WorldWideScience

Sample records for range experiment station

  1. Publications of the Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, 1980-1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert P. Winokur

    1982-01-01

    Lists alphabetically, by author, publications of the Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station for 1980 through 1989, including both subject matter and author Indexes. This publication continues the information shown in USDA Forest Service General Technical Report RM-6, “Publications of the Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, 1953-1973...

  2. The search for forest facts: a history of the Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, 1926–2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony. Godfrey

    2013-01-01

    In 1926, the California Forest Experiment Station, which later became the Pacific Southwest (PSW) Research Station, was established at the University of California, Berkeley. Today, the PSW Research Station represents the research and development branch of the USDA Forest Service in California and Hawaii and the U.S.-affiliated Pacific Islands. The PSW Research Station...

  3. Mobile Lunar Laser Ranging Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intellect, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Harlan Smith, chairman of the University of Texas's Astronomy Department, discusses a mobile lunar laser ranging station which could help determine the exact rates of movement between continents and help geophysicists understand earthquakes. He also discusses its application for studying fundamental concepts of cosmology and physics. (Editor/RK)

  4. Southeast Regional Experiment Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-08-01

    This is the final report of the Southeast Regional Experiment Station project. The Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC), a research institute of the University of Central Florida (UCF), has operated the Southeast Regional Experiment Station (SE RES) for the US Department of Energy (DOE) since September 1982. Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque (SNLA) provides technical program direction for both the SE RES and the Southwest Regional Experiment Station (SW RES) located at the Southwest Technology Development Institute at Las Cruces, New Mexico. This cooperative effort serves a critical role in the national photovoltaic program by conducting system evaluations, design assistance and technology transfer to enhance the cost-effective utilization and development of photovoltaic technology. Initially, the research focus of the SE RES program centered on utility-connected PV systems and associated issues. In 1987, the SE RES began evaluating amorphous silicon (a-Si) thin-film PV modules for application in utility-interactive systems. Stand-alone PV systems began receiving increased emphasis at the SE RES in 1986. Research projects were initiated that involved evaluation of vaccine refrigeration, water pumping and other stand-alone power systems. The results of this work have led to design optimization techniques and procedures for the sizing and modeling of PV water pumping systems. Later recent research at the SE RES included test and evaluation of batteries and charge controllers for stand-alone PV system applications. The SE RES project provided the foundation on which FSEC achieved national recognition for its expertise in PV systems research and related technology transfer programs. These synergistic products of the SE RES illustrate the high visibility and contributions the FSEC PV program offers to the DOE.

  5. Towards a medium-range coastal station fog forecasting system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Landman, S

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available -1 29th Annual conference of South African Society for Atmospheric Sciences (SASAS) 2013 http://sasas.ukzn.ac.za/homepage.aspx Towards a Medium-Range Coastal Station Fog Forecasting System Stephanie Landman*1, Estelle Marx1, Willem A. Landman2...

  6. Emulsion chamber experiments for the Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkes, R. J.

    Emulsion chambers offer several unique features for the study of ultrahigh-energy cosmic-ray interactions and spectra aboard a permanent manned Space Station. Emulsion-chamber experiments provide the highest acceptance/weight ratio of any current experimental technique, are invulnerable to mechanical shocks and temperature excursions associated with space flight, do not employ volatile or explosive components or materials, and are not dependent upon data communications or recording systems. Space-Station personnel would be employed to replace track-sensitive materials as required by background accumulation. Several emulsion-chamber designs are proposed, including both conventional passive calorimetric detectors and a hybrid superconducting-magnetic-spectrometer system. Results of preliminary simulation studies are presented. Operational logistics are discussed.

  7. Hospital visitors' experiences at the nurses' station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Janet

    2017-04-19

    Aim To investigate participants' experiences of visiting hospitalised friends and family members in adult acute medical or surgical wards in NHS hospitals in England, to improve knowledge of hospital visiting practices and to inform future policy-making and professional practice. Method A review of the contextual influences and the literature identified that hospital visitors might experience many of the characteristics of liminality, which is a state of being between two social structures or ways of being. In 2013, a total of 17 semi-structured, recorded and transcribed interviews were conducted with participants who had been hospital visitors in the period 2011-2013. The transcribed interviews underwent a thematic analysis. Liminality was then used as an analytic lens, and was central to the theoretical framework that was constructed to further consider the experiences of hospital visitors. Findings Participants experienced the hospitalisation of their friend or family member and their subsequent role as hospital visitors as a suspension of their everyday lives. Liminality was a predominant and consistent theme of the interviews. Five main themes of liminality were identified in relation to hospital visitors' experiences: total obedience; loss of status; ambiguity and being betwixt and between; uncertainty; and structure and communitas. The findings suggested that nurses consider the area behind the nurses' station as 'back stage'; a place they can use for downtime, socialising and computer work. In contrast, hospital visitors perceive the nurses' station to be a continuation of the ward, where they expect professional 'front stage behaviour' from staff. Conclusion When hospital visitors, already discomfited in their liminal status, encounter nurses' 'back-stage behaviour' at the nurses' station, their feelings of marginalisation, exclusion and mistrust increase. This may lead them to judge that the nurses lack professionalism and care, which can lead them to

  8. Southeast regional experiment station. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-05

    This is the final report of the Southeast Regional Experiment Station project. The Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC), a research institute of the University of Central Florida (UCF), has operated the Southeast Regional Experiment Station (SE RES) for the US Department of Energy (DOE) since September 1982. Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque (SNLA) provides technical program direction for both the SE RES and the Southwest Regional Experiment Station (SW RES) located at the Southwest Technology Development Institute at Las Cruces, New Mexico. This cooperative effort serves a critical role in the national photovoltaic program by conducting system evaluations, design assistance and technology transfer to enhance the cost-effective utilization and development of photovoltaic technology. Initially, the research focus of the SE RES program centered on utility-connected PV systems and associated issues. In 1987, the SE RES began evaluating amorphous silicon (a-Si) thin-film PV modules for application in utility-interactive systems. Stand-alone PV systems began receiving increased emphasis at the SE RES in 1986. Research projects were initiated that involved evaluation of vaccine refrigeration, water pumping and other stand-alone power systems. The results of this work have led to design optimization techniques and procedures for the sizing and modeling of PV water pumping systems. Later recent research at the SE RES included test and evaluation of batteries and charge controllers for stand-alone PV system applications. The SE RES project provided the foundation on which FSEC achieved national recognition for its expertise in PV systems research and related technology transfer programs. These synergistic products of the SE RES illustrate the high visibility and contributions the FSEC PV program offers to the DOE.

  9. Overview of Materials International Space Station Experiment 7B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworske, Donald A.; Siamidis, John

    2009-01-01

    Materials International Space Station Experiment 7B (MISSE 7B) is the most recent in a series of experiments flown on the exterior of International Space Station for the purpose of determining the durability of materials and components in the space environment. A collaborative effort among the Department of Defense, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, industry, and academia, MISSE 7B will be flying a number of NASA experiments designed to gain knowledge in the area of space environmental effects to mitigate risk for exploration missions. Consisting of trays called Passive Experiment Containers, the suitcase sized payload opens on hinges and allows active and passive experiments contained within to be exposed to the ram and wake or zenith and nadir directions in low Earth orbit, in essence, providing a test bed for atomic oxygen exposure, ultraviolet radiation exposure, charged particle radiation exposure, and thermal cycling. New for MISSE 7B is the ability to monitor experiments actively, with data sent back to Earth via International Space Station communications. NASA?s active and passive experiments cover a range of interest for the Agency. Materials relevant to the Constellation Program include: solar array materials, seal materials, and thermal protection system materials. Materials relevant to the Exploration Technology Development Program include: fabrics for spacesuits, materials for lunar dust mitigation, and new thermal control coatings. Sensors and components on MISSE 7B include: atomic oxygen fluence monitors, ultraviolet radiation sensors, and electro-optical components. In addition, fundamental space environmental durability science experiments are being flown to gather atomic oxygen erosion data and thin film polymer mechanical and optical property data relevant to lunar lander insulation and the James Web Space Telescope. This paper will present an overview of the NASA experiments to be flown on MISSE 7B, along with a summary of the

  10. In vitro irradiation station for broad beam radiobiological experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wera, A.-C., E-mail: anne-catharine.wera@fundp.ac.be [NAmur Research Institute for LIfe Sciences (NARILIS), Research Centre for the Physics of Matter and Radiation (PMR), University of Namur-FUNDP (Belgium); Riquier, H., E-mail: helene.riquier@fundp.ac.be [NAmur Research Institute for LIfe Sciences (NARILIS), Unite de Recherche de Biologie Cellulaire (URBC), University of Namur-FUNDP, Rue de Bruxelles, 61, B-5000 Namur (Belgium); Heuskin, A.-C., E-mail: anne-catherine.heuskin@fundp.ac.be [NAmur Research Institute for LIfe Sciences (NARILIS), Research Centre for the Physics of Matter and Radiation (PMR), University of Namur-FUNDP (Belgium); Michiels, C., E-mail: carine.michiels@fundp.ac.be [NAmur Research Institute for LIfe Sciences (NARILIS), Unite de Recherche de Biologie Cellulaire (URBC), University of Namur-FUNDP, Rue de Bruxelles, 61, B-5000 Namur (Belgium); Lucas, S., E-mail: stephane.lucas@fundp.ac.be [NAmur Research Institute for LIfe Sciences (NARILIS), Research Centre for the Physics of Matter and Radiation (PMR), University of Namur-FUNDP (Belgium)

    2011-12-15

    The study of the interaction of charged particles with living matter is of prime importance to the fields of radiotherapy, radioprotection and space radiobiology. Particle accelerators and their associated equipment are proven to be helpful tools in performing basic science in all these fields. Indeed, they can accelerate virtually any ions to a given energy and flux and let them interact with living matter either in vivo or in vitro. In this context, the University of Namur has developed a broad beam in vitro irradiation station for use in radiobiological experiments. Cells are handled in GLP conditions and can be irradiated at various fluxes with ions ranging from hydrogen to carbon. The station is mounted on a 2 MV tandem accelerator, and the energy range can be set up in the linear energy transfer (LET) ranges that are useful for radiobiological experiments. This paper describes the current status of the hardware that has been developed, and presents results related to its performance in term of dose-rate, energy range and beam uniformity for protons, alpha particles and carbon ions. The results of clonogenic assays of A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells irradiated with protons and alpha particles are also presented and compared with literature.

  11. In vitro irradiation station for broad beam radiobiological experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wéra, A.-C.; Riquier, H.; Heuskin, A.-C.; Michiels, C.; Lucas, S.

    2011-12-01

    The study of the interaction of charged particles with living matter is of prime importance to the fields of radiotherapy, radioprotection and space radiobiology. Particle accelerators and their associated equipment are proven to be helpful tools in performing basic science in all these fields. Indeed, they can accelerate virtually any ions to a given energy and flux and let them interact with living matter either in vivo or in vitro. In this context, the University of Namur has developed a broad beam in vitro irradiation station for use in radiobiological experiments. Cells are handled in GLP conditions and can be irradiated at various fluxes with ions ranging from hydrogen to carbon. The station is mounted on a 2 MV tandem accelerator, and the energy range can be set up in the linear energy transfer (LET) ranges that are useful for radiobiological experiments. This paper describes the current status of the hardware that has been developed, and presents results related to its performance in term of dose-rate, energy range and beam uniformity for protons, alpha particles and carbon ions. The results of clonogenic assays of A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells irradiated with protons and alpha particles are also presented and compared with literature.

  12. Waves and the Equilibrium Range at Ocean Weather Station P

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-08

    Climate Stations group, with assistance from Keith Ronnholm. The crew of the R/V New Horizon (SIO) helped with the October 2012 mooring turnaround...Oceanogr., 23, 2143–2149. Edson, J. B., A. A. Hinton, K. E. Prada, J. E. Hare , and C. W. Fairall (1998), Direct covariance flux estimates from mobile...platforms at sea, J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 15(2), 547–562. Fairall, C., E. Bradley, J. Hare , A. Grachev, and J. Edson (2003), Bulk parameterization of

  13. Southwest Region Experiment Station - Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenthal, A

    2011-08-19

    Southwest Technology Development Institute (SWTDI), an independent, university-based research institute, has been the operator of the Southwest Region Photovoltaic Experiment Station (SWRES) for almost 30 years. The overarching mission of SWTDI is to position PV systems and solar technologies to become cost-effective, major sources of energy for the United States. Embedded in SWTDI's general mission has been the more-focused mission of the SWRES: to provide value added technical support to the DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program (SETP) to effectively and efficiently meet the R&D needs and targets specified in the SETP Multi-Year Technical Plan. : The DOE/SETP goals of growing U.S. PV manufacturing into giga-watt capacities and seeing tera-watt-hours of solar energy production in the U.S. require an infrastructure that is under development. The staff of the SWRES has supported DOE/SETP through a coherent, integrated program to address infrastructural needs inhibiting wide-scale PV deployment in three major technical categories: specialized engineering services, workforce development, and deployment facilitation. The SWRES contract underwent three major revisions during its five year period-of- performance, but all tasks and deliverables fell within the following task areas: Task 1: PV Systems Assistance Center 1. Develop a Comprehensive multi-year plan 2. Provide technical workforce development materials and workshops for PV stakeholder groups including university, professional installers, inspectors, state energy offices, Federal agencies 3. Serve on the NABCEP exam committee 4. Provide on-demand technical PV system design reviews for U.S. PV stakeholders 5. Provide PV system field testing and instrumentation, technical outreach (including extensive support for the DOE Market Transformation program) Task 2: Design-for-Manufacture PV Systems 1. Develop and install 18 kW parking carport (cost share) and PV-thermal carport (Albuquerque) deriving and publishing

  14. Educational Activities at the Georgia Agricultural Experiment Station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jerry W.; Oetting, Ron

    1996-01-01

    Describes educational programs and events at the Georgia Agricultural Experiment Station that are designed to develop partnerships with educators and businesses, make multiple use of research facilities, and incorporate K-16 teachers and students into research endeavors. (DDR)

  15. The accuracy of station positions determined from inhomogeneous laser ranging data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmicz-Cieslak, Magdalena; Schillak, Stanislaw

    The paper presents positions of 34 Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) stations as determined in the ITRF97 system from the LAGEOS-2 laser ranging data. Three different variants of data selection were used to determine the coordinates of the stations. The calculations were performed with the use of the GEODYN II and SOLVE programs on the basis of monthly orbital arcs for 1999. The accuracy of the results for a given station strongly depends on a number and quality of observations. Preferably at least 50 of normal points per station in one month should be used for coordinates determination. The variant of orbit determination from 16 the best stations is more accurate than from all 34 stations.

  16. Physics Experiments at the Agesta Power Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apelqvist, G. [State Power Board, Stockholm (Sweden); Bliselius, P. Aa.; Blomberg, P.E.; Jonsson, E.; Aakerhielm, F. [AB Atomenergi, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    1966-09-15

    Part A. Dynamic measurements have been performed at the Aagesta reactor at power levels from 0.3 to 65 MW(th). The purposes of the experiments have been both to develop experimental methods and equipment for the dynamic studies and to measure the dynamic characteristics of the reactor in order to check the dynamic model. The experiments have been performed with four different perturbation functions: trapezoidal and step functions and two types of periodic multifrequency signals. Perturbations were introduced in the reactivity and in the load. The recordings were made of the responses of nuclear power, coolant inlet and outlet temperature and control rod position. The results are presented as step responses and transfer functions (Bode diagrams). Inmost cases the relative accuracy is {+-} 0.5 dB in amplitude and {+-} 5 deg in phase. The results from the experiments in general show rather good agreement with the results obtained from a dynamic model, which successively has been improved. Experience on reactor noise analysis based on measurements in the Agesta power reactor is discussed. It is shown that the noise measurements have given complementary dynamic information of the reactor. Part B. Static measurements of the physics parameters in the Agesta reactor are carried out to confirm theoretical methods for reactor calculations and to form a good basis for safe operation of the reactor. The reactivity worth of groups of control rods are determined with different methods and compared with calculations with the three-dimensional code HETERO. The excess reactivity as a function of burn up is obtained from the control rod positions. The temperature coefficient of the moderator is measured by lowering the moderator temperature at constant power and observing the change in control rod insertion. As burn up increases the experiments are repeated in order to follow the changes in the coefficient. The xenon poisoning effects are measured by changing the power level and

  17. Stability of coordinates of the borowiec SLR station (7811) on the basis of satellite laser ranging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wnuk, E.; Schillak, S.; Kuźmicz-Cieślak, M.

    2002-07-01

    Borowiec satellite laser ranging station belongs to the global tracking stations network conducting continuous observations in the last decade. The accuracy of measurements has reached the level of 1-2cm for LAGEOS-1 and LAGEOS-2 satellites. The satellite laser ranging system has been generally stable in terms of the range bias since 1994. One of the important tasks of geodynamics is a determination of the station coordinates and the control of their stability. The paper presents results of determination of the position of the Borowiec SLR station (7811) calculated on the basis of the data provided by the LAGEOS-1 and LAGEOS-2 laser ranging from the results of selected 15 laser ranging stations in the International Terrestrial Reference Frame 97 system. The calculations were performed with the use of the GEODYN II program and ALPHA computers in Borowiec and Poznań Observatories. The coordinates of the Borowiec station were determined from monthly arcs for 1999, the best year in the terms of quantity and quality of Borowiec LAGEOS data. The final stability of the Borowiec SLR coordinates for all components per one year is equal to ±9 mm.

  18. Aerosol Sampling Experiment on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Marit E.

    2017-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is a unique indoor environment which serves as both home and workplace to the astronaut crew. There is currently no particulate monitoring, although particulate matter requirements exist. An experiment to collect particles in the ISS cabin was conducted recently. Two different aerosol samplers were used for redundancy and to collect particles in two size ranges spanning from 10 nm to hundreds of micrometers. The Active Sampler is a battery operated thermophoretic sampler with an internal pump which draws in air and collects particles directly on a transmission electron microscope grid. This commercial-off-the-shelf device was modified for operation in low gravity. The Passive Sampler has five sampling surfaces which were exposed to air for different durations in order to collect at least one sample with an optimal quantity of particles for microscopy. These samples were returned to Earth for analysis with a variety of techniques to obtain long-term average concentrations and identify particle emission sources. Results are compared with the inventory of ISS aerosols which was created based on sparse data and the literature. The goal of the experiment is to obtain data on indoor aerosols on ISS for future particulate monitor design and development.

  19. Simultaneous Laser Ranging and Communication from an Earth-Based Satellite Laser Ranging Station to the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter in Lunar Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoli; Skillman, David R.; Hoffman, Evan D.; Mao, Dandan; McGarry, Jan F.; Neumann, Gregory A.; McIntire, Leva; Zellar, Ronald S.; Davidson, Frederic M.; Fong, Wai H.; hide

    2013-01-01

    We report a free space laser communication experiment from the satellite laser ranging (SLR) station at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) to the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) in lunar orbit through the on board one-way Laser Ranging (LR) receiver. Pseudo random data and sample image files were transmitted to LRO using a 4096-ary pulse position modulation (PPM) signal format. Reed-Solomon forward error correction codes were used to achieve error free data transmission at a moderate coding overhead rate. The signal fading due to the atmosphere effect was measured and the coding gain could be estimated.

  20. Reef fish display station-keeping and ranging behaviour in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Findings for four important species (Polysteganus praeorbitalis, Chrysoblephus puniceus, Epinephelus andersoni and Epinephelus marginatus) are presented. Recapture rates ranged from 8% to 60% and time-at-liberty from 0 to 1 390 d. Individuals of all four species displayed highly localised station-keeping behaviour.

  1. Corrective action decision document, Second Gas Station, Tonopah test range, Nevada (Corrective Action Unit No. 403)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) for Second Gas Station (Corrective Action Unit [CAU] No. 403) has been developed for the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Nevada Environmental Restoration Project to meet the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) of 1996 as stated in Appendix VI, {open_quotes}Corrective Action Strategy{close_quotes} (FFACO, 1996). The Second Gas Station Corrective Action Site (CAS) No. 03-02-004-0360 is the only CAS in CAU No. 403. The Second Gas Station CAS is located within Area 3 of the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), west of the Main Road at the location of former Underground Storage Tanks (USTs) and their associated fuel dispensary stations. The TTR is approximately 225 kilometers (km) (140 miles [mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, by air and approximately 56 km (35 mi) southeast of Tonopah, Nevada, by road. The TTR is bordered on the south, east, and west by the Nellis Air Force Range and on the north by sparsely populated public land administered by the Bureau of Land Management and the U.S. Forest Service. The Second Gas Station CAS was formerly known as the Underground Diesel Tank Site, Sandia Environmental Restoration Site Number 118. The gas station was in use from approximately 1965 to 1980. The USTs were originally thought to be located 11 meters (m) (36 feet [ft]) east of the Old Light Duty Shop, Building 0360, and consisted of one gasoline UST (southern tank) and one diesel UST (northern tank) (DOE/NV, 1996a). The two associated fuel dispensary stations were located northeast (diesel) and southeast (gasoline) of Building 0360 (CAU 423). Presently the site is used as a parking lot, Building 0360 is used for mechanical repairs of vehicles.

  2. Droplet Combustion Experiments Aboard the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Daniel L.; Nayagam, Vedha; Hicks, Michael C.; Ferkul, Paul V.; Dryer, Frederick L.; Farouk, Tanvir; Shaw, Benjamin D.; Suh, Hyun Kyu; Choi, Mun Y.; Liu, Yu Cheng; Avedisian, C. Thomas; Williams, Forman A.

    2014-10-01

    This paper summarizes the first results from isolated droplet combustion experiments performed on the International Space Station (ISS). The long durations of microgravity provided in the ISS enable the measurement of droplet and flame histories over an unprecedented range of conditions. The first experiments were with heptane and methanol as fuels, initial droplet droplet diameters between 1.5 and 5.0 m m, ambient oxygen mole fractions between 0.1 and 0.4, ambient pressures between 0.7 and 3.0 a t m and ambient environments containing oxygen and nitrogen diluted with both carbon dioxide and helium. The experiments show both radiative and diffusive extinction. For both fuels, the flames exhibited pre-extinction flame oscillations during radiative extinction with a frequency of approximately 1 H z. The results revealed that as the ambient oxygen mole fraction was reduced, the diffusive-extinction droplet diameter increased and the radiative-extinction droplet diameter decreased. In between these two limiting extinction conditions, quasi-steady combustion was observed. Another important measurement that is related to spacecraft fire safety is the limiting oxygen index (LOI), the oxygen concentration below which quasi-steady combustion cannot be supported. This is also the ambient oxygen mole fraction for which the radiative and diffusive extinction diameters become equal. For oxygen/nitrogen mixtures, the LOI is 0.12 and 0.15 for methanol and heptane, respectively. The LOI increases to approximately 0.14 (0.14 O 2/0.56 N 2/0.30 C O 2) and 0.17 (0.17 O 2/0.63 N 2/0.20 C O 2) for methanol and heptane, respectively, for ambient environments that simulated dispersing an inert-gas suppressant (carbon dioxide) into a nominally air (1.0 a t m) ambient environment. The LOI is approximately 0.14 and 0.15 for methanol and heptane, respectively, when helium is dispersed into air at 1 atm. The experiments also showed unique burning behavior for large heptane droplets. After the

  3. Lunar Laser Ranging Experiment for Japanese SELENE-2 landing mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, H.; Kunimori, H.; Araki, H.; Fuse, T.; Hanada, H.; Katayama, M.; Otsubo, T.; Sasaki, S.; Tazawa, S.; Tsuruta, S.; Funazaki, K.; Taniguchi, H.; Murata, K.

    2012-04-01

    We present the development status of the Lunar Laser Ranging experiment proposed to Japanese SELENE-2 lunar landing mission. The Lunar Laser Ranging measures the distance between laser link stations on the Earth and retroreflectors on the Moon, by detecting the time of flight of photons of high-powered laser emitted from the ground station. Since the Earth-Moon distance contains information of lunar orbit, lunar solid tides, and lunar orientation and rotation, we can estimate the inner structure of the Moon through orientation, rotation and tide. Retroreflectors put by the Apollo and Luna missions in 1970's are arrays of many small Corner Cube Prisms (CCP). Because of the tilt of these arrays from the Earth direction due to the optical libration, the returned laser pulse is broaden, causing the main range error of more than 1.5 cm ([1]). Therefore retroreflectors with larger single aperture are necessary for more accurate ranging, and we propose a large single retroreflector of hollow-type with 15 cm aperture. Larger aperture up to 20 cm might be favorable if more mass is permitted for payloads. To cancel the velocity aberration, a large, single aperture retroreflector needs small amount of offset angle between the reflecting planes to spoil the return beam pattern. This angle offset, called Dihedral Angle Offset (DAO) must be optimized to be less than 1 second of arc with 0.1 seconds of arc accuracy to accumulate more photons [2, 3]. The realization of such small DAO is challenging with current technology, therefore the development of fabrication method is important. As for the mirror material, some ceramic products (ZPF: Zero-expansion Pore-free ceramics or SiC: silicon carbide) are under consideration in terms of weight, hardness and handling. The thermal quality of the material can be evaluated by both the thermal conductivity and the coefficient of thermal expansion. The method to fasten three planes each other with precise DAO must be developed.

  4. The BDS Triple Frequency Pseudo-range Correlated Stochastic Model of Single Station Modeling Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HUANG Lingyong

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to provide a reliable pseudo-range stochastic model, a method is studied to estimate the BDS triple-frequency pseudo-range related stochastic model based on three BDS triple-frequency pseudo-range minus carrier (GIF combinations using the data of a single station. In this algorithm, the low order polynomial fitting method is used to fit the GIF combination in order to eliminate the error and other constants except non pseudo noise at first. And then, multiple linear regression analysis method is used to model the stochastic function of three linearly independent GIF combinations. Finally the related stochastic model of the original BDS triple-frequency pseudo-range observations is obtained by linear transformation. The BDS triple-frequency data verification results show that this algorithm can get a single station related stochastic model of BDS triple-frequency pseudo-range observation, and it is advantageous to provide accurate stochastic model for navigation and positioning and integrity monitoring.

  5. Determination of station positions and velocities from laser ranging observations to Ajisai, Starlette and Stella satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejba, P.; Schillak, S.

    2011-02-01

    The positions and velocities of the four Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) stations: Yarragadee (7090), Greenbelt (7105), Graz (7839) and Herstmonceux (7840) from 5-year (2001-2005) SLR data of low orbiting satellites (LEO): Ajisai, Starlette and Stella were determined. The orbits of these satellites were computed from the data provided by 20 SLR stations. All orbital computations were performed by means of NASA Goddard’s GEODYN-II program. The geocentric coordinates were transformed to the topocentric North-South, East-West and Vertical components in reference to ITRF2005. The influence of the number of normal points per orbital arc and the empirical acceleration coefficients on the quality of station coordinates was studied. To get standard deviation of the coordinates determination lower than 1 cm, the number of the normal points per site had to be greater than 50. The computed positions and velocities were compared to those derived from LAGEOS-1/LAGEOS-2 data. Three parameters were used for this comparison: station coordinates stability, differences from ITRF2005 positions and velocities. The stability of coordinates of LEO satellites is significantly worse (17.8 mm) than those of LAGEOS (7.6 mm), the better results are for Ajisai (15.4 mm) than for Starlette/Stella (20.4 mm). The difference in positions between the computed values and ITRF2005 were little bit worse for Starlette/Stella (6.6 mm) than for LAGEOS (4.6 mm), the results for Ajisai were five times worse (29.7 mm) probably due to center of mass correction of this satellite. The station velocities with some exceptions were on the same level (≈1 mm/year) for all satellites. The results presented in this work show that results from Starlette/Stella are better than those from Ajisai for station coordinates determination. We can applied the data from LEO satellites, especially Starlette and Stella for determination of the SLR station coordinates but with two times lower accuracy than when using LAGEOS

  6. Target Station Design for the Mu2e Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pronskikh, Vitaly [Fermilab; Ambrosio, Giorgio [Fermilab; Campbell, Michael [Fermilab; Coleman, Richard [Fermilab; Ginther, George [Fermilab; Kashikhin, Vadim [Fermilab; Krempetz, Kurt [Fermilab; Lamm, Michael [Fermilab; Lee, Ang [Fermilab; Leveling, Anthony [Fermilab; Mokhov, Nikolai [Fermilab; Nagaslaev, Vladimir [Fermilab; Stefanik, Andrew [Fermilab; Striganov, Sergei [Fermilab; Werkema, Steven [Fermilab; Bartoszek, Larry [Technicare; Densham, Chris [Rutherford; Loveridge, Peter [Rutherford; Lynch, Kevin [BMCC, New York; Popp, James [BMCC, New York

    2014-07-01

    The Mu2e experiment at Fermilab is devoted to search for the conversion of a negative muon into an electron in the field of a nucleus without emission of neutrinos. One of the main parts of the Mu2e experimental setup is its Target Station in which negative pions are generated in interactions of the 8-GeV primary proton beam with a tungsten target. A large-aperture 5-T superconducting production solenoid (PS) enhances pion collection, and an S-shaped transport solenoid (TS) delivers muons and pions to the Mu2e detector. The heat and radiation shield (HRS) protects the PS and the first TS coils. A beam dump absorbs the spent beam. In order for the PS superconducting magnet to operate reliably the sophisticated HRS was designed and optimized for performance and cost. The beam dump was designed to absorb the spent beam and maintaining its temperature and air activation in the hall at the allowable level. Comprehensive MARS15 simulations have been carried out to optimize all the parts while maximizing muon yield. Results of simulations of critical radiation quantities and their implications on the overall Target Station design and integration will be reported.

  7. On achieving sufficient dual station range accuracy for deep space navigation at zero declination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, H. L.; Christensen, C. S.; Green, D. W.; Winn, F. B.

    1977-01-01

    Since the Voyager Mission will encounter Saturn at a time when the planet will be nearly in the earth's equatorial plane, earth-based orbit determination will be more difficult than usual because of the so-called zero-declination singularity associated with conventional radiometric observations. Simulation studies show that in order to meet the required delivery accuracy at Saturn, a relative range measurement between the Goldstone and Canberra Deep Space Stations must be accurate to 4.5 times the square root of two meters. Topics discussed include the nature of error sources, the methodology and technology required for calibration, the verification process concerning the nearly simultaneous range capability, a description of the ranging system, and tracking strategy.

  8. A description of the lunar ranging station at McDonald Observatory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverberg, E. C.; Currie, D. G.

    1972-01-01

    The equipment of this station which has been in operation since the deployment of the first corner reflector by the Apollo 11 astronauts. The McDonald 2.7-m telescope is used for both transmission and reception of pulsed ruby laser light during three 45-minute daily laser runs about three weeks in a month. The present laser pulse width, timing system, calibration procedures, and signal levels are designed to achieve ranging with an accuracy to 1 nanosecond. The data rates obtained since September, 1970, are consistent with the scientific commitments of the lunar ranging program. Most of the over 200 acquisitions obtained have an accuracy to better than plus or minus 30 cm. Details of the telescope matching optics, guiding and timing equipment, and calibration procedures are discussed. Representative lunar range data are included.

  9. Sandia National Laboratories land use permit for operations at Oliktok Alaska Long Range Radar Station.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catechis, Christopher Spyros

    2013-02-01

    The property subject to this Environmental Baseline Survey (EBS) is located at the Oliktok Long Range Radar Station (LRRS). The Oliktok LRRS is located at 70À 30 W latitude, 149À 53 W longitude. It is situated at Oliktok Point on the shore of the Beaufort Sea, east of the Colville River. The purpose of this EBS is to document the nature, magnitude, and extent of any environmental contamination of the property; identify potential environmental contamination liabilities associated with the property; develop sufficient information to assess the health and safety risks; and ensure adequate protection for human health and the environment related to a specific property.

  10. Viscosity Measurement via Drop Coalescence: A Space Station Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antar, Basil; Ethridge, Edwin C.

    2010-01-01

    The concept of using low gravity experimental data together with CFD simulations for measuring the viscosity of highly viscous liquids was recently validated on onboard the International Space Station (ISS). A series of microgravity tests were conducted for this purpose on the ISS in July, 2004 and in May of 2005. In these experiments two liquid drops were brought manually together until they touched and were allowed to coalesce under the action of the capillary force alone. The coalescence process was recorded photographically from which the contact radius speed of the merging drops was measured. The liquid viscosity was determined by fitting the measured data with accurate numerical simulation of the coalescence process. Several liquids were tested and for each liquid several drop diameters were employed. Experimental and numerical results will be presented in which the viscosity of several highly viscous liquids were determined using this technique.

  11. Electrostatics of Granular Material (EGM): Space Station Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, J.; Sauke, T.; Farrell, W.

    2000-01-01

    Aggregates were observed to form very suddenly in a lab-contained dust cloud, transforming (within seconds) an opaque monodispersed cloud into a clear volume containing rapidly-settling, long hair-like aggregates. The implications of such a "phase change" led to a series of experiments progressing from the lab, to KC-135, followed by micro-g flights on USML-1 and USML-2, and now EGM slated for Space Station. We attribute the sudden "collapse" of a cloud to the effect of dipoles. This has significant ramifications for all types of cloud systems, and additionally implicates dipoles in the processes of cohesion and adhesion of granular matter. Notably, there is the inference that like-charged grains need not necessarily repel if they are close enough together: attraction or repulsion depends on intergranular distance (the dipole being more powerful at short range), and the D/M ratio for each grain, where D is the dipole moment and M is the net charge. We discovered that these ideas about dipoles, the likely pervasiveness of them in granular material, the significance of the D/M ratio, and the idea of mixed charges on individual grains resulting from tribological processes --are not universally recognized in electrostatics, granular material studies, and aerosol science, despite some early seminal work in the literature, and despite commercial applications of dipoles in such modern uses as "Krazy Glue", housecleaning dust cloths, and photocopying. The overarching goal of EGM is to empirically prove that (triboelectrically) charged dielectric grains of material have dipole moments that provide an "always attractive" intergranular force as a result of both positive and negative charges residing on the surfaces of individual grains. Microgravity is required for this experiment because sand grains can be suspended as a cloud for protracted periods, the grains are free to rotate to express their electrostatic character, and Coulombic forces are unmasked. Suspended grains

  12. Operating Experience at the Aagesta Nuclear Power Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandstroem, S. (ed.)

    1966-09-15

    Sweden's first nuclear power reactor Agesta, achieved criticality on July 17, 1963. Full power (65 MW{sub t}) was attained on March 20, 1964. Aagesta is a heavy water cooled and moderated pressure vessel reactor used for production of electricity as well as for district heating. The design, assembly and construction etc, of the reactor was described in detail in a staff report by AB Atomenergi, 'The Aagesta Nuclear Power Station' edited by B McHugh, which was published in September, 1964. In the book experiences from the commissioning and the first operation of the reactor were reported as well as findings from the extensive reactor physics studies made during this period. The report now presented is written by members of the operating team at Aagesta since its start. It reflects in general the experiences up to the end of 1965. The Aagesta Log, however, covers the period up to the normal summer stop 1966. The reactor has hitherto produced 506,000 MWh power of which 48,700 MWh have been electric power. In July 1965 the responsibility for the reactor operation was taken over by the Swedish State Power Board from AB Atomenergi, which company had started the reactor and operated it until the summer break 1965.

  13. On Optimal Placement of Short Range Base Stations for Indoor Position Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bais

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of short-range wireless for object positioning has seen a growing interest in recent years. This interest is compounded by the inherent GPS limitations especially in indoor situations and in urban canyons. In order to achieve the highest performance of short-range positioning systems it is important to optimize the placement of Base-Stations (BSs in a given area. The problems of BSs placement to minimize error and to achieve multiple coverage of the area have been addressed separately in the literature. In this paper, we discuss that using short range BSs the two problems are interrelated and need to be solved jointly. We study the impact of different influential attributes of the positioning problem as we alter the layout of BSs in the area. We investigate different scenarios for short-range BSs placement that maximize coverage and minimize positioning error. Simulation results demonstrate that better performance could be achieved using layouts that tend to distribute the BSs uniformly.

  14. Evaluating Precipitation Elevation Gradients in the Alaska Range using Ice Core and Alpine Weather Station Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, E.; Osterberg, E. C.; Winski, D.; Kreutz, K. J.; Wake, C. P.; Campbell, S. W.; Ferris, D. G.; Birkel, S. D.

    2016-12-01

    Precipitation in Alaska is sensitive to the Aleutian Low (ALow) pressure system and North Pacific sea-surface temperatures, as shown by the increase in Alaskan sub-Arctic precipitation associated with the 1976 shift to the positive phase of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). Precipitation in the high-elevation accumulation zones of Alaskan alpine glaciers provides critical mass input for glacial mass balance, which has been declining in recent decades from warmer summer temperatures despite the winter precipitation increase. Twin >1500-year ice cores collected from the summit plateau of Mount Hunter in Denali National Park, Alaska show a remarkable doubling of annual snow accumulation over the past 150 years, with most of the change observed in the winter. Other alpine ice cores collected from the Alaska and Saint Elias ranges show similar snowfall increases over recent decades. However, although Alaskan weather stations at low elevation recorded a 7-38% increase in winter precipitation across the 1976 PDO transition, this increase is not as substantial as that recorded in the Mt. Hunter ice core. Weather stations at high-elevation alpine sites are comparatively rare, and reasons for the enhanced precipitation trends at high elevation in Alaska remain unclear. Here we use Automatic Weather Station data from the Mt. Hunter drill site (3,900 m a.s.l) and from nearby Denali climber's Base Camp (2,195 m a.s.l.) to evaluate the relationships between alpine and lowland Alaskan precipitation on annual, seasonal, and storm-event temporal scales from 2008-2016. Both stations are located on snow and have sonic snow depth sounders to record daily precipitation. We focus on the role of variable ALow and North Pacific High strength in influencing Alaskan precipitation elevational gradients, particularly in association with the extreme 2015-2016 El Niño event, the 2009-2010 moderate El Niño event, and the 2010-2011 moderate La Niña event. Our analysis will improve our

  15. Stability of Coordinates of The Slr Stations On A Basis of Lageos-1 and Lageos-2 Laser Ranging In 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schillak, S.; Wnuk, E.

    Determination of the stations coordinates and the control of their stability is one of the most important task in the satellite geodesy and geodynamics. This work is continu- ation of the similar paper about coordinates stability of the all SLR stations in 1999. The paper present results of positions determination for all SLR stations in 2000 cal- culated in the ITRF2000 system on the basis of data provided by the LAGEOS-1 and LAGEOS-2 laser ranging. The calculations were performed with the usage of the GEODYN II program. Coordinates of the stations were determined from monthly arcs for 2000. Typical RMS of (O-C) values for the monthly orbital arcs was on a level of 1.7 cm. The final stability of the geocentric coordinates of SLR stations per one year for all components varies from 5 millimetres to several centimetres.

  16. Physics of Colloids in Space: Microgravity Experiment Launched, Installed, and Activated on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Michael P.

    2002-01-01

    The Physics of Colloids in Space (PCS) experiment is a Microgravity Fluids Physics investigation that is presently located in an Expedite the Process of Experiments to Space Station (EXPRESS) Rack on the International Space Station. PCS was launched to the International Space Station on April 19, 2001, activated on May 31, 2001, and will continue to operate about 90 hr per week through May 2002.

  17. Analysis of the process of the determination of station coordiantes by the satellite laser ranging based on results of the Borowiec SLR station in 1993.5-2000.5. Part 2: Determination of the station coordinates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schillak, Stanisaw

    Part 2 of the paper gives a description of the method applied and results of determination of the station coordinates on the basis of the laser ranging data on the example of the SLR station in Borowiec. The orbital method applied was based on a few assumptions: the orbit was determined from the laser ranging data provided by the best 13 stations of fixed coordinates in the ITRF97 system, the range biases and weighting of the stations were disregarded, the Borowiec station coordinates were determined from the monthly arcs obtained on the basis of the combined results of LAGEOS-1 and LAGEOS-2 observations, the satellite acceleration was determined every 5 days, the normal points and passes not satisfying the statistical criteria were rejected. The orbit was computed using the program GEODYN-II. The accuracy of the orbit was 18 mm. The coordinates of the Borowiec SLR station and the movement of tectonic plate were determined in the period 1993.5-2000.5. The stability of the station coordinates and the standard deviation of their determination in this period increased from 30 to 10 mm and from 10 to 4 mm, respectively. The coordinates determined were in good agreement with the Borowiec GPS results (horizontal component 1-2 mm, vertical component 8 mm). The movement of the Eurasian tectonic plate determined was consistent with the NNR-NUVEL1A model to an accuracy of a few millimetres.

  18. AUTOMATIC CONTROL SYSTEM OF HEAT PUMP STATION GAS COOLER AT THE WIDE RANGE OF HEAT LOAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juravleov A.A.

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available There is examined the structure the of control system of gas cooler of heat pump station, which uses the carbon dioxide as the working fluid in the transctitical thermodynamical cycle. It is analiyed the structure of the complex: heat pump station – district heating system.

  19. Life science research objectives and representative experiments for the space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Catherine C. (Editor); Arno, Roger D. (Editor); Mains, Richard (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    A workshop was convened to develop hypothetical experiments to be used as a baseline for space station designer and equipment specifiers to ensure responsiveness to the users, the life science community. Sixty-five intra- and extramural scientists were asked to describe scientific rationales, science objectives, and give brief representative experiment descriptions compatible with expected space station accommodations, capabilities, and performance envelopes. Experiment descriptions include hypothesis, subject types, approach, equipment requirements, and space station support requirements. The 171 experiments are divided into 14 disciplines.

  20. Stability of coordinates of the SLR stations on a basis of LAGEOS-1 and LAGEOS-2 laser ranging in 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schillak, Stanislaw; Kuzmicz-Cieslak, Magdalena; Wnuk, Edwin

    Determination of the stations coordinates and the control of their stability is one of the most important task in the satellite geodesy and geodynamics. The paper presents results of positions determination for all SLR stations in 1999 calculated in the ITRF97 system on the basis of data provided by the LAGEOS-1 and LAGEOS-2 laser ranging. The calculations were performed with the usage of the GEODYN II program. Coordinates of the stations were determined from monthly arcs for 1999. Typical RMS of (O-C) values for the monthly orbital arcs was on a level of 1.8 cm. The final stability of the geocentric coordinates of SLR stations per one year for all components varies from 0.5 cm to 5 cm.

  1. Performance Assessment in the PILOT Experiment On Board Space Stations Mir and ISS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannes, Bernd; Salnitski, Vyacheslav; Dudukin, Alexander; Shevchenko, Lev; Bronnikov, Sergey

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this investigation into the performance and reliability of Russian cosmonauts in hand-controlled docking of a spacecraft on a space station (experiment PILOT) was to enhance overall mission safety and crew training efficiency. The preliminary findings on the Mir space station suggested that a break in docking training of about 90 d significantly degraded performance. Intensified experiment schedules on the International Space Station (ISS) have allowed for a monthly experiment using an on-board simulator. Therefore, instead of just three training tasks as on Mir, five training flights per session have been implemented on the ISS. This experiment was run in parallel but independently of the operational docking training the cosmonauts receive. First, performance was compared between the experiments on the two space stations by nonparametric testing. Performance differed significantly between space stations preflight, in flight, and postflight. Second, performance was analyzed by modeling the linear mixed effects of all variances (LME). The fixed factors space station, mission phases, training task numbers, and their interaction were analyzed. Cosmonauts were designated as a random factor. All fixed factors were found to be significant and the interaction between stations and mission phase was also significant. In summary, performance on the ISS was shown to be significantly improved, thus enhancing mission safety. Additional approaches to docking performance assessment and prognosis are presented and discussed.

  2. The catalog of sources for geodetic VLBI from experiments which Kashima station participated in.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Y.

    Kashima station participated in many VLBI experiments such as CDP network experiments, JPL network experiments, Japan-Australia-Hawaii experiments and domestic experiments in Japan. Many sources have been observed in these experiments. The correlation amplitude both on a long (several thousand km) and short baseline (several 10 km), source positions and the resolution of the source structure have been obtained. The source positions define a celestial reference frame for the astrometry.

  3. Tropospheric Aerosol Radiative Forcing Observational eXperiment (TARFOX) - meteorological data from Wallops ground station

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — TARFOX_WALLOPS_MET is the Tropospheric Aerosol Radiative Forcing Observational eXperiment (TARFOX) Surface Meteorological data set Wallops ground station.The TARFOX...

  4. Corrective action decision document second gas station, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada (Corrective Action Unit No. 403). Revision No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) for Second Gas Station has been developed for the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Nevada Environmental Restoration Project to meet the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) of 1996 as stated in Appendix VI, {open_quotes}Corrective Action Strategy{close_quotes}. The Second Gas Station Corrective Action Site (CAS) No. 03-02-004-03 is the only CAS in CAU No. 403. The Second Gas Station CAS is located within Area 3 of the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), west of the Main Road at the location of former Underground Storage Tanks (USTs) and their associated fuel dispensary stations. The TTR is approximately 225 kilometers (km) (140 miles [mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, by air and approximately 56 km (3 5 mi) southeast of Tonopah, Nevada, by road. The TTR is bordered on the south, east, and west by the Nellis Air Force Range and on the north by sparsely populated public land administered by the Bureau of Land Management and the U.S. Forest Service.

  5. Range estimation techniques in single-station thunderstorm warning sensors based upon gated, wideband, magnetic direction finder technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pifer, Alburt E.; Hiscox, William L.; Cummins, Kenneth L.; Neumann, William T.

    1991-01-01

    Gated, wideband, magnetic direction finders (DFs) were originally designed to measure the bearing of cloud-to-ground lightning relative to the sensor. A recent addition to this device uses proprietary waveform discrimination logic to select return stroke signatures and certain range dependent features in the waveform to provide an estimate of range of flashes within 50 kms. The enhanced ranging techniques are discussed which were designed and developed for use in single station thunderstorm warning sensor. Included are the results of on-going evaluations being conducted under a variety of meteorological and geographic conditions.

  6. Biotechnological experiments in space flights on board of space stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechitailo, Galina S.

    2012-07-01

    Space flight conditions are stressful for any plant and cause structural-functional transition due to mobiliation of adaptivity. In space flight experiments with pea tissue, wheat and arabidopsis we found anatomical-morphological transformations and biochemistry of plants. In following experiments, tissue of stevia (Stevia rebaudiana), potato (Solanum tuberosum), callus culture and culture and bulbs of suffron (Crocus sativus), callus culture of ginseng (Panax ginseng) were investigated. Experiments with stevia carried out in special chambers. The duration of experiment was 8-14 days. Board lamp was used for illumination of the plants. After experiment the plants grew in the same chamber and after 50 days the plants were moved into artificial ionexchange soil. The biochemical analysis of plants was done. The total concentration of glycozides and ratio of stevioside and rebauside were found different in space and ground plants. In following generations of stevia after flight the total concentration of stevioside and rebauside remains higher than in ground plants. Experiments with callus culture of suffron carried out in tubes. Duration of space flight experiment was 8-167 days. Board lamp was used for illumination of the plants. We found picrocitina pigment in the space plants but not in ground plants. Tissue culture of ginseng was grown in special container in thermostate under stable temperature of 22 ± 0,5 C. Duration of space experiment was from 8 to 167 days. Biological activity of space flight culutre was in 5 times higher than the ground culture. This difference was observed after recultivation of space flight samples on Earth during year after flight. Callus tissue of potato was grown in tubes in thermostate under stable temperature of 22 ± 0,5 C. Duration of space experiment was from 8 to 14 days. Concentration of regenerates in flight samples was in 5 times higher than in ground samples. The space flight experiments show, that microgravity and other

  7. Mobility Experience of Persons with Visual Impairments in Indian Railway Station Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raheja, Gaurav; Tyagi, Megha

    2016-01-01

    Mobility for persons with visual impairments in Indian railway stations poses multidimensional challenges for access to an inclusive travel experience. India is a home to about twenty million persons with diverse disabilities out of which about five million are persons with visual impairments. Diversity of passenger movements on a railway station including persons with visual impairments requires a Universal Design approach to respond to the accessibility issues in these contexts. This research study is based on a series of live on-site experiences conducted along with persons with visual impairments at New Delhi Railway Station. It also includes the generic studies carried out with other diversities of railway passengers including aging, gender and diverse physical abilities. It employs research methods like ethnography, focus group interactions and trace study to develop a deeper understanding of human and spatial parameters of mobility in railway station environments. A Universal Design perspective with a holistic understanding remains critical to the foundation of this research study. While it deals in specific requirements of persons with visual impairments, it also brings an illustration of handling diversity on a railway station from a unique Indian perspective. It concludes by highlighting and reinterpreting the Universal Design India Principles integrating the needs of persons with visual impairments in railway station environments. Brief recommendation for an inclusive mobility experience on railway station forms a vital part of this grounded research study.

  8. Phobos laser ranging: Numerical Geodesy experiments for Martian system science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirkx, D.; Vermeersen, L. L. A.; Noomen, R.; Visser, P. N. A. M.

    2014-09-01

    Laser ranging is emerging as a technology for use over (inter)planetary distances, having the advantage of high (mm-cm) precision and accuracy and low mass and power consumption. We have performed numerical simulations to assess the science return in terms of geodetic observables of a hypothetical Phobos lander performing active two-way laser ranging with Earth-based stations. We focus our analysis on the estimation of Phobos and Mars gravitational, tidal and rotational parameters. We explicitly include systematic error sources in addition to uncorrelated random observation errors. This is achieved through the use of consider covariance parameters, specifically the ground station position and observation biases. Uncertainties for the consider parameters are set at 5 mm and at 1 mm for the Gaussian uncorrelated observation noise (for an observation integration time of 60 s). We perform the analysis for a mission duration up to 5 years. It is shown that a Phobos Laser Ranging (PLR) can contribute to a better understanding of the Martian system, opening the possibility for improved determination of a variety of physical parameters of Mars and Phobos. The simulations show that the mission concept is especially suited for estimating Mars tidal deformation parameters, estimating degree 2 Love numbers with absolute uncertainties at the 10-2 to 10-4 level after 1 and 4 years, respectively and providing separate estimates for the Martian quality factors at Sun and Phobos-forced frequencies. The estimation of Phobos libration amplitudes and gravity field coefficients provides an estimate of Phobos' relative equatorial and polar moments of inertia with an absolute uncertainty of 10-4 and 10-7, respectively, after 1 year. The observation of Phobos tidal deformation will be able to differentiate between a rubble pile and monolithic interior within 2 years. For all parameters, systematic errors have a much stronger influence (per unit uncertainty) than the uncorrelated Gaussian

  9. Geothermal Potential of Marine Corps Air Station, Yuma, Arizona, and the Western Portion of Luke-Williams Gunnery Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    Domes in the Northern Part of the Gulf of California," in Symposia on the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field, Baja California, Mexico, Comision Federal de...Laboratory, August 1979. LA-7953-MS. 22 pp. 10. J. de Boer. "Paleomagnetism of the Quaternary Cerro Prieto , Crater Elegante, and Salton Buttes Volcanic...NWC TP 6827 S Geothermal Potential of Marine Corps Air Station, Yuma, Arizona, and the Western Portion of Luke-Williams Gunnery Range by Steven C

  10. Performance Evaluation of the International Space Station Flow Boiling and Condensation Experiment (FBCE) Test Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Mohammad; Balasubramaniam, R.; Nahra, Henry; Mackey, Jeff; Hall, Nancy; Frankenfield, Bruce; Harpster, George; May, Rochelle; Mudawar, Issam; Kharangate, Chirag R.; hide

    2016-01-01

    A ground-based experimental facility to perform flow boiling and condensation experiments is built in support of the development of the long duration Flow Boiling and Condensation Experiment (FBCE) destined for operation on board of the International Space Station (ISS) Fluid Integrated Rack (FIR). We performed tests with the condensation test module oriented horizontally and vertically. Using FC-72 as the test fluid and water as the cooling fluid, we evaluated the operational characteristics of the condensation module and generated ground based data encompassing the range of parameters of interest to the condensation experiment to be performed on the ISS. During this testing, we also evaluated the pressure drop profile across different components of the fluid subsystem, heater performance, on-orbit degassing subsystem, and the heat loss from different components. In this presentation, we discuss representative results of performance testing of the FBCE flow loop. These results will be used in the refinement of the flight system design and build-up of the FBCE which is scheduled for flight in 2019.

  11. PKE-Nefedov: plasma crystal experiments on the International Space Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nefedov, Anatoli P [Institute for High Energy Densities, Russian Academy of Sciences, 127412 Moscow (Russian Federation); Morfill, Gregor E [Centre for Interdisciplinary Plasma Science, Max-Planck-Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik, D-85740 Garching (Germany); Fortov, Vladimir E [Institute for High Energy Densities, Russian Academy of Sciences, 127412 Moscow (Russian Federation); Thomas, Hubertus M [Centre for Interdisciplinary Plasma Science, Max-Planck-Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik, D-85740 Garching (Germany); Rothermel, Hermann [Centre for Interdisciplinary Plasma Science, Max-Planck-Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik, D-85740 Garching (Germany); Hagl, Tanja [Centre for Interdisciplinary Plasma Science, Max-Planck-Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik, D-85740 Garching (Germany); Ivlev, Alexei V [Centre for Interdisciplinary Plasma Science, Max-Planck-Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik, D-85740 Garching (Germany); Zuzic, Milenko [Centre for Interdisciplinary Plasma Science, Max-Planck-Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik, D-85740 Garching (Germany); Klumov, Boris A [Centre for Interdisciplinary Plasma Science, Max-Planck-Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik, D-85740 Garching (Germany); Lipaev, Andrey M [Institute for High Energy Densities, Russian Academy of Sciences, 127412 Moscow (Russian Federation); Molotkov, Vladimir I [Institute for High Energy Densities, Russian Academy of Sciences, 127412 Moscow (Russian Federation); Petrov, Oleg F [Institute for High Energy Densities, Russian Academy of Sciences, 127412 Moscow (Russian Federation); Gidzenko, Yuri P [Y Gagarin Cosmonauts Training Centre, 141160 Star City, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Krikalev, Sergey K [SP Korolev RSC Energia, Korolev 141070, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Shepherd, William [Expedition 1 Crew, International Space Station (ISS) (Country Unknown)] [and others

    2003-04-01

    The plasma crystal experiment PKE-Nefedov, the first basic science experiment on the International Space Station (ISS), was installed in February 2001 by the first permanent crew. It is designed for long-term investigations of complex plasmas under microgravity conditions. 'Complex plasmas' contain ions, electrons, neutrals and small solid particles - normally in the micrometre range. These microparticles obtain thousands of elementary charges and interact with each other via a 'screened' Coulomb potential. Complex plasmas are of special interest, because they can form liquid and crystalline states (Thomas et al 1994 Phys. Rev. Lett. 73 652-5, Chu and I 1994 Phys. Rev. Lett. 72 4009-12) and are observable at the kinetic level. In experiments on Earth the microparticles are usually suspended against gravity in strong electric fields. This creates asymmetries, stresses and pseudo-equilibrium states with sufficient free energy to readily become unstable. Under microgravity conditions the microparticles move into the bulk of the plasma (Morfill et al 1999 Phys. Rev. Lett. 83 1598), experiencing much weaker volume forces than on Earth. This allows investigations of the thermodynamics of strongly coupled plasma states under substantially stress-free conditions. In this first paper we report our results on plasma crystals, in particular the first experimental observations of bcc lattice structures.

  12. Operating experience with nuclear power stations 1990. Betriebserfahrungen mit Kernkraftwerken 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1991-04-01

    The exchange of experience within the VGB Specialist Committee 'Exchange of Operational Experience' (ABE) (Nuclear Technology) embraces nuclear power stations in the following countries: Germany, Finland, France, The Netherlands, Sweden, Switzerland and Spain. This paper reports on the operating results achieved in 1990, incidents relevant to safety technology, important modifications and annual discharge rates of radioactivity. (orig.).

