the Graves and Pitarka (2010) Broadband Ground-Motion Simulation Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graves, R.; Pitarka, A.

    2014-12-17

    This brief article describes refinements to the Graves and Pitarka (2010) broadband ground-motion simulation methodology (GP2010 hereafter) that have been implemented in version 14.3 of the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) Broadband Platform (BBP).

  7. Site-specific seismic ground motion analyses for transportation infrastructure in the New Madrid seismic zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    Generic, code-based design procedures cannot account for the anticipated short-period attenuation and long-period amplification of earthquake ground motions in the deep, soft sediments of the Mississippi Embayment within the New Madrid Seismic Zone (...

  8. Pros and cons of rotating ground motion records to fault-normal/parallel directions for response history analysis of buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkan, Erol; Kwong, Neal S.

    2014-01-01

    According to the regulatory building codes in the United States (e.g., 2010 California Building Code), at least two horizontal ground motion components are required for three-dimensional (3D) response history analysis (RHA) of building structures. For sites within 5 km of an active fault, these records should be rotated to fault-normal/fault-parallel (FN/FP) directions, and two RHAs should be performed separately (when FN and then FP are aligned with the transverse direction of the structural axes). It is assumed that this approach will lead to two sets of responses that envelope the range of possible responses over all nonredundant rotation angles. This assumption is examined here, for the first time, using a 3D computer model of a six-story reinforced-concrete instrumented building subjected to an ensemble of bidirectional near-fault ground motions. Peak values of engineering demand parameters (EDPs) were computed for rotation angles ranging from 0 through 180° to quantify the difference between peak values of EDPs over all rotation angles and those due to FN/FP direction rotated motions. It is demonstrated that rotating ground motions to FN/FP directions (1) does not always lead to the maximum responses over all angles, (2) does not always envelope the range of possible responses, and (3) does not provide maximum responses for all EDPs simultaneously even if it provides a maximum response for a specific EDP.

  9. Ground motion prediction and earthquake scenarios in the volcanic region of Mt. Etna (Southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Horst; Tusa, Giuseppina; Luciano, Scarfi; Azzaro, Raffaela

    2013-04-01

    One of the principal issues in the assessment of seismic hazard is the prediction of relevant ground motion parameters, e. g., peak ground acceleration, radiated seismic energy, response spectra, at some distance from the source. Here we first present ground motion prediction equations (GMPE) for horizontal components for the area of Mt. Etna and adjacent zones. Our analysis is based on 4878 three component seismograms related to 129 seismic events with local magnitudes ranging from 3.0 to 4.8, hypocentral distances up to 200 km, and focal depth shallower than 30 km. Accounting for the specific seismotectonic and geological conditions of the considered area we have divided our data set into three sub-groups: (i) Shallow Mt. Etna Events (SEE), i.e., typically volcano-tectonic events in the area of Mt. Etna having a focal depth less than 5 km; (ii) Deep Mt. Etna Events (DEE), i.e., events in the volcanic region, but with a depth greater than 5 km; (iii) Extra Mt. Etna Events (EEE), i.e., purely tectonic events falling outside the area of Mt. Etna. The predicted PGAs for the SEE are lower than those predicted for the DEE and the EEE, reflecting their lower high-frequency energy content. We explain this observation as due to the lower stress drops. The attenuation relationships are compared to the ones most commonly used, such as by Sabetta and Pugliese (1987)for Italy, or Ambraseys et al. (1996) for Europe. Whereas our GMPEs are based on small earthquakes, the magnitudes covered by the two above mentioned attenuation relationships regard moderate to large magnitudes (up to 6.8 and 7.9, respectively). We show that the extrapolation of our GMPEs to magnitues beyond the range covered by the data is misleading; at the same time also the afore mentioned relationships fail to predict ground motion parameters for our data set. Despite of these discrepancies, we can exploit our data for setting up scenarios for strong earthquakes for which no instrumental recordings are

  10. Ground Motion Prediction Equations for the Central and Eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seber, D.; Graizer, V.

    2015-12-01

    New ground motion prediction equations (GMPE) G15 model for the Central and Eastern United States (CEUS) is presented. It is based on the modular filter based approach developed by Graizer and Kalkan (2007, 2009) for active tectonic environment in the Western US (WUS). The G15 model is based on the NGA-East database for the horizontal peak ground acceleration and 5%-damped pseudo spectral acceleration RotD50 component (Goulet et al., 2014). In contrast to active tectonic environment the database for the CEUS is not sufficient for creating purely empirical GMPE covering the range of magnitudes and distances required for seismic hazard assessments. Recordings in NGA-East database are sparse and cover mostly range of Mindustry (Vs=2800 m/s). The number of model predictors is limited to a few measurable parameters: moment magnitude M, closest distance to fault rupture plane R, average shear-wave velocity in the upper 30 m of the geological profile VS30, and anelastic attenuation factor Q0. Incorporating anelastic attenuation Q0 as an input parameter allows adjustments based on the regional crustal properties. The model covers the range of magnitudes 4.010 Hz) and is within the range of other models for frequencies lower than 2.5 Hz

  11. A flatfile of ground motion intensity measurements from induced earthquakes in Oklahoma and Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennolet, Steven B.; Moschetti, Morgan P.; Thompson, Eric M.; Yeck, William

    2018-01-01

    We have produced a uniformly processed database of orientation-independent (RotD50, RotD100) ground motion intensity measurements containing peak horizontal ground motions (accelerations and velocities) and 5-percent-damped pseudospectral accelerations (0.1–10 s) from more than 3,800 M ≥ 3 earthquakes in Oklahoma and Kansas that occurred between January 2009 and December 2016. Ground motion time series were collected from regional, national, and temporary seismic arrays out to 500 km. We relocated the majority of the earthquake hypocenters using a multiple-event relocation algorithm to produce a set of near-uniformly processed hypocentral locations. Ground motion processing followed standard methods, with the primary objective of reducing the effects of noise on the measurements. Regional wave-propagation features and the high seismicity rate required careful selection of signal windows to ensure that we captured the entire ground motion record and that contaminating signals from extraneous earthquakes did not contribute to the database. Processing was carried out with an automated scheme and resulted in a database comprising more than 174,000 records (https://dx.doi.org/10.5066/F73B5X8N). We anticipate that these results will be useful for improved understanding of earthquake ground motions and for seismic hazard applications.

  12. Influence of spatial variations in ground motion on earthquake response of arch dams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chopra, A. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Wang, J. [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). Dept. of Hydraulic Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Ground motion recorded at arch dams demonstrate spatial variation or non-uniformity along the dam-foundation interface. Records obtained at two dams demonstrated this phenomena, notably the Pacoima Dam located in California during the magnitude 4.3 earthquake on January 13, 2001, and the magnitude 6.9 Northridge earthquake on January 17, 1994; and the Mauvoisin Dam located in Switzerland during the magnitude 4.6 Valpelline earthquake on March 31, 1996. These spatial variations in ground motion are hardly ever considered in earthquake analysis of arch dams. When they are included, dam-water-interaction is generally oversimplified. This paper discussed the use of the linear analysis procedure, which includes dam-water-foundation rock interaction effects and recognizes the semi-unbounded extent of the rock and impounded water domains in examining the response of the two arch dams to spatially-varying ground motions recorded during earthquakes. Specifically, the paper discussed the Mauvoisin Dam and earthquake records; system and excitation; influence of spatial variations in ground motion; Pacoima Dam and earthquake records; and influence of spatial variations in excitation. It was concluded that spatial variations in ground motion, typically ignored in dam engineering practice, can have profound influence on the earthquake-induced stresses in the dam. This influence depends on the degree to which ground motion varies spatially along the dam-rock interface. 11 refs., 9 figs.

  13. Stochastic modeling for starting-time of phase evolution of random seismic ground motions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongbo Peng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In response to the challenge inherent in classical high-dimensional models of random ground motions, a family of simulation methods for non-stationary seismic ground motions was developed previously through employing a wave-group propagation formulation with phase spectrum model built up on the frequency components' starting-time of phase evolution. The present paper aims at extending the formulation to the simulation of non-stationary random seismic ground motions. The ground motion records associated with N—S component of Northridge Earthquake at the type-II site are investigated. The frequency components' starting-time of phase evolution of is identified from the ground motion records, and is proved to admit the Gamma distribution through data fitting. Numerical results indicate that the simulated random ground motion features zero-mean, non-stationary, and non-Gaussian behaviors, and the phase spectrum model with only a few starting-times of phase evolution could come up with a sound contribution to the simulation.

  14. SCEC VShaker Project: Visualization of Steel Building Response To Ground Motion Time Histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maechling, P. J.; Kumar, S.; Krishnan, S.; Cui, Y.; Olsen, K. B.; Chourasia, A.; Ely, G. P.; Jordan, T. H.

    2010-12-01

    SCEC researchers perform earthquake wave propagation simulations that produce ground motion time-histories. These synthetic seismograms can be used to model building response to strong ground motions. On the SCEC VShaker Project, we have developed new tools for combining simulation-based synthetic seismograms with engineering-based building models by developing a set of software tools that: (a) provides formatted ground motion time-history input to Frame3D software, and (b) processes and visualizes Frame3D structural analysis output from Virtual Shaker in two steps. VShaker software provides an interface between SCEC ground motion seismograms and Caltech's Virtual Shaker in order to visualize building response to SCEC ground motion simulations. VShaker uses the FRAME3D capabilities of Virtual Shaker to perform three-dimensional nonlinear analysis of steel buildings subject to ground acceleration records. VShaker combines Frame3D structural model and response data with ground motion synthetics to build three-dimensional geometric representations of the structure at specified time intervals. These geometric representations are output as Wavefront OBJ files and as animations of structural motion. We are using our VShaker tools to evaluate the response of two types of steel buildings with fundamental periods of 0.63 and 4.54 seconds subjected to acceleration records from the SCEC M8 Simulation. These buildings are being simulated at eight locations spread out across Southern California based on location from a previous study by Krishnan et al. VShaker has the potential to produce animations of structural motion after a significant earthquake to aid in the identification of damage to structural elements. It can also be used to effectively visualize performance of proposed building models to scenario earthquakes. Perspective view of a water tower model using colors to indicate peak displacement of structure elements.

  15. Effects of Ground Motion Input on the Derived Fragility Functions: Case study of 2010 Haiti Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancilar, Ufuk; Harmandar, Ebru; Çakti, Eser

    2014-05-01

    Empirical fragility functions are derived by statistical processing of the data on: i) Damaged and undamaged buildings, and ii) Ground motion intensity values at the buildings' locations. This study investigates effects of different ground motion inputs on the derived fragility functions. The previously constructed fragility curves (Hancilar et al. 2013), which rely on specific shaking intensity maps published by the USGS after the 2010 Haiti Earthquake, are compared with the fragility functions computed in the present study. Building data come from field surveys of 6,347 buildings that are grouped with respect to structural material type and number of stories. For damage assessment, the European Macroseismic Scale (EMS-98) damage grades are adopted. The simplest way to account for the variability in ground motion input could have been achieved by employing different ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs) and their standard variations. However, in this work, we prefer to rely on stochastically simulated ground motions of the Haiti earthquake. We employ five different source models available in the literature and calculate the resulting strong ground motion in time domain. In our simulations we also consider the local site effects by published studies on NEHRP site classes and micro-zoning maps of the city of Port-au-Prince. We estimate the regional distributions from the waveforms simulated at the same coordinates that we have damage information from. The estimated spatial distributions of peak ground accelerations and velocities, PGA and PGV respectively, are then used as input to fragility computations. The results show that changing the ground motion input causes significant variability in the resulting fragility functions.

  16. Analysis of Recorded and Simulated Far-Field Ground Motion From the Source Physics Experiment (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitarka, A.; Mellors, R. J.; Vorobiev, O. Y.; Rodgers, A. J.; Walter, W. R.; Antoun, T.; Matzel, E.; Ford, S. R.; Wagoner, J. L.; Petersson, A.; Sjogreen, B.

    2013-12-01

    The Source Physics Experiment (SPE) provides new data for investigating the excitation and propagation of seismic waves generated by buried explosions. The main subjects of our ongoing investigation are the generation of shear-waves, propagation of seismic energy at local and regional distances, and development of numerical techniques for simulating ground motion from underground explosions using physics based source models for different emplacement conditions. We will present an overview of our investigation results based on analysis of far-field waveforms recorded by five linear arrays of stations within 10 km of the shot point, and a small array of stations, with a 2km epicentral distance. We tested the efficiency of our numerical scheme that uses three-dimensional hydrodynamic methods, coupled with an anelastic wave propagation finite-difference method to model the explosion source and ground motion recorded at far-field stations. The best source models that fit the recorded shear and compressional near-field motion, and a calibrated 3D local velocity model, were used to evaluate the sensitivity of wave propagation near the source region to source process, including spall, underground structure, high frequency wave scattering, and surface topography. In particular, we focused on the contribution of these effects to S-wave generation and P/S amplitude ratio in the modeled frequency range of 0.1-8Hz. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  17. Cervical isometric strength and range of motion of elite rugby union players: a cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Hamilton, David F.; Gatherer, Don

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Head and neck injury is relatively common in Rugby Union. Despite this, strength and range-of-motion characteristics of the cervical spine are poorly characterised. The aim of this study was to provide data on the strength and range-of-motion of the cervical spine of professional rugby players to guide clinical rehabilitation.METHODS: A cohort study was performed evaluating 27 players from a single UK professional rugby club. Cervical isometric strength and range-of-motion were as...

  18. Non-Stationary Modelling and Simulation of Near-Source Earthquake Ground Motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjærbæk, P. S.; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Fouskitakis, G. N.

    This paper is concerned with modelling and simulation of near-source earthquake ground motion. Recent studies have revealed that these motions show heavy non-stationary behaviour with very low frequencies dominating parts of the earthquake sequence. Modelling and simulation of this behaviour...... by an epicentral distance of 16 km and measured during the 1979 Imperial valley earthquake in California (USA). The results of the study indicate that while all three approaches can succesfully predict near-source ground motions, the Neural Network based one gives somewhat poorer simulation results....

  19. Non-Stationary Modelling and Simulation of Near-Source Earthquake Ground Motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjærbæk, P. S.; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Fouskitakis, G. N.

    1997-01-01

    This paper is concerned with modelling and simulation of near-source earthquake ground motion. Recent studies have revealed that these motions show heavy non-stationary behaviour with very low frequencies dominating parts of the earthquake sequence. Modeling and simulation of this behaviour...... by an epicentral distance of 16 km and measured during the 1979 Imperial Valley earthquake in California (U .S .A.). The results of the study indicate that while all three approaches can successfully predict near-source ground motions, the Neural Network based one gives somewhat poorer simulation results....

  20. A Newly Developed X-Y Planar Nano-Motion Table System with Large Travel Ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurisaki, Yugo; Sawano, Hiroshi; Yoshioka, Hayato; Shinno, Hidenori

    Precision motion control technology has been widely used in high accuracy applications such as advanced scientific instruments and semiconductor fabrication equipment. In particular, the nano-motion control system with multiple degrees of freedom positioning in large travel ranges has been required in the field of precision engineering. In order to realize such a system, it is necessary and indispensable to develop a planar motion table system based on a new design concept. This paper presents a newly developed X-Y planar nano-motion table system with large travel ranges. This system is composed of a fine motion table and a coarse motion mechanism. The fine motion table is supported by porous aerostatic bearings and driven by voice coil motors with a laser interferometer feedback in a perfect non-contact condition. In addition, the table is driven at the center of gravity during the X-Y planar motion. The coarse motion mechanism has the frame structure with the coils of voice coil motors for the fine motion table. In order to enlarge the table travel ranges, the coarse motion mechanism follows the fine table motion. Performance evaluation results confirm that the developed table system has a remarkable performance which includes nanometer positioning capability over large travel ranges.

  1. Variability in wood-frame building damage using broad-band synthetic ground motions: a comparative numerical study with recorded motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Shiling; van de Lindt, John W.; Hartzell, Stephen; Luco, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    Earthquake damage to light-frame wood buildings is a major concern for North America because of the volume of this construction type. In order to estimate wood building damage using synthetic ground motions, we need to verify the ability of synthetically generated ground motions to simulate realistic damage for this structure type. Through a calibrated damage potential indicator, four different synthetic ground motion models are compared with the historically recorded ground motions at corresponding sites. We conclude that damage for sites farther from the fault (>20 km) is under-predicted on average and damage at closer sites is sometimes over-predicted.

  2. Amplification of Earthquake Ground Motions in Washington, DC, and Implications for Hazard Assessments in Central and Eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Thomas L.; Horton, J. Wright; Muñoz, Jessica; Hough, Susan E.; Chapman, Martin C.; Olgun, C. Guney

    2017-12-01

    The extent of damage in Washington, DC, from the 2011 Mw 5.8 Mineral, VA, earthquake was surprising for an epicenter 130 km away; U.S. Geological Survey "Did-You-Feel-It" reports suggest that Atlantic Coastal Plain and other unconsolidated sediments amplified ground motions in the city. We measure this amplification relative to bedrock sites using earthquake signals recorded on a temporary seismometer array. The spectral ratios show strong amplification in the 0.7 to 4 Hz frequency range for sites on sediments. This range overlaps with resonant frequencies of buildings in the city as inferred from their heights, suggesting amplification at frequencies to which many buildings are vulnerable to damage. Our results emphasize that local amplification can raise moderate ground motions to damaging levels in stable continental regions, where low attenuation extends shaking levels over wide areas and unconsolidated deposits on crystalline metamorphic or igneous bedrock can result in strong contrasts in near-surface material properties.

  3. Identifying natural and anthropogenically-induced geohazards from satellite ground motion and geospatial data: Stoke-on-Trent, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Hannah; Cigna, Francesca; Bateson, Luke

    2017-12-01

    Determining the location and nature of hazardous ground motion resulting from natural and anthropogenic processes such as landslides, tectonic movement and mining is essential for hazard mitigation and sustainable resource use. Ground motion estimates from satellite ERS-1/2 persistent scatterer interferometry (PSI) were combined with geospatial data to identify areas of observed geohazards in Stoke-on-Trent, UK. This investigation was performed within the framework of the EC FP7-SPACE PanGeo project which aimed to provide free and open access to geohazard information for 52 urban areas across Europe. Geohazards identified within the city of Stoke-on-Trent and neighbouring rural areas are presented here alongside an examination of the PanGeo methodology. A total of 14 areas experiencing ground instability caused by natural and anthropogenic processes have been defined, covering 122.35 km2. These are attributed to a range of geohazards, including landslides, ground dissolution, made ground and mining activities. The dominant geohazard (by area) is ground movement caused by post-mining groundwater recharge and mining-related subsidence (93.19% of total geohazard area), followed by landsliding (5.81%). Observed ground motions along the satellite line-of-sight reach maxima of +35.23 mm/yr and -22.57 mm/yr. A combination of uplift, subsidence and downslope movement is displayed. 'Construction sites' and 'continuous urban fabric' (European Urban Atlas land use types) form the land uses most affected (by area) by ground motion and 'discontinuous very low density urban fabric' the least. Areas of 'continuous urban fabric' also show the highest average velocity towards the satellite (5.08 mm/yr) and the highest PS densities (1262.92 points/km2) along with one of the lowest standard deviations. Rural land uses tend to result in lower PS densities and higher standard deviations, a consequence of fewer suitable reflectors in these regions. PSI is also limited in its ability to

  4. Grounding Bottom Damage and Ship Motion over a Rock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Bo Cerup; Wierzbicki, Tomasz

    1996-01-01

    A model for prediction of damage to tankers during grounding is presented. The model takes into account the coupling between the external ship dynamics and the local damage process of the hull girder. The model for the local damage is based on a least upper bound solution with kinematic compatibi......A model for prediction of damage to tankers during grounding is presented. The model takes into account the coupling between the external ship dynamics and the local damage process of the hull girder. The model for the local damage is based on a least upper bound solution with kinematic...... was validated by small scale tests and a large scale test. Application of the theory is illustrated by a study of the grounding damage of a single hull VLCC....

  5. The effect of the earth's rotation on ground water motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loáiciga, Hugo A

    2007-01-01

    The average pore velocity of ground water according to Darcy's law is a function of the fluid pressure gradient and the gravitational force (per unit volume of ground water) and of aquifer properties. There is also an acceleration exerted on ground water that arises from the Earth's rotation. The magnitude and direction of this rotation-induced force are determined in exact mathematical form in this article. It is calculated that the gravitational force is at least 300 times larger than the largest rotation-induced force anywhere on Earth, the latter force being maximal along the equator and approximately equal to 34 N/m(3) there. This compares with a gravitational force of approximately 10(4) N/m(3).

  6. Early Site Permit Demonstration Program: Guidelines for determining design basis ground motions. Volume 2, Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-03-18

    This report develops and applies a methodology for estimating strong earthquake ground motion. The motivation was to develop a much needed tool for use in developing the seismic requirements for structural designs. An earthquake`s ground motion is a function of the earthquake`s magnitude, and the physical properties of the earth through which the seismic waves travel from the earthquake fault to the site of interest. The emphasis of this study is on ground motion estimation in Eastern North America (east of the Rocky Mountains), with particular emphasis on the Eastern United States and southeastern Canada. Eastern North America is a stable continental region, having sparse earthquake activity with rare occurrences of large earthquakes. While large earthquakes are of interest for assessing seismic hazard, little data exists from the region to empirically quantify their effects. The focus of the report is on the attributes of ground motion in Eastern North America that are of interest for the design of facilities such as nuclear power plants. This document, Volume II, contains Appendices 2, 3, 5, 6, and 7 covering the following topics: Eastern North American Empirical Ground Motion Data; Examination of Variance of Seismographic Network Data; Soil Amplification and Vertical-to-Horizontal Ratios from Analysis of Strong Motion Data From Active Tectonic Regions; Revision and Calibration of Ou and Herrmann Method; Generalized Ray Procedure for Modeling Ground Motion Attenuation; Crustal Models for Velocity Regionalization; Depth Distribution Models; Development of Generic Site Effects Model; Validation and Comparison of One-Dimensional Site Response Methodologies; Plots of Amplification Factors; Assessment of Coupling Between Vertical & Horizontal Motions in Nonlinear Site Response Analysis; and Modeling of Dynamic Soil Properties.

  7. Significance of rotating ground motions on nonlinear behavior of symmetric and asymmetric buildings in near fault sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkan, Erol; ,

    2012-01-01

    Building codes in the U.S. require at least two horizontal ground motion components for three-dimensional (3D) response history analysis (RHA) of structures. For sites within 5 km of an active fault, these records should be rotated to fault-normal/fault-parallel (FN/FP) directions, and two RHA analyses should be performed separately (when FN and then FP are aligned with transverse direction of the structural axes). It is assumed that this approach will lead to two sets of responses that envelope the range of possible responses over all non-redundant rotation angles. This assumption is examined here using 3D computer models of a single-story structure having symmetric (that is, torsionally-stiff) and asymmetric (that is, torsionally flexible) layouts subjected to an ensemble of bi-directional near-fault strong ground motions with and without apparent velocity pulses. In this parametric study, the elastic vibration period of the structures is varied from 0.2 to 5 seconds, and yield strength reduction factors R is varied from a value that leads to linear-elastic design to 3 and 5. The influence that the rotation angle of the ground motion has on several engineering demand parameters (EDPs) is examined in linear-elastic and nonlinear-inelastic domains to form a benchmark for evaluating the use of the FN/FP directions as well as the maximum-direction (MD) ground motion, a new definition of horizontal ground motions for use in the seismic design of structures according to the 2009 NEHRP Provisions and Commentary.

  8. Effect of the surface geology on strong ground motions due to the 2016 Central Tottori Earthquake, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagawa, Takao; Noguchi, Tatsuya; Yoshida, Shohei; Yamamoto, Shinji

    2017-08-01

    On October 21, 2016, an earthquake with Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) magnitude 6.6 hit the central part of Tottori Prefecture, Japan. This paper demonstrates two notable effects of the surface geology on strong ground motions due to the earthquake. One is a predominant period issue observed over a large area. A seismic intensity of 6 lower on the JMA scale was registered at three sites in the disaster area. However, the peak ground acceleration ranged from 0.3 to 1.4 G at the three sites because of the varying peak periods of observed strong ground motions. The spectral properties of the observations also reflect the damage around the sites. Three-component microtremors were observed in the area; the predominant ground period distributions based on horizontal to vertical spectral ratios were provided by the authors. The peak periods of the strong motion records agree well with predominant periods estimated from microtremor observations at a rather hard site; however, the predominant periods of the microtremors are slightly shorter than those of the main shock at the other two soft sites. We checked the nonlinear effect at the sites by comparing the site responses to small events and the main shock. The peak periods of the main shock were longer than those of the weak motions at the sites. This phenomenon indicates a nonlinear site effect due to large ground motions caused by the main shock. A horizontal component of the accelerogram showed rather pulsating swings that indicate cyclic mobility behavior, especially at a site close to a pond shore; ground subsidence of 20 cm was observed around the site. The peak periods of weak motions agree well with those of the microtremor observations. This implies an important issue that the predominant periods estimated by microtremors are not sufficient to estimate the effect of surface geology for disaster mitigation. We have to estimate the predominant periods under large ground motions considering the nonlinear site

  9. Passive dorsiflexion stiffness is poorly correlated with passive dorsiflexion range of motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitting, J W; Steele, J R; McGhee, D E; Munro, B J

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationships among passive measures of weight-bearing dorsiflexion range of motion, non-weight-bearing dorsiflexion range of motion and dorsiflexion stiffness, thereby establishing whether they assess similar mechanical characteristics, as each measure has been implicated in injury risk during landings. Cross-sectional study. Passive weight-bearing dorsiflexion range of motion, non-weight-bearing dorsiflexion range of motion and dorsiflexion stiffness were quantified for 42 males (22.8±5.0 years). The relationship between each data set was calculated using Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients. Although weight-bearing dorsiflexion range of motion and non-weight-bearing dorsiflexion range of motion were significantly correlated, the strength of the relationship was poor (r(2)=0.18; p=0.004). Weight-bearing dorsiflexion range of motion (mean=43.0±5.0°) was significantly greater than non-weight-bearing dorsiflexion range of motion (29.8±5.9°; pdorsiflexion range of motion and non-weight-bearing dorsiflexion range of motion were also poorly correlated with passive dorsiflexion stiffness (1.48±0.55Nm°(-1); r(2)=0.04 and r(2)=0.14, respectively), despite the latter relationship being significant (p=0.017). Passive dorsiflexion stiffness was not strongly associated with dorsiflexion range of motion, despite the significant correlation in the non-weight-bearing condition. It must be acknowledged that passive dorsiflexion stiffness was weakly associated with dorsiflexion range of motion, although the strength of the association suggests that it may not necessarily determine dorsiflexion range of motion. Furthermore, the functional dorsiflexion limits of the ankle during weight-bearing tasks may be underestimated or misrepresented by non-weight-bearing measures of dorsiflexion range of motion. Therefore, although ankle dorsiflexion range of motion and dorsiflexion stiffness have been implicated in injury risk

  10. Reliability of digital compass goniometer in knee joint range of motion measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaikwawongs, Nammond; Limpaphayom, Noppachart; Wilairatana, Vajara

    2009-04-01

    To compare the reliability of range of motion measurement in the knee joint using a digital compass goniometer combined with inclinometer with standard range of motion measurement from roentgenographic picture. Range of flexion and extension of the knee joint in volunteer participants was measured by the newly developed digital compass goniometer combined with inclinometer (DCG). The results were compared with range of knee joint motion obtained from standard roentgenographic picture by intraclass correlation coefficient. Range of motion of knee joint measured by DCG correlated very well with the data obtained from standard knee roentgenographic picture. The intraclass correlation coefficient equals 0.973. The digital compass goniometer was a reliable tool to measure knee joint range of motion in flexion and extension plane.

  11. Range of motion caused by design of the total hip prosthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrlin, K.; Selvik, G.; Pettersson, H.; Lidgren, L.

    In a clinical material of total hip prostheses, a study was performed of the range of femoral motion until impingement occurred between the neck of the femoral stem and the rim of the acetabular socket. The results were compared with the physiologic range of motion, and the clinically relevant motion restriction was measured. Restriction was most common in flexion. There was a correlation between the prosthetic design and the restriction due to impingement.

  12. Early Site Permit Demonstration Program: Guidelines for determining design basis ground motions. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-03-18

    This report develops and applies a methodology for estimating strong earthquake ground motion. The motivation was to develop a much needed tool for use in developing the seismic requirements for structural designs. An earthquake`s ground motion is a function of the earthquake`s magnitude, and the physical properties of the earth through which the seismic waves travel from the earthquake fault to the site of interest. The emphasis of this study is on ground motion estimation in Eastern North America (east of the Rocky Mountains), with particular emphasis on the Eastern United States and southeastern Canada. Eastern North America is a stable continental region, having sparse earthquake activity with rare occurrences of large earthquakes. While large earthquakes are of interest for assessing seismic hazard, little data exists from the region to empirically quantify their effects. Therefore, empirically based approaches that are used for other regions, such as Western North America, are not appropriate for Eastern North America. Moreover, recent advances in science and technology have now made it possible to combine theoretical and empirical methods to develop new procedures and models for estimating ground motion. The focus of the report is on the attributes of ground motion in Eastern North America that are of interest for the design of facilities such as nuclear power plants. Specifically considered are magnitudes M from 5 to 8, distances from 0 to 500 km, and frequencies from 1 to 35 Hz.

  13. The concurrent validity and reliability of the Leg Motion system for measuring ankle dorsiflexion range of motion in older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Romero Morales, Carlos; Calvo Lobo, C?sar; Rodr?guez Sanz, David; Sanz Corbal?n, Irene; Ruiz Ruiz, Beatriz; L?pez L?pez, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Background New reliable devices for range of motion (ROM) measures in older adults are necessary to improve knowledge about the functional capability in this population. Dorsiflexion ROM limitation is associated with ankle injuries, foot pain, lower limb disorders, loss of balance, gait control disorders and fall risk in older adults. The aim of the present study was to assess the validity and reliability of the Leg Motion device for measuring ankle dorsiflexion ROM in older adults. Methods A...

  14. Multi-component ground motion response spectra for coupled horizontal, vertical, angular accelerations, and tilt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkan, E.; Graizer, V.

    2007-01-01

    Rotational and vertical components of ground motion are almost always ignored in design or in the assessment of structures despite the fact that vertical motion can be twice as much as the horizontal motion and may exceed 2g level, and rotational excitation may reach few degrees in the proximity of fault rupture. Coupling of different components of ground excitation may significantly amplify the seismic demand by introducing additional lateral forces and enhanced P-?? effects. In this paper, a governing equation of motion is postulated to compute the response of a SDOF oscillator under a multi-component excitation. The expanded equation includes secondary P-?? components associated with the combined impacts of tilt and vertical excitations in addition to the inertial forcing terms due to the angular and translational accelerations. The elastic and inelastic spectral ordinates traditionally generated considering the uniaxial input motion are compared at the end with the multi-component response spectra of coupled horizontal, vertical and tilting motions. The proposed multi-component response spectrum reflects kinematic characteristics of the ground motion that are not identifiable by the conventional spectrum itself, at least for the near-fault region where high intensity vertical shaking and rotational excitation are likely to occur.

  15. Effect of range of motion in heavy load squatting on muscle and tendon adaptations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloomquist, K; Langberg, Henning; Karlsen, Stine

    2013-01-01

    Manipulating joint range of motion during squat training may have differential effects on adaptations to strength training with implications for sports and rehabilitation. Consequently, the purpose of this study was to compare the effects of squat training with a short vs. a long range of motion....... ± 4 % increase in the SS, and 9 ± 2 % in the DS (P...

  16. Reproducibility of cervical range of motion in patients with neck pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoving, J.L.; Pool, J.J.M.; van Mameren, H.; Deville, W.L.J.M.; Assendelft, W.J.J.; de Vet, H.C.W.; de Winter, A.F.; Koes, B.W.; Bouter, L.M.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Reproducibility measurements of the range of motion are an important prerequisite for the interpretation of study results. The aim of the study is to assess the intra-rater and interrater reproducibility of the measurement of active Range of Motion (ROM) in patients with neck pain using

  17. Reproducibility of cervical range of motion in patients with neck pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoving, Jan Lucas; Pool, Jan J. M.; van Mameren, Henk; Devillé, Walter J. L. M.; Assendelft, Willem J. J.; de Vet, Henrica C. W.; de Winter, Andrea F.; Koes, Bart W.; Bouter, Lex M.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Reproducibility measurements of the range of motion are an important prerequisite for the interpretation of study results. The aim of the study is to assess the intra-rater and inter-rater reproducibility of the measurement of active Range of Motion (ROM) in patients with neck pain using

  18. Reproducibility of cervical range of motion in patients with neck pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Hoving (J.); J.J.M. Pool (Jan); H. van Mameren (Henk); W. Devillé (Walter); W.J.J. Assendelft (Willem); H.C. de Vet (Henrica C); A.F. de Winter (Andrea); B.W. Koes (Bart); L.M. Bouter (Lex)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Reproducibility measurements of the range of motion are an important prerequisite for the interpretation of study results. The aim of the study is to assess the intra-rater and interrater reproducibility of the measurement of active Range of Motion (ROM) in patients with neck

  19. Reproducibility of cervical range of motion in patients with neck pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pool, JJM; van Mameren, H; Deville, WJLM; Assendelft, WJJ; de Vet, HCW; de Winter, AF; Koes, BW; Bouter, LM; Hoving, J.L.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Reproducibility measurements of the range of motion are an important prerequisite for the interpretation of study results. The aim of the study is to assess the intra-rater and interrater reproducibility of the measurement of active Range of Motion ( ROM) in patients with neck pain using

  20. The SCEC-USGS Dynamic Earthquake Rupture Code Verification Exercise: Regular and Extreme Ground Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, R.; Barall, M.; Archuleta, R. J.; Aagaard, B.; Ampuero, J. P.; Andrews, D. J.; Cruz-Atienza, V. M.; Dalguer Gudiel, L. A.; Day, S. M.; Duan, B.; Dunham, E. M.; Ely, G. P.; Gabriel, A. A.; Kaneko, Y.; Kase, Y.; Lapusta, N.; Ma, S.; Noda, H.; Oglesby, D. D.; Olsen, K. B.; Roten, D.; Song, S.

    2010-12-01

    We summarize recent progress by the SCEC-USGS Dynamic Rupture Code Verification Group, that examines if SCEC and USGS researchers’ spontaneous-rupture computer codes agree when computing benchmark scenarios for dynamic earthquake rupture. Our latest benchmarks are ‘regular’ dynamic ruptures on a vertical strike-slip fault and on a normal fault, at a range of resolutions, and, ‘extreme’ dynamic ruptures on a normal fault. The ‘extreme’ dynamic ruptures were designed as complete stress-drop, supershear ruptures that would be most likely to produce maximum possible ground motions. These simulated ruptures could be thought of as very unlikely, but still possible. Among the 2009 ‘extreme’ dynamic rupture benchmarks were those targeted to test two simplified versions of the Andrews et al. [BSSA, 2007] numerical simulations for hypothesized maximum-possible ground motion at a site near Yucca Mountain. To test the Andrews et al. methodology, we constructed a benchmark for a planar dipping normal-fault set in a medium where the off-fault response was designated to be elastic (TPV12), and another benchmark where the off-fault response was designated to be plastic (TPV13). Although most of our group’s previous benchmarks have concentrated on 3D solutions, both the TPV12 and TPV13 benchmarks were offered with both 2D and 3D options, partly because the Andrews et al. study was conducted in 2D, and partly because it is important to understand the differences and similarities among 2D and 3D rupture propagation and ground motion predictions. Seven researchers’ codes participated in the TPV12 2D benchmark test, seven participated in the TPV12 3D test, six participated in the TPV13 2D benchmark test, and four participated in the TPV13 3D test. Our findings were similar to those hypothesized in the Andrews et al. publication. At a proposed site for a nuclear waste repository, that was modeled to be 1-km from the fault, at 300 m depth, our 2D elastic benchmark

  1. Effects of slow and accelerated rehabilitation protocols on range of motion after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Düzgün, İrem; Baltacı, Gül; Turgut, Elif; Atay, O Ahmet

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of the early initiation of passive and active range of motion exercises following arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. The study included 40 patients who underwent arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. Patients were quasi-randomly assigned into accelerated (ACCEL) protocol (n=19) and slow (SLOW) protocol (n=21) groups. Patients in both groups were treated with the same protocol. Active range of motion was begun at the 3rd week in the ACCEL group and the 6th week in the SLOW group. Range of motion was recorded at postoperative weeks 3, 5, 8, 12, and 24. While active range of motion for all measurements improved across weeks, there were no differences between groups, with the exception of active total elevation which was greater at all time point measurements in the ACCEL group (protator cuff repairs does not appear to affect range of motion in the first 6 postoperative months.

  2. Associations between ankle dorsiflexion range of motion and foot and ankle strength in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillén-Rogel, Paloma; San Emeterio, Cristina; Marín, Pedro J

    2017-08-01

    [Purpose] This study assessed the relationships between the ankle dorsiflexion range of motion and foot and ankle strength. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-nine healthy (young adults) volunteers participated in this study. Each participant completed tests for ankle dorsiflexion range of motion, hallux flexor strength, and ankle plantar and dorsiflexor strength. [Results] The results showed (1) a moderate correlation between ankle dorsiflexor strength and dorsiflexion range of motion and (2) a moderate correlation between ankle dorsiflexor strength and first toe flexor muscle strength. Ankle dorsiflexor strength is the main contributor ankle dorsiflexion range of motion to and first toe flexor muscle strength. [Conclusion] Ankle dorsiflexion range of motion can play an important role in determining ankle dorsiflexor strength in young adults.

  3. CENTIMETER COSMO-SKYMED RANGE MEASUREMENTS FOR MONITORING GROUND DISPLACEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Fratarcangeli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar imagery are widely used in order to monitor displacements impacting the Earth surface and infrastructures. The main remote sensing technique to extract sub-centimeter information from SAR imagery is the Differential SAR Interferometry (DInSAR, based on the phase information only. However, it is well known that DInSAR technique may suffer for lack of coherence among the considered stack of images. New Earth observation SAR satellite sensors, as COSMO-SkyMed, TerraSAR-X, and the coming PAZ, can acquire imagery with high amplitude resolutions too, up to few decimeters. Thanks to this feature, and to the on board dual frequency GPS receivers, allowing orbits determination with an accuracy at few centimetres level, the it was proven by different groups that TerraSAR-X imagery offer the capability to achieve, in a global reference frame, 3D positioning accuracies in the decimeter range and even better just exploiting the slant-range measurements coming from the amplitude information, provided proper corrections of all the involved geophysical phenomena are carefully applied. The core of this work is to test this methodology on COSMO-SkyMed data acquired over the Corvara area (Bolzano – Northern Italy, where, currently, a landslide with relevant yearly displacements, up to decimeters, is monitored, using GPS survey and DInSAR technique. The leading idea is to measure the distance between the satellite and a well identifiable natural or artificial Persistent Scatterer (PS, taking in account the signal propagation delays through the troposphere and ionosphere and filtering out the known geophysical effects that induce periodic and secular ground displacements. The preliminary results here presented and discussed indicate that COSMO-SkyMed Himage imagery appear able to guarantee a displacements monitoring with an accuracy of few centimetres using only the amplitude data, provided few (at least one stable PS’s are

  4. Evidence for orbital motion of CW Leonis from ground-based astrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sozzetti, A.; Smart, R. L.; Drimmel, R.; Giacobbe, P.; Lattanzi, M. G.

    2017-10-01

    Recent Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) observations indicate that CW Leo, the closest carbon-rich asymptotic giant branch star to Sun, might have a low-mass stellar companion. We present archival ground-based astrometric measurements of CW Leo obtained within the context of the Torino Parallax Program and with >6 yr (1995-2001) of time baseline. The residuals to a single-star solution show significant curvature, and they are strongly correlated with the well-known I-band photometric variations due to stellar pulsations. We describe successfully the astrometry of CW Leo with a variability-induced motion (VIM) + acceleration model. We obtain proper motion and parallax of the centre-of-mass of the binary, the former in fair agreement with recent estimates, the latter at the near end of the range of inferred distances based on indirect methods. The VIM + acceleration model results allow us to derive a companion mass in agreement with that inferred by ALMA, they point towards a somewhat longer period than implied by ALMA, but are not compatible with much longer period estimates. These data will constitute a fundamental contribution towards the full understanding of the orbital architecture of the system when combined with Gaia astrometry, providing an ∼25 yr time baseline.

  5. How "Good" are Real-Time Ground Motion Predictions from EEW Systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, M. A.

    2016-12-01

    Can EEW systems trigger damage mitigation actions with high costs of false alerts? The answer to this question depends on how accurately and how timely EEW systems can predict ground motions in real-time. We simulate a number of different point-source EEW methods in a pseudo-real time environment; we use a large composite seismic waveform data set ( 250 earthquakes with 5<=M<7.9, 8500 three component records) and evaluate systematically how accurate ground motion predictions are, and how that accuracy changes with warning times at individual target sites. We suggest a series of measures that objectively quantify an algorithms' ability to accurately and timely predict ensuing ground motion

  6. Response analysis of curved bridge with unseating failure control system under near-fault ground motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Ye; Sun, Guangjun; Li, Hongjing

    2018-01-01

    Under the action of near-fault ground motions, curved bridges are prone to pounding, local damage of bridge components and even unseating. A multi-scale fine finite element model of a typical three-span curved bridge is established by considering the elastic-plastic behavior of piers and pounding effect of adjacent girders. The nonlinear time-history method is used to study the seismic response of the curved bridge equipped with unseating failure control system under the action of near-fault ground motion. An in-depth analysis is carried to evaluate the control effect of the proposed unseating failure control system. The research results indicate that under the near-fault ground motion, the seismic response of the curved bridge is strong. The unseating failure control system perform effectively to reduce the pounding force of the adjacent girders and the probability of deck unseating.

  7. Normal functional range of motion of the lumbar spine during 15 activities of daily living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bible, Jesse E; Biswas, Debdut; Miller, Christopher P; Whang, Peter G; Grauer, Jonathan N

    2010-04-01

    Prospective clinical study. The purpose of this investigation was to quantify normal lumbar range of motion (ROM) and compare these results with those used to perform 15 simulated activities of daily living (ADLs) in asymptomatic subjects. Previous studies reporting the ROM of the lumbar spine during ADLs have been limited, only focusing on 4 ADLs. The purpose of this investigation was to quantify the extent of normal lumbar ROM and determine how much motion is necessary to perform 15 simulated ADLs. A noninvasive electrogoniometer and torsiometer were used to measure the ROM of the lumbar spine. The accuracy and reliability of the devices were confirmed by comparing the ROM values acquired from dynamic flexion/extension and lateral bending radiographs with those provided by the device that was activated while the radiographs were obtained. Intraobserver reliability was established by calculating the intraclass correlation coefficient for repeated measurements on the same subjects by 1 investigator on consecutive days. These tools were employed in a clinical laboratory setting to evaluate the full active ROM of the lumbar spines (ie, flexion/extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation) of 60 asymptomatic subjects (30 women and 30 men; age 20 to 75 y) and to assess the functional ROM required to complete 15 simulated ADLs. When compared with radiographic measurements, the electrogoniometer was found to be accurate within 2.3+/-2.6 degrees (mean+/-SD). The intraobserver reliabilities for assessing full and functional ROM were both excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.96 and 0.88, respectively). The absolute ROM and percentage of full active lumbar spinal ROM used during the 15 ADLs was 3 to 49 degrees and 4% to 59% (median: 9 degrees/11%) for flexion/extension, 2 to 11 degrees and 6% to 31% (6 degrees/17%) for lateral bending, and 2 to 7 degrees and 6% to 20% (5 degrees/13%) for rotation. Picking up an object from the ground, either using a bending

  8. Computing spatial correlation of ground motion intensities for ShakeMap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verros, Sarah; Wald, David J.; Worden, Charles; Hearne, Mike; Ganesh, Mahadevan

    2017-01-01

    Modeling the spatial correlation of ground motion residuals, caused by coherent contributions from source, path, and site, can provide valuable loss and hazard information, as well as a more realistic depiction of ground motion intensities. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) software package, ShakeMap, utilizes a deterministic empirical approach to estimate median ground shaking in conjunction with observed seismic data. ShakeMap-based shaking estimates are used in concert with loss estimation algorithms to estimate fatalities and economic losses after significant seismic events around the globe. Incorporating the spatial correlation of ground motion residuals has been shown to improve seismic loss estimates. In particular, Park, Bazzuro, and Baker (Applications of Statistics and Probability in Civil Engineering, 2007) investigated computing spatially correlated random fields of residuals. However, for large scale ShakeMap grids, computational requirements of the method are prohibitive. In this work, a memory efficient algorithm is developed to compute the random fields and implemented using the ShakeMap framework. This new, iterative parallel algorithm is based on decay properties of an associated ground motion correlation function and is shown to significantly reduce computational requirements associated with adding spatial variability to the ShakeMap g

  9. Postures and Motions Library Development for Verification of Ground Crew Human Systems Integration Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Mariea Dunn; Dischinger, Charles; Stambolian, Damon; Henderson, Gena

    2012-01-01

    Spacecraft and launch vehicle ground processing activities require a variety of unique human activities. These activities are being documented in a Primitive motion capture library. The Library will be used by the human factors engineering in the future to infuse real to life human activities into the CAD models to verify ground systems human factors requirements. As the Primitive models are being developed for the library the project has selected several current human factors issues to be addressed for the SLS and Orion launch systems. This paper explains how the Motion Capture of unique ground systems activities are being used to verify the human factors analysis requirements for ground system used to process the STS and Orion vehicles, and how the primitive models will be applied to future spacecraft and launch vehicle processing.

  10. Postures and Motions Library Development for Verification of Ground Crew Human Factors Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stambolian, Damon; Henderson, Gena; Jackson, Mariea Dunn; Dischinger, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Spacecraft and launch vehicle ground processing activities require a variety of unique human activities. These activities are being documented in a primitive motion capture library. The library will be used by human factors engineering analysts to infuse real to life human activities into the CAD models to verify ground systems human factors requirements. As the primitive models are being developed for the library, the project has selected several current human factors issues to be addressed for the Space Launch System (SLS) and Orion launch systems. This paper explains how the motion capture of unique ground systems activities is being used to verify the human factors engineering requirements for ground systems used to process the SLS and Orion vehicles, and how the primitive models will be applied to future spacecraft and launch vehicle processing.

  11. Range-Space Predictive Control for Optimal Robot Motion

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Belda, Květoslav; Böhm, Josef

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 1 (2008), s. 1-7 ISSN 1998-0140 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP102/06/P275 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Accurate manipulation * Industrial robot ics * Predictive control * Range-space control Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/historie/belda-0305644.pdf

  12. Estimation of Seismic Loss for a Portfolio of Buildings under Bidirectional Horizontal Ground Motions due to a Scenario Cascadia Event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taojun Liu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Earthquake ground motions induced by a scenario event are spatially (partially correlated and (partially coherent. Simulated ground motion records can be used to carry out nonlinear inelastic time history analysis for a portfolio of buildings to estimate the seismic loss, which is advantageous as there is no need to develop and apply empirical ground motion prediction equations and the ductility demand rules, or to search the scenario-compatible recorded records at selected sites that may not exist. Further, if the structures being considered are sensitive to the orientation of the excitation, multiple-component ground motion records are needed. For the simulation of such ground motion records, previous studies have shown that correlation and coherency between any pair of ground motion components need to be incorporated. In this study, the seismic loss of a portfolio of hypothetical buildings in downtown Vancouver under bidirectional horizontal ground motions due to a scenario Cascadia event is estimated by using simulated bidirectional ground motion records that include realistic correlation and coherency characteristics. The hysteretic behaviors of the buildings are described by bidirectional Bouc–Wen model. The results show that the use of unidirectional ground motions and single-degree-of-freedom system structural model may underestimate the aggregated seismic loss.

  13. Increased passive ankle stiffness and reduced dorsiflexion range of motion in individuals with diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Smita R; Saltzman, Charles L; Wilken, Jason; Yak, H John

    2006-08-01

    The purpose of our study was to compare ankle range of motion and stiffness in individuals with and without diabetes mellitus using a reliable and valid technique and to document the effect of knee flexion and severity of pathology on ankle range of motion and stiffness. Twenty-five individuals with diabetes mellitus and 64 nondiabetic individuals, similar in age and gender profile, participated in this study. Results revealed that individuals with diabetes mellitus had both significantly lower peak dorsiflexion range of motion (5.1 and 11.5 degrees, p range of motion and increased stiffness in the diabetes mellitus population seem clinically intuitive, as far as we know this is the first study to confirm the concurrent existence of both these findings in the plantarflexors in individuals with diabetes mellitus. We applied a reliable and valid technique, one that allowed control of confounding factors such as knee flexion position and differences in determination of end range of motion, and documented a mean 41% loss in dorsiflexion excursion. Changes in the muscle, stemming from underlying pathology, are hypothesized to account for a significant part of the lost range of motion. Changes in ankle range of motion and stiffness may have important implications in plantar loading and ulcer formation.

