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Sample records for range gamma detector

  1. A transportable source of gamma rays with discrete energies and wide range for calibration and on-site testing of gamma-ray detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granja, Carlos, E-mail: carlos.granja@utef.cvut.cz [Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics, Czech Technical University in Prague, Horska 3a/22, 12800 Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Slavicek, Tomas; Kroupa, Martin [Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics, Czech Technical University in Prague, Horska 3a/22, 12800 Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Owens, Alan [European Space Technology Centre ESTEC, European Space Agency ESA, Keplerlaan 1, 2200AG Noordwijk (Netherlands); Pospisil, Stanislav; Janout, Zdenek [Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics, Czech Technical University in Prague, Horska 3a/22, 12800 Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Kralik, Miloslav; Solc, Jaroslav [Czech Metrology Institute, Radiova 3, 102 00 Prague 10 (Czech Republic); Valach, Ondrej [Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics, Czech Technical University in Prague, Horska 3a/22, 12800 Prague 2 (Czech Republic)

    2015-01-21

    We describe a compact and transportable wide energy range, gamma-ray station for the calibration of gamma-ray sensitive devices. The station was specifically designed for the on-site testing and calibration of gamma-ray sensitive spacecraft payloads, intended for space flight on the BepiColombo and SoIar Orbiter missions of the European Space Agency. The source is intended to serve as a calibrated reference for post test center qualification of integrated payload instruments and for preflight evaluation of scientific radiation sensors. Discrete gamma rays in the energy range 100 keV–9 MeV are produced in the station with reasonable intensity using a radionuclide neutron source and 100 l of distilled water with 22 kg salt dissolved. The gamma-rays generated contain many discrete lines conveniently evenly distributed over the entire energy range. The neutron and gamma-ray fields have been simulated by Monte Carlo calculations. Results of the numerical calculations are given in the form of neutron and gamma-ray spectra as well as dose equivalent rate. The dose rate was also determined directly by dedicated dosemetric measurements. The gamma-ray field produced in the station was characterized using a conventional HPGe detector. The application of the station is demonstrated by measurements taken with a flight-qualified LaBr{sub 3}:Ce scintillation detector. Gamma-ray spectra acquired by both detectors are presented. The minimum measuring times for calibration of the flight-version detector, was between 2 and 10 min (up to 6.2 MeV) and 20–30 min (up to 8 MeV), when the detector was placed at a distance 2–5 m from the station. - Highlights: • Transportable station of mono-energetic gamma rays has been built. • Produced neutron and gamma ray field simulated by Monte Carlo calculations. • Discrete gamma rays produced in wide energy range up to 9 MeV. • Produced gamma ray spectra measured by HPGe and scintillating LaBr{sub 3}Ce detectors. • Demonstration of

  2. A transportable source of gamma rays with discrete energies and wide range for calibration and on-site testing of gamma-ray detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granja, Carlos; Slavicek, Tomas; Kroupa, Martin; Owens, Alan; Pospisil, Stanislav; Janout, Zdenek; Kralik, Miloslav; Solc, Jaroslav; Valach, Ondrej

    2015-01-01

    We describe a compact and transportable wide energy range, gamma-ray station for the calibration of gamma-ray sensitive devices. The station was specifically designed for the on-site testing and calibration of gamma-ray sensitive spacecraft payloads, intended for space flight on the BepiColombo and SoIar Orbiter missions of the European Space Agency. The source is intended to serve as a calibrated reference for post test center qualification of integrated payload instruments and for preflight evaluation of scientific radiation sensors. Discrete gamma rays in the energy range 100 keV-9 MeV are produced in the station with reasonable intensity using a radionuclide neutron source and 100 l of distilled water with 22 kg salt dissolved. The gamma-rays generated contain many discrete lines conveniently evenly distributed over the entire energy range. The neutron and gamma-ray fields have been simulated by Monte Carlo calculations. Results of the numerical calculations are given in the form of neutron and gamma-ray spectra as well as dose equivalent rate. The dose rate was also determined directly by dedicated dosemetric measurements. The gamma-ray field produced in the station was characterized using a conventional HPGe detector. The application of the station is demonstrated by measurements taken with a flight-qualified LaBr3:Ce scintillation detector. Gamma-ray spectra acquired by both detectors are presented. The minimum measuring times for calibration of the flight-version detector, was between 2 and 10 min (up to 6.2 MeV) and 20-30 min (up to 8 MeV), when the detector was placed at a distance 2-5 m from the station.

  3. Directional gamma detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeVert, Francis E.; Cox, Samson A.

    1981-01-01

    An improved directional gamma radiation detector has a collector sandwiched etween two layers of insulation of varying thicknesses. The collector and insulation layers are contained within an evacuated casing, or emitter, which releases electrons upon exposure to gamma radiation. Delayed electrons and electrons entering the collector at oblique angles are attenuated as they pass through the insulation layers on route to the collector.

  4. Curves for the response of a Ge(Li) detector to gamma rays in the energy range up to 11 MeV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kopecký, J.; Ratyński, W.; Warming, Inge Elisabeth

    1967-01-01

    The response function of a Ge(Li) coaxial detector with a sensitive volume of 17 cm3 for gamma rays of energies ranging from 2.23 to 10.83 MeV has been determined. The measurements were carried out with an experimental set-up using the neutron beam from the DR 3 reactor ar Risö and the (n, γ......) reaction as gamma-ray source. The important features of the spectra are discussed, and the double-escape peak efficiency is determined....

  5. Directional detector of gamma rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Samson A.; Levert, Francis E.

    1979-01-01

    A directional detector of gamma rays comprises a strip of an electrical cuctor of high atomic number backed with a strip of a second electrical conductor of low atomic number. These elements are enclosed within an electrical conductor that establishes an electrical ground, maintains a vacuum enclosure and screens out low-energy gamma rays. The detector exhibits a directional sensitivity marked by an increased output in the favored direction by a factor of ten over the output in the unfavored direction.

  6. Gamma ray detector modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capote, M. Albert (Inventor); Lenos, Howard A. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A radiation detector assembly has a semiconductor detector array substrate of CdZnTe or CdTe, having a plurality of detector cell pads on a first surface thereof, the pads having a contact metallization and a solder barrier metallization. An interposer card has planar dimensions no larger than planar dimensions of the semiconductor detector array substrate, a plurality of interconnect pads on a first surface thereof, at least one readout semiconductor chip and at least one connector on a second surface thereof, each having planar dimensions no larger than the planar dimensions of the interposer card. Solder columns extend from contacts on the interposer first surface to the plurality of pads on the semiconductor detector array substrate first surface, the solder columns having at least one solder having a melting point or liquidus less than 120 degrees C. An encapsulant is disposed between the interposer circuit card first surface and the semiconductor detector array substrate first surface, encapsulating the solder columns, the encapsulant curing at a temperature no greater than 120 degrees C.

  7. Development and performance of a gamma-ray imaging detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gálvez, J. L.; Hernanz, M.; Álvarez, J. M.; La Torre, M.; Álvarez, L.; Karelin, D.; Lozano, M.; Pellegrini, G.; Ullán, M.; Cabruja, E.; Martínez, R.; Chmeissani, M.; Puigdengoles, C.

    2012-09-01

    In the last few years we have been working on feasibility studies of future instruments in the gamma-ray range, from several keV up to a few MeV. The innovative concept of focusing gamma-ray telescopes in this energy range, should allow reaching unprecedented sensitivities and angular resolution, thanks to the decoupling of collecting area and detector volume. High sensitivities are essential to perform detailed studies of cosmic explosions and cosmic accelerators, e.g., Supernovae, Classical Novae, Supernova Remnants (SNRs), Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs), Pulsars, Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN). In order to achieve the needed performance, a gamma-ray imaging detector with mm spatial resolution and large enough efficiency is required. In order to fulfill the combined requirement of high detection efficiency with good spatial and energy resolution, an initial prototype of a gamma-ray imaging detector based on CdTe pixel detectors is being developed. It consists of a stack of several layers of CdTe detectors with increasing thickness, in order to enhance the gamma-ray absorption in the Compton regime. A CdTe module detector lies in a 11 x 11 pixel detector with a pixel pitch of 1mm attached to the readout chip. Each pixel is bump bonded to a fan-out board made of alumina (Al2O3) substrate and routed to the corresponding input channel of the readout ASIC to measure pixel position and pulse height for each incident gamma-ray photon. We will report the main features of the gamma-ray imaging detector performance such as the energy resolution for a set of radiation sources at different operating temperatures.

  8. New detectors of neutron, gamma- and X-radiations

    CERN Document Server

    Lobanov, N S

    2002-01-01

    Paper presents new detectors to record absorbed doses of neutron, gamma- and X-ray radiations within 0-1500 Mrad range. DBF dosimeter is based on dibutyl phthalate. EDS dosimeter is based on epoxy (epoxide) resin, while SD 5-40 detector is based on a mixture of dibutyl phthalate and epoxy resin. Paper describes experimental techniques to calibrate and interprets the measurement results of absorbed doses for all detectors. All three detectors cover 0-30000 Mrad measured does range. The accuracy of measurements is +- 10% independent (practically) of irradiation dose rates within 20-2000 rad/s limits under 20-80 deg C temperature

  9. Mobile robot prototype detector of gamma radiation; Prototipo de robot movil detector de radiacion gamma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazquez C, R.M. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Duran V, M. D.; Jardon M, C. I., E-mail: raulmario.vazquez@inin.gob.mx [Tecnologico de Estudios Superiores de Villa Guerrero, Carretera Federal Toluca-Ixtapan de la Sal Km. 64.5, La Finca Villa Guerrero, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2014-10-15

    In this paper the technological development of a mobile robot prototype detector of gamma radiation is shown. This prototype has been developed for the purpose of algorithms implementation for the applications of terrestrial radiation monitoring of exposed sources, search for missing radioactive sources, identification and delineation of radioactive contamination areas and distribution maps generating of radioactive exposure. Mobile robot detector of radiation is an experimental technology development platform to operate in laboratory environment or flat floor facilities. The prototype integrates a driving section of differential configuration robot on wheels, a support mechanism and rotation of shielded detector, actuator controller cards, acquisition and processing of sensor data, detection algorithms programming and control actuators, data recording (Data Logger) and data transmission in wireless way. The robot in this first phase is remotely operated in wireless way with a range of approximately 150 m line of sight and can extend that range to 300 m or more with the use of signal repeaters. The gamma radiation detection is performed using a Geiger detector shielded. Scan detection is performed at various time sampling periods and diverse positions of discrete or continuous angular orientation on the horizon. The captured data are geographical coordinates of robot GPS (latitude and longitude), orientation angle of shield, counting by sampling time, date, hours, minutes and seconds. The data is saved in a file in the Micro Sd memory on the robot. They are also sent in wireless way by an X Bee card to a remote station that receives for their online monitoring on a laptop through an acquisition program by serial port on Mat Lab. Additionally a voice synthesizing card with a horn, both in the robot, periodically pronounced in Spanish, data length, latitude, orientation angle of shield and detected accounts. (Author)

  10. X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Radiation Detector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    Disclosed is a semiconductor radiation detector for detecting X-ray and / or gamma-ray radiation. The detector comprises a converter element for converting incident X-ray and gamma-ray photons into electron-hole pairs, at least one cathode, a plurality of detector electrodes arranged with a pitch...

  11. [sup 3]He neutron detector performance in mixed neutron gamma environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, N. H. (Nathan H.); Beddingfield, D. H. (David H.)

    2002-01-01

    A test program of the performance of 3He neutron proportional detectors with varying gas pressures, and their response to lligh level gamma-ray exposure in a mixed neutrodgamma environment, ha$ been performed Our intent was to identie the optimal gas pressure to reduce the gamma-ray sensitivity of these detectors. These detectors were manufxtured using materials to minimize their gamma response. Earlier work focused on 3He fill pressures of four atmospheres and above, whereas the present work focuses on a wider range of pressures. Tests have shown that reducing the .filling pressure will M e r increase the gamma-ray dose range in which the detectors can be operated.

  12. Measurement of {\\eta} meson production in {\\gamma}{\\gamma} interactions and {\\Gamma}({\\eta}-->{\\gamma}{\\gamma}) with the KLOE detector

    CERN Document Server

    :,; Badoni, D; Balwierz-Pytko, I; Bencivenni, G; Bini, C; Bloise, C; Bossi, F; Branchini, P; Budano, A; Balkestaahl, L Caldeira; Capon, G; Ceradini, F; Ciambrone, P; Czerwinski, E; Dane, E; De Lucia, E; De Robertis, G; De Santis, A; Di Domenico, A; Di Donato, C; Di Salvo, R; Domenici, D; Erriquez, O; Fanizzi, G; Fantini, A; Felici, G; Fiore, S; Franzini, P; Gauzzi, P; Giardina, G; Giovannella, S; Gonnella, F; Graziani, E; Happacher, F; Heijkenskj, L; Hoistad, B; Iafolla, L; Jacewicz, M; Johansson, T; Kupsc, A; Lee-Franzini, J; Leverington, B; Loddo, F; Loffredo, S; Mandaglio, G; Martemianov, M; Martini, M; Mascolo, M; Messi, R; Miscetti, S; Morello, G; Moricciani, D; Moskal, P; Nguyen, F; Passeri, A; Patera, V; Longhi, I Prado; Ranieri, A; Redmer, C F; Santangelo, P; Sarra, I; Schioppa, M; Sciascia, B; Silarski, M; Taccini, C; Tortora, L; Venanzoni, G; Wislicki, W; Wolke, M; Zdebik, J

    2012-01-01

    We present a measurement of {\\eta} meson production in photon-photon interactions produced by electron-positron beams colliding with \\sqrt{s}=1 GeV. The measurement is done with the KLOE detector at the \\phi-factory DA{\\Phi}NE with an integrated luminosity of 0.24 fb^{-1}. The e^+e^- --> e^+e^-{\\eta} cross section is measured without detecting the outgoing electron and positron, selecting the decays {\\eta}-->{\\pi}^+{\\pi}^-{\\pi}^0 and {\\eta}-->{\\pi}^0{\\pi}^0{\\pi}^0. The most relevant background is due to e^+e^- --> {\\eta}{\\gamma} when the monochromatic photon escapes detection. The cross section for this process is measured as {\\sigma}(e^+e^- -->{\\eta}{\\gamma}) = (856 \\pm 8_{stat} \\pm 16_{syst}) pb. The combined result for the e^+e^- -->e^+e^-{\\eta} cross section is {\\sigma}(e^+e^- -->e^+e^-{\\eta}) = (32.72 \\pm 1.27_{stat} \\pm 0.70_{syst}) pb. From this we derive the partial width {\\Gamma}({\\eta}-->{\\gamma}{\\gamma}) = (520 \\pm 20_{stat} \\pm 13_{syst}) eV. This is in agreement with the world average and is the ...

  13. Neutron counting and gamma spectroscopy with PVT detectors.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Dean James; Brusseau, Charles A.

    2011-06-01

    Radiation portals normally incorporate a dedicated neutron counter and a gamma-ray detector with at least some spectroscopic capability. This paper describes the design and presents characterization data for a detection system called PVT-NG, which uses large polyvinyl toluene (PVT) detectors to monitor both types of radiation. The detector material is surrounded by polyvinyl chloride (PVC), which emits high-energy gamma rays following neutron capture reactions. Assessments based on high-energy gamma rays are well suited for the detection of neutron sources, particularly in border security applications, because few isotopes in the normal stream of commerce have significant gamma ray yields above 3 MeV. Therefore, an increased count rate for high-energy gamma rays is a strong indicator for the presence of a neutron source. The sensitivity of the PVT-NG sensor to bare {sup 252}Cf is 1.9 counts per second per nanogram (cps/ng) and the sensitivity for {sup 252}Cf surrounded by 2.5 cm of polyethylene is 2.3 cps/ng. The PVT-NG sensor is a proof-of-principal sensor that was not fully optimized. The neutron detector sensitivity could be improved, for instance, by using additional moderator. The PVT-NG detectors and associated electronics are designed to provide improved resolution, gain stability, and performance at high-count rates relative to PVT detectors in typical radiation portals. As well as addressing the needs for neutron detection, these characteristics are also desirable for analysis of the gamma-ray spectra. Accurate isotope identification results were obtained despite the common impression that the absence of photopeaks makes data collected by PVT detectors unsuitable for spectroscopic analysis. The PVT detectors in the PVT-NG unit are used for both gamma-ray and neutron detection, so the sensitive volume exceeds the volume of the detection elements in portals that use dedicated components to detect each type of radiation.

  14. Gamma-ray imaging with position-sensitive HPGe detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vetter, K. E-mail: kvetter@lbl.gov; Burks, M.; Mihailescu, L

    2004-06-01

    Due to advances in manufacturing large and highly segmented HPGe detectors along with the availability of fast and high-precision digital electronics, it is now possible to build efficient and high-resolution Compton cameras. Two-dimensionally segmented semi-conductor detectors along with pulse-shape analysis allow to obtain three-dimensional positions and energies of individual gamma-ray interactions. By employing gamma-ray tracking procedures it is possible to determine the scattering sequence in the detector and ultimately to deduce the incident direction of gamma rays without the use of a attenuating collimator. These advanced gamma-ray tracking-based Compton cameras are able not only to image gamma-ray sources with higher sensitivity than collimator-based systems but can increase the sensitivity in finding gamma-ray sources over non-imaging detectors, particularly in complex radiation fields. We have implemented a Compton camera built of a single double-sided strip HPGe detector with a strip pitch size of 2 mm. A three-dimensional position resolution of 0.5 mm at 122 keV by using simple pulse-shape analysis is achieved. We have implemented image reconstruction procedures for search scenarios, which are of interest for national security applications. In addition, we have developed reconstruction procedures to optimize image quality which potentially finds applications in other areas as well.

  15. Numerical simulations on efficiency and measurement of capabilities of BGO detectors for high energy gamma ray

    CERN Document Server

    Wen Wan Xin

    2002-01-01

    The energy resolution and time resolution of two phi 75 x 100 BGO detectors for high energy gamma ray newly made were measured with sup 1 sup 3 sup 7 Cs and sup 6 sup 0 Co resources. The two characteristic gamma rays of high energy emitted from the thermal neutron capture of germanium in BGO crystal were used for the energy calibration of gamma spectra. The intrinsic photopeak efficiency, single escape probability and double escape probabilities of BGO detectors in photon energy range of 4-30 MeV are numerically calculated with GEANT code. The real count response and count ratio of the uniformly distributed incident photons in energy range of 0-30 MeV are also calculated. The distortion of gamma spectra caused by the photon energy loss extension to lower energy in detection medium is discussed

  16. Gamma ray polarimetry using a position sensitive germanium detector

    CERN Document Server

    Kroeger, R A; Kurfess, J D; Phlips, B F

    1999-01-01

    Imaging gamma-ray detectors make sensitive polarimeters in the Compton energy regime by measuring the scatter direction of gamma rays. The principle is to capitalize on the angular dependence of the Compton scattering cross section to polarized gamma rays and measure the distribution of scatter directions within the detector. This technique is effective in a double-sided germanium detector between roughly 50 keV and 1 MeV. This paper reviews device characteristics important to the optimization of a Compton polarimeter, and summarizes measurements we have made using a device with a 5x5 cm active area, 1 cm thickness, and strip-electrodes on a 2 mm pitch.

  17. Energy- and time-resolved detection of prompt gamma-rays for proton range verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verburg, Joost M; Riley, Kent; Bortfeld, Thomas; Seco, Joao

    2013-10-21

    In this work, we present experimental results of a novel prompt gamma-ray detector for proton beam range verification. The detection system features an actively shielded cerium-doped lanthanum(III) bromide scintillator, coupled to a digital data acquisition system. The acquisition was synchronized to the cyclotron radio frequency to separate the prompt gamma-ray signals from the later-arriving neutron-induced background. We designed the detector to provide a high energy resolution and an effective reduction of background events, enabling discrete proton-induced prompt gamma lines to be resolved. Measuring discrete prompt gamma lines has several benefits for range verification. As the discrete energies correspond to specific nuclear transitions, the magnitudes of the different gamma lines have unique correlations with the proton energy and can be directly related to nuclear reaction cross sections. The quantification of discrete gamma lines also enables elemental analysis of tissue in the beam path, providing a better prediction of prompt gamma-ray yields. We present the results of experiments in which a water phantom was irradiated with proton pencil-beams in a clinical proton therapy gantry. A slit collimator was used to collimate the prompt gamma-rays, and measurements were performed at 27 positions along the path of proton beams with ranges of 9, 16 and 23 g cm(-2) in water. The magnitudes of discrete gamma lines at 4.44, 5.2 and 6.13 MeV were quantified. The prompt gamma lines were found to be clearly resolved in dimensions of energy and time, and had a reproducible correlation with the proton depth-dose curve. We conclude that the measurement of discrete prompt gamma-rays for in vivo range verification of clinical proton beams is feasible, and plan to further study methods and detector designs for clinical use.

  18. Zinc oxide nanowire gamma ray detector with high spatiotemporal resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, Daniel C.; Nolen, J. Ryan; Cook, Andrew; Mu, Richard R.; Haglund, Richard F.

    2016-03-01

    Conventional scintillation detectors are typically single crystals of heavy-metal oxides or halides doped with rare-earth ions that record the recombination of electron-hole pairs by photon emission in the visible to ultraviolet. However, the light yields are typically low enough to require photomultiplier detection with the attendant instrumental complications. Here we report initial studies of gamma ray detection by zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires, grown by vapor-solid deposition. The nanowires grow along the c-axis in a wurtzite structure; they are typically 80 nm in diameter and have lengths of 1- 2 μm. The nanowires are single crystals of high quality, with a photoluminescence (PL) yield from band-edge exciton emission in the ultraviolet that is typically one hundred times larger than the PL yield from defect centers in the visible. Nanowire ensembles were irradiated by 662 keV gamma rays from a Cs-137 source for periods of up to ten hours; gamma rays in this energy range interact by Compton scattering, which in ZnO creates F+ centers that relax to form singly-charged positive oxygen vacancies. Following irradiation, we fit the PL spectra of the visible emission with a sum of Gaussians at the energies of the known defects. We find highly efficient PL from the irradiated area, with a figure of merit approaching 106 photons/s/MeV of deposited energy. Over a period of days, the singly charged O+ vacancies relax to the more stable doubly charged O++ vacancies. However, the overall defect PL returns to pre-irradiation values after about a week, as the vacancies diffuse to the surface of these very thin nanowires, indicating that a self-healing process restores the nanowires to their original state.

  19. Acceptance test report for the 241-SY-101 Flexible Receiver Gamma Detector System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowell, J.L.

    1995-02-17

    This Acceptance Test Report is for the 241-SY-101 Flexible Receiver Gamma Detector System. This test verified that the data logger and data converter for the gamma detector system functions as intended.

  20. Detector calibration for in-situ gamma ray spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    Balea, G

    2002-01-01

    The power in the technique of in-situ spectrometry lies in the fact that a detector placed on ground measures gamma radiation from sources situated over an area of several hundred square meters. The 'field of view' for the detector would be larger for high energy radiation sources and for sources closer to the soil surface. In contrast, a soil sample would represent an area of a few tens of hundreds of square centimeters. In practice, an effective characterization of a site would involve in-situ gamma ray spectrometry in conjunction with soil sampling. As part of an overall program, in-situ gamma ray spectrometry provides a means to assess the degree of contamination in areas during the course of operations in the field, thus guiding the investigator on where to collect samples. It can also substantially reduce the number of samples need to be collected and subsequently analyzed. (author)

  1. Air shower detectors in gamma-ray astronomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinnis, Gus [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Extensive air shower (EAS) arrays directly detect the particles in an EAS that reach the observation altitude. This detection technique effectively makes air shower arrays synoptic telescopes -- they are capable of simultaneously and continuously viewing the entire overhead sky. Typical air shower detectors have an effective field-of-view of 2 sr and operate nearly 100% of the time. These two characteristics make them ideal instruments for studying the highest energy gamma rays, extended sources and transient phenomena. Until recently air shower arrays have had insufficient sensitivity to detect gamma-ray sources. Over the past decade, the situation has changed markedly. Milagro, in the US, and the Tibet AS{gamma} array in Tibet, have detected very-high-energy gamma-ray emission from the Crab Nebula and the active galaxy Markarian 421 (both previously known sources). Milagro has discovered TeV diffuse emission from the Milky Way, three unidentified sources of TeV gamma rays, and several candidate sources of TeV gamma rays. Given these successes and the suite of existing and planned instruments in the GeV and TeV regime (AGILE, GLAST, HESS, VERITAS, CTA, AGIS and IceCube) there are strong reasons for pursuing a next generation of EAS detectors. In conjunction with these other instruments the next generation of EAS instruments could answer long-standing problems in astrophysics.

  2. Handheld dual thermal neutron detector and gamma-ray spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stowe, Ashley C.; Burger, Arnold; Bhattacharya, Pijush; Tupitsyn, Yevgeniy

    2017-05-02

    A combined thermal neutron detector and gamma-ray spectrometer system, including: a first detection medium including a lithium chalcopyrite crystal operable for detecting neutrons; a gamma ray shielding material disposed adjacent to the first detection medium; a second detection medium including one of a doped metal halide, an elpasolite, and a high Z semiconductor scintillator crystal operable for detecting gamma rays; a neutron shielding material disposed adjacent to the second detection medium; and a photodetector coupled to the second detection medium also operable for detecting the gamma rays; wherein the first detection medium and the second detection medium do not overlap in an orthogonal plane to a radiation flux. Optionally, the first detection medium includes a .sup.6LiInSe.sub.2 crystal. Optionally, the second detection medium includes a SrI.sub.2(Eu) scintillation crystal.

  3. Semiconductor scintillator detector for gamma radiation; Detector cintilador semicondutor para radiacao gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laan, F.T.V. der; Borges, V.; Zabadal, J.R.S., E-mail: ftvdl@ufrgs.br, E-mail: borges@ufrgs.br, E-mail: jorge.zabadal@ufrgs.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (GENUC/DEMEC/UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Grupo de Estudos Nucleares. Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica

    2015-07-01

    Nowadays the devices employed to evaluate individual radiation exposition are based on dosimetric films and thermoluminescent crystals, whose measurements must be processed in specific transductors. Hence, these devices carry out indirect measurements. Although a new generation of detectors based on semiconductors which are employed in EPD's (Electronic Personal Dosemeters) being yet available, it high producing costs and large dimensions prevents the application in personal dosimetry. Recent research works reports the development of new detection devices based on photovoltaic PIN diodes, which were successfully employed for detecting and monitoring exposition to X rays. In this work, we step forward by coupling a 2mm anthracene scintillator NE1, which converts the high energy radiation in visible light, generating a Strong signal which allows dispensing the use of photomultipliers. A low gain high performance amplifier and a digital acquisition device are employed to measure instantaneous and cumulative doses for energies ranging from X rays to Gamma radiation up to 2 MeV. One of the most important features of the PIN diode relies in the fact that it can be employed as a detector for ionization radiation, since it requires a small energy amount for releasing electrons. Since the photodiode does not amplify the corresponding photon current, it must be coupled to a low gain amplifier. Therefore, the new sensor works as a scintillator coupled with a photodiode PIN. Preliminary experiments are being performed with this sensor, showing good results for a wide range of energy spectrum. (author)

  4. Prototype system for proton beam range measurement based on gamma electron vertex imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Han Rim [Neutron Utilization Technology Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 111, Daedeok-daero 989beon-gil, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34057 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung Hun; Park, Jong Hoon [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Hanyang University, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 04763 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Won Gyun [Heavy-ion Clinical Research Division, Korean Institute of Radiological & Medical Sciences, Seoul 01812 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Hansang [Department of Electronics Convergence Engineering, Kwangwoon University, Seoul 01897 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chan Hyeong, E-mail: chkim@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Hanyang University, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 04763 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-11

    In proton therapy, for both therapeutic effectiveness and patient safety, it is very important to accurately measure the proton dose distribution, especially the range of the proton beam. For this purpose, recently we proposed a new imaging method named gamma electron vertex imaging (GEVI), in which the prompt gammas emitting from the nuclear reactions of the proton beam in the patient are converted to electrons, and then the converted electrons are tracked to determine the vertices of the prompt gammas, thereby producing a 2D image of the vertices. In the present study, we developed a prototype GEVI system, including dedicated signal processing and data acquisition systems, which consists of a beryllium plate (= electron converter) to convert the prompt gammas to electrons, two double-sided silicon strip detectors (= hodoscopes) to determine the trajectories of those converted electrons, and a plastic scintillation detector (= calorimeter) to measure their kinetic energies. The system uses triple coincidence logic and multiple energy windows to select only the events from prompt gammas. The detectors of the prototype GEVI system were evaluated for electronic noise level, energy resolution, and time resolution. Finally, the imaging capability of the GEVI system was tested by imaging a {sup 90}Sr beta source, a {sup 60}Co gamma source, and a 45-MeV proton beam in a PMMA phantom. The overall results of the present study generally show that the prototype GEVI system can image the vertices of the prompt gammas produced by the proton nuclear interactions.

  5. A massive thermal detector for alpha and gamma spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alessandrello, A.; Brofferio, C.; Cremonesi, O.; Fiorini, E. E-mail: ettore.fiorini@mi.infn.it; Giuliani, A.; Nucciotti, A.; Pavan, M.; Pirro, S.; Pessina, G.; Parmeggiano, S.; Previtali, E.; Vanzini, M.; Zanotti, L.; Coccia, E.; Fafone, V.; Bucci, C.; Rotilio, A

    2000-02-01

    A massive bolometer with a 760 g TeO{sub 2} crystal as energy absorber, the largest employed underground, has been realized and operated in the Gran Sasso Underground Laboratory for {gamma}- and {alpha}-ray spectroscopy. A new system of mechanical suspensions was implemented to reduce vibration and thermal noise, and special care was put to the read-out electronics. As a consequence the FWHM resolution for high-energy {gamma}-rays became comparable to that of Germanium diodes. The 4.2 keV average FWHM resolution for the 5407 keV line is the best ever obtained for {alpha} particles with any type of detector.

  6. Conference on physics from large {gamma}-ray detector arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    The conference on {open_quotes}Physics from Large {gamma}-ray Detector Arrays{close_quotes} is a continuation of the series of conferences that have been organized every two years by the North American Heavy-ion Laboratories. The aim of the conference this year was to encourage discussion of the physics that can be studied with such large arrays. This volume is the collected proceedings from this conference. It discusses properties of nuclear states which can be created in heavy-ion reactions, and which can be observed via such detector systems.

  7. MeV-level electron and gamma ray sensitivites of modern far ultraviolet sensitive microchannel plate detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Michael W.; Greathouse, Thomas K.; Cooke, Chathan M.; Blase, Ryan C.; Gladstone, G. Randall; Retherford, Kurt D.

    2016-07-01

    The Jovian system is the focus of multiple current and future NASA and ESA missions, but dangerously high radiation levels surrounding the planet make operations of instruments sensitive to high energy electrons or gamma rays problematic. Microchannel plate (MCP) detectors have been the detectors of choice in planetary ultraviolet spectrographs for decades. However, the same properties that give these detectors high response to vacuum ultraviolet photons also make them sensitive to high energy electrons and gamma rays. The success of ultraviolet investigations in the Jovian system depends on effectively shielding these MCP detectors to protect them as much as possible from this withering radiation. The design of such shielding hinges on our understanding of the response of MCP detectors to the high energy electrons and gamma rays found there. To this end, Southwest Research Institute and Massachusetts Institute of Technology collaborated in 2012-13 to measure the response of a flight-spare microchannel plate detector to a beam of high energy electrons. The detector response was measured at multiple beam energies ranging from 0.5-2.5 MeV and multiple currents. This response was then checked with MCNP6, a radiation transport simulation tool, to determine the secondary gamma rays produced by the primary electrons striking the detector window. We report on the measurement approach and the inferred electron and gamma sensitivities.

  8. Beta-gated gamma coincidence counting with a phoswich detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaye, J.H.; Warner, R.A.

    1981-01-01

    A special type of phoswich detector system has been evaluated for measurement of radionuclides which decay with emission of time coincident beta and gamma radiation. Background reductions of more than two orders of magnitude have been obtained for the energy region from 500 to 950 keV. Both NE 102 plastic scintillators and anthracene were evaluated. Advantages and disadvantages of the method are discussed.

  9. On the Angular Resolution of the AGILE Gamma-Ray Imaging Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabatini, S.; Donnarumma, I.; Tavani, M.; Trois, A.; Bulgarelli, A.; Argan, A.; Barbiellini, G.; Cattaneo, P. W.; Chen, A.; Del Monte, E.; Fioretti, V.; Gianotti, F.; Giuliani, A.; Longo, F.; Lucarelli, F.; Morselli, A.; Pittori, C.; Verrecchia, F.; Caraveo, P.

    2015-08-01

    We present a study of the angular resolution of the AGILE gamma-ray imaging detector (GRID) that has been operational in space since 2007 April. The AGILE instrument is made of an array of 12 planes that are each equipped with a tungsten converter and silicon microstrip detectors, and is sensitive in the energy range 50 MeV-10 GeV. Among the space instruments devoted to gamma-ray astrophysics, AGILE uniquely exploit an analog readout system with dedicated electronics coupled with silicon detectors. We show the results of Monte Carlo simulations carried out to reproduce the gamma-ray detection by the GRID and we compare them to in-flight data. We use the Crab (pulsar + Nebula) system for discussion of real data performance, since its {E}-2 energy spectrum is representative of the majority of gamma-ray sources. For Crab-like spectrum sources, the GRID angular resolution (FWHM of ˜ 4^\\circ at 100 MeV; ˜ 0\\buildrel{\\circ}\\over{.} 8 at 1 GeV; ˜ 0\\buildrel{\\circ}\\over{.} 9 integrating the full energy band from 100 MeV to tens of GeV) is stable across a large field of view, characterized by a flat response up to 30^\\circ off-axis. A comparison of the angular resolution obtained by the two operational gamma-ray instruments, AGILE/GRID and Fermi/LAT (Large Area Telescope), is interesting in view of future gamma-ray missions, which are currently under study. The two instruments exploit different detector configurations that affect the angular resolution: the former is optimized in the readout and track reconstruction, especially in the low-energy band, the latter is optimized in terms of converter thickness and power consumption. We show that despite these differences, the angular resolution of both instruments is very similar, between 100 MeV and a few GeV.

  10. Range verification of passively scattered proton beams using prompt gamma-ray detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verburg, Joost M; Testa, Mauro; Seco, Joao

    2015-02-07

    We performed an experimental study to verify the range of passively scattered proton beams by detecting prompt gamma-rays emitted from proton-nuclear interactions. A method is proposed using a single scintillation detector positioned near the distal end of the irradiated target. Lead shielding was used to attenuate gamma-rays emitted along most of the entrance path of the beam. By synchronizing the prompt gamma-ray detector to the rotation of the range modulation wheel, the relation between the gamma emission from the distal part of the target and the range of the incident proton beam was determined. In experiments with a water phantom and an anthropomorphic head phantom, this relation was found to be sensitive to range shifts that were introduced. The wide opening angle of the detector enabled a sufficient signal-to-background ratio to be achieved in the presence of neutron-induced background from the scattering and collimating devices. Uniform range shifts were detected with a standard deviation of 0.1 mm to 0.2 mm at a dose level of 30 cGy to 50 cGy (RBE). The detectable magnitude of a range shift limited to a part of the treatment field area was approximately proportional to the ratio between the field area and the area affected by the range shift. We conclude that it is feasible to detect changes in the range of passively scattered proton beams using a relatively simple prompt gamma-ray detection system. The method can be employed for in vivo verification of the consistency of the delivered range in fractionated treatments.

  11. Development of CDZNTE Detectors for Low-Energy Gamma-Ray Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrels, N.

    1999-01-01

    Under this grant the UC Berkeley PI, K. Hurley, joined a Goddard-led effort to develop large area, multi-pixel Cadmium-Zinc-Telluride (CdZnTe, or CZT) detectors for gamma-ray astronomy. His task was to advise the project of new developments in the area of cosmic gamma-ray bursts, in order to focus the detector development effort on the construction of an instrument which could be deployed on a spacecraft to localize and measure the energy spectra of bursts with good angular and energy resolution, respectively. UC Berkeley had no hardware role in this proposal. The result of this effort was the production, at Goddard, of five CZT prototype modules. A proposal was written for SWIFT, a MIDEX mission to study cosmic gamma-ray bursts. One experiment aboard SWIFT is the Burst Arcminute Telescope (BAT), which consists of a 5200 sq cm hard X-ray detector and a coded mask. The detector comprises 256 CZT modules, each containing 128 4 x 4 x 2 mm CZT detectors. Each detector is read out using an ASIC. The angular resolution achieved with this mask/array combination is 22 arcminutes, and a strong gamma-ray burst can be localized to an accuracy of 4 arcminutes in under 10 seconds. The energy resolution is typically 5 keV FWHM at 60 keV, and the energy range is 10 - 150 keV. The BAT views 2 steradians, and its sensitivity is such that the instrument can detect 350 gamma-ray burst/year, localizing 320 of them to better than 4 arcminute accuracy. The BAT concept therefore met the science goals for gamma-ray bursts. The UCB effort in the SWIFT proposal included the scientific objectives for gamma-ray bursts, and the assembly of a team of optical and radio observers who would use the BAT data to perform rapid multi-wavelength searches for the counterparts to bursts. This proposal was submitted to NASA and peer-reviewed. In January 1999 it was one of five such proposals selected for a Phase A study. This study was completed in June, and SWIFT was formally presented to NASA in

  12. Scintillator-Lucite sandwich detector for n/gamma separation in the GeV energy region

    CERN Document Server

    Watanabe, H; Harada, E; Inoue, S; Inagaki, T; Kobayashi, S; Kurilin, A S; Lim, G Y; Ogawa, I; Okuno, H; Omata, K; Sato, T; Shinkawa, T; Tsamalaidze, Z; Tsukamoto, T; Yoshimura, Y

    2002-01-01

    A Scintillator-Lucite Sandwich Detector (SLSD) has been developed for n/gamma separation in the GeV energy region. An efficient n/gamma separation is achieved by measuring a correlation between the scintillation and Cherenkov light yields. The basic performance of the detector has been tested with e, pi and p beams with momenta between 0.5 and 2.0 GeV/c; the results were compared with a Monte-Carlo simulation. The n/gamma separation capability of this detector has been studied by simulations in the energy range from 5 MeV to 12 GeV. The SLSD detector was successfully used for a beam survey of the new K sub L sup 0 beam line built for a K sub L sup 0-> pi sup 0 nu nu-bar experiment at the KEK 12-GeV proton synchrotron.

  13. Field Deployable Gamma Radiation Detectors for DHS Use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanjoy Mukhopadhyay

    2007-08-01

    Recently, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) has integrated all nuclear detection research, development, testing, evaluation, acquisition, and operational support into a single office: the Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO). The DNDO has specific requirements set for all commercial off-the-shelf and government off-the-shelf radiation detection equipment and data acquisition systems. This article would investigate several recent developments in field deployable gamma radiation detectors that are attempting to meet the DNDO specifications. Commercially available, transportable, handheld radio isotope identification devices (RIID) are inadequate for DHS requirements in terms of sensitivity, resolution, response time, and reach-back capability. The leading commercial vendor manufacturing handheld gamma spectrometer in the United States is Thermo Electron Corporation. Thermo Electron's identiFINDER{trademark}, which primarily uses sodium iodide crystals (3.18 x 2.54cm cylinders) as gamma detectors, has a Full-Width-at-Half-Maximum energy resolution of 7 percent at 662 keV. Thermo Electron has just recently come up with a reach-back capability patented as RadReachBack{trademark} that enables emergency personnel to obtain real-time technical analysis of radiation samples they find in the field. The current project has the goal to build a prototype handheld gamma spectrometer, equipped with a digital camera and an embedded cell phone to be used as an RIID with higher sensitivity, better resolution, and faster response time (able to detect the presence of gamma-emitting radio isotopes within 5 seconds of approach), which will make it useful as a field deployable tool. The handheld equipment continuously monitors the ambient gamma radiation, and, if it comes across any radiation anomalies with higher than normal gamma gross counts, it sets an alarm condition. When a substantial alarm level is reached, the system automatically triggers the saving of relevant

  14. Employing Thin HPGe Detectors for Gamma-Ray Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vetter, K; Mihailescu, L; Ziock, K; Burks, M; Hull, E; Madden, N; Pehl, R

    2002-05-02

    We have evaluated a collimator-less gamma-ray imaging system, which is based on thin layers of double-sided strip HPGe detectors. The positions of individual gamma-ray interactions will be deduced by the strip addresses and the Ge layers which fired. Therefore, high bandwidth pulse processing is not required as in thick Ge detectors. While the drawback of such a device is the increased number of electronics channels to be read out and processed, there are several advantages, which are particularly important for remote applications: the operational voltage can be greatly reduced to fully deplete the detector and no high bandwidth signal processing electronics is required to determine positions. Only a charge sensitive preamplifier, a slow pulse shaping amplifier, and a fast discriminator are required on a per channel basis in order to determine photon energy and interaction position in three dimensions. Therefore, the power consumption and circuit board real estate can be minimized. More importantly, since the high bandwidth signal shapes are not used to determine the depth position, lower energy signals can be processed. The processing of these lower energy signals increases the efficiency for the recovery of small angle scattering. Currently, we are studying systems consisting of up to ten 2mm thick Ge layers with 2mm pitch size. The required electronics of the few hundred channels can be integrated to reduce space and power. We envision applications in nuclear non-proliferation and gamma-ray astronomy where ease of operation and low power consumption, and reliability, are crucial.

  15. Employing Thin HPGe Detectors for Gamma-Ray Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vetter, K; Mihailescu, L; Ziock, K; Burks, M; Hull, E; Madden, N; Pehl, R

    2002-04-15

    We have evaluated a collimator-less gamma-ray imaging system, which is based on thin layers of double-sided strip HPGe detectors. The position of individual gamma-ray interactions will be deduced by the strip addresses and the Ge layers which fired. Therefore, high bandwidth pulse processing is not required as in thick Ge detectors. While the drawback of such a device is the increased number of electronics channels to be read out and processed, there are several advantages, which are particularly important for remote applications: the operational voltage can be greatly reduced to fully deplete the detector and no high bandwidth signal processing electronics is required to determine positions. Only a charge sensitive preamplifier, a slow pulse shaping amplifier, and a fast discriminator are required on a per channel basis in order to determine photon energy and interaction position in three dimensions. Therefore, the power consumption and circuit board real estate can be minimized. More importantly, since the high bandwidth signal shapes are not used to determine the depth position, lower energy signals can be processed. The processing of these lower energy signals increases the efficiency for the recovery of small angle scattering. Currently, we are studying systems consisting of up to ten 2mm thick Ge layers with 2mm pitch size. The required electronics of the few hundred channels can be integrated to reduce space and power. We envision applications in nuclear non-proliferation and gamma-ray astronomy where ease of operation and low power consumption, and reliability, are crucial.

  16. Gamma spectroscopy and optoelectronic imaging with hybrid photon detector

    CERN Document Server

    D'Ambrosio, C; Piedigrossi, D; Rosso, E; Cenceelli, V; De Notaristefani, F; Masini, Gérald; Puertolas, D; Cindolo, F; Mares, J A; Nikl, M; Abreu, M; Rato-Mendes, P; Sousa, P

    2003-01-01

    Hybrid Photon Detectors (HPD) detect light via photocathodes and accelerate the emitted photoelectrons by an electric field towards silicon PIN-anodes, where they are absorbed and generate electronic signals. We have developed two specific types of HPDs: (1) Hybrid photomultiplier tubes for photon counting and gamma spectroscopy; (2) Imaging silicon pixel array tubes for optoelectronic cameras. This paper will illustrate the main achievements, which we obtained in the last years, and will describe and discuss our present main R&D efforts, in particular, in the biomedical imaging field. (27 refs).

  17. Using CHIMERA detector at LNS for gamma-particle coincidences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cardella G.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We have recently evaluated the quality of γ-ray angular distributions that can be extracted in particle-gamma coincidence measurements using the CHIMERA detector at LNS. γ-rays have been detected using the CsI(Tl detectors of the spherical part of the CHIMERA array. Very clean γ-rays angular distributions were extracted in reactions induced by different stable beams impinging on 12C thin targets. The results evidenced an effect of projectile spin flip on the γ-rays angular distributions. γ-particle coincidence measurements were also performed in reactions induced by neutron rich exotic beams produced through in-flight fragmentation at LNS. In recent experiments also the Farcos array was used to improve energy and angular resolution measurements of the detected charged particles. Results obtained with both stable and radioactive beams are reported.

  18. LEC SI-GaAs detectors for gamma rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dogru, M.; Beaumont, S.P.; Bertin, R.; Booth, C.N.; Buttar, C.; Capiluppi, C.; Carraresi, L.; Cindolo, F.; Colocci, M.; Combley, F.H.; D' Auria, S.; Del Papa, C.; Edwards, M.; Fiori, F.; Foster, F.; Francescato, A.; Gray, R.; Hill, G.; Hou, Y.; Houston, P.; Hughes, G.; Jones, B.K.; Lynch, J.G.; Lisowsky, B.; Matheson, J.; Nava, F.; Nuti, M.; O' Shea, V.; Pelfer, P.G.; Raine, C.; Ratoff, P.; Santana, J.; Sounders, I.J.; Seller, P.H.; Shankar, K.; Sharp, P.H.; Skillicorn, I.O.; Sloan, T.; Smith, K.M.; Tartoni, I.; Hafe, I. ten; Turnbull, R.M.; Vanni, U.; Vinattieri, A.; Zichichi, A. (Dipartimento di Fisica, Bologna Univ. (Italy) INFN, Bologna (Italy) CERN, Geneva (Switzerland) Dipartimento di Fisica, Florence Univ. (Italy) INFN, Florence (Italy) Dept. of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Glasgow Univ. (United Kingdom) Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow Univ. (United Kingdom) Lancaster Univ. (United Kingdom) Dipartimento di Fisica, Bologna Univ. (Italy) INFN, Bologna (Italy) Ruth; RD8 Collaboration

    1994-09-01

    Detectors with a p-i-n structure based on Liquid Encapsulated Czochralski (LEC) grown Semi-Insulating (SI) GaAs have been fabricated. The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics and their response to [gamma]-rays have been studied. Measurements of the peak charge collection efficiency (cce) have been compared with a model assuming a uniform electric field. The comparison indicates that this field is not uniform. The peak cce at 500 V is found to be 52% and 82% in 400 [mu]m and 200 [mu]m thick detectors respectively. The resolution of the [sup 57]Co full energy peak is between 10% and 13% at 400 V. ((orig.))

  19. Spatial Pileup Considerations for Pixellated Gamma -ray Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furenlid, L.R.; Clarkson, E.; Marks, D.G.; Barrett, H.H.

    2015-01-01

    High-spatial-resolution solid-state detectors being developed for gamma-ray applications benefit from having pixel dimensions substantially smaller than detector slab thickness. This leads to an enhanced possibility of charge partially spreading to neighboring pixels as a result of diffusion (and secondary photon emission) transverse to the drift direction. An undesirable consequence is the effective magnification of the event “size“ and the spatial overlap issues which result when two photons are absorbed in close proximity within the integration time of the detector/readout system. In this work, we develop the general statistics of spatial pileup in imaging systems and apply the results to detectors we are developing based on pixellated cadmium zinc telluride (CdZnTe) and a multiplexing application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) readout. We consider the limitations imposed on total count rate capacity and explore in detail the consequences for the LISTMODE data-acquisition strategy. Algorithms are proposed for identifying and, where possible, resolving overlapping events by maximum-likelihood estimation. The efficacy and noise tolerance of these algorithms will be tested with a combination of simulated and experimental data in future work. PMID:26568675

  20. High-Speed, Low Power 256 Channel Gamma Radiation Array Detector ASIC Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Building on prior success in detector electronics, we propose to design and fabricate a 256 channel readout ASIC for solid state gamma radiation array detectors...

  1. A wide dynamic range square-law diode detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparici, Juan

    1988-09-01

    Semiconductor square-law diode detectors are frequently used in radio astronomy to recover signals immersed in the system noise. Their use is commonly restricted to narrow dynamic ranges of very low signal levels where the square-law is valid. A circuit based on operational amplifiers is proposed that would minimize temperature-drift effects within a dynamic range greater than 30 dB, with an efficiency 600 times greater than the simple high-impedance unbiased detector. Using square-law detector theory, optimum performance is determined for a detector driving source impedance of about 14 percent of the dynamic resistance.

  2. A segmented detector for airbone gamma ray spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgada, G.; Iovene, A.; Petrucci, S.; Tintori, C., E-mail: g.burgada@caen.it [Costruzioni Apparecchiature Elettroniche Nucleari S.p.A. (CAEN), Viareggio (Italy); Alvarez, M.A.G., E-mail: malvarez@if.usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IF/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica; Baldoncini, M.; Xhixha, G.; Strati, V., E-mail: gerti.xhixha@unife.it [University of Ferrara, Department of Physics and Earth Sciences, Ferrara (Italy); Mantovani, F., E-mail: mantovani@fe.infn.it [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Ferrara (Italy); Garosi, P.; Mou, L., E-mail: li.mou@libero.it [University of Siena (Italy); Alvarez, C. Rossi, E-mail: rossialvarez@pd.infn.it [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Legnaro (Italy)

    2014-07-01

    The airborne gamma-ray spectrometry (AGRS) is widely acknowledged as a very efficient technique for large areas monitoring. The detector system mounted on a helicopter allows for an extensive survey in a single flight time, thus reducing the exposure risk for the operator. Results from AGRS techniques are exploited in many fields, from the geological research to the homeland security for the search of orphan radioactive sources, from the mining and hydrocarbon exploration to the construction industry. The new generation of compact digital data acquisition and online processing equipment allows for faster airborne survey campaigns, and enhances the flexibility of operations. In addition, the algorithm for the extrapolation of the nuclide concentrations from the acquired gamma spectra is a challenging step of the entire technique. We are going to present a new device for advanced AGRS measurements, with an innovative detector configuration and data processing algorithms for optimizing the source localization and the on-line response capabilities. The new compact structure makes the system easily portable by a single operator, and rapidly mountable on most common helicopters. Preliminary feasibility studies have been performed to test the mechanics and the hardware of the whole system, which is intended to work without any human attendance. The first flights are planned by the end of 2014, with the aim of detecting artificial point sources having intensities on the order of 10^8 Bq and natural enriched fields already monitored. (author)

  3. Beta- and gamma-range human lower limb corticomuscular coherence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph T Gwin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Coherence between electroencephalography (EEG recorded on the scalp above the motor cortex and electromyography (EMG recorded on the skin of the limbs is thought to reflect corticospinal coupling between motor cortex and muscle motor units. Beta-range (13-30 Hz corticomuscular coherence has been extensively documented during static force output while gamma-range (31-45 Hz coherence has been linked to dynamic force output. However, the explanation for this beta-to-gamma coherence shift remains unclear. We recorded 264-channel EEG and 8-channel lower limb electromyography (EMG while 8 healthy subjects performed isometric and isotonic, knee and ankle exercises. Adaptive mixture independent component analysis (AMICA parsed EEG into models of underlying source signals. We computed magnitude squared coherence between electrocortical source signals and EMG. Significant coherence between contralateral motor cortex electrocortical signals and lower limb EMG was observed in the beta- and gamma-range for all exercise types. Gamma-range coherence was significantly greater for isotonic exercises than for isometric exercises. We conclude that active muscle movement modulates the speed of corticospinal oscillations. Specifically, isotonic contractions shift corticospinal oscillations towards the gamma-range while isometric contractions favor beta-range oscillations. Prior research has suggested that tasks requiring increased integration of visual and somatosensory information may shift corticomuscular coherence to the gamma-range. The isometric and isotonic tasks studied here likely required similar amounts of visual and somatosensory integration. This suggests that muscle dynamics, including the amount and type of proprioception, may play a role in the beta-to-gamma shift.

  4. Measurement of the photon structure function F2 gamma with the L3 detector at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Achard, P.; Aguilar-Benitez, M.; Alcaraz, J.; Alemanni, G.; Allaby, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alviggi, M.G.; Anderhub, H.; Andreev, Valery P.; Anselmo, F.; Arefev, A.; Azemoon, T.; Aziz, T.; Bagnaia, P.; Bajo, A.; Baksay, G.; Baksay, L.; Baldew, S.V.; Banerjee, S.; Banerjee, Sw.; Barczyk, A.; Barillere, R.; Bartalini, P.; Basile, M.; Batalova, N.; Battiston, R.; Bay, A.; Becattini, F.; Becker, U.; Behner, F.; Bellucci, L.; Berbeco, R.; Berdugo, J.; Berges, P.; Bertucci, B.; Betev, B.L.; Biasini, M.; Biglietti, M.; Biland, A.; Blaising, J.J.; Blyth, S.C.; Bobbink, G.J.; Bohm, A.; Boldizsar, L.; Borgia, B.; Bottai, S.; Bourilkov, D.; Bourquin, M.; Braccini, S.; Branson, J.G.; Brochu, F.; Burger, J.D.; Burger, W.J.; Cai, X.D.; Capell, M.; Cara Romeo, G.; Carlino, G.; Cartacci, A.; Casaus, J.; Cavallari, F.; Cavallo, N.; Cecchi, C.; Cerrada, M.; Chamizo, M.; Chang, Y.H.; Chemarin, M.; Chen, A.; Chen, G.; Chen, G.M.; Chen, H.F.; Chen, H.S.; Chiefari, G.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Clare, I.; Clare, R.; Coignet, G.; Colino, N.; Costantini, S.; de la Cruz, B.; Cucciarelli, S.; de Asmundis, R.; Deglon, P.; Debreczeni, J.; Degre, A.; Dehmelt, K.; Deiters, K.; della Volpe, D.; Delmeire, E.; Denes, P.; DeNotaristefani, F.; De Salvo, A.; Diemoz, M.; Dierckxsens, M.; Dionisi, C.; Dittmar, M.; Doria, A.; Dova, M.T.; Duchesneau, D.; Duda, M.; Echenard, B.; Eline, A.; El Hage, A.; El Mamouni, H.; Engler, A.; Eppling, F.J.; Extermann, P.; Falagan, M.A.; Falciano, S.; Favara, A.; Fay, J.; Fedin, O.; Felcini, M.; Ferguson, T.; Fesefeldt, H.; Fiandrini, E.; Field, J.H.; Filthaut, F.; Fisher, P.H.; Fisher, W.; Fisk, I.; Forconi, G.; Freudenreich, K.; Furetta, C.; Galaktionov, Iouri; Ganguli, S.N.; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gataullin, M.; Gentile, S.; Giagu, S.; Gong, Z.F.; Grenier, Gerald Jean; Grimm, O.; Gruenewald, M.W.; Guida, M.; Gupta, V.K.; Gurtu, A.; Gutay, L.J.; Haas, D.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Hebbeker, T.; Herve, Alain; Hirschfelder, J.; Hofer, H.; Hohlmann, M.; Holzner, G.; Hou, S.R.; Jin, B.N.; Jindal, P.; Jones, Lawrence W.; de Jong, P.; Josa-Mutuberria, I.; Kaur, M.; Kienzle-Focacci, M.N.; Kim, J.K.; Kirkby, Jasper; Kittel, W.; Klimentov, A.; Konig, A.C.; Kopal, M.; Koutsenko, V.; Kraber, M.; Kraemer, R.W.; Kruger, A.; Kunin, A.; Ladron de Guevara, P.; Laktineh, I.; Landi, G.; Lebeau, M.; Lebedev, A.; Lebrun, P.; Lecomte, P.; Lecoq, P.; Le Coultre, P.; Le Goff, J.M.; Leiste, R.; Levtchenko, M.; Levtchenko, P.; Li, C.; Likhoded, S.; Lin, C.H.; Lin, W.T.; Linde, F.L.; Lista, L.; Liu, Z.A.; Lohmann, W.; Longo, E.; Lu, Y.S.; Luci, C.; Luminari, L.; Lustermann, W.; Ma, W.G.; Malgeri, L.; Malinin, A.; Mana, C.; Mans, J.; Martin, J.P.; Marzano, F.; Mazumdar, K.; McNeil, R.R.; Mele, S.; Mermod, P.; Merola, L.; Meschini, M.; Metzger, W.J.; Mihul, A.; Milcent, H.; Mirabelli, G.; Mnich, J.; Mohanty, G.B.; Muanza, G.S.; Muijs, A.J.M.; Musicar, B.; Musy, M.; Nagy, S.; Natale, S.; Napolitano, M.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Newman, H.; Nisati, A.; Novak, T.; Kluge, Hannelies; Ofierzynski, R.; Organtini, G.; Pal, I.; Palomares, C.; Paolucci, P.; Paramatti, R.; Passaleva, G.; Patricelli, S.; Paul, Thomas Cantzon; Pauluzzi, M.; Paus, C.; Pauss, F.; Pedace, M.; Pensotti, S.; Perret-Gallix, D.; Piccolo, D.; Pierella, F.; Pioppi, M.; Piroue, P.A.; Pistolesi, E.; Plyaskin, V.; Pohl, M.; Pojidaev, V.; Pothier, J.; Prokofev, D.; Rahal-Callot, G.; Rahaman, Mohammad Azizur; Raics, P.; Raja, N.; Ramelli, R.; Rancoita, P.G.; Ranieri, R.; Raspereza, A.; Razis, P.; Ren, D.; Rescigno, M.; Reucroft, S.; Riemann, S.; Riles, Keith; Roe, B.P.; Romero, L.; Rosca, A.; Rosemann, C.; Rosenbleck, C.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Roth, Stefan; Rubio, J.A.; Ruggiero, G.; Rykaczewski, H.; Sakharov, A.; Saremi, S.; Sarkar, S.; Salicio, J.; Sanchez, E.; Schafer, C.; Schegelsky, V.; Schopper, H.; Schotanus, D.J.; Sciacca, C.; Servoli, L.; Shevchenko, S.; Shivarov, N.; Shoutko, V.; Shumilov, E.; Shvorob, A.; Son, D.; Souga, C.; Spillantini, P.; Steuer, M.; Stickland, D.P.; Stoyanov, B.; Straessner, A.; Sudhakar, K.; Sultanov, G.; Sun, L.Z.; Sushkov, S.; Suter, H.; Swain, J.D.; Szillasi, Z.; Tang, X.W.; Tarjan, P.; Tauscher, L.; Taylor, L.; Tellili, B.; Teyssier, D.; Timmermans, Charles; Ting, Samuel C.C.; Ting, S.M.; Tonwar, S.C.; Toth, J.; Tully, C.; Tung, K.L.; Ulbricht, J.; Valente, E.; Van de Walle, R.T.; Vasquez, R.; Veszpremi, V.; Vesztergombi, G.; Vetlitsky, I.; Viertel, G.; Villa, S.; Vivargent, M.; Vlachos, S.; Vodopianov, I.; Vogel, H.; Vogt, H.; Vorobev, I.; Vorobyov, A.A.; Wadhwa, M.; Wang, Q.; Wang, X.L.; Wang, Z.M.; Weber, M.; Wynhoff, S.; Xia, L.; Xu, Z.Z.; Yamamoto, J.; Yang, B.Z.; Yang, C.G.; Yang, H.J.; Yang, M.; Yeh, S.C.; Zalite, An.; Zalite, Yu.; Zhang, Z.P.; Zhao, J.; Zhu, G.Y.; Zhu, R.Y.; Zhuang, H.L.; Zichichi, A.; Zimmermann, B.; Zoller, M.

    2005-01-01

    The e+e- -> e+e- hadrons reaction, where one of the two electrons is detected in a low polar-angle calorimeter, is analysed in order to measure the hadronic photon structure function F2gamma . The full high-energy and high-luminosity data set, collected with the L3 detector at centre-of-mass energies 189-209GeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 608/pb is used. The Q^2 range 11-34GeV^2 and the x range 0.006-0.556 are considered. The data are compared with recent parton density functions.

  5. Development of a gamma ray monitor using a CdZnTe semiconductor detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasolonjatovo, A H D; Shiomi, T; Nakamura, T; Nishizawa, H; Tsudaka, Y; Fujiwara, H; Araki, H; Matsuo, K

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a new X ray and gamma ray monitor using the CdZnTe semiconductor detector, which has high sensitivity at room temperature. The pulse height spectra and the detection efficiencies of a 10 mm x 10 mm by 2 mm thick CdZnTe detector were measured in the energy range of 10 keV to 1.8 MeV by using monoenergetic X ray and gamma ray sources. The measured results showed very good agreement with the results calculated using the EGS4 Monte Carlo code taking into account the charge collection efficiency in the detector. By using two CZT detectors of 10 mm x 10 mm x 2 mm and 3 mm x 3 mm x 2 mm coupled with a filter, the weighted sum of a few energy channels with different cut-off energies was finally found to achieve a flat energy response with an equivalent dose (counts per microSv) within +/-30% or +/- 10% deviation.

  6. Gamma-Free Neutron Detector Based upon Lithium Phosphate Nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven Wallace

    2007-08-28

    A gamma-free neutron-sensitive scintillator is needed to enhance radiaition sensing and detection for nonproliferation applications. Such a scintillator would allow very large detectors to be placed at the perimeter of spent-fuel storage facilities at commercial nuclear power plants, so that any movement of spontaneously emitted neutrons from spent nuclear fuel or weapons grade plutonium would be noted in real-time. This task is to demonstrate that the technology for manufacturing large panels of fluor-doped plastic containing lithium-6 phosphate nanoparticles can be achieved. In order to detect neutrons, the nanoparticles must be sufficiently small so that the plastic remains transparent. In this way, the triton and alpha particles generated by the capture of the neutron will result in a photon burst that can be coupled to a wavelength shifting fiber (WLS) producing an optical signal of about ten nanoseconds duration signaling the presence of a neutron emitting source.

  7. A phoswich detector for simultaneous alpha–gamma spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moghadam, S. Rajabi [Department of Radiation Application, Shahid Beheshti University G.C., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Feghhi, S.A.H., E-mail: A_feghhi@sbu.ac.ir [Department of Radiation Application, Shahid Beheshti University G.C., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Safari, M.J. [Amirkabir University of Technology, Department of Energy Engineering and Physics, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-11-01

    Phoswich detectors are of value for radiation spectroscopy, especially in cases where a low-cost solution for a mixed radiation field is desired. Meanwhile, simultaneous spectroscopy of alpha particles and gamma-rays has many applications in quantification and distinguishing the alpha-emitting radionuclides which usually occur in the analysis of environmental solid samples. Here, we have developed a system for detection of radioactive actinides (e.g., {sup 241}Am) based on the alpha–gamma coincidence technique. The underlying concept, is to assemble two appropriately selected scintillators (i.e., a fast and a slow one) together with a discriminating unit for analysis of their data. Detailed Monte Carlo simulation procedure has been developed using the GEANT4 toolkit to design and find enough knowledge about the response of the system in the studied radiation field. Various comparisons were made between experimental and simulation data which showed appropriate agreement between them. The calibration was performed and the MDA was estimated as 60 mBq for the phoswich system.

  8. Simultaneous counting of alpha, beta and gamma rays with phoswich detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usuda, Shigekazu; Abe, Hitoshi; Mihara, Akira

    1994-10-01

    Phoswich detectors for simultaneous counting of alpha, beta and gamma rays have been developed, which were prepared by combining two or three scintillators, ZnS(Ag), NE102A and/or BGO or NaI(Tl), with different rise times from each other. In order to adjust the pulse height ascribed to each scintillator within a dynamic range, a sheet of Au-Mylar was used, if necessary, as an optical neutral density filter for lowering the transmittance of scintillation of the ZnS(Ag). Characteristics of these phoswiches were examined by a pulse shape discrimination technique. Excellent discrimination among the radiations was attained for the prepared phoswiches.

  9. Search for a high mass $Z\\gamma$ resonance using the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00041986; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Searches are presented for high mass resonances, not predicted by the Standard Model, decaying to a $Z$ boson and a photon. The searches are performed using up to 13.3 fb$^{−1}$ of $\\sqrt{s} = 13$ TeV proton–proton collision data collected with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. Both leptonic and hadronic decays of the $Z$ boson are considered. No significant excess with respect to the expected background is observed in the data in the whole mass range investigated, and upper limits are set on the production cross section times decay branching ratio to $Z\\gamma$ of a narrow scalar boson.