  13. Experimenting Galileo on Board the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantinato, Samuele; Pozzobon, Oscar; Sands, Obed S.; Welch, Bryan W.; Clapper, Carolyn J.; Miller, James J.; Gamba, Giovanni; Chiara, Andrea; Montagner, Stefano; Giordano, Pietro; hide

    2016-01-01

    The SCaN Testbed is an advanced integrated communications system and laboratory facility installed on the International Space Station (ISS) in 2012. The testbed incorporates a set of new generation of Software Defined Radio (SDR) technologies intended to allow researchers to develop, test, and demonstrate new communications, networking, and navigation capabilities in the actual environment of space. Qascom, in cooperation with ESA and NASA, is designing a Software Defined Radio GalileoGPS Receiver capable to provide accurate positioning and timing to be installed on the ISS SCaN Testbed. The GalileoGPS waveform will be operated in the JPL SDR that is constituted by several hardware components that can be used for experimentations in L-Band and S-Band. The JPL SDR includes an L-Band Dorne Margolin antenna mounted onto a choke ring. The antenna is connected to a radio front end capable to provide one bit samples for the three GNSS frequencies (L1, L2 and L5) at 38 MHz, exploiting the subharmonic sampling. The baseband processing is then performed by an ATMEL AT697 processor (100 MIPS) and two Virtex 2 FPGAs. The JPL SDR supports the STRS (Space Telecommunications Radio System) that provides common waveform software interfaces, methods of instantiation, operation, and testing among different compliant hardware and software products. The standard foresees the development of applications that are modular, portable, reconfigurable, and reusable. The developed waveform uses the STRS infrastructure-provided application program interfaces (APIs) and services to load, verify, execute, change parameters, terminate, or unload an application. The project is divided in three main phases. 1)Design and Development of the GalileoGPS waveform for the SCaN Testbed starting from Qascom existing GNSS SDR receiver. The baseline design is limited to the implementation of the single frequency Galileo and GPS L1E1 receiver even if as part of the activity it will be to assess the

  14. The share flight experiment - An advanced heat pipe radiator for Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alario, J. P.; Otterstedt, P. J.

    1986-01-01

    This paper reports on the design and thermal vacuum certification testing of the Space Station Heat Pipe Advanced Radiator Element (SHARE) Shuttle flight experiment, with primary emphasis on the heat pipe radiator system. The main objective of the SHARE experiment is to demonstrate suitable 0 g heat transfer performance of a 50 ft-long high-capacity monogroove heat pipe radiator element being developed for possible Space Station application. All of the flight certification tests were achieved, including a maximum heat rejection of 2 kW and thawing of a frozen heat pipe; and uninterrupted operation under cycling environmental and evaporator heat loads.

  15. Satellite range scheduling with the priority constraint: An improved genetic algorithm using a station ID encoding method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yuqing

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Satellite range scheduling with the priority constraint is one of the most important problems in the field of satellite operation. This paper proposes a station coding based genetic algorithm to solve this problem, which adopts a new chromosome encoding method that arranges tasks according to the ground station ID. The new encoding method contributes to reducing the complexity in conflict checking and resolving, and helps to improve the ability to find optimal resolutions. Three different selection operators are designed to match the new encoding strategy, namely random selection, greedy selection, and roulette selection. To demonstrate the benefits of the improved genetic algorithm, a basic genetic algorithm is designed in which two cross operators are presented, a single-point crossover and a multi-point crossover. For the purpose of algorithm test and analysis, a problem-generating program is designed, which can simulate problems by modeling features encountered in real-world problems. Based on the problem generator, computational results and analysis are made and illustrated for the scheduling of multiple ground stations.

  16. NASA uses Eclipse RCP Applications for Experiments on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Tamar

    2013-01-01

    Eclipse is going to space for the first time in 2013! The International Space Station (ISS) is used as a site for experiments any software developed as part of these experiments has to comply with extensive and strict user interface guidelines. NASA Ames Research Center's Intelligent Robotics Group is doing 2 sets of experiments, both with astronauts using Eclipse RCP applications to remotely control robots. One experiment will control SPHERES with an Android Smartphone on the ISS the other experiment will control a K10 rover on Earth.

  17. Adaptive stated choice experiment for access and egress mode choice to train stations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    La Paix Puello, Lissy Cesarina; Geurs, Karst Teunis

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of an adaptive stated choice experiment in the Netherlands to quantify the influence of different factors in the access and egress mode choice to railway stations. For this purpose a sample of 1524 respondents was collected. Mixed logit choice models are estimated

  18. Defining the role of silvicultural research in the Northeastern Forest Experiment Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris Nowak; Susan Stout; John Brissette; Laura Kenefic; Gary Miller; Bill Leak; Dan Yaussy; Tom Schuler; Kurt Gottschalk

    1997-01-01

    Research planning in the Northeastern Forest Experiment Station has followed a grass roots model for more than two years-ROADMAP, a research and development management plan. The goals for research within ROADMAP include understanding, protecting, managing, and utilizing forest ecosystems. There are nine research themes set to help achieve these goals, each with a set...

  19. Preliminary studies for the ORganics Exposure in Orbit (OREOcube) Experiment on the International Space Station

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alonzo, Jason; Fresneau, A.; Elsaesser, A.; Chan, J.; Breitenbach, A.; Ehrenfreund, P.; Ricco, A.; Salama, F.; Mattioda, A.; Santos, O.; Cottin, H.; Dartois, E.; d'Hendecourt, L.; Demets, R.; Foing, B.; Martins, Z.; Sephton, M.; Spaans, M.; Quinn, R.

    Organic compounds that survive in uncommon space environments are animportant astrobiology focus. The ORganics Exposure in Orbit (OREOcube)experiment will investigate, in real time, chemical changes in organiccompounds exposed to low Earth orbit radiation conditions on anInternational Space Station

  20. Forest research notes, Pacific Northwest Forest Experiment Station, No. 12, January 16, 1934.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton T. Munger; C.W. Kline; W.H. Meyer; Richard E. McArdle; W.G. Morris; J.E. Lodewick; H.M. Johnson

    1934-01-01

    The outstanding publication of this Forest Experiment Station in recent weeks is the bulletin of the above title by Axel J.F. Brandstrom, Senior Forest Economist. Through the generosity of the Charles Lathrop Pack Forestry Foundation and the cooperation of the West Coast Lumbermen's Association, an edition of 2500 has been printed. Most of the edition has been...

  1. Broadband laser ranging precision and accuracy experiments with PDV benchmarking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catenacci, Jared; Daykin, Ed; Howard, Marylesa; Lalone, Brandon; Miller, Kirk

    2017-06-01

    Broadband laser ranging (BLR) is a developmental diagnostic designed to measure the precise position of surfaces and particle clouds moving at velocities of several kilometers per second. Recent single stage gas gun experiments were conducted to quantify the precision and accuracy possible with a typical BLR system. For these experiments, the position of a mirrored projectile is measured relative to the location of a stationary optical flat (uncoated window) mounted within the gun catch tank. Projectile velocity is constrained to one-dimensional motion within the gun barrel. A collimating probe is aligned to be orthogonal to both the target window and the mirrored impactor surface. The probe is used to simultaneously measure the position and velocity with a BLR and conventional Photonic Doppler Velocimetry (PDV) system. Since there is a negligible lateral component to the target velocity, coupled with strong signal returns from a mirrored surface, integrating the PDV measurement provides a high fidelity distance measurement reference to which the BLR measurement may be compared.

  2. Power station coal yards using scraper reclaimers - 25 years of experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, G. [Gustav Schade Maschinenfabrik GmbH, Dortmund (Germany)

    2000-10-01

    25 years ago, the German power station at Scholven became the first in the world to employ a scraper reclaimer for power station coal stockyard duties. Based on experience gained here, many new coal handling systems have been built. The paper describes the current state of development and the different features of each type of today's scraper reclaimer: cantilever, portals, bridge-type and portal bridge scraper reclaimers. Examples are given of their use in linear stockpile systems. Advice is given on how to select a correct stockpile width. The advantages and disadvantages of the recently-introduced circular stockpile systems for power station coal are discussed. Future directions for coaling systems are outlined. 5 refs., 20 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Deployment of an Ecosystem Warming Prototype at the Fairbanks Permafrost Experiment Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, A. M.; Zufelt, J. E.; Wullschleger, S. D.

    2010-12-01

    Controlled experiments in terrestrial ecosystems are necessary to understand how changes in climate may affect the interactions among physical, chemical, and biological parameters. Advanced approaches to above and below ground warming will improve our understanding of the biotic and abiotic processes that govern plant and soil response to climatic change in terrestrial ecosystems. A prototype concept for raising soil temperatures in large outdoor plots has been developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The performance of this design has been field-tested in 3-m diameter plots in a temperate deciduous forest and also numerically simulated for experimental plots ranging from 3 to 20 m in diameter. The goal of the present study is to determine if the prototype system can be used to increase the temperature of permafrost soils in arctic and sub-arctic climates. Two sites in Alaska have been selected (Fairbanks and Barrow) for installation and testing of 20-meter diameter plots beginning in the fall of 2010. Fairbanks has a continental climate, with a mean annual air temperature of -3.3°C, mean annual precipitation of 287 mm, and relatively warm (-1 to -2°C) permafrost temperatures. Barrow is located within the Alaskan Arctic coastal plain and has a mean annual air temperature of -12.6°C, mean annual precipitation of 124 mm, and colder (-8 to -12°C) permafrost temperatures. This presentation focuses on the study site located at the U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory Permafrost Experiment Station, Fairbanks. The experiment station was established in 1945 and consists of 135 acres of ice-rich permafrost soils generally present to a depth of 60 m with an active layer that varies from 55 to 85 cm in undisturbed areas. The site has a smooth, gentle slope to the west, providing good surface drainage except at the lowest elevations where saturated conditions can exist. Soils consist of tan silt and wind blown loess near the surface and grey silt

  4. 75 FR 36710 - The Texas Engineering Experiment Station/Texas A&M University System; Notice of Acceptance for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    ... COMMISSION The Texas Engineering Experiment Station/Texas A&M University System; Notice of Acceptance for... Facility Operating License No. R-83 (``Application''), which currently authorizes the Texas Engineering Experiment Station/Texas A&M University System (TEES, the licensee) to operate the Nuclear Science Center...

  5. Final quality assurance project plan, installation restoration program remedial investigation/feasibility study, Kotzebue Long Range Radar Station, Alaska. Volume 1. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-10-01

    This quality assurance project plan describes relevant quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) procedures to be used by Analytical Resources, Inc. for the installation restoration program at Kotzebue Long Range Radar Station, Alaska.

  6. Final quality assurance project plan, installation restoration program remedial investigation/feasibility study, Kotzebue Long Range Radar Station, Alaska. Volume 2. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-10-01

    This quality assurance project plan describes relevant quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) procedures to be used by Analytical Resources, Inc. for the installation restoration program at Kotzebue Long Range Radar Station, Alaska.

  7. The SLR stations coordinates determined from monthly arcs of lageos-1 and lageos-2 laser ranging in 1999-2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schillak, S.; Wnuk, E.

    2003-04-01

    Determination of the stations coordinates and control of their stability is one of the most important tasks of the satellite geodesy and geodynamics. The paper is a continuation of earlier works on the stability of coordinates of the laser stations in the years 1999 and 2000 and reports the position determinations of all SLR stations active in the years 1999-2001 calculated in the ITRF2000 system on the basis of observations of LAGEOS-1 and LAGEOS-2 satellites. The calculations were made using the NASA GEODYN-II orbital program. The station coordinates were determined from the monthly arcs separately for each station. RMS of all 36 month arcs was stable and equal to 17 mm on average. The final stability of the SLR stations coordinates in the three years varied from 4 mm for the most stable station to a few centimetres for less stable ones. Real shifts in the positions of the stations Tateyama and Arequipa were detected.

  8. JSC flight experiment recommendation in support of Space Station robotic operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berka, Reginald B.

    1993-01-01

    The man-tended configuration (MTC) of Space Station Freedom (SSF) provides a unique opportunity to move robotic systems from the laboratory into the mainstream space program. Restricted crew access due to the Shuttle's flight rate, as well as constrained on-orbit stay time, reduces the productivity of a facility dependent on astronauts to perform useful work. A natural tendency toward robotics to perform maintenance and routine tasks will be seen in efforts to increase SSF usefulness. This tendency will provide the foothold for deploying space robots. This paper outlines a flight experiment that will capitalize on the investment in robotic technology made by NASA over the past ten years. The flight experiment described herein provides the technology demonstration necessary for taking advantage of the expected opportunity at MTC. As a context to this flight experiment, a broader view of the strategy developed at the JSC is required. The JSC is building toward MTC by developing a ground-based SSF emulation funded jointly by internal funds, NASA/Code R, and NASA/Code M. The purpose of this ground-based Station is to provide a platform whereby technology originally developed at JPL, LaRC, and GSFC can be integrated into a near flight-like condition. For instance, the Automated Robotic Maintenance of Space Station (ARMSS) project integrates flat targets, surface inspection, and other JPL technologies into a Station analogy for evaluation. Also, ARMSS provides the experimental platform for the Capaciflector from GSPC to be evaluated for its usefulness in performing ORU change out or other tasks where proximity detection is required. The use and enhancement of these ground-based SSF models are planned for use through FY-93. The experimental data gathered from tests in these facilities will provide the basis for the technology content of the proposed flight experiment.

  9. Experiments with small animals in BIOLAB and EMCS on the international space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinckmann, E.; Schiller, P.

    Two ESA facilities will be available for animal research and other biological experiments on the International Space Station: the European Modular Cultivation System (EMCS) in the US Lab "Destiny" and BIOLAB in the European "Columbus" Laboratory. Both facilities use standard Experiment Containers, mounted on two centrifuge rotors allowing either research in microgravity or acceleration studies with variable g-levels from 0.001 to 2.0x g. Standard interface plates provide each container with power and data lines, gas supply (controlled CO 2, O 2 concentration and relative humidity), and -for EMCS only- connectors to fresh and waste water reservoirs. The experiment hardware inside the containers will be developed by the user, but ESA conducted a feasibility study for several kinds of Experiment Support Equipment with potential use for research on small animals: design concepts for experiments with insects, with aquatic organisms like rotifers and nematodes, and with small aquatic animals (sea urchin larvae, tadpoles, fish youngsters) are described in detail in this presentation. Also ESA's initial steps to support experiments with rodents on the Space Station are presented.

  10. Novel Dissection Station for Endolaryngeal Microsurgery and Laser Surgery: Development and Dissection Course Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattioli, Francesco; Presutti, Livio; Caversaccio, Marco; Bonali, Marco; Anschuetz, Lukas

    2017-06-01

    Objective We aimed to develop and validate an ex vivo dissection station for endolaryngeal surgery suitable for different kinds of laryngeal specimen and any type of operating technique (CO2 laser, cold instruments by endoscopic or microscopic techniques). Study Design Experimental construction and validation of a highly specialized dissection station. Setting Laboratory and international dissection course. Methods We designed a lightweight dissection station made of polycarbonate resin approved for use with a CO2 laser. The cylindrical box hosts an articulated laryngeal support. The laryngoscope is positioned on an articulated arm, which is fixed on the construction's footplate. Validation of the larynx box was performed during an international dissection course on laryngeal surgery held in January 2016. Results We assessed the suitability of our novel dissection station among specialized laryngologists with a mean experience of 14 years. Feedback from the participants was very positive, with a mean general impression of 9.5 (out of 10 points) and a recommendation score of 9.6 for further use. Its utility in transforming the taught surgical steps into daily practice has been highly recognized, with a score of 9.5. Conclusion The lightweight and transparent larynx box is suitable for any kind of laryngeal specimen, and any surgical intervention can be taught at reasonable cost. It is safe and suitable for use with CO2 lasers. Validation among experienced surgeons revealed its suitability in the teaching of endolaryngeal microsurgery and laser surgery.

  11. Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE): Overview, Accomplishments and Future Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    deGroh, Kim K.; Jaworske, Donald A.; Pippin, Gary; Jenkins, Philip P.; Walters, Robert J.; Thibeault, Sheila A.; Palusinski, Iwona; Lorentzen, Justin R.

    2014-01-01

    Materials and devices used on the exterior of spacecraft in low Earth orbit (LEO) are subjected to environmental threats that can cause degradation in material properties, possibly threatening spacecraft mission success. These threats include: atomic oxygen (AO), ultraviolet and x-ray radiation, charged particle radiation, temperature extremes and thermal cycling, micrometeoroid and debris impacts, and contamination. Space environmental threats vary greatly based on spacecraft materials, thicknesses and stress levels, and the mission environment and duration. For more than a decade the Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE) has enabled the study of the long duration environmental durability of spacecraft materials in the LEO environment. The overall objective of MISSE is to test the stability and durability of materials and devices in the space environment in order to gain valuable knowledge on the performance of materials in space, as well as to enable lifetime predictions of new materials that may be used in future space flight. MISSE is a series of materials flight experiments, which are attached to the exterior of the International Space Station (ISS). Individual experiments were loaded onto suitcase-like trays, called Passive Experiment Containers (PECs). The PECs were transported to the ISS in the Space Shuttle cargo bay and attached to, and removed from, the ISS during extravehicular activities (EVAs). The PECs were retrieved after one or more years of space exposure and returned to Earth enabling post-flight experiment evaluation. MISSE is a multi-organization project with participants from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the Department of Defense (DoD), industry and academia. MISSE has provided a platform for environmental durability studies for thousands of samples and numerous devices, and it has produced many tangible impacts. Ten PECs (and one smaller tray) have been flown, representing MISSE 1 through MISSE

  12. Spin motion determination of the Envisat satellite through laser ranging measurements from a single pass measured by a single station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittet, Jean-Noël; Šilha, Jiří; Schildknecht, Thomas

    2018-02-01

    The Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) technology is used to accurately determine the position of space objects equipped with so-called retro-reflectors or retro-reflector arrays (RRA). This type of measurement allows to measure the range to the spacecraft with high precision, which leads to determination of very accurate orbits for these targets. Non-active spacecraft, which are not attitude controlled any longer, tend to start to spin or tumble under influence of the external and internal torques and forces. If the return signal is measured for a non-spherical non-active rotating object, the signal in the range residuals with respect to the reference orbit is more complex. For rotating objects the return signal shows an oscillating pattern or patterns caused by the RRA moving around the satellite's centre of mass. This behaviour is projected onto the radial component measured by the SLR. In our work, we demonstrate how the SLR ranging technique from one sensor to a satellite equipped with a RRA can be used to precisely determine its spin motion during one passage. Multiple SLR measurements of one target over time allow to accurately monitor spin motion changes which can be further used for attitude predictions. We show our solutions of the spin motion determined for the non-active ESA satellite Envisat obtained from measurements acquired during years 2013-2015 by the Zimmerwald SLR station, Switzerland. All the necessary parameters are defined for our own so-called point-like model which describes the motion of a point in space around the satellite centre of mass.

  13. Microphysical characterization of long-range transported biomass burning particles from North America at three EARLINET stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Amezcua, Pablo; Guerrero-Rascado, Juan Luis; José Granados-Muñoz, María; Benavent-Oltra, José Antonio; Böckmann, Christine; Samaras, Stefanos; Stachlewska, Iwona S.; Janicka, Łucja; Baars, Holger; Bohlmann, Stephanie; Alados-Arboledas, Lucas

    2017-05-01

    Strong events of long-range transported biomass burning aerosol were detected during July 2013 at three EARLINET (European Aerosol Research Lidar Network) stations, namely Granada (Spain), Leipzig (Germany) and Warsaw (Poland). Satellite observations from MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) and CALIOP (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization) instruments, as well as modeling tools such as HYSPLIT (Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory) and NAAPS (Navy Aerosol Analysis and Prediction System), have been used to estimate the sources and transport paths of those North American forest fire smoke particles. A multiwavelength Raman lidar technique was applied to obtain vertically resolved particle optical properties, and further inversion of those properties with a regularization algorithm allowed for retrieving microphysical information on the studied particles. The results highlight the presence of smoke layers of 1-2 km thickness, located at about 5 km a.s.l. altitude over Granada and Leipzig and around 2.5 km a.s.l. at Warsaw. These layers were intense, as they accounted for more than 30 % of the total AOD (aerosol optical depth) in all cases, and presented optical and microphysical features typical for different aging degrees: color ratio of lidar ratios (LR532 / LR355) around 2, α-related ångström exponents of less than 1, effective radii of 0.3 µm and large values of single scattering albedos (SSA), nearly spectrally independent. The intensive microphysical properties were compared with columnar retrievals form co-located AERONET (Aerosol Robotic Network) stations. The intensity of the layers was also characterized in terms of particle volume concentration, and then an experimental relationship between this magnitude and the particle extinction coefficient was established.

  14. Tethered elevator and platforms as space station facilities: Systems studies and demonstrative experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    Several key concepts of the science and applications tethered platforms were studied. Some conclusions reached are herein listed. Tether elevator and platform could improve the space station scientific and applicative capabilities. The space elevator presents unique characteristics as microgravity facility and as a tethered platform servicing vehicle. Pointing platforms could represent a new kind of observation facility for large class of payloads. The dynamical, control and technological complexity of these concepts advised demonstrative experiments. The on-going tethered satellite system offers the opportunity to perform such experiments. And feasibility studies are in progress.

  15. A Power Distribution System for the AMS experiment on the International Space Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, K S [Department of Physics, EWHA Womans University, Seoul, Korea (Korea, Republic of); Capell, M [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, MIT, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Lebedev, A [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, MIT, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Viertel, G M [ETH-Zuerich, Labor fuer Hochenergiephysik, Zurich (Switzerland); Yang, J [Department of Physics, EWHA Womans University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-12-15

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) experiment on the International Space Station (ISS) requires a fully redundant, highly efficient, space qualified power distribution system. The device receives up to 2.8 kW of electrical power from the ISS and distributes it to the various subsystems of the experiment. The majority of these subsystems require the power to be converted from the ISS delivered nominal voltage level of 120 VDC to 28 VDC. The entire system and the individual output channels will be monitored and controlled from the Control Centers on the ground.

  16. Robotic experiment with a force reflecting handcontroller onboard MIR space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delpech, M.; Matzakis, Y.

    1994-01-01

    During the French CASSIOPEE mission that will fly onboard MIR space station in 1996, ergonomic evaluations of a force reflecting handcontroller will be performed on a simulated robotic task. This handcontroller is a part of the COGNILAB payload that will be used also for experiments in neurophysiology. The purpose of the robotic experiment is the validation of a new control and design concept that would enhance the task performances for telemanipulating space robots. Besides the handcontroller and its control unit, the experimental system includes a simulator of the slave robot dynamics for both free and constrained motions, a flat display screen and a seat with special fixtures for holding the astronaut.

  17. Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III on the International Space Station (SAGE III/ISS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasbarre, Joseph; Walker, Richard; Cisewski, Michael; Zawodny, Joseph; Cheek, Dianne; Thornton, Brooke

    2015-01-01

    The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III on the International Space Station (SAGE III/ISS) mission will extend the SAGE data record from the ideal vantage point of the International Space Station (ISS). The ISS orbital inclination is ideal for SAGE measurements providing coverage between 70 deg north and 70 deg south latitude. The SAGE data record includes an extensively validated data set including aerosol optical depth data dating to the Stratospheric Aerosol Measurement (SAM) experiments in 1975 and 1978 and stratospheric ozone profile data dating to the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) in 1979. These and subsequent data records, notably from the SAGE II experiment launched on the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite in 1984 and the SAGE III experiment launched on the Russian Meteor-3M satellite in 2001, have supported a robust, long-term assessment of key atmospheric constituents. These scientific measurements provide the basis for the analysis of five of the nine critical constituents (aerosols, ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), water vapor (H2O), and air density using O2) identified in the U.S. National Plan for Stratospheric Monitoring. SAGE III on ISS was originally scheduled to fly on the ISS in the same timeframe as the Meteor-3M mission, but was postponed due to delays in ISS construction. The project was re-established in 2009.

  18. Full Range Advising: Transforming the Advisor-Advisee Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbuto, John E., Jr.; Story, Joana S.; Fritz, Susan M.; Schinstock, Jack L.

    2011-01-01

    Drawing from the leadership literature, a new model for advising is proposed. Full range advising encompasses laissez-faire, management by exception, contingent rewards, and transformational behaviors. The relationships between full range advising and advisees' extra effort, satisfaction with the advisor, and advising effectiveness were examined.…

  19. It is an Experience, Not a Lesson: The Nature of High School Students' Experiences at a Biological Field Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrendt, Marc E.

    The purpose of this case study was to describe the nature of high school students' experiences in the immersive four-day field experience at Stone Laboratory Biological Field Station including excursions to Kelley's Island and South Bass Island. Six tenth, eleventh, and twelfth grade students participated through interviews, photovoice, observations, and a survey. Pretrip semi-structured interviews were conducted to understand each participant student's relationship with science. Participants were given cameras to record their field trip experiences to relate what they found interesting, important, and exciting. Back at school after the field trip, the participants were asked to choose their five most meaningful photographs, and write a short essay to describe the significance of each image. A posttrip semi-structured interview explored each participant's experiences during the field trip. An unstructured interview was conducted to discuss each participant's full photograph gallery from the field trip. Interview transcripts were member checked with one minor wording change. Analysis consisted of open coding using apriori codes derived from the ecological framework and emergent codes derived from the data. Coding was duplicated through multiple readers. Significant findings included: 1) Prior experience, prior knowledge, and funds of knowledge added relevance and value to an experience, facilitating interest development; 2) Experiences appeared to be more meaningful when all the senses were stimulated; 3) Friends and peers were an essential part of a quality experience; 4) Quality experiences included a wow factor, or sudden awareness; 5) Teachers needed to be within the experience, not the focus of the experience, and needed to be available to answer questions, be enthusiastic when a discovery was made, and promote student reflection concerning their perceptions and discoveries; 6) A quality informal learning situation incorporated the cognitive/affective, physical

  20. Space Station Furnace Facility. Experiment/Facility Requirements Document (E/FRD), volume 2, appendix 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kephart, Nancy

    1992-01-01

    The function of the Space Station Furnace Facility (SSFF) is to support materials research into the crystal growth and solidification processes of electronic and photonic materials, metals and alloys, and glasses and ceramics. To support this broad base of research requirements, the SSFF will employ a variety of furnace modules operated, regulated, and supported by a core of common subsystems. Furnace modules may be reconfigured or specifically developed to provide unique solidifcation conditions for each set of experiments. The SSFF modular approach permits the addition of new or scaled-up furnace modules to support the evolution of the facility as new science requirements are identified. The SSFF Core is of modular design to permit augmentation for enhanced capabilities. The fully integrated configuration of the SSFF will consist of three racks with the capability of supporting up to two furnace modules per rack. The initial configuration of the SSFF will consist of two of the three racks and one furnace module. This Experiment/Facility Requirements Document (E/FRD) describes the integrated facility requirements for the Space Station Freedom (SSF) Integrated Configuration-1 (IC1) mission. The IC1 SSFF will consist of two racks: the Core Rack, with the centralized subsystem equipment, and the Experiment Rack-1, with Furnace Module-1 and the distributed subsystem equipment to support the furnace.

  1. Exposure of Polymer Film Thermal Control Materials on the Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dever, Joyce; Miller, Sharon; Messer, Russell; Sechkar, Edward; Tollis, Greg

    2002-01-01

    Seventy-nine samples of polymer film thermal control (PFTC) materials have been provided by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Glenn Research Center (GRC) for exposure to the low Earth orbit environment on the exterior of the International Space Station (ISS) as part of the Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE). MISSE is a materials flight experiment sponsored by the Air Force Research Lab/Materials Lab and NASA. This paper will describe background, objectives, and configurations for the GRC PFTC samples for MISSE. These samples include polyimides, fluorinated polyimides, and Teflon fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP) with and without second-surface metallizing layers and/or surface coatings. Also included are polyphenylene benzobisoxazole (PBO) and a polyarylene ether benzimidazole (TOR-LM). On August 16, 2001, astronauts installed passive experiment carriers (PECs) on the exterior of the ISS in which were located twenty-eight of the GRC PFTC samples for 1-year space exposure. MISSE PECs for 3-year exposure, which will contain fifty-one GRC PFTC samples, will be installed on the ISS at a later date. Once returned from the ISS, MISSE GRC PFTC samples will be examined for changes in optical and mechanical properties and atomic oxygen (AO) erosion. Additional sapphire witness samples located on the AO exposed trays will be examined for deposition of contaminants.

  2. Close Range Photogrammetry in Space - Measuring the On-Orbit Clearance between Hardware on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddle, Donn

    2017-01-01

    When photogrammetrists read an article entitled "Photogrammetry in Space" they immediately think of terrestrial mapping using satellite imagery. However in the last 19 years the roll of close range photogrammetry in support of the manned space flight program has grown exponentially. Management and engineers have repeatedly entrusted the safety of the vehicles and their crews to the results of photogrammetric analysis. In February 2010, the Node 3 module was attached to the port side Common Berthing Mechanism (CBM) of the International Space Station (ISS). Since this was not the location at which the module was originally designed to be located on the ISS, coolant lines containing liquid ammonia, were installed externally from the US Lab to Node 3 during a spacewalk. During mission preparation I had developed a plan and a set of procedures to have the astronauts acquire stereo imagery of these coolant lines at the conclusion of the spacewalk to enable us to map their as-installed location relative to the rest of the space station. Unfortunately, the actual installation of the coolant lines took longer than expected and in an effort to wrap up the spacewalk on time, the mission director made a real-time call to drop the photography. My efforts to reschedule the photography on a later spacewalk never materialized, so rather than having an as-installed model for the location of coolant lines, the master ISS CAD database continued to display an as-designed model of the coolant lines. Fast forward to the summer of 2015, the ISS program planned to berth a Japanese cargo module to the nadir Common Berthing Mechanism (CBM), immediately adjacent to the Node 3 module. A CAD based clearance analysis revealed a negative four inch clearance between the ammonia lines and a thruster nozzle on the port side of the cargo vehicle. Recognizing that the model of the ammonia line used in the clearance analysis was "as-designed" rather than "as-installed", I was asked to determine the

  3. Environmental control and life support systems analysis for a Space Station life sciences animal experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Kenneth T.; Hall, John B., Jr.; Thompson, Clifford D.

    1987-01-01

    NASA's Langley and Goddard facilities have evaluated the effects of animal science experiments on the Space Station's Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) by means of computer-aided analysis, assuming an animal colony consisting of 96 rodents and eight squirrel monkeys. Thirteen ECLSS options were established for the reclamation of metabolic oxygen and waste water. Minimum cost and weight impacts on the ECLSS are found to accrue to the system's operation in off-nominal mode, using electrochemical CO2 removal and a static feed electrolyzer for O2 generation.

  4. Developing Novel Services for the Railway Station Area through Experience-Driven Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarno Ojala

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Supporting end-users’ practical and emotional needs is an important goal in the design of novel smart services. We present a design research study with the experience-driven design approach to create concept ideas for smart city services. We present current challenges in the context of use and results of a two-phased user study of traveler experiences in the railway station area of the city of Tampere. Results show how experience-driven approach utilizing playful experience (PLEX cards enables users to ideate experience-oriented concepts. As an outcome of the study, we describe one of the concepts selected for development, the smart community info wall concept. Our findings on the use of PLEX cards show that PLEX cards work with the amateur participants and support their idea generation. Furthermore, with the help of the PLEX cards, users were able to think on the subject more extensively and presented ideas on the experience-oriented categories.

  5. Cruise Report: Long-Range Ocean Acoustic Propagation EXperiment (LOAPEX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-04-01

    Long-range Owan ACoustic Propagation EXpewbitent LOAPEX L ý ý . OPXSRO So0 SVLAMVLA 40 KAA 20 M0 1 10 170 IN ISO 140 30 1010 Figure 1.2. LOAPEX assets...4.64 4.65 4.66 4.67 4.68 5000 > -5000 4.6 4.61 4.62 4.63 4.64 4.65 4.66 4.67 4.68 20 0 -I -20 4.6 4.61 4.62 4.63 4.64 4.65 4.66 4.67 4.68 .• 50001 1 1 1

  6. Operating experience with nuclear power stations 1994; Betriebserfahrungen mit Kernkraftwerken 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1995-04-01

    Within the VGB Technical Committee `Exchange of Operating Experience` - ABE - (Nuclear Engineering), an active exchange of experience has been cultivated over a period of more than 25 years. It embraces 28 nuclear power stations in Germany, Finland, France, the Netherlands, Sweden, Switzerland and Spain. This paper reports on operating results obtaned in 1994 and also on safety-related incidents, important rehabilitation measures and annual discharge rates of radio activity. (orig.) [Deutsch] Innerhalb des VGB-Fachausschusses `Austausch von Betriebserfahrungen` - ABE - (Kerntechnik) wird seit mehr als 25 Jahren ein reger Erfahrungsaustausch gepflegt. Er schliesst 28 Kernkraftwerke in Deutschland, Finnland, Frankreich, den Niederlanden, Schweden, der Schweiz und Spanien ein. Ueber die im Jahre 1994 erzielten Betriebsergebnisse sowie ueber sicherheitsrelevante Ereignisse, wichtige Umruestmassnahmen und Jahresabgaberaten an Radioaktivitaet wird berichtet. (orig.)

  7. Operating experience with nuclear power stations 1995; Betriebserfahrungen mit Kernkraftwerken 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1996-04-01

    For more than 25 years, an active exchange of experience has been cultivated within the VGB Technical Committee `Exchange of Operating Experience` - ABE - (Nuclear Engineering). It embraces 28 nuclear power stations in Germany, Finland, France, The Netherlands, Sweden, Switzerland and Spain. The paper reports operating results achieved in 1995 and also safety-related incidents, important retrofitting measures and annual emission rates of radioactivity. (orig.) [Deutsch] Innerhalb des VGB-Fachausschusses `Austausch von Betriebserfahrungen` - ABE - (Kerntechnik) wird seit mehr als 25 jahren ein reger Erfahrungsaustausch gepflegt. Er schliesst 36 Kernkraftwerke in Deutschland, Finnland, Frankreich, den Niederlanden, Schweden, der Schweiz und Spanien ein. Ueber die im Jahre 1995 erzielten Betriebsergebnisse sowie ueber sicherheitsrelevante Ereignisse, wichtige Umruestmassnahmen und Jahresabgaberaten an Radioaktivitaet wird berichtet. (orig.)

  8. Information gathering, data reduction, and information dissemination for residential experiment station operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raghurman, P.; Kern, E.C. Jr.

    1981-09-01

    The Residential Experiment Stations (RESs) of the Solar Photovoltaic Residential Project have been designed by MIT Lincoln Laboratory under Department of Energy sponsorship to develop residential photovoltaic systems and to disseminate information to the photovoltaic community, cognizant institutions and, ultimately, the public. The residential data systems are discussed that have been designed specifically for the RESs to gather and process the physical data required. The specific reports are covered which will be issued by the project and the contents of each report are listed. A sample format for each report is also presented. The appendices describe the quantities that will be measured at the Monitored Houses, Prototype Systems and Initial System Evaluation Experiments. They also include a description of the data processing.

  9. Design of a 40/50 GHz satellite ground station for fade mitigation experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koudelka, O.; Schmidt, M.; Ebert, J.

    2013-05-01

    Due to the increasing demand in satellite capacity, driven by applications such as high-definition television (HDTV), 3D-TV and interactive broadband services, higher frequency bands will have to be exploited. The capacity on Ku-band is already becoming scarce and Ka-band systems are more commonly used. It can be expected that 40 and 50 GHz (Q and V band) will have to be used in the future. At these frequencies the wave propagation effects have a significant impact on the performance. The traditional approach of implementing large fade margins in the system design is not suitable as it leads to expensive ground terminals. Fade mitigation by adaptive coding and modulation (ACM) is a cost-efficient method. To investigate the Q/V-band for future commercial exploitation, ESA's ALPHASAT satellite will provide experimental payloads for communications and wave propagation experiments. In Graz a Q/V-band ground station is currently under development. It will be equipped with a 3 m tracking antenna, a 50 W Klystron amplifier and a 290 K LNA. Fade mitigation experiments will be conducted, initially using DVB-S2 modems which allow to vary the modulation scheme, the Forward Error Correction code and the symbol rate under control of the ACM computer. In addition, uplink power control can be combined with the ACM methods. A specially developed signal analyser provides precise measurement of the signal/noise ratio. In addition, propagation data will be available from a beacon receiver, also developed by Joanneum Research. Important goals of the experiment are to investigate the reliability of links under realistic operating conditions using ACM and to develop efficient ACM and signal/noise ratio measurement algorithms which can be later implemented in optimised modems for Q/V-band. The paper describes the ground station design and addresses the planned fade mitigation experiments.

  10. Determination of positions and velocity of Riyadh SLR station using satellite laser ranging observations to Lageos1 and Lageos2 satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alothman, A.; Schillak, S.

    2012-04-01

    Riyadh Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) station (7832) has been established since 1995 and situated in the Arabian plate which is countering a north east motion. Laser ranging observations of about 20 global SLR stations to the LAGEOS-1/LAGEOS-2 for 13-year (1996-2010) have been used to determine station positions and velocity of Riyadh SLR station. The NASA Godard's GEODYN-II orbital software has been used to perform orbit determination of these two satellites. The computations were performed based on 114 monthly arcs of observations with total number of normal points of 33708 and 40168 for LAGEOS-1 and LAGEOS-2 respectively. The geocentric coordinates were computed and then transformed to the topocentric North-South, East-West, and Vertical components in the ITRF2008 reference frame. Effects of normal points for each arc and the empirical acceleration coefficients on estimated station coordinates have been investigated. In order to achieve a lower standard deviation (less than 1 cm) of estimated coordinates, the number of the normal points per SLR station had to be greater than 50. The range biases were 7.5mm and 7.2 mm with long term biases stability 2.5 mm and 2.0 mm for LAGEOS-1 and LAGEOS-2 satellites, respectively. RMS of fit was calculated for all stations and found to be 17.2 mm for the whole period. Time series of positions and velocities have been computed for Riyadh SLR station with stability of ±10.1 mm, ±9.3 mm, and ±9.0 mm for X, Y, and Z coordinates, respectively. The estimated velocity is 29.1 mm/year, 31.6 mm/year, and 1.9 mm/year in North-South, East-West and vertical directions, respectively, with a 3D velocity 42.9 mm/year. 3D deviation from the ITRF2008 was equal 4.5 mm. To recover tectonic motion affecting the station, further analysis of velocity estimates has shown general agreement of Riyadh SLR station in comparison with recent GPS estimates for the Arabian plate motion.

  11. Robotic assembly and maintenance of future space stations based on the ISS mission operations experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rembala, Richard; Ower, Cameron

    2009-10-01

    MDA has provided 25 years of real-time engineering support to Shuttle (Canadarm) and ISS (Canadarm2) robotic operations beginning with the second shuttle flight STS-2 in 1981. In this capacity, our engineering support teams have become familiar with the evolution of mission planning and flight support practices for robotic assembly and support operations at mission control. This paper presents observations on existing practices and ideas to achieve reduced operational overhead to present programs. It also identifies areas where robotic assembly and maintenance of future space stations and space-based facilities could be accomplished more effectively and efficiently. Specifically, our experience shows that past and current space Shuttle and ISS assembly and maintenance operations have used the approach of extensive preflight mission planning and training to prepare the flight crews for the entire mission. This has been driven by the overall communication latency between the earth and remote location of the space station/vehicle as well as the lack of consistent robotic and interface standards. While the early Shuttle and ISS architectures included robotics, their eventual benefits on the overall assembly and maintenance operations could have been greater through incorporating them as a major design driver from the beginning of the system design. Lessons learned from the ISS highlight the potential benefits of real-time health monitoring systems, consistent standards for robotic interfaces and procedures and automated script-driven ground control in future space station assembly and logistics architectures. In addition, advances in computer vision systems and remote operation, supervised autonomous command and control systems offer the potential to adjust the balance between assembly and maintenance tasks performed using extra vehicular activity (EVA), extra vehicular robotics (EVR) and EVR controlled from the ground, offloading the EVA astronaut and even the robotic

  12. Experiment/facility requirements document for the Space Station Furnace Facility. Section 1: Integrated configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    The function of the Space Station Furnace Facility (SSFF) is to support materials research into the crystal growth and solidification processes of electronic and photonic materials, metals and alloys, and glasses and ceramics. To support this broad base of research requirements, the SSFF will employ a variety of furnace modules which will be operated, regulated, and supported by a core of common subsystems. Furnace modules may be reconfigured or specifically developed to provide unique solidification conditions for each set of experiments. The SSFF modular approach permits the addition of new or scaled-up furnace modules to support the evolution of the facility as new science requirements are identified. The SSFF Core is of modular design to permit augmentation for enhanced capabilities. The fully integrated configuration of the SSFF will consist of three racks with the capability of supporting up to two furnace modules per rack. The initial configuration of the SSFF will consist of two of the three racks and one furnace module. This Experiment/Facility Requirements Document (E/FRD) describes the integrated facility requirements for the Space Station Freedom (SSF) Integrated Configuration-1 (IC1) mission. The IC1 SSFF will consist of two racks: the Core Rack, with the centralized subsystem equipment; and the Experiment Rack-1, with Furnace Module-1 and the distributed subsystem equipment to support the furnace. The SSFF support functions are provided by the following Core subsystems: power conditioning and distribution subsystem (SSFF PCDS); data management subsystem (SSFF DMS); thermal control Subsystem (SSFF TCS); gas distribution subsystem (SSFF GDS); and mechanical structures subsystem (SSFF MSS).

  13. Installation restoration program (irp) remedial investigation/feasibility study, Kotzebue Long Range Radar Station, Alaska. Human health and ecological risk assessment. Final baseline report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    The purpose of the Baseline Human Health and Ecological Risk Assessment Report is to provide an assessment of the risk to human and ecological receptors from exposure to contaminants measured during the 1994 Remedial Investigation at Kotzebue Long Range Radar Station, Alaska.

  14. GNSS-R Altimetry Performance Analysis for the GEROS Experiment on Board the International Space Station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camps, Adriano; Park, Hyuk; Sekulic, Ivan; Rius, Juan Manuel

    2017-07-06

    The GEROS-ISS (GNSS rEflectometry, Radio Occultation and Scatterometry onboard International Space Station) is an innovative experiment for climate research, proposed in 2011 within a call of the European Space Agency (ESA). This proposal was the only one selected for further studies by ESA out of ~25 ones that were submitted. In this work, the instrument performance for the near-nadir altimetry (GNSS-R) mode is assessed, including the effects of multi-path in the ISS structure, the electromagnetic-bias, and the orbital height decay. In the absence of ionospheric scintillations, the altimetry rms error is GNSS spacecrafts), mission requirements (rms error is 20 dB at equatorial regions, mainly after sunset, which will seriously degrade the altimetry and the scatterometry performances of the instrument.

  15. Astro Academy: Principia--Using Tracker to Analyse Experiments Undertaken by Tim Peake on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobbs, Robin

    While on the International Space Station, Tim Peake undertook and recorded video files of experiments suitable for physics teaching coordinated by the National Space Academy. This article describes how the video of these experiments was prepared for use with tracking software. The tracking files of the videos are suitable for use by teachers or…

  16. Astro Academy: Principia--Using Tracker to Analyse Experiments Undertaken by Tim Peake on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobbs, Robin

    2016-01-01

    While on the International Space Station, Tim Peake undertook and recorded video files of experiments suitable for physics teaching coordinated by the National Space Academy. This article describes how the video of these experiments was prepared for use with tracking software. The tracking files of the videos are suitable for use by teachers or…

  17. Results of the Fluid Merging Viscosity Measurement International Space Station Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethridge, Edwin C.; Kaukler, William; Antar, Basil

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of FMVM is to measure the rate of coalescence of two highly viscous liquid drops and correlate the results with the liquid viscosity and surface tension. The experiment takes advantage of the low gravitational free floating conditions in space to permit the unconstrained coalescence of two nearly spherical drops. The merging of the drops is accomplished by deploying them from a syringe and suspending them on Nomex threads followed by the astronaut s manipulation of one of the drops toward a stationary droplet till contact is achieved. Coalescence and merging occurs due to shape relaxation and reduction of surface energy, being resisted by the viscous drag within the liquid. Experiments were conducted onboard the International Space Station in July of 2004 and subsequently in May of 2005. The coalescence was recorded on video and down-linked near real-time. When the coefficient of surface tension for the liquid is known, the increase in contact radius can be used to determine the coefficient of viscosity for that liquid. The viscosity is determined by fitting the experimental speed to theoretically calculated contact radius speed for the same experimental parameters. Recent fluid dynamical numerical simulations of the coalescence process will be presented. The results are important for a better understanding of the coalescence process. The experiment is also relevant to liquid phase sintering, free form in-situ fabrication, and as a potential new method for measuring the viscosity of viscous glass formers at low shear rates.

  18. Great Basin Experimental Range: Annotated bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. Durant McArthur; Bryce A. Richardson; Stanley G. Kitchen

    2013-01-01

    This annotated bibliography documents the research that has been conducted on the Great Basin Experimental Range (GBER, also known as the Utah Experiment Station, Great Basin Station, the Great Basin Branch Experiment Station, Great Basin Experimental Center, and other similar name variants) over the 102 years of its existence. Entries were drawn from the original...

  19. Space Station Biological Research Project (SSBRP) Cell Culture Unit (CCU) and incubator for International Space Station (ISS) cell culture experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandendriesche, Donald; Parrish, Joseph; Kirven-Brooks, Melissa; Fahlen, Thomas; Larenas, Patricia; Havens, Cindy; Nakamura, Gail; Sun, Liping; Krebs, Chris; de Luis, Javier; hide

    2004-01-01

    The CCU and Incubator are habitats under development by SSBRP for gravitational biology research on ISS. They will accommodate multiple specimen types and reside in either Habitat Holding Racks, or the Centrifuge Rotor, which provides selectable gravity levels of up to 2 g. The CCU can support multiple Cell Specimen Chambers, CSCs (18, 9 or 6 CSCs; 3, 10 or 30 mL in volume, respectively). CSCs are temperature controlled from 4-39 degrees C, with heat shock to 45 degrees C. CCU provides automated nutrient supply, magnetic stirring, pH/O2 monitoring, gas supply, specimen lighting, and video microscopy. Sixty sample containers holding up to 2 mL each, stored at 4-39 degrees C, are available for automated cell sampling, subculture, and injection of additives and fixatives. CSCs, sample containers, and fresh/spent media bags are crew-replaceable for long-term experiments. The Incubator provides a 4-45 degrees C controlled environment for life science experiments or storage of experimental reagents. Specimen containers and experiment unique equipment are experimenter-provided. The Specimen Chamber exchanges air with ISS cabin and has 18.8 liters of usable volume that can accommodate six trays and the following instrumentation: five relocatable thermometers, two 60 W power outlets, four analog ports, and one each relative humidity sensor, video port, ethernet port and digital input/output port.

  20. The GEM detectors for the innermost region of the forward muon station of the LHCb experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Alfonsi, M

    The LHCb experiment will take place at the LHC accelerator at CERN and will start in 2008. It is dedicated to precision measurements of CP violation and rare decays in the b quark sec- tor. The apparatus is a single arm spectrometer and it is designed with a robust and flexible trigger in order to extensively gain access to a wide spread of differ ent physical processes involving beauty particles. This will allow to over-constrain the Standard M odel predictions about CP violation, and to discover any possible inconsistency, whi ch would reveal the presence of “New Physics” beyond the Standard Model. This thesis reports the work performed on two aspects of the L HCb experiment: the main contribution is the development and the construction of a de tector based on Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) technology for the instrumentation of the high irradiated region around the beam pipe of the forward Muon Station; in the second part t he possibility of the search of the rare D 0 → + − decay at the LHCb exper...

  1. Lambton generating station's experience with HP turbine copper deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caravaggio, M. [Lambton Generating Station, Ontario Power Generation Inc., Courtright, ON (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    This paper covers the understanding developed from, as well as the timeline and techniques that were used to address, rapid, dramatic HP turbine performance losses associated with copper deposition on two of four 500 MW coal-fired drum units at Ontario power generation's (OPG's) Lambton generating station (GS) over the last three years. The two affected units both had greater than 20 MW de-rates caused by copper deposition and 5-10% losses in HP cylinder efficiency during the period. On one unit the HP cylinder was being replaced by a dense pack HP turbine (decision made prior to identifying the copper deposition issue), and on the other unit a physical clean of the turbine was opted for, with additional study being conducted for possible chemical cleans in the future. This paper outlines Lambton's current understanding of the copper transport cycle through a drum type boiler (based on industry literature and OPG/Lambton GS operating experience), as well as Lambton's experiences to date with the solutions chosen for addressing HP turbine copper deposition. (orig.)

  2. New results from the
 AMS experiment on the International Space Station

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer, AMS, is a general purpose high energy particle phys- ics detector. It was installed on the International Space Station, ISS, on 19 May 2011 to conduct a unique long duration mission of fundamental physics research in space. Knowledge of the precise rigidity dependence of the proton and helium flux is important in understanding the origin, acceleration, and propagation of cosmic rays. Pre- cise measurements of the proton and of the helium flux in primary cosmic rays with rigidities (momentum/charge) up to the TV scale are presented and the detailed varia- tion with rigidity of the flux spectral indices will be discussed. A precision measurement by AMS of the antiproton flux and antiproton-to-proton ratio in primary cosmic rays in the rigidity range from 1 to 450 GV is presented. This measurement increases the precision of the previous observations and significantly extends their rigidity range. It shows that the antiproton-to-proton ratio remains constant above ∼60 GV. In a...

  3. Laser measurements of distances from the ORELA neutron target to experiment stations along flight paths 1 and 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, D.C.; Larson, N.M.; Harvey, J.A.; Perey, F.G.; Pierce, D.E.; Seals, R.H.

    1985-03-01

    Flight-path lengths have been measured by laser techniques for the 200-, 80-, and 18-m stations along flight path 1, and for the 5-, 20-, 40-, and 150-m stations along flight path 6 at the Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator (ORELA). In each case the distance evaluated from the measurements is the slope distance from the center of the neutron-producing target to a position along the beam path, directly above a suitable benchmark at the experiment station. A total of 25 laser measurements were performed between the various stations. These data, along with appropriate uncertainties, were combined using Bayes' method. From this analysis we obtained the desired flight-path lengths, which typically have uncertainties less than 1.5 mm. The measurment technique, uncertainties, analysis method, and results are documented in detail in this report.

  4. Microbe space exposure experiment at International Space Station (ISS) proposed in "Tanpopo" mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokobori, Shin-Ichi; Yang, Yinjie; Sugino, Tomohiro; Kawaguchi, Yuko; Yoshida, Satoshi; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Narumi, Issay; Kobayashi, Kensei; Yamagishi, Akihiko

    Microbes have been collected from high altitude using balloons, aircraft and meteorological rockets since 1936. Spore forming fungi and Bacilli, and Micrococci (probably Deinococci) have been isolated in these experiments. These spores and Deinococci are known by their extremely high resistance against UV, gamma ray, and other radiation. We have also collected microorganisms at high altitude by using an aircraft and balloons. We collected two novel species of the genus Deinococcus, one from top of troposphere (D. aerius) and the other from bottom of stratosphere (D. aetherius). These two species showed high resistance comparable with D. radiodurans R1 to the UV and radiation such as gamma ray. If microbes could be found present even at the higher altitude of low earth orbit (400km), the fact would endorse the possible interplanetary migration of terrestrial life. Indeed, to explain how organisms on the Earth were originated at the quite early stage of the history of Earth, panspermia hypothesis was proposed. Recent findings of the Martian meteorite suggested possible existence of extraterrestrial life, and interplanetary migration of life as well. We proposed the "Tanpopo" mission to examine possible interplanetary migration of microbes, and organic compounds on Japan Experimental Module (JEM) of the International Space Station (ISS). Two of six subthemes in Tanpopo are on the possible interplanetary migration of microbes — capture experiment of microbes at the ISS orbit and space exposure experiment of microbes. In this paper, we focus on the space exposure experiment of microbes. In our proposal, microbes will be exposed to the space environment with/without model-clay materials that might protect microbes from vacuum UV and cosmic rays. Spore of Bacillus sp., and vegetative cells of D. radiodurans and our novel deinococcal species isolated from high altitude are candidates for the exposure experiment. In preliminary experiments, clay-materials tend to increase

  5. Materials on the International Space Station - Forward Technology Solar Cell Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, R. J.; Garner, J. C.; Lam, S. N.; Vazquez, J. A.; Braun, W. R.; Ruth, R. E.; Lorentzen, J. R.; Bruninga, R.; Jenkins, P. P.; Flatico, J. M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a space solar cell experiment currently being built by the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) in collaboration with NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), and the US Naval Academy (USNA). The experiment has been named the Forward Technology Solar Cell Experiment (FTSCE), and the purpose is to rapidly put current and future generation space solar cells on orbit and provide validation data for these technologies. The FTSCE is being fielded in response to recent on-orbit and ground test anomalies associated with space solar arrays that have raised concern over the survivability of new solar technologies in the space environment and the validity of present ground test protocols. The FTSCE is being built as part of the Fifth Materials on the International Space Station (MISSE) Experiment (MISSE-5), which is a NASA program to characterize the performance of new prospective spacecraft materials when subjected to the synergistic effects of the space environment. Telemetry, command, control, and communication (TNC) for the FTSCE will be achieved through the Amateur Satellite Service using the PCSat2 system, which is an Amateur Radio system designed and built by the USNA. In addition to providing an off-the-shelf solution for FTSCE TNC, PCSat2 will provide a communications node for the Amateur Radio satellite system. The FTSCE and PCSat2 will be housed within the passive experiment container (PEC), which is an approximately 2ft x2ft x 4in metal container built by NASA Langley Research Center (NASA LaRC) as part of the MISSE-5 program. NASA LaRC has also supplied a thin film materials experiment that will fly on the exterior of the thermal blanket covering the PCSat2. The PEC is planned to be transported to the ISS on a Shuttle flight. The PEC will be mounted on the exterior of the ISS by an astronaut during an extravehicular activity (EVA). After nominally one year, the PEC will be retrieved and returned to Earth. At the time of writing this paper, the

  6. Understanding the impact of electric vehicle driving experience on range anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauh, Nadine; Franke, Thomas; Krems, Josef F

    2015-02-01

    The objective of the present research was to increase understanding of the phenomenon of range anxiety and to determine the degree to which practical experience with battery electric vehicles (BEVs) reduces different levels of range anxiety. Limited range is a challenge for BEV users. A frequently discussed phenomenon in this context is range anxiety. There is some evidence suggesting that range anxiety might be a problem only for inexperienced BEV drivers and, therefore, might decrease with practical experience. We compared 12 motorists with high BEV driving experience (M = 60,500 km) with 12 motorists who had never driven a BEV before. The test drive was designed to lead to a critical range situation (remaining range < trip length). We examined range appraisal and range stress (i.e., range anxiety) on different levels (cognitive, emotional, and behavioral). Experienced BEV drivers exhibited less negative range appraisal and range anxiety than inexperienced BEV drivers, revealing significant, strong effects for all but one variable. Hence, BEV driving experience (defined as absolute kilometers driven with a BEV) seems to be one important variable that predicts less range anxiety. In order to reduce range anxiety in BEV drivers even when there is a critical range situation, it is important to increase efficiency and effectiveness of the learning process.

  7. Experience on decommissioning commercial nuclear power stations in the United Kingdom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holt, G.; Lee, J.C.; Woollam, P.B. [Magnox Electric plc, Gloucestershire (United Kingdom)

    1996-12-31

    Magnox Electric is the U.K. government-owned utility that is responsible for nine commercial Magnox nuclear power stations. The stations were commissioned between 1962 and 1971, each having twin gas-cooled, graphite-moderated reactors. Three stations (Berkeley, Hunterston A, and Trawsfynydd) were shut down between 1989 and 1993, and they are being decommissioned in accordance with the preferred SAFSTOR strategy. The six reactors have been defueled, and extensive dismantling and decontamination have already been carried out.