  14. Estimation of seismic ground motions using deterministic approach for major cities of Gujarat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Shukla

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A deterministic seismic hazard analysis has been carried out for various sites of the major cities (Ahmedabad, Surat, Bhuj, Jamnagar and Junagadh of the Gujarat region in India to compute the seismic hazard exceeding a certain level in terms of peak ground acceleration (PGA and to estimate maximum possible PGA at each site at bed rock level. The seismic sources in Gujarat are very uncertain and recurrence intervals of regional large earthquakes are not well defined. Because the instrumental records of India specifically in the Gujarat region are far from being satisfactory for modeling the seismic hazard using the probabilistic approach, an attempt has been made in this study to accomplish it through the deterministic approach. In this regard, all small and large faults of the Gujarat region were evaluated to obtain major fault systems. The empirical relations suggested by earlier researchers for the estimation of maximum magnitude of earthquake motion with various properties of faults like length, surface area, slip rate, etc. have been applied to those faults to obtain the maximum earthquake magnitude. For the analysis, seven different ground motion attenuation relations (GMARs of strong ground motion have been utilized to calculate the maximum horizontal ground accelerations for each major city of Gujarat. Epistemic uncertainties in the hazard computations are accounted for within a logic-tree framework by considering the controlling parameters like b-value, maximum magnitude and ground motion attenuation relations (GMARs. The corresponding deterministic spectra have been prepared for each major city for the 50th and 84th percentiles of ground motion occurrence. These deterministic spectra are further compared with the specified spectra of Indian design code IS:1893-Part I (2002 to validate them for further practical use. Close examination of the developed spectra reveals that the expected ground motion values become high for the

  15. Estimation of seismic ground motions using deterministic approach for major cities of Gujarat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, J.; Choudhury, D.

    2012-06-01

    A deterministic seismic hazard analysis has been carried out for various sites of the major cities (Ahmedabad, Surat, Bhuj, Jamnagar and Junagadh) of the Gujarat region in India to compute the seismic hazard exceeding a certain level in terms of peak ground acceleration (PGA) and to estimate maximum possible PGA at each site at bed rock level. The seismic sources in Gujarat are very uncertain and recurrence intervals of regional large earthquakes are not well defined. Because the instrumental records of India specifically in the Gujarat region are far from being satisfactory for modeling the seismic hazard using the probabilistic approach, an attempt has been made in this study to accomplish it through the deterministic approach. In this regard, all small and large faults of the Gujarat region were evaluated to obtain major fault systems. The empirical relations suggested by earlier researchers for the estimation of maximum magnitude of earthquake motion with various properties of faults like length, surface area, slip rate, etc. have been applied to those faults to obtain the maximum earthquake magnitude. For the analysis, seven different ground motion attenuation relations (GMARs) of strong ground motion have been utilized to calculate the maximum horizontal ground accelerations for each major city of Gujarat. Epistemic uncertainties in the hazard computations are accounted for within a logic-tree framework by considering the controlling parameters like b-value, maximum magnitude and ground motion attenuation relations (GMARs). The corresponding deterministic spectra have been prepared for each major city for the 50th and 84th percentiles of ground motion occurrence. These deterministic spectra are further compared with the specified spectra of Indian design code IS:1893-Part I (2002) to validate them for further practical use. Close examination of the developed spectra reveals that the expected ground motion values become high for the Kachchh region i.e. Bhuj

  16. Stochastic ground-motion simulations for the 2016 Kumamoto, Japan, earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Long; Chen, Guangqi; Wu, Yanqiang; Jiang, Han

    2016-11-01

    On April 15, 2016, Kumamoto, Japan, was struck by a large earthquake sequence, leading to severe casualty and building damage. The stochastic finite-fault method based on a dynamic corner frequency has been applied to perform ground-motion simulations for the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake. There are 53 high-quality KiK-net stations available in the Kyushu region, and we employed records from all stations to determine region-specific source, path and site parameters. The calculated S-wave attenuation for the Kyushu region beneath the volcanic and non-volcanic areas can be expressed in the form of Q s = (85.5 ± 1.5) f 0.68±0.01 and Q s = (120 ± 5) f 0.64±0.05, respectively. The effects of lateral S-wave velocity and attenuation heterogeneities on the ground-motion simulations were investigated. Site amplifications were estimated using the corrected cross-spectral ratios technique. Zero-distance kappa filter was obtained to be the value of 0.0514 ± 0.0055 s, using the spectral decay method. The stress drop of the mainshock based on the USGS slip model was estimated optimally to have a value of 64 bars. Our finite-fault model with optimized parameters was validated through the good agreement of observations and simulations at all stations. The attenuation characteristics of the simulated peak ground accelerations were also successfully captured by the ground-motion prediction equations. Finally, the ground motions at two destructively damaged regions, Kumamoto Castle and Minami Aso village, were simulated. We conclude that the stochastic finite-fault method with well-determined parameters can reproduce the ground-motion characteristics of the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake in both the time and frequency domains. This work is necessary for seismic hazard assessment and mitigation.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  17. Upper and lower bounds of ground-motion variabilities: implication for source properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton, Fabrice; Reddy-Kotha, Sreeram; Bora, Sanjay; Bindi, Dino

    2017-04-01

    One of the key challenges of seismology is to be able to analyse the physical factors that control earthquakes and ground-motion variabilities. Such analysis is particularly important to calibrate physics-based simulations and seismic hazard estimations at high frequencies. Within the framework of the development of ground-motion prediction equation (GMPE) developments, ground-motions residuals (differences between recorded ground motions and the values predicted by a GMPE) are computed. The exponential growth of seismological near-source records and modern GMPE analysis technics allow to partition these residuals into between- and a within-event components. In particular, the between-event term quantifies all those repeatable source effects (e.g. related to stress-drop or kappa-source variability) which have not been accounted by the magnitude-dependent term of the model. In this presentation, we first discuss the between-event variabilities computed both in the Fourier and Response Spectra domains, using recent high-quality global accelerometric datasets (e.g. NGA-west2, Resorce, Kiknet). These analysis lead to the assessment of upper bounds for the ground-motion variability. Then, we compare these upper bounds with lower bounds estimated by analysing seismic sequences which occurred on specific fault systems (e.g., located in Central Italy or in Japan). We show that the lower bounds of between-event variabilities are surprisingly large which indicates a large variability of earthquake dynamic properties even within the same fault system. Finally, these upper and lower bounds of ground-shaking variability are discussed in term of variability of earthquake physical properties (e.g., stress-drop and kappa_source).

  18. A Test of a Strong Ground Motion Prediction Methodology for the 7 September 1999, Mw=6.0 Athens Earthquake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchings, L; Ioannidou, E; Voulgaris, N; Kalogeras, I; Savy, J; Foxall, W; Stavrakakis, G

    2004-08-06

    We test a methodology to predict the range of ground-motion hazard for a fixed magnitude earthquake along a specific fault or within a specific source volume, and we demonstrate how to incorporate this into probabilistic seismic hazard analyses (PSHA). We modeled ground motion with empirical Green's functions. We tested our methodology with the 7 September 1999, Mw=6.0 Athens earthquake, we: (1) developed constraints on rupture parameters based on prior knowledge of earthquake rupture processes and sources in the region; (2) generated impulsive point shear source empirical Green's functions by deconvolving out the source contribution of M < 4.0 aftershocks; (3) used aftershocks that occurred throughout the area and not necessarily along the fault to be modeled; (4) ran a sufficient number of scenario earthquakes to span the full variability of ground motion possible; (5) found that our distribution of synthesized ground motions span what actually occurred and their distribution is realistically narrow; (6) determined that one of our source models generates records that match observed time histories well; (7) found that certain combinations of rupture parameters produced ''extreme'' ground motions at some stations; (8) identified that the ''best fitting'' rupture models occurred in the vicinity of 38.05{sup o} N 23.60{sup o} W with center of rupture near 12 km, and near unilateral rupture towards the areas of high damage, and this is consistent with independent investigations; and (9) synthesized strong motion records in high damage areas for which records from the earthquake were not recorded. We then developed a demonstration PSHA for a source region near Athens utilizing synthesized ground motion rather that traditional attenuation. We synthesized 500 earthquakes distributed throughout the source zone likely to have Mw=6.0 earthquakes near Athens. We assumed an average return period of 1000 years for this

  19. The effect of spinal manipulative therapy on spinal range of motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Millan, Mario; Leboeuf-Yde, Charlotte; Budgell, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) has been shown to have an effect on spine-related pain, both clinically and in experimentally induced pain. However, it is unclear if it has an immediate noticeable biomechanical effect on spinal motion that can be measured in terms of an increased range of motion...

  20. Raman cooling imaging: Detecting single atoms near their ground state of motion

    OpenAIRE

    Lester, Brian J.; Kaufman, Adam M.; Regal, Cindy A.

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate imaging of neutral atoms via the light scattered during continuous Raman sideband cooling. We detect single atoms trapped in optical tweezers while maintaining a significant motional ground-state fraction. The techniques presented provide a framework for single-atom resolved imaging of a broad class of atomic species.

  1. Seismic Response of Power Transmission Tower-Line System Subjected to Spatially Varying Ground Motions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Tian

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The behavior of power transmission tower-line system subjected to spatially varying base excitations is studied in this paper. The transmission towers are modeled by beam elements while the transmission lines are modeled by cable elements that account for the nonlinear geometry of the cables. The real multistation data from SMART-1 are used to analyze the system response subjected to spatially varying ground motions. The seismic input waves for vertical and horizontal ground motions are also generated based on the Code for Design of Seismic of Electrical Installations. Both the incoherency of seismic waves and wave travel effects are accounted for. The nonlinear time history analytical method is used in the analysis. The effects of boundary conditions, ground motion spatial variations, the incident angle of the seismic wave, coherency loss, and wave travel on the system are investigated. The results show that the uniform ground motion at all supports of system does not provide the most critical case for the response calculations.

  2. A novel approach for classification of earthquake ground-motion records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaghmaei-Sabegh, Saman

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents a new clustering procedure based on K-means and self-organizing map (SOM) network algorithms for classification of earthquake ground-motion records. Six scalar indicators are used in data analysis for describing the frequency content features of earthquake ground motions, named as the average spectral period ( T avg ), the mean period ( T m ), the smoothed spectral predominant period ( T 0), the characteristic period ( T 4.3), the predominant period based on velocity spectrum ( T gSv ), and the shape factor (Ω). Different clustering validity indexes were applied to determine the best estimates of the number of clusters on real and synthetic data. Results showed the high performance of proposed procedure to reveal salient features of complex seismic data. The comparison between the results of clustering analyses recommend the smoothed spectral predominant period as an effective indicator to describe ground-motion classes. The results also showed that K-means algorithm has better performance than SOM algorithm in identification and classification procedure of ground-motion records.

  3. 2.5 D Simulation of basin-edge effects on the ground motion ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The effects of basin-edge and soil velocity on the ground motion characteristics have been simulated using 2.5D modeling. One of the most significant advantages of the 2.5D simulation is that 3D radiation pattern can be generated in a 2D numerical grid using double-couple shear dislocation source. Further, 2.5D ...

  4. Conditional spectrum computation incorporating multiple causal earthquakes and ground-motion prediction models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ting; Harmsen, Stephen C.; Baker, Jack W.; Luco, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    The conditional spectrum (CS) is a target spectrum (with conditional mean and conditional standard deviation) that links seismic hazard information with ground-motion selection for nonlinear dynamic analysis. Probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) estimates the ground-motion hazard by incorporating the aleatory uncertainties in all earthquake scenarios and resulting ground motions, as well as the epistemic uncertainties in ground-motion prediction models (GMPMs) and seismic source models. Typical CS calculations to date are produced for a single earthquake scenario using a single GMPM, but more precise use requires consideration of at least multiple causal earthquakes and multiple GMPMs that are often considered in a PSHA computation. This paper presents the mathematics underlying these more precise CS calculations. Despite requiring more effort to compute than approximate calculations using a single causal earthquake and GMPM, the proposed approach produces an exact output that has a theoretical basis. To demonstrate the results of this approach and compare the exact and approximate calculations, several example calculations are performed for real sites in the western United States. The results also provide some insights regarding the circumstances under which approximate results are likely to closely match more exact results. To facilitate these more precise calculations for real applications, the exact CS calculations can now be performed for real sites in the United States using new deaggregation features in the U.S. Geological Survey hazard mapping tools. Details regarding this implementation are discussed in this paper.

  5. Investigation of topographical effects on rupture dynamics and resultant ground motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hanqing; Zhang, Zhenguo; Chen, Xiaofei

    2018-01-01

    In this work, we investigate the effect of irregular topography on the dynamic rupture and resultant ground motions using the curved grid finite-difference method. The research is based on spontaneous dynamic rupture on vertical strike-slip faults by varying the shapes and relative locations of irregular topography to the critical supershear transition distance. The results show that seismic energy of a supershear earthquake can be transmitted farther with large amplitudes. However, its ground motion near the fault is weaker than that caused by a subshear (namely the sub-Rayleigh) rupture. Whether the irregular topography exhibits stronger ground motion overall depends on the irregular topography's ability to prevent the subshear-to-supershear transition. Finally, we also discuss the effects of the strength parameter S and a larger size of the irregular topography on the resultant ground motion. The modellings of San Andreas Fault with real and inverted topographical surfaces show the implications of the topographical effects from the real earthquake.

  6. Uncertainty of earthquake losses due to model uncertainty of input ground motions in the Los Angeles area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, T.; Petersen, M.D.

    2006-01-01

    In a recent study we used the Monte Carlo simulation method to evaluate the ground-motion uncertainty of the 2002 update of the California probabilistic seismic hazard model. The resulting ground-motion distribution is used in this article to evaluate the contribution of the hazard model to the uncertainty in earthquake loss ratio, the ratio of the expected loss to the total value of a structure. We use the Hazards U.S. (HAZUS) methodology for loss estimation because it is a widely used and publicly available risk model and intended for regional studies by public agencies and for use by governmental decision makers. We found that the loss ratio uncertainty depends not only on the ground-motion uncertainty but also on the mean ground-motion level. The ground-motion uncertainty, as measured by the coefficient of variation (COV), is amplified when converting to the loss ratio uncertainty because loss increases concavely with ground motion. By comparing the ground-motion uncertainty with the corresponding loss ratio uncertainty for the structural damage of light wood-frame buildings in Los Angeles area, we show that the COV of loss ratio is almost twice the COV of ground motion with a return period of 475 years around the San Andreas fault and other major faults in the area. The loss ratio for the 2475-year ground-motion maps is about a factor of three higher than for the 475-year maps. However, the uncertainties in ground motion and loss ratio for the longer return periods are lower than for the shorter return periods because the uncertainty parameters in the hazard logic tree are independent of the return period, but the mean ground motion increases with return period.

  7. A Terminal Guidance Law Based on Motion Camouflage Strategy of Air-to-Ground Missiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-sheng Gao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A guidance law for attacking ground target based on motion camouflage strategy is proposed in this paper. According to the relative position between missile and target, the dual second-order dynamics model is derived. The missile guidance condition is given by analyzing the characteristic of motion camouflage strategy. Then, the terminal guidance law is derived by using the relative motion of missile and target and the guidance condition. In the process of derivation, the three-dimensional guidance law could be designed in a two-dimensional plane and the difficulty of guidance law design is reduced. A two-dimensional guidance law for three-dimensional space is derived by bringing the estimation for target maneuver. Finally, simulation for the proposed guidance law is taken and compared with pure proportional navigation. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed guidance law can be applied to air-to-ground missiles.

  8. Topographic gradient based site characterization in India complemented by strong ground-motion spectral attributes

    KAUST Repository

    Nath, Sankar Kumar

    2013-12-01

    We appraise topographic-gradient approach for site classification that employs correlations between 30. m column averaged shear-wave velocity and topographic gradients. Assessments based on site classifications reported from cities across India indicate that the approach is reasonably viable at regional level. Additionally, we experiment three techniques for site classification based on strong ground-motion recordings, namely Horizontal-to-Vertical Spectral Ratio (HVSR), Response Spectra Shape (RSS), and Horizontal-to-Vertical Response Spectral Ratio (HVRSR) at the strong motion stations located across the Himalayas and northeast India. Statistical tests on the results indicate that these three techniques broadly differentiate soil and rock sites while RSS and HVRSR yield better signatures. The results also support the implemented site classification in the light of strong ground-motion spectral attributes observed in different parts of the globe. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Restoring range of motion via stress relaxation and static progressive stretch in posttraumatic elbow contractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, Slif D; Bonutti, Peter M; Seyler, Thorsten M; Marker, David R; Morrey, Bernard F; Mont, Michael A

    2010-03-01

    Loss of range of motion after injury or surgery of the elbow is a common complication. We hypothesized that an orthosis that used progressive stretch and stress relaxation principles would improve elbow range of motion. This study evaluated the result of a patient-directed, bidirectional orthosis that uses static progressive stretch and stress relaxation principles to improve elbow range of motion in patients who had posttraumatic elbow contractures. Treatment in 37 elbows consisted of a 30-minute stretching protocol performed in 1 to 3 sessions daily for a mean of 10 weeks (range, 2-22 weeks). The mean gain in range of motion was 26 degrees (range, 2 degrees -60 degrees ). Gains of motion were noted in 35 of 37 elbows. Patients lowered their analgesic use and were highly satisfied with the device (mean satisfaction score of 8.5 of 10 points possible). This device compared favorably with reports of other devices. Consistent improvements in restoring range of motion can be achieved with short treatment times by using a device based on the principles of static progressive stretch and stress relaxation in patients with posttraumatic elbow contractures. Copyright 2010 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The Value of Motion: Patient-Reported Outcome Measures Are Correlated With Range of Motion in Total Ankle Replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, Travis J; Hamid, Kamran S; Federer, Andrew E; Steele, John R; Easley, Mark E; Nunley, James A; Adams, Samuel B

    2017-12-01

    The proposed benefit of total ankle replacement (TAR) over ankle fusion is preserved ankle motion, thus we hypothesized that an increase in range of motion (ROM) is positively correlated with validated patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) in individuals receiving TAR. Patients undergoing TAR at a single academic medical center between 2007 and 2013 were evaluated in this study. In addition to a minimum of 2-year follow-up, complete preoperative and postoperative outcome measures for the Foot and Ankle Disability Index (FADI), Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment (SMFA) Bother and Function Indices, Visual Analog Scale (VAS), and 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) were requisite for inclusion. Standardized weightbearing maximum dorsiflexion and plantarflexion sagittal radiographs were obtained and previously described ankle and foot measurements were performed to determine ankle ROM. Eighty-eight patients met inclusion criteria (33 INBONE, 18 Salto-Talaris, 37 STAR). Mean time to final ROM radiographs was 43.8 months (range 24-89 months). All aforementioned PROMs improved between preoperative evaluation and most recent follow-up (  P dorsiflexion was positively associated with FADI, SF-36 MCS, and SMFA Function (  P motion was positively correlated with multiple PROMs. Disease-specific and generic health-related quality of life PROMs demonstrated improvement postoperatively in all domains when evaluating final total range of motion. Patients who undergo TAR for end-stage osteoarthritis with improvement in ROM demonstrate a direct correlation with improved patient-centric metrics and outcome scores. Level III: Retrospective comparative study.

  11. Weightbearing and nonweightbearing ankle dorsiflexion range of motion: are we measuring the same thing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabin, Alon; Kozol, Zvi

    2012-01-01

    Ankle dorsiflexion range of motion has been measured in weightbearing and nonweightbearing conditions. The different measurement conditions may contribute to inconsistent conclusions regarding the role of ankle dorsiflexion in several pathologic conditions. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between ankle dorsiflexion range of motion as measured in weightbearing and nonweightbearing conditions. We compared ankle dorsiflexion range of motion as measured in a weightbearing versus a nonweightbearing position in 43 healthy volunteers. Measurements were taken separately by two examiners. Weightbearing and nonweightbearing ankle dorsiflexion measurements produced significantly different results (P dorsiflexion measurements produce significantly different results and only a moderate correlation, suggesting that these two measurements should not be used interchangeably as measures of ankle dorsiflexion range of motion.

  12. The role of topography and lateral velocity heterogeneities on near-source scattering and ground-motion variability

    KAUST Repository

    Imperatori, W.

    2015-07-28

    The scattering of seismic waves travelling in the Earth is not only caused by random velocity heterogeneity but also by surface topography. Both factors are known to strongly affect ground-motion complexity even at relatively short distance from the source. In this study, we simulate ground motion with a 3-D finite-difference wave propagation solver in the 0–5 Hz frequency band using three topography models representative of the Swiss alpine region and realistic heterogeneous media characterized by the Von Karman correlation functions. Subsequently, we analyse and quantify the characteristics of the scattered wavefield in the near-source region. Our study shows that both topography and velocity heterogeneity scattering may excite large coda waves of comparable relative amplitude, especially at around 1 Hz, although large variability in space may occur. Using the single scattering model, we estimate average QC values in the range 20–30 at 1 Hz, 36–54 at 1.5 Hz and 62–109 at 3 Hz for constant background velocity models with no intrinsic attenuation. In principle, envelopes of topography-scattered seismic waves can be qualitatively predicted by theoretical back-scattering models, while forward- or hybrid-scattering models better reproduce the effects of random velocity heterogeneity on the wavefield. This is because continuous multiple scattering caused by small-scale velocity perturbations leads to more gentle coda decay and envelope broadening, while topography abruptly scatters the wavefield once it impinges the free surface. The large impedance contrast also results in more efficient mode mixing. However, the introduction of realistic low-velocity layers near the free surface increases the complexity of ground motion dramatically and indicates that the role of topography in elastic waves scattering can be relevant especially in proximity of the source. Long-period surface waves can form most of the late coda, especially when intrinsic attenuation is taken

  13. The Engineering Strong Ground Motion Network of the National Autonomous University of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco Miranda, J. M.; Ramirez-Guzman, L.; Aguilar Calderon, L. A.; Almora Mata, D.; Ayala Hernandez, M.; Castro Parra, G.; Molina Avila, I.; Mora, A.; Torres Noguez, M.; Vazquez Larquet, R.

    2014-12-01

    The coverage, design, operation and monitoring capabilities of the strong ground motion program at the Institute of Engineering (IE) of the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM) is presented. Started in 1952, the seismic instrumentation intended initially to bolster earthquake engineering projects in Mexico City has evolved into the largest strong ground motion monitoring system in the region. Today, it provides information not only to engineering projects, but also to the near real-time risk mitigation systems of the country, and enhances the general understanding of the effects and causes of earthquakes in Mexico. The IE network includes more than 100 free-field stations and several buildings, covering the largest urban centers and zones of significant seismicity in Central Mexico. Of those stations, approximately one-fourth send the observed acceleration to a processing center in Mexico City continuously, and the rest require either periodic visits for the manual recovery of the data or remote interrogation, for later processing and cataloging. In this research, we document the procedures and telecommunications systems used systematically to recover information. Additionally, we analyze the spatial distribution of the free-field accelerographs, the quality of the instrumentation, and the recorded ground motions. The evaluation criteria are based on the: 1) uncertainty in the generation of ground motion parameter maps due to the spatial distribution of the stations, 2) potential of the array to provide localization and magnitude estimates for earthquakes with magnitudes greater than Mw 5, and 3) adequacy of the network for the development of Ground Motion Prediction Equations due to intra-plate and intra-slab earthquakes. We conclude that the monitoring system requires a new redistribution, additional stations, and a substantial improvement in the instrumentation and telecommunications. Finally, we present an integral plan to improve the current network

  14. Wave induced coastal cliff top ground motions and infragravity wave dissipation under high energy wave conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earlie, C. S.; le Dantec, N.; Young, A.

    2016-12-01

    Coastal cliff erosion is a widespread problem that threatens property and infrastructure globally. The prediction of this risk calls for robust understanding of the processes and mechanisms involved in causing coastal cliff failure. Over the last decade, a number of geomorphological studies have highlighted the importance of the relationship between the offshore wave climate and cliff-toe water levels, and the resultant coastal response in terms of cliff-top ground motion and erosion. Field-based studies of instantaneous cliff response to direct wave impact have shown that wave-induced loading of the foreshore leads to cliff-top ground motions that may have the potential to weaken the integrity of the rocks and prepare them for failure. In order to understand wave-cliff interaction and how beach morphodynamics influences cliff-top ground motion and cliff erosion, two field experiments were carried out simultaneously at two locations in Northern Brittany (France). This three-month long winter field campaign (Jan-Mar 2016) included, for the first time, a comparison of cliff-top ground motion and cliff erosion at sites fronted by different beach morphologies (reflective/dissipative), along with monitoring of hydrodynamic forcing and beach topography. The magnitude of cliff-top displacements at both sites were dependent on tidal stage and free water surface elevation at the cliff toe, with the greatest contributions of cliff-top ground motions found at infragravity frequencies (0.05-0.005 Hz). Vertical displacements at infragravity and incident sea-swell (0.1-0.5 Hz) frequencies were greater at the dissipative site, apart from during spring high tide and energetic wave conditions, where displacements were two times that at the reflective site. Combining these wave-cliff interaction data with beach morphology and nearshore bathymetry will be key to understanding the spatial variability in cliff erosion under a variety of environmental settings and forcing conditions.

  15. Earthquake ground-motion in presence of source and medium heterogeneities

    KAUST Repository

    Vyas, Jagdish Chandra

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation work investigates the effects of earthquake rupture complexity and heterogeneities in Earth structure on near-field ground-motions. More specifically, we address two key issues in seismology: (1) near-field ground-shaking variability as function of distance and azimuth for unilateral directive ruptures, and (2) impact of rupture complexity and seismic scattering on Mach wave coherence associated with supershear rupture propagation. We examine earthquake ground-motion variability associated with unilateral ruptures based on ground-motion simulations of the MW 7.3 1992 Landers earthquake, eight simplified source models, and a MW 7.8 rupture simulation (ShakeOut) for the San Andreas fault. Our numerical modeling reveals that the ground-shaking variability in near-fault distances (< 20 km) is larger than that given by empirical ground motion prediction equations. In addition, the variability decreases with increasing distance from the source, exhibiting a power-law decay. The high near-field variability can be explained by strong directivity effects whose influence weaken as we move away from the fault. At the same time, the slope of the power-law decay is found to be dominantly controlled by slip heterogeneity. Furthermore, the ground-shaking variability is high in the rupture propagation direction whereas low in the directions perpendicular to it. However, the variability expressed as a function of azimuth is not only sensitive to slip heterogeneity, but also to rupture velocity. To study Mach wave coherence for supershear ruptures, we consider heterogeneities in rupture parameters (variations in slip, rise time and rupture speed) and 3D scattering media having small-scale random heterogeneities. The Mach wave coherence is reduced at near-fault distances (< 10 km) by the source heterogeneities. At the larger distances from the source, medium scattering plays the dominant role in reducing the Mach wave coherence. Combined effect of the source and

  16. Effects of 2D small-scale sedimentary basins on strong ground motion characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movahedasl, R.; Ghayamghamian, M. R.

    2015-08-01

    A lot of research on the 2D or 3D effects of large-scale basins (within several kilometers depth) have been conducted in the past. However, different 2D aspects of small-scale sedimentary basins (within tens of meters depth) remain in the developing stage. Here, an attempt is made to analyze different aspects of small-scale basins using both numerical and empirical investigations. In the first step, the 2D effects of small-scale basins on strong motion characteristics are numerically examined both in the time and frequency domains. In addition, the effects of input motion are also explained by the results of model excitation in different orthogonal directions. Then, the numerical outcomes are verified by the analysis of actual earthquake data recorded at a downhole array in the Fujisawa small basin, Japan. In the second step, since available recorded earthquake data in small basins with a clear understanding of subsurface geology are very limited, different 2D aspects of the small basin are parametrically investigated. For this purpose, extensive parametrical studies are carried out on the main features of a small basin such as slope angle, shape, infill soil properties, and basin thickness by using the finite difference numerical method. The horizontal and vertical peak ground accelerations of 2D with respect to 1D ones are defined as the horizontal and vertical aggravation factors (AGH and AGV). The AGH and AGV factors show large sensitivity to infill soil properties, shape and thickness, and small sensitivity to slope angle. The values of AGH and AGV factors vary in the range of 0.5-2 with large variations around small basin edges due to wave coupling, conversion, scattering and focusing in the vicinity of small basin edges. These cause a complicated pattern of 2D de-amplification and amplification, which mostly affect the motion in the high frequency range (>1 Hz). Finally, the outcomes provide numerical and field evidence on the 2D effects of small basins

  17. Ground Motion Simulations for Bursa Region (Turkey) Using Input Parameters derived from the Regional Seismic Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unal, B.; Askan, A.

    2014-12-01

    Earthquakes are among the most destructive natural disasters in Turkey and it is important to assess seismicity in different regions with the use of seismic networks. Bursa is located in Marmara Region, Northwestern Turkey and to the south of the very active North Anatolian Fault Zone. With around three million inhabitants and key industrial facilities of the country, Bursa is the fourth largest city in Turkey. Since most of the focus is on North Anatolian Fault zone, despite its significant seismicity, Bursa area has not been investigated extensively until recently. For reliable seismic hazard estimations and seismic design of structures, assessment of potential ground motions in this region is essential using both recorded and simulated data. In this study, we employ stochastic finite-fault simulation with dynamic corner frequency approach to model previous events as well to assess potential earthquakes in Bursa. To ensure simulations with reliable synthetic ground motion outputs, the input parameters must be carefully derived from regional data. In this study, using strong motion data collected at 33 stations in the region, site-specific parameters such as near-surface high frequency attenuation parameter and amplifications are obtained. Similarly, source and path parameters are adopted from previous studies that as well employ regional data. Initially, major previous events in the region are verified by comparing the records with the corresponding synthetics. Then simulations of scenario events in the region are performed. We present the results in terms of spatial distribution of peak ground motion parameters and time histories at selected locations.

  18. Agreement of spatio-temporal gait parameters between a vertical ground reaction force decomposition algorithm and a motion capture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veilleux, Louis-Nicolas; Raison, Maxime; Rauch, Frank; Robert, Maxime; Ballaz, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    A ground reaction force decomposition algorithm based on large force platform measurements has recently been developed to analyze ground reaction forces under each foot during the double support phase of gait. However, its accuracy for the measurement of the spatiotemporal gait parameters remains to be established. The aim of the present study was to establish the agreement between the spatiotemporal gait parameters obtained using (1) a walkway (composed of six large force platforms) and the newly developed algorithm, and (2) an optoelectronic motion capture system. Twenty healthy children and adolescents (age range: 6-17 years) and 19 healthy adults (age range: 19-51 years) participated in this study. They were asked to walk at their preferred speed and at a speed that was faster than the preferred one. Each participant performed three blocks of three trials in each of the two walking speed conditions. The spatiotemporal gait parameters measured with the algorithm did not differ by more than 2.5% from those obtained with the motion capture system. The limits of agreement represented between 3% and 8% of the average spatiotemporal gait parameters. Repeatability of the algorithm was slightly higher than that of the motion capture system as the coefficient of variations ranged from 2.5% to 6%, and from 1.5% to 3.5% for the algorithm and the motion capture system, respectively. The proposed algorithm provides valid and repeatable spatiotemporal gait parameter measurements and offers a promising tool for clinical gait analysis. Further studies are warranted to test the algorithm in people with impaired gait. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Explaining extreme ground motion in Osaka basin during the 2011 Tohoku earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Victor C.; Bowden, Daniel C.; Kanamori, Hiroo

    2017-07-01

    Despite being 770 km away from the epicenter, observed ground motions due to the Tohoku earthquake in the Osaka Basin were unexpectedly large, with an amplification of more than a factor of 20 compared to immediately outside the basin, and including 2.7 m peak-to-peak roof displacements at one high-rise building. The local ground motions exceeded expectations based on standard computations of site response by a factor of 3, predicted frequencies of peak acceleration were off by at least 50%, and such discrepancies have not yet been explained quantitatively. Here we show that utilizing semianalytic theory for surface-wave amplification, we are able to accurately predict both the amplitudes and frequencies of large ground amplification in the Osaka Basin using only knowledge of the local one-dimensional structure. Comparison between this simple prediction and observed amplification was not expected to be so favorable and suggests that simple one-dimensional surface-wave site amplification factors can be useful in the absence of full three-dimensional wave propagation simulations. Such surface-wave amplification factors can be included in addition to the standard measures of site-specific site amplification and should help explain strong ground motion variability in future large earthquakes that shake Osaka Basin and elsewhere in the world.

  20. A Refined Vs30 Map for Taiwan Based on Ground Motion Attenuation Relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun-Sung Liu and Yi-Ben Tsai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Seismic hazard evaluations require an estimate of the expected ground motion at the site of interest usually by using attenuation relationships. The mean shear-wave velocity over the top 30 m (Vs30 is incorporated in the ground motion attenuation relationships in this study. By comparing the standard deviations of the residuals between the observed and predicted values before and after incorporating the site effect term Vs30, the reduction in standard deviation for the peak ground velocity (PGV is significantly reduced by about 11%. Clearly, the refined attenuation relationships will be more useful for engineering purposes. Analyzing the site effect term using the amplification factor (relative to a site with Vs30 = 760 m s-1, has revealed that the Changhua Plain, Chianan Plain, Pingtung Valley, Ilan Plain, and Taipei Basin have high values, implying large ground motion amplification. Following a disastrous earthquake, quick assessment and timely peak ground acceleration (PGA and PGV map reporting will be critical for effective emergency response operations. After an earthquake we can combine the simple attenuation relationships, as determined from Model 1, to provide near real-time estimation and reporting of the PGA and PGV values for the Taiwan area. We can also use the relations between the intra-event site residual and the Vs30 to estimate the Vs30 for stations that have recorded strong motions, but do not yet have Vs30 information. Our approach including sites with estimated Vs30 has resulted in a refined Vs30 contour map that can be used for more realistic seismic hazard assessment for Taiwan. This approach is especially applicable to the foothill and mountain areas.

  1. Selecting ground-motion models developed for induced seismicity in geothermal areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Benjamin; Douglas, John

    2013-11-01

    We present a case study of the ranking and weighting of ground-motion prediction equations (GMPEs) for seismic hazard assessment of enhanced geothermal systems (EGSs). The study region is Cooper Basin (Australia), where a hot-fractured-rock project was established in 2002. We test the applicability of 36 GMPEs based on stochastic simulations previously proposed for use at EGSs. Each GMPE has a set of corresponding model parameters describing stress drop, regional and local (near-surface) attenuation. To select suitable GMPEs for Cooper Basin from the full set, we applied two methods. In the first, seismograms recorded on the local monitoring network were spectrally analysed to determine characteristic stress and attenuation parameters. In a second approach, residual analysis using the log-likelihood (LLH) method was used to directly compare recorded and predicted short-period response spectral accelerations. The resulting ranking was consistent with the models selected based on spectral analysis, with the advantage that a transparent weighting approach was available using the LLH method. Region-specific estimates of variability were computed, with significantly lower values observed compared to previous studies of small earthquakes. This was consistent with the limited range of stress drops and attenuation observed from the spectral analysis.

  2. Implementation of the Next Generation Attenuation (NGA) ground-motion prediction equations in Fortran and R

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaklamanos, James; Boore, David M.; Thompson, Eric M.; Campbell, Kenneth W.

    2010-01-01

    This report presents two methods for implementing the earthquake ground-motion prediction equations released in 2008 as part of the Next Generation Attenuation of Ground Motions (NGA-West, or NGA) project coordinated by the Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center (PEER). These models were developed for predicting ground-motion parameters for shallow crustal earthquakes in active tectonic regions (such as California). Of the five ground-motion prediction equations (GMPEs) developed during the NGA project, four models are implemented: the GMPEs of Abrahamson and Silva (2008), Boore and Atkinson (2008), Campbell and Bozorgnia (2008), and Chiou and Youngs (2008a); these models are abbreviated as AS08, BA08, CB08, and CY08, respectively. Since site response is widely recognized as an important influence of ground motions, engineering applications typically require that such effects be modeled. The model of Idriss (2008) is not implemented in our programs because it does not explicitly include site response, whereas the other four models include site response and use the same variable to describe the site condition (VS30). We do not intend to discourage the use of the Idriss (2008) model, but we have chosen to implement the other four NGA models in our programs for those users who require ground-motion estimates for various site conditions. We have implemented the NGA models by using two separate programming languages: Fortran and R (R Development Core Team, 2010). Fortran, a compiled programming language, has been used in the scientific community for decades. R is an object-oriented language and environment for statistical computing that is gaining popularity in the statistical and scientific community. Derived from the S language and environment developed at Bell Laboratories, R is an open-source language that is freely available at http://www.r-project.org/ (last accessed 11 January 2011). In R, the functions for computing the NGA equations can be loaded as an

  3. Chapter A. The Loma Prieta, California, Earthquake of October 17, 1989 - Strong Ground Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borcherdt, Roger D.

    1994-01-01

    Strong ground motion generated by the Loma Prieta, Calif., earthquake (MS~7.1) of October 17, 1989, resulted in at least 63 deaths, more than 3,757 injuries, and damage estimated to exceed $5.9 billion. Strong ground motion severely damaged critical lifelines (freeway overpasses, bridges, and pipelines), caused severe damage to poorly constructed buildings, and induced a significant number of ground failures associated with liquefaction and landsliding. It also caused a significant proportion of the damage and loss of life at distances as far as 100 km from the epicenter. Consequently, understanding the characteristics of the strong ground motion associated with the earthquake is fundamental to understanding the earthquake's devastating impact on society. The papers assembled in this chapter address this problem. Damage to vulnerable structures from the earthquake varied substantially with the distance from the causative fault and the type of underlying geologic deposits. Most of the damage and loss of life occurred in areas underlain by 'soft soil'. Quantifying these effects is important for understanding the tragic concentrations of damage in such areas as Santa Cruz and the Marina and Embarcadero Districts of San Francisco, and the failures of the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge and the Interstate Highway 880 overpass. Most importantly, understanding these effects is a necessary prerequisite for improving mitigation measures for larger earthquakes likely to occur much closer to densely urbanized areas in the San Francisco Bay region. The earthquake generated an especially important data set for understanding variations in the severity of strong ground motion. Instrumental strong-motion recordings were obtained at 131 sites located from about 6 to 175 km from the rupture zone. This set of recordings, the largest yet collected for an event of this size, was obtained from sites on various geologic deposits, including a unique set on 'soft soil' deposits

  4. Normal functional range of motion of the cervical spine during 15 activities of daily living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bible, Jesse E; Biswas, Debdut; Miller, Christopher P; Whang, Peter G; Grauer, Jonathan N

    2010-02-01

    Prospective clinical study. The purpose of this investigation was to quantify normal cervical range of motion (ROM) and compare these results to those used to perform 15 simulated activities of daily living (ADLs) in asymptomatic subjects. Previous studies looking at cervical ROM during ADLs have been limited and used measuring devices that do not record continuous motion. The purpose of this investigation was to quantify normal cervical ROM and compare these results with those used to perform 15 simulated ADLs in asymptomatic subjects. A noninvasive electrogoniometer and torsiometer were used to measure the ROM of the cervical spine. The accuracy and reliability of the devices were confirmed by comparing the ROM values acquired from dynamic flexion/extension and lateral bending radiographs to those provided by the device, which was activated while the radiographs were obtained. Intraobserver reliability was established by calculating the intraclass correlation coefficient for repeated measurements on the same subjects by 1 investigator on consecutive days. These tools were employed in a clinical laboratory setting to evaluate the full active ROM of the cervical spines (ie, flexion/extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation) of 60 asymptomatic subjects (30 females and 30 males; age, 20 to 75 y) as well as to assess the functional ROM required to complete 15 simulated ADLs. When compared with radiographic measurements, the electrogoniometer was found to be accurate within 2.3+/-2.2 degrees (mean+/-SD) and the intraobserver reliabilities for measuring the full active and functional ROM were both excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.96 and 0.92, respectively). The absolute ROM and percentage of full active cervical spinal ROM used during the 15 ADLs was 13 to 32 degrees and 15% to 32% (median, 20 degrees/19%) for flexion/extension, 9 to 21 degrees and 11% to 27% (14 degrees/18%) for lateral bending, and 13 to 57 degrees and 12% to 92% (18 degrees/19

  5. REDUCTION OF GROUND MOTION INTENSITY CAUSED BY BLASTING ON STONE QUARRIES"HERCEGOVAC" AND "MAX-STOJA"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin Petrov

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Ground motion intensity caused by deep-hole blasting on the stone quarries »Hercegovac« and »Max-Stoja« was determined by measuring of ground vibrations magnitudes and by interpretation of measuring results under world damage criteria for structures. Reduction of ground motion intensity was realized on the basis of calculation of permissible charge quantity per ignition level (the paper is published in Croatian.

  6. Ground ice and hydrothermal ground motions on aufeis plots of river valleys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. R. Alekseev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Localized groundwater outflow and layered freezing of them in forms of large ice clusters on the surface creates specific conditions for energy and mass exchange in the «atmosphere–soil–lithosphere» system. In winter, the soil temperature profile is essentially deformed due to heat emission by the aufeis layer of water at its freezing that forms a specific thermocline layer. Deformation of the temperature profile, gradually decreasing, moves down the cross-section and disappearing at the interface between frozen and thawed rocks. Magnitude and number of the temperature deviations from a «normal» state depends on the heat storage of the aufeis-forming waters and on the number of outflows at a given point. The thermocline formation changes conditions of freezing for underlying ground layers together with mechanism of ice saturation of them, and that results in formation of two-layer ice-ground complexes (IGC which differ drastically from cryogenic features in adjacent parts of the valley. Analysis of genetic characteristics and relation of components of the surface and subsurface layers allowed identification of seven types of the aufeis IGC: massive-segregation, cement-basal, layered-segregation, basal-segregation, vacuum-filtration, pressureinjection, and fissure-vein. Yearly formation and destruction of aufeises and subsurface ices is accompanied by a sequence of particularly hazardous geodynamical phenomena, among which the most important are winter flooding of territories, layered freezing of water, ground heaving, thermokarst, and thermoerosion. Combination of these processes may cause a rapid (often unexpected reconfiguration of channels of both surface and subsurface runoff, abrupt uplifts and subsidences of the surface, and decompaction and «shaking-up» of seasonally thawing and seasonally freezing rocks, which may create exceptionally unfavorable conditions for construction and operation of engineering structures. Aufeis plots

  7. Simulation of spatially varying ground motions including incoherence, wave‐passage and differential site‐response effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konakli, Katerina; Der Kiureghian, Armen

    2012-01-01

    A method is presented for simulating arrays of spatially varying ground motions, incorporating the effects of incoherence, wave passage, and differential site response. Non‐stationarity is accounted for by considering the motions as consisting of stationary segments. Two approaches are developed....... In the first, simulated motions are consistent with the power spectral densities of a segmented recorded motion and are characterized by uniform variability at all locations. Uniform variability in the array of ground motions is essential when synthetic motions are used for statistical analysis of the response...... of multiply‐supported structures. In the second approach, simulated motions are conditioned on the segmented record itself and exhibit increasing variance with distance from the site of the observation. For both approaches, example simulated motions are presented for an existing bridge model employing two...

  8. Ground-Based Midcourse Defense (GMD) Extended Test Range (ETR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-07-01

    Steller’s eiders and endangered short-tailed albatross offshore would also be outside the range of site preparation noise levels and are not...bird populations. Waterfowl would quickly resume feeding and other normal behavior patterns after a launch is completed. GMD ETR Final EIS es...mammal. No significant long-term adverse impacts are anticipated to seabirds and shorebirds, Guadalupe fur seals, California sea lions, northern

  9. Systematic comparisons between PRISM version 1.0.0, BAP, and CSMIP ground-motion processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkan, Erol; Stephens, Christopher

    2017-02-23

    A series of benchmark tests was run by comparing results of the Processing and Review Interface for Strong Motion data (PRISM) software version 1.0.0 to Basic Strong-Motion Accelerogram Processing Software (BAP; Converse and Brady, 1992), and to California Strong Motion Instrumentation Program (CSMIP) processing (Shakal and others, 2003, 2004). These tests were performed by using the MatLAB implementation of PRISM, which is equivalent to its public release version in Java language. Systematic comparisons were made in time and frequency domains of records processed in PRISM and BAP, and in CSMIP, by using a set of representative input motions with varying resolutions, frequency content, and amplitudes. Although the details of strong-motion records vary among the processing procedures, there are only minor differences among the waveforms for each component and within the frequency passband common to these procedures. A comprehensive statistical evaluation considering more than 1,800 ground-motion components demonstrates that differences in peak amplitudes of acceleration, velocity, and displacement time series obtained from PRISM and CSMIP processing are equal to or less than 4 percent for 99 percent of the data, and equal to or less than 2 percent for 96 percent of the data. Other statistical measures, including the Euclidian distance (L2 norm) and the windowed root mean square level of processed time series, also indicate that both processing schemes produce statistically similar products.

  10. Mitigation of ground motion effects via feedback systems in the Compact Linear Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Pfingstner, Jürgen; Schmickler, Hermann; Schulte, Daniel

    The Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) is a future multi-TeV electron positron collider, which is currently being designed at CERN. To achieve its ambitious goals, CLIC has to produce particle beams of the highest quality, which makes the accelerator very sensitive to ground motion. Four mitigation methods have been foreseen by the CLIC design group to cope with the feasibility issue of ground motion. This thesis is concerned with the design of one of these mitigation methods, named linac feedback (L-FB), but also with the simultaneous simulation and validation of all mitigation methods. Additionally, a technique to improve the quality of the indispensable system knowledge has been developed. The L-FB suppresses beam oscillations along the accelerator. Its design is based on the decoupling of the overall accelerator system into independent channels. For each channel an individual compensator is found with the help of a semi- automatic control synthesis procedure. This technique allows the designer to incorporate ...

  11. Seismic hazard analysis. Volume 5. Review panel, Ground Motion Panel, and feedback results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernreuter, D. L.

    1981-08-01

    The Site Specific Spectra Project (SSSP) was a multi-year study funded by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to provide estimates of the seismic hazards at a number of nuclear power plant sites in the Eastern US. A key element of our approach was the Peer Review Panel, which we formed in order to ensure that our use of expert opinion was reasonable. We discuss the Peer Review Panel results and provide the complete text of each member's report. In order to improve the ground motion model, an Eastern US Ground Motion Model Panel was formed. In Section 4 we tabulate the responses from the panel members to our feedback questionnaire and discuss the implications of changes introduced by them. We conclude that the net difference in seismic hazard values from those presented in Volume 4 is small and does not warrant a reanalysis. 22 figs.

  12. Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF): Its Mechanisms and Effects on Range of Motion and Muscular Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindle, Kayla B; Whitcomb, Tyler J; Briggs, Wyatt O; Hong, Junggi

    2012-03-01

    Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) is common practice for increasing range of motion, though little research has been done to evaluate theories behind it. The purpose of this study was to review possible mechanisms, proposed theories, and physiological changes that occur due to proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation techniques. Four theoretical mechanisms were identified: autogenic inhibition, reciprocal inhibition, stress relaxation, and the gate control theory. The studies suggest that a combination of these four mechanisms enhance range of motion. When completed prior to exercise, proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation decreases performance in maximal effort exercises. When this stretching technique is performed consistently and post exercise, it increases athletic performance, along with range of motion. Little investigation has been done regarding the theoretical mechanisms of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation, though four mechanisms were identified from the literature. As stated, the main goal of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation is to increase range of motion and performance. Studies found both of these to be true when completed under the correct conditions. These mechanisms were found to be plausible; however, further investigation needs to be conducted. All four mechanisms behind the stretching technique explain the reasoning behind the increase in range of motion, as well as in strength and athletic performance. Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation shows potential benefits if performed correctly and consistently.

  13. A Little Knowledge of Ground Motion: Explaining 3-D Physics-Based Modeling to Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, K.

    2014-12-01

    Users of earthquake planning scenarios require the ground-motion map to be credible enough to justify costly planning efforts, but not all ground-motion maps are right for all uses. There are two common ways to create a map of ground motion for a hypothetical earthquake. One approach is to map the median shaking estimated by empirical attenuation relationships. The other uses 3-D physics-based modeling, in which one analyzes a mathematical model of the earth's crust near the fault rupture and calculates the generation and propagation of seismic waves from source to ground surface by first principles. The two approaches produce different-looking maps. The more-familiar median maps smooth out variability and correlation. Using them in a planning scenario can lead to a systematic underestimation of damage and loss, and could leave a community underprepared for realistic shaking. The 3-D maps show variability, including some very high values that can disconcert non-scientists. So when the USGS Science Application for Risk Reduction's (SAFRR) Haywired scenario project selected 3-D maps, it was necessary to explain to scenario users—especially engineers who often use median maps—the differences, advantages, and disadvantages of the two approaches. We used authority, empirical evidence, and theory to support our choice. We prefaced our explanation with SAFRR's policy of using the best available earth science, and cited the credentials of the maps' developers and the reputation of the journal in which they published the maps. We cited recorded examples from past earthquakes of extreme ground motions that are like those in the scenario map. We explained the maps on theoretical grounds as well, explaining well established causes of variability: directivity, basin effects, and source parameters. The largest mapped motions relate to potentially unfamiliar extreme-value theory, so we used analogies to human longevity and the average age of the oldest person in samples of

  14. Estimation of regression laws for ground motion parameters using as case of study the Amatrice earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiberi, Lara; Costa, Giovanni

    2017-04-01

    The possibility to directly associate the damages to the ground motion parameters is always a great challenge, in particular for civil protections. Indeed a ground motion parameter, estimated in near real time that can express the damages occurred after an earthquake, is fundamental to arrange the first assistance after an event. The aim of this work is to contribute to the estimation of the ground motion parameter that better describes the observed intensity, immediately after an event. This can be done calculating for each ground motion parameter estimated in a near real time mode a regression law which correlates the above-mentioned parameter to the observed macro-seismic intensity. This estimation is done collecting high quality accelerometric data in near field, filtering them at different frequency steps. The regression laws are calculated using two different techniques: the non linear least-squares (NLLS) Marquardt-Levenberg algorithm and the orthogonal distance methodology (ODR). The limits of the first methodology are the needed of initial values for the parameters a and b (set 1.0 in this study), and the constraint that the independent variable must be known with greater accuracy than the dependent variable. While the second algorithm is based on the estimation of the errors perpendicular to the line, rather than just vertically. The vertical errors are just the errors in the 'y' direction, so only for the dependent variable whereas the perpendicular errors take into account errors for both the variables, the dependent and the independent. This makes possible also to directly invert the relation, so the a and b values can be used also to express the gmps as function of I. For each law the standard deviation and R2 value are estimated in order to test the quality and the reliability of the found relation. The Amatrice earthquake of 24th August of 2016 is used as case of study to test the goodness of the calculated regression laws.