  10. Measurements of $Z\\gamma$ and $Z\\gamma\\gamma$ production in $pp$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=$ 8 TeV with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdinov, Ovsat; Abeloos, Baptiste; Aben, Rosemarie; Abolins, Maris; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abraham, Nicola; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Abreu, Ricardo; Abulaiti, Yiming; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Adelman, Jahred; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adye, Tim; Affolder, Tony; Agatonovic-Jovin, Tatjana; Agricola, Johannes; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Ahlen, Steven; Ahmadov, Faig; Aielli, Giulio; Akerstedt, Henrik; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimov, Andrei; Alberghi, Gian Luigi; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Alconada Verzini, Maria Josefina; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Aliev, Malik; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alison, John; Alkire, Steven Patrick; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allen, Benjamin William; Allport, Phillip; Aloisio, Alberto; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Alpigiani, Cristiano; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Άlvarez Piqueras, Damián; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amadio, Brian Thomas; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral Coutinho, Yara; Amelung, Christoph; Amidei, Dante; Amor Dos Santos, Susana Patricia; Amorim, Antonio; Amoroso, Simone; Amram, Nir; Amundsen, Glenn; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anders, John Kenneth; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Angelidakis, Stylianos; Angelozzi, Ivan; Anger, Philipp; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoki, Masato; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Arabidze, Giorgi; Arai, Yasuo; Araque, Juan Pedro; Arce, Ayana; Arduh, Francisco Anuar; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Argyropoulos, Spyridon; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Armitage, Lewis James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnold, Hannah; Arratia, Miguel; Arslan, Ozan; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Artz, Sebastian; Asai, Shoji; Asbah, Nedaa; Ashkenazi, Adi; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astalos, Robert; Atkinson, Markus; Atlay, Naim Bora; Augsten, Kamil; Avolio, Giuseppe; Axen, Bradley; Ayoub, Mohamad Kassem; Azuelos, Georges; Baak, Max; Baas, Alessandra; Baca, Matthew John; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Bagiacchi, Paolo; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bai, Yu; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baldin, Evgenii; Balek, Petr; Balestri, Thomas; Balli, Fabrice; Balunas, William Keaton; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Swagato; Bannoura, Arwa A E; Barak, Liron; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Barillari, Teresa; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnes, Sarah Louise; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Barnovska, Zuzana; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barranco Navarro, Laura; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartos, Pavol; Basalaev, Artem; Bassalat, Ahmed; Basye, Austin; Bates, Richard; Batista, Santiago Juan; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Marco; Bauce, Matteo; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beacham, James; Beattie, Michael David; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans~Peter; Becker, Kathrin; Becker, Maurice; Beckingham, Matthew; Becot, Cyril; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bedognetti, Matteo; Bee, Christopher; Beemster, Lars; Beermann, Thomas; Begel, Michael; Behr, Janna Katharina; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Andrew Stuart; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellerive, Alain; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Belyaev, Nikita; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bender, Michael; Bendtz, Katarina; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez, Jose; Benitez Garcia, Jorge-Armando; Benjamin, Douglas; Bensinger, James; Bentvelsen, Stan; Beresford, Lydia; Beretta, Matteo; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Beringer, Jürg; Berlendis, Simon; Bernard, Nathan Rogers; Bernius, Catrin; Bernlochner, Florian Urs; Berry, Tracey; Berta, Peter; Bertella, Claudia; Bertoli, Gabriele; Bertolucci, Federico; Bertram, Iain Alexander; Bertsche, Carolyn; Bertsche, David; Besjes, Geert-Jan; Bessidskaia Bylund, Olga; Bessner, Martin Florian; Besson, Nathalie; Betancourt, Christopher; Bethke, Siegfried; Bevan, Adrian John; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianchini, Louis; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Biedermann, Dustin; Bielski, Rafal; Biesuz, Nicolo Vladi; Biglietti, Michela; Bilbao De Mendizabal, Javier; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Biondi, Silvia; Bjergaard, David Martin; Black, Curtis; Black, James; Black, Kevin; Blackburn, Daniel; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blanco, Jacobo Ezequiel; Blazek, Tomas; Bloch, Ingo; Blocker, Craig; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Blunier, Sylvain; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bobrovnikov, Victor; Bocchetta, Simona Serena; Bocci, Andrea; Bock, Christopher; Boehler, Michael; Boerner, Daniela; Bogaerts, Joannes Andreas; Bogavac, Danijela; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Bohm, Christian; Boisvert, Veronique; Bold, Tomasz; Boldea, Venera; Boldyrev, Alexey; Bomben, Marco; Bona, Marcella; Boonekamp, Maarten; Borisov, Anatoly; Borissov, Guennadi; Bortfeldt, Jonathan; Bortoletto, Daniela; Bortolotto, Valerio; Bos, Kors; Boscherini, Davide; Bosman, Martine; Bossio Sola, Jonathan David; Boudreau, Joseph; Bouffard, Julian; Bouhova-Thacker, Evelina Vassileva; Boumediene, Djamel Eddine; Bourdarios, Claire; Boutle, Sarah Kate; Boveia, Antonio; Boyd, James; Boyko, Igor; Bracinik, Juraj; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Gerhard; Brandt, Oleg; Bratzler, Uwe; Brau, Benjamin; Brau, James; Braun, Helmut; Breaden Madden, William Dmitri; Brendlinger, Kurt; Brennan, Amelia Jean; Brenner, Lydia; Brenner, Richard; Bressler, Shikma; Bristow, Timothy Michael; Britton, Dave; Britzger, Daniel; Brochu, Frederic; Brock, Ian; Brock, Raymond; Brooijmans, Gustaaf; Brooks, Timothy; Brooks, William; Brosamer, Jacquelyn; Brost, Elizabeth; Broughton, James; Bruckman de Renstrom, Pawel; Bruncko, Dusan; Bruneliere, Renaud; Bruni, Alessia; Bruni, Graziano; Brunt, Benjamin; Bruschi, Marco; Bruscino, Nello; Bryant, Patrick; Bryngemark, Lene; Buanes, Trygve; Buat, Quentin; Buchholz, Peter; Buckley, Andrew; Budagov, Ioulian; Buehrer, Felix; Bugge, Magnar Kopangen; Bulekov, Oleg; Bullock, Daniel; Burckhart, Helfried; Burdin, Sergey; Burgard, Carsten Daniel; Burghgrave, Blake; Burka, Klaudia; Burke, Stephen; Burmeister, Ingo; Busato, Emmanuel; Büscher, Daniel; Büscher, Volker; Bussey, Peter; Butler, John; Butt, Aatif Imtiaz; Buttar, Craig; Butterworth, Jonathan; Butti, Pierfrancesco; Buttinger, William; Buzatu, Adrian; Buzykaev, Aleksey; Cabrera Urbán, Susana; Caforio, Davide; Cairo, Valentina; Cakir, Orhan; Calace, Noemi; Calafiura, Paolo; Calandri, Alessandro; Calderini, Giovanni; Calfayan, Philippe; Caloba, Luiz; Calvet, David; Calvet, Samuel; Calvet, Thomas Philippe; Camacho Toro, Reina; Camarda, Stefano; Camarri, Paolo; Cameron, David; Caminal Armadans, Roger; Camincher, Clement; Campana, Simone; Campanelli, Mario; Campoverde, Angel; Canale, Vincenzo; Canepa, Anadi; Cano Bret, Marc; Cantero, Josu; Cantrill, Robert; Cao, Tingting; Capeans Garrido, Maria Del Mar; Caprini, Irinel; Caprini, Mihai; Capua, Marcella; Caputo, Regina; Carbone, Ryne Michael; Cardarelli, Roberto; Cardillo, Fabio; Carli, Ina; Carli, Tancredi; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Carminati, Leonardo; Caron, Sascha; Carquin, Edson; Carrillo-Montoya, German D; Carter, Janet; Carvalho, João; Casadei, Diego; Casado, Maria Pilar; Casolino, Mirkoantonio; Casper, David William; Castaneda-Miranda, Elizabeth; Castelli, Angelantonio; Castillo Gimenez, Victoria; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Catinaccio, Andrea; Catmore, James; Cattai, Ariella; Caudron, Julien; Cavaliere, Viviana; Cavallaro, Emanuele; Cavalli, Donatella; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cavasinni, Vincenzo; Ceradini, Filippo; Cerda Alberich, Leonor; Cerio, Benjamin; Santiago Cerqueira, Augusto; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Cerutti, Fabio; Cerv, Matevz; Cervelli, Alberto; Cetin, Serkant Ali; Chafaq, Aziz; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chan, Stephen Kam-wah; Chan, Yat Long; Chang, Philip; Chapman, John Derek; Charlton, Dave; Chatterjee, Avishek; Chau, Chav Chhiv; Chavez Barajas, Carlos Alberto; Che, Siinn; Cheatham, Susan; Chegwidden, Andrew; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chelstowska, Magda Anna; Chen, Chunhui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Karen; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Shion; Chen, Xin; Chen, Ye; Cheng, Hok Chuen; Cheng, Huajie; Cheng, Yangyang; Cheplakov, Alexander; Cheremushkina, Evgenia; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Chernyatin, Valeriy; Cheu, Elliott; Chevalier, Laurent; Chiarella, Vitaliano; Chiarelli, Giorgio; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chisholm, Andrew; Chitan, Adrian; Chizhov, Mihail; Choi, Kyungeon; Chomont, Arthur Rene; Chouridou, Sofia; Chow, Bonnie Kar Bo; Christodoulou, Valentinos; Chromek-Burckhart, Doris; Chudoba, Jiri; Chuinard, Annabelle Julia; Chwastowski, Janusz; Chytka, Ladislav; Ciapetti, Guido; Ciftci, Abbas Kenan; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Cioara, Irina Antonela; Ciocio, Alessandra; Cirotto, Francesco; Citron, Zvi Hirsh; Ciubancan, Mihai; Clark, Allan G; Clark, Brian Lee; Clark, Michael; Clark, Philip James; Clarke, Robert; Clement, Christophe; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H; Coffey, Laurel; Colasurdo, Luca; Cole, Brian; Cole, Stephen; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Collot, Johann; Colombo, Tommaso; Compostella, Gabriele; Conde Muiño, Patricia; Coniavitis, Elias; Connell, Simon Henry; Connelly, Ian; Consorti, Valerio; Constantinescu, Serban; Conta, Claudio; Conti, Geraldine; Conventi, Francesco; Cooke, Mark; Cooper, Ben; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Cornelissen, Thijs; Corradi, Massimo; Corriveau, Francois; Corso-Radu, Alina; Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; Cortiana, Giorgio; Costa, Giuseppe; Costa, María José; Costanzo, Davide; Cottin, Giovanna; Cowan, Glen; Cox, Brian; Cranmer, Kyle; Crawley, Samuel Joseph; Cree, Graham; Crépé-Renaudin, Sabine; Crescioli, Francesco; Cribbs, Wayne Allen; Crispin Ortuzar, Mireia; Cristinziani, Markus; Croft, Vince; Crosetti, Giovanni; Cuhadar Donszelmann, Tulay; Cummings, Jane; Curatolo, Maria; Cúth, Jakub; Cuthbert, Cameron; Czirr, Hendrik; Czodrowski, Patrick; D'Auria, Saverio; D'Onofrio, Monica; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, Mario Jose; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dai, Tiesheng; Dale, Orjan; Dallaire, Frederick; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dam, Mogens; Dandoy, Jeffrey Rogers; Dang, Nguyen Phuong; Daniells, Andrew Christopher; Dann, Nicholas Stuart; Danninger, Matthias; Dano Hoffmann, Maria; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darmora, Smita; Dassoulas, James; Dattagupta, Aparajita; Davey, Will; David, Claire; Davidek, Tomas; Davies, Merlin; Davison, Peter; Davygora, Yuriy; Dawe, Edmund; Dawson, Ian; Daya-Ishmukhametova, Rozmin; De, Kaushik; de Asmundis, Riccardo; De Benedetti, Abraham; De Castro, Stefano; De Cecco, Sandro; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; De la Torre, Hector; De Lorenzi, Francesco; De Pedis, Daniele; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; De Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; Dearnaley, William James; Debbe, Ramiro; Debenedetti, Chiara; Dedovich, Dmitri; Deigaard, Ingrid; Del Peso, Jose; Del Prete, Tarcisio; Delgove, David; Deliot, Frederic; Delitzsch, Chris Malena; Deliyergiyev, Maksym; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Dell'Orso, Mauro; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; Deluca, Carolina; DeMarco, David; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demilly, Aurelien; Denisov, Sergey; Denysiuk, Denys; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Deterre, Cecile; Dette, Karola; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Clemente, William Kennedy; Di Donato, Camilla; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Micco, Biagio; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Di Valentino, David; Diaconu, Cristinel; Diamond, Miriam; Dias, Flavia; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Diehl, Edward; Dietrich, Janet; Diglio, Sara; Dimitrievska, Aleksandra; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dita, Petre; Dita, Sanda; Dittus, Fridolin; Djama, Fares; Djobava, Tamar; Djuvsland, Julia Isabell; Barros do Vale, Maria Aline; Dobos, Daniel; Dobre, Monica; Doglioni, Caterina; Dohmae, Takeshi; Dolejsi, Jiri; Dolezal, Zdenek; Dolgoshein, Boris; Donadelli, Marisilvia; Donati, Simone; Dondero, Paolo; Donini, Julien; Dopke, Jens; Doria, Alessandra; Dova, Maria-Teresa; Doyle, Tony; Drechsler, Eric; Dris, Manolis; Du, Yanyan; Duarte-Campderros, Jorge; Duchovni, Ehud; Duckeck, Guenter; Ducu, Otilia Anamaria; Duda, Dominik; Dudarev, Alexey; Duflot, Laurent; Duguid, Liam; Dührssen, Michael; Dunford, Monica; Duran Yildiz, Hatice; Düren, Michael; Durglishvili, Archil; Duschinger, Dirk; Dutta, Baishali; Dyndal, Mateusz; Eckardt, Christoph; Ecker, Katharina Maria; Edgar, Ryan Christopher; Edson, William; Edwards, Nicholas Charles; Eifert, Till; Eigen, Gerald; Einsweiler, Kevin; Ekelof, Tord; El Kacimi, Mohamed; Ellajosyula, Venugopal; Ellert, Mattias; Elles, Sabine; Ellinghaus, Frank; Elliot, Alison; Ellis, Nicolas; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Elsing, Markus; Emeliyanov, Dmitry; Enari, Yuji; Endner, Oliver Chris; Endo, Masaki; Ennis, Joseph Stanford; Erdmann, Johannes; Ereditato, Antonio; Ernis, Gunar; Ernst, Jesse; Ernst, Michael; Errede, Steven; Ertel, Eugen; Escalier, Marc; Esch, Hendrik; Escobar, Carlos; Esposito, Bellisario; Etienvre, Anne-Isabelle; Etzion, Erez; Evans, Hal; Ezhilov, Alexey; Fabbri, Federica; Fabbri, Laura; Facini, Gabriel; Fakhrutdinov, Rinat; Falciano, Speranza; Falla, Rebecca Jane; Faltova, Jana; Fang, Yaquan; Fanti, Marcello; Farbin, Amir; Farilla, Addolorata; Farina, Christian; Farooque, Trisha; Farrell, Steven; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fassi, Farida; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Faucci Giannelli, Michele; Favareto, Andrea; Fawcett, William James; Fayard, Louis; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Wojciech; Feigl, Simon; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Feng, Haolu; Fenyuk, Alexander; Feremenga, Last; Fernandez Martinez, Patricia; Fernandez Perez, Sonia; Ferrando, James; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferreira de Lima, Danilo Enoque; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Ferretto Parodi, Andrea; Fiedler, Frank; Filipčič, Andrej; Filipuzzi, Marco; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Finelli, Kevin Daniel; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Firan, Ana; Fischer, Adam; Fischer, Cora; Fischer, Julia; Fisher, Wade Cameron; Flaschel, Nils; Fleck, Ivor; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fletcher, Gareth Thomas; Fletcher, Gregory; Fletcher, Rob Roy MacGregor; Flick, Tobias; Floderus, Anders; Flores Castillo, Luis; Flowerdew, Michael; Forcolin, Giulio Tiziano; Formica, Andrea; Forti, Alessandra; Foster, Andrew Geoffrey; Fournier, Daniel; Fox, Harald; Fracchia, Silvia; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchini, Matteo; Francis, David; Franconi, Laura; Franklin, Melissa; Frate, Meghan; Fraternali, Marco; Freeborn, David; Fressard-Batraneanu, Silvia; Friedrich, Felix; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fusayasu, Takahiro; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gabrielli, Alessandro; Gabrielli, Andrea; Gach, Grzegorz; Gadatsch, Stefan; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Louis Guillaume; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Galhardo, Bruno; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Galster, Gorm Aske Gram Krohn; Gan, KK; Gao, Jun; Gao, Yanyan; Gao, Yongsheng; Garay Walls, Francisca; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garonne, Vincent; Gascon Bravo, Alberto; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudiello, Andrea; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gaur, Bakul; Gauthier, Lea; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gazis, Evangelos; Gecse, Zoltan; Gee, Norman; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Geisler, Manuel Patrice; Gemme, Claudia; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Geng, Cong; Gentile, Simonetta; George, Simon; Gerbaudo, Davide; Gershon, Avi; Ghasemi, Sara; Ghazlane, Hamid; Ghneimat, Mazuza; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giannetti, Paola; Gibbard, Bruce; Gibson, Stephen; Gignac, Matthew; Gilchriese, Murdock; Gillam, Thomas; Gillberg, Dag; Gilles, Geoffrey; Gingrich, Douglas; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giorgi, Filippo Maria; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giromini, Paolo; Giugni, Danilo; Giuli, Francesco; Giuliani, Claudia; Giulini, Maddalena; Gjelsten, Børge Kile; Gkaitatzis, Stamatios; Gkialas, Ioannis; Gkougkousis, Evangelos Leonidas; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glaysher, Paul; Glazov, Alexandre; Goblirsch-Kolb, Maximilian; Godlewski, Jan; Goldfarb, Steven; Golling, Tobias; Golubkov, Dmitry; Gomes, Agostinho; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, Joao; Gonella, Laura; Gongadze, Alexi; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Parra, Garoe; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Goshaw, Alfred; Gössling, Claus; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Goudet, Christophe Raymond; Goujdami, Driss; Goussiou, Anna; Govender, Nicolin; Gozani, Eitan; Graber, Lars; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Gradin, Per Olov Joakim; Grafström, Per; Gramling, Johanna; Gramstad, Eirik; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Gratchev, Vadim; Gray, Heather; Graziani, Enrico; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Grefe, Christian; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Grevtsov, Kirill; Griffiths, Justin; Grillo, Alexander; Grimm, Kathryn; Grinstein, Sebastian; Gris, Philippe Luc Yves; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Groh, Sabrina; Grohs, Johannes Philipp; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Grossi, Giulio Cornelio; Grout, Zara Jane; Guan, Liang; Guan, Wen; Guenther, Jaroslav; Guescini, Francesco; Guest, Daniel; Gueta, Orel; Guido, Elisa; Guillemin, Thibault; Guindon, Stefan; Gul, Umar; Gumpert, Christian; Guo, Jun; Guo, Yicheng; Gupta, Shaun; Gustavino, Giuliano; Gutierrez, Phillip; Gutierrez Ortiz, Nicolas Gilberto; Gutschow, Christian; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haber, Carl; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Haddad, Nacim; Hadef, Asma; Haefner, Petra; Hageböck, Stephan; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Haleem, Mahsana; Haley, Joseph; Hall, David; Halladjian, Garabed; Hallewell, Gregory David; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamano, Kenji; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamity, Guillermo Nicolas; Hamnett, Phillip George; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hanawa, Keita; Hance, Michael; Haney, Bijan; Hanke, Paul; Hanna, Remie; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Maike Christina; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hard, Andrew; Harenberg, Torsten; Hariri, Faten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harrington, Robert; Harrison, Paul Fraser; Hartjes, Fred; Hasegawa, Makoto; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hasib, A; Hassani, Samira; Haug, Sigve; Hauser, Reiner; Hauswald, Lorenz; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hawkins, Anthony David; Hayden, Daniel; Hays, Chris; Hays, Jonathan Michael; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Head, Simon; Heck, Tobias; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heim, Timon; Heinemann, Beate; Heinrich, Jochen Jens; Heinrich, Lukas; Heinz, Christian; Hejbal, Jiri; Helary, Louis; Hellman, Sten; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, James; Henderson, Robert; Heng, Yang; Henkelmann, Steffen; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Herbert, Geoffrey Henry; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hesketh, Gavin Grant; Hessey, Nigel; Hetherly, Jeffrey Wayne; Hickling, Robert; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, Ewan; Hill, John; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hinman, Rachel Reisner; Hirose, Minoru; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoenig, Friedrich; Hohlfeld, Marc; Hohn, David; Holmes, Tova Ray; Homann, Michael; Hong, Tae Min; Hooberman, Benjamin Henry; Hopkins, Walter; Horii, Yasuyuki; Horton, Arthur James; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howard, Jacob; Howarth, James; Hrabovsky, Miroslav; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hrynevich, Aliaksei; Hsu, Catherine; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Hu, Diedi; Hu, Qipeng; Huang, Yanping; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Huhtinen, Mika; Hülsing, Tobias Alexander; Huo, Peng; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibragimov, Iskander; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Ideal, Emma; Idrissi, Zineb; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Iizawa, Tomoya; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikeno, Masahiro; Ilchenko, Iurii; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ilic, Nikolina; Ince, Tayfun; Introzzi, Gianluca; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Iordanidou, Kalliopi; Ippolito, Valerio; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Isaksson, Charlie; Ishino, Masaya; Ishitsuka, Masaki; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Ito, Fumiaki; Iturbe Ponce, Julia Mariana; Iuppa, Roberto; Ivarsson, Jenny; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jabbar, Samina; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, Matthew; Jackson, Paul; Jain, Vivek; Jakobi, Katharina Bianca; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakoubek, Tomas; Jamin, David Olivier; Jana, Dilip; Jansen, Eric; Jansky, Roland; Janssen, Jens; Janus, Michel; Jarlskog, Göran; Javadov, Namig; Javůrek, Tomáš; Jeanneau, Fabien; Jeanty, Laura; Jejelava, Juansher; Jeng, Geng-yuan; Jennens, David; Jenni, Peter; Jentzsch, Jennifer; Jeske, Carl; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Ji, Haoshuang; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Hai; Jiang, Yi; Jiggins, Stephen; Jimenez Pena, Javier; Jin, Shan; Jinaru, Adam; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Johansson, Per; Johns, Kenneth; Johnson, William Joseph; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Sarah; Jones, Tim; Jongmanns, Jan; Jorge, Pedro; Jovicevic, Jelena; Ju, Xiangyang; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Köhler, Markus Konrad; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kahn, Sebastien Jonathan; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalderon, Charles William; Kaluza, Adam; Kama, Sami; Kamenshchikov, Andrey; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneti, Steven; Kanjir, Luka; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kaplan, Laser Seymour; Kapliy, Anton; Kar, Deepak; Karakostas, Konstantinos; Karamaoun, Andrew; Karastathis, Nikolaos; Kareem, Mohammad Jawad; Karentzos, Efstathios; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Karpov, Sergey; Karpova, Zoya; Karthik, Krishnaiyengar; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kasahara, Kota; Kashif, Lashkar; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Yousuke; Kato, Chikuma; Katre, Akshay; Katzy, Judith; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kazama, Shingo; Kazanin, Vassili; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keller, John; Kempster, Jacob Julian; Kentaro, Kawade; Keoshkerian, Houry; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Keyes, Robert; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Kharlamov, Alexey; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kido, Shogo; Kim, Hee Yeun; Kim, Shinhong; Kim, Young-Kee; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver Maria; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Samuel Burton; Kirk, Julie; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kiss, Florian; Kiuchi, Kenji; Kivernyk, Oleh; Kladiva, Eduard; Klein, Matthew Henry; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klimek, Pawel; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinger, Joel Alexander; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Knapik, Joanna; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Kobayashi, Aine; Kobayashi, Dai; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kogan, Lucy Anne; Koi, Tatsumi; Kolanoski, Hermann; Kolb, Mathis; Koletsou, Iro; Komar, Aston; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Kondrashova, Nataliia; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; Kono, Takanori; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kopeliansky, Revital; Koperny, Stefan; Köpke, Lutz; Kopp, Anna Katharina; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kosek, Tomas; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Kourkoumeli-Charalampidi, Athina; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewska, Anna Bozena; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasnopevtsev, Dimitriy; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, Jana; Kravchenko, Anton; Kretz, Moritz; Kretzschmar, Jan; Kreutzfeldt, Kristof; Krieger, Peter; Krizka, Karol; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Krumnack, Nils; Kruse, Amanda; Kruse, Mark; Kruskal, Michael; Kubota, Takashi; Kucuk, Hilal; Kuday, Sinan; Kuechler, Jan Thomas; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuger, Fabian; Kuhl, Andrew; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kukhtin, Victor; Kukla, Romain; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kuna, Marine; Kunigo, Takuto; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kurova, Anastasia; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuwertz, Emma Sian; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; Kwan, Tony; Kyriazopoulos, Dimitrios; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rosa Navarro, Jose Luis; La Rotonda, Laura; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacey, James; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Lammers, Sabine; Lampl, Walter; Lançon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lang, Valerie Susanne; Lange, J örn Christian; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Lanza, Agostino; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Lasagni Manghi, Federico; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Law, Alexander; Laycock, Paul; Lazovich, Tomo; Lazzaroni, Massimo; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Menedeu, Eve; Le Quilleuc, Eloi; LeBlanc, Matthew Edgar; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Claire Alexandra; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Guillaume; Lefebvre, Michel; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehan, Allan; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leight, William Axel; Leisos, Antonios; Leister, Andrew Gerard; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lemmer, Boris; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatjana; Lenzi, Bruno; Leone, Robert; Leone, Sandra; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Lerner, Giuseppe; Leroy, Claude; Lesage, Arthur; Lester, Christopher; Levchenko, Mikhail; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Levy, Mark; Leyko, Agnieszka; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bing; Li, Haifeng; Li, Ho Ling; Li, Lei; Li, Liang; Li, Qi; Li, Shu; Li, Xingguo; Li, Yichen; Liang, Zhijun; Liao, Hongbo; Liberti, Barbara; Liblong, Aaron; Lichard, Peter; Lie, Ki; Liebal, Jessica; Liebig, Wolfgang; Limbach, Christian; Limosani, Antonio; Lin, Simon; Lin, Tai-Hua; Lindquist, Brian Edward; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipniacka, Anna; Lisovyi, Mykhailo; Liss, Tony; Lissauer, David; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Bo; Liu, Dong; Liu, Hao; Liu, Hongbin; Liu, Jian; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Kun; Liu, Lulu; Liu, Miaoyuan; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Yanlin; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Loebinger, Fred; Loevschall-Jensen, Ask Emil; Loew, Kevin Michael; Loginov, Andrey; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Long, Brian Alexander; Long, Jonathan David; Long, Robin Eamonn; Longo, Luigi; Looper, Kristina Anne; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Lopez Paredes, Brais; Lopez Paz, Ivan; Lopez Solis, Alvaro; Lorenz, Jeanette; Lorenzo Martinez, Narei; Losada, Marta; Lösel, Philipp Jonathan; Lou, XinChou; Lounis, Abdenour; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lu, Haonan; Lu, Nan; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Luedtke, Christian; Luehring, Frederick; Lukas, Wolfgang; Luminari, Lamberto; Lundberg, Olof; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lynn, David; Lysak, Roman; Lytken, Else; Lyubushkin, Vladimir; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Ma, Yanhui; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Macdonald, Calum Michael; Maček, Boštjan; Machado Miguens, Joana; Madaffari, Daniele; Madar, Romain; Maddocks, Harvey Jonathan; Mader, Wolfgang; Madsen, Alexander; Maeda, Junpei; Maeland, Steffen; Maeno, Tadashi; Maevskiy, Artem; Magradze, Erekle; Mahlstedt, Joern; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maier, Andreas Alexander; Maier, Thomas; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Malaescu, Bogdan; Malecki, Pawel; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Caitlin; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyukov, Sergei; Mamuzic, Judita; Mancini, Giada; Mandelli, Beatrice; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Maneira, José; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Manjarres Ramos, Joany; Mann, Alexander; Mansoulie, Bruno; Mantifel, Rodger; Mantoani, Matteo; Manzoni, Stefano; Mapelli, Livio; Marceca, Gino; March, Luis; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marjanovic, Marija; Marley, Daniel; Marroquim, Fernando; Marsden, Stephen Philip; Marshall, Zach; Marti, Lukas Fritz; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Brian Thomas; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martinez, Mario; Martin-Haugh, Stewart; Martoiu, Victor Sorin; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massa, Lorenzo; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Mättig, Peter; Mattmann, Johannes; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; Mazini, Rachid; Mazza, Simone Michele; Mc Fadden, Neil Christopher; Mc Goldrick, Garrin; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McClymont, Laurie; McFarlane, Kenneth; Mcfayden, Josh; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Medinnis, Michael; Meehan, Samuel; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meineck, Christian; Meirose, Bernhard; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Meloni, Federico; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Meoni, Evelin; Mergelmeyer, Sebastian; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Meyer Zu Theenhausen, Hanno; Middleton, Robin; Miglioranzi, Silvia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Milesi, Marco; Milic, Adriana; Miller, David; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Minaenko, Andrey; Minami, Yuto; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mistry, Khilesh; Mitani, Takashi; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Miucci, Antonio; Miyagawa, Paul; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Mochizuki, Kazuya; Mohapatra, Soumya; Mohr, Wolfgang; Molander, Simon; Moles-Valls, Regina; Monden, Ryutaro; Mondragon, Matthew Craig; Mönig, Klaus; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montalbano, Alyssa; Montejo Berlingen, Javier; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Morange, Nicolas; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Mori, Daniel; Mori, Tatsuya; Morii, Masahiro; Morinaga, Masahiro; Morisbak, Vanja; Moritz, Sebastian; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morris, John; Mortensen, Simon Stark; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Motohashi, Kazuki; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Muanza, Steve; Mudd, Richard; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Ralph Soeren Peter; Mueller, Thibaut; Muenstermann, Daniel; Mullen, Paul; Mullier, Geoffrey; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Murillo Quijada, Javier Alberto; Murray, Bill; Musheghyan, Haykuhi; Muškinja, Miha; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nachman, Benjamin Philip; Nackenhorst, Olaf; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagai, Ryo; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nagata, Kazuki; Nagel, Martin; Nagy, Elemer; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Namasivayam, Harisankar; Naranjo Garcia, Roger Felipe; Narayan, Rohin; Narrias Villar, Daniel Isaac; Naryshkin, Iouri; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Nayyar, Ruchika; Neal, Homer; Nechaeva, Polina; Neep, Thomas James; Nef, Pascal Daniel; Negri, Andrea; Negrini, Matteo; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nellist, Clara; Nelson, Andrew; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neumann, Manuel; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newman, Paul; Nguyen, Duong Hai; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Nielsen, Jason; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsen, Jon Kerr; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nisius, Richard; Nobe, Takuya; Nodulman, Lawrence; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Nooney, Tamsin; Norberg, Scarlet; Nordberg, Markus; Norjoharuddeen, Nurfikri; Novgorodova, Olga; Nowak, Sebastian; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Ntekas, Konstantinos; Nurse, Emily; Nuti, Francesco; O'grady, Fionnbarr; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Rourke, Abigail Alexandra; O'Shea, Val; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Obermann, Theresa; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Ochoa, Ines; Ochoa-Ricoux, Juan Pedro; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohman, Henrik; Oide, Hideyuki; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olariu, Albert; Oleiro Seabra, Luis Filipe; Olivares Pino, Sebastian Andres; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Onofre, António; Onogi, Kouta; Onyisi, Peter; Oram, Christopher; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlando, Nicola; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Otono, Hidetoshi; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Oussoren, Koen Pieter; Ouyang, Qun; Owen, Mark; Owen, Rhys Edward; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pachal, Katherine; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagáčová, Martina; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paige, Frank; Pais, Preema; Pajchel, Katarina; Palacino, Gabriel; Palestini, Sandro; Palka, Marek; Pallin, Dominique; Palma, Alberto; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Pandini, Carlo Enrico; Panduro Vazquez, William; Pani, Priscilla; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Paolozzi, Lorenzo; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Papageorgiou, Konstantinos; Paramonov, Alexander; Paredes Hernandez, Daniela; Parker, Adam Jackson; Parker, Michael Andrew; Parker, Kerry Ann; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pascuzzi, Vincent; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passaggio, Stefano; Pastore, Fernanda; Pastore, Francesca; Pásztor, Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Patel, Nikhul; Pater, Joleen; Pauly, Thilo; Pearce, James; Pearson, Benjamin; Pedersen, Lars Egholm; Pedersen, Maiken; Pedraza Lopez, Sebastian; Pedro, Rute; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Pelikan, Daniel; Penc, Ondrej; Peng, Cong; Peng, Haiping; Penwell, John; Peralva, Bernardo; Perego, Marta Maria; Perepelitsa, Dennis; Perez Codina, Estel; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrella, Sabrina; Peschke, Richard; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Krisztian; Peters, Yvonne; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petroff, Pierre; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrov, Mariyan; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Pettersson, Nora Emilia; Peyaud, Alan; Pezoa, Raquel; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Pianori, Elisabetta; Picazio, Attilio; Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Pickering, Mark Andrew; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pin, Arnaud Willy J; Pina, João Antonio; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinfold, James; Pingel, Almut; Pires, Sylvestre; Pirumov, Hayk; Pitt, Michael; Plazak, Lukas; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Pleskot, Vojtech; Plotnikova, Elena; Plucinski, Pawel; Pluth, Daniel; Poettgen, Ruth; Poggioli, Luc; Pohl, David-leon; Polesello, Giacomo; Poley, Anne-luise; Policicchio, Antonio; Polifka, Richard; Polini, Alessandro; Pollard, Christopher Samuel; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pommès, Kathy; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Popovic, Dragan; Poppleton, Alan; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potamianos, Karolos; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Pozdnyakov, Valery; Pozo Astigarraga, Mikel Eukeni; Pralavorio, Pascal; Pranko, Aliaksandr; Prell, Soeren; Price, Darren; Price, Lawrence; Primavera, Margherita; Prince, Sebastien; Proissl, Manuel; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Przybycien, Mariusz; Puddu, Daniele; Puldon, David; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Qian, Jianming; Qin, Gang; Qin, Yang; Quadt, Arnulf; Quayle, William; Queitsch-Maitland, Michaela; Quilty, Donnchadha; Raddum, Silje; Radeka, Veljko; Radescu, Voica; Radhakrishnan, Sooraj Krishnan; Radloff, Peter; Rados, Pere; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Raine, John Andrew; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rammensee, Michael; Rangel-Smith, Camila; Ratti, Maria Giulia; Rauscher, Felix; Rave, Stefan; Ravenscroft, Thomas; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Readioff, Nathan Peter; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reeves, Kendall; Rehnisch, Laura; Reichert, Joseph; Reisin, Hernan; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Huan; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Rezanova, Olga; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richter, Robert; Richter, Stefan; Richter-Was, Elzbieta; Ricken, Oliver; Ridel, Melissa; Rieck, Patrick; Riegel, Christian Johann; Rieger, Julia; Rifki, Othmane; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Ristić, Branislav; Ritsch, Elmar; Riu, Imma; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Rizzi, Chiara; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robson, Aidan; Roda, Chiara; Rodina, Yulia; Rodriguez Perez, Andrea; Rodriguez Rodriguez, Daniel; Roe, Shaun; Rogan, Christopher Sean; Røhne, Ole; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romano, Marino; Romano Saez, Silvestre Marino; Romero Adam, Elena; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Ronzani, Manfredi; Roos, Lydia; Ros, Eduardo; Rosati, Stefano; Rosbach, Kilian; Rose, Peyton; Rosenthal, Oliver; Rossetti, Valerio; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rosten, Jonatan; Rosten, Rachel; Rotaru, Marina; Roth, Itamar; Rothberg, Joseph; Rousseau, David; Royon, Christophe; Rozanov, Alexandre; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubbo, Francesco; Rubinskiy, Igor; Rud, Viacheslav; Rudolph, Matthew Scott; Rühr, Frederik; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Ruschke, Alexander; Russell, Heather; Rutherfoord, John; Ruthmann, Nils; Ryabov, Yury; Rybar, Martin; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryu, Soo; Ryzhov, Andrey; Saavedra, Aldo; Sabato, Gabriele; Sacerdoti, Sabrina; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Saha, Puja; Sahinsoy, Merve; Saimpert, Matthias; Saito, Tomoyuki; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Sakurai, Yuki; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salamon, Andrea; Salazar Loyola, Javier Esteban; Salek, David; Sales De Bruin, Pedro Henrique; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, José; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salvucci, Antonio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sammel, Dirk; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Sanchez, Arturo; Sánchez, Javier; Sanchez Martinez, Victoria; Sandaker, Heidi; Sandbach, Ruth Laura; Sander, Heinz Georg; Sanders, Michiel; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandoval, Carlos; Sandstroem, Rikard; Sankey, Dave; Sannino, Mario; Sansoni, Andrea; Santoni, Claudio; Santonico, Rinaldo; Santos, Helena; Santoyo Castillo, Itzebelt; Sapp, Kevin; Sapronov, Andrey; Saraiva, João; Sarrazin, Bjorn; Sasaki, Osamu; Sasaki, Yuichi; Sato, Koji; Sauvage, Gilles; Sauvan, Emmanuel; Savage, Graham; Savard, Pierre; Sawyer, Craig; Sawyer, Lee; Saxon, James; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scanlon, Tim; Scannicchio, Diana; Scarcella, Mark; Scarfone, Valerio; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schaefer, Douglas; Schaefer, Ralph; Schaeffer, Jan; Schaepe, Steffen; Schaetzel, Sebastian; Schäfer, Uli; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R Dean; Scharf, Veit; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Schernau, Michael; Schiavi, Carlo; Schillo, Christian; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitt, Stefan; Schmitz, Simon; Schneider, Basil; Schnellbach, Yan Jie; Schnoor, Ulrike; Schoeffel, Laurent; Schoening, Andre; Schoenrock, Bradley Daniel; Schopf, Elisabeth; Schorlemmer, Andre Lukas; Schott, Matthias; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schramm, Steven; Schreyer, Manuel; Schuh, Natascha; Schultens, Martin Johannes; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schulz, Holger; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwanenberger, Christian; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwarz, Thomas Andrew; Schwegler, Philipp; Schweiger, Hansdieter; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwindling, Jerome; Schwindt, Thomas; Sciolla, Gabriella; Scuri, Fabrizio; Scutti, Federico; Searcy, Jacob; Seema, Pienpen; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seifert, Frank; Seixas, José; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Sekhon, Karishma; Sekula, Stephen; Seliverstov, Dmitry; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Serkin, Leonid; Sessa, Marco; Seuster, Rolf; Severini, Horst; Sfiligoj, Tina; Sforza, Federico; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shaikh, Nabila Wahab; Shan, Lianyou; Shang, Ruo-yu; Shank, James; Shapiro, Marjorie; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaw, Kate; Shaw, Savanna Marie; Shcherbakova, Anna; Shehu, Ciwake Yusufu; Sherwood, Peter; Shi, Liaoshan; Shimizu, Shima; Shimmin, Chase Owen; Shimojima, Makoto; Shiyakova, Mariya; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shoaleh Saadi, Diane; Shochet, Mel; Shojaii, Seyedruhollah; Shrestha, Suyog; Shulga, Evgeny; Shupe, Michael; Sicho, Petr; Sidebo, Per Edvin; Sidiropoulou, Ourania; Sidorov, Dmitri; Sidoti, Antonio; Siegert, Frank; Sijacki, Djordje; Silva, José; Silverstein, Samuel; Simak, Vladislav; Simard, Olivier; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; Simioni, Eduard; Simmons, Brinick; Simon, Dorian; Simon, Manuel; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Sioli, Maximiliano; Siragusa, Giovanni; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Sjölin, Jörgen; Sjursen, Therese; Skinner, Malcolm Bruce; Skottowe, Hugh Philip; Skubic, Patrick; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Slawinska, Magdalena; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Slovak, Radim; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smart, Ben; Smestad, Lillian; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnov, Yury; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smith, Matthew; Smith, Russell; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snidero, Giacomo; Snyder, Scott; Sobie, Randall; Socher, Felix; Soffer, Abner; Soh, Dart-yin; Sokhrannyi, Grygorii; Solans Sanchez, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Soldatov, Evgeny; Soldevila, Urmila; Solodkov, Alexander; Soloshenko, Alexei; Solovyanov, Oleg; Solovyev, Victor; Sommer, Philip; Son, Hyungsuk; Song, Hong Ye; Sood, Alexander; Sopczak, Andre; Sopko, Vit; Sorin, Veronica; Sosa, David; Sotiropoulou, Calliope Louisa; Soualah, Rachik; Soukharev, Andrey; South, David; Sowden, Benjamin; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spalla, Margherita; Spangenberg, Martin; Spanò, Francesco; Sperlich, Dennis; Spettel, Fabian; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spiller, Laurence Anthony; Spousta, Martin; St Denis, Richard Dante; Stabile, Alberto; Stahlman, Jonathan; Stamen, Rainer; Stamm, Soren; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanek, Robert; Stanescu, Cristian; Stanescu-Bellu, Madalina; Stanitzki, Marcel Michael; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Giordon; Stark, Jan; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Stärz, Steffen; Staszewski, Rafal; Steinberg, Peter; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stewart, Graeme; Stillings, Jan Andre; Stockton, Mark; Stoebe, Michael; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stolte, Philipp; Stonjek, Stefan; Stradling, Alden; Straessner, Arno; Stramaglia, Maria Elena; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strandlie, Are; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Ströhmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Strubig, Antonia; Stucci, Stefania Antonia; Stugu, Bjarne; Styles, Nicholas Adam; Su, Dong; Su, Jun; Subramaniam, Rajivalochan; Suchek, Stanislav; Sugaya, Yorihito; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Siyuan; Sun, Xiaohu; Sundermann, Jan Erik; Suruliz, Kerim; Susinno, Giancarlo; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Shota; Svatos, Michal; Swiatlowski, Maximilian; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Ta, Duc; Taccini, Cecilia; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taenzer, Joe; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Takeshita, Tohru; Takubo, Yosuke; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tam, Jason; Tan, Kong Guan; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Shuji; Tannenwald, Benjamin Bordy; Tapia Araya, Sebastian; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tarem, Shlomit; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tashiro, Takuya; Tassi, Enrico; Tavares Delgado, Ademar; Tayalati, Yahya; Taylor, Aaron; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Pierre Thor Elliot; Taylor, Wendy; Teischinger, Florian Alfred; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temming, Kim Katrin; Temple, Darren; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Teoh, Jia Jian; Tepel, Fabian-Phillipp; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Terzo, Stefano; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothée; Thomas, Juergen; Thomas-Wilsker, Joshuha; Thompson, Emily; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Ray; Thompson, Stan; Thomsen, Lotte Ansgaard; Thomson, Evelyn; Thomson, Mark; Tibbetts, Mark James; Ticse Torres, Royer Edson; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timoshenko, Sergey; Tipton, Paul; Tisserant, Sylvain; Todome, Kazuki; Todorov, Theodore; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Tojo, Junji; Tokár, Stanislav; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tolley, Emma; Tomlinson, Lee; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Tong, Baojia(Tony); Torrence, Eric; Torres, Heberth; Torró Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Trefzger, Thomas; Tricoli, Alessandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Tripiana, Martin; Trischuk, William; Trocmé, Benjamin; Trofymov, Artur; Troncon, Clara; Trottier-McDonald, Michel; Trovatelli, Monica; Truong, Loan; Trzebinski, Maciej; Trzupek, Adam; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiareshka, Pavel; Tsipolitis, Georgios; Tsirintanis, Nikolaos; Tsiskaridze, Shota; Tsiskaridze, Vakhtang; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsui, Ka Ming; Tsukerman, Ilya; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Tsuno, Soshi; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tudorache, Alexandra; Tudorache, Valentina; Tuna, Alexander Naip; Tupputi, Salvatore; Turchikhin, Semen; Turecek, Daniel; Turgeman, Daniel; Turra, Ruggero; Turvey, Andrew John; Tuts, Michael; Tyndel, Mike; Ucchielli, Giulia; Ueda, Ikuo; Ueno, Ryuichi; Ughetto, Michael; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Unal, Guillaume; Undrus, Alexander; Unel, Gokhan; Ungaro, Francesca; Unno, Yoshinobu; Unverdorben, Christopher; Urban, Jozef; Urquijo, Phillip; Urrejola, Pedro; Usai, Giulio; Usanova, Anna; Vacavant, Laurent; Vacek, Vaclav; Vachon, Brigitte; Valderanis, Chrysostomos; Valdes Santurio, Eduardo; Valencic, Nika; Valentinetti, Sara; Valero, Alberto; Valery, Loic; Valkar, Stefan; Vallecorsa, Sofia; Valls Ferrer, Juan Antonio; Van Den Wollenberg, Wouter; Van Der Deijl, Pieter; van der Geer, Rogier; van der Graaf, Harry; van Eldik, Niels; van Gemmeren, Peter; Van Nieuwkoop, Jacobus; van Vulpen, Ivo; van Woerden, Marius Cornelis; Vanadia, Marco; Vandelli, Wainer; Vanguri, Rami; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vankov, Peter; Vardanyan, Gagik; Vari, Riccardo; Varnes, Erich; Varol, Tulin; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vasquez, Jared Gregory; Vazeille, Francois; Vazquez Schroeder, Tamara; Veatch, Jason; Veloce, Laurelle Maria; Veloso, Filipe; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Venturini, Alessio; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Jos; Vest, Anja; Vetterli, Michel; Viazlo, Oleksandr; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Vickey Boeriu, Oana Elena; Viehhauser, Georg; Viel, Simon; Vigani, Luigi; Vigne, Ralph; Villa, Mauro; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; Vinogradov, Vladimir; Vittori, Camilla; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Vlachos, Sotirios; Vlasak, Michal; Vogel, Marcelo; Vokac, Petr; Volpi, Guido; Volpi, Matteo; von der Schmitt, Hans; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorobel, Vit; Vorobev, Konstantin; Vos, Marcel; Voss, Rudiger; Vossebeld, Joost; Vranjes, Nenad; Vranjes Milosavljevic, Marija; Vrba, Vaclav; Vreeswijk, Marcel; Vuillermet, Raphael; Vukotic, Ilija; Vykydal, Zdenek; Wagner, Peter; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wahlberg, Hernan; Wahrmund, Sebastian; Wakabayashi, Jun; Walder, James; Walker, Rodney; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Wallangen, Veronica; Wang, Chao; Wang, Chao; Wang, Fuquan; Wang, Haichen; Wang, Hulin; Wang, Jike; Wang, Jin; Wang, Kuhan; Wang, Rui; Wang, Song-Ming; Wang, Tan; Wang, Tingting; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Wanotayaroj, Chaowaroj; Warburton, Andreas; Ward, Patricia; Wardrope, David Robert; Washbrook, Andrew; Watkins, Peter; Watson, Alan; Watson, Ian; Watson, Miriam; Watts, Gordon; Watts, Stephen; Waugh, Ben; Webb, Samuel; Weber, Michele; Weber, Stefan Wolf; Webster, Jordan S; Weidberg, Anthony; Weinert, Benjamin; Weingarten, Jens; Weiser, Christian; Weits, Hartger; Wells, Phillippa; Wenaus, Torre; Wengler, Thorsten; Wenig, Siegfried; Wermes, Norbert; Werner, Matthias; Werner, Per; Wessels, Martin; Wetter, Jeffrey; Whalen, Kathleen; Whallon, Nikola Lazar; Wharton, Andrew Mark; White, Andrew; White, Martin; White, Ryan; White, Sebastian; Whiteson, Daniel; Wickens, Fred; Wiedenmann, Werner; Wielers, Monika; Wienemann, Peter; Wiglesworth, Craig; Wiik-Fuchs, Liv Antje Mari; Wildauer, Andreas; Wilk, Fabian; Wilkens, Henric George; Williams, Hugh; Williams, Sarah; Willis, Christopher; Willocq, Stephane; Wilson, John; Wingerter-Seez, Isabelle; Winklmeier, Frank; Winston, Oliver James; Winter, Benedict Tobias; Wittgen, Matthias; Wittkowski, Josephine; Wollstadt, Simon Jakob; Wolter, Marcin Wladyslaw; Wolters, Helmut; Wosiek, Barbara; Wotschack, Jorg; Woudstra, Martin; Wozniak, Krzysztof; Wu, Mengqing; Wu, Miles; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, Xin; Wu, Yusheng; Wyatt, Terry Richard; Wynne, Benjamin; Xella, Stefania; Xu, Da; Xu, Lailin; Yabsley, Bruce; Yacoob, Sahal; Yakabe, Ryota; Yamaguchi, Daiki; Yamaguchi, Yohei; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Shimpei; Yamanaka, Takashi; Yamauchi, Katsuya; Yamazaki, Yuji; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Haijun; Yang, Hongtao; Yang, Yi; Yang, Zongchang; Yao, Weiming; Yap, Yee Chinn; Yasu, Yoshiji; Yatsenko, Elena; Yau Wong, Kaven Henry; Ye, Jingbo; Ye, Shuwei; Yeletskikh, Ivan; Yen, Andy L; Yildirim, Eda; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshida, Rikutaro; Yoshihara, Keisuke; Young, Charles; Young, Christopher John; Youssef, Saul; Yu, David Ren-Hwa; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Jiaming; Yu, Jie; Yuan, Li; Yuen, Stephanie P; Yusuff, Imran; Zabinski, Bartlomiej; Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zakharchuk, Nataliia; Zalieckas, Justas; Zaman, Aungshuman; Zambito, Stefano; Zanello, Lucia; Zanzi, Daniele; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zeman, Martin; Zemla, Andrzej; Zeng, Jian Cong; Zeng, Qi; Zengel, Keith; Zenin, Oleg; Ženiš, Tibor; Zerwas, Dirk; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Fangzhou; Zhang, Guangyi; Zhang, Huijun; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Ruiqi; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Xiandong; Zhao, Yongke; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Chen; Zhou, Lei; Zhou, Li; Zhou, Mingliang; Zhou, Ning; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Junjie; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zhukov, Konstantin; Zibell, Andre; Zieminska, Daria; Zimine, Nikolai; Zimmermann, Christoph; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Zinonos, Zinonas; Zinser, Markus; Ziolkowski, Michael; Živković, Lidija; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; zur Nedden, Martin; Zurzolo, Giovanni; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2016-06-02

    The production of $Z$ bosons with one or two isolated high-energy photons is studied using $pp$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 8 TeV. The analyses use a data sample with an integrated luminosity of 20.3 fb$^{-1}$ collected by the ATLAS detector during the 2012 LHC data taking. The $Z\\gamma$ and $Z\\gamma\\gamma$ production cross sections are measured with leptonic ($e^{+}e^{-}$, $\\mu^{+}\\mu^{-}$, $\

  11. On the photopeak efficiency of germanium gamma-ray detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeckel, B.; Westmeier, W.; Patzelt, P.

    1987-11-15

    An empirical equation describing the photopeak efficiency of Ge(Li) and high purity germanium (HPGe) photon detectors in the energy range from 60 keV to the onset of escape peak losses is presented. The functional parameters are fitted to calibration points obtained from long-lived commercially available standards (/sup 241/Am, /sup 109/Cd, /sup 57/Co, /sup 137/Cs, /sup 54/Mn, /sup 60/Co, /sup 22/Na). The fitted function is shown to describe 61 efficiency functions of 60 different detectors with an accuracy better than the quoted uncertainty of the calibration sources, including those energy regions where long-lived calibration standards are difficult to obtain. In contrast to other proposed functions, this equation has functional restrictions with respect to the general shape of the photopeak efficiency curve and, therefore, it is well suited to describe the photopeak efficiency, even when fitted only to a few calibration points.

  12. On the photopeak efficiency of germanium gamma-ray detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäckel, B.; Westmeier, W.; Patzelt, P.

    1987-11-01

    An empirical equation describing the photopeak efficiency of Ge(Li) and high purity germanium (HPGe) photon detectors in the energy range from 60 keV to the onset of escape peak losses is presented. The functional parameters are fitted to calibration points obtained from long-lived commercially available standards ( 241Am, 109Cd, 57Co, 137Cs, 54Mn, 60Co, 22Na). The fitted function is shown to describe 61 efficiency functions of 60 different detectors with an accuracy better than the quoted uncertainty of the calibration sources, including those energy regions where long-lived calibration standards are difficult to obtain. In contrast to other proposed functions, this equation has functional restrictions with respect to the general shape of the photopeak efficiency curve and, therefore, it is well suited to describe the photopeak efficiency, even when fitted only to a few calibration points.

  13. Accelerated Aging Test for Plastic Scintillator Gamma Ray Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouzes, Richard T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-05-12

    Polyvinyl toluene (PVT) and polystyrene (PS), collectively referred to as “plastic scintillator,” are synthetic polymer materials used to detect gamma radiation, and are commonly used in instrumentation. Recent studies have revealed that plastic scintillator undergoes an environmentally related material degradation that adversely affects performance under certain conditions and histories. A significant decrease in gamma ray sensitivity has been seen in some detectors in systems as they age. The degradation of sensitivity of plastic scintillator over time is due to a variety of factors, and the term “aging” is used to encompass all factors. Some plastic scintillator samples show no aging effects (no significant change in sensitivity over more than 10 years), while others show severe aging (significant change in sensitivity in less than 5 years). Aging effects arise from weather (variations in heat and humidity), chemical exposure, mechanical stress, light exposure, and loss of volatile components. The damage produced by these various causes can be cumulative, causing observable damage to increase over time. Damage may be reversible up to some point, but becomes permanent under some conditions. It has been demonstrated that exposure of plastic scintillator in an environmental chamber to 30 days of high temperature and humidity (90% relative humidity and 55°C) followed by a single cycle to cold temperature (-30°C) will produce severe fogging in all PVT samples. This thermal cycle will be referred to as the “Accelerated Aging Test.” This document describes the procedure for performing this Accelerated Aging Test.

  14. CsI(Tl)-photodiode detectors for gamma-ray spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Fioretto, E; Viesti, G; Cinausero, M; Zuin, L; Fabris, D; Lunardon, M; Nebbia, G; Prete, G

    2000-01-01

    We report on the performances of CsI(Tl)-photodiode detectors for gamma-ray spectroscopy applications. Light output yield and energy resolution have been measured for different crystals and read-out configurations.

  15. A Study of J/psi-->gamma gamma V(rho,phi) Decays with the BESII Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Bai, J Z; Bian, J G; Cai, X; Chang, J F; Chen, H F; Chen, H S; Chen, H X; Chen, J C; Chen, J; Chen, M L; Chen, Y B; Chi, S P; Chu, Y P; Cui, X Z; Dai, H L; Dai, Y S; Deng, Z Y; Dong, L Y; Du, S X; Du, Z Z; Fang, J; Fang, S S; Fu, C D; Fu, H Y; Fu, L P; Gao, C S; Gao, M L; Gao, Y N; Gong, M Y; Gong, W X; Gu, S D; Guo, Y N; Guo, Y Q; Han, S W; He, J; He, K L; He, M; He, X; Heng, Y K; Hu, H M; Hu, T; Huang, G S; Huang, L; Huang, X P; Ji, X B; Jia, Q Y; Jiang, C H; Jiang, X S; Jin, D P; Jin, S; Jin, Y; Lai, Y F; Li, F; Li, G; Li, H H; Li, J; Li, J C; Li, Q J; Li, R B; Li, R Y; Li, S M; Li, W; Li, W G; Li, X L; Li, X Q; Li, X S; Liang, Y F; Liao, H B; Liu, C X; Liu, F; Liu, H M; Liu, J B; Liu, J P; Liu, R G; Liu, Y; Liu, Z A; Liu, Z X; Lu, G R; Lu, F; Lu, J G; Luo, C L; Luo, X L; Ma, F C; Ma, J M; Ma, L L; Ma, X Y; Mao, Z P; Meng, X C; Mo, X H; Nie, J; Nie, Z D; Peng, H P; Qi, N D; Qian, C D; Qin, H; Qiu, J F; Ren, Z Y; Rong, G; Shan, L Y; Shang, L; Shen, D L; Shen, X Y; Sheng, H Y; Shi, F; Shi, X; Song, L W; Sun, H S; Sun, S S; Sun, Y Z; Sun, Z J; Tang, X; Tao, N; Tian, Y R; Tong, G L; Wang, D Y; Wang, J Z; Wang, L; Wang, L S; Wang, M; Wang, P; Wang, P L; Wang, S Z; Wang, W F; Wang, Y F; Wang, Z; Wang, Z Y; Wei, C L; Wu, N; Wu, Y M; Xia, X M; Xie, X X; Xin, B; Xu, G F; Xu, H; Xu, Y; Xue, S T; Yan, M L; Yan, W B; Yang, F; Yang, H X; Yang, J; Yang, S D; Yang, Y X; Yi, L H; Yi, Z Y; Ye, M; Ye, M H; Ye, Y X; Yu, C S; Yu, G W; Yuan, C Z; Yuan, J M; Yuan, Y; Yue, Q; Zang, S L; Zeng, Y; Zhang, B X; Zhang, B Y; Zhang, C C; Zhang, D H; Zhang, H Y; Zhang, J; Zhang, J M; Zhang, J Y; Zhang, J W; Zhang, L S; Zhang, Q J; Zhang, S Q; Zhang Xiao Min; Zhang, X Y; Zhang, Y J; Zhang, Y Y; Zhang, Z P; Zhang, Z Q; Zhao, D X; Zhao, J B; Zhao, J W; Zhao, P P; Zhao, W R; Zhao, X J; Zhao, Y B; Zhao, Z G; Zheng, H Q; Zheng, J P; Zheng, L S; Zheng, Z P; Zhong, X C; Zhou, B Q; Zhou, G M; Zhou, L; Zhou, N F; Zhu, K J; Zhu, Q M; Zhu, Y C; Zhu, Y S; Zhu, Z A; Zhuang, B A; Zou, B S

    2004-01-01

    Using a sample of $58\\times 10^6$ $J/\\psi$ events collected with the BESII detector, radiative decays $J/\\psi\\to\\gamma\\gamma V$, where $V=\\rho$ or $\\phi$, are studied. A resonance around 1420 MeV/c$^2$ (X(1424)) is observed in the $\\gamma\\rho$ mass spectrum. Its mass and width are measured to be $1424\\pm 10(stat)\\pm 11(sys)$ MeV/c$^2$ and $ 101.0\\pm 8.8 \\pm 8.8$ MeV/c$^2$, respectively, and its branching ratio $B(J/\\psi\\to \\gamma X(1424)\\to \\gamma \\gamma \\rho)$ is determined to be $(1.07\\pm0.17 \\pm 0.11)\\times 10^{-4}$. A search for $X(1424)\\to \\gamma\\phi$ yields a 95% C.L. upper limit $B(J/\\psi\\to \\gamma X(1424)\\to \\gamma\\gamma \\phi) < 0.82 \\times 10^{-4}$.

  16. Ion range measurements using fluorescent nuclear track detectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klimpki, G.; Osinga, J.-M.; Herrmann, R.

    2013-01-01

    Fluorescent nuclear track detectors (FNTDs) show excellent detection properties for heavy charged particles and have, therefore, been investigated in this study in terms of their potential for in-vivo range measurements. We irradiated FNTDs with protons as well as with C, Mg, S, Fe and Xe ion beams...

  17. Experimental determination of gamma-ray discrimination in pillar-structured thermal neutron detectors under high gamma-ray flux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shao, Qinghui; Conway, Adam M.; Voss, Lars F.; Radev, Radoslav P. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Ave., Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Nikolić, Rebecca J., E-mail: nikolic1@llnl.gov [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Ave., Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Dar, Mushtaq A. [King Saud University, Riyadh 11421 (Saudi Arabia); Cheung, Chin L. [Department of Chemistry, University of Nebraska–Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68588 (United States)

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate a detector that has a high neutron-to-gamma discrimination of 8.5×10{sup 5} with a high thermal neutron detection efficiency of 39% when exposed to a high gamma-ray field of 10{sup 9} photons/cm{sup 2}s. The detector is based on a silicon pillar structure filled with a neutron converter material ({sup 10}B) designed to have high thermal neutron detection efficiency. The pillar dimensions are 50 µm pillar height, 2 µm pillar diameter and 2 µm spacing between adjacent pillars.

  18. Proof of Principle for Electronic Collimation of a Gamma Ray Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. ERDC TN-EQT-16-1 January 2016 Proof of Principle for Electronic Collimation of a Gamma...in achieving the proof of principle of the technique, which is intended to be further developed. A gamma ray detector system utilizing electronic...waveforms from longitudinal (along the axis) waveforms yield proof of principle . TECHNOLOGY DESCRIPTION: The component detector technologies were

  19. Pulse Rise Time Characterization of a High Pressure Xenon Gamma Detector for use in Resolution Enhancement

    CERN Document Server

    Troyer, G L

    2000-01-01

    High pressure xenon ionization chamber detectors are possible alternatives to traditional thallium doped sodium iodide (NaI(Tl)) and hyperpure germanium as gamma spectrometers in certain applications. Xenon detectors incorporating a Frisch grid exhibit energy resolutions comparable to cadmium/zinc/telluride (CZT) (e.g. 2% (at) 662keV) but with far greater sensitive volumes. The Frisch grid reduces the position dependence of the anode pulse risetimes, but it also increases the detector vibration sensitivity, anode capacitance, voltage requirements and mechanical complexity. We have been investigating the possibility of eliminating the grid electrode in high-pressure xenon detectors and preserving the high energy resolution using electronic risetime compensation methods. A two-electrode cylindrical high pressure xenon gamma detector coupled to time-to-amplitude conversion electronics was used to characterize the pulse rise time of deposited gamma photons. Time discrimination was used to characterize the pulse r...

  20. Search for Gamma-Ray Bursts with the ARGO-YBJ Detector in Shower Mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartoli, B.; Catalanotti, S.; Piazzoli, B. D’Ettorre; Girolamo, T. Di [Dipartimento di Fisica dell’Universitá di Napoli “Federico II,” Complesso Universitario di Monte Sant’Angelo, via Cinthia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Bernardini, P.; D’Amone, A.; Mitri, I. De [Dipartimento Matematica e Fisica “Ennio De Giorgi,” Universitá del Salento, via per Arnesano, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Bi, X. J.; Cao, Z.; Chen, S. Z.; Feng, Zhaoyang; Gao, W.; Gou, Q. B. [Key Laboratory of Particle Astrophysics, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 918, 100049 Beijing (China); Chen, T. L.; Danzengluobu [Tibet University, 850000 Lhasa, Xizang (China); Cui, S. W. [Hebei Normal University, 050024 Shijiazhuang Hebei (China); Dai, B. Z. [Yunnan University, 2 North Cuihu Road, 650091 Kunming, Yunnan (China); Sciascio, G. Di [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Roma Tor Vergata, via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Feng, C. F. [Shandong University, 250100 Jinan, Shandong (China); Feng, Zhenyong, E-mail: chensz@ihep.ac.cn, E-mail: zhouxx@swjtu.edu.cn [Southwest Jiaotong University, 610031 Chengdu, Sichuan (China); Collaboration: ARGO-YBJ Collaboration; and others

    2017-06-10

    The ARGO-YBJ detector, located at the Yangbajing Cosmic Ray Laboratory (4300 m a. s. l., Tibet, China), was a “full coverage” (central carpet with an active area of ∼93%) air shower array dedicated to gamma-ray astronomy and cosmic-ray studies. The wide field of view (∼2 sr) and high duty cycle (>86%), made ARGO-YBJ suitable to search for short and unexpected gamma-ray emissions like gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Between 2007 November 6 and 2013 February 7, 156 satellite-triggered GRBs (24 of them with known redshift) occurred within the ARGO-YBJ field of view (zenith angle θ ≤ 45°). A search for possible emission associated with these GRBs has been made in the two energy ranges 10–100 GeV and 10–1000 GeV. No significant excess has been found in time coincidence with the satellite detections nor in a set of different time windows inside the interval of one hour after the bursts. Taking into account the EBL absorption, upper limits to the energy fluence at a 99% confidence level have been evaluated, with values ranging from ∼10{sup −5} erg cm{sup −2} to ∼10{sup −1} erg cm{sup −2}. The Fermi -GBM burst GRB 090902B, with a high-energy photon of 33.4 GeV detected by Fermi -LAT, is discussed in detail.

  1. New scintillators for focal plane detectors in gamma-ray missions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buis, Ernst-Jan; Beijersbergen, Marco; Kraft, Stefan; Owens, Alan; Quarati, Francesco; Brandenburg, Sytze; Ostendorf, Reint

    2005-01-01

    Recent developments of cerium-doped lanthanum-halide scintillators like LaBr3:Ce show a remarkable performance in gamma-ray spectroscopy. When high energy resolution in combination with stopping power is required they provide excellent gamma-ray detector candidates for the use in space missions.

  2. Response of CZT drift-strip detector to X- and gamma rays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuvvetli, Irfan; Budtz-Jørgensen, Carl; Gerward, Leif

    2001-01-01

    The drift-strip method for improving the energy response of a CdZnTe (CZT) detector to hard X- and gamma rays is discussed. Results for a 10 x 10 x 3 mm(3) detector crystal demonstrate a remarkable improvement of the energy resolution. The full width at half maximum (FWHM) is 2.18 keV (3.6%), 2...

  3. Program LEP to addition of gamma spectra from germanium detectors; Programa LEPS para suma de espectros gammas de detectores de germanio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, L.

    1986-07-01

    The LEP program, written in FORTRAN IV, performs the addition of two spectra, collected with different detectors, from the same sample. This application, adds the two gamma spectra obtained from two opposite LEPS Germanium Detectors (Low Energy Photon Spectrometer), correcting the differences (channel/energy) between both two spectra, and fitting them before adding. The total-spectrum is recorded at the computer memory as a single spectrum. The necessary equipment, to run this program is: - Two opposite germanium detectors, with their associate electronics. - Multichannel analyzer (2048 memory channel minimum) - Computer on-line interfacing to multichannel analyzer. (Author) 4 refs.

  4. Hybrid Pixel Detectors for gamma/X-ray imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzistratis, D.; Theodoratos, G.; Zografos, V.; Kazas, I.; Loukas, D.; Lambropoulos, C. P.

    2015-09-01

    Hybrid pixel detectors are made by direct converting high-Z semi-insulating single crystalline material coupled to complementary-metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) readout electronics. They are attractive because direct conversion exterminates all the problems of spatial localization related to light diffusion, energy resolution, is far superior from the combination of scintillation crystals and photomultipliers and lithography can be used to pattern electrodes with very fine pitch. We are developing 2-D pixel CMOS ASICs, connect them to pixilated CdTe crystals with the flip chip and bump bonding method and characterize the hybrids. We have designed a series of circuits, whose latest member consists of a 50×25 pixel array with 400um pitch and an embedded controller. In every pixel a full spectroscopic channel with time tagging information has been implemented. The detectors are targeting Compton scatter imaging and they can be used for coded aperture imaging too. Hybridization using CMOS can overcome the limit put on pixel circuit complexity by the use of thin film transistors (TFT) in large flat panels. Hybrid active pixel sensors are used in dental imaging and other applications (e.g. industrial CT etc.). Thus X-ray imaging can benefit from the work done on dynamic range enhancement methods developed initially for visible and infrared CMOS pixel sensors. A 2-D CMOS ASIC with 100um pixel pitch to demonstrate the feasibility of such methods in the context of X-ray imaging has been designed.

  5. Charge sharing on monolithic CdZnTe gamma-ray detectors: A simulation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gros d' Aillon, Eric [LETI - CEA Recherche technologique, CEA Grenoble, 17 rue des Martyrs, F 38054 Grenoble, Cedex 9 (France); Tabary, Joachim [LETI - CEA Recherche technologique, CEA Grenoble, 17 rue des Martyrs, F 38054 Grenoble, Cedex 9 (France); Gliere, Alain [LETI - CEA Recherche technologique, CEA Grenoble, 17 rue des Martyrs, F 38054 Grenoble, Cedex 9 (France); Verger, Loick [LETI - CEA Recherche technologique, CEA Grenoble, 17 rue des Martyrs, F 38054 Grenoble, Cedex 9 (France)]. E-mail: loick.verger@cea.fr

    2006-07-01

    Monolithic CdZnTe gamma-ray detectors are used to build gamma cameras for nuclear medicine imaging but their energy resolution is currently limited by charge sharing between adjacent anodes. For this work, charge sharing is simulated using Ulysse, a numerical model that takes into account the physical processes of charge creation by ionizing radiation and charge transport within the semiconductor detector. The charge carrier cloud size, following the gamma-ray photon interaction, is computed by the Monte Carlo method. Electron cloud diffusion and charge induction on the electrodes are computed by the finite element method. This study shows that the electron diffusion strongly influences the final electron cloud diameter.

  6. Factors influencing the accuracy of beam range estimation in proton therapy using prompt gamma emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, FMFC; Landry, G.; Cambraia Lopes, P.; Dedes, G.; Smeets, J.; Schaart, D. R.; Parodi, K.; Verhaegen, F.

    2014-08-01

    In-vivo imaging is a strategy to monitor the range of protons inside the patient during radiation treatment. A possible method of in-vivo imaging is detection of secondary ‘prompt’ gamma (PG) photons outside the body, which are produced by inelastic proton-nuclear interactions inside the patient. In this paper, important parameters influencing the relationship between the PG profile and percentage depth dose (PDD) in a uniform cylindrical phantom are explored. Monte Carlo simulations are performed with the new Geant4 based code TOPAS for mono-energetic proton pencil beams (range: 100-250 MeV) and an idealized PG detector. PG depth profiles are evaluated using the inflection point on a sigmoid fit in the fall-off region of the profile. A strong correlation between the inflection point and the proton range determined from the PDD is found for all conditions. Variations between 1.5 mm and 2.7 mm in the distance between the proton range and the inflection point are found when either the mass density, phantom diameter, or detector acceptance angle is changed. A change in cut-off energy of the detector could induce a range difference of maximum 4 mm. Applying time-of-flight discrimination during detection, changing the primary energy of the beam or changing the elemental composition of the tissue affects the accuracy of the range prediction by less than 1 mm. The results indicate that the PG signal is rather robust to many parameter variations, but millimetre accurate range monitoring requires all medium and detector properties to be carefully taken into account.

  7. Configuration of gamma detectors in a neutron interrogation system for detection of explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahlavani, M R; Mostaar, A; Nadali-Varkani, J

    2017-10-26

    This paper investigates the use of a suitable gamma detector array to increase the detectably of explosives in a prompt-gammas neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) system. Monte Carlo simulations (MCNP-4C) were used for analyzing the system. It was found that the system's performance is enhanced by the use of four detectors: three of the are located on the same side as the neutron source and the fourth on the opposite side. Signature-based radiation-scanning, with nine signatures for each detector, is also discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Low-temperature high-Z gamma-detectors with very high energy resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pobes, Carlos; Brofferio, Chiara; Bucci, Carlo; Cremonesi, Oliviero; Fiorini, Ettore; Giuliani, Andrea; Nucciotti, Angelo; Pavan, Maura; Pedretti, Marisa; Pessina, Gianluigi; Pirro, Stefano; Previtali, Ezio; Sisti, Monica; Vanzini, Marco; Zanotti, Luigi

    2001-12-01

    High-Z low-temperature calorimeters are developed by an Italian collaboration (Milano-Como-Gran Sasso Underground Laboratories) in order to search for rare nuclear events and Dark Matter massive candidates. They exhibit an excellent energy resolution, close to that of Ge-diodes, but a much higher efficiency. Different high-Z materials were initially employed . A many-years optimisation work on tellurium oxide (TeO2) lead to impressive results: devices with total masses around 750 g present FWHM energy resolutions on gamma-ray peaks ranging from 1 KeV (close to the 5 KeV energy threshold) to 2.6 KeV at 2615 KeV (208Tl gamma line). A 3.2 KeV FWHM energy resolution was obtained at 5.4 MeV (210Po alpha line), which is by far the best one ever achieved with any alpha detector. These devices, operated at about 10 mK, consist of a TeO2 single crystal thermally coupled to a 50 mg Neutron Transmutation Doped (NTD) Ge crystal working as a temperature sensor. Special care was devoted to methods for response linearization and temporal stabilisation. Devices based on the same principle and specifically optimised could find applications in several fields like gamma-ray astrophysics, nuclear physics searches, environmental monitoring and radiation metrology.

  9. Monte Carlo simulations for optimum design of composite detectors for high energy gamma ray

    CERN Document Server

    Wen Wan Xin

    2002-01-01

    The efficiencies of clover and cluster composite detectors using NaI and BGO crystals as the media for detection of high energy gamma ray are systematically simulated with Monte Carlo method. It is shown that for the same geometry of detection media concerned the efficiency of the composite BGO detector is much higher than that of the composite NaI detector. Therefore NaI crystal is not a suitable medium of composite detectors for high energy gamma ray duo to low efficiency. Doppler broadening and distortion to gamma spectrum in comparison with BGO crystal. The composite BGO detectors have many advantages such as large photopeak efficiency, small Doppler effect and regular gamma spectrum. As to the clover and cluster composite detectors consisting of the cylinders of BGO crystal with original size phi 76 x 127, the intrinsic photopeak efficiencies are over 40% and the enhanced factor of absolute efficiencies is as high as 2.4 and 2.7, respectively, for 22 MeV gamma ray

  10. A dual-detector extended range rem-counter

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrarini, M; Silari, M; Agosteo, S

    2010-01-01

    The design and characterization of a dual-detector spherical rem counter is discussed in this paper. The rem counter is based on a polythene sphere with lead and cadmium insets, designed to host at its centre either an active (He-3 SP9 proportional counter) or a passive (CR39 + B-10 radiator) thermal neutron detector. Its sensitivity ranges from thermal energies up to 1 GeV. A Monte Carlo characterization of this dual-detector rem counter has shown no significant change in the shape of the response curve obtained with the two detectors. The rem counter has been calibrated with a Pu-Be source. An intercomparison in a high-energy neutron field has been carried out at the CERF facility at CERN among the rem counter in the two configurations, two commercial units and the original version of the active LINUS in use at CERN. Both the active and passive versions of the rem counter agree, within the statistical uncertainties, with the CERN LINUS and with the facility reference values. Both versions of the instrument ...

  11. Measurement of gamma spectrum of radioactive waste and working environment by portable germanium detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanada, Yukihisa; Akiyama, Kiyomitsu; Yoshizaki, Yuichi; Miyabe, Kenjiro [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Works; Wakayama, Masaki [Inspection Development Co. Ltd. (Japan)

    2002-07-01

    Practical application of portable Ge detector was examined in radiation control at the reprocessing plant. Main purposes of the examination are, (1) estimation of radionuclides inventory by in-situ object counting system (ISOCS), and (2) acquisition of the gamma ray energy information which is necessary for dose estimation. At first waste box, analytical jug, filter and lead container were measured. Then gamma spectrum was measured around glove box in Pu conversion development facility (PCDF). As a result, some aspects concerned about detection limit, distribution of point source and self-absorption by low energy gamma ray were clarified. Information on the gamma ray energy were obtained. Radiation control will become advanced by measuring a gamma ray spectrum by portable germanium detector. (author)

  12. A triple-crystal phoswich detector with digital pulse shape discrimination for alpha/beta/gamma spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Travis L.; Miller, William H.

    1999-02-01

    Researchers at the University of Missouri - Columbia have developed a three-crystal phoswich detector coupled to a digital pulse shape discrimination system for use in alpha/beta/gamma spectroscopy. Phoswich detectors use a sandwich of scintillators viewed by a single photomultiplier tube to simultaneously detect multiple types of radiation. Separation of radiation types is based upon pulse shape difference among the phosphors, which has historically been performed with analog circuitry. The system uses a GaGe CompuScope 1012, 12 bit, 10 MHz computer-based oscilloscope that digitally captures the pulses from a phoswich detector and subsequently performs pulse shape discrimination with cross-correlation analysis. The detector, based partially on previous phoswich designs by Usuda et al., uses a 10 mg/cm 2 thick layer of ZnS(Ag) for alpha detection, followed by a 0.254 cm CaF 2(Eu) crystal for beta detection, all backed by a 2.54 cm NaI(Tl) crystal for gamma detection. Individual energy spectra and count rate information for all three radiation types are displayed and updated periodically. The system shows excellent charged particle discrimination with an accuracy of greater than 99%. Future development will include a large area beta probe with gamma-ray discrimination, systems for low-energy photon detection (e.g. Bremsstrahlung or keV-range photon emissions), and other health physics instrumentation.

  13. Development of an alpha/beta/gamma detector for radiation monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Seiichi; Hatazawa, Jun

    2011-11-01

    For radiation monitoring at the site of nuclear power plant accidents such as Fukushima Daiichi, radiation detectors not only for gamma photons but also for alpha and beta particles are needed because some nuclear fission products emit beta particles and gamma photons and some nuclear fuels contain plutonium that emits alpha particles. We developed a radiation detector that can simultaneously monitor alpha and beta particles and gamma photons for radiation monitoring. The detector consists of three-layered scintillators optically coupled to each other and coupled to a photomultiplier tube. The first layer, which is made of a thin plastic scintillator (decay time: 2.4 ns), detects alpha particles. The second layer, which is made of a thin Gd(2)SiO(5) (GSO) scintillator with 1.5 mol.% Ce (decay time: 35 ns), detects beta particles. The third layer made of a thin GSO scintillator with 0.4 mol.% Ce (decay time: 70 ns) detects gamma photons. By using pulse shape discrimination, the count rates of these layers can be separated. With individual irradiation of alpha and beta particles and gamma photons, the count rate of the first layer represented the alpha particles, the second layer represented the beta particles, and the third layer represented the gamma photons. Even with simultaneous irradiation of the alpha and beta particles and the gamma photons, these three types of radiation can be individually monitored using correction for the gamma detection efficiency of the second and third layers. Our developed alpha, beta, and gamma detector is simple and will be useful for radiation monitoring, especially at nuclear power plant accident sites or other applications where the simultaneous measurements of alpha and beta particles and gamma photons are required. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  14. New focal plane detector system for the broad range spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoreen, T.P.

    1984-01-01

    A focal plane detector system consisting of a vertical drift chamber, parallel plate avalanche counters, and an ionization chamber with segmented anodes has been installed in the Broad Range Spectrometer at the Holifield Facility at Oak Ridge. The system, which has been designed for use with light-heavy ions with energies ranging from 10 to 25 MeV/amu, has a position resolution of approx. 0.1 mm, a scattering angle resolution of approx. 3 mrad, and a mass resolution of approx. 1/60.

  15. Measurement of the Higgs boson mass in the gamma gamma and 4-lepton decay channels with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Bruscino, Nello; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The mass of the Higgs boson is measured in the $H\\to ZZ^*\\to4\\ell$ and in the $H\\to\\gamma\\gamma$ decay channels with $36.1\\text{ fb}^{−1}$ of proton-proton collision data from the Large Hadron Collider at a centre-of-mass energy of $13\\text{ TeV}$ recorded by the ATLAS detector in 2015 and 2016. The measured value in the $H\\to ZZ^*\\to4\\ell$ channel is $m_H =124.88\\pm0.37\\text{ GeV}$, while the measured value in the $H\\to\\gamma\\gamma$ channel is $m_H=125.11\\pm0.42\\text{ GeV}$. The value of the Higgs boson mass obtained from a simultaneous fit to the invariant mass distributions in the two channels is $m_H=124.98\\pm0.28\\text{ GeV}$.

  16. CDZNTE ROOM-TEMPERATURE SEMICONDUCTOR GAMMA-RAY DETECTOR FOR NATIONAL-SECURITY APPLICATIONS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CAMARDA,G.S.; BOLOTNIKOV, A.E.; CUI, Y.; HOSSAIN, A.; KOHMAN, K.T.; JAMES, R.B.

    2007-05-04

    One important mission of the Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration is to develop reliable gamma-ray detectors to meet the widespread needs of users for effective techniques to detect and identify special nuclear- and radioactive-materials. Accordingly, the Nonproliferation and National Security Department at Brookhaven National Laboratory was tasked to evaluate existing technology and to develop improved room-temperature detectors based on semiconductors, such as CdZnTe (CZT). Our research covers two important areas: Improving the quality of CZT material, and exploring new CZT-based gamma-ray detectors. In this paper, we report on our recent findings from the material characterization and tests of actual CZT devices fabricated in our laboratory and from materials/detectors supplied by different commercial vendors. In particular, we emphasize the critical role of secondary phases in the current CZT material and issues in fabricating the CZT detectors, both of which affect their performance.

  17. Contribution of a germanium detector in mobile gamma-ray spectrometry. Spectral analysis and performance

    CERN Document Server

    Gutierrez, S; Bourgeois, C

    2002-01-01

    The sensitivity of the germanium semi-conductor detector is 30 times lower than that of the sodium iodide (NaI) detectors frequently used in airborne spectrometry. Its energy resolution however, is 20 times better, giving more accurate identification of radionuclides, especially when complex spectra are involved. The use of the germanium detector in mobile gamma-ray spectrometry provides a large amount of qualitative and quantitative information. In post-accident situations a germanium detector will be sufficient, and should therefore be used in preference to a NaI detector. An algorithm for detecting the total absorption peaks by studying the variations in the spectral profile of germanium gamma-ray spectra has been developed at the CEA. The use of digital filters that take into account the characteristics of the absorption peaks reduces the statistical fluctuations, making possible detection based on the analysis of the first and second derivatives. The absorption peak is then estimated by subtracting the b...

  18. Calculation of transport parameters of gamma-radiation detectors based on semi-insulating semiconductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakharchenko A. A.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A method of fast determination of the high resistivity detector charge collection parameters with the use of the detector dosimetric characteristics and by means of mathematical simulation is proposed. A problem of calculation of charge collection parameters is investigated for planar gamma-radiation dosimetric detectors made from semi-insulating compound semiconductor CdTe (CdZnTe. An applicability of the considered method is verified by computer simulation for HgI2 gamma-radiation detectors. The considered method can be used in the development of both dosimetry and spectrometry devices for radiation monitoring and for monitoring of characteristic devices operating in hard radiation fields. KEY WORDS: mobility, life time, semiconductor detectors, semi-insulating semiconductors, CdTe, CdZnTe, HgI2, Monte-Carlo method.

  19. An actively vetoed Clover gamma-detector for nuclear astrophysics at LUNA

    CERN Document Server

    Szucs, T; Broggini, C; Caciolli, A; Confortola, F; Corvisiero, P; Elekes, Z; Formicola, A; Fulop, Zs; Gervino, G; Guglielmetti, A; Gustavino, C; Gyurky, Gy; Imbriani, G; Junker, M; Lemut, A; Marta, M; Mazzocchi, C; Menegazzo, R; Prati, P; Roca, V; Rolfs, C; Alvarez, C Rossi; Somorjai, E; Straniero, O; Strieder, F; Terrasi, F; Trautvetter, H P

    2010-01-01

    An escape-suppressed, composite high-purity germanium detector of the Clover type has been installed at the Laboratory for Underground Nuclear Astrophysics (LUNA) facility, deep underground in the Gran Sasso Laboratory, Italy. The laboratory gamma-ray background of the Clover detector has been studied underground at LUNA and, for comparison, also in an overground laboratory. Spectra have been recorded both for the single segments and for the virtual detector formed by online addition of all four segments. The effect of the escape-suppression shield has been studied as well. Despite their generally higher intrinsic background, escape-suppressed detectors are found to be well suited for underground nuclear astrophysics studies. As an example for the advantage of using a composite detector deep underground, the weak ground state branching of the Ep = 223 keV resonance in the 24Mg(p,gamma)25Al reaction is determined with improved precision.

  20. Accounting for detector crystal edge rounding in gamma-efficiency calculations theoretical elaboration and application in ANGLE software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaljević Nikola

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In absolute and semi-empirical calculations of full gamma-energy peak efficiencies (ep, geometrical/compositional data characterizing the detector should be known in much detail. Among these, detector crystal edge rounding (bulletization, if neglected, may lead to large systematic errors, especially for low gamma-energies and close counting geometries. The errors show quadratic dependence on the extent of bulletization (bulletization radius. Mathematical/analytical solution to the problem - not reported so far - is elaborated in the present work. Relevant mathematical formulae are derived for a number of counting arrangements most frequently encountered in gamma-spectrometry practice (point, disc, cylinder, and Marinelli sources. These are subsequently programmed for numerical calculations and are now part of commercially available ANGLE software. Extensive calculation testing is performed for HPGe (both p- and n-type and LEPD detectors (several sizes each, with various sources (point, disc, cylinder, Marinelli and counting geometries (0-20 cm source-to-detector distance. Energy range considered was 10-3000 keV. To elucidate the significance of the issue, an error propagation study was conducted: results with bulletization taken into account are compared to those when bulletization was neglected. Corresponding errors are tabulated in an extensive Excel file. The file comprises about 152 000 error calculation results which are available for download; a few characteristic ones are selected for presenting in the paper. ANGLE proved handy (in programming and fast (in calculations when accomplishing this task. The data convincingly illustrate the impact of detector bulletization on gamma-efficiency and thus the need to account for. Even only slight bulletization (1-2 mm bulletization radius is not negligible in many realistic counting situations. Reader/analyst can (1 compare his/her counting situation with these data so as to get the first

  1. Measurements of $Z\\gamma$ and $Z\\gamma\\gamma$ production in $pp$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=8$ TeV with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00349845; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The production of Z bosons with one or two isolated high-energy photons is studied using $pp$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 8 TeV. The analyses use a data sample with an integrated luminosity of 20.3 $fb^{-1}$ collected by the ATLAS detector during the 2012 LHC data taking. The data are used to make tests of the electroweak sector of the Standard Model (SM) and search for deviations that could provide evidence for new physics beyond SM. The $Z\\gamma$ and $Z\\gamma\\gamma$ production cross sections are measured with leptonic ($e^{+}e^{-}$, $\\mu^{+}\\mu^{-}$, $\

  2. Nuclear Material Accountability Applications of a Continuous Energy and Direction Gamma Ray Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Gerts; Robert Bean; Marc Paff

    2010-07-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory has recently developed a detector system based on the principle of a Wilson cloud chamber that gives the original energy and direction to a gamma ray source. This detector has the properties that the energy resolution is continuous and the direction to the source can be resolved to desired fidelity. Furthermore, the detector has low power requirements, is durable, operates in widely varying environments, and is relatively cheap to produce. This detector is expected, however, to require significant time to perform measurements. To mitigate the significant time for measurements, the detector is expected to scale to very large sizes with a linear increase in cost. For example, the proof of principle detector is approximately 30,000 cm3. This work describes the technical results that lead to these assertions. Finally, the applications of this detector are described in the context of nuclear material accountability.

  3. Constraints on Vesta's elemental composition: Fast neutron measurements by Dawn's gamma ray and neutron detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, David J; Peplowski, Patrick N; Prettyman, Thomas H; Feldman, William C; Bazell, David; Mittlefehldt, David W; Reedy, Robert C; Yamashita, Naoyuki

    2013-01-01

    Surface composition information from Vesta is reported using fast neutron data collected by the gamma ray and neutron detector on the Dawn spacecraft. After correcting for variations due to hydrogen, fast neutrons show a compositional dynamic range and spatial variability that is consistent with variations in average atomic mass from howardite, eucrite, and diogenite (HED) meteorites. These data provide additional compositional evidence that Vesta is the parent body to HED meteorites. A subset of fast neutron data having lower statistical precision show spatial variations that are consistent with a 400 ppm variability in hydrogen concentrations across Vesta and supports the idea that Vesta's hydrogen is due to long-term delivery of carbonaceous chondrite material. PMID:26074718