  8. CVB: the Constrained Vapor Bubble Capillary Experiment on the International Space Station MARANGONI FLOW REGION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayner, Peter C., Jr.; Kundan, Akshay; Plawsky, Joel

    2014-01-01

    The Constrained Vapor Bubble (CVB) is a wickless, grooved heat pipe and we report on a full- scale fluids experiment flown on the International Space Station (ISS). The CVB system consists of a relatively simple setup a quartz cuvette with sharp corners partially filled with either pentane or an ideal mixture of pentane and isohexane as the working fluids. Along with temperature and pressure measurements, the two-dimensional thickness profile of the menisci formed at the corners of the quartz cuvette was determined using the Light Microscopy Module (LMM). Even with the large, millimeter dimensions of the CVB, interfacial forces dominate in these exceedingly small Bond Number systems. The experiments were carried out at various power inputs. Although conceptually simple, the transport processes were found to be very complex with many different regions. At the heated end of the CVB, due to a high temperature gradient, we observed Marangoni flow at some power inputs. This region from the heated end to the central drop region is defined as a Marangoni dominated region. We present a simple analysis based on interfacial phenomena using only measurements from the ISS experiments that lead to a predictive equation for the thickness of the film near the heated end of the CVB. The average pressure gradient for flow in the film is assumed due to the measured capillary pressure at the two ends of the liquid film and that the pressure stress gradient due to cohesion self adjusts to a constant value over a distance L. The boundary conditions are the no slip condition at the wall interface and an interfacial shear stress at the liquid- vapor interface due to the Marangoni stress, which is due to the high temperature gradient. Although the heated end is extremely complex, since it includes three- dimensional variations in radiation, conduction, evaporation, condensation, fluid flow and interfacial forces, we find that using the above simplifying assumptions, a simple successful

  9. Plant growth during the Greenhouse II experiment on the Mir orbital station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salisbury, F. B.; Campbell, W. F.; Carman, J. G.; Bingham, G. E.; Bubenheim, D. L.; Yendler, B.; Sytchev, V.; Levinskikh, M. A.; Ivanova, I.; Chernova, L.; hide

    2003-01-01

    We carried out three experiments with Super Dwarf wheat in the Bulgarian/Russian growth chamber Svet (0.1 m2 growing area) on the Space Station Mir. This paper mostly describes the first of these NASA-supported trials, began on Aug. 13, 1995. Plants were sampled five times and harvested on Nov. 9 after 90 days. Equipment failures led to low irradiance (3, then 4 of 6 lamp sets failed), instances of high temperatures (ca. 37 degrees C), and sometimes excessive substrate moisture. Although plants grew for the 90 d, no wheat heads were produced. Considering the low light levels, plants were surprisingly green, but of course biomass production was low. Plants were highly disoriented (low light, mirror walls?). Fixed and dried samples and the root module were returned on the U.S. Shuttle Atlantis on Nov. 20, 1995. Samples of the substrate, a nutrient-charged zeolite called Balkanine, were taken from the root module, carefully examined for roots, weighed, dried, and reweighed. The Svet control unit and the light bank were shipped to Moscow. An experiment validation test (EVT) of plant growth and experimental procedures, carried out in Moscow, was highly successful. Equipment built in Utah to measure CO2, H2O vapor, irradiance, air and leaf (IR) temperature, O2, pressure, and substrate moisture worked well in the EVT and in space. After this manuscript was first prepared, plants were grown in Mir with a new light bank and controller for 123 d in late 1996 and 39 days in 1996/1997. Plants grew exceptionally well with higher biomass production than in any previous space experiment, but the ca. 280 wheat heads that were produced in 1996 contained no seeds. Ethylene in the cabin atmosphere was responsible. c2002 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd on behalf of COSPAR.

  10. Strata-1: An International Space Station Experiment into Fundamental Regolith Processes in Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, M.; Abell, P.; Brisset, J.; Britt, D.; Colwell, J.; Durda, D.; Dove, A.; Graham, L.; Hartzell, C.; John, K.; hide

    2016-01-01

    The Strata-1 experiment will study the evolution of asteroidal regolith through long-duration exposure of simulant materials to the microgravity environment on the International Space Station (ISS). Many asteroids feature low bulk densities, which implies high values of porosity and a mechanical structure composed of loosely bound particles, (i.e. the "rubble pile" model), a prime example of a granular medium. Even the higher-density, mechanically coherent asteroids feature a significant surface layer of loose regolith. These bodies are subjected to a variety of forces and will evolve in response to very small perturbations such as micrometeoroid impacts, planetary flybys, and the YORP effect. Our understanding of this dynamical evolution and the inter-particle forces involved would benefit from long-term observations of granular materials exposed to small vibrations in microgravity. A detailed understanding of asteroid mechanical evolution is needed in order to predict the surface characteristics of as-of-yet unvisited bodies, to understand the larger context of samples collected by missions such as OSIRIS-REx and Hayabusa 1 and 2, and to mitigate risks for both manned and unmanned missions to asteroidal bodies. Understanding regolith dynamics will inform designs of how to land and set anchors, safely sample/move material on asteroidal surfaces, process large volumes of material for in situ resource utilization (ISRU) purposes, and, in general, predict behavior of large and small particles on disturbed asteroid surfaces.

  11. TREK - A cosmic-ray experiment on the Russian space station Mir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, P. B.; Lowder, D. M.; Westphal, A. J.; Wilkes, R. D.; Brennen, R. A.; Afanas'ev, V. G.; Akimov, V. V.; Rodin, V. G.; Baryshnikov, G. K.; Gorshkov, L. A.

    1992-01-01

    The goals of the TREK experiment, now in place on the Mir space station, are to resolve and measure the composition of both odd-Z and even-Z cosmic-ray nuclei up to uranium, to measure the isotopic composition of Fe-group nuclei, and to search for transuranic nuclei and exotic particles such as strangelets. To collect tracks of ultraheavy cosmic rays, exterior panels holding an array of BP-1 phosphate glass 1.2 sq m in area and 16 plates thick are now mounted outside the Kvant-2 module on Mir. Heaters and relays regulate the temperature of the glass at 25 +/- 5 C. The detectors will record about 1000 cosmic-ray tracks with Z greater than or equal to 50 during about 2.5 years. An interior panel consisting of an array 0.09 sq m in area and 32 plates thick and mounted on the inside wall of the Soyuz spacecraft will collect tracks of about 13,000 Fe and 500 Ni nuclei.

  12. First Experiences with the Trimble SX10 Scanning Total Station for Building Facade Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachat, E.; Landes, T.; Grussenmeyer, P.

    2017-02-01

    The use of Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS) tends to become a solution in many research areas related to large scale surveying. Meanwhile, the technological advances combined with the investigation of user needs have brought to the design of innovative devices known as scanning total stations. Such instruments merge in a unique hardware both scanning and surveying facilities. Even if their scanning rate is often reduced compared to conventional TLS, they make it possible to directly georeference laser scanning projects and to complete them with measurements of individual points of interest. The recent Trimble SX10 which was launched on the market in early October 2016 has been tested and some experiences carried out with it are reported in this paper. The analyses mainly focus on the survey of a building facade. Next to laser scanning survey, a photogrammetry campaign using an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) has been carried out. These different datasets are used to assess the Trimble SX10 issued point clouds through a set of comparisons. Since georeferencing is possible either directly or indirectly using this device, data processed both ways are also compared to conclude about the more reliable method.

  13. GNSS-R Altimetry Performance Analysis for the GEROS Experiment on Board the International Space Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Camps

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The GEROS-ISS (GNSS rEflectometry, Radio Occultation and Scatterometry onboard International Space Station is an innovative experiment for climate research, proposed in 2011 within a call of the European Space Agency (ESA. This proposal was the only one selected for further studies by ESA out of ~25 ones that were submitted. In this work, the instrument performance for the near-nadir altimetry (GNSS-R mode is assessed, including the effects of multi-path in the ISS structure, the electromagnetic-bias, and the orbital height decay. In the absence of ionospheric scintillations, the altimetry rms error is <50 cm for a swath <~250 km and for U10 <10 m/s. If the transmitted power is 3 dB higher (likely to happen at beginning of life of the GNSS spacecrafts, mission requirements (rms error is <50 cm are met for all ISS heights and for U10 up to 15 m/s. However, around 1.5 GHz, the ionosphere can induce significant fading, from 2 to >20 dB at equatorial regions, mainly after sunset, which will seriously degrade the altimetry and the scatterometry performances of the instrument.

  14. Commercial Seed Selection and Effectiveness of Sanitization Methods in Preparation for Plant Growth Experiments on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, Emma

    2017-01-01

    A closed-loop food production system will be important to gain autonomy on long duration space missions. Crop growth experiments in the Veggie plant chamber aboard the International Space Station (ISS) are helping to identify methods and limitations of food production in space. Prior to flight, seeds are surface sterilized to reduce environmental and crew contamination risks.

  15. Genotoxicity Testing on the International Space Station: Preparatory Work on the Experiment TRIPLE-LUX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojicic, N.; Walrafen, D.; Rabbow, E.; Baumstark-Khan, C.; Rettberg, P.; Weisshaar, M. P.; Horneck, G.

    Harmful environmental factors - namely ionizing radiation - will continue to influence future manned space missions. The Radiation Biology Unit at the German Aerospace Center (DLR) develops cellular monitoring systems, which include bacterial and mammalian cell systems capable of recognizing DNA damage as a consequence of the presence of genotoxic conditions. Such a bioassay is the SWITCH test, which is part of the German space experiment ``Gene, immune and cellular responses to single and combined space flight conditions'' (TRIPLE-LUX) which has been selected by NASA to be performed on the International Space Station. It will supply basic information on the genotoxic response to radiation applied in microgravity. The biological end-point under investigation will depend on the bacterial SOS response brought about by genetically modified bacteria that are transformed with the pSWITCH plasmid (constructed from the plasmids pPLS-1 and pGFPuv). This luminescent/fluorescent bioassay for rapid toxicity (genotoxicity and cytotoxicity) testing, the SWITCH test (SWITCH: {S}almonella {W}eighting of {I}nduced {T}oxicity {C}yto/GenoTox for Human {H}ealth), makes use of two sensing and reporting systems for the two biological endpoints under investigation: the SOS-Lux test and the LAC-Fluoro test. The SWICH plasmid carries the promoterless lux operon of Photobacterium leiognathi as reporter element under the control of the DNA-damage dependent SOS promoter of ColD as sensor element (for genotoxicity testing) and the sequences for a hybrid protein consisting of ß-galactosidase and GFPuv of Aequorea victoria as reporter element under the control of the (in Salmonella constitutively active) LAC promoter of Escherichia coli as sensor element (for cytotoxicity testing). The system has worked properly for terrestrial applications during the first experiments. Experiments using X-rays and UV radiation of various qualities (from UVC to UVA) have given insights into cellular mechanisms

  16. Flow Boiling and Condensation Experiment (FBCE) for the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudawar, Issam; Hasan, Mohammad M.; Kharangate, Chirag; O'Neill, Lucas; Konishi, Chris; Nahra, Henry; Hall, Nancy; Balasubramaniam, R.; Mackey, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    The proposed research aims to develop an integrated two-phase flow boiling/condensation facility for the International Space Station (ISS) to serve as primary platform for obtaining two-phase flow and heat transfer data in microgravity.

  17. Main results of biological experiments on Russian orbital stations and its contribution in future life support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechitailo, Galina S.

    Biological experiments in a field of space biology have been started before the first satellite flight. These experiments were devoted to an estimation of space radiation factors on living organisms and carried out in mountains. The systematic biological experiments in space have been started in 1971 with orbital station Salyut. In total more than 1000 experiments have been installed in space flights: fundamental investigations (panspermia theory, gravity biology, complex factors of space environment on biological objects) and applications focused on future biological life support systems. The investigations were directed to some tasks: influence of complex factors of space flight on living organisms at different stages of the evolution scale; investigations of proteins and DNA, cell, tissue, organism and assembled organisms under space flight factors with separation of individual factors, for example, microgravity and space radiation. The aim was to understand the organism reactions on different levels, to get complete ontogenesis cycle in space flight and to find adaption ability of organisms to extreme factors of the space flight. In course of investigations, the unique experimental equipment for orbital biological experiments has been designed; new methods for organism protection against the negative factors of space flight were found; developed new biotechnological products and processes; developed recommendations for space station interior with biological objects for psychological comfort of crew. The results showed a possibility and ways to include different organisms into biotechnological life support systems for future space stations and interplanet spaceships.

  18. Multiple-Station Range Target System Operations Manual, Annex 2: Flying Target System Operations and Maintenance Reference Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-09-01

    in. music wire, threaded) "Expanded scale voltmeter used for measuring receiver and transmitter battery voltages " 12V DC battery and battery charger...32 oz (Iid) oS zt (%id) ENDURANCC AT MAX SPEED 30m 30min 14 min SPEED 35-110 MPH 40-95 MPH 15-75 MPH PAYLOAD 20 I1s 15 rs 6 Ibo CONTROL RANGE 15 km...100 MPH 15490 MPH PAYLOAD 25 Ibo 20 I#b 6 Ibm CONTR0L RANGE 18 km 3 km 2 km Figure A-6. Su-25 Frogfoot. A-3 , ,i SPECIFICATIONS C 15SU 17(3 C17SU 17(3

  19. Erosion Data from the MISSE 8 Polymers Experiment After 2 Years of Space Exposure on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groh, Kim K.; Banks, Bruce A.; Asmar, Olivia C.; Yi, Grace T.; Mitchell, Gianna G.; Guo, Aobo; Sechkar, Edward A.

    2016-01-01

    The Polymers Experiment was exposed to the low Earth orbit (LEO) space environment for 2.14 and 2.0 years as part of the Materials International Space Station Experiment 8 (MISSE 8) and the Optical Reflector Materials Experiment-III (ORMatE-III), respectively. The experiment contained 42 samples, which were flown in either ram, wake, or zenith orientations. The primary objective was to determine the effect of solar exposure on the atomic oxygen erosion yield (Ey) of fluoropolymers. This paper provides an overview of the experiment with details on the polymers flown, the characterization techniques used, the atomic oxygen fluence for each exposure orientation, and the LEO Ey results. The Ey values for the fluoropolymers range from 1.45 x 10(exp -25) cm(exp 3)/atom for white Tedlar Registered Trademark? (polyvinyl fluoride with white titanium dioxide pigment) flown in the ram orientation to 6.32 x 10(exp -24) cm(exp 3)/atom for aluminized-Teflon Registered Trademark? fluorinated ethylene propylene (Al-FEP) flown in the zenith orientation. Erosion yield data for FEP flown in ram, wake and zenith orientations are compared, and the Ey was found to be highly dependent on orientation, hence environmental exposure. Teflon FEP had an order of magnitude higher Ey when flown in the zenith direction (6.32 x10(exp -24) cm(exp3)/atom) as compared to the ram direction (2.37 x 10(exp -25) cm(exp 3)/atom). The Ey of FEP was found to increase with a direct correlation to the solar exposure/AO fluence ratio showing the effect of solar radiation and/or heating due to solar exposure on FEP erosion. In addition, back-surface carbon painted FEP (C-FEP) flown in the zenith orientation had a significantly higher Ey than clear FEP or Al-FEP further indicating that heating has a significant impact on the erosion of FEP, particularly in the zenith orientation.

  20. Installation restoration program, remedial investigation/feasibility study report addendum for Indian Mountain Long Range Radar Station, Alaska. Final report, 1 August-18 December 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    The following report is an addendum to the Indian Mountain Long Range Radar Station (LRRS) Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) report dated October 1995 (Air Force 1995a). This report and the activities described were undertaken to fulfill the goals and objectives of the Air Force Installation Restoration Program (IRP). This report includes findings from additional characterization activities conducted in August 1995 at five of 11 Indian Mountain IRP source areas and revisions to RI/FS report conclusions for those source areas.

  1. Further Analyses of the NASA Glenn Research Center Solar Cell and Photovoltaic Materials Experiment Onboard the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Matthew G.; Prokop, Norman F.; Krasowski, Michael J.; Piszczor, Michael F.; McNatt, Jeremiah S.

    2016-01-01

    Accurate air mass zero (AM0) measurement is essential for the evaluation of new photovoltaic (PV) technology for space solar cells. The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has flown an experiment designed to measure the electrical performance of several solar cells onboard NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's (GSFC) Robotic Refueling Mission's (RRM) Task Board 4 (TB4) on the exterior of the International Space Station (ISS). Four industry and government partners provided advanced PV devices for measurement and orbital environment testing. The experiment was positioned on the exterior of the station for approximately eight months, and was completely self-contained, providing its own power and internal data storage. Several new cell technologies including four-junction (4J) Inverted Metamorphic Multi-Junction (IMM) cells were evaluated and the results will be compared to ground-based measurement methods.

  2. The PROCESS experiment: exposure of amino acids in the EXPOSE-E experiment on the international space station and in laboratory simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, M; Chabin, A; Brack, A; Cottin, H; Chaput, D; Westall, F

    2012-05-01

    To understand the chemical behavior of organic molecules in the space environment, amino acids and a dipeptide in pure form and embedded in meteorite powder were exposed in the PROCESS experiment in the EXPOSE-E facility mounted on the European Technology Exposure Facility (EuTEF) platform on board the International Space Station (ISS). After exposure to space conditions for 18 months, the samples were returned to Earth and analyzed in the laboratory for reactions caused by solar UV and cosmic radiation. Chemical degradation and possible racemization and oligomerization, the main reactions caused by photochemistry in the vacuum ultraviolet domain (VUV, wavelength range 100-200 nm for photon energy from 6.2 to 12.4 eV) were examined in particular. The molecules were extracted and derivatized by silylation and analyzed by gas chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer (GC-MS) to quantify the rate of the degradation of the compounds. Laboratory exposure in several wavelength ranges from UV to VUV was carried out in parallel in the Cologne Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR) Center and Centre de biophysique moléculaire (CBM) laboratories. The results show that resistance to irradiation is a function of the chemical nature of the exposed molecules and the wavelengths of the UV light. The most altered compounds were the dipeptide, aspartic acid, and aminobutyric acid. The most resistant were alanine, valine, glycine, and aminoisobutyric acid. Our results also demonstrate the protective effect of meteorite powder, which reemphasizes the importance of exogenic contribution to the inventory of prebiotic organics on early Earth.

  3. Natural Radioactivity Accumulated in the Arctic from Long-range Atmospheric Transport - Observations in Canadian Monitoring Stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jing; Zhang, Weihua [Radiation Protection Bureau, Health Canada, 775 Brookfield Road, Ottawa K1A 1C1 (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    In the environment, the main sources of naturally occurring radionuclides come from radionuclides in the uranium decay series. Activity concentrations of uranium decay series radionuclides may vary considerably from place to place depending on the geological characteristics at the location. Their releases to the atmosphere are mainly through radon ({sup 222}Rn), a radioactive noble gas occurring naturally as an indirect decay product of uranium in soils and rocks. Due to the abundance of uranium, radon continuously emanates from continental land masses. With radon as the main source of naturally occurring radioactivity in the environment, one would think that the Arctic should be an area of low background radiation, because a considerable area of the Arctic is covered by glaciers and permafrost, and radon emanation rate has been reported to be negligible from those glacier and permafrost areas. However, available data have shown the opposite. The elevated level of naturally occurring radioactivity in the Arctic is due to natural sources outside of the Arctic, mainly through long-range atmospheric transport of radon and radon progeny. In some cases, natural radioactivity can accumulate to relatively high levels and become a health concern or a limiting factor of country food consumption. By definition, contaminants are undesirable substances which can cause harm to the environment, the biota, and humans. We can call these naturally accumulating radiological burdens to the Arctic 'natural contaminants' to distinguish them from the traditional meaning of contamination, the 'artificial contaminants' which are attributable to industrial or man-made sources. This paper reviews information available in the literature, analyses long-term atmospheric monitoring data in the Canadian high Arctic, sub-Arctic and mid-latitude sites, and provides discussion on research needed to address questions, such as how heavily the Arctic has been impacted by the

  4. The Experiment of High-Speed Data Transfer on 4800bps and 9600bps between Land Base Station and Land Mobile Station

    OpenAIRE

    小妻, 勝; 高山, 久明; 山口, 恭弘

    1993-01-01

    Recently, the necessity of exchange information by a radio line between a land base station and mobile station is increasing to improve efficiency of business. The data transmission used by a radio line has the merit that the information sent from a moving station can be received directly and quickly. An electric wave, however, is apt to be influenced by own quality and the condition of atmosphere. Since the radio channel numbers are also limited, the transferring speed should be as quick as ...

  5. Conditioning of cooling water in power stations. Feedback from twenty years of experience with acid feeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goffin, C.; Duvivier, L.; Girasa, E. [LABORELEC, Chemistry of Water (Belgium); Brognez, J. [ELECTRABEL, TIHANGE Nuclear Power Station (Belgium)

    2002-07-01

    In the late 1970's and early 1980's, with the development of the nuclear programme in many European countries, the recirculation of cooling water in power stations became an issue which required urgent attention. The concentration of several plants of 1000 MW or more on sites along inland waterways actually made simple once-through cooling impossible, owing to the risk of an unacceptable rise in the river's water temperature. The chemical composition of natural freshwater in western European waterways is such that when it becomes slightly concentrated, scale is rapidly formed. The relatively low solubility of calcium carbonate and the degassing of the carbon dioxide during close contact between the water and air in the heat exchangers of the cooling tower explain this precipitation tendency. Fairly soon, experts in the electricity power generation companies highlighted the need for on-site, pilot loop simulations, in order to foresee the physico-chemical phenomena that could arise in industrial installations. The number of financially justifiable processing possibilities could be briefly summarised by the following three solutions: to adapt the concentration factor in order to be under the calcium carbonate solubility limit and thereby avoid the need for any water conditioning; to accept concentration factors of between 1.4 and 1.9 and control the calcium carbonate precipitation through controlled acid injection in the circulation water; to raise the concentration factor over 5 and soften the makeup water through the addition of lime and flocculant. The last of these solutions was rarely ever used in Belgium and France. It was however widely used in Germany. Its application requires a greater investment and leads to higher operating costs than acid injection. Furthermore, it leads to the problem of daily drying and disposal of several dozen tonnes of sludge, which have to be recycled or dumped. In an increasingly stringent environmental context, this

  6. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 490: Station 44 Burn Area, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada (Rev. No.: 0, February 2001)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE/NV

    2001-02-23

    This Corrective Action Decision Document identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's selection of a recommended Corrective Action Alternative (CAA) appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 490, Station 44 Burn Area, Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 490 is located on the Nellis Air Force Range and the Tonopah Test Range and is approximately 140 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. This CAU is comprised of four Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 03-56-001-03BA, Fire Training Area (located southwest of Area 3); RG-56-001-RGBA, Station 44 Burn Area (located west of Main Lake); 03-58-001-03FN, Sandia Service Yard (located north of the northwest corner of Area 3); and 09-54-001-09L2, Gun Propellant Burn Area (located south of the Area 9 Compound on the TTR). A Corrective Action Investigation was performed in July and August 2000, and analytes detected during the corrective action investigation were evaluated against preliminary action levels to determine contaminants of concern (COCs). There were no COCs identified in soil at the Gun Propellant Burn Area or the Station 44 Burn Area; therefore, there is no need for corrective actions at these two sites. Five soil samples at the Fire Training Area and seven at the Sandia Service Yard exceeded PALs for total petroleum hydrocarbons-diesel. Upon the identification of COCs specific to CAU 490, Corrective Action Objectives were developed based on a review of existing data, future use, and current operations at the TTR, with the following three CAAs under consideration: Alternative 1 - No Further Action, Alternative 2 - Closure In Place - No Further Action With Administrative Controls, and Alternative 3 - Clean Closure by Excavation and Disposal. These alternatives were evaluated based on four general corrective action standards and five remedy selection decision factors. Based

  7. Preliminary results of new 50 MHz doppler radar experiment at Syowa Station

    OpenAIRE

    Ogawa,Tadahiko; Igarashi,Kiyoshi; Ose,Masami; Kuratani,Yasukazu; Fujii,Ryoichi; Hirasawa,Takeo

    1983-01-01

    A 50 MHz doppler radar newly installed at Syowa Station in 1982 is characterized by the narrow antenna beams (4°in the horizontal plane) in two different directions (approximately geomagnetic and geographic south), the three operation modes (spectrum, double-pulse and meteor mode) and the minicomputer for both real time data processing and radar control. This paper aims to check up many functions given to the radar system by presenting some preliminary results obtained at a very early stage o...

  8. 3D Position and Velocity Vector Computations of Objects Jettisoned from the International Space Station Using Close-Range Photogrammetry Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanyan, Valeri; Oshle, Edward; Adamo, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Measurement of the jettisoned object departure trajectory and velocity vector in the International Space Station (ISS) reference frame is vitally important for prompt evaluation of the object s imminent orbit. We report on the first successful application of photogrammetric analysis of the ISS imagery for the prompt computation of the jettisoned object s position and velocity vectors. As post-EVA analyses examples, we present the Floating Potential Probe (FPP) and the Russian "Orlan" Space Suit jettisons, as well as the near-real-time (provided in several hours after the separation) computations of the Video Stanchion Support Assembly Flight Support Assembly (VSSA-FSA) and Early Ammonia Servicer (EAS) jettisons during the US astronauts space-walk. Standard close-range photogrammetry analysis was used during this EVA to analyze two on-board camera image sequences down-linked from the ISS. In this approach the ISS camera orientations were computed from known coordinates of several reference points on the ISS hardware. Then the position of the jettisoned object for each time-frame was computed from its image in each frame of the video-clips. In another, "quick-look" approach used in near-real time, orientation of the cameras was computed from their position (from the ISS CAD model) and operational data (pan and tilt) then location of the jettisoned object was calculated only for several frames of the two synchronized movies. Keywords: Photogrammetry, International Space Station, jettisons, image analysis.

  9. Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE) 5 Developed to Test Advanced Solar Cell Technology Aboard the ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilt, David M.

    2004-01-01

    The testing of new technologies aboard the International Space Station (ISS) is facilitated through the use of a passive experiment container, or PEC, developed at the NASA Langley Research Center. The PEC is an aluminum suitcase approximately 2 ft square and 5 in. thick. Inside the PEC are mounted Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE) plates that contain the test articles. The PEC is carried to the ISS aboard the space shuttle or a Russian resupply vehicle, where astronauts attach it to a handrail on the outer surface of the ISS and deploy the PEC, which is to say the suitcase is opened 180 deg. Typically, the PEC is left in this position for approximately 1 year, at which point astronauts close the PEC and it is returned to Earth. In the past, the PECs have contained passive experiments, principally designed to characterize the durability of materials subjected to the ultraviolet radiation and atomic oxygen present at the ISS orbit. The MISSE5 experiment is intended to characterize state-of-art (SOA) and beyond photovoltaic technologies.

  10. The 2006 Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Range Reference Atmosphere Model Validation Study and Sensitivity Analysis to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Space Shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Lee; Merry, Carl; Decker, Ryan; Harrington, Brian

    2008-01-01

    The 2006 Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) Range Reference Atmosphere (RRA) is a statistical model summarizing the wind and thermodynamic atmospheric variability from surface to 70 kin. Launches of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Space Shuttle from Kennedy Space Center utilize CCAFS RRA data to evaluate environmental constraints on various aspects of the vehicle during ascent. An update to the CCAFS RRA was recently completed. As part of the update, a validation study on the 2006 version was conducted as well as a comparison analysis of the 2006 version to the existing CCAFS RRA database version 1983. Assessments to the Space Shuttle vehicle ascent profile characteristics were performed to determine impacts of the updated model to the vehicle performance. Details on the model updates and the vehicle sensitivity analyses with the update model are presented.

  11. Development of Flow Boiling and Condensation Experiment on the International Space Station- Normal and Low Gravity Flow Boiling Experiment Development and Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahra, Henry K.; Hall, Nancy R.; Hasan, Mohammad M.; Wagner, James D.; May, Rochelle L.; Mackey, Jeffrey R.; Kolacz, John S.; Butcher, Robert L.; Frankenfield, Bruce J.; Mudawar, Issam; hide

    2013-01-01

    Flow boiling and condensation have been identified as two key mechanisms for heat transport that are vital for achieving weight and volume reduction as well as performance enhancement in future space systems. Since inertia driven flows are demanding on power usage, lower flows are desirable. However, in microgravity, lower flows are dominated by forces other than inertia (like the capillary force). It is of paramount interest to investigate limits of low flows beyond which the flow is inertial enough to be gravity independent. One of the objectives of the Flow Boiling and Condensation Flight Experiment sets to investigate these limits for flow boiling and condensation. A two-phase flow loop consisting of a Flow Boiling Module and two Condensation Modules has been developed to experimentally study flow boiling condensation heat transfer in the reduced gravity environment provided by the reduced gravity platform. This effort supports the development of a flow boiling and condensation facility for the International Space Station (ISS). The closed loop test facility is designed to deliver the test fluid, FC-72 to the inlet of any one of the test modules at specified thermodynamic and flow conditions. The zero-g-aircraft tests will provide subcooled and saturated flow boiling critical heat flux and flow condensation heat transfer data over wide range of flow velocities. Additionally, these tests will verify the performance of all gravity sensitive components, such as evaporator, condenser and accumulator associated with the two-phase flow loop. We will present in this paper the breadboard development and testing results which consist of detailed performance evaluation of the heater and condenser combination in reduced and normal gravity. We will also present the design of the reduced gravity aircraft rack and the results of the ground flow boiling heat transfer testing performed with the Flow Boiling Module that is designed to investigate flow boiling heat transfer and

  12. Aerosol Optical Properties at the Lulin Atmospheric Background Station in Taiwan and the Influences of Long-Range Transport of Air Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Ta-Chih; Chen, Wei-Nai; Ye, Wei-Cheng; Lin, Neng-Huei; Tsay, Si-Chee; Lin, Tang-Huang; Lee, Chung-Te; Chuang, Ming-Tung; Pantina, Peter; Wang, Sheng-Hsiang

    2016-01-01

    The Lulin Atmospheric Background Station (LABS, 23.47 deg. N 120.87 deg. E, 2862 m ASL) in Central Taiwan was constructed in 2006 and is the only high-altitude background station in the western Pacific region for studying the influence of continental outflow. In this study, extensive optical properties of aerosols, including the aerosol light scattering coefficient [Sigma(sub s)] and light absorption coefficient [Sigma(sub a)], were collected from 2013 to 2014. The intensive optical properties, including mass scattering efficiency [Sigma(sub s)], mass absorption efficiency [Sigma(sub a)] single scattering albedo (Omega), scattering Angstrom exponent (A), and backscattering fraction (b), were determined and investigated, and the distinct seasonal cycle was observed. The value of [Alpha(sub a)] began to increase in January and reached a maximum in April; the mean in spring was 5.89 m(exp. 2) g(exp. -1) with a standard deviation (SD) of 4.54 m(exp. 2) g(exp. -1) and a 4.48 m(exp. 2) g(exp. -1) interquartile range (IQR: 2.95-7.43 m(exp. 2) g(exp. -1). The trend was similar in [Sigma(sub a)], with a maximum in March and a monthly mean of 0.84 m(exp. 2) g(exp. -1). The peak values of Omega (Mean = 0.92, SD = 0.03, IQR: 0.90 - 0.93) and A (Mean = 2.22, SD = 0.61, IQR: 2.12 = 2.47) occurred in autumn. These annual patterns of optical properties were associated with different long-range transport patterns of air pollutants such as biomass burning (BB) aerosol in spring and potential anthropogenic emissions in autumn. The optical measurements performed at LABS during spring in 2013 were compared with those simultaneously performed at the Doi Ang Kang Meteorology Station, Chiang Mai Province, Thailand (DAK, 19.93 deg. N, 99.05 deg. E, 1536 m a.s.l.), which is located in the Southeast Asia BB source region. Furthermore, the relationships among [Sigma(sub s)], [Sigma(sub a)], and (b) were used to characterize the potential aerosol types transported to LABS during different

  13. Installation of a cryogenic station to perform Emission Channeling experiments at low temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Amorim, Lígia; Ribeiro-da-Silva, Manuel; Correia, João-Guilherme

    2008-09-30

    The emission channeling (EC) technique is used to determine with high precision the lattice sites of elements/impurities in a single-crystal. With the introduction of a cooling system the EC technique will allow to study the traveling of the impurities in the single-crystal as function of temperature, below room temperature. EC further allows the study of the elements/impurity vibrations and its eventual anisotropy along different lattice orientations. This report presents the planning and implementation of the cooling station for an existing emission channeling chamber.

  14. Concrete with superabsorbent polymers (SAP) - experience from the Fehmarn field exposure station in Rødbyhavn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasholt, Marianne Tange; Pade, Claus

    2011-01-01

    A field exposure station has been established in Rødbyhavn Habour. One of the concrete types tested is with superabsorbent polymer (SAP) - a new type of additive, which can be used to mitigate self-desiccation and to control air void structure. This paper presents results from the extensive...... laboratory test program, which was conducted before test panels were placed in Rødbyhavn Habour. Results show that when using SAP, it is possible to produce concrete with a pre-defined air void structure. Strength and transport properties are comparable to the properties of a reference concrete, but results...... are inconclusive as regards frost resistance....

  15. Terrestrial whisker growth experiments which anticipate some special effects of a space station environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, H. H.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of the absence of gravitationally driven thermal convection on the growth of whiskers by chemical reduction of metal salts was studied. It was possible to accomplish nearly complete suppression of such convection. Suppression of the convection does indeed effect the growth but in subtle, not necessarily detrimental ways: none of the changes observed were such as to hamper efforts to produce whiskers in space. Copper whiskers grown from cuprous iodide respond most positively to the suppression of convection; therefore, they are strongly recommended for tests in the space environment. Cobalt whiskers grown from cobaltous bromide show the greatest independence from conditions of convection and applied electric fields of any material studied; therefore, this medium is highly recommended. A strong pulse of electric field forces the whiskers to stick to the growth vessel top plate, this facilitates study or "harvesting'. On the space station it is recommended that the growth vessels be mounted outside the laboratory and joined with the station by means of double vacuum valves and gas service lines.

  16. Biological induced corrosion of materials II: New test methods and experiences from mir station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klintworth, R.; Reher, H. J.; Viktorov, A. N.; Bohle, D.

    1999-09-01

    During previous long-term manned missions, more than 100 species of microorganisms have been identified on surfaces of materials (bacteria and fungi). Among them were potentially pathogenic ones (saprophytes) which are capable of active growth on artificial substrates, as well as technophilic bacteria and fungi causing damages (destruction and degradation) to various materials (metals and polymers), resulting in failures and disruptions in the functioning of equipment and hardware. Aboard a space vehicle some microclimatic parameters are optimal for microorganism growth: the atmospheric fluid condensate with its specific composition, chemical and/or antropogenic contaminants (human metobolic products, etc.) all are stimulating factors for the development of bacteria and mould fungi on materials of the interior and equipment of an orbital station during its operational phase(s). Especially Russian long-term missions (SALJUT, MIR) have demonstrated that uncontrolled interactions of microorganisms with materials will ultimately lead to the appearence of technological and medical risks, significantly influencing safety and reliability characteristics of individual as well as whole systems and/ or subsystems. For a first conclusion, it could be summarized, that countermeasures and anti-strategies focussing on Microbial Contamination Management (MCM) for the International Space Station (ISS, next long-term manned mission) at least require a new materials test approach. Our respective concept includes a combined age-ing/biocorrosion test sequence. It is represented here, as well as current status of MCM program, e.g. continuous monitoring (microbiological analyses), long-term disinfection, frequent cleaning methods, mathematical modeling of ISS, etc.

  17. H2FIRST: A partnership to advance hydrogen fueling station technology driving an optimal consumer experience.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moen, Christopher D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Dedrick, Daniel E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Pratt, Joseph William [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Balfour, Bruce [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Noma, Edwin Yoichi [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Somerday, Brian P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); San Marchi, Christopher W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wipke, Keith [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kurtz, Jennifer [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Terlip, Danny [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Harrison, Kevin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sprik, Samuel [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Harris, Aaron [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-03-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Office of Fuel Cell Technologies Office (FCTO) is establishing the Hydrogen Fueling Infrastructure Research and Station Technology (H2FIRST) partnership, led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). FCTO is establishing this partnership and the associated capabilities in support of H2USA, the public/private partnership launched in 2013. The H2FIRST partnership provides the research and technology acceleration support to enable the widespread deployment of hydrogen infrastructure for the robust fueling of light-duty fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEV). H2FIRST will focus on improving private-sector economics, safety, availability and reliability, and consumer confidence for hydrogen fueling. This whitepaper outlines the goals, scope, activities associated with the H2FIRST partnership.

  18. Potential GPS user architecture for the NASA Space Station based on Landsat 4/5 experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenstein, David A.

    1987-01-01

    A Landsat 4/5 GPS system is described which uses an inertial reference attitude control system and precision real-time ephemeris generation to achieve precision earth pointing. The system has application to the validation of the use of GPS for the low earth orbit navigation of the Space Station. The present system consists of a receiver/processor assembly (R/PA), an L-band GPS antenna, a precision oscillator, and the Landsat computer. The R/PA is integrated with a GPS receiver which selects, acquires, tracks, times, and decodes navigation signals from GPS satellites in order to derive ephemerides. Ephemeris estimates were found to be accurate to better than 50 meters.

  19. [Clinical experience of image-guided neurosurgery with a frameless navigation system (StealthStation)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morioka, T; Nishio, S; Ikezaki, K; Natori, Y; Inamura, T; Muratani, H; Muraishi, M; Hisada, K; Mihara, F; Matsushima, T; Fukui, M

    1999-01-01

    We have applied the frameless navigation system (StealthStation) to various neurosurgical procedures to examine its usefulness. The system consists of a UNIX based workstation that creates triplanar and 3-dimensional images; an infrared optical digitizer with camera array; a reference-light-emitting diode (LED) array (e.g., reference array); and pointer probe modified by the addition of LEDs. This system was used to assist in placing a minimal skin incision and craniotomy in 4 cases, to determine the tumor/brain interface in 2 cases, to target the subcortical lesion in one case, and to correlate bony structure with a skull base tumor in 3 cases. The combined use with magnetic source imaging of the somatosensory cortex allowed a fast orientation of eloquent areas in 2 cases with peri-Rolandic tumor. This system, thus, was proved to be a useful adjunct to open-tumor biopsy or resection.

  20. Erosion Results of the MISSE 8 Polymers Experiment After 2 Years of Space Exposure on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groh, Kim K.; Banks, Bruce A.; Asmar, Olivia C.; Yi, Grace T.; Mitchell, Gianna G.; Guo, Aobo; Sechkar, Edward A.

    2017-01-01

    Polymers and other oxidizable materials on the exterior of spacecraft in the low Earth orbit (LEO) space environment can be eroded due to reaction with atomic oxygen (AO). Therefore, in order to design durable spacecraft, it is important to know the LEO AO erosion yield (E(sub y), volume loss per incident oxygen atom) of materials susceptible to AO reaction. A spaceflight experiment, called the Polymers Experiment, which contained 42 samples, was developed to determine the effect of solar exposure on the AO E(sub y) of fluoropolymers flown in ram, wake, or zenith orientations. The Polymers Experiment was exposed to the LEO space environment on the exterior of the International Space Station (ISS) as part of the Materials International Space Station Experiment 8 (MISSE 8) mission. The MISSE 8 mission included samples flown in a zenith/nadir orientation for 2.14 years in the MISSE 8 Passive Experiment Container (PEC), and samples flown in a ram/wake orientation for 2.0 years in the Optical Reflector Materials Experiment-III (ORMatEIII) tray. The experiment included Kapton H (Registered Trademark) witness samples for AO fluence determination in each orientation. This paper provides an overview of the MISSE 8 mission, a description of the flight experiment with details on the polymers flown, the characterization techniques used, the AO fluence for each exposure orientation, and the LEO E(sub y) results. The E(sub y) of Teflon fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP) samples flown in ram, wake, and zenith orientations have been compared, and the E(sub y) was found to be highly dependent on orientation and therefore environmental exposure. The FEP E(sub y) was found to directly correlate with the solar exposure/AO fluence ratio showing the effect of solar radiation and/or heating due to solar exposure on FEP erosion. In addition, back-surface carbon painted FEP (C-FEP) flown in the zenith orientation had a significantly higher E(sub y) than clear FEP or Al-FEP further

  1. Tropospheric Aerosol Radiative Forcing Observational eXperiment (TARFOX) - Vaisala Radiosonde data from Wallops ground station

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — TARFOX_WALLOPS_SONDE is the Tropospheric Aerosol Radiative Forcing Observational eXperiment (TARFOX) Vaisala radiosonde data set from balloons launched at Wallops...

  2. Real time control of satellite tracking station operation for millimeter wave experiments and associated data processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, S. R.; Stutzman, W. L.

    1977-01-01

    Real time control, data collection, and data reduction of an earth-satellite millimeter wave system are discussed. Experiment control and data processing requirements are considered with attention to signal data acquisition, weather data acquisition, support and control functions, task classifications, the fundamental data acquisition procedure, and the computer-experiment interface. The general analysis is applied to a description of the Communications Technology Satellite system and its hardware.

  3. Nudging healthy food choices: a field experiment at the train station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroese, Floor M; Marchiori, David R; de Ridder, Denise T D

    2016-06-01

    Recognizing the mindless nature of many food decisions, it has been suggested that attempts to increase healthy eating should not focus on convincing people what is 'right' but rather aim to adjust the environment such that people are automatically directed toward healthy choices. This study investigated a nudge aiming to promote healthy food choices in train station snack shops. The nudge involved a repositioning of food products: healthy foods were placed at the cash register desk, while keeping unhealthy products available elsewhere in the shop. Three snack shops were included: a control condition; a nudge condition repositioning healthy products and a nudge + disclosure condition employing the same nudge together with an explanatory sign. Next to examining its effectiveness during 1 week, the study assessed customers' acceptance of the nudge. Controlling for a baseline week, more healthy (but not fewer unhealthy) products were sold in both nudge conditions, with no difference between the nudge and the nudge + disclosure condition. A majority of customers reported positive attitudes toward the nudge. Repositioning healthy foods is a simple, effective and well-accepted nudge to increase healthy purchases. Moreover, disclosing its purpose does not impact on effectiveness. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. The 2006 Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Range Reference Atmosphere Model Validation Study and Sensitivity Analysis to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Space Shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Ryan; Burns, Lee; Merry, Carl; Harrington, Brian

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Space Shuttle utilizes atmospheric thermodynamic properties to evaluate structural dynamics and vehicle flight performance impacts by the atmosphere during ascent. Statistical characteristics of atmospheric thermodynamic properties at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) used in Space. Shuttle Vehicle assessments are contained in the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) Range Reference Atmosphere (RRA) Database. Database contains tabulations for monthly and annual means (mu), standard deviations (sigma) and skewness of wind and thermodynamic variables. Wind, Thermodynamic, Humidity and Hydrostatic parameters 1 km resolution interval from 0-30 km 2 km resolution interval 30-70 km Multiple revisions of the CCAFS RRA database have been developed since initial RRA published in 1963. 1971, 1983, 2006 Space Shuttle program utilized 1983 version for use in deriving "hot" and "cold" atmospheres, atmospheric density dispersions for use in vehicle certification analyses and selection of atmospheric thermodynamic profiles for use in vehicle ascent design and certification analyses. During STS-114 launch preparations in July 2005 atmospheric density observations between 50-80 kft exceeded density limits used for aerodynamic ascent heating constraints in vehicle certification analyses. Mission specific analyses were conducted and concluded that the density bias resulted in small changes to heating rates and integrated heat loading on the vehicle. In 2001, the Air Force Combat Climatology Center began developing an updated RRA for CCAFS.

  5. 3D position and velocity vector computations of objects jettisoned from the international space station using close-range photogrammetry approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanyan, Valeri; Oshel, Edward; Adamo, Daniel

    2008-04-01

    Measurement of the jettisoned object departure trajectory and velocity vector in the International Space Station (ISS) reference frame is vitally important for prompt evaluation of the object's imminent orbit. We report on the first successful application of photogrammetric analysis of the ISS imagery for the prompt computation of the jettisoned object's position and velocity vectors. As post-EVA analyses examples, we present the Floating Potential Probe (FPP) and the Russian "Orlan" Space Suit jettisons, as well as the near-real-time (provided in several hours after the separation) computations of the Video Stanchion Support Assembly Flight Support Assembly (VSSA-FSA) and Early Ammonia Servicer (EAS) jettisons during the US astronauts space-walk. Standard close-range photogrammetry analysis was used during this EVA to analyze two on-board camera image sequences down-linked from the ISS. In this approach the ISS camera orientations were computed from known coordinates of several reference points on the ISS hardware. Then the position of the jettisoned object for each time-frame was computed from its image in each frame of the video-clips. In another, "quick-look" approach used in near-real time, orientation of the cameras was computed from their position (from the ISS CAD model) and operational data (pan and tilt) then location of the jettisoned object was calculated only for several frames of the two synchronized movies.

  6. Statistical Short-Range Guidance for Peak Wind Forecasts on Kennedy Space Center/Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Phase III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Winifred

    2010-01-01

    This final report describes the development of a peak wind forecast tool to assist forecasters in determining the probability of violating launch commit criteria (LCC) at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS). The peak winds are an important forecast element for both the Space Shuttle and Expendable Launch Vehicle (ELV) programs. The LCC define specific peak wind thresholds for each launch operation that cannot be exceeded in order to ensure the safety of the vehicle. The 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) has found that peak winds are a challenging parameter to forecast, particularly in the cool season months of October through April. Based on the importance of forecasting peak winds, the 45 WS tasked the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) to develop a short-range peak-wind forecast tool to assist in forecasting LCC violations.The tool includes climatologies of the 5-minute mean and peak winds by month, hour, and direction, and probability distributions of the peak winds as a function of the 5-minute mean wind speeds.

  7. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 490: Station 44 Burn Area, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada (with Record of Technical Change No.1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office

    2000-06-09

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 490 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Active Unit 490 consists of four Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 03-56-001-03BA, Fire Training Area (FTA); RG-56-001-RGBA, Station 44 Burn Area; 03-58-001-03FN, Sandia Service Yard; and 09-54-001-09L2, Gun Propellant Burn Area. These CASs are located at the Tonopah Test Range near Areas 3 and 9. Historically, the FTA was used for training exercises where tires and wood were ignited with diesel fuel. Records indicate that water and carbon dioxide were the only extinguishing agents used during these training exercises. The Station 44 Burn Area was used for fire training exercises and consisted of two wooden structures. The two burn areas (ignition of tires, wood, and wooden structures with diesel fuel and water) were limited to the building footprints (10 ft by 10 ft each). The Sandia Service Yard was used for storage (i.e., wood, tires, metal, electronic and office equipment, construction debris, and drums of oil/grease) from approximately 1979 to 1993. The Gun Propellant Burn Area was used from the 1960s to 1980s to burn excess artillery gun propellant, solid-fuel rocket motors, black powder, and deteriorated explosives; additionally, the area was used for the disposal of experimental explosive items. Based on site history, the focus of the field investigation activities will be to: (1) determine the presence of contaminants of potential concern (COPCs) at each CAS, (2) determine if any COPCs exceed field-screening levels and/or preliminary action levels, and (3) determine the nature and extent of contamination with enough certainty to support selection of corrective action alternatives for each CAS. The scope of this CAIP is to resolve

  8. Integrating physiological threshold experiments with climate modeling to project mangrove species' range expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanaugh, Kyle C; Parker, John D; Cook-Patton, Susan C; Feller, Ilka C; Williams, A Park; Kellner, James R

    2015-05-01

    Predictions of climate-related shifts in species ranges have largely been based on correlative models. Due to limitations of these models, there is a need for more integration of experimental approaches when studying impacts of climate change on species distributions. Here, we used controlled experiments to identify physiological thresholds that control poleward range limits of three species of mangroves found in North America. We found that all three species exhibited a threshold response to extreme cold, but freeze tolerance thresholds varied among species. From these experiments, we developed a climate metric, freeze degree days (FDD), which incorporates both the intensity and the frequency of freezes. When included in distribution models, FDD accurately predicted mangrove presence/absence. Using 28 years of satellite imagery, we linked FDD to observed changes in mangrove abundance in Florida, further exemplifying the importance of extreme cold. We then used downscaled climate projections of FDD to project that these range limits will move northward by 2.2-3.2 km yr(-1) over the next 50 years. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. NanoRocks: Design and performance of an experiment studying planet formation on the International Space Station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisset, Julie; Colwell, Joshua; Dove, Adrienne; Maukonen, Doug

    2017-07-01

    In an effort to better understand the early stages of planet formation, we have developed a 1.5U payload that flew on the International Space Station (ISS) in the NanoRacks NanoLab facility between September 2014 and March 2016. This payload, named NanoRocks, ran a particle collision experiment under long-term microgravity conditions. The objectives of the experiment were (a) to observe collisions between mm-sized particles at relative velocities of experiment camera. During the 18 months the payload stayed on ISS, we obtained 158 videos, thus recording a great number of collisions. The average particle velocities in the sample cells after each shaking event were around 1 cm/s. After shaking stopped, the inter-particle collisions damped the particle kinetic energy in less than 20 s, reducing the average particle velocity to below 1 mm/s, and eventually slowing them to below our detection threshold. As the particle velocity decreased, we observed the transition from bouncing to sticking collisions. We recorded the formation of particle clusters at the end of each experiment run. This paper describes the design and performance of the NanoRocks ISS payload.

  10. Developments of engineering model of the X-ray CCD camera of the MAXI experiment onboard the International Space Station

    CERN Document Server

    Miyata, E; Kamazuka, T; Akutsu, D; Kouno, H; Tsunemi, H; Matsuoka, M; Tomida, H; Ueno, S; Hamaguchi, K; Tanaka, I

    2002-01-01

    MAXI, Monitor of All-sky X-ray Image, is an X-ray observatory on the Japanese Experimental Module (JEM) Exposed Facility (EF) on the International Space Station (ISS). MAXI is a slit scanning camera which consists of two kinds of X-ray detectors: one is a one-dimensional position-sensitive proportional counter with a total area of approx 5000 cm sup 2 , the Gas Slit Camera (GSC), and the other is an X-ray CCD array with a total area approx 200 cm sup 2 , the Solid-state Slit Camera (SSC). The GSC subtends a field of view with an angular dimension of 1 deg. x180 deg. while the SSC subtends a field of view with an angular dimension of 1 deg. times a little less than 180 deg. . In the course of one station orbit, MAXI can scan almost the entire sky with a precision of 1 deg. and with an X-ray energy range 0.5-30 keV. We have developed an engineering model (EM) for all components of the SSC. Their performance test is underway. We have also developed several kinds of CCDs fabricated from different wafers. Since th...

  11. Aging of nuclear station diesel generators: Evaluation of operating and expert experience: Phase 1, Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoopingarner, K.R.; Vause, J.W.; Dingee, D.A.; Nesbitt, J.F.

    1987-08-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory evaluated operational and expert experience pertaining to the aging degradation of diesel generators in nuclear service. The research, sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), identified and characterized the contribution of aging to emergency diesel generator failures. This report, Volume I, reviews diesel-generator experience to identify the systems and components most subject to aging degradation and isolates the major causes of failure that may affect future operational readiness. Evaluations show that as plants age, the percent of aging-related failures increases and failure modes change. A compilation is presented of recommended corrective actions for the failures identified. This study also includes a review of current, relevant industry programs, research, and standards. Volume II reports the results of an industry-wide workshop held on May 28 and 29, 1986 to discuss the technical issues associated with aging of nuclear service emergency diesel generators.

  12. FIRST EXPERIENCES WITH KINECT V2 SENSOR FOR CLOSE RANGE 3D MODELLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Lachat

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available RGB-D cameras, also known as range imaging cameras, are a recent generation of sensors. As they are suitable for measuring distances to objects at high frame rate, such sensors are increasingly used for 3D acquisitions, and more generally for applications in robotics or computer vision. This kind of sensors became popular especially since the Kinect v1 (Microsoft arrived on the market in November 2010. In July 2014, Windows has released a new sensor, the Kinect for Windows v2 sensor, based on another technology as its first device. However, due to its initial development for video games, the quality assessment of this new device for 3D modelling represents a major investigation axis. In this paper first experiences with Kinect v2 sensor are related, and the ability of close range 3D modelling is investigated. For this purpose, error sources on output data as well as a calibration approach are presented.

  13. Aging of nuclear station diesel generators: Evaluation of operating and expert experience: Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoopingarner, K.R.; Vause, J.W.

    1987-08-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) evaluated operational and expert experience pertaining to the aging degradation of diesel generators in nuclear service. The research, sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), identified and characterized the contribution of aging to emergency diesel generator failures. This report, Volume II, reports the results of an industry-wide workshop held on May 28 and 29, 1986, to discuss the technical issues associated with aging of nuclear service emergency diesel generators. The technical issues discussed most extensively were: man/machine interfaces, component interfaces, thermal gradients of startup and cooldown and the need for an accurate industry database for trend analysis of the diesel generator system.

  14. Desert Experimental Range: Annotated bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. Durant McArthur; Stanley G. Kitchen

    2013-01-01

    Entries qualify for inclusion if they were conducted in whole or part at the Desert Experimental Range (DER, also known as the Desert Range Experiment Station) or were based on DER research in whole or part. They do not qualify merely by the author having worked at the DER when the research was performed or prepared. Entries were drawn from the original abstracts or...

  15. A wide-range model for simulation of pump-probe experiments with metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Povarnitsyn, Mikhail E., E-mail: povar@ihed.ras.ru [Joint Institute for High Temperatures RAS, Izhorskaya 13 Bldg 2, Moscow, 125412 (Russian Federation); Andreev, Nikolay E. [Joint Institute for High Temperatures RAS, Izhorskaya 13 Bldg 2, Moscow, 125412 (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (State University), Institutsky lane 9, Dolgoprudny, Moscow region, 141700 (Russian Federation); Apfelbaum, Eugeny M. [Joint Institute for High Temperatures RAS, Izhorskaya 13 Bldg 2, Moscow, 125412 (Russian Federation); Itina, Tatiana E. [Joint Institute for High Temperatures RAS, Izhorskaya 13 Bldg 2, Moscow, 125412 (Russian Federation); Laboratoire Hubert Curien, UMR CNRS 5516, 18 rue Benoit Lauras, Bat. F, 42000, St-Etienne (France); Khishchenko, Konstatntin V. [Joint Institute for High Temperatures RAS, Izhorskaya 13 Bldg 2, Moscow, 125412 (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (State University), Institutsky lane 9, Dolgoprudny, Moscow region, 141700 (Russian Federation); Kostenko, Oleg F. [Joint Institute for High Temperatures RAS, Izhorskaya 13 Bldg 2, Moscow, 125412 (Russian Federation); Levashov, Pavel R. [Joint Institute for High Temperatures RAS, Izhorskaya 13 Bldg 2, Moscow, 125412 (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (State University), Institutsky lane 9, Dolgoprudny, Moscow region, 141700 (Russian Federation); Veysman, Mikhail E. [Joint Institute for High Temperatures RAS, Izhorskaya 13 Bldg 2, Moscow, 125412 (Russian Federation)

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pump-probe experiments provide an integral test of the models in the theoretically difficult regime of warm dense matter. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The target material motion is evident for heating by femtosecond pulses of intensity more than 10{sup 14} W/cm{sup 2}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phase shift of S and P-polarized pulses is different because of separated zones of absorption. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Uncertainty in the pulse energy determination of {approx}10% gives substantial deflection of the theoretical curves. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The surface target oxide films may result in bigger phase shift in experiment. - Abstract: High precision pump-probe experiments can provide a valuable information about material states out of equilibrium. A wide-range numerical model is used for the description of material response on ultrashort laser action. The model is developed on the basis of two-temperature hydrodynamics with heat transport, ionization, plasma expansion, electron-ion collisions and two-temperature equation of state for an irradiated substance. Comparison of experimental findings with the results of simulation is used both for the numerical model verification and for calculation of plasma thermodynamic parameters that cannot be measured directly in experiment. An aluminum target is heated by an intense 400 nm (2{omega}) pump laser pulse that is incident normal to the planar target. Weak S- and P-polarized probe pulses with wavelength 800 nm (1{omega}) are used for diagnostics of the plasma. Both probe pulses illuminate the target at a 45 Degree-Sign angle. Calculation of the reflectivity and phase shift of probe pulses with both polarizations are in good agreement with experiment.

  16. Flight Computer Processing Avionics for Space Station Microgravity Experiments: A Risk Assessment of Commercial Off-the-Shelf Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, Howard; Liggin, Karl; Crawford, Kevin; Humphries, Rick (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is continually looking for ways to reduce the costs and schedule and minimize the technical risks during the development of microgravity programs. One of the more prominent ways to minimize the cost and schedule is to use off-the-shelf hardware (OTS). However, the use of OTS often increases the risk. This paper addresses relevant factors considered during the selection and utilization of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) flight computer processing equipment for the control of space station microgravity experiments. The paper will also discuss how to minimize the technical risks when using COTS processing hardware. Two microgravity experiments for which the COTS processing equipment is being evaluated for are the Equiaxed Dendritic Solidification Experiment (EDSE) and the Self-diffusion in Liquid Elements (SDLE) experiment. Since MSFC is the lead center for Microgravity research, EDSE and SDLE processor selection will be closely watched by other experiments that are being designed to meet payload carrier requirements. This includes the payload carriers planned for the International Space Station (ISS). The purpose of EDSE is to continue to investigate microstructural evolution of, and thermal interactions between multiple dendrites growing under diffusion controlled conditions. The purpose of SDLE is to determine accurate self-diffusivity data as a function of temperature for liquid elements selected as representative of class-like structures. In 1999 MSFC initiated a Center Director's Discretionary Fund (CDDF) effort to investigate and determine the optimal commercial data bus architecture that could lead to faster, better, and lower cost data acquisition systems for the control of microgravity experiments. As part of this effort various commercial data acquisition systems were acquired and evaluated. This included equipment with various form factors, (3U, 6U, others) and equipment that utilized various bus structures, (VME

  17. Mode tomography using signals from the Long Range Ocean Acoustic Propagation EXperiment (LOAPEX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrayadula, Tarun K.