  15. A COMPUTER-BASED ENVIRONMENT FOR PROCESSING AND SELECTION OF SEISMIC GROUND MOTION RECORDS: OPENSIGNAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Paolo eCimellaro

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A new computer-based platform has been proposed whose novelty consists in modeling the local site effects of the ground motion propagation using a hybrid approach based on an equivalent linear model. The soil behavior is modeled assuming that both the shear modulus and the damping ratio vary with the shear strain amplitude. So the hysteretic behavior of the soil is described using the shear modulus degradation and damping ratio curves. In addition, another originality of the proposed system architecture consists in the evaluation of the Conditional Mean Spectrum (CMS on the entire Italian territory automatically, knowing the geographical coordinates. The computer-based platform based on signal processing has been developed using a modular programming approach, to enable the selection and the processing of earthquake ground motion records. The proposed computer-based platform combines in unified environment different features such as: (i selection of ground motion records using both spectral and waveform matching, (ii signal processing, (iii response spectra analysis, (iv soil response analysis etc. The computer-based platform OPENSIGNAL is freely available for the general public at http://areeweb.polito.it/ricerca/ICRED/Software/OpenSignal.php.

  16. Decoupling the structure from the ground motion during earthquakes by employing friction pendulums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillich, G. R.; Iancu, V.; Gillich, N.; Korka, Z. I.; Chioncel, C. P.; Hatiegan, C.

    2018-01-01

    Avoiding dynamic loads on structures during earthquakes is an actual issue since seismic actions can harm or destroy the built environment. Several attempts to prevent this are possible, the essence being to decouple the structure from the ground motion during earthquakes and preventing in this way large deflections and high accelerations. A common approach is the use of friction pendulums, with cylindrical or spherical surfaces but not limited to that, inserted between the ground and the structure, respectively between the pillar and the superstructure. This type of bearings permits small pendulum motion and in this way, earthquake-induced displacements that occur in the bearings are not integrally transmitted to the structure. The consequence is that the structure is subject to greatly reduced lateral loads and shaking movements. In the experiments, conducted to prove the efficiency of the friction pendulums, we made use of an own designed and manufactured shaking table. Two types of sliding surfaces are analyzed, one polynomial of second order (i.e. circular) and one of a superior order. For both pendulum types, analytical models were developed. The results have shown that the structure is really decoupled from the ground motion and has a similar behaviour as that described by the analytic model.

  17. Seismic hazard analysis of Tianjin area based on strong ground motion prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Boming

    2010-08-01

    Taking Tianjin as an example, this paper proposed a methodology and process for evaluating near-fault strong ground motions from future earthquakes to mitigate earthquake damage for the metropolitan area and important engineering structures. The result of strong ground motion was predicted for Tianjin main faults by the hybrid method which mainly consists of 3D finite difference method and stochastic Green’s function. Simulation is performed for 3D structures of Tianjin region and characterized asperity models. The characterized asperity model describing source heterogeneity is introduced following the fault information from the project of Tianjin Active Faults and Seismic Hazard Assessment. We simulated the worst case that two earthquakes separately occur. The results indicate that the fault position, rupture process and the sedimentary deposits of the basin significantly affect amplification of the simulated ground motion. Our results also demonstrate the possibility of practical simulating wave propagation including basin induced surface waves in broad frequency-band, for seismic hazard analysis near the fault from future earthquakes in urbanized areas.

  18. Ground Motion Prediction of Subduction Earthquakes using the Onshore-Offshore Ambient Seismic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viens, L.; Miyake, H.; Koketsu, K.

    2014-12-01

    Seismic waves produced by earthquakes already caused plenty of damages all around the world and are still a real threat to human beings. To reduce seismic risk associated with future earthquakes, accurate ground motion predictions are required, especially for cities located atop sedimentary basins that can trap and amplify these seismic waves. We focus this study on long-period ground motions produced by subduction earthquakes in Japan which have the potential to damage large-scale structures, such as high-rise buildings, bridges, and oil storage tanks. We extracted the impulse response functions from the ambient seismic field recorded by two stations using one as a virtual source, without any preprocessing. This method allows to recover the reliable phases and relative, rather than absolute, amplitudes. To retrieve corresponding Green's functions, the impulse response amplitudes need to be calibrated using observational records of an earthquake which happened close to the virtual source. We show that Green's functions can be extracted between offshore submarine cable-based sea-bottom seismographic observation systems deployed by JMA located atop subduction zones and on-land NIED/Hi-net stations. In contrast with physics-based simulations, this approach has the great advantage to predict ground motions of moderate earthquakes (Mw ~5) at long-periods in highly populated sedimentary basin without the need of any external information about the velocity structure.

  19. Ground motion simulations in Marmara (Turkey) region from 3D finite difference method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aochi, Hideo; Ulrich, Thomas; Douglas, John

    2016-04-01

    In the framework of the European project MARSite (2012-2016), one of the main contributions from our research team was to provide ground-motion simulations for the Marmara region from various earthquake source scenarios. We adopted a 3D finite difference code, taking into account the 3D structure around the Sea of Marmara (including the bathymetry) and the sea layer. We simulated two moderate earthquakes (about Mw4.5) and found that the 3D structure improves significantly the waveforms compared to the 1D layer model. Simulations were carried out for different earthquakes (moderate point sources and large finite sources) in order to provide shake maps (Aochi and Ulrich, BSSA, 2015), to study the variability of ground-motion parameters (Douglas & Aochi, BSSA, 2016) as well as to provide synthetic seismograms for the blind inversion tests (Diao et al., GJI, 2016). The results are also planned to be integrated in broadband ground-motion simulations, tsunamis generation and simulations of triggered landslides (in progress by different partners). The simulations are freely shared among the partners via the internet and the visualization of the results is diffused on the project's homepage. All these simulations should be seen as a reference for this region, as they are based on the latest knowledge that obtained during the MARSite project, although their refinement and validation of the model parameters and the simulations are a continuing research task relying on continuing observations. The numerical code used, the models and the simulations are available on demand.

  20. Rupture dynamics and ground motions from earthquakes in 2-D heterogeneous media

    KAUST Repository

    Bydlon, Samuel A.

    2015-03-21

    ©2015. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved. We perform 2-D simulations of earthquakes on rough faults in media with random heterogeneities (with von Karman distribution) to study the effects of geometric and material heterogeneity on the rupture process and resulting high-frequency ground motions in the near-fault region (out to ∼20km). Variations in slip and rupture velocity can arise from material heterogeneity alone but are dominantly controlled by fault roughness. Scattering effects become appreciable beyond ∼3km from the fault. Near-fault scattering extends the duration of incoherent, high-frequency ground motions and, at least in our 2-D simulations, elevates root-mean-square accelerations (i.e., Arias intensity) with negligible reduction in peak velocities. We also demonstrate that near-fault scattering typically occurs in the power law tail of the power spectral density function, quantified by the Hurst exponent and another parameter combining standard deviation and correlation length. Key Points Fault roughness, not material heterogeneity, dominates rupture process Introduce parameter that can be used to quantify near-fault scattering Scattering affects the duration and amplitude of high-frequency ground motions

  1. On the generation of tangential ground motion by underground explosions in jointed rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorobiev, Oleg; Ezzedine, Souheil; Antoun, Tarabay; Glenn, Lewis

    2015-03-01

    This paper describes computational studies of tangential ground motions generated by spherical explosions in a heavily jointed granite formation. Various factors affecting the shear wave generation are considered, including joint spacing, orientation and frictional properties. Simulations are performed both in 2-D for a single joint set to elucidate the basic response mechanisms, and in 3-D for multiple joint sets to realistically represent in situ conditions in a realistic geological setting. The joints are modelled explicitly using both contact elements and weakness planes in the material. Simulations are performed both deterministically and stochastically to quantify the effects of geological uncertainties on near field ground motions. The mechanical properties of the rock and the joints as well as the joint spacing and orientation are taken from experimental test data and geophysical logs corresponding to the Climax Stock granitic outcrop, which is the geological setting of the source physics experiment (SPE). Agreement between simulation results and near field wave motion data from SPE enables newfound understanding of the origin and extent of non-spherical motions associated with underground explosions in fractured geological media.

  2. Long Duration of Ground Motion in the Paradigmatic Valley of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Atienza, V. M.; Tago, J.; Sanabria-Gómez, J. D.; Chaljub, E.; Etienne, V.; Virieux, J.; Quintanar, L.

    2016-12-01

    Built-up on top of ancient lake deposits, Mexico City experiences some of the largest seismic site effects worldwide. Besides the extreme amplification of seismic waves, duration of intense ground motion from large subduction earthquakes exceeds three minutes in the lake-bed zone of the basin, where hundreds of buildings collapsed or were seriously damaged during the magnitude 8.0 Michoacán earthquake in 1985. Different mechanisms contribute to the long lasting motions, such as the regional dispersion and multiple-scattering of the incoming wavefield from the coast, more than 300 km away the city. By means of high performance computational modeling we show that, despite the highly dissipative basin deposits, seismic energy can propagate long distances in the deep structure of the valley, promoting also a large elongation of motion. Our simulations reveal that the seismic response of the basin is dominated by surface-waves overtones, and that this mechanism increases the duration of ground motion by more than 170% and 290% of the incoming wavefield duration at 0.5 and 0.3 Hz, respectively, which are two frequencies with the largest observed amplification. This conclusion contradicts what has been previously stated from observational and modeling investigations, where the basin itself has been discarded as a preponderant factor promoting long and devastating shaking in Mexico City.

  3. Long Duration of Ground Motion in the Paradigmatic Valley of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Atienza, V. M.; Tago, J.; Sanabria-Gómez, J. D.; Chaljub, E.; Etienne, V.; Virieux, J.; Quintanar, L.

    2016-01-01

    Built-up on top of ancient lake deposits, Mexico City experiences some of the largest seismic site effects worldwide. Besides the extreme amplification of seismic waves, duration of intense ground motion from large subduction earthquakes exceeds three minutes in the lake-bed zone of the basin, where hundreds of buildings collapsed or were seriously damaged during the magnitude 8.0 Michoacán earthquake in 1985. Different mechanisms contribute to the long lasting motions, such as the regional dispersion and multiple-scattering of the incoming wavefield from the coast, more than 300 km away the city. By means of high performance computational modeling we show that, despite the highly dissipative basin deposits, seismic energy can propagate long distances in the deep structure of the valley, promoting also a large elongation of motion. Our simulations reveal that the seismic response of the basin is dominated by surface-waves overtones, and that this mechanism increases the duration of ground motion by more than 170% and 290% of the incoming wavefield duration at 0.5 and 0.3 Hz, respectively, which are two frequencies with the largest observed amplification. This conclusion contradicts what has been previously stated from observational and modeling investigations, where the basin itself has been discarded as a preponderant factor promoting long and devastating shaking in Mexico City. PMID:27934934

  4. Neck range of motion measurements using a new three-dimensional motion analysis system: validity and repeatability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inokuchi, Haruhi; Tojima, Michio; Mano, Hiroshi; Ishikawa, Yuki; Ogata, Naoshi; Haga, Nobuhiko

    2015-12-01

    Neck movement is important for many activities of daily living (ADL). Neck disorders, such as cervical spondylosis and whiplash can limit neck movement and ADL. The cervical range of motion (CROM) device has been recently used to measure neck range of motion (ROM); however, this measurement includes trunk motion, and therefore does not represent a pure neck ROM measurement. The authors aimed to develop a new method to establish pure neck ROM measurements during flexion, extension, lateral bending, and rotation using a three-dimensional motion analysis system, VICON. Twelve healthy participants were recruited and neck ROMs during flexion, extension, lateral bending, and rotation were measured using VICON and the CROM device. Test-retest repeatability was assessed using interclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), standard error of measurement (SEM), and minimal detectable change (MDC). Validity between two measurements was evaluated using a determination coefficient and Pearson's correlation coefficient. ICCs of neck ROM measured using VICON and the CROM device were all at substantial or almost perfect levels [VICON: ICC(1,2) = 0.786-0.962, the CROM device: ICC(1,2) = 0.736-0.950]. Both SEMs and MDCs were low in all measurement directions (VICON: SEM = 1.3°-4.5°, MDC = 3.6°-12.5°; the CROM device: SEM = 2.2°-3.9°, MDC = 6.1°-10.7°). Determination coefficients (R(2)s) and Pearson's correlation coefficients (rs) between the two measurement methods were high (R(2) = 0.607-0.745, r = 0.779-0.863). VICON is a useful system to measure neck ROMs and evaluate the efficacy of interventions, such as surgery or physiotherapeutic exercise.

  5. Femoroacetabular impingement and its implications on range of motion: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bloem Rolf M

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Femoroacetabular impingement leads to limited hip motion, pain and progressive damage to the labrum. Assessment of the amount and location of excessive ossification can be difficult, and removal does not always lead to pain relief and an increase of function. One of the challenges ahead is to discover why certain cases have poor outcomes. Case presentation The technical and clinical results of two consecutive arthroscopic shavings of an osseous cam protrusion are described in our patient, a 50-year-old Caucasian man with complaints of femoroacetabular impingement. At 12 weeks after the first arthroscopic shaving, our patient still experienced pain. Using a range of motion simulation system based on computed tomography images the kinematics of his hip joint were analyzed. Bone that limited range of motion was removed in a second arthroscopic procedure. At six months post-operatively our patient is almost pain free and has regained a range of motion to a functional level. Conclusion This case demonstrates the relevance of range of motion simulation when the outcome of primary arthroscopic management is unsatisfactory. Such simulations may aid clinicians in determining the gain of a second operation. This claim is supported by the correlation of the simulations with clinical outcome, as shown in this case report.

  6. Should ground-motion records be rotated to fault-normal/parallel or maximum direction for response history analysis of buildings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Juan C.; Kalkan, Erol

    2012-01-01

    In the United States, regulatory seismic codes (for example, California Building Code) require at least two sets of horizontal ground-motion components for three-dimensional (3D) response history analysis (RHA) of building structures. For sites within 5 kilometers (3.1 miles) of an active fault, these records should be rotated to fault-normal and fault-parallel (FN/FP) directions, and two RHAs should be performed separately—when FN and then FP direction are aligned with transverse direction of the building axes. This approach is assumed to lead to two sets of responses that envelope the range of possible responses over all nonredundant rotation angles. The validity of this assumption is examined here using 3D computer models of single-story structures having symmetric (torsionally stiff) and asymmetric (torsionally flexible) layouts subjected to an ensemble of near-fault ground motions with and without apparent velocity pulses. In this parametric study, the elastic vibration period is varied from 0.2 to 5 seconds, and yield-strength reduction factors, R, are varied from a value that leads to linear-elastic design to 3 and 5. Further validations are performed using 3D computer models of 9-story structures having symmetric and asymmetric layouts subjected to the same ground-motion set. The influence of the ground-motion rotation angle on several engineering demand parameters (EDPs) is examined in both linear-elastic and nonlinear-inelastic domains to form benchmarks for evaluating the use of the FN/FP directions and also the maximum direction (MD). The MD ground motion is a new definition for horizontal ground motions for use in site-specific ground-motion procedures for seismic design according to provisions of the American Society of Civil Engineers/Seismic Engineering Institute (ASCE/SEI) 7-10. The results of this study have important implications for current practice, suggesting that ground motions rotated to MD or FN/FP directions do not necessarily provide

  7. The effect of ankle range of motion on venous ulcer healing rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Elizabeth; Richmond, Nicholas A; Baquerizo, Katherine; Van Driessche, Freya; Slade, Herbert B; Pieper, Barbara; Kirsner, Robert S

    2014-01-01

    Limitation of ankle movement may contribute to calf muscle pump failure, which is thought to contribute to venous leg ulcer formation, which affects nearly 1 million Americans. We therefore wished to study ankle movement in patients with venous leg ulcers and its effect on healing. Using goniometry, we measured baseline ankle range of motion in venous leg ulcer patients from a Phase 2 dose-finding study of an allogeneic living cell bioformulation. Two hundred twenty-seven patients were enrolled in four active treatment groups and one standard-care control group, all receiving compression therapy. Goniometry data from a control group of 49 patients without venous disease, from a previous study, was used for comparison. We found patients with active venous leg ulcers had significantly reduced ankle range of motion compared with the control group (p = 0.001). After 12 weeks of therapy, baseline ankle range of motion was not associated with healing, as there was no significant difference between healed and nonhealed groups, suggesting that ankle range of motion is not important in venous leg ulcer healing or, more likely, is overcome by compression. However, patients with venous ulcers located on the leg (as opposed to the ankle) had significantly higher ankle range of motion for plantar flexion and inversion (p = 0.021 and p = 0.034, respectively) and improved healing with both cell bioformulation and standard care (p = 0.011), suggesting that wound location is an important variable for ankle range of motion as well as for healing outcomes. © 2014 by the Wound Healing Society.

  8. Effect of three types of flexibility training on active and passive hip range of motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Bedoya, J; Vernetta-Santana, M; Robles-Fuentes, A; Ariza-Vargas, L

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the effect of 3 types of flexibility training, hold-relax (HR, N.=9), active isolated stretching (AIS, N.=9) and passive static stretching (PSS, N.=11) on passive and active range of motion of hip flexion after 9 weeks of flexibility training. The subjects were physical education college students (14 men and 15 women) whose ages ranged between 20 and 24 years (age mean 21.79, SD: 2.45). A multigroup pre- post-test design with three experimental groups was used. The range of movement was measured by digitalization of pre-test and post-test images. Significant differences were found among the pre- and post-test for the three groups (P<0.05) on passive range of motion of the hip flexion, although there were no significant post-test differences between experimental groups. However, on the active range of motion of hip flexion there was only significant improvement among the pre-test and post-tests for PSS group (P<0.05). The results suggest that PSS is the best option for the improvement of both active and passive range of motion.

  9. Similar range of motion and function after resurfacing large-head or standard total hip arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penny, Jeannette Østergaard; Ovesen, Ole; Varmarken, Jens-Erik

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Large-size hip articulations may improve range of motion (ROM) and function compared to a 28-mm THA, and the low risk of dislocation allows the patients more activity postoperatively. On the other hand, the greater extent of surgery for resurfacing hip arthroplasty (RHA......° (35), 232° (36), and 225° (30) respectively, but the differences were not statistically significant. The 3 groups were similar regarding Harris hip score, UCLA activity score, step rate, and sick leave. INTERPRETATION: Head size had no influence on range of motion. The lack of restriction allowed...

  10. Knee range of motion: reliability and agreement of 3 measurement methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Paul G; Herbenick, Michael A; Anloague, Philip A; Markert, Ronald J; Rubino, L Joseph

    2011-12-01

    We conducted a study to compare 3 methods of measuring knee range of motion: visual estimation by physicians, hand goniometry by physical therapists, and radiographic goniometry. We hypothesized that reliability would be high within and across all techniques. We found intrarater and interrater reliability to be satisfactory for visual estimation, hand goniometry, and radiographic goniometry. Interrater reliability across methods did not agree satisfactorily. Between-methods differences in estimating knee range of motion may result from variations in technique among physicians and physical therapists.

  11. The concurrent validity and reliability of the Leg Motion system for measuring ankle dorsiflexion range of motion in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero Morales, Carlos; Calvo Lobo, César; Rodríguez Sanz, David; Sanz Corbalán, Irene; Ruiz Ruiz, Beatriz; López López, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    New reliable devices for range of motion (ROM) measures in older adults are necessary to improve knowledge about the functional capability in this population. Dorsiflexion ROM limitation is associated with ankle injuries, foot pain, lower limb disorders, loss of balance, gait control disorders and fall risk in older adults. The aim of the present study was to assess the validity and reliability of the Leg Motion device for measuring ankle dorsiflexion ROM in older adults. Adescriptive repeated-measures study was designed to test the reliability of Leg Motion in thirty-three healthy elderly patients older than 65 years. The subjects had to meet the following inclusion and exclusion criteria in their medical records: older than 65 years; no lower extremity injury for at least one year prior to evaluation (meniscopathy, or fractures) and any chronic injuries (e.g., osteoarthritis); no previous hip, knee or ankle surgery; no neuropathic alterations and no cognitive conditions (e.g., Alzheimer's disease or dementia). Participants were recruited through the person responsible for the physiotherapist area from a nursing center. The subjects were evaluated in two different sessions at the same time of day, and there was a break of two weeks between sessions. To test the validity of the Leg Motion system, the participants were measured in a weight-bearing lunge position using a classic goniometer with 1° increments, a smartphone with an inclinometer standard app (iPhone 5S®) with 1° increments and a measuring tape that could measure 0.1 cm. All testing was performed while the patients were barefoot. The researcher had ten years of experience as a physiotherapist using goniometer, tape measure and inclinometer devices. Mean values and standard deviations were as follows: Leg Motion (right 5.15 ± 3.08; left 5.19 ± 2.98), tape measure (right 5.12 ± 3.08; left 5.12 ± 2.80), goniometer (right 45.87° ± 4.98; left 44.50° ± 5.54) and inclinometer app (right

  12. The concurrent validity and reliability of the Leg Motion system for measuring ankle dorsiflexion range of motion in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Romero Morales

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background New reliable devices for range of motion (ROM measures in older adults are necessary to improve knowledge about the functional capability in this population. Dorsiflexion ROM limitation is associated with ankle injuries, foot pain, lower limb disorders, loss of balance, gait control disorders and fall risk in older adults. The aim of the present study was to assess the validity and reliability of the Leg Motion device for measuring ankle dorsiflexion ROM in older adults. Methods Adescriptive repeated-measures study was designed to test the reliability of Leg Motion in thirty-three healthy elderly patients older than 65 years. The subjects had to meet the following inclusion and exclusion criteria in their medical records: older than 65 years; no lower extremity injury for at least one year prior to evaluation (meniscopathy, or fractures and any chronic injuries (e.g., osteoarthritis; no previous hip, knee or ankle surgery; no neuropathic alterations and no cognitive conditions (e.g., Alzheimer’s disease or dementia. Participants were recruited through the person responsible for the physiotherapist area from a nursing center. The subjects were evaluated in two different sessions at the same time of day, and there was a break of two weeks between sessions. To test the validity of the Leg Motion system, the participants were measured in a weight-bearing lunge position using a classic goniometer with 1° increments, a smartphone with an inclinometer standard app (iPhone 5S® with 1° increments and a measuring tape that could measure 0.1 cm. All testing was performed while the patients were barefoot. The researcher had ten years of experience as a physiotherapist using goniometer, tape measure and inclinometer devices. Results Mean values and standard deviations were as follows: Leg Motion (right 5.15 ± 3.08; left 5.19 ± 2.98, tape measure (right 5.12 ± 3.08; left 5.12 ± 2.80, goniometer (right 45.87° ± 4.98; left 44

  13. Effect of pain-free range exercise on shoulder pain and range of motion in an amateur skier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Won-Gyu

    2016-12-01

    [Purpose] This study prescribed pain-free range exercises for a female amateur skier who complained of limitations in her shoulder range of motion, and pain caused by protective spasms; the tester evaluated the effects of such exercise on pain. [Subject and Methods] A 23-year-old female who complained of pain of 3 weeks in duration in the right glenohumoral and scapulothoracic joints was enrolled. [Results] After pain-free range exercises, the visual analog pain score was 2 and the shoulder flexion and abduction angles improved compared to the initial values. [Conclusion] Thus, this study suggests muscle-strengthening exercises within the pain-free range, rather than simple pain treatments, as therapy for acute muscle injuries in skiers.

  14. Impact of walking surface on the range of motion of equine distal limb joints for rehabilitation purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez-Angulo, Jose L; Firshman, Anna M; Groschen, Donna M; Kieffer, Philip J; Trumble, Troy N

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of three footing surfaces on the flexion/extension, and range of motion (ROM) of the carpus, tarsus and fetlocks in the horse. The percentage of stride spent in the stance phase of sound horses at the walk was also measured. Nine sound horses were walked on hard ground (HD), soft ground (SF) and a land treadmill (LT), and five complete gait cycles were recorded by a digital video camera. Retro-reflective markers were placed on the skin at four anatomical locations on the left fore and hind limbs, and data were analyzed using two-dimensional (2D) motion-analysis software. Maximal flexion/extension angles and range of motion were calculated for each joint, and the percentage of the stride spent in stance phase was determined for each stride. Maximal flexion of the tarsus and hind fetlock was greater on LT and SF compared to HD, while maximal flexion of the carpus was greater on LT compared to HD and SF. Maximal extension of the carpus was greater on HD compared to SF and LT, maximal extension of the tarsus was greater on HD and SF compared to LT, and maximal extension of the forelimb and hind limb fetlocks was greater on LT compared to HD and SF. The greatest overall ROM of the carpus and fetlocks was achieved on LT, while the greatest overall ROM of the tarsus was achieved on SF. The stance percentage of the stride for the hind limb was significantly different between all surfaces. In conclusion, walking surface influences flexion/extension of the carpus, tarsus and fetlocks in healthy horses, which should be considered when walking equine rehabilitation cases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Ground motion modelling in the Gujarat region of Western India using empirical Green's function approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Pallabee; Chopra, Sumer; Roy, Ketan Singha; Sharma, Jyoti

    2016-04-01

    In this study, ground motions are estimated for scenario earthquakes of Mw 6.0, 6.5 and 7.0 at 17 sites in Gujarat region using Empirical Green's function technique. The Dholavira earthquake of June 19, 2012 (Mw 5.1) which occurred in the Kachchh region of Gujarat is considered as an element earthquake. We estimated the focal mechanism and source parameters of the element earthquake using standard methodologies. The moment tensor inversion technique is used to determine the fault plane solution (strike = 8°, dip = 51°, and rake = - 7°). The seismic moment and the stress drop are 5.6 × 1016 Nm and 120 bars respectively. The validity of the approach was tested for a smaller earthquake. A few possible directivity scenarios were also tested to find out the effect of directivity on the level of ground motions. Our study reveals that source complexities and site effects play a very important role in deciding the level of ground motions at a site which are difficult to model by GMPEs. Our results shed new light on the expected accelerations in the region and suggest that the Kachchh region can expect maximum acceleration of around 500 cm/s2 at few sites near source and around 200 cm/s2 at most of the sites located within 50 km from the epicentre for a Mw 7.0 earthquake. The estimated ground accelerations can be used by the administrators and planners for providing a guiding framework to undertake mitigation investments and activities in the region.

  16. Characterisation of ground motion recording stations in the Groningen gas field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noorlandt, Rik; Kruiver, Pauline P.; de Kleine, Marco P. E.; Karaoulis, Marios; de Lange, Ger; Di Matteo, Antonio; von Ketelhodt, Julius; Ruigrok, Elmer; Edwards, Benjamin; Rodriguez-Marek, Adrian; Bommer, Julian J.; van Elk, Jan; Doornhof, Dirk

    2018-01-01

    The seismic hazard and risk analysis for the onshore Groningen gas field requires information about local soil properties, in particular shear-wave velocity (V S). A fieldwork campaign was conducted at 18 surface accelerograph stations of the monitoring network. The subsurface in the region consists of unconsolidated sediments and is heterogeneous in composition and properties. A range of different methods was applied to acquire in situ V S values to a target depth of at least 30 m. The techniques include seismic cone penetration tests (SCPT) with varying source offsets, multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW) on Rayleigh waves with different processing approaches, microtremor array, cross-hole tomography and suspension P-S logging. The offset SCPT, cross-hole tomography and common midpoint cross-correlation (CMPcc) processing of MASW data all revealed lateral variations on length scales of several to tens of metres in this geological setting. SCPTs resulted in very detailed V S profiles with depth, but represent point measurements in a heterogeneous environment. The MASW results represent V S information on a larger spatial scale and smooth some of the heterogeneity encountered at the sites. The combination of MASW and SCPT proved to be a powerful and cost-effective approach in determining representative V S profiles at the accelerograph station sites. The measured V S profiles correspond well with the modelled profiles and they significantly enhance the ground motion model derivation. The similarity between the theoretical transfer function from the V S profile and the observed amplification from vertical array stations is also excellent.

  17. The Las Vegas Valley Seismic Response Project: Ground Motions in Las Vegas Valley from Nuclear Explosions at the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodgers, A; Tkalcic, H; McCallen, D

    2005-03-18

    that have no historical record of explosions. The method is also used to scale nuclear explosion ground motions to different yields. They also present a range of studies to understand basin structure and response performed on data from the temporary deployment.

  18. Factors Associated with Range of Motion Recovery Following Manipulation Under Anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plate, Johannes F; Wohler, Andrew D; Brown, Matthew L; Sun, Daniel; Fino, Nora F; Lang, Jason E

    2016-10-26

    Stiffness and loss of motion following total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a complex and multifactorial complication that may require manipulation under anesthesia (MUA). However, patient and surgical factors that potentially influence the development of knee stiffness following TKA are not fully understood. The purpose of this study was to identify patient and surgical factors that may influence range of motion loss following TKA by assessing a cohort of patients that underwent MUA and comparing them to a matched cohort of patients without complications. The joints registry was searched for patients who underwent MUA following primary TKA between 2004 and 2013. Demographic and surgical information was obtained from the electronic medical record including range of motion (ROM), comorbidities and timing of MUA. Patients who underwent MUA were then double-matched by baseline (prior to primary TKA) knee ROM to patients who underwent primary TKA with normal postoperative range of motion recovery during the same time period. Fifty-two patients (fifty-six knees) (66% female, mean BMI 32.4 kg/m2) underwent MUA after TKA during the study period. MUA was performed a mean of 13.6 weeks after primary TKA. Study patients were double-matched by baseline flexion (mean 107º±2º) to 111 patients (112 knees) with a similar mean baseline flexion (104º±2º, p=0.138). Patients requiring MUA were younger (mean age 56 vs. 64 years, p50 mL, and any complication during the hospital stay were not found to be associated with an increased risk of requiring MUA. Younger patients with more comorbidities and a history of previous knee surgery were found to have significantly higher risk for developing stiffness and loss of motion requiring MUA after primary TKA in the current study. Patients with this risk profile need to be counseled regarding the risk for postoperative knee stiffness and range of motion loss possibly requiring MUA after primary TKA.

  19. Shoulder Range of Motion and Strength in Professional Ice Hockey Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Randy M; Strauss, Eric J; Jazrawi, Laith M; Feldman, Andrew J

    2015-03-01

    Ice hockey is a fast paced sport with unique injury potential. There are no studies in the literature that examine the shoulder strength and range of motion in this population. Players on a single professional ice hockey team underwent a comprehensive examination of shoulder motion and strength. Shoulder motion and strength between right and left extremities were compared within athletes. Comparisons were made between right and left handed players, players that shoot right versus left handed, and by position. Within individual athletes, there was no difference in motion or strength between right and left shoulders. There was no difference in motion or strength between the dominant and non-dominant shoulder and players that shoot right versus left handed. Defensemen had a statistically significant increase in external rotation with the arm at the side for the left shoulder (66° versus 55°, p = 0.02) and a trend towards increased external rotation with the arm at the side for the right shoulder (65° versus 56°, p = 0.07). In professional ice hockey players, there is no difference in shoulder motion and strength between the right and left upper extremity. Ice hockey defensemen may have more external rotation with the arm at the side than forward.

  20. Assessment of cervical range of motion, cervical core strength and scapular dyskinesia in violin players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawde, Pooja; Dabadghav, Rachana; Bedekar, Nilima; Shyam, Ashok; Sancheti, Parag

    2016-12-01

    Playing the violin can lead to asymmetric postures which can affect the cervical range of motion, cervical core strength and scapular stability. The objective of the study was to assess the cervical range of motion, cervical core strength and scapular dyskinesia in violin players and non-players of the same age group. An inclinometer was used to assess the cervical range of motion, pressure biofeedback was used to assess cervical core strength and scapular dyskinesia was also assessed in 30 professional violin players (18-40 years) compared with 30 age-matched non-players. Analysis was done using an unpaired t test. Significant change was seen with respect to extension (p = 0.051), cervical core strength (p = 0.005), right (Rt) superior angle 0° (p = 0.004), Rt superior angle 45° (p = 0.015) and Rt inferior angle 90° (p = 0.013). This study shows a significant difference in extension range of motion and cervical core strength of violin players. Also, there was scapular dyskinesia seen at 0° and 45° right-side superior angle of the scapula and 90° right-side inferior angle of the scapula.

  1. Sagittal range of motion after a spinal fracture : does ROM correlate with functional outcome?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, RB; Leferink, VJM

    2004-01-01

    Literature regarding the effect of a spinal fracture and its treatment in terms of resulting spinal range of motion (ROM) is scarce. However, there is need for data regarding sagittal spinal ROM, since many patients who sustain a spinal fracture are concerned about the back mobility they will have

  2. Reduced mandibular range of motion in Duchenne muscular dystrophy : Predictive factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bruggen, H. W.; Van Den Engel-Hoek, L.; Steenks, M. H.; Bronkhorst, E. M.; Creugers, N. H J; de Groot, I. J M; Kalaykova, S. I.

    2015-01-01

    Patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) experience negative effects upon feeding and oral health. We aimed to determine whether the mandibular range of motion in DMD is impaired and to explore predictive factors for the active maximum mouth opening (aMMO). 23 patients with DMD (mean age 16·7

  3. RANGE OF MOTION EXERCISE OF ARMS INCREASES THE MUCLE STRENGTH FOR POST STROKE PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judi Nurbaeni

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Someone attached by stroke can’t do their activity fluently because stroke can cause the weakness of motor and sensor function. This condition cause physical defect and give effect in social and economic too, because someone who suffered stroke usually still in productive age. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of arm range of motion in the muscle strength of post stroke patient. Method: Pre experimental pre–post test design was used in this study. Population of this study was post stroke patient in Wijayakusuma ward dr. Soedono Hospital and total samples were 11 respondents. Independent variable was arm range of motion exercise, dependent variable was strength of arm muscle. Data were collected by observation with manual muscle testing of Lovelt, Naniel and Worthinghom and then analyzed using wilcoxon signed rank test with signi fi cant level of α ≤ 0.05. Result: The result showed that 11 respondents had increased their strength of muscle (p = 0.04. Discussion: It can be concluded that the strength of muscle increased after get arm range of motion exercise. When range of motion had been done Ca+ will be activated by cell so that happen integrity of muscle protein. If Ca+ and troponin had been activated, actin and myosin would have been defensed, so that can moved the skeletal and followed by muscle contraction, expand, outgrow and had a tonus. This condition can showed the strength of muscle.

  4. Exercise induced effects on muscle function and range of motion in patients with hip osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bieler, Theresa; Siersma, Volkert; Magnusson, S Peter

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Patients with hip osteoarthritis have impairments in muscle function (muscle strength and power) and hip range of motion (ROM), and it is commonly believed that effective clinical management of osteoarthritis should address these impairments to reduce pain and disability. ...

  5. Reduced mandibular range of motion in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy: predictive factors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggen, H.W. van; Engel-Hoek, L. van den; Steenks, M.H.; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Creugers, N.H.J.; Groot, I.J.M. de; Kalaykova, S.I.

    2015-01-01

    Patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) experience negative effects upon feeding and oral health. We aimed to determine whether the mandibular range of motion in DMD is impaired and to explore predictive factors for the active maximum mouth opening (aMMO). 23 patients with DMD (mean age 16.7

  6. Reproducibility of cervical range of motion in patients with neck pain.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoving, J.L.; Pool, J.J.M.; Mameren, H.H. van; Devillé, W.L.J.M.; Assendelft, W.J.J.; Vet, H.C.W. de; Winter, A.F. de; Koes, B.W.; Bouter, L.M.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the intra-rater and inter-rater reproducibility of the measurement of active Range of Motion (ROM) in patients with neck pain using the Cybex Electronic Digital Inclinometer-320 (EDI-320). DESIGN: In an outpatient clinic in a primary care setting 32 patients with at least 2

  7. Reproducibility of cervical range of motion in patients with neck pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoving, J.L.; Pool, J.J.M.; Mameren, van H.; Deville, W.L.J.M.; Assendelft, W.J.J.; Vet, de H.C.W.; Winter, de A.F.; Koes, B.W.; Bouter, L.M.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the intra-rater and inter-rater reproducibility of the measurement of active Range of Motion (ROM) in patients with neck pain using the Cybex Electronic Digital Inclinometer-320 (EDI-320). DESIGN: In an outpatient clinic in a primary care setting 32 patients with at least 2

  8. Range of motion, neuromechanical and architectural daptations to plantar flexor stretch training in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blazevich, Anthony John; Cannavan, Dale; Waugh, Charlie M

    2014-01-01

    flexor stretches after 3 wk of twice-daily stretch training (4×30-s). No changes were observed in a non-exercising control group (N=9), however stretch training elicited a 19.9% increase in dorsiflexion range of motion (ROM) and 28% increase in passive joint moment at end ROM (N=12). Only a trend toward...

  9. Accurate Measurement of First Metatarsophalangeal Range of Motion in Patients With Hallux Rigidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vulcano, Ettore; Tracey, Joseph A; Myerson, Mark S

    2016-05-01

    The reliability of range of motion (ROM) measurements has not been established for the hallux metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint in patients with hallux rigidus. The aim of the present study was to prospectively assess the clinical versus radiographic difference in ROM of the arthritic hallux MTP joint. One hundred consecutive patients who presented with any grade of hallux rigidus were included in this prospective study to determine the hallux MTP range of motion. Clinical range of motion using a goniometer and radiographic range of motion on dynamic x-rays was recorded. The mean difference between clinical and radiographic dorsiflexion was 13 degrees (P dorsiflexion was equal to or less than radiographically measured dorsiflexion. The difference was significantly greater in patients with a clinical dorsiflexion of less than 30 degrees than in patients with 30 degrees or more. Radiographic measurement of hallux dorsiflexion had an excellent intra- and interobserver reliability. We describe a reliable, reproducible, and straightforward method of measuring hallux MTP ROM that improved upon measuring clinical ROM. Level II, prospective comparative study. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. In-vivo range of motion of the subtalar joint using computed tomography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beimers, Lijkele; Tuijthof, Gabriëlle Josephine Maria; Blankevoort, Leendert; Jonges, Remmet; Maas, Mario; van Dijk, C. Niek

    2008-01-01

    Understanding in vivo subtalar joint kinematics is important for evaluation of subtalar joint instability, the design of a subtalar prosthesis and for analysing surgical procedures of the ankle and hindfoot. No accurate data are available on the normal range of subtalar joint motion. The purpose of

  11. Variation in measurements of range of motion : a study in reflex sympathetic dystrophy patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geertzen, J.H.B.; Dijkstra, P.U.; Stewart, R.E; Groothoff, J.W.; ten Duis, H J; Eisma, W.H.

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To quantify the amount of variation attributed to different sources of variation in measurement results of upper extremity range of motion, and to estimate the smallest detectable difference (SDD) between measurements in reflex sympathetic dystrophy (RSD) patients. Design: Two observers

  12. pain, range of motion and activity level as correlates of dynamic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-12-01

    Dec 1, 2014 ... range of motion and level of activity on dynamic bal- ance among elderly people with hip osteoarthritis. (OA). ... cal movement of the lower limbs.8,9 Impairment of motor control components due to disease, may give rise ..... The Kinematics and Kinet- ics of turning: limb asymmetries associated with walking a ...

  13. Investigation of the frequency content of ground motions recorded during strong Vrancea earthquakes, based on deterministic and stochastic indices

    CERN Document Server

    Craifaleanu, Iolanda-Gabriela

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents results from a recent study in progress, involving an extensive analysis, based on several deterministic and stochastic indices, of the frequency content of ground motions recorded during strong Vrancea seismic events. The study, continuing those initiated by Lungu et al. in the early nineties, aims to better reveal the characteristics of the analyzed ground motions. Over 300 accelerograms, recorded during the strong Vrancea seismic events mentioned above and recently re-digitized, are used in the study. Various analytical estimators of the frequency content, such as those based on Fourier spectra, power spectral density, response spectra and peak ground motion values are evaluated and compared. The results are correlated and validated by using the information provided by various spectral bandwidth measures, as the Vanmarcke and the Cartwright and Longuet-Higgins indices. The capacity of the analyzed estimators to describe the frequency content of the analyzed ground motions is assessed com...

  14. The 26 January 2001 M 7.6 Bhuj, India, earthquake: Observed and predicted ground motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hough, S.E.; Martin, S.; Bilham, R.; Atkinson, G.M.

    2002-01-01

    Although local and regional instrumental recordings of the devastating 26, January 2001, Bhuj earthquake are sparse, the distribution of macroseismic effects can provide important constraints on the mainshock ground motions. We compiled available news accounts describing damage and other effects and interpreted them to obtain modified Mercalli intensities (MMIs) at >200 locations throughout the Indian subcontinent. These values are then used to map the intensity distribution throughout the subcontinent using a simple mathematical interpolation method. Although preliminary, the maps reveal several interesting features. Within the Kachchh region, the most heavily damaged villages are concentrated toward the western edge of the inferred fault, consistent with western directivity. Significant sediment-induced amplification is also suggested at a number of locations around the Gulf of Kachchh to the south of the epicenter. Away from the Kachchh region, intensities were clearly amplified significantly in areas that are along rivers, within deltas, or on coastal alluvium, such as mudflats and salt pans. In addition, we use fault-rupture parameters inferred from teleseismic data to predict shaking intensity at distances of 0-1000 km. We then convert the predicted hard-rock ground-motion parameters to MMI by using a relationship (derived from Internet-based intensity surveys) that assigns MMI based on the average effects in a region. The predicted MMIs are typically lower by 1-3 units than those estimated from news accounts, although they do predict near-field ground motions of approximately 80%g and potentially damaging ground motions on hard-rock sites to distances of approximately 300 km. For the most part, this discrepancy is consistent with the expected effect of sediment response, but it could also reflect other factors, such as unusually high building vulnerability in the Bhuj region and a tendency for media accounts to focus on the most dramatic damage, rather than

  15. Objective assessment with establishment of normal values for lumbar spinal range of motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, G K; Wynveen, K J; Rheault, W; Rothschild, B

    1983-11-01

    The purpose of this article is to present an assessment method, in conjunction with age-related normal values, for lumbar spinal range of motion. Lumbar flexion, lumbar extension, and right and left lateral flexion were measured on 172 subjects by a combination of goniometry and spinal distraction techniques. Normal values are given for six age groups; each group had a range of 10 years. The results demonstrate that a significant decrease in lumbar spinal range of motion is expected with increasing age. The interobserver reliability based on 17 subjects was substantial for the four measurements taken; coefficients ranged from +.76 to +1.0. The information may prove useful to the clinician as an improved method for assessing the lumbar spine.

  16. A neural model of the temporal dynamics of figure-ground segregation in motion perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raudies, Florian; Neumann, Heiko

    2010-03-01

    How does the visual system manage to segment a visual scene into surfaces and objects and manage to attend to a target object? Based on psychological and physiological investigations, it has been proposed that the perceptual organization and segmentation of a scene is achieved by the processing at different levels of the visual cortical hierarchy. According to this, motion onset detection, motion-defined shape segregation, and target selection are accomplished by processes which bind together simple features into fragments of increasingly complex configurations at different levels in the processing hierarchy. As an alternative to this hierarchical processing hypothesis, it has been proposed that the processing stages for feature detection and segregation are reflected in different temporal episodes in the response patterns of individual neurons. Such temporal epochs have been observed in the activation pattern of neurons as low as in area V1. Here, we present a neural network model of motion detection, figure-ground segregation and attentive selection which explains these response patterns in an unifying framework. Based on known principles of functional architecture of the visual cortex, we propose that initial motion and motion boundaries are detected at different and hierarchically organized stages in the dorsal pathway. Visual shapes that are defined by boundaries, which were generated from juxtaposed opponent motions, are represented at different stages in the ventral pathway. Model areas in the different pathways interact through feedforward and modulating feedback, while mutual interactions enable the communication between motion and form representations. Selective attention is devoted to shape representations by sending modulating feedback signals from higher levels (working memory) to intermediate levels to enhance their responses. Areas in the motion and form pathway are coupled through top-down feedback with V1 cells at the bottom end of the hierarchy

  17. Disaggregation of probabilistic ground motions in two cities of Western Iran, Kermanshah and Sanandaj

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Shabani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of disaggregation of ground motion hazard obtained for two of Iran’s urban centers, Kermanshah and Sanandaj. Disaggregation of peak ground acceleration (PGA and spectral acceleration hazard corresponding to mean return periods of 475 and 50 years is performed. 12 area seismic sources in the study region as well as 15 area seismic sources in a 150-km distance from the region are delineated. The scenario earthquakes are characterized by bins of magnitude, M, source-to-site distance, R, and number of standard deviations, ε, that the ground-motion parameter is away from its median value for that M-R pair as estimated by a prediction equation. In most cases, the sources closer to the site dominate. Larger, more distant earthquakes contribute more significantly to hazard for longer periods than for shorter periods. Disaggregation plots can provide useful information on the distance and magnitude of predominant sources, which can be used to generate scenario earthquakes and select corresponding time histories for seismic design.

  18. Fault Structural Control on Earthquake Strong Ground Motions: The 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake as an Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Dongli; Li, Xiaojun; Huang, Bei; Zheng, Wenjun; Wang, Yuejun

    2017-12-01

    Continental thrust faulting earthquakes pose severe threats to megacities across the world. Recent events show the possible control of fault structures on strong ground motions. The seismogenic structure of the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake is associated with high-angle listric reverse fault zones. Its peak ground accelerations (PGAs) show a prominent feature of fault zone amplification: the values within the 30- to 40-km-wide fault zone block are significantly larger than those on both the hanging wall and the footwall. The PGA values attenuate asymmetrically: they decay much more rapidly in the footwall than in the hanging wall. The hanging wall effects can be seen on both the vertical and horizontal components of the PGAs, with the former significantly more prominent than the latter. All these characteristics can be adequately interpreted by upward extrusion of the high-angle listric reverse fault zone block. Through comparison with a low-angle planar thrust fault associated with the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake, we conclude that different fault structures might have controlled different patterns of strong ground motion, which should be taken into account in seismic design and construction.

  19. PROBABILISTIC SEISMIC ASSESSMENT OF BASE-ISOLATED NPPS SUBJECTED TO STRONG GROUND MOTIONS OF TOHOKU EARTHQUAKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AHMER ALI

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The probabilistic seismic performance of a standard Korean nuclear power plant (NPP with an idealized isolation is investigated in the present work. A probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA of the Wolsong site on the Korean peninsula is performed by considering peak ground acceleration (PGA as an earthquake intensity measure. A procedure is reported on the categorization and selection of two sets of ground motions of the Tohoku earthquake, i.e. long-period and common as Set A and Set B respectively, for the nonlinear time history response analysis of the base-isolated NPP. Limit state values as multiples of the displacement responses of the NPP base isolation are considered for the fragility estimation. The seismic risk of the NPP is further assessed by incorporation of the rate of frequency exceedance and conditional failure probability curves. Furthermore, this framework attempts to show the unacceptable performance of the isolated NPP in terms of the probabilistic distribution and annual probability of limit states. The comparative results for long and common ground motions are discussed to contribute to the future safety of nuclear facilities against drastic events like Tohoku.

  20. Investigation of the frequency content of ground motions recorded during strong Vrancea earthquakes, based on deterministic and stochastic indices

    OpenAIRE

    Craifaleanu, Iolanda-Gabriela

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents results from a recent study in progress, involving an extensive analysis, based on several deterministic and stochastic indices, of the frequency content of ground motions recorded during strong Vrancea seismic events. The study, continuing those initiated by Lungu et al. in the early nineties, aims to better reveal the characteristics of the analyzed ground motions. Over 300 accelerograms, recorded during the strong Vrancea seismic events mentioned above and recently re-di...