  4. Searches for Higgs boson pair production in the $hh\\to bb\\tau\\tau, \\gamma\\gamma WW*, \\gamma\\gamma bb, bbbb$ channels with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdinov, Ovsat; Aben, Rosemarie; Abolins, Maris; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Abreu, Ricardo; Abulaiti, Yiming; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Adelman, Jahred; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adye, Tim; Affolder, Tony; Agatonovic-Jovin, Tatjana; Agricola, Johannes; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Ahlen, Steven; Ahmadov, Faig; Aielli, Giulio; Akerstedt, Henrik; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimov, Andrei; Alberghi, Gian Luigi; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Alconada Verzini, Maria Josefina; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alio, Lion; Alison, John; Alkire, Steven Patrick; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allport, Phillip; Aloisio, Alberto; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Alpigiani, Cristiano; Altheimer, Andrew David; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Άlvarez Piqueras, Damián; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amadio, Brian Thomas; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral Coutinho, Yara; Amelung, Christoph; Amidei, Dante; Amor Dos Santos, Susana Patricia; Amorim, Antonio; Amoroso, Simone; Amram, Nir; Amundsen, Glenn; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anders, John Kenneth; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Angelidakis, Stylianos; Angelozzi, Ivan; Anger, Philipp; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoki, Masato; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Arabidze, Giorgi; Arai, Yasuo; Araque, Juan Pedro; Arce, Ayana; Arduh, Francisco Anuar; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Argyropoulos, Spyridon; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnold, Hannah; Arratia, Miguel; Arslan, Ozan; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Asai, Shoji; Asbah, Nedaa; Ashkenazi, Adi; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astalos, Robert; Atkinson, Markus; Atlay, Naim Bora; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Avolio, Giuseppe; Axen, Bradley; Ayoub, Mohamad Kassem; Azuelos, Georges; Baak, Max; Baas, Alessandra; Baca, Matthew John; Bacci, Cesare; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Bagiacchi, Paolo; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bai, Yu; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baldin, Evgenii; Balek, Petr; Balestri, Thomas; Balli, Fabrice; Balunas, William Keaton; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Swagato; Bannoura, Arwa A E; Barak, Liron; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnes, Sarah Louise; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Barnovska, Zuzana; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartos, Pavol; Basalaev, Artem; Bassalat, Ahmed; Basye, Austin; Bates, Richard; Batista, Santiago Juan; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Marco; Bauce, Matteo; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beacham, James Baker; Beattie, Michael David; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Becker, Kathrin; Becker, Maurice; Beckingham, Matthew; Becot, Cyril; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Beemster, Lars; Beermann, Thomas; Begel, Michael; Behr, Janna Katharina; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellerive, Alain; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bender, Michael; Bendtz, Katarina; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez Garcia, Jorge-Armando; Benjamin, Douglas; Bensinger, James; Bentvelsen, Stan; Beresford, Lydia; Beretta, Matteo; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Beringer, Jürg; Bernard, Clare; Bernard, Nathan Rogers; Bernius, Catrin; Bernlochner, Florian Urs; Berry, Tracey; Berta, Peter; Bertella, Claudia; Bertoli, Gabriele; Bertolucci, Federico; Bertsche, Carolyn; Bertsche, David; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besjes, Geert-Jan; Bessidskaia Bylund, Olga; Bessner, Martin Florian; Besson, Nathalie; Betancourt, Christopher; Bethke, Siegfried; Bevan, Adrian John; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianchini, Louis; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Biedermann, Dustin; Bieniek, Stephen Paul; Biesuz, Nicolo Vladi; Biglietti, Michela; Bilbao De Mendizabal, Javier; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Biondi, Silvia; Bjergaard, David Martin; Black, Curtis; Black, James; Black, Kevin; Blackburn, Daniel; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blanco, Jacobo Ezequiel; Blazek, Tomas; Bloch, Ingo; Blocker, Craig; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Blunier, Sylvain; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bobrovnikov, Victor; Bocchetta, Simona Serena; Bocci, Andrea; Bock, Christopher; Boehler, Michael; Bogaerts, Joannes Andreas; Bogavac, Danijela; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Bohm, Christian; Boisvert, Veronique; Bold, Tomasz; Boldea, Venera; Boldyrev, Alexey; Bomben, Marco; Bona, Marcella; Boonekamp, Maarten; Borisov, Anatoly; Borissov, Guennadi; Borroni, Sara; Bortfeldt, Jonathan; Bortolotto, Valerio; Bos, Kors; Boscherini, Davide; Bosman, Martine; Boudreau, Joseph; Bouffard, Julian; Bouhova-Thacker, Evelina Vassileva; Boumediene, Djamel Eddine; Bourdarios, Claire; Bousson, Nicolas; Boutle, Sarah Kate; Boveia, Antonio; Boyd, James; Boyko, Igor; Bozic, Ivan; Bracinik, Juraj; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Gerhard; Brandt, Oleg; Bratzler, Uwe; Brau, Benjamin; Brau, James; Braun, Helmut; Breaden Madden, William Dmitri; Brendlinger, Kurt; Brennan, Amelia Jean; Brenner, Lydia; Brenner, Richard; Bressler, Shikma; Bristow, Timothy Michael; Britton, Dave; Britzger, Daniel; Brochu, Frederic; Brock, Ian; Brock, Raymond; Bronner, Johanna; Brooijmans, Gustaaf; Brooks, Timothy; Brooks, William; Brosamer, Jacquelyn; Brost, Elizabeth; Bruckman de Renstrom, Pawel; Bruncko, Dusan; Bruneliere, Renaud; Bruni, Alessia; Bruni, Graziano; Bruschi, Marco; Bruscino, Nello; Bryngemark, Lene; Buanes, Trygve; Buat, Quentin; Buchholz, Peter; Buckley, Andrew; Buda, Stelian Ioan; Budagov, Ioulian; Buehrer, Felix; Bugge, Lars; Bugge, Magnar Kopangen; Bulekov, Oleg; Bullock, Daniel; Burckhart, Helfried; Burdin, Sergey; Burgard, Carsten Daniel; Burghgrave, Blake; Burke, Stephen; Burmeister, Ingo; Busato, Emmanuel; Büscher, Daniel; Büscher, Volker; Bussey, Peter; Butler, John; Butt, Aatif Imtiaz; Buttar, Craig; Butterworth, Jonathan; Butti, Pierfrancesco; Buttinger, William; Buzatu, Adrian; Buzykaev, Aleksey; Cabrera Urbán, Susana; Caforio, Davide; Cairo, Valentina; Cakir, Orhan; Calace, Noemi; Calafiura, Paolo; Calandri, Alessandro; Calderini, Giovanni; Calfayan, Philippe; Caloba, Luiz; Calvet, David; Calvet, Samuel; Camacho Toro, Reina; Camarda, Stefano; Camarri, Paolo; Cameron, David; Caminal Armadans, Roger; Campana, Simone; Campanelli, Mario; Campoverde, Angel; Canale, Vincenzo; Canepa, Anadi; Cano Bret, Marc; Cantero, Josu; Cantrill, Robert; Cao, Tingting; Capeans Garrido, Maria Del Mar; Caprini, Irinel; Caprini, Mihai; Capua, Marcella; Caputo, Regina; Carbone, Ryne Michael; Cardarelli, Roberto; Cardillo, Fabio; Carli, Tancredi; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Carminati, Leonardo; Caron, Sascha; Carquin, Edson; Carrillo-Montoya, German D; Carter, Janet; Carvalho, João; Casadei, Diego; Casado, Maria Pilar; Casolino, Mirkoantonio; Castaneda-Miranda, Elizabeth; Castelli, Angelantonio; Castillo Gimenez, Victoria; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Catastini, Pierluigi; Catinaccio, Andrea; Catmore, James; Cattai, Ariella; Caudron, Julien; Cavaliere, Viviana; Cavalli, Donatella; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cavasinni, Vincenzo; Ceradini, Filippo; Cerio, Benjamin; Cerny, Karel; Cerqueira, Augusto Santiago; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Cerutti, Fabio; Cerv, Matevz; Cervelli, Alberto; Cetin, Serkant Ali; Chafaq, Aziz; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chalupkova, Ina; Chan, Yat Long; Chang, Philip; Chapman, John Derek; Charlton, Dave; Chau, Chav Chhiv; Chavez Barajas, Carlos Alberto; Cheatham, Susan; Chegwidden, Andrew; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chelstowska, Magda Anna; Chen, Chunhui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Karen; Chen, Liming; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Shion; Chen, Xin; Chen, Ye; Cheng, Hok Chuen; Cheng, Yangyang; Cheplakov, Alexander; Cheremushkina, Evgenia; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Chernyatin, Valeriy; Cheu, Elliott; Chevalier, Laurent; Chiarella, Vitaliano; Chiarelli, Giorgio; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chisholm, Andrew; Chislett, Rebecca Thalatta; Chitan, Adrian; Chizhov, Mihail; Choi, Kyungeon; Chouridou, Sofia; Chow, Bonnie Kar Bo; Christodoulou, Valentinos; Chromek-Burckhart, Doris; Chudoba, Jiri; Chuinard, Annabelle Julia; Chwastowski, Janusz; Chytka, Ladislav; Ciapetti, Guido; Ciftci, Abbas Kenan; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Cioara, Irina Antonela; Ciocio, Alessandra; Cirotto, Francesco; Citron, Zvi Hirsh; Ciubancan, Mihai; Clark, Allan G; Clark, Brian Lee; Clark, Philip James; Clarke, Robert; Clement, Christophe; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H; Coffey, Laurel; Cogan, Joshua Godfrey; Colasurdo, Luca; Cole, Brian; Cole, Stephen; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Collot, Johann; Colombo, Tommaso; Compostella, Gabriele; Conde Muiño, Patricia; Coniavitis, Elias; Connell, Simon Henry; Connelly, Ian; Consorti, Valerio; Constantinescu, Serban; Conta, Claudio; Conti, Geraldine; Conventi, Francesco; Cooke, Mark; Cooper, Ben; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Cornelissen, Thijs; Corradi, Massimo; Corriveau, Francois; Corso-Radu, Alina; Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; Cortiana, Giorgio; Costa, Giuseppe; Costa, María José; Costanzo, Davide; Côté, David; Cottin, Giovanna; Cowan, Glen; Cox, Brian; Cranmer, Kyle; Cree, Graham; Crépé-Renaudin, Sabine; Crescioli, Francesco; Cribbs, Wayne Allen; Crispin Ortuzar, Mireia; Cristinziani, Markus; Croft, Vince; Crosetti, Giovanni; Cuhadar Donszelmann, Tulay; Cummings, Jane; Curatolo, Maria; Cúth, Jakub; Cuthbert, Cameron; Czirr, Hendrik; Czodrowski, Patrick; D'Auria, Saverio; D'Onofrio, Monica; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, Mario Jose; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dafinca, Alexandru; Dai, Tiesheng; Dale, Orjan; Dallaire, Frederick; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dam, Mogens; Dandoy, Jeffrey Rogers; Dang, Nguyen Phuong; Daniells, Andrew Christopher; Danninger, Matthias; Dano Hoffmann, Maria; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darmora, Smita; Dassoulas, James; Dattagupta, Aparajita; Davey, Will; David, Claire; Davidek, Tomas; Davies, Eleanor; Davies, Merlin; Davison, Peter; Davygora, Yuriy; Dawe, Edmund; Dawson, Ian; Daya-Ishmukhametova, Rozmin; De, Kaushik; de Asmundis, Riccardo; De Benedetti, Abraham; De Castro, Stefano; De Cecco, Sandro; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; De la Torre, Hector; De Lorenzi, Francesco; De Pedis, Daniele; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; De Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; Dearnaley, William James; Debbe, Ramiro; Debenedetti, Chiara; Dedovich, Dmitri; Deigaard, Ingrid; Del Peso, Jose; Del Prete, Tarcisio; Delgove, David; Deliot, Frederic; Delitzsch, Chris Malena; Deliyergiyev, Maksym; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Dell'Orso, Mauro; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; Deluca, Carolina; DeMarco, David; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demilly, Aurelien; Denisov, Sergey; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Deterre, Cecile; Dette, Karola; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Domenico, Antonio; Di Donato, Camilla; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Di Micco, Biagio; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Di Valentino, David; Diaconu, Cristinel; Diamond, Miriam; Dias, Flavia; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Diehl, Edward; Dietrich, Janet; Diglio, Sara; Dimitrievska, Aleksandra; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dita, Petre; Dita, Sanda; Dittus, Fridolin; Djama, Fares; Djobava, Tamar; Djuvsland, Julia Isabell; do Vale, Maria Aline Barros; Dobos, Daniel; Dobre, Monica; Doglioni, Caterina; Dohmae, Takeshi; Dolejsi, Jiri; Dolezal, Zdenek; Dolgoshein, Boris; Donadelli, Marisilvia; Donati, Simone; Dondero, Paolo; Donini, Julien; Dopke, Jens; Doria, Alessandra; Dova, Maria-Teresa; Doyle, Tony; Drechsler, Eric; Dris, Manolis; Dubreuil, Emmanuelle; Duchovni, Ehud; Duckeck, Guenter; Ducu, Otilia Anamaria; Duda, Dominik; Dudarev, Alexey; Duflot, Laurent; Duguid, Liam; Dührssen, Michael; Dunford, Monica; Duran Yildiz, Hatice; Düren, Michael; Durglishvili, Archil; Duschinger, Dirk; Dutta, Baishali; Dyndal, Mateusz; Eckardt, Christoph; Ecker, Katharina Maria; Edgar, Ryan Christopher; Edson, William; Edwards, Nicholas Charles; Ehrenfeld, Wolfgang; Eifert, Till; Eigen, Gerald; Einsweiler, Kevin; Ekelof, Tord; El Kacimi, Mohamed; Ellert, Mattias; Elles, Sabine; Ellinghaus, Frank; Elliot, Alison; Ellis, Nicolas; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Elsing, Markus; Emeliyanov, Dmitry; Enari, Yuji; Endner, Oliver Chris; Endo, Masaki; Erdmann, Johannes; Ereditato, Antonio; Ernis, Gunar; Ernst, Jesse; Ernst, Michael; Errede, Steven; Ertel, Eugen; Escalier, Marc; Esch, Hendrik; Escobar, Carlos; Esposito, Bellisario; Etienvre, Anne-Isabelle; Etzion, Erez; Evans, Hal; Ezhilov, Alexey; Fabbri, Laura; Facini, Gabriel; Fakhrutdinov, Rinat; Falciano, Speranza; Falla, Rebecca Jane; Faltova, Jana; Fang, Yaquan; Fanti, Marcello; Farbin, Amir; Farilla, Addolorata; Farooque, Trisha; Farrell, Steven; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fassi, Farida; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Faucci Giannelli, Michele; Favareto, Andrea; Fayard, Louis; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Wojciech; Feigl, Simon; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Feng, Haolu; Fenyuk, Alexander; Feremenga, Last; Fernandez Martinez, Patricia; Fernandez Perez, Sonia; Ferrando, James; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferreira de Lima, Danilo Enoque; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Ferretto Parodi, Andrea; Fiascaris, Maria; Fiedler, Frank; Filipčič, Andrej; Filipuzzi, Marco; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Finelli, Kevin Daniel; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Firan, Ana; Fischer, Adam; Fischer, Cora; Fischer, Julia; Fisher, Wade Cameron; Flaschel, Nils; Fleck, Ivor; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fletcher, Gareth Thomas; Fletcher, Gregory; Fletcher, Rob Roy MacGregor; Flick, Tobias; Floderus, Anders; Flores Castillo, Luis; Flowerdew, Michael; Formica, Andrea; Forti, Alessandra; Fournier, Daniel; Fox, Harald; Fracchia, Silvia; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchini, Matteo; Francis, David; Franconi, Laura; Franklin, Melissa; Frate, Meghan; Fraternali, Marco; Freeborn, David; French, Sky; Friedrich, Felix; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fuchi, Ryosuke; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fulsom, Bryan Gregory; Fusayasu, Takahiro; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gabrielli, Alessandro; Gabrielli, Andrea; Gach, Grzegorz; Gadatsch, Stefan; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Galhardo, Bruno; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Galster, Gorm Aske Gram Krohn; Gan, KK; Gao, Jun; Gao, Yanyan; Gao, Yongsheng; Garay Walls, Francisca; Garberson, Ford; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garonne, Vincent; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudiello, Andrea; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gaur, Bakul; Gauthier, Lea; Gauzzi, Paolo; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gazis, Evangelos; Ge, Peng; Gecse, Zoltan; Gee, Norman; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Geisler, Manuel Patrice; Gemme, Claudia; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Gentile, Simonetta; George, Matthias; George, Simon; Gerbaudo, Davide; Gershon, Avi; Ghasemi, Sara; Ghazlane, Hamid; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giangiobbe, Vincent; Giannetti, Paola; Gibbard, Bruce; Gibson, Stephen; Gignac, Matthew; Gilchriese, Murdock; Gillam, Thomas; Gillberg, Dag; Gilles, Geoffrey; Gingrich, Douglas; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giorgi, Filippo Maria; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giromini, Paolo; Giugni, Danilo; Giuliani, Claudia; Giulini, Maddalena; Gjelsten, Børge Kile; Gkaitatzis, Stamatios; Gkialas, Ioannis; Gkougkousis, Evangelos Leonidas; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glaysher, Paul; Glazov, Alexandre; Goblirsch-Kolb, Maximilian; Goddard, Jack Robert; Godlewski, Jan; Goldfarb, Steven; Golling, Tobias; Golubkov, Dmitry; Gomes, Agostinho; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, Joao; Gonella, Laura; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Parra, Garoe; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Goshaw, Alfred; Gössling, Claus; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Goujdami, Driss; Goussiou, Anna; Govender, Nicolin; Gozani, Eitan; Grabas, Herve Marie Xavier; Graber, Lars; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Gradin, Per Olov Joakim; Grafström, Per; Gramling, Johanna; Gramstad, Eirik; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Gratchev, Vadim; Gray, Heather; Graziani, Enrico; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Grefe, Christian; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Griffiths, Justin; Grillo, Alexander; Grimm, Kathryn; Grinstein, Sebastian; Gris, Philippe Luc Yves; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Grohs, Johannes Philipp; Grohsjean, Alexander; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Grossi, Giulio Cornelio; Grout, Zara Jane; Guan, Liang; Guenther, Jaroslav; Guescini, Francesco; Guest, Daniel; Gueta, Orel; Guido, Elisa; Guillemin, Thibault; Guindon, Stefan; Gul, Umar; Gumpert, Christian; Guo, Jun; Guo, Yicheng; Gupta, Shaun; Gustavino, Giuliano; Gutierrez, Phillip; Gutierrez Ortiz, Nicolas Gilberto; Gutschow, Christian; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haber, Carl; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Haddad, Nacim; Haefner, Petra; Hageböck, Stephan; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Haleem, Mahsana; Haley, Joseph; Hall, David; Halladjian, Garabed; Hallewell, Gregory David; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamano, Kenji; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamity, Guillermo Nicolas; Hamnett, Phillip George; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hanawa, Keita; Hance, Michael; Haney, Bijan; Hanke, Paul; Hanna, Remie; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Maike Christina; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hard, Andrew; Harenberg, Torsten; Hariri, Faten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harrington, Robert; Harrison, Paul Fraser; Hartjes, Fred; Hasegawa, Makoto; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hasib, A; Hassani, Samira; Haug, Sigve; Hauser, Reiner; Hauswald, Lorenz; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hawkins, Anthony David; Hayashi, Takayasu; Hayden, Daniel; Hays, Chris; Hays, Jonathan Michael; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Head, Simon; Heck, Tobias; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heim, Timon; Heinemann, Beate; Heinrich, Lukas; Hejbal, Jiri; Helary, Louis; Hellman, Sten; Hellmich, Dennis; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, James; Henderson, Robert; Heng, Yang; Hengler, Christopher; Henkelmann, Steffen; Henrichs, Anna; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Herbert, Geoffrey Henry; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hesketh, Gavin Grant; Hessey, Nigel; Hetherly, Jeffrey Wayne; Hickling, Robert; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, Ewan; Hill, John; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hinman, Rachel Reisner; Hirose, Minoru; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoenig, Friedrich; Hohlfeld, Marc; Hohn, David; Holmes, Tova Ray; Homann, Michael; Hong, Tae Min; Hopkins, Walter; Horii, Yasuyuki; Horton, Arthur James; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howard, Jacob; Howarth, James; Hrabovsky, Miroslav; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hrynevich, Aliaksei; Hsu, Catherine; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Hu, Diedi; Hu, Qipeng; Hu, Xueye; Huang, Yanping; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Huhtinen, Mika; Hülsing, Tobias Alexander; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibragimov, Iskander; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Ideal, Emma; Idrissi, Zineb; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Iizawa, Tomoya; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikematsu, Katsumasa; Ikeno, Masahiro; Ilchenko, Iurii; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ilic, Nikolina; Ince, Tayfun; Introzzi, Gianluca; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Iordanidou, Kalliopi; Ippolito, Valerio; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Isaksson, Charlie; Ishino, Masaya; Ishitsuka, Masaki; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Iturbe Ponce, Julia Mariana; Iuppa, Roberto; Ivarsson, Jenny; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jabbar, Samina; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, Matthew; Jackson, Paul; Jaekel, Martin; Jain, Vivek; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakoubek, Tomas; Jakubek, Jan; Jamin, David Olivier; Jana, Dilip; Jansen, Eric; Jansky, Roland; Janssen, Jens; Janus, Michel; Jarlskog, Göran; Javadov, Namig; Javůrek, Tomáš; Jeanty, Laura; Jejelava, Juansher; Jeng, Geng-yuan; Jennens, David; Jenni, Peter; Jentzsch, Jennifer; Jeske, Carl; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Ji, Haoshuang; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Yi; Jiggins, Stephen; Jimenez Pena, Javier; Jin, Shan; Jinaru, Adam; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Joergensen, Morten Dam; Johansson, Per; Johns, Kenneth; Johnson, William Joseph; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Tim; Jongmanns, Jan; Jorge, Pedro; Joshi, Kiran Daniel; Jovicevic, Jelena; Ju, Xiangyang; Jussel, Patrick; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Kaci, Mohammed; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kahn, Sebastien Jonathan; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalderon, Charles William; Kama, Sami; Kamenshchikov, Andrey; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneti, Steven; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kaplan, Laser Seymour; Kapliy, Anton; Kar, Deepak; Karakostas, Konstantinos; Karamaoun, Andrew; Karastathis, Nikolaos; Kareem, Mohammad Jawad; Karentzos, Efstathios; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Karpov, Sergey; Karpova, Zoya; Karthik, Krishnaiyengar; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kasahara, Kota; Kashif, Lashkar; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Yousuke; Kato, Chikuma; Katre, Akshay; Katzy, Judith; Kawade, Kentaro; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kazama, Shingo; Kazanin, Vassili; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keller, John; Kempster, Jacob Julian; Keoshkerian, Houry; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Keyes, Robert; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Kharlamov, Alexey; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kido, Shogo; Kim, Hee Yeun; Kim, Shinhong; Kim, Young-Kee; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver Maria; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Samuel Burton; Kirk, Julie; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kiss, Florian; Kiuchi, Kenji; Kivernyk, Oleh; Kladiva, Eduard; Klein, Matthew Henry; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klimek, Pawel; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinger, Joel Alexander; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Knapik, Joanna; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Kobayashi, Aine; Kobayashi, Dai; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kogan, Lucy Anne; Kohlmann, Simon; Kohout, Zdenek; Kohriki, Takashi; Koi, Tatsumi; Kolanoski, Hermann; Kolb, Mathis; Koletsou, Iro; Komar, Aston; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Kondrashova, Nataliia; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; Kono, Takanori; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kopeliansky, Revital; Koperny, Stefan; Köpke, Lutz; Kopp, Anna Katharina; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kosek, Tomas; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotov, Vladislav; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Kourkoumeli-Charalampidi, Athina; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasnopevtsev, Dimitriy; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, Jana; Kravchenko, Anton; Kreiss, Sven; Kretz, Moritz; Kretzschmar, Jan; Kreutzfeldt, Kristof; Krieger, Peter; Krizka, Karol; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Krumnack, Nils; Kruse, Amanda; Kruse, Mark; Kruskal, Michael; Kubota, Takashi; Kucuk, Hilal; Kuday, Sinan; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuger, Fabian; Kuhl, Andrew; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kukhtin, Victor; Kukla, Romain; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kuna, Marine; Kunigo, Takuto; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuwertz, Emma Sian; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; Kwan, Tony; Kyriazopoulos, Dimitrios; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rosa Navarro, Jose Luis; La Rotonda, Laura; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacey, James; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Lambourne, Luke; Lammers, Sabine; Lampen, Caleb; Lampl, Walter; Lançon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lang, Valerie Susanne; Lange, J örn Christian; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Lanza, Agostino; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Lasagni Manghi, Federico; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Law, Alexander; Laycock, Paul; Lazovich, Tomo; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Menedeu, Eve; LeBlanc, Matthew Edgar; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Claire Alexandra; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Guillaume; Lefebvre, Michel; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehan, Allan; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leight, William Axel; Leisos, Antonios; Leister, Andrew Gerard; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lemmer, Boris; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatjana; Lenzi, Bruno; Leone, Robert; Leone, Sandra; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Leroy, Claude; Lester, Christopher; Levchenko, Mikhail; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Levy, Mark; Lewis, Adrian; Leyko, Agnieszka; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bing; Li, Haifeng; Li, Ho Ling; Li, Lei; Li, Liang; Li, Shu; Li, Xingguo; Li, Yichen; Liang, Zhijun; Liao, Hongbo; Liberti, Barbara; Liblong, Aaron; Lichard, Peter; Lie, Ki; Liebal, Jessica; Liebig, Wolfgang; Limbach, Christian; Limosani, Antonio; Lin, Simon; Lin, Tai-Hua; Linde, Frank; Lindquist, Brian Edward; Linnemann, James; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipniacka, Anna; Lisovyi, Mykhailo; Liss, Tony; Lissauer, David; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Bo; Liu, Dong; Liu, Hao; Liu, Jian; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Kun; Liu, Lulu; Liu, Miaoyuan; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Loebinger, Fred; Loevschall-Jensen, Ask Emil; Loew, Kevin Michael; Loginov, Andrey; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Long, Brian Alexander; Long, Jonathan David; Long, Robin Eamonn; Looper, Kristina Anne; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Lopez Paredes, Brais; Lopez Paz, Ivan; Lorenz, Jeanette; Lorenzo Martinez, Narei; Losada, Marta; Lösel, Philipp Jonathan; Lou, XinChou; Lounis, Abdenour; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lu, Haonan; Lu, Nan; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Luedtke, Christian; Luehring, Frederick; Lukas, Wolfgang; Luminari, Lamberto; Lundberg, Olof; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lynn, David; Lysak, Roman; Lytken, Else; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Macdonald, Calum Michael; Maček, Boštjan; Machado Miguens, Joana; Macina, Daniela; Madaffari, Daniele; Madar, Romain; Maddocks, Harvey Jonathan; Mader, Wolfgang; Madsen, Alexander; Maeda, Junpei; Maeland, Steffen; Maeno, Tadashi; Maevskiy, Artem; Magradze, Erekle; Mahboubi, Kambiz; Mahlstedt, Joern; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maier, Andreas Alexander; Maier, Thomas; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Malaescu, Bogdan; Malecki, Pawel; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Caitlin; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyshev, Vladimir; Malyukov, Sergei; Mamuzic, Judita; Mancini, Giada; Mandelli, Beatrice; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Mandrysch, Rocco; Maneira, José; Manfredini, Alessandro; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Manjarres Ramos, Joany; Mann, Alexander; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Mantifel, Rodger; Mantoani, Matteo; Mapelli, Livio; March, Luis; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marino, Christopher; Marjanovic, Marija; Marley, Daniel; Marroquim, Fernando; Marsden, Stephen Philip; Marshall, Zach; Marti, Lukas Fritz; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Brian; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martinez, Mario; Martin-Haugh, Stewart; Martoiu, Victor Sorin; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzano, Francesco; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massa, Lorenzo; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Mättig, Peter; Mattmann, Johannes; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; Mazini, Rachid; Mazza, Simone Michele; Mc Goldrick, Garrin; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McCubbin, Norman; McFarlane, Kenneth; Mcfayden, Josh; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Medinnis, Michael; Meehan, Samuel; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meineck, Christian; Meirose, Bernhard; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Meloni, Federico; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Meoni, Evelin; Mercurio, Kevin Michael; Mergelmeyer, Sebastian; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Meyer Zu Theenhausen, Hanno; Middleton, Robin; Miglioranzi, Silvia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Milesi, Marco; Milic, Adriana; Miller, David; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Minaenko, Andrey; Minami, Yuto; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mistry, Khilesh; Mitani, Takashi; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Miucci, Antonio; Miyagawa, Paul; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Mochizuki, Kazuya; Mohapatra, Soumya; Mohr, Wolfgang; Molander, Simon; Moles-Valls, Regina; Monden, Ryutaro; Mönig, Klaus; Monini, Caterina; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montalbano, Alyssa; Montejo Berlingen, Javier; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Morange, Nicolas; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Mori, Daniel; Mori, Tatsuya; Morii, Masahiro; Morinaga, Masahiro; Morisbak, Vanja; Moritz, Sebastian; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morris, John; Mortensen, Simon Stark; Morton, Alexander; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Motohashi, Kazuki; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Muanza, Steve; Mudd, Richard; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Ralph Soeren Peter; Mueller, Thibaut; Muenstermann, Daniel; Mullen, Paul; Mullier, Geoffrey; Murillo Quijada, Javier Alberto; Murray, Bill; Musheghyan, Haykuhi; Musto, Elisa; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nachman, Benjamin Philip; Nackenhorst, Olaf; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagai, Ryo; Nagai, Yoshikazu; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagarkar, Advait; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nagata, Kazuki; Nagel, Martin; Nagy, Elemer; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Namasivayam, Harisankar; Naranjo Garcia, Roger Felipe; Narayan, Rohin; Narrias Villar, Daniel Isaac; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Nayyar, Ruchika; Neal, Homer; Nechaeva, Polina; Neep, Thomas James; Nef, Pascal Daniel; Negri, Andrea; Negrini, Matteo; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nellist, Clara; Nelson, Andrew; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neumann, Manuel; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newman, Paul; Nguyen, Duong Hai; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Nielsen, Jason; Nikiforou, Nikiforos; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsen, Jon Kerr; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nisius, Richard; Nobe, Takuya; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Nooney, Tamsin; Norberg, Scarlet; Nordberg, Markus; Novgorodova, Olga; Nowak, Sebastian; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Ntekas, Konstantinos; Nunes Hanninger, Guilherme; Nunnemann, Thomas; Nurse, Emily; Nuti, Francesco; O'Brien, Brendan Joseph; O'grady, Fionnbarr; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Shea, Val; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Obermann, Theresa; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Ochoa, Ines; Ochoa-Ricoux, Juan Pedro; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohman, Henrik; Oide, Hideyuki; Okamura, Wataru; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olariu, Albert; Olivares Pino, Sebastian Andres; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Onofre, António; Onogi, Kouta; Onyisi, Peter; Oram, Christopher; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlando, Nicola; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Otono, Hidetoshi; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Oussoren, Koen Pieter; Ouyang, Qun; Ovcharova, Ana; Owen, Mark; Owen, Rhys Edward; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pachal, Katherine; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagáčová, Martina; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paganis, Efstathios; Paige, Frank; Pais, Preema; Pajchel, Katarina; Palacino, Gabriel; Palestini, Sandro; Palka, Marek; Pallin, Dominique; Palma, Alberto; Pan, Yibin; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Pandini, Carlo Enrico; Panduro Vazquez, William; Pani, Priscilla; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Paolozzi, Lorenzo; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Papageorgiou, Konstantinos; Paramonov, Alexander; Paredes Hernandez, Daniela; Parker, Michael Andrew; Parker, Kerry Ann; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passaggio, Stefano; Pastore, Fernanda; Pastore, Francesca; Pásztor, Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Patel, Nikhul; Pater, Joleen; Pauly, Thilo; Pearce, James; Pearson, Benjamin; Pedersen, Lars Egholm; Pedersen, Maiken; Pedraza Lopez, Sebastian; Pedro, Rute; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Pelikan, Daniel; Penc, Ondrej; Peng, Cong; Peng, Haiping; Penning, Bjoern; Penwell, John; Perepelitsa, Dennis; Perez Codina, Estel; Pérez García-Estañ, María Teresa; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrella, Sabrina; Peschke, Richard; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Krisztian; Peters, Yvonne; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petroff, Pierre; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Pettersson, Nora Emilia; Pezoa, Raquel; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Pianori, Elisabetta; Picazio, Attilio; Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Pickering, Mark Andrew; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pignotti, David; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pin, Arnaud Willy J; Pina, João Antonio; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinfold, James; Pingel, Almut; Pires, Sylvestre; Pirumov, Hayk; Pitt, Michael; Pizio, Caterina; Plazak, Lukas; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Pleskot, Vojtech; Plotnikova, Elena; Plucinski, Pawel; Pluth, Daniel; Poettgen, Ruth; Poggioli, Luc; Pohl, David-leon; Polesello, Giacomo; Poley, Anne-luise; Policicchio, Antonio; Polifka, Richard; Polini, Alessandro; Pollard, Christopher Samuel; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pommès, Kathy; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Popovic, Dragan; Poppleton, Alan; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potamianos, Karolos; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Pozdnyakov, Valery; Pralavorio, Pascal; Pranko, Aliaksandr; Prasad, Srivas; Prell, Soeren; Price, Darren; Price, Lawrence; Primavera, Margherita; Prince, Sebastien; Proissl, Manuel; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopapadaki, Eftychia-sofia; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Przybycien, Mariusz; Ptacek, Elizabeth; Puddu, Daniele; Pueschel, Elisa; Puldon, David; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Qian, Jianming; Qin, Gang; Qin, Yang; Quadt, Arnulf; Quarrie, David; Quayle, William; Queitsch-Maitland, Michaela; Quilty, Donnchadha; Raddum, Silje; Radeka, Veljko; Radescu, Voica; Radhakrishnan, Sooraj Krishnan; Radloff, Peter; Rados, Pere; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rammensee, Michael; Rangel-Smith, Camila; Rauscher, Felix; Rave, Stefan; Ravenscroft, Thomas; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Readioff, Nathan Peter; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reeves, Kendall; Rehnisch, Laura; Reichert, Joseph; Reisin, Hernan; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Huan; Renaud, Adrien; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Rezanova, Olga; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richter, Robert; Richter, Stefan; Richter-Was, Elzbieta; Ricken, Oliver; Ridel, Melissa; Rieck, Patrick; Riegel, Christian Johann; Rieger, Julia; Rifki, Othmane; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Ristić, Branislav; Ritsch, Elmar; Riu, Imma; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robson, Aidan; Roda, Chiara; Roe, Shaun; Røhne, Ole; Rolli, Simona; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romano, Marino; Romano Saez, Silvestre Marino; Romero Adam, Elena; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Ronzani, Manfredi; Roos, Lydia; Ros, Eduardo; Rosati, Stefano; Rosbach, Kilian; Rose, Peyton; Rosendahl, Peter Lundgaard; Rosenthal, Oliver; Rossetti, Valerio; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rosten, Jonatan; Rosten, Rachel; Rotaru, Marina; Roth, Itamar; Rothberg, Joseph; Rousseau, David; Royon, Christophe; Rozanov, Alexandre; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubbo, Francesco; Rubinskiy, Igor; Rud, Viacheslav; Rudolph, Christian; Rudolph, Matthew Scott; Rühr, Frederik; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Ruschke, Alexander; Russell, Heather; Rutherfoord, John; Ruthmann, Nils; Ryabov, Yury; Rybar, Martin; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryder, Nick; Ryzhov, Andrey; Saavedra, Aldo; Sabato, Gabriele; Sacerdoti, Sabrina; Saddique, Asif; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Saha, Puja; Sahinsoy, Merve; Saimpert, Matthias; Saito, Tomoyuki; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Sakurai, Yuki; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salamon, Andrea; Salazar Loyola, Javier Esteban; Saleem, Muhammad; Salek, David; Sales De Bruin, Pedro Henrique; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, José; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salvucci, Antonio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sammel, Dirk; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Sanchez, Arturo; Sánchez, Javier; Sanchez Martinez, Victoria; Sandaker, Heidi; Sandbach, Ruth Laura; Sander, Heinz Georg; Sanders, Michiel; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandoval, Carlos; Sandstroem, Rikard; Sankey, Dave; Sannino, Mario; Sansoni, Andrea; Santoni, Claudio; Santonico, Rinaldo; Santos, Helena; Santoyo Castillo, Itzebelt; Sapp, Kevin; Sapronov, Andrey; Saraiva, João; Sarrazin, Bjorn; Sasaki, Osamu; Sasaki, Yuichi; Sato, Koji; Sauvage, Gilles; Sauvan, Emmanuel; Savage, Graham; Savard, Pierre; Sawyer, Craig; Sawyer, Lee; Saxon, James; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scanlon, Tim; Scannicchio, Diana; Scarcella, Mark; Scarfone, Valerio; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schaefer, Douglas; Schaefer, Ralph; Schaeffer, Jan; Schaepe, Steffen; Schaetzel, Sebastian; Schäfer, Uli; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R Dean; Scharf, Veit; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Schernau, Michael; Schiavi, Carlo; Schillo, Christian; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitt, Sebastian; Schmitt, Stefan; Schneider, Basil; Schnellbach, Yan Jie; Schnoor, Ulrike; Schoeffel, Laurent; Schoening, Andre; Schoenrock, Bradley Daniel; Schopf, Elisabeth; Schorlemmer, Andre Lukas; Schott, Matthias; Schouten, Doug; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schramm, Steven; Schreyer, Manuel; Schuh, Natascha; Schultens, Martin Johannes; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schulz, Holger; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwanenberger, Christian; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwarz, Thomas Andrew; Schwegler, Philipp; Schweiger, Hansdieter; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwindling, Jerome; Schwindt, Thomas; Sciacca, Gianfranco; Scifo, Estelle; Sciolla, Gabriella; Scuri, Fabrizio; Scutti, Federico; Searcy, Jacob; Sedov, George; Sedykh, Evgeny; Seema, Pienpen; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seifert, Frank; Seixas, José; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Sekhon, Karishma; Sekula, Stephen; Seliverstov, Dmitry; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Serkin, Leonid; Serre, Thomas; Sessa, Marco; Seuster, Rolf; Severini, Horst; Sfiligoj, Tina; Sforza, Federico; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shamim, Mansoora; Shan, Lianyou; Shang, Ruo-yu; Shank, James; Shapiro, Marjorie; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaw, Kate; Shaw, Savanna Marie; Shcherbakova, Anna; Shehu, Ciwake Yusufu; Sherwood, Peter; Shi, Liaoshan; Shimizu, Shima; Shimmin, Chase Owen; Shimojima, Makoto; Shiyakova, Mariya; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shoaleh Saadi, Diane; Shochet, Mel; Shojaii, Seyedruhollah; Shrestha, Suyog; Shulga, Evgeny; Shupe, Michael; Shushkevich, Stanislav; Sicho, Petr; Sidebo, Per Edvin; Sidiropoulou, Ourania; Sidorov, Dmitri; Sidoti, Antonio; Siegert, Frank; Sijacki, Djordje; Silva, José; Silver, Yiftah; Silverstein, Samuel; Simak, Vladislav; Simard, Olivier; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; Simioni, Eduard; Simmons, Brinick; Simon, Dorian; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Sioli, Maximiliano; Siragusa, Giovanni; Sisakyan, Alexei; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Sjölin, Jörgen; Sjursen, Therese; Skinner, Malcolm Bruce; Skottowe, Hugh Philip; Skubic, Patrick; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Slawinska, Magdalena; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smart, Ben; Smestad, Lillian; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnov, Yury; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smith, Matthew; Smith, Russell; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snidero, Giacomo; Snyder, Scott; Sobie, Randall; Socher, Felix; Soffer, Abner; Soh, Dart-yin; Sokhrannyi, Grygorii; Solans, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Solc, Jaroslav; Soldatov, Evgeny; Soldevila, Urmila; Solodkov, Alexander; Soloshenko, Alexei; Solovyanov, Oleg; Solovyev, Victor; Sommer, Philip; Song, Hong Ye; Soni, Nitesh; Sood, Alexander; Sopczak, Andre; Sopko, Bruno; Sopko, Vit; Sorin, Veronica; Sosa, David; Sosebee, Mark; Sotiropoulou, Calliope Louisa; Soualah, Rachik; Soukharev, Andrey; South, David; Sowden, Benjamin; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spalla, Margherita; Spangenberg, Martin; Spanò, Francesco; Spearman, William Robert; Sperlich, Dennis; Spettel, Fabian; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spiller, Laurence Anthony; Spousta, Martin; St Denis, Richard Dante; Stabile, Alberto; Staerz, Steffen; Stahlman, Jonathan; Stamen, Rainer; Stamm, Soren; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanescu, Cristian; Stanescu-Bellu, Madalina; Stanitzki, Marcel Michael; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Jan; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Staszewski, Rafal; Steinberg, Peter; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stewart, Graeme; Stillings, Jan Andre; Stockton, Mark; Stoebe, Michael; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stolte, Philipp; Stonjek, Stefan; Stradling, Alden; Straessner, Arno; Stramaglia, Maria Elena; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strandlie, Are; Strauss, Emanuel; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Ströhmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Strubig, Antonia; Stucci, Stefania Antonia; Stugu, Bjarne; Styles, Nicholas Adam; Su, Dong; Su, Jun; Subramaniam, Rajivalochan; Succurro, Antonella; Suchek, Stanislav; Sugaya, Yorihito; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Siyuan; Sun, Xiaohu; Sundermann, Jan Erik; Suruliz, Kerim; Susinno, Giancarlo; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Shota; Svatos, Michal; Swiatlowski, Maximilian; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Ta, Duc; Taccini, Cecilia; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taenzer, Joe; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Takeshita, Tohru; Takubo, Yosuke; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tam, Jason; Tan, Kong Guan; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Shuji; Tannenwald, Benjamin Bordy; Tannoury, Nancy; Tapia Araya, Sebastian; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tarem, Shlomit; Tarrade, Fabien; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tashiro, Takuya; Tassi, Enrico; Tavares Delgado, Ademar; Tayalati, Yahya; Taylor, Frank; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Pierre Thor Elliot; Taylor, Wendy; Teischinger, Florian Alfred; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, Matilde; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temming, Kim Katrin; Temple, Darren; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Teoh, Jia Jian; Tepel, Fabian-Phillipp; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Terzo, Stefano; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothée; Thomas, Juergen; Thomas-Wilsker, Joshuha; Thompson, Emily; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Ray; Thompson, Stan; Thomsen, Lotte Ansgaard; Thomson, Evelyn; Thomson, Mark; Thun, Rudolf; Tibbetts, Mark James; Ticse Torres, Royer Edson; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timoshenko, Sergey; Tiouchichine, Elodie; Tipton, Paul; Tisserant, Sylvain; Todome, Kazuki; Todorov, Theodore; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Tojo, Junji; Tokár, Stanislav; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tollefson, Kirsten; Tolley, Emma; Tomlinson, Lee; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Torrence, Eric; Torres, Heberth; Torró Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Trefzger, Thomas; Tremblet, Louis; Tricoli, Alessandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Tripiana, Martin; Trischuk, William; Trocmé, Benjamin; Troncon, Clara; Trottier-McDonald, Michel; Trovatelli, Monica; Truong, Loan; Trzebinski, Maciej; Trzupek, Adam; Tsarouchas, Charilaos; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiareshka, Pavel; Tsionou, Dimitra; Tsipolitis, Georgios; Tsirintanis, Nikolaos; Tsiskaridze, Shota; Tsiskaridze, Vakhtang; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsui, Ka Ming; Tsukerman, Ilya; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Tsuno, Soshi; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tudorache, Alexandra; Tudorache, Valentina; Tuna, Alexander Naip; Tupputi, Salvatore; Turchikhin, Semen; Turecek, Daniel; Turra, Ruggero; Turvey, Andrew John; Tuts, Michael; Tykhonov, Andrii; Tylmad, Maja; Tyndel, Mike; Ueda, Ikuo; Ueno, Ryuichi; Ughetto, Michael; Ugland, Maren; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Unal, Guillaume; Undrus, Alexander; Unel, Gokhan; Ungaro, Francesca; Unno, Yoshinobu; Unverdorben, Christopher; Urban, Jozef; Urquijo, Phillip; Urrejola, Pedro; Usai, Giulio; Usanova, Anna; Vacavant, Laurent; Vacek, Vaclav; Vachon, Brigitte; Valderanis, Chrysostomos; Valencic, Nika; Valentinetti, Sara; Valero, Alberto; Valery, Loic; Valkar, Stefan; Vallecorsa, Sofia; Valls Ferrer, Juan Antonio; Van Den Wollenberg, Wouter; Van Der Deijl, Pieter; van der Geer, Rogier; van der Graaf, Harry; van Eldik, Niels; van Gemmeren, Peter; Van Nieuwkoop, Jacobus; van Vulpen, Ivo; van Woerden, Marius Cornelis; Vanadia, Marco; Vandelli, Wainer; Vanguri, Rami; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vannucci, Francois; Vardanyan, Gagik; Vari, Riccardo; Varnes, Erich; Varol, Tulin; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vazeille, Francois; Vazquez Schroeder, Tamara; Veatch, Jason; Veloce, Laurelle Maria; Veloso, Filipe; Velz, Thomas; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Ventura, Daniel; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Venturini, Alessio; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Jos; Vest, Anja; Vetterli, Michel; Viazlo, Oleksandr; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Vickey Boeriu, Oana Elena; Viehhauser, Georg; Viel, Simon; Vigne, Ralph; Villa, Mauro; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; Vinogradov, Vladimir; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Vives Vaque, Francesc; Vlachos, Sotirios; Vladoiu, Dan; Vlasak, Michal; Vogel, Marcelo; Vokac, Petr; Volpi, Guido; Volpi, Matteo; von der Schmitt, Hans; von Radziewski, Holger; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorobel, Vit; Vorobev, Konstantin; Vos, Marcel; Voss, Rudiger; Vossebeld, Joost; Vranjes, Nenad; Vranjes Milosavljevic, Marija; Vrba, Vaclav; Vreeswijk, Marcel; Vuillermet, Raphael; Vukotic, Ilija; Vykydal, Zdenek; Wagner, Peter; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wahlberg, Hernan; Wahrmund, Sebastian; Wakabayashi, Jun; Walder, James; Walker, Rodney; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Wang, Chao; Wang, Fuquan; Wang, Haichen; Wang, Hulin; Wang, Jike; Wang, Jin; Wang, Kuhan; Wang, Rui; Wang, Song-Ming; Wang, Tan; Wang, Tingting; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Wanotayaroj, Chaowaroj; Warburton, Andreas; Ward, Patricia; Wardrope, David Robert; Washbrook, Andrew; Wasicki, Christoph; Watkins, Peter; Watson, Alan; Watson, Ian; Watson, Miriam; Watts, Gordon; Watts, Stephen; Waugh, Ben; Webb, Samuel; Weber, Michele; Weber, Stefan Wolf; Webster, Jordan S; Weidberg, Anthony; Weinert, Benjamin; Weingarten, Jens; Weiser, Christian; Weits, Hartger; Wells, Phillippa; Wenaus, Torre; Wengler, Thorsten; Wenig, Siegfried; Wermes, Norbert; Werner, Matthias; Werner, Per; Wessels, Martin; Wetter, Jeffrey; Whalen, Kathleen; Wharton, Andrew Mark; White, Andrew; White, Martin; White, Ryan; White, Sebastian; Whiteson, Daniel; Wickens, Fred; Wiedenmann, Werner; Wielers, Monika; Wienemann, Peter; Wiglesworth, Craig; Wiik-Fuchs, Liv Antje Mari; Wildauer, Andreas; Wilkens, Henric George; Williams, Hugh; Williams, Sarah; Willis, Christopher; Willocq, Stephane; Wilson, Alan; Wilson, John; Wingerter-Seez, Isabelle; Winklmeier, Frank; Winter, Benedict Tobias; Wittgen, Matthias; Wittkowski, Josephine; Wollstadt, Simon Jakob; Wolter, Marcin Wladyslaw; Wolters, Helmut; Wosiek, Barbara; Wotschack, Jorg; Woudstra, Martin; Wozniak, Krzysztof; Wu, Mengqing; Wu, Miles; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, Xin; Wu, Yusheng; Wyatt, Terry Richard; Wynne, Benjamin; Xella, Stefania; Xu, Da; Xu, Lailin; Yabsley, Bruce; Yacoob, Sahal; Yakabe, Ryota; Yamada, Miho; Yamaguchi, Daiki; Yamaguchi, Yohei; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Shimpei; Yamanaka, Takashi; Yamauchi, Katsuya; Yamazaki, Yuji; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Haijun; Yang, Hongtao; Yang, Yi; Yao, Weiming; Yap, Yee Chinn; Yasu, Yoshiji; Yatsenko, Elena; Yau Wong, Kaven Henry; Ye, Jingbo; Ye, Shuwei; Yeletskikh, Ivan; Yen, Andy L; Yildirim, Eda; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshida, Rikutaro; Yoshihara, Keisuke; Young, Charles; Young, Christopher John; Youssef, Saul; Yu, David Ren-Hwa; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Jiaming; Yu, Jie; Yuan, Li; Yuen, Stephanie P; Yurkewicz, Adam; Yusuff, Imran; Zabinski, Bartlomiej; Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zalieckas, Justas; Zaman, Aungshuman; Zambito, Stefano; Zanello, Lucia; Zanzi, Daniele; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zeman, Martin; Zemla, Andrzej; Zeng, Qi; Zengel, Keith; Zenin, Oleg; Ženiš, Tibor; Zerwas, Dirk; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Fangzhou; Zhang, Guangyi; Zhang, Huijun; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Ruiqi; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Xiandong; Zhao, Yongke; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Chen; Zhou, Lei; Zhou, Li; Zhou, Mingliang; Zhou, Ning; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Junjie; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zhukov, Konstantin; Zibell, Andre; Zieminska, Daria; Zimine, Nikolai; Zimmermann, Christoph; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Zinonos, Zinonas; Zinser, Markus; Ziolkowski, Michael; Živković, Lidija; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; zur Nedden, Martin; Zurzolo, Giovanni; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2015-01-01

    Searches for both resonant and non-resonant Higgs boson pair production are performed in the $hh\\to bb\\tau\\tau, \\gamma\\gamma WW^*$ final states using 20.3 fb$^{-1}$ of $pp$ collision data at a center-of-mass energy of 8 TeV recorded with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. No evidence of their production is observed and 95% confidence level upper limits on the production cross sections are set. These results are then combined with the published results of the $hh\\to \\gamma\\gamma bb, bbbb$ analyses. An upper limit of 0.69 (0.47) pb on the non-resonant Standard Model like $hh$ production is observed (expected), corresponding to 70 (48) times of the SM $gg\\to hh$ cross section. For production via narrow resonances, cross section limits of $hh$ production from a heavy Higgs boson decay are set as a function of the heavy Higgs boson mass. The observed (expected) limits range from 2.1 (1.1) pb at 260 GeV to 0.011 (0.018) pb at 1000 GeV. These results are interpreted in the context of two simplified sce...

  5. Experimental determination of gamma-ray discrimination in pillar-structured thermal neutron detectors under high gamma-ray flux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shao, Qinghui [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Conway, Adam M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Voss, Lars F. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Radev, Radoslav P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Nikolić, Rebecca J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dar, Mushtaq A. [King Saud Univ., Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Cheung, Chin L. [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    2015-08-04

    Silicon pillar structures filled with a neutron converter material (10B) are designed to have high thermal neutron detection efficiency with specific dimensions of 50 μm pillar height, 2 μm pillar diameter and 2 μm spacing between adjacent pillars. In this paper, we have demonstrated such a detector has a high neutron-to-gamma discrimination of 106 with a high thermal neutron detection efficiency of 39% when exposed to a high gamma-ray field of 109 photons/cm2s.

  6. Next Generation Gamma/Neutron Detectors for Planetary Science. Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Gamma ray and neutron spectroscopy are well established techniques for determining the chemical composition of planetary surfaces, and small cosmic bodies such as...

  7. Next Generation Gamma/Neutron Detectors for Planetary Science. Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Gamma-ray and neutron spectroscopy are well established techniques for determining the chemical composition of planetary surfaces, and small cosmic bodies such as...

  8. Development and calibration of a new gamma camera detector using large square Photomultiplier Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeraatkar, N.; Sajedi, S.; Teimourian Fard, B.; Kaviani, S.; Akbarzadeh, A.; Farahani, M. H.; Sarkar, S.; Ay, M. R.

    2017-09-01

    Large area scintillation detectors applied in gamma cameras as well as Single Photon Computed Tomography (SPECT) systems, have a major role in in-vivo functional imaging. Most of the gamma detectors utilize hexagonal arrangement of Photomultiplier Tubes (PMTs). In this work we applied large square-shaped PMTs with row/column arrangement and positioning. The Use of large square PMTs reduces dead zones in the detector surface. However, the conventional center of gravity method for positioning may not introduce an acceptable result. Hence, the digital correlated signal enhancement (CSE) algorithm was optimized to obtain better linearity and spatial resolution in the developed detector. The performance of the developed detector was evaluated based on NEMA-NU1-2007 standard. The acquired images using this method showed acceptable uniformity and linearity comparing to three commercial gamma cameras. Also the intrinsic and extrinsic spatial resolutions with low-energy high-resolution (LEHR) collimator at 10 cm from surface of the detector were 3.7 mm and 7.5 mm, respectively. The energy resolution of the camera was measured 9.5%. The performance evaluation demonstrated that the developed detector maintains image quality with a reduced number of used PMTs relative to the detection area.

  9. Limits on neutrino emission from gamma-ray bursts with the 40 string IceCube detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, R; Abdou, Y; Abu-Zayyad, T; Adams, J; Aguilar, J A; Ahlers, M; Andeen, K; Auffenberg, J; Bai, X; Baker, M; Barwick, S W; Bay, R; Bazo Alba, J L; Beattie, K; Beatty, J J; Bechet, S; Becker, J K; Becker, K-H; Benabderrahmane, M L; BenZvi, S; Berdermann, J; Berghaus, P; Berley, D; Bernardini, E; Bertrand, D; Besson, D Z; Bindig, D; Bissok, M; Blaufuss, E; Blumenthal, J; Boersma, D J; Bohm, C; Bose, D; Böser, S; Botner, O; Braun, J; Brown, A M; Buitink, S; Carson, M; Chirkin, D; Christy, B; Clem, J; Clevermann, F; Cohen, S; Colnard, C; Cowen, D F; D'Agostino, M V; Danninger, M; Daughhetee, J; Davis, J C; De Clercq, C; Demirörs, L; Depaepe, O; Descamps, F; Desiati, P; de Vries-Uiterweerd, G; DeYoung, T; Díaz-Vélez, J C; Dierckxsens, M; Dreyer, J; Dumm, J P; Ehrlich, R; Eisch, J; Ellsworth, R W; Engdegård, O; Euler, S; Evenson, P A; Fadiran, O; Fazely, A R; Fedynitch, A; Feusels, T; Filimonov, K; Finley, C; Fischer-Wasels, T; Foerster, M M; Fox, B D; Franckowiak, A; Franke, R; Gaisser, T K; Gallagher, J; Geisler, M; Gerhardt, L; Gladstone, L; Glüsenkamp, T; Goldschmidt, A; Goodman, J A; Grant, D; Griesel, T; Gross, A; Grullon, S; Gurtner, M; Ha, C; Hallgren, A; Halzen, F; Han, K; Hanson, K; Heinen, D; Helbing, K; Herquet, P; Hickford, S; Hill, G C; Hoffman, K D; Homeier, A; Hoshina, K; Hubert, D; Huelsnitz, W; Hülss, J-P; Hulth, P O; Hultqvist, K; Hussain, S; Ishihara, A; Jacobsen, J; Japaridze, G S; Johansson, H; Joseph, J M; Kampert, K-H; Kappes, A; Karg, T; Karle, A; Kelley, J L; Kemming, N; Kenny, P; Kiryluk, J; Kislat, F; Klein, S R; Köhne, J-H; Kohnen, G; Kolanoski, H; Köpke, L; Kopper, S; Koskinen, D J; Kowalski, M; Kowarik, T; Krasberg, M; Krings, T; Kroll, G; Kuehn, K; Kuwabara, T; Labare, M; Lafebre, S; Laihem, K; Landsman, H; Larson, M J; Lauer, R; Lehmann, R; Lünemann, J; Madsen, J; Majumdar, P; Marotta, A; Maruyama, R; Mase, K; Matis, H S; Meagher, K; Merck, M; Mészáros, P; Meures, T; Middell, E; Milke, N; Miller, J; Montaruli, T; Morse, R; Movit, S M; Nahnhauer, R; Nam, J W; Naumann, U; Niessen, P; Nygren, D R; Odrowski, S; Olivas, A; Olivo, M; O'Murchadha, A; Ono, M; Panknin, S; Paul, L; Pérez de los Heros, C; Petrovic, J; Piegsa, A; Pieloth, D; Porrata, R; Posselt, J; Price, P B; Prikockis, M; Przybylski, G T; Rawlins, K; Redl, P; Resconi, E; Rhode, W; Ribordy, M; Rizzo, A; Rodrigues, J P; Roth, P; Rothmaier, F; Rott, C; Ruhe, T; Rutledge, D; Ruzybayev, B; Ryckbosch, D; Sander, H-G; Santander, M; Sarkar, S; Schatto, K; Schmidt, T; Schoenwald, A; Schukraft, A; Schultes, A; Schulz, O; Schunck, M; Seckel, D; Semburg, B; Seo, S H; Sestayo, Y; Seunarine, S; Silvestri, A; Slipak, A; Spiczak, G M; Spiering, C; Stamatikos, M; Stanev, T; Stephens, G; Stezelberger, T; Stokstad, R G; Stoyanov, S; Strahler, E A; Straszheim, T; Sullivan, G W; Swillens, Q; Taavola, H; Taboada, I; Tamburro, A; Tarasova, O; Tepe, A; Ter-Antonyan, S; Tilav, S; Toale, P A; Toscano, S; Tosi, D; Turčan, D; van Eijndhoven, N; Vandenbroucke, J; Van Overloop, A; van Santen, J; Vehring, M; Voge, M; Voigt, B; Walck, C; Waldenmaier, T; Wallraff, M; Walter, M; Weaver, C; Wendt, C; Westerhoff, S; Whitehorn, N; Wiebe, K; Wiebusch, C H; Williams, D R; Wischnewski, R; Wissing, H; Wolf, M; Woschnagg, K; Xu, C; Xu, X W; Yodh, G; Yoshida, S; Zarzhitsky, P

    2011-04-08

    IceCube has become the first neutrino telescope with a sensitivity below the TeV neutrino flux predicted from gamma-ray bursts if gamma-ray bursts are responsible for the observed cosmic-ray flux above 10(18)  eV. Two separate analyses using the half-complete IceCube detector, one a dedicated search for neutrinos from pγ interactions in the prompt phase of the gamma-ray burst fireball and the other a generic search for any neutrino emission from these sources over a wide range of energies and emission times, produced no evidence for neutrino emission, excluding prevailing models at 90% confidence.

  10. Feasibility study for use of a germanium detector in the LOFT gamma-ray densitometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swierkowski, S. P.

    1976-04-27

    The primary aim of this study is to predict the performance of a gamma-ray densitometer system using computer modeling techniques. The system consists of a collimated /sup 137/Cs source, a pipe containing a variable amount of water absorber, and a shielded and collimated germanium detector system. The gamma-ray energy spectrum (number of photon counts as a function of energy) has been computed for several sources at the detector. The response for combined sourceconfigurations has been obtained by linear superposition. The signal essentially consists of the counts in an energy window centered on the /sup 137/Cs source at 662 keV that originate from this source. The noise is the background counts in the signal energy window that originate from /sup 16/N scatter radiation and direct and shield tank activation gammas. The detector signal has been computed for 0, 50, and 100 percent water in the pipe. (WHK)

  11. Gamma Large Area Silicon Telescope (GLAST): Applying silicon strip detector technology to the detection of gamma rays in space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atwood, W.B.; The GLAST Collaboration

    1993-06-01

    The recent discoveries and excitement generated by space satellite experiment EGRET (presently operating on Compton Gamma Ray Observatory -- CGRO) have prompted an investigation into modern detector technologies for the next generation space based gamma ray telescopes. The GLAST proposal is based on silicon strip detectors as the {open_quotes}technology of choice{close_quotes} for space application: no consumables, no gas volume, robust (versus fragile), long lived, and self triggerable. The GLAST detector basically has two components: a tracking module preceding a calorimeter. The tracking module has planes of crossed strip (x,y) 300 {mu}m pitch silicon detectors coupled to a thin radiator to measure the coordinates of converted electron-positron pairs. The gap between the layers ({approximately}5 cm) provides a lever arm for track fitting resulting in an angular resolution of <0.1{degree} at high energy. The status of this R & D effort is discussed including details on triggering the instrument, the organization of the detector electronics and readout, and work on computer simulations to model this instrument.

  12. Simultaneous measurement of neutron and gamma-ray radiation levels from a TRIGA reactor core using silicon carbide semiconductor detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulloo, A. R.; Ruddy, F. H.; Seidel, J. G.; Davison, C.; Flinchbaugh, T.; Daubenspeck, T.

    1999-06-01

    The ability of a silicon carbide radiation detector to measure neutron and gamma radiation levels in a TRIGA reactor's mixed neutron/gamma field was demonstrated. Linear responses to epicadmium neutron fluence rate (up to 3/spl times/10/sup 7/ cm/sup -2/ s/sup -1/) and to gamma dose rate (0.6-234 krad-Si h/sup -1/) were obtained with the detector. Axial profiles of the reactor core's neutron and gamma-ray radiation levels were successfully generated through sequential measurements along the length of the core. The SiC detector shows a high level of precision for both neutrons and gamma rays in high-intensity radiation environments-1.9% for neutrons and better than 0.6% for gamma rays. These results indicate that SiC detectors are well suited for applications such as spent fuel monitoring where measurements in mixed neutron/gamma fields are desired.

  13. A Wide Range Neutron Detector for Space Nuclear Reactor Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassif, Eduardo; Matatagui, Emilio; Sismonda, Miguel; Pretorius, Stephan

    2007-01-01

    We propose here a versatile and innovative solution for monitoring and controlling a space-based nuclear reactor that is based on technology already proved in ground based reactors. A Wide Range Neutron Detector (WRND) allows for a reduction in the complexity of space based nuclear instrumentation and control systems. A ground model, predecessor of the proposed system, has been installed and is operating at the OPAL (Open Pool Advanced Light Water Research Reactor) in Australia, providing long term functional data. A space compatible Engineering Qualification Model of the WRND has been developed, manufactured and verified satisfactorily by analysis, and is currently under environmental testing.

  14. CdTe and CdZnTe semiconductor gamma detectors equipped with ohmic contacts

    CERN Document Server

    Lachish, U

    1999-01-01

    Semiconductor gamma detectors, equipped with ohmic contacts, are uniform and fast response devices that are not sensitive to hole trapping. Gamma generated charges flow within the detector bulk towards the ohmic contacts, and induce additional charge flow from the contacts towards them. The additional flow stems from the fundamental principles of Poisson and the continuity equations. Electrons flow from the negative contacts towards the holes and recombine with them, therefore, they overcome hole trapping. The ohmic contact effect transforms the detector into a single carrier device. Good quality ohmic contact detectors are achieved from a crystal grown by standard methods, that initially has too many traps, by adjustment of the Fermi level position within the forbidden band. The device design and its principle of operation are discussed.

  15. Analysis of MCNP simulated gamma spectra of CdTe detectors for boron neutron capture therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Alexander; Koivunoro, Hanna; Savolainen, Sauli

    2017-06-01

    The next step in the boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is the real time imaging of the boron concentration in healthy and tumor tissue. Monte Carlo simulations are employed to predict the detector response required to realize single-photon emission computed tomography in BNCT, but have failed to correctly resemble measured data for cadmium telluride detectors. In this study we have tested the gamma production cross-section data tables of commonly used libraries in the Monte Carlo code MCNP in comparison to measurements. The cross section data table TENDL-2008-ACE is reproducing measured data best, whilst the commonly used ENDL92 and other studied libraries do not include correct tables for the gamma production from the cadmium neutron capture reaction that is occurring inside the detector. Furthermore, we have discussed the size of the annihilation peaks of spectra obtained by cadmium telluride and germanium detectors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Design and performance of soft gamma-ray detector for NeXT mission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tajima, H.; Kamae, T.; Madejski, G.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Takahashi, T.; Nakazawa, K.; Watanabe, S.; Mitani, T.; Tanaka, T.; /JAXA, Sagamihara; Fukazawa, Y.; /Hiroshima U.; Kataoka, J.; Ikagawa, T.; /Tokyo Inst. Tech.; Kokubun, M.; Makishima, K.; /Tokyo U.; Terada, Y.; /Wako, RIKEN; Nomachi, M.; /Osaka U.; Tashiro, M.; /Saitama U.

    2005-05-04

    The Soft Gamma-ray Detector (SGD) on board NeXT (Japanese future high energy astrophysics mission) is a Compton telescope with narrow field of view, which utilizes Compton kinematics to enhance its background rejection capabilities. It is realized as a hybrid semiconductor gamma-ray detector which consists of silicon and Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) detectors. It can detect photons in an energy band 0.05-1 MeV at a background level of 5 x 10{sup -7} counts/s/cm{sup 2}/keV; the silicon layers are required to improve the performance at a lower energy band (<0.3 MeV). Excellent energy resolution is the key feature of the SGD to achieve both high angular resolution and good background rejection capability. Its ability to measure gamma-ray polarization opens up a new window to study gamma-ray emission in the universe. We will present the development of key technologies to realize the SGD; high quality CdTe, low noise front-end VLSI and bump bonding technology. Energy resolutions of 1.7 keV (FWHM) for CdTe pixel detectors and 1.1 keV for silicon strip detectors have been measured. We also present the validation of Monte Carlo simulation used to evaluate the performance of the SGD.

  17. A Current Mode Detector Array for Gamma-Ray Asymmetry Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Gericke, M T; Bowman, J D; Gillis, R C; Hartfield, J; Ino, T; Leuschner, M; Masuda, Y; Mitchell, G S; Muto, S; Nann, H; Page, S A; Penttil"a, S I; Ramsay, W D; Seo, P N; Snow, W M; Tasson, J; Wilburn, W S

    2004-01-01

    We have built a CsI(Tl) gamma-ray detector array for the NPDGamma experiment to search for a small parity-violating directional asymmetry in the angular distribution of 2.2 MeV gamma-rays from the capture of polarized cold neutrons by protons with a sensitivity of several ppb. The weak pion-nucleon coupling constant can be determined from this asymmetry. The small size of the asymmetry requires a high cold neutron flux, control of systematic errors at the ppb level, and the use of current mode gamma-ray detection with vacuum photo diodes and low-noise solid-state preamplifiers. The average detector photoelectron yield was determined to be 1300 photoelectrons per MeV. The RMS width seen in the measurement is therefore dominated by the fluctuations in the number of gamma rays absorbed in the detector (counting statistics) rather than the intrinsic detector noise. The detectors were tested for noise performance, sensitivity to magnetic fields, pedestal stability and cosmic background. False asymmetries due to ga...

  18. Development of the Gamma-Gamma Perturbed Angular Correlation One-Detector Method for the Studies of the Physicochemical Properties of Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Filossofov, D V; Korolev, N A; Egorov, V G; Lebedev, N A; Akselrod, Z Z; Brockmann, J; Rösch, F

    2001-01-01

    A new method of the perturbed angular \\gamma\\gamma-correlation (PAC) measurements was developed using one detector only. For the perturbation factor quantification the relation of the summing peak composed of two cascade \\gamma-rays of study (the perturbation-affected parameter) to the summing peak composed of one \\gamma-ray and X-ray (the perturbation non-affected parameter) was used. This method was demonstrated for the ^{111}In and ^{111m}Cd radionuclides.

  19. Chargеs collection efficiency in gamma-ray detectors with different electrodes configuration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kondrik A. I.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The dependence of the charge collection efficiency n in gamma-ray detectors based on CdZnTe on the impurity composition of the material has been investigated. Plane-parallel, cylindrical and spherical electrodes have been considered. A comparative analysis of n for detectors with electrodes of different shape has been carried out and the optimum composition of the material CdxZn1–xTe placed in the electrode gap has been determined.

  20. A novel detector assembly for detecting thermal neutrons, fast neutrons and gamma rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cester, D., E-mail: davide.cester@gmail.com [Dipartimento di Fisica ed Astronomia dell' Università di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Lunardon, M.; Moretto, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica ed Astronomia dell' Università di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); INFN Sezione di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Nebbia, G. [INFN Sezione di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Pino, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica ed Astronomia dell' Università di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Sajo-Bohus, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica ed Astronomia dell' Università di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear, Universidad Simon Bolivar, Apartado 89000, 1080 A Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Stevanato, L.; Bonesso, I.; Turato, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica ed Astronomia dell' Università di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy)

    2016-09-11

    A new composite detector has been developed by combining two different commercial scintillators. The device has the capability to detect gamma rays as well as thermal and fast neutrons; the signal discrimination between the three types is performed on-line by means of waveform digitizers and PSD algorithms. This work describes the assembled detector and its discrimination performance to be employed in the applied field.

  1. The 14N(p,gamma)15O reaction studied with a composite germanium detector

    CERN Document Server

    Marta, M; Bemmerer, D; Broggini, C; Caciolli, A; Corvisiero, P; Costantini, H; Elekes, Z; Fulop, Zs; Gervino, G; Guglielmetti, A; Gustavino, C; Gyurky, Gy; Imbriani, G; Junker, M; Lemut, A; Limata, B; Mazzocchi, C; Menegazzo, R; Prati, P; Roca, V; Rolfs, C; Alvarez, C Rossi; Somorjai, E; Straniero, O; Strieder, F; Terrasi, F; Trautvetter, H P; Vomiero, A

    2011-01-01

    The rate of the carbon-nitrogen-oxygen (CNO) cycle of hydrogen burning is controlled by the 14N(p,gamma)15O reaction. The reaction proceeds by capture to the ground states and several excited states in O-15. In order to obtain a reliable extrapolation of the excitation curve to astrophysical energy, fits in the R-matrix framework are needed. In an energy range that sensitively tests such fits, new cross section data are reported here for the four major transitions in the 14N(p,gamma)15O reaction. The experiment has been performed at the Laboratory for Underground Nuclear Astrophysics (LUNA) 400 kV accelerator placed deep underground in the Gran Sasso facility in Italy. Using a composite germanium detector, summing corrections have been considerably reduced with respect to previous studies. The cross sections for capture to the ground state and to the 5181, 6172, and 6792 keV excited states in O-15 have been determined at 359, 380, and 399 keV beam energy. In addition, the branching ratios for the decay of the...

  2. Iterative reconstruction of the detector response for medical gamma cameras

    CERN Document Server

    Morozov, A; Alves, F; Domingos, V; Martins, R; Neves, F; Chepel, V

    2015-01-01

    Statistical event reconstruction techniques can give better results for gamma cameras than the traditional centroid method. However, implementation of such techniques requires detailed knowledge of the PMT light response functions. Here we describe an iterative technique which allows to obtain the response functions from flood irradiation data without imposing strict requirements on the spatial uniformity of the event distribution. A successful application of the technique for medical gamma cameras is demonstrated using both simulated and experimental data. We show that this technique can be used for monitoring of the photomultiplier gain variations. An implementation of the iterative reconstruction technique capable of operating in real-time is also presented.

  3. Technical Note: Experimental carbon ion range verification in inhomogeneous phantoms using prompt gammas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, M.; Dauvergne, D.; Dedes, G.; Krimmer, J.; Ray, C.; Testa, E., E-mail: e.testa@ipnl.in2p3.fr; Testa, M. [IPNL, Université de Lyon, Lyon F-69003 |(France); Université Lyon 1, Villeurbanne F-69622 (France); CNRS/IN2P3, UMR 5822, Villeurbanne F-69622 (France); De Rydt, M. [IPNL, Université de Lyon, Lyon F-69003 (France); Université Lyon 1, Villeurbanne F-69622 (France); CNRS/IN2P3, UMR 5822, Villeurbanne F-69622 (France); Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, Leuven B-3001 (Belgium); Freud, N.; Létang, J. M. [CREATIS, Université de Lyon, Lyon F-69003 (France); Université Lyon 1, Villeurbanne F-69622 (France); CNRS UMR 5220, INSERM U1044, INSA-Lyon, Centre Léon Bérard, 69008 Lyon (France)

    2015-05-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to experimentally assess the possibility to monitor carbon ion range variations—due to tumor shift and/or elongation or shrinking—using prompt-gamma (PG) emission with inhomogeneous phantoms. Such a study is related to the development of PG monitoring techniques to be used in a carbon ion therapy context. Methods: A 95 MeV/u carbon ion beam was used to irradiate phantoms with a variable density along the ion path to mimic the presence of bone and lung in homogeneous humanlike tissue. PG profiles were obtained after a longitudinal scan of the phantoms. A setup comprising a narrow single-slit collimator and two detectors placed at 90° with respect to the beam axis was used. The time of flight technique was applied to allow the selection between PG and background events. Results: Using the positions at 50% entrance and 50% falloff of the PG profiles, a quantity called prompt-gamma profile length (PGPL) is defined. It is possible to observe shifts in the PGPL when there are absolute ion range shifts as small as 1–2 mm. Quantitatively, for an ion range shift of −1.33 ± 0.46 mm (insertion of a Teflon slab), a PGPL difference of −1.93 ± 0.58 mm and −1.84 ± 1.27 mm is obtained using a BaF{sub 2} and a NaI(Tl) detector, respectively. In turn, when an ion range shift of 4.59 ± 0.42 mm (insertion of a lung-equivalent material slab) is considered, the difference is of 4.10 ± 0.54 and 4.39 ± 0.80 mm for the same detectors. Conclusions: Herein, experimental evidence of the usefulness of employing PG to monitor carbon ion range using inhomogeneous phantoms is presented. Considering the homogeneous phantom as reference, the results show that the information provided by the PG emission allows for detecting ion range shifts as small as 1–2 mm. When considering the expected PG emission from an energy slice in a carbon ion therapy scenario, the experimental setup would allow to retrieve the same PGPL as the high statistics of

  4. Study of the radiative decay phi to a0(980) gamma with the KLOE detector

    CERN Document Server

    Ambrosino, F; Antonelli, M; Archilli, F; Bacci, C; Beltrame, P; Bencivenni, G; Bertolucci, S; Bini, C; Bloise, C; Bocchetta, S; Bocci, V; Bossi, F; Branchini, P; Caloi, R; Campana, P; Capon, G; Capussela, T; Ceradini, F; Chi, S; Chiefari, G; Ciambrone, P; De Lucia, E; De Santis, A; De Simone, P; De Zorzi, G; Denig, A; Di Domenico, A; Di Donato, C; Di Falco, S; Di Micco, B; Doria, A; Dreucci, M; Felici, G; Ferrari, A; Ferrer, M L; Finocchiaro, G; Fiore, S; Forti, C; Franzini, P; Gatti, C; Gauzzi, P; Giovannella, S; Gorini, E; Graziani, E; Incagli, M; Kluge, W; Kulikov, V; Lacava, F; Lanfranchi, G; Lee-Franzini, J; Leone, D; Martini, M; Massarotti, P; Mei, W; Meola, S; Miscetti, S; Moulson, M; Müller, S; Murtas, F; Napolitano, M; Nguyen, F; Palutan, M; Pasqualucci, E; Passeri, A; Patera, V; Perfetto, F; Primavera, M; Santangelo, P; Saracino, G; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Scuri, F; Sfiligoi, I; Spadaro, T; Testa, M; Tortora, L; Valente, P; Valeriani, B; Venanzoni, G; Versaci, R; Xu, G

    2007-01-01

    A sample of 1.25x10^9 phi decays, collected with the KLOE detector at the Frascati phi-factory DAFNE at center of mass energy ~ Mphi, has been used to study the radiative decay phi to eta pi0 gamma. This decay is dominated by phi to a0(980) gamma. Two decay chains, corresponding to eta to gamma gamma and eta to pi+ pi- pi0, have been selected. We found respectively: Br(phi to eta pi0 gamma)=(6.92 +/- 0.10 (stat.) +/- 0.20 (syst.))x10^(-5) and (7.19 +/- 0.17 (stat.) +/- 0.24 (syst.))x 10 ^(-5). The eta pi0 invariant mass distributions have been fitted to obtain the relevant a0(980) parameters.

  5. Development of marijuana and tobacco detectors using potassium-40 gamma ray emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirby, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States). Fission Energy and Systems Safety Program; Lindquist, R.P. [Customs Service, Washington, DC (United States)

    1994-06-01

    Measurements were made at the Otay Mesa, Ca. border crossing between November 30 and December 4, 1992 to demonstrate proof of concept and the practicality of using potassium 40 (K40) gamma emissions to detect the presence of marijuana in vehicles. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) personnel, with the assistance of the EPA, set up three large volume gamma ray detectors with lead brick shielding and collimation under a stationary trailer and pickup truck. Measurements were performed for various positions and quantities of marijuana. Also, small quantities of marijuana, cigarettes, and other materials were subjected to gamma counting measurements under controlled geometry conditions to determine their K40 concentration. Larger quantities of heroin and cocaine were subjected to undefined geometry gamma counts for significant K40 gamma emissions.

  6. Space Detectors for Gamma Rays (100 MeV-100 GeV): from Egret to Fermi LAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, David J.

    2015-01-01

    The design of spaceborne high-energy (E is greater than 100 MeV) gamma-ray detectors depends on two principal factors: (1) the basic physics of detecting and measuring the properties of the gamma rays; and (2) the constraints of operating such a detector in space for an extended period. Improvements in technology have enabled major advances in detector performance, as illustrated by two successful instruments, EGRET on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory and LAT on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope.

  7. High irradiation and ageing properties of resistive Micromegas detectors at the new CERN Gamma Irradiation Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Andreou, Dimitra

    2016-01-01

    Resistive Micromegas have been developed in recent years with the aim of making this technology usable in HEP experiments where the high sparking rate of classical Micromegas is not tolerable. A resistive Micromegas with four layers and an active surface of 0.5 m2 each, has been designed and built at CERN as prototype of the detectors to be used for the upgrade of the ATLAS experiment. The detector has been exposed to an intense gamma source of 16 TBq in order to study the effects of ageing and evaluate the detector behavior under high irradiation.

  8. Liquid Scintillation Detectors for Gamma and Neutron Diagnostic at Textor and Results of Runaway and Sawtooth Oscillations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoenen, F.; Graffmann, E.; Finken, K.H.; Barrenscheen, H. J.; Klein, H.; R. Jaspers,

    1994-01-01

    Time and energy resolved neutron and gamma measurements are performed at the TEXTOR tokamak with a fast liquid NE-213 scintillator. To distinguish between neutron and gamma (gamma)-ray induced events, pulse shape discrimination is used. To suppress scattered radiation, the detector is installed in

  9. Arrays of Encapsulated CdZnTe Gamma-Ray Detectors for Planetary Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, C. E.; Ianakiev, K. D.; Prettyman, T. H.; Reedy, R. C.; Smith, M. K.; Sweet, M. R.

    2000-01-01

    Recent results from encapsulated multi-element CdZnTe room-temperature semiconductor gamma-ray detectors are presented. Our multi-element-array design is a good low-mass and low-power candidate for elemental mapping on future planetary missions.

  10. Positron imaging with multiwire proportional chamber-gamma converter hybrid detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, D.Y.H.

    1976-09-01

    A large area positron camera was developed using multiwire proportional chambers as detectors and electromagnetic delay lines for coordinate readout. Honeycomb structured gamma converters made of lead are coupled to the chambers for efficient gamma detection and good spatial resolution. Two opposing detectors, each having a sensitive area of 48 cm x 48 cm, are operated in coincidence for the detection of annihilation gammas (511 keV) from positron emitters. Detection efficiency of 4.2 percent per detector and spatial resolution of 6 to 7 mm FWHM at the mid-plane were achieved. The present camera operates at a maximum count rate of 24 K counts/min, limited by accidental coincidence. The theory for the gamma converter is presented along with a review of the operation of the multiwire proportional chamber and delay line readout. Calculated gamma converter efficiencies are compared with the measured results using a prototype test chamber. The characteristics of the positron camera system is evaluated, and the performance is shown to be consistent with calculation.

  11. Absorber-coupled lumped element kinetic inductance detectors for gamma-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naruse, Masato; Miyamoto, Noriaki; Taino, Tohru; Myoren, Hiroaki

    2017-10-01

    We propose gamma-ray detectors based on superconducting resonators that can be largely multiplexed and show potential for quick response time, high spatial resolution, and high energy resolution. The resonators were fabricated with a niobium film on a silicon wafer. Eight out of ten detectors could be operated at 0.3 K. The detectors were coupled to a 2-mm-thick lead absorber and examined with a cesium 137 source. The pulse decay time was 3.6 μs and energy resolution was 3.8 keV at 662 keV. We also describe the resonant properties of each detector. The proposed detectors are suitable for use as food-screening systems.

  12. Design and Performance of the Soft Gamma-ray Detector for the NeXT mission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tajima, Hiroyasu; Kamae, T.; Madejski, G.; Mitani, T.; Nakazawa, K.; Tanaka, T.; Takahashi, T.; Watanabe, S.; Fukazawa, Y.; Ikagawa, T.; Kataoka, J.; Kokubun, M.; Makishima, K.; Terada, Y.; Nomachi, M.; Tashiro, M.; /SLAC /Sagamihara, Inst. Space Astron. Sci. /Tokyo U. /Hiroshima U. /Tokyo Inst. Tech. /Wako, RIKEN /Osaka U. /Saitama U.

    2006-04-19

    The Soft Gamma-ray Detector (SGD) on board the NeXT (Japanese future high energy astrophysics mission) is a Compton telescope with narrow field of view (FOV), which utilizes Compton kinematics to enhance its background rejection capabilities. It is realized as a hybrid semiconductor gamma-ray detector which consists of silicon and CdTe (cadmium telluride) detectors. It can detect photons in a wide energy band (0.05-1 MeV) at a background level of 5 x 10{sup -7} counts/s/cm{sup 2}/keV; the silicon layers are required to improve the performance at a lower energy band (<0.3 MeV). Excellent energy resolution is the key feature of the SGD, allowing it to achieve both high angular resolution and good background rejection capability. An additional capability of the SGD, its ability to measure gamma-ray polarization, opens up a new window to study properties of astronomical objects. We will present the development of key technologies to realize the SGD: high quality CdTe, low noise front-end ASIC and bump bonding technology. Energy resolutions of 1.7 keV (FWHM) for CdTe pixel detectors and 1.1 keV for Si strip detectors have been measured. We also present the validation of Monte Carlo simulation used to evaluate the performance of the SGD.

  13. Harsh-Environment Solid-State Gamma Detector for Down-hole Gas and Oil Exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter Sandvik; Stanislav Soloviev; Emad Andarawis; Ho-Young Cha; Jim Rose; Kevin Durocher; Robert Lyons; Bob Pieciuk; Jim Williams; David O' Connor

    2007-08-10

    The goal of this program was to develop a revolutionary solid-state gamma-ray detector suitable for use in down-hole gas and oil exploration. This advanced detector would employ wide-bandgap semiconductor technology to extend the gamma sensor's temperature capability up to 200 C as well as extended reliability, which significantly exceeds current designs based on photomultiplier tubes. In Phase II, project tasks were focused on optimization of the final APD design, growing and characterizing the full scintillator crystals of the selected composition, arranging the APD device packaging, developing the needed optical coupling between scintillator and APD, and characterizing the combined elements as a full detector system preparing for commercialization. What follows is a summary report from the second 18-month phase of this program.

  14. Fabrication of Gamma Detectors Based on Magnetic Ag:Er Microcalorimeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrich, Stephan [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Boyd, Stephen [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Cantor, Robin [STAR Cryoelectronics, Santa Fe, NM (United States)

    2016-05-06

    This report discusses the photolithographic fabrication of ultra-high resolution gamma-ray detectors based on magnetic microcalorimeters (MMCs). The MMC uses a novel Er-doped silver sensor (Ag:Er) that is expected to have higher sensitivity than the Er-doped gold (Au:Er) sensors currently in use. The MMC also integrates the first-stage SQUID preamplifier on the same chip as the MMC gamma detector to increase its signal-to-noise ratio. In addition, the MMC uses a passive Ta-Nb heat switch to replace one of the common long-term failure points in earlier detectors. This report discusses the fabrication process we have developed to implement the proposed improvements.

  15. Fabrication of Gamma Detectors Based on Magnetic Ag:Er Microcalorimeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrich, Stephan [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Boyd, Stephen [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Cantor, Robin [STAR Cryoelectronics, Santa Fe, NM (United States)

    2015-11-25

    This report discusses the photolithographic fabrication of ultra-high resolution gamma-ray detectors based on magnetic microcalorimeters (MMCs). The MMC uses a novel Er-doped silver sensor (Ag:Er) that is expected to have higher sensitivity than the Er-doped gold (Au:Er) sensors currently in use. The MMC also integrates the first-stage SQUID preamplifier on the same chip as the MMC gamma detector to increase its signal-to-noise ratio. In addition, the MMC uses a passive Ta-Nb heat switch to replace one of the common long-term failure points in earlier detectors. This report discusses the fabrication process we have developed to implement the proposed improvements.

  16. Proof of principle of a high-spatial-resolution, resonant-response {gamma}-ray detector for Gamma Resonance Absorption in {sup 14}N

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandis, M; Goldberg, M B; Vartsky, D; Mardor, I; Levi, S; Mor, I; Bar, D [Nuclear Physics Division, Soreq NRC, Yavne 81800 (Israel); Friedman, E [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Kreslo, I [Laboratory for High Energy Physics (LHEP), University of Bern, Bern 3012 (Switzerland); Dangendorf, V, E-mail: michal_brandis@yahoo.com [Physikalisch-Technisch-Bundesanstalt (PTB), Braunschweig 38116 (Germany)

    2011-02-01

    The development of a mm-spatial-resolution, resonant-response detector based on a micrometric glass capillary array filled with liquid scintillator is described. This detector was developed for Gamma Resonance Absorption (GRA) in {sup 14}N. GRA is an automatic-decision radiographic screening technique that combines high radiation penetration (the probe is a 9.17 MeV {gamma}-ray) with very good sensitivity and specificity to nitrogenous explosives. Detailed simulation of the detector response to electrons and protons generated by the 9.17 MeV {gamma}-rays was followed by a proof-of-principle experiment, using a mixed {gamma}-ray and neutron source. Towards this, a prototype capillary detector was assembled, including the associated filling and readout systems. Simulations and experimental results indeed show that proton tracks are distinguishable from electron tracks at relevant energies, based on a criterion that combines track length and light intensity per unit length.