    Ocean acoustic tomography uses acoustic signals to infer the environmental properties of the ocean. The procedure for tomography consists of low frequency acoustic transmissions at mid-water depths to receivers located at hundreds of kilometer ranges. The arrival times of the signal at the receiver are then inverted for the sound speed of the background environment. Using this principle, experiments such as the 2004 Long Range Ocean Acoustic Propagation EXperiment have used acoustic signals recorded across Vertical Line Arrays (VLAs) to infer the Sound Speed Profile (SSP) across depth. The acoustic signals across the VLAs can be represented in terms of orthonormal basis functions called modes. The lower modes of the basis set concentrated around mid-water propagate longer distances and can be inverted for mesoscale effects such as currents and eddies. In spite of these advantages, mode tomography has received less attention. One of the important reasons for this is that internal waves in the ocean cause significant amplitude and travel time fluctuations in the modes. The amplitude and travel time fluctuations cause errors in travel time estimates. The absence of a statistical model and the lack of signal processing techniques for internal wave effects have precluded the modes from being used in tomographic inversions. This thesis estimates a statistical model for modes affected by internal waves and then uses the estimated model to design appropriate signal processing methods to obtain tomographic observables for the low modes. In order to estimate a statistical model, this thesis uses both the LOAPEX signals and also numerical simulations. The statistical model describes the amplitude and phase coherence across different frequencies for modes at different ranges. The model suggests that Matched Subspace Detectors (MSDs) based on the amplitude statistics of the modes are the optimum detectors to make travel time estimates for modes up to 250 km. The mean of the

  18. Contaminations of inner surface of magnesium fluoride windows in the `Expose-R' experiment on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skurat, V. E.

    2017-10-01

    A series of experiments was carried out previously on board of the International Space Station in `EXPOSE-R', a multi-user expose facility, provided by European Space Agency attached to the external surface of the Russian Segment. In one experiment, spores of microorganisms and species of higher plant seeds, in heat-sealed polymer bags were irradiated by solar radiation passed through MgF2 windows in a high space vacuum. After sample exposure, it was found that in many cases the inner surfaces of windows were contaminated. Analysis of the contamination revealed the presence of chemical groups CH2, CH3, NH, OH, C═O, Si-CH3 (Demets et al. in 2015). Their presence in deposits was explained by photofixation of gaseous precursors - some of the vapours of glues and additives in polymeric materials in the core facility of `Expose-R'. Carbon-, oxygen- and silicon-containing groups may be deposited from outer intrinsic atmosphere. This atmosphere is connected with sample compartments and core facility. However, the presence of NH groups on inner surfaces of windows was not expected. This paper shows that the process responsible for carbon-, nitrogen- and oxygen-containing group formation can be a photopolymerization of caprolactam, which is released from the outer Nylon 6 layer of polymer bags under Solar vacuum ultraviolet radiation.

  19. United States Air Force 611th air support group, 611th Civil Engineer Squadron, Tin City Long Range Radar Station, Alaska final remedial investigation/feasibility study. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-30

    This Final Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study describes the work performed; explains project objectives; and presents data collected during project activities, results, and conclusions for the Installation Restoration Program at Tin City Longe Range Radar Station, Alaska. The report describes the risks posed by the site and gives the basis for selecting remedies to mitigate the risks.

  20. The DOSIS -Experiment onboard the Columbus Laboratory of the International Space Station -Overview and first mission results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitz, Guenther; Berger, Thomas; Kürner, Christine; Burmeister, Sünke; Hajek, Michael; Bilski, Pawel; Horwacik, Tomasz; Vanhavere, Filip; Spurny, Frantisek; Jadrnickova, Iva; Pálfalvi, József K.; O'Sullivan, Denis; Yasuda, Nakahiro; Uchihori, Yukio; Kitamura, Hisashi; Kodaira, Satoshi; Yukihara, Eduardo; Benton, Eric; Zapp, Neal; Gaza, Ramona; Zhou, Dazhuang; Semones, Edward; Roed, Yvonne; Boehme, Matthias; Haumann, Lutz

    Besides the effects of the microgravity environment, and the psychological and psychosocial problems encountered in confined spaces, radiation is the main health detriment for long dura-tion human space missions. The radiation environment encountered in space differs in nature from that on earth, consisting mostly of high energetic ions from protons up to iron, resulting in radiation levels far exceeding the ones encountered on earth for occupational radiation workers. Accurate knowledge of the physical characteristics of the space radiation field in dependence on the solar activity, the orbital parameters and the different shielding configurations of the International Space Station ISS is therefore needed. The DOSIS (Dose Distribution inside the ISS) experiment, under the project and science lead of DLR, aims for the spatial and tempo-ral measurement of the radiation field parameters inside the European Columbus laboratory onboard the International Space Station. This goal is achieved by applying a combination of passive (Thermo-and Optical luminescence detectors and Nuclear track etch detectors) and active (silicon telescope) radiation detectors. The passive radiation detectors -so called pas-sive detector packages (PDP) are mounted at eleven positions within the Columbus laboratory -aiming for a spatial dose distribution measurement of the absorbed dose, the linear energy transfer spectra and the dose equivalent with an average exposure time of six months. Two active silicon telescopes -so called Dosimetry Telescopes (DOSTEL 1 and DOSTEL 2) together with a Data and Power Unit (DDPU) are mounted within the DOSIS Main Box at a fixed loca-tion beneath the European Physiology Module (EPM) rack. The DOSTEL 1 and DOSTEL 2 detectors are positioned at a 90 angle to each other for a precise measurement of the temporal and spatial variation of the radiation field, especially during crossing of the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA). The DOSIS hardware was launched with the

  1. Methanol Droplet Extinction in Oxygen/Carbon-dioxide/Nitrogen Mixtures in Microgravity: Results from the International Space Station Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayagam, Vedha; Dietrich, Daniel L.; Ferkul, Paul V.; Hicks, Michael C.; Williams, Forman A.

    2012-01-01

    Motivated by the need to understand the flammability limits of condensed-phase fuels in microgravity, isolated single droplet combustion experiments were carried out in the Combustion Integrated Rack Facility onboard the International Space Station. Experimental observations of methanol droplet combustion and extinction in oxygen/carbon-dioxide/nitrogen mixtures at 0.7 and 1 atmospheric pressure in quiescent microgravity environment are reported for initial droplet diameters varying between 2 mm to 4 mm in this study.The ambient oxygen concentration was systematically lowered from test to test so as to approach the limiting oxygen index (LOI) at fixed ambient pressure. At one atmosphere pressure, ignition and some burning were observed for an oxygen concentration of 13% with the rest being nitrogen. In addition, measured droplet burning rates, flame stand-off ratios, and extinction diameters are presented for varying concentrations of oxygen and diluents. Simplified theoretical models are presented to explain the observed variations in extinction diameter and flame stand-off ratios.

  2. Practical experiences with animal fat as added fuel in the Ingolstadt power station; Praktische Erfahrungen bei der versuchsweisen Mitverbrennung von Tierfett im Kraftwerk Ingolstadt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerischer, C.N. [E.ON Kraftwerke GmbH, Kraftwerksgruppe Ingolstadt/Irsching, Grossmehring (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    In 2001 the market was overflowing with animal fat due to the discussion about the bovine spongiform encephalopathy disease. One solution was the use as additional fuel in power plants. The fundamental technical requirements existed in Ingolstadt power station. Economical considerations led to the decision to test animal fat as added fuel. The main experiences are presented and discussed. (orig.)

  3. The DOSIS and DOSIS 3D Experiments onboard the International Space Station - Results from the Active DOSTEL Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burmeister, Soenke; Berger, Thomas; Reitz, Guenther; Beaujean, Rudolf; Boehme, Matthias; Haumann, Lutz; Labrenz, Johannes; Kortmann, Onno

    2012-07-01

    Besides the effects of the microgravity environment, and the psychological and psychosocial problems experienced in confined spaces, radiation is the main health detriment for long duration human space missions. The radiation environment encountered in space differs in nature from that on earth, consisting mostly of high energetic ions from protons up to iron, resulting in radiation levels far exceeding the ones present on earth for occupational radiation workers. Accurate knowledge of the physical characteristics of the space radiation field in dependence on the solar activity, the orbital parameters and the different shielding configurations of the International Space Station ISS is therefore needed. For the investigation of the spatial and temporal distribution of the radiation field inside the European COLUMBUS module the experiment DOSIS (Dose Distribution Inside the ISS) under the lead of DLR was launched on July 15th 2009 with STS-127 to the ISS. The experimental package was transferred from the Space Shuttle into COLUMBUS on July 18th. It consists of a combination of passive detector packages (PDP) distributed at 11 locations inside the European Columbus Laboratory and two active radiation detectors (DOSTELs) with a DDPU (DOSTEL Data and Power Unit) in a nomex pouch (DOSIS MAIN BOX) mounted at a fixed location beneath the European Physiology Module rack (EPM) inside COLUMBUS. The DOSTELs measured during the lowest solar minimum conditions in the space age from July 18th 2009 to June 16th 2011. In July 2011 the active hardware was transferred to ground for refurbishment and preparation for the DOSIS-3D experiment. The hardware will be launched with the Soyuz 30S flight to the ISS on May 15th 2012 and activated approximately ten days later. Data will be transferred from the DOSTEL units to ground via the EPM rack which is activated approximately every four weeks for this action. First Results for the active DOSIS-3D measurements such as count rate profiles

  4. Data Analysis Using the Side Muon Range Detector (SMRD) of the T2K Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haremza, Jeremiah; Minvielle, Ryan

    2010-10-01

    The goal of T2K (Tokai to Kamioka), a second generation long basline neutrino experiment, is to obtain an accurate measurement of θ13 - a parameter which determines the oscillation between muon neutrinos and electron neutrinos. The T2K 2.5^o off-axis near detector (ND280) is located 280 m from the beam target, and consists of 5 different sub-detectors which are encased in the UA1 magnet. The SMRD (Side Muon Range Detector), 1 of the 5 sub-detectors of the ND280, consists of slabs of 0.7 cm thick plastic scintillator material with embedded wavelength shifting fibers and each scintillator slab is sandwiched between the iron plates of the magnet yokes. The SMRD contributes to the measurement of the neutrino energy spectrum, triggers on cosmic ray muons for calibration, and identifies backgrounds. We present work on the following uses of the SMRD: (1) the general role of the SMRD in T2K analyses, (2) status of data quality considerations and data selection performance, (3) SMRD performance measurement with cosmic ray data and comparison with simulations, (4) extraction of neutrino cross-sections on Fe and comparison with simulations.

  5. The AMINO experiment: exposure of amino acids in the EXPOSE-R experiment on the International Space Station and in laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Marylène; Chabin, Annie; Colas, Cyril; Cadène, Martine; Chaput, Didier; Brack, Andre; Cottin, Herve

    2015-01-01

    In order to confirm the results of previous experiments concerning the chemical behaviour of organic molecules in the space environment, organic molecules (amino acids and a dipeptide) in pure form and embedded in meteorite powder were exposed in the AMINO experiment in the EXPOSE-R facility onboard the International Space Station. After exposure to space conditions for 24 months (2843 h of irradiation), the samples were returned to the Earth and analysed in the laboratory for reactions caused by solar ultraviolet (UV) and other electromagnetic radiation. Laboratory UV exposure was carried out in parallel in the Cologne DLR Center (Deutsches Zentrum für Luft und Raumfahrt). The molecules were extracted from the sample holder and then (1) derivatized by silylation and analysed by gas chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer (GC-MS) in order to quantify the rate of degradation of the compounds and (2) analysed by high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) in order to understand the chemical reactions that occurred. The GC-MS results confirm that resistance to irradiation is a function of the chemical nature of the exposed molecules and of the wavelengths of the UV light. They also confirm the protective effect of a coating of meteorite powder. The most altered compounds were the dipeptides and aspartic acid while the most robust were compounds with a hydrocarbon chain. The MS analyses document the products of reactions, such as decarboxylation and decarbonylation of aspartic acid, taking place after UV exposure. Given the universality of chemistry in space, our results have a broader implication for the fate of organic molecules that seeded the planets as soon as they became habitable as well as for the effects of UV radiation on exposed molecules at the surface of Mars, for example.

  6. The DOSIS -Experiment onboard the Columbus Laboratory of the International Space Station -First Mission Results from the Active DOSTEL Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burmeister, Soenke; Berger, Thomas; Beaujean, Rudolf; Boehme, Matthias; Haumann, Lutz; Kortmann, Onno; Labrenz, Johannes; Reitz, Guenther

    Besides the effects of the microgravity environment, and the psychological and psychosocial problems encountered in confined spaces, radiation is the main health detriment for long dura-tion human space missions. The radiation environment encountered in space differs in nature from that on earth, consisting mostly of high energetic ions from protons up to iron, resulting in radiation levels far exceeding the ones encountered on earth for occupational radiation workers. Accurate knowledge of the physical characteristics of the space radiation field in dependence on the solar activity, the orbital parameters and the different shielding configurations of the International Space Station ISS is therefore needed. For the investigation of the spatial and temporal distribution of the radiation field inside the European COLUMBUS module the DLR experiment DOSIS (Dose Distribution Inside the ISS) was launched on July 15th 2009 with STS-127 to the ISS. The experimental package was transferred from the Space Shuttle into COLUMBUS on July 18th. It consists in a first part of a combination of passive detector packages (PDP) distributed at 11 locations inside the European Columbus Laboratory. The second part are two active radiation detectors (DOSTELs) with a DDPU (DOSIS Data and Power Unit) in a nomex pouch (DOSIS MAIN BOX) mounted at a fixed location beneath the European Physiology Module (EPM) inside COLUMBUS. After the successful installation the active part has been activated on the 18th July 2009. Each of the DOSTEL units consists of two 6.93 cm PIPS silicon detectors forming a telescope with an opening angle of 120. The two DOSTELs are mounted with their telescope axis perpendicular to each other to investigate anisotropies of the radiation field inside the COLUMBUS module especially during the passes through the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) and during Solar Particle Events (SPEs). The data from the DOSTEL units are transferred to ground via the EPM rack which is activated

  7. Long-range beam-beam experiments in the relativistic heavy ion collider

    CERN Document Server

    Calaga, R; Milas, N; Robert-Demolaize, G

    2014-01-01

    Long-range beam-beam effects are a potential limit to the LHC performance with the nominal design parameters, and certain upgrade scenarios under discussion. To mitigate long-range effects, current carrying wires parallel to the beam were proposed and space is reserved in the LHC for such wires. Two current carrying wires were installed in RHIC to study the effect of strong long-range beam-beam effects in a collider, as well as test the compensation of a single long-range interaction. The experimental data were used to benchmark simulations. We summarize this work.

  8. Short-Range Diffusion Experiments in Unstable Conditions over Inhomogeneous Terrain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gryning, Sven-Erik; Lyck, Erik; Hedegaard, K.

    1978-01-01

    on a peninsula in the Roskilde Fjord, Denmark, and was sampled at ground-level positions distributed over a crosswind line about 1 km downwind. During the experiments, the turbulent wind velocity components were measured at the height of release with a three-dimensional ultrasonic anemometer. The experiments...

  9. Preliminary results of Terabit-per-second long-range free-space optical transmission Experiment THRUST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giggenbach, D.; Poliak, J.; Mata-Calvo, R.; Fuchs, C.; Perlot, N.; Freund, R.; Richter, T.

    2015-10-01

    Future Very High Throughput Satellite Systems (VHTS) will perform at several Tbit/s throughput and thus face the challenge of limited feeder-link spectrum. Whereas with conventional RF feeder links several tens of ground gateway stations would be required, the total capacity can alternatively be linked through a single optical ground station using Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM) techniques as known from terrestrial fiber communications. While intermittent link blockage by clouds can be compensated by ground station diversity, the optical uplink signal is directly affected by scintillation and beam wander induced by the atmospheric index-of-refraction turbulence. The transmission system must be capable to mitigate these distortions by according high-speed tracking and fading compensation techniques. We report on the design of a near-ground long-range (10km) atmospheric transmission test-bed which is, with its relatively low elevation of 1.8 degrees, exemplary for a worst case GEO uplink scenario. The transmitting side of the test-bed consists of a single telescope with a a fine pointing assembly in order to track the atmospheric angle-ofarrival and precisely aim towards the beacon of the receiver. On the other side of the test-bed, the receiver telescope is also capable of fine pointing by tracking the transmitted signal. The GEO uplink scenario is modelled by a precise scaling of the beam divergence and the receiver's field of view as well as by the beacon offset to model the point-ahead angle. In order to make the experimental test-bed correspond to an actual feeder link scenario, the link budget as well as the turbulence profile of the experimental scenario are modelled and compared to the GEO uplink. Several DWDM channels are multiplexed to reach the total link capacity of above one Tbit/s.

  10. 33 CFR 334.540 - Banana River at the Eastern Range, 45th Space Wing, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, FL...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Banana River at the Eastern Range... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.540 Banana River at the Eastern Range, 45th Space Wing, Cape... navigable waters of the United States, as defined at 33 CFR part 329, within the Banana River contiguous to...

  11. Fire Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Fire Stations in the United States Any location where fire fighters are stationed or based out of, or where equipment that such personnel use in carrying out their...

  12. The range of dynamic recrystallization of quartz - An updated correlation between nature and experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stipp, Michael

    2014-05-01

    Several microstructural correlations between natural and experimental conditions for dynamic recrystallization of quartz have been proposed (e.g., Hirth et al. 2001; Stipp et al. 2002), but an attempt to unify the different results and data sets is missing. Based on additional experiments and a statistical analysis of microstructural data (e.g., Stipp et al. 2006, 2010) four characteristic microstructural zones with corresponding recrystallized grain size (D) ranges can be identified. (I) D migration and subgrain rotation contribute to recrystallization, and that grain boundary sliding may operate at high strain (Stipp and Kunze, 2008). Comparable microstructures have not been observed in natural shear zones; their formation is not possible at greenschist facies conditions, because the required differential stresses would be larger than the confining pressure and so in conflict with the Goetze criterion (Kohlstedt et al. 1995). (II) D ˜3-35 µm: Experimental dislocation creep regimes 2 and 3 (Hirth and Tullis 1992), corresponding to the natural BLG zone of Stipp et al. (2002). Microstructures are again characterized by porphyroclasts with grain boundary bulges and small recrystallized grains. Compared to zone I, less strain is required to produce a considerable amount of recrystallized grains, forming "core-mantle microstuctures". (III) D ˜35-120 µm: Upper experimental dislocation creep regime 3, and natural SGR zone (Stipp et al. 2006, 2010). Microstructures are characterized by porphyroclastic ribbon grains and recrystallized grains which are about the same size or slightly larger than optical subgrains. Subgrain formation and dynamic recrystallization are initiated at low strain yielding "polygonization microstructures". (IV) D > 120 µm: The natural GBM zone (Stipp et al. 2002). Comparable microstructures have not been attained in experimentally deformed samples, because the required high temperatures and/or water contents cause partial melting

  13. Range-based underwater vehicle localization in the presence of unknown ocean currents: Theory and experiments

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bayat, M.; Crasta, N.; Aguiar, A.P.; Pascoal, A.M.

    This paper addresses the problem of range-based autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) localization in the presence of unknown ocean currents. In the setup adopted, the AUV is equipped with an attitude and heading reference system, a depth sensor...

  14. Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment, SAGE III on ISS, An Earth Science Mission on the International Space Station, Schedule Risk Analysis, A Project Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonine, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    The presentation provides insight into the schedule risk analysis process used by the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III on the International Space Station Project. The presentation focuses on the schedule risk analysis process highlighting the methods for identification of risk inputs, the inclusion of generic risks identified outside the traditional continuous risk management process, and the development of tailored analysis products used to improve risk informed decision making.

  15. Application of short-range photogrammetry for monitoring seepage erosion of riverbank by laboratory experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoodi, A.; Noorzad, A.; Majdzadeh Tabatabai, M. R.; Samadi, A.

    2018-03-01

    Temporal and spatial monitoring play a significant role in evaluating and examining the riverbank morphology and its spatiotemporal changes. Unlike the terrestrial laser scanners, other previously used methods such as satellite images, total station surveying, and erosion pins have limited application to quantify the small-scale bank variations due to the lack of rapid survey and resolution in data acquisition. High cost, lack of availability, specialized equipment and hard movement of laser scanners make it necessary to develop new accurate, economical and easily available methods. The present study aims to test the Kinect photogrametric technology for measuring and assessing riverbank variations in laboratory environment. For this purpose, three models of layered soil blocks for three different levels of groundwater (i.e. 24, 34 and 44 cm) were designed to investigate the seepage erosion behavior experimentally. The results indicate the high accuracy of Kinect in measuring the bank erosion cavity dimensions (i.e., 0.5% error) with high spatial resolution data (i.e. 300,000 points per frame). The high speed of Kinect in riverbank scanning enables the analysis of time variations of mechanisms such as seepage erosion which occurs rather rapidly. The results confirmed that there is a power relationship between the seepage gradient and the time of the bank failure with a determination coefficient of 0.97. Moreover, an increase in the level of groundwater on the riverbank increases the rate of undercutting retreat that caused more rapid failure of the riverbank.

  16. Experiments on LHC long-range beam-beam compensation and crossing schemes at the CERN SPS in 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmermann, F.; Koutchouk, J.-P.; Roncarolo, F.; Wenninger, J.; /CERN; Sen, T.; Shiltsev, V.; /Fermilab; Papaphilippou, Y.; /ESRF, Grenoble

    2005-05-01

    Experiments with two prototype long-range beam-beam compensators (current-carrying wires) during the 2004 CERN SPS run explored the efficiency of a proposed long-range beam-beam compensation for the LHC. In addition, the SPS compensators were also used to ''simulate'' the effect of different planes of crossing at two LHC interaction points. We present the experimental results and compare them with computer simulations.

  17. Medium-Range Dispersion Experiments Downwind from a Shoreline in Near Neutral Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gryning, Sven-Erik; Lyck, E.

    1980-01-01

    Five atmospheric dispersion experiments, all assigned Pasquill stability class D, were performed at Risø National Laboratory. The tracer sulphurhexafluoride was released at a height of 60 m from the Risø meteorological tower, situated on a peninsula in the Roskilde Fjord, Denmark, and was sampled...

  18. Students' experiences of blended learning across a range of postgraduate programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Siobhan; Houghton, Catherine; Cooney, Adeline; Casey, Dympna

    2012-05-01

    The article describes the students' experiences of taking a blended learning postgraduate programme in a school of nursing and midwifery. The indications to date are that blended learning as a pedagogical tool has the potential to contribute and improve nursing and midwifery practice and enhance student learning. Little is reported about the students' experiences to date. Focus groups were conducted with students in the first year of introducing blended learning. The two main themes that were identified from the data were (1) the benefits of blended learning and (2) the challenges to blended learning. The blended learning experience was received positively by the students. A significant finding that was not reported in previous research was that the online component meant little time away from study for the students suggesting that it was more invasive on their everyday life. It is envisaged that the outcomes of the study will assist educators who are considering delivering programmes through blended learning. It should provide guidance for further developments and improvements in using Virtual Learning Environment (VLE) and blended learning in nurse education. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Development of a Ranging System for the Forward Scattering Meteor Radio Echo Observation Using a GPS-Synchronized Multiple Receiving Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usui, T.; Yoshida, H.; Miyamoto, H.; Yaguchi, N.; Terasawa, T.; Yoshikawa, I.

    2012-05-01

    We are developing an instrument for teaching purpose to determine the trajectory of a meteor with the Ham-band Radio Observations(HRO) . In this work, we describe newly developed ranging system with using Frequency Modulated signals and show some results.

  20. Oceanographic Station Data from bottle casts from fixed stations as part of the International Decade of Ocean Exploration / Controlled Ecosystem Pollution Experiment (IDOE/CEPEX) from 13 September 1973 to 09 October 1973 (NODC Accession 7400382)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Oceanographic Station Data were collected from bottle casts from fixed stations from 13 September 1973 to 09 October 1973. Data were collected by the Skidway...

  1. A Range-Wide Experiment to Investigate Nutrient and Soil Moisture Interactions in Loblolly Pine Plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodney E. Will

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The future climate of the southeastern USA is predicted to be warmer, drier and more variable in rainfall, which may increase drought frequency and intensity. Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda is the most important commercial tree species in the world and is planted on ~11 million ha within its native range in the southeastern USA. A regional study was installed to evaluate effects of decreased rainfall and nutrient additions on loblolly pine plantation productivity and physiology. Four locations were established to capture the range-wide variability of soil and climate. Treatments were initiated in 2012 and consisted of a factorial combination of throughfall reduction (approximate 30% reduction and fertilization (complete suite of nutrients. Tree and stand growth were measured at each site. Results after two growing seasons indicate a positive but variable response of fertilization on stand volume increment at all four sites and a negative effect of throughfall reduction at two sites. Data will be used to produce robust process model parameterizations useful for simulating loblolly pine growth and function under future, novel climate and management scenarios. The resulting improved models will provide support for developing management strategies to increase pine plantation productivity and carbon sequestration under a changing climate.

  2. Station Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex

    2011-01-01

    Stations are often limiting the capacity of railway networks. This is due to extra need of tracks when trains stand still, trains turning around, and conflicting train routes. Although stations are often the capacity bottlenecks, most capacity analysis methods focus on open line capacity. Therefore......, this paper presents methods to analyze station capacity. Four methods to analyze station capacity are developed. The first method is an adapted UIC 406 capacity method that can be used to analyze switch zones and platform tracks at stations that are not too complex. The second method examines the need...... the probability of conflicts and the minimum headway times into account. The last method analyzes how optimal platform tracks are used by examining the arrival and departure pattern of the trains. The developed methods can either be used separately to analyze specific characteristics of the capacity of a station...

  3. Short-range dynamics and prediction of mesoscale flow patterns in the MISTRAL field experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, R.O.; Kaufmann, P.; Talkner, P. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-06-01

    In a limited area of about 50 km by 50 km with complex topography, wind measurements on a dense network were performed during the MISTRAL field experiment in 1991-1992. From these data the characteristic wind fields were identified by an automated classification method. The dynamics of the resulting twelve typical regional flow patterns is studied. It is discussed how transitions between the flow patterns take place and how well the transition probabilities can be described in the framework of a Markov model. Guided by this discussion, a variety of prediction models were tested which allow a short-term forecast of the flow pattern type. It is found that a prediction model which uses forecast information from the synoptic scale has the best forecast skill. (author) 2 figs., 7 refs.

  4. Amtrak Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Updated database of the Federal Railroad Administration's (FRA) Amtrak Station database. This database is a geographic data set containing Amtrak intercity railroad...

  5. Statistical Short-Range Guidance for Peak Wind Speed Forecasts on Kennedy Space Center/Cape Canaveral Air Force Station: Phase I Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Winifred C.; Merceret, Francis J. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This report describes the results of the ANU's (Applied Meteorology Unit) Short-Range Statistical Forecasting task for peak winds. The peak wind speeds are an important forecast element for the Space Shuttle and Expendable Launch Vehicle programs. The Keith Weather Squadron and the Spaceflight Meteorology Group indicate that peak winds are challenging to forecast. The Applied Meteorology Unit was tasked to develop tools that aid in short-range forecasts of peak winds at tower sites of operational interest. A 7 year record of wind tower data was used in the analysis. Hourly and directional climatologies by tower and month were developed to determine the seasonal behavior of the average and peak winds. In all climatologies, the average and peak wind speeds were highly variable in time. This indicated that the development of a peak wind forecasting tool would be difficult. Probability density functions (PDF) of peak wind speed were calculated to determine the distribution of peak speed with average speed. These provide forecasters with a means of determining the probability of meeting or exceeding a certain peak wind given an observed or forecast average speed. The climatologies and PDFs provide tools with which to make peak wind forecasts that are critical to safe operations.

  6. Central Station Design Options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    . The work identifies the architecture, sizing and siting of prospective Central Stations in Denmark, which can be located at shopping centers, large car parking lots or gas stations. Central Stations are planned to be integrated in the Danish distribution grid. The Danish island of Bornholm, where a high...... penetration of wind power is present, is considered as special case. The distribution grid in Denmark is built using larger secondary distribution transformers (e.g. 630 kVA) which in general allows higher flexibility for the installation of Central Stations, compared to Bornholm’s distribution grid...... kWh battery-EV is not feasible in Bornholm at the 0.4 kV level, due to predominantly small size secondary distribution transformers, in the range of 100 - 200 kVA. This is possible at the 10kV level (MV level), if the Fast Charging station is equipped with its own dedicated transformer. With DC...

  7. Using the Light Microscopy Module (LMM) on the International Space Station (ISS), The Advanced Colloids Experiment (ACE) and MacroMolecular Biophysics (MMB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, William; Foster, William M.; Motil, Brian J.; Sicker, Ronald; Abbott-Hearn, Amber; Chao, David; Chiaramonte, Fran; Atherton, Arthur; Beltram, Alexander; Bodzioney, Christopher M.; hide

    2016-01-01

    The Light Microscopy Module (LMM) was launched to the International Space Station (ISS) in 2009 and began science operations in 2010. It continues to support Physical and Biological scientific research on ISS. During 2016, if all goes as planned, three experiments will be completed: [1] Advanced Colloids Experiments with Heated base-2 (ACE-H2) and [2] Advanced Colloids Experiments with Temperature control (ACE-T1). Preliminary results, along with an overview of present and future LMM capabilities will be presented; this includes details on the planned data imaging processing and storage system, along with the confocal upgrade to the core microscope. [1] a consortium of universities from the State of Kentucky working through the Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research (EPSCoR): Stuart Williams, Gerold Willing, Hemali Rathnayake, et al. and [2] from Chungnam National University, Daejeon, S. Korea: Chang-Soo Lee, et al.

  8. Set-up of debris-flow monitoring stations in the Eastern Pyrenees. Preliminary results and first experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hürlimann, Marcel; Abancó, Claudia; Moya, Jose; Chevalier, Guillaume; Raïmat, Carles; Luis-Fonseca, Roberto

    2010-05-01

    Direct observations of debris flows in the field by monitoring stations are of great importance to improve understandings of triggering, flow behaviour and accumulation of debris flows. Upon the knowledge of the authors, in Europe debris-flow monitoring stations are only situated in the Alps (Italy and Switzerland), while no test site is located in a catchment affected by Mediterranean climate. In 2005, the first monitoring system was set up by GEOBRUGG IBERICA SA in the Erill catchment, situated in the Axial Pyrenees. A flexible ring net VX160-H4 with load-cells was installed together with a video camera and four geophones. In addition, a meteorological station completed the instrumentation. During 2009, the monitoring of two additional catchments has been set up; Senet in the Axial Pyrenees and Ensija in the Pre-Pyrenees. Four geophones and one ultrasonic device are installed along the torrent in order to determine the flow velocity and flow depth/discharge of the events. As in Erill, a meteorological station completes the devices and measures rainfall and temperature. The main objective of the three monitoring stations is to get some insights on how the Mediterranean climate influences the critical rainfall for debris-flow initiation. The flow behaviour of debris flows is another major goal, while the Erill test site focuses basically on the effectiveness of flexible ring nets. In addition, the Erill installation also acts as protection for the village located on the fan. The calibration, installation and analysis during the testing phase showed that a correct implementation of the different sensors is not an easy task and needs knowledge in geophysics, electronics, telecommunications etc. Especially geophones and ultrasonic devices need special attentions. Geophone outputs are strongly affected by the type of underground and the distance to the torrent, while the measures of the ultrasonic sensor clearly depend on the temperature. To simplify the data storage

  9. A high-pressure vessel for X-ray diffraction experiments for liquids in a wide temperature range

    CERN Document Server

    Hosokawa, S

    2001-01-01

    An internally heated high-pressure vessel was developed for angle-dispersive X-ray scattering experiments on liquids at high-temperatures and high-pressures. It consists of a closed-end Al cylinder and a steel flange. Continuous windows made of Be cover a scattering angle range up to 55 deg. In combination with a single-crystal sapphire cell and a small heating system inside the vessel, we were able to carry out diffraction measurements for liquids in a wide temperature range up to 2000 K at high pressures up to 150 bars. Some of our recent X-ray scattering experiments using synchrotron radiation, such as inelastic scattering, high-energy elastic scattering, and anomalous scattering, are also reported.

  10. Levantamento pedológico detalhado da estação experimental de Pindorama, SP Detailed soil survey of the agricultural experiment station at Pindorama, SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. F. Lepsch

    1976-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho descreve-se o levantamento detalhado dos solos da Estação Experimental de Pindorama, São Paulo, que ocupa área de 532,8 ha. O levantamento foi executado ao nível de série e foram identificadas, cartografadas e caracterizadas sete unidades de mapeamento, duas pertencentes ao grande grupo Tropudalf, uma ao grande grupo Tropudult, três ao grande grupo Paleudult e ainda um complexo de solos hidromórficos. Os solos da Unidade Pindorama, classificados como Tropudalf e correlacionados com os solos podzolizados de Lins e Marília, da Comissão de Solos são os que predominam na Estação, com 56,8% de sua área.In this paper the detailed soil survey of the Agricultural Experiment Station at Pindorama, State of São Paulo is described. The soil survey was done at the series level for the 532.8 ha of the Agricultural Experiment Station. Seven soil units were identified and the descripton and analysis of two Tropudalf, one Tropudult, three Paleudult, and a soils complex are given. A soil map at 1:10.000 scale is also presented.

  11. Swingbed Amine Carbon Dioxide Removal Flight Experiment - Feasibility Study and Concept Development for Cost-Effective Exploration Technology Maturation on The International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Edward; Papale, William; Nalette, Timothy; Graf, John; Sweterlitsch, Jeffery; Hayley, Elizabeth; Williams, Antony; Button, Amy

    2011-01-01

    The completion of International Space Station Assembly and transition to a full six person crew has created the opportunity to create and implement flight experiments that will drive down the ultimate risks and cost for human space exploration by maturing exploration technologies in realistic space environments that are impossible or incredibly costly to duplicate in terrestrial laboratories. An early opportunity for such a technology maturation experiment was recognized in the amine swingbed technology baselined for carbon dioxide and humidity control on the Orion spacecraft and Constellation Spacesuit System. An experiment concept using an existing high fidelity laboratory swing bed prototype has been evaluated in a feasibility and concept definition study leading to the conclusion that the envisioned flight experiment can be both feasible and of significant value for NASA s space exploration technology development efforts. Based on the results of that study NASA has proceeded with detailed design and implementation for the flight experiment. The study effort included the evaluation of technology risks, the extent to which ISS provided unique opportunities to understand them, and the implications of the resulting targeted risks for the experiment design and operational parameters. Based on those objectives and characteristics, ISS safety and integration requirements were examined, experiment concepts developed to address them and their feasibility assessed. This paper will describe the analysis effort and conclusions and present the resulting flight experiment concept. The flight experiment, implemented by NASA and launched in two packages in January and August 2011, integrates the swing bed with supporting elements including electrical power and controls, sensors, cooling, heating, fans, air- and water-conserving functionality, and mechanical packaging structure. It is now on board the ISS awaiting installation and activation.

  12. Tropospheric Aerosol Radiative Forcing Observational eXperiment (TARFOX) - Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer from Wallops ground station

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — TARFOX_WALLOPS_SMPS is the Tropospheric Aerosol Radiative Forcing Observational eXperiment (TARFOX) Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) data set from Wallops...

  13. The experiments Gene and Ageing performed in the International Space Station (ISS) during the Spanish Soyuz Mission

    OpenAIRE

    Marco, Roberto; Herranz, Raúl; Villa, Aida; Kirchnick, U.; Horn, Eberhard; Gasset, Gilbert; Agricola, H. J.; van Loon, Jack JWA; Medina, F. Javier

    2004-01-01

    The preliminary results of the analysis of the AGEING and GENE experiments with Drosophila melanogaster performed in the ISS during the “Cervantes Mission” (Spanish Soyuz Mission) in October 2003 will be presented. In the Ageing experiment eight so-called miniaquaria containers incorporating one transparent wall loaded with 50 male flies each of four strains of different longevity and geotactic response were launched in a Soyuz capsule and maintained in the 22o Aquarius incubat...

  14. Observation Platform for Dynamic Biomedical and Biotechnology Experiments Using the International Space Station (ISS) Light Microscopy Module (LMM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurk, Michael A. (Andy)

    2015-01-01

    Techshot, Inc., has developed an observation platform for the LMM on the ISS that will enable biomedical and biotechnology experiments. The LMM Dynamic Stage consists of an electronics module and the first two of a planned suite of experiment modules. Specimens and reagent solutions can be injected into a small, hollow microscope slide-the heart of the innovation-via a combination of small reservoirs, pumps, and valves. A life science experiment module allows investigators to load up to two different fluids for on-orbit, real-time image cytometry. Fluids can be changed to initiate a process, fix biological samples, or retrieve suspended cells. A colloid science experiment module conducts microparticle and nanoparticle tests for investigation of colloid self-assembly phenomena. This module includes a hollow glass slide and heating elements for the creation of a thermal gradient from one end of the slide to the other. The electronics module supports both experiment modules and contains a unique illuminator/condenser for bright and dark field and phase contrast illumination, power supplies for two piezoelectric pumps, and controller boards for pumps and valves. This observation platform safely contains internal fluids and will greatly accelerate the research and development (R&D) cycle of numerous experiments, products, and services aboard the ISS.

  15. Further experience with amine form operation of deep bed, full flow condensate polishers at Millstone power station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crone, Lewis E. [Dominion Energy, Inc., Waterford, CT (United States). Millstone Nuclear Power Station

    2012-03-15

    This paper reports on a process for converting and operating deep bed condensate polishing resins in the amine form that has been designed, tested, and implemented at Dominion's Millstone Power Station. The plant employs amine form polishers as part of a strategy to reduce balance of plant corrosion and iron transport, while continuously providing protection of the primary pressure boundary inside the steam generators from chemical assault in the event of a condenser tube leak. Over the last year, Millstone Unit 2 (MP2) has been able to elevate secondary cycle pH to a level congruent with non-polishing plants, and the corresponding decrease in iron transport has allowed Millstone 2 to enter the industry top decile for final feedwater iron concentration. The paper describes the method by which MP2 was able to increase pH using a combination of hydrazine injection and full flow amine form polishers, and the effect on steam generator and balance of plant control parameters. (orig.)

  16. Optical Analysis of Impact Features in Aerogel From the Orbital Debris Collection Experiment on the MIR Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoerz, Friedrich; Cress, Glen; Zolensky, Mike; See, Thomas H.; Bernhard, Ronald P.; Warren, Jack L.

    1999-08-01

    The Mir Environmental Effects Package (MEEP) was deployed on the Mir station and retrieved after 18 months in space. The payload included the orbital debris collector (ODC), designed and built at the Johnson Space Center to capture and return analyzable residues of the man-made and natural particulate environment in low-Earth orbit for a detailed assessment of its compositional makeup and potential origins. The ODC exposed 2 identical trays, with highly porous, low-density SiO2 aerogel as the basic collector medium, pointed in opposite directions. The aerogel was expected to gently decelerate and capture hypervelocity particles, as opposed to other media that resulted in melting or vaporization of many impactors. Even cursory examination of the returned ODC collectors revealed a surprising variety of impact features. The compositional analyses using scanning electron "miccroscope-energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy concentrated on a survey-type inventory of diverse particle types and associated impact features. Detections, in the form of carrot-shaped tracks and shallow pits, included metallic Al, stainless steel, soldering compounds, human waste, and paint flakes. Many pits contained no detectable impactor residue (it was assumed to have vaporized), but most of the tracks contained analyzable residue. The study showed that aerogel would be useful for future low-velocity impact analysis.

  17. First operational experience with the LHC machine protection system when operating with beam energies beyond the 100MJ range

    CERN Document Server

    Assmann, R; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Goddard, B; Lamont, M; Schmidt, R; Siemko, A; Uythoven, J; Wenninger, J; Zerlauth, M

    2012-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN has made remarkable progress during 2011, surpassing its ambitious goal for the year in terms of luminosity delivered to the LHC experiments. This achievement was made possible by a progressive increase of beam intensities by more than 5 orders of magnitude during the first months of operation, reaching stored beam energies beyond the 100MJ range at the end of the year, less than a factor of 4 from the nominal design value. The correct functioning of the machine protection systems is vital during the different operational phases, for initial operation and even more when approaching nominal beam parameters where already a small fraction of the stored energy is sufficient to damage accelerator equipment or experiments in case of uncontrolled beam loss. Safe operation of the machine in presence of such high intensity proton beams is guaranteed by the interplay of many different systems: beam dumping system, beam interlocks, beam instrumentation, equipment monitoring, colli...

  18. Basis to demonstrate compliance with the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for the Stand-off Experiments Range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Sandvig

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide the basis and the documentation to demonstrate general compliance with the National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPS) 40 CFR 61 Subpart H, “National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other Than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities,” (the Standard) for outdoor linear accelerator operations at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Stand-off Experiments Range (SOX). The intent of this report is to inform and gain acceptance of this methodology from the governmental bodies regulating the INL.

  19. A Hardware and Software Perspective of the Fifth Materials on the International Space Station Experiment (MISSE-5)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasowski, Michael; Greer, Lawrence; Flatico, Joseph; Jenkins, Phillip; Spina, Dan

    2005-01-01

    Conducting space experiments with small budgets is a fact of life for many design groups with low-visibility science programs. One major consequence is that specialized space grade electronic components are often too costly to incorporate into the design. Radiation mitigation now becomes more complex as a result of being restricted to the use of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) parts. Unique hardware and software design techniques are required to succeed in producing a viable instrument suited for use in space. This paper highlights some of the design challenges and associated solutions encountered in the production of a highly capable, low cost space experiment package.

  20. Prevalence and Molecular Diagnosis of Babesia ovis and Theileria ovis in Lohi Sheep at Livestock Experiment Station (LES, Bahadurnagar, Okara, Pakistan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waseem Shahzad

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Babesia ovis and Theileria ovis are among the important and main etiological agents causing ovine babesiosis and ovine theileriosis, causing severe economic losses among sheep and goats. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence and molecular diagnosis of B. ovis and T. ovis in Lohi sheep at Livestock Experiment Station Bahadurnagar, Okara, Pakistan.The prevalence of B. ovis and T. ovis was investigated in 200 Lohi sheep of mixed age and sex by PCR during 2011. The assay was employed using primers Bbo-F & Bbo-R, specific for a 549-bp fragment in B. ovis genomic DNA and primers TSsr 170F & TSsr 670R, specific for a 520-bp fragment in T. ovis genomic DNA. The animals were also screened for both haemoparasites through stained thin blood smears.Thirty two (16%, 48 (24% and 26 (13% were the number of animals found positive for B. ovis, T. ovis and for mixed infection with both parasites, respectively, through microscopy. Sixty eight (34%, 73 (37% and 42 (21% were the number of animals found positive for B. ovis, T. ovis and for mixed infection with both parasites, respectively, through PCR test.The results indicate the high sensitivity of PCR for surveying babesiosis and theileriosis and there is noteworthy prevalence of these diseases in sheep at an experimental station where environmental conditions are relatively controlled as compared to field conditions.

  1. Mathematical Model and Calibration Experiment of a Large Measurement Range Flexible Joints 6-UPUR Six-Axis Force Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanzhi Zhao

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays improving the accuracy and enlarging the measuring range of six-axis force sensors for wider applications in aircraft landing, rocket thrust, and spacecraft docking testing experiments has become an urgent objective. However, it is still difficult to achieve high accuracy and large measuring range with traditional parallel six-axis force sensors due to the influence of the gap and friction of the joints. Therefore, to overcome the mentioned limitations, this paper proposed a 6-Universal-Prismatic-Universal-Revolute (UPUR joints parallel mechanism with flexible joints to develop a large measurement range six-axis force sensor. The structural characteristics of the sensor are analyzed in comparison with traditional parallel sensor based on the Stewart platform. The force transfer relation of the sensor is deduced, and the force Jacobian matrix is obtained using screw theory in two cases of the ideal state and the state of flexibility of each flexible joint is considered. The prototype and loading calibration system are designed and developed. The K value method and least squares method are used to process experimental data, and in errors of kind Ι and kind II linearity are obtained. The experimental results show that the calibration error of the K value method is more than 13.4%, and the calibration error of the least squares method is 2.67%. The experimental results prove the feasibility of the sensor and the correctness of the theoretical analysis which are expected to be adopted in practical applications.

  2. Observation Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Heather

    2011-01-01

    This article describes how a teacher integrates science observations into the writing center. At the observation station, students explore new items with a science theme and use their notes and questions for class writings every day. Students are exposed to a variety of different topics and motivated to write in different styles all while…

  3. Reliability of knee joint range of motion and circumference measurements after total knee arthroplasty: does tester experience matter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Thomas Linding; Christensen, Malene; Christensen, Stine Sommer

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Two of the most utilized outcome measures to assess knee joint range of motion (ROM) and intra-articular effusion are goniometry and circumference, respectively. Neither goniometry nor circumference of the knee joint have been examined for both intra-tester and inter......-tester in patients with total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The purpose of this study was to determine the intra-tester and inter-tester reliability of active and passive knee joint ROM and circumference in patients with TKA when administered by physiotherapists (testers) with different clinical experience. METHOD......: The design was an intra-tester, inter-tester and intra-day reliability study. Nineteen outpatients (10 females) having received a TKA were examined by an inexperienced and an experienced physiotherapist. Following a standardized protocol, active and passive knee joint ROM and circumference measurements were...

  4. Short-time dynamics of lysozyme solutions with competing short-range attraction and long-range repulsion: Experiment and theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riest, Jonas; Nägele, Gerhard; Liu, Yun; Wagner, Norman J; Godfrin, P Douglas

    2018-02-14

    Recently, atypical static features of microstructural ordering in low-salinity lysozyme protein solutions have been extensively explored experimentally and explained theoretically based on a short-range attractive plus long-range repulsive (SALR) interaction potential. However, the protein dynamics and the relationship to the atypical SALR structure remain to be demonstrated. Here, the applicability of semi-analytic theoretical methods predicting diffusion properties and viscosity in isotropic particle suspensions to low-salinity lysozyme protein solutions is tested. Using the interaction potential parameters previously obtained from static structure factor measurements, our results of Monte Carlo simulations representing seven experimental lysoyzme samples indicate that they exist either in dispersed fluid or random percolated states. The self-consistent Zerah-Hansen scheme is used to describe the static structure factor, S(q), which is the input to our calculation schemes for the short-time hydrodynamic function, H(q), and the zero-frequency viscosity η. The schemes account for hydrodynamic interactions included on an approximate level. Theoretical predictions for H(q) as a function of the wavenumber q quantitatively agree with experimental results at small protein concentrations obtained using neutron spin echo measurements. At higher concentrations, qualitative agreement is preserved although the calculated hydrodynamic functions are overestimated. We attribute the differences for higher concentrations and lower temperatures to translational-rotational diffusion coupling induced by the shape and interaction anisotropy of particles and clusters, patchiness of the lysozyme particle surfaces, and the intra-cluster dynamics, features not included in our simple globular particle model. The theoretical results for the solution viscosity, η, are in qualitative agreement with our experimental data even at higher concentrations. We demonstrate that semi

  5. Mineral weathering experiments to explore the effects of vegetation shifts in high mountain region (Wind River Range, Wyoming, USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavris, Christian; Furrer, Gerhard; Dahms, Dennis; Anderson, Suzanne P.; Blum, Alex; Goetze, Jens; Wells, Aaron; Egli, Markus

    2015-04-01

    Climate change influences the evolution of soil and landscape. With changing climate, both flora and fauna must adapt to new conditions. It is unknown in many respects to what extent soils will react to warming and vegetation change. The aim of this study was to identify possible consequences for soils in a dry-alpine region with respect to weathering of primary minerals and leaching of elements under expected warming climate conditions due to shifts in vegetation. To achieve this, a field empirical approach was used in combination with laboratory weathering experiments simulating several scenarios. Study sites located in Sinks Canyon and in Stough Basin of the Wind River Range, Wyoming, USA, encompass ecotones that consist of tundra, forest, or sagebrush (from moist to dry, with increasing temperature, respectively). All soils are developed on granitoid moraines. The mineralogy of the soils along the altitudinal sequence was analysed using cathodoluminescence and X-ray diffraction, and revealed clear mineral transformations: biotite and plagioclase were both weathered to smectite while plagioclase also weathered to kaolinite. Cooler, wetter, altitude-dependent conditions seemed to promote weathering of these primary minerals. To test the impact of soil solutions from different ecotones on mineral weathering, aqueous extracts from topsoils (A horizons) were reacted with subsoils (B horizons) in batch experiments. Aqueous extracts of topsoil samples were generated for all three ecotones, and these solutions were characterized. For the batch experiments, the topsoil extracts were reacted for 1800 hours with the subsoil samples of the same ecotone, or with the subsoil samples from higher altitude ecotones. Solutions collected periodically during the experiments were measured using ICP-OES and ion chromatography. Dissolved Ca, Mg and K were mainly controlled by the chemical weathering of oligoclase, K-feldspar and biotite. With increasing altitude (and consequently

  6. Spatial Variability in Ozone and CO2 Flux during the Front Range Air Pollution and Photochemistry Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almand-Hunter, B.; Piedrahita, R.; Kaushik, A.; Noone, D. C.; Walker, J. T.; Hannigan, M.

    2014-12-01

    Air quality problems persist in the Northern Front-Range Metropolitan Area (NFRMA) of Colorado despite efforts to reduce emissions, and summertime ozone concentrations frequently exceed the NAAQS. Atmospheric modeling in the NFRMA is challenging due to the complex topography of the area, as well as diversity of pollutant sources (urban NOx and VOCs, power plants, oil and gas, agricultural emissions, biogenic emissions, and wildfires). An improved understanding of the local atmospheric chemistry will enable researchers to advance atmospheric models, which will subsequently be used to develop and test more effective air quality management strategies. The Front Range Air Pollution and Photochemistry Experiment (FRAPPE) investigates this problem through detailed examination of atmospheric chemistry in the NFRMA. Our project specifically explores the spatial variability in ozone (O3) concentration and dry deposition within the FRAPPE study area. One source of uncertainty in atmospheric models is O3 flux, which varies spatially due to local meteorology and variation in ambient concentration and deposition velocity. Model grid cells typically range in size from 10-100 km and 100-500 km, for regional and global models, respectively, and accurate representations of an entire grid cell cannot always be achieved. Large spatial variability within a model grid cell can lead to poor estimates of trace-gas flux and concentration. Our research addresses this issue by measuring spatial variability in O3 flux using low-cost dry-deposition flux chambers. We are measuring O3 and CO2 flux with 5 low-cost flux chambers and one eddy-covariance tower. The eddy-covariance tower is located at the Boulder Atmospheric Observatory in Erie, CO. All 5 chambers are within a 8.3 x 6 km square, with one chamber collocated with the eddy-covariance tower, and the other 4 chambers at distances of 0.33, 1.14, 3.22, and 7.55 km from the tower. The largest distance between any two chambers is 8.5 km. All

  7. Performance of the Electromagnetic Calorimeter of AMS-02 on the International Space Station ans measurement of the positronic fraction in the 1.5 – 350 GeV energy range

    CERN Document Server

    Basara, Laurent

    The AMS-02 experiment is a particle detector installed on the International Space Station (ISS) since May 2011, which measures the characteristics of the cosmic rays to bring answers to the problematics risen by the astroparticle physics since a few decades, in particular the study of dark matter and the search of antimatter. The phenomenological aspects of the physics of cosmic rays are reviewed in a first part. A second one describes the in-flight performances of the different subdetectors of AMS-02, in particular the electromagnetic calorimeter. It is shown, using particles at the ionizing minimum (MIPs), accounting for the main part of cosmic rays, that the calorimeter works as expected, and we find the same performances as on ground. This study is used to follow in time the evolution of the detector performances. It also allows to develop a charge estimator for the nuclei using the calorimeter. A third and final part, deals with the determination of the positronic fraction. The main difficulty of this me...

  8. Decadal trends in atmospheric deposition in a high elevation station: Effects of climate and pollution on the long-range flux of metals and trace elements over SW Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camarero, Lluís; Bacardit, Montserrat; de Diego, Alberto; Arana, Gorka

    2017-10-01

    Atmospheric deposition collected at remote, high elevation stations is representative of long-range transport of elements. Here we present time-series of Al, Fe, Ti, Mn, Zn, Ni, Cu, As, Cd and Pb deposition sampled in the Central Pyrenees at 2240 m a.s.l, representative of the fluxes of these elements over South West Europe. Trace element deposition did not show a simple trend. Rather, there was statistical evidence of several underlying factors governing the variability of the time-series recorded: seasonal cycles, trends, the effects of the amount of precipitation, climate-controlled export of dust, and changes in anthropogenic emissions. Overall, there were three main modes of variation in deposition. The first mode was related to North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), and affected Al, Fe, Ti, Mn and Pb. We interpret this as changes in the dust export from Northern Africa under the different meteorological conditions that the NAO index indicates. The second mode was an upward trend related to a rise in the frequency of precipitation events (that also lead to an increase in the amount). More frequent events might cause a higher efficiency in the scavenging of aerosols. As, Cu and Ni responded to this. And finally, the third mode of variation was related to changes in anthropogenic emissions of Pb and Zn.

  9. Beginnings of range management: an anthology of the Sampson-Ellison photo plots (1913 to 2003) and a short history of the Great Basin Experiment Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    David A. Prevedel; E. Durant McArthur; Curtis M. Johnson

    2005-01-01

    High-elevation watersheds on the Wasatch Plateau in central Utah were severely overgrazed in the late 1800s, resulting in catastrophic flooding and mudflows through adjacent communities. Affected citizens petitioned the Federal government to establish a Forest Reserve (1902), and the Manti National Forest was established by the Transfer Act of 1905. The Great Basin...

  10. Reliability of knee joint range of motion and circumference measurements after total knee arthroplasty: does tester experience matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsen, Thomas Linding; Christensen, Malene; Christensen, Stine Sommer; Olsen, Marie; Bandholm, Thomas

    2010-09-01

    Two of the most utilized outcome measures to assess knee joint range of motion (ROM) and intra-articular effusion are goniometry and circumference, respectively. Neither goniometry nor circumference of the knee joint have been examined for both intra-tester and inter-tester in patients with total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The purpose of this study was to determine the intra-tester and inter-tester reliability of active and passive knee joint ROM and circumference in patients with TKA when administered by physiotherapists (testers) with different clinical experience. The design was an intra-tester, inter-tester and intra-day reliability study. Nineteen outpatients (10 females) having received a TKA were examined by an inexperienced and an experienced physiotherapist. Following a standardized protocol, active and passive knee joint ROM and circumference measurements were obtained using a universal goniometer and a tape measure, respectively. To establish reliability, intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC(2,1)) and smallest real difference (SRD) were calculated. The knee joint ROM and circumference measurements were generally reliable (ICC > 0.8) within and between physiotherapists (except passive knee extension). Changes in knee joint ROM of more than 6.6 degrees and 10 degrees (except active knee flexion) and knee joint circumference of more than 1.0 cm and 1.63 cm represent a real clinical improvement (SRD) or deterioration for a single individual within and between physiotherapists, respectively. Generally, the experienced tester recorded larger knee joint ROM and lower circumference values than that of the inexperienced tester. In clinical practice, we suggest that repeated knee goniometric and circumferential measurements should be recorded by the same physiotherapist in individual patients with TKA. Tester experience appears not to influence the degree of reliability. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Water chemistry of Rocky Mountain Front Range aquatic ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert C. Musselman; Laura Hudnell; Mark W. Williams; Richard A. Sommerfeld

    1996-01-01

    A study of the water chemistry of Colorado Rocky Mountain Front Range alpine/subalpine lakes and streams in wilderness ecosystems was conducted during the summer of 1995 by the USDA Forest Service Arapaho and Roosevelt National Forests and Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, and the University of Colorado Institute of Alpine and Arctic Research. Data...

  12. Conveying International Space Station Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goza, Sharon P.

    2017-01-01

    Over 1,000 experiments have been completed, and others are being conducted and planed on the International Space Station (ISS). In order to make the information on these experiments accessible, the IGOAL develops mobile applications to easily access this content and video products to convey high level concepts. This presentation will feature the Space Station Research Explorer as well as several publicly available video examples.