  1. Motion planning in unstructured road for intelligent vehicle with long-range perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Chaoxia; Wang, Yanqing; Yang, Jingyu; Liu, Hanxiang

    2011-10-01

    We present a novel motion planning method for intelligent vehicle with long-range perception under the uncertain constraints of unstructured road boundary on the basis of obstacle roadside fusion strategy and beam curvature method . Not only does this method inherit the advantages of reliability, smoothness and speediness from LCM, but also it can produce more reasonable path than traditional LCM does by virtue of the global information acquired by long-range sensors.

  2. Effect of kinesio tape application on calf pain and ankle range of motion in duathletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino-Marban, Rafael; Mayorga-Vega, Daniel; Fernandez-Rodriguez, Emilio

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of the kinesio tape immediately after its application and after a duathlon competition on calf pain and the ankle range of motion in duathletes. A sample of 28 duathletes (age 29.11 ± 10.35 years; body height 172.57 ± 6.17 cm; body mass 66.63 ± 9.01 kg; body mass index 22.29 ± 2.00 kg/m(2)) were recruited from the competitors in a duathlon sprint. The Numerical Pain Rating Scale and ankle dorsiflexion range of motion measures were obtained at baseline, immediately after taping and 10 to 15 minutes after ending the duathlon competition. The kinesio tape was applied on the calf of duathletes 20 to 90 minutes before the competition, only on one of their legs (experimental leg) with the other leg acting as a control (control leg) in a randomized order. According to the between-group comparison, no differences were found immediately after the application of the kinesio tape and after the competition in the ankle range of motion and calf pain. However, a significant difference from baseline to immediately after taping was found in the ankle range of motion in the experimental leg. Applying the kinesio tape on the calf seems to immediately increase ankle dorsiflexion range of motion, but not after a duathlon competition. Applying the kinesio tape on the calf does not reduce muscle pain immediately or after a duathlon competition, but it appears to control an increase in pain.

  3. Effects of surface geology on the ground-motion at New Borg El-Arab City, Alexandria, Northern Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abuoelela A. Mohamed

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the near-surface geology on the ground-motion at New Borg El-Arab City were evaluated in the current work based on the analysis of the ambient noise records (microtremor. Sixty-nine microtremor measurements have been done in the studied area. The dataset was processed using horizontal-to-vertical-spectral ratio (HVSR technique to estimate the fundamental frequencies corresponding to the ground-motion amplification due to the soil deposits. By spatial interpolation of the resulted fundamental frequencies (f0 of all the measured sites, the zonation map was produced. This map was correlated with the geological features of the study area and demonstrated that the fundamental frequency ranges between 5.8 Hz and 7 Hz were corresponding to the sites located over Quaternary deposit. However, the fundamental frequencies (f0 increased in the middle of the study area due to presence of parallel Alexandria limestone ridge. Finally, site effect was highlighted by performing a site response analysis. It indicated that, the PGA at surface of the analyzed site is 0.047 g and the maximum spectral acceleration (SA is 0.157 g. It was also found that, the maximum spectral period from site response analysis is in a good agreement with that one from HVSR technique. This confirmed the robustness of HVSR for determination of fundamental period or frequency.

  4. Effects of surface geology on the ground-motion at New Borg El-Arab City, Alexandria, Northern Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Abuoelela A.; Helal, A. M. A.; Mohamed, A. M. E.; Shokry, M. M. F.; Ezzelarab, M.

    2016-06-01

    The effects of the near-surface geology on the ground-motion at New Borg El-Arab City were evaluated in the current work based on the analysis of the ambient noise records (microtremor). Sixty-nine microtremor measurements have been done in the studied area. The dataset was processed using horizontal-to-vertical-spectral ratio (HVSR) technique to estimate the fundamental frequencies corresponding to the ground-motion amplification due to the soil deposits. By spatial interpolation of the resulted fundamental frequencies (f0) of all the measured sites, the zonation map was produced. This map was correlated with the geological features of the study area and demonstrated that the fundamental frequency ranges between 5.8 Hz and 7 Hz were corresponding to the sites located over Quaternary deposit. However, the fundamental frequencies (f0) increased in the middle of the study area due to presence of parallel Alexandria limestone ridge. Finally, site effect was highlighted by performing a site response analysis. It indicated that, the PGA at surface of the analyzed site is 0.047 g and the maximum spectral acceleration (SA) is 0.157 g. It was also found that, the maximum spectral period from site response analysis is in a good agreement with that one from HVSR technique. This confirmed the robustness of HVSR for determination of fundamental period or frequency.

  5. Analysis of the variability in ground-motion synthesis and inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spudich, Paul A.; Cirella, Antonella; Scognamiglio, Laura; Tinti, Elisa

    2017-12-07

    In almost all past inversions of large-earthquake ground motions for rupture behavior, the goal of the inversion is to find the “best fitting” rupture model that predicts ground motions which optimize some function of the difference between predicted and observed ground motions. This type of inversion was pioneered in the linear-inverse sense by Olson and Apsel (1982), who minimized the square of the difference between observed and simulated motions (“least squares”) while simultaneously minimizing the rupture-model norm (by setting the null-space component of the rupture model to zero), and has been extended in many ways, one of which is the use of nonlinear inversion schemes such as simulated annealing algorithms that optimize some other misfit function. For example, the simulated annealing algorithm of Piatanesi and others (2007) finds the rupture model that minimizes a “cost” function which combines a least-squares and a waveform-correlation measure of misfit.All such inversions that look for a unique “best” model have at least three problems. (1) They have removed the null-space component of the rupture model—that is, an infinite family of rupture models that all fit the data equally well have been narrowed down to a single model. Some property of interest in the rupture model might have been discarded in this winnowing process. (2) Smoothing constraints are commonly used to yield a unique “best” model, in which case spatially rough rupture models will have been discarded, even if they provide a good fit to the data. (3) No estimate of confidence in the resulting rupture models can be given because the effects of unknown errors in the Green’s functions (“theory errors”) have not been assessed. In inversion for rupture behavior, these theory errors are generally larger than the data errors caused by ground noise and instrumental limitations, and so overfitting of the data is probably ubiquitous for such inversions.Recently, attention

  6. Correction of motion measurement errors beyond the range resolution of a synthetic aperture radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerry, Armin W [Albuquerque, NM; Heard, Freddie E [Albuquerque, NM; Cordaro, J Thomas [Albuquerque, NM

    2008-06-24

    Motion measurement errors that extend beyond the range resolution of a synthetic aperture radar (SAR) can be corrected by effectively decreasing the range resolution of the SAR in order to permit measurement of the error. Range profiles can be compared across the slow-time dimension of the input data in order to estimate the error. Once the error has been determined, appropriate frequency and phase correction can be applied to the uncompressed input data, after which range and azimuth compression can be performed to produce a desired SAR image.

  7. Motion Compensation of Moving Targets for High Range Resolution Stepped-Frequency Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiqin Wang

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available High range resolution (HRR profiling using stepped-frequency pulse trains suffers from range shift and the attenuation/dispersion of range profiles while the target of interest is moving. To overcome these two drawbacks, a new algorithm based on the maximum likelihood (ML estimation is proposed in this paper. Without altering the conventional stepped-frequency waveform, this algorithm can estimate the target velocity and thereby compensate the phase errors caused by the target’s motion. It is shown that the velocity can be accurately estimated and the range profile can be correctly reconstructed.

  8. Adapting Surface Ground Motion Relations to Underground conditions: A case study for the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory in Sudbury, Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaie Mahani, A.; Eaton, D. W.

    2013-12-01

    Ground Motion Prediction Equations (GMPEs) are widely used in Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment (PSHA) to estimate ground-motion amplitudes at Earth's surface as a function of magnitude and distance. Certain applications, such as hazard assessment for caprock integrity in the case of underground storage of CO2, waste disposal sites, and underground pipelines, require subsurface estimates of ground motion; at present, such estimates depend upon theoretical modeling and simulations. The objective of this study is to derive correction factors for GMPEs to enable estimation of amplitudes in the subsurface. We use a semi-analytic approach along with finite-difference simulations of ground-motion amplitudes for surface and underground motions. Spectral ratios of underground to surface motions are used to calculate the correction factors. Two predictive methods are used. The first is a semi-analytic approach based on a quarter-wavelength method that is widely used for earthquake site-response investigations; the second is a numerical approach based on elastic finite-difference simulations of wave propagation. Both methods are evaluated using recordings of regional earthquakes by broadband seismometers installed at the surface and at depths of 1400 m and 2100 m in the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory, Canada. Overall, both methods provide a reasonable fit to the peaks and troughs observed in the ratios of real data. The finite-difference method, however, has the capability to simulate ground motion ratios more accurately than the semi-analytic approach.

  9. Precise ground motion measurements to support multi-hazard analysis in Jakarta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koudogbo, Fifamè; Duro, Javier; Garcia Robles, Javier; Abidin, Hasanuddin Z.

    2015-04-01

    Jakarta is the capital of Indonesia and is home to approximately 10 million people on the coast of the Java Sea. The Capital District of Jakarta (DKI) sits in the lowest lying areas of the basin. Its topography varies, with the northern part just meters above current sea level and lying on a flood plain. Subsequently, this portion of the city frequently floods. Flood events have been increasing in severity during the past decade. The February 2007 event inundated 235 Km2 (about 36%) of the city, by up to seven meters in some areas. This event affected more than 2.6 million people; the estimated financial and economic losses from this event amounted to US900 million [1][2]. Inundations continue to occur under any sustained rainfall conditions. Flood events in Jakarta are expected to become more frequent in coming years, with a shift from previously slow natural processes with low frequency to a high frequency process resulting in severe socio-economic damage. Land subsidence in Jakarta results in increased vulnerability to flooding due to the reduced gravitational capacity to channel storm flows to the sea and an increased risk of tidal flooding. It continues at increasingly alarming rates, principally caused by intensive deep groundwater abstraction [3]. Recent studies have found typical subsidence rates of 7.5-10 cm a year. In localized areas of north Jakarta subsidence in the range 15-25 cm a year is occurring which, if sustained, would result in them sinking to 4-5 m below sea level by 2025 [3]. ALTAMIRA INFORMATION, company specialized in ground motion monitoring, has developed GlobalSARTM, which combines several processing techniques and algorithms based on InSAR technology, to achieve ground motion measurements with millimetric precision and high accuracy [4]. Within the RASOR (Rapid Analysis and Spatialisation and Of Risk) project, ALTAMIRA INFORMATION will apply GlobalSARTM to assess recent land subsidence in Jakarta, based on the processing of Very High

  10. Ratio of Range of Motion of the Ankle and Surrounding Joints After Total Ankle Replacement: A Radiographic Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, Travis J; Hamid, Kamran S; Easley, Mark E; DeOrio, James K; Nunley, James A; Adams, Samuel B

    2017-04-05

    This study attempted to identify where motion occurs after total ankle replacement, the difference in range-of-motion contributions between fixed-bearing and mobile-bearing total ankle replacements, and the contribution of abnormal peritalar motion. We hypothesized that sagittal plane radiographic assessment would demonstrate that actual ankle motion through the prosthesis is less than the total arc of ankle motion that may be observed clinically secondary to contributions from adjacent joints. Patients underwent routine standardized weight-bearing maximum dorsiflexion and plantar flexion sagittal radiographs. Sagittal plane ankle and foot measurements were performed on each dorsiflexion and plantar flexion radiograph to determine the total arc of ankle motion, actual ankle motion through the prosthesis, motion through the subtalar and talonavicular joints, and midfoot motion. Motion radiographs were routinely made at 1 year postoperatively and at the time of the most recent follow-up. A minimum follow-up of 2 years was required of all patients. There were 197 patients who met the inclusion criteria (75 INBONE, 52 Salto Talaris, and 70 STAR prostheses). The mean time to the latest radiographs (and standard deviation) was 42.9 ± 18.8 months. The mean actual ankle motion through the prosthesis was 25.9° ± 12.2°, which was significantly less (p motion arc of 37.6° ± 12.0°. The motion of the ankle accounted for 68% of total range of motion, and motion of the peritalar joints accounted for 32%. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) among the 3 prostheses or when comparing fixed and mobile-bearing designs for both ranges of motion. This study demonstrates that actual ankle motion after total ankle replacement is approximately 12° less than the total arc of motion that might be observed clinically because of increased midfoot and subtalar motion. Therapeutic Level IV. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  11. ARMA models for earthquake ground motions. Seismic safety margins research program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, M. K.; Kwiatkowski, J. W.; Nau, R. F.; Oliver, R. M.; Pister, K. S.

    1981-02-01

    Four major California earthquake records were analyzed by use of a class of discrete linear time-domain processes commonly referred to as ARMA (Autoregressive/Moving-Average) models. It was possible to analyze these different earthquakes, identify the order of the appropriate ARMA model(s), estimate parameters, and test the residuals generated by these models. It was also possible to show the connections, similarities, and differences between the traditional continuous models (with parameter estimates based on spectral analyses) and the discrete models with parameters estimated by various maximum-likelihood techniques applied to digitized acceleration data in the time domain. The methodology proposed is suitable for simulating earthquake ground motions in the time domain, and appears to be easily adapted to serve as inputs for nonlinear discrete time models of structural motions. 60 references, 19 figures, 9 tables.

  12. Comparison of impact forces, accelerations and ankle range of motion in surfing-related landing tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, Lina E; Tran, Tai T; Nimphius, Sophia; Raymond, Ellen; Secomb, Josh L; Farley, Oliver R L; Newton, Robert U; Sheppard, Jeremy M

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to describe the impact forces, accelerations and ankle range of motion in five different landing tasks that are used in training and testing for competitive surfing athletes, to assist coaches in the prescription of landing task progression and monitoring training load. Eleven competitive surfing athletes aged 24 ± 7 years participated, and inertial motion sensors were fixed to the anterior aspect of the feet, mid-tibial shafts, sacrum and eighth thoracic vertebrae on these athletes. Three tasks were performed landing on force plates and two tasks in a modified gymnastics set-up used for land-based aerial training. Peak landing force, resultant peak acceleration and front and rear side ankle dorsiflexion ranges of motion during landing were determined. The peak acceleration was approximately 50% higher when performing aerial training using a mini-trampoline and landing on a soft-density foam board, compared to a similar landing off a 50 cm box. Furthermore, the ankle ranges of motion during the gymnastic type landings were significantly lower than the other landing types (P ≤ 0.05 and P ≤ 0.001), for front and rear sides, respectively. Conclusively, increased task complexity and specificity of the sport increased the tibial peak acceleration, indicating greater training load.

  13. Prediction of earthquake ground motion at rock sites in Japan: evaluation of empirical and stochastic approaches for the PEGASOS Refinement Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Benjamin; Fäh, Donat

    2017-11-01

    Strong ground-motion databases used to develop ground-motion prediction equations (GMPEs) and calibrate stochastic simulation models generally include relatively few recordings on what can be considered as engineering rock or hard rock. Ground-motion predictions for such sites are therefore susceptible to uncertainty and bias, which can then propagate into site-specific hazard and risk estimates. In order to explore this issue we present a study investigating the prediction of ground motion at rock sites in Japan, where a wide range of recording-site types (from soil to very hard rock) are available for analysis. We employ two approaches: empirical GMPEs and stochastic simulations. The study is undertaken in the context of the PEGASOS Refinement Project (PRP), a Senior Seismic Hazard Analysis Committee (SSHAC) Level 4 probabilistic seismic hazard analysis of Swiss nuclear power plants, commissioned by swissnuclear and running from 2008 to 2013. In order to reduce the impact of site-to-site variability and expand the available data set for rock and hard-rock sites we adjusted Japanese ground-motion data (recorded at sites with 110 m s-1 simulation method was tested, allowing the direct incorporation of site-specific Fourier amplification information in forward simulations. We use an adjusted version of the model developed for Switzerland during the PRP. The median simulation prediction at true rock and hard-rock sites (Vs30 > 800 m s-1) was found to be comparable (within expected levels of epistemic uncertainty) to predictions using an empirical GMPE, with reduced residual misfit. As expected, due to including site-specific information in the simulations, the reduction in misfit could be isolated to a reduction in the site-related within-event uncertainty. The results of this study support the use of finite or pseudo-finite fault stochastic simulation methods in estimating strong ground motions in regions of weak and moderate seismicity, such as central and northern

  14. Overview of the relations earthquake source parameters and the specification of strong ground motion for design purposes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernreuter, D.L.

    1977-08-01

    One of the most important steps in the seismic design process is the specification of the appropriate ground motion to be input into the design analysis. From the point-of-view of engineering design analysis, the important parameters are peak ground acceleration, spectral shape and peak spectral levels. In a few cases, ground displacement is a useful parameter. The earthquake is usually specified by giving its magnitude and either the epicentral distance or the distance of the closest point on the causitive fault to the site. Typically, the appropriate ground motion parameters are obtained using the specified magnitude and distance in equations obtained from regression analysis among the appropriate variables. Two major difficulties with such an approach are: magnitude is not the best parameter to use to define the strength of an earthquake, and little near-field data is available to establish the appropriate form for the attenuation of the ground motion with distance, source size and strength. These difficulties are important for designing a critical facility; i.e., one for which a very low risk of exceeding the design ground motion is required. Examples of such structures are nuclear power plants, schools and hospitals. for such facilities, a better understanding of the relation between the ground motion and the important earthquake source parameters could be very useful for several reasons.

  15. Time of flight and range of the motion of a projectile in a constant gravitational field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Karkantzakos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study the classical problem of the motion of a projectile in a constant gravitational field under the influenceof a retarding force proportional to the velocity. Specifically, we express the time of flight, the time of fall and the range ofthe motion as a function of the constant of resistance per unit mass of the projectile. We also prove that the time of fall isgreater than the time of rise with the exception of the case of zero constant of resistance where we have equality. Finally weprove a formula from which we can compute the constant of resistance per unit mass of the projectile from time of flight andrange of the motion when the acceleration due to gravity and the initial velocity of the projectile are known.

  16. Earthquake Strong Ground Motion Scenario at the 2008 Olympic Games Sites, Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L.; Rohrbach, E. A.; Chen, Q.; Chen, Y.

    2006-12-01

    Historic earthquake record indicates mediate to strong earthquakes have been frequently hit greater Beijing metropolitan area where is going to host the 2008 summer Olympic Games. For the readiness preparation of emergency response to the earthquake shaking for a mega event in a mega city like Beijing in summer 2008, this paper tries to construct the strong ground motion scenario at a number of gymnasium sites for the 2008 Olympic Games. During the last 500 years (the Ming and Qing Dynasties) in which the historic earthquake record are thorough and complete, there are at least 12 earthquake events with the maximum intensity of VI or greater occurred within 100 km radius centered at the Tiananmen Square, the center of Beijing City. Numerical simulation of the seismic wave propagation and surface strong ground motion is carried out by the pseudospectral time domain methods with viscoelastic material properties. To improve the modeling efficiency and accuracy, a multi-scale approach is adapted: the seismic wave propagation originated from an earthquake rupture source is first simulated by a model with larger physical domain with coarser grids. Then the wavefield at a given plane is taken as the source input for the small-scale, fine grid model for the strong ground motion study at the sites. The earthquake source rupture scenario is based on two particular historic earthquake events: One is the Great 1679 Sanhe-Pinggu Earthquake (M~8, Maximum Intensity XI at the epicenter and Intensity VIII in city center)) whose epicenter is about 60 km ENE of the city center. The other one is the 1730 Haidian Earthquake (M~6, Maximum Intensity IX at the epicenter and Intensity VIII in city center) with the epicentral distance less than 20 km away from the city center in the NW Haidian District. The exist of the thick Tertiary-Quaternary sediments (maximum thickness ~ 2 km) in Beijing area plays a critical role on estimating the surface ground motion at the Olympic Games sites, which

  17. On low-frequency errors of uniformly modulated filtered white-noise models for ground motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safak, Erdal; Boore, David M.

    1988-01-01

    Low-frequency errors of a commonly used non-stationary stochastic model (uniformly modulated filtered white-noise model) for earthquake ground motions are investigated. It is shown both analytically and by numerical simulation that uniformly modulated filter white-noise-type models systematically overestimate the spectral response for periods longer than the effective duration of the earthquake, because of the built-in low-frequency errors in the model. The errors, which are significant for low-magnitude short-duration earthquakes, can be eliminated by using the filtered shot-noise-type models (i. e. white noise, modulated by the envelope first, and then filtered).

  18. Hydrostatic Level Sensors as High Precision Ground Motion Instrumentation for Tevatron and Other Energy Frontier Accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volk, James; Hansen, Sten; Johnson, Todd; Jostlein, Hans; Kiper, Terry; Shiltsev, Vladimir; Chupyra, Andrei; Kondaurov, Mikhail; Medvedko, Anatoly; Parkhomchuk, Vasily; Singatulin, Shavkat

    2012-01-01

    Particle accelerators require very tight tolerances on the alignment and stability of their elements: magnets, accelerating cavities, vacuum chambers, etc. In this article we describe the Hydrostatic Level Sensors (HLS) for very low frequency measurements used in a variety of facilities at Fermilab. We present design features of the sensors, outline their technical parameters, describe their test and calibration procedures, discuss different regimes of operation and give few illustrative examples of the experimental data. Detail experimental results of the ground motion measurements with these detectors will be presented in subsequent papers.

  19. Material Response Models and Ground Motion Calculations for High Explosive Tests in G-Tunnel Tuff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-25

    through the use of a viscoelastic model in the form of a standard linear solid. 2.2 PHYSICAL PROPERTIES Physical properties from five G- Tunnel , U12G -OT...34Determination of In Situ Stress in U12g Tunnel , Rainier Mesa, Nevada Test Site, Nevada,’ U.S. Geological Survey, USGS-474-219, January 1976. 7. Patch, D. F...A -’"’- "’ " [ N • HilM61 AD-A151 737 DNA-TR-84-124 MATERIAL RESPONSE MODELS AND GROUND MOTION CALCULATIONS FOR HIGH EXPLOSIVE TESTS IN G- TUNNEL TUFF

  20. Site Transfer Functions of Three-Component Ground Motion in Western Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozgur Kurtulmus, Tevfik; Akyol, Nihal; Camyildiz, Murat; Gungor, Talip

    2015-04-01

    Because of high seismicity accommodating crustal deformation and deep graben structures, on which have, urbanized and industrialized large cities in western Turkey, the importance of site-specific seismic hazard assessments becomes more crucial. Characterizing source, site and path effects is important for both assessing the seismic hazard in a specific region and generation of the building codes/or renewing previous ones. In this study, we evaluated three-component recordings for micro- and moderate-size earthquakes with local magnitudes ranging between 2.0 and 5.6. This dataset is used for site transfer function estimations, utilizing two different spectral ratio approaches 'Standard Spectral Ratio-(SSR)' and 'Horizontal to Vertical Spectral Ratio-(HVSR)' and a 'Generalized Inversion Technique-(GIT)' to highlight site-specific seismic hazard potential of deep basin structures of the region. Obtained transfer functions revealed that the sites located near the basin edges are characterized by broader HVSR curves. Broad HVSR peaks could be attributed to the complexity of wave propagation related to significant 2D/3D velocity variations at the sediment-bedrock interface near the basin edges. Comparison of HVSR and SSR estimates for the sites located on the grabens showed that SSR estimates give larger values at lower frequencies which could be attributed to lateral variations in regional velocity and attenuation values caused by basin geometry and edge effects. However, large amplitude values of vertical component GIT site transfer functions were observed at varying frequency ranges for some of the stations. These results imply that vertical component of ground motion is not amplification free. Contamination of HVSR site transfer function estimates at different frequency bands could be related to complexities in the wave field caused by deep or shallow heterogeneities in the region such as differences in the basin geometries, fracturing and fluid saturation along

  1. Site Specific Ground Motion Modeling and Seismic Response Analysis for Microzonation of Baku, Azerbaijan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babayev, Gulam; Telesca, Luciano

    2016-12-01

    We investigated ground response for Baku (Azerbaijan) from two earthquakes of magnitude M6.3 occurred in Caspian Sea (characterized as a near event) and M7.5 in Shamakhi (characterized as a remote extreme event). S-wave velocity with the average shear wave velocity over the topmost 30 m of soil is obtained by experimental method from the VP values measured for the soils. The downtown part of Baku city is characterized by low VS30 values (< 250 m/s), related to sand, water-saturated sand, gravel-pebble, and limestone with clay. High surface PGA of 240 gal for the M7.5 event and of about 190 gal for the M6.3 event, and hence a high ground motion amplification, is observed in the shoreline area, through downtown, in the north-west, and in the east parts of Baku city with soft clays, loamy sands, gravel, sediments.

  2. The influence of gastrocnemius stretching combined with joint mobilization on weight-bearing ankle dorsiflexion passive range of motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Min-Hyeok; Lee, Dong-Kyu; Kim, Soo-Yong; Kim, Jun-Seok; Oh, Jae-Seop

    2015-05-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of gastrocnemius stretching combined with talocrural joint mobilization on weight-bearing ankle dorsiflexion passive range of motion. [Subjects] Eleven male subjects with bilateral limited ankle dorsiflexion passive range of motion with knee extended participated in this study. [Methods] All subjects received talocrural joint mobilization while performing gastrocnemius stretching. Ankle dorsiflexion passive range of motion was measured using an inclinometer under weight-bearing conditions before and immediately after intervention. A paired t-test was used to analyze the difference between weight-bearing ankle dorsiflexion passive range of motion pre- and post-intervention. [Results] A significant increase in weight-bearing ankle dorsiflexion passive range of motion was found post-intervention compared with pre-intervention. [Conclusion] These findings demonstrate that gastrocnemius stretching combined with joint mobilization is effective for increasing weight-bearing ankle dorsiflexion passive range of motion.

  3. Terrafirma product : case study for the application of Terrafirma ground motion services to areas of abandoned mining : Northumberland, UK

    OpenAIRE

    Bateson, Luke; Lawrence, David

    2012-01-01

    The UK Coal Authority are responsible for all areas of abandoned coal mining in the UK and are responsible for the settlement of subsidence claims raised by those living in areas of abandoned coal mining. The scope for radar based ground measurements to assist the Coal Authority with their understanding of ground motions which might relate to abandoned coal mines offers an interesting possibility.

  4. The Italian Project S2 - Task 4:Near-fault earthquake ground motion simulation in the Sulmona alluvial basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stupazzini, M.; Smerzini, C.; Cauzzi, C.; Faccioli, E.; Galadini, F.; Gori, S.

    2009-04-01

    Recently the Italian Department of Civil Protection (DPC), in cooperation with Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV) has promoted the 'S2' research project (http://nuovoprogettoesse2.stru.polimi.it/) aimed at the design, testing and application of an open-source code for seismic hazard assessment (SHA). The tool envisaged will likely differ in several important respects from an existing international initiative (Open SHA, Field et al., 2003). In particular, while "the OpenSHA collaboration model envisions scientists developing their own attenuation relationships and earthquake rupture forecasts, which they will deploy and maintain in their own systems", the main purpose of S2 project is to provide a flexible computational tool for SHA, primarily suited for the needs of DPC, which not necessarily are scientific needs. Within S2, a crucial issue is to make alternative approaches available to quantify the ground motion, with emphasis on the near field region. The SHA architecture envisaged will allow for the use of ground motion descriptions other than those yielded by empirical attenuation equations, for instance user generated motions provided by deterministic source and wave propagation simulations. In this contribution, after a brief presentation of Project S2, we intend to illustrate some preliminary 3D scenario simulations performed in the alluvial basin of Sulmona (Central Italy), as an example of the type of descriptions that can be handled in the future SHA architecture. In detail, we selected some seismogenic sources (from the DISS database), believed to be responsible for a number of destructive historical earthquakes, and derive from them a family of simplified geometrical and mechanical source models spanning across a reasonable range of parameters, so that the extent of the main uncertainties can be covered. Then, purely deterministic (for frequencies Journal of Seismology, 1, 237-251. Field, E.H., T.H. Jordan, and C.A. Cornell (2003

  5. Reliability and responsiveness of a goniometric device for measuring the range of motion in the dart-throwing motion plane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasubuchi, Kenji; Dohi, Yoshihiro; Fujita, Hiroyuki; Fukumoto, Takahiko

    2018-02-26

    Dart-throwing motion (DTM) is an important component of wrist function and, consequently, has the potential to become an evaluation tool in rehabilitation. However, no measurement method is currently available to reliably measure range of motion (ROM) of the wrist in the DTM plane. To determine the reliability and responsiveness of a goniometric device to measure wrist ROM in the DTM plane. ROM of the wrist in the DTM plane was measured in 70 healthy participants. The intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to evaluate the relative reliability of measurement, and a Bland-Altman analysis conducted to establish its absolute reliability, including the 95% limits of agreement (95% LOA). The standard error of the measurement (SEM) and minimal detectable change at the 95% confidence level (MDC 95 ) were calculated as measures of responsiveness. The intra-rater ICC was 0.87, and an inter-rater ICC of 0.71. There was no evidence of a fixed or proportional bias. For intra- and inter-rater reliability, 95% LOA ranged from -13.83 to 11.12 and from -17.75 to 16.19, respectively. The SEM and MDC 95 were 4.5° and 12.4°, respectively, for intra-rater reliability, and 6.0° and 16.6°, respectively, for inter-rater reliability. The ROM of the wrist in the DTM plane was measured with fair-to-good reliability and responsiveness and, therefore, has the potential to become an evaluation tool for rehabilitation.

  6. Summary of ground motion prediction results for Nevada Test Site underground nuclear explosions related to the Yucca Mountain project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walck, M.C.

    1996-10-01

    This report summarizes available data on ground motions from underground nuclear explosions recorded on and near the Nevada Test Site, with emphasis on the ground motions recorded at stations on Yucca Mountain, the site of a potential high-level radioactive waste repository. Sandia National Laboratories, through the Weapons Test Seismic Investigations project, collected and analyzed ground motion data from NTS explosions over a 14-year period, from 1977 through 1990. By combining these data with available data from earlier, larger explosions, prediction equations for several ground motion parameters have been developed for the Test Site area for underground nuclear explosion sources. Also presented are available analyses of the relationship between surface and downhole motions and spectra and relevant crustal velocity structure information for Yucca Mountain derived from the explosion data. The data and associated analyses demonstrate that ground motions at Yucca Mountain from nuclear tests have been at levels lower than would be expected from moderate to large earthquakes in the region; thus nuclear explosions, while located relatively close, would not control seismic design criteria for the potential repository.

  7. Simulation of strong ground motion parameters of the 1 June 2013 Gulf of Suez earthquake, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toni, Mostafa

    2017-06-01

    This article aims to simulate the ground motion parameters of the moderate magnitude (ML 5.1) June 1, 2013 Gulf of Suez earthquake, which represents the largest instrumental earthquake to be recorded in the middle part of the Gulf of Suez up to now. This event was felt in all cities located on both sides of the Gulf of Suez, with minor damage to property near the epicenter; however, no casualties were observed. The stochastic technique with the site-dependent spectral model is used to simulate the strong ground motion parameters of this earthquake in the cities located at the western side of the Gulf of Suez and north Red Sea namely: Suez, Ain Sokhna, Zafarana, Ras Gharib, and Hurghada. The presence of many tourist resorts and the increase in land use planning in the considered cities represent the motivation of the current study. The simulated parameters comprise the Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA), Peak Ground Velocity (PGV), and Peak Ground Displacement (PGD), in addition to Pseudo Spectral Acceleration (PSA). The model developed for ground motion simulation is validated by using the recordings of three accelerographs installed around the epicenter of the investigated earthquake. Depending on the site effect that has been determined in the investigated areas by using geotechnical data (e.g., shear wave velocities and microtremor recordings), the investigated areas are classified into two zones (A and B). Zone A is characterized by higher site amplification than Zone B. The ground motion parameters are simulated at each zone in the considered areas. The results reveal that the highest values of PGA, PGV, and PGD are observed at Ras Gharib city (epicentral distance ∼ 11 km) as 67 cm/s2, 2.53 cm/s, and 0.45 cm respectively for Zone A, and as 26.5 cm/s2, 1.0 cm/s, and 0.2 cm respectively for Zone B, while the lowest values of PGA, PGV, and PGD are observed at Suez city (epicentral distance ∼ 190 km) as 3.0 cm/s2, 0.2 cm/s, and 0.05 cm/s respectively for Zone A

  8. The pes of Australovenator wintonensis (Theropoda: Megaraptoridae): analysis of the pedal range of motion and biological restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Alex G.; Klinkhamer, Ada J.; Elliott, David A.

    2016-01-01

    The pedal range of motion in Australovenator wintonensis is investigated to determine what influence soft tissue had on range of motion in the foot. Fortunately, the theropod pes shares a close morphology with extant large cursorial birds. Therefore, to better understand the pedal range of motion of Australovenator, the pedal range of motion of Dromaius novaehollandiae (commonly known as the emu) was analysed with and without soft tissue. We used a variety of innovative digital techniques to analyse the range of motion and biologically restore the Australovenator pes. Computed tomography scans of Dromaius pes in fully flexed and fully extended positions provided the soft tissue range of motion limits. The bone on bone range of motion of the same specimen was replicated following the removal of soft tissue. It was identified that there was an increase in range of motion potential with the removal of soft tissue. This variation provided a guide to develop the potential range of motion of a fully fleshed Australovenator pes. Additionally, the dissection of the Dromaius pes provided a guide enabling the replication of the corresponding soft tissue and keratin sheaths of the Australovenator pes. PMID:27547591

  9. The pes of Australovenator wintonensis (Theropoda: Megaraptoridae: analysis of the pedal range of motion and biological restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt A. White

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The pedal range of motion in Australovenator wintonensis is investigated to determine what influence soft tissue had on range of motion in the foot. Fortunately, the theropod pes shares a close morphology with extant large cursorial birds. Therefore, to better understand the pedal range of motion of Australovenator, the pedal range of motion of Dromaius novaehollandiae (commonly known as the emu was analysed with and without soft tissue. We used a variety of innovative digital techniques to analyse the range of motion and biologically restore the Australovenator pes. Computed tomography scans of Dromaius pes in fully flexed and fully extended positions provided the soft tissue range of motion limits. The bone on bone range of motion of the same specimen was replicated following the removal of soft tissue. It was identified that there was an increase in range of motion potential with the removal of soft tissue. This variation provided a guide to develop the potential range of motion of a fully fleshed Australovenator pes. Additionally, the dissection of the Dromaius pes provided a guide enabling the replication of the corresponding soft tissue and keratin sheaths of the Australovenator pes.

  10. Linking ground motion measurements and macroseismic observations in France: a case study based on accelerometric and macroseismic databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesueur, Chloé; Cara, Michel; Scotti, Oona; Schlupp, Antoine; Sira, Christophe

    2013-04-01

    Comparison between accelerometric and macroseismic observations is made for three M w = 4.5 earthquakes, which occurred in north-eastern France and south-western Germany in 2003 and 2004. Scalar and spectral instrumental parameters are processed from the accelerometric data recorded by nine accelerometric stations located between 29 and 180 km from the epicentres. Macroseismic data are based on French Internet reports. In addition to the single questionnaire intensity, analysis of the internal correlation between the encoded answers highlights four predominant fields of questions bearing different physical meanings: (1) "vibratory motions of small objects", (2) "displacement and fall of objects", (3) "acoustic noise" and (4) "personal feelings". Best correlations between macroseismic and instrumental observations are obtained when the macroseismic parameters are averaged over 10-km-radius circles around each station. Macroseismic intensities predicted by published peak ground velocity (PGV)-intensity relationships agree with our observed intensities, contrary to those based on peak ground acceleration (PGA). Correlation between the macroseismic and instrumental data for intensities between II and V (EMS-98) is better for PGV than for PGA. Correlation with the response spectra exhibits clear frequency dependence for all macroseismic parameters. Horizontal and vertical components are significantly correlated with the macroseismic parameters between 1 and 10 Hz, a range corresponding to both natural frequencies of most buildings and high energy content in the seismic ground motion. Between 10 and 25 Hz, a clear lack of correlation between macroseismic and instrumental observations exists. It could be due to a combination of the decrease in the energy signal above 10 Hz, a high level of anthropogenic noise and an increase in variability in soil conditions. Above 25 Hz, the correlation coefficients between the acceleration response spectra and the macroseismic

  11. Weight-Bearing Dorsiflexion Range of Motion and Landing Biomechanics in Individuals With Chronic Ankle Instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoch, Matthew C; Farwell, Kelley E; Gaven, Stacey L; Weinhandl, Joshua T

    2015-08-01

    People with chronic ankle instability (CAI) exhibit less weight-bearing dorsiflexion range of motion (ROM) and less knee flexion during landing than people with stable ankles. Examining the relationship between dorsiflexion ROM and landing biomechanics may identify a modifiable factor associated with altered kinematics and kinetics during landing tasks. To examine the relationship between weight-bearing dorsiflexion ROM and single-legged landing biomechanics in persons with CAI. Cross-sectional study. Laboratory. Fifteen physically active persons with CAI (5 men, 10 women; age = 21.9 ± 2.1 years, height = 168.7 ± 9.0 cm, mass = 69.4 ± 13.3 kg) participated. Participants performed dorsiflexion ROM and single-legged landings from a 40-cm height. Sagittal-plane kinematics of the lower extremity and ground reaction forces (GRFs) were captured during landing. Static dorsiflexion was measured using the weight-bearing-lunge test. Kinematics of the ankle, knee, and hip were observed at initial contact, maximum angle, and sagittal displacement. Sagittal displacements of the ankle, knee, and hip were summed to examine overall sagittal displacement. Kinetic variables were maximum posterior and vertical GRFs normalized to body weight. We used Pearson product moment correlations to evaluate the relationships between dorsiflexion ROM and landing biomechanics. Correlations (r) were interpreted as weak (0.00-0.40), moderate (0.41-0.69), or strong (0.70-1.00). The coefficient of determination (r(2)) was used to determine the amount of explained variance among variables. Static dorsiflexion ROM was moderately correlated with maximum dorsiflexion (r = 0.49, r(2) = 0.24), ankle displacement (r = 0.47, r(2) = 0.22), and total displacement (r = 0.67, r(2) = 0.45) during landing. Dorsiflexion ROM measured statically and during landing demonstrated moderate to strong correlations with maximum knee (r = 0.69-0.74, r(2) = 0.47-0.55) and hip (r = 0.50-0.64, r(2) = 0.25-0.40) flexion, hip

  12. Near-Fault Broadband Ground Motion Simulations Using Empirical Green's Functions: Application to the Upper Rhine Graben (France-Germany) Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Gaudio, Sergio; Hok, Sebastien; Festa, Gaetano; Causse, Mathieu; Lancieri, Maria

    2017-09-01

    then showed the impact that each source parameter characterizing the k-2 model has on ground motion amplitude. Finally we performed ground motion simulations showing results for different probable earthquake scenarios in the URG. Dependency of ground motions and of their variability are analyzed at different frequencies in respect of rupture velocity, roughness degree of slip distribution (stress drop), and hypocenter location. In near-source conditions, ground motion variability is shown to be mostly governed by the uncertainty on source parameters. In our specific configuration (magnitude, distance), the directivity effect is only observed in a limited frequency range. Rather, broadband ground motions are shown to be sensitive to both average rupture velocity and its possible variability, and to slip roughness. Ending up with a comparison of simulation results and GMPEs, we conclude that source parameters and their variability should be set up carefully to obtain reliable broadband ground motion estimations. In particular, our study shows that slip roughness should be set up in respect of the target stress drop. This entails the need for a better understanding of the physics of earthquake source and its incorporation in the ground motion modeling.

  13. Ground motion in the presence of complex topography: Earthquake and ambient noise sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartzell, Stephen; Meremonte, Mark; Ramírez-Guzmán, Leonardo; McNamara, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    To study the influence of topography on ground motion, eight seismic recorders were deployed for a period of one year over Poverty Ridge on the east side of the San Francisco Bay Area, California. This location is desirable because of its proximity to local earthquake sources and the significant topographic relief of the array (439 m). Topographic amplification is evaluated as a function of frequency using a variety of methods, including reference‐site‐based spectral ratios and single‐station horizontal‐to‐vertical spectral ratios using both shear waves from earthquakes and ambient noise. Field observations are compared with the predicted ground motion from an accurate digital model of the topography and a 3D local velocity model. Amplification factors from the theoretical calculations are consistent with observations. The fundamental resonance of the ridge is prominently observed in the spectra of data and synthetics; however, higher‐frequency peaks are also seen primarily for sources in line with the major axis of the ridge, perhaps indicating higher resonant modes. Excitations of lateral ribs off of the main ridge are also seen at frequencies consistent with their dimensions. The favored directions of resonance are shown to be transverse to the major axes of the topographic features.

  14. Real-time ground motions monitoring system developed by Raspberry Pi 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, P.; Jang, J. P.; Chang, H.; Lin, C. R.; Lin, P. P.; Wang, C. C.

    2016-12-01

    Ground-motions seismic stations are usually installed in the special geological area, like high possibility landslide area, active volcanoes, or nearby faults, to real-time monitor the possible geo-hazards. Base on the demands, three main issues needs to be considered: size, low-power consumption and real-time data transmission. Raspberry Pi 3 has the suitable characteristics to fit our requests. Thus, we develop a real-time ground motions monitoring system by Raspberry Pi 3. The Raspberry Pi has the credit-card-sized with single-board computers. The operating system is based on the programmable Linux system.The volume is only 85.6 by 53.98 by 17 mm with USB and Ethernet interfaces. The power supply is only needed 5 Volts and 2.1 A. It is easy to get power by using solar power and transmit the real-time data through Ethernet or by the mobile signal through USB adapter. As Raspberry Pi still a kind of small computer, the service, software or GUI can be very flexibly developed, such as the basic web server, ftp server, SSH connection, and real-time visualization interface tool etc. Until now, we have developed ten instruments with on-line/ real-time data transmission and have installed in the Taiping Mountain in Taiwan to motor the geohazard like mudslide.

  15. Understanding Ground Motion in Las Vegas: Insights from Data Analysis and Two-Dimensional Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodgers, A; Tkalcic, H; McCallen, D

    2004-02-05

    Seismic ground motions are amplified in low velocity sedimentary basins relative to adjacent sites on high velocity hard rock. We used historical recordings of NTS nuclear explosions and earthquake recordings in Las Vegas Valley to quantify frequency-dependent basin amplification using Standard Spectral Ratios. We show that amplifications, referred to as site response, can reach a factor of 10 in the frequency band 0.4-2.0 Hz. Band-averaged site response between 0.4-2.0 Hz is strongly correlated with basin depth. However, it is also well known that site response is related to shallow shear-wave velocity structure. We simulated low frequency (f<1Hz) ground motion and site response with two-dimensional elastic finite difference simulations. We demonstrate that physically plausible models of the shallow subsurface, including low velocity sedimentary structure, can predict relative amplification as well as some of the complexity in the observed waveforms. This study demonstrates that site response can be modeled without invoking complex and computationally expensive three-dimensional structural models.

  16. Accounting for Fault Roughness in Pseudo-Dynamic Ground-Motion Simulations

    KAUST Repository

    Mai, Paul Martin

    2017-04-03

    Geological faults comprise large-scale segmentation and small-scale roughness. These multi-scale geometrical complexities determine the dynamics of the earthquake rupture process, and therefore affect the radiated seismic wavefield. In this study, we examine how different parameterizations of fault roughness lead to variability in the rupture evolution and the resulting near-fault ground motions. Rupture incoherence naturally induced by fault roughness generates high-frequency radiation that follows an ω−2 decay in displacement amplitude spectra. Because dynamic rupture simulations are computationally expensive, we test several kinematic source approximations designed to emulate the observed dynamic behavior. When simplifying the rough-fault geometry, we find that perturbations in local moment tensor orientation are important, while perturbations in local source location are not. Thus, a planar fault can be assumed if the local strike, dip, and rake are maintained. We observe that dynamic rake angle variations are anti-correlated with the local dip angles. Testing two parameterizations of dynamically consistent Yoffe-type source-time function, we show that the seismic wavefield of the approximated kinematic ruptures well reproduces the radiated seismic waves of the complete dynamic source process. This finding opens a new avenue for an improved pseudo-dynamic source characterization that captures the effects of fault roughness on earthquake rupture evolution. By including also the correlations between kinematic source parameters, we outline a new pseudo-dynamic rupture modeling approach for broadband ground-motion simulation.

  17. A New Iterative Procedure for Deconvolution of Seismic Ground Motion in Dam-Reservoir-Foundation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurinderbir S. Sooch

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The concrete gravity dams are designed to perform satisfactorily during an earthquake since the consequence of failure is catastrophic to the downstream communities. The foundation in a dam is usually modeled by a substructuring approach for the purpose of seismic response analysis. However, the substructuring cannot be used for solving nonlinear dynamic problems that may be encountered in dam-reservoir-foundation systems. For that reason, the time domain approach is preferred for such systems. The deconvolved earthquake input model is preferred as it can remove the seismic scattering effects due to artificial boundaries of the semi-infinite foundation domain. Deconvolution is a mathematical process that allows the adjustment of the amplitude and frequency contents of a seismic ground motion applied at the base of the foundation in order to get the desired output at the dam-foundation interface. It is observed that the existing procedures of deconvolution are not effective for all types of earthquake records. A modified procedure has been proposed here for efficient deconvolution of all types of earthquake records including high-frequency and low-frequency ground motions.

  18. Evaluation of modal pushover-based scaling of one component of ground motion: Tall buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkan, Erol; Chopra, Anil K.

    2012-01-01

    Nonlinear response history analysis (RHA) is now increasingly used for performance-based seismic design of tall buildings. Required for nonlinear RHAs is a set of ground motions selected and scaled appropriately so that analysis results would be accurate (unbiased) and efficient (having relatively small dispersion). This paper evaluates accuracy and efficiency of recently developed modal pushover–based scaling (MPS) method to scale ground motions for tall buildings. The procedure presented explicitly considers structural strength and is based on the standard intensity measure (IM) of spectral acceleration in a form convenient for evaluating existing structures or proposed designs for new structures. Based on results presented for two actual buildings (19 and 52 stories, respectively), it is demonstrated that the MPS procedure provided a highly accurate estimate of the engineering demand parameters (EDPs), accompanied by significantly reduced record-to-record variability of the responses. In addition, the MPS procedure is shown to be superior to the scaling procedure specified in the ASCE/SEI 7-05 document.

  19. Accounting for Fault Roughness in Pseudo-Dynamic Ground-Motion Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, P. Martin; Galis, Martin; Thingbaijam, Kiran K. S.; Vyas, Jagdish C.; Dunham, Eric M.

    2017-09-01

    Geological faults comprise large-scale segmentation and small-scale roughness. These multi-scale geometrical complexities determine the dynamics of the earthquake rupture process, and therefore affect the radiated seismic wavefield. In this study, we examine how different parameterizations of fault roughness lead to variability in the rupture evolution and the resulting near-fault ground motions. Rupture incoherence naturally induced by fault roughness generates high-frequency radiation that follows an ω-2 decay in displacement amplitude spectra. Because dynamic rupture simulations are computationally expensive, we test several kinematic source approximations designed to emulate the observed dynamic behavior. When simplifying the rough-fault geometry, we find that perturbations in local moment tensor orientation are important, while perturbations in local source location are not. Thus, a planar fault can be assumed if the local strike, dip, and rake are maintained. We observe that dynamic rake angle variations are anti-correlated with the local dip angles. Testing two parameterizations of dynamically consistent Yoffe-type source-time function, we show that the seismic wavefield of the approximated kinematic ruptures well reproduces the radiated seismic waves of the complete dynamic source process. This finding opens a new avenue for an improved pseudo-dynamic source characterization that captures the effects of fault roughness on earthquake rupture evolution. By including also the correlations between kinematic source parameters, we outline a new pseudo-dynamic rupture modeling approach for broadband ground-motion simulation.

  20. Ground Motion Data Profile of Western Turkey with Intelligent Hybrid Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkmaz, Kasim A.; Demir, Fuat

    2017-01-01

    The recent earthquakes caused severe damages on the existing buildings. By this motivation, an important amount of research work has been conducted to determine the seismic risk of seismically active regions. For an accurate seismic risk assessment, processing of ground motions would provide an advantage. Using the current technology, it is not possible to precisely predict the future earthquakes. Therefore, most of the current seismic risk assessment methodologies are based on statistical evaluation by using recurrence and magnitude of the earthquakes hit the specified region. Because of the limited number of records on earthquakes, the quality of definitions is questionable. Fuzzy logic algorithm can be used to improve the quality of the definition. In the present study, ground motion data profile of western Turkey is defined using an intelligent hybrid processing. The approach is given in a practical way for an easier and faster calculation. Earthquake data between 1970 and 1999 from western part of Turkey have been used for training. The results are tested and validated with the earthquake data between 2000 and 2015 of the same region. Enough approximation was validated between calculated values and the earthquake data by using the intelligent hybrid processing.

  1. Changes in active ankle dorsiflexion range of motion after acute inversion ankle sprain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youdas, James W; McLean, Timothy J; Krause, David A; Hollman, John H

    2009-08-01

    Posterior calf stretching is believed to improve active ankle dorsiflexion range of motion (AADFROM) after acute ankle-inversion sprain. To describe AADFROM at baseline (postinjury) and at 2-wk time periods for 6 wk after acute inversion sprain. Randomized trial. Sports clinic. 11 men and 11 women (age range 11-54 y) with acute inversion sprain. Standardized home exercise program for acute inversion sprain. AADFROM with the knee extended. Time main effect on AADFROM was significant (F3,57 = 108, P motion of the ankle was 6 degrees of plantar flexion, whereas at 2, 4, and 6 wk AADFROM was 7 degrees, 11 degrees, and 11 degrees, respectively. AADFROM increased significantly from baseline to week 2 and from week 2 to week 4. Normal AADFROM was restored within 4 wk after acute inversion sprain.