  17. Search for exclusive Higgs and $Z$ boson decays to $\\phi\\gamma$ and $\\rho\\gamma$ with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Aaboud, Morad; ATLAS Collaboration; Abbott, Brad; Abdinov, Ovsat; Abeloos, Baptiste; Abidi, Syed Haider; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abraham, Nicola; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Abreu, Ricardo; Abulaiti, Yiming; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adachi, Shunsuke; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adelman, Jahred; Adersberger, Michael; Adye, Tim; Affolder, Tony; Afik, Yoav; Agatonovic-Jovin, Tatjana; Agheorghiesei, Catalin; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Ahlen, Steven; Ahmadov, Faig; Aielli, Giulio; Akatsuka, Shunichi; Akerstedt, Henrik; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akilli, Ece; Akimov, Andrei; Alberghi, Gian Luigi; Albert, Justin; Albicocco, Pietro; Alconada Verzini, Maria Josefina; Alderweireldt, Sara; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Ali, Babar; Aliev, Malik; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alison, John; Alkire, Steven Patrick; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allen, Benjamin William; Allport, Phillip; Aloisio, Alberto; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Alpigiani, Cristiano; Alshehri, Azzah Aziz; Alstaty, Mahmoud; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Άlvarez Piqueras, Damián; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amadio, Brian Thomas; Amaral Coutinho, Yara; Amelung, Christoph; Amidei, Dante; Amor Dos Santos, Susana Patricia; Amoroso, Simone; Amundsen, Glenn; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, John Kenneth; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Angelidakis, Stylianos; Angelozzi, Ivan; Angerami, Aaron; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antel, Claire; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antrim, Daniel Joseph; Anulli, Fabio; Aoki, Masato; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Arabidze, Giorgi; Arai, Yasuo; Araque, Juan Pedro; Araujo Ferraz, Victor; Arce, Ayana; Ardell, Rose Elisabeth; Arduh, Francisco Anuar; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Argyropoulos, Spyridon; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Armitage, Lewis James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnold, Hannah; Arratia, Miguel; Arslan, Ozan; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Artz, Sebastian; Asai, Shoji; Asbah, Nedaa; Ashkenazi, Adi; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astalos, Robert; Atkinson, Markus; Atlay, Naim Bora; Augsten, Kamil; Avolio, Giuseppe; Axen, Bradley; Ayoub, Mohamad Kassem; Azuelos, Georges; Baas, Alessandra; Baca, Matthew John; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bahmani, Marzieh; Bahrasemani, Sina; Baines, John; Bajic, Milena; Baker, Oliver Keith; Bakker, Pepijn Johannes; Baldin, Evgenii; Balek, Petr; Balli, Fabrice; Balunas, William Keaton; Banas, Elzbieta; Bandyopadhyay, Anjishnu; Banerjee, Swagato; Bannoura, Arwa A E; Barak, Liron; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Barillari, Teresa; Barisits, Martin-Stefan; Barkeloo, Jason Tyler Colt; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnes, Sarah Louise; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Barnovska-Blenessy, Zuzana; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barranco Navarro, Laura; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartos, Pavol; Basalaev, Artem; Bassalat, Ahmed; Bates, Richard; Batista, Santiago Juan; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Marco; Bauce, Matteo; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beacham, James; Beattie, Michael David; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans~Peter; Beck, Helge Christoph; Becker, Kathrin; Becker, Maurice; Becot, Cyril; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bedognetti, Matteo; Bee, Christopher; Beermann, Thomas; Begalli, Marcia; Begel, Michael; Behr, Janna Katharina; Bell, Andrew Stuart; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellerive, Alain; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Belyaev, Nikita; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bender, Michael; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez, Jose; Benjamin, Douglas; Benoit, Mathieu; Bensinger, James; Bentvelsen, Stan; Beresford, Lydia; Beretta, Matteo; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Bergsten, Laura Jean; Beringer, Jürg; Berlendis, Simon; Bernard, Nathan Rogers; Bernardi, Gregorio; Bernius, Catrin; Bernlochner, Florian Urs; Berry, Tracey; Berta, Peter; Bertella, Claudia; Bertoli, Gabriele; Bertram, Iain Alexander; Bertsche, Carolyn; Besjes, Geert-Jan; Bessidskaia Bylund, Olga; Bessner, Martin Florian; Besson, Nathalie; Bethani, Agni; Bethke, Siegfried; Betti, Alessandra; Bevan, Adrian John; Beyer, Julien-christopher; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Biebel, Otmar; Biedermann, Dustin; Bielski, Rafal; Bierwagen, Katharina; Biesuz, Nicolo Vladi; Biglietti, Michela; Billoud, Thomas Remy Victor; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Biondi, Silvia; Bisanz, Tobias; Bittrich, Carsten; Bjergaard, David Martin; Black, James; Black, Kevin; Blair, Robert; Blazek, Tomas; Bloch, Ingo; Blocker, Craig; Blue, Andrew; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Blunier, Sylvain; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bobrovnikov, Victor; Bocchetta, Simona Serena; Bocci, Andrea; Bock, Christopher; Boehler, Michael; Boerner, Daniela; Bogavac, Danijela; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Bohm, Christian; Boisvert, Veronique; Bokan, Petar; Bold, Tomasz; Boldyrev, Alexey; Bolz, Arthur Eugen; Bomben, Marco; Bona, Marcella; Boonekamp, Maarten; Borisov, Anatoly; Borissov, Guennadi; Bortfeldt, Jonathan; Bortoletto, Daniela; Bortolotto, Valerio; Boscherini, Davide; Bosman, Martine; Bossio Sola, Jonathan David; Boudreau, Joseph; Bouhova-Thacker, Evelina Vassileva; Boumediene, Djamel Eddine; Bourdarios, Claire; Boutle, Sarah Kate; Boveia, Antonio; Boyd, James; Boyko, Igor; Bozson, Adam James; Bracinik, Juraj; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Gerhard; Brandt, Oleg; Braren, Frued; Bratzler, Uwe; Brau, Benjamin; Brau, James; Breaden Madden, William Dmitri; Brendlinger, Kurt; Brennan, Amelia Jean; Brenner, Lydia; Brenner, Richard; Bressler, Shikma; Briglin, Daniel Lawrence; Bristow, Timothy Michael; Britton, Dave; Britzger, Daniel; Brochu, Frederic; Brock, Ian; Brock, Raymond; Brooijmans, Gustaaf; Brooks, Timothy; Brooks, William; Brosamer, Jacquelyn; Brost, Elizabeth; Broughton, James; Bruckman de Renstrom, Pawel; Bruncko, Dusan; Bruni, Alessia; Bruni, Graziano; Bruni, Lucrezia Stella; Bruno, Salvatore; Brunt, Benjamin; Bruschi, Marco; Bruscino, Nello; Bryant, Patrick; Bryngemark, Lene; Buanes, Trygve; Buat, Quentin; Buchholz, Peter; Buckley, Andrew; Budagov, Ioulian; Buehrer, Felix; Bugge, Magnar Kopangen; Bulekov, Oleg; Bullock, Daniel; Burch, Tyler James; Burdin, Sergey; Burgard, Carsten Daniel; Burger, Angela Maria; Burghgrave, Blake; Burka, Klaudia; Burke, Stephen; Burmeister, Ingo; Burr, Jonathan Thomas Peter; Büscher, Daniel; Büscher, Volker; Bussey, Peter; Butler, John; Buttar, Craig; Butterworth, Jonathan; Butti, Pierfrancesco; Buttinger, William; Buzatu, Adrian; Buzykaev, Aleksey; C-Q, Changqiao; Cabrera Urbán, Susana; Caforio, Davide; Cai, Huacheng; Cairo, Valentina; Cakir, Orhan; Calace, Noemi; Calafiura, Paolo; Calandri, Alessandro; Calderini, Giovanni; Calfayan, Philippe; Callea, Giuseppe; Caloba, Luiz; Calvente Lopez, Sergio; Calvet, David; Calvet, Samuel; Calvet, Thomas Philippe; Camacho Toro, Reina; Camarda, Stefano; Camarri, Paolo; Cameron, David; Caminal Armadans, Roger; Camincher, Clement; Campana, Simone; Campanelli, Mario; Camplani, Alessandra; Campoverde, Angel; Canale, Vincenzo; Cano Bret, Marc; Cantero, Josu; Cao, Tingting; Capeans Garrido, Maria Del Mar; Caprini, Irinel; Caprini, Mihai; Capua, Marcella; Carbone, Ryne Michael; Cardarelli, Roberto; Cardillo, Fabio; Carli, Ina; Carli, Tancredi; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Carlson, Benjamin Taylor; Carminati, Leonardo; Carney, Rebecca; Caron, Sascha; Carquin, Edson; Carrá, Sonia; Carrillo-Montoya, German D; Casadei, Diego; Casado, Maria Pilar; Casha, Albert Francis; Casolino, Mirkoantonio; Casper, David William; Castelijn, Remco; Castillo Gimenez, Victoria; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Catinaccio, Andrea; Catmore, James; Cattai, Ariella; Caudron, Julien; Cavaliere, Viviana; Cavallaro, Emanuele; Cavalli, Donatella; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cavasinni, Vincenzo; Celebi, Emre; Ceradini, Filippo; Cerda Alberich, Leonor; Santiago Cerqueira, Augusto; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Cerutti, Fabio; Cervelli, Alberto; Cetin, Serkant Ali; Chafaq, Aziz; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chan, Stephen Kam-wah; Chan, Wing Sheung; Chan, Yat Long; Chang, Philip; Chapman, John Derek; Charlton, David; Chau, Chav Chhiv; Chavez Barajas, Carlos Alberto; Che, Siinn; Cheatham, Susan; Chegwidden, Andrew; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chelstowska, Magda Anna; Chen, Cheng; Chen, Chunhui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Jing; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Shion; Chen, Xin; Chen, Ye; Cheng, Hok Chuen; Cheng, Huajie; Cheplakov, Alexander; Cheremushkina, Evgeniya; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Cheu, Elliott; Cheung, Kingman; Chevalier, Laurent; Chiarella, Vitaliano; Chiarelli, Giorgio; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chisholm, Andrew; Chitan, Adrian; Chiu, Yu Him Justin; Chizhov, Mihail; Choi, Kyungeon; Chomont, Arthur Rene; Chouridou, Sofia; Chow, Yun Sang; Christodoulou, Valentinos; Chu, Ming Chung; Chudoba, Jiri; Chuinard, Annabelle Julia; Chwastowski, Janusz; Chytka, Ladislav; Ciftci, Abbas Kenan; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Cioară, Irina Antonela; Ciocio, Alessandra; Cirotto, Francesco; Citron, Zvi Hirsh; Citterio, Mauro; Ciubancan, Mihai; Clark, Allan G; Clark, Brian Lee; Clark, Michael; Clark, Philip James; Clarke, Robert; Clement, Christophe; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H; Colasurdo, Luca; Cole, Brian; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Collot, Johann; Colombo, Tommaso; Conde Muiño, Patricia; Coniavitis, Elias; Connell, Simon Henry; Connelly, Ian; Constantinescu, Serban; Conti, Geraldine; Conventi, Francesco; Cooke, Mark; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Cormier, Felix; Cormier, Kyle James Read; Corradi, Massimo; Corriveau, Francois; Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; Costa, Giuseppe; Costa, María José; Costanzo, Davide; Cottin, Giovanna; Cowan, Glen; Cox, Brian; Cranmer, Kyle; Crawley, Samuel Joseph; Creager, Rachael; Cree, Graham; Crépé-Renaudin, Sabine; Crescioli, Francesco; Cribbs, Wayne Allen; Cristinziani, Markus; Croft, Vince; Crosetti, Giovanni; Cueto, Ana; Cuhadar Donszelmann, Tulay; Cukierman, Aviv Ruben; Cummings, Jane; Curatolo, Maria; Cúth, Jakub; Czekierda, Sabina; Czodrowski, Patrick; D'amen, Gabriele; D'Auria, Saverio; D'eramo, Louis; D'Onofrio, Monica; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, Mario Jose; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dado, Tomas; Dai, Tiesheng; Dale, Orjan; Dallaire, Frederick; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dam, Mogens; Dandoy, Jeffrey; Daneri, Maria Florencia; Dang, Nguyen Phuong; Daniells, Andrew Christopher; Dann, Nicholas Stuart; Danninger, Matthias; Dano Hoffmann, Maria; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darmora, Smita; Dassoulas, James; Dattagupta, Aparajita; Daubney, Thomas; Davey, Will; David, Claire; Davidek, Tomas; Davis, Douglas; Davison, Peter; Dawe, Edmund; Dawson, Ian; De, Kaushik; de Asmundis, Riccardo; De Benedetti, Abraham; De Castro, Stefano; De Cecco, Sandro; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; De la Torre, Hector; De Lorenzi, Francesco; De Maria, Antonio; De Pedis, Daniele; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; De Vasconcelos Corga, Kevin; De Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; Debbe, Ramiro; Debenedetti, Chiara; Dedovich, Dmitri; Dehghanian, Nooshin; Deigaard, Ingrid; Del Gaudio, Michela; Del Peso, Jose; Delgove, David; Deliot, Frederic; Delitzsch, Chris Malena; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Dell'Orso, Mauro; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delporte, Charles; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; DeMarco, David; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demilly, Aurelien; Denisov, Sergey; Denysiuk, Denys; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Deterre, Cecile; Dette, Karola; Devesa, Maria Roberta; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Di Bello, Francesco Armando; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Clemente, William Kennedy; Di Donato, Camilla; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Micco, Biagio; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Petrillo, Karri Folan; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Di Valentino, David; Diaconu, Cristinel; Diamond, Miriam; Dias, Flavia; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Dickinson, Jennet; Diehl, Edward; Dietrich, Janet; Díez Cornell, Sergio; Dimitrievska, Aleksandra; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dita, Petre; Dita, Sanda; Dittus, Fridolin; Djama, Fares; Djobava, Tamar; Djuvsland, Julia Isabell; Barros do Vale, Maria Aline; Dobos, Daniel; Dobre, Monica; Dodsworth, David; Doglioni, Caterina; Dolejsi, Jiri; Dolezal, Zdenek; Donadelli, Marisilvia; Donati, Simone; Dondero, Paolo; Donini, Julien; Dopke, Jens; Doria, Alessandra; Dova, Maria-Teresa; Doyle, Tony; Drechsler, Eric; Dris, Manolis; Du, Yanyan; Duarte-Campderros, Jorge; Dubinin, Filipp; Dubreuil, Arnaud; Duchovni, Ehud; Duckeck, Guenter; Ducourthial, Audrey; Ducu, Otilia Anamaria; Duda, Dominik; Dudarev, Alexey; Dudder, Andreas Christian; Duffield, Emily Marie; Duflot, Laurent; Dührssen, Michael; Dulsen, Carsten; Dumancic, Mirta; Dumitriu, Ana Elena; Duncan, Anna Kathryn; Dunford, Monica; Duperrin, Arnaud; Duran Yildiz, Hatice; Düren, Michael; Durglishvili, Archil; Duschinger, Dirk; Dutta, Baishali; Duvnjak, Damir; Dyndal, Mateusz; Dziedzic, Bartosz Sebastian; Eckardt, Christoph; Ecker, Katharina Maria; Edgar, Ryan Christopher; Eifert, Till; Eigen, Gerald; Einsweiler, Kevin; Ekelof, Tord; El Kacimi, Mohamed; El Kosseifi, Rima; Ellajosyula, Venugopal; Ellert, Mattias; Elles, Sabine; Ellinghaus, Frank; Elliot, Alison; Ellis, Nicolas; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Elsing, Markus; Emeliyanov, Dmitry; Enari, Yuji; Ennis, Joseph Stanford; Epland, Matthew Berg; Erdmann, Johannes; Ereditato, Antonio; Ernst, Michael; Errede, Steven; Escalier, Marc; Escobar, Carlos; Esposito, Bellisario; Estrada Pastor, Oscar; Etienvre, Anne-Isabelle; Etzion, Erez; Evans, Hal; Ezhilov, Alexey; Ezzi, Mohammed; Fabbri, Federica; Fabbri, Laura; Fabiani, Veronica; Facini, Gabriel; Fakhrutdinov, Rinat; Falciano, Speranza; Falla, Rebecca Jane; Faltova, Jana; Fang, Yaquan; Fanti, Marcello; Farbin, Amir; Farilla, Addolorata; Farina, Christian; Farina, Edoardo Maria; Farooque, Trisha; Farrell, Steven; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fassi, Farida; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Faucci Giannelli, Michele; Favareto, Andrea; Fawcett, William James; Fayard, Louis; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Wojciech; Feigl, Simon; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Fenton, Michael James; Fenyuk, Alexander; Feremenga, Last; Fernandez Martinez, Patricia; Ferrando, James; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferreira de Lima, Danilo Enoque; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Fiedler, Frank; Filipčič, Andrej; Filipuzzi, Marco; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Finelli, Kevin Daniel; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Fischer, Adam; Fischer, Cora; Fischer, Julia; Fisher, Wade Cameron; Flaschel, Nils; Fleck, Ivor; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fletcher, Rob Roy MacGregor; Flick, Tobias; Flierl, Bernhard Matthias; Flores Castillo, Luis; Flowerdew, Michael; Forcolin, Giulio Tiziano; Formica, Andrea; Förster, Fabian Alexander; Forti, Alessandra; Foster, Andrew Geoffrey; Fournier, Daniel; Fox, Harald; Fracchia, Silvia; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchini, Matteo; Franchino, Silvia; Francis, David; Franconi, Laura; Franklin, Melissa; Frate, Meghan; Fraternali, Marco; Freeborn, David; Fressard-Batraneanu, Silvia; Freund, Benjamin; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fusayasu, Takahiro; Fuster, Juan; Gabizon, Ofir; Gabrielli, Alessandro; Gabrielli, Andrea; Gach, Grzegorz; Gadatsch, Stefan; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Louis Guillaume; Galea, Cristina; Galhardo, Bruno; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Galster, Gorm Aske Gram Krohn; Gan, KK; Ganguly, Sanmay; Gao, Yanyan; Gao, Yongsheng; Garay Walls, Francisca; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; García Pascual, Juan Antonio; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garonne, Vincent; Gascon Bravo, Alberto; Gasnikova, Ksenia; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudiello, Andrea; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gazis, Evangelos; Gee, Norman; Geisen, Jannik; Geisen, Marc; Geisler, Manuel Patrice; Gellerstedt, Karl; Gemme, Claudia; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Geng, Cong; Gentile, Simonetta; Gentsos, Christos; George, Simon; Gerbaudo, Davide; Geß{}ner, Gregor; Ghasemi, Sara; Ghneimat, Mazuza; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giangiacomi, Nico; Giannetti, Paola; Gibson, Stephen; Gignac, Matthew; Gilchriese, Murdock; Gillberg, Dag; Gilles, Geoffrey; Gingrich, Douglas; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giorgi, Filippo Maria; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giromini, Paolo; Giugliarelli, Gilberto; Giugni, Danilo; Giuli, Francesco; Giuliani, Claudia; Giulini, Maddalena; Gjelsten, Børge Kile; Gkaitatzis, Stamatios; Gkialas, Ioannis; Gkougkousis, Evangelos Leonidas; Gkountoumis, Panagiotis; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glaysher, Paul; Glazov, Alexandre; Goblirsch-Kolb, Maximilian; Godlewski, Jan; Goldfarb, Steven; Golling, Tobias; Golubkov, Dmitry; Gomes, Agostinho; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Gama, Rafael; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, Joao; Gonella, Giulia; Gonella, Laura; Gongadze, Alexi; Gonski, Julia; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Goshaw, Alfred; Gössling, Claus; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Gottardo, Carlo Alberto; Goudet, Christophe Raymond; Goujdami, Driss; Goussiou, Anna; Govender, Nicolin; Gozani, Eitan; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Gradin, Per Olov Joakim; Gramling, Johanna; Gramstad, Eirik; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Gratchev, Vadim; Gravila, Paul Mircea; Gray, Chloe; Gray, Heather; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Grefe, Christian; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Grevtsov, Kirill; Griffiths, Justin; Grillo, Alexander; Grimm, Kathryn; Grinstein, Sebastian; Gris, Philippe Luc Yves; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Groh, Sabrina; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Grossi, Giulio Cornelio; Grout, Zara Jane; Grummer, Aidan; Guan, Liang; Guan, Wen; Guenther, Jaroslav; Guescini, Francesco; Guest, Daniel; Gueta, Orel; Gui, Bin; Guido, Elisa; Guillemin, Thibault; Guindon, Stefan; Gul, Umar; Gumpert, Christian; Guo, Jun; Guo, Wen; Guo, Yicheng; Gupta, Ruchi; Gurbuz, Saime; Gustavino, Giuliano; Gutelman, Benjamin Jacque; Gutierrez, Phillip; Gutierrez Ortiz, Nicolas Gilberto; Gutschow, Christian; Guyot, Claude; Guzik, Marcin Pawel; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haber, Carl; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Haddad, Nacim; Hadef, Asma; Hageböck, Stephan; Hagihara, Mutsuto; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Haleem, Mahsana; Haley, Joseph; Halladjian, Garabed; Hallewell, Gregory David; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamano, Kenji; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamity, Guillermo Nicolas; Hamnett, Phillip George; Han, Liang; Han, Shuo; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hanawa, Keita; Hance, Michael; Handl, David Michael; Haney, Bijan; Hanke, Paul; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Maike Christina; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hard, Andrew; Harenberg, Torsten; Hariri, Faten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harrison, Paul Fraser; Hartmann, Nikolai Marcel; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hasib, Ahmed; Hassani, Samira; Haug, Sigve; Hauser, Reiner; Hauswald, Lorenz; Havener, Laura Brittany; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hayakawa, Daiki; Hayden, Daniel; Hays, Chris; Hays, Jonathan Michael; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Head, Simon; Heck, Tobias; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heer, Sebastian; Heidegger, Kim Katrin; Heim, Sarah; Heim, Timon; Heinemann, Beate; Heinrich, Jochen Jens; Heinrich, Lukas; Heinz, Christian; Hejbal, Jiri; Helary, Louis; Held, Alexander; Hellman, Sten; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, Robert; Heng, Yang; Henkelmann, Steffen; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Herbert, Geoffrey Henry; Herde, Hannah; Herget, Verena; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herr, Holger; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Herwig, Theodor Christian; Hesketh, Gavin Grant; Hessey, Nigel; Hetherly, Jeffrey Wayne; Higashino, Satoshi; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hildebrand, Kevin; Hill, Ewan; Hill, John; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillier, Stephen; Hils, Maximilian; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hirose, Minoru; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hiti, Bojan; Hladik, Ondrej; Hlaluku, Dingane Reward; Hoad, Xanthe; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoenig, Friedrich; Hohn, David; Holmes, Tova Ray; Holzbock, Michael; Homann, Michael; Honda, Shunsuke; Honda, Takuya; Hong, Tae Min; Hooberman, Benjamin Henry; Hopkins, Walter; Horii, Yasuyuki; Horton, Arthur James; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hostiuc, Alexandru; Hou, Suen; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howarth, James; Hoya, Joaquin; Hrabovsky, Miroslav; Hrdinka, Julia; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hrynevich, Aliaksei; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Hu, Qipeng; Hu, Shuyang; Huang, Yanping; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Huhtinen, Mika; Hunter, Robert Francis Holub; Huo, Peng; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Hyneman, Rachel; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibragimov, Iskander; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Idrissi, Zineb; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Iizawa, Tomoya; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikeno, Masahiro; Ilchenko, Yuriy; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ilic, Nikolina; Iltzsche, Franziska; Introzzi, Gianluca; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Iordanidou, Kalliopi; Ippolito, Valerio; Isacson, Max Fredrik; Ishijima, Naoki; Ishino, Masaya; Ishitsuka, Masaki; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Ito, Fumiaki; Iturbe Ponce, Julia Mariana; Iuppa, Roberto; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jabbar, Samina; Jackson, Paul; Jacobs, Ruth Magdalena; Jain, Vivek; Jakobi, Katharina Bianca; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakoubek, Tomas; Jamin, David Olivier; Jana, Dilip; Jansky, Roland; Janssen, Jens; Janus, Michel; Janus, Piotr Andrzej; Jarlskog, Göran; Javadov, Namig; Javůrek, Tomáš; Javurkova, Martina; Jeanneau, Fabien; Jeanty, Laura; Jejelava, Juansher; Jelinskas, Adomas; Jenni, Peter; Jeske, Carl; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Ji, Haoshuang; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Hai; Jiang, Yi; Jiang, Zihao; Jiggins, Stephen; Jimenez Pena, Javier; Jin, Shan; Jinaru, Adam; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Jivan, Harshna; Johansson, Per; Johns, Kenneth; Johnson, Christian; Johnson, William Joseph; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Roger; Jones, Samuel David; Jones, Sarah; Jones, Tim; Jongmanns, Jan; Jorge, Pedro; Jovicevic, Jelena; Ju, Xiangyang; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Köhler, Markus Konrad; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kahn, Sebastien Jonathan; Kaji, Toshiaki; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalderon, Charles William; Kaluza, Adam; Kama, Sami; Kamenshchikov, Andrey; Kanaya, Naoko; Kanjir, Luka; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kaplan, Laser Seymour; Kar, Deepak; Karakostas, Konstantinos; Karastathis, Nikolaos; Kareem, Mohammad Jawad; Karentzos, Efstathios; Karpov, Sergey; Karpova, Zoya; Karthik, Krishnaiyengar; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kasahara, Kota; Kashif, Lashkar; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Yousuke; Kato, Chikuma; Katre, Akshay; Katzy, Judith; Kawade, Kentaro; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kay, Ellis; Kazanin, Vassili; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keller, John; Kellermann, Edgar; Kempster, Jacob Julian; Kendrick, James; Keoshkerian, Houry; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Keyes, Robert; Khader, Mazin; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khanov, Alexander; Kharlamov, Alexey; Kharlamova, Tatyana; Khodinov, Alexander; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kido, Shogo; Kilby, Callum; Kim, Hee Yeun; Kim, Shinhong; Kim, Young-Kee; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver Maria; King, Barry; Kirchmeier, David; Kirk, Julie; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kitali, Vincent; Kivernyk, Oleh; Kladiva, Eduard; Klapdor-Kleingrothaus, Thorwald; Klein, Matthew Henry; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klimek, Pawel; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klingl, Tobias; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Klitzner, Felix Fidelio; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Kobayashi, Aine; Kobayashi, Dai; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Köhler, Nicolas Maximilian; Koi, Tatsumi; Kolb, Mathis; Koletsou, Iro; Kondo, Takahiko; Kondrashova, Nataliia; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; Kono, Takanori; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Konya, Balazs; Kopeliansky, Revital; Koperny, Stefan; Kopp, Anna Katharina; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kosek, Tomas; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Koulouris, Aimilianos; Kourkoumeli-Charalampidi, Athina; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kourlitis, Evangelos; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Kowalewska, Anna Bozena; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozakai, Chihiro; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasnopevtsev, Dimitrii; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Krauss, Dominik; Kremer, Jakub Andrzej; Kretzschmar, Jan; Kreutzfeldt, Kristof; Krieger, Peter; Krizka, Karol; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Jiri; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Krumnack, Nils; Kruse, Mark; Kubota, Takashi; Kucuk, Hilal; Kuday, Sinan; Kuechler, Jan Thomas; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuger, Fabian; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kukhtin, Victor; Kukla, Romain; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kulinich, Yakov Petrovich; Kuna, Marine; Kunigo, Takuto; Kupco, Alexander; Kupfer, Tobias; Kuprash, Oleg; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurchaninov, Leonid; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kurth, Matthew Glenn; Kuwertz, Emma Sian; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; Kwan, Tony; Kyriazopoulos, Dimitrios; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rosa Navarro, Jose Luis; La Rotonda, Laura; La Ruffa, Francesco; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacey, James; Lack, David Philip John; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lai, Stanley; Lammers, Sabine; Lampl, Walter; Lançon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lanfermann, Marie Christine; Lang, Valerie Susanne; Lange, J örn Christian; Langenberg, Robert Johannes; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Lanza, Agostino; Lapertosa, Alessandro; Laplace, Sandrine; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Lasagni Manghi, Federico; Lassnig, Mario; Lau, Tak Shun; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Law, Alexander; Laycock, Paul; Lazovich, Tomo; Lazzaroni, Massimo; Le, Brian; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Quilleuc, Eloi; LeBlanc, Matthew Edgar; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne; Lee, Claire Alexandra; Lee, Graham Richard; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Benoit; Lefebvre, Guillaume; Lefebvre, Michel; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leight, William Axel; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lemmer, Boris; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatjana; Lenzi, Bruno; Leone, Robert; Leone, Sandra; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Lerner, Giuseppe; Leroy, Claude; Les, Robert; Lesage, Arthur; Lester, Christopher; Levchenko, Mikhail; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Levy, Mark; Lewis, Dave; Li, Bing; Li, Haifeng; Li, Liang; Li, Qi; Li, Quanyin; Li, Shu; Li, Xingguo; Li, Yichen; Liang, Zhijun; Liberti, Barbara; Liblong, Aaron; Lie, Ki; Liebal, Jessica; Liebig, Wolfgang; Limosani, Antonio; Lin, Chiao-ying; Lin, Kuan-yu; Lin, Simon; Lin, Tai-Hua; Linck, Rebecca Anne; Lindquist, Brian Edward; Lionti, Anthony Eric; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipniacka, Anna; Lisovyi, Mykhailo; Liss, Tony; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Bo; Liu, Hao; Liu, Hongbin; Liu, Jesse; Liu, Jian; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Kun; Liu, Lulu; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Yanlin; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lo, Cheuk Yee; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Lobodzinska, Ewelina Maria; Loch, Peter; Loebinger, Fred; Loesle, Alena; Loew, Kevin Michael; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Long, Brian Alexander; Long, Jonathan David; Long, Robin Eamonn; Longo, Luigi; Looper, Kristina Anne; Lopez, Jorge; Lopez Paz, Ivan; Lopez Solis, Alvaro; Lorenz, Jeanette; Lorenzo Martinez, Narei; Losada, Marta; Lösel, Philipp Jonathan; Lou, XinChou; Lounis, Abdenour; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lu, Haonan; Lu, Nan; Lu, Yun-Ju; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Luedtke, Christian; Luehring, Frederick; Lukas, Wolfgang; Luminari, Lamberto; Lundberg, Olof; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lutz, Margaret Susan; Luzi, Pierre Marc; Lynn, David; Lysak, Roman; Lytken, Else; Lyu, Feng; Lyubushkin, Vladimir; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Ma, Yanhui; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Macdonald, Calum Michael; Maček, Boštjan; Machado Miguens, Joana; Madaffari, Daniele; Madar, Romain; Mader, Wolfgang; Madsen, Alexander; Madysa, Nico; Maeda, Junpei; Maeland, Steffen; Maeno, Tadashi; Maevskiy, Artem; Magerl, Veronika; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maier, Thomas; Maio, Amélia; Majersky, Oliver; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Malaescu, Bogdan; Malecki, Pawel; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Claire; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyukov, Sergei; Mamuzic, Judita; Mancini, Giada; Mandić, Igor; Maneira, José; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Manjarres Ramos, Joany; Mankinen, Katja Hannele; Mann, Alexander; Manousos, Athanasios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Mansour, Jason Dhia; Mantifel, Rodger; Mantoani, Matteo; Manzoni, Stefano; Mapelli, Livio; Marceca, Gino; March, Luis; Marchese, Luigi; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marin Tobon, Cesar Augusto; Marjanovic, Marija; Marley, Daniel; Marroquim, Fernando; Marsden, Stephen Philip; Marshall, Zach; Martensson, Mikael; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Christopher Blake; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martinez, Mario; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena; Martin-Haugh, Stewart; Martoiu, Victor Sorin; Martyniuk, Alex; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Mason, Lara Hannan; Massa, Lorenzo; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Mättig, Peter; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; Mazini, Rachid; Maznas, Ioannis; Mazza, Simone Michele; Mc Fadden, Neil Christopher; Mc Goldrick, Garrin; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Thomas; McClymont, Laurie; McDonald, Emily; Mcfayden, Josh; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; McMahon, Steve; McNamara, Peter Charles; McNicol, Christopher John; McPherson, Robert; Meehan, Samuel; Megy, Theo Jean; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meideck, Thomas; Meier, Karlheinz; Meirose, Bernhard; Melini, Davide; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Mellenthin, Johannes Donatus; Melo, Matej; Meloni, Federico; Melzer, Alexander; Menary, Stephen Burns; Meng, Lingxin; Meng, Xiangting; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Meoni, Evelin; Mergelmeyer, Sebastian; Merlassino, Claudia; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Meyer Zu Theenhausen, Hanno; Miano, Fabrizio; Middleton, Robin; Miglioranzi, Silvia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Milesi, Marco; Milic, Adriana; Millar, Declan Andrew; Miller, David; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Minaenko, Andrey; Minami, Yuto; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Minegishi, Yuji; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mirto, Alessandro; Mistry, Khilesh; Mitani, Takashi; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Miucci, Antonio; Miyagawa, Paul; Mizukami, Atsushi; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Mkrtchyan, Tigran; Mlynarikova, Michaela; Moa, Torbjoern; Mochizuki, Kazuya; Mogg, Philipp; Mohapatra, Soumya; Molander, Simon; Moles-Valls, Regina; Mondragon, Matthew Craig; Mönig, Klaus; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montalbano, Alyssa; Montejo Berlingen, Javier; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Morange, Nicolas; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Morgenstern, Stefanie; Mori, Daniel; Mori, Tatsuya; Morii, Masahiro; Morinaga, Masahiro; Morisbak, Vanja; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morris, John; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Moschovakos, Paris; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Harry James; Moss, Josh; Motohashi, Kazuki; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Moyse, Edward; Muanza, Steve; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Ralph Soeren Peter; Muenstermann, Daniel; Mullen, Paul; Mullier, Geoffrey; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Murray, Bill; Musheghyan, Haykuhi; Muškinja, Miha; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nachman, Benjamin Philip; Nackenhorst, Olaf; Nagai, Koichi; Nagai, Ryo; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nagata, Kazuki; Nagel, Martin; Nagy, Elemer; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Naranjo Garcia, Roger Felipe; Narayan, Rohin; Narrias Villar, Daniel Isaac; Naryshkin, Iouri; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Nayyar, Ruchika; Neal, Homer; Nechaeva, Polina; Neep, Thomas James; Negri, Andrea; Negrini, Matteo; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nellist, Clara; Nelson, Andrew; Nelson, Michael Edward; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neumann, Manuel; Newman, Paul; Ng, Tsz Yu; Ng, Sam Yanwing; Nguyen Manh, Tuan; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nielsen, Jason; Nikiforou, Nikiforos; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nishu, Nishu; Nisius, Richard; Nitsche, Isabel; Nitta, Tatsumi; Nobe, Takuya; Noguchi, Yohei; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Nomura, Marcelo Ayumu; Nooney, Tamsin; Nordberg, Markus; Norjoharuddeen, Nurfikri; Novgorodova, Olga; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Ntekas, Konstantinos; Nurse, Emily; Nuti, Francesco; O'connor, Kelsey; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Rourke, Abigail Alexandra; O'Shea, Val; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Obermann, Theresa; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Ochoa, Ines; Ochoa-Ricoux, Juan Pedro; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohman, Henrik; Oide, Hideyuki; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olariu, Albert; Oleiro Seabra, Luis Filipe; Olivares Pino, Sebastian Andres; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Olsson, Joakim; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Onofre, António; Onogi, Kouta; Onyisi, Peter; Oppen, Henrik; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlando, Nicola; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Otono, Hidetoshi; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Oussoren, Koen Pieter; Ouyang, Qun; Owen, Mark; Owen, Rhys Edward; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pachal, Katherine; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Pacheco Rodriguez, Laura; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paganini, Michela; Paige, Frank; Palacino, Gabriel; Palazzo, Serena; Palestini, Sandro; Palka, Marek; Pallin, Dominique; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Panagoulias, Ilias; Pandini, Carlo Enrico; Panduro Vazquez, William; Pani, Priscilla; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Paolozzi, Lorenzo; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Papageorgiou, Konstantinos; Paramonov, Alexander; Paredes Hernandez, Daniela; Parker, Adam Jackson; Parker, Michael Andrew; Parker, Kerry Ann; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pascuzzi, Vincent; Pasner, Jacob Martin; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passaggio, Stefano; Pastore, Francesca; Pataraia, Sophio; Pater, Joleen; Pauly, Thilo; Pearson, Benjamin; Pedraza Lopez, Sebastian; Pedro, Rute; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Penc, Ondrej; Peng, Cong; Peng, Haiping; Penwell, John; Peralva, Bernardo; Perego, Marta Maria; Perepelitsa, Dennis; Peri, Francesco; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrella, Sabrina; Peschke, Richard; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Krisztian; Peters, Yvonne; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petroff, Pierre; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrov, Mariyan; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Pettersson, Nora Emilia; Peyaud, Alan; Pezoa, Raquel; Phillips, Forrest Hays; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Pianori, Elisabetta; Picazio, Attilio; Pickering, Mark Andrew; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinfold, James; Pirumov, Hayk; Pitt, Michael; Plazak, Lukas; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Pleskot, Vojtech; Plotnikova, Elena; Pluth, Daniel; Podberezko, Pavel; Poettgen, Ruth; Poggi, Riccardo; Poggioli, Luc; Pogrebnyak, Ivan; Pohl, David-leon; Pokharel, Ishan; Polesello, Giacomo; Poley, Anne-luise; Policicchio, Antonio; Polifka, Richard; Polini, Alessandro; Pollard, Christopher Samuel; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pommès, Kathy; Ponomarenko, Daniil; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Portillo Quintero, Dilia María; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potamianos, Karolos; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potti, Harish; Poulsen, Trine; Poveda, Joaquin; Pozo Astigarraga, Mikel Eukeni; Pralavorio, Pascal; Pranko, Aliaksandr; Prell, Soeren; Price, Darren; Primavera, Margherita; Prince, Sebastien; Proklova, Nadezda; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Przybycien, Mariusz; Puri, Akshat; Puzo, Patrick; Qian, Jianming; Qin, Gang; Qin, Yang; Quadt, Arnulf; Queitsch-Maitland, Michaela; Quilty, Donnchadha; Raddum, Silje; Radeka, Veljko; Radescu, Voica; Radhakrishnan, Sooraj Krishnan; Radloff, Peter; Rados, Pere; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Raine, John Andrew; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rangel-Smith, Camila; Rashid, Tasneem; Raspopov, Sergii; Ratti, Maria Giulia; Rauch, Daniel; Rauscher, Felix; Rave, Stefan; Ravinovich, Ilia; Rawling, Jacob Henry; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Readioff, Nathan Peter; Reale, Marilea; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reed, Robert; Reeves, Kendall; Rehnisch, Laura; Reichert, Joseph; Reiss, Andreas; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Huan; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Resseguie, Elodie Deborah; Rettie, Sebastien; Reynolds, Elliot; Rezanova, Olga; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richter, Robert; Richter, Stefan; Richter-Was, Elzbieta; Ricken, Oliver; Ridel, Melissa; Rieck, Patrick; Riegel, Christian Johann; Rieger, Julia; Rifki, Othmane; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rimoldi, Marco; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Ripellino, Giulia; Ristić, Branislav; Ritsch, Elmar; Riu, Imma; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Rizzi, Chiara; Roberts, Rhys Thomas; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robson, Aidan; Rocco, Elena; Roda, Chiara; Rodina, Yulia; Rodriguez Bosca, Sergi; Rodriguez Perez, Andrea; Rodriguez Rodriguez, Daniel; Roe, Shaun; Rogan, Christopher Sean; Røhne, Ole; Roloff, Jennifer; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romano, Marino; Romano Saez, Silvestre Marino; Romero Adam, Elena; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Ronzani, Manfredi; Roos, Lydia; Rosati, Stefano; Rosbach, Kilian; Rose, Peyton; Rosien, Nils-Arne; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rosten, Jonatan; Rosten, Rachel; Rotaru, Marina; Rothberg, Joseph; Rousseau, David; Roy, Debarati; Rozanov, Alexandre; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubbo, Francesco; Rühr, Frederik; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Russell, Heather; Rutherfoord, John; Ruthmann, Nils; Rüttinger, Elias Michael; Ryabov, Yury; Rybar, Martin; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryu, Soo; Ryzhov, Andrey; Rzehorz, Gerhard Ferdinand; Saavedra, Aldo; Sabato, Gabriele; Sacerdoti, Sabrina; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Saha, Puja; Sahinsoy, Merve; Saimpert, Matthias; Saito, Masahiko; Saito, Tomoyuki; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Sakurai, Yuki; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salazar Loyola, Javier Esteban; Salek, David; Sales De Bruin, Pedro Henrique; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, José; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salvucci, Antonio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sammel, Dirk; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Sampsonidou, Despoina; Sánchez, Javier; Sanchez Martinez, Victoria; Sanchez Pineda, Arturo Rodolfo; Sandaker, Heidi; Sandbach, Ruth Laura; Sander, Christian Oliver; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandoval, Carlos; Sankey, Dave; Sannino, Mario; Sano, Yuta; Sansoni, Andrea; Santoni, Claudio; Santos, Helena; Santoyo Castillo, Itzebelt; Sapronov, Andrey; Saraiva, João; Sarrazin, Bjorn; Sasaki, Osamu; Sato, Koji; Sauvan, Emmanuel; Savage, Graham; Savard, Pierre; Savic, Natascha; Sawyer, Craig; Sawyer, Lee; Saxon, James; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scanlon, Tim; Scannicchio, Diana; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schachtner, Balthasar Maria; Schaefer, Douglas; Schaefer, Leigh; Schaefer, Ralph; Schaeffer, Jan; Schaepe, Steffen; Schaetzel, Sebastian; Schäfer, Uli; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R Dean; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Schenck, Ferdinand; Schernau, Michael; Schiavi, Carlo; Schier, Sheena; Schildgen, Lara Katharina; Schillo, Christian; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schmidt-Sommerfeld, Korbinian Ralf; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitt, Stefan; Schmitz, Simon; Schnoor, Ulrike; Schoeffel, Laurent; Schoening, Andre; Schoenrock, Bradley Daniel; Schopf, Elisabeth; Schott, Matthias; Schouwenberg, Jeroen; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schramm, Steven; Schuh, Natascha; Schulte, Alexandra; Schultens, Martin Johannes; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schulz, Holger; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwarz, Thomas Andrew; Schweiger, Hansdieter; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwindling, Jerome; Sciandra, Andrea; Sciolla, Gabriella; Scornajenghi, Matteo; Scuri, Fabrizio; Scutti, Federico; Searcy, Jacob; Seema, Pienpen; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seixas, José; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Sekhon, Karishma; Sekula, Stephen; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Senkin, Sergey; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Serkin, Leonid; Sessa, Marco; Seuster, Rolf; Severini, Horst; Šfiligoj, Tina; Sforza, Federico; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shaikh, Nabila Wahab; Shan, Lianyou; Shang, Ruo-yu; Shank, James; Shapiro, Marjorie; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaw, Kate; Shaw, Savanna Marie; Shcherbakova, Anna; Shehu, Ciwake Yusufu; Shen, Yu-Ting; Sherafati, Nima; Sherman, Alexander David; Sherwood, Peter; Shi, Liaoshan; Shimizu, Shima; Shimmin, Chase Owen; Shimojima, Makoto; Shipsey, Ian Peter Joseph; Shirabe, Shohei; Shiyakova, Mariya; Shlomi, Jonathan; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shoaleh Saadi, Diane; Shochet, Mel; Shojaii, Seyed Ruhollah; Shope, David Richard; Shrestha, Suyog; Shulga, Evgeny; Shupe, Michael; Sicho, Petr; Sickles, Anne Marie; Sidebo, Per Edvin; Sideras Haddad, Elias; Sidiropoulou, Ourania; Sidoti, Antonio; Siegert, Frank; Sijacki, Djordje; Silva, José; Silverstein, Samuel; Simak, Vladislav; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; Simioni, Eduard; Simmons, Brinick; Simon, Manuel; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Sioli, Maximiliano; Siragusa, Giovanni; Siral, Ismet; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Sjölin, Jörgen; Skinner, Malcolm Bruce; Skubic, Patrick; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Slawinska, Magdalena; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Slovak, Radim; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smart, Ben; Smiesko, Juraj; Smirnov, Nikita; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnov, Yury; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smith, Joshua Wyatt; Smith, Matthew; Smith, Russell; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snyder, Ian Michael; Snyder, Scott; Sobie, Randall; Socher, Felix; Soffer, Abner; Søgaard, Andreas; Soh, Dart-yin; Sokhrannyi, Grygorii; Solans Sanchez, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Soldatov, Evgeny; Soldevila, Urmila; Solodkov, Alexander; Soloshenko, Alexei; Solovyanov, Oleg; Solovyev, Victor; Sommer, Philip; Son, Hyungsuk; Sopczak, Andre; Sosa, David; Sotiropoulou, Calliope Louisa; Sottocornola, Simone; Soualah, Rachik; Soukharev, Andrey; South, David; Sowden, Benjamin; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spalla, Margherita; Spangenberg, Martin; Spanò, Francesco; Sperlich, Dennis; Spettel, Fabian; Spieker, Thomas Malte; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spiller, Laurence Anthony; Spousta, Martin; St Denis, Richard Dante; Stabile, Alberto; Stamen, Rainer; Stamm, Soren; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanek, Robert; Stanescu, Cristian; Stanitzki, Marcel Michael; Stapf, Birgit Sylvia; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Giordon; Stark, Jan; Stark, Simon Holm; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Stärz, Steffen; Staszewski, Rafal; Stegler, Martin; Steinberg, Peter; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stevenson, Thomas James; Stewart, Graeme; Stockton, Mark; Stoebe, Michael; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stolte, Philipp; Stonjek, Stefan; Stradling, Alden; Straessner, Arno; Stramaglia, Maria Elena; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Ströhmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Strubig, Antonia; Stucci, Stefania Antonia; Stugu, Bjarne; Styles, Nicholas Adam; Su, Dong; Su, Jun; Suchek, Stanislav; Sugaya, Yorihito; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultan, D M S; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Siyuan; Sun, Xiaohu; Suruliz, Kerim; Suster, Carl; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Shota; Svatos, Michal; Swiatlowski, Maximilian; Swift, Stewart Patrick; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Ta, Duc; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taenzer, Joe; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Tahirovic, Elvedin; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takasugi, Eric Hayato; Takeda, Kosuke; Takeshita, Tohru; Takubo, Yosuke; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Masahiro; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Shuji; Tanioka, Ryo; Tannenwald, Benjamin Bordy; Tapia Araya, Sebastian; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tarem, Shlomit; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tashiro, Takuya; Tassi, Enrico; Tavares Delgado, Ademar; Tayalati, Yahya; Taylor, Aaron; Taylor, Alan James; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Pierre Thor Elliot; Taylor, Wendy; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temple, Darren; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Teoh, Jia Jian; Tepel, Fabian-Phillipp; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Terzo, Stefano; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Thais, Savannah Jennifer; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothée; Thiele, Fabian; Thomas, Juergen; Thomas-Wilsker, Joshuha; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Stan; Thomsen, Lotte Ansgaard; Thomson, Evelyn; Tian, Yun; Tibbetts, Mark James; Ticse Torres, Royer Edson; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timoshenko, Sergey; Tipton, Paul; Tisserant, Sylvain; Todome, Kazuki; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Todt, Stefanie; Tojo, Junji; Tokár, Stanislav; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tolley, Emma; Tomlinson, Lee; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Tong, Baojia(Tony); Tornambe, Peter; Torrence, Eric; Torres, Heberth; Torró Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Treado, Colleen Jennifer; Trefzger, Thomas; Tresoldi, Fabio; Tricoli, Alessandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Tripiana, Martin; Trischuk, William; Trocmé, Benjamin; Trofymov, Artur; Troncon, Clara; Trottier-McDonald, Michel; Trovatelli, Monica; Truong, Loan; Trzebinski, Maciej; Trzupek, Adam; Tsang, Ka Wa; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiareshka, Pavel; Tsirintanis, Nikolaos; Tsiskaridze, Shota; Tsiskaridze, Vakhtang; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsukerman, Ilya; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Tsuno, Soshi; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tu, Yanjun; Tudorache, Alexandra; Tudorache, Valentina; Tulbure, Traian Tiberiu; Tuna, Alexander Naip; Turchikhin, Semen; Turgeman, Daniel; Turk Cakir, Ilkay; Turra, Ruggero; Tuts, Michael; Ucchielli, Giulia; Ueda, Ikuo; Ughetto, Michael; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Unal, Guillaume; Undrus, Alexander; Unel, Gokhan; Ungaro, Francesca; Unno, Yoshinobu; Uno, Kenta; Unverdorben, Christopher; Urban, Jozef; Urquijo, Phillip; Urrejola, Pedro; Usai, Giulio; Usui, Junya; Vacavant, Laurent; Vacek, Vaclav; Vachon, Brigitte; Vadla, Knut Oddvar Hoie; Vaidya, Amal; Valderanis, Chrysostomos; Valdes Santurio, Eduardo; Valente, Marco; Valentinetti, Sara; Valero, Alberto; Valéry, Lo\\"ic; Valkar, Stefan; Vallier, Alexis; Valls Ferrer, Juan Antonio; Van Den Wollenberg, Wouter; van der Graaf, Harry; van Gemmeren, Peter; Van Nieuwkoop, Jacobus; van Vulpen, Ivo; van Woerden, Marius Cornelis; Vanadia, Marco; Vandelli, Wainer; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vankov, Peter; Vardanyan, Gagik; Vari, Riccardo; Varnes, Erich; Varni, Carlo; Varol, Tulin; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vasquez, Jared Gregory; Vasquez, Gerardo; Vazeille, Francois; Vazquez Furelos, David; Vazquez Schroeder, Tamara; Veatch, Jason; Veeraraghavan, Venkatesh; Veloce, Laurelle Maria; Veloso, Filipe; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Venturini, Alessio; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Ambrosius Thomas; Vermeulen, Jos; Vetterli, Michel; Viaux Maira, Nicolas; Viazlo, Oleksandr; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Vickey Boeriu, Oana Elena; Viehhauser, Georg; Viel, Simon; Vigani, Luigi; Villa, Mauro; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; Vinogradov, Vladimir; Vishwakarma, Akanksha; Vittori, Camilla; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Vlachos, Sotirios; Vogel, Marcelo; Vokac, Petr; Volpi, Guido; von der Schmitt, Hans; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorobel, Vit; Vorobev, Konstantin; Vos, Marcel; Voss, Rudiger; Vossebeld, Joost; Vranjes, Nenad; Vranjes Milosavljevic, Marija; Vrba, Vaclav; Vreeswijk, Marcel; Vuillermet, Raphael; Vukotic, Ilija; Wagner, Peter; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wagner-Kuhr, Jeannine; Wahlberg, Hernan; Wahrmund, Sebastian; Wakamiya, Kotaro; Walder, James; Walker, Rodney; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Wallangen, Veronica; Wang, Chao; Wang, Chao; Wang, Fuquan; Wang, Haichen; Wang, Hulin; Wang, Jike; Wang, Jin; Wang, Qing; Wang, Renjie; Wang, Rui; Wang, Song-Ming; Wang, Tingting; Wang, Wei; Wang, Wenxiao; Wang, Zirui; Wanotayaroj, Chaowaroj; Warburton, Andreas; Ward, Patricia; Wardrope, David Robert; Washbrook, Andrew; Watkins, Peter; Watson, Alan; Watson, Miriam; Watts, Gordon; Watts, Stephen; Waugh, Ben; Webb, Aaron Foley; Webb, Samuel; Weber, Michele; Weber, Sebastian Mario; Weber, Stefan Wolf; Weber, Stephen; Webster, Jordan S; Weidberg, Anthony; Weinert, Benjamin; Weingarten, Jens; Weirich, Marcel; Weiser, Christian; Weits, Hartger; Wells, Phillippa; Wenaus, Torre; Wengler, Thorsten; Wenig, Siegfried; Wermes, Norbert; Werner, Michael David; Werner, Per; Wessels, Martin; Weston, Thomas; Whalen, Kathleen; Whallon, Nikola Lazar; Wharton, Andrew Mark; White, Aaron; White, Andrew; White, Martin; White, Ryan; Whiteson, Daniel; Whitmore, Ben William; Wickens, Fred; Wiedenmann, Werner; Wielers, Monika; Wiglesworth, Craig; Wiik-Fuchs, Liv Antje Mari; Wildauer, Andreas; Wilk, Fabian; Wilkens, Henric George; Williams, Hugh; Williams, Sarah; Willis, Christopher; Willocq, Stephane; Wilson, John; Wingerter-Seez, Isabelle; Winkels, Emma; Winklmeier, Frank; Winston, Oliver James; Winter, Benedict Tobias; Wittgen, Matthias; Wobisch, Markus; Wolf, Anton; Wolf, Tim Michael Heinz; Wolff, Robert; Wolter, Marcin Wladyslaw; Wolters, Helmut; Wong, Vincent Wai Sum; Woods, Natasha Lee; Worm, Steven; Wosiek, Barbara; Wotschack, Jorg; Wozniak, Krzysztof; Wu, Miles; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, Xin; Wu, Yusheng; Wyatt, Terry Richard; Wynne, Benjamin; Xella, Stefania; Xi, Zhaoxu; Xia, Ligang; Xu, Da; Xu, Lailin; Xu, Tairan; Xu, Wenhao; Yabsley, Bruce; Yacoob, Sahal; Yamaguchi, Daiki; Yamaguchi, Yohei; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Shimpei; Yamanaka, Takashi; Yamane, Fumiya; Yamatani, Masahiro; Yamazaki, Tomohiro; Yamazaki, Yuji; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Haijun; Yang, Hongtao; Yang, Yi; Yang, Zongchang; Yao, Weiming; Yap, Yee Chinn; Yasu, Yoshiji; Yatsenko, Elena; Yau Wong, Kaven Henry; Ye, Jingbo; Ye, Shuwei; Yeletskikh, Ivan; Yigitbasi, Efe; Yildirim, Eda; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshihara, Keisuke; Young, Charles; Young, Christopher John; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Jie; Yuen, Stephanie P; Yusuff, Imran; Zabinski, Bartlomiej; Zacharis, Georgios; Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zakharchuk, Nataliia; Zalieckas, Justas; Zaman, Aungshuman; Zambito, Stefano; Zanzi, Daniele; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zemaityte, Gabija; Zemla, Andrzej; Zeng, Jian Cong; Zeng, Qi; Zenin, Oleg; Ženiš, Tibor; Zerwas, Dirk; Zhang, Dengfeng; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Fangzhou; Zhang, Guangyi; Zhang, Huijun; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Liqing; Zhang, Matt; Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Ruiqi; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Xiandong; Zhao, Yongke; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Chen; Zhou, Li; Zhou, Maosen; Zhou, Mingliang; Zhou, Ning; Zhou, You; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Junjie; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zhukov, Konstantin; Zibell, Andre; Zieminska, Daria; Zimine, Nikolai; Zimmermann, Christoph; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Zinonos, Zinonas; Zinser, Markus; Ziolkowski, Michael; Živković, Lidija; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; Zou, Rui; zur Nedden, Martin; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2017-01-01

    A search for the exclusive decays of the Higgs and $Z$ bosons to a $\\phi$ or $\\rho$ meson and a photon is performed with a $pp$ collision data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of up to 35.6 $fb^{-1}$ collected at $\\sqrt{s}=13$ TeV with the ATLAS detector at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. These decays have been suggested as a probe of the Higgs boson couplings to light quarks. No significant excess of events is observed above the background, as expected from the Standard Model. Upper limits at 95% confidence level were obtained on the branching fractions of the Higgs boson decays to $\\phi\\gamma$ and $\\rho\\gamma$ of $4.8\\times10^{-4}$ and $8.8\\times10^{-4}$, respectively. The corresponding 95% confidence level upper limits for the $Z$ boson decays are $0.9\\times10^{-6}$ and $25\\times10^{-6}$ for $\\phi\\gamma$ and $\\rho\\gamma$, respectively.

  18. A massive thermal detector for alpha and gamma spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessandrello, A.; Brofferio, C.; Cremonesi, O.; Fiorini, E.; Giuliani, A.; Nucciotti, A.; Pavan, M.; Pirro, S.; Pessina, G.; Parmeggiano, S.; Previtali, E.; Vanzini, M.; Zanotti, L.; Coccia, E.; Fafone, V.; Bucci, C.; Rotilio, A.

    2000-02-01

    A massive bolometer with a 760 g TeO 2 crystal as energy absorber, the largest employed underground, has been realized and operated in the Gran Sasso Underground Laboratory for γ- and α-ray spectroscopy. A new system of mechanical suspensions was implemented to reduce vibration and thermal noise, and special care was put to the read-out electronics. As a consequence the FWHM resolution for high-energy γ-rays became comparable to that of Germanium diodes. The 4.2 keV average FWHM resolution for the 5407 keV line is the best ever obtained for α particles with any type of detector.

  19. High-Efficiency CdZnTe Gamma-Ray Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolotnikov, A. E.; Ackley, K.; Camarda, G. S.; Cui, Y.; Eger, J. F.; De Geronimo, G.; Finfrock, C.; Fried, J.; Hossain, A.; Lee, W.; Prokesch, M.; Petryk, M.; Reiber, J. L.; Roy, U.; Vernon, E.; Yang, G.; James, R. B.

    2015-12-01

    The longer electron lifetime of today's CdZnTe (CZT) crystals allows for free carriers to travel longer distances in the crystals, which means that, in principle, thicker devices could be fabricated. These thicker CZT devices would offer greater detection efficiency for high-energy gamma-ray detectors. However, up to now, the thicknesses and sizes of actual detectors have still been limited by the nonuniform detector response, and the biggest devices reported in the literature are (20×20×15)-mm3 pixelated detectors with a drift distance of 15 mm. Although thicker and bigger single crystals are becoming available today, the high requirements on their crystal quality drastically reduce their acceptance yield and increase their cost. Fortunately, in many cases, the inhomogeneity in response can be corrected by segmenting the active volumes of the detectors and correcting the responses generated from each of the voxels. Such high-granularity position-sensitive detectors open up the opportunity for using thicker and less-expensive CZT crystals. The goal of this work is to demonstrate that today's commercial high electron mobility-lifetime CZT material is suitable for a new class of detectors with 20-25-mm drift distances and even larger in the near future, provided that the detectors' response nonuniformities can be corrected on a scale comparable to or larger than the sizes of the electron clouds, which is 100 μm.

  20. Gamma-ray Full Spectrum Analysis for Environmental Radioactivity by HPGe Detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meeyoung Jeong

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Odyssey, one of the NASA’s Mars exploration program and SELENE (Kaguya, a Japanese lunar orbiting spacecraft have a payload of Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (GRS for analyzing radioactive chemical elements of the atmosphere and the surface. In these days, gamma-ray spectroscopy with a High-Purity Germanium (HPGe detector has been widely used for the activity measurements of natural radionuclides contained in the soil of the Earth. The energy spectra obtained by the HPGe detectors have been generally analyzed by means of the Window Analysis (WA method. In this method, activity concentrations are determined by using the net counts of energy window around individual peaks. Meanwhile, an alternative method, the so-called Full Spectrum Analysis (FSA method uses count numbers not only from full-absorption peaks but from the contributions of Compton scattering due to gamma-rays. Consequently, while it takes a substantial time to obtain a statistically significant result in the WA method, the FSA method requires a much shorter time to reach the same level of the statistical significance. This study shows the validation results of FSA method. We have compared the concentration of radioactivity of 40K, 232Th and 238U in the soil measured by the WA method and the FSA method, respectively. The gamma-ray spectrum of reference materials (RGU and RGTh, KCl and soil samples were measured by the 120% HPGe detector with cosmic muon veto detector. According to the comparison result of activity concentrations between the FSA and the WA, we could conclude that FSA method is validated against the WA method. This study implies that the FSA method can be used in a harsh measurement environment, such as the gamma-ray measurement in the Moon, in which the level of statistical significance is usually required in a much shorter data acquisition time than the WA method.

  1. X-ray and gamma ray detector readout system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumer, Tumay O; Clajus, Martin; Visser, Gerard

    2010-10-19

    A readout electronics scheme is under development for high resolution, compact PET (positron emission tomography) imagers based on LSO (lutetium ortho-oxysilicate, Lu.sub.2SiO.sub.5) scintillator and avalanche photodiode (APD) arrays. The key is to obtain sufficient timing and energy resolution at a low power level, less than about 30 mW per channel, including all required functions. To this end, a simple leading edge level crossing discriminator is used, in combination with a transimpedance preamplifier. The APD used has a gain of order 1,000, and an output noise current of several pA/ Hz, allowing bipolar technology to be used instead of CMOS, for increased speed and power efficiency. A prototype of the preamplifier and discriminator has been constructed, achieving timing resolution of 1.5 ns FWHM, 2.7 ns full width at one tenth maximum, relative to an LSO/PMT detector, and an energy resolution of 13.6% FWHM at 511 keV, while operating at a power level of 22 mW per channel. Work is in progress towards integration of this preamplifier and discriminator with appropriate coincidence logic and amplitude measurement circuits in an ASIC suitable for a high resolution compact PET instrument. The detector system and/or ASIC can also be used for many other applications for medical to industrial imaging.

  2. Measurement of \\Gamma(\\eta -> \\pi^+\\pi^-\\gamma)/\\Gamma(\\eta -> \\pi^+\\pi^-\\pi^0) with the KLOE Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Babusci, D.; Balwierz-Pytko, I.; Bencivenni, G.; Bini, C.; Bloise, C.; Bocci, V.; Bossi, F.; Branchini, P.; Budano, A.; Caldeira Balkest, L.; Capon, G.; Ceradini, F.; Ciambrone, P.; Czerwinski, E.; Dane, E.; De Lucia, E.; De Robertis, G.; De Santis, A.; De Simone, P.; Di Domenico, A.; Di Donato, C.; Di Micco, B.; Di Salvo, R.; Domenici, D.; Erriquez, O.; Fanizzi, G.; Fantini, A.; Felici, G.; Fiore, S.; Franzini, P.; Gauzzi, P.; Giardina, G.; Giovannella, S.; Gonnella, F.; Graziani, E.; Happacher, F.; Hoistad, B.; Iafolla, L.; Jacewicz, M.; Johansson, T.; Kupsc, A.; Lee-Franzini, J.; Leverington, B.; Loddo, F.; Loffredo, S.; Mandaglio, G.; Martemianov, M.; Martini, M.; Mascolo, M.; Messi, R.; Miscetti, S.; Morello, G.; Moricciani, D.; Moskal, P.; Nguyen, F.; Passeri, A.; Patera, V.; Prado Longhi, I.; Ranieri, A.; Redmer, C.F.; Santangelo, P.; Sarra, I.; Schioppa, M.; Sciascia, B.; Silarski, M.; Taccini, C.; Tortora, L.; Venanzoni, G.; Versaci, R.; Wislicki, W.; Wolke, M.; Xu, G.; Zdebik, J.

    2013-01-08

    The ratio R_{\\eta}=\\Gamma(\\eta -> \\pi^+\\pi^-\\gamma)/\\Gamma(\\eta -> \\pi^+\\pi^-\\pi^0) has been measured by analyzing 22 million \\phi \\to \\eta \\gamma decays collected by the KLOE experiment at DA\\PhiNE, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 558 pb^{-1}. The \\eta \\to \\pi^+\\pi^-\\gamma proceeds both via the \\rho resonant contribution, and possibly a non-resonant direct term, connected to the box anomaly. Our result, R_{\\eta}= 0.1856\\pm 0.0005_{stat} \\pm 0.0028_{syst}, points out a sizable contribution of the direct term to the total width. The di-pion invariant mass for the \\eta -> \\pi^+\\pi^-\\gamma decay could be described in a model-independent approach in terms of a single free parameter, \\alpha. The determined value of the parameter \\alpha is \\alpha = (1.32 \\pm 0.08_{stat} +0.10/-0.09_{syst}\\pm 0.02_{theo}) GeV^{-2}

  3. Magnetic Microcalorimeter (MMC) Gamma Detectors with Ultra-High Energy Resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrich, Stephen [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2018-01-19

    The goal of this LCP is to develop ultra-high resolution gamma detectors based on magnetic microcalorimeters (MMCs) for accurate non-destructive analysis (NDA) of nuclear materials. For highest energy resolution, we will introduce erbium-doped silver (Ag:Er) as a novel sensor material, and implement several geometry and design changes to improve the signal-to-noise ratio. The detector sensitivity will be increased by developing arrays of 32 Ag:Er pixels read out by 16 SQUID preamplifiers, and by developing a cryogenic Compton veto to reduce the spectral background. Since best MMC performance requires detector operation at ~10 mK, we will purchase a dilution refrigerator with a base temperature <10 mK and adapt it for MMC operation. The detector performance will be tested with radioactive sources of interest to the safeguards community.

  4. Position sensitive semiconductor detectors for 0.5 MeV gamma-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusi, W.; Caroli, E.; Di Cocco, G.; Donati, A.; Landini, G.; Stephen, J. B.; Casali, F.; Baldazzi, G.; Chirco, P.; Rossi, M.

    1992-12-01

    A small prototype cadmium telluride (CdTe) detector optimized for the detection of gamma-rays having an energy of the order of 500 keV was designed. This detector was arranged as an array of 5x5 CdTe crystals, each having dimensions of 2x2x10 cu mm, and was constructed primarily in order to verify its technical feasibility and performances. The initial aim in developing this type of detector was for use in space applications such as measurement of annihilation radiation (511 keV photons) from the galactic center and possibly from extragalactic objects as for example AGN's (Active Galactic Nucleus). Many other applications may also benefit from the use of CdTe position sensitive detectors, in linear or square configuration, such as nuclear medicine diagnostics, nondestructive testing in industrial quality assurance processes, and safety inspection and controls.

  5. The close-range gamma-graphy control - {gamma}-prox; Le controle par gammagraphie de proximite - {gamma}-prox

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blettner, A. [Institut de Soudure, 93 - Villepinte (France)

    2011-01-15

    This work deals with the {gamma}-prox: a modular device for proximity gamma-graphy. The dose rates obtained between the standard collimator and the {gamma}-prox are compared. A study, among the tools developed by the Welding Institute Industry, to estimate the occupational dosimetry is presented in order to determine the dose limits for a welding control of 255 mm diameter and 5 mm thickness, as well as the calculation of the signalling distances. (O.M.)

  6. Development of a detector based on Silicon Drift Detectors for gamma-ray spectroscopy and imaging applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busca, P.; Butt, A. D.; Fiorini, C.; Marone, A.; Occhipinti, M.; Peloso, R.; Quaglia, R.; Bombelli, L.; Giacomini, G.; Piemonte, C.; Camera, F.; Giaz, A.; Million, B.; Nelms, N.; Shortt, B.

    2014-05-01

    This work deals with the development of a new gamma detector based on Silicon Drift Detectors (SDDs) to readout large LaBr3:Ce scintillators for gamma-ray spectroscopy and imaging applications. The research is supported by the European Space Agency through the Technology Research Programme (TRP) and by Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) within the Gamma project. The SDDs, produced at Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK) semiconductor laboratories, are designed as monolithic arrays of 3 × 3 units, each one of an active area of 8 mm × 8 mm (overall area of 26 mm × 26 mm). The readout electronics and the architecture of the camera are briefly described and then first experimental results coupling the SDD array with a 1'' × 1'' LaBr3:Ce scintillator are reported. An energy resolution of 3% FWHM at 662 keV has been measured at -20°C, better than coupling the same scintillator with a photomultiplier tube. The same scintillator is also used to evaluate position sensitivity with a 1 mm collimated Cs-137 source. The main difficulty in determining the position of the gamma-ray interaction in the crystal is associated to the high thickness/diameter ratio of the crystal (1:1) and the use of reflectors on all lateral and top sides the crystal. This last choice enhances energy resolution but makes imaging capability more challenging because light is spread over all photodetectors. Preliminary results show that the camera is able to detect shifts in the measured signals, when the source is moved with steps of 5 mm. A modified version of the centroid method is finally implemented to evaluate the imaging capability of the system.

  7. Comparative study of n-gamma discrimination with liquid scintillation detectors of different size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varela G, A.; Policroniades R, R.; Moreno B, E.; Murillo O, G. [Laboratorio del Acelerador Tandem, ININ, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Chavez L, E.; Ortiz S, M.E.; Huerta H, A. [IFUNAM, A.P. 20-364, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    A study concerning the neutron-gamma (n- {gamma}) pulse shape discrimination (PSD) properties of a set of three cylindrical cells filled with NE-213 and BC501A liquid scintillators, is reported in this paper. The study is intended to choose a PSD technique in order to handle neutron detector arrays with large volume of scintillation liquid, which will be used in the measurement of the neutron decay spectra coming up from nuclear states far from stability for some neutron rich nuclei. (Author)

  8. Full Volume Imaging Gamma-Ray Detectors for Enhanced Sensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziock, K; Kammeraad, J; Dougan, A; Archer, D; Blair, J; Knapp, D; Luke, S J; Schmid, G

    2001-03-09

    One of the problems faced by the post-cold-war world is the control of fissile materials. With the deterioration of the command and control structure inside the Former Soviet Union, there is an increased threat that fissile materials will be diverted from a legitimate use to production of weapons of mass destruction by rogue states and or terrorist organizations. The goal of this project was to study and build prototypes of a new class of highly sensitive detectors which could significantly enhance the remote detection of hidden fissile materials. Such an instrument would have a broad applicability in national security applications including nuclear smuggling, arms control, treaty inspections, and safeguards. Additional applications in the non-defense arenas of nuclear medicine, environmental restoration and basic science provide even more reasons to study this technology.

  9. Deconvolution of detector size effect for output factor measurement for narrow Gamma Knife radiosurgery beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarz, G.; Saiful Huq, M.; Rosenow, U. F.

    2002-10-01

    This paper presents the results of measurements of output factors (OFs) for a model U Gamma Knife collimator, with special emphasis on the accurate determination of the OF for the 4 mm collimator (OF4). In the past, the OF4 was set to 0.800 relative to the 18 mm collimator. Recently, the manufacturer has recommended a new value of 0.870 for OF4. However, most centres still use the old value of the OF4. In the present study, the Gamma Knife OFs were measured using a commercially available miniature diamond detector and a miniature 0.006 cc ion chamber, which was especially designed for the task. The measured OF4 were corrected for spatial averaging effects by measuring dose profiles for the 4 mm collimator with the same detectors and deconvolving their response from the measured profiles. A Gaussian kernel was used to describe the detector response. The relative OFs measured with the diamond detector/ion chamber were 0.986/0.982, 0.953/0.935 and 0.812/0.765 for the 14, 8 and 4 mm collimators, respectively, as compared with the manufacturer's values of 0.984, 0.956 and 0.87. The corrected OF4 was 0.881 +/- 0.012 for the diamond detector and 0.851 +/- 0.012 for the ion chamber, supporting the manufacturer's revised value for this collimator.

  10. The laser calibration system for the STACEE ground-based gamma ray detector

    CERN Document Server

    Hanna, D

    2002-01-01

    We describe the design and performance of the laser system used for calibration monitoring of components of the STACEE detector. STACEE is a ground based gamma ray detector which uses the heliostats of a solar power facility to collect and focus Cherenkov light onto a system of secondary optics and photomultiplier tubes. To monitor the gain and check the linearity and timing properties of the phototubes and associated electronics, a system based on a dye laser, neutral density filters and optical fibres has been developed. In this paper we describe the system and present some results from initial tests made with it.

  11. Benchmark Gamma Spectroscopy Measurements of Uranium Hexafluoride in Aluminmum Pipe with a Sodium Iodide Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    March-Leuba, Jose A [ORNL; Uckan, Taner [ORNL; Gunning, John E [ORNL; Brukiewa, Patrick D [ORNL; Upadhyaya, Belle R [ORNL; Revis, Stephen M [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    factors, the experimental 186 keV counts in the test geometry were extrapolated to the expected GCEP geometry, and calibration curves were developed. A unique method to analyze the measurement was also developed that separated the detector spectrum into the five detectable decay gamma rays emitted by {sup 235}U in the 120 to 200 keV energy range. This analysis facilitated the assignment of a consistent value for the detector counts originating from {sup 235}U decays at 186 keV. This value is also more accurate because it includes the counts from gamma energies other than 186 keV, which results in increased counting statistics for the same measurement time. The 186 keV counts expected as a function of pressure and enrichment are presented in the body of this report. The main result of this research is a calibration factor for 4-inch and 8-inch schedule 40 aluminum pipes. For 4-inch pipes, the {sup 235}U density is 0.62 {sup 235}U g/m{sup 3} per each measured 186 keV count.

  12. Measurement of gamma-ray intensities of sup 2 sup 3 sup 1 Th using semiconductor detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Chatani, H

    1999-01-01

    Nuclide sup 2 sup 3 sup 1 Th was yielded by the sup 2 sup 3 sup 2 Th(n, 2n) reaction with neutron irradiation in the Kyoto University Reactor (KUR). Moreover, the thorium was purified chemically. Gamma-ray spectra of thorium have been measured using low-energy photon spectrometers and a high-purity germanium detector. Relative gamma-ray intensities ranging from 25 to 352 keV in the decay of sup 2 sup 3 sup 1 Th have been determined with satisfactory accuracy. The results are in very good agreement with those of earlier studies. We observe two new gamma-rays at 77.69 and 177.66 keV, whose intensities are found to be (0.063+-0.010)% and (0.00095+-0.00020)%, respectively, relative to that of 84.21 keV taken as 100%. Absolute intensity of 84.21 keV gamma-ray which is the most prominent one from the decay of sup 2 sup 3 sup 1 Th and that of 185.739 keV following the decay of sup 2 sup 3 sup 5 U are also determined from the secular equilibrium for sup 2 sup 3 sup 5 U- sup 2 sup 3 sup 1 Th. The results obtained in t...

  13. Dynamic-range tests for a gamma-ray sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byrd, R.C.; Longmire, J.L.; Moss, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    The task of detecting and characterizing intense bursts of nuclear radiation requires an instrument capable of operating reliably over wide extremes of signal intensity. Developing techniques for testing and calibrating such a detector involves a combination of experimental measurements, data analyses, and computer simulations. The results of these efforts provide important insight into the instrument`s behavior in the laboratory and in its eventual application. For the present case, such studies not only verify the proper operation of the existing detector, but they also provide the basis for future improvements in its performance.

  14. Laboratory tests on neutron shields for gamma-ray detectors in space

    CERN Document Server

    Hong, J; Hailey, C J

    2000-01-01

    Shields capable of suppressing neutron-induced background in new classes of gamma-ray detectors such as CdZnTe are becoming important for a variety of reasons. These include a high cross section for neutron interactions in new classes of detector materials as well as the inefficient vetoing of neutron-induced background in conventional active shields. We have previously demonstrated through Monte-Carlo simulations how our new approach, supershields, is superior to the monolithic, bi-atomic neutron shields which have been developed in the past. We report here on the first prototype models for supershields based on boron and hydrogen. We verify the performance of these supershields through laboratory experiments. These experimental results, as well as measurements of conventional monolithic neutron shields, are shown to be consistent with Monte-Carlo simulations. We discuss the implications of this experiment for designs of supershields in general and their application to future hard X-ray/gamma-ray experiments...

  15. Search for the glueball candidates $f_{0}$(1500) and $f_{J}$(1710) in $\\gamma\\gamma$ collisions in ALEPH Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Barate, R.; Ghez, Philippe; Goy, C.; Lees, J.P.; Merle, E.; Minard, M.N.; Pietrzyk, B.; Alemany, R.; Bravo, S.; Casado, M.P.; Chmeissani, M.; Crespo, J.M.; Fernandez, E.; Fernandez-Bosman, M.; Garrido, L.; Grauges, E.; Juste, A.; Martinez, M.; Merino, G.; Miquel, R.; Mir, L.M.; Pacheco, A.; Riu, I.; Ruiz, H.; Colaleo, A.; Creanza, D.; De Palma, M.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Maggi, M.; Nuzzo, S.; Ranieri, A.; Raso, G.; Ruggieri, F.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Tempesta, P.; Tricomi, A.; Zito, G.; Huang, X.; Lin, J.; Ouyang, Q.; Wang, T.; Xie, Y.; Xu, R.; Xue, S.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhao, W.; Abbaneo, D.; Boix, G.; Buchmuller, O.; Cattaneo, M.; Cerutti, F.; Ciulli, V.; Dissertori, G.; Drevermann, H.; Forty, R.W.; Frank, M.; Greening, T.C.; Halley, A.W.; Hansen, J.B.; Harvey, John; Janot, P.; Jost, B.; Lehraus, I.; Leroy, O.; Mato, P.; Minten, A.; Moutoussi, A.; Ranjard, F.; Rolandi, Gigi; Schlatter, D.; Schmitt, M.; Schneider, O.; Spagnolo, P.; Tejessy, W.; Teubert, F.; Tournefier, E.; Wright, A.E.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Badaud, F.; Chazelle, G.; Deschamps, O.; Falvard, A.; Ferdi, C.; Gay, P.; Guicheney, C.; Henrard, P.; Jousset, J.; Michel, B.; Monteil, S.; Montret, J.C.; Pallin, D.; Perret, P.; Podlyski, F.; Hansen, J.D.; Hansen, J.R.; Hansen, P.H.; Nilsson, B.S.; Rensch, B.; Waananen, A.; Daskalakis, G.; Kyriakis, A.; Markou, C.; Simopoulou, E.; Siotis, I.; Vayaki, A.; Blondel, A.; Bonneaud, G.; Brient, J.C.; Rouge, A.; Rumpf, M.; Swynghedauw, M.; Verderi, M.; Videau, H.; Focardi, E.; Parrini, G.; Zachariadou, K.; Corden, M.; Georgiopoulos, C.; Antonelli, A.; Bencivenni, G.; Bologna, G.; Bossi, F.; Campana, P.; Capon, G.; Chiarella, V.; Laurelli, P.; Mannocchi, G.; Murtas, F.; Murtas, G.P.; Passalacqua, L.; Pepe-Altarelli, M.; Curtis, L.; Lynch, J.G.; Negus, P.; O'Shea, V.; Raine, C.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Thompson, A.S.; Cavanaugh, R.; Dhamotharan, S.; Geweniger, C.; Hanke, P.; Hansper, G.; Hepp, V.; Kluge, E.E.; Putzer, A.; Sommer, J.; Tittel, K.; Werner, S.; Wunsch, M.; Beuselinck, R.; Binnie, D.M.; Cameron, W.; Dornan, P.J.; Girone, M.; Goodsir, S.; Martin, E.B.; Marinelli, N.; Sciaba, A.; Sedgbeer, J.K.; Thomson, Evelyn J.; Williams, M.D.; Ghete, V.M.; Girtler, P.; Kneringer, E.; Kuhn, D.; Rudolph, G.; Bowdery, C.K.; Buck, P.G.; Finch, A.J.; Foster, F.; Hughes, G.; Jones, R.W.L.; Robertson, N.A.; Williams, M.I.; Giehl, I.; Jakobs, K.; Kleinknecht, K.; Quast, G.; Renk, B.; Rohne, E.; Sander, H.G.; Wachsmuth, H.; Zeitnitz, C.; Aubert, J.J.; Bonissent, A.; Carr, J.; Coyle, P.; Payre, P.; Rousseau, D.; Aleppo, M.; Antonelli, M.; Ragusa, F.; Buescher, Volker; Dietl, H.; Ganis, G.; Huttmann, K.; Lutjens, G.; Mannert, C.; Manner, W.; Moser, H.G.; Schael, S.; Settles, R.; Seywerd, H.; Stenzel, H.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wolf, G.; Azzurri, P.; Boucrot, J.; Callot, O.; Chen, S.; Cordier, A.; Davier, M.; Duflot, L.; Grivaz, J.F.; Heusse, P.; Jacholkowska, A.; Le Diberder, F.; Lefrancois, J.; Lutz, A.M.; Schune, M.H.; Veillet, J.J.; Videau, I.; Zerwas, D.; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Boccali, T.; Bozzi, C.; Calderini, G.; Dell'Orso, R.; Ferrante, I.; Foa, L.; Giassi, A.; Gregorio, A.; Ligabue, F.; Marrocchesi, P.S.; Messineo, A.; Palla, F.; Rizzo, G.; Sanguinetti, G.; Sguazzoni, G.; Tenchini, R.; Venturi, A.; Verdini, P.G.; Blair, G.A.; Cowan, G.; Green, M.G.; Medcalf, T.; Strong, J.A.; Botterill, D.R.; Clifft, R.W.; Edgecock, T.R.; Norton, P.R.; Thompson, J.C.; Tomalin, I.R.; Bloch-Devaux, Brigitte; Colas, P.; Emery, S.; Kozanecki, W.; Lancon, E.; Lemaire, M.C.; Locci, E.; Perez, P.; Rander, J.; Renardy, J.F.; Roussarie, A.; Schuller, J.P.; Schwindling, J.; Trabelsi, A.; Vallage, B.; Black, S.N.; Dann, J.H.; Johnson, R.P.; Kim, H.Y.; Konstantinidis, N.; Litke, A.M.; McNeil, M.A.; Taylor, G.; Booth, C.N.; Cartwright, S.; Combley, F.; Lehto, M.; Thompson, L.F.; Affholderbach, K.; Boehrer, Armin; Brandt, S.; Grupen, C.; Hess, J.; Misiejuk, A.; Prange, G.; Sieler, U.; Giannini, G.; Gobbo, B.; Rothberg, J.; Wasserbaech, S.; Armstrong, S.R.; Elmer, P.; Ferguson, D.P.S.; Gao, Y.; Gonzalez, S.; Hayes, O.J.; Hu, H.; Jin, S.; Kile, J.; McNamara, P.A., III; Nielsen, J.; Orejudos, W.; Pan, Y.B.; Saadi, Y.; Scott, I.J.; Walsh, J.; von Wimmersperg-Toeller, J.H.; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, X.; Zobernig, G.

    2000-01-01

    Data taken with the ALEPH detector at LEP1 have been used to search for gamma gamma production of the glueball candidates f0(1500) and fJ(1710) via their decay to pi+pi-. No signal is observed and upper limits to the product of gamma gamma width and pi+pi- branching ratio of the f0(1500) and the fJ(1710) have been measured to be Gamma_(gamma gamma -> f0(1500)). BR(f0(1500)->pi+pi-) fJ(1710)). BR(fJ(1710)->pi+pi-) < 0.55 keV at 95\\-onfidence level.

  16. A novel gamma-ray imaging concept using 'edge-on' microchannel plate detector

    CERN Document Server

    Shikhaliev, P M

    2001-01-01

    The 'edge-on' illuminated microchannel plate (MCP) position-sensitive detector (PSD) is used for gamma-ray imaging for the first time. The superior position resolution of the MCP is combined with high detection efficiency due to the 'edge-on' illumination mode. The results of imaging a 15 mu Ci sup 1 sup 3 sup 7 Cs source (662 keV quantum energy) are presented.

  17. A data inversion technique for four-detector gamma-ray logging in cased holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wensheng; Bing, Chen; Gang, Yu; Hanwu, Qu; Xiaolong, Li

    2017-07-01

    Scattered-gamma-ray logging in a cased hole not only offers cased-hole formation evaluation parameters, but also enables better cement bond evaluation when there is a microannulus outside the casing. Therefore, it is essential to study the response relations of measured values from cased-hole scattered-gamma-ray logging to casing thickness, cement sheath density, cement sheath thickness and formation density, as well as the data-processing methods used to solve for such parameters. In this paper, we outline the design of a four-detector scattered-gamma-ray logging tool for cased holes, apply Monte Carlo numerical simulation to study the response relations of the above four parameters to detector-measured values, thereby establishing the forward equations of values measured by the four detectors, and then use optimization inversion to solve for casing thickness, cement sheath density, cement sheath thickness and formation density, respectively. Inverted values of casing thickness had high accuracy and were less vulnerable to environmental impact. More accurate cement sheath density values were obtained at greater cement sheath thickness. Inverted values of cement sheath thickness had poor accuracy, being greatly affected by borehole and formation. Accurate formation density values were obtained, though they were influenced by the density and thickness of the cement sheath.

  18. A pixellated gamma-camera based on CdTe detectors clinical interests and performances

    CERN Document Server

    Chambron, J; Eclancher, B; Scheiber, C; Siffert, P; Hage-Ali, M; Regal, R; Kazandjian, A; Prat, V; Thomas, S; Warren, S; Matz, R; Jahnke, A; Karman, M; Pszota, A; Németh, L

    2000-01-01

    A mobile gamma camera dedicated to nuclear cardiology, based on a 15 cmx15 cm detection matrix of 2304 CdTe detector elements, 2.83 mmx2.83 mmx2 mm, has been developed with a European Community support to academic and industrial research centres. The intrinsic properties of the semiconductor crystals - low-ionisation energy, high-energy resolution, high attenuation coefficient - are potentially attractive to improve the gamma-camera performances. But their use as gamma detectors for medical imaging at high resolution requires production of high-grade materials and large quantities of sophisticated read-out electronics. The decision was taken to use CdTe rather than CdZnTe, because the manufacturer (Eurorad, France) has a large experience for producing high-grade materials, with a good homogeneity and stability and whose transport properties, characterised by the mobility-lifetime product, are at least 5 times greater than that of CdZnTe. The detector matrix is divided in 9 square units, each unit is composed ...

  19. Improved neutron-gamma discrimination for a 3He neutron detector using subspace learning methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C. L.; Funk, L. L.; Riedel, R. A.; Berry, K. D.

    2017-05-01

    3He gas based neutron Linear-Position-Sensitive Detectors (LPSDs) have been used for many neutron scattering instruments. Traditional Pulse-height Analysis (PHA) for Neutron-Gamma Discrimination (NGD) resulted in the neutron-gamma efficiency ratio (NGD ratio) on the order of 105-106. The NGD ratios of 3He detectors need to be improved for even better scientific results from neutron scattering. Digital Signal Processing (DSP) analyses of waveforms were proposed for obtaining better NGD ratios, based on features extracted from rise-time, pulse amplitude, charge integration, a simplified Wiener filter, and the cross-correlation between individual and template waveforms of neutron and gamma events. Fisher Linear Discriminant Analysis (FLDA) and three Multivariate Analyses (MVAs) of the features were performed. The NGD ratios are improved by about 102-103 times compared with the traditional PHA method. Our results indicate the NGD capabilities of 3He tube detectors can be significantly improved with subspace-learning based methods, which may result in a reduced data-collection time and better data quality for further data reduction.

  20. Highly accurate determination of relative gamma-ray detection efficiency for Ge detector and its application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyahara, H.; Mori, C. [Nagoya Univeristy, Nagoya (Japan). Department of Nuclear Engineering; Ludington, M. [Albion College, Albion, Michigan (United States); Fleming, R.F.; Dewaraja, Y.K. [University of Michigan, An Arbor, Michigan (United States). Phoenix Memorial Laboratory

    1997-10-01

    When quantitative measurements of {gamma}-rays using High-Purity Ge (HPGe) detectors are made for a variety of applications, accurate knowledge of oy-ray detection efficiency is required. The emission rates of {gamma}-rays from sources can be determined quickly in the case that the absolute peak efficiency is calibrated. On the other hand, the relative peak efficiencies can be used for determination of intensity ratios for plural samples and for comparison to the standard source. Thus, both absolute and relative detection efficiencies are important in use of {gamma}-ray detector. The objective of this work is to determine the relative gamma-ray peak detection efficiency for an HPGe detector with the uncertainty approaching 0.1% . We used some nuclides which emit at least two gamma-rays with energies from 700 to 2400 keV for which the relative emission probabilities are known with uncertainties much smaller than 0.1%. The relative peak detection efficiencies were calculated from the measurements of the nuclides, {sup 46}Sc, {sup 48}Sc, {sup 60}Co and {sup 94}Nb, emitting two {gamma}- rays with the emission probabilities of almost unity. It is important that various corrections for the emission probabilities, the cascade summing effect, and the self-absorption are small. A third order polynomial function on both logarithmic scales of energy and efficiency was fitted to the data, and the peak efficiency predicted at certain energy from covariance matrix showed the uncertainty less than 0.5% except for near 700 keV. As an application, the emission probabilities of the 1037.5 and 1212.9 keV {gamma}-rays for {sup 48}Sc were determined using the function of the highly precise relative peak efficiency. Those were 0.9777+0,.00079 and 0.02345+0.00017 for the 1037.5 and 1212.9 keV {gamma}-rays, respectively. The sum of these probabilities is close to unity within the uncertainty which means that the certainties of the results are high and the accuracy has been improved

  1. Search for $Z\\gamma$ resonances in pp collisions with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Readioff, Nathan Peter; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    An overview of the search for $Z\\gamma$ resonances using proton-proton collision data recorded by the ATLAS detector is presented. A search for evidence of a Standard Model Higgs boson undergoing the decay $H \\rightarrow Z\\gamma, Z\\rightarrow\\ell\\ell$, where $\\ell = e$ or $\\mu$, has been performed, and a brief summary of the most recent public results is given. A search for exotic high mass resonances decaying to a $Z\\gamma$ final state has been performed using proton-proton collision data recorded at $\\sqrt{s} = 13$~TeV. Leptonic decays of the $Z$ boson ($Z\\rightarrow\\ell\\ell$, where $\\ell = e$ or $\\mu$) have been investigated, together with hadronic decay modes ($Z\\rightarrow q\\bar{q}$). An overview of the most recent public results is presented.

  2. Thermal neutron detector and gamma-ray spectrometer utilizing a single material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stowe, Ashley; Burger, Arnold; Lukosi, Eric

    2017-05-02

    A combined thermal neutron detector and gamma-ray spectrometer system, including: a detection medium including a lithium chalcopyrite crystal operable for detecting thermal neutrons in a semiconductor mode and gamma-rays in a scintillator mode; and a photodetector coupled to the detection medium also operable for detecting the gamma rays. Optionally, the detection medium includes a .sup.6LiInSe.sub.2 crystal. Optionally, the detection medium comprises a compound formed by the process of: melting a Group III element; adding a Group I element to the melted Group III element at a rate that allows the Group I and Group III elements to react thereby providing a single phase I-III compound; and adding a Group VI element to the single phase I-III compound and heating; wherein the Group I element includes lithium.

  3. Mercuric iodide room-temperature array detectors for gamma-ray imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patt, B. [Xsirius, Inc, Camarillo, CA (United States)

    1994-11-15

    Significant progress has been made recently in the development of mercuric iodide detector arrays for gamma-ray imaging, making real the possibility of constructing high-performance small, light-weight, portable gamma-ray imaging systems. New techniques have been applied in detector fabrication and then low noise electronics which have produced pixel arrays with high-energy resolution, high spatial resolution, high gamma stopping efficiency. Measurements of the energy resolution capability have been made on a 19-element protypical array. Pixel energy resolutions of 2.98% fwhm and 3.88% fwhm were obtained at 59 keV (241-Am) and 140-keV (99m-Tc), respectively. The pixel spectra for a 14-element section of the data is shown together with the composition of the overlapped individual pixel spectra. These techniques are now being applied to fabricate much larger arrays with thousands of pixels. Extension of these principles to imaging scenarios involving gamma-ray energies up to several hundred keV is also possible. This would enable imaging of the 208 keV and 375-414 keV 239-Pu and 240-Pu structures, as well as the 186 keV line of 235-U.

  4. Gamma-ray pulse height spectrum analysis on systems with multiple Ge detectors using spectrum summing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Killian, E.W. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1997-11-01

    A technique has been developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to sum high resolution gamma-ray pulse spectra from systems with multiple Ge detectors. Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Company operates a multi-detector spectrometer configuration at the Stored Waste Examination Pilot Plant facility which is used to characterize the radionuclide contents in waste drums destined for shipment to Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. This summing technique was developed to increase the sensitivity of the system, reduce the count times required to properly quantify the radio-nuclides and provide a more consistent methodology for combining data collected from multiple detectors. In spectrometer systems with multiple detectors looking at non homogeneous waste forms it is often difficult to combine individual spectrum analysis results from each detector to obtain a meaningful result for the total waste container. This is particularly true when the counting statistics in each individual spectrum are poor. The spectrum summing technique adds the spectra collected by each detector into a single spectrum which has better counting statistics than each individual spectrum. A normal spectral analysis program can then be used to analyze the sum spectrum to obtain radio-nuclide values which have smaller errors and do not have to be further manipulated to obtain results for the total waste container. 2 refs., 2 figs.

  5. Measurements with the resonant gravitational wave detector EXPLORER during the gamma-ray burst 980425

    CERN Document Server

    Amati, L; Bassan, M; Bonifazi, P; Carelli, P; Coccia, E; Cosmelli, C; Costa, E; Fafone, V; Feroci, M; Frasca, S; Frontera, F; Longo, F; Mauceli, E; Minenkov, Y; Modena, I; Modestino, G; Moleti, A; Orlandini, M; Pallottino, G V; Piro, L; Pizzella, G; Preger, B; Salemi, F; Terenzi, R; Visco, M

    1999-01-01

    We report on the operation of the resonant gravitational wave (GW) detector EXPLORER of the Rome group (M=2300 kg, T=2.6 K, located at CERN) at the time of the gamma-ray burst GRB 980425 (April 25.90915 UT, 1998), which is probably associated with the supernova SN 1998bw. We present the data of the detector (with sensitivity h/sub c/=8*10 /sup -19/ for a 1 ms pulse), and use the BeppoSAX data to estimate the initial time of the GRB: a basic parameter for any correlation analysis. The GW data exhibit no significant time signature around the GRB 980425. We remark on the importance of making use, in spite of the present low sensitivity, of the data collected with GW detectors, that can be regarded as active observatories, in coincidence with the BeppoSAX data. (15 refs).

  6. Limits on Neutrino Emission from Gamma-Ray Bursts with the 40 String IceCube Detector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbasi, R.; Abdou, Y.; Abu-Zayyad, T.; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J.A.; Ahlers, M.; Andeen, K.; Auffenberg, J.; Bai, X.; Baker, M.; Barwick, S.W.; Bay, R.; Alba, J.L.B.; Beattie, K.; Beatty, J.J.; Bechet, S.; Becker, J.K.; Becker, K.H.; Benabderrahmane, M.L.; BenZvi, S.; Berdermann, J.; Berghaus, P.; Berley, D.; Bernardini, E.; Bertrand, D.; Besson, D.Z.; Bindig, D.; Bissok, M.; Blaufuss, E.; Blumenthal, J.; Boersma, D.J.; Bohm, C.; Bose, D.; Boser, S.; Botner, O.; Braun, J.; Brown, A.M.; Buitink, S.; Carson, M.; Chirkin, D.; Christy, B.; Clem, J.; Clevermann, F.; Cohen, S.; Colnard, C.; Cowen, D.F.; D'Agostino, M.V.; Danninger, M.; Daughhetee, J.; Davis, J.C.; Clercq, C. De; Demirors, L.; Depaepe, O.; Descamps, F.; Desiati, P.; Vries-Uiterweerd, G. de; DeYoung, T.; Diaz-Velez, J.C.; Dierckxsens, M.; Dreyer, J.; Dumm, J.P.; Ehrlich, R.; Eisch, J.; Ellsworth, R.W.; Engdegard, O.; Euler, S.; Evenson, P.A.; Fadiran, O.; Fazely, A.R.; Fedynitch, A.; Feusels, T.; Filimonov, K.; Finley, C.; Fischer-Wasels, T.; Foerster, M.M.; Fox, B.D.; Franckowiak, A.; Franke, R.; Gaisser, T.K.; Gallagher, J.; Geisler, M.; Gerhardt, L.; Gladstone, L.; Glusenkamp, T.; Goldschmidt, A.; Goodman, J.A.; Grant, D.; Griesel, T.; Gross, A.; Grullon, S.; Gurtner, M.; Ha, C.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Han, K.; Hanson, K.; Heinen, D.; Helbing, K.; Herquet, P.; Hickford, S.; Lafebre, S.J.

    2011-01-01

    IceCube has become the first neutrino telescope with a sensitivity below the TeV neutrino flux predicted from gamma-ray bursts if gamma-ray bursts are responsible for the observed cosmic-ray flux above 10(18) eV. Two separate analyses using the half-complete IceCube detector, one a dedicated search

  7. Interconnect and bonding techniques for pixelated X-ray and gamma-ray detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, A.; Veale, M. C.; Duarte, D. D.; Bell, S. J.; Wilson, M. D.; Lipp, J. D.; Seller, P.

    2015-02-01

    In the last decade, the Detector Development Group at the Technology Department of the Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC), U.K., established a variety of fabrication and bonding techniques to build pixelated X-ray and γ-ray detector systems such as the spectroscopic X-ray imaging detector HEXITEC [1]. The fabrication and bonding of such devices comprises a range of processes including material surface preparation, photolithography, stencil printing, flip-chip and wire bonding of detectors to application-specific integrated circuits (ASIC). This paper presents interconnect and bonding techniques used in the fabrication chain for pixelated detectors assembled at STFC. For this purpose, detector dies (~ 20× 20 mm2) of high quality, single crystal semiconductors, such as cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) are cut to the required thickness (up to 5mm). The die surfaces are lapped and polished to a mirror-finish and then individually processed by electroless gold deposition combined with photolithography to form 74× 74 arrays of 200 μ m × 200 μ m pixels with 250 μ m pitch. Owing to a lack of availability of CZT wafers, lithography is commonly carried out on individual detector dies which represents a significant technical challenge as the edge of the pixel array and the surrounding guard band lies close to the physical edge of the crystal. Further, such detector dies are flip-chip bonded to readout ASIC using low-temperature curing silver-loaded epoxy so that the stress between the bonded detector die and the ASIC is minimized. In addition, this reduces crystalline modifications of the detector die that occur at temperature greater than 150\\r{ }C and have adverse effects on the detector performance. To allow smaller pitch detectors to be bonded, STFC has also developed a compression cold-weld indium bump bonding technique utilising bumps formed by a photolithographic lift-off technique.