  13. LIFE experiment: isolation of cryptoendolithic organisms from Antarctic colonized sandstone exposed to space and simulated Mars conditions on the international space station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalzi, Giuliano; Selbmann, Laura; Zucconi, Laura; Rabbow, Elke; Horneck, Gerda; Albertano, Patrizia; Onofri, Silvano

    2012-06-01

    Desiccated Antarctic rocks colonized by cryptoendolithic communities were exposed on the International Space Station (ISS) to space and simulated Mars conditions (LiFE-Lichens and Fungi Experiment). After 1.5 years in space samples were retrieved, rehydrated and spread on different culture media. Colonies of a green alga and a pink-coloured fungus developed on Malt-Agar medium; they were isolated from a sample exposed to simulated Mars conditions beneath a 0.1 % T Suprasil neutral density filter and from a sample exposed to space vacuum without solar radiation exposure, respectively. None of the other flight samples showed any growth after incubation. The two organisms able to grow were identified at genus level by Small SubUnit (SSU) and Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) rDNA sequencing as Stichococcus sp. (green alga) and Acarospora sp. (lichenized fungal genus) respectively. The data in the present study provide experimental information on the possibility of eukaryotic life transfer from one planet to another by means of rocks and of survival in Mars environment.

  14. Genotoxicity testing on the international space station: Preparatory work on the SOS-LUX test as part of the space experiment TRIPLE-LUX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojicic, Nevena; Walrafen, David; Baumstark-Khan, Christa; Rabbow, Elke; Rettberg, Petra; Weisshaar, Maria-Paz; Horneck, Gerda

    Harmful environmental factors - namely ionizing radiation - will continue to influence future manned space missions. The Radiation Biology Unit at the German Aerospace Center (DLR) develops cellular monitoring systems, which include bacterial and mammalian cell systems capable of recognizing DNA damage as a consequence of the presence of genotoxic conditions. Such a bioassay is the SOS-LUX test, which represents the radiobiological part of the German space experiment "Gene, immune and cellular responses to single and combined space flight conditions (TRIPLE-LUX)" which has been selected by the IDI/USRA Peer Review Panel for NASA/ESA to be performed on the International Space Station (ISS). It will supply basic information on the genotoxic response to radiation applied in microgravity. The biological end-point under investigation will depend on the bacterial SOS response brought about by genetically modified bacteria that are transformed with the pSWITCH plasmid (constructed from the plasmids pPLS-1 and pGFPuv). The luminescent/fluorescent bioassay SWITCH (SWITCH: Salmonella Weighting of Induced Toxicity Cyto/GenoTox for Human Health) as successor of the SOS-LUX test for rapid toxicity (genotoxicity and cytotoxicity) testing, makes use of two sensing and reporting systems for the two biological endpoints under investigation: the SOS-LUX test and the LAC- Fluoro test. The SWITCH plasmid carries the promoterless lux operon of Photobacterium leiognathi as reporter element under the control of the DNA-damage-dependent SOS promoter of ColD as sensor element (for genotoxicity testing) and the sequences for a hybrid protein consisting of β-galactosidase and GFPuv of Aequorea victoria as reporter element under the control of the (in Salmonella constitutively active) LAC promoter of Escherichia coli as sensor element (for cytotoxicity testing). The system has worked properly for terrestrial applications during the first experiments. Experiments using X-rays and UV radiation

  15. Space Station Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Charles E. (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    The manned Space Station will exist as an isolated system for periods of up to 90 days. During this period, safe drinking water and breathable air must be provided for an eight member crew. Because of the large mass involved, it is not practical to consider supplying the Space Station with water from Earth. Therefore, it is necessary to depend upon recycled water to meet both the human and nonhuman water needs on the station. Sources of water that will be recycled include hygiene water, urine, and cabin humidity condensate. A certain amount of fresh water can be produced by CO2 reduction process. Additional fresh water will be introduced into the total pool by way of food, because of the free water contained in food and the water liberated by metabolic oxidation of the food. A panel of scientists and engineers with extensive experience in the various aspects of wastewater reuse was assembled for a 2 day workshop at NASA-Johnson. The panel included individuals with expertise in toxicology, chemistry, microbiology, and sanitary engineering. A review of Space Station water reclamation systems was provided.

  16. Growth of In x Ga1-x Sb alloy semiconductor at the International Space Station (ISS) and comparison with terrestrial experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inatomi, Y; Sakata, K; Arivanandhan, M; Rajesh, G; Nirmal Kumar, V; Koyama, T; Momose, Y; Ozawa, T; Okano, Y; Hayakawa, Y

    2015-01-01

    In x Ga1-x Sb is an important material that has tunable properties in the infrared (IR) region and is suitable for IR-device applications. Since the quality of crystals relies on growth conditions, the growth process of alloy semiconductors can be examined better under microgravity (μG) conditions where convection is suppressed. To investigate the dissolution and growth process of In x Ga1-x Sb alloy semiconductors via a sandwiched structure of GaSb(seed)/InSb/GaSb(feed) under normal and μG conditions. In x Ga1-x Sb crystals were grown at the International Space Station (ISS) under μG conditions, and a similar experiment was conducted under terrestrial conditions (1G) using the vertical gradient freezing (VGF) method. The grown crystals were cut along the growth direction and its growth properties were studied. The indium composition and growth rate of grown crystals were calculated. The shape of the growth interface was nearly flat under μG, whereas under 1G, it was highly concave with the initial seed interface being nearly flat and having facets at the peripheries. The quality of the μG crystals was better than that of the 1G samples, as the etch pit density was low in the μG sample. The growth rate was higher under μG compared with 1G. Moreover, the growth started at the peripheries under 1G, whereas it started throughout the seed interface under μG. Kinetics played a dominant role under 1G. The suppressed convection under μG affected the dissolution and growth process of the In x Ga1-x Sb alloy semiconductor.

  17. The role of the National Bison Range in the long-term management of Federal bison herds

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Proposal for "The role of the National Bison Range in the long-term management of Federal bison herds" project created by the Texas Agricultural Experiment Station...

  18. [Results of measuring neutron dose inside the Russian segment of the International Space Station using bubble detectors in experiment Matreshka-R].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernykh, I V; Liagushin, V I; Akatov, Iu A; Arkhangel'skiĭ, V V; Petrov, V M; Shurshakov, V A; Mashrafi, R; Garrow, H; Ing, M; Smith, M; Tomi, L

    2010-01-01

    Distribution of neutron equivalent dose both inside and outside the spherical phantom (experiment Matryeshka-R) was determined with the help of dedicated research equipment "Bubble-dosimeter". Equipment is built up from an automatic bubbles counter and 8 bubble detectors of neutrons with energy ranging from approximately 200 keV to 15 MeV. Measurements inside the ISS were made in several 7-day sessions in the period from April 2006 till October 2007 (ISS increments 13-15). According to the bubble detectors on the outside of the phantom, ambient neutron dose H*(10) was equal to 0.1 mSv/d or approximately 20% of the dose from charged particles inside the ISS. In the tissue-equivalent phantom, neutron dose was 1.2 +/- 0.2 times less as compared with the phantom surface which characterized the degree of dose attenuation in cosmonaut's body.

  19. Linked Station Neighbors

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Communications Commission — This file that is a subset of the Linked-Station Set file. This file specifies, for each U.S. or impeding Canadian station part of a linked station set, the set of...

  20. Reactive nitrogen in Rocky Mountain National Park during the Front Range Air Pollution and Photochemistry Experiment (FRAPPÉ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prenni, A. J.; Benedict, K. B.; Evanoski-Cole, A. R.; Zhou, Y.; Sullivan, A.; Day, D.; Sive, B. C.; Zondlo, M. A.; Schichtel, B. A.; Vimont, J.; Collett, J. L., Jr.

    2014-12-01

    The Front Range Air Pollution and Photochemistry Éxperiment (FRAPPÉ) took place in July-August 2014. This collaborative study was aimed at characterizing those processes which control air quality along Colorado's Front Range. Although the study was largely focused on ozone, an additional goal of the study included characterizing contributions from Front Range sources and long-range transport to total reactive nitrogen in Rocky Mountain National Park (ROMO). Import of reactive nitrogen into ROMO and other pristine, high elevation areas has the potential to negatively impact terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. We present measurements of reactive nitrogen species measured within ROMO during FRAPPÉ, and compare these data to measurements made in the surrounding areas. At our monitoring site in ROMO, co-located with IMPROVE and CASTNet monitoring, measurements of NO, NO2, NOx, NOy, NH3, and total reactive nitrogen (TNx) were made at high time resolution. Additional measurements of NH3, HNO3 and PM2.5 ions were made at hourly resolution using a MARGA and also at 24-hour time resolution using URG denuder-filter pack sampling. Precipitation samples also were collected to quantify wet deposition of ammonium, nitrate, and organic nitrogen. Finally, measurements of organic gases were made using online gas chromatography and proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry. Preliminary results for ammonia show both a diel pattern, with concentrations increasing each morning, and a strong dependence on wind direction, implicating the importance of transport. Higher concentrations of NOx and NOy also were observed in the daytime, but in general these patterns differed from that of ammonia. Several upslope events were observed during the measurement period during which NOx, NH3, 2-propylnitrate, 2-butylnitrate, ethane, butane, and pentane were observed to increase in concentration along with ozone.

  1. Experiments and simulations show how long-range contacts can form in expanded unfolded proteins with negligible secondary structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Wenli; Lyle, Nicholas; Luan, Bowu; Raleigh, Daniel P; Pappu, Rohit V

    2013-02-05

    The sizes of unfolded proteins under highly denaturing conditions scale as N(0.59) with chain length. This suggests that denaturing conditions mimic good solvents, whereby the preference for favorable chain-solvent interactions causes intrachain interactions to be repulsive, on average. Beyond this generic inference, the broader implications of N(0.59) scaling for quantitative descriptions of denatured state ensembles (DSEs) remain unresolved. Of particular interest is the degree to which N(0.59) scaling can simultaneously accommodate intrachain attractions and detectable long-range contacts. Here we present data showing that the DSE of the N-terminal domain of the L9 (NTL9) ribosomal protein in 8.3 M urea lacks detectable secondary structure and forms expanded conformations in accord with the expected N(0.59) scaling behavior. Paramagnetic relaxation enhancements, however, indicate the presence of detectable long-range contacts in the denatured-state ensemble of NTL9. To explain these observations we used atomistic thermal unfolding simulations to identify ensembles whose properties are consistent with all of the experimental observations, thus serving as useful proxies for the DSE of NTL9 in 8.3 M urea. Analysis of these ensembles shows that residual attractions are present under mimics of good solvent conditions, and for NTL9 they result from low-likelihood, medium/long-range contacts between hydrophobic residues. Our analysis provides a quantitative framework for the simultaneous observation of N(0.59) scaling and low-likelihood long-range contacts for the DSE of NTL9. We propose that such low-likelihood intramolecular hydrophobic clusters might be a generic feature of DSEs that play a gatekeeping role to protect against aggregation during protein folding.

  2. Demolition of the Rheinsberg nuclear power station. Current status, special occurrences, experience; Der Rueckbau des KKW Rheinsberg. Aktueller Stand, Besonderheiten, Erfahrungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, F. [EWN Energiewerke Nord GmbH, Betriebsteil Kernkraftwerk Rheinsberg (Germany)

    2008-04-15

    The Rheinsberg nuclear power station (KKR), like the Greifswald nuclear power station (KGR), is part of Energiewerke Nord GmbH (EWN). Consequently, the demolition strategy, the licensing strategy, the waste management strategy, and project management of both demolition projects follow the principles valid at EWN. As KKR and KGR are located in different federal states, 2 nuclear supervisory authorities in the respective federal states are competent. One licensing procedure applying to both locations was out of the question. In addition to the administrative setup and the technical parameters, there are also differences and special features in the technical equipment of the 2 nuclear power plants and the conditions applying at the locations of KGR and KKR, which must be taken into account. The article refers to some key items of decommissioning the Rheinsberg nuclear power station in the period between 2002 and 2007. On the whole, demolition of the Rheinsberg nuclear power station has progressed well. By late 2007, approx. 76% of the equipment to be demolished has been dismantled. Demolition of the equipment of KKR is to be completed probably by 2012. Since the closure of the Morsleben repository for radioactive waste (ERAM) in September 1998, the solid radioactive waste arising has been disposed of in the Nord interim store (ZLN) near Lubmin. (orig.)

  3. Hydrogen Filling Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, Robert F; Sabacky, Bruce; Anderson II, Everett B; Haberman, David; Al-Hassin, Mowafak; He, Xiaoming; Morriseau, Brian

    2010-02-24

    future. Project partners also conducted a workshop on hydrogen safety and permitting. This provided an opportunity for the various permitting agencies and end users to gather to share experiences and knowledge. As a result of this workshop, the permitting process for the hydrogen filling station on the Las Vegas Valley Water District’s land was done more efficiently and those who would be responsible for the operation were better educated on the safety and reliability of hydrogen production and storage. The lessons learned in permitting the filling station and conducting this workshop provided a basis for future hydrogen projects in the region. Continuing efforts to increase the working pressure of electrolysis and efficiency have been pursued. Research was also performed on improving the cost, efficiency and durability of Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) hydrogen technology. Research elements focused upon PEM membranes, electrodes/catalysts, membrane-electrode assemblies, seals, bipolar plates, utilization of renewable power, reliability issues, scale, and advanced conversion topics. Additionally, direct solar-to-hydrogen conversion research to demonstrate stable and efficient photoelectrochemistry (PEC) hydrogen production systems based on a number of optional concepts was performed. Candidate PEC concepts included technical obstacles such as inefficient photocatalysis, inadequate photocurrent due to non-optimal material band gap energies, rapid electron-hole recombination, reduced hole mobility and diminished operational lifetimes of surface materials exposed to electrolytes. Project Objective 1: Design, build, operate hydrogen filling station Project Objective 2: Perform research and development for utilizing solar technologies on the hydrogen filling station and convert two utility vehicles for use by the station operators Project Objective 3: Increase capacity of hydrogen filling station; add additional vehicle; conduct safety workshop; develop a roadmap for

  4. Status and Operations at the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Ocean Validation Experiment (COVE) - Also a Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN) Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbri, B. E.; Schuster, G. L.; Denn, F. M.; Rutan, D. A.; Madigan, J. J.; Arduini, R. F.

    2012-12-01

    25 km off the coast of Virginia, a lighthouse structure has been used for scientific measurements for over a decade. The CERES Ocean Validation Experiment (COVE) at Chesapeake Light is involved in several projects and networks. This report focuses on measurements and analysis made over the last 5 years at COVE. Being part of the BSRN network, most of the instruments at COVE are radiometers that measure both downwelling and upwelling flux at visible and infrared wavelengths. Basic meteorological parameters are also monitored. A table will show all the instrumentation and measurements being collected at COVE for the BSRN network as well as other data collections for aerosol, black carbon, total column water vapor and more. The initial motivation for COVE was to serve as a surface validation site for satellites. We compare modeled and actual downwelling shortwave and longwave measurements into 3 different sky scenarios (clear, partly cloudy and cloudy) over a number of years. Results show the best agreement for the clear sky model in both shortwave and longwave, with downwelling longwave correlating and having less mean bias than downwelling shortwave. COVE provides a wide range of measurements over an ocean environment with other examinations including aerosol studies, black carbon analysis and determination of spectral albedos from Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometers (MFRSRs). One example displays how we can use these studies and analysis to trace smoke over the COVE site and how it affects our measurements.Chesapeake Light. Home of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Ocean Validation Experiment (COVE) ` Location of Chesapeake Light. Home of COVE. 25 kilometers East of Virginia. Coordinates: 36.90 North, 75.71 West

  5. Experience-dependent enhancement of pitch-specific responses in the auditory cortex is limited to acceleration rates in normal voice range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, A; Gandour, J T; Suresh, C H

    2015-09-10

    The aim of this study is to determine how pitch acceleration rates within and outside the normal pitch range may influence latency and amplitude of cortical pitch-specific responses (CPR) as a function of language experience (Chinese, English). Responses were elicited from a set of four pitch stimuli chosen to represent a range of acceleration rates (two each inside and outside the normal voice range) imposed on the high rising Mandarin Tone 2. Pitch-relevant neural activity, as reflected in the latency and amplitude of scalp-recorded CPR components, varied depending on language-experience and pitch acceleration of dynamic, time-varying pitch contours. Peak latencies of CPR components were shorter in the Chinese than the English group across stimuli. Chinese participants showed greater amplitude than English for CPR components at both frontocentral and temporal electrode sites in response to pitch contours with acceleration rates inside the normal voice pitch range as compared to pitch contours with acceleration rates that exceed the normal range. As indexed by CPR amplitude at the temporal sites, a rightward asymmetry was observed for the Chinese group only. Only over the right temporal site was amplitude greater in the Chinese group relative to the English. These findings may suggest that the neural mechanism(s) underlying processing of pitch in the right auditory cortex reflect experience-dependent modulation of sensitivity to acceleration in just those rising pitch contours that fall within the bounds of one's native language. More broadly, enhancement of native pitch stimuli and stronger rightward asymmetry of CPR components in the Chinese group is consistent with the notion that long-term experience shapes adaptive, distributed hierarchical pitch processing in the auditory cortex, and reflects an interaction with higher order, extrasensory processes beyond the sensory memory trace. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Restoring the azimuthal symmetry of lateral distributions of charged particles in the range of the KASCADE-Grande experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sima, O., E-mail: Octavian.Sima@kit.ed [Department of Physics, University of Bucharest, Bucharest (Romania); Rebel, H.; Haungs, A. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology - Campus North, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Karlsruhe (Germany); Toma, G. [National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest (Romania); Manailescu, C.; Morariu, C. [Department of Physics, University of Bucharest, Bucharest (Romania); Arteaga, J.C. [Universidad Michoacana, Morelia (Mexico); Bekk, K. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology - Campus North, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Karlsruhe (Germany); Bertaina, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica Generale dell' Universita di Torino (Italy); Bluemer, J. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology - Campus North, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Karlsruhe (Germany); Karlsruhe Institute of Technology - Campus South, Institut fuerExperimentelle Kernphysik, Karlsruhe (Germany); Bozdog, H. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology - Campus North, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Karlsruhe (Germany); Brancus, I.M. [National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest (Romania); Chiavassa, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica Generale dell' Universita di Torino (Italy); Cosavella, F. [Max-Planck Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Souza, V. de [Universidade Sao Paolo, Sao Paolo (Brazil); Doll, P.; Engel, R. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology - Campus North, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Karlsruhe (Germany); Finger, M. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology - Campus South, Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik, Karlsruhe (Germany); Glasstetter, R. [Bergische Universitaet Wuppertal, Fachbereich Physik, Wuppertal (Germany); Grupen, C. [Universitaet Siegen, Experimentelle Teilchenphysik, Siegen (Germany)

    2011-05-11

    The reconstruction of Extensive Air Showers (EAS) observed by particle detectors at the ground is based on the characteristics of observables like the lateral particle density and the arrival times. The lateral densities, inferred for different EAS components from detector data, are usually parameterised by applying various lateral distribution functions (LDFs). The LDFs are used in turn for evaluating quantities like the total number of particles or the density at particular radial distances. Typical expressions for LDFs anticipate azimuthal symmetry of the density around the shower axis. The deviations of the lateral particle density from this assumption arising from various reasons are smoothed out in the case of compact arrays like KASCADE, but not in the case of arrays like Grande, which only sample a smaller part of the azimuthal variation. KASCADE-Grande, an extension of the former KASCADE experiment, is a multi-component Extensive Air Shower (EAS) experiment located at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Campus North), Germany. The lateral distributions of charged particles are deduced from the basic information provided by the Grande scintillators - the energy deposits - first in the observation plane, then in the intrinsic shower plane. In all steps azimuthal dependences should be taken into account. As the energy deposit in the scintillators is dependent on the angles of incidence of the particles, azimuthal dependences are already involved in the first step: the conversion from the energy deposits to the charged particle density. This is done by using the Lateral Energy Correction Function (LECF) that evaluates the mean energy deposited by a charged particle taking into account the contribution of other particles (e.g. photons) to the energy deposit. By using a very fast procedure for the evaluation of the energy deposited by various particles we prepared realistic LECFs depending on the angle of incidence of the shower and on the radial and

  7. Effect of genomic long-range correlations on DNA persistence length: from theory to single molecule experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moukhtar, Julien; Faivre-Moskalenko, Cendrine; Milani, Pascale; Audit, Benjamin; Vaillant, Cedric; Fontaine, Emeline; Mongelard, Fabien; Lavorel, Guillaume; St-Jean, Philippe; Bouvet, Philippe; Argoul, Françoise; Arneodo, Alain

    2010-04-22

    Sequence dependency of DNA intrinsic bending properties has been emphasized as a possible key ingredient to in vivo chromatin organization. We use atomic force microscopy (AFM) in air and liquid to image intrinsically straight (synthetic), uncorrelated (hepatitis C RNA virus) and persistent long-range correlated (human) DNA fragments in various ionic conditions such that the molecules freely equilibrate on the mica surface before being captured in a particular conformation. 2D thermodynamic equilibrium is experimentally verified by a detailed statistical analysis of the Gaussian nature of the DNA bend angle fluctuations. We show that the worm-like chain (WLC) model, commonly used to describe the average conformation of long semiflexible polymers, reproduces remarkably well the persistence length estimates for the first two molecules as consistently obtained from (i) mean square end-to-end distance measurement and (ii) mean projection of the end-to-end vector on the initial orientation. Whatever the operating conditions (air or liquid, concentration of metal cations Mg(2+) and/or Ni(2+)), the persistence length found for the uncorrelated viral DNA underestimates the value obtained for the straight DNA. We show that this systematic difference is the signature of the presence of an uncorrelated structural intrinsic disorder in the hepatitis C virus (HCV) DNA fragment that superimposes on local curvatures induced by thermal fluctuations and that only the entropic disorder depends upon experimental conditions. In contrast, the WLC model fails to describe the human DNA conformations. We use a mean-field extension of the WLC model to account for the presence of long-range correlations (LRC) in the intrinsic curvature disorder of human genomic DNA: the stronger the LRC, the smaller the persistence length. The comparison of AFM imaging of human DNA with LRC DNA simulations confirms that the rather small mean square end-to-end distance observed, particularly for G

  8. Long- and/or short-range transportation of local Asian aerosols in DRAGON-Osaka Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, M.; Sano, I.; Mukai, S.; Holben, B. N.

    2013-12-01

    This work intends to demonstrate the spatial and temporal variation of atmospheric particles in East Asia, especially around AERONET (Aerosol Robotics Network) -Osaka site during Dragon Asia period in the spring of 2012, named Dragon-Osaka. It is known that the air pollution in East Asia becomes to be severe due to both the increasing emissions of the anthropogenic aerosols associated with economic growth and the complicated behavior of natural aerosols. Thus the precise observations of atmospheric particles in East Asia are desired. Osaka is the second big city in Japan and a typical Asian urban area. The population of the region is around 20 millions including neighbor prefectures. Therefore, air quality in the region is slightly bad compared to remote area due to industries and auto mobiles. In recent years, Asian dusts and anthropogenic small particles transported from China and cover those cities throughout year. AERONET Osaka site was established in 2002 on the campus of Kinki University. Nowadays, LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging), an SPM sampler (SPM-613D, Kimoto Electric, Japan) and others are available on the roof of a building. The site data are useful for algorithm development of aerosol retrieval over busy city. On the other hand, human activities in this region also emit the huge amount of pollutions, thus it is needed to investigate the local distribution of aerosols in this region. In order to investigate change of aerosol properties, PM-individual analysis is made with scanning electron microscope (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analyzer (EDX). SEM/EDX is an effective instrument to observe the surface microstructure and analyze the chemical composition of such materials as metals, powders, biological specimens, etc. We used sampling data from the SPM sampler at AERONET Osaka site. During a period of DRAGON-Asia, high concentrations of air pollutant were observed on the morning of March 11 in Fukue Island in the East China Sea. On the

  9. Long Range River Discharge Forecasting Using the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) Satellite to Predict Conditions for Endemic Cholera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutla, A.; Akanda, A. S.; Colwell, R. R.

    2014-12-01

    Prediction of conditions of an impending disease outbreak remains a challenge but is achievable if the associated and appropriate large scale hydroclimatic process can be estimated in advance. Outbreaks of diarrheal diseases such as cholera, are related to episodic seasonal variability in river discharge in the regions where water and sanitation infrastructure are inadequate and insufficient. However, forecasting river discharge, few months in advance, remains elusive where cholera outbreaks are frequent, probably due to non-availability of geophysical data as well as transboundary water stresses. Here, we show that satellite derived water storage from Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment Forecasting (GRACE) sensors can provide reliable estimates on river discharge atleast two months in advance over regional scales. Bayesian regression models predicted flooding and drought conditions, a prerequisite for cholera outbreaks, in Bengal Delta with an overall accuracy of 70% for upto 60 days in advance without using any other ancillary ground based data. Forecasting of river discharge will have significant impacts on planning and designing intervention strategies for potential cholera outbreaks in the coastal regions where the disease remain endemic and often fatal.

  10. Hey] What's Space Station Freedom?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonehrenfried, Dutch

    This video, 'Hey] What's Space Station Freedom?', has been produced as a classroom tool geared toward middle school children. There are three segments to this video. Segment One is a message to teachers presented by Dr. Jeannine Duane, New Jersey, 'Teacher in Space'. Segment Two is a brief Social Studies section and features a series of Presidential Announcements by President John F. Kennedy (May 1961), President Ronald Reagan (July 1982), and President George Bush (July 1989). These historical announcements are speeches concerning the present and future objectives of the United States' space programs. In the last segment, Charlie Walker, former Space Shuttle astronaut, teaches a group of middle school children, through models, computer animation, and actual footage, what Space Station Freedom is, who is involved in its construction, how it is to be built, what each of the modules on the station is for, and how long and in what sequence this construction will occur. There is a brief animation segment where, through the use of cartoons, the children fly up to Space Station Freedom as astronauts, perform several experiments and are given a tour of the station, and fly back to Earth. Space Station Freedom will take four years to build and will have three lab modules, one from ESA and another from Japan, and one habitation module for the astronauts to live in.

  11. Hey! What's Space Station Freedom?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonehrenfried, Dutch

    1992-01-01

    This video, 'Hey! What's Space Station Freedom?', has been produced as a classroom tool geared toward middle school children. There are three segments to this video. Segment One is a message to teachers presented by Dr. Jeannine Duane, New Jersey, 'Teacher in Space'. Segment Two is a brief Social Studies section and features a series of Presidential Announcements by President John F. Kennedy (May 1961), President Ronald Reagan (July 1982), and President George Bush (July 1989). These historical announcements are speeches concerning the present and future objectives of the United States' space programs. In the last segment, Charlie Walker, former Space Shuttle astronaut, teaches a group of middle school children, through models, computer animation, and actual footage, what Space Station Freedom is, who is involved in its construction, how it is to be built, what each of the modules on the station is for, and how long and in what sequence this construction will occur. There is a brief animation segment where, through the use of cartoons, the children fly up to Space Station Freedom as astronauts, perform several experiments and are given a tour of the station, and fly back to Earth. Space Station Freedom will take four years to build and will have three lab modules, one from ESA and another from Japan, and one habitation module for the astronauts to live in.

  12. "Artificial intelligence" at streamgaging stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. B. Thomas

    1985-01-01

    Two types of problems are related to collecting hydrologic data at stream gaging stations. One includes the technical/logistical questions associated with measuring and transferring data for processing. Effort spent on these problems ranges from improving devices for sensing data to using electronic data loggers.

  13. Development of a quartz tuning-fork-based force sensor for measurements in the tens of nanoNewton force range during nanomanipulation experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oiko, V. T. A., E-mail: oiko@ifi.unicamp.br; Rodrigues, V.; Ugarte, D. [Instituto de Física “Gleb Wataghin,” Univ. Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas 13083-859 (Brazil); Martins, B. V. C. [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2R3 (Canada); Silva, P. C. [Laboratório Nacional de Nanotecnologia, CNPEM, Campinas 13083-970 (Brazil)

    2014-03-15

    Understanding the mechanical properties of nanoscale systems requires new experimental and theoretical tools. In particular, force sensors compatible with nanomechanical testing experiments and with sensitivity in the nN range are required. Here, we report the development and testing of a tuning-fork-based force sensor for in situ nanomanipulation experiments inside a scanning electron microscope. The sensor uses a very simple design for the electronics and it allows the direct and quantitative force measurement in the 1–100 nN force range. The sensor response is initially calibrated against a nN range force standard, as, for example, a calibrated Atomic Force Microscopy cantilever; subsequently, applied force values can be directly derived using only the electric signals generated by the tuning fork. Using a homemade nanomanipulator, the quantitative force sensor has been used to analyze the mechanical deformation of multi-walled carbon nanotube bundles, where we analyzed forces in the 5–40 nN range, measured with an error bar of a few nN.

  14. Operating experience with slurry-free operation with slip-free reheat of the FGD systems in Bayernwerk AG's Schwandorf power station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietl, R.; Drechsler, D. (Bayernwerk, Munich (Germany))

    1993-01-01

    At Schwandorf Bayernwerk AG operate a coal-fired power station, Units B and C each have an electrical output of 100MW and Unit D has an output of 300MW. The fuel is Czechoslovakian hard brown coal. The flue gas desulphurisation (FGD) plants were retrofitted in two stages: Units C/D in 1988 and Unit B in 1989. The desulphurisation process is a wet, two-stage method with pulverised limestone as the reagent. This process is characterised by its high level of desulphurisation and optimum limestone utilisation for all operating states and high, fluctuating SO[sub 2] concentrations. Additives are not necessary. The end product is used as landfill.

  15. Water Level Station History

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Images contain station history information for 175 stations in the National Water Level Observation Network (NWLON). The NWLON is a network of long-term,...

  16. Fire Stations - 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Fire Stations in Kansas Any location where fire fighters are stationed or based out of, or where equipment that such personnel use in carrying out their jobs is...

  17. Hammond Bay Biological Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Hammond Bay Biological Station (HBBS), located near Millersburg, Michigan, is a field station of the USGS Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC). HBBS was established by...

  18. Weather Radar Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — These data represent Next-Generation Radar (NEXRAD) and Terminal Doppler Weather Radar (TDWR) weather radar stations within the US. The NEXRAD radar stations are...

  19. Fire Stations - 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Fire Station Locations in Kansas Any location where fire fighters are stationed at or based out of, or where equipment that such personnel use in carrying out their...

  20. Streamflow Gaging Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer shows selected streamflow gaging stations of the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands, in 2013. Gaging stations, or gages, measure...

  1. Newport Research Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Newport Research Station is the Center's only ocean-port research facility. This station is located at Oregon State University's Hatfield Marine Science Center,...

  2. Big Game Reporting Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Point locations of big game reporting stations. Big game reporting stations are places where hunters can legally report harvested deer, bear, or turkey. These are...

  3. Reference Climatological Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Reference Climatological Stations (RCS) network represents the first effort by NOAA to create and maintain a nationwide network of stations located only in areas...

  4. Current Trends in Satellite Laser Ranging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearlman, M. R.; Appleby, G. M.; Kirchner, G.; McGarry, J.; Murphy, T.; Noll, C. E.; Pavlis, E. C.; Pierron, F.

    2010-01-01

    detectors are implemented. Automation and pass interleaving at some stations is already expanding temporal coverage. Web-based safety keys are allowing the SLR network stations to range to optically vulnerable satellites. Some stations are experimenting with two-wavelength operation as a means of better understanding the atmospheric refraction and with very low power laser to improve eye-safety conditions. New retroreflector designs are improving the signal link and enable daylight ranging. Dramatic improvements have also been made with lunar ranging with the new APOLLO Site in New ?Mexico, USA and the upgraded lunar station "MEO" in Grasse,

  5. A new laser-ranged satellite for General Relativity and space geodesy: II. Monte Carlo simulations and covariance analyses of the LARES 2 experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciufolini, Ignazio; Pavlis, Erricos C.; Sindoni, Giampiero; Ries, John C.; Paolozzi, Antonio; Matzner, Richard; Koenig, Rolf; Paris, Claudio

    2017-08-01

    In the previous paper we have introduced the LARES 2 space experiment. The LARES 2 laser-ranged satellite is planned for a launch in 2019 with the new VEGA C launch vehicle of the Italian Space Agency (ASI), ESA and ELV. The main objectives of the LARES 2 experiment are accurate measurements of General Relativity, gravitational and fundamental physics and accurate determinations in space geodesy and geodynamics. In particular LARES 2 is aimed to achieve a very accurate test of frame-dragging, an intriguing phenomenon predicted by General Relativity. Here we report the results of Monte Carlo simulations and covariance analyses fully confirming an error budget of a few parts in one thousand in the measurement of frame-dragging with LARES 2 as calculated in our previous paper.

  6. Space Station Biological Research Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Catherine C.; Hargens, Alan R.; Wade, Charles E.

    1995-01-01

    NASA Ames Research Center is responsible for the development of the Space Station Biological Research Project (SSBRP) which will support non-human life sciences research on the International Space Station Alpha (ISSA). The SSBRP is designed to support both basic research to understand the effect of altered gravity fields on biological systems and applied research to investigate the effects of space flight on biological systems. The SSBRP will provide the necessary habitats to support avian and reptile eggs, cells and tissues, plants and rodents. In addition a habitat to support aquatic specimens will be provided by our international partners. Habitats will be mounted in ISSA compatible racks at u-g and will also be mounted on a 2.5 m diameter centrifuge except for the egg incubator which has an internal centrifuge. The 2.5 m centrifuge will provide artificial gravity levels over the range of 0.01 G to 2 G. The current schedule is to launch the first rack in 1999, the Life Sciences glovebox and a second rack early in 2001, a 4 habitat 2.5 in centrifuge later the same year in its own module, and to upgrade the centrifuge to 8 habitats in 2004. The rodent habitats will be derived from the Advanced Animal Habitat currently under development for the Shuttle program and will be capable of housing either rats or mice individually or in groups (6 rats/group and at least 12 mice/group). The egg incubator will be an upgraded Avian Development Facility also developed for the Shuttle program through a Small Business and Innovative Research grant. The Space Tissue Loss cell culture apparatus, developed by Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, is being considered for the cell and tissue culture habitat. The Life Sciences Glovebox is crucial to all life sciences experiments for specimen manipulation and performance of science procedures. It will provide two levels of containment between the work volume and the crew through the use of seals and negative pressure. The glovebox

  7. Short-range order of undercooled melts of PdZr 2 intermetallic compound studied by X-ray and neutron scattering experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, S.; Holland-Moritz, D.; Herlach, D. M.; Mauro, N. A.; Kelton, K. F.

    2013-05-01

    The short-range order in undercooled melts of the intermetallic Zr2Pd glass-forming alloy is investigated by combining electrostatic levitation (ESL) with high-energy X-ray diffraction and neutron diffraction. Experimentally determined structure factors are measured and analyzed with respect to various structures of short-range order. The comparative X-ray and neutron scattering experiments allow for investigations of topological and chemical short-range order. Based on these studies, no preference of a specific short-range order is found for the liquid Zr2Pd glass-forming alloy, even in the metastable state of the deeply undercooled melt. This is in agreement with an earlier report from X-ray diffraction and molecular-dynamics studies of a Zr75.5Pd24.5 liquid, which showed a broad distribution of cluster types. The results for the Zr2Pd liquid are discussed with respect to the glass-forming ability of this melt.

  8. Levantamento pedológico detalhado da estação experimental de Jundiaí, SP Detailed soil survey of the agricultural experiment station at Jundiaí, SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Valadares

    1971-05-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho descreve-se o levantamento pedológico detalhado da Estação Experimental de Jundiaí, São Paulo, que ocupa área de 142 ha. O levantamento dos solos foi executado ao nível de série, e identificaram-se nove unidades. São apresentadas as descrições e as análises de cinco Inceptisols, três Ultisols e dois Oxisols. Foi elaborado um mapa pedológico, na escala de 1:5.000.In this paper the detailed soil survey of the Agricultural Experiment Station at Jundiaí, State of São Paulo, is described. The soil survey was done at the series level for the 142 ha of the Agricultural Experiment Station. Nine soil units were identified, the description and analysis of 5 Inceptisols, 3 Ultisols and 2 Oxisols are given. A soil map at 1:5,000 scale is also presented.

  9. Levantamento pedológico detalhado da estação experimental de Itararé, SP Detailed soil survey of the agricultural experiment station at Itararé, SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bertoldo de Oliveira

    1976-07-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho descreve o levantamento de solos ao nível de série, efetuado na Estação Experimental de Itararé, SP, que ocupa uma área de 495 ha. O relevo regional é representado por superfícies suavizadas esculpidas em material do Devoniano. O tipo climático é Cfa, segundo Koppen, e a vegetação primitiva, campos altimontanos. Foram observados 118 pontos em 50 dos quais foi coletado material para análise granulométrica e/ou química. Foram coletados, descritos e analisados 10 perfis e estabelecidas sete unidades de mapeamento pertencentes aos grandes grupos Inceptisol e Oxisol, e a um complexo indiscriminado.In this paper a description of a detailed soil survey in the Agricultural Experiment Station at Itararé, SP is given. The soil survey of the 495 ha of the Experiment Station was done at the series level. Seven soil units were identified and the description and analysis of four Inceptisols, and two Oxisols are presented. A soil map at 1:10,000 scale is also presented.

  10. Raising the AIQ of the Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, Henry; Heer, Ewald

    1987-01-01

    Expert systems and robotics technologies are to be significantly advanced during the Space Station program. Artificial intelligence systems (AI) on the Station will include 'scars', which will permit upgrading the AI capabilities as the Station evolves to autonomy. NASA-Ames is managing the development of the AI systems through a series of demonstrations, the first, controlling a single subsystem, to be performed in 1988. The capabilities being integrated into the first demonstration are described; however, machine learning and goal-driven natural language understanding will not reach a prototype stage until the mid-1990s. Steps which will be taken to endow the computer systems with the ability to move from heuristic reasoning to factual knowledge, i.e., learning from experience, are explored. It is noted that the development of Space Station expert systems depends on the development of experts in Station operations, which will not happen until the Station has been used extensively by crew members.

  11. Re-interpretation of the ERMINE-V experiment validation of fission product integral cross section in the fast energy range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ros Paul

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The current knowledge of nuclear data in the fast neutron energy range is not as good as in the thermal range, resulting in larger propagated uncertainties in integral quantities such as critical masses or reactivity effects. This situation makes it difficult to get the full benefit from recent advances in modeling and simulation. Zero power facilities such as the French ZPR MINERVE have already demonstrated that they can contribute to significantly reduce those uncertainties thanks to dedicated experiments. Historically, MINERVE has been mainly dedicated to thermal spectrum studies. However, experiments involving fast-thermal coupled cores were also performed in MINERVE as part of the ERMINE program, in order to improve nuclear data in fast spectra for the two French SFRs: PHENIX and SUPERPHENIX. Some of those experiments have been recently revisited. In particular, a full characterization of ZONA-1 and ZONA-3, two different cores loaded in the ERMINE V campaign, has been done, with much attention paid to possible sources of errors. It includes detailed geometric descriptions, energy profiles of the direct and adjoint fluxes and spectral indices obtained thanks to Monte Carlo calculations and compared to a reference fast core configuration. Sample oscillation experiments of separated fission products such as 103Rh or 99Tc, which were part of the ERMINE V program, have been simulated using recently-developed options in the TRIPOLI-4 code and compared to the experimental values. The present paper describes the corresponding results. The findings motivate in-depth studies for designing optimized coupled-core conditions in ZEPHYR, a new ZPR which will replace MINERVE and will provide integral data to meet the needs of Gen-III and Gen-IV reactors.

  12. Re-interpretation of the ERMINE-V experiment validation of fission product integral cross section in the fast energy range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ros, Paul; Leconte, Pierre; Blaise, Patrick; Naymeh, Laurent

    2017-09-01

    The current knowledge of nuclear data in the fast neutron energy range is not as good as in the thermal range, resulting in larger propagated uncertainties in integral quantities such as critical masses or reactivity effects. This situation makes it difficult to get the full benefit from recent advances in modeling and simulation. Zero power facilities such as the French ZPR MINERVE have already demonstrated that they can contribute to significantly reduce those uncertainties thanks to dedicated experiments. Historically, MINERVE has been mainly dedicated to thermal spectrum studies. However, experiments involving fast-thermal coupled cores were also performed in MINERVE as part of the ERMINE program, in order to improve nuclear data in fast spectra for the two French SFRs: PHENIX and SUPERPHENIX. Some of those experiments have been recently revisited. In particular, a full characterization of ZONA-1 and ZONA-3, two different cores loaded in the ERMINE V campaign, has been done, with much attention paid to possible sources of errors. It includes detailed geometric descriptions, energy profiles of the direct and adjoint fluxes and spectral indices obtained thanks to Monte Carlo calculations and compared to a reference fast core configuration. Sample oscillation experiments of separated fission products such as 103Rh or 99Tc, which were part of the ERMINE V program, have been simulated using recently-developed options in the TRIPOLI-4 code and compared to the experimental values. The present paper describes the corresponding results. The findings motivate in-depth studies for designing optimized coupled-core conditions in ZEPHYR, a new ZPR which will replace MINERVE and will provide integral data to meet the needs of Gen-III and Gen-IV reactors.

  13. The discrimination between cosmic positrons and protons with the Transition Radiation Detector of the AMS experiment on the International Space Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millinger, Mark

    2012-10-08

    of the cosmic positron fraction up to particle momenta less or equal to 1 TeV. The combination of electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL) and TRD is necessary to provide the high proton suppression factor at high momenta. This work describes the particle identification with the TRD and evaluates its performance on pre-selected events from a dataset taken on the International Space Station and from data, which have been recorded in a beamtest before the transport to the space station. The necessary algorithms, starting from event reconstruction through detector calibration up to particle identification are discussed. The TRD independent event pre-selection is used to determine the sea-level muon flux by the combination of muon event rate, as recorded on ground at Kennedy Space Center, and detector acceptance, extracted from simulations. Additionally, low-energy data recorded on the International Space Station is used to investigate the geomagnetic field. Here, the rigidity cutoff, below which particles are deflected by the geomagnetic field too much to reach the detector, is determined as function of geodetic latitude and longitude. The performance of the TRD event reconstruction on pre-selected data event samples is compared to simulations. The efficiency of consecutive reconstruction steps, assigned to geometric effects, event reconstruction, quality selection and matching of tracks is determined. The energy depositions on a track are used to disentangle lepton and proton events. Calibration algorithms are introduced to provide invariant energy deposition signal by correcting for the signal variation due to gas gain, path length and particle momentum. The performance of the calibration algorithms is evaluated by signal stability studies and their impact on the TRD particle identification performance. The TRD efficiency and proton suppression studies performed in this work are crucial steps towards the precise measurement of cosmic lepton fluxes and the cosmic positron

  14. H2moves.eu Scandinavia. ''Experience from operating a 70 MPa hydrogen refuelling station in Oslo''. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sloth, M.

    2013-02-15

    As part of the H2MOVES Scandinavia project H2 Logic were to construct a large scale hydrogen refuelling station (HRS) in Oslo providing hydrogen for FCEV's from Daimler and Hyundai in the project. The effort has provided extensive results and lessons learned across the entire process from site selection, HRS design and manufacturing to the final installation and operation. An extensive site screening of more than 30 sites in Oslo was firstly conducted to identify the most optimal location for the HRS. A suitable site was identified at the research organisation SINTEF in Gaustad in the western part of Oslo. The location was strategically well located with regards to the other HRS's in the city ensuring good refuelling coverage in Oslo. The HRS was manufactured, installed and operated by H2 Logic based on the company's H2Station technology. The HRS provides 70MPa refuelling in accordance with the SAE J2601, and operation results have confirmed refuelling times consistently below four minutes for a full tank. The HRS includes onsite electrolysis production providing a 20kg/day base load supply, with potentially additional trucking-in of hydrogen up to a total capacity of 200kg/day. The installation of the HRS took in total 10 days, from arrival at site, until first refuelling was conducted. This included local inspection by third parties and authorities as well as several days of hydrogen production and compression to reach the necessary refuelling pressure. Before opening a refuelling recommendation process was successfully conducted by Daimler. The HRS opened on 21st November 2011 and has been operated for 13,5 months during the remainder project period (ending December 2012). The HRS is expected to continue operation beyond the project. Below are shown the major operation results from the HRS during the project: 1) 701 kg dispensed; 2) 313 refueling's conducted; 3) Average availability of 97% during first half of 2012; 4) 53% of all down

  15. MLRS - A lunar/artificial satellite laser ranging facility at the McDonald Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelus, P. J.

    1985-01-01

    Experience from lunar and satellite laser ranging experiments carried out at McDonald Observatory has been used to design the McDonald Laser Ranging Station (MLRS). The MLRS is a dual-purpose installation designed to obtain observations from the LAGEOS satellite and lunar targets. The instruments used at the station include a telescope assembly 0.76 meters in diameter; a Q-switched doubled neodymium YAG laser with a pulse rate of three nanoseconds; and a GaAs photodetector with Fabry-Perot interferometric filter. A functional diagram of the system is provided. The operating parameters of the instruments are summarized in a table.

  16. INTERACT Station Catalogue - 2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    INTERACT stations are located in all major environmental envelopes of the Arctic providing an ideal platform for studying climate change and its impact on the environment and local communities. Since alpine environments face similar changes and challenges as the Arctic, the INTERACT network also...... includes some alpine stations located outside the Arctic. The INTERACT research stations provide an ideal platform for circumarctic research and monitoring. Activities span from small short term research projects to larger long term monitoring programmes. The stations are thus visited by many researchers...... and research groups. Therefore, INTERACT has produced a catalogue of research stations including descriptions of the physical setting, facilities and services offered at the stations. It is our hope that this catalogue will help researchers identify research stations that suit their specific needs. The 2015...

  17. International Space Station Video Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    A narrated overview of the construction and assembly of the International Space Station (ISS) is given through a collection of clips ranging from the launch of the Russian Proton rocket containing the Zvezda module to computerized animations showing the installation of the Zarya and Unity connecting modules. Footage from some of the space missions that assembled the ISS in space (i.e., STS-106 and STS-92) are seen. The Z1 truss (including the deployment of the solar arrays), Destiny Laboratory Module, Leonardo Module, the Japanese Kibo Experiment Module, Columbus Pressurized Module, and the ISS's robotic arm are seen. Animations show the assembly and evolution of the ISS as new components are added.

  18. Fortaleza Station Report for 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, Pierre; Pereira de Lucena, A. Macilio; Sombra da Silva, Adeildo

    2013-01-01

    This is a brief report about the activities carried out at the Fortaleza geodetic VLBI station (ROEN: R´adio Observat´orio Espacial do Nordeste), located in Eus´ebio, CE, Brazil, during the period from January until December 2012. The observing activities were resumed in May after the major maintenance that comprised the azimuth bearing replacement. The total observational experiments consisted of 103 VLBI sessions and continuous GPS monitoring recordings.

  19. MDX-station

    CERN Document Server

    Chechin, A I

    2000-01-01

    The installation for carrying out the investigations of synchrotron radiation (SR) and of electron beam diagnostics, Mossbauer and XAFS experiments was made. The installation is multipurpose due to its block construction. It consists of two precision double-crystal monochromators (range of rotation -- 360 deg. , precision -- 5'', step -- 0.545''), X-ray goniometer (range of rotation -- 360 deg. , precision -- 18'', step -- 3''), control and registration systems (time resolution 5 ns). It is possible to have fixed-in-space monochromatic SR beam.

  20. Design of the LBNF Beamline Target Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tariq, S. [Fermilab; Ammigan, K. [Fermilab; Anderson, K.; ; Buccellato, S. A. [Fermilab; Crowley, C. F. [Fermilab; Hartsell, B. D. [Fermilab; Hurh, P. [Fermilab; Hylen, J. [Fermilab; Kasper, P. [Fermilab; Krafczyk, G. E. [Fermilab; Lee, A. [Fermilab; Lundberg, B. [Fermilab; Reitzner, S. D. [Fermilab; Sidorov, V. [Fermilab; Stefanik, A. M. [Fermilab; Tropin, I. S. [Fermilab; Vaziri, K. [Fermilab; Williams, K. [Fermilab; Zwaska, R. M. [Fermilab; Densham, C. [RAL, Didcot

    2016-10-01

    The Long Baseline Neutrino Facility (LBNF) project will build a beamline located at Fermilab to create and aim an intense neutrino beam of appropriate energy range toward the DUNE detectors at the SURF facility in Lead, South Dakota. Neutrino production starts in the Target Station, which consists of a solid target, magnetic focusing horns, and the associated sub-systems and shielding infrastructure. Protons hit the target producing mesons which are then focused by the horns into a helium-filled decay pipe where they decay into muons and neutrinos. The target and horns are encased in actively cooled steel and concrete shielding in a chamber called the target chase. The reference design chase is filled with air, but nitrogen and helium are being evaluated as alternatives. A replaceable beam window separates the decay pipe from the target chase. The facility is designed for initial operation at 1.2 MW, with the ability to upgrade to 2.4 MW, and is taking advantage of the experience gained by operating Fermilab’s NuMI facility. We discuss here the design status, associated challenges, and ongoing R&D and physics-driven component optimization of the Target Station.

  1. Amtrak Rail Stations (National)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Updated database of the Federal Railroad Administration's (FRA) Amtrak Station database. This database is a geographic data set containing Amtrak intercity railroad...

  2. Space Station operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, R. H.

    1985-01-01

    An evaluation of the success of the Space Station will be based on the service provided to the customers by the Station crew, the productivity of the crew, and the costs of operation. Attention is given to details regarding Space Station operations, a summary of operational philosophies and requirements, logistics and resupply operations, prelaunch processing and launch operations, on-orbit operations, aspects of maintainability and maintenance, habitability, and questions of medical care. A logistics module concept is considered along with a logistics module processing timeline, a habitability module concept, and a Space Station rescue mission.

  3. Hekinan thermal power station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    Hekinan thermal power station is situated at the port of Kinuura in Aichi Prefecture, Japan. Unit 1 began commercial operation in October 1991, Unit 2 in June 1992 and Unit 3 in April 1993. This brochure gives the specification of the main facilities of the power station, shows its layout; illustrates its pollution control equipment, gives specifications of its flue gas treatment systems and of its large steam turbine, describes its coal handling facilities and gives their specifications, and mentions the power station`s automated control system.

  4. Cooperative Station History Forms

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Various forms, photographs and correspondence documenting the history of Cooperative station instrumentation, location changes, inspections, and...

  5. [Results of measuring neutrons doses and energy spectra inside Russian segment of the International Space Station in experiment "Matryoshka-R" using bubble detectors during the ISS-24-34 missions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khulapko, S V; Liagushin, V I; Arkhangel'skiĭ, V V; Shurshakov, V A; Smith, M; Ing, H; Machrafi, R; Nikolaev, I V

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents the results of calculating the equivalent dose from and energy spectrum of neutrons in the right-hand crewquarters in module Zvezda of the ISS Russian segment. Dose measurements were made in the period between July, 2010 and November, 2012 (ISS Missions 24-34) by research equipment including the bubble dosimeter as part of experiment "Matryoshka-R". Neutron energy spectra in the crewquarters are in good agreement with what has been calculated for the ISS USOS and, earlier, for the MIR orbital station. The neutron dose rate has been found to amount to 196 +/- 23 microSv/d on Zvezda panel-443 (crewquarters) and 179 +/- 16 microSv/d on the "Shielding shutter" surface in the crewquarters.

  6. Assessment of a CFD model for short-range plume dispersion: Applications to the Fusion Field Trial 2007 (FFT-07) diffusion experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pramod; Singh, Sarvesh Kumar; Ngae, Pierre; Feiz, Amir-Ali; Turbelin, Grégory

    2017-11-01

    Simulations of the short-range plume dispersion under different atmospheric conditions can provide essential information for the development of source reconstruction methodologies that allows to retrieve the location and intensity of an unknown hazardous pollutant source. This process required a comprehensive assessment of the atmospheric dispersion models with tracer diffusion experiments in various stability conditions. In this study, a comprehensive evaluation of a CFD model fluidyn-PANACHE is performed with the observations from available seven trials of single releases conducted in the Fusion Field Trail 2007 (FFT-07) tracer experiment. The CFD simulations are performed for each trial and it was observed that the CFD model fluidyn-PANACHE provides good agreement of the predicted concentrations with the observations in both stable and convective atmospheric conditions. A comprehensive analysis of the simulated results is performed by computing the statistical performance measures for the dispersion model evaluation. The CFD model predicts 65.4% of the overall concentration points within a factor of two to the observations. It was observed that the CFD model is predicting better in convective stability conditions in comparison to the trials conducted in stable stability. In convective conditions, 74.6% points were predicted within a factor of two to the observations which are higher than 59.3% concentration points predicted within a factor of two in the trials in stable atmospheric conditions.

  7. Long-term ELBARA-II Assistance to SMOS Land Product and Algorithm Validation at the Valencia Anchor Station (MELBEX Experiment 2010-2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Baeza, Ernesto; Wigneron, Jean-Pierre; Schwank, Mike; Miernecki, Maciej; Kerr, Yann; Casal, Tania; Delwart, Steven; Fernandez-Moran, Roberto; Mecklenburg, Susanne; Coll Pajaron, M. Amparo; Salgado Hernanz, Paula

    The main activity of the Valencia Anchor Station (VAS) is currently now to support the validation of SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity) Level 2 and 3 land products (soil moisture, SM, and vegetation optical depth, TAU). With this aim, the European Space Agency (ESA) has provided the Climatology from Satellites Group of the University of Valencia with an ELBARA-II microwave radiometer under a loan agreement since September 2009. During this time, brightness temperatures (TB) have continuously been acquired, except during normal maintenance or minor repair interruptions. ELBARA-II is an L-band dual-polarization radiometer with two channels (1400-1418 MHz, 1409-1427 MHz). It is continuously measuring over a vineyard field (El Renegado, Caudete de las Fuentes, Valencia) from a 15 m platform with a constant protocol for calibration and angular scanning measurements with the aim to assisting the validation of SMOS land products and the calibration of the L-MEB (L-Band Emission of the Biosphere) -basis for the SMOS Level 2 Land Processor- over the VAS validation site. One of the advantages of using the VAS site is the possibility of studying two different environmental conditions along the year. While the vine cycle extends mainly between April and October, during the rest of the year the area remains under bare soil conditions, adequate for the calibration of the soil model. The measurement protocol currently running has shown to be robust during the whole operation time and will be extended in time as much as possible to continue providing a long-term data set of ELBARA-II TB measurements and retrieved SM and TAU. This data set is also showing to be useful in support of SMOS scientific activities: the VAS area and, specifically the ELBARA-II site, offer good conditions to control the long-term evolution of SMOS Level 2 and Level 3 land products and interpret eventual anomalies that may obscure sensor hidden biases. In addition, SM and TAU that are currently

  8. Single-Station Sigma for the Iranian Strong Motion Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafarani, H.; Soghrat, M. R.

    2017-11-01

    In development of ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs), the residuals are assumed to have a log-normal distribution with a zero mean and a standard deviation, designated as sigma. Sigma has significant effect on evaluation of seismic hazard for designing important infrastructures such as nuclear power plants and dams. Both aleatory and epistemic uncertainties are involved in the sigma parameter. However, ground-motion observations over long time periods are not available at specific sites and the GMPEs have been derived using observed data from multiple sites for a small number of well-recorded earthquakes. Therefore, sigma is dominantly related to the statistics of the spatial variability of ground motion instead of temporal variability at a single point (ergodic assumption). The main purpose of this study is to reduce the variability of the residuals so as to handle it as epistemic uncertainty. In this regard, it is tried to partially apply the non-ergodic assumption by removing repeatable site effects from total variability of six GMPEs driven from the local, Europe-Middle East and worldwide data. For this purpose, we used 1837 acceleration time histories from 374 shallow earthquakes with moment magnitudes ranging from M w 4.0 to 7.3 recorded at 370 stations with at least two recordings per station. According to estimated single-station sigma for the Iranian strong motion stations, the ratio of event-corrected single-station standard deviation ( Φ ss) to within-event standard deviation ( Φ) is about 0.75. In other words, removing the ergodic assumption on site response resulted in 25% reduction of the within-event standard deviation that reduced the total standard deviation by about 15%.