  2. Nonlinear Responses of High-rise Buildings in Seattle for Simulated Ground Motions From Giant Cascadia Subduction Earthquakes (Mw 9.2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J.; Heaton, T. H.

    2008-12-01

    With the exception of the 2003 Tokachi-oki earthquake, strong ground recordings from large subduction earthquakes (Mw > 8.0) are meager. Furthermore there are no strong motion recordings of giant earthquakes. However, there is a growing set of high-quality broadband teleseismic recordings of large and giant earthquakes. In this poster, we use recordings from the 2003 Tokachi-oki (Mw 8.3) earthquake as empirical Green's functions to simulate the rock and soil ground motions from a scenario Mw 9.2 subduction earthquake on Cascadia subduction zone in the frequency band of interest to flexible and large- scale buildings (0.075 to 1 Hz). The effect of amplification by the Seattle basin is considered by using a basin response Green's function which is derived from deconvolving the teleseismic waves recorded at rock sites from soil sites at the SHIP02 experiment. These strong ground motions are used to excite simulation of the fully nonlinear seismic responses of 20-story and 6-story steel moment-frame buildings designed according to both the U.S. 1994 UBC and also the Japanese building code published in 1987. We consider several realizations of the hypothetical subduction earthquake; the down-dip limit of rupture is of particular importance to the simulated ground motions in Seattle. If slip is assumed to be limited to offshore regions, then the building simulations indicate that the building responses are mostly in the linear range. However, our simulation shows that buildings with brittle welds would collapse for rupture models where rupture extends beneath the Olympic Mountains. The ground motions all have very long durations (more than 4 minutes), and our building simulations should be considered as a minimum estimate since we have used a very simple model of degradation of the structure.

  3. Performance of Irikura Recipe Rupture Model Generator in Earthquake Ground Motion Simulations with Graves and Pitarka Hybrid Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitarka, Arben; Graves, Robert; Irikura, Kojiro; Miyake, Hiroe; Rodgers, Arthur

    2017-09-01

    We analyzed the performance of the Irikura and Miyake (Pure and Applied Geophysics 168(2011):85-104, 2011) (IM2011) asperity-based kinematic rupture model generator, as implemented in the hybrid broadband ground motion simulation methodology of Graves and Pitarka (Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America 100(5A):2095-2123, 2010), for simulating ground motion from crustal earthquakes of intermediate size. The primary objective of our study is to investigate the transportability of IM2011 into the framework used by the Southern California Earthquake Center broadband simulation platform. In our analysis, we performed broadband (0-20 Hz) ground motion simulations for a suite of M6.7 crustal scenario earthquakes in a hard rock seismic velocity structure using rupture models produced with both IM2011 and the rupture generation method of Graves and Pitarka (Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 2016) (GP2016). The level of simulated ground motions for the two approaches compare favorably with median estimates obtained from the 2014 Next Generation Attenuation-West2 Project (NGA-West2) ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs) over the frequency band 0.1-10 Hz and for distances out to 22 km from the fault. We also found that, compared to GP2016, IM2011 generates ground motion with larger variability, particularly at near-fault distances (1 s). For this specific scenario, the largest systematic difference in ground motion level for the two approaches occurs in the period band 1-3 s where the IM2011 motions are about 20-30% lower than those for GP2016. We found that increasing the rupture speed by 20% on the asperities in IM2011 produced ground motions in the 1-3 s bandwidth that are in much closer agreement with the GMPE medians and similar to those obtained with GP2016. The potential implications of this modification for other rupture mechanisms and magnitudes are not yet fully understood, and this topic is the subject of ongoing study. We concluded

  4. Performance of Irikura recipe rupture model generator in earthquake ground motion simulations with Graves and Pitarka hybrid approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitarka, Arben; Graves, Robert; Irikura, Kojiro; Miyake, Hiroe; Rodgers, Arthur

    2017-01-01

    We analyzed the performance of the Irikura and Miyake (Pure and Applied Geophysics 168(2011):85–104, 2011) (IM2011) asperity-based kinematic rupture model generator, as implemented in the hybrid broadband ground motion simulation methodology of Graves and Pitarka (Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America 100(5A):2095–2123, 2010), for simulating ground motion from crustal earthquakes of intermediate size. The primary objective of our study is to investigate the transportability of IM2011 into the framework used by the Southern California Earthquake Center broadband simulation platform. In our analysis, we performed broadband (0–20 Hz) ground motion simulations for a suite of M6.7 crustal scenario earthquakes in a hard rock seismic velocity structure using rupture models produced with both IM2011 and the rupture generation method of Graves and Pitarka (Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 2016) (GP2016). The level of simulated ground motions for the two approaches compare favorably with median estimates obtained from the 2014 Next Generation Attenuation-West2 Project (NGA-West2) ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs) over the frequency band 0.1–10 Hz and for distances out to 22 km from the fault. We also found that, compared to GP2016, IM2011 generates ground motion with larger variability, particularly at near-fault distances (1 s). For this specific scenario, the largest systematic difference in ground motion level for the two approaches occurs in the period band 1–3 s where the IM2011 motions are about 20–30% lower than those for GP2016. We found that increasing the rupture speed by 20% on the asperities in IM2011 produced ground motions in the 1–3 s bandwidth that are in much closer agreement with the GMPE medians and similar to those obtained with GP2016. The potential implications of this modification for other rupture mechanisms and magnitudes are not yet fully understood, and this topic is the subject of ongoing study

  5. User manual for the NTS ground motion data base retrieval program: ntsgm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    App, F.N. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Earth and Environmental Sciences Div.; Tunnell, T.W. [EG and G Energy Measurements, Inc., Los Alamos, NM (United States). Los Alamos Operations

    1994-05-01

    The NTS (Nevada Test Site) Ground Motion Data Base is composed of strong motion data recorded during the normal execution of the US underground test program. It contains surface, subsurface, and structure motion data as digitized waveforms. Currently the data base contains information from 148 underground explosions. This represents about 4,200 measurements and nearly 12,000 individual digitized waveforms. Most of the data was acquired by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in connection with LANL sponsored underground tests. Some was acquired by Los Alamos on tests conducted by the Defense Nuclear Agency (DNA) and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and there are some measurements that were acquired by the other test sponsors on their events and provided for inclusion in this data base. Data acquisition, creation of the data base, and development of the data base retrieval program (ntsgm) are the result of work in support of the Los Alamos Field Test Office and the Office of Nonproliferation and Arms Control.

  6. Comparative study of joint range of motion in children between 7 and 12 years of age from different gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.I.L. Melo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate and compare active and passive joint range of motion in children in relation to gender and age. This study involved 103 children (43 boys and 60 girls categorized into two groups: G1 (7 to 9 years old and G2 (10 to 12 years old. The flexitest protocol, active and passive, and the SAPO® were used to evaluate joint range of motion. A paired t test was applied to compare active and passive joint range of motion and an independent t test (p < .05 was used to compare active and passive range of motion between gender and age. Results showed that the passive joint ranges of motion of the lower limbs are higher than active motion (p < .001. Girls presented greater passive ankle flexion than boys did (p = .002. Children between 7 and 12 years of age presented similar standards of joint range of motion of low limb. Significant differences were found between passive and active angular range of motion in the hip, knee and ankle. There were no differences between boys and girls in the joint range of motion as well as among age groups.

  7. Range and flight time of quadratic resisted projectile motion using the Lambert W function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belgacem, Chokri Hadj

    2014-09-01

    We study projectile motion with air resistance quadratic in speed. An approximation of a low-angle trajectory is considered where the horizontal velocity, v x , is assumed to be much larger than the vertical velocity, v y . The explicit solutions for the range and flight time are expressed in terms of the secondary branch of the Lambert function, {{W}_{-1}}. In addition to their theoretical importance, the results obtained will be of interest to teachers involved in undergraduate physics courses.

  8. Effect of stretching duration on active and passive range of motion in the lower extremity

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, J. M.; Wilson, K.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of different durations of stretching (five or 15 seconds) on active and passive range of motion (ROM) in the lower extremity during a five week flexibility training programme. METHOD: Twenty four university sport club members (19 men, five women), with a mean (SD) age of 20.5 (1.35) years, were randomly assigned to one of three groups (two treatment and one control). The two treatment groups participated in a static active stretching programme three...

  9. Validity and reliability of using photography for measuring knee range of motion: a methodological study

    OpenAIRE

    Adie Sam; Ko Victoria; Naylor Justine M; Gaskin Clive; Walker Richard; Harris Ian A; Mittal Rajat

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The clinimetric properties of knee goniometry are essential to appreciate in light of its extensive use in the orthopaedic and rehabilitative communities. Intra-observer reliability is thought to be satisfactory, but the validity and inter-rater reliability of knee goniometry often demonstrate unacceptable levels of variation. This study tests the validity and reliability of measuring knee range of motion using goniometry and photographic records. Methods Design: Methodolo...

  10. Rapid ambulation and range of motion after minimally invasive total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanavalee, Aree; Thiengwittayaporn, Satit; Ngarmukos, Srihatach

    2004-09-01

    The authors evaluated the intraoperative data and early clinical results of 22 minimally invasive mini-incision total knee arthroplasties (mini-incision TKAs) performed between October 2002 and September 2003. Results were matched with 22 patients who underwent standard TKA in the same period. At a minimum 12-week follow up, results comparing the mini-incision TKA group and the standard TKA group were evaluated as follows: The average operative time was 137.1 vs 115.8min (p=0.02), the average wound length was 9.4 vs 13.7 cm, the average blood loss was 456 vs 512 ml (p=0.14) and the number of patients who could start to walk on postoperative day one was 17 vs 2. On postoperative day one, 82% of the mini-incision TKA group could do active knee extension meanwhile none of the standard group could. Postoperative pain score was not different at 24 hours or 48 hours. At 2 and6 weeks, the mini-incision TKA group had less pain with significant difference (p=0.002 and p=0.002). The postoperative range of motion in the mini-incision group was also significantly improved at 2 weeks (p=0.03). However, pain and range of motion were not different in both groups after 12 weeks. Early results of mini-incision TKA accelerated patient postoperative activity, ambulation and range of motion.

  11. Eccentric loading and range of knee joint motion effects on performance enhancement in vertical jumping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Kieran A; Wallace, Eric S

    2007-12-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the effects of variations in eccentric loading and knee joint range of motion on performance enhancement associated with the stretch-shortening cycle in vertical jumping. Seventeen male elite volleyball players performed three variations of the vertical jump which served as the research model: the squat jump (SJ), countermovement jump (CMJ) and drop jump from a height of 30 cm (DJ30). Knee joint angle (70 degrees and 90 degrees of flexion) at the commencement of the propulsive phase for each jump type was experimentally controlled, with the trunk kept as erect as possible. Force and motion data were recorded for each performance and used to compute a range of kinematic and kinetic variables, including hip, knee and ankle angles, angular velocities, work done, net joint moments and a number of temporal variables. The average of 12 trials for each participant was used in a series of repeated measures ANOVA's (jump xk nee, alpha=.05). From both knee joint angles, an increase in eccentric loading resulted in a significant increase in jump height (DJ30>CMJ>SJ; pjumping is dependent upon the interaction of the magnitude of eccentric loading and the range of motion used.

  12. Preoperative and Postoperative Range of Motion: A Retrospective Comparison of Two Total Ankle Replacement Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigido, Stephen A; Mulhern, Jennifer L; Wobst, Garrett M; Protzman, Nicole M

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present report was to compare the range of motion between a total ankle replacement requiring arched bony resection and a total ankle replacement requiring a flat cut for implantation. We hypothesized that the arched contour would more closely mimic the patient's pre-existing anatomy and increase the range of motion. Pain was evaluated as a secondary outcome. Twenty-eight patients (age 55.95 ± 15.29 years) were included. Of the 28 patients, 14 were treated with an arch cut and 14 with a flat cut. Although no significant difference was found in dorsiflexion between the 2 implant groups (p = .38), preoperative dorsiflexion, body mass index, implant type, and preoperative plantarflexion emerged as significant predictors of postoperative plantarflexion (p = .04). This finding indicates that postoperative plantarflexion was significantly greater in patients treated with an arch cut (30.43° ± 10.01°) than a flat cut (21.79° ± 15.70°, p = .02), when controlling for the other explanatory variables. A statistically significant improvement in pain was observed after total ankle replacement (p range of motion after total ankle replacement. Copyright © 2015 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The Effect of 4-weeks Rehabilitation Program on Range of Motion and

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajjad Rowshani

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of 4-weeks rehabilitation, electrotherapy and kinesiotherapy programs on range of motion shoulder pain in men with idiopathic frozen shoulder. Methods & Materials: This was a semi experimental study on 18 patient (Means±SD Age 56.4±6.7 year, height 175.1±5.3 cm, weight 73.1±7.5 kg, history patient 9.2±5.1 month who referred to the ilam city clinical. The inclusion criteria were male cender, being affected with idiopathic frozen shoulder, considerable loss of activity and existence of nocturnal pain as well as pain in shoulder joint during activity. The exclusion criteria were: Being affected with secondary frozen shoulder, experience of illness and affective field damages in patients with frozen shoulder and previous history of using any treatment plan related to frozen shoulder. Instruments research were personal information questionnaire, visual analogue scale (VAS and goniometr. After selecting subjects and doing primary pain test and measuring the range of motion rehabilitation programs about 1 hours per day for 4-weaks including electrotherapy (50 minutes and kinesiotherapy (60 minutes programs performed regularly. For analysing data used t-tests. Results: The results of this study showed that shoulder pain after doing 4-weeks rehabilitation exercises had decreased significantly (P<0/05. But affected persons still had painboth when active and in rest, and the pain did not cure completely. The result in post test showed that range of shoulder movement in flextion, abduction, internal and external rotation had improved significantly (P<0/05. Although limitation of shoulder movement in affected person didn’t improve completely. The result in post-test also showed that rang of motion of joint shoulder in flextion (49.4±21.2, abduction (42.8±15.6, internal (22.6±10.6 and external (28.3±10.4 rotation have been improved. Conclusion: With regard to those findings, it can

  14. Research of Short-range Missile Motion in Terms of Different Wind Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Klishin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available When modeling the aircraft motion it is advisable to choose a particular model of the Earth, depending both on the task and on the required accuracy of calculation. The article describes various models of the Earth, such as the flat Earth with a plane-parallel field of gravity, spherical and non-rotating Earth with a plane-parallel field of gravity, spherical and non-rotating Earth with a central gravitational field, spherical and non-rotating Earth, taking into account the polar flattening of the Earth, spherical Earth based compression and polar daily rotation. The article also considers the influence of these models on the motion of the selected aircraft.To date, there is technical equipment to provide highly accurate description of the Earthshape, gravitational field, etc. The improved accuracy of the Earth model description results in more correct description of the trajectory and motion parameters of a ballistic missile. However, for short ranges (10-20 km this accuracy is not essential, and, furthermore, it increases time of calculation. Therefore, there is a problem of choosing the optimal description of the Earth parameters.The motion in the model of the Earth, which takes into account a daily rotation of the planet and polar flattening, is discussed in more detail, and the geographical latitude impact on coordinates of the points of fall of a ballistic missile is analyzed on the basis of obtained graphs.The article individually considers a problem of the wind effect on the aircraft motion and defines dependences of the missile motion on the parameters of different wind loads, such as wind speed and height of its action.A mathematical model of the missile motion was built and numerically integrated, using the Runge-Kutta 4th order method, for implementation and subsequent analysis.Based on the analysis of the calculation results in the abovementioned models of the Earth, differences in impact of these models on the parameters of the

  15. Volumetric definition of shoulder range of motion and its correlation with clinical signs of shoulder hyperlaxity. A motion capture study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ropars, Mickaël; Cretual, Armel; Thomazeau, Hervé; Kaila, Rajiv; Bonan, Isabelle

    2015-02-01

    Shoulder hyperlaxity (SHL) is assessed with clinical signs. Quantification of SHL remains difficult, however, because no quantitative definition has yet been described. With use of a motion capture system (MCS), the aim of this study was to categorize SHL through a volumetric MCS-based definition and to compare this volume with clinical signs used for SHL diagnosis. Twenty-three subjects were examined with passive and active measurement of their shoulder range of motion (SROM) and then with an MCS protocol, allowing computation of the shoulder configuration space volume (SCSV). Clinical data of SHL were assessed by the sulcus sign, external rotation with the arm at the side (ER1) >85° in a standing position, external rotation >90° in a lying position, and Beighton score for general joint laxity. Active and passive ER1, EIR2 (sum of external and internal rotation at 90° of abduction), flexion-extension, and abduction were also measured and correlated to SCSV. Except for the sulcus sign, SCSV was significantly correlated with all clinical signs used for SHL. Passive examination of the different SROMs was better correlated to SCSV than active examination. In passive examination, the worst SROM was ER1 (R = 0.36; P = .09), whereas EIR2, flexion, and abduction were highly correlated to SCSV (P 85° in a standing position appear less discriminating and should be replaced by EIR2 measurement for SHL diagnosis. Copyright © 2015 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of fault-normal/fault-parallel directions rotated ground motions for response history analysis of an instrumented six-story building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkan, Erol; Kwong, Neal S.

    2012-01-01

    According to regulatory building codes in United States (for example, 2010 California Building Code), at least two horizontal ground-motion components are required for three-dimensional (3D) response history analysis (RHA) of buildings. For sites within 5 km of an active fault, these records should be rotated to fault-normal/fault-parallel (FN/FP) directions, and two RHA analyses should be performed separately (when FN and then FP are aligned with the transverse direction of the structural axes). It is assumed that this approach will lead to two sets of responses that envelope the range of possible responses over all nonredundant rotation angles. This assumption is examined here using a 3D computer model of a six-story reinforced-concrete instrumented building subjected to an ensemble of bidirectional near-fault ground motions. Peak responses of engineering demand parameters (EDPs) were obtained for rotation angles ranging from 0° through 180° for evaluating the FN/FP directions. It is demonstrated that rotating ground motions to FN/FP directions (1) does not always lead to the maximum responses over all angles, (2) does not always envelope the range of possible responses, and (3) does not provide maximum responses for all EDPs simultaneously even if it provides a maximum response for a specific EDP.

  17. Measurement of the extreme ankle range of motion required by female ballet dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Jeffrey A; Kruse, David W; Nevill, Alan M; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Wyon, Matthew A

    2010-12-01

    Female ballet dancers require extreme ankle motion, especially plantar flexion, but research about measuring such motion is lacking. The purposes of this study were to determine in a sample of ballet dancers whether non-weight-bearing ankle range of motion is significantly different from the weight-bearing equivalent and whether inclinometric plantar flexion measurement is a suitable substitute for standard plantar flexion goniometry. Fifteen female ballet dancers (5 university, 5 vocational, and 5 professional dancers; age 21 ± 3.0 years) volunteered. Subjects received 5 assessments on 1 ankle: non-weight-bearing goniometry dorsiflexion (NDF) and plantar flexion (NPF), weight-bearing goniometry in the ballet positions demi-plié (WDF) and en pointe (WPF), and non-weight-bearing plantar flexion inclinometry (IPF). Mean NDF was significantly lower than WDF (17° ± 1.3° vs 30° ± 1.8°, P ballet proficiency. The authors conclude that assessment of extreme ankle motion in female ballet dancers is challenging, and goniometry and inclinometry appear to measure plantar flexion differently.

  18. Visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, and range performance with compressed motion video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijl, Piet; de Vries, Sjoerd C.

    2010-10-01

    Video of visual acuity (VA) and contrast sensitivity (CS) test charts in a complex background was recorded using a CCD color camera mounted on a computer-controlled tripod and was fed into real-time MPEG-2 compression/decompression equipment. The test charts were based on the triangle orientation discrimination (TOD) test method and contained triangle test patterns of different sizes and contrasts in four possible orientations. In a perception experiment, observers judged the orientation of the triangles in order to determine VA and CS thresholds at the 75% correct level. Three camera velocities (0, 1.0, and 2.0 deg/s, or 0, 4.1, and 8.1 pixels/frame) and four compression rates (no compression, 4 Mb/s, 2 Mb/s, and 1 Mb/s) were used. VA is shown to be rather robust to any combination of motion and compression. CS, however, dramatically decreases when motion is combined with high compression ratios. The measured thresholds were fed into the TOD target acquisition model to predict the effect of motion and compression on acquisition ranges for tactical military vehicles. The effect of compression on static performance is limited but strong with motion video. The data suggest that with the MPEG2 algorithm, the emphasis is on the preservation of image detail at the cost of contrast loss.

  19. The effect of sacro occipital technique category II blocking on spinal ranges of motion: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochman, Jerry I

    2005-01-01

    To describe changes in lumbar and cervical range of motion measurements after supine pelvic blocking as used in Sacro Occipital Technique (SOT). Five subjects with sacroiliac distortion and instability were recruited and selected for SOT. Cervical and lumbar ranges of motion were measured before and after category II blocking procedures used to change pelvic mechanics. Pre- and post-measurements were taken by a blinded assessor using a Zebris ultrasonic motion detector. Changes were found in the lumbar spine only. Increased ranges of lumbar motion occurred in all planes except extension (21%-57%). Supine pelvic blocking as used in SOT affected lumbar ranges of motion in these 5 cases. This may indicate that functional change in the pelvis results in changes in lumbar motion, especially lumbar flexion. Larger data sets are needed for further study.

  20. Estimation of Ground Reaction Forces and Moments During Gait Using Only Inertial Motion Capture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelos Karatsidis

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Ground reaction forces and moments (GRF&M are important measures used as input in biomechanical analysis to estimate joint kinetics, which often are used to infer information for many musculoskeletal diseases. Their assessment is conventionally achieved using laboratory-based equipment that cannot be applied in daily life monitoring. In this study, we propose a method to predict GRF&M during walking, using exclusively kinematic information from fully-ambulatory inertial motion capture (IMC. From the equations of motion, we derive the total external forces and moments. Then, we solve the indeterminacy problem during double stance using a distribution algorithm based on a smooth transition assumption. The agreement between the IMC-predicted and reference GRF&M was categorized over normal walking speed as excellent for the vertical (ρ = 0.992, rRMSE = 5.3%, anterior (ρ = 0.965, rRMSE = 9.4% and sagittal (ρ = 0.933, rRMSE = 12.4% GRF&M components and as strong for the lateral (ρ = 0.862, rRMSE = 13.1%, frontal (ρ = 0.710, rRMSE = 29.6%, and transverse GRF&M (ρ = 0.826, rRMSE = 18.2%. Sensitivity analysis was performed on the effect of the cut-off frequency used in the filtering of the input kinematics, as well as the threshold velocities for the gait event detection algorithm. This study was the first to use only inertial motion capture to estimate 3D GRF&M during gait, providing comparable accuracy with optical motion capture prediction. This approach enables applications that require estimation of the kinetics during walking outside the gait laboratory.

  1. Estimation of Ground Reaction Forces and Moments During Gait Using Only Inertial Motion Capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatsidis, Angelos; Bellusci, Giovanni; Schepers, H Martin; de Zee, Mark; Andersen, Michael S; Veltink, Peter H

    2016-12-31

    Ground reaction forces and moments (GRF&M) are important measures used as input in biomechanical analysis to estimate joint kinetics, which often are used to infer information for many musculoskeletal diseases. Their assessment is conventionally achieved using laboratory-based equipment that cannot be applied in daily life monitoring. In this study, we propose a method to predict GRF&M during walking, using exclusively kinematic information from fully-ambulatory inertial motion capture (IMC). From the equations of motion, we derive the total external forces and moments. Then, we solve the indeterminacy problem during double stance using a distribution algorithm based on a smooth transition assumption. The agreement between the IMC-predicted and reference GRF&M was categorized over normal walking speed as excellent for the vertical ( ρ = 0.992, rRMSE = 5.3%), anterior ( ρ = 0.965, rRMSE = 9.4%) and sagittal ( ρ = 0.933, rRMSE = 12.4%) GRF&M components and as strong for the lateral ( ρ = 0.862, rRMSE = 13.1%), frontal ( ρ = 0.710, rRMSE = 29.6%), and transverse GRF&M ( ρ = 0.826, rRMSE = 18.2%). Sensitivity analysis was performed on the effect of the cut-off frequency used in the filtering of the input kinematics, as well as the threshold velocities for the gait event detection algorithm. This study was the first to use only inertial motion capture to estimate 3D GRF&M during gait, providing comparable accuracy with optical motion capture prediction. This approach enables applications that require estimation of the kinetics during walking outside the gait laboratory.

  2. Range vegetation type mapping and above-ground green biomass estimations using multispectral imagery. [Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, R. S. (Principal Investigator); Gordon, R. C.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Range vegetation types have been successfully mapped on a portion of the 68,000 acre study site located west of Baggs, Wyoming, using ERTS-1 imagery. These types have been ascertained from field transects over a five year period. Comparable studies will be made with EREP imagery. Above-ground biomass estimation studies are being conducted utilizing double sampling techniques on two similar study sites. Information obtained will be correlated with percent relative reflectance measurements obtained on the ground which will be related to image brightness levels. This will provide an estimate of above-ground green biomass with multispectral imagery.

  3. Effect of Pilates Exercise on Range of Motion and Edema of Upper Limb in Mastectomy Side

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Ghorbani

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives : The surgery of breast cancer like any other surgeries may bring about some problems and complications, which the knowledge of these problems may be an effective way for prevention or dealing with the complications. The motor and sensory impairments in the upper limb of the surgery side necessitate the utilization of the rehabilitation methods. The main purpose of this research was to show the effect of Pilates exercise on range of motion and edema of upper limb in females suffering from breast cancer after going through surgery.   Methods: This quasi- experimental study was conducted on 25 patients randomly chosen among the patients referring to Cancer Institute. The designed exercise included five "Mat Pilates" moves which were done for 15 sessions until the patient reached fatigue borderlines. Meantime, the control group was doing routine active exercises in physiotherapy center. The range of motion and edema of upper limb was measured before and after applying the designed exercise. For describing the data, the mean and standard deviation, and for inferential analysis, the correlated T-tests and one way analysis of variance were used in level of significance of 5%, to compare the variants before and after applying the designed exercise.   Results: The results showed a significant difference between the flexion, extension, and internal, external rotation of shoulder, flexion and extension of elbow, flexion, extension, supination deviation and pronation deviation of the wrist and forearm before and after experiment in Pilates group. While in the control group, flexion, extension, internal and external rotation of shoulder, flexion and extension of elbow, and flexion of wrist showed a significant difference before and after the experiment.   Conclusion: The use of Pilates exercise after mastectomy surgery can increase the range of motion of the upper limb in the involved side of the patients, and decrease the edema

  4. A Comparison of Methods for Assessing Space Suit Joint Ranges of Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitchison, Lindsay T.

    2012-01-01

    Through the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Program, NASA is attempting to use the vast collection of space suit mobility data from 50 years worth of space suit testing to build predictive analysis tools to aid in early architecture decisions for future missions and exploration programs. However, the design engineers must first understand if and how data generated by different methodologies can be compared directly and used in an essentially interchangeable manner. To address this question, the isolated joint range of motion data from two different test series were compared. Both data sets were generated from participants wearing the Mark III Space Suit Technology Demonstrator (MK-III), Waist Entry I-suit (WEI), and minimal clothing. Additionally the two tests shared a common test subject that allowed for within subject comparisons of the methods that greatly reduced the number of variables in play. The tests varied in their methodologies: the Space Suit Comparative Technologies Evaluation used 2-D photogrammetry to analyze isolated ranges of motion while the Constellation space suit benchmarking and requirements development used 3-D motion capture to evaluate both isolated and functional joint ranges of motion. The isolated data from both test series were compared graphically, as percent differences, and by simple statistical analysis. The results indicated that while the methods generate results that are statistically the same (significance level p= 0.01), the differences are significant enough in the practical sense to make direct comparisons ill advised. The concluding recommendations propose direction for how to bridge the data gaps and address future mobility data collection to allow for backward compatibility.

  5. Source Process and Ground Motions of the 2008 Wenchuan, China, Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koketsu, K.; Hikima, K.; Miyake, H.; Maruyama, T.; Wang, Z.

    2008-12-01

    The 2008 Wenchuan, China, earthquake occurred on May 12 (local time), and ground motions from this earthquake propagated around the world. We obtained the ground motion records observed at stations of FDSN from IRIS DMC. According to surface fault investigations (this study; Hao and Si, 2008) and the aftershock distribution by USGS, we defined a two-segment fault plane. The strike and dip angles for the southern and northern segments are respectively given to be (228, 35) and (232, 65) based on the results of point source analyses. We then carried out a finite source inversion of the first 140 s of 43 P and 8 SH teleseismic waves using the Green's functions of Kikuchi and Kanamori (1991) and the inverse algorithm of Yoshida et al. (1996) with modifications. We also used the location of the hypocenter determined by USGS (103.33E, 30.99N, depth 12 km) as a rupture initiation point. The resultant slip distribution indicates the first asperity with the largest reverse-faulting slip of about 9 m and the second asperity with a strike slip of about 4 m to be located 45 and 170 km northeast of the hypocenter, respectively. Major aftershocks are located surrounding these two asperities. The total seismic moment is 1.0 x 10**21 Nm, which corresponds to a moment magnitude (Mw) of 7.9, and the rupture duration is estimated to be 100 to 120 s. Significant slips appear in a 250 km long region (10,000 km**2) of the source fault, and these length and area are close to averages for an Mw 7.9 low-angle reverse-faulting earthquake. The area is ten times larger than that of the 1995 Kobe, Japan, earthquake. This fault area and the maximum slip three times larger result in energy release about thirty times larger than that of the 1995 Kobe earthquake (Mw 6.9). This difference almost coincides with the difference in the number of fatalities between the 2008 Sichuan and 1995 Kobe earthquakes. Heavily damaged towns such as Wenchuan and Beichuan are located within the surface projection of

  6. Static progressive stretch improves range of motion in arthrofibrosis following total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonutti, Peter M; Marulanda, German A; McGrath, Mike S; Mont, Michael A; Zywiel, Michael G

    2010-02-01

    Arthrofibrosis is a relatively common complication after total knee arthroplasty that negatively affects function and quality of life. Static progressive stretching is a technique that has shown promising results in the treatment of contractures of the elbow, ankle, wrist and knee. This study evaluated a static progressive stretching device as a treatment method for patients who had refractory knee stiffness after total knee arthroplasty. Twenty-five patients who had knee stiffness and no improvement with conventional physical therapy modalities were treated with the device. After a median of 7 weeks (range, 3-16 weeks), the median increase in range of motion was 25 degrees (range, 8-82 degrees). The median gain in knee active flexion was 19 degrees (range, 5-80 degrees). Ninety-two percent of patients were satisfied with the results. The authors believe static progressive stretching devices may be an effective method for increasing the ranges of motion and satisfaction levels of patients who develop arthrofibrosis after total knee arthroplasty.

  7. Effectiveness of Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF) in Improving Shoulder Range of Motion. A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olędzka, Marianna; Jaczewska-Bogacka, Joanna

    2017-05-10

    [b]Background.[/b] Subacromial impingement syndrome is a condition of the shoulder girdle which limits daily activities. It is worth seeking fast and effective treatment options. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of single-session proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) therapy on the shoulder range of motion and pain level in patients with subacromial impingement syndrome.[b]Materials and methods. [/b]The experimental group consisted of 11 patients with subacromial impingement syndrome who had undergone therapy based on the PNF concept. A control group consisted of 12 patients with subacromial impingement syndrome who had undergone laser therapy, magnetic field therapy and local cryotherapy. Both before and after the therapeutic interventions, the painless passive and active ranges of abduction, flexion, and external and internal rotation of the shoulder joint were measured on the same day with the use of a goniometer and measuring tape. Patients also evaluated their pain levels. They were asked to fill in DASH questionnaires in order to evaluate their baseline functional status. Nonparametric tests were used for the statistical analysis.[b]Results:[/b] After single-session PNF therapy, the mean shoulder range of motion increased by 15° (active) and 14° (passive). Active abduction improved by 13° and passive abduction by 18°. The ranges of active and passive external rotation increased by 8° and 7°, respectively. Active and passive internal rotation increased by 4°. 73% of patients who underwent the therapy stated that their pain had decreased. The magnetic field therapy, laser therapy and cryotherapy alone did not contribute to increased ranges of motion.[b]Conclusions.[/b] 1. Subacromial impingement syndrome significantly limits function in daily life. 2. Single-session therapy with the use of the techniques and patterns of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation can improve both the active and passive range of shoulder movement. 3

  8. Ground motion measurement in the lake Mead (Nevada, USA) area by temporal analysis of multiple interferograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalie, O.; Doin, M.; Lasserre, C.; Briole, P.

    2004-12-01

    SAR interferometry has proven to be a reliable method for detecting small displacements due to ground subsidence. In this study, we propose to measure ground motion around the lake Mead (Nevada, USA) using InSAR. This artificial lake has been filled with water in 1935. An earlier studie, based on levelling measurements, has shown that the lake impoundement has induced a subsidence of 17 centimeters (Kaufmann et al., 2000). This relaxation process is analogous to the postglacial rebound, but at a smaller scale. To quantify the deformation and constrain the crust and mantle rheological parameters in the lake area, we have analysed multiple interferograms (245) based on 45 ERS images between 1992 and 2001. The interferometric phase contains information about deformation occurring between two satellite passes, as well as satellite orbits errors, topographic, and atmospheric artefacts. The topographic signature is removed using the 3-arc seconds SRTM data. To correct for orbital errors, we remove a best fitting linear ramp. Atmospheric artefact, in our interferograms, are mainly due to the variation of water vapor vertical stratification between the two passes. This results in a interferometric phase correlation with altitude which we remove by minimization. These corrections are then refined through an iterative procedure and validated using data from global atmospheric models. Corrected interferograms are then inverted to solve for deformation using a method based on the large spatial coverage of coherent pixels, allowing to strengthen the signal to noise ratio (Schmidt and Burgmann, 2003). This data inversion provides a time series of the expected deformation in the lake Mead area. The analysis of the deformation evolution during the period covered by the ERS satellites (1992-2001) shows a correlation between the vertical motion and the water level changes. So, we observe a subsidence of up to 1.5 cm between 1996 and 1998, followed by an uplift due to the drop of the

  9. Ground Motion Simulations of Scenario Earthquake Ruptures of the Hayward Fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aagaard, B.; Graves, R.; Larsen, S.; Ma, S.; Rodgers, A.; Brocher, T.; Graymer, R.; Harris, R.; Lienkaemper, J.; Ponce, D.; Schwartz, D.; Simpson, R.; Spudich, P.; Dreger, D.; Petersson, A.; Boatwright, J.

    2008-12-01

    We compute ground motions in the San Francisco Bay area for a suite of 35 magnitude 6.7--7.2 scenario earthquake ruptures involving the Hayward fault. The suite of scenarios encompasses variability in rupture length, hypocenter, distribution of slip, rupture speed, and rise time. The five rupture lengths include the Hayward fault and portions thereof, as well as combined rupture of the Hayward and Rodgers Creek faults and the Hayward and Calaveras faults. For most rupture lengths, we consider three hypocenters, yielding north-to-south rupture, bilateral rupture, and south-to-north rupture. We also consider multiple random realizations of the slip distribution, accounting for creeping patches (Funning et al., 2007) either through simple assumptions about how creep reduces coseismic slip or a slip-predictable approach. The kinematic rupture models include local variations in rupture speed and use a ray-tracing algorithm to propagate the rupture front. Although we are not attempting to simulate the 1868 Hayward fault earthquake in detail, a few of the scenarios are designed to have source parameters that might be similar to this event. This collaborative effort involves four modeling groups, using different wave propagation codes and domains of various sizes and resolutions, computing long-period (T > 1--2 s) or broadband (T > 0.1 s) synthetic ground motions for overlapping subsets of the suite of scenarios. The simulations incorporate the 3-D geologic structure as described by the USGS 3-D Geologic Model (Jachens et al., 2006; Watt et al., 2007) and USGS Bay Area Velocity Model (Brocher et al., 2007). The simulations illustrate the dramatic increase in intensity of shaking for a magnitude 7.0 bilateral rupture of the entire Hayward fault compared with a magnitude 6.8 bilateral rupture of the southern two-thirds of the fault; the area subjected to shaking stronger than MMI VII increases from about 10% to more than 40% of the San Francisco Bay urban area. For a given

  10. Report of Earthquake Drills with Experiences of Ground Motion in Childcare for Young Children, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, N.

    2013-12-01

    After the Great East Japan Earthquake of 2011, this disaster has become one of the opportunities to raise awareness of earthquake and tsunami disaster prevention, and the improvement of disaster prevention education is to be emphasized. The influences of these bring the extension to the spatial axis in Japan, and also, it is important to make a development of the education with continuous to the expansion of time axes. Although fire or earthquake drills as the disaster prevention education are often found in Japan, the children and teachers only go from school building to outside. Besides, only the shortness of the time to spend for the drill often attracts attention. The complementary practice education by the cooperation with experts such as the firefighting is practiced, but the verification of the effects is not enough, and it is the present conditions that do not advance to the study either. Although it is expected that improvement and development of the disaster prevention educations are accomplished in future, there are a lot of the problems. Our target is construction and utilization of material contributing to the education about "During the strong motion" in case of the earthquake which may experience even if wherever of Japan. One of the our productions is the handicraft shaking table to utilize as teaching tools of the education to protect the body which is not hurt at the time of strong motion. This made much of simplicity than high reproduction of the earthquake ground motions. We aimed to helping the disaster prevention education including not only the education for young children but also for the school staff and their parents. In this report, the focusing on a way of the non-injured during the time of the earthquake ground motion, and adopting activity of the play, we are going to show the example of the framework of earthquake disaster prevention childcare through the virtual experience. This presentation has a discussion as a practice study with

  11. An Efficient Computation of Effective Ground Range Using an Oblate Earth Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalal A. Maturi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An effcient method is presented to calculate the ground range of a ballistic missile trajectory on a nonrotating Earth. The spherical Earth model does not provide good approximation of distance between two locations on the surface of Earth. We used oblate spheroid Earth model because it provides better approximations. The effective ground range of a ballistic missile is an arc-length of a planner elliptic (or circle curve which passes through the launch and target points on the surface of Earth model. A general formulation is presented to calculate the arc-length of an elliptic (or circle curve which is the intersection of oblate Earth model and a plane. Explicit formulas are developed to calculate the coordinates of center of the ellipse as well as major and minor axes which are necessary ingredients for the calculation of effective ground range.

  12. The validity and reliability of a new instrumented device for measuring ankle dorsiflexion range of motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calatayud, Joaquin; Martin, Fernando; Gargallo, Pedro; García-Redondo, Jessica; Colado, Juan Carlos; Marín, Pedro J

    2015-04-01

    A restriction in ankle dorsiflexion range of motion (ROM) has been linked to several clinical manifestations such as metatarsalgia, heel pain, nerve entrapment, ankle joint equinus, patellar and ankle injuries. The purpose of the present study was to examine the validity and reliability of the Leg Motion system for measuring ankle dorsiflexion ROM. Descriptive repeated-measures study. Twenty-six healthy male university students were recruited to test the reliability of the Leg Motion system, which is a portable tool used for assessment of ankle dorsiflexion during the weight-bearing lunge test. The participants were tested two times separated by two weeks and measurements were performed at the same time of the day by the same single rater. To test the validity of the Leg Motion system, other maximal ankle dorsiflexion ROM assessments (goniometer, inclinometer and measuring tape) were measured in a single session (i.e., the first test session) during the weight-bearing lunge position using a standard goniometer, a digital inclinometer and a measuring tape measure with the ability to measure to the nearest 0.1 cm. Paired t-tests showed the absence of significant differences between right and left limb measurements of dorsiflexion in all tests. Mean values ± standard deviations were as follows: Leg Motion test (left 11.6cm±3.9; right 11.9cm ±4.0), tape measure (left 11.6cm±4.0; right 11.8cm±4.2), goniometer (left 40.6º±5.2; right 40.6º±5.2), and digital inclinometer (left 40.0º±5.8; right 39.9º±5.6). The Leg Motion composite values (i.e., average of the two legs) showed a significant (pMotion system as a valid, portable, and easy to use alternative to the weight-bearing lunge test to assess ankle dorsiflexion ROM in healthy participants. 2b.

  13. Estimating Empirical Site Amplification of Taiwan near-surface structure by Spectral Ratio Methods with CWB Next Generation Seismic Network: toward broadband waveform ground motion prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Y. H.; Ma, K. F.; Wang, Y. J.

    2016-12-01

    Site effect is one of the most important factors dominating ground motion prediction. For engineering usage, the ground motion prediction equation (GMPE) usually includes the site-effect factor (e.g. Vs30, Z1.0). The site-effect, however, is considered as non-linear response, and could be critical for the aspect in broadband waveform modeling for ground motion prediction through simulation. In this study, we utilized four large earthquakes data of surface and borehole seismometers from Central Weather Bureau (CWB) next generation seismic network to analyze the site amplification factors and the transfer functions for sediments over the basement. We used a spectral ratio method by comparing the ground motions of surface and borehole record to acquire empirical amplification factors (EAF) for PGA, PGV and frequency spectra from 0.1 to 20 Hz. The relationship between the EAF and Vs30 value were analyzed as well. The first part of results showed that nonlinear relationship between PGA (or PGV) amplification and Vs30, suggested that the amplification of PGA or PGV from borehole to surface was not dominated by shallow structure (i.e., top 30 m of strata). Thus, estimating the site effect should include not only Vs30 but EAF, because EAF could directly response the amplification of ground motion by site characters. The second part of results showed that the relationships between EAF for frequency spectra range of 0.1 to 20 Hz and Vs30 could be divided into two site types which are strongly correlated to Vs30 values of sites. For Type I sites, the EAF increased with increasing frequency, and the Vs30 of these sites are generally over 760 (m/s). Type II sites which Vs30 are generally lower than 760 (m/s), the peak value of EAF shown around frequency range of 1 to 3 Hz attributed to the soft-soil conditions. The empirical amplification and transfer function analysis could be applied to obtain the GMPE for basement rock and be adopted in ground motion simulation. The effort

  14. Ground Motion Measurement in the Lake Mead Area (Nevada, USA), by Temporal Analysis of Multiple Interferograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doin, M.; Cavalie, O.; Lasserre, C.; Briole, P.

    2005-12-01

    SAR interferometry has proven to be a reliable method for detecting small displacements due to ground subsidence. In this study, we measure ground motion around the lake Mead (Nevada, USA) using InSAR. This artificial lake has been filled with water in 1935. An earlier study, based on leveling measurements, has shown that the load associated with lake impoundment has induced a delayed subsidence of 17 centimeters. This relaxation process has been argued to be due to viscous displacement in the uppermost mantle, analogous to the postglacial rebound, but at a smaller spatial scale and with a much lower viscous relaxation scale. To quantify the deformation and thus constrain the crust and mantle rheological parameters in the lake area, we analyse multiple interferograms (~280) based on 43 ERS images acquired between 1992 and 2001 and on 12 Envisat images acquired between 2003 and 2005. ERS-Envisat interferograms are performed to merge the two data sets in one time series. With baselines smaller than 300 m, all interferograms have a very good coherence due to the desert region. Most interferograms show strong atmospheric artefacts that are partly due to the variation of water vapor vertical stratification between two satellite passes. Tropospheric delay is computed for each interferogram using the correlation between phase and elevation far from the lake area. It is then inverted for each date of SAR images before interferograms correction. These corrections are validated using data from global atmospheric models (ERA40). Corrected interferograms are then inverted to solve for time series of the expected deformation in the lake Mead area . The linear inversion treats each pixel independently from its neighbours and use the data redundancy to reduce errors such as local decorrelations. Smoothing constraints added in the inversion efficiently eliminate local atmospheric artefacts. We obtain a time series of the expected deformation in the lake Mead area. The analysis of

  15. Simulation of Strong Ground Motion of the 2009 Bhutan Earthquake Using Modified Semi-Empirical Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandeep; Joshi, A.; Lal, Sohan; Kumar, Parveen; Sah, S. K.; Vandana; Kamal

    2017-09-01

    On 21st September 2009 an earthquake of magnitude (M w 6.1) occurred in the East Bhutan. This earthquake caused serious damage to the residential area and was widely felt in the Bhutan Himalaya and its adjoining area. We estimated the source model of this earthquake using modified semi empirical technique. In the rupture plane, several locations of nucleation point have been considered and finalised based on the minimum root mean square error of waveform comparison. In the present work observed and simulated waveforms has been compared at all the eight stations. Comparison of horizontal components of actual and simulated records at these stations confirms the estimated parameters of final rupture model and efficacy of the modified semi-empirical technique (Joshi et al., Nat Hazards 64:1029-1054, 2012b) of strong ground motion simulation.

  16. On large amplitude motions of simplest amides in the ground and excited electronic states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tukachev, N. V.; Bataev, V. A.; Godunov, I. A.

    2017-01-01

    For the formamide, acetamide, N-methylformamide and N-methylacetamide molecules in the ground (S0) and lowest excited singlet (S1) and triplet (T1) electronic states equilibrium geometry parameters, harmonic vibrational frequencies, barriers to conformational transitions and conformer energy differences were estimated by means of MP2, CCSD(T), CASSCF, CASPT2 and MRCI ab initio methods. One-, two- and three-dimensional potential energy surface (PES) sections corresponding to different large amplitude motions (LAM) were calculated by means of MP2/aug-cc-pVTZ (S0) and CASPT2/cc-pVTZ (S1,T1). For these molecules, in each excited electronic state six minima were found on 2D PES sections. Using PES sections, different anharmonic vibrational problems were solved and the frequencies of large amplitude vibrations were determined.

  17. Bubble motion in a rotating liquid body. [ground based tests for space shuttle experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annamalai, P.; Subramanian, R. S.; Cole, R.

    1982-01-01

    The behavior of a single gas bubble inside a rotating liquid-filled sphere has been investigated analytically and experimentally as part of ground-based investigations aimed at aiding in the design and interpretation of Shuttle experiments. In the analysis, a quasi-static description of the motion of a bubble was developed in the limit of small values of the Taylor number. A series of rotation experiments using air bubbles and silicone oils were designed to match the conditions specified in the analysis, i.e., the bubble size, sphere rotation rate, and liquid kinematic viscosity were chosen such that the Taylor number was much less than unity. The analytical description predicts the bubble velocity and its asymptotic location. It is shown that the asymptotic position is removed from the axis of rotation.

  18. On large amplitude motions of simplest amides in the ground and excited electronic states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tukachev N.V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available For the formamide, acetamide, N-methylformamide and N-methylacetamide molecules in the ground (S0 and lowest excited singlet (S1 and triplet (T1 electronic states equilibrium geometry parameters, harmonic vibrational frequencies, barriers to conformational transitions and conformer energy differences were estimated by means of MP2, CCSD(T, CASSCF, CASPT2 and MRCI ab initio methods. One-, two- and three-dimensional potential energy surface (PES sections corresponding to different large amplitude motions (LAM were calculated by means of MP2/aug-cc-pVTZ (S0 and CASPT2/cc-pVTZ (S1,T1. For these molecules, in each excited electronic state six minima were found on 2D PES sections. Using PES sections, different anharmonic vibrational problems were solved and the frequencies of large amplitude vibrations were determined.

  19. Deconvolution effect of near-fault earthquake ground motions on stochastic dynamic response of tunnel-soil deposit interaction systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Hacıefendioğlu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The deconvolution effect of the near-fault earthquake ground motions on the stochastic dynamic response of tunnel-soil deposit interaction systems are investigated by using the finite element method. Two different earthquake input mechanisms are used to consider the deconvolution effects in the analyses: the standard rigid-base input and the deconvolved-base-rock input model. The Bolu tunnel in Turkey is chosen as a numerical example. As near-fault ground motions, 1999 Kocaeli earthquake ground motion is selected. The interface finite elements are used between tunnel and soil deposit. The mean of maximum values of quasi-static, dynamic and total responses obtained from the two input models are compared with each other.

  20. Utilization of near-source video and ground motion in the assessment of seismic source functions from mining explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stump, B.W. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Anderson, D.P. [Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, TX (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences

    1995-04-01

    Constraint of the operative physical processes in the source region of mining explosions and the linkage to the generation of seismic waveforms provides the opportunity for controlling ground motion. Development of these physical models can also be used in conjunction with the ground motion data as diagnostics of blasting efficiency. In order to properly address the multi-dimensional aspect of data sets designed to constrain these sources, we are investigating a number of modem visualization tools that have only recently become available with new, high-speed graphical computers that can utilize relatively large data sets. The data sets that are combined in the study of mining explosion sources include near-source ground motion acceleration and velocity records, velocity of detonation measurements in each explosive hole, high speed film, video and shot design information.