  8. Gamma-ray Irradiation Effects on InAs/GaSb-based nBn IR Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    emerging detector architecture, complementary to SLS- technology and hence forth referred to here as nBn , mitigates this issue via a uni-polar barrier...Gamma-ray Irradiation Effects on InAs/GaSb-based nBn IR Detector Vincent M. Cowan*1, Christian P. Morath1, Seth M. Swift1, Stephen Myers2...2Center for High Technology Materials, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87106, USA ABSTRACT IR detectors operated in a space environment are

  9. Calibration of semiconductor detectors in the 200-8500 keV range at VNIIM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tereshchenko, Evgeny E; Moiseev, Nikolay

    2012-09-01

    At the ionising radiation department of the D.I. Mendeleyev Institute for Metrology, a semiconductor detector was calibrated in the energy range 200-8500 keV using (n,2γ) and (n,γ) reactions. Separate cylindrical targets (77 mm diameter and 10mm height) were made from mercuric sulphate, sodium chloride and metallic titanium. A (252)Cf spontaneous fission neutron source, placed in 150 mm diameter polyethylene ball, was used to generate thermal neutrons. The optimal target dimensions were determined taking into account the thermal neutron cross-sections and gamma-radiation attenuations in the target materials. The influence of the background radiation induced by neutrons from the walls, floors and ceilings was also taken into account. The shapes of the efficiency curves for point and volume sources in the 200-8500 keV range have been investigated. The experimental results are in good agreement with Monte-Carlo calculations. The emission rate of the 6.13 MeV photons from a (238)Pu-(13)C source was determined with an expanded uncertainty, U(c), of 10% (k=2). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Measurement of the ratio {gamma}(K{sub L}{yields}{gamma}{gamma})/{gamma}(K{sub L}{yields}{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}) with the KLOE detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adinolfi, M.; Aloisio, A.; Ambrosino, F.; Antonelli, A.; Antonelli, M.; Bacci, C.; Bencivenni, G.; Bertolucci, S.; Bini, C.; Bloise, C.; Bocci, V.; Bossi, F.; Branchini, P.; Bulychjov, S.A.; Cabibbo, G.; Caloi, R.; Campana, P.; Capon, G.; Capussela, T.; Carboni, G.; Casarsa, M.; Casavola, V.; Cataldi, G.; Ceradini, F.; Cervelli, F.; Cevenini, F.; Chiefari, G.; Ciambrone, P.; Conetti, S.; De Lucia, E.; De Simone, P.; De Zorzi, G.; Dell' Agnello, S.; Denig, A.; Di Domenico, A.; Di Donato, C.; Di Falco, S.; Di Micco, B.; Doria, A.; Dreucci, M.; Erriquez, O.; Farilla, A.; Felici, G.; Ferrari, A.; Ferrer, M.L.; Finocchiaro, G.; Forti, C.; Franceschi, A.; Franzini, P.; Gatti, C.; Gauzzi, P.; Giannasi, A.; Giovannella, S.; Gorini, E.; Graziani, E.; Incagli, M.; Kluge, W.; Kulikov, V.; Lacava, F.; Lanfranchi, G.; Lee-Franzini, J.; Leone, D.; Lu, F.; Martemianov, M.; Matsyuk, M.; Mei, W.; Merola, L.; Messi, R.; Miscetti, S.; Moulson, M.; Mueller, S.; Murtas, F.; Napolitano, M.; Nedosekin, A.; Nguyen, F.; Palomba, M.; Pacciani, L.; Palutan, M.; Pasqualucci, E.; Passalacqua, L.; Passeri, A.; Patera, V.; Perfetto, F.; Petrolo, E.; Pirozzi, G.; Pontecorvo, L.; Primavera, M.; Ruggieri, F.; Santangelo, P.; Santovetti, E.; Saracino, G.; Schamberger, R.D.; Sciascia, B.; Sciubba, A.; Scuri, F.; Sfiligoi, I.; Sibidanov, A.; Spadaro, T.; Spiriti, E.; Tabidze, M.; Tong, G.L.; Tortora, L.; Valente, P.; Valeriani, B.; Venanzoni, G.; Veneziano, S.; Ventura, A.; Ventura, S.; Versaci, R

    2003-07-24

    We have measured the ratio R={gamma}(K{sub L}{yields}{gamma}{gamma})/{gamma}(K{sub L}{yields}{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}) using the KLOE detector. From a sample of {approx}10{sup 9} phi-mesons produced at DAPHINE, the Frascati phi-factory, we select {approx}1.6x10{sup 8} K{sub L}-mesons tagged by observing K{sub S}{yields}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} following the reaction e{sup +}e{sup -}{yields}phi{yields}K{sub L}K{sub S}. From this sample we select 27,375 K{sub L}{yields}{gamma}{gamma} events and obtain R=(2.79{+-}0.02{sub stat}{+-}0.02{sub syst})x10{sup -3}. Using the world average value for BR(K{sub L}{yields}{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}), we obtain BR(K{sub L}{yields}{gamma}{gamma})=(5.89{+-}0.07{+-}0.08)x10{sup -4} where the second error is due to the uncertainty on the {pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0} branching fraction.

  11. A Monte Carlo study of a high resolution $\\gamma$-detector for small organ imaging in Nuclear Medicine

    CERN Document Server

    Ortigão, C

    2004-01-01

    A reliable Monte Carlo simulation study is of significance importance to evaluate the performance of a gamma-ray detector and the search for compromises between spatial resolution, sensitivity and energy resolution. The development of a simulation package for a new compact gamma camera based on GEANT3 is described in this report. This simulation takes into account the interaction of gamma-rays in the crystal, the production and transport of scintillation photons and allows an accurate radiation transport description of photon attenuation in high-Z collimators, for SPECT applications. In order to achieve the best setup configuration different detector arrangements were explored, namely different scintillation crystals, coatings, reflector properties and polishing types. The conventional detector system, based on PMT light readout, was compared with an HPD system. Different collimators were studied for high resolution applications with compact gamma-cameras.

  12. An improved hand-held four-detector gamma-probe for radioassisted oncological surgery

    CERN Document Server

    Dusi, W; Bollini, D; Moroni, C; Ricard, M

    2000-01-01

    The performance of an improved intraoperative gamma-probe for radioassisted oncological surgery is presented and discussed. The probe is based on a square array of four 5x5 mm sup 2 coplanar CdTe room temperature semiconductor detectors and each detector has an independent read out electronic chain, allowing an original handling of the signal. Therefore, the search for gamma-emission hot points may be carried out in two different, independent ways: (1) Finding out the position of the probe corresponding to the maximum value of the total counting rate, on the basis of a trial and error procedure (typical for the conventional probe; (2) Finding out the position of the probe where both the differences between the counting rate performed by orthogonal, adjacent halves of the array vanish (differential method). This makes the new probe sensitive to the bidimensional gradient of the gamma-ray flux, measured on the scanned plane. Furthermore, the algebraic sign of the difference indicates in which direction the prob...

  13. Study, simulation and modelling of a gamma photon detector placed on an integral-type eccentric orbit; Etude, simulation et modelisation d'un detecteur de photons gamma place sur une orbite excentrique de type integral

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diallo, N

    1999-07-01

    Gamma-ray lines are the signature of nuclear reactions and other high-energy processes that take place in the Universe. Their measurement and study provide invaluable information on many important problems in high energy astrophysics, including particle acceleration, physics of compact objects and nucleosynthesis. However the observation of astronomical gamma-ray sources has to be performed above the atmosphere because the Earth's atmosphere is opaque to gamma-rays. Unfortunately at these altitudes, spatial high energy electromagnetic radiation (X and gamma rays) detectors are exposed to intense parasite fluxes of radiation and particles induced by primary galactic cosmic rays. These fluxes as well radiation and secondary particles they generate, constitute a considerable source of background which limits their performances. Our study has been done in the framework of the INTEGRAL mission, a gamma-ray astronomy mission of the European Space Agency. INTEGRAL is devoted to the observation of celestial gamma-ray sources. It consists of two main instruments: an imager IBIS and a high resolution germanium spectrometer SPI ({delta}E/E = 1.6 10{sup -3} at 1.3 MeV). We studied the hadronic component of the SPI background. This component is due to the radioactive decay of unstable nuclides produced by the interactions of cosmic-ray protons with the materials of SPI. It consists of a continuum with gamma ray lines superimposed. To study nuclear processes, Monte Carlo simulations have been performed with the nuclear code TIERCE developed at CEA/DAM. We used the GEANT Monte Carlo code developed at CERN to simulate the germanium detectors response. Background reduction techniques as PSD (Pulse Shape Discrimination) and energetic signatures have been applied in well chosen energy ranges to reduce the background. and improve the SPI sensitivity. With the estimated SPI narrow-line sensitivity level, SPI would be able to detect many gamma ray limes emitted in the active

  14. Design of a large dynamic range readout unit for the PSD detector of DAMPE

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Yong; Sun, Zhiyu; Zhang, Yongjie; Fang, Fang; Chen, Junling; Hu, Bitao

    2016-01-01

    A large dynamic range is required by the Plastic Scintillator Detector (PSD) of DArk Matter Paricle Explorer (DAMPE), and a double-dynode readout has been developed. To verify this design, a prototype detector module has been constructed and tested with cosmic rays and heavy ion beams. The results match with the estimation and the readout unit could easily cover the required dynamic range.

  15. Measurement of 15 MeV gamma-rays with the Ge cluster detectors of EUROBALL

    CERN Document Server

    Million, B; Camera, F; Brambilla, S; Gadea, A; Giugni, D; Herskind, B; Kmiecik, M; Isocrate, R; Leoni, S; Maj, A; Prelz, F; Wieland, O

    2000-01-01

    A measurement of the response to 15.1 MeV gamma-rays has been made for the Ge cluster detectors in the EUROBALL array. Each cluster detector consists of seven germanium capsules surrounded by a single anticompton shield of BGO. The reaction D( sup 1 sup 1 B,gamma) sup 1 sup 2 C+n at E sub b sub e sub a sub m =19.1 MeV has been employed. The 'adding-back' of signals simultaneously present in the capsules composing each cluster detector has been made on an event by event basis. The intensity in full-energy peak increases by a factor of three as compared to that of the spectrum obtained by summing the individual spectra of the 7 capsules. The pulse height to energy conversion is found to be very linear from few hundreds keV to 15 MeV. The efficiency is discussed relative to that of large volume BaF sub 2 scintillators.

  16. SU-C-201-03: Coded Aperture Gamma-Ray Imaging Using Pixelated Semiconductor Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, S [Wayne State University, Detroit, MI (United States); Kaye, W; Jaworski, J [H3D, Inc., Ann Arbor, MI (United States); He, Z [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Improved localization of gamma-ray emissions from radiotracers is essential to the progress of nuclear medicine. Polaris is a portable, room-temperature operated gamma-ray imaging spectrometer composed of two 3×3 arrays of thick CdZnTe (CZT) detectors, which detect gammas between 30keV and 3MeV with energy resolution of <1% FWHM at 662keV. Compton imaging is used to map out source distributions in 4-pi space; however, is only effective above 300keV where Compton scatter is dominant. This work extends imaging to photoelectric energies (<300keV) using coded aperture imaging (CAI), which is essential for localization of Tc-99m (140keV). Methods: CAI, similar to the pinhole camera, relies on an attenuating mask, with open/closed elements, placed between the source and position-sensitive detectors. Partial attenuation of the source results in a “shadow” or count distribution that closely matches a portion of the mask pattern. Ideally, each source direction corresponds to a unique count distribution. Using backprojection reconstruction, the source direction is determined within the field of view. The knowledge of 3D position of interaction results in improved image quality. Results: Using a single array of detectors, a coded aperture mask, and multiple Co-57 (122keV) point sources, image reconstruction is performed in real-time, on an event-by-event basis, resulting in images with an angular resolution of ∼6 degrees. Although material nonuniformities contribute to image degradation, the superposition of images from individual detectors results in improved SNR. CAI was integrated with Compton imaging for a seamless transition between energy regimes. Conclusion: For the first time, CAI has been applied to thick, 3D position sensitive CZT detectors. Real-time, combined CAI and Compton imaging is performed using two 3×3 detector arrays, resulting in a source distribution in space. This system has been commercialized by H3D, Inc. and is being acquired for

  17. A wide dynamic range square-law diode detector [for radioastronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparici, J.

    1988-09-01

    Semiconductor square-law diode detectors are frequently used in radio astronomy to recover signals immersed in the system noise. Their use is commonly restricted to narrow dynamic ranges of very low signal levels where the square-law is valid. A circuit based on operational amplifiers is proposed that would minimize temperature-drift effects within a dynamic range greater than 30 dB, with an efficiency 600 timer greater than the simple high-impedance unbiased detector. Using square-law detector theory, optimum performance is determined for a detector driving source impedance of about 14% of the dynamic resistance.

  18. Trigger design for a gamma ray detector of HIRFL-ETF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Zhong-Wei; Su, Hong; Qian, Yi; Kong, Jie

    2013-10-01

    The Gamma Ray Array Detector (GRAD) is one subsystem of HIRFL-ETF (the External Target Facility (ETF) of the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL)). It is capable of measuring the energy of gamma-rays with 1024 CsI scintillators in in-beam nuclear experiments. The GRAD trigger should select the valid events and reject the data from the scintillators which are not hit by the gamma-ray. The GRAD trigger has been developed based on the Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGAs) and PXI interface. It makes prompt trigger decisions to select valid events by processing the hit signals from the 1024 CsI scintillators. According to the physical requirements, the GRAD trigger module supplies 12-bit trigger information for the global trigger system of ETF and supplies a trigger signal for data acquisition (DAQ) system of GRAD. In addition, the GRAD trigger generates trigger data that are packed and transmitted to the host computer via PXI bus to be saved for off-line analysis. The trigger processing is implemented in the front-end electronics of GRAD and one FPGA of the GRAD trigger module. The logic of PXI transmission and reconfiguration is implemented in another FPGA of the GRAD trigger module. During the gamma-ray experiments, the GRAD trigger performs reliably and efficiently. The function of GRAD trigger is capable of satisfying the physical requirements.

  19. Performance optimization for hard X-ray/soft gamma-ray detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Fiona A.; Kahn, Steven M.; Hailey, Charles J.; Ziock, Klaus P.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses the optimization of the performance of imaging scintillation detectors used in the hard X-ray/soft gamma-ray (20-300) keV region of the spectrum. In these devices, absorption of an incident gamma-ray within an alkali halide crystal induces a scintillation light distribution which is centroided by an imaging photomultiplier tube mounted to the crystal. The ultimate imaging resolution is strongly affected by the detailed propagation of the scintillation light within the crystal and at the interface between the crystal and the phototube face plate. A number of refined techniques for preparing the scintillation crystals so as to optimize the imaging resolution have been investigated. The results indicate very good agreement with relatively simple models of the light propagation. It is shown that it is possible to achieve resolution consistent with the most optimistic models.

  20. Low-background gamma-ray detector system for radiative capture reaction experiments with RI beams

    CERN Document Server

    Strasser, P; Miyachi, T; Tanaka, M H

    2000-01-01

    A low-background gamma-ray detector of NaI(Tl) comprising a core surrounded by an annulus was developed for nuclear astrophysics experiments with radioactive ion beams, mostly for detailed studies of low-energy radiative capture reactions that involve proton and alpha particles. Monte Carlo simulations using EGS4 were performed to calculate the full-energy detection efficiency. The background was satisfactorily reduced as designed. The best S/N ratio for very low-event rate was obtained using the annulus in anticoincidence with the core. A consideration of an experiment of astrophysical interest, the sup 1 sup 9 Ne(p,gamma) sup 2 sup 0 Na reaction, is also briefly discussed.

  1. The Distribution of Neutron Absorbing Time in the Neutron Detector of the GAMMA-400 Space Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnezdilov, I. I.; Mukhin, V. I.; Demichev, M. A.

    The neutron detectors (ND) have been designed for the future GAMMA-400 space observatory with 3He-counters and 6LiF/ZnS(Ag) scintillation screens. The ND contribution in the rejection factor for protons in the GAMMA-400 is considered with significantly different number of neutrons generated in the electromagnetic and hadronic cascades. The ND is predominantly made from polyethylene, it has sizes of 100×100×10 cm3. GEANT4 simulation was obtained by the differential distribution of neutron absorbing time as the function of the registration time for different 3He, 6Li concentration. Nomograms were constructed for determining neutrons miscount depending on the number of neutrons crossing the ND and time resolution of the ND. The simulation results showed that the ND with 33 3He-counters detected the neutron fluence 0.23 n/cm2 without neutrons miscount.

  2. Construction of, and Component Testing for, the SciBooNE Muon Range Detector Counters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nienaber, Paul

    2008-04-01

    The Muon Range Detector (MRD) is one of three subsystems comprising the SciBooNE detector currently running in the Booster Neutrino Beamline at Fermilab. The MRD was constructed from recycled plastic scintillator panels and photomultiplier tubes between June 2006 and March 2007. This paper describes the selection, testing, and characterization of the photomultipliers, the testing of the completed counters, the assembly of the MRD itself, and its deployment in the SciBooNE detector enclosure and subsequent operation.

  3. CdTe and CdZnTe gamma ray detectors for medical and industrial imaging systems

    CERN Document Server

    Eisen, Y; Mardor, I

    1999-01-01

    CdTe and CdZnTe X-ray and gamma ray detectors in the form of single elements or as segmented monolithic detectors have been shown to be useful in medical and industrial imaging systems. These detectors possess inherently better energy resolution than scintillators coupled to either photodiodes or photomultipliers, and together with application specific integrated circuits they lead to compact imaging systems of enhanced spatial resolution and better contrast resolution. Photopeak efficiencies of these detectors is greatly affected by a relatively low hole mobility-lifetime product. Utilizing these detectors as highly efficient good spectrometers, demands use of techniques to improve their charge collection properties, i.e., correct for variations in charge losses at different depths of interaction in the detector. The corrections for the large hole trapping are made either by applying electronic techniques or by fabricating detector or electrical contacts configurations which differ from the commonly used pla...

  4. Development of a pixelated CdTe detector module for a hard-x and gamma-ray imaging spectrometer application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvèz, J.-L.; Hernanz, M.; Álvarez, L.; Artigues, B.; Álvarez, J.-M.; Ullán, M.; Lozano, M.; Pellegrini, G.; Cabruja, E.; Martínez, R.; Chmeissani, M.; Puigdengoles, C.

    2016-07-01

    Stellar explosions are relevant and interesting astrophysical phenomena. Since long ago we have been working on the characterization of novae and supernovae in X and gamma-rays, with the use of space missions. We have also been involved in feasibility studies of future instruments in the energy range from several keV up to a few MeV, in collaboration with other research institutes. High sensitivities are essential to perform detailed studies of cosmic explosions and cosmic accelerators, e.g., Supernovae and Classical Novae. In order to fulfil the combined requirement of high detection efficiency with good spatial and energy resolution, an initial module prototype based on CdTe pixel detectors is being developed. The detector dimensions are 12.5mm x 12.5mm x 2mm with a pixel pitch of 1mm x 1mm. Two kinds of CdTe pixel detectors with different contacts have been tested: ohmic and Schottky. Each pixel is bump bonded to a fanout board made of Sapphire substrate and routed to the corresponding input channel of the readout VATAGP7.1 ASIC, to measure pixel position and pulse height for each incident gamma-ray photon. The study is complemented by the simulation of the CdTe module performance using the GEANT 4 and MEGALIB tools, which will help us to optimise the detector design. We will report on the spectroscopy characterisation of the CdTe detector module as well as the study of charge sharing.

  5. Development of scintillation-light-transmission type phoswich detector for simultaneous alpha- and beta (gamma)-ray counting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, K.; Usuda, S.; Gunji, H.

    2000-08-01

    A new type of scintillation-light-transmission ZnS(Ag)/NE102A phoswich detector has been developed, in which scintillation light emitted from the phoswich is transmitted through an optical fiber to a photomultiplier tube. By adjusting wavelength of the scintillation light to transmittance region of the optical fiber, the phoswich detector was capable of successfully performing simultaneous counting of alpha- and beta (including gamma)-rays. In addition, the detector has been applied to a dip-type inline monitor, which directly contacts with actinide solution. The detector will be available especially in a narrow and/or isolated space such as glove box and hot cell.

  6. Simulation of single-event energy-deposition spreading in a hybrid pixellated detector for gamma imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Manach, E

    2002-01-01

    In the framework of the Medipix2 Collaboration, a new photon-counting chip is being developed made of a 256x256 array of 55 mu m-side square pixels. Although the chip was primarily developed for semiconductor X-ray imagers, we think that this type of device could be used in applications such as decommissioning of nuclear facilities where typical sources have gamma-ray energies in the range of a few hundred keV. In order to enhance the detection efficiency in this energy range, we envisage connecting the Medipix2 chip to a CdTe or CdZnTe substrate (at least 1 mm thick). The small pixel size, the thickness of the Cd(Zn)Te substrate and the high photon energy motivate us to estimate first the spatial energy spreading following a photon interaction inside the detector. Estimations were made using the MCNP Monte Carlo package by simulating the individual energy distribution for each primary photon interaction. As an illustration of our results, simulating a 660 keV gamma source, we found that there are two pixels ...

  7. Next generation gamma-ray Cherenkov detectors for the National Ignition Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, H. W.; Kim, Y. H.; McEvoy, A. M.; Zylstra, A. B.; Young, C. S.; Lopez, F. E.; Griego, J. R.; Fatherley, V. E.; Oertel, J. A.; Stoeffl, W.; Khater, H.; Hernandez, J. E.; Carpenter, A.; Rubery, M. S.; Horsfield, C. J.; Gales, S.; Leatherland, A.; Hilsabeck, T.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Malone, R. M.; Hares, J. D.; Milnes, J.; Shmayda, W. T.; Stoeckl, C.; Batha, S. H.

    2016-11-01

    The newest generation of Gas Cherenkov Detector (GCD-3) employed in Inertial Confinement Fusion experiments at the Omega Laser Facility has provided improved performance over previous generations. Comparison of reaction histories measured using two different deuterium-tritium fusion products, namely gamma rays using GCD and neutrons using Neutron Temporal Diagnostic (NTD), have provided added credibility to both techniques. GCD-3 is now being brought to the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to supplement the existing Gamma Reaction History (GRH-6m) located 6 m from target chamber center (TCC). Initially it will be located in a reentrant well located 3.9 m from TCC. Data from GCD-3 will inform the design of a heavily-shielded "Super" GCD to be located as close as 20 cm from TCC. It will also provide a test-bed for faster optical detectors, potentially lowering the temporal resolution from the current ˜100 ps state-of-the-art photomultiplier tubes (PMT) to ˜10 ps Pulse Dilation PMT technology currently under development.

  8. Conversion factor and uncertainty estimation for quantification of towed gamma-ray detector measurements in Tohoku coastal waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohnishi, S., E-mail: ohnishi@nmri.go.jp [National Maritime Research Institute, 6-38-1, Shinkawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-0004 (Japan); Thornton, B. [Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1, Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan); Kamada, S.; Hirao, Y.; Ura, T.; Odano, N. [National Maritime Research Institute, 6-38-1, Shinkawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-0004 (Japan)

    2016-05-21

    Factors to convert the count rate of a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector to the concentration of radioactive cesium in marine sediments are estimated for a towed gamma-ray detector system. The response of the detector against a unit concentration of radioactive cesium is calculated by Monte Carlo radiation transport simulation considering the vertical profile of radioactive material measured in core samples. The conversion factors are acquired by integrating the contribution of each layer and are normalized by the concentration in the surface sediment layer. At the same time, the uncertainty of the conversion factors are formulated and estimated. The combined standard uncertainty of the radioactive cesium concentration by the towed gamma-ray detector is around 25 percent. The values of uncertainty, often referred to as relative root mean squat errors in other works, between sediment core sampling measurements and towed detector measurements were 16 percent in the investigation made near the Abukuma River mouth and 5.2 percent in Sendai Bay, respectively. Most of the uncertainty is due to interpolation of the conversion factors between core samples and uncertainty of the detector's burial depth. The results of the towed measurements agree well with laboratory analysed sediment samples. Also, the concentrations of radioactive cesium at the intersection of each survey line are consistent. The consistency with sampling results and between different lines' transects demonstrate the availability and reproducibility of towed gamma-ray detector system.

  9. Development of neutron/gamma generators and a polymer semiconductor detector for homeland security applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Michael Joseph

    -energetic gamma generators that operate at low-acceleration energies and leverage neutron generator technologies. The dissertation focused on the experimental characterization of the generator performance and involved MCNPX simulations to evaluate and analyze the experimental results. The emission of the 11.7 MeV gamma-rays was observed to be slightly anisotropic and the gamma yield was measured to be 2.0*105 gamma/s-mA. The lanthanum hexaboride target suffered beam damage from a high power density beam; however, this may be overcome by sweeping the beam across a larger target area. The efficient detection of fast neutrons is vital to active interrogation techniques for the detection of both SNM and explosives. Novel organic semiconductors are air-stable, low-cost materials that demonstrate direct electronic particle detection. As part of the development of a pi-conjugated organic polymer for fast neutron detection, charge generation and collection properties were investigated. By devising a dual, thin-film detector test arrangement, charge collection was measured for high energy protons traversing the dual detector arrangement that allowed the creation of variable track lengths by tilting the detector. The results demonstrated that an increase in track length resulted in a decreased signal collection. This can be understood by assuming charge carrier transport along the track instead of along the field lines, which was made possible by the filling of traps. However, this charge collection mechanism may be insufficient to generate a useful signal. This dissertation has explored the viability of a new generation of radiation sources and detectors, where the newly developed ion source technologies and prototype generators will further enhance the capabilities of existing threat detection systems and promote the development of cutting-edge detection technologies.

  10. Design of a Dry Dilution Refrigerator for MMC Gamma Detector Arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrich, Stephan [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Boyd, Stephen [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Cantor, Robin

    2017-04-03

    The goal of this LCP is to develop an ultra-high resolution gamma detector based on magnetic microcalorimeters (MMCs) for accurate non-destructive analysis (NDA) of nuclear materials. For highest energy resolution, we will introduce erbium-doped silver (Ag:Er) as a novel sensor material to replace current Au:Er sensors. The detector sensitivity will be increased by developing arrays of 32 Ag:Er pixels read out by 16 SQUID preamplifiers. MMC detectors require operating temperatures of ~15 mK and thus the use of a dilution refrigerator, and the desire for user-friendly operation without cryogenic liquids requires that this refrigerator use pulse-tube pre-cooling to ~4 K. For long-term reliability, we intend to re-design the heat switch that is needed to apply the magnetizing current to the Ag:Er sensor and that used to fail in earlier designs after months of operation. A cryogenic Compton veto will be installed to reduce the spectral background of the MMC, especially at low energies where ultra-high energy resolution is most important. The goals for FY16 were 1) to purchase a liquid-cryogen-free dilution refrigerator and adapt it for MMC operation, and 2) to fabricate Ag:Er-based MMC γ-detectors with improved performance and optimize their response. This report discusses the design of the instruments, and progress in MMC detector fabrication. Details of the MMC fabrication have been discussed in an April 2016 report to DOE.

  11. Detectors for selective registration of charged particles and gamma-quanta

    CERN Document Server

    Ryzhikov, V; Katrunov, K

    2002-01-01

    A new design is proposed and described of a combined detector (CD) for simultaneous detection of charged particles and gamma-quanta. The CD comprises a single crystalline plate of ZnSe(Te) placed onto the output window of a scintillating transparent light transducer made of CsI(Ti) and Al sub 2 O sub 3 (Ti) in the shape of truncated pyramid. The CsI(Ti) light transducer is used to create an additional channel for detection of gamma-radiation,as well as for protecting the photodiode from the penetrating radiation.It is shown that introduction of such light transducer does not worsen the energy characteristics of ZnSe(Te). Separate detection of alpha- and gamma-radiation has been achieved under simultaneous excitation by sup 2 sup 3 sup 9 Pu (ZnSe(Te), R sub a =6%) and sup 2 sup 4 sup 1 Am (CsI(Tl), R subgamma = 20 %). The use of selective optical filters allows separation of the peaks of total absorption (p.t.a.) in the case of their superposition.

  12. Measurement of the absolute branching ratio of the K+ -> pi+ pi0 (gamma) decay with the KLOE detector

    CERN Document Server

    Ambrosino, F; Antonelli, M; Archilli, F; Bacci, C; Beltrame, P; Bencivenni, G; Bertolucci, S; Bini, C; Bloise, C; Bocchetta, S; Bossi, F; Branchini, P; Campana, P; Capon, G; Capussela, T; Ceradini, F; Cesario, F; Chi, S; Chiefari, G; Ciambrone, P; Crucianelli, F; De Lucia, E; De Santis, A; De Simone, P; De Zorzi, G; Denig, A; Di Domenico, A; Di Donato, C; Di Micco, B; Doria, A; Dreucci, M; Felici, G; Ferrari, A; Ferrer, M L; Fiore, S; Forti, C; Franzini, P; Gatti, C; Gauzzi, P; Giovannella, S; Gorini, E; Graziani, E; Kluge, W; Kulikov, V; Lacava, F; Lanfranchi, G; Lee-Franzini, J; Leone, D; Martemyanov, M; Martini, M; Massarotti, P; Mei, W; Meola, S; Miscetti, S; Moulson, M; Müller, S; Murtas, F; Napolitano, M; Nguyen, F; Palutan, M; Pasqualucci, E; Passeri, A; Patera, V; Perfetto, F; Primavera, M; Santangelo, P; Saracino, G; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Sibidanov, A; Spadaro, T; Testa, M; Tortora, L; Valente, P; Venanzoni, G; Versaci, R; Xu, G

    2008-01-01

    We have measured the absolute branching ratio of the K+ -> pi+ pi0 (gamma) decay, using about 20 million tagged K+ mesons collected with the KLOE detector at DAFNE, the Frascati phi-factory. Signal counts are obtained from the fit of the distribution of the momentum of the charged decay particle in the kaon rest frame. The result, inclusive of final-state radiation, is BR(K+ -> pi+ pi0 (gamma))=0.2065+/-0.0005_{stat}+/- 0.0008_{syst}.

  13. Development of HEROICs: High-Sensitivity, High-Dynamic Range Detector Systems for Ultraviolet Astronomy Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — "We propose a four-year program for the fabrication and characterization of high dynamic range, low background photon counting detectors that will support the next...

  14. An Optimized Design of Single-Channel Beta-Gamma Coincidence Phoswich Detector by Geant4 Monte Carlo Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihua Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An optimized single-channel phoswich well detector design has been proposed and assessed in order to improve beta-gamma coincidence measurement sensitivity of xenon radioisotopes. This newly designed phoswich well detector consists of a plastic beta counting cell (BC404 embedded in a CsI(Tl crystal coupled to a photomultiplier tube. The BC404 is configured in a cylindrical pipe shape to minimise light collection deterioration. The CsI(Tl crystal consists of a rectangular part and a semicylindrical scintillation part as a light reflector to increase light gathering. Compared with a PhosWatch detector, the final optimized detector geometry showed 15% improvement in the energy resolution of a 131mXe 129.4 keV conversion electron peak. The predicted beta-gamma coincidence efficiencies of xenon radioisotopes have also been improved accordingly.

  15. New room temperature high resolution solid-state detector (CdZnTe) for hard x rays and gamma rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Amyelizabeth C.; Desai, Upendra D.

    1993-01-01

    The new CdZnTe high 'Z' material represents a significant improvement in detectors for high energy photons. With the thicknesses available, photons up to 100 keV can be efficiently detected. This material has a wide band gap of 1.5 - 2.2 eV which allows it to operate at room temperature while providing high spectral resolution. Results of resolution evaluations are presented. This detector can be used for high resolution spectral measurements of photons in x-ray and gamma-ray astronomy, offering a significant reduction in the weight, power, and volume of the detector system compared to more conventional detector types such as scintillation counters. In addition, the detector will have the simplicity and reliability of solid-state construction. The CdZnTe detector, as a new development, has not yet been evaluated in space. The Get Away Special program can provide this opportunity.

  16. Measurement and Modeling of Blocking Contacts for Cadmium Telluride Gamma Ray Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, Patrick R. [California Polytechnic State Univ. (CalPoly), San Luis Obispo, CA (United States)

    2010-01-07

    Gamma ray detectors are important in national security applications, medicine, and astronomy. Semiconductor materials with high density and atomic number, such as Cadmium Telluride (CdTe), offer a small device footprint, but their performance is limited by noise at room temperature; however, improved device design can decrease detector noise by reducing leakage current. This thesis characterizes and models two unique Schottky devices: one with an argon ion sputter etch before Schottky contact deposition and one without. Analysis of current versus voltage characteristics shows that thermionic emission alone does not describe these devices. This analysis points to reverse bias generation current or leakage through an inhomogeneous barrier. Modeling the devices in reverse bias with thermionic field emission and a leaky Schottky barrier yields good agreement with measurements. Also numerical modeling with a finite-element physics-based simulator suggests that reverse bias current is a combination of thermionic emission and generation. This thesis proposes further experiments to determine the correct model for reverse bias conduction. Understanding conduction mechanisms in these devices will help develop more reproducible contacts, reduce leakage current, and ultimately improve detector performance.

  17. PICsIT detector for gamma-ray astronomy pixels qualification campaign

    CERN Document Server

    Di Cocco, G; Labanti, C; Malaguti, G; Pinazza, O; Rossi, E; Schiavone, F

    2002-01-01

    Position sensitive detectors coupled to coded masks are used for imaging in high energy astronomy. PICsIT is the gamma-ray position sensitive detector of the IBIS telescope to be flown onboard the INTEGRAL satellite in 2001. PICsIT detector functionalities and scientific performances as a whole are described in details elsewhere in this Conference (Labanti et al. (Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A, this conference)). In this work, we present the aim, methodology, and results of the tests and calibrations performed on the first qualification lot of 136 PICsIT pixels carried out at SCIONIX laboratories in The Netherlands, in April 1999. Before being accepted for PICsIT, each detection unit has in fact to be fully characterized in terms of energy resolution and lower energy threshold. The principal aim of PICsIT pixel qualification campaign described in this work has been to measure the key parameters of each CsI(Tl)+photodiode detection unit: CsI(Tl) crystals light output, gain variation with temperature, energy resolut...

  18. High-Z Nanoparticle/Polymer Nanocomposites for Gamma-Ray Scintillation Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chao

    An affordable and reliable solution for spectroscopic gamma-ray detection has long been sought after due to the needs from research, defense, and medical applications. Scintillators resolve gamma energy by proportionally converting a single high-energy photon into a number of photomultiplier-tube-detectable low-energy photons, which is considered a more affordable solution for general purposes compared to the delicate semiconductor detectors. An ideal scintillator should simultaneously exhibit the following characteristics: 1) high atomic number (Z) for high gamma stopping power and photoelectron production; 2) high light yield since the energy resolution is inversely proportional to the square root of light yield; 3) short emission decay lifetime; and 4) low cost and scalable production. However, commercial scintillators made from either inorganic single crystals or plastics fail to satisfy all requirements due to their intrinsic material properties and fabrication limitations. The concept of adding high-Z constituents into plastic scintillators to harness high Z, low cost, and fast emission in the resulting nanocomposite scintillators is not new in and of itself. Attempts have been made by adding organometallics, quantum dots, and scintillation nanocrystals into the plastic matrix. High-Z organometallics have long been used to improve the Z of plastic scintillators; however, their strong spin-orbit coupling effect entails careful triplet energy matching using expensive triplet emitters to avoid severe quenching of the light yield. On the other hand, reported quantum dot- and nanocrystal-polymer nanocomposites suffer from moderate Z and high optical loss due to aggregation and self-absorption at loadings higher than 10 wt%, limiting their potential for practical application. This dissertation strives to improve the performance of nanoparticle-based nanocomposite scintillators. One focus is to synthesize transparent nanocomposites with higher loadings of high

  19. Comparison and limitations of three different bulk etch rate measurement methods used for gamma irradiated PM-355 detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fazal-ur-Rehman E-mail: fazalr@kfupm.edu.sa; Abu-Jarad, F.; Al-Jarallah, M.I.; Farhat, M

    2001-06-01

    Samples of Nuclear Track Detectors (PM-355) were exposed to high gamma doses from 1x10{sup 5} Gy (10 Mrad) up to 1.2x10{sup 6} Gy (120 Mrad) at an incremental dose of 1x10{sup 5} Gy (10 Mrad). The gamma source was a 9.03 PBq (244 kCi) Co-60 source used for sterilization of medical syringes. The bulk etch rate (V{sub b}) was measured for various high gamma doses by three different methods: 1--thickness change method; 2--mass change method; 3--fission track diametric method. The study gives a comparison and limitations of these three methods used for bulk etch rate measurements in the detectors as a function of high gamma doses. The track etch rate (V{sub t}) and the sensitivity (V) of the detector were also measured using the fission track diametric method. It was observed that V{sub b} increases with the increase of the gamma absorbed dose at a fixed etching time in each bulk etch measuring method. The bulk etch rate decreases exponentially with the etching time at a fixed gamma absorbed dose in all three methods. The thickness change and mass change methods have successfully been applied to measure V{sub b} at higher gamma doses up to 1.2x10{sup 6} Gy (120 Mrad). The bulk etch rate determined by the mass change and thickness change methods was almost the same at a certain gamma dose and etching time whereas it was quite low in the case of the fission track diametric method due to its limitations at higher doses. Also in this method it was not possible to measure the fission fragment track diameters at higher doses due to the quick disappearance of the fission tracks and therefore the V{sub b} could not be estimated at higher gamma doses.

  20. An Analog Gamma Correction Scheme for High Dynamic Range CMOS Logarithmic Image Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yuan; Pan, Xiaofang; Zhao, Xiaojin; Wu, Huisi

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a novel analog gamma correction scheme with a logarithmic image sensor dedicated to minimize the quantization noise of the high dynamic applications is presented. The proposed implementation exploits a non-linear voltage-controlled-oscillator (VCO) based analog-to-digital converter (ADC) to perform the gamma correction during the analog-to-digital conversion. As a result, the quantization noise does not increase while the same high dynamic range of logarithmic image sensor is preserved. Moreover, by combining the gamma correction with the analog-to-digital conversion, the silicon area and overall power consumption can be greatly reduced. The proposed gamma correction scheme is validated by the reported simulation results and the experimental results measured for our designed test structure, which is fabricated with 0.35 μm standard complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) process. PMID:25517692

  1. Gadolinium-doped water cerenkov-based neutron and high energy gamma-ray detector and radiation portal monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dazeley, Steven A; Svoboda, Robert C; Bernstein, Adam; Bowden, Nathaniel

    2013-02-12

    A water Cerenkov-based neutron and high energy gamma ray detector and radiation portal monitoring system using water doped with a Gadolinium (Gd)-based compound as the Cerenkov radiator. An optically opaque enclosure is provided surrounding a detection chamber filled with the Cerenkov radiator, and photomultipliers are optically connected to the detect Cerenkov radiation generated by the Cerenkov radiator from incident high energy gamma rays or gamma rays induced by neutron capture on the Gd of incident neutrons from a fission source. The PMT signals are then used to determine time correlations indicative of neutron multiplicity events characteristic of a fission source.

  2. A Search for gravitational waves associated with the gamma ray burst GRB030329 using the LIGO detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbott, B.; Abbott, R.; Adhikari, R.; Ageev, A.; Allen, B.; Amin, R.; Anderson, S.B.; Anderson, W.G.; Araya, M.; Armandula, H.; Ashley, M.; Asiri, F.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Babak, S.; Balasubramanian, R.; Ballmer, S.; Barish, B.C.; Barker, C.; Barker, D.; Barnes, M.; /Potsdam, Max Planck Inst. /Hannover, Max Planck Inst. Grav. /Australian

    2005-01-01

    We have performed a search for bursts of gravitational waves associated with the very bright Gamma Ray Burst GRB030329, using the two detectors at the LIGO Hanford Observatory. Our search covered the most sensitive frequency range of the LIGO detectors (approximately 80-2048 Hz), and we specifically targeted signals shorter than {approx_equal}150 ms. Our search algorithm looks for excess correlated power between the two interferometers and thus makes minimal assumptions about the gravitational waveform. We observed no candidates with gravitational wave signal strength larger than a pre-determined threshold. We report frequency dependent upper limits on the strength of the gravitational waves associated with GRB030329. Near the most sensitive frequency region, around {approx_equal}250 Hz, our root-sum-square (RSS) gravitational wave strain sensitivity for optimally polarized bursts was better than h{sub RSS} {approx_equal} 6 x 10{sup -21} Hz{sup -1/2}. Our result is comparable to the best published results searching for association between gravitational waves and GRBs.

  3. Analysis of divacancy related traps induced by proton, neutron and gamma radiation in high resistivity silicon detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Eremin, V; Verbitskaya, E; Li, Z; Pandey, S U

    1999-01-01

    Defects with deep levels induced in high-resistivity silicon detectors by low and high radiation fluence of protons and neutrons are studied using capacitance and current DLTS. Numerical simulation of I-DLTS and C-DLTS spectra based on the model of charge carrier emission and redistribution of electric field in the detector enabled one to perform the detailed investigation of DLTS spectra. It has been shown that the main DLTS peak in the range of 200 to 260 K may be considered as a result of the interference of deep levels near the midgap - negatively charged divacancy VV sup - and the C sub i -O sub i complex. The model describing the broadening of the VV sup - component of the spectrum, which arises from the divacancy localization inside a cluster, is discussed. The results are compared with those obtained for gamma irradiation, for which the dominant contribution in DLTS spectra arises just from the C sub i -O sub i complex.

  4. SACI--a 4{pi} plastic phoswich array ancillary detector system of a {gamma}-ray spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcantara-Nunez, J.A. E-mail: juan.alcantara@dfn.if.usp.br; Oliveira, J.R.B.; Cybulska, E.W.; Medina, N.H.; Rao, M.N.; Ribas, R.V.; Rizzutto, M.A.; Seale, W.A.; Falla-Sotelo, F.; Espinoza-Quinones, F.R.; Tenreiro, C

    2003-02-01

    A large solid angle low-Z charged particle detector system was built in order to improve the quality of the identification and selection of evaporation channels for in-beam {gamma}-spectroscopy measurements. The array consists of 11 plastic phoswich telescopes closely packed in a 4{pi} arrangement and to be used as an ancillary system for the Pelletron Laboratory {gamma}-ray spectrometer. The new system was tested in {gamma}-particle and {gamma}-{gamma}-particle coincidence measurements using the {sup 27}Al+{sup 16}O and {sup 100}Mo+{sup 11}B reactions, at 53 and 43 MeV incident beam energies, respectively. The values for the particle detection efficiency and improvement in the peak to background ratios are considered acceptable for the usefulness of the system.

  5. RPC gamma sensitivity simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Altieri, S; Bruno, G; Gianini, G; Merlo, M; Ratti, S P; Riccardi, C; Torre, P; Viola, L; Vitulo, P; Abbrescia, M; Colaleo, A; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Loddo, F; Maggi, M; Marangelli, B; Natali, S; Nuzzo, S; Pugliese, G; Ranieri, A; Romano, F; Salvemini, A

    2000-01-01

    A method to simulate resistive plate chambers (RPCs) gamma sensitivity has been developed using a Monte Carlo code. The sensitivity has been evaluated as a function of the gamma energy in the range 0.1-100 MeV and for different spectra. To evaluate the response of the detector in a Large Hadron Collider (LHC) background environment the gamma energy spectrum expected in the CMS muon barrel has been taken into account and the RPC gamma sensitivity evaluated as a function of the detector size. (3 refs).

  6. CdZnTe and CdTe detector arrays for hard X-ray and gamma-ray astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Stahle, C M; Parsons, A M; Barbier, L M; Barthelmy, S D; Gehrels, N A; Palmer, D M; Snodgrass, S J; Tüller, J

    1999-01-01

    A variety of CdZnTe and CdTe detector arrays were fabricated at NASA/GSFC for use in hard X-ray and gamma-ray astronomy. Mosaic, pixel, and 3-D position-sensitive detector arrays were built to demonstrate the capabilities for high-resolution imaging and spectroscopy for 10 to 2 MeV. This paper will summarize the different arrays and their applications for instruments being developed at NASA/GSFC. Specific topics to be addressed include materials characterization, fabrication of detectors, ASIC readout electronics, and imaging and spectroscopy tests.

  7. A prototype High Purity Germanium detector for high resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy at high count rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, R.J., E-mail: rjcooper@lbl.gov [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Amman, M.; Luke, P.N. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Vetter, K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2015-09-21

    Where energy resolution is paramount, High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detectors continue to provide the optimum solution for gamma-ray detection and spectroscopy. Conventional large-volume HPGe detectors are typically limited to count rates on the order of ten thousand counts per second, however, limiting their effectiveness for high count rate applications. To address this limitation, we have developed a novel prototype HPGe detector designed to be capable of achieving fine energy resolution and high event throughput at count rates in excess of one million counts per second. We report here on the concept, design, and initial performance of the first prototype device.

  8. Precision measurement of radioactivity in gamma-rays spectrometry using two HPGe detectors (BEGe-6530 and GC0818-7600SL models comparison techniques: Application to the soil measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guembou Shouop Cebastien Joel

    2017-01-01

    • Proved that the activity concentration determination in gamma spectrometry depended on the energy range emitted by a radionuclide. This study showed that the standard deviation measurement was less important to the result realized with BEGe-6530 HPGe model. Our findings were demonstrated that the results of the Broad Energy Germanium detector were more reliable.

  9. Numerical Simulations of Pillar Structured Solid State Thermal Neutron Detector Efficiency and Gamma Discrimination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conway, A; Wang, T; Deo, N; Cheung, C; Nikolic, R

    2008-06-24

    This work reports numerical simulations of a novel three-dimensionally integrated, {sup 10}boron ({sup 10}B) and silicon p+, intrinsic, n+ (PIN) diode micropillar array for thermal neutron detection. The inter-digitated device structure has a high probability of interaction between the Si PIN pillars and the charged particles (alpha and {sup 7}Li) created from the neutron - {sup 10}B reaction. In this work, the effect of both the 3-D geometry (including pillar diameter, separation and height) and energy loss mechanisms are investigated via simulations to predict the neutron detection efficiency and gamma discrimination of this structure. The simulation results are demonstrated to compare well with the measurement results. This indicates that upon scaling the pillar height, a high efficiency thermal neutron detector is possible.

  10. Imaging plates as position-sensitive detectors of positrons and gamma-rays

    CERN Document Server

    Doyama, M; Yoshiie, T; Hayashi, Y; Kiritani, M; Oikawa, T

    2000-01-01

    Imaging plates have been used as position-sensitive detectors for positrons. Photo-stimulated luminescent material based on BaFX : Eu sup 2 sup + (X=Cl, Br, I) is used. A linear relation between the positron fluence and output signal intensity readout by a 'PIXsysTEM II' ( pixelized to 25 mu mx25 mu m is obtained, using sup 5 sup 8 Co and sup 2 sup 2 Na positron emitters. The linearity extends to six decades from 10 sup 5 to 10 sup 1 sup 1 positrons/cm sup 2. Sensitivities of one gamma-ray photon relative to a positron are 0.011 and 3.4x10 sup - sup 3 for sup 6 sup 5 Zn and sup 2 sup 2 Na, respectively.

  11. Preliminary study of a new gamma imager for on-line proton range monitoring during proton radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennati, P.; Dasu, A.; Colarieti-Tosti, M.; Lönn, G.; Larsson, D.; Fabbri, A.; Galasso, M.; Cinti, M. N.; Pellegrini, R.; Pani, R.

    2017-05-01

    We designed and tested new concept imaging devices, based on a thin scintillating crystal, aimed at the online monitoring of the range of protons in tissue during proton radiotherapy. The proposed crystal can guarantee better spatial resolution and lower sensitivity with respect to a thicker one, at the cost of a coarser energy resolution. Two different samples of thin crystals were coupled to a position sensitive photo multiplier tube read out by 64 independent channels electronics. The detector was equipped with a knife-edge Lead collimator that defined a reasonable field of view of about 10 cm in the target. Geant4 Monte Carlo simulations were used to optimize the design of the experimental setup and assess the accuracy of the results. Experimental measurements were carried out at the Skandion Clinic, the recently opened proton beam facility in Uppsala, Sweden. PMMA and water phantoms studies were performed with a first prototype based on a round 6.0 mm thick Cry019 crystal and with a second detector based on a thinner 5 × 5 cm2, 2.0 mm thick LFS crystal. Phantoms were irradiated with mono-energetic proton beams whose energy was in the range between 110 and 160 MeV. According with the simulations and the experimental data, the detector based on LFS crystal seems able to identify the peak of prompt-gamma radiation and its results are in fair agreement with the expected shift of the proton range as a function of energy. The count rate remains one of the most critical limitations of our system, which was able to cope with only about 20% of the clinical dose rate. Nevertheless, we are confident that our study might provide the basis for developing a new full-functional system.

  12. Enhancement of concentration range of chromatographically detectable components with array detector mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enke, Christie

    2013-02-19

    Methods and instruments for high dynamic range analysis of sample components are described. A sample is subjected to time-dependent separation, ionized, and the ions dispersed with a constant integration time across an array of detectors according to the ions m/z values. Each of the detectors in the array has a dynamically adjustable gain or a logarithmic response function, producing an instrument capable of detecting a ratio of responses or 4 or more orders of magnitude.

  13. A new design for a high resolution, high efficiency CZT gamma camera detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestais, C.; Baffert, N.; Bonnefoy, J. P.; Chapuis, A.; Koenig, A.; Monnet, O.; Ouvrier Buffet, P.; Rostaing, J. P.; Sauvage, F.; Verger, L.

    2001-02-01

    We have designed a CZT gamma camera detector that provides an array of CZT pixels and associated front-end electronics - including an ASIC - and permits gamma camera measurements using the method patented by CEA-LETI and reported by Verger et al. [1]. Electron response in each CZT pixel is registered by correcting pulse height for position of interaction based on fast rise-time information. This method brings advantages of high scatter rejection while allowing high detection efficiency. These techniques and the systems approach have been developed at CEA-LETI in an exclusive joint development with BICRON and CRISMATEC who in turn are commercializing the technology. The initial system is implemented in an array framework with 1920 pixels, approximately 180×215 mm 2 in dimension, but the system architecture expands readily to 4096 pixels, and these arrays can be ganged into groups of up to 8 for pixel planes totaling over 32 000 pixels without architecture changes. The overall system design is described and brain phantom images are presented that were obtained by scanning with a small number of pixels.

  14. Towards a global network of gamma-ray detector calibration facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tijs, Marco; Koomans, Ronald; Limburg, Han

    2016-09-01

    Gamma-ray logging tools are applied worldwide. At various locations, calibration facilities are used to calibrate these gamma-ray logging systems. Several attempts have been made to cross-correlate well known calibration pits, but this cross-correlation does not include calibration facilities in Europe or private company calibration facilities. Our aim is to set-up a framework that gives the possibility to interlink all calibration facilities worldwide by using `tools of opportunity' - tools that have been calibrated in different calibration facilities, whether this usage was on a coordinated basis or by coincidence. To compare the measurement of different tools, it is important to understand the behaviour of the tools in the different calibration pits. Borehole properties, such as diameter, fluid, casing and probe diameter strongly influence the outcome of gamma-ray borehole logging. Logs need to be properly calibrated and compensated for these borehole properties in order to obtain in-situ grades or to do cross-hole correlation. Some tool providers provide tool-specific correction curves for this purpose. Others rely on reference measurements against sources of known radionuclide concentration and geometry. In this article, we present an attempt to set-up a framework for transferring `local' calibrations to be applied `globally'. This framework includes corrections for any geometry and detector size to give absolute concentrations of radionuclides from borehole measurements. This model is used to compare measurements in the calibration pits of Grand Junction, located in the USA; Adelaide (previously known as AMDEL), located in Adelaide Australia; and Stonehenge, located at Medusa Explorations BV in the Netherlands.

  15. Ring-shaped Calorimetry Information for a Neural eGamma Identification with ATLAS Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Da Fonseca Pinto, Joao Victor; The ATLAS collaboration; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Seixas, Jose

    2016-01-01

    \\title{Ring-shaped Calorimetry Information for a Neural e/$\\gamma$ Identification with ATLAS Detector} After the successful operation of the Large Hadron Collider resulting with the discovery of the Higgs boson, a new data-taking period (Run 2) has started. For the first time, collisions are produced with energies of 13 TeV in the centre of mass. It is foreseen the luminosity increase, reaching values as high as $10^{34}cm^{-2}s^{-1}$ yet in 2015. These changes in experimental conditions bring a proper environment for possible new physics key-findings. ATLAS is the largest LHC detector and was designed for general-purpose physics studies. Many potential physics channels have electrons or photons in their final states. For efficient studies on these channels precise measurement and identification of such particles is necessary. The identification task consists of disentangling those particles (signal) from collimated hadronic jets (background). Reported work concerns the identification process based on the cal...

  16. Detector with internal gain for short-wave infrared ranging applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathipour, Vala; Mohseni, Hooman

    2017-09-01

    Abstarct.Highly sensitive photon detectors are regarded as the key enabling elements in many applications. Due to the low photon energy at the short-wave infrared (SWIR), photon detection and imaging at this band are very challenging. As such, many efforts in photon detector research are directed toward improving the performance of the photon detectors operating in this wavelength range. To solve these problems, we have developed an electron-injection (EI) technique. The significance of this detection mechanism is that it can provide both high efficiency and high sensitivity at room temperature, a condition that is very difficult to achieve in conventional SWIR detectors. An EI detector offers an overall system-level sensitivity enhancement due to a feedback stabilized internal avalanche-free gain. Devices exhibit an excess noise of unity, operate in linear mode, require bias voltage of a few volts, and have a cutoff wavelength of 1700 nm. We review the material system, operating principle, and development of EI detectors. The shortcomings of the first-generation devices were addressed in the second-generation detectors. Measurement on second-generation devices showed a high-speed response of ˜6 ns rise time, low jitter of less than 20 ps, high amplification of more than 2000 (at optical power levels larger than a few nW), unity excess noise factor, and low leakage current (amplified dark current ˜10 nA at a bias voltage of -3 V and at room temperature. These characteristics make EI detectors a good candidate for high-resolution flash light detection and ranging (LiDAR) applications with millimeter scale depth resolution at longer ranges compared with conventional p-i-n diodes. Based on our experimentally measured device characteristics, we compare the performance of the EI detector with commercially available linear mode InGaAs avalanche photodiode (APD) as well as a p-i-n diode using a theoretical model. Flash LiDAR images obtained by our model show that the EI

  17. Extension of the focusable mass range in distance-of-flight mass spectrometry with multiple detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundlach-Graham, Alexander W; Dennis, Elise A; Ray, Steven J; Enke, Christie G; Carado, Anthony J; Barinaga, Charles J; Koppenaal, David W; Hieftje, Gary M

    2012-11-15

    Distance-of-flight mass spectrometry (DOFMS) is a velocity-based mass separation technique in which ions are spread across a spatially selective detector according to m/z. In this work, we investigate the practical mass range available for DOFMS with a finite-length detector. A glow-discharge DOFMS instrument has been constructed for the analysis of atomic ions. This instrument was modified to accommodate two spatially selective ion detectors, arranged co-linearly, along the mass-separation axis of the analyzer. With this geometry, each detector covers a different portion of the distance-of-flight spectrum and ions are detected simultaneously at the two detectors. The total flight distance covered by the two detectors is 106 mm and simulates DOF detection across a broad mass range. DOFMS theory predicts that ions of all m/z values are focused at a single flight time, but at m/z-dependent flight distances. Therefore, ions that are detected across a wide portion of the DOF axis should all yield the same peak widths. With a focal-plane camera detector and a micro-channel plate/phosphor-screen detection assembly, we found simultaneous, uniform focus of (40)Ar(2)(+) and of (65)Cu(+) and (63)Cu(+) with the ions spread 82 mm across the DOF axis. This detection length, combined with the current instrument geometry, allows for a simultaneously detectable m/z value of 4:3 (high mass-to-low mass). These results are the first experimental verification that constant-momentum acceleration (CMA)-DOFMS provides energy focus across an extended detection length. Evidence presented demonstrates that DOFMS is amenable to detection with (at least) a 100-mm detector surface. These results indicate that DOFMS is well suited for detection of broader mass ranges. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Measurement of $\\tau$ Polarisation in $Z/\\gamma^*\\rightarrow\\tau\\tau$ Decays with the ATLAS Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Winter, Benedict Tobias; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    A measurement of the $\\tau$ polarisation in $Z/\\gamma^*\\rightarrow\\tau\\tau$ decays is presented. The analysis is based on the $20.2$ fb$^{-1}$ of proton$-$proton collision data collected at a centre-of-mass energy of $\\sqrt{s}=8$ TeV by the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider in 2012. Events with one leptonic $\\tau$ decay and one hadronic $\\tau$ decay with a single charged particle in the final state are selected. The $\\tau$ polarisation is measured using the kinematic configuration of the hadronic decay. A polarisation of $P_\\tau~=-0.14\\;\\pm~0.02\\;(\\textrm{stat})\\;\\pm~0.04\\;(\\textrm{syst})$ is measured in the mass range $66 < m_{Z/\\gamma^*} < 116$ GeV. It agrees with the Standard Model prediction of $P_\\tau~=-0.1517\\pm0.0014\\;(\\textrm{stat})\\pm0.0013\\;(\\textrm{syst})$.

  19. Long-range synchrony in the gamma band: role in music perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, J; Petsche, H; Pereda, E

    2001-08-15

    Synchronization seems to be a central mechanism for neuronal information processing within and between multiple brain areas. Furthermore, synchronization in the gamma band has been shown to play an important role in higher cognitive functions, especially by binding the necessary spatial and temporal information in different cortical areas to build a coherent perception. Specific task-induced (evoked) gamma oscillations have often been taken as an indication of synchrony, but the presence of long-range synchrony cannot be inferred from spectral power in the gamma range. We studied the usefulness of a relatively new measure, called similarity index to detect asymmetric interdependency between two brain regions. Spontaneous EEG from two groups-musicians and non-musicians-were recorded during several states: listening to music, listening to text, and at rest (eyes closed and eyes open). While listening to music, degrees of the gamma band synchrony over distributed cortical areas were found to be significantly higher in musicians than non-musicians. Yet no differences between these two groups were found at resting conditions and while listening to a neutral text. In contrast to the degree of long-range synchrony, spectral power in the gamma band was higher in non-musicians. The degree of spatial synchrony, a measure of signal complexity based on eigen-decomposition method, was also significantly increased in musicians while listening to music. As compared with non-musicians, the finding of increased long-range synchrony in musicians independent of spectral power is interpreted as a manifestation of a more advanced musical memory of musicians in binding together several features of the intrinsic complexity of music in a dynamical way.

  20. Search for Higgs Boson Pair Production in the $\\gamma\\gamma b\\bar{b}$ Final State using $pp$ Collision Data at $\\sqrt{s}=8$TeV from the ATLAS Detector

    CERN Document Server

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Hayden, Daniel; Hays, Chris; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Head, Simon; Heck, Tobias; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heim, Timon; Heinemann, Beate; Heinrich, Lukas; Hejbal, Jiri; Helary, Louis; Heller, Claudio; Heller, Matthieu; Hellman, Sten; Hellmich, Dennis; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, James; Henderson, Robert; Heng, Yang; Hengler, Christopher; Henrichs, Anna; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Hensel, Carsten; Herbert, Geoffrey Henry; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herrberg-Schubert, Ruth; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hesketh, Gavin Grant; Hessey, Nigel; Hickling, Robert; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, Ewan; Hill, John; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillert, Sonja; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hirose, Minoru; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoffman, Julia; Hoffmann, Dirk; Hofmann, Julia Isabell; Hohlfeld, Marc; Holmes, Tova Ray; Hong, Tae Min; Hooft van Huysduynen, Loek; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howard, Jacob; Howarth, James; Hrabovsky, Miroslav; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hsu, Catherine; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Hu, Diedi; Hu, Xueye; Huang, Yanping; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Huhtinen, Mika; Hülsing, Tobias Alexander; Hurwitz, Martina; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibragimov, Iskander; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Ideal, Emma; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Iizawa, Tomoya; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikematsu, Katsumasa; Ikeno, Masahiro; Ilchenko, Iurii; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ilic, Nikolina; Inamaru, Yuki; Ince, Tayfun; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Iordanidou, Kalliopi; Ippolito, Valerio; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Isaksson, Charlie; Ishino, Masaya; Ishitsuka, Masaki; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Iturbe Ponce, Julia Mariana; Iuppa, Roberto; Ivarsson, Jenny; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, Matthew; Jackson, Paul; Jaekel, Martin; Jain, Vivek; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakoubek, Tomas; Jakubek, Jan; Jamin, David Olivier; Jana, Dilip; Jansen, Eric; Jansen, Hendrik; Janssen, Jens; Janus, Michel; Jarlskog, Göran; Javadov, Namig; Javůrek, Tomáš; Jeanty, Laura; Jejelava, Juansher; Jeng, Geng-yuan; Jennens, David; Jenni, Peter; Jentzsch, Jennifer; Jeske, Carl; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Ji, Haoshuang; Ji, Weina; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Yi; Jimenez Belenguer, Marcos; Jin, Shan; Jinaru, Adam; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Joergensen, Morten Dam; Johansson, Erik; Johansson, Per; Johns, Kenneth; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Tim; Jongmanns, Jan; Jorge, Pedro; Joshi, Kiran Daniel; Jovicevic, Jelena; Ju, Xiangyang; Jung, Christian; Jungst, Ralph Markus; Jussel, Patrick; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Kaci, Mohammed; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalderon, Charles William; Kama, Sami; Kamenshchikov, Andrey; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneda, Michiru; Kaneti, Steven; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kapliy, Anton; Kar, Deepak; Karakostas, Konstantinos; Karastathis, Nikolaos; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Karpov, Sergey; Karpova, Zoya; Karthik, Krishnaiyengar; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kashif, Lashkar; Kasieczka, Gregor; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Yousuke; Katre, Akshay; Katzy, Judith; Kaushik, Venkatesh; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kazama, Shingo; Kazanin, Vassili; Kazarinov, Makhail; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keil, Markus; Keller, John; Kempster, Jacob Julian; Keoshkerian, Houry; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Kessoku, Kohei; Keung, Justin; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Khodinov, Alexander; Khomich, Andrei; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khoriauli, Gia; Khoroshilov, Andrey; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kim, Hee Yeun; Kim, Hyeon Jin; Kim, Shinhong; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Robert Steven Beaufoy; King, Samuel Burton; Kirk, Julie; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kiss, Florian; Kittelmann, Thomas; Kiuchi, Kenji; Kladiva, Eduard; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klimek, Pawel; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinger, Joel Alexander; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Klok, Peter; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Kobayashi, Dai; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Koevesarki, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kogan, Lucy Anne; Kohlmann, Simon; Kohout, Zdenek; Kohriki, Takashi; Koi, Tatsumi; Kolanoski, Hermann; Koletsou, Iro; Koll, James; Komar, Aston; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Kondrashova, Nataliia; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; König, Sebastian; Kono, Takanori; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kopeliansky, Revital; Koperny, Stefan; Köpke, Lutz; Kopp, Anna Katharina; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Korotkov, Vladislav; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotov, Vladislav; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kral, Vlastimil; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasnopevtsev, Dimitriy; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, Jana; Kravchenko, Anton; Kreiss, Sven; Kretz, Moritz; Kretzschmar, Jan; Kreutzfeldt, Kristof; Krieger, Peter; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Kruker, Tobias; Krumnack, Nils; Krumshteyn, Zinovii; Kruse, Amanda; Kruse, Mark; Kruskal, Michael; Kubota, Takashi; Kuday, Sinan; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuhl, Andrew; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kukhtin, Victor; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kuna, Marine; Kunkle, Joshua; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kurumida, Rie; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuwertz, Emma Sian; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rotonda, Laura; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacey, James; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Laier, Heiko; Lambourne, Luke; Lammers, Sabine; Lampen, Caleb; Lampl, Walter; Lançon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lang, Valerie Susanne; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Law, Alexander; Laycock, Paul; Le, Bao Tran; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Menedeu, Eve; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Claire Alexandra; Lee, Hurng-Chun; Lee, Jason; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Guillaume; Lefebvre, Michel; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehan, Allan; Lehmacher, Marc; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leight, William Axel; Leisos, Antonios; Leister, Andrew Gerard; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lemmer, Boris; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatjana; Lenzen, Georg; Lenzi, Bruno; Leone, Robert; Leone, Sandra; Leonhardt, Kathrin; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Leroy, Claude; Lester, Christopher; Lester, Christopher Michael; Levchenko, Mikhail; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Levy, Mark; Lewis, Adrian; Lewis, George; Leyko, Agnieszka; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bing; Li, Bo; Li, Haifeng; Li, Ho Ling; Li, Lei; Li, Liang; Li, Shu; Li, Yichen; Liang, Zhijun; Liao, Hongbo; Liberti, Barbara; Lichard, Peter; Lie, Ki; Liebal, Jessica; Liebig, Wolfgang; Limbach, Christian; Limosani, Antonio; Lin, Simon; Lin, Tai-Hua; Linde, Frank; Lindquist, Brian Edward; Linnemann, James; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipniacka, Anna; Lisovyi, Mykhailo; Liss, Tony; Lissauer, David; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Bo; Liu, Dong; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Kun; Liu, Lulu; Liu, Miaoyuan; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Livermore, Sarah; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Loddenkoetter, Thomas; Loebinger, Fred; Loevschall-Jensen, Ask Emil; Loginov, Andrey; Loh, Chang Wei; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Lombardo, Vincenzo Paolo; Long, Brian Alexander; Long, Jonathan; Long, Robin Eamonn; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Lopez Paredes, Brais; Lopez Paz, Ivan; Lorenz, Jeanette; Lorenzo Martinez, Narei; Losada, Marta; Loscutoff, Peter; Lou, XinChou; Lounis, Abdenour; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lowe, Andrew; Lu, Feng; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Luehring, Frederick; Lukas, Wolfgang; Luminari, Lamberto; Lundberg, Olof; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lungwitz, Matthias; Lynn, David; Lysak, Roman; Lytken, Else; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Machado Miguens, Joana; Macina, Daniela; Madaffari, Daniele; Madar, Romain; Maddocks, Harvey Jonathan; Mader, Wolfgang; Madsen, Alexander; Maeno, Mayuko; Maeno, Tadashi; Magradze, Erekle; Mahboubi, Kambiz; Mahlstedt, Joern; Mahmoud, Sara; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maier, Andreas Alexander; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Mal, Prolay; Malaescu, Bogdan; Malecki, Pawel; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Caitlin; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyshev, Vladimir; Malyukov, Sergei; Mamuzic, Judita; Mandelli, Beatrice; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Mandrysch, Rocco; Maneira, José; Manfredini, Alessandro; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Manjarres Ramos, Joany Andreina; Mann, Alexander; Manning, Peter; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Mantifel, Rodger; Mapelli, Livio; March, Luis; Marchand, Jean-Francois; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marino, Christopher; Marjanovic, Marija; Marques, Carlos; Marroquim, Fernando; Marsden, Stephen Philip; Marshall, Zach; Marti, Lukas Fritz; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Brian; Martin, Brian Thomas; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martinez, Homero; Martinez, Mario; Martin-Haugh, Stewart; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzano, Francesco; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massol, Nicolas; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Mättig, Peter; Mattmann, Johannes; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; Mazini, Rachid; Mazzaferro, Luca; Mc Goldrick, Garrin; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McCubbin, Norman; McFarlane, Kenneth; Mcfayden, Josh; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Meade, Andrew; Mechnich, Joerg; Medinnis, Michael; Meehan, Samuel; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meineck, Christian; Meirose, Bernhard; Melachrinos, Constantinos; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Meloni, Federico; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Meoni, Evelin; Mercurio, Kevin Michael; Mergelmeyer, Sebastian; Meric, Nicolas; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Merritt, Hayes; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Middleton, Robin; Migas, Sylwia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Milic, Adriana; Miller, David; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Milstein, Dmitry; Minaenko, Andrey; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mirabelli, Giovanni; Mitani, Takashi; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Mitsui, Shingo; Miucci, Antonio; Miyagawa, Paul; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Mochizuki, Kazuya; Mohapatra, Soumya; Mohr, Wolfgang; Molander, Simon; Moles-Valls, Regina; Mönig, Klaus; Monini, Caterina; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montejo Berlingen, Javier; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Moraes, Arthur; Morange, Nicolas; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Morgenstern, Marcus; Morii, Masahiro; Moritz, Sebastian; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morris, John; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Moser, Hans-Guenther; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Motohashi, Kazuki; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Muanza, Steve; Mudd, Richard; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Klemens; Mueller, Thibaut; Mueller, Timo; Muenstermann, Daniel; Munwes, Yonathan; Murillo Quijada, Javier Alberto; Murray, Bill; Musheghyan, Haykuhi; Musto, Elisa; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nackenhorst, Olaf; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagai, Ryo; Nagai, Yoshikazu; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagarkar, Advait; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nagel, Martin; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Namasivayam, Harisankar; Nanava, Gizo; Narayan, Rohin; Nattermann, Till; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Nayyar, Ruchika; Neal, Homer; Nechaeva, Polina; Neep, Thomas James; Nef, Pascal Daniel; Negri, Andrea; Negri, Guido; Negrini, Matteo; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nelson, Andrew; Nelson, Timothy Knight; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neumann, Manuel; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newman, Paul; Nguyen, Duong Hai; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Nielsen, Jason; Nikiforou, Nikiforos; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolics, Katalin; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nisius, Richard; Nobe, Takuya; Nodulman, Lawrence; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Norberg, Scarlet; Nordberg, Markus; Nowak, Sebastian; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Ntekas, Konstantinos; Nunes Hanninger, Guilherme; Nunnemann, Thomas; Nurse, Emily; Nuti, Francesco; O'Brien, Brendan Joseph; O'grady, Fionnbarr; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Shea, Val; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Obermann, Theresa; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Ochoa, Ines; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohman, Henrik; Ohshima, Takayoshi; Okamura, Wataru; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olariu, Albert; Olchevski, Alexander; Olivares Pino, Sebastian Andres; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Oliver Garcia, Elena; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Onofre, António; Onyisi, Peter; Oram, Christopher; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlando, Nicola; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Otono, Hidetoshi; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ouellette, Eric; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Oussoren, Koen Pieter; Ouyang, Qun; Ovcharova, Ana; Owen, Mark; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pachal, Katherine; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagáčová, Martina; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paganis, Efstathios; Pahl, Christoph; Paige, Frank; Pais, Preema; Pajchel, Katarina; Palacino, Gabriel; Palestini, Sandro; Palka, Marek; Pallin, Dominique; Palma, Alberto; Palmer, Jody; Pan, Yibin; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Panduro Vazquez, William; Pani, Priscilla; Panikashvili, Natalia; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Paolozzi, Lorenzo; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Papageorgiou, Konstantinos; Paramonov, Alexander; Paredes Hernandez, Daniela; Parker, Michael Andrew; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passaggio, Stefano; Passeri, Antonio; Pastore, Fernanda; Pastore, Francesca; Pásztor, Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Patel, Nikhul; Pater, Joleen; Patricelli, Sergio; Pauly, Thilo; Pearce, James; Pedersen, Maiken; Pedraza Lopez, Sebastian; Pedro, Rute; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Pelikan, Daniel; Peng, Haiping; Penning, Bjoern; Penwell, John; Perepelitsa, Dennis; Perez Codina, Estel; Pérez García-Estañ, María Teresa; Perez Reale, Valeria; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrino, Roberto; Peschke, Richard; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Krisztian; Peters, Yvonne; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Pettersson, Nora Emilia; Pezoa, Raquel; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Pianori, Elisabetta; Picazio, Attilio; Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pignotti, David; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pina, João Antonio; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinder, Alex; Pinfold, James; Pingel, Almut; Pinto, Belmiro; Pires, Sylvestre; Pitt, Michael; Pizio, Caterina; Plazak, Lukas; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Pleskot, Vojtech; Plotnikova, Elena; Plucinski, Pawel; Poddar, Sahill; Podlyski, Fabrice; Poettgen, Ruth; Poggioli, Luc; Pohl, David-leon; Pohl, Martin; Polesello, Giacomo; Policicchio, Antonio; Polifka, Richard; Polini, Alessandro; Pollard, Christopher Samuel; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pommès, Kathy; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Popovic, Dragan; Poppleton, Alan; Portell Bueso, Xavier; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potamianos, Karolos; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Pozdnyakov, Valery; Pralavorio, Pascal; Pranko, Aliaksandr; Prasad, Srivas; Pravahan, Rishiraj; Prell, Soeren; Price, Darren; Price, Joe; Price, Lawrence; Prieur, Damien; Primavera, Margherita; Proissl, Manuel; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopapadaki, Eftychia-sofia; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Przybycien, Mariusz; Przysiezniak, Helenka; Ptacek, Elizabeth; Puddu, Daniele; Pueschel, Elisa; Puldon, David; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Qian, Jianming; Qin, Gang; Qin, Yang; Quadt, Arnulf; Quarrie, David; Quayle, William; Queitsch-Maitland, Michaela; Quilty, Donnchadha; Qureshi, Anum; Radeka, Veljko; Radescu, Voica; Radhakrishnan, Sooraj Krishnan; Radloff, Peter; Rados, Pere; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rammensee, Michael; Randle-Conde, Aidan Sean; Rangel-Smith, Camila; Rao, Kanury; Rauscher, Felix; Rave, Tobias Christian; Ravenscroft, Thomas; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Readioff, Nathan Peter; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reeves, Kendall; Rehnisch, Laura; Reisin, Hernan; Relich, Matthew; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Huan; Ren, Zhongliang; Renaud, Adrien; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Rezanova, Olga; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richter, Robert; Ridel, Melissa; Rieck, Patrick; Rieger, Julia; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Ritsch, Elmar; Riu, Imma; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robson, Aidan; Roda, Chiara; Rodrigues, Luis; Roe, Shaun; Røhne, Ole; Rolli, Simona; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romano, Marino; Romero Adam, Elena; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Roos, Lydia; Ros, Eduardo; Rosati, Stefano; Rosbach, Kilian; Rose, Matthew; Rosendahl, Peter Lundgaard; Rosenthal, Oliver; Rossetti, Valerio; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rosten, Rachel; Rotaru, Marina; Roth, Itamar; Rothberg, Joseph; Rousseau, David; Royon, Christophe; Rozanov, Alexandre; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubbo, Francesco; Rubinskiy, Igor; Rud, Viacheslav; Rudolph, Christian; Rudolph, Matthew Scott; Rühr, Frederik; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Ruschke, Alexander; Rutherfoord, John; Ruthmann, Nils; Ryabov, Yury; Rybar, Martin; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryder, Nick; Saavedra, Aldo; Sacerdoti, Sabrina; Saddique, Asif; Sadeh, Iftach; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Sakurai, Yuki; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salamon, Andrea; Saleem, Muhammad; Salek, David; Sales De Bruin, Pedro Henrique; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, José; Salvachua Ferrando, Belén; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salvucci, Antonio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Sanchez, Arturo; Sánchez, Javier; Sanchez Martinez, Victoria; Sandaker, Heidi; Sandbach, Ruth Laura; Sander, Heinz Georg; Sanders, Michiel; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandoval, Tanya; Sandoval, Carlos; Sandstroem, Rikard; Sankey, Dave; Sansoni, Andrea; Santoni, Claudio; Santonico, Rinaldo; Santos, Helena; Santoyo Castillo, Itzebelt; Sapp, Kevin; Sapronov, Andrey; Saraiva, João; Sarrazin, Bjorn; Sartisohn, Georg; Sasaki, Osamu; Sasaki, Yuichi; Sauvage, Gilles; Sauvan, Emmanuel; Savard, Pierre; Savu, Dan Octavian; Sawyer, Craig; Sawyer, Lee; Saxon, David; Saxon, James; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scanlon, Tim; Scannicchio, Diana; Scarcella, Mark; Scarfone, Valerio; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schaefer, Douglas; Schaefer, Ralph; Schaepe, Steffen; Schaetzel, Sebastian; Schäfer, Uli; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R. Dean; Scharf, Veit; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Schernau, Michael; Scherzer, Max; Schiavi, Carlo; Schieck, Jochen; Schillo, Christian; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schmidt, Evelyn; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitt, Christopher; Schmitt, Sebastian; Schneider, Basil; Schnellbach, Yan Jie; Schnoor, Ulrike; Schoeffel, Laurent; Schoening, Andre; Schoenrock, Bradley Daniel; Schorlemmer, Andre Lukas; Schott, Matthias; Schouten, Doug; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schramm, Steven; Schreyer, Manuel; Schroeder, Christian; Schuh, Natascha; Schultens, Martin Johannes; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schulz, Holger; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwanenberger, Christian; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwegler, Philipp; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwindling, Jerome; Schwindt, Thomas; Schwoerer, Maud; Sciacca, Gianfranco; Scifo, Estelle; Sciolla, Gabriella; Scott, Bill; Scuri, Fabrizio; Scutti, Federico; Searcy, Jacob; Sedov, George; Sedykh, Evgeny; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seifert, Frank; Seixas, José; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Sekula, Stephen; Selbach, Karoline Elfriede; Seliverstov, Dmitry; Sellers, Graham; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Serkin, Leonid; Serre, Thomas; Seuster, Rolf; Severini, Horst; Sfiligoj, Tina; Sforza, Federico; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shamim, Mansoora; Shan, Lianyou; Shang, Ruo-yu; Shank, James; Shapiro, Marjorie; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaw, Kate; Shehu, Ciwake Yusufu; Sherwood, Peter; Shi, Liaoshan; Shimizu, Shima; Shimmin, Chase Owen; Shimojima, Makoto; Shiyakova, Mariya; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shochet, Mel; Short, Daniel; Shrestha, Suyog; Shulga, Evgeny; Shupe, Michael; Shushkevich, Stanislav; Sicho, Petr; Sidiropoulou, Ourania; Sidorov, Dmitri; Sidoti, Antonio; Siegert, Frank; Sijacki, Djordje; Silva, José; Silver, Yiftah; Silverstein, Daniel; Silverstein, Samuel; Simak, Vladislav; Simard, Olivier; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; Simioni, Eduard; Simmons, Brinick; Simoniello, Rosa; Simonyan, Margar; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Sipica, Valentin; Siragusa, Giovanni; Sircar, Anirvan; Sisakyan, Alexei; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Sjölin, Jörgen; Sjursen, Therese; Skottowe, Hugh Philip; Skovpen, Kirill; Skubic, Patrick; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smart, Ben; Smestad, Lillian; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnov, Yury; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smith, Kenway; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snidero, Giacomo; Snyder, Scott; Sobie, Randall; Socher, Felix; Soffer, Abner; Soh, Dart-yin; Solans, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Solc, Jaroslav; Soldatov, Evgeny; Soldevila, Urmila; Solfaroli Camillocci, Elena; Solodkov, Alexander; Soloshenko, Alexei; Solovyanov, Oleg; Solovyev, Victor; Sommer, Philip; Song, Hong Ye; Soni, Nitesh; Sood, Alexander; Sopczak, Andre; Sopko, Bruno; Sopko, Vit; Sorin, Veronica; Sosebee, Mark; Soualah, Rachik; Soueid, Paul; Soukharev, Andrey; South, David; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spanò, Francesco; Spearman, William Robert; Spettel, Fabian; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spousta, Martin; Spreitzer, Teresa; Spurlock, Barry; St Denis, Richard Dante; Staerz, Steffen; Stahlman, Jonathan; Stamen, Rainer; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanek, Robert; Stanescu, Cristian; Stanescu-Bellu, Madalina; Stanitzki, Marcel Michael; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Jan; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Staszewski, Rafal; Stavina, Pavel; Steinberg, Peter; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stern, Sebastian; Stewart, Graeme; Stillings, Jan Andre; Stockton, Mark; Stoebe, Michael; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stolte, Philipp; Stonjek, Stefan; Stradling, Alden; Straessner, Arno; Stramaglia, Maria Elena; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strandlie, Are; Strauss, Emanuel; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Ströhmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Stucci, Stefania Antonia; Stugu, Bjarne; Styles, Nicholas Adam; Su, Dong; Su, Jun; Subramania, Halasya Siva; Subramaniam, Rajivalochan; Succurro, Antonella; Sugaya, Yorihito; Suhr, Chad; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Xiaohu; Sundermann, Jan Erik; Suruliz, Kerim; Susinno, Giancarlo; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Yu; Svatos, Michal; Swedish, Stephen; Swiatlowski, Maximilian; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Ta, Duc; Taccini, Cecilia; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taenzer, Joe; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takahashi, Yuta; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Takeshita, Tohru; Takubo, Yosuke; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tam, Jason; Tan, Kong Guan; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Satoshi; Tanaka, Shuji; Tanasijczuk, Andres Jorge; Tannenwald, Benjamin Bordy; Tannoury, Nancy; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tarem, Shlomit; Tarrade, Fabien; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tashiro, Takuya; Tassi, Enrico; Tavares Delgado, Ademar; Tayalati, Yahya; Taylor, Frank; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Wendy; Teischinger, Florian Alfred; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, Matilde; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temming, Kim Katrin; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Teoh, Jia Jian; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Terzo, Stefano; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Therhaag, Jan; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothée; Thomas, Juergen; Thomas-Wilsker, Joshuha; Thompson, Emily; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Peter; Thompson, Stan; Thomsen, Lotte Ansgaard; Thomson, Evelyn; Thomson, Mark; Thong, Wai Meng; Thun, Rudolf; Tian, Feng; Tibbetts, Mark James; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timoshenko, Sergey; Tiouchichine, Elodie; Tipton, Paul; Tisserant, Sylvain; Todorov, Theodore; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Toggerson, Brokk; Tojo, Junji; Tokár, Stanislav; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tollefson, Kirsten; Tomlinson, Lee; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Topilin, Nikolai; Torrence, Eric; Torres, Heberth; Torró Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Tran, Huong Lan; Trefzger, Thomas; Tremblet, Louis; Tricoli, Alessandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Tripiana, Martin; Triplett, Nathan; Trischuk, William; Trocmé, Benjamin; Troncon, Clara; Trottier-McDonald, Michel; Trovatelli, Monica; True, Patrick; Trzebinski, Maciej; Trzupek, Adam; Tsarouchas, Charilaos; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiareshka, Pavel; Tsionou, Dimitra; Tsipolitis, Georgios; Tsirintanis, Nikolaos; Tsiskaridze, Shota; Tsiskaridze, Vakhtang; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsukerman, Ilya; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Tsuno, Soshi; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tudorache, Alexandra; Tudorache, Valentina; Tuna, Alexander Naip; Tupputi, Salvatore; Turchikhin, Semen; Turecek, Daniel; Turk Cakir, Ilkay; Turra, Ruggero; Tuts, Michael; Tykhonov, Andrii; Tylmad, Maja; Tyndel, Mike; Uchida, Kirika; Ueda, Ikuo; Ueno, Ryuichi; Ughetto, Michael; Ugland, Maren; Uhlenbrock, Mathias; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Unal, Guillaume; Undrus, Alexander; Unel, Gokhan; Ungaro, Francesca; Unno, Yoshinobu; Urbaniec, Dustin; Urquijo, Phillip; Usai, Giulio; Usanova, Anna; Vacavant, Laurent; Vacek, Vaclav; Vachon, Brigitte; Valencic, Nika; Valentinetti, Sara; Valero, Alberto; Valery, Loic; Valkar, Stefan; Valladolid Gallego, Eva; Vallecorsa, Sofia; Valls Ferrer, Juan Antonio; Van Den Wollenberg, Wouter; Van Der Deijl, Pieter; van der Geer, Rogier; van der Graaf, Harry; Van Der Leeuw, Robin; van der Ster, Daniel; van Eldik, Niels; van Gemmeren, Peter; Van Nieuwkoop, Jacobus; van Vulpen, Ivo; van Woerden, Marius Cornelis; Vanadia, Marco; Vandelli, Wainer; Vanguri, Rami; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vankov, Peter; Vannucci, Francois; Vardanyan, Gagik; Vari, Riccardo; Varnes, Erich; Varol, Tulin; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vazeille, Francois; Vazquez Schroeder, Tamara; Veatch, Jason; Veloso, Filipe; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Ventura, Daniel; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Venturini, Alessio; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Jos; Vest, Anja; Vetterli, Michel; Viazlo, Oleksandr; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Vickey Boeriu, Oana Elena; Viehhauser, Georg; Viel, Simon; Vigne, Ralph; Villa, Mauro; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; Vinogradov, Vladimir; Virzi, Joseph; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Vives Vaque, Francesc; Vlachos, Sotirios; Vladoiu, Dan; Vlasak, Michal; Vogel, Adrian; Vogel, Marcelo; Vokac, Petr; Volpi, Guido; Volpi, Matteo; von der Schmitt, Hans; von Radziewski, Holger; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorobel, Vit; Vorobev, Konstantin; Vos, Marcel; Voss, Rudiger; Vossebeld, Joost; Vranjes, Nenad; Vranjes Milosavljevic, Marija; Vrba, Vaclav; Vreeswijk, Marcel; Vu Anh, Tuan; Vuillermet, Raphael; Vukotic, Ilija; Vykydal, Zdenek; Wagner, Peter; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wahlberg, Hernan; Wahrmund, Sebastian; Wakabayashi, Jun; Walder, James; Walker, Rodney; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Wall, Richard; Waller, Peter; Walsh, Brian; Wang, Chao; Wang, Chiho; Wang, Fuquan; Wang, Haichen; Wang, Hulin; Wang, Jike; Wang, Jin; Wang, Kuhan; Wang, Rui; Wang, Song-Ming; Wang, Tan; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Wanotayaroj, Chaowaroj; Warburton, Andreas; Ward, Patricia; Wardrope, David Robert; Warsinsky, Markus; Washbrook, Andrew; Wasicki, Christoph; Watkins, Peter; Watson, Alan; Watson, Ian; Watson, Miriam; Watts, Gordon; Watts, Stephen; Waugh, Ben; Webb, Samuel; Weber, Michele; Weber, Stefan Wolf; Webster, Jordan S; Weidberg, Anthony; Weigell, Philipp; Weinert, Benjamin; Weingarten, Jens; Weiser, Christian; Weits, Hartger; Wells, Phillippa; Wenaus, Torre; Wendland, Dennis; Weng, Zhili; Wengler, Thorsten; Wenig, Siegfried; Wermes, Norbert; Werner, Matthias; Werner, Per; Wessels, Martin; Wetter, Jeffrey; Whalen, Kathleen; White, Andrew; White, Martin; White, Ryan; White, Sebastian; Whiteson, Daniel; Wicke, Daniel; Wickens, Fred; Wiedenmann, Werner; Wielers, Monika; Wienemann, Peter; Wiglesworth, Craig; Wiik-Fuchs, Liv Antje Mari; Wijeratne, Peter Alexander; Wildauer, Andreas; Wildt, Martin Andre; Wilkens, Henric George; Will, Jonas Zacharias; Williams, Hugh; Williams, Sarah; Willis, Christopher; Willocq, Stephane; Wilson, Alan; Wilson, John; Wingerter-Seez, Isabelle; Winklmeier, Frank; Winter, Benedict Tobias; Wittgen, Matthias; Wittig, Tobias; Wittkowski, Josephine; Wollstadt, Simon Jakob; Wolter, Marcin Wladyslaw; Wolters, Helmut; Wosiek, Barbara; Wotschack, Jorg; Woudstra, Martin; Wozniak, Krzysztof; Wright, Michael; Wu, Mengqing; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, Xin; Wu, Yusheng; Wulf, Evan; Wyatt, Terry Richard; Wynne, Benjamin; Xella, Stefania; Xiao, Meng; Xu, Da; Xu, Lailin; Yabsley, Bruce; Yacoob, Sahal; Yamada, Miho; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Yohei; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Kyoko; Yamamoto, Shimpei; Yamamura, Taiki; Yamanaka, Takashi; Yamauchi, Katsuya; Yamazaki, Yuji; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Haijun; Yang, Hongtao; Yang, Un-Ki; Yang, Yi; Yanush, Serguei; Yao, Liwen; Yao, Weiming; Yasu, Yoshiji; Yatsenko, Elena; Yau Wong, Kaven Henry; Ye, Jingbo; Ye, Shuwei; Yen, Andy L; Yildirim, Eda; Yilmaz, Metin; Yoosoofmiya, Reza; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshida, Rikutaro; Yoshihara, Keisuke; Young, Charles; Young, Christopher John; Youssef, Saul; Yu, David Ren-Hwa; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Jiaming; Yu, Jie; Yuan, Li; Yurkewicz, Adam; Yusuff, Imran; Zabinski, Bartlomiej; Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zaman, Aungshuman; Zambito, Stefano; Zanello, Lucia; Zanzi, Daniele; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zeman, Martin; Zemla, Andrzej; Zengel, Keith; Zenin, Oleg; Ženiš, Tibor; Zerwas, Dirk; Zevi della Porta, Giovanni; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Fangzhou; Zhang, Huaqiao; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Lei; Zhou, Ning; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Junjie; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zhukov, Konstantin; Zibell, Andre; Zieminska, Daria; Zimine, Nikolai; Zimmermann, Christoph; Zimmermann, Robert; Zimmermann, Simone; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Zinonos, Zinonas; Ziolkowski, Michael; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; zur Nedden, Martin; Zurzolo, Giovanni; Zutshi, Vishnu; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2015-02-26

    Searches are performed for resonant and non-resonant Higgs boson pair production in the $hh \\rightarrow \\gamma\\gamma b \\overline b$ final state using 20 fb$^{-1}$ of proton--proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 8TeV recorded with the ATLAS detector at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. A 95% confidence level upper limit on the cross section times branching ratio of non--resonant production is set at 2.2 pb, while the expected limit is 1.0 pb. The corresponding limit observed for a narrow resonance ranges between 0.8 and 3.5 pb as a function of its mass.