  9. Swedish encapsulation station review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Sven Olof; Brunzell, P.; Heibel, R.; McCarthy, J.; Pennington, C.; Rusch, C.; Varley, G. [NAC International, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    1998-06-01

    In the Encapsulation Station (ES) Review performed by NAC International, a number of different areas have been studied. The main objectives with the review have been to: Perform an independent review of the cost estimates for the ES presented in SKB`s document `Plan 1996`. This has been made through comparisons between the ES and BNFL`s Waste Encapsulation Plant (WEP) at Sellafield as well as with the CLAB facility. Review the location of the ES (at the CLAB site or at the final repository) and its interaction with other parts of the Swedish system for spent fuel management. Review the logistics and plant capacity of the ES. Identify important safety aspects of the ES as a basis for future licensing activities. Based on NAC International`s experience of casks for transport and storage of spent fuel, review the basic design of the copper/steel canister and the transport cask. This review insides design, manufacturing, handling and licensing aspects. Perform an overall comparison between the ES project and the CLAB project with the objective to identify major project risks and discuss their mitigation 19 refs, 9 figs, 35 tabs

  10. Secure base stations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, Peter; Brusilovsky, Alec; McLellan, Rae; Mullender, Sape J.; Polakos, Paul

    2009-01-01

    With the introduction of the third generation (3G) Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) base station router (BSR) and fourth generation (4G) base stations, such as the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) Long Term Evolution (LTE) Evolved Node B (eNB), it has become important to

  11. Station Climatic Summaries, Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-07-01

    274 MALAYSIA SINGAPORE APRT 486940 8505 (OCDS) ................................................... 278 NORTH KOREA CHANGJON/ONSEIRI 470610 6809 (CB...526 BURSA 171160 8709 (OCDS) ................................................... 528 CIGLI/IZMIR 172180...SUMMARY * STATION: SINGAPORE AIRPORT, MALAYSIA STATION #: 486940 ICAO ID: WSSS LOCATION: 01022N, 10400E ELEVATION (FEET): 21 LST - GMT +8 PREPARED BY

  12. "Inventive" Learning Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrett, Olga

    2010-01-01

    Learning stations can be used for myriad purposes--to teach concepts, integrate subject matter, build interest, and allow for inquiry--the possibilities are limited only by the imagination of the teacher and the supplies available. In this article, the author shares suggestions and a checklist for setting up successful learning stations. In…

  13. SPS rectifier stations

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1974-01-01

    The first of the twelves SPS rectifier stations for the bending magnets arrived at CERN at the end of the year. The photograph shows a station with the rectifiers on the left and in the other three cubicles the chokes, capacitors and resistor of the passive filter.

  14. [STEM on Station Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundebjerg, Kristen

    2016-01-01

    The STEM on Station team is part of Education which is part of the External Relations organization (ERO). ERO has traditional goals based around BHAG (Big Hairy Audacious Goal). The BHAG model is simplified to a saying: Everything we do stimulates actions by others to advance human space exploration. The STEM on Station education initiate is a project focused on bringing off the earth research and learning into classrooms. Educational resources such as lesson plans, activities to connect with the space station and STEM related contests are available and hosted by the STEM on Station team along with their partners such as Texas Instruments. These educational activities engage teachers and students in the current happenings aboard the international space station, inspiring the next generation of space explorers.

  15. Capacity at Railway Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex

    2011-01-01

    special focus when conducting UIC 406 capacity analyses.This paper describes how the UIC 406 capacity method can be expounded for stations. Commonly for the analyses of the stations it is recommended to include the entire station including the switch zone(s) and all station tracks. By including the switch...... zone(s) the possible conflicts with other trains (also in the opposite direction) are taken into account leading to more trustworthy results. Although the UIC 406 methodology proposes that the railway network should be divided into line sections when trains turn around and when the train order...... is changed, this paper recommends that the railway lines are not always be divided. In case trains turn around on open (single track) line, the capacity consumption may be too low if a railway line is divided. The same can be the case if only few trains are overtaken at an overtaking station. For dead end...

  16. High accuracy station moving method for total station in submarine construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIN Shaosong

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available [Objectives] When we measure submarine pressure hulls using a total station, it is essential to set several stations in order to complete the measurement of the whole cabin due to the complicated measuring environment. However, there are many restrictions related to the total station itself when moving stations, and it is also difficult to ensure measuring accuracy and satisfy the requirements of submarine measurement in complicated environments.[Methods] As such, a new station moving method is presented which can automatically establish standing relationships by measuring common points at every measuring position.[Results] This method can significantly improve accuracy and efficiency.[Conclusions] The experiment shows that the results of the new station moving method can meet sub-pixel precision and satisfy submarine measurement requirements with high accuracy.

  17. The challenging environment on board the International Space Station affects endothelial cell function by triggering oxidative stress through thioredoxin interacting protein overexpression: the ESA-SPHINX experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versari, Silvia; Longinotti, Giulia; Barenghi, Livia; Maier, Jeanette Anne Marie; Bradamante, Silvia

    2013-11-01

    Exposure to microgravity generates alterations that are similar to those involved in age-related diseases, such as cardiovascular deconditioning, bone loss, muscle atrophy, and immune response impairment. Endothelial dysfunction is the common denominator. To shed light on the underlying mechanism, we participated in the Progress 40P mission with Spaceflight of Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVECs): an Integrated Experiment (SPHINX), which consisted of 12 in-flight and 12 ground-based control modules and lasted 10 d. Postflight microarray analysis revealed 1023 significantly modulated genes, the majority of which are involved in cell adhesion, oxidative phosphorylation, stress responses, cell cycle, and apoptosis. Thioredoxin-interacting protein was the most up-regulated (33-fold), heat-shock proteins 70 and 90 the most down-regulated (5.6-fold). Ion channels (TPCN1, KCNG2, KCNJ14, KCNG1, KCNT1, TRPM1, CLCN4, CLCA2), mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, and focal adhesion were widely affected. Cytokine detection in the culture media indicated significant increased secretion of interleukin-1α and interleukin-1β. Nitric oxide was found not modulated. Our data suggest that in cultured HUVECs, microgravity affects the same molecular machinery responsible for sensing alterations of flow and generates a prooxidative environment that activates inflammatory responses, alters endothelial behavior, and promotes senescence.

  18. Free Range, Organic? Polish Consumers Preferences Regarding Information on Farming System and Nutritional Enhancement of Eggs: A Discrete Choice Based Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Żakowska-Biemans

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to determine the structure of consumer preferences regarding information on farming system and nutritional enhancement of eggs to verify if consumers are willing to accept products combing sustainability and nutrition related claims. The data was collected within a CAPI (Computer Assisted Personal Interviews survey on a representative sample of 935 consumers responsible for food shopping. A discrete choice-based conjoint method was selected in eliciting consumer preferences among different product profiles with varying levels of attributes. A hierarchical cluster analysis was used to identify four distinct clusters that differed significantly in terms of importance attached to production system attributes and socio-demographic profiles. The results of the experiment showed that price and farming system had the most significant mean relative importance in shaping consumers’ preferences, while other attributes such as nutrition and health claims, egg size, package size and hen breed were far less important. Free range eggs had the highest relative importance for consumers despite the fact that organic egg production systems are governed by much stricter animal welfare standards. Our segmentation revealed that two of our four clusters may be more easily reached by information on animal welfare related attributes in egg production than the others. The results of our study provide the policy makers and marketing practitioners with insights applicable for communication and pricing strategies for eggs with sustainability claims.

  19. A range of postmortem assault experiments conducted on a variety of denture labels used for the purpose of identification of edentulous individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Raymond; Pretty, Iain A

    2009-03-01

    Forensic organizations worldwide have recommended that dental prostheses should be labeled with at least the patient's name and preferably with further unique identifiers such as social security number, etc. The practice of denture marking has been conducted over many years and several denture marking systems have been reported in the dental literature. However, very little is known about the resilience of such systems to conditions experienced in the majority of post- and perimortem assaults. The purpose of this investigation therefore, was to expose a selection of 10 denture labels to a series of hostile environments. Results of the study indicate that the majority of the denture labeling systems appear capable of withstanding a range of common, and not so common postmortem assaults. With regard to thermal insult, however, most performed badly with the exception of a label constructed from stainless steel orthodontic band. However, another label in the form of an electronic RFID-tag performed above expectations in the majority of experiments. Furthermore, its cosmetic appearance has proven most popular with many patients.

  20. Scintillator counters with WLS fiber/MPPC readout for the side muon range detector (SMRD) of the T2K experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izmaylov, A., E-mail: izmaylov@inr.r [Institute for Nuclear Research RAS, Moscow 117312 (Russian Federation); Aoki, S. [Kobe University, Kobe, Hyogo 657-8501 (Japan); Blocki, J. [H. Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics PAN, Krakow 31-342 (Poland); Brinson, J. [Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Dabrowska, A. [H. Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics PAN, Krakow 31-342 (Poland); Danko, I. [University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); Dziewiecki, M. [Institute of Radioelectronics, Warsaw University of Technology, Warsaw 00-665 (Poland); Ellison, B. [Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Golyshkin, L. [Institute for Nuclear Research RAS, Moscow 117312 (Russian Federation); Gould, R. [Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Hara, T. [Kobe University, Kobe, Hyogo 657-8501 (Japan); Hartfiel, B. [Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Holeczek, J. [Institute of Physics, University of Silesia, Katowice 40-007 (Poland); Khabibullin, M.; Khotjantsev, A. [Institute for Nuclear Research RAS, Moscow 117312 (Russian Federation); Kielczewska, D. [Institute of Experimental Physics, University of Warsaw, Warsaw 00-681 (Poland); Kisiel, J. [Institute of Physics, University of Silesia, Katowice 40-007 (Poland); Kozlowski, T. [A. Soltan Institute of Nuclear Studies, Warsaw 00-681 (Poland); Kudenko, Yu. [Institute for Nuclear Research RAS, Moscow 117312 (Russian Federation); Kurjata, R. [Institute of Radioelectronics, Warsaw University of Technology, Warsaw 00-665 (Poland)

    2010-11-01

    The T2K neutrino experiment at J-PARC uses a set of near detectors to measure the properties of an unoscillated neutrino beam and neutrino interaction cross-sections. One of the sub-detectors of the near-detector complex, the side muon range detector (SMRD), is described in the paper. The detector is designed to help measure the neutrino energy spectrum, to identify background and to calibrate the other detectors. The active elements of the SMRD consist of 0.7 cm thick extruded scintillator slabs inserted into air gaps of the UA1 magnet yokes. The readout of each scintillator slab is provided through a single WLS fiber embedded into a serpentine-shaped groove. Two Hamamatsu multi-pixel avalanche photodiodes (MPPC's) are coupled to both ends of the WLS fiber. This design allows us to achieve a high MIP detection efficiency of greater than 99%. A light yield of 25-50 p.e./MIP, a time resolution of about 1 ns and a spatial resolution along the slab better than 10 cm were obtained for the SMRD counters.

  1. Scintillator counters with WLS fiber/MPPC readout for the side muon range detector (SMRD) of the T2K experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izmaylov, A.; Aoki, S.; Blocki, J.; Brinson, J.; Dabrowska, A.; Danko, I.; Dziewiecki, M.; Ellison, B.; Golyshkin, L.; Gould, R.; Hara, T.; Hartfiel, B.; Holeczek, J.; Khabibullin, M.; Khotjantsev, A.; Kielczewska, D.; Kisiel, J.; Kozlowski, T.; Kudenko, Yu.; Kurjata, R.; Kutter, T.; Lagoda, J.; Liu, J.; Marzec, J.; Metcalf, W.; Mijakowski, P.; Mineev, O.; Musienko, Yu.; Naples, D.; Nauman, M.; Northacker, D.; Nowak, J.; Paolone, V.; Posiadala, M.; Przewlocki, P.; Reid, J.; Rondio, E.; Shaykhiev, A.; Sienkiewicz, M.; Smith, D.; Sobczyk, J.; Stodulski, M.; Straczek, A.; Sulej, R.; Suzuki, A.; Swierblewski, J.; Szeglowski, T.; Szeptycka, M.; Wachala, T.; Warner, D.; Yershov, N.; Yano, T.; Zalewska, A.; Zaremba, K.; Ziembicki, M.

    2010-11-01

    The T2K neutrino experiment at J-PARC uses a set of near detectors to measure the properties of an unoscillated neutrino beam and neutrino interaction cross-sections. One of the sub-detectors of the near-detector complex, the side muon range detector (SMRD), is described in the paper. The detector is designed to help measure the neutrino energy spectrum, to identify background and to calibrate the other detectors. The active elements of the SMRD consist of 0.7 cm thick extruded scintillator slabs inserted into air gaps of the UA1 magnet yokes. The readout of each scintillator slab is provided through a single WLS fiber embedded into a serpentine-shaped groove. Two Hamamatsu multi-pixel avalanche photodiodes (MPPC's) are coupled to both ends of the WLS fiber. This design allows us to achieve a high MIP detection efficiency of greater than 99%. A light yield of 25-50 p.e./MIP, a time resolution of about 1 ns and a spatial resolution along the slab better than 10 cm were obtained for the SMRD counters.

  2. Waste Transfer Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    tion and transport is usually the most costly part of any waste management system; and when waste is transported over a considerable distance or for a long time, transferring the waste from the collection vehicles to more efficient transportation may be economically beneficial. This involves...... a transfer station where the transfer takes place. These stations may also be accessible by private people, offering flexibility to the waste system, including facilities for bulky waste, household hazardous waste and recyclables. Waste transfer may also take place on the collection route from small...... describes the main features of waste transfer stations, including some considerations about the economical aspects on when transfer is advisable....

  3. Space station operations management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Kathleen V.

    1989-01-01

    Space Station Freedom operations management concepts must be responsive to the unique challenges presented by the permanently manned international laboratory. Space Station Freedom will be assembled over a three year period where the operational environment will change as significant capability plateaus are reached. First Element Launch, Man-Tended Capability, and Permanent Manned Capability, represent milestones in operational capability that is increasing toward mature operations capability. Operations management concepts are being developed to accomodate the varying operational capabilities during assembly, as well as the mature operational environment. This paper describes operations management concepts designed to accomodate the uniqueness of Space Station Freedoom, utilizing tools and processes that seek to control operations costs.

  4. TV Analog Station Transmitters

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This file is an extract from the Consolidated Database System (CDBS) licensed by the Media Bureau. It consists of Analog Television Stations (see Rule Part47 CFR...

  5. ASOS Station Photos

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The images contained in this library are of stations in the Automated Surface Observing System (ASOS) network. These images were taken between 1998-2001 for the ASOS...

  6. Signal Station Inspection Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Handwritten reports resulting from detailed inspections of US Army Signal Service Stations, 1871-1889. Features reported included instrument exposure and condition,...

  7. Active Marine Station Metadata

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Active Marine Station Metadata is a daily metadata report for active marine bouy and C-MAN (Coastal Marine Automated Network) platforms from the National Data...

  8. Master Station History Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Standard/Legacy MSHR, formally identified as the DSI-9767 dataset, is the legacy dataset/report sorted by NCDC Station ID and period of record. This...

  9. Materials Test Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — When completed, the Materials Test Station at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center will meet mission need. MTS will provide the only fast-reactor-like irradiation...

  10. Natural Weathering Exposure Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Corps of Engineers' Treat Island Natural Weathering Exposure Station is a long-term natural weathering facility used to study concrete durability. Located on the...

  11. USRCRN Station Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Documentation of United States Regional Climate Reference Network (USRCRN) installations in 2009. Installations documented are for USRCRN pilot project stations in...

  12. Station Management Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The following plan is the result of a recent initiative in Region 5 to produce general management guidance based on stated objectives for individual field stations....

  13. "Central Station" Londonis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2000-01-01

    Londoni galeriis Milch seitsme läti, leedu ja eesti kunstniku projekt "Central Station". Kuraatorid Lisa Panting, Sally Tallant. Eestist osalevad Hanno Soans (Catarina Campinoga koostöös valminud video), Kiwa, Kai Kaljo

  14. Electrostatic pickup station

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1982-01-01

    Electrostatic pickup station, with 4 interleaved electrodes, to measure beam position in the horizontal and vertical plane. This type is used in the transfer lines leaving the PS (TT2, TT70, TTL2). See also 7904075.

  15. Mukilteo Research Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Research at the Mukilteo Research Station focuses on understanding the life cycle of marine species and the impacts of ecosystem stressors on anadromous and marine...

  16. Maine Field Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — In 2000 NOAA's National Marine Fisheries Service established the Maine Field Station in Orono, ME to have more direct involvement in the conservation of the living...

  17. Routes and Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — he Routes_Stations table is composed of fixed rail transit systems within the Continental United States, Alaska, Hawaii, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico....

  18. Public Transit Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — fixed rail transit stations within the Continental United States, Alaska, Hawaii, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico. The modes of transit that are serviced...

  19. FEMA DFIRM Station Start

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This table contains information about station starting locations. These locations indicate the reference point that was used as the origin for distance measurements...

  20. Space Station galley design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabanino, Rudy; Murphy, George L.; Yakut, M. M.

    1986-01-01

    An Advanced Food Hardware System galley for the initial operating capability (IOC) Space Station is discussed. Space Station will employ food hardware items that have never been flown in space, such as a dishwasher, microwave oven, blender/mixer, bulk food and beverage dispensers, automated food inventory management, a trash compactor, and an advanced technology refrigerator/freezer. These new technologies and designs are described and the trades, design, development, and testing associated with each are summarized.

  1. Enhanced Master Station History Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Enhanced Master Station History Report (EMSHR) is a compiled list of basic, historical information for every station in the station history database, beginning...

  2. Gas Stations, US, 2010, NAVTEQ

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Gas_Stations dataset is derived from the Navteq 'AUTOSVC' SDC layer (FAC_TYPE=5540) and contains gas stations and petrol stations. This NAVTEQ dataset is...

  3. West Texas array experiment: Noise and source characterization of short-range infrasound and acoustic signals, along with lab and field evaluation of Intermountain Laboratories infrasound microphones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Aileen

    The term infrasound describes atmospheric sound waves with frequencies below 20 Hz, while acoustics are classified within the audible range of 20 Hz to 20 kHz. Infrasound and acoustic monitoring in the scientific community is hampered by low signal-to-noise ratios and a limited number of studies on regional and short-range noise and source characterization. The JASON Report (2005) suggests the infrasound community focus on more broad-frequency, observational studies within a tactical distance of 10 km. In keeping with that recommendation, this paper presents a study of regional and short-range atmospheric acoustic and infrasonic noise characterization, at a desert site in West Texas, covering a broad frequency range of 0.2 to 100 Hz. To spatially sample the band, a large number of infrasound gauges was needed. A laboratory instrument analysis is presented of the set of low-cost infrasound sensors used in this study, manufactured by Inter-Mountain Laboratories (IML). Analysis includes spectra, transfer functions and coherences to assess the stability and range of the gauges, and complements additional instrument testing by Sandia National Laboratories. The IMLs documented here have been found reliably coherent from 0.1 to 7 Hz without instrument correction. Corrections were built using corresponding time series from the commercially available and more expensive Chaparral infrasound gauge, so that the corrected IML outputs were able to closely mimic the Chaparral output. Arrays of gauges are needed for atmospheric sound signal processing. Our West Texas experiment consisted of a 1.5 km aperture, 23-gauge infrasound/acoustic array of IMLs, with a compact, 12 m diameter grid-array of rented IMLs at the center. To optimize signal recording, signal-to-noise ratio needs to be quantified with respect to both frequency band and coherence length. The higher-frequency grid array consisted of 25 microphones arranged in a five by five pattern with 3 meter spacing, without

  4. The Princess Elisabeth Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berte, Johan

    2012-01-01

    Aware of the increasing impact of human activities on the Earth system, Belgian Science Policy Office (Belspo) launched in 1997 a research programme in support of a sustainable development policy. This umbrella programme included the Belgian Scientific Programme on Antarctic Research. The International Polar Foundation, an organization led by the civil engineer and explorer Alain Hubert, was commissioned by the Belgian Federal government in 2004 to design, construct and operate a new Belgian Antarctic Research Station as an element under this umbrella programme. The station was to be designed as a central location for investigating the characteristic sequence of Antarctic geographical regions (polynia, coast, ice shelf, ice sheet, marginal mountain area and dry valleys, inland plateau) within a radius of 200 kilometers (approx.124 miles) of a selected site. The station was also to be designed as "state of the art" with respect to sustainable development, energy consumption, and waste disposal, with a minimum lifetime of 25 years. The goal of the project was to build a station and enable science. So first we needed some basic requirements, which I have listed here; plus we had to finance the station ourselves. Our most important requirement was that we decided to make it a zero emissions station. This was both a philosophical choice as we thought it more consistent with Antarctic Treaty obligations and it was also a logistical advantage. If you are using renewable energy sources, you do not have to bring in all the fuel.

  5. Analysis of aircraft and satellite measurements from the Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment (INTEX-B to quantify long-range transport of East Asian sulfur to Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. van Donkelaar

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available We interpret a suite of satellite, aircraft, and ground-based measurements over the North Pacific Ocean and western North America during April–May 2006 as part of the Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment Phase B (INTEX-B campaign to understand the implications of long-range transport of East Asian emissions to North America. The Canadian component of INTEX-B included 33 vertical profiles from a Cessna 207 aircraft equipped with an aerosol mass spectrometer. Long-range transport of organic aerosols was insignificant, contrary to expectations. Measured sulfate plumes in the free troposphere over British Columbia exceeded 2 μg/m3. We update the global anthropogenic emission inventory in a chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem and use it to interpret the observations. Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD retrieved from two satellite instruments (MISR and MODIS for 2000–2006 are analyzed with GEOS-Chem to estimate an annual growth in Chinese sulfur emissions of 6.2% and 9.6%, respectively. Analysis of aircraft sulfate measurements from the NASA DC-8 over the central Pacific, the NSF C-130 over the east Pacific and the Cessna over British Columbia indicates most Asian sulfate over the ocean is in the lower free troposphere (800–600 hPa, with a decrease in pressure toward land due to orographic effects. We calculate that 56% of the measured sulfate between 500–900 hPa over British Columbia is due to East Asian sources. We find evidence of a 72–85% increase in the relative contribution of East Asian sulfate to the total burden in spring off the northwest coast of the United States since 1985. Campaign-average simulations indicate anthropogenic East Asian sulfur emissions increase mean springtime sulfate in Western Canada at the surface by 0.31 μg/m3 (~30% and account for 50% of the overall regional sulfate burden between 1 and 5 km. Mean measured daily surface sulfate concentrations taken in the Vancouver area increase by

  6. Adélie penguins coping with environmental change: Results from a natural experiment at the edge of their breeding range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugger, Catherine; Ballard, Grant; Ainley, David G.; Lyber, Phil O'B.; Schine, Casey

    2014-01-01

    We investigated life history responses to extreme variation in physical environmental conditions during a long-term demographic study of Adélie penguins at 3 colonies representing 9% of the world population and the full range of breeding colony sizes. Five years into the 14-year study (1997–2010) two very large icebergs (spanning 1.5 latitude degrees in length) grounded in waters adjacent to breeding colonies, dramatically altering environmental conditions during 2001–2005. This natural experiment allowed us to evaluate the relative impacts of expected long-term, but also extreme, short-term climate perturbations on important natural history parameters that can regulate populations. The icebergs presented physical barriers, not just to the penguins but to polynya formation, which profoundly increased foraging effort and movement rates, while reducing breeding propensity and productivity, especially at the smallest colony. We evaluated the effect of a variety of environmental parameters during breeding, molt, migration and wintering periods during years with and without icebergs on penguin breeding productivity, chick mass, and nesting chronology. The icebergs had far more influence on the natural history parameters of penguins than any of the other environmental variables measured, resulting in population level changes to metrics of reproductive performance, including delays in nesting chronology, depressed breeding productivity, and lower chick mass. These effects were strongest at the smallest, southern-most colony, which was most affected by alteration of the Ross Sea Polynya during years the iceberg was present. Additionally, chick mass was negatively correlated with colony size, supporting previous findings indicating density-dependent energetic constraints at the largest colony. Understanding the negative effects of the icebergs on the short-term natural history of Adélie penguins, as well as their response to long-term environmental variation, are

  7. Neutron proton crystallography station (PCS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, Zoe [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kovalevsky, Andrey [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Johnson, Hannah [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mustyakimov, Marat [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The PCS (Protein Crystallography Station) at Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) is a unique facility in the USA that is designed and optimized for detecting and collecting neutron diffraction data from macromolecular crystals. PCS utilizes the 20 Hz spallation neutron source at LANSCE to enable time-of-flight measurements using 0.6-7.0 {angstrom} neutrons. This increases the neutron flux on the sample by using a wavelength range that is optimal for studying macromolecular crystal structures. The diagram below show a schematic of PCS and photos of the detector and instrument cave.

  8. Was Einstein wrong? Space station research may find out

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Experiments using ultra-precise clocks on the International Space Station will attempt to check if Einstein's Special Theory of Relativity is correct. Future experiments may also yield evidence of string theory (1 page).

  9. Inspiring the Next Generation: The International Space Station Education Accomplishments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alleyne, Camille W.; Hasbrook, Pete; Knowles, Carolyn; Chicoine, Ruth Ann; Miyagawa, Yayoi; Koyama, Masato; Savage, Nigel; Zell, Martin; Biryukova, Nataliya; Pinchuk, Vladimir; hide

    2014-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) has a unique ability to capture the imagination of both students and teachers worldwide. Since 2000, the presence of humans onboard ISS has provided a foundation for numerous educational activities aimed at capturing that interest and motivating study in the sciences, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM). Over 43 million students around the world have participated in ISS-related educational activities. Projects such as YouTube Space Lab, Sally Ride Earth Knowledge-based Acquired by Middle Schools (EarthKAM), SPHERES (Synchronized Position Hold Engage and Reorient Experimental Satellites) Zero-Robotics, Tomatosphere, and MAI-75 events among others have allowed for global student, teacher and public access to space through student classroom investigations and real-time audio and video contacts with crewmembers. Educational activities are not limited to STEM but encompass all aspects of the human condition. This is well illustrated in the Uchu Renshi project, a chain poem initiated by an astronaut while in space and continued and completed by people on Earth. With ISS operations now extended to 2024, projects like these and their accompanying educational materials are available to more students around the world. From very early on in the program's history, students have been provided with a unique opportunity to get involved and participate in science and engineering projects. Many of these projects support inquiry-based learning that allows students to ask questions, develop hypothesis-derived experiments, obtain supporting evidence and identify solutions or explanations. This approach to learning is well-published as one of the most effective ways to inspire students to pursue careers in scientific and technology fields. Ever since the first space station element was launched, a wide range of student experiments and educational activities have been performed, both individually and collaboratively, by all the

  10. History of the Waterways Experiment Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    1968-06-01

    United Fund, Cancer , Heart, etc . , is also provided. In Jackson, WES employees serve as members of the Civil War Round Table of Missis- sippi, the...but problems still remained. The economic depression of the thirties was now in full swing, and by law there was a prohibition against making new...34· ..... CT ,_, c .... URIJ(JUJ!U &RAf£W fLUIBI.f fA’YfMfNl MAMa ; l f .,..,., CO..J 8 G-Nit.·if) ""’’ PUNT AQ •• I(H CtOlbe’f’ WHO! A.Lftllwl•,t ""’ Olitl

  11. Southwest Region Experiment Station (SWRES) 1990 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-03-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) systems and components have been tested at the SWRES since 1981. The US Department of Energy provided the initial funding for the 12 support structures on the site. Approximately 40 kW of PV was installed on the roofs of these support structures to study the performance of residential applications. A review of the performance of these systems during the decade of the 1980`s is included in Section 2 of this report.

  12. Medium-Range Structural Organization of Phosphorus-Bearing Borosilicate Glasses Revealed by Advanced Solid-State NMR Experiments and MD Simulations: Consequences of B/Si Substitutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yang; Stevensson, Baltzar; Edén, Mattias

    2017-10-19

    The short and intermediate range structures of a large series of bioactive borophosphosilicate (BPS) glasses were probed by solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Two BPS glass series were designed by gradually substituting SiO2 by B2O3 in the respective phosphosilicate base compositions 24.1Na2O-23.3CaO-48.6SiO2-4.0P2O5 ("S49") and 24.6Na2O-26.7CaO-46.1SiO2-2.6P2O5 ("S46"), the latter constituting the "45S5 Bioglass" utilized for bone grafting applications. The BPS glass networks are built by interconnected SiO4, BO4, and BO3 moieties, whereas P exists mainly as orthophosphate anions, except for a minor network-associated portion involving P-O-Si and P-O-B([4]) motifs, whose populations were estimated by heteronuclear (31)P{(11)B} NMR experimentation. The high Na(+)/Ca(2+) contents give fragmented glass networks with large amounts of nonbridging oxygen (NBO) anions. The MD-generated glass models reveal an increasing propensity for NBO accommodation among the network units according to BO4 B NMR experiments, which evidenced the presence of all three BO3-BO3, BO3-BO4, and BO4-BO4 connectivities, with B([3])-O-B([4]) bridges dominating. Notwithstanding that B([4])-O-B([4]) linkages are disfavored, both NMR spectroscopy and MD simulations established their presence in these modifier-rich BPS glasses, along with non-negligible B([4])-NBO contacts, at odds with the conventional structural view of borosilicate glasses. We discuss the relative propensities for intermixing of the Si/B/P network formers. Despite the absence of pronounced preferences for Si-O-Si bond formation, the glass models manifest subtle subnanometer-sized structural inhomogeneities, where SiO4 tetrahedra tend to self-associate into small chain/ring motifs embedded in BO3/BO4-dominated domains.

  13. Telephony Earth Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Adrian J.; Kay, Stan

    The Telephony Earth Station (TES), a digital full-mesh SCPC (single channel per carrier) system designed for satellite voice and data transmission is described. As compared to companded FM, the advanced speech compression and forward error correction techniques used by TES better achieve the quality, power, and bandwidth ideal for each application. In addition, the TES offers a fully demand-assigned voice call setup, handles point-to-point data channels, supports a variety of signaling schemes, and does not require any separate pilot receivers at the station, while keeping costs low through innovative technology and packaging. The TES can be used for both C-band and Ku-band (domestic or international) applications, and is configurable either as an VSAT (very small aperture terminal) using an SSPA, or as a larger station depending on the capacity requirements. A centralized DAMA processor and network manager is implemented using a workstation.

  14. Hydrogen Fuelling Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rothuizen, Erasmus Damgaard

    This thesis concerns hydrogen fuelling stations from an overall system perspective. The study investigates thermodynamics and energy consumption of hydrogen fuelling stations for fuelling vehicles for personal transportation. For the study a library concerning the components in a hydrogen fuelling...... station has been developed in Dymola. The models include the fuelling protocol (J2601) for hydrogen vehicles made by Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) and the thermodynamic property library CoolProp is used for retrieving state point. The components in the hydrogen fuelling library are building up....... A system consisting of one high pressure storage tank is used to investigate the thermodynamics of fuelling a hydrogen vehicle. The results show that the decisive parameter for how the fuelling proceeds is the pressure loss in the vehicle. The single tank fuelling system is compared to a cascade fuelling...

  15. Fluid management and its role in the future of Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzman, J.; Vernon, R.; Hill, M.; Peterson, T.

    1986-01-01

    Technological challenges and suggested plans for meeting them pertaining to fluid management in the Space Station are discussed. A short overview is given of the major Space Station systems and operations which employ or rely on fluid management, followed by a description of the general system issues and challenges encountered in managing fluids in space. Examples of some current and near term activities directed toward providing the understanding and technologies necessary to overcome relevant problems are presented. Finally, suggested plans for similar but longer range research and development activities are offered. These plans emphasize the requirements and benefits of expanded in-space experiments, with the ultimate aim of using the Space Station as a facility for fluid management research and technology development efforts.

  16. The International Space Station (ISS) Education Accomplishments and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alleyne, Camille W.; Blue, Regina; Mayo, Susan

    2012-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) has the unique ability to capture the imaginations of both students and teachers worldwide and thus stands as an invaluable learning platform for the advancement of proficiency in research and development and education. The presence of humans on board ISS for the past ten years has provided a foundation for numerous educational activities aimed at capturing that interest and motivating study in the sciences, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) disciplines which will lead to an increase in quality of teachers, advancements in research and development, an increase in the global reputation for intellectual achievement, and an expanded ability to pursue unchartered avenues towards a brighter future. Over 41 million students around the world have participated in ISS-related activities since the year 2000. Projects such as the Amateur Radio on International Space Station (ARISS) and Earth Knowledge Acquired by Middle School Students (EarthKAM), among others, have allowed for global student, teacher, and public access to space through radio contacts with crewmembers and student image acquisition respectively. . With planned ISS operations at least until 2020, projects like the aforementioned and their accompanying educational materials will be available to enable increased STEM literacy around the world. Since the launch of the first ISS element, a wide range of student experiments and educational activities have been performed by each of the international partner agencies: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Canadian Space Agency (CSA), European Space Agency (ESA), Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) and Russian Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos). Additionally, a number of non-participating countries, some under commercial agreements, have also participated in Station-related activities. Many of these programs still continue while others are being developed and added to the station crewmembers tasks

  17. Hydrogen vehicle fueling station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daney, D.E.; Edeskuty, F.J.; Daugherty, M.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    Hydrogen fueling stations are an essential element in the practical application of hydrogen as a vehicle fuel, and a number of issues such as safety, efficiency, design, and operating procedures can only be accurately addressed by a practical demonstration. Regardless of whether the vehicle is powered by an internal combustion engine or fuel cell, or whether the vehicle has a liquid or gaseous fuel tank, the fueling station is a critical technology which is the link between the local storage facility and the vehicle. Because most merchant hydrogen delivered in the US today (and in the near future) is in liquid form due to the overall economics of production and delivery, we believe a practical refueling station should be designed to receive liquid. Systems studies confirm this assumption for stations fueling up to about 300 vehicles. Our fueling station, aimed at refueling fleet vehicles, will receive hydrogen as a liquid and dispense it as either liquid, high pressure gas, or low pressure gas. Thus, it can refuel any of the three types of tanks proposed for hydrogen-powered vehicles -- liquid, gaseous, or hydride. The paper discusses the fueling station design. Results of a numerical model of liquid hydrogen vehicle tank filling, with emphasis on no vent filling, are presented to illustrate the usefulness of the model as a design tool. Results of our vehicle performance model illustrate our thesis that it is too early to judge what the preferred method of on-board vehicle fuel storage will be in practice -- thus our decision to accommodate all three methods.

  18. The organized Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lew, Leong W.

    Space Station organization designers should consider the onboard stowage system to be an integral part of the environment structured for productive working conditions. In order to achieve this, it is essential to use an efficient inventory control system able to track approximately 50,000 items over a 90-day period, while maintaining peak crew performance. It is noted that a state-of-the-art bar-code inventory management system cannot satisfy all Space Station requirements, such as the location of a critical missing item.

  19. Space station integrated propulsion and fluid systems study. Space station program fluid management systems databook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicknell, B.; Wilson, S.; Dennis, M.; Lydon, M.

    1988-01-01

    Commonality and integration of propulsion and fluid systems associated with the Space Station elements are being evaluated. The Space Station elements consist of the core station, which includes habitation and laboratory modules, nodes, airlocks, and trusswork; and associated vehicles, platforms, experiments, and payloads. The program is being performed as two discrete tasks. Task 1 investigated the components of the Space Station architecture to determine the feasibility and practicality of commonality and integration among the various propulsion elements. This task was completed. Task 2 is examining integration and commonality among fluid systems which were identified by the Phase B Space Station contractors as being part of the initial operating capability (IOC) and growth Space Station architectures. Requirements and descriptions for reference fluid systems were compiled from Space Station documentation and other sources. The fluid systems being examined are: an experiment gas supply system, an oxygen/hydrogen supply system, an integrated water system, the integrated nitrogen system, and the integrated waste fluids system. Definitions and descriptions of alternate systems were developed, along with analyses and discussions of their benefits and detriments. This databook includes fluid systems descriptions, requirements, schematic diagrams, component lists, and discussions of the fluid systems. In addition, cost comparison are used in some cases to determine the optimum system for a specific task.

  20. Galileo Station Keeping Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Cambriles, Antonio; Bejar-Romero, Juan Antonio; Aguilar-Taboada, Daniel; Perez-Lopez, Fernando; Navarro, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents analyses done for the design and implementation of the Maneuver Planning software of the Galileo Flight Dynamics Facility. The station keeping requirements of the constellation have been analyzed in order to identify the key parameters to be taken into account in the design and implementation of the software.

  1. Kiowa Creek Switching Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-03-01

    The Western Area Power Administration (Western) proposes to construct, operate, and maintain a new Kiowa Creek Switching Station near Orchard in Morgan County, Colorado. Kiowa Creek Switching Station would consist of a fenced area of approximately 300 by 300 feet and contain various electrical equipment typical for a switching station. As part of this new construction, approximately one mile of an existing 115-kilovolt (kV) transmission line will be removed and replaced with a double circuit overhead line. The project will also include a short (one-third mile) realignment of an existing line to permit connection with the new switching station. In accordance with the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) regulations for implementing the procedural provisions of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), 40 CFR Parts 1500--1508, the Department of Energy (DOE) has determined that an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required for the proposed project. This determination is based on the information contained in this environmental assessment (EA) prepared by Western. The EA identifies and evaluates the environmental and socioeconomic effects of the proposed action, and concludes that the advance impacts on the human environment resulting from the proposed project would not be significant. 8 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Summit Station Skiway Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    operating procedures (SOPs) for future construction and maintenance efforts. DISCLAIMER: The contents of this report are not to be used for...Runway Construction .......................................................... 22 Appendix B: Rammsonde Instructions...13. Snow accumulation at Summit Station in the Bamboo Forest. .......................................... 13 Figure 14. Strength of Summit skiway

  3. Electrostatic pickup station

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1979-01-01

    Electrostatic pickup station, with 4 electrodes, to measure beam position in the horizontal and vertical plane. This type is used in the transfer lines leaving the PS (TT2, TTL2, TT70). See also 8206063, where the electrode shapes are clearly visible.

  4. Designing a Weather Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2012-01-01

    The collection and analysis of weather data is crucial to the location of alternate energy systems like solar and wind. This article presents a design challenge that gives students a chance to design a weather station to collect data in advance of a large wind turbine installation. Data analysis is a crucial part of any science or engineering…

  5. Three-dimensional imaging, change detection, and stability assessment during the centerline trench levee seepage experiment using terrestrial light detection and ranging technology, Twitchell Island, California, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bawden, Gerald W.; Howle, James; Bond, Sandra; Shriro, Michelle; Buck, Peter

    2014-01-01

    A full scale field seepage test was conducted on a north-south trending levee segment of a now bypassed old meander belt on Twitchell Island, California, to understand the effects of live and decaying root systems on levee seepage and slope stability. The field test in May 2012 was centered on a north-south trench with two segments: a shorter control segment and a longer seepage test segment. The complete length of the trench area measured 40.4 meters (m) near the levee centerline with mature trees located on the waterside and landside of the levee flanks. The levee was instrumented with piezometers and tensiometers to measure positive and negative porewater pressures across the levee after the trench was flooded with water and held at a constant hydraulic head during the seepage test—the results from this component of the experiment are not discussed in this report. We collected more than one billion three-dimensional light detection and ranging (lidar) data points before, during, and after the centerline seepage test to assess centimeter-scale stability of the two trees and the levee crown. During the seepage test, the waterside tree toppled (rotated 20.7 degrees) into the water. The landside tree rotated away from the levee by 5 centimeters (cm) at a height of 2 m on the tree. The paved surface of the levee crown had three regions that showed subsidence on the waterside of the trench—discussed as the northern, central, and southern features. The northern feature is an elongate region that subsided 2.1 cm over an area with an average width of 1.35 m that extends 15.8 m parallel to the trench from the northern end of the trench to just north of the trench midpoint, and is associated with a crack 1 cm in height that formed during the seepage test on the trench wall. The central subsidence feature is a semicircular region on the waterside of the trench that subsided by as much as 6.2 cm over an area 3.4 m wide and 11.2 m long. The southern feature is an elongate

  6. Evolution of the Space Station Robotic Manipulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razvi, Shakeel; Burns, Susan H.

    2007-01-01

    The Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS), Canadarm2, was launched in 2001 and deployed on the International Space Station (ISS). The Canadarm2 has been instrumental in ISS assembly and maintenance. Canadarm2 shares its heritage with the Space Shuttle Arm (Canadarm). This article explores the evolution from the Shuttle Canadarm to the Space Station Canadarm2 design, which incorporates a 7 degree of freedom design, larger joints, and changeable operating base. This article also addresses phased design, redundancy, life and maintainability requirements. The design of Canadarm2 meets unique ISS requirements, including expanded handling capability and the ability to be maintained on orbit. The size of ISS necessitated a mobile manipulator, resulting in the unique capability of Canadarm2 to relocate by performing a walk off to base points located along the Station, and interchanging the tip and base of the manipulator. This provides the manipulator with reach and access to a large part of the Station, enabling on-orbit assembly of the Station and providing support to Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA). Canadarm2 is evolving based on on-orbit operational experience and new functionality requirements. SSRMS functionality is being developed in phases to support evolving ISS assembly and operation as modules are added and the Station becomes more complex. Changes to sustaining software, hardware architecture, and operations have significantly enhanced SSRMS capability to support ISS mission requirements. As a result of operational experience, SSRMS changes have been implemented for Degraded Joint Operations, Force Moment Sensor Thermal Protection, Enabling Ground Controlled Operations, and Software Commutation. Planned Canadarm2 design modifications include: Force Moment Accommodation, Smart Safing, Separate Safing, and Hot Backup. In summary, Canadarm2 continues to evolve in support of new ISS requirements and improved operations. It is a tribute to the design that

  7. International Space Station technology demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Alan C.

    1998-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) has the capability to test and demonstrate, and otherwise assist in the development and validation, of a wide range of advanced technologies. Technology tests and demonstrations for advanced communication systems, closed-loop environmental control systems, advanced power storage and generation systems, advanced electric and electromagnetic propulsion systems, and others are being assessed for inclusion in an ISS Pre-Planned Program Improvement (P3I), Technology/Improvement Roadmap. The P3I roadmap is an integrated set of technology and improvement requirements for: (1) ISS subsystem upgrades and improvements (addressing maintenance, logistics, sustainability, and enhancement functions), (2) payload hardware technology infusion, (3) ISS/Exploration technology development and tests (dual use/benefits), and (4) Engineering Research and Technology payloads. As examples of the International Space Station's technology testbed capabilities, implementation approaches for three types of propulsion technology demonstrations and research are described: (1) electric and electromagnetic propulsion technologies and systems (NASA Lewis Research Center), (2) technologies and sub-systems for a variable specific impulse (Isp), magnetoplasma rocket (VASIMR), (Advanced Propulsion Lab, Sonny Carter Training Facility, Houston, Tx), and (3) candidates for innovative, deep space propulsion technology research and demonstrations (projections based on NASA Advanced Space Transportation Program, Propulsion Research and other R.&D activities.).

  8. Testing EDM of Total Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cirbus Ján

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to testing electrooptical distance measuring devices (EDM built in total stations, than can be used for various tasks in the contemporary geodetic works. A rich market offer and availability of these universal measuring systems with satisfying distance range, excellent accuracy and other parameters, make total stations as dominant terrestrial geodetic instruments.For succesfully applying these instruments, above all for relliable distance measurements, the stability of the modulation frequency is the most important pre-condition. In the article, therefore, there are given some methods to verify the modulation frequency stability. In addition, some ways for determining the EDM distance constant and periodical corrections of the phase measuring unit are introduced for 4 types of EDM : LEICA 1700L, TOPCON GTS6A, TOPCON GTS2, C.ZEISS ELTA50. It were also investigated their possibilities for precise distance survey. Values of the determined constants and periodical corrections are presented in Tab. 2.Based on the investigation results of the 4 EDM types and using the values m obtained for different distances S, equations of the a posteriori standard deviations in form : m = (a+b.S were derived too.

  9. A new laser-ranged satellite for General Relativity and space geodesy: I. An introduction to the LARES2 space experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciufolini, Ignazio; Paolozzi, Antonio; Pavlis, Erricos C.; Sindoni, Giampiero; Koenig, Rolf; Ries, John C.; Matzner, Richard; Gurzadyan, Vahe; Penrose, Roger; Rubincam, David; Paris, Claudio

    2017-08-01

    We introduce the LARES 2 space experiment recently approved by the Italian Space Agency (ASI). The LARES 2 satellite is planned for launch in 2019 with the new VEGA C launch vehicle of ASI, ESA and ELV. The orbital analysis of LARES 2 experiment will be carried out by our international science team of experts in General Relativity, theoretical physics, space geodesy and aerospace engineering. The main objectives of the LARES 2 experiment are gravitational and fundamental physics, including accurate measurements of General Relativity, in particular a test of frame-dragging aimed at achieving an accuracy of a few parts in a thousand, i.e., aimed at improving by about an order of magnitude the present state-of-the-art and forthcoming tests of this general relativistic phenomenon. LARES 2 will also achieve determinations in space geodesy. LARES 2 is an improved version of the LAGEOS 3 experiment, proposed in 1984 to measure frame-dragging and analyzed in 1989 by a joint ASI and NASA study.

  10. Battery charging stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergey, M.

    1997-12-01

    This paper discusses the concept of battery charging stations (BCSs), designed to service rural owners of battery power sources. Many such power sources now are transported to urban areas for recharging. A BCS provides the opportunity to locate these facilities closer to the user, is often powered by renewable sources, or hybrid systems, takes advantage of economies of scale, and has the potential to provide lower cost of service, better service, and better cost recovery than other rural electrification programs. Typical systems discussed can service 200 to 1200 people, and consist of stations powered by photovoltaics, wind/PV, wind/diesel, or diesel only. Examples of installed systems are presented, followed by cost figures, economic analysis, and typical system design and performance numbers.

  11. Space station related investigations in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wienss, W.; Vallerain, E.

    1984-10-01

    Studies pertaining to the definition of Europe's role in the Space Station program are described, with consideration given to such elements as pressurized modules as laboratories for materials processing and life sciences, unpressurized elements, and service vehicles for on-orbit maintenance and repair activities. Candidate elements were selected against such criteria as clean interfaces, the satisfaction of European user needs, new technology items, and European financial capabilities; and their technical and programmatic implications were examined. Different scenarios were considered, ranging from a fully Space-Station-dependent case to a completely autonomous, free-flying man-tendable configuration. Recommendations on a collaboration between Europe and the United States are presented.

  12. Time biases in laser ranging observations: A concerning issue of Space Geodesy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exertier, Pierre; Belli, A.; Lemoine, J. M.

    2017-09-01

    Time transfer by Laser Ranging (LR) recently demonstrated a remarkable stability (a few ps over ∼1000 s) and accuracy (<1 ns) in synchronizing both space and ground clocks over distances from a few thousands to tens of thousands kilometers. Given its potential role in navigation, fundamental physics and metrology, it is crucial that synergy between laser ranging and Time&Frequency (T/F) technologies improves to meet the present and future space geodesy requirements. In this article, we examine the behavior of T/F systems that are used in LR tracking stations of the international laser ranging service. The approach we investigate is to compute time synchronization between clocks used at LR stations using accurate data of the Time Transfer by Laser Link (T2L2) experiment onboard the satellite Jason-2 (Samain et al., 2014). Systematic time biases are estimated against the UTC time scale for a set of 22 observing stations in 2013, in the range of zero to a few μ s. Our results suggest that the ILRS network suffers from accuracy issues, due to time biases in the laser ranging observations. We discuss how these systematic effects impact the precise orbit determination of LAGEOS geodetic satellites over a 1-year analysis, and additionally give a measure of the local effect into station coordinates, regarding in particular the effect in the east-west component that is of 2-6 mm for a typical systematic time bias of one μ s.

  13. WISP Dark Matter eXperiment and Prospects for Broadband Dark Matter Searches in the $1\\,\\mu$eV--$10\\,$meV Mass Range

    CERN Document Server

    Horns, Dieter; Lobanov, Andrei; Ringwald, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Light cold dark matter consisting of weakly interacting slim (or sub-eV) particles (WISPs) has been in the focus of a large number of studies made over the past two decades. The QCD axion and axion-like particles with masses in the $0.1\\,\\mu$eV--$100\\,$meV are strong candidates for the dark matter particle, together with hidden photons with masses below $\\lesssim 100\\,$meV. This motivates several new initiatives in the field, including the WISP Dark Matter eXperiment (WISPDMX) and novel conceptual approaches for broad-band WISP searches using radiometry measurements in large volume chambers. First results and future prospects for these experiments are discussed in this contribution.

  14. Weigh-in-Motion Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The data included in the GIS Traffic Stations Version database have been assimilated from station description files provided by FHWA for Weigh-in-Motion (WIM), and...

  15. Automatic Traffic Recorder (ATR) Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The data included in the GIS Traffic Stations Version database have been assimilated from station description files provided by FHWA for Weigh-in-Motion (WIM), and...

  16. Emergency Medical Service (EMS) Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — EMS Locations in Kansas The EMS stations dataset consists of any location where emergency medical services (EMS) personnel are stationed or based out of, or where...

  17. Problems of the organization of railroad railway areas and stations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Дмитрий Сергеевич Чайко

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the problem of the organization of a railroad train of territory of railway stations. It examines the existing state railroad territories and objects. The aim of the study is to evaluate the effectiveness of the use of railroad territories and the solution of the question of preservation and integration of historic train stations in the city structure. The analysis of domestic and foreign experience on the example of European countries and America. Also discusses the problem of reconstruction of railway stations. Examples are also provided. In addition, the marked tendency to the proliferation of Mega-stations, major transport hubs around the world.

  18. Artist's Concept of International Space Station (ISS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Pictured is an artist's concept of the International Space Station (ISS) with solar panels fully deployed. In addition to the use of solar energy, the ISS will employ at least three types of propulsive support systems for its operation. The first type is to reboost the Station to correct orbital altitude to offset the effects of atmospheric and other drag forces. The second function is to maneuver the ISS to avoid collision with oribting bodies (space junk). The third is for attitude control to position the Station in the proper attitude for various experiments, temperature control, reboost, etc. The ISS, a gateway to permanent human presence in space, is a multidisciplinary laboratory, technology test bed, and observatory that will provide an unprecedented undertaking in scientific, technological, and international experimentation by cooperation of sixteen countries.

  19. Space Station fluid management logistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominick, Sam M.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs and discussion on space station fluid management logistics are presented. Topics covered include: fluid management logistics - issues for Space Station Freedom evolution; current fluid logistics approach; evolution of Space Station Freedom fluid resupply; launch vehicle evolution; ELV logistics system approach; logistics carrier configuration; expendable fluid/propellant carrier description; fluid carrier design concept; logistics carrier orbital operations; carrier operations at space station; summary/status of orbital fluid transfer techniques; Soviet progress tanker system; and Soviet propellant resupply system observations.

  20. International Space Station: Expedition 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Live footage of the International Space Station (ISS) presents an inside look at the groundwork and assembly of the ISS. Footage includes both animation and live shots of a Space Shuttle liftoff. Phil West, Engineer; Dr. Catherine Clark, Chief Scientist ISS; and Joe Edwards, Astronaut, narrate the video. The first topic of discussion is People and Communications. Good communication is a key component in our ISS endeavor. Dr. Catherine Clark uses two soup cans attached by a string to demonstrate communication. Bill Nye the Science Guy talks briefly about science aboard the ISS. Charlie Spencer, Manager of Space Station Simulators, talks about communication aboard the ISS. The second topic of discussion is Engineering. Bonnie Dunbar, Astronaut at Johnson Space Flight Center, gives a tour of the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM). She takes us inside Node 2 and the U.S. Lab Destiny. She also shows where protein crystal growth experiments are performed. Audio terminal units are used for communication in the JEM. A demonstration of solar arrays and how they are tested is shown. Alan Bell, Project Manager MRMDF (Mobile Remote Manipulator Development Facility), describes the robot arm that is used on the ISS and how it maneuvers the Space Station. The third topic of discussion is Science and Technology. Dr. Catherine Clark, using a balloon attached to a weight, drops the apparatus to the ground to demonstrate Microgravity. The bursting of the balloon is observed. Sherri Dunnette, Imaging Technologist, describes the various cameras that are used in space. The types of still cameras used are: 1) 35 mm, 2) medium format cameras, 3) large format cameras, 4) video cameras, and 5) the DV camera. Kumar Krishen, Chief Technologist ISS, explains inframetrics, infrared vision cameras and how they perform. The Short Arm Centrifuge is shown by Dr. Millard Reske, Senior Life Scientist, to subject astronauts to forces greater than 1-g. Reske is interested in the physiological effects of

  1. Build Your Own Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolinger, Allison

    2016-01-01

    This presentation will be used to educate elementary students on the purposes and components of the International Space Station and then allow them to build their own space stations with household objects and then present details on their space stations to the rest of the group.

  2. Air and radiation monitoring stations

    CERN Multimedia

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)582709

    2015-01-01

    CERN has around 100 monitoring stations on and around its sites. New radiation measuring stations, capable of detecting even lower levels of radiation, were installed in 2014. Two members of HE-SEE group (Safety Engineering and Environment group) in front of one of the new monitoring stations.

  3. Hydrogen fuel dispensing station for transportation vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, S.P.N.; Richmond, A.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Chemical Technology Div.

    1995-07-01

    A technical and economic assessment is being conducted of a hydrogen fuel dispensing station to develop an understanding of the infrastructure requirements for supplying hydrogen fuel for mobile applications. The study includes a process design of a conceptual small-scale, stand-alone, grassroots fuel dispensing facility (similar to the present-day gasoline stations) producing hydrogen by steam reforming of natural gas. Other hydrogen production processes (such as partial oxidation of hydrocarbons and water electrolysis) were reviewed to determine their suitability for manufacturing the hydrogen. The study includes an assessment of the environmental and other regulatory permitting requirements likely to be imposed on a hydrogen fuel dispensing station for transportation vehicles. The assessment concludes that a dispensing station designed to produce 0.75 million standard cubic feet of fuel grade (99.99%+ purity) hydrogen will meet the fuel needs of 300 light-duty vehicles per day. Preliminary economics place the total capital investment (in 1994 US dollars) for the dispensing station at $4.5 million and the annual operating costs at around $1 million. A discounted cash-flow analysis indicates that the fuel hydrogen product price (excluding taxes) to range between $1.37 to $2.31 per pound of hydrogen, depending upon the natural gas price, the plant financing scenario, and the rate of return on equity capital. A report on the assessment is due in June 1995. This paper presents a summary of the current status of the assessment.

  4. High frequent total station measurements for the monitoring of bridge vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lienhart, Werner; Ehrhart, Matthias; Grick, Magdalena

    2017-03-01

    Robotic total stations (RTS) are frequently used for the measurement of temperature induced bridge deformations or during load testing of bridges. In experimental setups, total stations have also been used for the measurement of dynamic bridge deformations. However, with standard configurations the measurement rate is not constant and on average an update rate of 7-10Hz can be achieved. This is not sufficient for the vibration monitoring of bridges considering their natural frequencies which are also in the same range. In this paper, we present different approaches to overcome these problems. In the first two approaches we demonstrate how the measurement rate to prisms can be increased to 20Hz to determine vertical deformations of bridges. Critical aspects like the measurement resolution of the automated target tracking and the correct sequence of steering commands are discussed. In another approach we demonstrate how vertical bridge vibrations can be measured using an image assisted total station (IATS) and corresponding processing techniques. The advantage of image-based methods is that structural features of a bridge like bolts can be used as targets. Therefore, no expensive prisms have to be mounted and access to the bridge is not required. All approaches are verified by laboratory investigations and their suitability is proven in a field experiment on a 74m long footbridge. In this field experiment the natural frequencies derived from the total station measurements are compared to the results of accelerometer measurements.