  1. Emittance growth for the LHC beams due to head-on beam-beam interaction and ground motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mari Paz Zorzano and Tanaji Sen

    2000-04-18

    The influence of ground motion on the LHC beam is estimated applying the existing theories of particle diffusion due to a weak-strong beam-beam collision with random offset at the interaction point. Noise at odd harmonics of the betatron frequency contributes significantly to particle diffusion. The spectrum of the random offset, as obtained from the ground motion spectrum at the LHC site, shows a fast fall-off with frequency and the amplitude is very small even at the first harmonic. They find that the head-on beam-beam force in the weak-strong approximation and ground motion by themselves do not induce significant diffusion over the lifetime of the beam.

  2. Comparison of the inelastic response of steel building frames to strong earthquake and underground nuclear explosion ground motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, R.C.; Tokarz, F.J.

    1976-06-30

    Analytic studies were made of the adequacy of simulating earthquake effects at the Nevada Test Site for structural testing purposes. It is concluded that underground nuclear explosion ground motion will produce inelastic behavior and damage comparable to that produced by strong earthquakes. The generally longer duration of earthquakes compared with underground nuclear explosions does not appear to significantly affect the structural behavior of the building frames considered. A comparison of maximum ductility ratios, maximum story drifts, and maximum displacement indicate similar structural behavior for both types of ground motion. Low yield (10 - kt) underground nuclear explosions are capable of producing inelastic behavior in large structures. Ground motion produced by underground nuclear explosions can produce inelastic earthquake-like effects in large structures and could be used for testing large structures in the inelastic response regime. The Nevada Test Site is a feasible earthquake simulator for testing large structures.

  3. Maximum Range of a Projectile Thrown from Constant-Speed Circular Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poljak, Nikola

    2016-01-01

    The problem of determining the angle ? at which a point mass launched from ground level with a given speed v[subscript 0] will reach a maximum distance is a standard exercise in mechanics. There are many possible ways of solving this problem, leading to the well-known answer of ? = p/4, producing a maximum range of D[subscript max] = v[superscript…

  4. Hip and ankle range of motion and hip muscle strength in young female ballet dancersand controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennell, K.; Khan, K. M.; Matthews, B.; De Gruyter, M.; Cook, E.; Holzer, K.; Wark, J. D.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare the hip and ankle range of motion and hip muscle strength in 8-11 year old novice female ballet dancers and controls. METHODS: Subjects were 77 dancers and 49 controls (mean (SD) age 9.6 (0.8) and 9.6 (0.7) years respectively). Supine right active hip external rotation (ER) and internal rotation (IR) were measured using an inclinometer. A turnout protractor was used to assess standing active turnout range. The measure of ER achieved from below the hip during turnout (non-hip ER) was calculated by subtracting hip ER range from turnout range, and hip ER:IR was derived by dividing ER range by IR range. Range of right weight bearing ankle dorsiflexion was measured in a standing lunge using two methods: the distance from the foot to the wall (in centimetres) and the angle of the shank to the vertical via an inclinometer (in degrees). Right calf muscle range was measured in weight bearing using an inclinometer. A manual muscle tester was used to assess right isometric hip flexor, internal rotator, external rotator, abductor, and adductor strength. RESULTS: Dancers had less ER (pballetic training. 


 PMID:10522638

  5. Stochastic calculus analysis of optical time-of-flight range imaging and estimation of radial motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streeter, Lee

    2017-07-01

    Time-of-flight range imaging is analyzed using stochastic calculus. Through a series of interpretations and simplifications, the stochastic model leads to two methods for estimating linear radial velocity: maximum likelihood estimation on the transition probability distribution between measurements, and a new method based on analyzing the measured correlation waveform and its first derivative. The methods are tested in a simulated motion experiment from (-40)-(+40)  m/s, with data from a camera imaging an object on a translation stage. In tests maximum likelihood is slow and unreliable, but when it works it estimates the linear velocity with standard deviation of 1 m/s or better. In comparison the new method is fast and reliable but works in a reduced velocity range of (-20)-(+20)  m/s with standard deviation ranging from 3.5 m/s to 10 m/s.

  6. Intrarater range of motion reliability in cerebral palsy: a comparison of assessment methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glanzman, Allan M; Swenson, Amy E; Kim, Heakyung

    2008-01-01

    To compare intrarater reliability of goniometry performed with and without an assistant and compare the reliability of the Staheli and Thomas tests of hip extension. Visual estimation was also evaluated as a method of range of motion assessment. Twenty-five children with cerebral palsy (50 legs) were evaluated in a blind fashion. Interclass correlations (ICCs) ranged from 0.9701 to 0.9804 and from 0.9685 to 0.9822 for 1 and 2-person goniometry, respectively. Pearson product moment correlations of 0.8944 to 0.9553 for visual estimation were established. Staheli and Thomas test ICCs were 0.9793 and 0.9804, respectively. Goniometry with 1 and 2 assessors both produced ICCs in the excellent range as did the Staheli and Thomas test measurements of hip extension. The use of an assistant did not provide additional benefit. Visual estimation showed excellent correlation with goniometry.

  7. Use of a patient-controlled stretching device to improve the ankle range of motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevino, Saul G; Buford, William L; Vallurupalli, Santaram; Rowell, Margaret; Panchbhavi, Vinod K

    2009-02-01

    Ankle and subtalar stiffness are widely associated with many foot and ankle conditions and functional deficits. Loss of range of motion, particularly dorsiflexion, results in significant gait dysfunction. A variety of methods have been evaluated to address this problem, including yoga, manipulation, dance training, jogging and static stretching exercises. No tools have been described that effectively and efficiently stretch the ankle and subtalar joint without requiring supervision or assistance of a trained physical therapist. Twenty-two subjects with varying foot and ankle diagnoses who had little or no improvement in range of motion after traditional assisted physical therapy were recruited from a foot and ankle orthopaedic clinic. The subjects' ankle and subtalar range of motion (ROM) in plantarflexion (PF), dorsiflexion (DF), inversion (INV), and eversion (EVR) were measured using a standard goniometer by a single physiotherapist prior to using the stretching device. The subjects were trained on the proper use of the stretching device and then instructed to use it daily for a 6-week period. Then the same examiner repeated the above measurements. Statistical analysis was performed using a two sample t-test assuming unequal variances. There were statistically significant increases in ROM in all planes tested: DF to PF (p = 0.0052), and INV to EVR (p = 0.018). Stretching with the device significantly increased ankle and subtalar ROM. The stretching device can be used at home on a regular basis with minimal training and can effectively treat stiffness of the ankle and subtalar joints. It can be cost-effective when compared to use of physiotherapy services.

  8. Biomechanical Effect of an Interlaminar Device on Ranges of Motion, Intradiscal Pressure, and Centers of Rotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giancarlo Guizzardi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The IntraSPINE is a new interlaminar device that has been proposed with the aim to decompress the spinal canal without reducing the extension motion. The purpose of this study was therefore to evaluate the biomechanical behavior of L4-L5 spinal units implanted with this interlaminar device, in terms of ranges of motion, intradiscal pressure, and centers of rotation. Material and Methods. Six human lumbar spines were harvested within 10 days after death. A specific spine testing device was used to apply moments up to 10 Nm in flexion-extension, lateral bending (left-right flexion and left-right axial rotation (torsion, with measurement of vertebral 3D motion and of intervertebral disc pressure. Protocol was repeated for each specimen in 5 configurations: intact specimen; after L4-L5 bilateral medial hemifacetectomy and both yellow ligament resection; after implantation of the interlaminar device at the L4-L5 level; after removal of the L4-L5 supraspinous ligament, resection of the posterior third of the disc and addition of an artificial ligament; after device and artificial ligament removal. Results. The implant reduced increases in segmental flexion seen following injury particularly when applied with the artificial ligament. Intradiscal pressure reduced following application of the implant without reducing extension range. A small posterior shift of the Mean Centers of Rotation (MCR was noticed after instrumentation. Torsion and lateral bending range was unaffected by the interlaminar device. Conclusion. This biomechanical study yields a better understanding of this interlaminar implant effect. A large clinical trial with follow-up would be required to evaluate and confirm in vivo the observed in vitro biomechanical behavior of the device.

  9. The SCEC-USGS Dynamic Earthquake Rupture Code Comparison Exercise - Simulations of Large Earthquakes and Strong Ground Motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, R.

    2015-12-01

    I summarize the progress by the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Dynamic Rupture Code Comparison Group, that examines if the results produced by multiple researchers' earthquake simulation codes agree with each other when computing benchmark scenarios of dynamically propagating earthquake ruptures. These types of computer simulations have no analytical solutions with which to compare, so we use qualitative and quantitative inter-code comparisons to check if they are operating satisfactorily. To date we have tested the codes against benchmark exercises that incorporate a range of features, including single and multiple planar faults, single rough faults, slip-weakening, rate-state, and thermal pressurization friction, elastic and visco-plastic off-fault behavior, complete stress drops that lead to extreme ground motion, heterogeneous initial stresses, and heterogeneous material (rock) structure. Our goal is reproducibility, and we focus on the types of earthquake-simulation assumptions that have been or will be used in basic studies of earthquake physics, or in direct applications to specific earthquake hazard problems. Our group's goals are to make sure that when our earthquake-simulation codes simulate these types of earthquake scenarios along with the resulting simulated strong ground shaking, that the codes are operating as expected. For more introductory information about our group and our work, please see our group's overview papers, Harris et al., Seismological Research Letters, 2009, and Harris et al., Seismological Research Letters, 2011, along with our website, scecdata.usc.edu/cvws.

  10. Validation of the spin-T goniometer, a cervical range of motion device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Shabnam; Allison, Garry T; Singer, Kevin P

    2005-10-01

    To test the validity of the Spin-T goniometer for the assessment of cervical range of movement. A linear regression analysis for paired neck movements using first a foam head model and then human subjects was performed to quantify the differences between the measurements obtained from the MotionStar, a movement-tracking device, and the Spin-T. A within-subject repeated measures design using simultaneous data acquisition was completed. The coefficient of determination (R2) for all planes of cervical range of motion for both model and human data sets was higher than 0.99. The regression equations for the model data showed no significant (P > .05) intercept for flexion-extension and lateral rotation. Human data showed statistically significant intercept for flexion-extension (mean, -0.52 degrees) and lateral flexion (mean, 0.81 degrees) at P goniometer and documents the systematic error between the measures. Where the error reached statistical significance, the magnitude of the error was very small (goniometer may be used as a valid measuring instrument for cervical range of movement.

  11. Reliability of hip range of motion using goniometry in pediatric femur shaft fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Janice; Stephens, Derek; Wright, James G

    2007-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the interrater reliability of the assessment of range of motion of the hip joint through goniometry. We included children aged 4 to 10 years with a femoral shaft fracture, from 4 study sites, who had had either an early hip spica cast or an external fixator. An assessor blind to treatment received at each site measured range of hip joints motion, using a standardized goniometric technique at 15 and 24 months postfracture. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to quantify concordance or agreement. Most ICCs for the different aspects of hip range were between 0.2 and 0.5, indicating only slight agreement. The most reliable measure was hip flexion, with an ICC of 0.48 (95% confidence interval 0.29-0.63). Goniometric measurement, using standardized protocols for the hip, has low reliability. Only when differences in rotation exceed at least 30 degrees and in flexion-extension exceed 50 degrees should clinicians conclude that true change has occurred.

  12. Effects of surface geology on the ground-motion at New Borg El-Arab City, Alexandria, Northern Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Abuoelela A. Mohamed; A.M.A. Helal; A.M.E. Mohamed; M.M.F. Shokry; M. Ezzelarab

    2016-01-01

    The effects of the near-surface geology on the ground-motion at New Borg El-Arab City were evaluated in the current work based on the analysis of the ambient noise records (microtremor). Sixty-nine microtremor measurements have been done in the studied area. The dataset was processed using horizontal-to-vertical-spectral ratio (HVSR) technique to estimate the fundamental frequencies corresponding to the ground-motion amplification due to the soil deposits. By spatial interpolation of the resu...

  13. Gouty tophi caused limited knee range of motion: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kijkunasathian, Chusak; Woratanarat, Patarawan; Saengpetch, Nadhaporn

    2009-12-01

    Gout is a disease of purine metabolism characterized by monosodium urate crystal deposition. Gouty tophi can mimic many conditions such as infection or neoplasm. We descriptively presented a case of a 29-year-old male with gouty toph. Data was obtained from patient chart. This patient presented with limited knee joint range of motion after sport injury. Arthroscopic examination was performed in order to confirm the diagnosis of the meniscal injury. The result showed the synovium with white toothpaste-like chalky urate crystals in the joint cartilage. An atypical presentation of gouty tophi can sometime mislead to diagnose an internal derangement of the knee.

  14. Effectiveness of adaptive silverware on range of motion of the hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan S. McDonald

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Hand function is essential to a person’s self-efficacy and greatly affects quality of life. Adapted utensils with handles of increased diameters have historically been used to assist individuals with arthritis or other hand disabilities for feeding, and other related activities of daily living. To date, minimal research has examined the biomechanical effects of modified handles, or quantified the differences in ranges of motion (ROM when using a standard versus a modified handle. The aim of this study was to quantify the ranges of motion (ROM required for a healthy hand to use different adaptive spoons with electrogoniometry for the purpose of understanding the physiologic advantages that adapted spoons may provide patients with limited ROM. Methods. Hand measurements included the distal interphalangeal joint (DIP, proximal interphalangeal joint (PIP, and metacarpophalangeal joint (MCP for each finger and the interphalangeal (IP and MCP joint for the thumb. Participants were 34 females age 18–30 (mean age 20.38 ± 1.67 with no previous hand injuries or abnormalities. Participants grasped spoons with standard handles, and spoons with handle diameters of 3.18 cm (1.25 inch, and 4.45 cm (1.75 inch. ROM measurements were obtained with an electrogoniometer to record the angle at each joint for each of the spoon handle sizes. Results. A 3 × 3 × 4 repeated measures ANOVA (Spoon handle size by Joint by Finger found main effects on ROM of Joint (F(2, 33 = 318.68, Partial η2 = .95, p < .001, Spoon handle size (F(2, 33 = 598.73, Partial η2 = .97, p < .001, and Finger (F(3, 32 = 163.83, Partial η2 = .94, p < .001. As the spoon handle diameter size increased, the range of motion utilized to grasp the spoon handle decreased in all joints and all fingers (p < 0.01. Discussion. This study confirms the hypothesis that less range of motion is required to grip utensils with larger diameter handles, which in turn may reduce challenges for

  15. Older Adults without Radiographic Knee Osteoarthritis: Knee Alignment and Knee Range of Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lissa Fahlman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study describes knee alignment and active knee range of motion (ROM in a community-based group of 78-year old adults (n = 143 who did not have radiographic evidence of knee osteoarthritis in either knee (KL 0.001 than women with varus or straight knees. Men and women with valgus or varus knee alignments had generally lower ROM than individuals with both knees straight. In summary, this study highlights the complex relationships among knee alignment, ROM, body mass index, and gender in elderly adults without radiographic knee osteoarthritis.

  16. [Measurement of the knee range of motion: standard goniometer or smartphone?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rwakabayiza, Sylvia; Pereira, Luis Carlos; Lécureux, Estelle; Jolles-Haeberli, Brigitte

    2013-12-18

    Universal standard goniometer is an essential tool to measure articulations' range of motion (ROM). In this time of technological advances and increasing use of smartphones, new measurement's tools appear as specific smartphone applications. This article compares the iOS application "Knee Goniometer" with universal standard goniometer to assess knee ROM. To our knowledge, this is the first study that uses a goniometer application in a clinical context. The purpose of this study is to determine if this application could be used in clinical practice.

  17. Effectiveness of Manual Therapy and Stretching for Baseball Players With Shoulder Range of Motion Deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Lane B; Thigpen, Charles A; Hawkins, Richard J; Beattie, Paul F; Shanley, Ellen

    Baseball players displaying deficits in shoulder range of motion (ROM) are at increased risk of arm injury. Currently, there is a lack of consensus regarding the best available treatment options to restore shoulder ROM. Instrumented manual therapy with self-stretching will result in clinically significant deficit reductions when compared with self-stretching alone. Controlled laboratory study. Shoulder ROM and humeral torsion were assessed in 60 active baseball players (mean age, 19 ± 2 years) with ROM deficits (nondominant - dominant, ≥15°). Athletes were randomly assigned to receive a single treatment of instrumented manual therapy plus self-stretching (n = 30) or self-stretching only (n = 30). Deficits in internal rotation, horizontal adduction, and total arc of motion were compared between groups immediately before and after a single treatment session. Treatment effectiveness was determined by mean comparison data, and a number-needed-to-treat (NNT) analysis was used for assessing the presence of ROM risk factors. Prior to intervention, players displayed significant ( P stretching group displaying greater increases in internal rotation (+5°, P = 0.010), total arc of motion (+6°, P = 0.010), and horizontal adduction (+7°, P = 0.004) compared with self-stretching alone. For horizontal adduction deficits, the added use of instrumented manual therapy with self-stretching decreased the NNT to 2.2 (95% CI, 2.1-2.4; P = 0.010). Instrumented manual therapy with self-stretching significantly reduces ROM risk factors in baseball players with motion deficits when compared with stretching alone. The added benefits of manual therapy may help to reduce ROM deficits in clinical scenarios where stretching alone is ineffective.

  18. Geophysical assessment of near-field ground motion and the implications for the design of nuclear installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernreuter, D.L.

    1977-09-30

    This paper gives an in-depth discussion on the various methodologies currently available to predict the near-field ground motion from an earthquake. The limitations of the various methods are discussed in some detail in light of recently available data. It is shown that, (at least for California earthquakes) for an earthquake with a given magnitude a wide variation in the peak ground motion can occur. The change in the spectral content of the ground motion is given as a function of earthquake magnitude and peak ground acceleration. It is shown that the large g values associated with small earthquakes are relatively unimportant in the design provided the structures have a modest amount of ductility. Data recently obtained from the Friuli earthquake are also examined. Although not all the geophysical data are currently available, the provisional conclusion is reached that the relation between the strong ground motion from this earthquake and its source parameters is the same as for the western United States.

  19. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis of two suspension bridges in Istanbul, Turkey to near- and far-fault ground motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ö. Çavdar

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to compare the near-fault and far-fault ground motion effects on the probabilistic sensitivity dynamic responses of two suspension bridges in Istanbul. Two different types of suspension bridges are selected to investigate the near-fault (NF and far-fault (FF ground motion effects on the bridge sensitivity responses. NF and FF strong ground motion records, which have approximately identical peak ground accelerations, of the Kocaeli (1999 earthquake are selected for the analyses. Displacements and internal forces are determined using the probabilistic sensitivity method (PSM, which is one type of stochastic finite element method. The efficiency and accuracy of the proposed algorithm are validated by comparison with results of the Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS method. The displacements and internal forces obtained from the analyses of suspension bridges subjected to each fault effect are compared with each other. It is clearly seen that there is more seismic demand on displacements and internal forces when suspension bridges are subjected to NF and FF ground motion.

  20. Characterizing ground motions that collapse steel special moment-resisting frames or make them unrepairable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Anna H.; Heaton, Thomas H.; Hall, John F.

    2015-01-01

    This work applies 64,765 simulated seismic ground motions to four models each of 6- or 20-story, steel special moment-resisting frame buildings. We consider two vector intensity measures and categorize the building response as “collapsed,” “unrepairable,” or “repairable.” We then propose regression models to predict the building responses from the intensity measures. The best models for “collapse” or “unrepairable” use peak ground displacement and velocity as intensity measures, and the best models predicting peak interstory drift ratio, given that the frame model is “repairable,” use spectral acceleration and epsilon (ϵ) as intensity measures. The more flexible frame is always more likely than the stiffer frame to “collapse” or be “unrepairable.” A frame with fracture-prone welds is substantially more susceptible to “collapse” or “unrepairable” damage than the equivalent frame with sound welds. The 20-story frames with fracture-prone welds are more vulnerable to P-delta instability and have a much higher probability of collapse than do any of the 6-story frames.

  1. Ground motion prediction from nearest seismogenic zones in and around Greater Cairo Area, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd El-Aziz Khairy Abd El-Aal

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the likely source characteristics, focal source mechanism and fault patterns of the nearest effective seismogenic zones to Greater Cairo Area. Furthermore, Mmax and ground accelerations related to the effective seismic events expected in future from those seismogenic zones are well evaluated. For this purpose, the digital waveform of earthquakes than ML=3 that occurred in and around Greater Cairo Area from 1997 to 2008 which have been recorded by the Egyptian National Seismological Network, are used to study source characterization, focal mechanism and fault pattern of the seismogenic zones around Greater Cairo Area. The ground motions are predicted from seismogenic zones to assess seismic hazard in the northeastern part of Greater Cairo, where three effective seismogenic zones, namely Abou Zabul, southeast Cairo trend and Dahshour area, have the largest effect to the Greater Cairo Area. The Mmax was determined, based upon an empirical relationship between the seismic moment and the rupture length of the fault during the earthquake. The estimated Mmax expected from Abou Zabul, southeast Cairo trend, Dahshour seismic sources are of Mw magnitudes equal to 5.4, 5.1, and 6.5, respectively. The predominant fundamental frequency and soil amplification characteristics at the area were obtained using boreholes data and in-situ ambient noise measurement.

  2. THE ROLE OF KNEE POSITIONING AND RANGE-OF-MOTION ON THE CLOSED-STANCE FOREHAND TENNIS SWING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven M. Nesbit

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the role of knee positioning and range-of- motion on the closed-stance forehand tennis swing. The analyses of tennis swing mechanics were performed using a computer model comprised of a full-body model of a human and an inertial model of a racket. The model was driven by subject forehand swings (16 female college-level subjects recorded with a high-speed digital motion analysis system. The study discovered that both initial knee positioning and range-of-motion were positively related to racket velocity and characteristic of more skilled players. The direct effects of knee positioning and range-of-motion on racket movement are minimal, however there are several indirect biomechanical effects on the forehand motion such as movement of the body mass center, work of the knee, hip and back joints, and the angular range-of-motion of the hips and torso. Some of these indirect effects were related to racket velocity and characteristic of more skilled players. Factors that influenced knee positioning and range-of-motion include years of playing, amount of coaching, and body style. Efforts to both increase and restrict the knee movements of the subjects resulted in substantially lower racket velocities (and other detrimental biomechanical effects implying that there may be optimal knee positions and range-of-motion for a given subject. The most skilled subject exhibited a high degree of consistency of knee positioning and range-of-motion. This subject adjusted for varying ball height through modified initial knee positioning while maintaining fairly constant ranges-of-motion

  3. Quantifying Forest Ground Flora Biomass Using Close-range Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul F. Doruska; Robert C. Weih; Matthew D. Lane; Don C. Bragg

    2005-01-01

    Close-range remote sensing was used to estimate biomass of forest ground flora in Arkansas. Digital images of a series of 1-m² plots were taken using Kodak DCS760 and Kodak DCS420CIR digital cameras. ESRI ArcGIS™ and ERDAS Imagine® software was used to calculate the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and the Average Visible...

  4. Ground and Range Operations for a Heavy-Lift Vehicle: Preliminary Thoughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabelo, Luis; Zhu, Yanshen; Compton, Jeppie; Bardina, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the ground and range operations for a Shuttle derived Heavy-Lift Vehicle being launched from the Kennedy Space Center on the Eastern range. Comparisons will be made between the Shuttle and a heavy lift configuration (SLS-ETF MPCV April 2011) by contrasting their subsystems. The analysis will also describe a simulation configuration with the potential to be utilized for heavy lift vehicle processing/range simulation modeling and the development of decision-making systems utilized by the range. In addition, a simple simulation model is used to provide the required critical thinking foundations for this preliminary analysis.

  5. Three decades of volume change of a small greenlandic glacier using ground penetrating radar, structure from motion, and aerial photogrammetry

    OpenAIRE

    Marcer, M.; Stentoft, Peter Alexander; Bjerre, Elisa; Cimoli, E.; A. A. Bjørk; Stenseng, Lars; MACHGUTH, HORST

    2017-01-01

    Glaciers in the Arctic are losing mass at an increasing rate. Here we use surface topography derived from Structure from Motion (SfM) and ice volume from ground penetrating radar (GPR) to describe the 2014 state of Aqqutikitsoq glacier (2.85 km2) on Greenland's west coast. A photogrammetrically derived 1985 digital elevation model (DEM) was subtracted from a 2014 DEM obtained using land-based SfM to calculate geodetic glacier mass balance. Furthermore, a detailed 2014 ground penetrating...

  6. Reliability and Validity of Electro-Goniometric Range of Motion Measurements in Patients with Hand and Wrist Limitations

    OpenAIRE

    Bashardoust Tajali, Siamak; MacDermid, Joy C.; Grewal, Ruby; Young, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Study Design: Cross-sectional reliability and validity study. Purpose: 1. To determine intrarater, interrater and inter instrument reliabilities and validity of two digital electro goniometry to measure active wrist/finger range of motions (ROMs) in patients with limited motion. 2. To determine intrarater and interrater reliabilities of digital goniometry to measure torques of PIP passive flexion of the index finger in patients with limited motion. Methods: The study was designed in a randomi...

  7. Range of motion, muscle length, and balance performance in older adults with normal, pronated, and supinated feet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justine, Maria; Ruzali, Dhiya; Hazidin, Ezzaty; Said, Aisyah; Bukry, Saiful Adli; Manaf, Haidzir

    2016-03-01

    [Purpose] To compare the lower limb joint range of motion and muscle length between different types of foot posture, and determine the correlation of range of motion and muscle length with balance performance. [Subjects and Methods] Ninety individuals (age, 65.2±4.6 years) were assessed using the Foot Posture Index to determine their type of foot (Normal [0 to +5], pronated [+6 to +9], and supinated [-1 to -4]; n=30 per group). The range of motion (goniometer), muscle length (goniometer and tape measure), and balance performance (functional reach test and four square step test) were measured for each participant. Data were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test and Spearman's rank-order correlation. [Results] No significant differences were found in range of motion, muscle length, and balance performance among different types of foot posture, except for right and left ankle dorsiflexion range of motion. Balance performance was significantly correlated with selected muscle length and range of motion, especially in the supinated foot. [Conclusion] Range of motion and muscle length of the lower limb may be associated with balance performance in older adults with foot deformities. These findings may guide physiotherapists in choosing intervention based on specific assessments for older adults with foot deformity.

  8. Analysis and Simulations of Near-Field Ground Motion from Source Physics Experiments (spe)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorobiev, O.; Xu, H.; Lomov, I.; Herbold, E. B.; Glenn, L. A.; Antoun, T.

    2012-12-01

    This work is focused on analysis of near-field measurements (up to 50-70 m from the source) recorded during Source Physics Experiments SPE1, SPE2 and SPE3 in a granitic formation (the Climax Stock) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). The explosive source used in these experiments is a sensitized heavy ANFO (SHANFO) with a well characterized equation of state. The first event, SPE1, had a yield of 0.1 ton, and was detonated at a 55 m depth of burial in a spherical cavity of about 0.3 m radius. SPE2 and SPE3 had an explosive yield of 1 ton, and they were both detonated in the same cavity at a depth of burial of 45 meters. One of the main goals of these experiments was to investigate the possible mechanisms of shear wave generation in the nonlinear source region. Another objective, relating specifically to the SPE2-SPE3 sequence, was to investigate the effect of damage from one explosion on the response of the medium to a second explosion of the same yield and at the same location as the first explosion. Comparison of the results from SPE2 and SPE3 show some interesting trends. . At the shot level, and at deeper locations, the data from SPE3 seem to agree quite well with SPE2 data, indicating that damage from SPE2 had little to no effect on the response of the medium at these locations. On the other hand, SPE3 data consistently show delay in arrival times as well as reduced wave amplitudes both at 50 ft (16 m) depth and at the ground surface, indicating that above the shot horizon damage from SPE2 had a perceptible effect on the SPE3 near field motions. The quality of the near field data at some gages from the SPE1 and SPE2 events is somewhat questionable, with orientation uncertainties making it difficult to ascertain with confidence the extent to which shear wave generation in the source region affected near field motions. New gages were strategically added to the SPE3 test bed to provide the data needed to address this issue and verify previous

  9. Effect Of Long-Period Earthquake Ground Motions On Nonlinear Vibration Of Shells With Variable Thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdikarimov, R.; Bykovtsev, A.; Khodzhaev, D.; Research Team Of Geotechnical; Structural Engineers

    2010-12-01

    Long-period earthquake ground motions (LPEGM) with multiple oscillations have become a crucial consideration in seismic hazard assessment because of the rapid increase of tall buildings and special structures (SP).Usually, SP refers to innovative long-span structural systems. More specifically, they include many types of structures, such as: geodesic showground; folded plates; and thin shells. As continuation of previous research (Bykovtsev, Abdikarimov, Khodzhaev 2003, 2010) analysis of nonlinear vibrations (NV) and dynamic stability of SP simulated as shells with variable rigidity in geometrically nonlinear statement will be presented for two cases. The first case will represent NV example of a viscoelastic orthotropic cylindrical shell with radius R, length L and variable thickness h=h(x,y). The second case will be NV example of a viscoelastic shell with double curvature, variable thickness, and bearing the concentrated masses. In both cases we count, that the SP will be operates under seismic load generated by LPEGM with multiple oscillations. For different seismic loads simulations, Bykovtsev’s Model and methodology was used for generating LPEGM time history. The methodology for synthesizing LPEGM from fault with multiple segmentations was developed by Bykovtev (1978-2010) and based on 3D-analytical solutions by Bykovtsev-Kramarovskii (1987&1989) constructed for faults with multiple segmentations. This model is based on a kinematics description of displacement function on the fault and included in consideration of all possible combinations of 3 components of vector displacement (two slip vectors and one tension component). The opportunities to take into consideration fault segmentations with both shear and tension vector components of displacement on the fault plane provide more accurate LPEGM evaluations. Radiation patterns and directivity effects were included in the model and more physically realistic results for simulated LPEGM were considered. The

  10. The effect of knee position on blood loss and range of motion following total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Wen, Yu; Liu, Da; Tian, Lijie

    2012-03-01

    This study prospectively assessed the effects of knee position on blood loss and range of motion after primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA). One hundred and ten consecutive TKA patients were randomized into flexion group and extension group. Both groups had the leg elevated 30° at the hip over an inactive CPM for 72 h postoperatively. The flexion group had the knee flexed to 30° during this period. The extension group had the knee extended fully. Perioperative blood loss, hidden blood loss, knee swelling, ecchymosis, analgesia requirements, range of motion (ROM), fixed flexion deformity (FFD), straight-leg raising action, and postoperative complications within 6 weeks of surgery were measured for evaluation and comparison. The postoperative hidden blood loss, knee swelling, and scope of ecchymosis were significantly lower in the flexion group than in the extension group, and ROM and straight-leg raising action were significantly higher during the early period after operation. No significant difference was observed in perioperative blood loss, the amount of morphine used, or FFD in the early postoperative period or in ROM and FFD at 6 weeks postoperatively. The findings of this study indicate that flexion of the knee to 30° with the leg elevated 30° at the hip after total knee arthroplasty may mitigate knee swelling and provide other beneficial results during the early rehabilitation following TKA. Prospective comparative study, Level I.

  11. Correlation between severity of temporomandibular disorder and mandibular range of motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Cid André Fidelis de Paula; Dibai-Filho, Almir Vieira; Silva, Janaina Rodrigues da; Oliveira, Patricia Mattos de; Politti, Fabiano; Biasotto-Gonzalez, Daniela Aparecida

    2014-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the association between the severity of temporomandibular disorder (TMD) and mandibular range of motion (ROM). For such, a cross-sectional study was carried out with a sample of 92 women from the university community. The Fonseca's anamnestic index (FAI) was used to determine the severity of TMD, as follows: without TMD (n = 23), mild TMD (n = 23), moderate TMD (n = 23), and severe TMD (n = 23). Mouth opening, lateral excursion and protrusion of the mandible were measured. Spearman's correlation coefficients were calculated to determine the association between the FAI and mandibular ROM. Comparisons among groups were performed using the Kruskal-Wallis test with Dunn's post hoc test. No significant associations were found between TMD severity based on the classification of the FAI and ROM of functional mouth opening (rs = -0.001, p = 0.987), maximum active mouth opening (rs = -0.023, p = 0.822), passive mouth opening (rs = -0.026, p = 0.803), left lateral excursion (rs = 0.125, p = 0.231), right lateral excursion (rs = 0.087, p = 0.406) or protrusion (rs = -0.148, p = 0.157). Moreover, no statistically significant differences among severity groups were found (p > 0.05). Based on the findings of the present study, the severity of signs and symptoms of TMD was not associated with mandibular range of motion. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Reduced mandibular range of motion in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy: predictive factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bruggen, H W; Van Den Engel-Hoek, L; Steenks, M H; Bronkhorst, E M; Creugers, N H J; de Groot, I J M; Kalaykova, S I

    2015-06-01

    Patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) experience negative effects upon feeding and oral health. We aimed to determine whether the mandibular range of motion in DMD is impaired and to explore predictive factors for the active maximum mouth opening (aMMO). 23 patients with DMD (mean age 16.7 ± 7.7 years) and 23 controls were assessed using a questionnaire about mandibular function and impairments. All participants underwent a clinical examination of the masticatory system, including measurement of mandibular range of motion and variables related to mandibular movements. In all patients, quantitative ultrasound of the digastric muscle and the geniohyoid muscle and the motor function measure (MFM) scale were performed. The patients were divided into early and late ambulatory stage (AS), early non-ambulatory stage (ENAS) and late non-ambulatory stage (LNAS). All mandibular movements were reduced in the patient group (P mandibular movements compared to AS and ENAS (P Mandibular movements in DMD are significantly reduced and become more hampered with loss of motor function, including the sitting position, arm function, and neck and head control. We suggest that measurement of the aMMO becomes a part of routine care of patients with DMD. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Range of Motion of the Ankle According to Pushing Force, Gender and Knee Position

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kang Hee; Lee, Hyunkeun

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the difference of range of motion (ROM) of ankle according to pushing force, gender and knee position. Methods One hundred and twenty-eight healthy adults (55 men, 73 women) between the ages of 20 and 51, were included in the study. One examiner measured the passive range of motion (PROM) of ankle by Dualer IQ Inclinometers and Commander Muscle Testing. ROM of ankle dorsiflexion (DF) and plantarflexion (PF) according to change of pushing force and knee position were measured at prone position. Results There was significant correlation between ROM and pushing force, the more pushing force leads the more ROM at ankle DF and ankle PF. Knee flexion of 90° position showed low PF angle and high ankle DF angle, as compared to the at neutral position of knee joint. ROM of ankle DF for female was greater than for male, with no significant difference. ROM of ankle PF for female was greater than male regardless of the pushing force. Conclusion To our knowledge, this is the first study to assess the relationship between pushing force and ROM of ankle joint. There was significant correlation between ROM of ankle and pushing force. ROM of ankle PF for female estimated greater than male regardless of the pushing force and the number of measurement. The ROM of the ankle is measured differently according to the knee joint position. Pushing force, gender and knee joint position are required to be considered when measuring the ROM of ankle joint. PMID:27152277

  14. Is self-massage an effective joint range-of-motion strategy? A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Estêvão Rios; Cavanaugh, Mark Tyler; Frost, David Michael; Novaes, Jefferson da Silva

    2017-01-01

    Increases in joint range of motion may be beneficial in both improving performance and reducing the risk of injury. The purpose of this study was to investigate short-term changes in passive hip flexion (HF) and extension (HE) after foam rolling (FR) and roller massage (RM) durations of 60 and 120s. Ten recreationally active men (27.6 ± 2.4 years old; 164.8 ± 6.6 cm; 62.2 ± 8.0 kg; 24.2 ± 2.1 m(2)/kg) were recruited for this study. Subjects performed foam rolling (FR) and roller massage (RM) on the hamstrings for 60 (FR60 and RM60) and 120 (FR120 and RM120) seconds. Significant differences between FR120 and RM60 were observed in both HF (p affect range-of-motion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. From Regional Hazard Assessment to Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Support - InSAR Ground Motion Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lege, T.; Kalia, A.; Gruenberg, I.; Frei, M.

    2016-12-01

    There are numerous scientific applications of InSAR methods in tectonics, earthquake analysis and other geologic and geophysical fields. Ground motion on local and regional scale measured and monitored via the application of the InSAR techniques provide scientists and engineers with plenty of new insights and further understanding of subsurface processes. However, the operational use of InSAR is not yet very widespread. To foster the operational utilization of the Copernicus Sentinel Satellites in the day-to-day business of federal, state and municipal work and planning BGR (Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources) initiated workshops with potential user groups. Through extensive reconcilement of interests and demands with scientific, technical, economic and governmental stakeholders (e.g. Ministries, Mining Authorities, Geological Surveys, Geodetic Surveys and Environmental Agencies on federal and state level, SMEs, German Aerospace Center) BGR developed the concept of the InSAR based German National Ground Motion Service. One important backbone for the nationwide ground motion service is the so-called Persistent Scatterer Interferometry Wide Area Product (WAP) approach developed with grants of European research funds. The presentation shows the implementation of the ground motion service and examples for product developments for operational supervision of mining, water resources management and spatial planning. Furthermore the contributions of Copernicus Sentinel 1 radar data in the context of CTBT are discussed. The DInSAR processing of Sentinel 1 IW (Interferometric Wide Swath) SAR acquisitions from January 1st and 13th Jan. 2016 allow for the first time a near real time ground motion measurement of the North Korean nuclear test site. The measured ground displacements show a strong spatio-temporal correlation to the calculated epicenter measured by teleseismic stations. We are convinced this way another space technique will soon contribute even

  16. Physics-Based Long-Period Ground Motion Scenarios in and Around the Po Plain Sedimentary Basin (Northern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinari, I.; Morelli, A.; Casarotti, E.

    2014-12-01

    Unexpected large and prolonged shaking (> 80s) associated with long-period ground motion has been observed inside the Po Plain sedimentary basin (Northern Italy) during the two M~6, May 20-29, 2012, earthquakes. Long-period ground motion impacts on the seismic response of taller structures. It is hence important to understand the characteristics of long-period ground motion associated with the 3D structure and finite fault properties, in particular in those regions with deep sedimentary basins and a complex geological context. We implement a recent high resolution model of the Po basin (MAMBo), derived from geological constraints, in spectral-element code SPECFEM3D_cartesian (Peter et al., 2012). The simulations are numerically accurate for periods of 2 sec and longer, and incorporate complex 3D basin structure and topography as well as the spatial and temporal heterogeneity of source rupture. The response of our basin model has been evaluated for several instrumental earthquakes. Synthetics seismograms reproduce well amplitude and long duration, as well as envelope and coda, observed in paths that travel through sediments. We also evaluate ground motion produced by plausible earthquakes inferred from historical data, such as the Modena (1501) and Verona (1117) events that caused well-documented strong effects in a unusually wide areas with lengths of hundreds of kilometers. We test different representations of the seismic source, from point source to finite sources with different rupture histories, evaluating the impact on shaking amplitude. We compare our results with damage maps (when available) and with the GMPEs currently adopted for this area, evaluating the effects of finite fault and 3D propagation on ground shaking. We show that deterministic ground motion calculation can indeed provide information to be actively used to mitigate the effects of destructive earthquakes on critical infrastructures.

  17. Estimation of strong ground motion in broad-frequency band based on a seismic source scaling model and an empirical Green's function technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kamae

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a generalized method for simulating strong ground motion from large earthquakes by summing subevent records to follow the ?2 law. The original idea of the method is based on a constant stress parameter between the target event and the subevent. It is applicable to a case where both events have a different stress drop after some manipulation. However, the simulation for a very large earthquake from a small event with this method has inevitably some deficiencies of spectral amplitudes in the intermediate frequency range deviating f`rom the ?2 model, although the high and low frequency motions match the scaling. We improve the simulation algorithm so as not to make spectral sags, introducing self-similar distribution of subfaults with different sizes in the fault plane, so-called fractal composite faulting model. We show successful simulations for intermediate-sized earthquakes (MJMA = 5.0, 6.0 and 6.1, the large aftershocks of the 1983 Akita-Oki earthquake. using the records of smaller aftershocks (MJMA = 3.9 and 5.0 as an empirical Green's function. Further, we attempted to estimate strong ground motion for the 1946 Nankai earthquake with Mw 8.2, using the records of a MJMA 5.1 earthquake occurring near the source region of the mainshock. We found that strong ground motions simulated for the fractal composite faulting model with two asperities radiating significantly high frequency motions matched well the observed data such as the near-field displacement record, the source spectrum estimated from the teleseismic record, and the seismic intensity distribution during the 1946 Nankai earthquake.

  18. Validation of Attitude and Heading Reference System and Microsoft Kinect for Continuous Measurement of Cervical Range of Motion Compared to the Optical Motion Capture System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Young Seop; Yang, Kyung Yong; Youn, Kibum; Yoon, Chiyul; Yeom, Jiwoon; Hwang, Hyeoncheol; Lee, Jehee; Kim, Keewon

    2016-08-01

    To compare optical motion capture system (MoCap), attitude and heading reference system (AHRS) sensor, and Microsoft Kinect for the continuous measurement of cervical range of motion (ROM). Fifteen healthy adult subjects were asked to sit in front of the Kinect camera with optical markers and AHRS sensors attached to the body in a room equipped with optical motion capture camera. Subjects were instructed to independently perform axial rotation followed by flexion/extension and lateral bending. Each movement was repeated 5 times while being measured simultaneously with 3 devices. Using the MoCap system as the gold standard, the validity of AHRS and Kinect for measurement of cervical ROM was assessed by calculating correlation coefficient and Bland-Altman plot with 95% limits of agreement (LoA). MoCap and ARHS showed fair agreement (95% LoA10°) for measuring ROM in all directions. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) values between MoCap and AHRS in -40° to 40° range were excellent for flexion/extension and lateral bending (ICC>0.9). ICC values were also fair for axial rotation (ICC>0.8). ICC values between MoCap and Kinect system in -40° to 40° range were fair for all motions. Our study showed feasibility of using AHRS to measure cervical ROM during continuous motion with an acceptable range of error. AHRS and Kinect system can also be used for continuous monitoring of flexion/extension and lateral bending in ordinary range.

  19. Development of ground-motion prediction equations relevant to shallow-mining-induced seismicity in the Trial Mountain area, Emery County, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarr, A.; Fletcher, Joe B.

    2005-01-01

    To provide a basis for assessing the seismic hazard to the Joes Valley Dam due to future coal mining in the nearby Cottonwood Tract, central Utah, we developed ground-motion prediction relations using data recorded by a seismic network, established and operated by the University of Utah Seismograph Stations. The network was centered on the Trail Mountain coal mine, located adjacent to the Cottonwood Tract. From late 2000 until early 2001, this network recorded numerous mining-induced events with magnitudes as large as 2.17. The ground motion from these events, recorded at hypocentral distances ranging from about 500 m to approximately 10 km, were well suited to developing new ground-motion prediction relations, especially when augmented by data from a M 4.2 earthquake in the Willow Creek mine, about 50 km north of Trail Mountain. Using a two-stage regression analysis, we determined prediction relations for peak acceleration, peak velocity, and pseudovelocity response spectra, at 5% damping, for periods of 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 s. To illustrate the potential seismic hazard at the Joes Valley dam, we used these ground-motion relations to predict a peak velocity of 6.8 cm/s due to an earthquake with the probable maximum magnitude of 3.9, at a hypocentral distance of 1 km, recorded at a rock site typical for this region. This result does not take into account the site response at the dam.

  20. A procedure to select ground-motion time histories for deterministic seismic hazard analysis from the Next Generation Attenuation (NGA) database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Duruo; Du, Wenqi; Zhu, Hong

    2017-10-01

    In performance-based seismic design, ground-motion time histories are needed for analyzing dynamic responses of nonlinear structural systems. However, the number of ground-motion data at design level is often limited. In order to analyze seismic performance of structures, ground-motion time histories need to be either selected from recorded strong-motion database or numerically simulated using stochastic approaches. In this paper, a detailed procedure to select proper acceleration time histories from the Next Generation Attenuation (NGA) database for several cities in Taiwan is presented. Target response spectra are initially determined based on a local ground-motion prediction equation under representative deterministic seismic hazard analyses. Then several suites of ground motions are selected for these cities using the Design Ground Motion Library (DGML), a recently proposed interactive ground-motion selection tool. The selected time histories are representatives of the regional seismic hazard and should be beneficial to earthquake studies when comprehensive seismic hazard assessments and site investigations are unavailable. Note that this method is also applicable to site-specific motion selections with the target spectra near the ground surface considering the site effect.

  1. A procedure to select ground-motion time histories for deterministic seismic hazard analysis from the Next Generation Attenuation (NGA database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Huang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In performance-based seismic design, ground-motion time histories are needed for analyzing dynamic responses of nonlinear structural systems. However, the number of ground-motion data at design level is often limited. In order to analyze seismic performance of structures, ground-motion time histories need to be either selected from recorded strong-motion database or numerically simulated using stochastic approaches. In this paper, a detailed procedure to select proper acceleration time histories from the Next Generation Attenuation (NGA database for several cities in Taiwan is presented. Target response spectra are initially determined based on a local ground-motion prediction equation under representative deterministic seismic hazard analyses. Then several suites of ground motions are selected for these cities using the Design Ground Motion Library (DGML, a recently proposed interactive ground-motion selection tool. The selected time histories are representatives of the regional seismic hazard and should be beneficial to earthquake studies when comprehensive seismic hazard assessments and site investigations are unavailable. Note that this method is also applicable to site-specific motion selections with the target spectra near the ground surface considering the site effect.

  2. Adaptation of the S-5-S Pendulím Seismometer for Measurement of Rotational Ground Motion

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Knejzlík, Jaromír; Kaláb, Zdeněk; Rambouský, Zdeněk

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 4 (2012), s. 649-656 ISSN 1383-4649 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : rotational ground motion * experimental measurement * mining induced seismicity * S-5-S seismometer Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 1.388, year: 2012 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10950-012-9279-6

  3. Experimental evaluation of four ground-motion scaling methods for dynamic response-history analysis of nonlinear structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Andrew P.; Kurama, Yahya C.; Kalkan, Erol; Taflanidis, Alexandros A.

    2017-01-01

    This paper experimentally evaluates four methods to scale earthquake ground-motions within an ensemble of records to minimize the statistical dispersion and maximize the accuracy in the dynamic peak roof drift demand and peak inter-story drift demand estimates from response-history analyses of nonlinear building structures. The scaling methods that are investigated are based on: (1) ASCE/SEI 7–10 guidelines; (2) spectral acceleration at the fundamental (first mode) period of the structure, Sa(T1); (3) maximum incremental velocity, MIV; and (4) modal pushover analysis. A total of 720 shake-table tests of four small-scale nonlinear building frame specimens with different static and dynamic characteristics are conducted. The peak displacement demands from full suites of 36 near-fault ground-motion records as well as from smaller “unbiased” and “biased” design subsets (bins) of ground-motions are included. Out of the four scaling methods, ground-motions scaled to the median MIV of the ensemble resulted in the smallest dispersion in the peak roof and inter-story drift demands. Scaling based on MIValso provided the most accurate median demands as compared with the “benchmark” demands for structures with greater nonlinearity; however, this accuracy was reduced for structures exhibiting reduced nonlinearity. The modal pushover-based scaling (MPS) procedure was the only method to conservatively overestimate the median drift demands.

  4. LISA Pathfinder test mass injection in geodesic motion: status of the on-ground testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bortoluzzi, D; Biral, F; Bosetti, P; Da Lio, M; De Cecco, M [Department of Mechanical and Structural Engineering and INFN, University of Trento, 38050 Trento (Italy); Baglivo, L [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Padova, 35122 Padova (Italy); Benedetti, M [Department of Materials Engineering and Industrial Technologies and INFN, University of Trento, 38050 Trento (Italy); Cavalleri, A; Dolesi, R; Weber, W; Vitale, S [Department of Physics and INFN, University of Trento, 38050 Trento (Italy); Lapolla, M, E-mail: daniele.bortoluzzi@ing.unitn.i [Thales Alenia Space Italia, 20090 Milano (Italy)

    2009-05-07

    The LISA Technology Package (LTP) onboard the LISA Pathfinder mission aims to demonstrate, in orbit, several critical technology milestones for LISA, including the purest geodesic motion ever achieved for a macroscopic body. The gravitational reference sensor in the LTP hosts a heavy test mass (TM) surrounded by electrodes, at a relatively large 'gap' distance of several mm, which are used to measure and control the TM position and attitude. The large gaps--necessary to minimize the force noise acting on the TM--limit the available level of electrostatic actuation force that can be applied to the TM and thus the authority to control its position and velocity. Due to the large mass and gaps, a caging mechanism is required to securely hold the TM during the launch phase, when the whole payload endures large accelerations. Later in orbit, the TM must be injected into its geodesic trajectory, through the release from the caging mechanism and subsequent capture by the electrostatic actuation. During the release phase, the constraining device must limit adhesion forces that exert a net impulse upon rupture, such that the required forces needed to control the TM do not exceed the actuation authority. The TM injection into geodesic motion, and most critically the release phase, constitutes a potential point of failure for the mission. The on-ground verification of this phase is performed by measuring the momentum transferred between TM-representative surfaces and the release device, reproducing the dynamics that will take place in flight. This paper reports on the testing activities performed at the Department of Mechanical and Structural Engineering of the University of Trento.