  1. Portable gamma- and X-ray analyzers based on CdTe p-i-n detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Khusainov, A K; Bahlanov, S V; Derbin, A V; Ivanov, V V; Lysenko, V V; Morozov, F; Mouratov, V G; Muratova, V N; Petukhov, Y A; Pirogov, A M; Polytsia, O P; Saveliev, V D; Solovei, V A; Yegorov, K A; Zhucov, M P

    1999-01-01

    Several portable instruments are designed using previously reported CdTe detector technology. These can be divided into three groups according to their energy ranges: (1) 3-30 keV XRF analyzers, (2) 5-120 keV wide range XRF analyzers and (3) gamma-ray spectrometers for operation up to 1500 keV. These instruments are used to inspect several hundreds of samples in situ during a working day in applications such as a metal alloy verification at customs control. Heavy metals are identified through a 3-100 mm thick package with these instruments. Surface contamination by heavy metals (for example toxins such as Hg, Th and Pb in housing environmental control), the determination of Pb concentration in gasoline, geophysical control in mining, or nuclear material control are other applications. The weight of these XRF probes is about 1 kg and two electronic designs are used: one with embedded computer and another based on a standard portable PC. The instruments have good precision and high productivity for measurements...

  2. Long-range alpha/beta and short-range gamma EEG synchronization distinguishes phasic and tonic REM periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simor, Péter; Gombos, Ferenc; Blaskovich, Borbála; Bódizs, Róbert

    2017-12-23

    Rapid Eye Movement (REM) sleep is characterized by the alternation of two markedly different microstates, phasic and tonic REM. These periods differ in awakening and arousal thresholds, sensory processing, and spontaneous cortical oscillations. Previous studies indicate that whereas in phasic REM, cortical activity is independent of the external environment, attentional functions and sensory processing are partially maintained during tonic periods. Large-scale synchronization of oscillatory activity, especially in the alpha and beta frequency ranges can accurately distinguish different states of vigilance and cognitive processes of enhanced alertness and attention. Therefore, we examined long-range inter-and intrahemispheric, as well as short-range EEG synchronization during phasic and tonic REM periods quantified by the weighted phase lag index. Based on the nocturnal polysomnographic data of 19 healthy, adult participants we showed that long-range inter-and intrahemispheric alpha and beta synchrony were enhanced in tonic REM states in contrast to phasic ones, and resembled alpha and beta synchronization of resting wakefulness. On the other hand, short-range synchronization within the gamma frequency range was higher in phasic as compared to tonic periods. Increased short-range synchrony might reflect local, and inwardly driven sensorimotor activity during phasic REM periods, whereas enhanced long-range synchrony might index frontoparietal activity that reinstates environmental alertness after phasic REM periods. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Evaluation of a synthetic single-crystal diamond detector for relative dosimetry on the Leksell Gamma Knife Perfexion radiosurgery system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mancosu, Pietro; Reggiori, Giacomo, E-mail: giacomo.reggiori@humanitas.it; Stravato, Antonella; Gaudino, Anna; Lobefalo, Francesca; Palumbo, Valentina; Tomatis, Stefano [Physics Service of Radiation Oncology Department, Clinical and Research Center, Rozzano, Milan 20098 (Italy); Navarria, Piera; Ascolese, Anna; Scorsetti, Marta [Radiation Oncology Department, Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Rozzano, Milan 20089 (Italy); Picozzi, Piero [Neurosurgery Department, Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Rozzano, Milan 20089 (Italy); Marinelli, Marco; Verona-Rinati, Gianluca [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale, Università di Roma Tor Vergata, Roma 00133 (Italy)

    2015-09-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the new commercial PTW-60019 synthetic single-crystal microDiamond detector (PTW, Freiburg, Germany) for relative dosimetry measurements on a clinical Leksell Gamma Knife Perfexion radiosurgery system. Methods: Detector output ratios (DORs) for 4 and 8 mm beams were measured using a microDiamond (PTW-60019), a stereotactic unshielded diode [IBA stereotactic field detector (SFD)], a shielded diode (IBA photon field detector), and GafChromic EBT3 films. Both parallel and transversal acquisition directions were considered for PTW-60019 measurements. Measured DORs were compared to the new output factor reference values for Gamma Knife Perfexion (0.814 and 0.900 for 4 and 8 mm, respectively). Profiles in the three directions were also measured for the 4 mm beam to evaluate full width at half maximum (FWHM) and penumbra and to compare them with the corresponding Leksell GammaPlan profiles. Results: FWHM and penumbra for PTW-60019 differed from the calculated values by less than 0.2 and 0.3 mm, for the parallel and transversal acquisitions, respectively. GafChromic films showed FWHM and penumbra within 0.1 mm. The output ratio obtained with the PTW-60019 for the 4 mm field was 1.6% greater in transverse direction compared to the nominal value. Comparable differences up to 0.8% and 1.0% for, respectively, GafChromic films and SFD were found. Conclusions: The microDiamond PTW-60019 is a suitable detector for commissioning and routine use of Gamma Knife with good agreement of both DORs and profiles in the three directions.

  4. Characterization of gaseous detectors at the CERN Gamma Irradiation Facility: GEM performance in presence of high background radiation

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2097588

    Muon detection is an efficient tool to recognize interesting physics events over the high background rate expected at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. The muon systems of the LHC experiments are based on gaseous ionization detectors. In view of the High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) upgrade program, the increasing of background radiation could affect the gaseous detector performance, especially decreasing the efficiency and shortening the lifetime through ageing processes. The effects of charge multiplication, materials and gas composition on the ageing of gaseous detectors have been studied for decades, but the future upgrade of LHC requires additional studies on this topic. At the CERN Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF++), a radioactive source of cesium-137 with an activity of 14 TBq is used to reproduce reasonably well the expected background radiation at HL-LHC. A muon beam has been made available to study detector performance. The characterization of the beam trigger will be discussed in the present w...

  5. WE-EF-303-03: A New Aperture-Based Imaging System for Prompt-Gamma Range Verification of Proton Beam Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ready, J; Pak, R [UC Berkeley, Berkeley, CA (United States); Mihailescu, L [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Vetter, K [UC Berkeley, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To develop and characterize a novel aperture-based imaging system for high-energy gamma-rays. This collimated system will provide 2-dimensional imaging capability for verification of proton beam range and Bragg peak dose via prompt-gamma detection. Methods: A multi-knife-edge slit collimator has been designed, constructed, and characterized via simulations and experimental measurements. The 20×20×7.5 cm{sup 3} tungsten collimator and accompanying LSO scintillation detector were simulated using the TOPAS Geant4 -based Monte Carlo package. Iterative reconstruction methods were combined with point response functions to characterize the imaging performance of the system. The response of the system has begun to be characterized experimentally as well, using 2.6 MeV gamma-rays from Th-228. Results: Both simulation and experimental results indicate that this collimated system provides 2-D imaging capability in the energy range of interest for prompt-gamma dose verification. In the current configuration, with collimator to source distance of 13 cm, image reconstruction of point sources resulted in spatial resolution (FWHM) of approximately 4 mm in both x-and y-directions in the imaging plane. The accuracy of positioning the point sources is less than 1 mm. Conclusion: This work has characterized, via simulation and measurements, a novel multi-knife-edge slit collimator in front of a more conventional position-sensitive LSO scintillator detector. The multi-slit pattern is designed to increase detection efficiency and provide spatial information in 2-dimensions -- an improvement over a single-slit collimator design. The thickness and density of the collimator will allow this detection system to perform well in an environment with high gamma flux, while ultimately providing peak determination accuracy on the order of 1 mm. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number: DE-NA0000979

  6. Radial position of single-site gamma-ray interactions from a parametric pulse shape analysis of germanium detector signals

    CERN Document Server

    Orrell, J L; Cooper, M W; Kephart, J D; Seifert, C E; Orrell, John L.; Aalseth, Craig E.; Cooper, Matthew W.; Kephart, Jeremy D.; Seifert, Carolyn E.

    2007-01-01

    Pulse shape analysis of germanium gamma-ray spectrometer signals can yield information on the radial position of individual gamma-ray interactions within the germanium crystal. A parametric pulse shape analysis based on calculation of moments of the reconstructed current pulses from a closed-ended coaxial germanium detector is used to preferentially select single-site gamma-ray interactions. The double escape peak events from the 2614.5 keV gamma-ray of 208-Tl are used as a training set to optimize the single-site event selection region in the pulse shape parameter space. A collimated source of 320.1 keV gamma-rays from 51-Cr is used to scan different radial positions of the same semi-coaxial germanium detector. The previously trained single-site selection region is used to preferentially identify the single-site photoelectric absorption events from the 320.1 keV full-energy peak. From the identified events, a comparison of the pulse shape parameter space distributions between different scan positions allows ...

  7. A comparison of interest point and region detectors on structured, range and texture images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazmi, Wajahat; Andersen, Hans Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    )) and corner based detectors (such as Hessian and Harris with both Affine/Laplace variants, SURF with determinant of Hessian based corners and SIFT with difference of Gaussians) acquired more than 90% mean average precision, whereas on range images, homogeneous region detector did not work well. TLR offered...... and textured images. It is also shown that in a bi-channel approach, combining surface and edge regions (MSER and TLR) boosts the overall performance. Among the descriptors, SIFT and SURF generally offer higher performance but low dimensional descriptors such as Steerable Filters follow closely.......This article presents an evaluation of the image retrieval and classification potential of local features. Several affine invariant region and scale invariant interest point detectors in combination with well known descriptors were evaluated. Tests on building, range and texture databases were...

  8. Threshold self-powered gamma detector for use as a monitor of power in a nuclear reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeVert, Francis E.; Cox, Samson A.

    1978-01-01

    A self-powered gamma monitor for placement near the core of a nuclear reactor comprises a lead prism surrounded by a coaxial thin nickel sheet, the combination forming a collector. A coaxial polyethylene electron barrier encloses the collector and is separated from the nickel sheet by a vacuum region. The electron barrier is enclosed by a coaxial stainless steel emitter which, in turn, is enclosed within a lead casing. When the detector is placed in a flux of gamma rays, a measure of the current flow in an external circuit between emitter and collector provides a measure of the power level of the reactor.

  9. Development of Gamma-Ray Compton Imager Using Room-Temperature 3-D Position Sensitive Semiconductor Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Zhong He; Whe, D

    2003-01-01

    During the three years of this project, two 3-dimensional position sensitive CdZnTe spectrometers were upgraded in collaboration with Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory. A prototype Compton-scattering gamma-ray imager was assembled using the two upgraded CdZnTe detectors. The performance of both gamma-ray spectrometers were individually tested. The angular resolution and detection sensitivity of the imaging system were measured using both a point and a line-shaped 137 Cs radiation source. The measurement results are consistent with that obtained from Monte-Carlo simulations performed during the early phase of the project.

  10. A comprehensive calibration method of Ge detectors for low-level gamma-spectrometry measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Perez-Moreno, J P; Bolivar, J P; Aguado, J L

    2002-01-01

    This paper aims to show a general and simple method for gamma-ray efficiency calibration in the 186-1500 keV energy range with special attention to applications on environmental studies. This method accounts for differences in densities, composition and counting geometries between real and calibration samples. Self-absorption corrections can be easily determined from a single spectral measurement knowing only the apparent densities of the samples. We have evaluated the influence of background parameters in the response of the spectrometric system and moreover, we have calculated the minimum detectable activity due to background contribution. This calibration has been validated through three different and independent tests.

  11. TH-C-BRD-01: Analytical Computation of Prompt Gamma Ray Emission and Detection for Proton Range Verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sterpin, E; Vynckier, S [Universite catholique de Louvain, Brussels (Belgium); Janssens, G; Smeets, J; Prieels, D [Ion Beam Applications, Louvain-la-neuve (Belgium)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: A prompt gamma (PG) slit camera prototype demonstrated that on-line range monitoring within 1–2 mm could be performed by comparing expected and measured PG detection profiles. Monte Carlo (MC) can simulate the expected PG profile but this would result in prohibitive computation time for a complete pencil beam treatment plan. We implemented a much faster method that is based on analytical processing of pre-computed MC data. Methods: The formation of the PG detection signal can be separated into: 1) production of PGs and 2) detection by the camera detectors after PG transport in geometry. For proton energies from 40 to 230 MeV, PG productions in depth were pre-computed by MC (PENH) for 12C, 14N, 16O, 31P and 40Ca. The PG production was then modeled analytically by adding the PG production for each element according to local proton energy and tissue composition.PG transport in the patient/camera geometries and the detector response were modeled by convolving the PG production profile with a transfer function. The latter is interpolated from a database of transfer functions fitted to pre-computed MC data (PENELOPE). The database was generated for a photon source in a cylindrical phantom with various radiuses and a camera placed at various positions.As a benchmark, the analytical model was compared to PENH for a water phantom, a phantom with different slabs (adipose, muscle, lung) and a thoracic CT. Results: Good agreement (within 5%) was observed between the analytical model and PENH for the PG production. Similar accuracy for detecting range shifts was also observed. Speed of around 250 ms per profile was achieved (single CPU) using a non-optimized MatLab implementation. Conclusion: We devised a fast analytical model for generating PG detection profiles. In the test cases considered in this study, similar accuracy than MC was achieved for detecting range shifts. This research is supported by IBA.

  12. Electronic properties of traps induced by gamma-irradiation in CdTe and CdZnTe detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Cavallini, A; Chirco, P; Morigi, M P; Zanarini, M; Auricchio, N; Caroli, E; Dusi, W; Fougeres, P; Hage-Ali, M; Siffert, P

    2000-01-01

    The knowledge of a detector response to different types of radiation sources is becoming a key issue for its employment in many medical, space and scientific applications. Nevertheless, a clear understanding of the effects of irradiation on the material properties is still a long way ahead and, therefore, we have started a thorough investigation of room temperature CdTe and CdZnTe detectors exposed to gamma-ray irradiation. As-grown detectors have been exposed to increasing gamma-ray doses, up to the virtual death of the detector, which occurs at a dose of 30 kGy. The modifications in the detector performance have been investigated by dark-current measurements and quantitative spectroscopic analyses at low and medium energies. The deep levels present in the material have been identified by means of Photo-Induced Current Transient Spectroscopy (PICTS) analyses. The evolution of the trap parameters with increasing irradiation dose has been monitored and a comparison of the results obtained from CdTe and CdZnTe ...

  13. A gamma-Ray spectrometer system for low energy photons by coupling two detectors; Un sistema de espectrometria gamma de fotones de baja energia mediante acoplamiento de dos detectores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, A.; Palomares, J.; Romero, L.; Travesi, A.

    1986-07-01

    This report describes the study performed to obtain a composite (sun uma) spectrum from a Low Energy Gamma Spectrometry System by coupling two planar Germanium detectors. This disposition allows to obtain a high counting efficiency for the total system. It shows the improvement achieved by the synthetic spectrum which is obtained by adding the two original spectra through the LULEPS code. This code corrects the differences (channel/energy) between both two spectra before performing the addition. (Author) 6 refs.

  14. Use of water-Cherenkov detectors to detect Gamma Ray Bursts at the Large Aperture GRB Observatory (LAGO)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allard, D. [APC, CNRS et Universite Paris 7 (France); Allekotte, I. [Centro Atomico Bariloche, Instituto Balseiro (Argentina); Alvarez, C. [Facultad de Ciencias Fisico-Matematicas de la BUAP (Mexico); Asorey, H. [Centro Atomico Bariloche, Instituto Balseiro (Argentina); Barros, H. [Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear, Universidad Simon Bolivar, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Bertou, X. [Centro Atomico Bariloche, Instituto Balseiro (Argentina)], E-mail: bertou@cab.cnea.gov.ar; Burgoa, O. [Instituto de Investigaciones Fisicas, UMSA (Bolivia); Gomez Berisso, M. [Centro Atomico Bariloche, Instituto Balseiro (Argentina); Martinez, O. [Facultad de Ciencias Fisico-Matematicas de la BUAP (Mexico); Miranda Loza, P. [Instituto de Investigaciones Fisicas, UMSA (Bolivia); Murrieta, T.; Perez, G. [Facultad de Ciencias Fisico-Matematicas de la BUAP (Mexico); Rivera, H. [Instituto de Investigaciones Fisicas, UMSA (Bolivia); Rovero, A. [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio (Argentina); Saavedra, O. [Dipartimento di Fisica Generale and INFN, Torino (Italy); Salazar, H. [Facultad de Ciencias Fisico-Matematicas de la BUAP (Mexico); Tello, J.C. [Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear, Universidad Simon Bolivar, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Ticona Peralda, R.; Velarde, A. [Instituto de Investigaciones Fisicas, UMSA (Bolivia); Villasenor, L. [Facultad de Ciencias Fisico-Matematicas de la BUAP (Mexico); Instituto de Fisica y Matematicas, Universidad de Michoacan (Mexico)

    2008-09-21

    The Large Aperture GRB Observatory (LAGO) project aims at the detection of high energy photons from Gamma Ray Bursts (GRB) using the single particle technique in ground-based water-Cherenkov detectors (WCD). To reach a reasonable sensitivity, high altitude mountain sites have been selected in Mexico (Sierra Negra, 4550 m a.s.l.), Bolivia (Chacaltaya, 5300 m a.s.l.) and Venezuela (Merida, 4765 m a.s.l.). We report on detector calibration and operation at high altitude, search for bursts in 4 months of preliminary data, as well as search for signal at ground level when satellites report a burst.

  15. Real and limit sensitivity of some radiation detectors of THz/sub-THz ranges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shevchik-Shekera A. V.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that while calculating the NEP parameter of radiation detectors of THz/sub-THz range, the fluctuations of the background radiation flux at different temperatures of the background in the case of diffraction-limited beam should be taken into account.

  16. A high dynamic range linear RF power detector with a preceding LNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yingbo, Dai; Kefeng, Han; Na, Yan; Xi, Tan

    2012-01-01

    A design of high dynamic range linear radio frequency power detector (PD), aimed for transmitter carrier leakage suppression is presented in this paper. Based on the logarithmic amplifier principle, this detector utilizes the successive detection method to achieve a high dynamic range in the radio frequency band. In order to increase sensitivity, a low noise amplifier (LNA) is placed in the front of this detector. DC coupling is adopted in this architecture to reduce parasitics and save area, but this will unavoidably cause DC offsets in the circuit which are detrimental to the dynamic range. So a DC offset cancelling (DCOC) technique is proposed to solve the problem. Finally, this detector was fabricated in the SMIC 0.13 μm CMOS process. The measured results show that it achieves a wide dynamic range of 50 dB/40 dB with log errors in ±1 dB at 900 MHz/2 GHz, while draws 16 mA from a 1.5 V power supply. The active chip area is 0.27 × 0.67 mm2.

  17. Novel ZnO:Al contacts to CdZnTe for X- and gamma-ray detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, U. N.; Mundle, R. M.; Camarda, G. S.; Cui, Y.; Gul, R.; Hossain, A.; Yang, G.; Pradhan, A. K.; James, R. B.

    2016-05-01

    CdZnTe (CZT) has made a significant impact as a material for room-temperature nuclear-radiation detectors due to its potential impact in applications related to nonproliferation, homeland security, medical imaging, and gamma-ray telescopes. In all such applications, common metals, such as gold, platinum and indium, have been used as electrodes for fabricating the detectors. Because of the large mismatch in the thermal-expansion coefficient between the metal contacts and CZT, the contacts can undergo stress and mechanical degradation, which is the main cause for device instability over the long term. Here, we report for the first time on our use of Al-doped ZnO as the preferred electrode for such detectors. The material was selected because of its better contact properties compared to those of the metals commonly used today. Comparisons were conducted for the detector properties using different contacts, and improvements in the performances of ZnO:Al-coated detectors are described in this paper. These studies show that Al:ZnO contacts to CZT radiation detectors offer the potential of becoming a transformative replacement for the common metallic contacts due to the dramatic improvements in the performance of detectors and improved long-term stability.

  18. Novel ZnO:Al contacts to CdZnTe for X- and gamma-ray detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, U N; Mundle, R M; Camarda, G S; Cui, Y; Gul, R; Hossain, A; Yang, G; Pradhan, A K; James, R B

    2016-05-24

    CdZnTe (CZT) has made a significant impact as a material for room-temperature nuclear-radiation detectors due to its potential impact in applications related to nonproliferation, homeland security, medical imaging, and gamma-ray telescopes. In all such applications, common metals, such as gold, platinum and indium, have been used as electrodes for fabricating the detectors. Because of the large mismatch in the thermal-expansion coefficient between the metal contacts and CZT, the contacts can undergo stress and mechanical degradation, which is the main cause for device instability over the long term. Here, we report for the first time on our use of Al-doped ZnO as the preferred electrode for such detectors. The material was selected because of its better contact properties compared to those of the metals commonly used today. Comparisons were conducted for the detector properties using different contacts, and improvements in the performances of ZnO:Al-coated detectors are described in this paper. These studies show that Al:ZnO contacts to CZT radiation detectors offer the potential of becoming a transformative replacement for the common metallic contacts due to the dramatic improvements in the performance of detectors and improved long-term stability.

  19. Feasibility study for the measuring of the CKM phases gamma and delta gamma in decays of neutral B-mesons with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Bouhova-Thacker, E

    2000-01-01

    This thesis contains a study of the possible measurement of parameters of the Standard Model which relate to $CP$ violation with the ATLAS detector. This is done in two specific neutral $B$-meson channels. The first analysis presents a feasibility study for extracting the notoriously difficult to measure third angle of the unitarity triangle $\\gamma$ from neutral $B_d$ decays of the type $B^0_d \\rightarrow D^0 K^{0*}$. The small number of signal events that can be reconstructed after three years of running at low luminosity and the huge combinatorial background expected lead to the conclusion that this method would not result in a viable measurement of $\\gamma$ with the ATLAS detector, unless the observed branching fractions for these channels were found to be considerably greater than currently expected. The second analysis presents results for the $B^0_s \\rightarrow J/\\psi \\phi$ decay modes, yielding the weak phase $\\delta \\gamma$ and several unmeasured parameters of the neutral $B^0_s$-system. The recons...

  20. PANDORA, a large volume low-energy neutron detector with real-time neutron-gamma discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuhl, L.; Sasano, M.; Yako, K.; Yasuda, J.; Baba, H.; Ota, S.; Uesaka, T.

    2017-09-01

    The PANDORA (Particle Analyzer Neutron Detector Of Real-time Acquisition) system, which was developed for use in inverse kinematics experiments with unstable isotope beams, is a neutron detector based on a plastic scintillator coupled to a digital readout. PANDORA can be used for any reaction study involving the emission of low energy neutrons (100 keV-10 MeV) where background suppression and an increased signal-to-noise ratio are crucial. The digital readout system provides an opportunity for pulse shape discrimination (PSD) of the detected particles as well as intelligent triggering based on PSD. The figure of merit results of PANDORA are compared to the data in literature. Using PANDORA, 91 ± 1% of all detected neutrons can be separated, while 91 ± 1% of the detected gamma rays can be excluded, reducing the gamma ray background by one order of magnitude.

  1. Gamma spectrometric characterization of short cooling time nuclear spent fuels using hemispheric CdZnTe detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Lebrun, A; Szabó, J L; Arenas-Carrasco, J; Arlt, R; Dubreuil, A; Esmailpur-Kazerouni, K

    2000-01-01

    After years of cooling, nuclear spent fuel gamma emissions are mainly due to caesium isotopes which are emitters at 605, 662 and 796-801 keV. Extensive work has been done on such fuels using various CdTe or CdZnTe probes. When fuels have to be measured after short cooling time (during NPP outage) the spectrum is much more complex due to the important contributions of niobium and zirconium in the 700 keV range. For the first time in a nuclear power plant, four spent fuels of the Kozloduy VVER reactor no 4 were measured during outage, 37 days after shutdown of the reactor. In such conditions, good resolution is of particular interest, so a 20 mm sup 3 hemispheric crystal was used with a resolution better than 7 keV at 662 keV. This paper presents the experimental device and analyzes the results which show that CdZnTe commercially available detectors enabled us to perform a semi-quantitative determination of the burn-up after a short cooling time. In addition, it is discussed how a burn-up evolution code (CESAR)...

  2. Precise determination of HPGe detector efficiency for gamma spectrometry measurements of environmental samples with variable geometry and density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrera Manuel

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A methodology to determine the full energy peak efficiency (FEPE for precise gamma spectrometry measurements of environmental samples with high-purity germanium (HPGe detector, valid when this efficiency depends on the energy of the radiation E, the height of the cylindrical sample H, and its density ρ, is introduced. The methodology consists of an initial calibration as a function of E and H and the application of a self-attenuation factor, depending on the density of the sample ρ, in order to correct for the different attenuation of the generic sample in relation to the measured standard. The obtained efficiency can be used in the whole range of interest studied, E = 120–2000 keV, H = 1–5 cm, and ρ = 0.8–1.7 g/cm3, being its uncertainty below 5%. The efficiency has been checked by the measurement of standards, resulting in a good agreement between experimental and expected activities. The described methodology can be extended to similar situations when samples show geometric and compaction differences.

  3. Improving performance of a CdZnTe imaging array by mapping the detector with gamma rays

    CERN Document Server

    Marks, D G; Barrett, H H; Tüller, J; Woolfenden, J M

    1999-01-01

    We can greatly reduce image artifacts in our pixellated CdZnTe arrays by mapping imperfect regions with a narrow collimated beam of gamma rays. Portions of our detectors produce signals that agree well with simulations of gamma-ray interactions, but there are many examples of structures in the material that respond unpredictably to gamma rays. We mapped some of these imperfect regions using 60 and 140 keV gamma-ray beams, recording a 7x7 set of pixel signals for each interaction. The pixel pitch was 380 mu m. We used the mapped data to estimate the probability density function (PDF) of the pixel signals for each interaction position. Images were taken on the mapped sections, storing each gamma ray as a list of pixel signals. Images could be formed by either estimating each gamma-ray interaction position individually or using the entire set of image data in a single iterative computation using the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm. At 60 keV individual interaction positions were estimated by fitting the ...

  4. High Dynamic Range Pixel Array Detector for Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Mark W; Purohit, Prafull; Chamberlain, Darol; Nguyen, Kayla X; Hovden, Robert; Chang, Celesta S; Deb, Pratiti; Turgut, Emrah; Heron, John T; Schlom, Darrell G; Ralph, Daniel C; Fuchs, Gregory D; Shanks, Katherine S; Philipp, Hugh T; Muller, David A; Gruner, Sol M

    2016-02-01

    We describe a hybrid pixel array detector (electron microscope pixel array detector, or EMPAD) adapted for use in electron microscope applications, especially as a universal detector for scanning transmission electron microscopy. The 128×128 pixel detector consists of a 500 µm thick silicon diode array bump-bonded pixel-by-pixel to an application-specific integrated circuit. The in-pixel circuitry provides a 1,000,000:1 dynamic range within a single frame, allowing the direct electron beam to be imaged while still maintaining single electron sensitivity. A 1.1 kHz framing rate enables rapid data collection and minimizes sample drift distortions while scanning. By capturing the entire unsaturated diffraction pattern in scanning mode, one can simultaneously capture bright field, dark field, and phase contrast information, as well as being able to analyze the full scattering distribution, allowing true center of mass imaging. The scattering is recorded on an absolute scale, so that information such as local sample thickness can be directly determined. This paper describes the detector architecture, data acquisition system, and preliminary results from experiments with 80-200 keV electron beams.

  5. Time-of-flight neutron rejection to improve prompt gamma imaging for proton range verification : a simulation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biegun, Aleksandra K.; Seravalli, Enrica; Lopes, Patricia Cambraia; Rinaldi, Ilaria; Pinto, Marco; Oxley, David C.; Dendooven, Peter; Verhaegen, Frank; Parodi, Katia; Crespo, Paulo; Schaart, Dennis R.

    2012-01-01

    Therapeutic proton and heavier ion beams generate prompt gamma photons that may escape from the patient. In principle, this allows for real-time, in situ monitoring of the treatment delivery, in particular, the hadron range within the patient, by imaging the emitted prompt gamma rays. Unfortunately,

  6. Study on the energy dependence of gamma radiation detectors for {sup 137}Cs and {sup 60}Co; Estudo da dependencia energetica de detectores de radiacao gama para {sup 137}Cs e {sup 60}Co

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nonato, Fernanda B.C.; Diniz, Raphael E.; Carvalho, Valdir S.; Vivolo, Vitor; Caldas, Linda V.E., E-mail: fbnonato@ipen.b, E-mail: rediniz@ipen.b, E-mail: vcsouza@ipen.b, E-mail: vivolo@ipen.b, E-mail: lcaldas@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    38 Geiger-Mueller radiation detectors and 9 ionization chambers were calibrated, viewing to study the energy dependence of the monitor response for gamma radiation fields ({sup 137}Cs and {sup 60}Co). The results were considered satisfactory only for ionization chambers and for some Geiger-Mueller detectors

  7. Characterisation of a detector based on microchannel plates for electrons in the energy range 10 20 keV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldovan, G.; Matheson, J.; Derbyshire, G.; Kirkland, A.

    2008-11-01

    As part of a feasibility study into the use of novel electron detectors for an X-ray photoelectron emission microscope (XPEEM), we have characterised a detector based on microchannel plates (MCPs), a phosphor screen and a CCD camera. For XPEEM, an imaging detector is required for electrons in the energy range 10-20 keV. This type of detector is a standard fitment on commercial instruments and we have studied its performance in some detail in order to provide a baseline against which to evaluate future detector technologies. We present detective quantum efficiency (DQE), noise power spectrum (NPS) and modulation transfer function (MTF) measurements of a commercial detector, in the energy range of interest, as a function of the detector bias voltage.

  8. Comparison of the sensitivity of four arrays of detectors by gamma index; Comparacion de la sensibilidad en cuatro arrays de detectores mediante el indice gamma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, L.; Moral, F. del; Meilan, E.; Teijerio, A.; Vazquez, J.; Andrade, B.; Lopez, A.; Medal, D.

    2011-07-01

    High modulation fields in IMRT treatments require a quality control for verification of the dose. commercial vendors have developed different control devices. Here we compare four measurement equipment using gamma index to evaluate the sensitivity of each device in the detection of several errors induced.

  9. Branching ratio measurement of $K_S\\to \\gamma \\gamma$ decay using a pure $\\ks$ beam in the KLOE detector

    CERN Document Server

    Ambrosino, F; Antonelli, M; Archilli, F; Bacci, C; Beltrame, P; Bencivenni, G; Bertolucci, S; Bini, C; Bloise, C; Bocchetta, S; Bocci, V; Bossi, F; Branchini, P; Caloi, R; Campana, P; Capon, G; Capussela, T; Ceradini, F; Chi, S; Chiefari, G; Ciambrone, P; De Lucia, E; De Santis, A; De Simone, P; De Zorzi, G; Denig, A; Di Domenico, A; Di Donato, C; Di Falco, S; Di Micco, B; Doria, A; Dreucci, M; Felici, G; Ferrari, A; Ferrer, M L; Finocchiaro, G; Fiore, S; Forti, C; Franzini, P; Gatti, C; Gauzzi, P; Giovannella, S; Gorini, E; Graziani, E; Incagli, M; Kluge, W; Kulikov, V; Lacava, F; Lanfranchi, G; Lee-Franzini, J; Leone, D; Martini, M; Massarotti, P; Mei, W; Meola, S; Miscetti, S; Moulson, M; Müller, S; Murtas, F; Napolitano, M; Nguyen, F; Palutan, M; Pasqualucci, E; Passeri, A; Patera, V; Perfetto, F; Primavera, M; Santangelo, P; Saracino, G; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Scuri, F; Sfiligoi, I; Spadaro, T; Testa, M; Tortora, L; Valente, P; Valeriani, B; Venanzoni, G; Versaci, R; Xu, G

    2007-01-01

    We have analyzed 1.62 fb$^{-1}$ of $e^{+}e^{-}$ collisions at a center of mass energy $\\sim M_{\\phi}$ collected by the KLOE experiment at DA$\\Phi$NE. This sample corresponds to a production of $\\sim$ 1.7 billion of $\\ks$ $\\kl$ pairs which allowed us to search for the rare $K_S\\to \\gamma\\gamma$ decay. $K_S$ are tagged by the $K_L$ interaction in the calorimeter and the signal is searched for by requiring two additional prompt photons. Strong kinematic requirements reduce the initial 0.5$\\times 10^6$ events to 2300 candidates from which we extract a signal of 600 $\\pm$ 35 events. By normalizing to the $\\ks \\to 2 \\pi^0$ decays counted in the same sample, the measured value of BR($\\ks \\to \\gamma\\gamma$) is (2.27 $\\pm 0.13(stat.) ^{+0.03}_{-0.04} (syst.)) \\times 10^{-6}$, in agreement with $O(P^4)$ Chiral Perturbation Theory predictions.

  10. Gated tomographic radionuclide angiography using cadmium-zinc-telluride detector gamma camera; comparison to traditional gamma cameras

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Maria Maj; Schmidt, Ulla; Huang, Chenxi

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: Estimation of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) with equilibrium 99MTc-HSA equilibrium radionuclide angiography (MUGA) is frequently used for assessing cardiac function. The purpose of this study was to compare intra- and interobserver variation between three different gamma...

  11. Elastic and proton dissociative J/{psi} photoproduction at low W{sub {gamma}p} with the H1 detector at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, Florian

    2013-02-15

    Elastic and proton dissociative photoproduction of J/{psi} mesons is measured with the H1 detector at the HERA electron proton collider in the photon virtuality phase space of Q{sup 2}range of 20 GeVgamma}p}<110 GeV. The integrated luminosity for both data sets are 130 pb{sup -1} and 10.8 pb{sup -1}, respectively, corresponding to more than two times the statistics used in previous H1 analyses. Due to an online selection purely based on tracks both leptonic decay channels J/{psi}{yields}ee and J/{psi}{yields}{mu}{mu} are available for the analysis. Elastic ({gamma}p{yields} J/{psi}p) and proton dissociative ({gamma}p{yields} J/{psi}Y) differential {gamma}p cross sections are determined in a simultaneous measurement as function of the squared momentum transfer at the proton vertex t and as function of W{sub {gamma}p} by means of an unfolding procedure, taking not only all bin correlations into account, but also the correlation between the elastic and proton dissociative process. The obtained elastic and proton dissociative differential cross sections are analysed in a simultaneous fit, taking the full statistical covariance matrices and systematic uncertainty sources into account.

  12. Studies relating to the choice of [gamma]-ray detectors for in vivo nitrogen measurement by prompt-capture neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stamatelatos, I.E.M.; Chettle, D.R.; Scott, M.C. (Birmingham Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Physics and Space Research)

    1993-03-01

    The choice of gamma-ray detectors for in vivo nitrogen determination is examined. NaI(T1), BiGeO and hyperpure Ge detectors are investigated. It is shown that several small (5.1 cm diameter x 10.2 cm long) NaI(T1) detectors offer advantages over a single large detector (15.2 cm diameter x 15.2 cm long). BiGeO has the disadvantage of an interference peak at 10.2 MeV, whilst hyperpure Ge detectors are expensive, and therefore not cost effective, unless used for simultaneous multi-elemental analysis. (author).

  13. Precise measurement of {gamma}(K{sub S}{yields}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}({gamma}))/{gamma}(K{sub S}{yields}{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}) with the KLOE detector at DA{phi}NE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrosino, F.; Capussela, T.; Chiefari, G.; Di Donato, C.; Doria, A.; Massarotti, P.; Meola, S.; Napolitano, M.; Perfetto, F.; Saracino, G. [Univ. ' ' Federico II' ' e Sezione INFN, Dipt. di Scienze Fisiche, Napoli (Italy); Antonelli, A.; Antonelli, M.; Bencivenni, G.; Bertolucci, S.; Bloise, C.; Bossi, F.; Campana, P.; Capon, G.; Chi, S.; Ciambrone, P.; De Lucia, E.; De Simone, P.; Dell' Agnello, S.; Dreucci, M.; Felici, G.; Ferrari, A.; Ferrer, M.L.; Finocchiaro, G.; Forti, C.; Gatti, C.; Giovannella, S.; Lanfranchi, G.; Martini, M.; Mei, W.; Miscetti, S.; Moulson, M.; Mueller, S.; Murtas, F.; Palutan, M.; Santangelo, P.; Sciascia, B.; Sfiligoi, I.; Spadaro, T.; Venanzoni, G.; Versaci, R. [Lab. Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy); Bacci, C.; Bocchetta, S.; Branchini, P.; Ceradini, F.; Di Micco, B.; Graziani, E.; Nguyen, F.; Passeri, A.; Tortora, L. [Univ. ' ' Roma Tre' ' e Sezione INFN, Dipt. di Fisica, Roma (Italy); Beltrame, P.; Denig, A.; Kluge, W.; Leone, D.; Valeriani, B. [Univ. Karlsruhe, Inst. fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik, Karlsruhe (Germany); Bini, C.; Bocci, V.; Caloi, R.; De Santis, A.; De Zorzi, G.; Di Domenico, A.; Fiore, S.; Franzini, P.; Gauzzi, P.; Lacava, F.; Pasqualucci, E.; Pontecorvo, L.; Testa, M.; Valente, P.; Veneziano, S. [Universita ' ' La Sapienza' ' e Sezione INFN, Dipt. di Fisica, Roma (Italy); Bowring, D. [Lab. Nazionale di Frascati (Italy)]|[Physics Dept., Univ. of Virginia (United States); Conetti, S. [Univ. of Virginia, Physics Dept., Charlottesville, VA (United States); Di Falco, S.; Incagli, M.; Scuri, F. [Univ. e Sezione INFN, Dipt. di Fisica, Pisa (Italy); Gorini, E.; Primavera, M.; Ventura, A. [Univ. e Sezione INFN, Dipt. di Fisica, Lecce (Italy); Kulikov, V. [Inst. for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Lee-Franzini, J. [Lab. Nazionale di Frascati (Italy)]|[Physics Dept., State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook (United States); Patera, V.; Sciubba, A. [and others

    2006-12-15

    Using a sample of over 400 million {phi}{yields}K{sub S}K{sub L} decays produced during the years 2001 and 2002 at the DA{phi}NE e{sup +}e{sup -} collider, the ratio R{sub S} {sup {pi}}={gamma}(K{sub S}{yields}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}({gamma}))/{gamma}(K{sub S}{yields}{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}) has been measured with the KLOE detector. The result is R{sub S} {sup {pi}}=2.2555{+-}0.0012{sub stat}{+-}0.0021{sub corr-stat}{+-}0.0050{sub syst}, which is in good agreement with the previously published result based on the KLOE data sample from the year 2000. The average of the KLOE results is R{sub S} {sup {pi}}=2.2549{+-}0.0054, reducing the total error by a factor of three, to 0.25%. (orig.)

  14. Novel Ultra-Sensitive Detectors in the 10–50 μm Wavelength Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susumu Komiyama

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available We have developed novel single-photon detectors in the 10–50 μm wavelength region. The detectors are charge-sensitive infrared phototransistors (CSIPs fabricated in GaAs/AlGaAs double quantum well (QW structures, in which a photo-generated hole (+e in the floating gate (upper QW modulates the conductance of a capacitively-coupled channel located underneath (lower QW. The excellent noise equivalent power (NEP = 8.3 × 10−19 W/Hz1/2 and specific detectivity (D* = 8 × 1014 cm Hz1/2/W are demonstrated for 15 micron detection up to 23 K, which are by a few orders of magnitude better than those of other state-of-the-art high-sensitivity detectors. The dynamic range exceeds 106 (~aW to pW by repeatedly resetting the accumulated holes in the upper QW. Simple device structure makes the detectors feasible for array fabrication: Furthermore, monolithic integration with reading circuits will be possible.

  15. Data Analysis Using the Side Muon Range Detector (SMRD) of the T2K Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haremza, Jeremiah; Minvielle, Ryan

    2010-10-01

    The goal of T2K (Tokai to Kamioka), a second generation long basline neutrino experiment, is to obtain an accurate measurement of θ13 - a parameter which determines the oscillation between muon neutrinos and electron neutrinos. The T2K 2.5^o off-axis near detector (ND280) is located 280 m from the beam target, and consists of 5 different sub-detectors which are encased in the UA1 magnet. The SMRD (Side Muon Range Detector), 1 of the 5 sub-detectors of the ND280, consists of slabs of 0.7 cm thick plastic scintillator material with embedded wavelength shifting fibers and each scintillator slab is sandwiched between the iron plates of the magnet yokes. The SMRD contributes to the measurement of the neutrino energy spectrum, triggers on cosmic ray muons for calibration, and identifies backgrounds. We present work on the following uses of the SMRD: (1) the general role of the SMRD in T2K analyses, (2) status of data quality considerations and data selection performance, (3) SMRD performance measurement with cosmic ray data and comparison with simulations, (4) extraction of neutrino cross-sections on Fe and comparison with simulations.

  16. Development of a 32-detector CdTe matrix for the SVOM ECLAIRs X/Gamma camera: Preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacombe, K.; Nasser, G.; Amoros, C.; Atteia, J.-L.; Barret, D.; Billot, M.; Cordier, B.; Gevin, O.; Godet, O.; Gonzalez, F.; Houret, B.; Landé, J.; Lugiez, F.; Mandrou, P.; Martin, J.-A.; Marty, W.; Mercier, K.; Pons, R.; Rambaud, D.; Ramon, P.; Rouaix, G.; Waegebaert, V.

    2013-12-01

    ECLAIRs, a 2D coded-mask imaging telescope on the Sino-French SVOM space mission, will detect and locate gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) between 4 and 150 keV. The detector array is an assembly of 6400 Schottky CdTe detectors of size 4×4×1 mm3, biased from -100 V to -600 V and operated at -20 °C to minimize the leakage current and maximize the polarization time. The remarkable low-energy threshold is achieved through various steps: an extensive detectors selection, a low-noise 32 channels ASIC study, and the design of an innovative detection module called XRDPIX formed by a thick film ceramic holding 32 detectors, a high voltage grid and an HTCC substrate housing the ASIC within a hermetic cavity. In this paper, we describe the XRDPIX module and explain the results of first tests to measure the linearity and compare the sources of noise, such as leakage currents and the Equivalent Noise Charge (ENC) measured on ASIC Ceramics. We confront these values with the energy threshold and spectral resolution made with dedicated test benches. Finally, we present the superposition of 32 calibrated spectra of one XRDPIX module, showing the excellent homogeneity of the 32 detectors and the achievement of a detection threshold at 4 keV over the entire module.

  17. Soft x-ray intensity profile measurements of electron cyclotron heated plasmas using semiconductor detector arrays in GAMMA 10 tandem mirror

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minami, R., E-mail: minami@prc.tsukuba.ac.jp; Imai, T.; Kariya, T.; Numakura, T.; Eguchi, T.; Kawarasaki, R.; Nakazawa, K.; Kato, T.; Sato, F.; Nanzai, H.; Uehara, M.; Endo, Y.; Ichimura, M. [Plasma Research Center, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan)

    2014-11-15

    Temporally and spatially resolved soft x-ray analyses of electron cyclotron heated plasmas are carried out by using semiconductor detector arrays in the GAMMA 10 tandem mirror. The detector array has 16-channel for the measurements of plasma x-ray profiles so as to make x-ray tomographic reconstructions. The characteristics of the detector array make it possible to obtain spatially resolved plasma electron temperatures down to a few tens eV and investigate various magnetohydrodynamic activities. High power electron cyclotron heating experiment for the central-cell region in GAMMA 10 has been started in order to reduce the electron drag by increasing the electron temperature.

  18. A new measurement of the rare decay eta -> pi^0 gamma gamma with the Crystal Ball/TAPS detectors at the Mainz Microtron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nefkens, B M; Prakhov, S; Aguar-Bartolom��, P; Annand, J R; Arends, H J; Bantawa, K; Beck, R; Bekrenev, V; Bergh��user, H; Braghieri, A; Briscoe, W J; Brudvik, J; Cherepnya, S; Codling, R F; Collicott, C; Costanza, S; Danilkin, I V; Denig, A; Demissie, B; Dieterle, M; Downie, E J; Drexler, P; Fil' kov, L V; Fix, A; Garni, S; Glazier, D I; Gregor, R; Hamilton, D; Heid, E; Hornidge, D; Howdle, D; Jahn, O; Jude, T C; Kashevarov, V L; K��ser, A; Keshelashvili, I; Kondratiev, R; Korolija, M; Kotulla, M; Koulbardis, A; Kruglov, S; Krusche, B; Lisin, V; Livingston, K; MacGregor, I J; Maghrbi, Y; Mancel, J; Manley, D M; McNicoll, E F; Mekterovic, D; Metag, V; Mushkarenkov, A; Nikolaev, A; Novotny, R; Oberle, M; Ortega, H; Ostrick, M; Ott, P; Otte, P B; Oussena, B; Pedroni, P; Polonski, A; Robinson, J; Rosner, G; Rostomyan, T; Schumann, S; Sikora, M H; Starostin, A; Strakovsky, I I; Strub, T; Suarez, I M; Supek, I; Tarbert, C M; Thiel, M; Thomas, A; Unverzagt, M; Watts, D P; Werthmueller, D; Witthauer, L

    2014-08-01

    A new measurement of the rare, doubly radiative decay eta->pi^0 gamma gamma was conducted with the Crystal Ball and TAPS multiphoton spectrometers together with the photon tagging facility at the Mainz Microtron MAMI. New data on the dependence of the partial decay width, Gamma(eta->pi^0 gamma gamma), on the two-photon invariant mass squared, m^2(gamma gamma), as well as a new, more precise value for the decay width, Gamma(eta->pi^0 gamma gamma) = (0.33+/-0.03_tot) eV, are based on analysis of 1.2 x 10^3 eta->pi^0 gamma gamma decays from a total of 6 x 10^7 eta mesons produced in the gamma p -> eta p reaction. The present results for dGamma(eta->pi^0 gamma gamma)/dm^2(gamma gamma) are in good agreement with previous measurements and recent theoretical calculations for this dependence.

  19. Gamma-ray multiplicity measurement of the spontaneous fission of {sup 252}Cf in a segmented HPGe/BGO detector array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bleuel, D.L., E-mail: bleuel1@llnl.go [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Bernstein, L.A.; Burke, J.T. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Gibelin, J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Heffner, M.D. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Mintz, J. [Nuclear Engineering Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Norman, E.B. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Nuclear Engineering Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Phair, L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Scielzo, N.D.; Sheets, S.A.; Snyderman, N.J.; Stoyer, M.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Wiedeking, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2010-12-21

    Coincident {gamma} rays from a {sup 252}Cf source were measured using an array of six segmented high-purity germanium (HPGe) Clover detectors each enclosed by 16 bismuth-germanate (BGO) detectors. The detectors were arranged in a cubic pattern around a 1{mu}Ci{sup 252}Cf source to cover a large solid angle for {gamma}-ray measurement with a reasonable reconstruction of the multiplicity. Neutron multiplicity was determined in certain cases by identifying the prompt {gamma} rays from individual fission fragment pairs. Multiplicity distributions from previous experiments and theoretical models were convolved with the response function of the array and compared to the present results. These results suggest a {gamma}-ray multiplicity spectrum broader than previous measurements and models, and provide no evidence of correlation with neutron multiplicity.

  20. True coincidence summing corrections for an extended energy range HPGe detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venegas-Argumedo, Y. [Centro de Investigación en Materiales Avanzados (CIMAV), Miguel de Cervantes 120, Chihuahua, Chih 31109 (Mexico); M.S. Student at CIMAV (Mexico); Montero-Cabrera, M. E., E-mail: elena.montero@cimav.edu.mx [Centro de Investigación en Materiales Avanzados (CIMAV), Miguel de Cervantes 120, Chihuahua, Chih 31109 (Mexico)

    2015-07-23

    True coincidence summing (TCS) effect for natural radioactive families of U-238 and Th-232 represents a problem when an environmental sample with a close source-detector geometry measurement is performed. By using a certified multi-nuclide standard source to calibrate an energy extended range (XtRa) HPGe detector, it is possible to obtain an intensity spectrum slightly affected by the TCS effect with energies from 46 to 1836 keV. In this work, the equations and some other considerations required to calculate the TCS correction factor for isotopes of natural radioactive chains are described. It is projected a validation of the calibration, performed with the IAEA-CU-2006-03 samples (soil and water)

  1. High Precision Stokes Polarimetry for Scattering Light using Wide Dynamic Range Intensity Detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shibata Shuhei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a Stokes polarimetry for scattering light from a sample surface. To achieve a high accuracy measurement two approaches of an intensity detector and analysis algorism of a Stokes parameter were proposed. The dynamic range of this detector can achieve up to 1010 by combination of change of neutral-density (ND filters having different density and photon counting units. Stokes parameters can be measured by dual rotating of a retarder and an analyzer. The algorism of dual rotating polarimeter can be calibrated small linear diattenuation and linear retardance error of the retarder. This system can measured Stokes parameters from −20° to 70° of its scattering angle. It is possible to measure Stokes parameters of scattering of dust and scratch of optical device with high precision. This paper shows accuracy of this system, checking the polarization change of scattering angle and influence of beam size.

  2. Methods and Results of a Search for Gravitational Waves Associated with Gamma-Ray Bursts Using the GEO 600, LIGO, and Virgo Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aasi, J.; Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T.; Abernathy, M. R.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Blackburn, Lindy L.; hide

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we report on a search for short-duration gravitational wave bursts in the frequency range 64 Hz-1792 Hz associated with gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), using data from GEO600 and one of the LIGO or Virgo detectors. We introduce the method of a linear search grid to analyze GRB events with large sky localization uncertainties such as the localizations provided by the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM). Coherent searches for gravitational waves (GWs) can be computationally intensive when the GRB sky position is not well-localized, due to the corrections required for the difference in arrival time between detectors. Using a linear search grid we are able to reduce the computational cost of the analysis by a factor of O(10) for GBM events. Furthermore, we demonstrate that our analysis pipeline can improve upon the sky localization of GRBs detected by the GBM, if a high-frequency GW signal is observed in coincidence. We use the linear search grid method in a search for GWs associated with 129 GRBs observed satellite-based gamma-ray experiments between 2006 and 2011. The GRBs in our sample had not been previously analyzed for GW counterparts. A fraction of our GRB events are analyzed using data from GEO600 while the detector was using squeezed-light states to improve its sensitivity; this is the first search for GWs using data from a squeezed-light interferometric observatory. We find no evidence for GW signals, either with any individual GRB in this sample or with the population as a whole. For each GRB we place lower bounds on the distance to the progenitor, assuming a fixed GW emission energy of 10(exp -2)Stellar Mass sq c, with a median exclusion distance of 0.8 Mpc for emission at 500 Hz and 0.3 Mpc at 1 kHz. The reduced computational cost associated with a linear search grid will enable rapid searches for GWs associated with Fermi GBM events in the Advanced detector era.

  3. High Dynamic Range X-Ray Detector Pixel Architectures Utilizing Charge Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Joel T.; Shanks, Katherine S.; Philipp, Hugh T.; Becker, Julian; Chamberlain, Darol; Purohit, Prafull; Tate, Mark W.; Gruner, Sol M.

    2017-04-01

    Several charge integrating CMOS pixel front ends utilizing charge removal techniques have been fabricated to extend dynamic range for X-ray diffraction applications at synchrotron sourcesand X-ray free electron lasers (XFELs). The pixels described herein build on the mixed mode pixel array detector (MM-PAD) framework, developed previously by our group to perform high dynamic range imaging. These new pixels boast several orders of magnitude improvement in maximum flux over the MM-PAD, which is capable of measuring a sustained flux in excess of 108 X-rays/pixel/s while maintaining sensitivity to smaller signals, down to single X-rays. To extend dynamic range, charge is removed from the integration node of the frontend amplifier without interrupting integration. The number of times this process occurs is recorded by a digital counter in the pixel. The parameter limiting full well is, thereby, shifted from the size of an integration capacitor to the depth of a digital counter. The result is similar to that achieved by counting pixel array detectors, but the integrators presented here are designed to tolerate a sustained flux > 1011 X-rays/pixel/s. Pixel front-end linearity was evaluated by direct current injection and results are presented. A small-scale readout ASIC utilizing these pixel architectures has been fabricated and the use of these architectures to increase single X-ray pulse dynamic range at XFELs is discussed briefly.

  4. OPTIMIZATION OF VIRTUAL FRISCH-GRID CdZnTe DETECTOR DESIGNS FOR IMAGING AND SPECTROSCOPY OF GAMMA RAYS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOLOTNIKOV,A.E.; ABDUL-JABBAR, N.M.; BABALOLA, S.; CAMARDA, G.S.; CUI, Y.; HOSSAIN, A.; JACKSON, E.; JACKSON, H.; JAMES, J.R.; LURYI, A.L.; JAMES, R.B.

    2007-08-21

    In the past, various virtual Frisch-grid designs have been proposed for cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) and other compound semiconductor detectors. These include three-terminal, semi-spherical, CAPture, Frisch-ring, capacitive Frisch-grid and pixel devices (along with their modifications). Among them, the Frisch-grid design employing a non-contacting ring extended over the entire side surfaces of parallelepiped-shaped CZT crystals is the most promising. The defect-free parallelepiped-shaped crystals with typical dimensions of 5x5{approx}12 mm3 are easy to produce and can be arranged into large arrays used for imaging and gamma-ray spectroscopy. In this paper, we report on further advances of the virtual Frisch-grid detector design for the parallelepiped-shaped CZT crystals. Both the experimental testing and modeling results are described.

  5. A twin Frisch-grid ionization chamber as a selective detector for the delayed gamma-spectroscopy of fission fragments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaudefroy, L., E-mail: laurent.gaudefroy@cea.fr [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Roger, T., E-mail: roger@ganil.fr [GANIL, CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, BP 55027, F-14076 Caen (France); Pancin, J., E-mail: pancin@ganil.fr [GANIL, CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, BP 55027, F-14076 Caen (France); Spitaels, C. [GANIL, CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, BP 55027, F-14076 Caen (France); Aupiais, J. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Mottier, J. [Institut de Physique Nucléaire, Université Paris-Sud-11-CNRS-IN2P3, F-91406 Orsay (France)

    2017-05-21

    We present a twin Frisch-grid ionization chamber. The detector is meant to provide high selective power for the study of delayed gamma-ray spectroscopy of fission fragments produced via {sup 252}Cf spontaneous fission. A mean energy resolution on the kinetic energy of fission fragments of 675 keV (FWHM) is achieved and allows us to resolve masses of fragments for fission events where neutron emission is not energetically possible. The mean mass resolution measured for these particular events amounts to 0.54 mass units (FWHM). For fission events with neutron emission a resolution of 4 mass units (FWHM) is reported. Information on fragment emission angle is measured with a resolution of 0.1 on the difference of the cosines determined for both halves of the detector. A charge resolution of 4.5 charge units (FWHM) is also demonstrated.

  6. Gamma spectrometric characterization of various CdTe and CdZnTe detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Arlt, R; Sumah, P

    1999-01-01

    CdZnTe and CdTe detectors are now used by the Department of Safeguards of the International Atomic Energy Agency in significant numbers. To prepare, plan and support various verification methods, their properties must be well characterized and understood. In this paper we present some of the results which were obtained with large volume hemispheric CdZnTe detectors and high-resolution CdTe detectors.

  7. Hard-X and gamma-ray imaging detector for astrophysics based on pixelated CdTe semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gálvez, J.-L.; Hernanz, M.; Álvarez, L.; Artigues, B.; Ullán, M.; Lozano, M.; Pellegrini, G.; Cabruja, E.; Martínez, R.; Chmeissani, M.; Puigdengoles, C.

    2016-01-01

    Stellar explosions are astrophysical phenomena of great importance and interest. Instruments with high sensitivities are essential to perform detailed studies of cosmic explosions and cosmic accelerators. In order to achieve the needed performance, a hard-X and gamma-ray imaging detector with mm spatial resolution and large enough efficiency is required. We present a detector module which consists of a single CdTe crystal of 12.5 × 12.5mm 2 and 2mm thick with a planar cathode and with the anode segmented in an 11x11 pixel array with a pixel pitch of 1 mm attached to the readout chip. Two possible detector module configurations are considered: the so-called Planar Transverse Field (PTF) and the Parallel Planar Field (PPF). The combination of several modules in PTF or PPF configuration will achieve the desired performance of the imaging detector. The sum energy resolution of all pixels of the CdTe module measured at 122 keV and 356 keV is 3.8% and 2% respectively, in the following operating conditions: PPF irradiation, bias voltage -500 V and temperature -10̂ C.

  8. The high dynamic range pixel array detector (HDR-PAD): Concept and design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shanks, Katherine S.; Philipp, Hugh T.; Weiss, Joel T.; Becker, Julian; Tate, Mark W. [Laboratory of Atomic and Solid State Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Gruner, Sol M., E-mail: smg26@cornell.edu [Laboratory of Atomic and Solid State Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS), Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

    2016-07-27

    Experiments at storage ring light sources as well as at next-generation light sources increasingly require detectors capable of high dynamic range operation, combining low-noise detection of single photons with large pixel well depth. XFEL sources in particular provide pulse intensities sufficiently high that a purely photon-counting approach is impractical. The High Dynamic Range Pixel Array Detector (HDR-PAD) project aims to provide a dynamic range extending from single-photon sensitivity to 10{sup 6} photons/pixel in a single XFEL pulse while maintaining the ability to tolerate a sustained flux of 10{sup 11} ph/s/pixel at a storage ring source. Achieving these goals involves the development of fast pixel front-end electronics as well as, in the XFEL case, leveraging the delayed charge collection due to plasma effects in the sensor. A first prototype of essential electronic components of the HDR-PAD readout ASIC, exploring different options for the pixel front-end, has been fabricated. Here, the HDR-PAD concept and preliminary design will be described.

  9. Configurable Electronics with Low Noise and 14-bit Dynamic Range for Photodiode-based Photon Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, H; Yin, Z; Zhou, D; Cao, X; Li, Q; Liu, Y; Zou, F; Skaali, B; Awes, T C

    2006-01-01

    We describe the principles and measured performance characteristics of custom configurable 32-channel shaper/digitizer Front End Electronics (FEE) cards with 14-bit dynamic range for use with gain-adjustable photon detectors. The electronics has been designed for the PHOS calorimeter of ALICE with avalanche photodiode (APD) readout operated at -25 C ambient temperature and a signal shaping time of $1 {\\mu}s$. The electronics has also been adopted by the EMCal detector of ALICE with the same APD readout, but operated at an ambient temperature of +20 C and with a shaping time of 100ns. The CR-RC2 signal shapers on the FEE cards are implemented in discrete logic on a 10-layer board with two shaper sections for each input channel. The two shaper sections with gain ratio of 16:1 are digitized by 10-bit ADCs and provide an effective dynamic range of 14 bits. Gain adjustment for each individual APD is available through 32 bias voltage control registers of 10-bit range. The fixed gains and shaping times of the pole-z...

  10. Radioactive source localization inside pipes using a long-range alpha detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xue-Mei; Tuo, Xian-Guo; Li, Zhe; Liu, Ming-Zhe; Zhang, Jin-Zhao; Dong, Xiang-Long; Li, Ping-Chuan

    2013-08-01

    Long-range alpha detectors (LRADs) are attracting much attention in the decommissioning of nuclear facilities because of some problems in obtaining source positions on an interior surface during pipe decommissioning. By utilizing the characteristic that LRAD detects alphas by collecting air-driving ions, this article applies a method to localize the radioactive source by ions' fluid property. By obtaining the ion travel time and the airspeed distribution in the pipe, the source position can be determined. Thus this method overcomes the ion's lack of periodic characteristics. Experimental results indicate that this method can approximately localize the source inside the pipe. The calculation results are in good agreement with the experimental results.

  11. Precision measurements with W and Z/gamma* bosons with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Anulli, Fabio; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The inclusive production of single W and $Z/\\gamma^{*}$ bosons are standard candles at hadron colliders. ATLAS has recently completed a set of very precise measurements of production cross-sections and lepton decay angular distributions integrated and differential in several variables at centre-of-mass energies of 7, 8, and 13 TeV. ATLAS has performed a measurement of the complete set of coefficients that describe the angular distributions of the decay leptons in Z events in fine bins of the Z transverse momentum and in several bins of Z rapidity. Furthermore a measurement of the dilepton transverse momentum spectrum as well as the related angular decorrelation variable $\\phi^{*}$ was performed in a wide range of dilepton masses from 12 to 150 GeV. Precise double-differential measurements of the Drell-Yan cross section in the region above the Z peak up to dilepton masses of 1500 GeV are presented as well. Finally, first precise measurements of integrated W and Z cross sections and cross section ratios at 13 T...

  12. Alternative chitosan-based EPR dosimeter applicable for a relatively wide range of gamma radiation doses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piroonpan, Thananchai; Katemake, Pichayada; Panritdam, Eagkapong; Pasanphan, Wanvimol

    2017-12-01

    Chitosan biopolymer is proposed as an alternative EPR dosimeter. Its ability to be EPR dosimeter was studied in comparison with the conventional alanine, sugars (i.e., glucose and sucrose), formate derivatives (i.e., lithium (Li), magnesium (Mg), and calcium (Ca) formate). Ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) and paraffin were used as binder for the preparation of composite EPR dosimeter. Dose responses of all materials were investigated in a wide dose range of radiation doses, i.e., low-level (0-1 kGy), medium-level (1-10 kGy) and high-level (10-100 kGy). The EPR dosimeter properties were studied under different parameters, i.e., microwave power, materials contents, absorbed doses, storage conditions and post-irradiation effects. Li-formate showed a simple EPR spectrum and exhibited superior radiation response for low-dose range; whereas chitosan and sucrose exhibited linear dose response in all studied dose ranges. The EPR signals of chitosan exhibited similar stability as glucose, Li-formate and alanine at ambient temperature after irradiation as long as a year. All EPR signals of the studied materials were affected post-irradiation temperature and humidity after gamma irradiation. The EPR signal of chitosan exhibited long-term stability and it was not sensitive to high storage temperatures and humidity values after irradiation. Chitosan has a good merit as the alternative bio-based material for a stable EPR dosimeter in a wide range of radiation-absorbed doses.

  13. Physics of reflective optics for the soft gamma-ray photon energy range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Perea, Mónica; Descalle, Marie-Anne; Soufli, Regina; Ziock, Klaus P; Alameda, Jennifer; Baker, Sherry L; McCarville, Tom J; Honkimäki, Veijo; Ziegler, Eric; Jakobsen, Anders C; Christensen, Finn E; Pivovaroff, Michael J

    2013-07-12

    Traditional multilayer reflective optics that have been used in the past for imaging at x-ray photon energies as high as 200 keV are governed by classical wave phenomena. However, their behavior at higher energies is unknown, because of the increasing effect of incoherent scattering and the disagreement between experimental and theoretical optical properties of materials in the hard x-ray and gamma-ray regimes. Here, we demonstrate that multilayer reflective optics can operate efficiently and according to classical wave physics up to photon energies of at least 384 keV. We also use particle transport simulations to quantitatively determine that incoherent scattering takes place in the mirrors but it does not affect the performance at the Bragg angles of operation. Our results open up new possibilities of reflective optical designs in a spectral range where only diffractive optics (crystals and lenses) and crystal monochromators have been available until now.

  14. Effect of prolonged annealing on the performance of coaxial Ge gamma-ray detectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Owens, A.; Brandenburg, S.; Buis, E. -J.; Kozorezov, A. G.; Kraft, S.; Ostendorf, R. W.; Quarati, F.

    The effects of prolonged annealing at elevated temperatures have been investigated in a 53 cm(3) closed-end coaxial high purity germanium detector in the reverse electrode configuration. The detector was multiply annealed at 100 degrees C in block periods of 7 days. After each anneal cycle it was

  15. Performance of new solid state {gamma}-detectors in {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dellmann, Til; Klauss, Hans-Henning [Institute of Solid State Physics, TU Dresden (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Usually, proportional counter tubes are used in {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy for the detection of the 14.4 keV transition line. % and further signal processing. The recent developement of Si-based solid state detectors led to commercially available drift detectors (SDD) and high purity PiN diodes without the necessity of cooling with liquid nitrogen. First applications of SDD detectors in the analysis of minerals are already highly promising. In this talk, we present a detailed comparison between the three detector types and their use in Moessbauer spectroscopy using a standard absorber-source-combination (metallic iron with a 2.0 GBq {sup 57}Co/Rh source) in absorbtion geometry. Starting with the definition of a global efficiency function, which optimises the goodness of a Moessbauer spectrum and thus the required measurement time, we examined the influence of the intrinsic detector parameters on the global efficiency.

  16. Particle detectors

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    1999-01-01

    Introduction, interaction of radiation with matter measurement of momentum of charged particles, of energy of e/gamma, hadrons, identification of particles. Design of HEP detectors. Principle of operation and performance of tracking sub-detectors, calorimeters and muon system.

  17. A compact and modular x- and gamma-ray detector with a CsI scintillator and double-readout Silicon Drift Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campana, R.; Fuschino, F.; Labanti, C.; Marisaldi, M.; Amati, L.; Fiorini, M.; Uslenghi, M.; Baldazzi, G.; Bellutti, P.; Evangelista, Y.; Elmi, I.; Feroci, M.; Ficorella, F.; Frontera, F.; Picciotto, A.; Piemonte, C.; Rachevski, A.; Rashevskaya, I.; Rignanese, L. P.; Vacchi, A.; Zampa, G.; Zampa, N.; Zorzi, N.

    2016-07-01

    A future compact and modular X and gamma-ray spectrometer (XGS) has been designed and a series of proto- types have been developed and tested. The experiment envisages the use of CsI scintillator bars read out at both ends by single-cell 25 mm2 Silicon Drift Detectors. Digital algorithms are used to discriminate between events absorbed in the Silicon layer (lower energy X rays) and events absorbed in the scintillator crystal (higher energy X rays and -rays). The prototype characterization is shown and the modular design for future experiments with possible astrophysical applications (e.g. for the THESEUS mission proposed for the ESA M5 call) are discussed.

  18. Neutron Damage in Mechanically-Cooled High-Purity Germanium Detectors for Field-Portable Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E.H. Seabury; C.J. Wharton; A.J. Caffrey; J.B. McCabe; C. DeW. Van Siclen

    2013-10-01

    Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation (PGNAA) systems require the use of a gamma-ray spectrometer to record the gamma-ray spectrum of an object under test and allow the determination of the object’s composition. Field-portable systems, such as Idaho National Laboratory’s PINS system, have used standard liquid-nitrogen-cooled high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors to perform this function. These detectors have performed very well in the past, but the requirement of liquid-nitrogen cooling limits their use to areas where liquid nitrogen is readily available or produced on-site. Also, having a relatively large volume of liquid nitrogen close to the detector can impact some assessments, possibly leading to a false detection of explosives or other nitrogen-containing chemical. Use of a mechanically-cooled HPGe detector is therefore very attractive for PGNAA applications where nitrogen detection is critical or where liquid-nitrogen logistics are problematic. Mechanically-cooled HPGe detectors constructed from p-type germanium, such as Ortec’s trans-SPEC, have been commercially available for several years. In order to assess whether these detectors would be suitable for use in a fielded PGNAA system, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has been performing a number of tests of the resistance of mechanically-cooled HPGe detectors to neutron damage. These detectors have been standard commercially-available p-type HPGe detectors as well as prototype n-type HPGe detectors. These tests compare the performance of these different detector types as a function of crystal temperature and incident neutron fluence on the crystal.

  19. Development of high-resolution gamma detector using sub-mm GAGG crystals coupled to TSV-MPPC array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipovec, A.; Shimazoe, K.; Takahashi, H.

    2016-03-01

    In this study a high-resolution gamma detector based on an array of sub-millimeter Ce:GAGG (Cerium doped Gd3Al2Ga3O12) crystals read out by an array of surface-mount type of TSV-MPPC was developed. MPPC sensor from Hamamatsu which has a 26 by 26 mm2 detector area with 64 channels was used. One channel has a 3 by 3 mm2 photosensitive area with 50 μ m pitch micro cells. MPPC sensor provides 576 mm2 sensing area and was used to decode 48 by 48 array with 0.4 by 0.4 by 20 mm3 Ce:GAGG crystals of 500 μ m pitch. The base of the detector with the crystal module was mounted to a read out board which consists of charge division circuit, thus allowing for a read out of four channels to identify the position of the incident event on the board. The read out signals were amplified using charge sensitive amplifiers. The four amplified signals were digitized and analyzed to produce a position sensitive event. For the performance analysis a 137Cs source was used. The produced events were used for flood histogram and energy analysis. The effects of the glass thickness between the Ce:GAGG and MPPC were analyzed using the experimental flood diagrams and Geant4 simulations. The glass between the scintillator and the detector allows the spread of the light over different channels and is necessary if the channel's sensitive area is bigger than the scintillator's area. The initial results demonstrate that this detector module is promising and could be used for applications requiring compact and high-resolution detectors. Experimental results show that the detectors precision increases using glass guide thickness of 1.35 mm and 1.85 mm; however the precision using 2.5 mm are practically the same as if using 0.8 mm or 1.0 mm glass guide thicknesses. In addition, simulations using Geant4 indicate that the light becomes scarcer if thicker glass is used, thus reducing the ability to indicate which crystal was targeted. When 2.5 mm glass thickness is used, the scarce light effect becomes

  20. Atmospheric gamma-ray lines at low latitudes in the energy range : 0.3-8 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azcarate, I. N.

    2003-12-01

    An experiment carried out with a collimated gamma-ray detector is described. The detector system was transported by an stratospheric balloon, that was launched from Parana, Provincia de Entre Rios, Argentina, on 18 November 1992 ( geomagnetic cut-off 11.1 GV). The presence of a peak was observed, as a characteristic feature of the energy-loss spectrum in the detector. That peak corresponds to the 511 keV line produced by positron annihilation in both the atmopsphere and the lead collimator. The contribution to the counting rate ``below" the peak due to the 511 keV photons produced in the lead is computed. The resulting flux for the atmospheric 511 keV line, at an atmospheric depth of 4.5 g.cm-2, is (9 ± 0.07) x 10-2 phot. cm-2.s-1, which is compatible with measurements performed at other geomagnetic latitudes. Upper limits for other atmospheric gamma-ray lines fluxes are obtained. Acknowledgements : This research was partially supported by grant PIP 0430/98 from CONICET, from Argentina. I.N. Azcarate is a member of the Carrera del Investigador Cientifico y Tecnologico from CONICET, Argentina.

  1. Range image segmentation using Zernike moment-based generalized edge detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosal, S.; Mehrotra, R.

    1992-01-01

    The authors proposed a novel Zernike moment-based generalized step edge detection method which can be used for segmenting range and intensity images. A generalized step edge detector is developed to identify different kinds of edges in range images. These edge maps are thinned and linked to provide final segmentation. A generalized edge is modeled in terms of five parameters: orientation, two slopes, one step jump at the location of the edge, and the background gray level. Two complex and two real Zernike moment-based masks are required to determine all these parameters of the edge model. Theoretical noise analysis is performed to show that these operators are quite noise tolerant. Experimental results are included to demonstrate edge-based segmentation technique.

  2. [Feasibility study of CdTe Semiconductor detector for gamma camera--evaluation of planar images].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, T; Nakamura, N; Motomura, N; Mori, I; Ozaki, T; Ohno, R

    2000-05-01

    To evaluate the performance of a semiconductor detector for use in a gammacamera system, we assembled a detector with a small field of view--1 inch x 1 inch and 1 inch x 2 inch--made from CdTe (Cadmium telluride). We then compared the planar images and energy resolution of the resulting detectors against those of a conventional gammacamera. Pixel pitch of the detector was 1.6 mm x 1.6 mm, and was manufactured by Acrorad Corporation. Average FWHM of the energy spectrum for the semiconductor detector was 5.11% (SD: 0.80%, Best: 3.26%, Worst: 6.68%). The planar images obtained were of a letter phantom made from pieces of lead and of an IMP brain phantom. Since the field of view of the semiconductor detector was small, the image of the IMP brain phantom was acquired by moving the semiconductor over the collimated detector module until the area of the entire phantom was covered. The images from the semiconductor assembly were compared with those from a conventional gammacamera using the same conditions, and it was found that visual image quality was superior to those of the conventional camera system.

  3. Programming Arduino to Control Bias Voltages to Temperature-Depedndent Gamma-ray Detectors aboard TRYAD Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevons, C. E.; Jenke, P.; Briggs, M. S.

    2016-12-01

    Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes (TGFs) are sub-millisecond gamma-ray flashes that are correlated with lightning have been observed with numerous satellites since their discovery in the early 1990s. Although substantial research has been conducted on TGFs, puzzling questions regarding their origin are still left unanswered. Consequently, the Terrestrial RaYs Analysis and Detection (TRYAD) mission is designed to solve many issues about TGFs by measuring the beam profile and orientation of TGFs in low Earth orbit. This project consists of sending two CubeSats into low-Earth orbit where they will independently sample TGF beams. Both of the TRYAD CubeSats will contain a gamma-ray detector composed of lead doped plastic scintillator coupled to silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) arrays. The gain readings of the SiPMs vary with temperature and the bias voltage must be corrected to compensate. Using an Arduino micro-controller, circuitry and software was developed to control the gain in response to the resistance of a thermistor. I will present the difficulties involved with this project along with our solutions.

  4. Silicon PIN diode based electron-gamma coincidence detector system for Noble Gases monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khrustalev, K; Popov, V Yu; Popov, Yu S

    2017-08-01

    We present a new second generation SiPIN based electron-photon coincidence detector system developed by Lares Ltd. for use in the Noble Gas measurement systems of the International Monitoring System and the On-site Inspection verification regimes of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). The SiPIN provide superior energy resolution for electrons. Our work describes the improvements made in the second generation detector cells and the potential use of such detector systems for other applications such as In-Situ Kr-85 measurements for non-proliferation purposes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Reproducibility and calibration of MMC-based high-resolution gamma detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, C. R.; Friedrich, S., E-mail: friedrich1@llnl.gov [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Ave., Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Pies, C.; Kempf, S.; Hengstler, D.; Fleischmann, A.; Gastaldo, L.; Enss, C. [Kirchhoff-Institut für Physik, Universität Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 227, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2016-07-11

    We describe a prototype γ-ray detector based on a metallic magnetic calorimeter with an energy resolution of 46 eV at 60 keV and a reproducible response function that follows a simple second-order polynomial. The simple detector calibration allows adding high-resolution spectra from different pixels and different cool-downs without loss in energy resolution to determine γ-ray centroids with high accuracy. As an example of an application in nuclear safeguards enabled by such a γ-ray detector, we discuss the non-destructive assay of {sup 242}Pu in a mixed-isotope Pu sample.

  6. Determinación de la dosis ambiental equivalente H*(10) a partir de espectrometría gamma con detector de LaBr3

    OpenAIRE

    López de Abajo, Héctor

    2011-01-01

    El presente informe tiene como objetivo principal la obtención de la dosis ambiental equivalente (H*(10)) a partir del espectro obtenido mediante el análisis de la amplitud de los impulsos producidos por la radiación gamma incidente en un detector de centelleo, en este caso, un detector inorgánico de bromuro de lantano (LaBr3) con activador de cerio (Ce). El primer paso en la obtención de la variable consiste en la obtención de espectros gamma experimentalmente a partir de unas...

  7. Combined in-beam gamma-ray and conversion electron spectroscopy with radioactive ion beams. Simulations of a silicon detector for the SPEDE spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konki, J.; Papadakis, P.; Pakarinen, J.; Butler, P. A.; Davies, P.; Greenlees, P. T.; Herzberg, R. D.; Huyse, M.; Jenkins, D. G.; Julin, R.; O'Neill, G.; Page, R. D.; Rahkila, P.; Ranttila, K.; Thornhill, J.; Van Duppen, P.

    2013-12-01

    In-beam gamma-ray and electron spectroscopy have been widely used as tools to study the broad variety of phenomena in nuclear structure. The SPEDE spectrometer is a new device to be used in conjunction with the MINIBALL germanium detector array to enable the detection of internal conversion electrons in coincidence with gamma rays from de-exciting nuclei in radioactive ion beam experiments at the upcoming HIE-ISOLDE facility at CERN, Switzerland. Geant4 simulations were carried out in order to optimise the design and segmentation of the silicon detector to achieve good energy resolution and performance.

  8. Calibration and performance of a real-time gamma-ray spectrometry water monitor using a LaBr3(Ce) detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, E.; Casanovas, R.; Salvadó, M.

    2018-03-01

    A scintillation gamma-ray spectrometry water monitor with a 2″ × 2″ LaBr3(Ce) detector was characterized in this study. This monitor measures gamma-ray spectra of river water. Energy and resolution calibrations were performed experimentally, whereas the detector efficiency was determined using Monte Carlo simulations with EGS5 code system. Values of the minimum detectable activity concentrations for 131I and 137Cs were calculated for different integration times. As an example of the monitor performance after calibration, a radiological increment during a rainfall episode was studied.

  9. Detection of pulsed, bremsstrahlung-induced, prompt neutron capture gamma-rays with HPGe detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, J.L.

    1996-08-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) is developing a novel photoneutron-based nondestructive evaluation technique which uses a pulsed, high-energy (up to 8-MeV) electron accelerator and gamma-ray spectrometry. Highly penetrating pulses of bremsstrahlung photons are produced by each pulse of electrons. Interrogating neutrons are generated by the bremsstrahlung photons interacting within a photoneutron source material. The interactions of the neutrons within a target result in the emission of elemental characteristic gamma-rays. Spectrometry is performed by analyzing the photoneutron-induced prompt gamma-rays acquired between accelerator pulses with a unique, high-purity germanium (HPGe) gamma-ray detection system using a modified transistor reset preamplifier. The detection system, the experimental configuration, and the accelerator operation used to characterize the detection system performance are described. Using a 6.5 MeV electron accelerator and a beryllium metal photoneutron source, gamma-ray spectra were successfully acquired for Al, Cu, polyethylene, NaC1, and depleted uranium targets as soon as 30 {mu}s after each bremsstrahlung (or x-ray) flash.

  10. Designing an extended energy range single-sphere multi-detector neutron spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Ros, J.M., E-mail: jm.gomezros@ciemat.es [CIEMAT, Av. Complutense 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain); IFNF-LNF, U.F. Fisica Sanitaria, via E. Fermi n. 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Bedogni, R. [IFNF-LNF, U.F. Fisica Sanitaria, via E. Fermi n. 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Moraleda, M. [CIEMAT, Av. Complutense 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Esposito, A. [IFNF-LNF, U.F. Fisica Sanitaria, via E. Fermi n. 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Pola, A.; Introini, M.V. [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Energia, via Ponzio 34/3, 20133 Milano (Italy); Mazzitelli, G.; Quintieri, L.; Buonomo, B. [IFNF-LNF, U.F. Fisica Sanitaria, via E. Fermi n. 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy)

    2012-06-11

    This communication describes the design specifications for a neutron spectrometer consisting of 31 thermal neutron detectors, namely Dysprosium activation foils, embedded in a 25 cm diameter polyethylene sphere which includes a 1 cm thick lead shell insert that degrades the energy of neutrons through (n,xn) reactions, thus allowing to extension of the energy range of the response up to hundreds of MeV neutrons. The new spectrometer, called SP{sup 2} (SPherical SPectrometer), relies on the same detection mechanism as that of the Bonner Sphere Spectrometer, but with the advantage of determining the whole neutron spectrum in a single exposure. The Monte Carlo transport code MCNPX was used to design the spectrometer in terms of sphere diameter, number and position of the detectors, position and thickness of the lead shell, as well as to obtain the response matrix for the final configuration. This work focuses on evaluating the spectrometric capabilities of the SP{sup 2} design by simulating the exposure of SP{sup 2} in neutron fields representing different irradiation conditions (test spectra). The simulated SP{sup 2} readings were then unfolded with the FRUIT unfolding code, in the absence of detailed pre-information, and the unfolded spectra were compared with the known test spectra. The results are satisfactory and allowed approving the production of a prototypal spectrometer.

  11. Constitutive spectral EEG peaks in the gamma range: suppressed by sleep, reduced by mental activity and resistant to sensory stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyler Samuel Grummett

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In a systematic study of gamma activity in neuro-psychiatric disease, we unexpectedly observed distinctive, apparently persistent, electroencephalogram (EEG spectral peaks in the gamma range (25-100 Hz. Our objective, therefore, was to examine the incidence, distribution and some of the characteristics of these peaks.Methods: High sample-rate, 128-channel, EEG was recorded in 603 volunteers (510 with neuropsychiatric disorders, 93 controls, whilst performing cognitive tasks, and converted to power spectra. Peaks of spectral power, including in the gamma range, were determined algorithmically for all electrodes. To determine if peaks were stable, 24-hour ambulatory recordings were obtained from 16 subjects with peaks. In 10 subjects, steady-state responses to stimuli at peak frequency were compared with off-peak-frequency stimulation to determine if peaks were a feature of underlying network resonances and peaks were evaluated with easy and hard versions of oddball tasks to determine if peaks might be influenced by mental effort.Results: 57 % of subjects exhibited peaks > 2 dB above trough power at or above 25 Hz. Larger peaks (> 5 dB were present in 13 % of subjects. Peaks were distributed widely over the scalp, more frequent centrally. Peaks were present through the day and were suppressed by slow-wave-sleep. Steady-state responses were the same with on- or off-peak sensory stimulation. In contrast, mental effort resulted in reductions in power and frequency of gamma peaks, although the suppression did not correlate with level of effort.Conclusions: Gamma EEG can be expressed constitutively as concentrations of power in narrow or wide frequency bands that play an, as yet, unknown role in cognitive activity.Significance: These findings expand the described range of rhythmic EEG phenomena. In particular, in addition to evoked, induced and sustained gamma band activity, gamma activity can be present constitutively in spectral peaks.