  5. Predictive factors for obtaining a correct therapeutic range using antivitamin K anticoagulants: a tertiary center experience of patient adherence to anticoagulant therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurcuţ R

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Ruxandra Jurcuţ,1 Sebastian Militaru,1 Oliviana Geavlete,1 Nic Drăgotoiu,1 Sergiu Sipoş,1 Răzvan Roşulescu,2 Carmen Ginghină,1 Ciprian Jurcuţ2 1Prof Dr CC Iliescu Emergency Institute for Cardiovascular Diseases, University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 2Dr Carol Davila Central University Emergency Military Hospital, Bucharest, Romania Background: Patient adherence is an essential factor in obtaining efficient oral anticoagulation using vitamin K antagonists (VKAs, a situation with a narrow therapeutic window. Therefore, patient education and awareness are crucial for good management. Auditing the current situation would help to identify the magnitude of the problem and to build tailored education programs for these patients. Methods: This study included 68 hospitalized chronically anticoagulated patients (mean age 62.6±13.1 years; males, 46% who responded to a 26-item questionnaire to assess their knowledge on VKA therapy management. Laboratory and clinical data were used to determine the international normalized ratio (INR at admission, as well as to calculate CHA2DS2-VASC and HAS-BLED scores for patients with atrial fibrillation. Results: The majority of patients (62% were receiving VKA for atrial fibrillation, the others for a mechanical prosthesis and previous thromboembolic disease or stroke. In the atrial fibrillation group, the mean CHA2DS2-VASC score was 3.1±1.5, while the average HAS-BLED score was 1.8±1.2. More than half of the patients (53% had an INR outside of the therapeutic range at admission, with the majority (43% having a low INR. A correct INR value was predicted by education level (higher education and the diagnostic indication (patients with mechanical prosthesis being best managed. Patients presenting with a therapeutic INR had a trend toward longer treatment duration than those outside the therapeutic range (62±72 months versus 36±35 months, respectively, P=0.06. There was no correlation between INR at admission

  6. Submerged AUV Charging Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack A.; Chao, Yi; Curtin, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) are becoming increasingly important for military surveillance and mine detection. Most AUVs are battery powered and have limited lifetimes of a few days to a few weeks. This greatly limits the distance that AUVs can travel underwater. Using a series of submerged AUV charging stations, AUVs could travel a limited distance to the next charging station, recharge its batteries, and continue to the next charging station, thus traveling great distances in a relatively short time, similar to the Old West “Pony Express.” One solution is to use temperature differences at various depths in the ocean to produce electricity, which is then stored in a submerged battery. It is preferred to have the upper buoy submerged a reasonable distance below the surface, so as not to be seen from above and not to be inadvertently destroyed by storms or ocean going vessels. In a previous invention, a phase change material (PCM) is melted (expanded) at warm temperatures, for example, 15 °C, and frozen (contracted) at cooler temperatures, for example, 8 °C. Tubes containing the PCM, which could be paraffin such as pentadecane, would be inserted into a container filled with hydraulic oil. When the PCM is melted (expanded), it pushes the oil out into a container that is pressurized to about 3,000 psi (approx equals 20.7 MPa). When a valve is opened, the high-pressure oil passes through a hydraulic motor, which turns a generator and charges a battery. The low-pressure oil is finally reabsorbed into the PCM canister when the PCM tubes are frozen (contracted). Some of the electricity produced could be used to control an external bladder or a motor to the tether line, such that depth cycling is continued for a very long period of time. Alternatively, after the electricity is generated by the hydraulic motor, the exiting low-pressure oil from the hydraulic motor could be vented directly to an external bladder on the AUV, such that filling of the bladder

  7. Particulate Matter Oxidative Potential from Waste Transfer Station Activity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Krystal J. Godri; Sean T. Duggan; Gary W. Fuller; Tim Baker; David Green; Frank J. Kelly; Ian S. Mudway

    ...). The highest PM concentrations in London occur in proximity to waste transfer stations (WTS), sites that experience high numbers of dust-laden, heavy-duty diesel vehicles transporting industrial and household waste. Objective...

  8. Optimization of Close Range Photogrammetry Network Design Applying Fuzzy Computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminia, A. S.

    2017-09-01

    Measuring object 3D coordinates with optimum accuracy is one of the most important issues in close range photogrammetry. In this context, network design plays an important role in determination of optimum position of imaging stations. This is, however, not a trivial task due to various geometric and radiometric constraints affecting the quality of the measurement network. As a result, most camera stations in the network are defined on a try and error basis based on the user's experience and generic network concept. In this paper, we propose a post-processing task to investigate the quality of camera positions right after image capturing to achieve the best result. To do this, a new fuzzy reasoning approach is adopted, in which the constraints affecting the network design are all modeled. As a result, the position of all camera locations is defined based on fuzzy rules and inappropriate stations are determined. The experiments carried out show that after determination and elimination of the inappropriate images using the proposed fuzzy reasoning system, the accuracy of measurements is improved and enhanced about 17% for the latter network.

  9. Korea Geodetic VLBI Station Sejong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, S.; Moon, Y.; Kim, S.; Lee, J.; Joo, H. e.; Oh, H.

    2012-12-01

    The Sejong VLBI station has been constructed by the National Geographic Information Institute (NGII) in the Republic of Korea. It took approximately four years from 2008 to the end of 2011. In February 2012, we successfully carried out a fringe-test with the Kashima 11-m antenna of the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT) in Japan. In March, the Sejong station was accepted as an IVS network station by acceptance of the IVS Directing Board which was held at the 7th IVS General Meeting in Spain. This report summarizes activities of the Sejong station as a new IVS Network Station.

  10. Measurements of Electromagnetic Fields Emitted from Cellular Base Stations in

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    K. J. Ali

    2013-01-01

    .... The aim of this work is to determine the safe and unsafe ranges and discuss damage caused by radiation emitted from Asia cell base stations in Shirqat city and discuses the best ways in which can...

  11. Draper Station Analysis Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedrossian, Nazareth; Jang, Jiann-Woei; McCants, Edward; Omohundro, Zachary; Ring, Tom; Templeton, Jeremy; Zoss, Jeremy; Wallace, Jonathan; Ziegler, Philip

    2011-01-01

    Draper Station Analysis Tool (DSAT) is a computer program, built on commercially available software, for simulating and analyzing complex dynamic systems. Heretofore used in designing and verifying guidance, navigation, and control systems of the International Space Station, DSAT has a modular architecture that lends itself to modification for application to spacecraft or terrestrial systems. DSAT consists of user-interface, data-structures, simulation-generation, analysis, plotting, documentation, and help components. DSAT automates the construction of simulations and the process of analysis. DSAT provides a graphical user interface (GUI), plus a Web-enabled interface, similar to the GUI, that enables a remotely located user to gain access to the full capabilities of DSAT via the Internet and Webbrowser software. Data structures are used to define the GUI, the Web-enabled interface, simulations, and analyses. Three data structures define the type of analysis to be performed: closed-loop simulation, frequency response, and/or stability margins. DSAT can be executed on almost any workstation, desktop, or laptop computer. DSAT provides better than an order of magnitude improvement in cost, schedule, and risk assessment for simulation based design and verification of complex dynamic systems.

  12. Luminescence of the (O2(a(1)Δ(g)))2 collisional complex in the temperature range of 90-315 K: Experiment and theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagidullin, M V; Pershin, A A; Azyazov, V N; Mebel, A M

    2015-12-28

    Experimental and theoretical studies of collision induced emission of singlet oxygen molecules O2(a(1)Δg) in the visible range have been performed. The rate constants, half-widths, and position of peaks for the emission bands of the (O2(a(1)Δg))2 collisional complex centered around 634 nm (2) and 703 nm (3) have been measured in the temperature range of 90-315 K using a flow-tube apparatus that utilized a gas-liquid chemical singlet oxygen generator. The absolute values of the spontaneous emission rate constants k2 and k3 are found to be similar, with the k3/k2 ratio monotonically decreasing from 1.1 at 300 K to 0.96 at 90 K. k2 slowly decreases with decreasing temperature but a sharp increase in its values is measured below 100 K. The experimental results were rationalized in terms of ab initio calculations of the ground and excited potential energy and transition dipole moment surfaces of singlet electronic states of the (O2)2 dimole, which were utilized to compute rate constants k2 and k3 within a statistical model. The best theoretical results reproduced experimental rate constants with the accuracy of under 40% and correctly described the observed temperature dependence. The main contribution to emission process (2), which does not involve vibrational excitation of O2 molecules at the ground electronic level, comes from the spin- and symmetry-allowed 1(1)Ag←(1)B3u transition in the rectangular H configuration of the dimole. Alternatively, emission process (3), in which one of the monomers becomes vibrationally excited in the ground electronic state, is found to be predominantly due to the vibronically allowed 1(1)Ag←2(1)Ag transition induced by the asymmetric O-O stretch vibration in the collisional complex. The strong vibronic coupling between nearly degenerate excited singlet states of the dimole makes the intensities of vibronically and symmetry-allowed transitions comparable and hence the rate constants k2 and k3 close to one another.

  13. Use of international space station for fundamental physics research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israelsson, U.; Lee, M. C.

    2002-01-01

    NASA's research plans aboard the International Space Station (ISS) are discussed. Experiments in low temperature physics and atomic physics are planned to commence in late 2005. Experiments in gravitational physics are planned to begin in 2007. A low temperature microgravity physics facility is under development for the low temperature and gravitation experiments.

  14. Use of preservative-free hyaluronic acid (Hylabak® for a range of patients with dry eye syndrome: experience in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brzhesky VV

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Vladimir Vsevolodovich Brjesky,1 Yury Fedorovich Maychuk,2 Alexey Vladimirovich Petrayevsky,3 Peter Gerrievich Nagorsky41Department of Ophthalmology, Pediatric State Medical Academy, Saint Petersburg, 2Moscow Research Institute of Eye Diseases, Moscow, 3Department of Ophthalmology, Volgograd State Medical University, Volgograd, 4Novosibirsk Branch of the Federal State Institute MNTK Eye Microsurgery, Novosibirsk, Russian Federation, RussiaAbstract: Artificial tear preparations are important in the management of dry eye syndrome. We present the findings from four recently published studies conducted in Russia assessing Hylabak® (marketed as Hyabak® in Europe, a preservative-free hyaluronic acid preparation, for the treatment of dry eye syndrome. All studies had an open, noncomparative design, but one compared the findings with those from 25 patients treated with Tear Naturale® in previous studies. A total of 134 children and adults were enrolled, and the etiologies of dry eye syndrome included contact lens use, intensive office work, adenovirus eye infection, postmenopausal status, persistent meibomian blepharitis, Sjögren's syndrome, phacoemulsification with intraocular lens implantation, and refractive surgery. The patients were treated with Hylabak for 2 weeks to 2 months. All studies showed that Hylabak resulted in marked improvement as assessed by subjective sensations/complaints, Schirmer's test, Norn’s test, impression cytology and biomicroscopy, staining, and tear osmolarity. Greater benefits were also reported compared with Tear Naturale, including a faster onset of action. Hylabak was well tolerated. In conclusion, Hylabak provided rapid and safe relief from the signs and symptoms of dry eye syndrome, as well as improvement in objective measures, in a wide range of patients.Keywords: dry eye, eye drops, artificial tears, hyaluronic acid, Hylabak®, preservative-free

  15. User needs, benefits, and integration of robotic systems in a space station laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, W. R.; Badgley, M. B.; Konkel, C. R.

    1989-01-01

    The methodology, results and conclusions of all tasks of the User Needs, Benefits, and Integration Study (UNBIS) of Robotic Systems in a Space Station Laboratory are summarized. Study goals included the determination of user requirements for robotics within the Space Station, United States Laboratory. In Task 1, three experiments were selected to determine user needs and to allow detailed investigation of microgravity requirements. In Task 2, a NASTRAN analysis of Space Station response to robotic disturbances, and acceleration measurement of a standard industrial robot (Intelledex Model 660) resulted in selection of two ranges of microgravity manipulation: Level 1 (10-3 to 10-5 G at greater than 1 Hz) and Level 2 (less than equal 10-6 G at 0.1 Hz). This task included an evaluation of microstepping methods for controlling stepper motors and concluded that an industrial robot actuator can perform milli-G motion without modification. Relative merits of end-effectors and manipulators were studied in Task 3 in order to determine their ability to perform a range of tasks related to the three microgravity experiments. An Effectivity Rating was established for evaluating these robotic system capabilities. Preliminary interface requirements for an orbital flight demonstration were determined in Task 4. Task 5 assessed the impact of robotics.

  16. Innovative Railway Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzepnicka, Sylwia; Załuski, Daniel

    2017-10-01

    In relation to modern demographic trends, evolving technologies and environment-friendly solutions increases the potential of rail considered as sustainable form of public transport. Contemporary tendencies of designing railway stations in Europe are focused on lowering energy consumption and reducing carbon emission. The main goal of the designers is to create a friendly and intuitive space for its users and at the same time a building that uses renewable energy sources and minimizes negative impact on the environment by the increase of biologically active areas, reuse of rainwater and greywater, innovative heating and cooling solutions and reduction of energy losses. The optimisation of a life circle in railway architecture introduces new approach to passenger service. Examples mentioned in the content of this article help to synthesize changes in approach to the design within the context of sustainability.

  17. Design of the LBNF Beamline Target Station

    OpenAIRE

    Tariq, S.; Ammigan, K.; Anderson, K.; Buccellato, S. A.; Crowley, C. F.; Hartsell, B. D.; Hurh, P.; Hylen, J.; Kasper, P.; Krafczyk, G. E.; Lee, A.; Lundberg, B.; Marchionni, A; Mokhov, N. V.; Moore, C. D.

    2016-01-01

    The Long Baseline Neutrino Facility (LBNF) project will build a beamline located at Fermilab to create and aim an intense neutrino beam of appropriate energy range toward the DUNE detectors at the SURF facility in Lead, South Dakota. Neutrino production starts in the Target Station, which consists of a solid target, magnetic focusing horns, and the associated sub-systems and shielding infrastructure. Protons hit the target producing mesons which are then focused by the horns into a helium-fil...

  18. Station Program Note Pull Automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    transferred over to a new Excel worksheet for comparison. I managed to get my application to acquire the CSWG (Computer Safety Working Group) and the SPNWG (Space Station Working Group) SPN's with just two mouse clicks for each pull, as opposed to several from the original process. When all three pulls are performed, an Excel sheet containing all three different results will be generated for the user to compare and determine which SPN's will be presented or reviewed the following month. The experience from this internship has been spectacular. As a high school senior who will begin attending college in the fall, this internship has been both educationally and occupationally beneficial. The internship has allowed me the opportunities to learn new programming languages, effectively network with NASA personnel from a variety of departments at JSC, and allowed me to learn new professional skills and etiquette. My internship at NASA's Johnson Space Center has further motivated me to pursue a Master's degree in Software Engineering and strive for a prosperous career with NASA as a civil servant.

  19. Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS). This file provides information on the numbers and distribution (latitude/longitude) of air monitoring sites...

  20. Offshore Metocean Station for Energy Purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Balluff

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy concepts are able to sustainably satisfy the world energy demand without any restrictions for the following generations. In these concepts the wind energy and wave / current energy are important factors as the description and the prognosis of waves and currents is a complex issue, especially offshore. For the estimation of the average annual wind speed and thus the energy production of offshore wind farms it is imperative to know the exact wind conditions at each project site. Suitable prognosis methods are missing so far, are not accurate enough or at beta stage. The only possibility to achieve exact information about the offshore conditions is a metocean station consisting of wind and wave sensors. These met stations can be lattice masts mounted on monopiles or buoys equipped with meteorological sensors, both in combination with wave sensors to include all important parameters. Though conventional metocean stations are far more common, established and are measuring data of high quality, cheaper and more flexible solutions as the likes of floating Lidars (Light Detection And Ranging are about to be used during the operation of wind farms. This article explains currently used methods of measurements offshore with respect to wind and wave and compares it with reanalysis data. This data has advantages in comparison to measurements from conventional metocean stations, but cannot be used independently. This article proves that using solely reanalysis data is not possible, that measurements offshore are still necessary and that its operation helps improving the performance of offshore wind farms.

  1. Station History Of The Seismic Station In Ahmadu Bello University ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The data were used to create the station history plots which display the travel times, the distance time curve and events location on a world seismicity map with Zaria as the center. KEY WORDS: History, Events, Station, Teleseismic, Travel time. Global Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences Vol.11(2) 2005: 309-315.

  2. Stanwell power station project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, David R; J Dey, Christopher [University of Sidney, Sidney (Australia); Morrison, Graham L [University of New South Wales, Sidney (Australia)

    2000-07-01

    This paper describes the Compact Linear Fresnel Reflector (CLFR) being developed for installation at the Stanwell power station in Queensland Australia. Stanwell Corporation Limited (SCL). Solahart International, Solsearch Pty. Ltd. And the universities of Sidney and New South Wales are cooperating in the project, and this first plant being partly funded by the Australian Greenhouse Office. The solar plant will be attached to a 1440 MW(e) coal fired plant. The 17000 m{sup 2} array will be the largest array in Australia, producing a peak of 13 MW of thermal energy which will offset the use of coal in the generation of electricity. It will use direct steam generation and will feed either steam or hot water at 265 Celsius degrees directly into the power station preheating cycle. The CLFR system, first developed by the University of Sidney and Solsearch Pty. Ltd., is simple and offers small reflector size, low structural cost, fixed receiver geometry. Initial installed plant costs are approximately US$1000 per kWe, but this includes the effect of high up-front design costs and the cost should drop substantially in the second and subsequent plants. [Spanish] Proyecto de la Planta Electrica Stanwell este articulo describe el Reflector Lineal Compacto Fresnel (CLFR, siglas en ingles) que se esta desarrollando para la instalacion de la planta electrica Stanwell en Queensland, Australia. La Corporacion Stanwell Limited (SCL), Solahart International, Solsearch Pty. Ltd., las universidades de Sidney y de New South Wales estan cooperando en este proyecto, y esta primera planta esta parcialmente auspiciada por la Australian Greenhouse Office. La planta solar sera anexa a una planta de carbon de 1440 MW(e). Este arreglo de 17000 m{sup 2} sera el mayor en Australia y producira un maximo de 13 MW en energia termica la cual contrarrestara el uso del carbon en la generacion de electricidad. Utilizara generacion con vapor directo y alimentara ya sea vapor o agua caliente a 265 grados

  3. The AMS experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    1999-01-01

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) detector will be installed as a particle physics experiment on the International Space Station. It will look for antimatter pockets in space. AMS is a CERN recognised experiment.

  4. The international space station as a free flyer servicing node

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antol, Jeffrey; Headley, David E.

    1999-01-01

    The International Space Station will provide a multitude of opportunities for an expanding customer base to make use of this international resource. One such opportunity is servicing of various visiting vehicles that are in a similar orbit to the station. Servicing may include change-out of payloads, replenishment of consumables, repair, and refurbishment operations. Previous studies have been conducted in which ``paper'' free flyers have been assessed against the station's ability to accommodate them. Over the last several months though, an already flown free flyer, EURECA, was assessed as a real-life visiting free flyer design reference mission. Issues such as capture/berthing, servicing, logistics support, and stowage were assessed for station design and operational approaches. This paper will highlight critical visiting vehicle design considerations, identify station issues, and provide recommendations for accommodation of a wide range of visiting vehicle requirements of the future.

  5. Rf Station For Ion Beam Staking In Hirfl-csr

    CERN Document Server

    Arbuzov, V S; Bushuev, A A; Dranichnikov, A N; Gorniker, E I; Kendjebulatov, E K; Kondakov, A A; Kondaurov, M; Kruchkov, Ya G; Krutikhin, S A; Kurkin, G Ya; Mironenko, L A; Motygin, S V; Osipov, V N; Petrov, V M; Pilan, Andrey M; Popov, A M; Rashenko, V V; Selivanov, A N; Shteinke, A R; Vajenin, N F

    2004-01-01

    BINP has developed and produced the RF station for Institute of Modern Physics (IMP), Lanzhou, China, for multipurpose accelerator complex with electron cooling. The RF station will be used for accumulation of ion beams in the main ring of the system. It was successfully tested in IMP and installed into the main accelerator ring of the complex. The RF station includes accelerating RF cavity and RF power generator with power supplies. The station works within frequency range 6.0 - 14.0 MHz, maximum voltage across the accelerating gap of the RF cavity - 20 kV. In the RF cavity the 200 VNP ferrite is utilized. A residual gas pressure in vacuum chamber does not exceed 2,5E-11 mbar. Maximum output power of the RF generator 25 kW. The data acquisition and control of the RF station is based on COMPACT - PCI bus and provides all functions of monitoring and control.

  6. Sampling Indoor Aerosols on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Marit E.

    2016-01-01

    In a spacecraft cabin environment, the size range of indoor aerosols is much larger and they persist longer than on Earth because they are not removed by gravitational settling. A previous aerosol experiment in 1991 documented that over 90 of the mass concentration of particles in the NASA Space Shuttle air were between 10 m and 100 m based on measurements with a multi-stage virtual impactor and a nephelometer (Liu et al. 1991). While the now-retired Space Shuttle had short duration missions (less than two weeks), the International Space Station (ISS) has been continually inhabited by astronauts for over a decade. High concentrations of inhalable particles on ISS are potentially responsible for crew complaints of respiratory and eye irritation and comments about 'dusty' air. Air filtration is the current control strategy for airborne particles on the ISS, and filtration modeling, performed for engineering and design validation of the air revitalization system in ISS, predicted that PM requirements would be met. However, aerosol monitoring has never been performed on the ISS to verify PM levels. A flight experiment is in preparation which will provide data on particulate matter in ISS ambient air. Particles will be collected with a thermophoretic sampler as well as with passive samplers which will extend the particle size range of sampling. Samples will be returned to Earth for chemical and microscopic analyses, providing the first aerosol data for ISS ambient air.

  7. Improving Station Performance by Building Isolation Walls in the Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yan; Horn, Nikolaus; Leohardt, Roman

    2014-05-01

    Conrad Observatory is situated far away from roads and industrial areas on the Trafelberg in Lower Austria. At the end of the seismic tunnel, the main seismic instrument of the Observatory with a station code CONA is located. This station is one of the most important seismic stations in the Austrian Seismic Network (network code OE). The seismic observatory consists of a 145m long gallery and an underground laboratory building with several working areas. About 25 meters away from the station CONA, six temporary seismic stations were implemented for research purposes. Two of them were installed with the same equipment as CONA, while the remaining four stations were set up with digitizers having lower noise and higher resolution (Q330HR) and sensors with the same type (STS-2). In order to prevent possible disturbances by air pressure and temperature fluctuation, three walls were built inside of the tunnel. The first wall is located ca 63 meters from the tunnel entrance, while a set of double walls with a distance of 1.5 meters is placed about 53 meters from the first isolation wall but between the station CONA and the six temporary stations. To assess impact of the isolation walls on noise reduction and detection performance, investigations are conducted in two steps. The first study is carried out by comparing the noise level and detection performance between the station CONA behind the double walls and the stations in front of the double walls for verifying the noise isolation by the double walls. To evaluate the effect of the single wall, station noise level and detection performance were studied by comparing the results before and after the installation of the wall. Results and discussions will be presented. Additional experiment is conducted by filling insulation material inside of the aluminium boxes of the sensors (above and around the sensors). This should help us to determine an optimal insulation of the sensors with respect to pressure and temperature

  8. Short-range fundamental forces

    CERN Document Server

    Antoniadis, I; Buchner, M; Fedorov, V V; Hoedl, S; Lambrecht, A; Nesvizhevsky, V V; Pignol, G; Protasov, K V; Reynaud, S; Sobolev, Yu

    2011-01-01

    We consider theoretical motivations to search for extra short-range fundamental forces as well as experiments constraining their parameters. The forces could be of two types: 1) spin-independent forces, 2) spin-dependent axion-like forces. Differe nt experimental techniques are sensitive in respective ranges of characteristic distances. The techniques include measurements of gravity at short distances, searches for extra interactions on top of the Casimir force, precision atomic and neutron experim ents. We focus on neutron constraints, thus the range of characteristic distances considered here corresponds to the range accessible for neutron experiments.

  9. The McDonald Observatory lunar laser ranging project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverberg, E. C.

    1978-01-01

    A summary of the activities of the McDonald lunar laser ranging station at Fort Davis for the FY 77-78 fiscal year is presented. The lunar laser experiment uses the observatory 2.7m reflecting telescope on a thrice-per-day, 21-day-per-lunation schedule. Data are recorded on magnetic tapes and sent to the University of Texas at Austin where the data is processed. After processing, the data is distributed to interested analysis centers and later to the National Space Science Data Center where it is available for routine distribution. Detailed reports are published on the McDonald operations after every fourth lunation or approximately once every 115 days. These reports contain a day-by-day documentation of the ranging activity, detailed discussions of the equipment development efforts, and an abundance of other information as is needed to document and archive this important data type.

  10. Epigenetics Research on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, John; Cooley, Vic

    2016-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is a state-of-the orbiting laboratory focused on advancing science and technology research. Experiments being conducted on the ISS include investigations in the emerging field of Epigenetics. Epigenetics refers to stably heritable changes in gene expression or cellular phenotype (the transcriptional potential of a cell) resulting from changes in a chromosome without alterations to the underlying DNA nucleotide sequence (the genetic code), which are caused by external or environmental factors, such as spaceflight microgravity. Molecular mechanisms associated with epigenetic alterations regulating gene expression patterns include covalent chemical modifications of DNA (e.g., methylation) or histone proteins (e.g., acetylation, phorphorylation, or ubiquitination). For example, Epigenetics ("Epigenetics in Spaceflown C. elegans") is a recent JAXA investigation examining whether adaptations to microgravity transmit from one cell generation to another without changing the basic DNA of the organism. Mouse Epigenetics ("Transcriptome Analysis and Germ-Cell Development Analysis of Mice in Space") investigates molecular alterations in organ-specific gene expression patterns and epigenetic modifications, and analyzes murine germ cell development during long term spaceflight, as well as assessing changes in offspring DNA. NASA's first foray into human Omics research, the Twins Study ("Differential effects of homozygous twin astronauts associated with differences in exposure to spaceflight factors"), includes investigations evaluating differential epigenetic effects via comprehensive whole genome analysis, the landscape of DNA and RNA methylation, and biomolecular changes by means of longitudinal integrated multi-omics research. And the inaugural Genes in Space student challenge experiment (Genes in Space-1) is aimed at understanding how epigenetics plays a role in immune system dysregulation by assaying DNA methylation in immune cells

  11. Radiation survey in the International Space Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narici Livio

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The project ALTEA-shield/survey is part of an European Space Agency (ESA – ILSRA (International Life Science Research Announcement program and provides a detailed study of the International Space Station (ISS (USLab and partly Columbus radiation environment. The experiment spans over 2 years, from September 20, 2010 to September 30, 2012, for a total of about 1.5 years of effective measurements. The ALTEA detector system measures all heavy ions above helium and, to a limited extent, hydrogen and helium (respectively, in 25 Mev–45 MeV and 25 MeV/n–250 MeV/n energy windows while tracking every individual particle. It measures independently the radiation along the three ISS coordinate axes. The data presented consist of flux, dose, and dose equivalent over the time of investigation, at the different surveyed locations. Data are selected from the different geographic regions (low and high latitudes and South Atlantic Anomaly, SAA. Even with a limited acceptance window for the proton contribution, the flux/dose/dose equivalent results as well as the radiation spectra provide information on how the radiation risks change in the different surveyed sites. The large changes in radiation environment found among the measured sites, due to the different shield/mass distribution, require a detailed Computer-Aided Design (CAD model to be used together with these measurements for the validation of radiation models in space habitats. Altitude also affects measured radiation, especially in the SAA. In the period of measurements, the altitude (averaged over each minute ranged from 339 km to 447 km. Measurements show the significant shielding effect of the ISS truss, responsible for a consistent amount of reduction in dose equivalent (and so in radiation quality. Measured Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR dose rates at high latitude range from 0.354 ± 0.002 nGy/s to 0.770 ± 0.006 nGy/s while dose equivalent from 1.21 ± 0.04 nSv/s to 6.05 ± 0

  12. Doses due to extra-vehicular activity on space stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deme, S.; Apathy, I.; Feher, I. [KFKI Atomic Energy Research Institute, Budapest (Hungary); Akatov, Y.; Arkhanguelski, V. [Institute of Biomedical Problems, State Scientific Center, Moscow (Russian Federation); Reitz, G. [DLR Institute of Aerospace Medicine, Cologne, Linder Hohe (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    One of the many risks of long duration space flight is the dose from cosmic radiation, especially during periods of intensive solar activity. At such times, particularly during extra-vehicular activity (E.V.A.), when the astronauts are not protected by the wall of the spacecraft, cosmic radiation is a potentially serious health threat. Accurate dose measurement becomes increasingly important during the assembly of large space objects. Passive integrating detector systems such as thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) are commonly used for dosimetric mapping and personal dosimetry on space vehicles. K.F.K.I. Atomic Energy Research Institute has developed and manufactured a series of thermoluminescent dosimeter systems, called Pille, for measuring cosmic radiation doses in the 3 {mu}Gy to 10 Gy range, consisting of a set of CaSO{sub 4}:Dy bulb dosimeters and a small, compact, TLD reader suitable for on-board evaluation of the dosimeters. Such a system offers a solution for E.V.A. dosimetry as well. By means of such a system, highly accurate measurements were carried out on board the Salyut-6, -7 and Mir Space Stations, on the Space Shuttle, and most recently on several segments of the International Space Station (I.S.S.). The Pille system was used to make the first measurements of the radiation exposure of cosmonauts during E.V.A.. Such E.V.A. measurements were carried out twice (on June 12 and 16, 1987) by Y. Romanenko, the commander of the second crew of Mir. During the E.V.A. one of the dosimeters was fixed in a pocket on the outer surface of the left leg of his space-suit; a second dosimeter was located inside the station for reference measurements. The advanced TLD system Pille 96 was used during the Nasa-4 (1997) mission to monitor the cosmic radiation dose inside the Mir Space Station and to measure the exposure of two of the astronauts during their E.V.A. activities. The extra doses of two E.V.A. during the Euromir 95 and one E.V.A. during the Nasa4 experiment

  13. 47 CFR 97.109 - Station control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station control. 97.109 Section 97.109... SERVICE Station Operation Standards § 97.109 Station control. (a) Each amateur station must have at least one control point. (b) When a station is being locally controlled, the control operator must be at the...

  14. 47 CFR 80.519 - Station identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station identification. 80.519 Section 80.519... MARITIME SERVICES Private Coast Stations and Marine Utility Stations § 80.519 Station identification. (a.... In lieu of the identification of the station by voice, the official call sign may be transmitted by...

  15. 47 CFR 73.787 - Station identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station identification. 73.787 Section 73.787... International Broadcast Stations § 73.787 Station identification. (a) A licensee of an international broadcast station shall make station identification announcement (call letters and location), at the beginning and...

  16. Long-range antigravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macrae, K.I.; Riegert, R.J. (Maryland Univ., College Park (USA). Center for Theoretical Physics)

    1984-10-01

    We consider a theory in which fermionic matter interacts via long-range scalar, vector and tensor fields. In order not to be in conflict with experiment, the scalar and vector couplings for a given fermion must be equal, as is natural in a dimensionally reduced model. Assuming that the Sun is not approximately neutral with respect to these new scalar-vector charges, and if the couplings saturate the experimental bounds, then their strength can be comparable to that of gravity. Scalar-vector fields of this strength can compensate for a solar quadrupole moment contribution to Mercury's anomalous perihelion precession.

  17. [Reply to “Space Station?” by L.H. Meredith] Space station?colon; Microgravity design is best first step

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, D. James

    Les Meredith's recent statement in Eos (September 29, p. 770) on objectives and uses of NASA's proposed space station argues that microgravity research, manufacturing, space physics, astrophysics, and Earth observations are not good justifications for the present zero-gravity design of the station. In my view, he is correct for the general issues of remote sensing, whether it is toward Earth or the planets and beyond. Such observations are indeed better carried out by automated platforms.But in the case of microgravity and space biomedicine, his arguments lose force. Science in the microgravity environment is a field of basic research ranging from materials science to studies of structure of large organic molecules. Today, and for the foreseeable future, the fundamental experiments to be done in the microgravity environment require close interaction with human experimenters, as in a ground-based laboratory. The space station with its microgravity environment and open access to astronauts, provides an environment consistent with the needs of that field of basic research. As we move to manufacturing, the needs for human interaction may become less, but that is probably decades away.

  18. New hardware and software platform for experiments on a HUBER-5042 X-ray diffractometer with a DISPLEX DE-202 helium cryostat in the temperature range of 20-300 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudka, A. P.; Antipin, A. M.; Verin, I. A.

    2017-09-01

    Huber-5042 diffractometer with a closed-cycle Displex DE-202 helium cryostat is a unique scientific instrument for carrying out X-ray diffraction experiments when studying the single crystal structure in the temperature range of 20-300 K. To make the service life longer and develop new experimental techniques, the diffractometer control is transferred to a new hardware and software platform. To this end, a modern computer; a new detector reader unit; and new control interfaces for stepper motors, temperature controller, and cryostat vacuum pumping system are used. The system for cooling the X-ray tube, the high-voltage generator, and the helium compressor and pump for maintaining the desired vacuum in the cryostat are replaced. The system for controlling the primary beam shutter is upgraded. A biological shielding is installed. The new program tools, which use the Linux Ubuntu operating system and SPEC constructor, include a set of drivers for control units through the aforementioned interfaces. A program for searching reflections from a sample using fast continuous scanning and a priori information about crystal is written. Thus, the software package for carrying out the complete cycle of precise diffraction experiment (from determining the crystal unit cell to calculating the integral reflection intensities) is upgraded. High quality of the experimental data obtained on this equipment is confirmed in a number of studies in the temperature range from 20 to 300 K.

  19. VT Data - Electric Charging Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Locations of Electric Charging Stations provided by the NREL national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy....

  20. Interior Alaska Gravity Station Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity station data total 9416 records. This data base was received in March 1997. Principal gravity parameters include Free-air Anomalies which have been...

  1. WVU Hydrogen Fuel Dispensing Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, William [West Virginia University Research Corporation, Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The scope of this project was changed during the course of the project. Phase I of the project was to construct a site similar to the site at Central West Virginia Regional Airport in Charleston, WV to show that duplication of the site was a feasible method of conducting hydrogen stations. Phase II of the project was necessitated due to a lack of funding that was planned for the development of the station in Morgantown. The US Department of Energy determined that the station in Charleston would be dismantled and moved to Morgantown and reassembled at the Morgantown site. This necessitated storage of the components of the station for almost a year at the NAFTC Headquarters which caused a number of issues with the equipment that will be discussed in later portions of this report. This report will consist of PHASE I and PHASE II with discussions on each of the tasks scheduled for each phase of the project.

  2. Gravity Station Data for Spain

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity station data total 28493 records. This data base was received in April 1997. Principal gravity parameters include Free-air Anomalies which have been...

  3. Summit Station Skiway Cost Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    ER D C/ CR RE L TR -1 6- 9 Engineering for Polar Operations, Logistics , and Research (EPOLAR) Summit Station Skiway Cost Analysis Co ld...and Research (EPOLAR) ERDC/CRREL TR-16-9 July 2016 Summit Station Skiway Cost Analysis Terry D. Melendy Cold Regions Research and Engineering...snapshot at the current operating costs . We collected alternative skiway concepts, such as those at the NEEM camp, from the NEEM logistics and project

  4. Internationalization of the Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lottmann, R. V.

    1985-01-01

    Attention is given to the NASA Space Station system elements whose production is under consideration by potential foreign partners. The ESA's Columbus Program declaration encompasses studies of pressurized modules, unmanned payload carriers, and ground support facilities. Canada has expressed interest in construction and servicing facilities, solar arrays, and remote sensing facilities. Japanese studies concern a multipurpose experimental module concept. Each of these foreign investments would expand Space Station capabilities and lay the groundwork for long term partnerships.

  5. Space stations systems and utilization

    CERN Document Server

    Messerschmid, Ernst

    1999-01-01

    The design of space stations like the recently launched ISS is a highly complex and interdisciplinary task. This book describes component technologies, system integration, and the potential usage of space stations in general and of the ISS in particular. It so adresses students and engineers in space technology. Ernst Messerschmid holds the chair of space systems at the University of Stuttgart and was one of the first German astronauts.

  6. Tsukuba 32-m VLBI Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabata, Ryoji; Kurihara, Shinobu; Fukuzaki, Yoshihiro; Kuroda, Jiro; Tanabe, Tadashi; Mukai, Yasuko; Nishikawa, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    The Tsukuba 32-m VLBI station is operated by the Geospatial Information Authority of Japan. This report summarizes activities of the Tsukuba 32-m VLBI station in 2012. More than 200 sessions were observed with the Tsukuba 32-m and other GSI antennas in accordance with the IVS Master Schedule of 2012. We have started installing the observing facilities that will be fully compliant with VLBI2010 for the first time in Japan.

  7. International Research Results and Accomplishments From the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruttley, Tara M.; Robinson, Julie A.; Tate-Brown, Judy; Perkins, Nekisha; Cohen, Luchino; Marcil, Isabelle; Heppener, Marc; Hatton, Jason; Tasaki, Kazuyuki; Umemura, Sayaka; hide

    2016-01-01

    In 2016, the International Space Station (ISS) partnership published the first-ever compilation of international ISS research publications resulting from research performed on the ISS through 2011. The International Space Station Research Accomplishments: An Analysis of Results From 2000-2011 is a collection of summaries of over 1,200 journal publications that describe ISS research in the areas of biology and biotechnology; Earth and space science; educational activities and outreach; human research; physical sciences; technology development and demonstration; and, results from ISS operations. This paper will summarize the ISS results publications obtained through 2011 on behalf of the ISS Program Science Forum that is made up of senior science representatives across the international partnership. NASA's ISS Program Science office maintains an online experiment database (www.nasa.gov/issscience) that tracks and communicates ISS research activities across the entire ISS partnership, and it is continuously updated. It captures ISS experiment summaries and results and includes citations to the journals, conference proceedings, and patents as they become available. The International Space Station Research Accomplishments: An Analysis of Results From 2000-2011 is a testament to the research that was underway even as the ISS laboratory was being built. It reflects the scientific knowledge gained from ISS research, and how it impact the fields of science in both space and traditional science disciplines on Earth. Now, during a time when utilization is at its busiest, and with extension of the ISS through at least 2024, the ISS partners work together to track the accomplishments and the new knowledge gained in a way that will impact humanity like no laboratory on Earth. The ISS Program Science Forum will continue to capture and report on these results in the form of journal publications, conference proceedings, and patents. We anticipate that successful ISS research will

  8. Physics Research on the International Space Station

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is orbiting Earth at an altitude of around 400 km. It has been manned since November 2000 and currently has a permanent crew of six. On-board ISS science is done in a wide field of sciences, from fundamental physics to biology and human physiology. Many of the experiments utilize the unique conditions of weightlessness, but also the views of space and the Earth are exploited. ESA’s (European Space Agency) ELIPS (European Programme Life and Physical sciences in Space) manages some 150 on-going and planned experiments for ISS, which is expected to be utilized at least to 2020. This presentation will give a short introduction to ISS, followed by an overview of the science field within ELIPS and some resent results. The emphasis, however, will be on ISS experiments which are close to the research performed at CERN. Silicon strip detectors like ALTEA are measuring the flux of ions inside the station. ACES (Atomic Clock Ensemble in Space) will provide unprecedented global ti...

  9. Dan jiang kou hydropower station turbine refurbishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, R. Y.; Nie, S. Q.; Bazin, D.; Cheng, J. H.

    2012-11-01

    Dan jiangkou hydropower station refurbished project, isan important project of Chinese refurbishment market. Tianjin Alstom Hydro Co., ltd won this contract by right of good performance and design technology,Its design took into account all the constraints linked to the existing frame. It results in a specific and highly advanced shape.The objective of this paper is to introduce the successful turbine hydraulic design, model test and mechanical design of Dan jiangkou project; and also analyze the cavitation phenomena occurred on runner band surface of Unit 4 after putting into commercial operation. These technology and feedback shall be a good reference and experience for other similar projects

  10. 47 CFR 73.6016 - Digital Class A TV station protection of TV broadcast stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Digital Class A TV station protection of TV... Class A TV station protection of TV broadcast stations. Digital Class A TV stations must protect... existing Class A TV station or to change the facilities of a digital Class A TV station will not be...

  11. Provisions of Disabled Facilities at The Malaysian Public Transport Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Isa Haryati

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Public transport stations need to provide access and facilities for people with disabilities (PWD in fulfilling the requirements of the Malaysian Standard Code of Practice on Access of Disabled Persons (MS. However, most public transport stations in Malaysia are reported as still lacking in terms of providing good designs and facilities for the PWDs. This inaccessible environment affects the PWDs to negatively participate in the social and economic mainstream. The research aims at identifying the compliance of disabled facilities provided at the electronic train service (ETS railway station in Perak. Two research objectives were established (1 to identify the range of disabled facilities provided at the ETS railway station in Perak and (2 to determine the compliance of the disabled facilities as outlined in the MS. Eight ETS railway stations in Perak were chosen for the case study. Purely qualitative methods were adopted. An observation checklist was developed by conducting document analysis on three main documents. The findings suggest that there are 14 disabled facilities to be provided at the ETS railway stations. Majority of these facilities are available and comply with the MS. Conversely, some improvement can be made to further promote sustainability atmosphere of the ETS railway stations.

  12. International Space Station -- Fluid Physics Rack

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The optical bench for the Fluids Integrated Rack section of the Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF) is shown extracted for servicing. The FCF will be installed, in phases, in the Destiny, the U.S. Laboratory Module of the International Space Station (ISS), and will accommodate multiple users for a range of investigations. This is an engineering mockup; the flight hardware is subject to change as designs are refined. The FCF is being developed by the Microgravity Science Division (MSD) at the NASA Glenn Research Center. (Photo credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center)

  13. Evolutionary space station fluids management strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    Results are summarized for an 11-month study to define fluid storage and handling strategies and requirements for various specific mission case studies and their associated design impacts on the Space Station. There are a variety of fluid users which require a variety of fluids and use rates. Also, the cryogenic propellants required for NASA's STV, Planetary, and Code Z missions are enormous. The storage methods must accommodate fluids ranging from a high pressure gas or supercritical state fluid to a sub-cooled liquid (and superfluid helium). These requirements begin in the year 1994, reach a maximum of nearly 1800 metric tons in the year 2004, and trail off to the year 2018, as currently planned. It is conceivable that the cryogenic propellant needs for the STV and/or Lunar mission models will be met by LTCSF LH2/LO2 tanksets attached to the SS truss structure. Concepts and corresponding transfer and delivery operations have been presented for STV propellant provisioning from the SS. A growth orbit maneuvering vehicle (OMV) and associated servicing capability will be required to move tanksets from delivery launch vehicles to the SS or co-orbiting platforms. Also, appropriate changes to the software used for OMV operation are necessary to allow for the combined operation of the growth OMV. To support fluid management activities at the Space Station for the experimental payloads and propellant provisioning, there must be truss structure space allocated for fluid carriers and propellant tanksets, and substantial beam strengthening may be required. The Station must have two Mobile Remote Manipulator Systems (MRMS) and the growth OMV propellant handling operations for the STV at the SS. Propellant needs for the Planetary Initiatives and Code Z mission models will most likely be provided by co-orbiting propellant platform(s). Space Station impacts for Code Z mission fluid management activities will be minimal.

  14. FPGA shore station demonstrator for KM3NeT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anassontzis, E.G. [Physics Department, University of Athens (Greece); Belias, A.; Koutsoukos, S.; Koutsoumpos, V. [NESTOR Institute for Astroparticle Physics, National Observatory of Athens, 24001 Pylos (Greece); Manolopoulos, K., E-mail: kmanolo@phys.uoa.gr [NESTOR Institute for Astroparticle Physics, National Observatory of Athens, 24001 Pylos (Greece); Resvanis, L.K. [Physics Department, University of Athens (Greece); NESTOR Institute for Astroparticle Physics, National Observatory of Athens, 24001 Pylos (Greece)

    2013-10-11

    The KM3NeT readout concept is based on a point-to-point optical network connecting the 10,000 optical modules in the deep-sea neutrino telescope with the shore station. The numerous fiber optic channels arriving at the shore station will be concentrated on the shore electronics systems, which will receive, merge and time order the data, and send them to the DAQ system. Although the network functionality is bi-directional, the physical channel allocation is asymmetric; most channels are assigned to the data reception and only a few channels are used for control with data transport from shore to the telescope. We will discuss the FPGA based platform systems for the shore station and the appropriate firmware implementation for the data gathering and broadcast demands of a neutrino telescope. We will present our experiences based on FPGA evaluation platforms suitable to build a demonstrator of the KM3NeT shore station.

  15. STS-111 Onboard Photo of the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Backdropped against the blackness of space is the International Space Station (ISS), as viewed from the approching Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavour, STS-111 mission, in June 2002. Expedition Five replaced Expedition Four crew after remaining a record-setting 196 days in space. Three spacewalks enabled the STS-111 crew to accomplish the delivery and installation of the Mobile Remote Servicer Base System (MBS), an important part of the Station's Mobile Servicing System that allows the robotic arm to travel the length of the Station, which is necessary for future construction tasks; the replacement of a wrist roll joint on the Station's robotic arm, and the task of unloading supplies and science experiments from the Leonardo Multi-Purpose Logistics Module, which made its third trip to the orbital outpost. The STS-111 mission, the 14th Shuttle mission to visit the ISS, was launched on June 5, 2002 and landed June 19, 2002.

  16. Developing the human-computer interface for Space Station Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Kritina L.

    1991-01-01

    For the past two years, the Human-Computer Interaction Laboratory (HCIL) at the Johnson Space Center has been involved in prototyping and prototype reviews of in support of the definition phase of the Space Station Freedom program. On the Space Station, crew members will be interacting with multi-monitor workstations where interaction with several displays at one time will be common. The HCIL has conducted several experiments to begin to address design issues for this complex system. Experiments have dealt with design of ON/OFF indicators, the movement of the cursor across multiple monitors, and the importance of various windowing capabilities for users performing multiple tasks simultaneously.

  17. Proton irradiation experiment for x-ray charge-coupled devices of the monitor of all-sky x-ray image mission onboard the international space station. 2. Degradation of dark current and identification of electron trap level

    CERN Document Server

    Miyata, E; Kamiyama, D

    2003-01-01

    We have investigated the radiation damage effects on a charge-coupled device (CCD) to be used for the Japanese X-ray mission, the monitor of all-sky X-ray image (MAXI), onboard the international space station (ISS). A temperature dependence of the dark current as a function of incremental dose is studied. We found that the protons having energy of >292 keV seriously increased the dark current of the devices. In order to improve the radiation tolerance of the devices, we have developed various device architectures to minimize the radiation damage in orbit. Among them, nitride oxide enables us to reduce the dark current significantly and therefore we adopted nitride oxide for the flight devices. We also compared the dark current of a device in operation and that out of operation during the proton irradiation. The dark current of the device in operation became twofold that out of operation, and we thus determined that devices would be turned off during the passage of the radiation belt. The temperature dependenc...

  18. Solar photovoltaic power stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowaniec, C. R.; Pittman, P. F.; Ferber, R. R.; Marshall, B. W.

    1977-01-01

    The subsystems of a solar photovoltaic central power system are identified and the cost of major components are estimated. The central power system, which would have a peak power capability in the range of 50 to 1000 MW, utilizes two types of subsystems - a power conditioner and a solar array. Despite differences in costs of inverters, the overall cost of the total power conditioning subsystem is about the same for all approaches considered. A combination of two inverters operating from balanced dc buses as a pair of 6-pulse groups is recommended. A number of different solar cell modules and tracking array structures were analyzed. It is concluded that when solar cell costs are high (greater than $500/kW), high concentration modules are more cost effective than those with low concentration. Vertical-axis tracking is the most effective of the studied tracking modes. For less expensive solar cells (less than $400/kW), fixed tilt collector/reflector modules are more cost effective than those which track.

  19. The Biotechnology Facility for International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Thomas; Lundquist, Charles; Hurlbert, Katy; Tuxhorn, Jennifer

    2004-01-01

    The primary mission of the Cellular Biotechnology Program is to advance microgravity as a tool in basic and applied cell biology. The microgravity environment can be used to study fundamental principles of cell biology and to achieve specific applications such as tissue engineering. The Biotechnology Facility (BTF) will provide a state-of-the-art facility to perform cellular biotechnology research onboard the International Space Station (ISS). The BTF will support continuous operation, which will allow performance of long-duration experiments and will significantly increase the on-orbit science throughput. With the BTF, dedicated ground support, and a community of investigators, the goals of the Cellular Biotechnology Program at Johnson Space Center are to: Support approximately 400 typical investigator experiments during the nominal design life of BTF (10 years). Support a steady increase in investigations per year, starting with stationary bioreactor experiments and adding rotating bioreactor experiments at a later date. Support at least 80% of all new cellular biotechnology investigations selected through the NASA Research Announcement (NRA) process. Modular components - to allow sequential and continuous experiment operations without cross-contamination Increased cold storage capability (+4 C, -80 C, -180 C). Storage of frozen cell culture inoculum - to allow sequential investigations. Storage of post-experiment samples - for return of high quality samples. Increased number of cell cultures per investigation, with replicates - to provide sufficient number of samples for data analysis and publication of results in peer-reviewed scientific journals.

  20. Space Station Freedom pressurized element interior design process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopson, George D.; Aaron, John; Grant, Richard L.

    1990-01-01

    The process used to develop the on-orbit working and living environment of the Space Station Freedom has some very unique constraints and conditions to satisfy. The goal is to provide maximum efficiency and utilization of the available space, in on-orbit, zero G conditions that establishes a comfortable, productive, and safe working environment for the crew. The Space Station Freedom on-orbit living and working space can be divided into support for three major functions: (1) operations, maintenance, and management of the station; (2) conduct of experiments, both directly in the laboratories and remotely for experiments outside the pressurized environment; and (3) crew related functions for food preparation, housekeeping, storage, personal hygiene, health maintenance, zero G environment conditioning, and individual privacy, and rest. The process used to implement these functions, the major requirements driving the design, unique considerations and constraints that influence the design, and summaries of the analysis performed to establish the current configurations are described. Sketches and pictures showing the layout and internal arrangement of the Nodes, U.S. Laboratory and Habitation modules identify the current design relationships of the common and unique station housekeeping subsystems. The crew facilities, work stations, food preparation and eating areas (galley and wardroom), and exercise/health maintenance configurations, waste management and personal hygiene area configuration are shown. U.S. Laboratory experiment facilities and maintenance work areas planned to support the wide variety and mixtures of life science and materials processing payloads are described.

  1. 47 CFR 95.119 - Station identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... station identification is the call sign assigned to the GMRS station or system. (c) A unit number may be... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station identification. 95.119 Section 95.119... SERVICES General Mobile Radio Service (GMRS) § 95.119 Station identification. (a) Except as provided in...

  2. 47 CFR 73.1201 - Station identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station identification. 73.1201 Section 73.1201... Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1201 Station identification. (a) When regularly required. Broadcast station identification announcements shall be made: (1) At the beginning and ending of each time...

  3. 47 CFR 25.206 - Station identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station identification. 25.206 Section 25.206... Technical Standards § 25.206 Station identification. The requirement for transmission of station identification is waived for all radio stations licensed under this part with the exception of satellite uplinks...

  4. 47 CFR 95.1305 - Station identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station identification. 95.1305 Section 95.1305... SERVICES Multi-Use Radio Service (MURS) General Provisions § 95.1305 Station identification. A MURS station is not required to transmit a station identification announcement. ...

  5. 47 CFR 97.119 - Station identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station identification. 97.119 Section 97.119... SERVICE Station Operation Standards § 97.119 Station identification. (a) Each amateur station, except a... keyed by an automatic device used only for identification, the speed must not exceed 20 words per minute...

  6. 47 CFR 95.1127 - Station identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station identification. 95.1127 Section 95.1127... SERVICES Wireless Medical Telemetry Service (WMTS) General Provisions § 95.1127 Station identification. A WMTS station is not required to transmit a station identification announcement. ...

  7. 47 CFR 95.1205 - Station identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station identification. 95.1205 Section 95.1205... SERVICES Medical Device Radiocommunication Service (MedRadio) § 95.1205 Station identification. A station is not required to transmit a station identification announcement. ...

  8. 47 CFR 95.1005 - Station identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station identification. 95.1005 Section 95.1005... SERVICES Low Power Radio Service (LPRS) General Provisions § 95.1005 Station identification. An LPRS station is not required to transmit a station identification announcement. ...

  9. Autonomous Electrical Vehicles’ Charging Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Józef Paska

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a model of an autonomous electrical vehicles’ charging station. It consists of renewable energy sources: wind turbine system, photovoltaic cells, as well as an energy storage, load, and EV charging station. In order to optimise the operating conditions, power electronic converters were added to the system. The model was implemented in the Homer Energy programme. The first part of the paper presents the design assumptions and technological solutions. Further in the paper simulation results are discussed and analysed, and then problems observed in the simulation and possible solutions.

  10. Business earth stations for telecommunications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Walter L.; Rouffet, Denis

    The current status of technology for small commercial satellite-communication earth stations is reviewed on the basis of an application study undertaken in the U.S. and Europe. Chapters are devoted to an overview of satellite communication networks, microterminal design and hardware implementation, microterminal applications, the advantages of microterminals, typical users, services provided, the U.S. market for small earth stations, network operators, and the economics of satellite and terrestrial communication services. Consideration is given to the operation of a microterminal network, standards and regulations, technological factors, space-segment requirements, and insurance aspects. Diagrams, graphs, tables of numerical data, and a glossary of terms are provided.

  11. DGPS ground station integrity monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skidmore, Trent A.; Vangraas, Frank

    1995-01-01

    This paper summarizes the development of a unique Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) ground station integrity monitor which can offer improved availability over conventional code-differential monitoring systems. This monitoring technique, called code/carrier integrity monitoring (CCIM), uses the highly stable integrated Doppler measurement to smooth the relatively noisy code-phase measurements. The pseudorange correction is therefore comprised of the integrated Doppler measurement plus the CCIM offset. The design and operational results of a DGPS ground station integrity monitor are reported. A robust integrity monitor is realized which is optimized for applications such as the Special Category I (SCAT-I) defined in the RTCA Minimum Aviation System Performance Standards.

  12. A Study of Cosmic Ray Secondaries Induced by the Mir Space Station Using AMS-01

    CERN Document Server

    Aguilar, M.; Allaby, J.; Alpat, B.; Ambrosi, G.; Anderhub, H.; Ao, L.; Arefiev, A.; Azzarello, P.; Babucci, E.; Baldini, L.; Basile, M.; Barancourt, D.; Barao, F.; Barbier, G.; Barreira, G.; Battiston, R.; Becker, R.; Becker, U.; Bellagamba, L.; Bene, P.; Berdugo, J.; Berges, P.; Bertucci, B.; Biland, A.; Bizzaglia, S.; Blasko, S.; Boella, G.; Boschini, M.; Bourquin, M.; Brocco, L.; Bruni, G.; Buenerd, M.; Burger, J.D.; Burger, W.J.; Cai, X.D.; Camps, C.; Cannarsa, P.; Capell, M.; Carosi, G.; Casadei, D.; Casaus, J.; Castellini, G.; Cecchi, C.; Chang, Y.H.; Chen, H.F.; Chen, H.S.; Chen, Z.G.; Chernoplekov, N.A.; Chiueh, T.H.; Cho, K.; Choi, M.J.; Choi, Y.Y.; Chuang, Y.L.; Cindolo, F.; Commichau, V.; Contin, A.; Cortina-Gil, E.; Cristinziani, M.; da Cunha, J.P.; Dai, T.S.; Delgado, C.; Demirkoz, Bilge; Deus, J.D.; Dinu, N.; Djambazov, L.; D'Antone, I.; Dong, Z.R.; Emonet, P.; Engelberg, J.; Eppling, F.J.; Eronen, T.; Esposito, G.; Extermann, P.; Favier, J.; Fiandrini, E.; Fisher, P.H.; Fluegge, G.; Fouque, N.; Galaktionov, Iouri; Gervasi, M.; Giusti, P.; Grandi, D.; Grimm, O.; Gu, W.Q.; Hangarter, K.; Hasan, A.; Henning, R.; Hermel, V.; Hofer, H.; Huang, M.A.; Hungerford, W.; Ionica, M.; Ionica, R.; Jongmanns, M.; Karlamaa, K.; Karpinski, W.; Kenney, G.; Kenny, J.; Kim, D.H.; Kim, G.N.; Kim, K.S.; Kim, M.Y.; Klimentov, A.; Kossakowski, R.; Koutsenko, V.; Kraeber, M.; Laborie, G.; Laitinen, T.; Lamanna, G.; Lanciotti, E.; Laurenti, G.; Lebedev, A.; Lechanoine-Leluc, C.; Lee, M.W.; Lee, S.C.; Levi, G.; Levtchenko, P.; Liu, C.L.; Liu, H.T.; Lopes, I.; Lu, G.; Lu, Y.S.; Lubelsmeyer, K.; Luckey, David; Lustermann, W.; Mana, C.; Margotti, A.; Mayet, F.; McNeil, R.R.; Meillon, B.; Menichelli, M.; Mihul, A.; Monreal, B.; Mourao, A.; Mujunen, A.; Palmonari, F.; Papi, A.; Park, H.B.; Park, W.H.; Pauluzzi, M.; Pauss, F.; Perrin, E.; Pesci, A.; Pevsner, A.; Pimenta, M.; Plyaskin, V.; Pojidaev, V.; Pohl, M.; Postolache, V.; Produit, N.; Rancoita, P.G.; Rapin, D.; Raupach, F.; Ren, D.; Ren, Z.; Ribordy, M.; Richeux, J.P.; Riihonen, E.; Ritakari, J.; Ro, S.; Roeser, U.; Rossin, C.; Sagdeev, R.; Santos, D.; Sartorelli, G.; Sbarra, C.; Schael, S.; Schultz von Dratzig, A.; Schwering, G.; Scolieri, G.; Seo, E.S.; Shin, J.W.; Shoumilov, E.; Shoutko, V.; Siedling, R.; Son, D.; Song, T.; Steuer, M.; Sun, G.S.; Suter, H.; Tang, X.W.; Ting, Samuel C.C.; Ting, S.M.; Tornikoski, M.; Torsti, J.; Trumper, J.; Ulbricht, J.; Urpo, S.; Valtonen, E.; Vandenhirtz, J.; Velcea, F.; Velikhov, E.; Verlaat, B.; Vetlitsky, I.; Vezzu, F.; Vialle, J.P.; Viertel, G.; Vite, Davide F.; Von Gunten, H.; Waldemeier Wicki, S.; Wallraff, W.; Wang, B.C.; Wang, J.Z.; Wang, Y.H.; Wiik, K.; Williams, C.; Wu, S.X.; Xia, P.C.; Yan, J.L.; Yan, L.G.; Yang, C.G.; Yang, J.; Yang, M.; Ye, S.W.; Yeh, P.; Xu, Z.Z.; Zhang, H.Y.; Zhang, Z.P.; Zhao, D.X.; Zhu, G.Y.; Zhu, W.Z.; Zhuang, H.L.; Zichichi, A.; Zimmermann, B.; Zuccon, P.