  5. Accuracy and Reliability of Visual Inspection and Smartphone Applications for Measuring Finger Range of Motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hannah H; St Louis, Kwesi; Fowler, John R

    2018-01-08

    Measurement of finger range of motion is critical in clinical settings, especially for outcome analysis, clinical decision making, and rehabilitation/disability assessment. Although goniometer measurement is clinically considered the gold standard, its accuracy compared with the true radiographic measurements of the joint angles remains questionable. The authors compared 3 smartphone applications and visual inspection measurements of the finger joints with the radiographic measurements and determined interrater reliability for these measurement tools. A finger was held in place using an aluminum-alloy splint, and a fluoroscopic image was acquired by a mini C-arm. An independent observer measured each joint flexion angle of the fluoroscopic image using a universal handheld goniometer, and this was used as the reference. Finger joint flexion angles were then independently measured by 3 observers using 3 different smartphone applications. In addition, visual inspection was used to estimate the flexion angles of finger joints. The results of this study suggest that all 3 smartphone measurement tools, as well as visual inspection, agree and correlate well with the reference fluoroscopic image measurement. Average differences between the fluoroscopic image measurements with the measured angles using the tools studied ranged from 9.4° to 12.2°. The mean correlation coefficients for each smartphone application exceeded 0.7. Overall interrater reliabilities were similar, with the interclass correlation coefficient being greater than 0.9 for all of the measurement tools. These data suggest that new smartphone applications hold promise for providing accurate and reliable measures of range of motion. [Orthopedics. 201x; xx(x):xx-xx.]. Copyright 2018, SLACK Incorporated.

  6. Reproducibility of cervical range of motion in patients with neck pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Vet Henrica CW

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reproducibility measurements of the range of motion are an important prerequisite for the interpretation of study results. The aim of the study is to assess the intra-rater and inter-rater reproducibility of the measurement of active Range of Motion (ROM in patients with neck pain using the Cybex Electronic Digital Inclinometer-320 (EDI-320. Methods In an outpatient clinic in a primary care setting 32 patients with at least 2 weeks of pain and/or stiffness in the neck were randomly assessed, in a test- retest design with blinded raters using a standardized measurement protocol. Cervical flexion-extension, lateral flexion and rotation were assessed. Results Reliability expressed by the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC was 0.93 (lateral flexion or higher for intra-rater reliability and 0.89 (lateral flexion or higher for inter-rater reliability. The 95% limits of agreement for intra-rater agreement, expressing the range of the differences between two ratings were -2.5 ± 11.1° for flexion-extension, -0.1 ± 10.4° for lateral flexion and -5.9 ± 13.5° for rotation. For inter-rater agreement the limits of agreement were 3.3 ± 17.0° for flexion-extension, 0.5 ± 17.0° for lateral flexion and -1.3 ± 24.6° for rotation. Conclusion In general, the intra-rater reproducibility and the inter-rater reproducibility were good. We recommend to compare the reproducibility and clinical applicability of the EDI-320 inclinometer with other cervical ROM measures in symptomatic patients.

  7. Ranging behaviour of little bustard males, Tetrax tetrax, in the lekking grounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponjoan, Anna; Bota, Gerard; Mañosa, Santi

    2012-09-01

    We investigated the ranging behaviour during the breeding season of 18 radiotracked little bustard (Tetrax tetrax) males, a disperse-lekking species inhabiting the cereal pseudo-steppes. The average kernel 95% home range was 60±50 ha and the average cluster 85% area was 17±17 ha. Range structure was as relevant as home range size for explaining the variation in the ranging behaviour of males, which could be partially explained by age, habitat quality and site. Ranging behaviour varied from males defending small and concentrated home ranges with high habitat quality, to males holding larger home ranges composed by several arenas. Our results suggest that social dominance and resource availability may affect ranging behaviour of males during the breeding season. Also, mating systems constraints may play a role on the use of space of males within the lekking ground. The ranging behaviour of a given male may be determined by a tendency to reduce and concentrate the home range as age and social status increase, and several fine-tuning mechanisms adjusting the ranging behaviour to the prevailing environmental or social factors on a given site and year. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Influence of footwear and equipment on stride length and range of motion of ankle, knee and hip joint

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schulze, Christoph; Lindner, Tobias; Woitge, Sandra; Schulz, Katharina; Finze, Susanne; Mittelmeier, Wolfram; Bader, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    .... The aim of the present study was to investigate by means of gait analysis how army-provided footwear and equipment influence the range of motion of hip, knee and ankle joints as well as stride length...

  9. The influence of gastrocnemius stretching combined with joint mobilization on weight-bearing ankle dorsiflexion passive range of motion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kang, Min-Hyeok; Lee, Dong-Kyu; Kim, Soo-Yong; Kim, Jun-Seok; Oh, Jae-Seop

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of gastrocnemius stretching combined with talocrural joint mobilization on weight-bearing ankle dorsiflexion passive range of motion. [Subjects...

  10. Pulsed Shortwave Diathermy and Prolonged Long-Duration Stretching Increase Dorsiflexion Range of Motion More Than Identical Stretching Without Diathermy

    OpenAIRE

    Peres, Steven E.; Draper, David O.; Knight, Kenneth L.; Ricard, Mark D.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To compare the effects of 3 treatments on ankle dorsiflexion range of motion: prolonged long-duration stretching, pulsed shortwave diathermy followed by stretching, and pulsed shortwave diathermy, stretching, and ice combined.

  11. The effect of aquatic exercise therapy on muscle strength and joint′s range of motion in hemophilia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Kargarfard

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: The results showed that aquatic exercise therapy can be a useful method to improve joints′ strength and range of motion in hemophilia patients in order to improve their daily functioning and quality of life.

  12. Motion

    CERN Document Server

    Graybill, George

    2007-01-01

    Take the mystery out of motion. Our resource gives you everything you need to teach young scientists about motion. Students will learn about linear, accelerating, rotating and oscillating motion, and how these relate to everyday life - and even the solar system. Measuring and graphing motion is easy, and the concepts of speed, velocity and acceleration are clearly explained. Reading passages, comprehension questions, color mini posters and lots of hands-on activities all help teach and reinforce key concepts. Vocabulary and language are simplified in our resource to make them accessible to str

  13. Simulated ground motion in Santa Clara Valley, California, and vicinity from M≥6.7 scenario earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmsen, Stephen C.; Hartzell, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    Models of the Santa Clara Valley (SCV) 3D velocity structure and 3D finite-difference software are used to predict ground motions from scenario earthquakes on the San Andreas (SAF), Monte Vista/Shannon, South Hayward, and Calaveras faults. Twenty different scenario ruptures are considered that explore different source models with alternative hypocenters, fault dimensions, and rupture velocities and three different velocity models. Ground motion from the full wave field up to 1 Hz is exhibited as maps of peak horizontal velocity and pseudospectral acceleration at periods of 1, 3, and 5 sec. Basin edge effects and amplification in sedimentary basins of the SCV are observed that exhibit effects from shallow sediments with relatively low shear-wave velocity (330 m/sec). Scenario earthquakes have been simulated for events with the following magnitudes: (1) M 6.8–7.4 Calaveras sources, (2) M 6.7–6.9 South Hayward sources, (3) M 6.7 Monte Vista/Shannon sources, and (4) M 7.1–7.2 Peninsula segment of the SAF sources. Ground motions are strongly influenced by source parameters such as rupture velocity, rise time, maximum depth of rupture, hypocenter, and source directivity. Cenozoic basins also exert a strong influence on ground motion. For example, the Evergreen Basin on the northeastern side of the SCV is especially responsive to 3–5-sec energy from most scenario earthquakes. The Cupertino Basin on the southwestern edge of the SCV tends to be highly excited by many Peninsula and Monte Vista fault scenarios. Sites over the interior of the Evergreen Basin can have long-duration coda that reflect the trapping of seismic energy within this basin. Plausible scenarios produce predominantly 5-sec wave trains with greater than 30 cm/sec sustained ground-motion amplitude with greater than 30 sec duration within the Evergreen Basin.

  14. Fault geometry, rupture dynamics and ground motion from potential earthquakes on the North Anatolian Fault under the Sea of Marmara

    KAUST Repository

    Oglesby, David D.

    2012-03-01

    Using the 3-D finite-element method, we develop dynamic spontaneous rupture models of earthquakes on the North Anatolian Fault system in the Sea of Marmara, Turkey, considering the geometrical complexity of the fault system in this region. We find that the earthquake size, rupture propagation pattern and ground motion all strongly depend on the interplay between the initial (static) regional pre-stress field and the dynamic stress field radiated by the propagating rupture. By testing several nucleation locations, we observe that those far from an oblique normal fault stepover segment (near Istanbul) lead to large through-going rupture on the entire fault system, whereas nucleation locations closer to the stepover segment tend to produce ruptures that die out in the stepover. However, this pattern can change drastically with only a 10° rotation of the regional stress field. Our simulations also reveal that while dynamic unclamping near fault bends can produce a new mode of supershear rupture propagation, this unclamping has a much smaller effect on the speed of the peak in slip velocity along the fault. Finally, we find that the complex fault geometry leads to a very complex and asymmetric pattern of near-fault ground motion, including greatly amplified ground motion on the insides of fault bends. The ground-motion pattern can change significantly with different hypocentres, even beyond the typical effects of directivity. The results of this study may have implications for seismic hazard in this region, for the dynamics and ground motion of geometrically complex faults, and for the interpretation of kinematic inverse rupture models.

  15. 3-D velocity structure model for long-period ground motion simulation of the hypothetical Nankai Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagawa, T.; Petukhin, A.; Koketsu, K.; Miyake, H.; Murotani, S.; Tsurugi, M.

    2010-12-01

    Three dimensional velocity structure model of southwest Japan is provided to simulate long-period ground motions due to the hypothetical subduction earthquakes. The model is constructed from numerous physical explorations conducted in land and offshore areas and observational study of natural earthquakes. Any available information is involved to explain crustal structure and sedimentary structure. Figure 1 shows an example of cross section with P wave velocities. The model has been revised through numbers of simulations of small to middle earthquakes as to have good agreement with observed arrival times, amplitudes, and also waveforms including surface waves. Figure 2 shows a comparison between Observed (dash line) and simulated (solid line) waveforms. Low velocity layers have added on seismological basement to reproduce observed records. The thickness of the layer has been adjusted through iterative analysis. The final result is found to have good agreement with the results from other physical explorations; e.g. gravity anomaly. We are planning to make long-period (about 2 to 10 sec or longer) simulations of ground motion due to the hypothetical Nankai Earthquake with the 3-D velocity structure model. As the first step, we will simulate the observed ground motions of the latest event occurred in 1946 to check the source model and newly developed velocity structure model. This project is partly supported by Integrated Research Project for Long-Period Ground Motion Hazard Maps by Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT). The ground motion data used in this study were provided by National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention Disaster (NIED). Figure 1 An example of cross section with P wave velocities Figure 2 Observed (dash line) and simulated (solid line) waveforms due to a small earthquake

  16. Mental practice maintains range of motion despite forearm immobilization: a pilot study in healthy persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenkel, Marie O; Herzig, Daniela S; Gebhard, Florian; Mayer, Jan; Becker, Clemens; Einsiedel, Thomas

    2014-03-01

    To determine whether mental practice of wrist movements during forearm immobilization maintains range of motion. Randomized controlled trial. Eighteen healthy young men aged between 20 and 30 years were assigned to either a control or a mental practice group. Both groups were immobilized with a circular forearm cast for 3 weeks to simulate a distal radial fracture. The mental practice group received 1 × 60-min, followed by 3 × 30-min, sessions of supervised mental practice. Consecutively, they were asked to perform 15 min/day of self-guided imagery sessions, during which they mentally exercised motion sequences of the immobilized joint. The training program followed the Mental Gait Training procedure. The control group did no training. Wrist movement was measured with a goniometer before and after immobilization. Mental practice preserved dorsal extension and ulnar abduction. The sedentary control group showed due to this variables a significant decrease after cast removal. There was no significant change in palmar flexion and radial abduction in either group. Despite the study limitations, these results suggest that mental practice may be useful in preventing loss of hand function associated with mid-term immobilization. Because of the expected clinical benefits, the low cost and simple application of the intervention, the effects of mental practice in orthopedic rehabilitation of the upper extremity warrant further study.

  17. Relationship Between Weightbearing Ankle Dorsiflexion Passive Range of Motion and Ankle Kinematics During Gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Min-Hyeok; Oh, Jae-Seop

    2017-01-01

    Measurement of weightbearing ankle dorsiflexion (DF) passive range of motion (PROM) has been suggested as a way to estimate ankle kinematics during gait; however, no previous study has demonstrated the relationship between ankle DF during gait and ankle DF PROM with knee extension. We examine the relationship between maximum ankle DF during gait and nonweightbearing and weightbearing ankle DF PROM with knee extension. Forty physically active individuals (mean ± SD age, 21.63 ± 1.73 years) participated in this study. Ankle DF PROM with knee extension was measured in the nonweightbearing and weightbearing conditions; maximum ankle DF during gait was assessed using a three-dimensional motion analysis system. The relationship between each variable was calculated using the Pearson product moment correlation coefficient, and the difference in ankle DF PROM between the nonweightbearing and weightbearing conditions was analyzed using a paired t test. The weightbearing measurement (r = 0.521; P < .001) for ankle DF PROM showed a greater correlation with maximum ankle DF during gait than did the nonweightbearing measurement (r = 0.245; P = .029). Ankle DF PROM was significantly greater in the weightbearing than in the nonweightbearing condition (P < .001) despite a significant correlation between the two measurements (r = 0.402; P < .001). These findings indicate that nonweightbearing and weightbearing measurements of ankle DF PROM with knee extension should not be used interchangeably and that weightbearing ankle DF PROM with the knee extended is more appropriate for estimating ankle DF during gait.

  18. Lower extremity strength and the range of motion in relation to squat depth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Si-Hyun; Kwon, Oh-Yun; Park, Kyue-Nam; Jeon, In-Cheol; Weon, Jong-Hyuck

    2015-03-29

    The purpose of this study was to determine which variables of the range of motion (ROM) and strength of the hip, and ankle are associated with squat depth. In total, 101 healthy subjects (64 males, 37 females) participated in the study. Outcome measures consisted of the ROM of hip flexion, hip internal rotation, external rotation, ankle dorsiflexion with an extended and flexed knee joint, and strength of the hip flexor and ankle dorsiflexor. Squat depth was measured using SIMI motion analysis software. Pearson correlation was used to determine the relationship between variables and squat depth. Multiple stepwise regression analysis was performed to determine variables associated with squat depth. The multiple regression model indicated that ankle dorsiflexion with a flexed knee and the hip flexion ROM were significantly associated with squat depth in male subjects (R(2) = 0.435) and ankle dorsiflexion with an extended knee and dorsiflexor strength were significantly associated with squat depth in female subjects (R(2) = 0.324). Thus, exercises to increase the ROM of the ankle dorsiflexion, hip flexion, and dorsiflexor strength can be recommended to improve squat performance. Future studies should assess an increased ROM of the ankle dorsiflexion, hip flexion, or dorsiflexor strength effect on deep squat performance.

  19. Lower Extremity Strength and the Range of Motion in Relation to Squat Depth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Si-Hyun

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine which variables of the range of motion (ROM and strength of the hip, and ankle are associated with squat depth. In total, 101 healthy subjects (64 males, 37 females participated in the study. Outcome measures consisted of the ROM of hip flexion, hip internal rotation, external rotation, ankle dorsiflexion with an extended and flexed knee joint, and strength of the hip flexor and ankle dorsiflexor. Squat depth was measured using SIMI motion analysis software. Pearson correlation was used to determine the relationship between variables and squat depth. Multiple stepwise regression analysis was performed to determine variables associated with squat depth. The multiple regression model indicated that ankle dorsiflexion with a flexed knee and the hip flexion ROM were significantly associated with squat depth in male subjects (R2 = 0.435 and ankle dorsiflexion with an extended knee and dorsiflexor strength were significantly associated with squat depth in female subjects (R2 = 0.324. Thus, exercises to increase the ROM of the ankle dorsiflexion, hip flexion, and dorsiflexor strength can be recommended to improve squat performance. Future studies should assess an increased ROM of the ankle dorsiflexion, hip flexion, or dorsiflexor strength effect on deep squat performance.

  20. Reliability of the universal goniometer for assessing active cervical range of motion in asymptomatic healthy persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooq, Muhammad Nazim; Mohseni Bandpei, Mohammad A; Ali, Mudassar; Khan, Ghazanfar Ali

    2016-01-01

    To determine within-rater and between-rater reliability of the universal goniometer (UG) for measuring active cervical range of motion (ACROM) in asymptomatic healthy subjects. Nineteen healthy subjects were tested in an identical seated position. Two raters used UG to measure active cervical movements of flexion, extension, right side flexion, left side flexion, right rotation and left rotation. Each motion was measured twice by each of the two raters and was re-measured all over again after one week. Data analysis was performed using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). The results demonstrated excellent within-session (ICC2,1 = 0.83 to 0.98) and between-session (ICC2,2 = 0.79 to 0.97) intra-rater reliability and excellent inter-rater reliability (ICC2,2 = 0.79 to 0.92). Considering above results it is concluded that UG is a reliable tool for assessing ACROM in a clinical setting for healthy subjects.

  1. A stochastic estimate of ground motion at Oceano, California, for the M 6.5 22 December 2003 San Simeon earthquake, derived from aftershock recordings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Alessandro C.; Boatwright, J.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey deployed a digital seismic station in Oceano, California, in February 2004, to investigate the cause of damage and liquefaction from the 22 December 2003 M 6.5 San Simeon earthquake. This station recorded 11 M > 2.8 aftershocks in almost 8 weeks. We analyze these recordings, together with recordings of the mainshock and the same aftershocks obtained from nearby stations in Park Hill and San Luis Obispo, to estimate the mainshock ground motion in Oceano. We estimate the Fourier amplitude spectrum using generalized spectral ratio analysis. We test a set of aftershocks as Green's functions by comparing simulated and recorded acceleration amplitude spectra for the mainshock at San Luis Obispo and Park Hill. We convolve the aftershock accelerograms with a stochastic operator to simulate the duration and phase of the mainshock accelerograms. This approximation allows us to extend the range of aftershocks that can be used as Green's functions to events nearly three magnitude units smaller than the mainshock. Our realizations for the mainshock accelerogram at Oceano yield peak ground accelerations distributed as 28% ?? 4%g. We interpret these realizations as upper bounds for the actual ground motion, because our analysis assumes a linear response, whereas the presence of liquefaction indicates that the ground behaved nonlinearly in Oceano.

  2. Validity study for the cervical range of motion device used for lateral flexion in patients with neck pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tousignant, Michel; Duclos, Erica; Laflèche, Stéphane; Mayer, Any; Tousignant-Laflamme, Yannick; Brosseau, Lucie; O'Sullivan, Joseph P

    2002-04-15

    A set of measurements was compared with an accepted gold standard using a methodologic design. To estimate the criterion validity of the cervical range of motion device used for lateral flexion in patients with neck pain. Reliability of the cervical range of motion device has been well established. At this writing, only validity for flexion and extension of the cervical spine has been investigated with this device. The sample consisted of 24 volunteer subjects who had previously received physiotherapy for neck pain. In the radiograph department, subjects were stabilized on a chair. A first reading on the cervical range of motion device and a radiograph were taken in a neutral starting position. The subject then was asked to perform a maximal right lateral flexion, which was followed by a reading of the device and a second radiograph. The same procedures were followed for left lateral flexion. The cervical range of motion device demonstrated a very good linear relation with the radiograph measurements: left lateral flexion (r = 0.82,; 95% confidence interval, 0.62-0.92), right lateral flexion (r = 0.84; 95% confidence interval, 0.66-0.93). The cervical range of motion device showed very good validity for measurement of lateral flexion in this population of patients with neck pain. Because the reliability of the cervical range of motion device was established previously, the results of this study suggest that the device be used as an outcome measure for the cervical flexion, and for flexion and extension.

  3. Factors affecting the range of motion of the ankle and first metatarsophalangeal joints in patients undergoing hemodialysis who walk daily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Nobumasa; Shoji, Morio; Kitagawa, Takashi; Terada, Shigeru

    2016-05-01

    [Purpose] Increased plantar pressure during walking is a risk factor for foot ulcers because of reduced range of motion at the ankle and first metatarsophalangeal joints. However, the range of motion in patients undergoing hemodialysis has not yet been determined. A cross-sectional study was performed to investigate the factors affecting the range of motion of the ankle and first metatarsophalangeal joints in patients undergoing hemodialysis who walk daily. [Subjects and Methods] Seventy feet of 35 patients receiving hemodialysis therapy were examined. Measurements included the passive range of motion of plantar flexion and dorsiflexion of the ankle joint, and flexion and extension of the first metatarsophalangeal joint. [Results] Hemodialysis duration was not associated with ankle and first metatarsophalangeal joint range of motion in patients undergoing hemodialysis. Diabetes duration was significantly associated with limited ankle joint mobility. Finally, blood hemoglobin levels, body mass index, and age were associated with first metatarsophalangeal joint range of motion. [Conclusion] The present study identified age, diabetes, and decreased physical activity, but not hemodialysis duration, to be risk factors for limited joint mobility of the ankle and first metatarsophalangeal joints in patients undergoing hemodialysis.

  4. Mathematical formulae to calculate the theoretical range of motion of prosthetic hip implants with non-circular neck geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, Peter

    2012-10-01

    Component design and position are major factors in achieving adequate range of motion post hip replacement. It is therefore important to understand how implant design and positioning impact the motion available before impingement. The Yoshimine-Ginbayashi equations allow the theoretical range of motion of total hip replacements to be calculated accurately and quickly. However, a significant limitation of these equations is that they can only be applied to femoral neck geometry with a circular cross section. The objective of the present study was to reformulate the equations to allow fast and accurate calculation of the range of motion for prostheses with any femoral neck geometry. Using vector analysis, formulae were derived such that the range of motion could be calculated from the cross section of the neck at the point of impingement, cup radius at the point of impingement, cup inclination angle, cup anteversion angle, neck angle of the femoral component from the transverse plane and neck anteversion. The range of motion was calculated for circular, truncated circle and free-form femoral neck geometry under a range of component positions. These values were successfully compared with those measured from analysis of solid models in three-dimensional computer-aided design software. The method of analysis presented offers a powerful new technique enabling hip prostheses to be analysed in an accurate and efficient manner, therefore facilitating optimisation of the design geometry, assessment of existing pre-clinical designs and clinical pre- or postoperative evaluation.

  5. Influence of walking with talus taping on the ankle dorsiflexion passive range of motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Min-Hyeok; Kim, Ji-Won; Kim, Moon-Hwan; Park, Tae-Jin; Park, Ji-Hyuk; Oh, Jae-Seop

    2013-08-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effects of walking with talus taping on the ankle dorsiflexion passive range of motion (DF PROM) in individuals with limited ankle DF PROM. [Subjects] Fifteen ankles with limited DF PROM were examined. [Methods] After rigid strapping tape was applied to the ankles from the talus to the calcaneus, progressing posteriorly and inferiorly, the subjects walked on a walkway for 10 min. Using a goniometer, the ankle DF PROM was measured with the knee extended before and after walking with talus taping. The difference in ankle DF PROM between before and after walking with talus taping was analyzed using the paired t-test. [Results] The ankle DF PROM was significantly increased after walking with talus taping. [Conclusion] Our findings indicate that walking with talus taping is effective for increasing the ankle DF PROM in individuals with limited ankle DF PROM.

  6. Clinical measurement of range of motion. Review of goniometry emphasizing reliability and validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajdosik, R L; Bohannon, R W

    1987-12-01

    Clinical measurement of range of motion is a fundamental evaluation procedure with ubiquitous application in physical therapy. Objective measurements of ROM and correct interpretation of the measurement results can have a substantial impact on the development of the scientific basis of therapeutic interventions. The purpose of this article is to review the related literature on the reliability and validity of goniometric measurements of the extremities. Special emphasis is placed on how the reliability of goniometry is influenced by instrumentation and procedures, differences among joint actions and body regions, passive versus active measurements, intratester versus intertester measurements, and different patient types. Our discussion of validity encourages objective interpretation of the meaning of ROM measurements in light of the purposes and the limitations of goniometry. We conclude that clinicians should adopt standardized methods of testing and should interpret and report goniometric results as ROM measurements only, not as measurements of factors that may affect ROM.

  7. An operational-oriented approach to the assessment of low probability seismic ground motions for critical infrastructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Fernandez, Mariano; Assatourians, Karen; Jimenez, Maria-Jose

    2017-09-01

    Extreme natural hazard events have the potential to cause significant disruption to critical infrastructure (CI) networks. Among them, earthquakes represent a major threat as sudden-onset events with limited, if any, capability of forecast, and high damage potential. In recent years, the increased exposure of interdependent systems has heightened concern, motivating the need for a framework for the management of these increased hazards. The seismic performance level and resilience of existing non-nuclear CIs can be analyzed by identifying the ground motion input values leading to failure of selected key elements. Main interest focuses on the ground motions exceeding the original design values, which should correspond to low probability occurrence. A seismic hazard methodology has been specifically developed to consider low-probability ground motions affecting elongated CI networks. The approach is based on Monte Carlo simulation, which allows for building long-duration synthetic earthquake catalogs to derive low-probability amplitudes. This approach does not affect the mean hazard values and allows obtaining a representation of maximum amplitudes that follow a general extreme-value distribution. This facilitates the analysis of the occurrence of extremes, i.e., very low probability of exceedance from unlikely combinations, for the development of, e.g., stress tests, among other applications. Following this methodology, extreme ground-motion scenarios have been developed for selected combinations of modeling inputs including seismic activity models (source model and magnitude-recurrence relationship), ground motion prediction equations (GMPE), hazard levels, and fractiles of extreme ground motion. The different results provide an overview of the effects of different hazard modeling inputs on the generated extreme motion hazard scenarios. This approach to seismic hazard is at the core of the risk analysis procedure developed and applied to European CI transport

  8. Closed-form overturning limit of rigid block under critical near-fault ground motions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunihiko eNabeshima

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A closed-form limit on the input level of the double impulse as a substitute of a near-fault ground motion is derived for the overturning of a rigid block. The rocking vibration of the rigid block is formulated by using the conservation law of angular momentum and the conservation law of mechanical energy. The initial rotational velocity after the first impulse and the rotational velocity after the impact are determined by the conservation law of angular momentum. The velocity change after the second impulse is also characterized by the conservation law of angular momentum. The maximum angles of rotation of the rigid block in both the clockwise and anti-clockwise directions, which are needed for the computation of the overturning limit, are derived by the conservation law of mechanical energy. This enables us to avoid the computation of complicated non-linear time-history responses. The critical timing of the second impulse to the first impulse is characterized by the time of impact after the first impulse. It is clarified that the action of the second impulse just after the impact corresponds to the critical timing. It is derived from the closed-form expression of the critical velocity amplitude limit of the double impulse that its limit is proportional to the square root of size, i.e. the scale effect.

  9. Seismic microzoning from synthetic ground motion parameters Case study, Santiago de Cuba

    CERN Document Server

    Alvarez, L; Pico, R; Vaccari, F

    2003-01-01

    Synthetic seismograms (P - SV and SH waves) have been calculated along 6 profiles in Santiago de Cuba basin, with a cutoff frequency of 5 Hz, by using the hybrid approach (modal summation for a regional (ID) structure plus finite differences for a local (2D) structure embedded in the first). They correspond to a scenario earthquake of M sub S = 7 that may occur in Oriente fault zone, directly south of the city. As initial data for a seismic microzoning, the characterisation of earthquake effects has been made considering several relative (2D/1D) quantities (PGDR, PGVR, PGAR, DGAR, I sub A R etc.) and functions representative of the ground motion behaviour in soil (2D) with respect to bedrock (ID). The functions are the response spectra ratio RSR(f), already routinely used in this kind of work, and the elastic energy input ratio E sub I R(f), defined, for the first time, in this paper. These data, sampled at 105 sites within all the profiles have been classified in two steps, using logical combinatory algorith...

  10. Comparison of Arabian plate motion using satellite laser ranging and GPS observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alothman, A. O.; Fernandes, R. M.; Schillak, S. R.

    2013-12-01

    Two different space based observations have been used to estimate the velocity of the Arabian plate motion. The first set of observations is using the Saudi Arabia Laser Ranging Observatory (SALRO - 7832), which is situated in the middle of Arabian tectonic plate. Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) observations of about 20 global SLR stations to LAGEOS-1 and LAGEOS-2 satellites collected for 14 years (1996-2009) have been used to determine Riyadh SLR station positions. The NASA Godard's GEODYN-II orbital software has been used to perform orbit determination of these two satellites. The velocities of SALRO were computed in reference to the ITRF2008 terrestrial reference frame. The second set of observations consists of Global Positioning System (GPS) observations of 15 GPS stations acquired in campaign and continuous mode for the period 2003 to 2009 (having at least 3 years' data span). Multi-year processing of stations having at least 3 years' time span and excluding stations within the deformation zone of Red Sea Ridge, such that they are distributed evenly within the rigid (interior) part of the Arabian plate. The Bernese 5.0/ADNEQ2 and GIPSY/OASIS 6.1 software packages were used to compute the daily solutions of coordinate time series applying the Precise Point Positioning (PPP) strategy. The velocities were estimated with respect to ITRF2008 and four estimates of the angular velocities for the Arabian plate have been computed using different datasets: independent Bernese and GIPSY solutions, combination of the GPS solutions only, and including the SLR solution. We present direct comparison between all different solutions showing that the Arabian tectonic plate motion determined from Riyadh SLR data and GPS data are in a good agreement with recent estimates, in particular with the global geodetic model GEODVEL and the geophysical MORVEL model.

  11. [The effects of the taping therapy on range of motion, pain and depression in stroke patient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Seon-Suk

    2003-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the effect of Taping therapy on Range of Motion, pain, and depression in stroke patients in the home without complete recovery as a means of nursing intervention. Twenty seven subjects out of fifty four people who were attending in the stroke self-help group in one community health center in S city were asked to participate in this Quai-experimental study. The Taping therapy was a method that stick to the illness area and the point of pressure pain, the elastic and cross tape without medicine treatment with domestic products. Nursing intervention was independently completed by researcher once a week over two period of 12 weeks from September 2001 to March 2002 year. Data were analyzed using the SPSS win. The homogeneity between the experimental group and control group was test by chi2 and t-test. The difference of experimental before and after were tested by the unpaired t-test. The shoulder joint flexion and abduction, the elbow joint flexion and extension, the hip joint flexion, and the flexion of knee joint in the ROM of the experimental group were significantly improved over those of the control group. In difference of pain, rest and painful movement, the experimental group were significantly decreased over those of the control group. The difference of depression in experimental before and after was significantly decreased in the experimental group over those of the control group. The Taping therapy intervention proved effect pain relief and depression decrease as well as promote of range of motion.

  12. The effect of heat applied with stretch to increase range of motion: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Jiro; Yamabayashi, Cristiane; Scott, Alex; Reid, W Darlene

    2012-08-01

    Application of heat to muscle is commonly advocated to enhance the efficacy of stretching. However, the effect of this combined therapy using different methods of heating, applied to different muscles, and after one or multiple treatments, is not known. To perform a systematic review to address the question: Does stretching augmented by heat application result in greater gains in range of motion (ROM) compared to stretch alone? The following databases were searched for original articles that evaluated our question: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, SPORTDiscus and PEDro databases. After title and abstract screening followed by full-text screening, the quality of included articles was assessed and their data was abstracted. Screening, data abstraction and quality assessment was performed and consensus was achieved by two reviewers. Range of motion (ROM) data were synthesized by meta-analyses for overall effect and subgroup analysis according to muscle group, method of heat application, single or multiple treatments, and reported tightness of muscle. Twelve studies were included and reported the effects of stretch with or without heat on ROM of 352 participants. Heat applications included ultrasound, shortwave diathermy and hot packs. Meta-analyses and subgroup analyses demonstrated greater increases in ROM after heat and stretch (H + S) than heat alone. Subgroup analysis of muscle groups and the method of heat application showed some trends, but no significant differences. Multiple treatments (more so than single treatments) showed consistent treatment effects of H + S versus stretch alone amongst subgroups. Muscles described as tight did not show a greater treatment effect in response to H + S compared to muscles not reported as tight. Heating provides an added benefit on stretch related gains of ROM in healthy people. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Is visual estimation of passive range of motion in the pediatric lower limb valid and reliable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagher Fernand

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Visual estimation (VE is an essential tool for evaluation of range of motion. Few papers discussed its validity in children orthopedics' practice. The purpose of our study was to assess validity and reliability of VE for passive range of motions (PROMs of children's lower limbs. Methods Fifty typically developing children (100 lower limbs were examined. Visual estimations for PROMs of hip (flexion, adduction, abduction, internal and external rotations, knee (flexion and popliteal angle and ankle (dorsiflexion and plantarflexion were made by a pediatric orthopaedic surgeon (POS and a 5th year resident in orthopaedics. A last year medical student did goniometric measurements. Three weeks later, same measurements were performed to assess reliability of visual estimation for each examiner. Results Visual estimations of the POS were highly reliable for hip flexion, hip rotations and popliteal angle (ρc ≥ 0.8. Reliability was good for hip abduction, knee flexion, ankle dorsiflexion and plantarflexion (ρc ≥ 0.7 but poor for hip adduction (ρc = 0.5. Reproducibility for all PROMs was verified. Resident's VE showed high reliability (ρc ≥ 0.8 for hip flexion and popliteal angle. Good correlation was found for hip rotations and knee flexion (ρc ≥ 0.7. Poor results were obtained for ankle PROMs (ρc Conclusion Accuracy of VE of passive hip flexion and knee PROMs is high regardless of the examiner's experience. Same accuracy can be found for hip rotations and abduction whenever VE is performed by an experienced examiner. Goniometric evaluation is recommended for passive hip adduction and for ankle PROMs.

  14. Comparison between the Effects of Near- and Far-Fault Ground Motions on the Seismic Response of a Soil-Pile-Structure System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Abbasi Karafshani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ground motions recorded in near-fault sites, where the rupture propagates toward the site, are significantly different from those observed in far-fault regions. In this research, finite element modeling is used to compare the effects of near- and far-fault ground motions on a system consisting of soil, pile group and structure, considering the possibility of non-linear behavior for the structure. The Von Wolffersdorff hypoplastic model with intergranular strain concept is applied for modeling of granular soil (sand. Five fault-normal near-fault ground motion records and five far-fault ground motion records, recorded on rock, are applied to the model. The results show that when seismic waves pass through the soil layer, the fundamental period of the soil layer lengthens, due to non-linear deformations. Also, in near-fault pulse-like ground motions a displacement pulse is generated in the pile response. Whereas, in the far-fault ground motions, due to the more uniform distribution of energy during the record, such pulse-like displacements are not observed in the pile response. Based on the obtained results, for a constant PGA, there are positive correlations between the values of maximum pile displacement, and PGD and PGV values of near-fault ground motion records. But such correlations are not observed in the case of far-fault ground motions.

  15. Moments, magnitudes, and radiated energies of non-volcanic tremor near Cholame, CA, from ground motion spectra at UPSAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Joe B.; McGarr, A.

    2011-01-01

    By averaging the spectra of events within two episodes of tremor (on Jan. 21 and 24, 2005) across the 12 stations of UPSAR, we improved the S/N sufficiently to define source spectra. Analysis of eleven impulsive events revealed attenuation-corrected spectra of displacement similar to those of earthquakes, with a low-frequency plateau, a corner frequency, and a high frequency decay proportional to f−2. Seismic moments, M0, estimated from these spectra range from about 3 to 10 × 1011 N-m or moment magnitudes in the range 1.6 to 1.9. The corner frequencies range from 2.6 to 7.2 Hz and, if interpreted in the same way as for earthquakes, indicate low stress drops that vary from 0.001 to 0.04 MPa. Seismic energies, estimated from the ground motion spectra, vary from 0.2 × 105 to 4.4 × 105 J, or apparent stresses in the range 0.002 to 0.02 MPa. The low stress parameters are consistent with a weak fault zone in the lower crust at the depth of tremor. In contrast, the same analysis on a micro-earthquake, located near Cholame (depth = 10.3 km), revealed a stress drop of 0.5 MPa and an apparent stress of 0.02 MPa. Residual spectra from ω−2 model fits to the displacement spectra of the non-volcanic tremor events show peaks near 4 Hz that are not apparent in the spectra for the microearthquake nor for the spectrum of earth noise. These spectral peaks may indicate that tremor entails more than shear failure reminiscent of mechanisms, possibly entailing fluid flow, associated with volcanic tremor or deep volcanic earthquakes.

  16. Neck arthritis pain is reduced and range of motion is increased by massage therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Gonzalez, Gladys; Funk, C G

    2014-11-01

    The literature on the effects of massage therapy on neck arthritis pain is mixed depending on the dose level, and it is also based on self-report. In the present study an attempt was made to enhance the effects of weekly massage therapy by having the participants massage themselves daily. And in addition to self-reports on pain, range of motion (ROM) and the associated ROM pain were assessed before and after the first massage session and pre-post the last session one month later. Staff and faculty members at a medical school who were eligible for the study if they had neck arthritis pain were randomly assigned to a massage or a waitlist control group (N = 24 per group). The massage group received moderate pressure massages weekly by a massage therapist plus daily self-massages. The waitlist control group received the same schedule massages one month after being control subjects. The massage group showed significant short-term reductions after the first and last day massages in self-reported pain and in ROM-associated pain as well as an increase in ROM. Comparisons between the massage group (N = 23) and the control group (N = 14) on the last versus the first day data suggested significantly different changes including increased ROM and reduced ROM-associated pain for the massage group and reduced ROM and increased ROM-associated pain for the control group. These changes occurred specifically for flexion and right and left lateral flexion motions. These data highlight the importance of designing massage therapy protocols that target the most affected neck muscle groups and then assessing range of motion and related pain before and after the massage therapy. Comparisons with other studies also suggest that moderate pressure may contribute to the massage effects, and the use of daily self-massages between sessions may sustain the effects and serve as a cost-effective therapy for individuals with neck arthritis pain. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Ground water occurrence and contributions to streamflow in an alpine catchment, Colorado Front Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clow, D.W.; Schrott, L.; Webb, R.; Campbell, D.H.; Torizzo, A.O.; Dornblaser, M.

    2003-01-01

    Ground water occurrence, movement, and its contribution to streamflow were investigated in Loch Vale, an alpine catchment in the Front Range of the Colorado Rocky Mountains. Hydrogeomorphologic mapping, seismic refraction measurements, and porosity and permeability estimates indicate that talus slopes are the primary ground water reservoir, with a maximum storage capacity that is equal to, or greater than, total annual discharge from the basin (5.4 ± 0.8 × 106 m3). Although snowmelt and glacial melt provide the majority of annual water flux to the basin, tracer tests and gauging along a stream transect indicate that ground water flowing from talus can account for ≥75% of streamflow during storms and the winter base flow period. The discharge response of talus springs to storms and snowmelt reflects rapid transmittal of water through coarse debris at the talus surface and slower release of water from finer-grained sediments at depth.Ice stored in permafrost (including rock glaciers) is the second largest ground water reservoir in Loch Vale; it represents a significant, but seldom recognized, ground water reservoir in alpine terrain. Mean annual air temperatures are sufficiently cold to support permafrost above 3460 m; however, air temperatures have increased 1.1° to 1.4°C since the early 1990s, consistent with long-term (1976–2000) increases in air temperature measured at other high-elevation sites in the Front Range, European Alps, and Peruvian Andes. If other climatic factors remain constant, the increase in air temperatures at Loch Vale is sufficient to increase the lower elevational limit of permafrost by 150 to 190 m. Although this could cause a short-term increase in streamflow, it may ultimately result in decreased flow in the future.

  18. Development of Earthquake Ground Motion Input for Preclosure Seismic Design and Postclosure Performance Assessment of a Geologic Repository at Yucca Mountain, NV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    I. Wong

    2004-11-05

    This report describes a site-response model and its implementation for developing earthquake ground motion input for preclosure seismic design and postclosure assessment of the proposed geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The model implements a random-vibration theory (RVT), one-dimensional (1D) equivalent-linear approach to calculate site response effects on ground motions. The model provides results in terms of spectral acceleration including peak ground acceleration, peak ground velocity, and dynamically-induced strains as a function of depth. In addition to documenting and validating this model for use in the Yucca Mountain Project, this report also describes the development of model inputs, implementation of the model, its results, and the development of earthquake time history inputs based on the model results. The purpose of the site-response ground motion model is to incorporate the effects on earthquake ground motions of (1) the approximately 300 m of rock above the emplacement levels beneath Yucca Mountain and (2) soil and rock beneath the site of the Surface Facilities Area. A previously performed probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) (CRWMS M&O 1998a [DIRS 103731]) estimated ground motions at a reference rock outcrop for the Yucca Mountain site (Point A), but those results do not include these site response effects. Thus, the additional step of applying the site-response ground motion model is required to develop ground motion inputs that are used for preclosure and postclosure purposes.

  19. Timing of electromyographic activity and ranges of motion during simple motor tasks of upper extremities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syczewska Małgorzata

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Study aim: Improvement of the upper extremities’ performance is one of the key aims in the rehabilitation process. In order to achieve high effectiveness of this process the amount of functional improvement achieved by a patient during the therapy needs to be assessed. The aim of this study was to obtain electromyographic (EMG activity profiles of the upper extremity muscles during execution of simple tasks in healthy subjects. Additionally the ranges of wrist, elbow and shoulder joints were measured and reported during performed trials. The second aim was to determine whether the movement execution and ranges of move­ments and muscular activity depend on age. Material and methods: Twenty-eight healthy adults, age range 21 to 65 years old, participated in the study. Surface electrodes were placed bilaterally on 7 upper extremity muscles. To obtain information about the beginning and end of the movement task and ranges of upper extremity joints, 13 markers were placed on the elbows and wrists of both upper extremities. The move­ments of the segments were calculated (distal vs proximal in five simple functional tasks (each task involved only one joint, performed while sitting. Kinematic data were collected by the VICON 460 system, and electromyographic data with the Mo­tion Lab EMG system. Results: Charts of timing of EMG activity of the upper extremity muscles together with ranges of upper extremity joint motion were obtained. Conclusion: The results show that the number of muscles activated and the time (or percentage of the task during which they are active depend on the type of the task and age. These data can be used as a reference in evaluation of functional deficits of patients.

  20. Evaluation of Soil-Structure Interaction on the Seismic Response of Liquid Storage Tanks under Earthquake Ground Motions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Farajian

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Soil-structure interaction (SSI could affect the seismic response of structures. Since liquid storage tanks are vital structures and must continue their operation under severe earthquakes, their seismic behavior should be studied. Accordingly, the seismic response of two types of steel liquid storage tanks (namely, broad and slender, with aspect ratios of height to radius equal to 0.6 and 1.85 founded on half-space soil is scrutinized under different earthquake ground motions. For a better comparison, the six considered ground motions are classified, based on their pulse-like characteristics, into two groups, named far and near fault ground motions. To model the liquid storage tanks, the simplified mass-spring model is used and the liquid is modeled as two lumped masses known as sloshing and impulsive, and the interaction of fluid and structure is considered using two coupled springs and dashpots. The SSI effect, also, is considered using a coupled spring and dashpot. Additionally, four types of soils are used to consider a wide variety of soil properties. To this end, after deriving the equations of motion, MATLAB programming is employed to obtain the time history responses. Results show that although the SSI effect leads to a decrease in the impulsive displacement, overturning moment, and normalized base shear, the sloshing (or convective displacement is not affected by such effects due to its long period.

  1. Influence of vestibular rehabilitation on neck pain and cervical range of motion among patients with whiplash-associated disorder: a randomized controlled trial

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hansson, Eva Ekvall; Persson, Liselott; Malmström, Eva Maj

    2013-01-01

    To describe how vestibular rehabilitation influences pain and range of motion among patients with whiplash-associated disorder and dizziness, and to describe whether pain or range of motion correlated...

  2. Crustal Stress in the Flinders Ranges, South Australia, From Earthquake First Motion Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, P. R.; Balfour, N.; Love, D.

    2010-12-01

    We have used data recorded by a temporary seismograph deployment to infer constraints on the state of crustal stress in the Flinders Ranges in south-central Australia. Previous stress estimates for the region have been poorly constrained due to the lack of large events and limited station coverage for focal mechanisms. New data allowed 65 events with 544 first motions to be used in a stress inversion to estimate the principal stress directions and stress ratio.While our initial inversion suggested that stress in the region was not homogeneous, we found that discarding data for events in the top 2km of the crust resulted in a well-constrained stress orientation that is consistent with the assumption of homogeneous stress throughout the Flinders Ranges. We speculate that the need to screen out shallow events may be due to the presence in the shallow crust of either: (1) small-scale velocity heterogeneity that would bias the ray parameter estimates, or (2) heterogeneity in the stress field itself, possibly due to the influence of the relatively pronounced topographic relief. The stress derived from earthquakes in the Flinders Ranges show an oblique reverse faulting stress regime, which contrasts with the pure thrust and pure strike slip regimes suggested by earlier studies. However, the roughly E-W direction of maximum horizontal compressive stress we obtain supports the conclusion of virtually all previous studies that the Flinders Ranges are undergoing E-W compression due to orogenic events at the boundaries of the Australian and Indian Plates.

  3. Decreased Temporomandibular Joint Range of Motion in a Model of Early Osteoarthritis in the Rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Sarah E; Tudares, Mauro A; Tashman, Scott; Almarza, Alejandro J

    2015-09-01

    Analysis of mandibular biomechanics could help with understanding the mechanisms of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorders (TMJDs), such as osteoarthritis (TMJ-OA), by investigating the effects of injury or disease on TMJ movement. The objective of the present study was to determine the functional kinematic implications of mild TMJ-OA degeneration caused by altered occlusion from unilateral splints in the rabbit. Altered occlusion of the TMJ was mechanically induced in rabbits by way of a unilateral molar dental splint (n = 3). TMJ motion was assessed using 3-dimensional (3D) skeletal kinematics twice, once before and once after 6 weeks of splint placement with the splints removed, after allowing 3 days of recovery. The relative motion of the condyle to the fossa and the distance between the incisors were tracked. An overall decrease in the range of joint movement was observed at the incisors and in the joint space between the condyle and fossa. The incisor movement decreased from 7.0 ± 0.5 mm to 6.2 ± 0.5 mm right to left, from 5.5 ± 2.2 mm to 4.6 ± 0.8 mm anterior to posterior, and from 13.3 ± 1.8 mm to 11.6 ± 1.4 mm superior to inferior (P TMJ-OA and determining when the symptoms become a chronic, irreversible problem. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Validation of a photography-based goniometry method for measuring joint range of motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blonna, Davide; Zarkadas, Peter C; Fitzsimmons, James S; O'Driscoll, Shawn W

    2012-01-01

    A critical component of evaluating the outcomes after surgery to restore lost elbow motion is the range of motion (ROM) of the elbow. This study examined if digital photography-based goniometry is as accurate and reliable as clinical goniometry for measuring elbow ROM. Instrument validity and reliability for photography-based goniometry were evaluated for a consecutive series of 50 elbow contractures by 4 observers with different levels of elbow experience. Goniometric ROM measurements were taken with the elbows in full extension and full flexion directly in the clinic (once) and from digital photographs (twice in a blinded random manner). Instrument validity for photography-based goniometry was extremely high (intraclass correlation coefficient: extension = 0.98, flexion = 0.96). For extension and flexion measurements by the expert surgeon, systematic error was negligible (0° and 1°, respectively). Limits of agreement were 7° (95% confidence interval [CI], 5° to 9°) and -7° (95% CI, -5° to -9°) for extension and 8° (95% CI, 6° to 10°) and -7° (95% CI, -5° to -9°) for flexion. Interobserver reliability for photography-based goniometry was better than that for clinical goniometry. The least experienced observer's photographic goniometry measurements were closer to the reference measurements than the clinical goniometry measurements. Photography-based goniometry is accurate and reliable for measuring elbow ROM. The photography-based method relied less on observer expertise than clinical goniometry. This validates an objective measure of patient outcome without requiring doctor-patient contact at a tertiary care center, where most contracture surgeries are done. Copyright © 2012 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Study of Particle Motion in He II Counterflow Across a Wide Heat Flux Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastracci, Brian; Takada, Suguru; Guo, Wei

    2017-06-01

    Some discrepancy exists in the results of He II counterflow experiments obtained using particle image velocimetry (PIV) when compared with those obtained using particle tracking velocimetry (PTV): using PIV, it was observed that tracer particles move at roughly half the expected normal fluid velocity, v_n/2, while tracer particles observed using PTV moved at approximately v_n. A suggested explanation is that two different flow regimes were examined since the range of heat flux applied in each experiment was adjacent but non-overlapping. Another PTV experiment attempted to test this model, but the applied heat flux did not overlap with any PIV experiments. We report on the beginnings of a study of solid {D}_2 particle motion in counterflow using PTV, and the heat flux range overlaps that of all previous visualization studies. The observed particle velocity distribution transitions from a two-peak structure to a single peak as the heat flux is increased. Furthermore, the mean value of one peak in the bi-modal distributions grows at approximately the same rate as v_n, while the mean value of the single-peak distributions grows at roughly 0.4v_n, in reasonable agreement with both previous experiments and with the suggested model.