  12. Study of the a_0(980) meson via the radiative decay phi->eta pi^0 gamma with the KLOE detector

    CERN Document Server

    Ambrosino, F; Antonelli, M; Archilli, F; Bacci, C; Beltrame, P; Bencivenni, G; Bertolucci, S; Bini, C; Bloise, C; Bocchetta, S; Bossi, F; Branchini, P; Campana, P; Capon, G; Capussela, T; Ceradini, F; Chi, S; Chiefari, G; Ciambrone, P; Crucianelli, F; De Lucia, E; De Santis, A; De Simone, P; De Zorzi, G; Denig, A; Di Domenico, A; Di Donato, C; Di Micco, B; Doria, A; Dreucci, M; Felici, G; Ferrari, A; Ferrer, M L; Fiore, S; Forti, C; Franzini, P; Gatti, C; Gauzzi, P; Giovannella, S; Gorini, E; Graziani, E; Kluge, W; Kulikov, V; Lacava, F; Lanfranchi, G; Lee-Franzini, J; Leone, D; Martini, M; Massarotti, P; Mei, W; Meola, S; Miscetti, S; Moulson, M; Müller, S; Murtas, F; Napolitano, M; Nguyen, F; Palutan, M; Pasqualucci, E; Passeri, A; Patera, V; Perfetto, F; Primavera, M; Santangelo, P; Saracino, G; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Sibidanov, A; Spadaro, T; Testa, M; Tortora, L; Valente, P; Venanzoni, G; Versaci, R; Volpe, R; Xu, G

    2009-01-01

    We have studied the phi->a_0(980) gamma process with the KLOE detector at the Frascati phi-factory DAPhNE by detecting the phi->eta pi^0 gamma decays in the final states with eta->gamma gamma and eta->pi^+ pi^- pi^0. We have measured the branching ratios for both final states: Br(phi->eta pi^0 gamma)=(7.01 +/- 0.10 +/- 0.20)x10^-5 and (7.12 +/- 0.13 +/- 0.22)x10^-5 respectively. We have also extracted the a_0(980) mass and its couplings to eta pi^0, K^+ K^-, and to the phi meson from the fit of the eta pi^0 invariant mass distributions using different phenomenological models.

  13. Phase-coherence transitions and communication in the gamma range between delay-coupled neuronal populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barardi, Alessandro; Sancristóbal, Belen; Garcia-Ojalvo, Jordi

    2014-07-01

    Synchronization between neuronal populations plays an important role in information transmission between brain areas. In particular, collective oscillations emerging from the synchronized activity of thousands of neurons can increase the functional connectivity between neural assemblies by coherently coordinating their phases. This synchrony of neuronal activity can take place within a cortical patch or between different cortical regions. While short-range interactions between neurons involve just a few milliseconds, communication through long-range projections between different regions could take up to tens of milliseconds. How these heterogeneous transmission delays affect communication between neuronal populations is not well known. To address this question, we have studied the dynamics of two bidirectionally delayed-coupled neuronal populations using conductance-based spiking models, examining how different synaptic delays give rise to in-phase/anti-phase transitions at particular frequencies within the gamma range, and how this behavior is related to the phase coherence between the two populations at different frequencies. We have used spectral analysis and information theory to quantify the information exchanged between the two networks. For different transmission delays between the two coupled populations, we analyze how the local field potential and multi-unit activity calculated from one population convey information in response to a set of external inputs applied to the other population. The results confirm that zero-lag synchronization maximizes information transmission, although out-of-phase synchronization allows for efficient communication provided the coupling delay, the phase lag between the populations, and the frequency of the oscillations are properly matched.

  14. Phase-coherence transitions and communication in the gamma range between delay-coupled neuronal populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Barardi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Synchronization between neuronal populations plays an important role in information transmission between brain areas. In particular, collective oscillations emerging from the synchronized activity of thousands of neurons can increase the functional connectivity between neural assemblies by coherently coordinating their phases. This synchrony of neuronal activity can take place within a cortical patch or between different cortical regions. While short-range interactions between neurons involve just a few milliseconds, communication through long-range projections between different regions could take up to tens of milliseconds. How these heterogeneous transmission delays affect communication between neuronal populations is not well known. To address this question, we have studied the dynamics of two bidirectionally delayed-coupled neuronal populations using conductance-based spiking models, examining how different synaptic delays give rise to in-phase/anti-phase transitions at particular frequencies within the gamma range, and how this behavior is related to the phase coherence between the two populations at different frequencies. We have used spectral analysis and information theory to quantify the information exchanged between the two networks. For different transmission delays between the two coupled populations, we analyze how the local field potential and multi-unit activity calculated from one population convey information in response to a set of external inputs applied to the other population. The results confirm that zero-lag synchronization maximizes information transmission, although out-of-phase synchronization allows for efficient communication provided the coupling delay, the phase lag between the populations, and the frequency of the oscillations are properly matched.

  15. Frequency-Modulated, Continuous-Wave Laser Ranging Using Photon-Counting Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkmen, Baris I.; Barber, Zeb W.; Dahl, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Optical ranging is a problem of estimating the round-trip flight time of a phase- or amplitude-modulated optical beam that reflects off of a target. Frequency- modulated, continuous-wave (FMCW) ranging systems obtain this estimate by performing an interferometric measurement between a local frequency- modulated laser beam and a delayed copy returning from the target. The range estimate is formed by mixing the target-return field with the local reference field on a beamsplitter and detecting the resultant beat modulation. In conventional FMCW ranging, the source modulation is linear in instantaneous frequency, the reference-arm field has many more photons than the target-return field, and the time-of-flight estimate is generated by balanced difference- detection of the beamsplitter output, followed by a frequency-domain peak search. This work focused on determining the maximum-likelihood (ML) estimation algorithm when continuous-time photoncounting detectors are used. It is founded on a rigorous statistical characterization of the (random) photoelectron emission times as a function of the incident optical field, including the deleterious effects caused by dark current and dead time. These statistics enable derivation of the Cramér-Rao lower bound (CRB) on the accuracy of FMCW ranging, and derivation of the ML estimator, whose performance approaches this bound at high photon flux. The estimation algorithm was developed, and its optimality properties were shown in simulation. Experimental data show that it performs better than the conventional estimation algorithms used. The demonstrated improvement is a factor of 1.414 over frequency-domainbased estimation. If the target interrogating photons and the local reference field photons are costed equally, the optimal allocation of photons between these two arms is to have them equally distributed. This is different than the state of the art, in which the local field is stronger than the target return. The optimal

  16. Testing and Comparison of Imaging Detectors for Electrons in the Energy Range 10–20 keV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheson, J.; Moldovan, G.; Kirkland, A.; Allinson, N.; Abrahams, J. P.

    2017-11-01

    Interest in direct detectors for low-energy electrons has increased markedly in recent years. Detection of electrons in the energy range up to low tens of keV is important in techniques such as photoelectron emission microscopy (PEEM) and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) on scanning electron microscopes (SEMs). The PEEM technique is used both in the laboratory and on synchrotron light sources worldwide. The ubiquity of SEMs means that there is a very large market for EBSD detectors for materials studies. Currently, the most widely used detectors in these applications are based on indirect detection of incident electrons. Examples include scintillators or microchannel plates (MCPs), coupled to CCD cameras. Such approaches result in blurring in scintillators/phosphors, distortions in optical systems, and inefficiencies due the limited active area of MCPs. In principle, these difficulties can be overcome using direct detection in a semiconductor device. Growing out of a feasibility study into the use of a direct detector for use on an XPEEM, we have built at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory a system to illuminate detectors with an electron beam of energy up to 20 keV . We describe this system in detail. It has been used to measure the performance of a custom back-thinned monolithic active pixel sensor (MAPS), a detector based on the Medipix2 chip, and a commercial detector based on MCPs. We present a selection of the results from these measurements and compare and contrast different detector types.

  17. Calibration of the High Resolution Gamma Spectrometry Detection Systems from the Environmental Radioactivity Unit and Radiological Surveillance (ARU and RV); Calibracion de los Sistemas Detectores de Espectrometria Gamma de Alta Resolucion de la Unidad de Radiactividad Ambiental y Vigilancia Radiologica (URA y VR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez-Navarro, J. A.; Gasco, C.; Arana, M.; Suanez, A.

    2012-11-01

    In accordance with international regulations and with the quality criteria imposed by the internal quality system of the laboratory of gamma spectrometry, which belongs to the Unit of Environmental Radioactivity and Radiation Monitoring (URA y VR), it is necessary to perform a periodic calibration of the measurement systems of gamma spectrometry. The equipment calibration carries with the need for the preparation of the geometries of measurement and calibration in energy and in efficiencies. This report reflects the procedures for the preparation of the wide range of geometries available in the laboratory, as well as the different calibrations performed with those geometries in almost all the laboratory gamma detectors using the CANBERRA software Genie 2k. (Author) 9 refs.

  18. Intraoperative search for neuroblastoma by MIBG and radioguided surgery with the gamma detector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heij, H. A.; Rutgers, E. J.; de Kraker, J.; Vos, A.

    1997-01-01

    Administration of a tumour-seeking compound labeled with a low-energy isotope and intraoperative screening with the gamma probe (radioguided surgery, RGS) could be useful in reoperations for advanced neuroblastoma when the normal anatomy is altered. A pilot study was performed to test the

  19. Measurement of the Range Component Directional Signature in a DRIFT-II Detector using 252Cf Neutrons

    CERN Document Server

    Burgos, S; Forbes, J; Ghag, C; Gold, M; Hagemann, C; Kudryavtsev, V A; Lawson, T B; Loomba, D; Majewski, P; Muna, D; Murphy, A St J; Nicklin, G G; Paling, S M; Petkov, A; Plank, S J S; Robinson, M; Sanghi, N; Snowden-Ifft, D P; Spooner, N J C; Turk, J; Tziaferi, E

    2008-01-01

    The DRIFT collaboration utilizes low pressure gaseous detectors to search for WIMP dark matter with directional signatures. A 252Cf neutron source was placed on each of the principal axes of a DRIFT detector in order to test its ability to measure directional signatures from the three components of very low energy (~keV/amu) recoil ranges. A high trigger threshold and the event selection procedure ensured that only sulfur recoils were analyzed. Sulfur recoils produced in the CS2 target gas by the 252Cf source closely match those expected from massive WIMP induced sulfur recoils. For each orientation of the source a directional signal from the range components was observed, indicating that the detector is directional along all 3 axes. An analysis of these results yields an optimal orientation for DRIFT detectors when searching for a directional signature from WIMPs. Additional energy dependent information is provided to aid in understanding this effect.

  20. Spectroscopy with CdZnTe gamma- and X-ray detectors by modifying the electron trapping to compensate for incomplete charge collection caused by large hole trapping

    CERN Document Server

    Shor, A; Mardor, I

    1999-01-01

    We show a method for obtaining excellent spectroscopic performance for CdZnTe gamma- and X-ray detectors with segmented readout. Best spectroscopic performance is obtained by tuning the electron trapping in the detector material to obtain optimum compensation for the incomplete charge collection caused by the large amount of hole trapping. For a CdZnTe detector with pad segmentation, we obtain for sup 5 sup 7 Co a photopeak resolution of better than 3.5% FWHM with a peak-to-valley ratio of approx 100/1.

  1. True coincidence-summing corrections for the coincident gamma-rays measured with coplanar grid CdZnTe detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yücel, H; Solmaz, A N; Köse, E; Bor, D

    2010-06-01

    In this study, true coincidence-summing (TCS) correction factors have been measured for the sources (22)Na, (60)Co, (133)Ba and (152)Eu by use of three large volume coplanar grid CdZnTe (acronym: CZT) detectors. In case of a close-in detection geometry, two different TCS calculation algorithms were used to compute the required TCS correction factors. Both of the algorithms are based on the measured total-to-peak (TTP) ratio and full-energy peak (FEP) efficiency values that were obtained using almost "single" energy and coincidence-free nuclides. The results for TCS correction factors obtained by two different algorithms were agreeable to each other. The obtained TCS factors were ranged from about 7% to 30.5% in a 2250 mm(3) CZT detector when a close counting geometry was used. For other two detectors with a volume of 1000 and 1687.5mm(3), the resulted TCS correction factors were relatively smaller and varied between about 0.1% and 20% at the close counting geometry condition. Therefore, the results indicate that there is a need for the estimation of TCS corrections in CZT detectors, especially when their crystal volumes are greater than 1cm(3) and these detectors are used in the case of a close-in detection geometry. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Gamma-spectrometric module based on HPGe detector for radiation portal monitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kondratjev Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The appearance of small-sized and powerful enough electric cryocoolers of various types on the market, has opened the perspective of HPGe detectors application, cooled by such coolers, in radiation portal monitors. The first results of a spectrometric module based on HPGe detector with relative efficiency of 45% cooled by a Stirling-cycle cryocooler, are presented. The spectrometer has provided energy resolutions of less than 0.95 keV and 1.95 keV at energies of 122 keV and 1332 keV, respectively. The deterioration of the energy resolution of HPGe detector cooled by electric cryocooler in comparison to the resolution with liquid nitrogen cooling was about 8% at the energy of 1332 keV. With the use of activated filters to suppress pulses produced by the mechanical vibrations, the energy resolution of the spectrometer was 0.8 keV and 1.8 keV, respectively, however, the detector relative efficiency at the energy of 1332 keV has dropped to 39 %.

  3. Measurement of the inclusive $W^{\\pm}$ and $Z/\\gamma$ cross sections in the electron and muon decay channels in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdelalim, Ahmed Ali; Abdesselam, Abdelouahab; Abdinov, Ovsat; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Acerbi, Emilio; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adams, David; Addy, Tetteh; Adelman, Jahred; Aderholz, Michael; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adragna, Paolo; Adye, Tim; Aefsky, Scott; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Aharrouche, Mohamed; Ahlen, Steven; Ahles, Florian; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahsan, Mahsana; Aielli, Giulio; Akdogan, Taylan; Akesson, Torsten Paul; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov, Andrei; Akiyama, Kunihiro; Alam, Mohammad; Alam, Muhammad Aftab; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alessandria, Franco; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexandre, Gauthier; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Aliev, Malik; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alison, John; Aliyev, Magsud; Allport, Phillip; Allwood-Spiers, Sarah; Almond, John; Aloisio, Alberto; Alon, Raz; Alonso, Alejandro; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral, Pedro; Amelung, Christoph; Ammosov, Vladimir; Amorim, Antonio; Amoros, Gabriel; Amram, Nir; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Andrieux, Marie-Laure; Anduaga, Xabier; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonaki, Ariadni; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoun, Sahar; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Apolle, Rudi; Arabidze, Giorgi; Aracena, Ignacio; Arai, Yasuo; Arce, Ayana; Archambault, John-Paul; Arfaoui, Samir; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Arik, Engin; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnault, Christian; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Arutinov, David; Asai, Shoji; Asfandiyarov, Ruslan; Ask, Stefan; Asman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astbury, Alan; Astvatsatourov, Anatoli; Atoian, Grigor; Aubert, Bernard; Auge, Etienne; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Austin, Nicholas; Avolio, Giuseppe; Avramidou, Rachel Maria; Axen, David; Ay, Cano; Azuelos, Georges; Azuma, Yuya; Baak, Max; Baccaglioni, Giuseppe; Bacci, Cesare; Bach, Andre; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Bachy, Gerard; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Badescu, Elisabeta; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bahinipati, Seema; Bai, Yu; Bailey, David; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baker, Mark; Baker, Sarah; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Piyali; Banerjee, Swagato; Banfi, Danilo; Bangert, Andrea Michelle; Bansal, Vikas; Bansil, Hardeep Singh; Barak, Liron; Baranov, Sergei; Barashkou, Andrei; Galtieri, Angela Barbaro; Barber, Tom; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Bardin, Dmitri; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimaraes da Costa, Joao; Barrillon, Pierre; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartsch, Detlef; Bartsch, Valeria; Bates, Richard; Batkova, Lucia; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Andreas; Battistin, Michele; Battistoni, Giuseppe; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beare, Brian; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Beckingham, Matthew; Becks, Karl-Heinz; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bedikian, Sourpouhi; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Begel, Michael; Behar Harpaz, Silvia; Behera, Prafulla; Beimforde, Michael; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Paul; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellina, Francesco; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belloni, Alberto; Beloborodova, Olga; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Ben Ami, Sagi; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Benchouk, Chafik; Bendel, Markus; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benjamin, Douglas; Benoit, Mathieu; Bensinger, James; Benslama, Kamal; Bentvelsen, Stan; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Berglund, Elina; Beringer, Jurg; Bernardet, Karim; Bernat, Pauline; Bernhard, Ralf; Bernius, Catrin; Berry, Tracey; Bertin, Antonio; Bertinelli, Francesco; Bertolucci, Federico; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besson, Nathalie; Bethke, Siegfried; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Bieniek, Stephen Paul; Bierwagen, Katharina; Biesiada, Jed; Biglietti, Michela; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Biscarat, Catherine; Bitenc, Urban; Black, Kevin; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blanchot, Georges; Blazek, Tomas; Blocker, Craig; Blocki, Jacek; Blondel, Alain; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bobrovnikov, Victor; Bocchetta, Simona Serena; Bocci, Andrea; Boddy, Christopher Richard; Boehler, Michael; Boek, Jennifer; Boelaert, Nele; Boser, Sebastian; Bogaerts, Joannes Andreas; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Bogouch, Andrei; Bohm, Christian; Boisvert, Veronique; Bold, Tomasz; Boldea, Venera; Bolnet, Nayanka Myriam; Bona, Marcella; Bondarenko, Valery; Bondioli, Mario; Boonekamp, Maarten; Boorman, Gary; Booth, Chris; Bordoni, Stefania; Borer, Claudia; Borisov, Anatoly; Borissov, Guennadi; Borjanovic, Iris; Borroni, Sara; Bos, Kors; Boscherini, Davide; Bosman, Martine; Boterenbrood, Hendrik; Botterill, David; Bouchami, Jihene; Boudreau, Joseph; Bouhova-Thacker, Evelina Vassileva; Bourdarios, Claire; Bousson, Nicolas; Boveia, Antonio; Boyd, James; Boyko, Igor; Bozhko, Nikolay; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, Ivanka; Bracinik, Juraj; Braem, Andre; Branchini, Paolo; Brandenburg, George; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Gerhard; Brandt, Oleg; Bratzler, Uwe; Brau, Benjamin; Brau, James; Braun, Helmut; Brelier, Bertrand; Bremer, Johan; Brenner, Richard; Bressler, Shikma; Breton, Dominique; Britton, Dave; Brochu, Frederic; Brock, Ian; Brock, Raymond; Brodbeck, Timothy; Brodet, Eyal; Broggi, Francesco; Bromberg, Carl; Brooijmans, Gustaaf; Brooks, William; Brown, Gareth; Brown, Heather; Bruckman de Renstrom, Pawel; Bruncko, Dusan; Bruneliere, Renaud; Brunet, Sylvie; Bruni, Alessia; Bruni, Graziano; Bruschi, Marco; Buanes, Trygve; Bucci, Francesca; Buchanan, James; Buchanan, Norman; Buchholz, Peter; Buckingham, Ryan; Buckley, Andrew; Buda, Stelian Ioan; Budagov, Ioulian; Budick, Burton; Buscher, Volker; Bugge, Lars; Buira-Clark, Daniel; Bulekov, Oleg; Bunse, Moritz; Buran, Torleiv; Burckhart, Helfried; Burdin, Sergey; Burgess, Thomas; Burke, Stephen; Busato, Emmanuel; Bussey, Peter; Buszello, Claus-Peter; Butin, Francois; Butler, Bart; Butler, John; Buttar, Craig; Butterworth, Jonathan; Buttinger, William; Byatt, Tom; Cabrera Urban, Susana; Caforio, Davide; Cakir, Orhan; Calafiura, Paolo; Calderini, Giovanni; Calfayan, Philippe; Calkins, Robert; Caloba, Luiz; Caloi, Rita; Calvet, David; Calvet, Samuel; Camacho Toro, Reina; Camarri, Paolo; Cambiaghi, Mario; Cameron, David; Campana, Simone; Campanelli, Mario; Canale, Vincenzo; Canelli, Florencia; Canepa, Anadi; Cantero, Josu; Capasso, Luciano; Garrido, Maria Del Mar Capeans; Caprini, Irinel; Caprini, Mihai; Capriotti, Daniele; Capua, Marcella; Caputo, Regina; Cardarelli, Roberto; Carli, Tancredi; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Carminati, Leonardo; Caron, Bryan; Caron, Sascha; Montoya, German D.Carrillo; Carter, Antony; Carter, Janet; Carvalho, Joao; Casadei, Diego; Casado, Maria Pilar; Cascella, Michele; Caso, Carlo; Castaneda Hernandez, Alfredo Martin; Castaneda-Miranda, Elizabeth; Castillo Gimenez, Victoria; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Cataldi, Gabriella; Cataneo, Fernando; Catinaccio, Andrea; Catmore, James; Cattai, Ariella; Cattani, Giordano; Caughron, Seth; Cauz, Diego; Cavalleri, Pietro; Cavalli, Donatella; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cavasinni, Vincenzo; Ceradini, Filippo; Santiago Cerqueira, Augusto; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Cerutti, Fabio; Cetin, Serkant Ali; Cevenini, Francesco; Chafaq, Aziz; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chan, Kevin; Chapleau, Bertrand; Chapman, John Derek; Chapman, John Wehrley; Chareyre, Eve; Charlton, Dave; Chavda, Vikash; Chavez Barajas, Carlos Alberto; Cheatham, Susan; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chelstowska, Magda Anna; Chen, Chunhui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Tingyang; Chen, Xin; Cheng, Shaochen; Cheplakov, Alexander; Chepurnov, Vladimir; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Chernyatin, Valeriy; Cheu, Elliott; Cheung, Sing-Leung; Chevalier, Laurent; Chiefari, Giovanni; Chikovani, Leila; Childers, John Taylor; Chilingarov, Alexandre; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chizhov, Mihail; Choudalakis, Georgios; Chouridou, Sofia; Christidi, Illectra-Athanasia; Christov, Asen; Chromek-Burckhart, Doris; Chu, Ming-Lee; Chudoba, Jiri; Ciapetti, Guido; Ciba, Krzysztof; Ciftci, Abbas Kenan; Ciftci, Rena; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Ciobotaru, Matei Dan; Ciocca, Claudia; Ciocio, Alessandra; Cirilli, Manuela; Ciubancan, Mihai; Clark, Allan G.; Clark, Philip James; Cleland, Bill; Clemens, Jean-Claude; Clement, Benoit; Clement, Christophe; Clifft, Roger; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H.; Coe, Paul; Cogan, Joshua Godfrey; Coggeshall, James; Cogneras, Eric; Cojocaru, Claudiu; Colas, Jacques; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Collard, Caroline; Collins, Neil; Collins-Tooth, Christopher; Collot, Johann; Colon, German; Conde Muino, Patricia; Coniavitis, Elias; Conidi, Maria Chiara; Consonni, Michele; Consorti, Valerio; Constantinescu, Serban; Conta, Claudio; Conventi, Francesco; Cook, James; Cooke, Mark; Cooper, Ben; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Cooper-Smith, Neil; Copic, Katherine; Cornelissen, Thijs; Corradi, Massimo; Corriveau, Francois; Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; Cortiana, Giorgio; Costa, Giuseppe; Costa, Maria Jose; Costanzo, Davide; Costin, Tudor; Cote, David; Courneyea, Lorraine; Cowan, Glen; Cowden, Christopher; Cox, Brian; Cranmer, Kyle; Crescioli, Francesco; Cristinziani, Markus; Crosetti, Giovanni; Crupi, Roberto; Crepe-Renaudin, Sabine; Cuciuc, Constantin-Mihai; Cuenca Almenar, Cristobal; Donszelmann, Tulay Cuhadar; Curatolo, Maria; Curtis, Chris; Cwetanski, Peter; Czirr, Hendrik; Czyczula, Zofia; D'Auria, Saverio; D'Onofrio, Monica; D'Orazio, Alessia; Da Silva, Paulo Vitor; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dai, Tiesheng; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dam, Mogens; Dameri, Mauro; Damiani, Daniel; Danielsson, Hans Olof; Dannheim, Dominik; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darlea, Georgiana Lavinia; Daum, Cornelis; Dauvergne, Jean-Pierre; Davey, Will; Davidek, Tomas; Davidson, Nadia; Davidson, Ruth; Davies, Eleanor; Davies, Merlin; Davison, Adam; Davygora, Yuriy; Dawe, Edmund; Dawson, Ian; Dawson, John; Daya, Rozmin; De, Kaushik; De Asmundis, Riccardo; De Castro, Stefano; De Castro Faria Salgado, Pedro; De Cecco, Sandro; de Graat, Julien; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; de la Taille, Christophe; de la Torre, Hector; De Lotto, Barbara; De Mora, Lee; De Nooij, Lucie; De Pedis, Daniele; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; de Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; Dean, Simon; Debbe, Ramiro; Dedovich, Dmitri; Degenhardt, James; Dehchar, Mohamed; del Papa, Carlo; del Peso, Jose; del Prete, Tarcisio; Deliyergiyev, Maksym; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delpierre, Pierre; Delruelle, Nicolas; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; Deluca, Carolina; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demirkoz, Bilge; Deng, Jianrong; Denisov, Sergey; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Devetak, Erik; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; DeWilde, Burton; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Dhullipudi, Ramasudhakar; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Luise, Silvestro; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Di Micco, Biagio; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Diblen, Faruk; Diehl, Edward; Dietrich, Janet; Dietzsch, Thorsten; Diglio, Sara; Yagci, Kamile Dindar; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dionisi, Carlo; Dita, Petre; Dita, Sanda; Dittus, Fridolin; Djama, Fares; Djobava, Tamar; Barros do Vale, Maria Aline; Do Valle Wemans, Andre; Doan, Thi Kieu Oanh; Dobbs, Matt; Dobinson, Robert; Dobos, Daniel; Dobson, Ellie; Dobson, Marc; Dodd, Jeremy; 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Feng, Eric; Fenyuk, Alexander; Ferencei, Jozef; Ferland, Jonathan; Fernando, Waruna; Ferrag, Samir; Ferrando, James; Ferrara, Valentina; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrer, Maria Lorenza; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Ferretto Parodi, Andrea; Fiascaris, Maria; Fiedler, Frank; Filipcic, Andrej; Filippas, Anastasios; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Firan, Ana; Fischer, Gordon; Fischer, Peter; Fisher, Matthew; Fisher, Steve; Flechl, Martin; Fleck, Ivor; Fleckner, Johanna; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fleischmann, Sebastian; Flick, Tobias; Flores Castillo, Luis; Flowerdew, Michael; Fokitis, Manolis; Fonseca Martin, Teresa; Forbush, David Alan; Formica, Andrea; Forti, Alessandra; Fortin, Dominique; Foster, Joe; Fournier, Daniel; Foussat, Arnaud; Fowler, Andrew; Fowler, Ken; Fox, Harald; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchino, Silvia; Francis, David; Frank, Tal; Franklin, Melissa; Franz, Sebastien; Fraternali, Marco; Fratina, Sasa; French, Sky; Friedrich, Felix; Froeschl, Robert; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gadfort, Thomas; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallas, Manuel; Gallo, Valentina Santina; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Galyaev, Eugene; Gan, K.K.; Gao, Yongsheng; Gapienko, Vladimir; Gaponenko, Andrei; Garberson, Ford; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; Garcia, Carmen; Garcia Navarro, Jose Enrique; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garitaonandia, Hegoi; Garonne, Vincent; Garvey, John; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gaumer, Olivier; Gaur, Bakul; Gauthier, Lea; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gayde, Jean-Christophe; Gazis, Evangelos; Ge, Peng; Gee, Norman; Geerts, Dani\\|{e}l Alphonsus Adrianus; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Gellerstedt, Karl; Gemme, Claudia; Gemmell, Alistair; Genest, Marie-Helene; Gentile, Simonetta; George, Matthias; George, Simon; Gerlach, Peter; Gershon, Avi; Geweniger, Christoph; Ghazlane, Hamid; Ghez, Philippe; Ghodbane, Nabil; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giakoumopoulou, Victoria; Giangiobbe, Vincent; Gianotti, Fabiola; Gibbard, Bruce; Gibson, Adam; Gibson, Stephen; Gilbert, Laura; Gilchriese, Murdock; Gilewsky, Valentin; Gillberg, Dag; Gillman, Tony; Gingrich, Douglas; Ginzburg, Jonatan; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giordano, Raffaele; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giovannini, Paola; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giugni, Danilo; Giunta, Michele; Giusti, Paolo; Gjelsten, Borge Kile; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glazov, Alexandre; Glitza, Karl-Walter; Glonti, George; Godfrey, Jennifer; Godlewski, Jan; Goebel, Martin; Gopfert, Thomas; Goeringer, Christian; Gossling, Claus; Gottfert, Tobias; Goldfarb, Steven; Golling, Tobias; Golovnia, Serguei; Gomes, Agostinho; Gomez Fajardo, Luz Stella; Goncalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, Joao; Gonella, Laura; Gonidec, Allain; Gonzalez, Saul; Gonzalez de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Silva, Laura; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goodson, Jeremiah Jet; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorfine, Grant; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorisek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Gorokhov, Serguei; Goryachev, Vladimir; Gosdzik, Bjoern; Gosselink, Martijn; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Gough Eschrich, Ivo; Gouighri, Mohamed; Goujdami, Driss; Goulette, Marc Phillippe; Goussiou, Anna; Goy, Corinne; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Grabski, Varlen; Grafstrom, Per; Grah, Christian; Grahn, Karl-Johan; Grancagnolo, Francesco; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Grassi, Valerio; Gratchev, Vadim; Grau, Nathan; Gray, Heather; Gray, Julia Ann; Graziani, Enrico; Grebenyuk, Oleg; Greenfield, Debbie; Greenshaw, Timothy; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Griffiths, Justin; Grigalashvili, Nugzar; Grillo, Alexander; Grinstein, Sebastian; Grishkevich, Yaroslav; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Grognuz, Joel; Groh, Manfred; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Groth-Jensen, Jacob; Grybel, Kai; Guarino, Victor; Guest, Daniel; Guicheney, Christophe; Guida, Angelo; Guillemin, Thibault; Guindon, Stefan; Guler, Hulya; Gunther, Jaroslav; Guo, Bin; Guo, Jun; Gupta, Ambreesh; Gusakov, Yury; Gushchin, Vladimir; Gutierrez, Andrea; Gutierrez, Phillip; Guttman, Nir; Gutzwiller, Olivier; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haas, Stefan; Haber, Carl; Hackenburg, Robert; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Hadley, David; Haefner, Petra; Hahn, Ferdinand; Haider, Stefan; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Haller, Johannes; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamilton, Samuel; Han, Hongguang; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hance, Michael; Handel, Carsten; Hanke, Paul; Hansen, John Renner; Hansen, Jorgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hansson, Per; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hare, Gabriel; Harenberg, Torsten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harper, Devin; Harrington, Robert; Harris, Orin; Harrison, Karl; Hartert, Jochen; Hartjes, Fred; Haruyama, Tomiyoshi; Harvey, Alex; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hassani, Samira; Hatch, Mark; Hauff, Dieter; Haug, Sigve; Hauschild, Michael; Hauser, Reiner; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawes, Brian; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hawkins, Donovan; Hayakawa, Takashi; Hayden, Daniel; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Hazen, Eric; He, Mao; Head, Simon; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heinemann, Beate; Heisterkamp, Simon; Helary, Louis; Heller, Mathieu; Hellman, Sten; Hellmich, Dennis; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, Robert; Henke, Michael; Henrichs, Anna; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Henry-Couannier, Frederic; Hensel, Carsten; Henss, Tobias; Medina Hernandez, Carlos; Hernandez Jimenez, Yesenia; Herrberg, Ruth; Hershenhorn, Alon David; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hessey, Nigel; Hidvegi, Attila; Higon-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, Daniel; Hill, John; Hill, Norman; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillert, Sonja; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hirose, Minoru; Hirsch, Florian; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoffman, Julia; Hoffmann, Dirk; Hohlfeld, Marc; Holder, Martin; Holmgren, Sven-Olof; Holy, Tomas; Holzbauer, Jenny; Homma, Yasuhiro; Hong, Tae Min; Hooft van Huysduynen, Loek; Horazdovsky, Tomas; Horn, Claus; Horner, Stephan; Horton, Katherine; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Houlden, Michael; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howarth, James; Howell, David; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hruska, Ivan; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Huang, Guang Shun; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Hughes-Jones, Richard; Huhtinen, Mika; Hurst, Peter; Hurwitz, Martina; Husemann, Ulrich; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibbotson, Michael; Ibragimov, Iskander; Ichimiya, Ryo; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Idarraga, John; Idzik, Marek; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikeno, Masahiro; Ilchenko, Yuri; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Imbault, Didier; Imhaeuser, Martin; Imori, Masatoshi; Ince, Tayfun; Inigo-Golfin, Joaquin; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Ionescu, Gelu; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Ishii, Koji; Ishikawa, Akimasa; Ishino, Masaya; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Ivashin, Anton; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, John; Jackson, Paul; Jaekel, Martin; Jain, Vivek; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakubek, Jan; Jana, Dilip; Jankowski, Ernest; Jansen, Eric; Jantsch, Andreas; Janus, Michel; Jarlskog, Goran; Jeanty, Laura; Jelen, Kazimierz; Jen-La Plante, Imai; Jenni, Peter; Jeremie, Andrea; Jez, Pavel; Jezequel, Stephane; Jha, Manoj Kumar; Ji, Haoshuang; Ji, Weina; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Yi; Jimenez Belenguer, Marcos; Jin, Ge; Jin, Shan; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Joergensen, Morten Dam; Joffe, David; Johansen, Lars; Johansen, Marianne; Johansson, Erik; Johansson, Per; Johnert, Sebastian; Johns, Kenneth; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Tegid; Jones, Tim; Jonsson, Ove; Joram, Christian; Jorge, Pedro; Joseph, John; Jovin, Tatjana; Ju, Xiangyang; Juranek, Vojtech; Jussel, Patrick; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Kabachenko, Vasily; Kabana, Sonja; Kaci, Mohammed; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kadlecik, Peter; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kaiser, Steffen; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalinin, Sergey; Kalinovskaya, Lidia; Kama, Sami; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneda, Michiru; Kanno, Takayuki; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kapliy, Anton; Kaplon, Jan; Kar, Deepak; Karagoz, Muge; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Karr, Kristo; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kashif, Lashkar; Kasmi, Azzedine; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Mayuko; Kataoka, Yousuke; Katsoufis, Elias; Katzy, Judith; Kaushik, Venkatesh; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kayl, Manuel; Kazanin, Vassili; Kazarinov, Makhail; Keates, James Robert; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keil, Markus; Kekelidze, George; Kelly, Marc; Kennedy, John; Kenney, Christopher John; Kenyon, Mike; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerschen, Nicolas; Kersevan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Kessoku, Kohei; Ketterer, Christian; Keung, Justin; Khakzad, Mohsen; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Kharchenko, Dmitri; Khodinov, Alexander; Kholodenko, Anatoli; Khomich, Andrei; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khoriauli, Gia; Khoroshilov, Andrey; Khovanskiy, Nikolai; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kim, Hyeon Jin; Kim, Min Suk; Kim, Peter; Kim, Shinhong; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Robert Steven Beaufoy; Kirk, Julie; Kirsch, Lawrence; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kittelmann, Thomas; Kiver, Andrey; Kladiva, Eduard; Klaiber-Lodewigs, Jonas; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klemetti, Miika; Klier, Amit; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinkby, Esben; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Klok, Peter; Klous, Sander; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluge, Thomas; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Knecht, Neil; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knobloch, Juergen; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Ko, Byeong Rok; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kocnar, Antonin; Kodys, Peter; Koneke, Karsten; Konig, Adriaan; Koenig, Sebastian; Kopke, Lutz; Koetsveld, Folkert; Koevesarki, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kohn, Fabian; Kohout, Zdenek; Kohriki, Takashi; Koi, Tatsumi; Kokott, Thomas; Kolachev, Guennady; Kolanoski, Hermann; Kolesnikov, Vladimir; Koletsou, Iro; Koll, James; Kollar, Daniel; Kollefrath, Michael; Kolya, Scott; Komar, Aston; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Kono, Takanori; Kononov, Anatoly; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kootz, Andreas; Koperny, Stefan; Kopikov, Sergey; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Koreshev, Victor; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Korotkov, Vladislav; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotamaki, Miikka Juhani; Kotov, Sergey; Kotov, Vladislav; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kral, Vlastimil; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, James; Kreisel, Arik; Krejci, Frantisek; Kretzschmar, Jan; Krieger, Nina; Krieger, Peter; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Kruger, Hans; Kruker, Tobias; Krumshteyn, Zinovii; Kruth, Andre; Kubota, Takashi; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kuhn, Dietmar; Kukhtin, Victor; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kummer, Christian; Kuna, Marine; Kundu, Nikhil; Kunkle, Joshua; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurata, Masakazu; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuykendall, William; Kuze, Masahiro; Kuzhir, Polina; Kvita, Jiri; Kwee, Regina; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rotonda, Laura; Labarga, Luis; Labbe, Julien; Lablak, Said; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramon; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Laisne, Emmanuel; Lamanna, Massimo; Lampen, Caleb; Lampl, Walter; Lancon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Landsman, Hagar; Lane, Jenna; Lange, Clemens; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Larionov, Anatoly; Larner, Aimee; Lasseur, Christian; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavorato, Antonia; Lavrijsen, Wim; Laycock, Paul; Lazarev, Alexandre; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Maner, Christophe; Le Menedeu, Eve; Lebel, Celine; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Hurng-Chun; Lee, Jason; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Michel; Legendre, Marie; Leger, Annie; LeGeyt, Benjamin; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehmacher, Marc; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Leltchouk, Mikhail; Lemmer, Boris; Lendermann, Victor; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatiana; Lenzen, Georg; Lenzi, Bruno; Leonhardt, Kathrin; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Leroy, Claude; Lessard, Jean-Raphael; Lesser, Jonas; Lester, Christopher; Leung Fook Cheong, Annabelle; Leveque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Levitski, Mikhail; Lewandowska, Marta; Lewis, Adrian; Lewis, George; Leyko, Agnieszka; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bo; Li, Haifeng; Li, Shu; Li, Xuefei; Liang, Zhihua; Liang, Zhijun; Liao, Hongbo; Liberti, Barbara; Lichard, Peter; Lichtnecker, Markus; Lie, Ki; Liebig, Wolfgang; Lifshitz, Ronen; Lilley, Joseph; Limbach, Christian; Limosani, Antonio; Limper, Maaike; Lin, Simon; Linde, Frank; Linnemann, James; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipinsky, Lukas; Lipniacka, Anna; Liss, Tony; Lissauer, David; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Chuanlei; Liu, Dong; Liu, Hao; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Shengli; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Livermore, Sarah; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Loddenkoetter, Thomas; Loebinger, Fred; Loginov, Andrey; Loh, Chang Wei; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Loken, James; Lombardo, Vincenzo Paolo; Long, Robin Eamonn; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Losada, Marta; Loscutoff, Peter; Sterzo, Francesco Lo; Losty, Michael; Lou, Xinchou; Lounis, Abdenour; Loureiro, Karina; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lowe, Andrew; Lu, Feng; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Ludwig, Andreas; Ludwig, Dorthe; Ludwig, Inga; Ludwig, Jens; Luehring, Frederick; Luijckx, Guy; Lumb, Debra; Luminari, Lamberto; Lund, Esben; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lundberg, Bjorn; Lundberg, Johan; Lundquist, Johan; Lungwitz, Matthias; Lupi, Anna; Lutz, Gerhard; Lynn, David; Lys, Jeremy; Lytken, Else; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Macana Goia, Jorge Andres; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Macek, Bostjan; Machado Miguens, Joana; Mackeprang, Rasmus; Madaras, Ronald; Mader, Wolfgang; Maenner, Reinhard; Maeno, Tadashi; Mattig, Peter; Mattig, Stefan; Magnoni, Luca; Magradze, Erekle; Mahalalel, Yair; Mahboubi, Kambiz; Mahout, Gilles; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maio, Amelia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Mal, Prolay; Malecki, Pawel; Malecki, Piotr; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Caitlin; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyshev, Vladimir; Malyukov, Sergei; Mameghani, Raphael; Mamuzic, Judita; Manabe, Atsushi; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandic, Igor; Mandrysch, Rocco; Maneira, Jose; Mangeard, Pierre-Simon; Manjavidze, Ioseb; Mann, Alexander; Manning, Peter; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Manz, Andreas; Mapelli, Alessandro; Mapelli, Livio; March, Luis; Marchand, Jean-Francois; Marchese, Fabrizio; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marin, Alexandru; Marino, Christopher; Marroquim, Fernando; Marshall, Robin; Marshall, Zach; Martens, Kalen; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Andrew; Martin, Brian; Martin, Brian Thomas; Martin, Franck Francois; Martin, Jean-Pierre; Martin, Philippe; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin Dit Latour, Bertrand; Martin--Haugh, Stewart; Martinez, Mario; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzano, Francesco; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massaro, Graziano; Massol, Nicolas; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Mathes, Markus; Matricon, Pierre; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Matsunaga, Hiroyuki; Matsushita, Takashi; Mattravers, Carly; Maugain, Jean-Marie; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; May, Edward; Mayne, Anna; Mazini, Rachid; Mazur, Michael; Mazzanti, Marcello; Mazzoni, Enrico; Kee, Shawn Patrick Mc; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McCubbin, Norman; McFarlane, Kenneth; Mcfayden, Josh; McGlone, Helen; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; McLaren, Robert Andrew; Mclaughlan, Tom; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Meade, Andrew; Mechnich, Joerg; Mechtel, Markus; Medinnis, Mike; Meera-Lebbai, Razzak; Meguro, Tatsuma; Mehdiyev, Rashid; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meinhardt, Jens; Meirose, Bernhard; Melachrinos, Constantinos; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Mendoza Navas, Luis; Meng, Zhaoxia; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Menot, Claude; Meoni, Evelin; Mercurio, Kevin Michael; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meuser, Stefan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Meyer, Joerg; Meyer, Thomas Christian; Meyer, W.Thomas; Miao, Jiayuan; Michal, Sebastien; Micu, Liliana; Middleton, Robin; Miele, Paola; Migas, Sylwia; Mijovic, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuz, Marko; Miller, David; Miller, Robert; Mills, Bill; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Milstein, Dmitry; Minaenko, Andrey; Minano, Mercedes; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mirabelli, Giovanni; Miralles Verge, Lluis; Misiejuk, Andrzej; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitrofanov, Gennady; Mitsou, Vasiliki A.; Mitsui, Shingo; Miyagawa, Paul; Miyazaki, Kazuki; Mjornmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Mockett, Paul; Moed, Shulamit; Moeller, Victoria; Monig, Klaus; Moser, Nicolas; Mohapatra, Soumya; Mohr, Wolfgang; Mohrdieck-Mock, Susanne; Moisseev, Artemy; Moles-Valls, Regina; Molina-Perez, Jorge; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montesano, Simone; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Moorhead, Gareth; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Moraes, Arthur; Morange, Nicolas; Morel, Julien; Morello, Gianfranco; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Morii, Masahiro; Morin, Jerome; Morita, Youhei; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morozov, Sergey; Morris, John; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Moser, Hans-Guenther; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Mudrinic, Mihajlo; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Klemens; Muller, Thomas; Muenstermann, Daniel; Muir, Alex; Munwes, Yonathan; Murray, Bill; Mussche, Ido; Musto, Elisa; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakano, Itsuo; Nanava, Gizo; Napier, Austin; Nash, Michael; Nation, Nigel; Nattermann, Till; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Neal, Homer; Nebot, Eduardo; Nechaeva, Polina; Negri, Andrea; Negri, Guido; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nelson, Andrew; Nelson, Silke; Nelson, Timothy Knight; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Nesterov, Stanislav; Neubauer, Mark; Neusiedl, Andrea; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newman, Paul; Hong, Van Nguyen Thi; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicolas, Ludovic; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Niedercorn, Francois; Nielsen, Jason; Niinikoski, Tapio; Nikiforou, Nikiforos; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolaev, Kirill; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolics, Katalin; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsen, Henrik; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nishiyama, Tomonori; Nisius, Richard; Nodulman, Lawrence; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Nordberg, Markus; Nordkvist, Bjoern; Norton, Peter; Novakova, Jana; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozicka, Miroslav; Nozka, Libor; Nugent, Ian Michael; Nuncio-Quiroz, Adriana-Elizabeth; Nunes Hanninger, Guilherme; Nunnemann, Thomas; Nurse, Emily; Nyman, Tommi; O'Brien, Brendan Joseph; O'Neale, Steve; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Shea, Val; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Odier, Jerome; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohshima, Takayoshi; Ohshita, Hidetoshi; Ohska, Tokio Kenneth; Ohsugi, Takashi; Okada, Shogo; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olcese, Marco; Olchevski, Alexander; Oliveira, Miguel Alfonso; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Oliver Garcia, Elena; Olivito, Dominick; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Omachi, Chihiro; Onofre, Antonio; Onyisi, Peter; Oram, Christopher; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlov, Iliya; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Osuna, Carlos; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Ottersbach, John; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Ouyang, Qun; Owen, Mark; Owen, Simon; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paganis, Efstathios; Paige, Frank; Pajchel, Katarina; Palacino, Gabriel; Paleari, Chiara; Palestini, Sandro; Pallin, Dominique; Palma, Alberto; Palmer, Jody; Pan, Yibin; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Panes, Boris; Panikashvili, Natalia; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Panuskova, Monika; Paolone, Vittorio; Papadelis, Aras; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Paramonov, Alexander; Park, Woochun; Parker, Andy; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passeri, Antonio; Pastore, Fernanda; Pastore, Francesca; Pasztor, Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Patel, Nikhul; Pater, Joleen; Patricelli, Sergio; Pauly, Thilo; Pecsy, Martin; Pedraza Morales, Maria Isabel; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Peng, Haiping; Pengo, Ruggero; Penson, Alexander; Penwell, John; Perantoni, Marcelo; Perez, Kerstin; Cavalcanti, Tiago Perez; Perez Codina, Estel; Perez Garcia-Estan, Maria Teresa; Perez Reale, Valeria; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrino, Roberto; Perrodo, Pascal; Persembe, Seda; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Jorgen; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Petschull, Dennis; Petteni, Michele; Pezoa, Raquel; Phan, Anna; Phillips, Alan; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Pickford, Andrew; Piec, Sebastian Marcin; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; 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Zenz, Seth; Zerwas, Dirk; Zevi Della Porta, Giovanni; Zhan, Zhichao; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Huaqiao; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Long; Zhao, Tianchi; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zheng, Shuchen; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Ning; Zhou, Yue; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Junjie; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zhuravlov, Vadym; Zieminska, Daria; Zimmermann, Robert; Zimmermann, Simone; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Ziolkowski, Michael; Zitoun, Robert; Zivkovic, Lidija; Zmouchko, Viatcheslav; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; Zolnierowski, Yves; Zsenei, Andras; zur Nedden, Martin; Zutshi, Vishnu; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2012-01-01

    The production cross sections of the inclusive Drell-Yan processes W to l nu and Z/gamma to ll (l=e,mu) are measured in proton-proton collisions at sqrt(s) = 7 TeV with the ATLAS detector. The cross sections are reported integrated over a fiducial kinematic range, extrapolated to the full range and also evaluated differentially as a function of the W decay lepton pseudorapidity and the Z boson rapidity, respectively. Based on an integrated luminosity of about 35 pb^-1 collected in 2010, the precision of these measurements reaches a few per cent. The integrated and the differential W+- and Z/gamma cross sections in the e and mu channels are combined, and compared with perturbative QCD calculations, based on a number of different parton distribution sets available at NNLO.

  4. Optical constants in the hard X-ray/Soft gamma ray range of selected materials for multilayer reflectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooper-Jensen, Carsten P.; Romaine, S.; Bruni, R.

    2007-01-01

    Future Astrophysics missions operating in the hard X-ray/Soft Gamma ray range is slated to carry novel focusing telescopes based on the use of depth graded multilayer reflectors. Current design studies show that, at the foreseen focal lengths, it should be feasible to focus X-rays at energies...

  5. Dual sightline measurements of MeV range deuterons with neutron and gamma-ray spectroscopy at JET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, J.; Nocente, M.; Binda, F.

    2015-01-01

    Observations made in a JET experiment aimed at accelerating deuterons to the MeV range by third harmonic radio-frequency (RF) heating coupled into a deuterium beam are reported. Measurements are based on a set of advanced neutron and gamma-ray spectrometers that, for the first time, observe the p...

  6. A LaF{sub 3}:Nd(10%) scintillation detector with microgap gas chamber read-out for the detection of {gamma}-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van der Marel, J.; Bom, V.R.; van Eijk, C.W.E.; Hollander, R.W. [Delft Univ. of Technol. (Netherlands). Radiat. Technol. Group; Sarro, P.M. [Delft Institute of Microelectronics and Submicrontechnology, Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands)

    1997-06-21

    A LaF{sub 3}:Nd(10%) scintillator crystal has been placed in a microgap gas chamber to obtain a position-sensitive detector for {gamma}-rays. Directly on the crystal a thin layer of nickel is evaporated, and on top of that a thin semi-transparant CsI photocathode. {gamma}-rays absorbed in the scintillator crystal produce a UV-light flash, which liberates electrons in the photocathode. These electrons are multiplied and detected in the microgap chamber. By comparing the spectrum measured when this detector is irradiated with 511 keV {gamma}-rays with a spectrum that is computed in a Monte Carlo simulation, it is concluded that the probability that a UV-light photon created in the scintillator produces a photoelectron in the photocathode, is about 2.5%. (orig.).

  7. Development and Applications of Position-Sensitive Solid-State Gamma Ray Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    astrophysics, medical imaging, nuclear physics, detection of fissile materials, and monitoring of environmental radioactivity . © 2001 Elsevier Science...presumed source is known (e.g. the location of a supernovae or novae in the astrophysical context) then separate energies of the incident gamma ray can...central region encompassing the radioactive regions was divided into 1 mm3 voxels, and each voxel was tested for consistency with the conical

  8. Development of detector for neutron monitor of wide energy range. Joint research

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, E; Nakamura, T; Rasolonjatovo, D R D; Shiomi, T; Tanaka, S; Yamaguchi, Y; Yoshizawa, M

    2002-01-01

    Radiation monitoring of neutrons in high-power proton accelerator facilities is very important for radiation safety management for workers and members of the public. In the present study, a neutron detector that can evaluate dose of neutrons in the energy range from thermal energy to 100MeV was developed using an organic liquid scintillator, a boron-loaded scintillator and a sup 6 Li glass scintillator. First, a method was developed to evaluate neutron doses above several MeV by a spectrum weight function (G-function) which is applied to the organic liquid scintillator, and the validity of the methods was confirmed by dose evaluation in some neutron fields. Second, the G-function was applied to the boron-loaded scintillator which detects thermal neutrons by sup 1 sup 0 B(n, alpha) sup 7 Li reaction, in order to expand the covering neutron energy range. The response function and the G-function of the scintillator were evaluated by experiment and calculation, and the characteristics of dose measurement were ana...

  9. Development of a forward-angle gamma-ray detector array for MoNA-LISA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Votaw, Daniel; MoNA Collaboration Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    In recent years invariant mass spectroscopy has been successfully applied to measure neutron-unbound states. In this method neutrons are measured in coincidence with charged fragments following reactions with radioactive beams produced in projectile fragmentation reactions. When the final nucleus has bound excited states it is necessary to include gamma-ray detection in order to extract the excitation energy of the initial state. Because the MoNA-LISA setup at NSCL uses a large-gap Sweeper magnet to deflect the charged particles, conventional gamma-ray scintillation arrays cannot be used efficiently because of the large fringe field of the magnet. Thus we are developing a small cesium iodide (CsI) array using silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) which are agnostic to the presence of a magnetic field. Using GEANT4 simulations the parameters of the array will be optimized to achieve the required efficiency and energy resolution of the Doppler-corrected energy spectra, necessary to extract the gamma-ray transitions in the final nucleus. NSF PHY-1002511, DOE-NNSA DE-NA0000979.

  10. Spent BWR fuel characterisation combining a fork detector with gamma spectrometry. Report on Task JNT A 1071 FIN of the Finnish Support Programme to IAEA Safeguards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiitta, A.; Hautamaeki, J. [VTT Chemical Technology, Espoo (Finland); Turunen, A. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland); Arlt, R.; Arenas, Carrasco J.; Esmailpour-Kazerouni, K. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Schwalbach, P. [Euratom Safeguards Office (United Kingdom)

    2001-02-01

    The LWR spent fuel assemblies have to be verified at the partial defect level before they become difficult to access. According to the IAEA's criteria the partial defect test for spent fuel should be able to detect if half or more of the fuel pins have been removed from an assembly and possibly replaced by dummies. Euratom applies similar criteria. Therefore a standard verification procedure needs to be developed using an appropriate combination of measurements and theoretical calculations. Two experiments with an 'upgraded' fork detector were performed at the TVO KPA Store in September and in December 1999. On the whole, 26 assemblies were measured. In the 'upgraded' fork detector the total neutron count and the gross gamma measurements are complemented with gamma spectroscopic measurement using an integrated measurement head. A cadmium-zinc-telluride (CZT) detector is placed on the same vertical level as the fission and ionisation chambers. This enables simultaneous gamma and neutron measurements at one location. In the upgraded fork model the fork prongs can also be removed and gamma spectrometric measurements can be done using only the CZT detector. This allows more versatile placement of the target fuel assembly allowing various kind of gamma spectroscopic scanning measurements. In this report a gamma spectroscopy based correction to the gross gamma data is introduced. This corrected gross gamma signal seems to describe more consistently the burnup of the assembly than the {sup 137}Cs intensity obtained by direct gamma spectrometry. Concerning the measured neutron data of assemblies with different enrichments, an enrichment correction method based on calculations made with the ORIGEN-S program is introduced in this report. In addition, the share of {sup 244}Cm neutrons of the total neutron source is derived from the results calculated with the PYVO program. These corrections to the neutron signal seem to improve the correlation of the

  11. CdTe and CdZnTe crystals for room temperature gamma-ray detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Franc, J; Belas, E; Grill, R; Hlidek, P; Moravec, P; Bok, J B

    1999-01-01

    CdTe(Cl) detectors from CdTe single crystals, grown by the Bridgman method from Te-rich melt, were fabricated. The quality of the detectors was tested with sup 5 sup 7 Co and sup 2 sup 4 sup 1 Am sources. In the sup 5 sup 7 Co spectrum low noise is demonstrated by the presence of a 14 keV peak and good resolution approx 7 keV (FWHM) evident from the separation of 122 and 136 keV peaks. A review is given of the state-of-the-art properties of (CdZn)Te single crystals prepared for substrates in the Institute of Physics of Charles University. The quality of samples is tested by measurements of the diffusion length of minority carriers, from which the mobility-lifetime product is evaluated. (author)

  12. THE ORIGIN OF THE COSMIC GAMMA-RAY BACKGROUND IN THE MeV RANGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz-Lapuente, Pilar [Instituto de Física Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, c/. Serrano 121, E-28006, Madrid (Spain); The, Lih-Sin; Hartmann, Dieter H.; Ajello, Marco [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634 (United States); Canal, Ramon [Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (UB-IEEC), c/. Martí i Franqués 1, E-08028, Barcelona (Spain); Röpke, Friedrich K.; Ohlmann, Sebastian T. [Institute of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, University of Würzburg, D-97074, Würzburg (Germany); Hillebrandt, Wolfgang [Max-Planck-Institut für Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, D-85748 Garching bei München (Germany)

    2016-04-01

    There has been much debate about the origin of the diffuse γ-ray background in the MeV range. At lower energies, AGNs and Seyfert galaxies can explain the background, but not above ≃0.3 MeV. Beyond ∼10 MeV blazars appear to account for the flux observed. That leaves an unexplained gap for which different candidates have been proposed, including annihilations of WIMPS. One candidate is Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). Early studies concluded that they were able to account for the γ-ray background in the gap, while later work attributed a significantly lower contribution to them. All those estimates were based on SN Ia explosion models that did not reflect the full 3D hydrodynamics of SN Ia explosions. In addition, new measurements obtained since 2010 have provided new, direct estimates of high-z SN Ia rates beyond z ∼ 2. We take into account these new advances to see the predicted contribution to the gamma-ray background. We use here a wide variety of explosion models and a plethora of new measurements of SN Ia rates. SNe Ia still fall short of the observed background. Only for a fit, which would imply ∼150% systematic error in detecting SN Ia events, do the theoretical predictions approach the observed fluxes. This fit is, however, at odds at the highest redshifts with recent SN Ia rate estimates. Other astrophysical sources such as flat-spectrum radio quasars do match the observed flux levels in the MeV regime, while SNe Ia make up to 30%–50% of the observed flux.

  13. On line high dose static position monitoring by ionization chamber detector for industrial gamma irradiators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Ary A. [Universidade Estadual de Londrina-Depto de Fisica, Rodovia Celso Garcia Cid, km 38, 086051-990 Londrina (Brazil); Vieira, Jose M. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares-IPEN/CNEN-SP, Prof. Lineu Prestes, 2242-Cidade Universitaria, 05508-900 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Hamada, Margarida M. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares-IPEN/CNEN-SP, Prof. Lineu Prestes, 2242-Cidade Universitaria, 05508-900 Sao Paulo (Brazil)], E-mail: mmhamada@ipen.br

    2010-04-15

    A 1 cm{sup 3} cylindrical ionization chamber was developed to measure high doses on line during the sample irradiation in static position, in a {sup 60}Co industrial plant. The developed ionization chamber showed to be suitable for use as a dosimeter on line. A good linearity of the detector was found between the dose and the accumulated charge, independently of the different dose rates caused by absorbing materials.

  14. Evaluation of Compton gamma camera prototype based on pixelated CdTe detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón, Y; Chmeissani, M; Kolstein, M; De Lorenzo, G

    2014-06-01

    A proposed Compton camera prototype based on pixelated CdTe is simulated and evaluated in order to establish its feasibility and expected performance in real laboratory tests. The system is based on module units containing a 2×4 array of square CdTe detectors of 10×10 mm 2 area and 2 mm thickness. The detectors are pixelated and stacked forming a 3D detector with voxel sizes of 2 × 1 × 2 mm 3 . The camera performance is simulated with Geant4-based Architecture for Medicine-Oriented Simulations(GAMOS) and the Origin Ensemble(OE) algorithm is used for the image reconstruction. The simulation shows that the camera can operate with up to 10 4 Bq source activities with equal efficiency and is completely saturated at 10 9 Bq. The efficiency of the system is evaluated using a simulated 18 F point source phantom in the center of the Field-of-View (FOV) achieving an intrinsic efficiency of 0.4 counts per second per kilobecquerel. The spatial resolution measured from the point spread function (PSF) shows a FWHM of 1.5 mm along the direction perpendicular to the scatterer, making it possible to distinguish two points at 3 mm separation with a peak-to-valley ratio of 8.

  15. Application of PWO crystals for detection of low-activity gamma- radiation in the energy range above 3 MeV

    CERN Document Server

    Drobychev, G Yu; Fedorov, A A; Khruschinsky, A A; Korjik, M V; Lecoq, P; Missevitch, O V; 10.1016/j.nima.2004.08.059

    2005-01-01

    Lead tungstate PbWO4 (PWO) scintillator was developed during the R&D project initiated in a frame of preparation of experiments in high- energy physics to be carried out at new generation of colliders like LHC (CERN, Geneva, Switzerland). Compared to other promising fast and dense scintillators, PWO is an optimal compromise to make a very compact detector with good performance and the best price/performance ratio. Moreover, the results of PWO development carried out by the INP team together with collaborators show that scintillation parameters of PWO crystals can be further modified, which significantly extends opportunities of PWO application. One such field where an application of PWO scintillator can be very advantageous is a detection of low-activity gamma-radiation in the energy range above 3 MeV. Application of heavy scintillator allows to decrease a detector volume and therefore to reduce background. According to our preliminary estimations, PWO scintillation crystal will allow to reach significant...

  16. Determination of the $e^+ e^- \\to \\gamma \\gamma(\\gamma)$ cross-section at centre-of-mass energies ranging from 189 GeV to 202 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Abreu, P.; Adye, T.; Adzic, P.; Albrecht, Z.; Alderweireld, T.; Alekseev, G.D.; Alemany, R.; Allmendinger, T.; Allport, P.P.; Almehed, S.; Amaldi, U.; Amapane, N.; Amato, S.; Anassontzis, E.G.; Andersson, P.; Andreazza, A.; Andringa, S.; Antilogus, P.; Apel, W.D.; Arnoud, Y.; Asman, B.; Augustin, J.E.; Augustinus, A.; Baillon, P.; Ballestrero, A.; Bambade, P.; Barao, F.; Barbiellini, G.; Barbier, R.; Bardin, D.Yu.; Barker, G.J.; Baroncelli, A.; Battaglia, M.; Baubillier, M.; Becks, K.H.; Begalli, M.; Behrmann, A.; Beilliere, P.; Belokopytov, Yu.; Belous, K.; Benekos, N.C.; Benvenuti, A.C.; Berat, C.; Berggren, M.; Berntzon, L.; Bertrand, D.; Besancon, M.; Bilenky, Mikhail S.; Bizouard, M.A.; Bloch, D.; Blom, H.M.; Bonesini, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Booth, P.S.L.; Borisov, G.; Bosio, C.; Botner, O.; Boudinov, E.; Bouquet, B.; Bourdarios, C.; Bowcock, T.J.V.; Boyko, I.; Bozovic, I.; Bozzo, M.; Bracko, M.; Branchini, P.; Brenner, R.A.; Bruckman, P.; Brunet, J.M.; Bugge, L.; Buran, T.; Buschbeck, B.; Buschmann, P.; Cabrera, S.; Caccia, M.; Calvi, M.; Camporesi, T.; Canale, V.; Carena, F.; Carroll, L.; Castillo Gimenez, M.V.; Cattai, A.; Cavallo, F.R.; Chapkin, M.; Charpentier, P.; Checchia, P.; Chelkov, G.A.; Chierici, R.; Shlyapnikov, P.; Chochula, P.; Chorowicz, V.; Chudoba, J.; Cieslik, K.; Collins, P.; Contri, R.; Cortina, E.; Cosme, G.; Cossutti, F.; Costa, M.; Crawley, H.B.; Crennell, D.; Crosetti, G.; Cuevas Maestro, J.; Czellar, S.; D'Hondt, J.; Dalmau, J.; Davenport, M.; Da Silva, W.; Della Ricca, G.; Delpierre, P.; Demaria, N.; De Angelis, A.; De Boer, W.; De Clercq, C.; De Lotto, B.; De Min, A.; De Paula, L.; Dijkstra, H.; Di Ciaccio, L.; Dolbeau, J.; Doroba, K.; Dracos, M.; Drees, J.; Dris, M.; Eigen, G.; Ekelof, T.; Ellert, M.; Elsing, M.; Engel, J.P.; Espirito Santo, M.C.; Fanourakis, G.; Fassouliotis, D.; Feindt, M.; Fernandez, J.; Ferrer, A.; Ferrer-Ribas, E.; Ferro, F.; Firestone, A.; Flagmeyer, U.; Foeth, H.; Fokitis, E.; Fontanelli, F.; Franek, B.; Frodesen, A.G.; Fruhwirth, R.; Fulda-Quenzer, F.; Fuster, J.; Galloni, A.; Gamba, D.; Gamblin, S.; Gandelman, M.; Garcia, C.; Gaspar, C.; Gaspar, M.; Gasparini, U.; Gavillet, P.; Gazis, Evangelos; Gele, D.; Geralis, T.; Ghodbane, N.; Gil Botella, Ines; Glege, F.; Gokieli, R.; Golob, B.; Gomez-Ceballos, G.; Goncalves, P.; Gonzalez Caballero, I.; Gopal, G.; Gorn, L.; Guz, Yu.; Gracco, V.; Grahl, J.; Graziani, E.; Gris, P.; Grosdidier, G.; Grzelak, K.; Guy, J.; Haag, C.; Hahn, F.; Hahn, S.; Haider, S.; Hajduk, Z.; Hallgren, A.; Hamacher, K.; Hansen, J.; Harris, F.J.; Hauler, F.; Hedberg, V.; Heising, S.; Hernandez, J.J.; Herquet, P.; Herr, H.; Higon, E.; Holmgren, S.O.; Holt, P.J.; Hoorelbeke, S.; Houlden, M.; Hrubec, J.; Huber, M.; Hughes, G.J.; Hultqvist, K.; Jackson, John Neil; Jacobsson, R.; Jalocha, P.; Janik, R.; Jarlskog, C.; Jarlskog, G.; Jarry, P.; Jean-Marie, B.; Jeans, D.; Johansson, Erik Karl; Jonsson, P.; Joram, C.; Juillot, P.; Jungermann, L.; Kapusta, Frederic; Karafasoulis, K.; Katsanevas, S.; Katsoufis, E.C.; Keranen, R.; Kernel, G.; Kersevan, B.P.; Khokhlov, Yu.A.; Khomenko, B.A.; Khovansky, N.N.; Kiiskinen, A.; King, B.; Kinvig, A.; Kjaer, N.J.; Klapp, O.; Kluit, P.; Kokkinias, P.; Kostyukhin, V.; Kourkoumelis, C.; Kuznetsov, O.; Krammer, M.; Kriznic, E.; Krumshtein, Z.; Kubinec, P.; Kucewicz, W.; Kurowska, J.; Kurvinen, K.; Lamsa, J.W.; Lane, D.W.; Lapin, V.; Laugier, J.P.; Lauhakangas, R.; Leder, G.; Ledroit, Fabienne; Leinonen, L.; Leisos, A.; Leitner, R.; Lemonne, J.; Lenzen, G.; Lepeltier, V.; Lethuillier, M.; Libby, J.; Liebig, W.; Liko, D.; Lipniacka, A.; Lippi, I.; Lorstad, B.; Loken, J.G.; Lopes, J.H.; Lopez, J.M.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Loukas, D.; Lutz, P.; Lyons, L.; MacNaughton, J.; Mahon, J.R.; Maio, A.; Malek, A.; Maltezos, S.; Malychev, V.; Mandl, F.; Marco, J.; Marco, R.; Marechal, B.; Margoni, M.; Marin, J.C.; Mariotti, C.; Markou, A.; Martinez-Rivero, C.; Marti i Garcia, S.; Masik, J.; Mastroyiannopoulos, N.; Matorras, F.; Matteuzzi, C.; Matthiae, G.; Mazzucato, F.; Mazzucato, M.; McCubbin, M.; McKay, R.; McNulty, R.; McPherson, G.; Merle, E.; Meroni, C.; Meyer, W.T.; Myagkov, A.; Migliore, E.; Mirabito, L.; Mitaroff, W.A.; Mjornmark, U.; Moa, T.; Moch, M.; Moller, Rasmus; Monig, Klaus; Monge, M.R.; Moraes, D.; Morettini, P.; Morton, G.; Muller, U.; Munich, K.; Mulders, M.; Mulet-Marquis, C.; Mundim, L.M.; Muresan, R.; Murray, W.J.; Muryn, B.; Myatt, G.; Myklebust, T.; Naraghi, F.; Nassiakou, M.; Navarria, F.L.; Nawrocki, K.; Negri, P.; Neufeld, N.; Nicolaidou, R.; Nielsen, B.S.; Niezurawski, P.; Nikolenko, M.; Nomokonov, V.; Nygren, A.; Oblakowska Mucha, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Olshevsky, A.G.; Onofre, A.; Orava, R.; Orazi, G.; Osterberg, K.; Ouraou, A.; Oyanguren, A.; Paganoni, M.; Paiano, S.; Pain, R.; Paiva, R.; Palacios, J.; Papadopoulou, T.D.; Pape, L.; Parkes, C.; Parodi, F.; Parzefall, U.; Passeri, A.; Passon, O.; Pavel, T.; Pegoraro, M.; Peralta, L.; Pernicka, M.; Perrotta, A.; Petridou, C.; Petrolini, A.; Phillips, H.T.; Pierre, F.; Pimenta, M.; Piotto, E.; Podobnik, T.; Poireau, V.; Pol, M.E.; Polok, G.; Poropat, P.; Pozdnyakov, V.; Privitera, P.; Pukhaeva, N.; Pullia, A.; Radojicic, D.; Ragazzi, S.; Rahmani, H.; Rames, J.; Ratoff, P.N.; Read, Alexander L.; Rebecchi, P.; Redaelli, Nicola Giuseppe; Regler, M.; Rehn, J.; Reid, D.; Reinertsen, P.; Reinhardt, R.; Renton, P.B.; Resvanis, L.K.; Richard, F.; Ridky, J.; Rinaudo, G.; Ripp-Baudot, Isabelle; Romero, A.; Ronchese, P.; Rosenberg, E.I.; Rosinsky, P.; Roudeau, P.; Rovelli, T.; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V.; Ruiz, A.; Saarikko, H.; Sacquin, Y.; Sadovsky, A.; Sajot, G.; Salt, J.; Sampsonidis, D.; Sannino, M.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Schwemling, P.; Schwering, B.; Schwickerath, U.; Scuri, Fabrizio; Seager, P.; Sedykh, Yu.; Segar, A.M.; Seibert, N.; Sekulin, R.; Sette, G.; Shellard, R.C.; Siebel, M.; Simard, L.; Simonetto, F.; Sisakian, A.N.; Smadja, G.; Smirnova, O.; Smith, G.R.; Solovianov, O.; Sopczak, A.; Sosnowski, R.; Spassoff, T.; Spiriti, E.; Squarcia, S.; Stanescu, C.; Stanitzki, M.; Stevenson, K.; Stocchi, A.; Strauss, J.; Strub, R.; Stugu, B.; Szczekowski, M.; Szeptycka, M.; Tabarelli, T.; Taffard, A.; Tegenfeldt, F.; Terranova, F.; Timmermans, Jan; Tinti, N.; Tkachev, L.G.; Tobin, M.; Todorova, S.; Tome, B.; Tonazzo, A.; Tortora, L.; Tortosa, P.; Transtromer, G.; Treille, D.; Tristram, G.; Trochimczuk, M.; Troncon, C.; Turluer, M.L.; Tyapkin, I.A.; Tyapkin, P.; Tzamarias, S.; Ullaland, O.; Uvarov, V.; Valenti, G.; Vallazza, E.; Van Dam, Piet; Van Den Boeck, W.; Van Eldik, J.; Van Lysebetten, A.; Van Remortel, N.; Van Vulpen, I.; Vegni, G.; Ventura, L.; Venus, W.; Verbeure, F.; Verdier, P.; Verlato, M.; Vertogradov, L.S.; Verzi, V.; Vilanova, D.; Vitale, L.; Vlasov, E.; Vodopianov, A.S.; Voulgaris, G.; Vrba, V.; Wahlen, H.; Washbrook, A.J.; Weiser, C.; Wicke, D.; Wickens, J.H.; Wilkinson, G.R.; Winter, M.; Wolf, G.; Yi, J.; Yushchenko, O.; Zalewska, A.; Zalewski, P.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zevgolatakos, E.; Zimine, N.I.; Zinchenko, A.; Zoller, P.; Zumerle, G.; Zupan, M.

    2000-01-01

    A test of the QED process \\eeintogg(\\fot) is reported. The data analysed were collected with the DELPHI detector in 1998 and 1999 at the highest ener\\-gies achieved at LEP, reaching 202 GeV in the centre-of-mass. The total integrated luminosity amounts to 375.7 pb$^{-1}$. The differential and total cross-sections for the process $e^+e^- \\to \\gamma \\gamma$ were measured, and found to be in agreement with the QED prediction. 95\\% Confidence Level (C.L.) lower limits on the QED cut-off parameters of $\\rm \\Lambda_+ >$ 330 GeV and $\\rm \\Lambda_{-}>$ 320 GeV were derived. A 95\\% C.L. lower bound on the mass of an excited electron of 311 $\\rm GeV/c^2$ (for $\\lambda_{\\gamma}$ =1) was obtained. s-channel virtual graviton exchange was searched for, resulting in 95\\% C.L. lower limits on the string mass scale, $\\rm M_S$: $\\rm M_S > 713 \\, GeV/c^2$ ( $\\lambda=1$) and $\\rm M_S > 691 \\,GeV/c^2$ ($\\lambda = -1$).

  17. Tl2LaCl5:Ce, high performance scintillator for gamma-ray detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawrami, R.; Ariesanti, E.; Wei, H.; Finkelstein, J.; Glodo, J.; Shah, K. S.

    2017-10-01

    This paper reports on a new Ce-doped Tl-based scintillator, Tl2LaCl5 (TLC), for gamma-ray detection. 10 mm diameter crystals have been successfully grown using the vertical Bridgman method. The emission peak of TLC is detected at 383 nm under X-ray excitation. The light yield of TLC is 76,000 ph/MeV. The samples show excellent energy resolution of 3.4% (FWHM) at 662 keV. The non-proportionality is less than 1%, from 32 keV to 1275 keV. The major scintillation decay time is 36 ns.

  18. High dynamic range bio-molecular ion microscopy with the Timepix detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungmann, Julia H; MacAleese, Luke; Visser, Jan; Vrakking, Marc J J; Heeren, Ron M A

    2011-10-15

    Highly parallel, active pixel detectors enable novel detection capabilities for large biomolecules in time-of-flight (TOF) based mass spectrometry imaging (MSI). In this work, a 512 × 512 pixel, bare Timepix assembly combined with chevron microchannel plates (MCP) captures time-resolved images of several m/z species in a single measurement. Mass-resolved ion images from Timepix measurements of peptide and protein standards demonstrate the capability to return both mass-spectral and localization information of biologically relevant analytes from matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) on a commercial ion microscope. The use of a MCP-Timepix assembly delivers an increased dynamic range of several orders of magnitude. The Timepix returns defined mass spectra already at subsaturation MCP gains, which prolongs the MCP lifetime and allows the gain to be optimized for image quality. The Timepix peak resolution is only limited by the resolution of the in-pixel measurement clock. Oligomers of the protein ubiquitin were measured up to 78 kDa. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  19. Measurements of the reaction e/+/e/-/ yielding gamma-gamma at center-of-mass energies in the range 6.2-7.4 GeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilger, E.; Beron, B. L.; Carrington, R. L.; Ford, R. L.; Hill, W. T.; Hofstadter, R.; Hughes, E. B.; Liberman, A. D.; Martin, T. W.; Oneill, L. H.

    1977-01-01

    The cross section for the pair-annihilation reaction e(+)e(-) yields gamma-gamma were measured at center-of-mass energies in the range 6.2-7.4 GeV and at production angles close to 90 deg. The experimental apparatus consisted of two identical spectrometers which were set to view the luminous region at SPEAR-II from opposite directions at an azimuthal angle of 45 deg. In each spectrometer there was a NaI(TI) crystal 20 radiation lengths thick and 30 in. in diameter to measure the gamma-ray energies. Annihilation events were detected by an electronic trigger which required only the observation in coincidence of more than 0.2 GeV in each NaI(TI) crystal within + or - 15 nsec of the crossing beams. The observed rates of pair-annihilation events were found to be in agreement with those expected from quantum electrodynamics (QED) at all the center-of-mass energies used.

  20. SFERA: An Integrated Circuit for the Readout of X and gamma -Ray Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schembari, Filippo; Quaglia, Riccardo; Bellotti, Giovanni; Fiorini, Carlo

    2016-06-01

    In this work we present SFERA, a low-noise fully-programmable 16 channel readout ASIC designed for both Xand y-ray spectroscopy and imaging applications. The chip is designed to process signals coming from solid-state detectors and CMOS preamplifiers. The design has been guided by the use of Silicon Drift Detectors (SDDs) and CUBE charge sensitive amplifiers (CSAs), although we consider the ASIC sufficiently versatile to be used with other types of detectors. Five different gains are implemented, namely 2800 e-, 4400 e-, 10000 e-, 14000 e- and 20000 e-, considering the input connected to a 25 fF feedback capacitance CMOS preamplifier. Filter peaking times (tP) are also programmable among 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 6 μs. Each readout channel is the cascade of a 9th order semi-Gaussian shaping-amplifier (SA) and a peak detector (PKS), followed by a dedicated pile-up rejection (PUR) digital logic. Three data multiplexing strategies are implemented: the so-called polling X, intended for high-rate X-ray applications, the polling y, for scintillation light detection and the sparse, for signals derandomization. The spectroscopic characterization has shown an energy resolution of 122.1 eV FWHM on the Mn-Ku line of an 55Fe X-ray source using a 10 mm2 SDD cooled at -35 °C at 4 μs filter peaking time. The measured resolution is 130 eV at the peaking time of 500 ns. At 1 Mcps input count rate and 500 ns peaking time, we have measured 42% of processed events at the output of the ASIC after the PUR selection. Output data can be digitized on-chip by means of an embedded 12-bit successive-approximation ADC. The effective resolution of the data converter is 10.75-bit when operated at 4.5 MS/s. The chosen technology is the AMS 0.35 μm CMOS and the chip area occupancy is 5 × 5 mm2.

  1. Measurements of prompt fission gamma-rays and neutrons with lanthanide halide scintillation detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Oberstedt, A; Billnert, R; Borcea, R; Brys, T; Chaves, C; Gamboni, T; Geerts, W; Göök, A; Guerrero, C; Hambsch, F-J; Kis, Z; Martinez, T; Oberstedt, S; Szentmiklosi, L; Takács, K; Vivaldi, M

    2014-01-01

    Photons have been measured with lanthanide halide scintillation detectors in coincidence with fission fragments. Using the time-of-flight information, reactions from γ-rays and neutrons could easily be distinguished. In several experiments on $^{252}$Cf(sf), $^{235}$U(n$_{th}$,f) and $^{241}$Pu(n$_{th}$,f) prompt fission γ-ray spectra characteristics were determined with high precision and the results are presented here. Moreover, a measured prompt fission neutron spectrum for $^{235}$U(n$_{th}$,f) is shown in order to demonstrate a new detection technique.

  2. Simple dynamic electromagnetic radiation detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Been, J. F.

    1972-01-01

    Detector monitors gamma dose rate at particular position in a radiation facility where a mixed neutron-gamma environment exists, thus determining reactor power level changes. Device also maps gamma intensity profile across a neutron-gamma beam.

  3. Underground water Cherenkov muon detector array with the Tibet air shower array for gamma-ray astronomy in the 100 TeV region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amenomori, M.; Ayabe, S.; Bi, X. J.; Chen, D.; Cui, S. W.; Danzengluobu; Ding, L. K.; Ding, X. H.; Feng, C. F.; Feng, Zhaoyang; Feng, Z. Y.; Gao, X. Y.; Geng, Q. X.; Guo, H. W.; He, H. H.; He, M.; Hibino, K.; Hotta, N.; Hu, Haibing; Hu, H. B.; Huang, J.; Huang, Q.; Jia, H. Y.; Kajino, F.; Kasahara, K.; Katayose, Y.; Kato, C.; Kawata, K.; Labaciren; Le, G. M.; Li, A. F.; Li, J. Y.; Lu, H.; Lu, S. L.; Meng, X. R.; Mizutani, K.; Mu, J.; Munakata, K.; Nagai, A.; Nanjo, H.; Nishizawa, M.; Ohnishi, M.; Ohta, I.; Onuma, H.; Ouchi, T.; Ozawa, S.; Ren, J. R.; Saito, T.; Saito, T. Y.; Sakata, M.; Sako, T. K.; Sasaki, T.; Shibata, M.; Shiomi, A.; Shirai, T.; Sugimoto, H.; Takita, M.; Tan, Y. H.; Tateyama, N.; Torii, S.; Tsuchiya, H.; Udo, S.; Wang, B.; Wang, H.; Wang, X.; Wang, Y. G.; Wu, H. R.; Xue, L.; Yamamoto, Y.; Yan, C. T.; Yang, X. C.; Yasue, S.; Ye, Z. H.; Yu, G. C.; Yuan, A. F.; Yuda, T.; Zhang, H. M.; Zhang, J. L.; Zhang, N. J.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Yi; Zhaxisangzhu; Zhou, X. X.

    2007-06-01

    We propose to build a large water-Cherenkov-type muon-detector array (Tibet MD array) around the 37 000 m2 Tibet air shower array (Tibet AS array) already constructed at 4300 m above sea level in Tibet, China. Each muon detector is a waterproof concrete pool, 6 m wide × 6 m long × 1.5 m deep in size, equipped with a 20 inch-in-diameter PMT. The Tibet MD array consists of 240 muon detectors set up 2.5 m underground. Its total effective area will be 8640 m2 for muon detection. The Tibet MD array will significantly improve gamma-ray sensitivity of the Tibet AS array in the 100 TeV region (10 1000 TeV) by means of gamma/hadron separation based on counting the number of muons accompanying an air shower. The Tibet AS+MD array will have the sensitivity to gamma rays in the 100 TeV region by an order of magnitude better than any other previous existing detectors in the world.

  4. Degradation mechanisms of gamma irradiated LWIR HgCdTe photovoltaic detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarusi, G.; Eger, D.; Zemel, A.; Mainzer, Nili; Goshen, R.

    1990-12-01

    Planar n(+)p Hg(1-x)Cd(x)Te (x = 0.23) photodiodes passivated with ZnS were irradiated by a Co60 gamma source. A strong increase in the reverse dark current was observed for doses above 0.3 Mrad(air). A similar effect is found by exposing the photodiodes to UV illumination from a high-pressure mercury lamp. By filtering the UV light it is shown that the degradation in the performance of the photodiodes is caused by the light or radiation absorbed in the ZnS layer above the implanted n-type region. C-V measurements of irradiated MIS devices showed a significant increase in the fast surface state density. Galvanomagnetic and lifetime measurements made on irradiated p-type HgCdTe layer showed no significant changes in the bulk transport parameters. Based on these findings, a model for the degradation mechanism is proposed.

  5. GAMMA DETECTOR RESPONSE/SOIL CONCENTRATION CORRELATION STUDY AT THE AAR MANUFACTURING, INC. SITE, LIVONIA, MICHIGAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ALTIC, NICK A

    2013-03-22

    At the NRC's request, ORAU conducted surveys of the AAR Manufacturing site during the period of September 25 through September 27, 2012. The survey activities included walkover surveys and sampling activities. Once the survey team was onsite, the NRC personnel decided to forgo survey activities in the New Addition and the pickling area. Areas of the planned study boundary were inaccessible due to overgrowth/large pieces of concrete covering the soil surface; therefore, the study boundary was redefined. Gamma walkover scans of the site boundary and front yard identified multiple areas of elevated gamma radiation. As a result, two judgmental samples were collected. Sample results were above thorium background levels The answer to the PSQ relating to the relationship between thorium concentration in soil and NaI instrument response is Yes. NaI instrument response can be used as a predictor of Th-232 concentration in the 0 to 1 m layer. An R2 value of 0.79 was determined for the surface soil relationship, thus satisfying the DQOs. Moreover, the regression was cross-checked by comparing the predicted Th-232 soil core concentration to the average Th-232 concentration (Section 5.3.2). Based on the cross-check, the regression equation provides a reasonable estimate for the Th-232 concentration at the judgmental locations. Consideration must be given when applying this equation to other soil areas of the site. If the contamination was heterogeneously distributed, and not distributed in a discrete layer as it was in the study area, then using the regression equation to predict Th-232 concentration would not be applicable.

  6. High-Accuracy Ion Range Measurements using Fluorescent Nuclear Track Detectors

    OpenAIRE

    Klimpki, Grischa

    2012-01-01

    Novel fluorescent nuclear track detectors (FNTDs) are based on single aluminum oxide crystals doped with carbon and magnesium and laser scanning fluorescent microscopy. The detector crystals contain high concentrations of colour centres, consisting of two oxygen vacancies charge compensated by two magnesium ions. These colour centres exhibit radiochromic transformations under ionising radiation. Laser-induced fluorescence can then be stimulated with a red laser without photoionisation of the ...