  6. Short-duration massage at the hamstrings musculotendinous junction induces greater range of motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Stacey Y; Di Santo, Mario; Wadden, Katie P; Cappa, Dario F; Alkanani, Thamir; Behm, David G

    2010-07-01

    Massage for the purpose of health dates back to early civilization and more recently has been used in the management and prevention of sport injuries. Massage has also been used as part of a warm-up to help increase acute flexibility. However, the physiological benefits and mechanisms of massage are not well known. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effectiveness of 3 massage conditions on hip flexion range of motion (ROM). This experimentation involved a novel massage technique, which focused the massage on the musculotendinous junction for a short duration. Ten recreationally active women ranging from 21 to 36 years in age participated in this study. Participants were subjected to 3 massage conditions (no massage, 10-second massage, and 30-second massage) in a random order on separate days. Hip flexion angle, passive leg tension, and electromyography (EMG) were measured thrice before and within 10 seconds after the intervention. A main effect for conditions was found with the 30-second massage providing a 7.2% increase in hip flexion ROM that was significantly greater than the control condition (p stretch perception, increased stretch tolerance, or increased compliance of the hamstrings. Musculotendinous massage may be used as an alternative or a complement to static stretching for increasing ROM.

  7. Inter and intra-rater reliability of mobile device goniometer in measuring lumbar flexion range of motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedekar, Nilima; Suryawanshi, Mayuri; Rairikar, Savita; Sancheti, Parag; Shyam, Ashok

    2014-01-01

    Evaluation of range of motion (ROM) is integral part of assessment of musculoskeletal system. This is required in health fitness and pathological conditions; also it is used as an objective outcome measure. Several methods are described to check spinal flexion range of motion. Different methods for measuring spine ranges have their advantages and disadvantages. Hence, a new device was introduced in this study using the method of dual inclinometer to measure lumbar spine flexion range of motion (ROM). To determine Intra and Inter-rater reliability of mobile device goniometer in measuring lumbar flexion range of motion. iPod mobile device with goniometer software was used. The part being measure i.e the back of the subject was suitably exposed. Subject was standing with feet shoulder width apart. Spinous process of second sacral vertebra S2 and T12 were located, these were used as the reference points and readings were taken. Three readings were taken for each: inter-rater reliability as well as the intra-rater reliability. Sufficient rest was given between each flexion movement. Intra-rater reliability using ICC was r=0.920 and inter-rater r=0.812 at CI 95%. Validity r=0.95. Mobile device goniometer has high intra-rater reliability. The inter-rater reliability was moderate. This device can be used to assess range of motion of spine flexion, representing uni-planar movement.

  8. Strong ground motion inferred from liquefaction caused by the 1811-1812 New Madrid, Missouri, earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzer, Thomas L.; Noce, Thomas E.; Bennett, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Peak ground accelerations (PGAs) in the epicentral region of the 1811–1812 New Madrid, Missouri, earthquakes are inferred from liquefaction to have been no greater than ∼0.35g. PGA is inferred in an 11,380  km2 area in the Lower Mississippi Valley in Arkansas and Missouri where liquefaction was extensive in 1811–1812. PGA was inferred by applying liquefaction probability curves, which were originally developed for liquefaction hazard mapping, to detailed maps of liquefaction by Obermeier (1989). The low PGA is inferred because both a shallow (1.5 m deep) water table and a large moment magnitude (M 7.7) earthquake were assumed in the analysis. If a deep (5.0 m) water table and a small magnitude (M 6.8) earthquake are assumed, the maximum inferred PGA is 1.10g. Both inferred PGA values are based on an assumed and poorly constrained correction for sand aging. If an aging correction is not assumed, then the inferred PGA is no greater than 0.22g. A low PGA value may be explained by nonlinear site response. Soils in the study area have an averageVS30 of 220±15  m/s. A low inferred PGA is consistent with PGA values estimated from ground‐motion prediction equations that have been proposed for the New Madrid seismic zone when these estimates are corrected for nonlinear soil site effects. This application of liquefaction probability curves demonstrates their potential usefulness in paleoseismology.

  9. Three-dimensional ground-motion simulations of earthquakes for the Hanford area, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, Arthur; Thorne, Paul; Rohay, Alan

    2014-01-01

    This report describes the results of ground-motion simulations of earthquakes using three-dimensional (3D) and one-dimensional (1D) crustal models conducted for the probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA) of the Hanford facility, Washington, under the Senior Seismic Hazard Analysis Committee (SSHAC) guidelines. The first portion of this report demonstrates that the 3D seismic velocity model for the area produces synthetic seismograms with characteristics (spectral response values, duration) that better match those of the observed recordings of local earthquakes, compared to a 1D model with horizontal layers. The second part of the report compares the response spectra of synthetics from 3D and 1D models for moment magnitude (M) 6.6–6.8 earthquakes on three nearby faults and for a dipping plane wave source meant to approximate regional S-waves from a Cascadia great earthquake. The 1D models are specific to each site used for the PSHA. The use of the 3D model produces spectral response accelerations at periods of 0.5–2.0 seconds as much as a factor of 4.5 greater than those from the 1D models for the crustal fault sources. The spectral accelerations of the 3D synthetics for the Cascadia plane-wave source are as much as a factor of 9 greater than those from the 1D models. The differences between the spectral accelerations for the 3D and 1D models are most pronounced for sites with thicker supra-basalt sediments and for stations with earthquakes on the Rattlesnake Hills fault and for the Cascadia plane-wave source.

  10. Reliability of shoulder range of motion comparing a goniometer to a digital level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullaney, Michael J; McHugh, Malachy P; Johnson, Christopher P; Tyler, Timothy F

    2010-07-01

    The clinical use of digital levels, for joint measurement, may be a viable alternative to standard goniometry. The purpose of this study was to determine the intra- and intertester reliability of a construction grade digital level compared to the standard universal goniometer for measurements for active assisted shoulder range of motion (ROM). Two experienced physical therapists measured shoulder flexion, external rotation (ER), and internal rotation (IR) ROM bilaterally, on two different occasions, in 20 patients (9 males, 11 females, 18-79 years old) with unilateral shoulder pathology, using a goniometer and a digital level. Relative reliability was assessed by using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), and absolute reliability was assessed by using 95% limits of agreement (LOA). Intratester ICCs ranged from 0.91 to 0.99, and LOA ranged from 3 degrees to 9 degrees for measurements made with the goniometer and digital level. Intertester ICCs ranged from 0.31 to 0.95, and LOA ranged from 6 degrees to 25 degrees . For the comparison of goniometric vs. digital level ROM, ICCs ranged from 0.71 to 0.98. ER and IR ROM were 3-5 degrees greater for the digital level than the goniometer (p reliability, but for intertester reliability ICCs were 20% lower and LOA were 2.3 times higher than intratester values. Reliability estimates were similar between the digital level and the goniometer. However, because glenohumeral rotation was 3-5 degrees greater for the digital level than the goniometer (systematic error), the two methods cannot be used interchangeably. On the basis of the average intratester LOA for the goniometer and the digital level, a change of 6-11 degrees is needed to be certain that true change has occurred. For comparison of measures made by two different therapists, a change is of 15 degrees is required to be certain a true change has occurred. A digital level can be used to reliably measure shoulder ROM but should not be used interchangeably with a

  11. The effect of spinal manipulative therapy on spinal range of motion: a systematic literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Millan Mario

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spinal manipulative therapy (SMT has been shown to have an effect on spine-related pain, both clinically and in experimentally induced pain. However, it is unclear if it has an immediate noticeable biomechanical effect on spinal motion that can be measured in terms of an increased range of motion (ROM. Objective To assess the quality of the literature and to determine whether or not SMT is associated with an immediate increase in ROM. Design A systematic critical literature review. Method Systematic searches were performed in Pubmed, the Cochrane Library and EMBASE using terms relating to manipulation, movement and the spine. Selection of articles was made according to specific criteria by two independent reviewers. Two checklists were created based on the needs of the present review. Articles were independently reviewed by two reviewers. Articles were given quality scores and the data synthesized for each region treated in the literature. Findings were summarized in tables and reported in a narrative fashion. Results Fifteen articles were retained reporting on experiments on the neck, lumbar spine, hip and jaw. The mean quality score was 71/100 (ranges 33/100 - 92/100. A positive effect of SMT was reported in both studies where mouth opening was assessed after cervical manipulation. In five of the nine studies on cervical ROM a positive effect was reported, whereas the remaining four studies did not show improvement. None of the three studies of the lumbar spine showed an effect of SMT on lumbar ROMs and one study of sacroiliac manipulation reported no effect on the ROM of the hip joint. In relation to the quality score, the seven highest ranked studies, showed significant positive effects of SMT on ROM. Continuing down the list, the other studies reported no significant differences in the outcomes between groups. Conclusion SMT seems sometimes to have a small effect on ROM, at least in the cervical spine. Further research

  12. Changes in spinal range of motion after a flexibility training program in elderly women

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    Battaglia G

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Giuseppe Battaglia,1,2 Marianna Bellafiore,1,2 Giovanni Caramazza,2 Antonio Paoli,3 Antonino Bianco,1,2 Antonio Palma1,2 1Department of Law, Society, and Sport Sciences, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy; 2Sicilian Regional Sports School of Italian National Olympic Committee (CONI, Sicily, Italy; 3Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Padova, Padova, Italy Background: Aging-related reduced spinal mobility can interfere with the execution of important functional skills and activities in elderly women. Although several studies have shown positive outcomes in response to spinal flexibility training programs, little is known about the management of sets and repetitions in training protocols. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of an 8-week specific and standardized flexibility training program on the range of spinal motion in elderly women. Methods: Participants were recruited in a senior center of Palermo and randomly assigned in two groups: trained group (TG and control group (CG, which included 19 and 18 women, respectively. TG was trained for 8 weeks at two sessions/week. In particular, every session included three phases: warm up (~10 minutes, central period (~50 minutes, and cool down (~10 minutes. CG did not perform any physical activity during the experimental period. Spinal ranges of motion (ROM were measured from neutral standing position to maximum bending position and from neutral standing position to maximum extension position before and after the experimental period, using a SpinalMouse® device (Idiag, Volkerswill, Switzerland. Results: After the training period, TG showed an increase in spinal inclination by 16.4% (P<0.05, in sacral/hip ROM by 29.2% (P<0.05, and in thoracic ROM by 22.5% (P>0.05 compared with CG from maximum extension position to maximum bending position. We did not observe any significant difference in TG's lumbar ROM compared with CG after the training period (P>0.05. Conclusion

  13. Validity and reliability of using photography for measuring knee range of motion: a methodological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naylor, Justine M; Ko, Victoria; Adie, Sam; Gaskin, Clive; Walker, Richard; Harris, Ian A; Mittal, Rajat

    2011-04-18

    The clinimetric properties of knee goniometry are essential to appreciate in light of its extensive use in the orthopaedic and rehabilitative communities. Intra-observer reliability is thought to be satisfactory, but the validity and inter-rater reliability of knee goniometry often demonstrate unacceptable levels of variation. This study tests the validity and reliability of measuring knee range of motion using goniometry and photographic records. Methodology study assessing the validity and reliability of one method ('Marker Method') which uses a skin marker over the greater trochanter and another method ('Line of Femur Method') which requires estimation of the line of femur. Radiology and orthopaedic departments of two teaching hospitals. 31 volunteers (13 arthritic and 18 healthy subjects). Knee range of motion was measured radiographically and photographically using a goniometer. Three assessors were assessed for reliability and validity. Agreement between methods and within raters was assessed using concordance correlation coefficient (CCCs). Agreement between raters was assessed using intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs). 95% limits of agreement for the mean difference for all paired comparisons were computed. Validity (referenced to radiographs): Each method for all 3 raters yielded very high CCCs for flexion (0.975 to 0.988), and moderate to substantial CCCs for extension angles (0.478 to 0.678). The mean differences and 95% limits of agreement were narrower for flexion than they were for extension. Intra-rater reliability: For flexion and extension, very high CCCs were attained for all 3 raters for both methods with slightly greater CCCs seen for flexion (CCCs varied from 0.981 to 0.998). Inter-rater reliability: For both methods, very high ICCs (min to max: 0.891 to 0.995) were obtained for flexion and extension. Slightly higher coefficients were obtained for flexion compared to extension, and with the Marker compared to the Line of Femur Method

  14. Kinematic Range of Motion Analysis for a High Degree-of-Freedom Unmanned Ground Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    la technologie de la robotique soit en mesure d’augmenter les efforts humains en réponse aux rôles et environnements de l’armée. En préparation à ces...des terrains complexes. La méthodologie de la recherche traite des nombreux défis et incertitudes qui compliquent le concept des systèmes UGV. On...à rendement optimal particulier pour des missions spécifiques mais plutôt d’être en mesure de conduire la recherche dans beaucoup de domaines de

  15. Empirical ground-motion relations for subduction-zone earthquakes and their application to Cascadia and other regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, G.M.; Boore, D.M.

    2003-01-01

    Ground-motion relations for earthquakes that occur in subduction zones are an important input to seismic-hazard analyses in many parts of the world. In the Cascadia region (Washington, Oregon, northern California, and British Columbia), for example, there is a significant hazard from megathrust earthquakes along the subduction interface and from large events within the subducting slab. These hazards are in addition to the hazard from shallow earthquakes in the overlying crust. We have compiled a response spectra database from thousands of strong-motion recordings from events of moment magnitude (M) 5-8.3 occurring in subduction zones around the world, including both interface and in-slab events. The 2001 M 6.8 Nisqually and 1999 M 5.9 Satsop earthquakes are included in the database, as are many records from subduction zones in Japan (Kyoshin-Net data), Mexico (Guerrero data), and Central America. The size of the database is four times larger than that available for previous empirical regressions to determine ground-motion relations for subduction-zone earthquakes. The large dataset enables improved determination of attenuation parameters and magnitude scaling, for both interface and in-slab events. Soil response parameters are also better determined by the data. We use the database to develop global ground-motion relations for interface and in-slab earthquakes, using a maximum likelihood regression method. We analyze regional variability of ground-motion amplitudes across the global database and find that there are significant regional differences. In particular, amplitudes in Cascadia differ by more than a factor of 2 from those in Japan for the same magnitude, distance, event type, and National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP) soil class. This is believed to be due to regional differences in the depth of the soil profile, which are not captured by the NEHRP site classification scheme. Regional correction factors to account for these differences are

  16. Passive Range of Motion in a Population-Based Sample of Children with Spastic Cerebral Palsy Who Walk

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Brona C.; Salazar-Torres, Jose J.; Kerr, Claire; Cosgrove, Aidan P.

    2012-01-01

    -While passive range of motion (PROM) is commonly used to inform decisions on therapeutic management, knowledge of PROM of children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP) is limited. A population-based sample of 178 children with spastic CP (110 male; unilateral, n = 94; bilateral, n = 84; age range 4-17 years) and 68 typically developing children (24…

  17. The effects of kinesiology taping therapy on degenerative knee arthritis patients' pain, function, and joint range of motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kwansub; Yi, Chae-Woo; Lee, Sangyong

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of kinesiology taping therapy on degenerative knee arthritis patients' pain, function, and joint range of motion. [Subjects] To conduct the experiment in the present study, 30 patients with degenerative knee arthritis were divided into a control group (the conservative treatment group) of 15 patients, who received conservative physical therapy, and an experimental group (the kinesiology taping group) of 15 patients, who received kinesiology taping therapy. [Methods] All patients received treatment three times per week for four weeks. The kinesiology taping group had elastic tapes applied to the hamstring muscles, anterior tibialis, quadriceps femoris, and gastrocnemius. The range of motion was measured using joint goniometers, pain was measured using visual analog scales, and functional evaluation was conducted using the Korean Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index. [Results] In intragroup comparisons of the kinesiology taping group and the conservative treatment group, the visual analog scale and Korean Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index scores significantly decreased, and the range of motion increased more than significantly. In intergroup comparisons, the kinesiology taping group showed significantly lower visual analog scale and Korean Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index scores and significantly larger ranges of motion than the conservative treatment group. [Conclusion] Kinesiology taping therapy is considered to be an effective nonsurgical intervention method for pain relief, daily living activities, and range of motion of degenerative knee arthritis patients.

  18. The effects of kinesiology taping therapy on degenerative knee arthritis patients’ pain, function, and joint range of motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kwansub; Yi, Chae-Woo; Lee, Sangyong

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of kinesiology taping therapy on degenerative knee arthritis patients’ pain, function, and joint range of motion. [Subjects] To conduct the experiment in the present study, 30 patients with degenerative knee arthritis were divided into a control group (the conservative treatment group) of 15 patients, who received conservative physical therapy, and an experimental group (the kinesiology taping group) of 15 patients, who received kinesiology taping therapy. [Methods] All patients received treatment three times per week for four weeks. The kinesiology taping group had elastic tapes applied to the hamstring muscles, anterior tibialis, quadriceps femoris, and gastrocnemius. The range of motion was measured using joint goniometers, pain was measured using visual analog scales, and functional evaluation was conducted using the Korean Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index. [Results] In intragroup comparisons of the kinesiology taping group and the conservative treatment group, the visual analog scale and Korean Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index scores significantly decreased, and the range of motion increased more than significantly. In intergroup comparisons, the kinesiology taping group showed significantly lower visual analog scale and Korean Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index scores and significantly larger ranges of motion than the conservative treatment group. [Conclusion] Kinesiology taping therapy is considered to be an effective nonsurgical intervention method for pain relief, daily living activities, and range of motion of degenerative knee arthritis patients. PMID:26957729

  19. EFFECTIVENESS OF ECCENTRIC TRAINING, DYNAMIC RANGE OF MOTION EXERCISES AND STATIC STRETCHING ON FLEXIBILITY OF HAMSTRING MUSCLE AMONG FOOTBALL PLAYERS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Askar P.V

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hamstring stretch is an important part of treatment programs aimed at decreasing the likelihood of hamstring injury. Few studies have examine the effect of eccentric training, static stretching and dynamic range of motion(DROM exercise in improving hamstring flexibility this study compares the effect of eccentric training and static stretching in improving hamstring flexibility. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of Eccentric training, Static stretching and Dynamic range of motion (DROM exercise in improving hamstring flexibility and the second objective is find which technique is more effective in improving hamstring flexibility when compared with a control group. Study design is Experimental pre-test post-test design. Methods: 88 male subjects with limited hamstring flexibility were recruited for this study were assigned to four group. Group1 received eccentric training, group2 received dynamic range of motion exercise, group3 received static stretching and group4 was served as control group. Hamstring length was measured pre intervention and post intervention using a self-monitored active knee extension test. Results: Eccentric training, static stretching and dynamic range of motion exercise showed a significant increase in hamstring length between pre and post intervention. Following a between group analysis done by independent t test revealed a significant difference between group1 group2 and group3 Conclusion: It is concluded that eccentric training, dynamic range of motion (DROM exercise and static stretching groups improved hamstring flexibility.

  20. Ground-based structure from motion - multi view stereo (SFM-MVS) for upland soil erosion assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McShane, Gareth; James, Mike; Quniton, John; Farrow, Luke; Glendell, Miriam; Jones, Lee; Kirkham, Matthew; Morgan, David; Evans, Martin; Anderson, Karen; Lark, Murray; Rawlins, Barry; Rickson, Jane; Quine, Timothy; Benaud, Pia; Brazier, Richard

    2016-04-01

    In upland environments, quantifying soil loss through erosion processes at a high resolution can be time consuming, costly and logistically difficult. In this pilot study 'A cost effective framework for monitoring soil erosion in England and Wales', funded by the UK Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra), we evaluate the use of annually repeated ground-based photography surveys, processed using structure-from-motion and multi-view stereo (SfM-MVS) 3-D reconstruction software (Agisoft Photoscan). The aim is to enable efficient but detailed site-scale studies of erosion forms in inaccessible UK upland environments, in order to quantify dynamic processes, such as erosion and mass movement. The evaluation of the SfM-MVS technique is particularly relevant in upland landscapes, where the remoteness and inaccessibility of field sites may render some of the more established survey techniques impractical. We present results from 5 upland sites across the UK, acquired over a 2-year period. Erosion features of varying width (3 m to 35 m) and length (20 m to 60 m), representing a range of spatial scales (from 100 m2 to 1000 m2) were surveyed, in upland habitats including bogs, peatland, upland grassland and moorland. For each feature, around 150 to 600 ground-based photographs were taken at oblique angles over a 10 to 20 minute period, using an uncalibrated Canon 600D SLR camera with a 28 mm lens (focal length set to infinity). Camera settings varied based upon light conditions (exposure 100-400 ISO, aperture F4.5 to F8, shutter speed 1/100 to 1/250 second). For inter-survey comparisons, models were geo-referenced using 20 to 30 ground control points (numbered black markers with a white target) placed around and within the feature, with their co-ordinates measured by survey-grade differential GNSS (Trimble R4). Volumetric estimates of soil loss were quantified using digital surface models (DSMs) derived from the repeat survey data and subtracted from a

  1. Study of the effects of local geological structure on seismic ground motion and building vulnerability with microtremors

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    Andrej Gosar

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Examples of several earthquakes in last decades have shown that the influenceoflocalgeological structure (site effects on seismic ground motion was often underestimated; the effects of the earthquake were therefore greater than expected. Especially dangerous is the situation when both the fundamental frequency of sediments and of structures are similar and a resonance occurs. Among the other methods for assessing the effects of local geology the use of microtremors achieved a recognition in the last decade. The method is based on measurements of ambient vibration of natural and artificial origin with three-component sensor. Spectral ratio between the records on horizontal and vertical component yield fundamental frequency of soft sediments deposited over hard bedrock. By measurements inside buildings the main building frequency in longitudinal and transverse direction and consequently the range of increased vulnerability is determined. By comparison of thefundamental frequency map of sediments and measurements inside buildings, we can perform quantitative microzonation of urbane areas and identify areas where the danger of soil-structure resonance exists. In Slovenia microtremors investigations are carried out in the frame of a NATO Science for peace project. By measurements in a very dense grid of 200 m x 200 m a new microzonation of Ljubljana will be performed. In the Bovec basin, where the site effects were very prominent during 1998 and 2004 damaging earthquakes, we found out that relative high damage to some buildings were caused by soil-structure resonance effects. In Ilirska Bistrica, which is one of the most seismically active regions in Slovenia, we also established that most of the buildings damaged during stronger earthquakesare located in areas characterised by the fundamental frequency of soil which coincide with the range of the main building frequencies.

  2. Prediction of ground motion and dynamic stress change in Baekdusan (Changbaishan) volcano caused by a North Korean nuclear explosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Tae-Kyung; Choi, Eunseo; Park, Seongjun; Shin, Jin Soo

    2016-02-17

    Strong ground motions induce large dynamic stress changes that may disturb the magma chamber of a volcano, thus accelerating the volcanic activity. An underground nuclear explosion test near an active volcano constitutes a direct treat to the volcano. This study examined the dynamic stress changes of the magma chamber of Baekdusan (Changbaishan) that can be induced by hypothetical North Korean nuclear explosions. Seismic waveforms for hypothetical underground nuclear explosions at North Korean test site were calculated by using an empirical Green's function approach based on a source-spectral model of a nuclear explosion; such a technique is efficient for regions containing poorly constrained velocity structures. The peak ground motions around the volcano were estimated from empirical strong-motion attenuation curves. A hypothetical M7.0 North Korean underground nuclear explosion may produce peak ground accelerations of 0.1684 m/s(2) in the horizontal direction and 0.0917 m/s(2) in the vertical direction around the volcano, inducing peak dynamic stress change of 67 kPa on the volcano surface and ~120 kPa in the spherical magma chamber. North Korean underground nuclear explosions with magnitudes of 5.0-7.6 may induce overpressure in the magma chamber of several tens to hundreds of kilopascals.

  3. Comparing range data across the slow-time dimension to correct motion measurement errors beyond the range resolution of a synthetic aperture radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerry, Armin W.; Heard, Freddie E.; Cordaro, J. Thomas

    2010-08-17

    Motion measurement errors that extend beyond the range resolution of a synthetic aperture radar (SAR) can be corrected by effectively decreasing the range resolution of the SAR in order to permit measurement of the error. Range profiles can be compared across the slow-time dimension of the input data in order to estimate the error. Once the error has been determined, appropriate frequency and phase correction can be applied to the uncompressed input data, after which range and azimuth compression can be performed to produce a desired SAR image.

  4. THE EFFECTS OF COLD WHIRLPOOL ON POWER, SPEED, AGILITY, AND RANGE OF MOTION

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    Stephen M. Patterson

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose was to determine if cold whirlpool treatment decreases functional performance equally regardless of gender. A secondary aim was to determine if there is a gradual increase in functional performance across time. Twenty-one college-aged subjects volunteered to participate in this study and were required to perform four measures of functional performance including: counter movement vertical jump, T-test, 36.58-meter dash (40-yard, and active range of motion of the ankle. Participants were treated with a 20 minute, 10 degree Celsius cold whirlpool following the pre-test of a given functional performance measure. Participants demonstrated significant decreases in counter movement vertical jump, T-test, and 40-yard dash performance immediately following treatment. Vertical jump performance remained impaired for at least 32 minutes. While both the T-test and 40-yard dash were affected for 7 and 22 minutes post- treatment, respectively. Participants also demonstrated significant decreases in peak power and average power immediately after and for 32 minutes post-treatment. Dorsiflexion was significantly decreased 7 and 12 minutes following treatment. There were no differences for plantar flexion, inversion, or eversion. These data suggest functional performance was affected immediately following and for up to 32 minutes after cold whirlpool treatment. It was also evident that there is a gradual performance increase for each measure of functional performance across time. Therefore, the consequences should be carefully considered before returning athletes to activity following cold whirlpool treatment

  5. Immediate Effects of Mirror Therapy in Patients With Shoulder Pain and Decreased Range of Motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louw, Adriaan; Puentedura, Emilio J; Reese, Dave; Parker, Paula; Miller, Terra; Mintken, Paul E

    2017-10-01

    To determine the effects of a brief single component of the graded motor imagery (GMI) sequence (mirror therapy) on active range of motion (AROM), pain, fear avoidance, and pain catastrophization in patients with shoulder pain. Single-blind case series. Three outpatient physical therapy clinics. Patients with shoulder pain and limited AROM (N=69). Patients moved their unaffected shoulder through comfortable AROM in front of a mirror so that it appeared that they were moving their affected shoulder. We measured pain, pain catastrophization, fear avoidance, and AROM in 69 consecutive patients with shoulder pain and limited AROM before and immediately after mirror therapy. There were significant differences in self-reported pain (P=.014), pain catastrophization (Pshoulder flexion AROM immediately postmirror therapy (Ppain, pain catastrophization, fear avoidance, and shoulder flexion AROM in patients presenting with shoulder pain with limited AROM. The immediate changes may allow a quicker transition to multimodal treatment, including manual therapy and exercise in these patients. Further studies, including randomized controlled trials, are needed to investigate these findings and determine longer-term effects. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Tissue flossing on ankle range of motion, jump and sprint performance: A follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driller, Matthew; Mackay, Kelsi; Mills, Blair; Tavares, Francisco

    2017-11-01

    Previous results from our laboratory suggest that band flossing results in increased ankle range of motion (ROM) and jump performance 5-min following application. However, the time-course of such benefits is yet to be examined. Parallel group design. University laboratory. 69 recreational athletes (32 male/37 female). Participants performed a weight-bearing lunge test (WBLT), a counter-movement jump (CMJ) and a 15 m sprint test (SPRINT) pre and up to 45-min post application of a floss band to both ankles (FLOSS) or without flossing of the ankle joints (CON). There was a significant intervention × time interaction in favour of FLOSS when compared to CON for the WBLT (p  0.05) benefits were seen for FLOSS when compared to CON for CMJ force (mean ± 90%CI: 89 ± 101 N) and 15 m SPRINT times (-0.06 ± 0.04 s) at 45-min post. There is a trend towards a benefit for the use of floss bands applied to the ankle joint to improve ROM, jump and sprint performance in recreational athletes for up to 45-min following their application. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A Non-Contact Measurement System for the Range of Motion of the Hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trieu Pham

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available An accurate and standardised tool to measure the active range of motion (ROM of the hand is essential to any progressive assessment scenario in hand therapy practice. Goniometers are widely used in clinical settings for measuring the ROM of the hand. However, such measurements have limitations with regard to inter-rater and intra-rater reliability and involve direct physical contact with the hand, possibly increasing the risk of transmitting infections. The system proposed in this paper is the first non-contact measurement system utilising Intel Perceptual Technology and a Senz3D Camera for measuring phalangeal joint angles. To enhance the accuracy of the system, we developed a new approach to achieve the total active movement without measuring three joint angles individually. An equation between the actual spacial position and measurement value of the proximal inter-phalangeal joint was established through the measurement values of the total active movement, so that its actual position can be inferred. Verified by computer simulations, experimental results demonstrated a significant improvement in the calculation of the total active movement and successfully recovered the actual position of the proximal inter-phalangeal joint angles. A trial that was conducted to examine the clinical applicability of the system involving 40 healthy subjects confirmed the practicability and consistency in the proposed system. The time efficiency conveyed a stronger argument for this system to replace the current practice of using goniometers.

  8. Knee arthritis pain is reduced and range of motion is increased following moderate pressure massage therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Gonzalez, Gladys; Funk, C G

    2015-11-01

    The literature on massage therapy effects on knee pain suggests that pain was reduced based on self-report, but little is known about range of motion (ROM) effects. Medical School staff and faculty who had knee arthritis pain were randomly assigned to a moderate pressure massage therapy or a waitlist control group (24 per group). Self-reports included the WOMAC (pain, stiffness and function) and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. ROM and ROM-related pain were assessed before and after the last sessions. The massage group showed an immediate post-massage increase in ROM and a decrease in ROM-associated pain. On the last versus the first day of the study, the massage group showed greater increases in ROM and decreases in ROM-related pain as well as less self-reported pain and sleep disturbances than the waitlist control group. These data highlight the effectiveness of moderate pressure massage therapy for increasing ROM and lessening ROM-related pain and long-term pain and sleep disturbances. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Increased Range of Motion and Decreased Strength of the Thumb in Massage Practitioners with Thumb Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    KIM, Si-hyun; KWON, Oh-yun; AN, Mi-ryung; KIM, Yoon-shin

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the range of motion (ROM) and strength of the metacarpophalangeal (MP) and interphalangeal (IP) joints among massage practitioners with and without thumb pain and control subjects. Sixteen massage practitioners with thumb pain, 16 practitioners without thumb pain, and 16 control subjects participated in this study. ROM of flexion, extension, and abduction in the MP joint; ROM of flexion and extension in the IP joint of the thumb; strength of the flexor pollicis brevis (FPB), extensor pollicis brevis (EPB), abductor pollicis brevis, flexor pollicis longus (FPL), and extensor pollicis longus measured in all subjects. ROM of extension and abduction in the MP joint were significantly increased in massage practitioners with and without thumb pain compared with control subjects. ROM of extension in the IP joint was significantly increased in massage practitioners with thumb pain compared with those without thumb pain. The strength of the EPB and FPL muscle was significantly decreased in massage practitioners with thumb pain compared with those without thumb pain and control subjects, respectively. In addition, there was significantly increased EPB/FPB strength in massage practitioners without thumb pain compared to those with thumb pain and control subjects. PMID:24739763

  10. Normal sensory and range of motion (ROM) responses during Thoracic Slump Test (ST) in asymptomatic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Ketaki C; Eapen, Charu; Kumar, Senthil P

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the normal sensory and range of motion (ROM) responses during the movement components of Thoracic Slump Test (Thoracic ST) in asymptomatic subjects. Sixty asymptomatic subjects were included in the study. Thoracic ST was performed in two sequences, proximal initiation, which was proximal to distal and distal initiation, which was distal to proximal. Subjects were randomized into four groups depending on the order of sequences and sides. Outcome measures of sensory responses (intensity, type, and location) and ROM responses were recorded after each sequence. Friedman's test was done to compare between sensory responses of the subjects. Between-component comparison for prevalence of sensory responses within each sequence was done using Kruskal-Wallis test and Wilcoxonsigned ranks test was used for between-component comparisons of intensity of symptoms within each sequence of testing. Independent t test was used to assess the ROM responses. Results show the prevalence of sensory responses, its nature, area and intensity. These sensory and ROM responses may be considered as normal response of Thoracic ST. The intensity of the symptoms of proximal initiation sequence (1.09±1.35 cm) was significant (PROM was significant (P<0.05) for distal initiation (7.55±4.51 degrees) when compared to proximal initiation (4.96±3.76 degrees). These normal responses may be used as a reference when using the Thoracic ST as an assessment technique.

  11. Shoulder-Rotator Strength, Range of Motion, and Acromiohumeral Distance in Asymptomatic Adolescent Volleyball Attackers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harput, Gulcan; Guney, Hande; Toprak, Ugur; Kaya, Tunca; Colakoglu, Fatma Filiz; Baltaci, Gul

    2016-09-01

    Sport-specific adaptations at the glenohumeral joint could occur in adolescent athletes because they start participating in high-performance sports in early childhood. To investigate shoulder-rotator strength, internal-rotation (IR) and external-rotation (ER) range of motion (ROM), and acromiohumeral distance (AHD) in asymptomatic adolescent volleyball attackers to determine if they have risk factors for injury. Cross-sectional study. University laboratory. Thirty-nine adolescent high school-aged volleyball attackers (22 boys, 17 girls; age = 16.0 ± 1.4 years, height = 179.2 ± 9.0 cm, mass = 67.1 ± 10.9 kg, body mass index = 20.7 ± 2.6 kg/m2). Shoulder IR and ER ROM, total-rotation ROM, glenohumeral IR deficit, AHD, and concentric and eccentric strength of the shoulder internal and external rotators were tested bilaterally. External-rotation ROM was greater (t38 = 4.92, P 18°). We observed greater concentric internal-rotator (t38 = 2.89, P = .006) and eccentric external-rotator (t38 = 2.65, P = .01) strength in the dominant than in the nondominant shoulder. The AHD was less in the dominant shoulder (t38 = -3.60, P volleyball attackers demonstrated decreased IR ROM, total ROM, and AHD and increased ER ROM in their dominant shoulder. Therefore, routine screening of adolescent athletes and designing training programs for hazardous adaptive changes could be important in preventing shoulder injuries.

  12. Relationship between active cervical range of motion and flexion-relaxation ratio in asymptomatic computer workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Won-Gyu; Park, Se-Yeon; Lee, Mi-Ra

    2011-01-01

    A high prevalence and incidence of neck and shoulder pain is present in the working population, especially sedentary workers. Recent findings have indicated that the flexion-relaxation (FR) ratio in the cervical erector spinae (CES) muscles might be a significant criteria of neuromuscular impairment and function. Additionally, the active cervical range of motion (ROM) is frequently used for discriminating between individuals with pain and those who are asymptomatic. The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between the active cervical ROM and the FR ratio in a sample of regular visual display terminal (VDT) workers. In total, 20 asymptomatic male VDT workers were recruited. Active cervical ROM was measured by a cervical ROM (CROM) instrument. Surface electromyography (EMG) was used to collect myoelectrical signals from the CES muscles, and the FR ratio was calculated for statistical analysis. Pearson correlation coefficients were used to quantify the linear relationship between the active cervical ROM and the FR ratio. The values obtained for the FR ratio in the right CES muscles correlated significantly with the active cervical ROM measured in flexion (r=0.73, pflexion (r=0.64, pFlexion (r=0.74, pflexion (r=0.61, pflexion and lateral flexion. In addition, muscular dysfunction of the CES could occur in regular computer workers prior to occurrence of pain; this means that the FR ratio could be used to evaluate the potential risk of neck discomfort in computer workers.

  13. Correlations Among Foot Arching, Ankle Dorsiflexion Range of Motion, and Obesity Level in Primary School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowicz-Szymanska, Agnieszka; Mikolajczyk, Edyta; Wodka, Katarzyna

    2017-03-01

    This study sought to assess the prevalence of flat feet in primary school children and to find correlations among arch height, ankle dorsiflexion range of motion (ROM), and obesity level. The 400 children aged 10 to 12 years who took part in the study had their body height, weight, and fat percentage measured. Based on these measurements, body mass index was calculated and weight status was categorized for all of the participants. The height of the longitudinal arch of the foot was measured on a computerized podoscope and given in Clarke's angles. Dorsiflexion ROM was assessed with the child in the nonweightbearing sitting position with the knees 90° flexed. The arithmetic mean and standard deviation were implemented to analyze the data. Intergroup differences were assessed by Mann-Whitney U, Kruskal-Wallis, and post hoc Tukey tests. Significance was accepted at P = .05. Flat feet were found in 36% of participants; limited ROM was found in both feet in 25% of participants and in one foot in 12%. No significant differences in dorsiflexion ROM in children with high-arched, normal, and flat feet were revealed. Excessive body weight was disclosed in 21% of participants. Overweight and obese children had significantly lower foot arches and notably smaller ankle dorsiflexion ROM than those with normal weight. Ankle dorsiflexion ROM is similar in children with high-arched, normal, and flat feet. However, limited dorsiflexion ROM is more often found in children with excessive weight.

  14. Ankle dorsiflexion range of motion influences dynamic balance in individuals with chronic ankle instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basnett, Curtis R; Hanish, Michael J; Wheeler, Todd J; Miriovsky, Daniel J; Danielson, Erin L; Barr, J B; Grindstaff, Terry L

    2013-04-01

    PURPOSEBACKGROUND: Individuals with chronic ankle instability (CAI) often have impairments in ankle range of motion (ROM) and balance. There is limited evidence that these impairments are related in individuals with CAI. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between ankle dorsiflexion ROM and dynamic balance in individuals with CAI. Forty-five participants (age=23.2±2.8 y, height=172.1±10.8 cm, mass=70.6±13.3 kg, Foot and Ankle Ability Measure Sport= 71.2±11.7, Modified Ankle Instability Instrument= 6.4±1.3) volunteered for this study. Ankle dorsiflexion ROM was measured in a weight-bearing position while dynamic balance was measured using the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) in the anterior, posteromedial, and posterolateral directions. Linear regression was used to determine the relationship between ankle dorsiflexion ROM and measures of dynamic balance. There were fair positive correlations between dorsiflexion ROM and the anterior reach direction (r = .55, r(2) = .31, P dorsiflexion and the posteromedial reach direction (r = .01, r(2) = .001, P = .47). Ankle dorsiflexion ROM can influence dynamic balance, specifically the anterior reach portion of the SEBT. Individuals with CAI who demonstrate impairments in dorsiflexion ROM may also demonstrate difficulty with portions of the SEBT. Clinicians may use this information to better optimize rehabilitation programs that address ankle dorsiflexion ROM and dynamic balance. 5.

  15. Ankle-Dorsiflexion Range of Motion After Ankle Self-Stretching Using a Strap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, In-cheol; Kwon, Oh-yun; Yi, Chung-Hwi; Cynn, Heon-Seock; Hwang, Ui-jae

    2015-12-01

    A variety of ankle self-stretching exercises have been recommended to improve ankle-dorsiflexion range of motion (DFROM) in individuals with limited ankle dorsiflexion. A strap can be applied to stabilize the talus and facilitate anterior glide of the distal tibia at the talocrural joint during ankle self-stretching exercises. Novel ankle self-stretching using a strap (SSS) may be a useful method of improving ankle DFROM. To compare the effects of 2 ankle-stretching techniques (static stretching versus SSS) on ankle DFROM. Randomized controlled clinical trial. University research laboratory. Thirty-two participants with limited active dorsiflexion (<20°) while sitting (14 women and 18 men) were recruited. The participants performed 2 ankle self-stretching techniques (static stretching and SSS) for 3 weeks. Active DFROM (ADFROM), passive DFROM (PDFROM), and the lunge angle were measured. An independent t test was used to compare the improvements in these values before and after the 2 stretching interventions. The level of statistical significance was set at α = .05. Active DFROM and PDFROM were greater in both stretching groups after the 3-week interventions. However, ADFROM, PDFROM, and the lunge angle were greater in the SSS group than in the static-stretching group (P < .05). Ankle SSS is recommended to improve ADFROM, PDFROM, and the lunge angle in individuals with limited DFROM.

  16. Limitations in Ankle Dorsiflexion Range of Motion, Gait, and Walking Efficiency in Childhood Cancer Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beulertz, Julia; Bloch, Wilhelm; Prokop, Aram; Rustler, Vanessa; Fitzen, Christina; Herich, Lena; Streckmann, Fiona; Baumann, Freerk T

    2016-01-01

    Improvements in survival rates in pediatric oncology have resulted in a growing need to identify adverse effects and improve rehabilitation in this population. This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate active ankle dorsiflexion (DF) range of motion (ROM), gait, walking efficiency, and motor performance in a mixed childhood cancer survivor population in comparison to healthy peers. Active ankle DF-ROM (goniometer), gait (Microgate Optogait 2D Gait Analysis), walking efficiency (6-minute walk test), and motor performance (German Motor Test 6-18) were assessed in a mixed childhood cancer survivor population after cessation of medical treatment (n = 13) in comparison to healthy children matched for age and gender (n = 13). Active ankle DF-ROM, gait (stance, swing, and preswing phase), and walking efficiency were significantly impaired in survivors compared with control subjects. No significant difference between groups was found in motor performance. Despite sufficient total motor performance levels, specific limitations in physical functioning were identified in a mixed childhood cancer survivor sample. This highlights the importance of the present findings. The results from this study highlight the potential significance of limited ankle DF function, inhibited gait, and reduced walking efficiency as adverse effects of various types of childhood cancer. It is hoped this enhanced recognition by pediatric cancer patients, parents, and exercise professionals will initiate specific supportive strategies and potentially prevent further limitations.

  17. Subtalar joint position during gastrocnemius stretching and ankle dorsiflexion range of motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johanson, Marie; Baer, Jennifer; Hovermale, Holley; Phouthavong, Phouvy

    2008-01-01

    Gastrocnemius stretching exercises often are prescribed as part of the treatment program for patients with overuse injuries associated with limited ankle dorsiflexion. However, little is known about how the position of the subtalar joint during gastrocnemius stretching affects ankle dorsiflexion range of motion (ROM). To determine the effect of subtalar joint position during gastrocnemius stretching on ankle dorsiflexion ROM. This study was a 3-way mixed-model design. The 3 factors were subtalar joint position (supinated, pronated), lower extremity (experimental, control), and time (pretest, posttest). Lower extremity and time were the repeated measures. University research laboratory. Thirty-three healthy volunteers (29 women, 4 men). Participants performed a gastrocnemius stretching exercise 2 times daily for 3 weeks with the subtalar joint of the randomly assigned experimental side (dominant or nondominant) in the randomly assigned position (supination or pronation). The contralateral lower extremity served as the control. Before and after the 3-week gastrocnemius stretching program, we used goniometers to measure ankle dorsiflexion ROM in weight-bearing and non-weight-bearing positions with the subtalar joint positioned in anatomic 0 degrees . Ankle dorsiflexion ROM measured in weight-bearing and non-weight-bearing positions increased after the gastrocnemius stretching program (P = .034 and .003, respectively), but the increase in ROM did not differ based on subtalar joint position (P = .775 and .831, respectively). Subtalar joint position did not appear to influence gains in ankle dorsiflexion ROM after a gastrocnemius stretching program in healthy volunteers.

  18. Acute changes in passive stiffness and range of motion post-stretching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whatman, Chris; Knappstein, Alice; Hume, Patria

    2006-11-01

    To investigate the change in passive hamstring stiffness and knee joint range of motion (ROM) following a single bout of passive hamstring stretching with or without active movement post-stretch. A Kincom dynamometer was used to measure knee joint ROM and passive stiffness in nine participants. Each participant completed three conditions: (1) a baseline test of knee extension ROM and passive stiffness, 4×20 second static stretches of the hamstring muscles and repeat testing immediately post-stretch and at 5min intervals for 20min; (2) the same procedure with the addition of 90s of isotonic knee flexion and extension between tests over the 20min post-stretching period; (3) the control condition involving repeat tests only over 20min. Knee joint ROM increased by 4-5° post-stretch in both intervention conditions, relative to the control condition, but there was no clear evidence of the ROM increase lasting longer than 5min. Both intervention conditions showed a small decrease in passive stiffness post-stretch and it is likely this effect lasted for at least 20min. An isolated bout of stretching produced a small, short-lived change in ROM and stiffness. This has implications for the design of warm-up protocols. Copyright © 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of cessation and resumption of static hamstring muscle stretching on joint range of motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willy, R W; Kyle, B A; Moore, S A; Chleboun, G S

    2001-03-01

    Single group repeated measures. To determine the effects of cessation and resumption of a hamstring muscle stretching protocol on knee range of motion (ROM). It is generally accepted that stretching exercises result in an increase in ROM. The ability to maintain ROM once stretching has ceased and the ability to regain ROM after resumption of the stretching exercise is not well-known. Evaluated the effect of 6 weeks of static hamstring stretching, 4 weeks with cessation from stretching, and 6 weeks with resumption of stretching on knee ROM in 18 inactive college students (12 men, 6 women, mean age 21.0 years). The hamstring stretching consisted of 2 30-second stretches per day, 5 days per week. Knee ROM was measured before and after each of the above phases with an active knee extension test. Mean knee ROM increased after the initial stretching period (143+/-11 to 152+/-9 degrees), decreased to baseline following the cessation period (145+/-8 degrees) and again increased following the resumption of stretching but was not different from the initial gains (154+/-10 degrees). Unlike the stretch limb, the control limb ROM did not change over the 4 measurement times. There was no retention of knee ROM 4 weeks following a 6-week stretching protocol and a subsequent stretching period did not enhance the gain of knee ROM over the initial stretching period.

  20. Effect of stretching duration on active and passive range of motion in the lower extremity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, J M; Wilson, K

    1999-08-01

    To investigate the effect of different durations of stretching (five or 15 seconds) on active and passive range of motion (ROM) in the lower extremity during a five week flexibility training programme. Twenty four university sport club members (19 men, five women), with a mean (SD) age of 20.5 (1.35) years, were randomly assigned to one of three groups (two treatment and one control). The two treatment groups participated in a static active stretching programme three times a week for a five week period, holding each stretch for a duration of either five or 15 seconds. The total amount of time spent in a stretched position was controlled. The five second group performed each stretch nine times and the 15 second group three times resulting in a total stretching time of 45 seconds for both groups for each exercise. The control group did not stretch. Active and passive ROM were determined during left hip flexion, left knee flexion, and left knee extension before and after the training programme using an inclinometer. Two factor within subject analysis of variance indicated no significant difference in ROM before and after the training programme for the control group. However, significant improvements in active and passive ROM (p active (p active ROM, with the 15 second group showing significantly greater improvements (p stretches for 15 seconds, as opposed to five seconds, may result in greater improvements in active ROM. However, sustaining a stretch may not significantly affect the improvements gained in passive ROM.

  1. A comparison of two warm-ups on joint range of motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beedle, Barry B; Mann, Christie L

    2007-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare a 5-minute treadmill activity at 70% maximum heart rate (MHR) and 5 to 6 minutes of ballistic stretching to a 5-minute treadmill activity at 60% of MHR and 5 to 6 minutes of static stretching. Thirty healthy college students, 7 men and 23 women, volunteered. Most volunteers were moderately active. All participants signed an informed consent. Participants received the aforementioned warm-ups in random order with 48 to 72 hours between warm-ups. The stretching exercises were a back stretch, a quadriceps stretch, and a hamstring stretch. Three trials for 30 seconds each were given. After each warm-up the participants performed the modified-modified Schober test for low back flexibility, active knee extension test for hamstring flexibility, and plantar flexion for ankle flexibility. There were no significant differences on any of the 3 range of motion (ROM) tests although the ankle ROM test was almost significantly greater (68.8 degrees ) after the warm-up with static stretching compared with 65.9 degrees after the warm-up with ballistic stretching. A more intense cardiovascular activity and ballistic stretching were similar to a less intense cardiovascular activity and static stretching on flexibility. If athletes perform a warm-up and static or ballistic stretching before their workouts, then they should continue to perform the warm-up and the stretching routine with which they are most familiar and comfortable.

  2. Cognitive symptoms, cervical range of motion and pain as prognostic factors after whiplash trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borenstein, P; Rosenfeld, M; Gunnarsson, R

    2010-10-01

    To evaluate pain, cervical range of motion (CROM) and cognitive symptoms as predictors for poor prognosis defined as sick leave 3 years later. In 97 patients CROM, pain intensity and cognitive symptoms were measured immediately following trauma, at 6 months and 3 years. Patients were also asked at 3 years if they had been on sick leave the last 6 months. Pain intensity and reduced CROM were not clinically useful as predictors of later sick leave. The best predictors were presence within 96 h after injury of the two cognitive symptoms 'being easily distracted' (odds ratio 8.7-50) and 'easily irritated' (odds ratio 5.3-31). Initial pain and reduced CROM may be related to minor tissue damage which often heals while late functionality is more dependent on other factors such as cognitive dysfunction. For patients with whiplash-associated disorders two simple questions should be asked; 'Are you currently easily irritated?' and 'Are you currently easily distracted (e.g. is it difficult for you to follow a conversation if several people are talking in the room at the same time)?'. An affirmative answer to any of these questions indicates an increased risk for poor prognosis defined as sic