  7. Prominent facilitation at beta and gamma frequency range revealed with physiological calcium concentration in adult mouse piriform cortex in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Gleizes

    Full Text Available Neuronal activity is characterized by a diversity of oscillatory phenomena that are associated with multiple behavioral and cognitive processes, yet the functional consequences of these oscillations are not fully understood. Our aim was to determine whether and how these different oscillatory activities affect short-term synaptic plasticity (STP, using the olfactory system as a model. In response to odorant stimuli, the olfactory bulb displays a slow breathing rhythm as well as beta and gamma oscillations. Since the firing of olfactory bulb projecting neurons is phase-locked with beta and gamma oscillations, structures downstream from the olfactory bulb should be driven preferentially at these frequencies. We examined STP exhibited by olfactory bulb inputs in slices of adult mouse piriform cortex maintained in vitro in an in vivo-like ACSF (calcium concentration: 1.1 mM. We replaced the presynaptic neuronal firing rate by repeated electrical stimulation (frequency between 3.125 and 100 Hz applied to the lateral olfactory tract. Our results revealed a considerable enhancement of postsynaptic response amplitude for stimulation frequencies in the beta and gamma range. A phenomenological model of STP fitted to the data suggests that the experimental results can be explained by the interplay between three mechanisms: a short-term facilitation mechanism (time constant ≈160 msec, and two short-term depression mechanisms (recovery time constants <20 msec and ≈140 msec. Increasing calcium concentration (2.2 mM resulted in an increase in the time constant of facilitation and in a strengthening of the slowest depression mechanism. As a result, response enhancement was reduced and its peak shifted toward the low beta and alpha ranges while depression became predominant in the gamma band. Using environmental conditions corresponding to those that prevail in vivo, our study shows that STP in the lateral olfactory tract to layer Ia synapse allows

  8. Diamond gamma dose rate monitor; Debitmetre gamma en diamant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brambilla, A.; Chambaud, P.; Tromson, D.; Bergonzo, P.; Foulon, F.; Joffre, F. [CEA Saclay, Dept. d' Electronique et d' Instrumentation Nucleaire, LETI, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    1999-07-01

    CVD (chemical vapor deposition) diamond detectors for X and gamma dose rate monitoring have been fabricated and tested in the 1 mGy/h to 1 kGy/h range. They show excellent performances in terms of sensitivity and linearity. Radiation hardness measurement under 60-Co gamma rays have demonstrated long term stability for integrated doses up to 500 kGy. (authors)

  9. arXiv Measurement of the exclusive $\\gamma \\gamma \\rightarrow \\mu^+ \\mu^-$ process in proton--proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=13$ TeV with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Aaboud, Morad; Abbott, Brad; Abdinov, Ovsat; Abeloos, Baptiste; Abidi, Syed Haider; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abraham, Nicola; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Abreu, Ricardo; Abulaiti, Yiming; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adachi, Shunsuke; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adelman, Jahred; Adersberger, Michael; Adye, Tim; Affolder, Tony; Afik, Yoav; Agatonovic-Jovin, Tatjana; Agheorghiesei, Catalin; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Ahlen, Steven; Ahmadov, Faig; Aielli, Giulio; Akatsuka, Shunichi; Akerstedt, Henrik; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akilli, Ece; Akimov, Andrei; Alberghi, Gian Luigi; Albert, Justin; Albicocco, Pietro; Alconada Verzini, Maria Josefina; Alderweireldt, Sara; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Ali, Babar; Aliev, Malik; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alison, John; Alkire, Steven Patrick; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allen, Benjamin William; Allport, Phillip; Aloisio, Alberto; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Alpigiani, Cristiano; 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Berger, Nicolas; Beringer, Jürg; Berlendis, Simon; Bernard, Nathan Rogers; Bernardi, Gregorio; Bernius, Catrin; Bernlochner, Florian Urs; Berry, Tracey; Berta, Peter; Bertella, Claudia; Bertoli, Gabriele; Bertram, Iain Alexander; Bertsche, Carolyn; Bertsche, David; Besjes, Geert-Jan; Bessidskaia Bylund, Olga; Bessner, Martin Florian; Besson, Nathalie; Bethani, Agni; Bethke, Siegfried; Bevan, Adrian John; Beyer, Julien-christopher; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Biebel, Otmar; Biedermann, Dustin; Bielski, Rafal; Bierwagen, Katharina; Biesuz, Nicolo Vladi; Biglietti, Michela; Billoud, Thomas Remy Victor; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Biondi, Silvia; Bisanz, Tobias; Bittrich, Carsten; Bjergaard, David Martin; Black, James; Black, Kevin; Blair, Robert; Blazek, Tomas; Bloch, Ingo; Blocker, Craig; Blue, Andrew; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Blunier, Sylvain; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bobrovnikov, Victor; Bocchetta, Simona Serena; Bocci, Andrea; Bock, Christopher; Boehler, Michael; 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Calvet, David; Calvet, Samuel; Calvet, Thomas Philippe; Camacho Toro, Reina; Camarda, Stefano; Camarri, Paolo; Cameron, David; Caminal Armadans, Roger; Camincher, Clement; Campana, Simone; Campanelli, Mario; Camplani, Alessandra; Campoverde, Angel; Canale, Vincenzo; Cano Bret, Marc; Cantero, Josu; Cao, Tingting; Capeans Garrido, Maria Del Mar; Caprini, Irinel; Caprini, Mihai; Capua, Marcella; Carbone, Ryne Michael; Cardarelli, Roberto; Cardillo, Fabio; Carli, Ina; Carli, Tancredi; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Carlson, Benjamin Taylor; Carminati, Leonardo; Carney, Rebecca; Caron, Sascha; Carquin, Edson; Carrá, Sonia; Carrillo-Montoya, German D; Casadei, Diego; Casado, Maria Pilar; Casolino, Mirkoantonio; Casper, David William; Castelijn, Remco; Castillo Gimenez, Victoria; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Catinaccio, Andrea; Catmore, James; Cattai, Ariella; Caudron, Julien; Cavaliere, Viviana; Cavallaro, Emanuele; Cavalli, Donatella; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cavasinni, Vincenzo; Celebi, Emre; Ceradini, Filippo; Cerda Alberich, Leonor; Santiago Cerqueira, Augusto; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Cerutti, Fabio; Cervelli, Alberto; Cetin, Serkant Ali; Chafaq, Aziz; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chan, Stephen Kam-wah; Chan, Wing Sheung; Chan, Yat Long; Chang, Philip; Chapman, John Derek; Charlton, Dave; Chau, Chav Chhiv; Chavez Barajas, Carlos Alberto; Che, Siinn; Cheatham, Susan; Chegwidden, Andrew; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chelstowska, Magda Anna; Chen, Cheng; Chen, Chunhui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Jing; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Shion; Chen, Xin; Chen, Ye; Cheng, Hok Chuen; Cheng, Huajie; Cheplakov, Alexander; Cheremushkina, Evgenia; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Cheu, Elliott; Cheung, Kingman; Chevalier, Laurent; Chiarella, Vitaliano; Chiarelli, Giorgio; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chisholm, Andrew; Chitan, Adrian; Chiu, Yu Him Justin; Chizhov, Mihail; Choi, Kyungeon; Chomont, Arthur Rene; Chouridou, Sofia; Chow, Yun Sang; Christodoulou, Valentinos; Chu, Ming Chung; Chudoba, Jiri; Chuinard, Annabelle Julia; 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De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; De Vasconcelos Corga, Kevin; De Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; Debbe, Ramiro; Debenedetti, Chiara; Dedovich, Dmitri; Dehghanian, Nooshin; Deigaard, Ingrid; Del Gaudio, Michela; Del Peso, Jose; Delgove, David; Deliot, Frederic; Delitzsch, Chris Malena; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Dell'Orso, Mauro; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delporte, Charles; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; DeMarco, David; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demilly, Aurelien; Denisov, Sergey; Denysiuk, Denys; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Deterre, Cecile; Dette, Karola; Devesa, Maria Roberta; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Di Bello, Francesco Armando; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Clemente, William Kennedy; Di Donato, Camilla; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Micco, Biagio; Di Nardo, Roberto; 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Farilla, Addolorata; Farina, Christian; Farina, Edoardo Maria; Farooque, Trisha; Farrell, Steven; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fassi, Farida; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Faucci Giannelli, Michele; Favareto, Andrea; Fawcett, William James; Fayard, Louis; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Wojciech; Feigl, Simon; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Fenton, Michael James; Fenyuk, Alexander; Feremenga, Last; Fernandez Martinez, Patricia; Ferrando, James; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferreira de Lima, Danilo Enoque; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Fiedler, Frank; Filipčič, Andrej; Filipuzzi, Marco; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Finelli, Kevin Daniel; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Fischer, Adam; Fischer, Cora; Fischer, Julia; Fisher, Wade Cameron; Flaschel, Nils; Fleck, Ivor; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fletcher, Rob Roy MacGregor; Flick, Tobias; Flierl, Bernhard Matthias; Flores Castillo, Luis; Flowerdew, Michael; Forcolin, Giulio Tiziano; Formica, Andrea; Förster, Fabian Alexander; Forti, Alessandra; Foster, Andrew Geoffrey; Fournier, Daniel; Fox, Harald; Fracchia, Silvia; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchini, Matteo; Franchino, Silvia; Francis, David; Franconi, Laura; Franklin, Melissa; Frate, Meghan; Fraternali, Marco; Freeborn, David; Fressard-Batraneanu, Silvia; Freund, Benjamin; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fusayasu, Takahiro; Fuster, Juan; Gabizon, Ofir; Gabrielli, Alessandro; Gabrielli, Andrea; Gach, Grzegorz; Gadatsch, Stefan; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Louis Guillaume; Galea, Cristina; Galhardo, Bruno; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Galster, Gorm Aske Gram Krohn; Gan, KK; Ganguly, Sanmay; Gao, Yanyan; Gao, Yongsheng; Garay Walls, Francisca; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; García Pascual, Juan Antonio; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garonne, Vincent; Gascon Bravo, Alberto; Gasnikova, Ksenia; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudiello, Andrea; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gazis, Evangelos; Gee, Norman; Geisen, Jannik; Geisen, Marc; Geisler, Manuel Patrice; Gellerstedt, Karl; Gemme, Claudia; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Geng, Cong; Gentile, Simonetta; Gentsos, Christos; George, Simon; Gerbaudo, Davide; Geß{}ner, Gregor; Ghasemi, Sara; Ghneimat, Mazuza; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giangiacomi, Nico; Giannetti, Paola; Gibson, Stephen; Gignac, Matthew; Gilchriese, Murdock; Gillberg, Dag; Gilles, Geoffrey; Gingrich, Douglas; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giorgi, Filippo Maria; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giromini, Paolo; Giugliarelli, Gilberto; Giugni, Danilo; Giuli, Francesco; Giuliani, Claudia; Giulini, Maddalena; Gjelsten, Børge Kile; Gkaitatzis, Stamatios; Gkialas, Ioannis; Gkougkousis, Evangelos Leonidas; Gkountoumis, Panagiotis; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glaysher, Paul; Glazov, Alexandre; Goblirsch-Kolb, Maximilian; Godlewski, Jan; Goldfarb, Steven; Golling, Tobias; Golubkov, Dmitry; Gomes, Agostinho; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Gama, Rafael; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, Joao; Gonella, Giulia; Gonella, Laura; Gongadze, Alexi; Gonski, Julia; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Goshaw, Alfred; Gössling, Claus; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Gottardo, Carlo Alberto; Goudet, Christophe Raymond; Goujdami, Driss; Goussiou, Anna; Govender, Nicolin; Gozani, Eitan; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Gradin, Per Olov Joakim; Gramling, Johanna; Gramstad, Eirik; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Gratchev, Vadim; Gravila, Paul Mircea; Gray, Chloe; Gray, Heather; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Grefe, Christian; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Grevtsov, Kirill; Griffiths, Justin; Grillo, Alexander; Grimm, Kathryn; Grinstein, Sebastian; Gris, Philippe Luc Yves; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Groh, Sabrina; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Grossi, Giulio Cornelio; Grout, Zara Jane; Grummer, Aidan; Guan, Liang; Guan, Wen; Guenther, Jaroslav; Guescini, Francesco; Guest, Daniel; Gueta, Orel; Gui, Bin; Guido, Elisa; Guillemin, Thibault; Guindon, Stefan; Gul, Umar; Gumpert, Christian; Guo, Jun; Guo, Wen; Guo, Yicheng; Gupta, Ruchi; Gurbuz, Saime; Gustavino, Giuliano; Gutelman, Benjamin Jacque; Gutierrez, Phillip; Gutierrez Ortiz, Nicolas Gilberto; Gutschow, Christian; Guyot, Claude; Guzik, Marcin Pawel; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haber, Carl; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Haddad, Nacim; Hadef, Asma; Hageböck, Stephan; Hagihara, Mutsuto; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Haleem, Mahsana; Haley, Joseph; Halladjian, Garabed; Hallewell, Gregory David; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamano, Kenji; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamity, Guillermo Nicolas; Hamnett, Phillip George; Han, Liang; Han, Shuo; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hanawa, Keita; Hance, Michael; Handl, David Michael; Haney, Bijan; Hanke, Paul; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; 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Herwig, Theodor Christian; Hesketh, Gavin Grant; Hessey, Nigel; Hetherly, Jeffrey Wayne; Higashino, Satoshi; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hildebrand, Kevin; Hill, Ewan; Hill, John; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillier, Stephen; Hils, Maximilian; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hirose, Minoru; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hiti, Bojan; Hladik, Ondrej; Hlaluku, Dingane Reward; Hoad, Xanthe; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoenig, Friedrich; Hohn, David; Holmes, Tova Ray; Homann, Michael; Honda, Shunsuke; Honda, Takuya; Hong, Tae Min; Hooberman, Benjamin Henry; Hopkins, Walter; Horii, Yasuyuki; Horton, Arthur James; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hostiuc, Alexandru; Hou, Suen; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howarth, James; Hoya, Joaquin; Hrabovsky, Miroslav; Hrdinka, Julia; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hrynevich, Aliaksei; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Hu, Qipeng; Hu, Shuyang; Huang, Yanping; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Huhtinen, Mika; Hunter, Robert Francis Holub; Huo, Peng; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Hyneman, Rachel; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibragimov, Iskander; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Idrissi, Zineb; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Iizawa, Tomoya; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikeno, Masahiro; Ilchenko, Yuriy; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ilic, Nikolina; Iltzsche, Franziska; Introzzi, Gianluca; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Iordanidou, Kalliopi; Ippolito, Valerio; Isacson, Max Fredrik; Ishijima, Naoki; Ishino, Masaya; Ishitsuka, Masaki; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Ito, Fumiaki; Iturbe Ponce, Julia Mariana; Iuppa, Roberto; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jabbar, Samina; Jackson, Paul; Jacobs, Ruth Magdalena; Jain, Vivek; Jakobi, Katharina Bianca; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakoubek, Tomas; Jamin, David Olivier; Jana, Dilip; Jansky, Roland; Janssen, Jens; Janus, Michel; Janus, Piotr Andrzej; Jarlskog, Göran; Javadov, Namig; Javůrek, Tomáš; Javurkova, Martina; Jeanneau, Fabien; Jeanty, Laura; Jejelava, Juansher; Jelinskas, Adomas; Jenni, Peter; Jeske, Carl; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Ji, Haoshuang; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Hai; Jiang, Yi; Jiang, Zihao; Jiggins, Stephen; Jimenez Pena, Javier; Jin, Shan; Jinaru, Adam; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Jivan, Harshna; Johansson, Per; Johns, Kenneth; Johnson, Christian; Johnson, William Joseph; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Roger; Jones, Samuel David; Jones, Sarah; Jones, Tim; Jongmanns, Jan; Jorge, Pedro; Jovicevic, Jelena; Ju, Xiangyang; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Köhler, Markus Konrad; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kahn, Sebastien Jonathan; Kaji, Toshiaki; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalderon, Charles William; Kaluza, Adam; Kama, Sami; Kamenshchikov, Andrey; Kanaya, Naoko; Kanjir, Luka; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kaplan, Laser Seymour; Kar, Deepak; Karakostas, Konstantinos; Karastathis, Nikolaos; Kareem, Mohammad Jawad; Karentzos, Efstathios; Karpov, Sergey; Karpova, Zoya; Karthik, Krishnaiyengar; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kasahara, Kota; Kashif, Lashkar; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Yousuke; Kato, Chikuma; Katre, Akshay; Katzy, Judith; Kawade, Kentaro; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kay, Ellis; Kazanin, Vassili; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keller, John; Kellermann, Edgar; Kempster, Jacob Julian; Kendrick, James; Keoshkerian, Houry; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Keyes, Robert; Khader, Mazin; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khanov, Alexander; Kharlamov, Alexey; Kharlamova, Tatyana; Khodinov, Alexander; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kido, Shogo; Kilby, Callum; Kim, Hee Yeun; Kim, Shinhong; Kim, Young-Kee; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver Maria; King, Barry; Kirchmeier, David; Kirk, Julie; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kitali, Vincent; Kivernyk, Oleh; Kladiva, Eduard; Klapdor-Kleingrothaus, Thorwald; Klein, Matthew Henry; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klimek, Pawel; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klingl, Tobias; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Klitzner, Felix Fidelio; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Kobayashi, Aine; Kobayashi, Dai; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Köhler, Nicolas Maximilian; Koi, Tatsumi; Kolb, Mathis; Koletsou, Iro; Komar, Aston; Kondo, Takahiko; Kondrashova, Nataliia; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; Kono, Takanori; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Konya, Balazs; Kopeliansky, Revital; Koperny, Stefan; Kopp, Anna Katharina; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kosek, Tomas; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Koulouris, Aimilianos; Kourkoumeli-Charalampidi, Athina; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kourlitis, Evangelos; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Kowalewska, Anna Bozena; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozakai, Chihiro; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasnopevtsev, Dimitrii; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Krauss, Dominik; Kremer, Jakub Andrzej; Kretzschmar, Jan; Kreutzfeldt, Kristof; Krieger, Peter; Krizka, Karol; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Jiri; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Krumnack, Nils; Kruse, Mark; Kubota, Takashi; Kucuk, Hilal; Kuday, Sinan; Kuechler, Jan Thomas; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuger, Fabian; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kukhtin, Victor; Kukla, Romain; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kulinich, Yakov Petrovich; Kuna, Marine; Kunigo, Takuto; Kupco, Alexander; Kupfer, Tobias; Kuprash, Oleg; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurchaninov, Leonid; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kurth, Matthew Glenn; Kuwertz, Emma Sian; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; Kwan, Tony; Kyriazopoulos, Dimitrios; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rosa Navarro, Jose Luis; La Rotonda, Laura; La Ruffa, Francesco; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacey, James; Lack, David Philip John; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Lammers, Sabine; Lampl, Walter; Lançon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lanfermann, Marie Christine; Lang, Valerie Susanne; Lange, J örn Christian; Langenberg, Robert Johannes; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Lanza, Agostino; Lapertosa, Alessandro; Laplace, Sandrine; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Lasagni Manghi, Federico; Lassnig, Mario; Lau, Tak Shun; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Law, Alexander; Laycock, Paul; Lazovich, Tomo; Lazzaroni, Massimo; Le, Brian; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Quilleuc, Eloi; LeBlanc, Matthew Edgar; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne; Lee, Claire Alexandra; Lee, Graham Richard; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Benoit; Lefebvre, Guillaume; Lefebvre, Michel; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leight, William Axel; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lemmer, Boris; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatjana; Lenzi, Bruno; Leone, Robert; Leone, Sandra; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Lerner, Giuseppe; Leroy, Claude; Les, Robert; Lesage, Arthur; Lester, Christopher; Levchenko, Mikhail; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Levy, Mark; Lewis, Dave; Li, Bing; Li, Changqiao; Li, Haifeng; Li, Liang; Li, Qi; Li, Quanyin; Li, Shu; Li, Xingguo; Li, Yichen; Liang, Zhijun; Liberti, Barbara; Liblong, Aaron; Lie, Ki; Liebal, Jessica; Liebig, Wolfgang; Limosani, Antonio; Lin, Kuan-yu; Lin, Simon; Lin, Tai-Hua; Linck, Rebecca Anne; Lindquist, Brian Edward; Lionti, Anthony Eric; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipniacka, Anna; Lisovyi, Mykhailo; Liss, Tony; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Bo; Liu, Hao; Liu, Hongbin; Liu, Jesse; Liu, Jian; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Kun; Liu, Lulu; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Yanlin; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lo, Cheuk Yee; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Lobodzinska, Ewelina Maria; Loch, Peter; Loebinger, Fred; Loesle, Alena; Loew, Kevin Michael; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Long, Brian Alexander; Long, Jonathan David; Long, Robin Eamonn; Longo, Luigi; Looper, Kristina Anne; Lopez, Jorge; Lopez Paz, Ivan; Lopez Solis, Alvaro; Lorenz, Jeanette; Lorenzo Martinez, Narei; Losada, Marta; Lösel, Philipp Jonathan; Lou, XinChou; Lounis, Abdenour; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lu, Haonan; Lu, Nan; Lu, Yun-Ju; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Luedtke, Christian; Luehring, Frederick; Lukas, Wolfgang; Luminari, Lamberto; Lundberg, Olof; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lutz, Margaret Susan; Luzi, Pierre Marc; Lynn, David; Lysak, Roman; Lytken, Else; Lyu, Feng; Lyubushkin, Vladimir; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Ma, Yanhui; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Macdonald, Calum Michael; Maček, Boštjan; Machado Miguens, Joana; Madaffari, Daniele; Madar, Romain; Mader, Wolfgang; Madsen, Alexander; Madysa, Nico; Maeda, Junpei; Maeland, Steffen; Maeno, Tadashi; Maevskiy, Artem; Magerl, Veronika; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maier, Thomas; Maio, Amélia; Majersky, Oliver; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Malaescu, Bogdan; Malecki, Pawel; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Claire; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyukov, Sergei; Mamuzic, Judita; Mancini, Giada; Mandić, Igor; Maneira, José; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Manjarres Ramos, Joany; Mankinen, Katja Hannele; Mann, Alexander; Manousos, Athanasios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Mansour, Jason Dhia; Mantifel, Rodger; Mantoani, Matteo; Manzoni, Stefano; Mapelli, Livio; Marceca, Gino; March, Luis; Marchese, Luigi; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marin Tobon, Cesar Augusto; Marjanovic, Marija; Marley, Daniel; Marroquim, Fernando; Marsden, Stephen Philip; Marshall, Zach; Martensson, Mikael; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Christopher Blake; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martinez, Mario; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena; Martin-Haugh, Stewart; Martoiu, Victor Sorin; Martyniuk, Alex; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Mason, Lara Hannan; Massa, Lorenzo; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Mättig, Peter; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; Mazini, Rachid; Maznas, Ioannis; Mazza, Simone Michele; Mc Fadden, Neil Christopher; Mc Goldrick, Garrin; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McClymont, Laurie; McDonald, Emily; Mcfayden, Josh; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; McMahon, Steve; McNamara, Peter Charles; McNicol, Christopher John; McPherson, Robert; Meehan, Samuel; Megy, Theo Jean; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meideck, Thomas; Meier, Karlheinz; Meirose, Bernhard; Melini, Davide; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Mellenthin, Johannes Donatus; Melo, Matej; Meloni, Federico; Melzer, Alexander; Menary, Stephen Burns; Meng, Lingxin; Meng, Xiangting; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Meoni, Evelin; Mergelmeyer, Sebastian; Merlassino, Claudia; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Meyer Zu Theenhausen, Hanno; Miano, Fabrizio; Middleton, Robin; Miglioranzi, Silvia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Milesi, Marco; Milic, Adriana; Millar, Declan Andrew; Miller, David; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Minaenko, Andrey; Minami, Yuto; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Minegishi, Yuji; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mirto, Alessandro; Mistry, Khilesh; Mitani, Takashi; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Miucci, Antonio; Miyagawa, Paul; Mizukami, Atsushi; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Mkrtchyan, Tigran; Mlynarikova, Michaela; Moa, Torbjoern; Mochizuki, Kazuya; Mogg, Philipp; Mohapatra, Soumya; Molander, Simon; Moles-Valls, Regina; Mondragon, Matthew Craig; Mönig, Klaus; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montalbano, Alyssa; Montejo Berlingen, Javier; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Morange, Nicolas; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Morgenstern, Stefanie; Mori, Daniel; Mori, Tatsuya; Morii, Masahiro; Morinaga, Masahiro; Morisbak, Vanja; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morris, John; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Moschovakos, Paris; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Harry James; Moss, Josh; Motohashi, Kazuki; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Moyse, Edward; Muanza, Steve; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Ralph Soeren Peter; Muenstermann, Daniel; Mullen, Paul; Mullier, Geoffrey; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Murray, Bill; Musheghyan, Haykuhi; Muškinja, Miha; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nachman, Benjamin Philip; Nackenhorst, Olaf; Nagai, Koichi; Nagai, Ryo; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nagata, Kazuki; Nagel, Martin; Nagy, Elemer; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Naranjo Garcia, Roger Felipe; Narayan, Rohin; Narrias Villar, Daniel Isaac; Naryshkin, Iouri; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Nayyar, Ruchika; Neal, Homer; Nechaeva, Polina; Neep, Thomas James; Negri, Andrea; Negrini, Matteo; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nellist, Clara; Nelson, Andrew; Nelson, Michael Edward; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neumann, Manuel; Newman, Paul; Ng, Tsz Yu; Nguyen Manh, Tuan; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nielsen, Jason; Nikiforou, Nikiforos; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsen, Jon Kerr; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nishu, Nishu; Nisius, Richard; Nitsche, Isabel; Nitta, Tatsumi; Nobe, Takuya; Noguchi, Yohei; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Nomura, Marcelo Ayumu; Nooney, Tamsin; Nordberg, Markus; Norjoharuddeen, Nurfikri; Novgorodova, Olga; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Ntekas, Konstantinos; Nurse, Emily; Nuti, Francesco; O'connor, Kelsey; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Rourke, Abigail Alexandra; O'Shea, Val; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Obermann, Theresa; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Ochoa, Ines; Ochoa-Ricoux, Juan Pedro; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohman, Henrik; Oide, Hideyuki; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olariu, Albert; Oleiro Seabra, Luis Filipe; Olivares Pino, Sebastian Andres; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Onofre, António; Onogi, Kouta; Onyisi, Peter; Oppen, Henrik; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlando, Nicola; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Otono, Hidetoshi; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Oussoren, Koen Pieter; Ouyang, Qun; Owen, Mark; Owen, Rhys Edward; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pachal, Katherine; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Pacheco Rodriguez, Laura; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; 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Schlenker, Stefan; Schmidt-Sommerfeld, Korbinian Ralf; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitt, Stefan; Schmitz, Simon; Schnoor, Ulrike; Schoeffel, Laurent; Schoening, Andre; Schoenrock, Bradley Daniel; Schopf, Elisabeth; Schott, Matthias; Schouwenberg, Jeroen; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schramm, Steven; Schuh, Natascha; Schulte, Alexandra; Schultens, Martin Johannes; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schulz, Holger; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwarz, Thomas Andrew; Schweiger, Hansdieter; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwindling, Jerome; Sciandra, Andrea; Sciolla, Gabriella; Scornajenghi, Matteo; Scuri, Fabrizio; Scutti, Federico; Searcy, Jacob; Seema, Pienpen; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seixas, José; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Sekhon, Karishma; Sekula, Stephen; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Senkin, Sergey; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Serkin, Leonid; Sessa, Marco; Seuster, Rolf; Severini, Horst; Sfiligoj, Tina; Sforza, Federico; 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St Denis, Richard Dante; Stabile, Alberto; Stamen, Rainer; Stamm, Soren; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanek, Robert; Stanescu, Cristian; Stanitzki, Marcel Michael; Stapf, Birgit Sylvia; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Giordon; Stark, Jan; Stark, Simon Holm; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Stärz, Steffen; Staszewski, Rafal; Stegler, Martin; Steinberg, Peter; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stevenson, Thomas James; Stewart, Graeme; Stockton, Mark; Stoebe, Michael; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stolte, Philipp; Stonjek, Stefan; Stradling, Alden; Straessner, Arno; Stramaglia, Maria Elena; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Ströhmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Strubig, Antonia; Stucci, Stefania Antonia; Stugu, Bjarne; Styles, Nicholas Adam; Su, Dong; Su, Jun; Suchek, Stanislav; Sugaya, Yorihito; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultan, D M S; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Siyuan; Sun, Xiaohu; 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    2017-01-01

    The production of exclusive $\\gamma \\gamma \\rightarrow \\mu^+ \\mu^-$ events in proton--proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV is measured with the ATLAS detector at the LHC, using data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3.2 fb$^{-1}$. The measurement is performed for a dimuon invariant mass of 12 GeV $detector and differential cross-sections are measured as a function of the dimuon invariant mass. The results are compared to theoretical predictions that include corrections for absorptive effects.

  10. Measurements of the Total and Differential Higgs Boson Production Cross Sections Combining the $H \\rightarrow \\gamma \\gamma$ and $H \\rightarrow ZZ ^{*}\\rightarrow 4\\ell$ Decay Channels at $\\sqrt{s}=8$ TeV with the ATLAS Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdinov, Ovsat; Aben, Rosemarie; Abolins, Maris; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Abreu, Ricardo; Abulaiti, Yiming; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Adelman, Jahred; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adye, Tim; Affolder, Tony; Agatonovic-Jovin, Tatjana; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Agustoni, Marco; Ahlen, Steven; Ahmadov, Faig; Aielli, Giulio; Akerstedt, Henrik; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov, Andrei; Alberghi, Gian Luigi; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Alconada Verzini, Maria Josefina; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alio, Lion; Alison, John; Alkire, Steven Patrick; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allport, Phillip; Aloisio, Alberto; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Alpigiani, Cristiano; Altheimer, Andrew David; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Άlvarez Piqueras, Damián; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral Coutinho, Yara; Amelung, Christoph; Amidei, Dante; Amor Dos Santos, Susana Patricia; Amorim, Antonio; Amoroso, Simone; Amram, Nir; Amundsen, Glenn; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Angelidakis, Stylianos; Angelozzi, Ivan; Anger, Philipp; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoki, Masato; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Arabidze, Giorgi; Arai, Yasuo; Araque, Juan Pedro; Arce, Ayana; Arduh, Francisco Anuar; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Argyropoulos, Spyridon; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnal, Vanessa; Arnold, Hannah; Arratia, Miguel; Arslan, Ozan; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Asai, Shoji; Asbah, Nedaa; Ashkenazi, Adi; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astalos, Robert; Atkinson, Markus; Atlay, Naim Bora; Auerbach, Benjamin; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Avolio, Giuseppe; Axen, Bradley; Ayoub, Mohamad Kassem; Azuelos, Georges; Baak, Max; Baas, Alessandra; Bacci, Cesare; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Badescu, Elisabeta; Bagiacchi, Paolo; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bai, Yu; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Balek, Petr; Balestri, Thomas; Balli, Fabrice; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Swagato; Bannoura, Arwa A E; Bansil, Hardeep Singh; Barak, Liron; Baranov, Sergei; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnes, Sarah Louise; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Barnovska, Zuzana; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartos, Pavol; Bassalat, Ahmed; Basye, Austin; Bates, Richard; Batista, Santiago Juan; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Marco; Bauce, Matteo; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beacham, James Baker; Beattie, Michael David; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Becker, Anne Kathrin; Becker, Maurice; Becker, Sebastian; Beckingham, Matthew; Becot, Cyril; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Beemster, Lars; Beermann, Thomas; Begel, Michael; Behr, Janna Katharina; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellerive, Alain; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bender, Michael; Bendtz, Katarina; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez Garcia, Jorge-Armando; Benjamin, Douglas; Bensinger, James; Bentvelsen, Stan; Beresford, Lydia; Beretta, Matteo; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Beringer, Jürg; Bernard, Clare; Bernard, Nathan Rogers; Bernius, Catrin; Bernlochner, Florian Urs; Berry, Tracey; Berta, Peter; Bertella, Claudia; Bertoli, Gabriele; Bertolucci, Federico; Bertsche, Carolyn; Bertsche, David; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besjes, Geert-Jan; Bessidskaia Bylund, Olga; Bessner, Martin Florian; Besson, Nathalie; Betancourt, Christopher; Bethke, Siegfried; Bevan, Adrian John; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianchini, Louis; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Bieniek, Stephen Paul; Biglietti, Michela; Bilbao De Mendizabal, Javier; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Black, Curtis; Black, James; Black, Kevin; Blackburn, Daniel; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blanco, Jacobo Ezequiel; Blazek, Tomas; Bloch, Ingo; Blocker, Craig; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bobrovnikov, Victor; Bocchetta, Simona Serena; Bocci, Andrea; Bock, Christopher; Boehler, Michael; Bogaerts, Joannes Andreas; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Bohm, Christian; Boisvert, Veronique; Bold, Tomasz; Boldea, Venera; Boldyrev, Alexey; Bomben, Marco; Bona, Marcella; Boonekamp, Maarten; Borisov, Anatoly; Borissov, Guennadi; Borroni, Sara; Bortfeldt, Jonathan; Bortolotto, Valerio; Bos, Kors; Boscherini, Davide; Bosman, Martine; Boudreau, Joseph; Bouffard, Julian; Bouhova-Thacker, Evelina Vassileva; Boumediene, Djamel Eddine; Bourdarios, Claire; Bousson, Nicolas; Boveia, Antonio; Boyd, James; Boyko, Igor; Bozic, Ivan; Bracinik, Juraj; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Gerhard; Brandt, Oleg; Bratzler, Uwe; Brau, Benjamin; Brau, James; Braun, Helmut; Brazzale, Simone Federico; Brendlinger, Kurt; Brennan, Amelia Jean; Brenner, Lydia; Brenner, Richard; Bressler, Shikma; Bristow, Kieran; Bristow, Timothy Michael; Britton, Dave; Britzger, Daniel; Brochu, Frederic; Brock, Ian; Brock, Raymond; Bronner, Johanna; Brooijmans, Gustaaf; Brooks, Timothy; Brooks, William; Brosamer, Jacquelyn; Brost, Elizabeth; Brown, Jonathan; Bruckman de Renstrom, Pawel; Bruncko, Dusan; Bruneliere, Renaud; Bruni, Alessia; Bruni, Graziano; Bruschi, Marco; Bryngemark, Lene; Buanes, Trygve; Buat, Quentin; Buchholz, Peter; Buckley, Andrew; Buda, Stelian Ioan; Budagov, Ioulian; Buehrer, Felix; Bugge, Lars; Bugge, Magnar Kopangen; Bulekov, Oleg; Burckhart, Helfried; Burdin, Sergey; Burghgrave, Blake; Burke, Stephen; Burmeister, Ingo; Busato, Emmanuel; Büscher, Daniel; Büscher, Volker; Bussey, Peter; Buszello, Claus-Peter; Butler, John; Butt, Aatif Imtiaz; Buttar, Craig; Butterworth, Jonathan; Butti, Pierfrancesco; Buttinger, William; Buzatu, Adrian; Buzykaev, Aleksey; Cabrera Urbán, Susana; Caforio, Davide; Cakir, Orhan; Calafiura, Paolo; Calandri, Alessandro; Calderini, Giovanni; Calfayan, Philippe; Caloba, Luiz; Calvet, David; Calvet, Samuel; Camacho Toro, Reina; Camarda, Stefano; Cameron, David; Caminada, Lea Michaela; Caminal Armadans, Roger; Campana, Simone; Campanelli, Mario; Campoverde, Angel; Canale, Vincenzo; Canepa, Anadi; Cano Bret, Marc; Cantero, Josu; Cantrill, Robert; Cao, Tingting; Capeans Garrido, Maria Del Mar; Caprini, Irinel; Caprini, Mihai; Capua, Marcella; Caputo, Regina; Cardarelli, Roberto; Carli, Tancredi; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Carminati, Leonardo; Caron, Sascha; Carquin, Edson; Carrillo-Montoya, German D; Carter, Janet; Carvalho, João; Casadei, Diego; Casado, Maria Pilar; Casolino, Mirkoantonio; Castaneda-Miranda, Elizabeth; Castelli, Angelantonio; Castillo Gimenez, Victoria; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Catastini, Pierluigi; Catinaccio, Andrea; Catmore, James; Cattai, Ariella; Caudron, Julien; Cavaliere, Viviana; Cavalli, Donatella; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cavasinni, Vincenzo; Ceradini, Filippo; Cerio, Benjamin; Cerny, Karel; Santiago Cerqueira, Augusto; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Cerutti, Fabio; Cerv, Matevz; Cervelli, Alberto; Cetin, Serkant Ali; Chafaq, Aziz; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chalupkova, Ina; Chang, Philip; Chapleau, Bertrand; Chapman, John Derek; Charlton, Dave; Chau, Chav Chhiv; Chavez Barajas, Carlos Alberto; Cheatham, Susan; Chegwidden, Andrew; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chelstowska, Magda Anna; Chen, Chunhui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Karen; Chen, Liming; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Xin; Chen, Ye; Cheng, Hok Chuen; Cheng, Yangyang; Cheplakov, Alexander; Cheremushkina, Evgenia; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Chernyatin, Valeriy; Cheu, Elliott; Chevalier, Laurent; Chiarella, Vitaliano; Childers, John Taylor; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chisholm, Andrew; Chislett, Rebecca Thalatta; Chitan, Adrian; Chizhov, Mihail; Choi, Kyungeon; Chouridou, Sofia; Chow, Bonnie Kar Bo; Christodoulou, Valentinos; Chromek-Burckhart, Doris; Chu, Ming-Lee; Chudoba, Jiri; Chuinard, Annabelle Julia; Chwastowski, Janusz; Chytka, Ladislav; Ciapetti, Guido; Ciftci, Abbas Kenan; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Cioara, Irina Antonela; Ciocio, Alessandra; Citron, Zvi Hirsh; Ciubancan, Mihai; Clark, Allan G; Clark, Brian Lee; Clark, Philip James; Clarke, Robert; Cleland, Bill; Clement, Christophe; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H; Coffey, Laurel; Cogan, Joshua Godfrey; Cole, Brian; Cole, Stephen; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Collot, Johann; Colombo, Tommaso; Compostella, Gabriele; Conde Muiño, Patricia; Coniavitis, Elias; Connell, Simon Henry; Connelly, Ian; Consonni, Sofia Maria; Consorti, Valerio; Constantinescu, Serban; Conta, Claudio; Conti, Geraldine; Conventi, Francesco; Cooke, Mark; Cooper, Ben; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Copic, Katherine; Cornelissen, Thijs; Corradi, Massimo; Corriveau, Francois; Corso-Radu, Alina; Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; Cortiana, Giorgio; Costa, Giuseppe; Costa, María José; Costanzo, Davide; Côté, David; Cottin, Giovanna; Cowan, Glen; Cox, Brian; Cranmer, Kyle; Cree, Graham; Crépé-Renaudin, Sabine; Crescioli, Francesco; Cribbs, Wayne Allen; Crispin Ortuzar, Mireia; Cristinziani, Markus; Croft, Vince; Crosetti, Giovanni; Cuhadar Donszelmann, Tulay; Cummings, Jane; Curatolo, Maria; Cuthbert, Cameron; Czirr, Hendrik; Czodrowski, Patrick; D'Auria, Saverio; D'Onofrio, Monica; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, Mario Jose; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dafinca, Alexandru; Dai, Tiesheng; Dale, Orjan; Dallaire, Frederick; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dam, Mogens; Dandoy, Jeffrey Rogers; Daniells, Andrew Christopher; Danninger, Matthias; Dano Hoffmann, Maria; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darmora, Smita; Dassoulas, James; Dattagupta, Aparajita; Davey, Will; David, Claire; Davidek, Tomas; Davies, Eleanor; Davies, Merlin; Davison, Peter; Davygora, Yuriy; Dawe, Edmund; Dawson, Ian; Daya-Ishmukhametova, Rozmin; De, Kaushik; de Asmundis, Riccardo; De Castro, Stefano; De Cecco, Sandro; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; De la Torre, Hector; De Lorenzi, Francesco; De Nooij, Lucie; De Pedis, Daniele; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; De Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; Dearnaley, William James; Debbe, Ramiro; Debenedetti, Chiara; Dedovich, Dmitri; Deigaard, Ingrid; Del Peso, Jose; Del Prete, Tarcisio; Delgove, David; Deliot, Frederic; Delitzsch, Chris Malena; Deliyergiyev, Maksym; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Dell'Orso, Mauro; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; Deluca, Carolina; DeMarco, David; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demilly, Aurelien; Denisov, Sergey; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Deterre, Cecile; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Domenico, Antonio; Di Donato, Camilla; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Di Micco, Biagio; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Di Valentino, David; Diaconu, Cristinel; Diamond, Miriam; Dias, Flavia; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Diehl, Edward; Dietrich, Janet; Diglio, Sara; Dimitrievska, Aleksandra; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dita, Petre; Dita, Sanda; Dittus, Fridolin; Djama, Fares; Djobava, Tamar; Djuvsland, Julia Isabell; Barros do Vale, Maria Aline; Dobos, Daniel; Dobre, Monica; Doglioni, Caterina; Dohmae, Takeshi; Dolejsi, Jiri; Dolezal, Zdenek; Dolgoshein, Boris; Donadelli, Marisilvia; Donati, Simone; Dondero, Paolo; Donini, Julien; Dopke, Jens; Doria, Alessandra; Dova, Maria-Teresa; Doyle, Tony; Drechsler, Eric; Dris, Manolis; Dubreuil, Emmanuelle; Duchovni, Ehud; Duckeck, Guenter; Ducu, Otilia Anamaria; Duda, Dominik; Dudarev, Alexey; Duflot, Laurent; Duguid, Liam; Dührssen, Michael; Dunford, Monica; Duran Yildiz, Hatice; Düren, Michael; Durglishvili, Archil; Duschinger, Dirk; Dyndal, Mateusz; Eckardt, Christoph; Ecker, Katharina Maria; Edson, William; Edwards, Nicholas Charles; Ehrenfeld, Wolfgang; Eifert, Till; Eigen, Gerald; Einsweiler, Kevin; Ekelof, Tord; El Kacimi, Mohamed; Ellert, Mattias; Elles, Sabine; Ellinghaus, Frank; Elliot, Alison; Ellis, Nicolas; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Elsing, Markus; Emeliyanov, Dmitry; Enari, Yuji; Endner, Oliver Chris; Endo, Masaki; Engelmann, Roderich; Erdmann, Johannes; Ereditato, Antonio; Ernis, Gunar; Ernst, Jesse; Ernst, Michael; Errede, Steven; Ertel, Eugen; Escalier, Marc; Esch, Hendrik; Escobar, Carlos; Esposito, Bellisario; Etienvre, Anne-Isabelle; Etzion, Erez; Evans, Hal; Ezhilov, Alexey; Fabbri, Laura; Facini, Gabriel; Fakhrutdinov, Rinat; Falciano, Speranza; Falla, Rebecca Jane; Faltova, Jana; Fang, Yaquan; Fanti, Marcello; Farbin, Amir; Farilla, Addolorata; Farooque, Trisha; Farrell, Steven; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fassi, Farida; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Faucci Giannelli, Michele; Favareto, Andrea; Fayard, Louis; Federic, Pavol; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Wojciech; Feigl, Simon; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Feng, Haolu; Fenyuk, Alexander; Fernandez Martinez, Patricia; Fernandez Perez, Sonia; Ferrag, Samir; Ferrando, James; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferreira de Lima, Danilo Enoque; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Ferretto Parodi, Andrea; Fiascaris, Maria; Fiedler, Frank; Filipčič, Andrej; Filipuzzi, Marco; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Finelli, Kevin Daniel; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Firan, Ana; Fischer, Adam; Fischer, Cora; Fischer, Julia; Fisher, Wade Cameron; Fitzgerald, Eric Andrew; Flechl, Martin; Fleck, Ivor; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fleischmann, Sebastian; Fletcher, Gareth Thomas; Fletcher, Gregory; Flick, Tobias; Floderus, Anders; Flores Castillo, Luis; Flowerdew, Michael; Formica, Andrea; Forti, Alessandra; Fournier, Daniel; Fox, Harald; Fracchia, Silvia; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchini, Matteo; Francis, David; Franconi, Laura; Franklin, Melissa; Fraternali, Marco; Freeborn, David; French, Sky; Friedrich, Felix; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fulsom, Bryan Gregory; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gabrielli, Alessandro; Gabrielli, Andrea; Gadatsch, Stefan; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Galhardo, Bruno; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Galster, Gorm Aske Gram Krohn; Gan, KK; Gao, Jun; Gao, Yanyan; Gao, Yongsheng; Garay Walls, Francisca; Garberson, Ford; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garonne, Vincent; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudiello, Andrea; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gaur, Bakul; Gauthier, Lea; Gauzzi, Paolo; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gazis, Evangelos; Ge, Peng; Gecse, Zoltan; Gee, Norman; Geerts, Daniël Alphonsus Adrianus; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Geisler, Manuel Patrice; Gemme, Claudia; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Gentile, Simonetta; George, Matthias; George, Simon; Gerbaudo, Davide; Gershon, Avi; Ghazlane, Hamid; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giangiobbe, Vincent; Giannetti, Paola; Gibbard, Bruce; Gibson, Stephen; Gilchriese, Murdock; Gillam, Thomas; Gillberg, Dag; Gilles, Geoffrey; Gingrich, Douglas; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giorgi, Filippo Maria; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giromini, Paolo; Giugni, Danilo; Giuliani, Claudia; Giulini, Maddalena; Gjelsten, Børge Kile; Gkaitatzis, Stamatios; Gkialas, Ioannis; Gkougkousis, Evangelos Leonidas; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glaysher, Paul; Glazov, Alexandre; Goblirsch-Kolb, Maximilian; Goddard, Jack Robert; Godlewski, Jan; Goldfarb, Steven; Golling, Tobias; Golubkov, Dmitry; Gomes, Agostinho; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, Joao; Gonella, Laura; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Parra, Garoe; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Goshaw, Alfred; Gössling, Claus; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Goujdami, Driss; Goussiou, Anna; Govender, Nicolin; Grabas, Herve Marie Xavier; Graber, Lars; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Grafström, Per; Grahn, Karl-Johan; Gramling, Johanna; Gramstad, Eirik; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Grassi, Valerio; Gratchev, Vadim; Gray, Heather; Graziani, Enrico; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Griffiths, Justin; Grillo, Alexander; Grimm, Kathryn; Grinstein, Sebastian; Gris, Philippe Luc Yves; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Grohs, Johannes Philipp; Grohsjean, Alexander; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Grossi, Giulio Cornelio; Grout, Zara Jane; Guan, Liang; Guenther, Jaroslav; Guescini, Francesco; Guest, Daniel; Gueta, Orel; Guido, Elisa; Guillemin, Thibault; Guindon, Stefan; Gul, Umar; Gumpert, Christian; Guo, Jun; Gupta, Shaun; Gutierrez, Phillip; Gutierrez Ortiz, Nicolas Gilberto; Gutschow, Christian; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haber, Carl; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Haddad, Nacim; Haefner, Petra; Hageböck, Stephan; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Haleem, Mahsana; Haley, Joseph; Hall, David; Halladjian, Garabed; Hallewell, Gregory David; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamano, Kenji; Hamer, Matthias; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamilton, Samuel; Hamity, Guillermo Nicolas; Hamnett, Phillip George; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hanawa, Keita; Hance, Michael; Haney, Bijan; Hanke, Paul; Hanna, Remie; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Maike Christina; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hard, Andrew; Harenberg, Torsten; Hariri, Faten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harrington, Robert; Harrison, Paul Fraser; Hartjes, Fred; Hasegawa, Makoto; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hasib, A; Hassani, Samira; Haug, Sigve; Hauser, Reiner; Hauswald, Lorenz; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hawkins, Anthony David; Hayashi, Takayasu; Hayden, Daniel; Hays, Chris; Hays, Jonathan Michael; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Head, Simon; Heck, Tobias; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heim, Timon; Heinemann, Beate; Heinrich, Lukas; Hejbal, Jiri; Helary, Louis; Hellman, Sten; Hellmich, Dennis; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, James; Henderson, Robert; Heng, Yang; Hengler, Christopher; Henrichs, Anna; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Herbert, Geoffrey Henry; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herrberg-Schubert, Ruth; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hesketh, Gavin Grant; Hessey, Nigel; Hetherly, Jeffrey Wayne; Hickling, Robert; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, Ewan; Hill, John; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hinman, Rachel Reisner; Hirose, Minoru; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoenig, Friedrich; Hohlfeld, Marc; Hohn, David; Holmes, Tova Ray; Hong, Tae Min; Hooft van Huysduynen, Loek; Hopkins, Walter; Horii, Yasuyuki; Horton, Arthur James; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howard, Jacob; Howarth, James; Hrabovsky, Miroslav; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hrynevich, Aliaksei; Hsu, Catherine; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Hu, Diedi; Hu, Qipeng; Hu, Xueye; Huang, Yanping; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Huhtinen, Mika; Hülsing, Tobias Alexander; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibragimov, Iskander; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Ideal, Emma; Idrissi, Zineb; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Iizawa, Tomoya; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikematsu, Katsumasa; Ikeno, Masahiro; Ilchenko, Iurii; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ilic, Nikolina; Inamaru, Yuki; Ince, Tayfun; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Iordanidou, Kalliopi; Ippolito, Valerio; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Isaksson, Charlie; Ishino, Masaya; Ishitsuka, Masaki; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Iturbe Ponce, Julia Mariana; Iuppa, Roberto; Ivarsson, Jenny; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jabbar, Samina; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, Matthew; Jackson, Paul; Jaekel, Martin; Jain, Vivek; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakoubek, Tomas; Jakubek, Jan; Jamin, David Olivier; Jana, Dilip; Jansen, Eric; Jansky, Roland; Janssen, Jens; Janus, Michel; Jarlskog, Göran; Javadov, Namig; Javůrek, Tomáš; Jeanty, Laura; Jejelava, Juansher; Jeng, Geng-yuan; Jennens, David; Jenni, Peter; Jentzsch, Jennifer; Jeske, Carl; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Ji, Haoshuang; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Yi; Jiggins, Stephen; Jimenez Pena, Javier; Jin, Shan; Jinaru, Adam; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Joergensen, Morten Dam; Johansson, Per; Johns, Kenneth; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Tim; Jongmanns, Jan; Jorge, Pedro; Joshi, Kiran Daniel; Jovicevic, Jelena; Ju, Xiangyang; Jung, Christian; Jussel, Patrick; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Kaci, Mohammed; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kahn, Sebastien Jonathan; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalderon, Charles William; Kama, Sami; Kamenshchikov, Andrey; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneda, Michiru; Kaneti, Steven; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kapliy, Anton; Kar, Deepak; Karakostas, Konstantinos; Karamaoun, Andrew; Karastathis, Nikolaos; Kareem, Mohammad Jawad; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Karpov, Sergey; Karpova, Zoya; Karthik, Krishnaiyengar; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kashif, Lashkar; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Yousuke; Katre, Akshay; Katzy, Judith; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kazama, Shingo; Kazanin, Vassili; Kazarinov, Makhail; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keller, John; Kempster, Jacob Julian; Keoshkerian, Houry; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Keyes, Robert; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Kharlamov, Alexey; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kim, Hee Yeun; Kim, Hyeon Jin; Kim, Shinhong; Kim, Young-Kee; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver Maria; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Robert Steven Beaufoy; King, Samuel Burton; Kirk, Julie; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kiss, Florian; Kiuchi, Kenji; Kivernyk, Oleh; Kladiva, Eduard; Klein, Matthew Henry; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klimek, Pawel; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinger, Joel Alexander; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Klok, Peter; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Kobayashi, Dai; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kogan, Lucy Anne; Kohlmann, Simon; Kohout, Zdenek; Kohriki, Takashi; Koi, Tatsumi; Kolanoski, Hermann; Koletsou, Iro; Komar, Aston; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Kondrashova, Nataliia; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; König, Sebastian; Kono, Takanori; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kopeliansky, Revital; Koperny, Stefan; Köpke, Lutz; Kopp, Anna Katharina; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kosek, Tomas; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotov, Vladislav; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Kourkoumeli-Charalampidi, Athina; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasnopevtsev, Dimitriy; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, Jana; Kravchenko, Anton; Kreiss, Sven; Kretz, Moritz; Kretzschmar, Jan; Kreutzfeldt, Kristof; Krieger, Peter; Krizka, Karol; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Krumnack, Nils; Krumshteyn, Zinovii; Kruse, Amanda; Kruse, Mark; Kruskal, Michael; Kubota, Takashi; Kucuk, Hilal; Kuday, Sinan; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuger, Fabian; Kuhl, Andrew; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kukhtin, Victor; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kuna, Marine; Kunigo, Takuto; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kurumida, Rie; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuwertz, Emma Sian; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; Kwan, Tony; Kyriazopoulos, Dimitrios; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rosa Navarro, Jose Luis; La Rotonda, Laura; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacey, James; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Lambourne, Luke; Lammers, Sabine; Lampen, Caleb; Lampl, Walter; Lançon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lang, Valerie Susanne; Lange, J örn Christian; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Lasagni Manghi, Federico; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Law, Alexander; Laycock, Paul; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Menedeu, Eve; LeBlanc, Matthew Edgar; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Claire Alexandra; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Guillaume; Lefebvre, Michel; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehan, Allan; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leight, William Axel; Leisos, Antonios; Leister, Andrew Gerard; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lemmer, Boris; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatjana; Lenzi, Bruno; Leone, Robert; Leone, Sandra; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Leroy, Claude; Lester, Christopher; Levchenko, Mikhail; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Levy, Mark; Lewis, Adrian; Leyko, Agnieszka; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bing; Li, Haifeng; Li, Ho Ling; Li, Lei; Li, Liang; Li, Shu; Li, Yichen; Liang, Zhijun; Liao, Hongbo; Liberti, Barbara; Liblong, Aaron; Lichard, Peter; Lie, Ki; Liebal, Jessica; Liebig, Wolfgang; Limbach, Christian; Limosani, Antonio; Lin, Simon; Lin, Tai-Hua; Linde, Frank; Lindquist, Brian Edward; Linnemann, James; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipniacka, Anna; Lisovyi, Mykhailo; Liss, Tony; Lissauer, David; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Bo; Liu, Dong; Liu, Jian; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Kun; Liu, Lulu; Liu, Miaoyuan; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Loebinger, Fred; Loevschall-Jensen, Ask Emil; Loginov, Andrey; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Long, Brian Alexander; Long, Jonathan; Long, Robin Eamonn; Looper, Kristina Anne; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Lopez Paredes, Brais; Lopez Paz, Ivan; Lorenz, Jeanette; Lorenzo Martinez, Narei; Losada, Marta; Loscutoff, Peter; Lösel, Philipp Jonathan; Lou, XinChou; Lounis, Abdenour; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lu, Nan; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Luehring, Frederick; Lukas, Wolfgang; Luminari, Lamberto; Lundberg, Olof; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lungwitz, Matthias; Lynn, David; Lysak, Roman; Lytken, Else; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Macdonald, Calum Michael; Machado Miguens, Joana; Macina, Daniela; Madaffari, Daniele; Madar, Romain; Maddocks, Harvey Jonathan; Mader, Wolfgang; Madsen, Alexander; Maeland, Steffen; Maeno, Tadashi; Maevskiy, Artem; Magradze, Erekle; Mahboubi, Kambiz; Mahlstedt, Joern; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maier, Andreas Alexander; Maier, Thomas; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Malaescu, Bogdan; Malecki, Pawel; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Caitlin; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyshev, Vladimir; Malyukov, Sergei; Mamuzic, Judita; Mancini, Giada; Mandelli, Beatrice; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Mandrysch, Rocco; Maneira, José; Manfredini, Alessandro; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Manjarres Ramos, Joany; Mann, Alexander; Manning, Peter; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Mantifel, Rodger; Mantoani, Matteo; Mapelli, Livio; March, Luis; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marino, Christopher; Marjanovic, Marija; Marroquim, Fernando; Marsden, Stephen Philip; Marshall, Zach; Marti, Lukas Fritz; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Brian Thomas; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martinez, Mario; Martin-Haugh, Stewart; Martoiu, Victor Sorin; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzano, Francesco; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massa, Lorenzo; Massol, Nicolas; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Mättig, Peter; Mattmann, Johannes; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; Mazini, Rachid; Mazza, Simone Michele; Mazzaferro, Luca; Mc Goldrick, Garrin; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McCubbin, Norman; McFarlane, Kenneth; Mcfayden, Josh; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Medinnis, Michael; Meehan, Samuel; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meineck, Christian; Meirose, Bernhard; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Meloni, Federico; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Meoni, Evelin; Mercurio, Kevin Michael; Mergelmeyer, Sebastian; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Middleton, Robin; Miglioranzi, Silvia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Milesi, Marco; Milic, Adriana; Miller, David; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Minaenko, Andrey; Minami, Yuto; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mitani, Takashi; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Miucci, Antonio; Miyagawa, Paul; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Mochizuki, Kazuya; Mohapatra, Soumya; Mohr, Wolfgang; Molander, Simon; Moles-Valls, Regina; Mönig, Klaus; Monini, Caterina; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montejo Berlingen, Javier; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Morange, Nicolas; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Morgenstern, Marcus; Morii, Masahiro; Morinaga, Masahiro; Morisbak, Vanja; Moritz, Sebastian; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morris, John; Mortensen, Simon Stark; Morton, Alexander; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Motohashi, Kazuki; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Muanza, Steve; Mudd, Richard; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Klemens; Mueller, Ralph Soeren Peter; Mueller, Thibaut; Muenstermann, Daniel; Mullen, Paul; Munwes, Yonathan; Murillo Quijada, Javier Alberto; Murray, Bill; Musheghyan, Haykuhi; Musto, Elisa; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nackenhorst, Olaf; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagai, Ryo; Nagai, Yoshikazu; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagarkar, Advait; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nagata, Kazuki; Nagel, Martin; Nagy, Elemer; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Namasivayam, Harisankar; Naranjo Garcia, Roger Felipe; Narayan, Rohin; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Nayyar, Ruchika; Neal, Homer; Nechaeva, Polina; Neep, Thomas James; Nef, Pascal Daniel; Negri, Andrea; Negrini, Matteo; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nellist, Clara; Nelson, Andrew; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neumann, Manuel; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newman, Paul; Nguyen, Duong Hai; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Nielsen, Jason; Nikiforou, Nikiforos; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsen, Jon Kerr; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nisius, Richard; Nobe, Takuya; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Nooney, Tamsin; Norberg, Scarlet; Nordberg, Markus; Novgorodova, Olga; Nowak, Sebastian; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Ntekas, Konstantinos; Nunes Hanninger, Guilherme; Nunnemann, Thomas; Nurse, Emily; Nuti, Francesco; O'Brien, Brendan Joseph; O'grady, Fionnbarr; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Shea, Val; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Obermann, Theresa; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Ochoa, Ines; Ochoa-Ricoux, Juan Pedro; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohman, Henrik; Oide, Hideyuki; Okamura, Wataru; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olariu, Albert; Olivares Pino, Sebastian Andres; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Oliver Garcia, Elena; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Onofre, António; Onyisi, Peter; Oram, Christopher; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlando, Nicola; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Otono, Hidetoshi; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ouellette, Eric; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Oussoren, Koen Pieter; Ouyang, Qun; Ovcharova, Ana; Owen, Mark; Owen, Rhys Edward; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pachal, Katherine; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagáčová, Martina; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paganis, Efstathios; Pahl, Christoph; Paige, Frank; Pais, Preema; Pajchel, Katarina; Palacino, Gabriel; Palestini, Sandro; Palka, Marek; Pallin, Dominique; Palma, Alberto; Pan, Yibin; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Pandini, Carlo Enrico; Panduro Vazquez, William; Pani, Priscilla; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Paolozzi, Lorenzo; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Papageorgiou, Konstantinos; Paramonov, Alexander; Paredes Hernandez, Daniela; Parker, Michael Andrew; Parker, Kerry Ann; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passaggio, Stefano; Pastore, Fernanda; Pastore, Francesca; Pásztor, Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Patel, Nikhul; Pater, Joleen; Pauly, Thilo; Pearce, James; Pearson, Benjamin; Pedersen, Lars Egholm; Pedersen, Maiken; Pedraza Lopez, Sebastian; Pedro, Rute; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Pelikan, Daniel; Peng, Haiping; Penning, Bjoern; Penwell, John; Perepelitsa, Dennis; Perez Codina, Estel; Pérez García-Estañ, María Teresa; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrella, Sabrina; Peschke, Richard; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Krisztian; Peters, Yvonne; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Pettersson, Nora Emilia; Pezoa, Raquel; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Pianori, Elisabetta; Picazio, Attilio; Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Pickering, Mark Andrew; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pignotti, David; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pina, João Antonio; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinfold, James; Pingel, Almut; Pinto, Belmiro; Pires, Sylvestre; Pitt, Michael; Pizio, Caterina; Plazak, Lukas; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Pleskot, Vojtech; Plotnikova, Elena; Plucinski, Pawel; Pluth, Daniel; Poettgen, Ruth; Poggioli, Luc; Pohl, David-leon; Polesello, Giacomo; Policicchio, Antonio; Polifka, Richard; Polini, Alessandro; Pollard, Christopher Samuel; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pommès, Kathy; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Popovic, Dragan; Poppleton, Alan; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potamianos, Karolos; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Pozdnyakov, Valery; Pralavorio, Pascal; Pranko, Aliaksandr; Prasad, Srivas; Prell, Soeren; Price, Darren; Price, Lawrence; Primavera, Margherita; Prince, Sebastien; Proissl, Manuel; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopapadaki, Eftychia-sofia; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Przybycien, Mariusz; Ptacek, Elizabeth; Puddu, Daniele; Pueschel, Elisa; Puldon, David; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Qian, Jianming; Qin, Gang; Qin, Yang; Quadt, Arnulf; Quarrie, David; Quayle, William; Queitsch-Maitland, Michaela; Quilty, Donnchadha; Raddum, Silje; Radeka, Veljko; Radescu, Voica; Radhakrishnan, Sooraj Krishnan; Radloff, Peter; Rados, Pere; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rammensee, Michael; Rangel-Smith, Camila; Rauscher, Felix; Rave, Stefan; Ravenscroft, Thomas; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Readioff, Nathan Peter; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reeves, Kendall; Rehnisch, Laura; Reisin, Hernan; Relich, Matthew; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Huan; Renaud, Adrien; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Rezanova, Olga; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richter, Robert; Richter, Stefan; Richter-Was, Elzbieta; Ricken, Oliver; Ridel, Melissa; Rieck, Patrick; Riegel, Christian Johann; Rieger, Julia; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Ristić, Branislav; Ritsch, Elmar; Riu, Imma; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robson, Aidan; Roda, Chiara; Roe, Shaun; Røhne, Ole; Rolli, Simona; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romano, Marino; Romano Saez, Silvestre Marino; Romero Adam, Elena; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Ronzani, Manfredi; Roos, Lydia; Ros, Eduardo; Rosati, Stefano; Rosbach, Kilian; Rose, Peyton; Rosendahl, Peter Lundgaard; Rosenthal, Oliver; Rossetti, Valerio; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rosten, Rachel; Rotaru, Marina; Roth, Itamar; Rothberg, Joseph; Rousseau, David; Royon, Christophe; Rozanov, Alexandre; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubbo, Francesco; Rubinskiy, Igor; Rud, Viacheslav; Rudolph, Christian; Rudolph, Matthew Scott; Rühr, Frederik; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Ruschke, Alexander; Russell, Heather; Rutherfoord, John; Ruthmann, Nils; Ryabov, Yury; Rybar, Martin; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryder, Nick; Saavedra, Aldo; Sabato, Gabriele; Sacerdoti, Sabrina; Saddique, Asif; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Saimpert, Matthias; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Sakurai, Yuki; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salamon, Andrea; Saleem, Muhammad; Salek, David; Sales De Bruin, Pedro Henrique; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, José; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salvucci, Antonio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Sanchez, Arturo; Sánchez, Javier; Sanchez Martinez, Victoria; Sandaker, Heidi; Sandbach, Ruth Laura; Sander, Heinz Georg; Sanders, Michiel; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandoval, Carlos; Sandstroem, Rikard; Sankey, Dave; Sannino, Mario; Sansoni, Andrea; Santoni, Claudio; Santonico, Rinaldo; Santos, Helena; Santoyo Castillo, Itzebelt; Sapp, Kevin; Sapronov, Andrey; Saraiva, João; Sarrazin, Bjorn; Sasaki, Osamu; Sasaki, Yuichi; Sato, Koji; Sauvage, Gilles; Sauvan, Emmanuel; Savage, Graham; Savard, Pierre; Sawyer, Craig; Sawyer, Lee; Saxon, James; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scanlon, Tim; Scannicchio, Diana; Scarcella, Mark; Scarfone, Valerio; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schaefer, Douglas; Schaefer, Ralph; Schaeffer, Jan; Schaepe, Steffen; Schaetzel, Sebastian; Schäfer, Uli; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R. Dean; Scharf, Veit; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Schernau, Michael; Schiavi, Carlo; Schillo, Christian; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schmidt, Evelyn; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitt, Sebastian; Schmitt, Stefan; Schneider, Basil; Schnellbach, Yan Jie; Schnoor, Ulrike; Schoeffel, Laurent; Schoening, Andre; Schoenrock, Bradley Daniel; Schopf, Elisabeth; Schorlemmer, Andre Lukas; Schott, Matthias; Schouten, Doug; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schramm, Steven; Schreyer, Manuel; Schroeder, Christian; Schuh, Natascha; Schultens, Martin Johannes; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schulz, Holger; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwanenberger, Christian; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwarz, Thomas Andrew; Schwegler, Philipp; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwindling, Jerome; Schwindt, Thomas; Schwoerer, Maud; Sciacca, Gianfranco; Scifo, Estelle; Sciolla, Gabriella; Scuri, Fabrizio; Scutti, Federico; Searcy, Jacob; Sedov, George; Sedykh, Evgeny; Seema, Pienpen; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seifert, Frank; Seixas, José; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Sekula, Stephen; Selbach, Karoline Elfriede; Seliverstov, Dmitry; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Serkin, Leonid; Serre, Thomas; Seuster, Rolf; Severini, Horst; Sfiligoj, Tina; Sforza, Federico; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shamim, Mansoora; Shan, Lianyou; Shang, Ruo-yu; Shank, James; Shapiro, Marjorie; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaw, Kate; Shaw, Savanna Marie; Shcherbakova, Anna; Shehu, Ciwake Yusufu; Sherwood, Peter; Shi, Liaoshan; Shimizu, Shima; Shimmin, Chase Owen; Shimojima, Makoto; Shiyakova, Mariya; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shoaleh Saadi, Diane; Shochet, Mel; Shojaii, Seyedruhollah; Shrestha, Suyog; Shulga, Evgeny; Shupe, Michael; Shushkevich, Stanislav; Sicho, Petr; Sidiropoulou, Ourania; Sidorov, Dmitri; Sidoti, Antonio; Siegert, Frank; Sijacki, Djordje; Silva, José; Silver, Yiftah; Silverstein, Samuel; Simak, Vladislav; Simard, Olivier; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; Simioni, Eduard; Simmons, Brinick; Simon, Dorian; Simoniello, Rosa; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Siragusa, Giovanni; Sisakyan, Alexei; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Sjölin, Jörgen; Sjursen, Therese; Skinner, Malcolm Bruce; Skottowe, Hugh Philip; Skubic, Patrick; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Slawinska, Magdalena; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smart, Ben; Smestad, Lillian; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnov, Yury; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smith, Matthew; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snidero, Giacomo; Snyder, Scott; Sobie, Randall; Socher, Felix; Soffer, Abner; Soh, Dart-yin; Solans, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Solc, Jaroslav; Soldatov, Evgeny; Soldevila, Urmila; Solodkov, Alexander; Soloshenko, Alexei; Solovyanov, Oleg; Solovyev, Victor; Sommer, Philip; Song, Hong Ye; Soni, Nitesh; Sood, Alexander; Sopczak, Andre; Sopko, Bruno; Sopko, Vit; Sorin, Veronica; Sosa, David; Sosebee, Mark; Sotiropoulou, Calliope Louisa; Soualah, Rachik; Soueid, Paul; Soukharev, Andrey; South, David; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spalla, Margherita; Spanò, Francesco; Spearman, William Robert; Spettel, Fabian; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spiller, Laurence Anthony; Spousta, Martin; Spreitzer, Teresa; St Denis, Richard Dante; Staerz, Steffen; Stahlman, Jonathan; Stamen, Rainer; Stamm, Soren; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanescu, Cristian; Stanescu-Bellu, Madalina; Stanitzki, Marcel Michael; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Jan; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Staszewski, Rafal; Stavina, Pavel; Steinberg, Peter; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stern, Sebastian; Stewart, Graeme; Stillings, Jan Andre; Stockton, Mark; Stoebe, Michael; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stolte, Philipp; Stonjek, Stefan; Stradling, Alden; Straessner, Arno; Stramaglia, Maria Elena; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strandlie, Are; Strauss, Emanuel; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Ströhmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Strubig, Antonia; Stucci, Stefania Antonia; Stugu, Bjarne; Styles, Nicholas Adam; Su, Dong; Su, Jun; Subramaniam, Rajivalochan; Succurro, Antonella; Sugaya, Yorihito; Suhr, Chad; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Siyuan; Sun, Xiaohu; Sundermann, Jan Erik; Suruliz, Kerim; Susinno, Giancarlo; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Shota; Suzuki, Yu; Svatos, Michal; Swedish, Stephen; Swiatlowski, Maximilian; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Ta, Duc; Taccini, Cecilia; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taenzer, Joe; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Takeshita, Tohru; Takubo, Yosuke; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tam, Jason; Tan, Kong Guan; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Satoshi; Tanaka, Shuji; Tannenwald, Benjamin Bordy; Tannoury, Nancy; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tarem, Shlomit; Tarrade, Fabien; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tashiro, Takuya; Tassi, Enrico; Tavares Delgado, Ademar; Tayalati, Yahya; Taylor, Frank; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Wendy; Teischinger, Florian Alfred; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, Matilde; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temming, Kim Katrin; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Teoh, Jia Jian; Tepel, Fabian-Phillipp; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Terzo, Stefano; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Therhaag, Jan; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothée; Thomas, Juergen; Thomas-Wilsker, Joshuha; Thompson, Emily; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Ray; Thompson, Stan; Thomsen, Lotte Ansgaard; Thomson, Evelyn; Thomson, Mark; Thun, Rudolf; Tibbetts, Mark James; Ticse Torres, Royer Edson; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timoshenko, Sergey; Tiouchichine, Elodie; Tipton, Paul; Tisserant, Sylvain; Todorov, Theodore; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Tojo, Junji; Tokár, Stanislav; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tollefson, Kirsten; Tolley, Emma; Tomlinson, Lee; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Torrence, Eric; Torres, Heberth; Torró Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Trefzger, Thomas; Tremblet, Louis; Tricoli, Alessandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Tripiana, Martin; Trischuk, William; Trocmé, Benjamin; Troncon, Clara; Trottier-McDonald, Michel; Trovatelli, Monica; True, Patrick; Trzebinski, Maciej; Trzupek, Adam; Tsarouchas, Charilaos; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiareshka, Pavel; Tsionou, Dimitra; Tsipolitis, Georgios; Tsirintanis, Nikolaos; Tsiskaridze, Shota; Tsiskaridze, Vakhtang; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsukerman, Ilya; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Tsuno, Soshi; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tudorache, Alexandra; Tudorache, Valentina; Tuna, Alexander Naip; Tupputi, Salvatore; Turchikhin, Semen; Turecek, Daniel; Turra, Ruggero; Turvey, Andrew John; Tuts, Michael; Tykhonov, Andrii; Tylmad, Maja; Tyndel, Mike; Ueda, Ikuo; Ueno, Ryuichi; Ughetto, Michael; Ugland, Maren; Uhlenbrock, Mathias; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Unal, Guillaume; Undrus, Alexander; Unel, Gokhan; Ungaro, Francesca; Unno, Yoshinobu; Unverdorben, Christopher; Urban, Jozef; Urquijo, Phillip; Urrejola, Pedro; Usai, Giulio; Usanova, Anna; Vacavant, Laurent; Vacek, Vaclav; Vachon, Brigitte; Valderanis, Chrysostomos; Valencic, Nika; Valentinetti, Sara; Valero, Alberto; Valery, Loic; Valkar, Stefan; Valladolid Gallego, Eva; Vallecorsa, Sofia; Valls Ferrer, Juan Antonio; Van Den Wollenberg, Wouter; Van Der Deijl, Pieter; van der Geer, Rogier; van der Graaf, Harry; Van Der Leeuw, Robin; van Eldik, Niels; van Gemmeren, Peter; Van Nieuwkoop, Jacobus; van Vulpen, Ivo; van Woerden, Marius Cornelis; Vanadia, Marco; Vandelli, Wainer; Vanguri, Rami; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vannucci, Francois; Vardanyan, Gagik; Vari, Riccardo; Varnes, Erich; Varol, Tulin; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vazeille, Francois; Vazquez Schroeder, Tamara; Veatch, Jason; Veloso, Filipe; Velz, Thomas; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Ventura, Daniel; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Venturini, Alessio; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Jos; Vest, Anja; Vetterli, Michel; Viazlo, Oleksandr; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Vickey Boeriu, Oana Elena; Viehhauser, Georg; Viel, Simon; Vigne, Ralph; Villa, Mauro; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; Vinogradov, Vladimir; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Vives Vaque, Francesc; Vlachos, Sotirios; Vladoiu, Dan; Vlasak, Michal; Vogel, Marcelo; Vokac, Petr; Volpi, Guido; Volpi, Matteo; von der Schmitt, Hans; von Radziewski, Holger; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorobel, Vit; Vorobev, Konstantin; Vos, Marcel; Voss, Rudiger; Vossebeld, Joost; Vranjes, Nenad; Vranjes Milosavljevic, Marija; Vrba, Vaclav; Vreeswijk, Marcel; Vuillermet, Raphael; Vukotic, Ilija; Vykydal, Zdenek; Wagner, Peter; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wahlberg, Hernan; Wahrmund, Sebastian; Wakabayashi, Jun; Walder, James; Walker, Rodney; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Wang, Chao; Wang, Fuquan; Wang, Haichen; Wang, Hulin; Wang, Jike; Wang, Jin; Wang, Kuhan; Wang, Rui; Wang, Song-Ming; Wang, Tan; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Wanotayaroj, Chaowaroj; Warburton, Andreas; Ward, Patricia; Wardrope, David Robert; Warsinsky, Markus; Washbrook, Andrew; Wasicki, Christoph; Watkins, Peter; Watson, Alan; Watson, Ian; Watson, Miriam; Watts, Gordon; Watts, Stephen; Waugh, Ben; Webb, Samuel; Weber, Michele; Weber, Stefan Wolf; Webster, Jordan S; Weidberg, Anthony; Weinert, Benjamin; Weingarten, Jens; Weiser, Christian; Weits, Hartger; Wells, Phillippa; Wenaus, Torre; Wengler, Thorsten; Wenig, Siegfried; Wermes, Norbert; Werner, Matthias; Werner, Per; Wessels, Martin; Wetter, Jeffrey; Whalen, Kathleen; Wharton, Andrew Mark; White, Andrew; White, Martin; White, Ryan; White, Sebastian; Whiteson, Daniel; Wickens, Fred; Wiedenmann, Werner; Wielers, Monika; Wienemann, Peter; Wiglesworth, Craig; Wiik-Fuchs, Liv Antje Mari; Wildauer, Andreas; Wilkens, Henric George; Williams, Hugh; Williams, Sarah; Willis, Christopher; Willocq, Stephane; Wilson, Alan; Wilson, John; Wingerter-Seez, Isabelle; Winklmeier, Frank; Winter, Benedict Tobias; Wittgen, Matthias; Wittkowski, Josephine; Wollstadt, Simon Jakob; Wolter, Marcin Wladyslaw; Wolters, Helmut; Wosiek, Barbara; Wotschack, Jorg; Woudstra, Martin; Wozniak, Krzysztof; Wu, Mengqing; Wu, Miles; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, Xin; Wu, Yusheng; Wyatt, Terry Richard; Wynne, Benjamin; Xella, Stefania; Xu, Da; Xu, Lailin; Yabsley, Bruce; Yacoob, Sahal; Yakabe, Ryota; Yamada, Miho; Yamaguchi, Yohei; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Shimpei; Yamanaka, Takashi; Yamauchi, Katsuya; Yamazaki, Yuji; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Haijun; Yang, Hongtao; Yang, Yi; Yao, Liwen; Yao, Weiming; Yasu, Yoshiji; Yatsenko, Elena; Yau Wong, Kaven Henry; Ye, Jingbo; Ye, Shuwei; Yeletskikh, Ivan; Yen, Andy L; Yildirim, Eda; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshida, Rikutaro; Yoshihara, Keisuke; Young, Charles; Young, Christopher John; Youssef, Saul; Yu, David Ren-Hwa; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Jiaming; Yu, Jie; Yuan, Li; Yurkewicz, Adam; Yusuff, Imran; Zabinski, Bartlomiej; Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zalieckas, Justas; Zaman, Aungshuman; Zambito, Stefano; Zanello, Lucia; Zanzi, Daniele; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zeman, Martin; Zemla, Andrzej; Zengel, Keith; Zenin, Oleg; Ženiš, Tibor; Zerwas, Dirk; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Fangzhou; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Ruiqi; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Xiandong; Zhao, Yongke; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Chen; Zhou, Lei; Zhou, Li; Zhou, Ning; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Junjie; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zhukov, Konstantin; Zibell, Andre; Zieminska, Daria; Zimine, Nikolai; Zimmermann, Christoph; Zimmermann, Robert; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Zinonos, Zinonas; Zinser, Markus; Ziolkowski, Michael; Živković, Lidija; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; zur Nedden, Martin; Zurzolo, Giovanni; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2015-08-26

    Measurements of the total and differential cross sections of Higgs boson production are performed using 20.3~fb$^{-1}$ of $pp$ collisions produced by the Large Hadron Collider at a center-of-mass energy of $\\sqrt{s} = 8$ TeV and recorded by the ATLAS detector. Cross sections are obtained from measured $H \\rightarrow \\gamma \\gamma$ and $H \\rightarrow ZZ ^{*}\\rightarrow 4\\ell$ event yields, which are combined accounting for detector efficiencies, fiducial acceptances and branching fractions. Differential cross sections are reported as a function of Higgs boson transverse momentum, Higgs boson rapidity, number of jets in the event, and transverse momentum of the leading jet. The total production cross section is determined to be $\\sigma_{pp \\to H} = 33.0 \\pm 5.3 \\, ({\\rm stat}) \\pm 1.6 \\, ({\\rm sys}) \\mathrm{pb}$. The measurements are compared to state-of-the-art predictions.

  11. Monte Carlo Simulations of High-speed, Time-gated MCP-based X-ray Detectors: Saturation Effects in DC and Pulsed Modes and Detector Dynamic Range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craig Kruschwitz, Ming Wu, Ken Moy, Greg Rochau

    2008-10-31

    We present here results of continued efforts to understand the performance of microchannel plate (MCP)–based, high-speed, gated, x-ray detectors. This work involves the continued improvement of a Monte Carlo simulation code to describe MCP performance coupled with experimental efforts to better characterize such detectors. Our goal is a quantitative description of MCP saturation behavior in both static and pulsed modes. We have developed a new model of charge buildup on the walls of the MCP channels and measured its effect on MCP gain. The results are compared to experimental data obtained with a short-pulse, high-intensity ultraviolet laser; these results clearly demonstrate MCP saturation behavior in both DC and pulsed modes. The simulations compare favorably to the experimental results. The dynamic range of the detectors in pulsed operation is of particular interest when fielding an MCP–based camera. By adjusting the laser flux we study the linear range of the camera. These results, too, are compared to our simulations.

  12. Measurement of the Higgs boson mass in the $H\\rightarrow ZZ^*\\rightarrow 4\\ell$ and $H\\rightarrow\\gamma\\gamma$ channels with $\\sqrt{s}=13\\,$TeV $pp$ collisions using the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Bruscino, Nello; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The mass of the Higgs boson is measured in the $H\\rightarrow ZZ^*\\rightarrow 4\\ell$ and in the $H\\rightarrow\\gamma\\gamma$ decay channels with $36.1\\,$fb$^{-1}$ of proton-proton collision data from the Large Hadron Collider at a center-of-mass energy of $\\sqrt{s}=13$ TeV recorded by the ATLAS detector in 2015 and 2016. The measured value in the $H\\rightarrow ZZ^*\\rightarrow 4\\ell$ channel is $m_{H}^{ZZ^{*}} = 124.88 \\pm {0.37}\\,$GeV, while the measured value in the $H\\rightarrow\\gamma\\gamma$ channel is $m_{H}^{\\gamma \\gamma} = 125.11 \\pm {0.42}\\,$GeV. The two results have a compatibility of $0.4\\sigma$. The combined measurement from a simultaneous fit to the invariant mass distributions in the two channels is $m_{H} = 124.98 \\pm{0.28}\\,$GeV.

  13. arXiv Measurement of $\\tau$ polarisation in $Z/\\gamma^{*}\\rightarrow\\tau\\tau$ decays in proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=8$ TeV with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

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Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartos, Pavol; Basalaev, Artem; Bassalat, Ahmed; Bates, Richard; Batista, Santiago Juan; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Marco; Bauce, Matteo; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beacham, James; Beattie, Michael David; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans~Peter; Beck, Helge Christoph; Becker, Kathrin; Becker, Maurice; Becot, Cyril; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bedognetti, Matteo; Bee, Christopher; Beermann, Thomas; Begalli, Marcia; Begel, Michael; Behr, Janna Katharina; Bell, Andrew Stuart; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellerive, Alain; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Belyaev, Nikita; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bender, Michael; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez, Jose; Benjamin, Douglas; Benoit, Mathieu; Bensinger, James; Bentvelsen, Stan; Beresford, Lydia; Beretta, Matteo; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Beringer, Jürg; Berlendis, Simon; Bernard, Nathan Rogers; Bernardi, Gregorio; Bernius, Catrin; Bernlochner, Florian Urs; Berry, Tracey; Berta, Peter; Bertella, Claudia; Bertoli, Gabriele; Bertram, Iain Alexander; Bertsche, Carolyn; Bertsche, David; Besjes, Geert-Jan; Bessidskaia Bylund, Olga; Bessner, Martin Florian; Besson, Nathalie; Bethani, Agni; Bethke, Siegfried; Betti, Alessandra; Bevan, Adrian John; Beyer, Julien-christopher; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Biebel, Otmar; Biedermann, Dustin; Bielski, Rafal; Bierwagen, Katharina; Biesuz, Nicolo Vladi; Biglietti, Michela; Billoud, Thomas Remy Victor; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Biondi, Silvia; Bisanz, Tobias; Bittrich, Carsten; Bjergaard, David Martin; Black, James; Black, Kevin; Blair, Robert; Blazek, Tomas; Bloch, Ingo; Blocker, Craig; Blue, Andrew; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Blunier, Sylvain; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bobrovnikov, Victor; Bocchetta, Simona Serena; Bocci, Andrea; Bock, Christopher; Boehler, Michael; Boerner, Daniela; Bogavac, Danijela; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Bohm, Christian; Boisvert, Veronique; Bokan, Petar; Bold, Tomasz; Boldyrev, Alexey; Bolz, Arthur Eugen; Bomben, Marco; Bona, Marcella; Boonekamp, Maarten; Borisov, Anatoly; Borissov, Guennadi; Bortfeldt, Jonathan; Bortoletto, Daniela; Bortolotto, Valerio; Boscherini, Davide; Bosman, Martine; Bossio Sola, Jonathan David; Boudreau, Joseph; Bouhova-Thacker, Evelina Vassileva; Boumediene, Djamel Eddine; Bourdarios, Claire; Boutle, Sarah Kate; Boveia, Antonio; Boyd, James; Boyko, Igor; Bozson, Adam James; Bracinik, Juraj; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Gerhard; Brandt, Oleg; Braren, Frued; Bratzler, Uwe; Brau, Benjamin; Brau, James; Breaden Madden, William Dmitri; Brendlinger, Kurt; Brennan, Amelia Jean; Brenner, Lydia; Brenner, Richard; Bressler, Shikma; Briglin, Daniel Lawrence; Bristow, Timothy Michael; Britton, Dave; Britzger, Daniel; Brochu, Frederic; Brock, Ian; Brock, Raymond; Brooijmans, Gustaaf; Brooks, Timothy; 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Caloba, Luiz; Calvente Lopez, Sergio; Calvet, David; Calvet, Samuel; Calvet, Thomas Philippe; Camacho Toro, Reina;