    2004-01-01

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS-02) is a high energy particle physics experiment that will study cosmic rays in the $\\sim 100 \\mathrm{MeV}$ to $1 \\mathrm{TeV}$ range and will be installed on the International Space Station (ISS) for at least 3 years. A first version of AMS-02, AMS-01, flew aboard the space shuttle \\emph{Discovery} from June 2 to June 12, 1998, and collected $10^8$ cosmic ray triggers. Part of the \\emph{Mir} space station was within the AMS-01 field of view during the four day \\emph{Mir} docking phase of this flight. We have reconstructed an image of this part of the \\emph{Mir} space station using secondary $\\pi^-$ and $\\mu^-$ emissions from primary cosmic rays interacting with \\emph{Mir}. This is the first time this reconstruction was performed in AMS-01, and it is important for understanding potential backgrounds during the 3 year AMS-02 mission.

  13. Accelerating Rf Station For Hirfl-csr, Lanzhou, China

    CERN Document Server

    Arbuzov, V S; Dranichnikov, A N; Gorniker, E I; Kondakov, A A; Kondaurov, M; Kruchkov, Ya G; Krutikhin, S A; Kurkin, G Ya; Mironenko, L A; Motygin, S V; Osipov, V N; Petrov, V M; Pilan, Andrey M; Popov, A M; Sedlyarov, I K; Selivanov, A N; Shteinke, A R; Vajenin, N F

    2004-01-01

    In accordance with the plan of cooperation with the Institute of Modern Physics (IMP), Lanzhou, China, the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics (BINP), Novosibirsk, Russia has produced and supplied an accelerating RF station for the multipurpose Cooling Storage Ring system (CSR), which is being constructed at IMP. The RF station had been tested at IMP site and now is installed into the Main Ring of the facilities. The RF station operates in the frequency range of 0.25~1.7 MHz. Maximum accelerating voltage is 8 kV. The resonance frequency of the RF cavity is tuned in the whole frequency range by biasing of ferrites, which are used in the cavity. Ferrites of 600NN type were produced by a firm manufacture "Magneton", St. Petersburg. The pressure in the cavity vacuum chamber is lower, than 3·10-11

  14. Modeling and simulation of critical parameters of the first chamber of the dimuon arm spectrometer of the Alice experiment; Modelisation et simulation de parametres critiques de la premiere station du spectrometre dimuons d'ALICE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guez, D

    2003-10-01

    The Alice experiment that is dedicated to the study of ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions, will take place in the future large hadron collider (LHC) at CERN. The dimuon arm spectrometer of the Alice experiment is devoted to the search of a new signature of the existence of the quark gluon plasma (QGP). The first chapter is dedicated to the physics notions linked to the study of QGP, a few signatures are proposed for the detection of QGP, particularly the signature concerning the production rate of quarkonium. The second chapter deals with particle detection involved in Alice experiment, the dimuon arm spectrometer is a detector dedicated to the track reconstruction of muons issued from the decay of heavy mesons from J/{psi} and {upsilon} families. The third and the fourth chapters present the studies made to integrate a reliable model of the dimuon arm in the global simulation code of Alice (Aliroot). The fifth chapter presents the software TB{sup 2} that has been developed within the framework of this thesis in order to check and control the output data when the detector is tested with a real particle beam. The sixth chapter presents the results of the tests that have been performed with a 7 GeV/c pion beam. These tests have shown that the electronic noise is coherent with the specifications of Alice experiment. A factor 1,8 between the highest and the weakest values of the gain has been measured in the chamber. The detection efficiency of the chamber has been estimated to 99% in the different cases studied. (A.C.)

  15. Mountain range specific analog weather forecast model for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 117; Issue 5. Mountain range specific ... Mountain range specific analog weather forecast model is developed utilizing surface weather observations of reference stations in each mountain range in northwest Himalaya (NW-Himalaya).The model searches past ...

  16. The Medicina Station Status Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orfei, Alessandro; Orlati, Andrea; Maccaferri, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    General information about the Medicina Radio Astronomy Station, the 32-m antenna status, and the staff in charge of the VLBI observations is provided. In 2012, the data from geodetic VLBI observations were acquired using the Mark 5A recording system with good results. Updates of the hardware were performed and are briefly described.

  17. Space station molecular sieve development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, C.; Rousseau, J.

    1986-01-01

    An essential function of a space environmental control system is the removal of carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere to control the partial pressure of this gas at levels lower than 3 mm Hg. The use of regenerable solid adsorbents for this purpose was demonstrated effectively during the Skylab mission. Earlier sorbent systems used zeolite molecular sieves. The carbon molecular sieve is a hydrophobic adsorbent with excellent potential for space station application. Although carbon molecular sieves were synthesized and investigated, these sieves were designed to simulate the sieving properties of 5A zeolite and for O2/N2 separation. This program was designed to develop hydrophobic carbon molecular sieves for CO2 removal from a space station crew environment. It is a first phase effort involved in sorbent material development and in demonstrating the utility of such a material for CO2 removal on space stations. The sieve must incorporate the following requirements: it must be hydrophobic; it must have high dynamic capacity for carbon dioxide at the low partial pressure of the space station atmosphere; and it must be chemiclly stable and will not generate contaminants.

  18. Delay distributions in railway stations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goverde, R.M.P.; Hansen, I.A.; Hooghiemstra, G.; Lopuhaa, H.P.

    2001-01-01

    The estimation of the precise arrival and departure times of trains at stations is done by means of a software tool that extracts the occupation and clearance times of each train per track section of the Dutch Railways‘ network. The software tool was applied to the whole automatically collected set

  19. Performance of Existing Hydrogen Stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sprik, Samuel [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kurtz, Jennifer M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ainscough, Christopher D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Saur, Genevieve [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Peters, Michael C [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-12-01

    In this presentation, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory presented aggregated analysis results on the performance of existing hydrogen stations, including performance, operation, utilization, maintenance, safety, hydrogen quality, and cost. The U.S. Department of Energy funds technology validation work at NREL through its National Fuel Cell Technology Evaluation Center (NFCTEC).

  20. Remote input/output station

    CERN Multimedia

    1972-01-01

    A general view of the remote input/output station installed in building 112 (ISR) and used for submitting jobs to the CDC 6500 and 6600. The card reader on the left and the line printer on the right are operated by programmers on a self-service basis.

  1. Total Stations : the Surveyor's Workhorse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemmens, M.J.P.M.

    2016-01-01

    A total station is an angle measuring device, also known as a theodolite, integrated with an electronic distance measurement (EDM) unit. The integration provides the ability to measure horizontal and vertical angles as well as slope distances using the same device at the same time, which benefits

  2. Recent results from the ARIANNA neutrino experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelles Anna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The ARIANNA experiment is currently taking data in its pilot-phase on the Ross ice-shelf. Fully autonomous stations measure radio signals in the frequency range from 100 MHz to 1 GHz. The seven station hexagonal radio-array (HRA was completed in December 2014, and augmented by two special purpose stations with unique configurations. In its full extent ARIANNA is targeted at detecting interactions of cosmogenic neutrinos (> 1016eV in the ice-shelf. Downward-pointing antennas installed at the surface will record the radio emission created by neutrino-induced showers in the ice and exploit the fact that the ice-water surface acts as a mirror for radio emission. ARIANNA stations are independent, low-powered, easy to install and equipped with real-time communication via satellite modems. We report on the current status of the HRA, as well as air shower detections that have been made over the past year. Furthermore, we will discuss the search for neutrino emission, future plans of the experiment.

  3. Recent results from the ARIANNA neutrino experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelles, Anna

    2017-03-01

    The ARIANNA experiment is currently taking data in its pilot-phase on the Ross ice-shelf. Fully autonomous stations measure radio signals in the frequency range from 100 MHz to 1 GHz. The seven station hexagonal radio-array (HRA) was completed in December 2014, and augmented by two special purpose stations with unique configurations. In its full extent ARIANNA is targeted at detecting interactions of cosmogenic neutrinos (> 1016eV) in the ice-shelf. Downward-pointing antennas installed at the surface will record the radio emission created by neutrino-induced showers in the ice and exploit the fact that the ice-water surface acts as a mirror for radio emission. ARIANNA stations are independent, low-powered, easy to install and equipped with real-time communication via satellite modems. We report on the current status of the HRA, as well as air shower detections that have been made over the past year. Furthermore, we will discuss the search for neutrino emission, future plans of the experiment.

  4. 47 CFR 73.6018 - Digital Class A TV station protection of DTV stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Digital Class A TV station protection of DTV... TV station protection of DTV stations. Digital Class A TV stations must protect the DTV service that... application for digital operation of an existing Class A TV station or to change the facilities of a digital...

  5. NCERA-101 Station Report from Kennedy Space Center, FL, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Gioia D.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2014-01-01

    This is our annual report to the North Central Extension Research Activity, which is affiliated with the USDA and Land Grant University Agricultural Experiment Stations. I have been a member of this committee for 25 years. The presentation will be given by Dr. Gioia Massa, Kennedy Space Center

  6. Micrometeorological Characterization of the Mace Head Field Station during PARFORCE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kunz, G.J.; Leeuw, G. de

    2000-01-01

    Micrometeorological flux packages, consisting of 3D ultrasonic anemometers and an IR water vapour sensor, each sampling at a rate of 20 Hz, were used to characterise turbulent transport properties at the Mace Head Research Station during PARFORCE experiments in 1998 and 1999. Micrometeorological

  7. Space Station life science research facility - The vivarium/laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilchey, J. D.; Arno, R. D.

    1985-01-01

    Research opportunities possible with the Space Station are discussed. The objective of the research program will be study gravity relationships for animal and plant species. The equipment necessary for space experiments including vivarium facilities are described. The cost of the development of research facilities such as the vivarium/laboratory and a bioresearch centrifuge is examined.

  8. Analysis of One-Way Laser Ranging Data to LRO, Time Transfer and Clock Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, S.; Hussmann, H.; Oberst, J.; Dirkx, D.; Mao, D.; Neumann, G. A.; Mazarico, E.; Torrence, M. H.; McGarry, J. F.; Smith, D. E.; hide

    2016-01-01

    We processed and analyzed one-way laser ranging data from International Laser Ranging Service ground stations to NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), obtained from June 13, 2009 until September 30, 2014. We pair and analyze the one-way range observables from station laser fire and spacecraft laser arrival times by using nominal LRO orbit models based on the GRAIL gravity field. We apply corrections for instrument range walk, as well as for atmospheric and relativistic effects. In total we derived a tracking data volume of approximately 3000 hours featuring 64 million Full Rate and 1.5 million Normal Point observations. From a statistical analysis of the dataset we evaluate the experiment and the ground station performance. We observe a laser ranging measurement precision of 12.3 centimeters in case of the Full Rate data which surpasses the LOLA (Lunar Orbiting Laser Altimeter) timestamp precision of 15 centimeters. The averaging to Normal Point data further reduces the measurement precision to 5.6 centimeters. We characterized the LRO clock with fits throughout the mission time and estimated the rate to 6.9 times10 (sup -8), the aging to 1.6 times 10 (sup -12) per day and the change of aging to 2.3 times 10 (sup -14) per day squared over all mission phases. The fits also provide referencing of onboard time to the TDB (Barycentric Dynamical Time) time scale at a precision of 166 nanoseconds over two and 256 nanoseconds over all mission phases, representing ground to space time transfer. Furthermore we measure ground station clock differences from the fits as well as from simultaneous passes which we use for ground to ground time transfer from common view observations. We observed relative offsets ranging from 33 to 560 nanoseconds and relative rates ranging from 2 times 10 (sup -13) to 6 times 10 (sup -12) between the ground station clocks during selected mission phases. We study the results from the different methods and discuss their applicability for time

  9. Wide-range vortex shedding flowmeter for high-temperature helium gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, S.P.; Herndon, P.G.; Ennis, R.M. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The existing design of a commercially available vortex shedding flowmeter (VSFM) was modified and optimized to produce three 4-in. and one 6-in. high-performance VSFMs for measuring helium flow in a gas-cooled fast reactor (GCFR) test loop. The project was undertaken because of the significant economic and performance advantages to be realized by using a single flowmeter capable of covering the 166:1 flow range (at 350/sup 0/C and 45:1 pressure range) of the tests. A detailed calibration in air and helium at the Colorado Engineering Experiment Station showed an accuracy of +-1% of reading for a 100:1 helium flow range and +-1.75% of reading for a 288:1 flow range in both helium and air. At an extended gas temperature of 450/sup 0/C, water cooling was necessary for reliable flowmeter operation.

  10. The analysis of a conveyor-serviced production station

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nawijn, W.M.; de Jonge, R.

    1981-01-01

    This paper gives a queuing analysis of a conveyor-serviced production station using a state-dependent sequential range policy for unloading units from the conveyor into a reserve. The stationary distribution of the number of units in the reserve and the expected delay per unit processed are derived

  11. Work/control stations in Space Station weightlessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willits, Charles

    1990-01-01

    An ergonomic integration of controls, displays, and associated interfaces with an operator, whose body geometry and dynamics may be altered by the state of weightlessness, is noted to rank in importance with the optimal positioning of controls relative to the layout and architecture of 'body-ported' work/control stations applicable to the NASA Space Station Freedom. A long-term solution to this complex design problem is envisioned to encompass the following features: multiple imaging, virtual optics, screen displays controlled by a keyboard ergonomically designed for weightlessness, cursor control, a CCTV camera, and a hand-controller featuring 'no-grip' vernier/tactile positioning. This controller frees all fingers for multiple-switch actuations, while retaining index/register determination with the hand controller. A single architectural point attachment/restraint may be used which requires no residual muscle tension in either brief or prolonged operation.

  12. Personality and information gathering in free-ranging great tits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Overveld, Thijs; Matthysen, Erik

    2013-01-01

    One aspect of animal personality that has been well described in captivity, but received only little attention in studies in the wild, is that personality types may vary in their behavioural flexibility towards environmental changes. A fundamental factor underlying such differences is believed to be the degree to which individual behavior is guided by environmental stimuli. We tested this hypothesis in the wild using free-ranging great tits. Personality variation was quantified using exploratory behaviour in a novel environment, which has previously been shown to be repeatable and correlated with other behaviours in this and other populations of the same species. By temporarily removing food at feeding stations we examined whether birds with different personality differed in returning to visit empty feeders as this may provide information on how birds continue to sample their environment after a sudden change in conditions. In two summer experiments, we found that fast-exploring juveniles visited empty feeders less often compared to slow-exploring juveniles. In winter, sampling behaviour was sex dependent but not related to personality. In both seasons, we found that birds who sampled empty feeders more often were more likely to rediscover food after we again re-baited the feeding stations, but there was no effect of personality. Our results show that personality types may indeed differ in ways of collecting environmental information, which is consistent with the view of personalities as different styles of coping with environmental changes. The adaptive value of these alternative behavioural tactics, however, needs to be further explored.

  13. Point cloud-based survey for cultural heritage – An experience of integrated use of range-based and image-based technology for the San Francesco convent in Monterubbiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Meschini

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at presenting some results of a point cloud-based survey carried out through integrated methodologies based on active and passive 3D acquisition techniques for processing 3D models. This experiment is part of a research project still in progress conducted by an interdisciplinary team from the School of Architecture and Design of Ascoli Piceno and funded by the University of Camerino. We describe an experimentation conducted on the convent of San Francesco located in Monterubbiano town center (Marche, Italy. The whole complex has undergone a number of substantial changes since the year of its foundation in 1247. The survey was based on an approach blending range-based 3D data acquired by a TOF laser scanner and image-based 3D acquired using an UAV equipped with digital camera in order to survey some external parts difficult to reach with TLS. The integration of two acquisition methods aimed to define a workflow suitable to process dense 3D models from which to generate high poly and low poly 3D models useful to describe complex architectures for different purposes such as photorealistic representations, historical documentation, risk assessment analyses based on Finite Element Methods (FEM.

  14. Point cloud-based survey for cultural heritage - An experience of integrated use of range-based and image-based technology for the San Francesco convent in Monterubbiano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meschini, A.; Petrucci, E.; Rossi, D.; Sicuranza, F.

    2014-06-01

    The paper aims at presenting some results of a point cloud-based survey carried out through integrated methodologies based on active and passive 3D acquisition techniques for processing 3D models. This experiment is part of a research project still in progress conducted by an interdisciplinary team from the School of Architecture and Design of Ascoli Piceno and funded by the University of Camerino. We describe an experimentation conducted on the convent of San Francesco located in Monterubbiano town center (Marche, Italy). The whole complex has undergone a number of substantial changes since the year of its foundation in 1247. The survey was based on an approach blending range-based 3D data acquired by a TOF laser scanner and image-based 3D acquired using an UAV equipped with digital camera in order to survey some external parts difficult to reach with TLS. The integration of two acquisition methods aimed to define a workflow suitable to process dense 3D models from which to generate high poly and low poly 3D models useful to describe complex architectures for different purposes such as photorealistic representations, historical documentation, risk assessment analyses based on Finite Element Methods (FEM).

  15. Complex researches aboard the international space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokhyl, Yu. A.

    Special Research and Development Bureau SRDB is a general organizer on Ukrainian part of three Ukrainian- Russian joint experiments to be implemented aboard the Russian segment of International Space Station RS-ISS Experiment Material- Friction It is proposed to carry out a series of comparative tribological research under conditions of orbital flight aboard the ISS versus those in on- ground laboratory conditions To meet these objectives there will be employed a special onboard 6-module Space- borne tribometer- facility The on- ground research will be implemented under conditions of laboratory simulation of Space environmental factors Results thus obtained would enable one to forecast a behavior of friction pairs as well as functional safety and lifetime of the space- vehicle This experiment will also enable us determine an adequacy of tribological results obtained under conditions of outer Space and on- ground simulation Experiment Penta- Fatigue It is proposed to develop fabricate and deliver aboard the RS-ISS a facility intended for studies of SEF- influence on characteristics of metallic and polymeric materials resistance to fatigue destruction Such a project to be implemented in outer Space for the first ever time would enable us to estimate the parameter of cosmic lifetime for constructional materials due to such mechanical characteristic as fatigue strength so as to enable selection of specific sorts of constructional materials appropriate to service in Space technologies At the same time

  16. International Space Station Acoustics - A Status Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Christopher S.

    2015-01-01

    It is important to control acoustic noise aboard the International Space Station (ISS) to provide a satisfactory environment for voice communications, crew productivity, alarm audibility, and restful sleep, and to minimize the risk for temporary and permanent hearing loss. Acoustic monitoring is an important part of the noise control process on ISS, providing critical data for trend analysis, noise exposure analysis, validation of acoustic analyses and predictions, and to provide strong evidence for ensuring crew health and safety, thus allowing Flight Certification. To this purpose, sound level meter (SLM) measurements and acoustic noise dosimetry are routinely performed. And since the primary noise sources on ISS include the environmental control and life support system (fans and airflow) and active thermal control system (pumps and water flow), acoustic monitoring will reveal changes in hardware noise emissions that may indicate system degradation or performance issues. This paper provides the current acoustic levels in the ISS modules and sleep stations and is an update to the status presented in 2011. Since this last status report, many payloads (science experiment hardware) have been added and a significant number of quiet ventilation fans have replaced noisier fans in the Russian Segment. Also, noise mitigation efforts are planned to reduce the noise levels of the T2 treadmill and levels in Node 3, in general. As a result, the acoustic levels on the ISS continue to improve.

  17. The Altcriss project on board the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casolino, M.; Minori, M.; Picozza, P.; Fuglesang, C.; Galper, A.; Popov, A.; Benghin, V.; Petrov, V.M.; Nagamatsu, A.; Berger, T.; Reitz, G.; Durante, M.; Pugliese, M.; Roca, V.; Sihver, L.; Cucinotta, F.; Semones, E.; Shavers, M.; Guarnieri, V.; Lobascio, C.; Castagnolo, D.; Fortezza, R.

    The Altcriss project aims perform long term measurement of the radiation environment in different points of the International Space Station. To achieve this goal, it employs an active silicon detector, Sileye-3/Alteino, to monitor nuclei up to Iron in the energy range above 40 MeV/n. Both long term modulation of galactic cosmic rays going toward solar minimum and solar particles events will be observed. A number of different dosimeters are being employed to measure the dose and compare it with the silicon detector data. Another aim of the project is to monitor the effectiveness of shielding materials in orbit: a set of polyethylene tiles is placed in the detector acceptance window and particle flux and composition is compared with measurements in the same locations without shielding. Dosimeters are thus placed behind the shielding material and in an unshielded location to cross-correlate this information. The observation campaign begun in December 2005 and is running continuously ever since. Active and passive data have been retreived at the end of expedition 13, 14 and Astrolab mission. In this work we will describe the experiment and the preliminary results.

  18. CALET: High energy cosmic ray observatory on International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Masaki; CALET Collaboration

    2012-12-01

    The CALorimeteric Electron Telescope (CALET) is a Japanese-led international mission being developed as part of the utilization plan for the International Space Station (ISS). CALET will be launched by an H-II B rocket utilizing the Japanese developed HTV (H-II Transfer Vehicle) in 2014. The instrument will be robotically emplaced upon the Exposed Facility attached to the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM-EF). CALET is a calorimeter based instrument which will have superior energy resolution and excellent separation between hadrons and electrons and between charged particles and gamma rays in the GeV to trans-TeV energy range. CALET will address many questions in high energy astrophysics, including (1) the nature of the sources of high energy particles and photons, through the high energy electron spectrum, (2) signatures of dark matter, in either the high energy electron or gamma ray spectrum, (3) the details of particle propagation in the Galaxy, by a combination of energy spectrum measurements of electrons, protons and highercharged nuclei. In this paper the outline and current status of CALET are summarized.

  19. Space Station tethered elevator system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddock, Michael H.; Anderson, Loren A.; Hosterman, K.; Decresie, E.; Miranda, P.; Hamilton, R.

    1989-01-01

    The optimized conceptual engineering design of a space station tethered elevator is presented. The tethered elevator is an unmanned, mobile structure which operates on a ten-kilometer tether spanning the distance between Space Station Freedom and a platform. Its capabilities include providing access to residual gravity levels, remote servicing, and transportation to any point along a tether. The report discusses the potential uses, parameters, and evolution of the spacecraft design. Emphasis is placed on the elevator's structural configuration and three major subsystem designs. First, the design of elevator robotics used to aid in elevator operations and tethered experimentation is presented. Second, the design of drive mechanisms used to propel the vehicle is discussed. Third, the design of an onboard self-sufficient power generation and transmission system is addressed.

  20. The International Space Station Habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Patricia Mendoza; Engle, Mike

    2003-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is an engineering project unlike any other. The vehicle is inhabited and operational as it is constructed. The habitability resources available to the crew are the sleep quarters, the galley, the waste and hygiene compartment, and exercise equipment. These items are mainly in the Russian Service Module and their placement is awkward for the crew to use and work around. ISS assembly will continue with the truss build and the addition of the International Partner Laboratories. Prior to the addition of the International Partner Laboratories. Node 2 will be added. The Node 2 module will provide additional stowage volume and room for more crew sleep quarters. The purpose of the ISS is to perform research and a major area of emphasis is on the effects of long duration space flight on humans, as result of this research the habitability requirements for the International Space Station crews will be determined.

  1. A simple decay-spectroscopy station at CRIS-ISOLDE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynch, K.M., E-mail: kara.marie.lynch@cern.ch [KU Leuven, Instituut voor Kern, en Stralingsfysica, BE-3001 Leuven (Belgium); EP Department, CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Cocolios, T.E. [KU Leuven, Instituut voor Kern, en Stralingsfysica, BE-3001 Leuven (Belgium); School of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Althubiti, N. [School of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Farooq-Smith, G.J. [KU Leuven, Instituut voor Kern, en Stralingsfysica, BE-3001 Leuven (Belgium); School of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Gins, W. [KU Leuven, Instituut voor Kern, en Stralingsfysica, BE-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Smith, A.J. [School of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2017-02-01

    A new decay-spectroscopy station (DSS2.0) has been designed by the CRIS collaboration for use at the radioactive ion beam facility, ISOLDE. With the design optimised for both charged-particle and γ-ray detection, the DDS2.0 allows high-efficiency decay spectroscopy to be performed. The DSS2.0 complements the existing decay-spectroscopy system at the CRIS experiment, and together provide the ability to perform laser-assisted nuclear decay spectroscopy on both ground state and long-lived isomeric species. This paper describes the new decay-spectroscopy station and presents the characterisation studies that have recently been performed.

  2. Acoustic emissions applications on the NASA Space Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friesel, M.A.; Dawson, J.F.; Kurtz, R.J.; Barga, R.S.; Hutton, P.H.; Lemon, D.K.

    1991-08-01

    Acoustic emission is being investigated as a way to continuously monitor the space station Freedom for damage caused by space debris impact and seal failure. Experiments run to date focused on detecting and locating simulated and real impacts and leakage. These were performed both in the laboratory on a section of material similar to a space station shell panel and also on the full-scale common module prototype at Boeing's Huntsville facility. A neural network approach supplemented standard acoustic emission detection and analysis techniques. 4 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Potentialities of the internal target station at the Nuclotron

    CERN Document Server

    Malakhov, A I; Anisimov, Yu S; Artiomov, A S; Bazilev, S N; Khrenov, A N; Kliman, J; Krasnov, V A; Matousek, V; Morhac, M; Starikov, A Yu; Shabunov, A V; Slepnev, V M; Turzó, I

    2000-01-01

    The potentialities of the internal target station used in physics experiments at the Nuclotron, as well as its construction, hardware and software configurations are described. The remote control of the station is performed by means of a PC and is based on operative presentation of the magnetic field cycle, the beam parameters and the target position on screen. Consequently, the space-time trajectory of motion of a chosen target can be determined in an interactive way by an operator. During the accelerator operation the motion is carried out by means of a stepper motor.

  4. The third generation SLR station Potsdam no. 7836

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, H.; Grunwaldt, Ludwig; Neubert, Reinhart

    1993-01-01

    The new satellite laser ranging (SLR) station Potsdam has been installed during the winter of 1991/1992 in an existing dome near the old ruby laser at Helmert Tower. It has been built around a one-meter-Coude telescope and is equipped by a 50 ps Nd:YAG laser and a SPAD receiver. The first successful Lageos passes were obtained in May 1992 demonstrating 2-3 cm rms at the single photon level. The new station will be used for experimental work and selected campaigns as well.

  5. Package power stations for export

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    The cheap and efficient generation of power is an essential requirement for the success and prosperity of any community and is especially important to third world countries. It is therefore logical that the more technologically advanced nations should seek to produce power stations for the developing countries. Power plant can now be designed into a packaged form that may be readily exported and commissioned. This valuable and interesting collection of papers were originally presented at a seminar organised by the Power Industries Division of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Topics considered include the developing world market for packaged power stations using indigenous fuels; multi-fuel systems for power generation; packaging, modularisation, and containerisation of equipment for power boilers for export; compact coal-fired industrial plant; rural woodburning power stations; biomass gasification based power generation technology and potential; gas fed reciprocating engine development; packaged heavy duty gas turbines for power generation; and criteria for assessing the appropriateness of package power technologies in developing countries.

  6. Space station needs, attributes and architectural options. Volume 3, attachment 1, task 1: Mission requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    The development and systems architectural requirements of the space station program are described. The system design is determined by user requirements. Investigated topics include physical and life science experiments, commercial utilization, U.S. national security, and remote space operations. The economic impact of the space station program is analyzed.

  7. Range management visual impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce R. Brown; David Kissel

    1979-01-01

    Historical overgrazing of western public rangelands has resulted in the passage of the Public Rangeland Improvement Act of 1978. The main purpose of this Act is to improve unsatisfactory range conditions. A contributing factor to unfavorable range conditions is adverse visual impacts. These visual impacts can be identified in three categories of range management: range...

  8. Locating replenishment stations for electric vehicles: Application to Danish traffic data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wen, Min; Laporte, Gilbert; Madsen, Oli B.G.

    2012-01-01

    Environment-friendly electric vehicles have gained substantial attention in governments, industry and universities. The deployment of a network of recharging stations is essential given their limited travel range. This paper considers the problem of locating electronic replenishment stations for ...... formulations are proposed to model the problem. These models are tested on real-life traffic data collected in Denmark. Computational results are presented....

  9. Do cities deserve more railway stations? The choice of a departure railway station in a multiple-station region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Givoni, M.; Rietveld, P.

    2014-01-01

    Promoting the use of rail is an important element in sustainable transport policy. One of the most important decisions to make in planning the railway network is on the number of stations to provide. Stations are the access points to rail services and while each additional station increases rail's

  10. MISS- Mice on International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcetti, G. C.; Schiller, P.

    2005-08-01

    The use of rodents for scientific research to bridge the gap between cellular biology and human physiology is a new challenge within the history of successful developments of biological facilities. The ESA funded MISS Phase A/B study is aimed at developing a design concept for an animal holding facility able to support experimentation with mice on board the International Space Station (ISS).The MISS facility is composed of two main parts:1. The MISS Rack to perform scientific experiments onboard the ISS.2. The MISS Animals Transport Container (ATC) totransport animals from ground to orbit and vice- versa.The MISS facility design takes into account guidelines and recommendations used for mice well-being in ground laboratories. A summary of the MISS Rack and MISS ATC design concept is hereafter provided.

  11. Open System of Agile Ground Stations Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — There is an opportunity to build the HETE-2/TESS network of ground stations into an innovative and powerful Open System of Agile Stations, by developing a low-cost...

  12. HSIP Fire Stations in New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Fire Stations in New Mexico Any location where fire fighters are stationed or based out of, or where equipment that such personnel use in carrying out their jobs is...

  13. Ionosphere monitoring with polish LOFAR station PL610

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothkaehl, Hanna; Pożoga, Mariusz; Matyjasiak, Barbara; Przepiórka, Dorota; Wronowski, Roman; Atamaniuk, Barbara; Grzesiak, Marcin

    2017-04-01

    LOFAR the Low-Frequency Array is very powerful tool not only for the radio astronomy but also for space weather monitoring. Single station consists of two groups of antennas LBA (Low Band Antenna) and HBA (High Band Antenna) working in different frequency ranges from 10-90 MHz and 110-250 MHz. LOFAR has a multi-arm log-spiral geometry that provides a well filled U,V plane and individual sharp beams that can be digitally steered independently. All this features are very useful for ionospheric studies and allow for local and global analysis of ionospheric plasma characteristic over whole teloscope and single station. Here we present new approach of using LOFAR radio observations from polish station PL610 in Borówiec as a complementary tool for ionospheric diagnostic and space weather monitoring.

  14. Tests of Gravity Using Lunar Laser Ranging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen M. Merkowitz

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Lunar laser ranging (LLR has been a workhorse for testing general relativity over the past four decades. The three retroreflector arrays put on the Moon by the Apollo astronauts and the French built arrays on the Soviet Lunokhod rovers continue to be useful targets, and have provided the most stringent tests of the Strong Equivalence Principle and the time variation of Newton’s gravitational constant. The relatively new ranging system at the Apache Point 3.5 meter telescope now routinely makes millimeter level range measurements. Incredibly, it has taken 40 years for ground station technology to advance to the point where characteristics of the lunar retroreflectors are limiting the precision of the range measurements. In this article, we review the gravitational science and technology of lunar laser ranging and discuss prospects for the future.

  15. 78 FR 67309 - Earth Stations Aboard Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-12

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 25 Earth Stations Aboard Aircraft AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION... collection associated with the Commission's Earth Station Aboard Aircraft, Report and Order (Order), which adopted licensing and service rules for Earth Stations Aboard Aircraft (ESAA) communicating with Fixed...

  16. 47 CFR 97.207 - Space station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... space station licensee has assessed and limited the amount of debris released in a planned manner during... space station becoming a source of debris by collisions with large debris or other operational space... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Space station. 97.207 Section 97.207...

  17. 30 CFR 57.12085 - Transformer stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transformer stations. 57.12085 Section 57.12085 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Underground Only § 57.12085 Transformer stations. Transformer stations shall be enclosed to prevent persons...

  18. 47 CFR 95.835 - Station identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICES 218-219 MHz Service System Requirements § 95.835 Station identification. No RTU or CTS is required to transmit a station identification announcement. ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station identification. 95.835 Section 95.835...

  19. 47 CFR 90.735 - Station identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ....735 Station identification. (a) Except for nationwide systems authorized in the 220-222 MHz band, station identification is required pursuant to § 90.425 of this part. (b) Trunked systems shall employ an... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station identification. 90.735 Section 90.735...

  20. 47 CFR 90.647 - Station identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station identification. 90.647 Section 90.647..., 851-869 Mhz, 896-901 Mhz, and 935-940 Mhz Bands § 90.647 Station identification. (a) Conventional... at 30 minute intervals. Such station identification shall be made on the lowest frequency in the base...

  1. 47 CFR 87.107 - Station identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station identification. 87.107 Section 87.107... Operating Requirements and Procedures Operating Procedures § 87.107 Station identification. (a) Aircraft... an airport to another location in that airport may be identified by a station identification...

  2. 47 CFR 101.213 - Station identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station identification. 101.213 Section 101.213 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Operational Requirements § 101.213 Station identification. Stations in these services are exempt...

  3. 47 CFR 22.313 - Station identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station identification. 22.313 Section 22.313... Operational and Technical Requirements Operational Requirements § 22.313 Station identification. The licensee... identified in accordance with the requirements of this section. (a) Station identification is not required...

  4. Space teleoperations technology for Space Station evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Gerald J.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on space teleoperations technology for space station evolution are presented. Topics covered include: shuttle remote manipulator system; mobile servicing center functions; mobile servicing center technology; flight telerobotic servicer-telerobot; flight telerobotic servicer technology; technologies required for space station assembly; teleoperation applications; and technology needs for space station evolution.

  5. Study of Environmental Impact by Coal-Fired Power Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshizumi, Koji; Ogaki, Mituharu; Motonaka, Junko; Yabutani, Tomoki

    The Tachibana-wan coal-fired power station was constructed on land that was reclaimed using the soil that came from cutting through half of a small island while balancing the amount of soil. The power station has been generating for three years. When the electric utility provider projected the power station, it must have conducted an environmental impact assessment, and studied the environmental preservation measures. Moreover, after the power generation began, an environmental investigation was done as a follow up survey to study the environmental impact by the power station based on its construction and use. To study the environmental impact with smoke, the environmental density of sulfur dioxide around the power station was investigated. It fell below the environmental standards at all the environmental measurement points during this investigation. Moreover, a big difference was not seen before and after the beginning of the power generation and the change in these data was in the normal range. As a result of the environmental impact assessment, the contribution density of the power station was near the quantitative limit and a low value. To study the environmental impact with warm wastewater, the water temperature in the bay was investigated. A big difference was not generally seen before and after the beginning of the power generation though the water temperature slowly rose at the discharge point of the warm wastewater but the change of these data was in the normal range. As for the environmental impact, a clear judgment was difficult only from the environmental investigation. It is necessary to set a new environmental indicator to judge the environmental impact. Moreover, as for a new environmental assessment system, it is necessary to introduce a strategic environmental assessment.

  6. Large space reflector technology on the Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankins, J. C.; Dickinson, R. M.; Freeland, R. E.; Marzwell, N. I.

    1986-01-01

    This paper discusses the role of the Space Station in the evolutionary development of large space reflector technology and the accommodation of mission systems which will apply large space reflectors during the late 1990s and the early part of the next century. Reflectors which range from 10 to 100 meters in size and which span the electromagnetic spectrum for applications that include earth communications, earth observations, astrophysics and solar physics, and deep space communications are discussed. The role of the Space Station in large space reflector technology development and system performance demonstration is found to be critical; that role involves the accommodation of a wide variety of technology demonstrations and operational activities on the Station, including reflector deployment and/or assembly, mechanical performance verification and configuration refinement, systematic diagnostics of reflector surfaces, structural dynamics and controls research, overall system performance characterization and modification (including both radio frequency field pattern measurements and required end-to-end system demonstrations), and reflector-to-spacecraft integration and staging. A unique facility for Space Station-based, large space reflector research and development is proposed. A preliminary concept for such a Space Station-based Large Space Reflector Facility (LSRF) is described.

  7. Planned LLR station in Russia and its impact on the lunar ephemeris accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilyev, M.; Yagudina, E.; Torre, J.-M.; Feraudy, D.

    2015-08-01

    Precise modern Lunar Ephemerides (DE/LE, USA; INPOP series, France and EPM-ERA IAA, Russia) are based only on LLR (Lunar Laser Ranging) observations obtained at sixth LLR ground stations during 1969-2013 years. At present there are only four stations active: Grasse (Cerga), McDonald, Apache Point (Apollo) and Matera (Italy). To improve the accuracy of lunar ephemerides the new stations are necessary. Now exist two projects of new LLR stations: Altay (Russia) and Hartebeesthoek in South Africa (1m telescope). La Silla (Chilli) station is very promising but now only under theoretical consideration. In the paper, the impact of a installation of new LLR device on the 3.12 m telescope at Altay station Siberia, Russia is considered. To check the actuality of the project it should be shown, in particular, that the accuracy of the lunar ephemeris will visibly increase. The only way to prove that fact now is the numerical simulation.

  8. Minnesota Pheasant Range

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This dataset delineates the spatial range of wild pheasant populations in Minnesota as of 2002 by dividing the MN state boundary into 2 units: pheasant range and...

  9. Substring Range Reporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li

    2014-01-01

    We revisit various string indexing problems with range reporting features, namely, position-restricted substring searching, indexing substrings with gaps, and indexing substrings with intervals. We obtain the following main results. We give efficient reductions for each of the above problems...... to a new problem, which we call substring range reporting. Hence, we unify the previous work by showing that we may restrict our attention to a single problem rather than studying each of the above problems individually. We show how to solve substring range reporting with optimal query time and little...... for substring range reporting generalize to substring range counting and substring range emptiness variants. We also obtain non-trivial time-space trade-offs for these problems. Our bounds for substring range reporting are based on a novel combination of suffix trees and range reporting data structures...

  10. Space Station Freedom - Configuration management approach to supporting concurrent engineering and total quality management. [for NASA Space Station Freedom Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavert, Raymond B.

    1990-01-01

    Some experiences of NASA configuration management in providing concurrent engineering support to the Space Station Freedom program for the achievement of life cycle benefits and total quality are discussed. Three change decision experiences involving tracing requirements and automated information systems of the electrical power system are described. The potential benefits of concurrent engineering and total quality management include improved operational effectiveness, reduced logistics and support requirements, prevention of schedule slippages, and life cycle cost savings. It is shown how configuration management can influence the benefits attained through disciplined approaches and innovations that compel consideration of all the technical elements of engineering and quality factors that apply to the program development, transition to operations and in operations. Configuration management experiences involving the Space Station program's tiered management structure, the work package contractors, international partners, and the participating NASA centers are discussed.

  11. Space Station Electrical Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labus, Thomas L.; Cochran, Thomas H.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the design of the Space Station Electrical Power System. This includes the Photovoltaic and Solar Dynamic Power Modules as well as the Power Management and Distribution System (PMAD). In addition, two programmatic options for developing the Electrical Power System will be presented. One approach is defined as the Enhanced Configuration and represents the results of the Phase B studies conducted by the NASA Lewis Research Center over the last two years. Another option, the Phased Program, represents a more measured approach to reaching about the same capability as the Enhanced Configuration.

  12. GPM GROUND VALIDATION NOAA SURFACE METEOROLOGICAL STATION MC3E V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Surface Meteorological station collected at the NOAA Southern Great Plains Facility for the Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E) and...

  13. Arduino adventures escape from Gemini station

    CERN Document Server

    Kelly, James Floyd

    2013-01-01

    Arduino Adventures: Escape from Gemini Station provides a fun introduction to the Arduino microcontroller by putting you (the reader) into the action of a science fiction adventure story.  You'll find yourself following along as Cade and Elle explore Gemini Station-an orbiting museum dedicated to preserving and sharing technology throughout the centuries. Trouble ensues. The station is evacuated, including Cade and Elle's class that was visiting the station on a field trip. Cade and Elle don't make it aboard their shuttle and are trapped on the station along with a friendly artificial intellig

  14. Research of railroad stations in terms of the efficient delivery of additional services to increase profitability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Світлана Вікторівна Кисіль

    2016-11-01

    • International orientation. Use of advantages, taking into account these features, can significantly extend the range of additional services that eventually able to increase the profitability of railroad stations.

  15. STS-98 Onboard Photograph-International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS), with its newly attached U.S. Laboratory, Destiny, was photographed by a crew member aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis during a fly-around inspection after Atlantis separated from the Space Station. The Laboratory is shown in the foreground of this photograph. The American-made Destiny module is the cornerstone for space-based research aboard the orbiting platform and the centerpiece of the International Space Station (ISS), where unprecedented science experiments will be performed in the near-zero gravity of space. Destiny will also serve as the command and control center for the ISS. The aluminum module is 8.5-meters (28-feet) long and 4.3-meters (14-feet) in diameter. The laboratory consists of three cylindrical sections and two endcones with hatches that will be mated to other station components. A 50.9-centimeter (20-inch-) diameter window is located on one side of the center module segment. This pressurized module is designed to accommodate pressurized payloads. It has a capacity of 24 rack locations. Payload racks will occupy 15 locations especially designed to support experiments. The Destiny module was built by the Boeing Company under the direction of the Marshall Space Flight Center.

  16. Process material management in the Space Station environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, J. L.; Humphries, W. R.

    1988-01-01

    The Space Station will provide a unique facility for conducting material-processing and life-science experiments under microgravity conditions. These conditions place special requirements on the U.S. Laboratory for storing and transporting chemicals and process fluids, reclaiming water from selected experiments, treating and storing experiment wastes, and providing vacuum utilities. To meet these needs and provide a safe laboratory environment, the Process Material Management System (PMMS) is being developed. Preliminary design requirements and concepts related to the PMMS are addressed, and the MSFC PMMS breadboard test facility and a preliminary plan for validating the overall system design are discussed.

  17. The Sky Polarization Observatory (SPOrt) experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carretti, E.

    We present the Sky Polarization Observatory (SPOrt), an experiment aimed at measuring the Cosmic Microwave Background Polarization (CMBP) on large angular scales, scales on which the information about the formation epoch of the first structrures (e.g. galaxies) reside. SPOrt is an ASI funded programme and has been selected by ESA to be flown onboard the International Space Station (ISS). It consists of four radiometers in the 22-90 GHz range and it will be the first space experiment expressly devoted to polarization measurements of CMB. In particular it has been designed to minimize systematic effects at a level negligible for CMBP, which is about 2 orders of magnitude lower the CMB anisotropy signal, main target of experiments like WMAP and PLANCK. The experiment will be presented in both its two relevant aspects: scientific goals and design description with particular emphasis to its cleanness with respect to instrumental contaminations.

  18. Space station operating system study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Albert E.; Harwell, Morris C.

    1988-01-01

    The current phase of the Space Station Operating System study is based on the analysis, evaluation, and comparison of the operating systems implemented on the computer systems and workstations in the software development laboratory. Primary emphasis has been placed on the DEC MicroVMS operating system as implemented on the MicroVax II computer, with comparative analysis of the SUN UNIX system on the SUN 3/260 workstation computer, and to a limited extent, the IBM PC/AT microcomputer running PC-DOS. Some benchmark development and testing was also done for the Motorola MC68010 (VM03 system) before the system was taken from the laboratory. These systems were studied with the objective of determining their capability to support Space Station software development requirements, specifically for multi-tasking and real-time applications. The methodology utilized consisted of development, execution, and analysis of benchmark programs and test software, and the experimentation and analysis of specific features of the system or compilers in the study.

  19. Permafrost Active Layer Seismic Interferometry Experiment (PALSIE).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbott, Robert [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Knox, Hunter Anne [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); James, Stephanie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lee, Rebekah [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Cole, Chris [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-01-01

    We present findings from a novel field experiment conducted at Poker Flat Research Range in Fairbanks, Alaska that was designed to monitor changes in active layer thickness in real time. Results are derived primarily from seismic data streaming from seven Nanometric Trillium Posthole seismometers directly buried in the upper section of the permafrost. The data were evaluated using two analysis methods: Horizontal to Vertical Spectral Ratio (HVSR) and ambient noise seismic interferometry. Results from the HVSR conclusively illustrated the method's effectiveness at determining the active layer's thickness with a single station. Investigations with the multi-station method (ambient noise seismic interferometry) are continuing at the University of Florida and have not yet conclusively determined active layer thickness changes. Further work continues with the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) to determine if the ground based measurements can constrain satellite imagery, which provide measurements on a much larger spatial scale.

  20. Free Space Laser Communication Experiments from Earth to the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter in Lunar Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoli; Skillman, David R.; Hoffman, Evan D.; Mao, Dandan; McGarry, Jan F.; Zellar, Ronald S.; Fong, Wai H; Krainak, Michael A.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Smith, David E.

    2013-01-01

    Laser communication and ranging experiments were successfully conducted from the satellite laser ranging (SLR) station at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) to the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) in lunar orbit. The experiments used 4096-ary pulse position modulation (PPM) for the laser pulses during one-way LRO Laser Ranging (LR) operations. Reed-Solomon forward error correction codes were used to correct the PPM symbol errors due to atmosphere turbulence and pointing jitter. The signal fading was measured and the results were compared to the model.

  1. Free space laser communication experiments from Earth to the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter in lunar orbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoli; Skillman, David R; Hoffman, Evan D; Mao, Dandan; McGarry, Jan F; McIntire, Leva; Zellar, Ronald S; Davidson, Frederic M; Fong, Wai H; Krainak, Michael A; Neumann, Gregory A; Zuber, Maria T; Smith, David E

    2013-01-28

    Laser communication and ranging experiments were successfully conducted from the satellite laser ranging (SLR) station at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) to the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) in lunar orbit. The experiments used 4096-ary pulse position modulation (PPM) for the laser pulses during one-way LRO Laser Ranging (LR) operations. Reed-Solomon forward error correction codes were used to correct the PPM symbol errors due to atmosphere turbulence and pointing jitter. The signal fading was measured and the results were compared to the model.

  2. Regional travel-time residual studies and station correction from 1-D velocity models for some stations around Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel U. Osagie

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the average P-wave travel-time residuals for some stations around Southern Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore at regional distances. Six years (January, 2010–December, 2015 record of events from central and northern Sumatra was obtained from the digital seismic archives of Integrated Research Institute for Seismology (IRIS. The criteria used for the data selection are designed to be above the magnitude of mb 4.5, depth less than 200 km and an epicentral distance shorter than 1000 km. Within this window a total number of 152 earthquakes were obtained. Furthermore, data were filtered based on the clarity of the seismic phases that are manually picked. A total of 1088 P-wave arrivals and 962 S-wave arrivals were hand-picked from 10 seismic stations around the Peninsula. Three stations IPM, KUM, and KOM from Peninsular Malaysia, four stations BTDF, NTU, BESC and KAPK from Singapore and three stations SURA, SRIT and SKLT located in the southern part of Thailand are used. Station NTU was chosen as the Ref. station because it recorded the large number of events. Travel-times were calculated using three 1-D models (Preliminary Ref. Earth Model PREM (Dziewonski and Anderson, 1981, IASP91, and Lienert et al., 1986 and an adopted two-point ray tracing algorithm. For the three models, we corroborate our calculated travel-times with the results from the use of TAUP travel-time calculation software. Relative to station NTU, our results show that the average P wave travel-time residual for PREM model ranges from −0.16 to 0.45 s for BESC and IPM respectively. For IASP91 model, the average residual ranges from −0.25 to 0.24 s for SRIT and SKLT respectively, and ranges from −0.22 to 0.30 s for KAPK and IPM respectively for Lienert et al. (1986 model. Generally, most stations have slightly positive residuals relative to station NTU. These corrections reflect the difference between actual and estimated model velocities

  3. Regional travel-time residual studies and station correction from 1-D velocity models for some stations around Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osagie, Abel U.; Nawawi, Mohd.; Khalil, Amin Esmail; Abdullah, Khiruddin

    2017-06-01

    We have investigated the average P-wave travel-time residuals for some stations around Southern Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore at regional distances. Six years (January, 2010-December, 2015) record of events from central and northern Sumatra was obtained from the digital seismic archives of Integrated Research Institute for Seismology (IRIS). The criteria used for the data selection are designed to be above the magnitude of mb 4.5, depth less than 200 km and an epicentral distance shorter than 1000 km. Within this window a total number of 152 earthquakes were obtained. Furthermore, data were filtered based on the clarity of the seismic phases that are manually picked. A total of 1088 P-wave arrivals and 962 S-wave arrivals were hand-picked from 10 seismic stations around the Peninsula. Three stations IPM, KUM, and KOM from Peninsular Malaysia, four stations BTDF, NTU, BESC and KAPK from Singapore and three stations SURA, SRIT and SKLT located in the southern part of Thailand are used. Station NTU was chosen as the Ref. station because it recorded the large number of events. Travel-times were calculated using three 1-D models (Preliminary Ref. Earth Model PREM (Dziewonski and Anderson, 1981, IASP91, and Lienert et al., 1986) and an adopted two-point ray tracing algorithm. For the three models, we corroborate our calculated travel-times with the results from the use of TAUP travel-time calculation software. Relative to station NTU, our results show that the average P wave travel-time residual for PREM model ranges from -0.16 to 0.45 s for BESC and IPM respectively. For IASP91 model, the average residual ranges from -0.25 to 0.24 s for SRIT and SKLT respectively, and ranges from -0.22 to 0.30 s for KAPK and IPM respectively for Lienert et al. (1986) model. Generally, most stations have slightly positive residuals relative to station NTU. These corrections reflect the difference between actual and estimated model velocities along ray paths to stations and

  4. Substring Range Reporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li

    2011-01-01

    We revisit various string indexing problems with range reporting features, namely, position-restricted substring searching, indexing substrings with gaps, and indexing substrings with intervals. We obtain the following main results. – We give efficient reductions for each of the above problems...... to a new problem, which we call substring range reporting. Hence, we unify the previous work by showing that we may restrict our attention to a single problem rather than studying each of the above problems individually. – We show how to solve substring range reporting with optimal query time and little...... range reporting are based on a novel combination of suffix trees and range reporting data structures. The reductions are simple and general and may apply to other combinations of string indexing with range reporting....

  5. Compact Antenna Range

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Facility consists of a folded compact antenna range including a computer controlled three axis position table, parabolic reflector and RF sources for the measurement...

  6. Dryden Aeronautical Test Range

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Recently redesignated to honor Dr. Hugh L. Dryden, NASA's Dryden Aeronautical Test Range (DATR) supports aerospace flight research and technology integration, space...

  7. STRUVE arc and EUPOS® stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasmane, Ieva; Kaminskis, Janis; Balodis, Janis; Haritonova, Diana

    2013-04-01

    The Struve Geodetic Arc was developed in Years 1816 to 1855, 200 years ago. Historic information on the points of the Struve Geodetic Arc are included in the UNESCO World Heritage list in 2005. Nevertheless, the sites of many points are still not identified nor included in the data bases nowadays. Originally STRUVE arc consisted of 258 main triangles with 265 triangulation points. Currently 34 of the original station points are identified and included in the in the UNESCO World Heritage list. identified original measurement points of the Meridian Arc are located in Sweden (7 points), Norway (15), Finland (83), Russia (1), Estonia (22), Latvia (16), Lithuania (18), Belorussia (28), Ukraine (59) and Moldova (27). In Year 2002 was initiated another large coverage project - European Position Determination System "EUPOS®". Currently there are about 400 continuously operating GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite Systems) stations covering EU countries Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Bulgaria, Romania and East European countries Ukraine and Moldavia. EUPOS® network is a ground based GNSS augmentation system widely used for geodesy, land surveying, geophysics and navigation. It gives the opportunity for fast and accurate position determination never available before. It is an honorable task to use the EUPOS® system for research of the Struve triangulation former sites. Projects with Struve arc can popularize geodesy, geo-information and its meaning in nowadays GIS and GNSS systems. Struve Arc and its points is unique cooperation cross-border object which deserve special attention because of their natural beauty and historical value for mankind. GNSS in geodesy discovers a powerful tool for the verification and validation of the height values of geodetic leveling benchmarks established historically almost 200 years ago. The differential GNSS and RTK methods appear very useful to identify vertical displacement of landscape by means of

  8. A History of the Waterways Experiment Station 1929-1979

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-06-01

    WES, though under the jurisdiction of the MRC, was vital to all Corps organizations. On 7 july 1949, MRC President Brig. Gen. P. A. Feringa ...Ferguson, Gen. Harley B. Feringa , Brig. Gen. P. A. Fields, Brig. Gen. Kenneth E .. Findley, Riley First National Bank and Trust Co. First WES

  9. Registration of the Atmospheric Gamma Radiation on Board the Russian Segment of the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreevsky, S. E.; Kuznetsov, V. D.; Sinelnikov, V. M.

    2017-03-01

    The paper describes the complex of scientific instruments and the algorithm of the "Molniya-Gamma" experiment on measuring gamma-ray fluxes in the energy range of 32-750 keV carried out in 2011 on board the Russian Segment (RS) of the International Space Station (ISS). About 500 thousand energy spectra with a time resolution of 1 min were obtained in 512 energy channels during 232 days. One-second variations in the number of gamma quanta in four energy channels and the triggered fluxes of gamma quanta lasting less than 100 ms were recorded simultaneously. The data obtained allow us to study temporal and spatial variation of gamma-ray radiation to detect terrestrial gamma flashes (TGFs). Data on very large number of gamma-ray spikes were acquired through a trigger data mode with a low threshold.

  10. The US Space Station programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, J. D.

    1985-01-01

    The Manned Space Station (MSS) involves NASA, and other countries, in the operation, maintenance and expansion of a permanent space facility. The extensive use of automation and robotics will advance those fields, and experimentation will be carried out in scientific and potentially commercial projects. The MSS will provide a base for astronomical observations, spacecraft assembly, refurbishment and repair, transportation intersection, staging for interplanetary exploration, and storage. Finally, MSS operations will be performed semi-autonomously from ground control. Phase B analysis is nearing completion, and precedes hardware development. Studies are being performed on generic advanced technologies which can reliably and flexibly be incorporated into the MSS, such as attitude control and stabilization, power, thermal, environmental and life support control, auxiliary propulsion, data management, etc. Guidelines are also being formulated regarding the areas of participation by other nations.

  11. Experimental stations at I13 beamline at Diamond Light Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pešić, Z. D.; De Fanis, A.; Wagner, U.; Rau, C.

    2013-03-01

    The I13 beamline of Diamond Light Source has been operational since December 2011. The beamline encompass two fully independent branches devoted to coherent imaging experiments (coherent x-ray diffraction, coherent diffraction imaging and ptychography) and x-ray imaging (in-line phase contrast imaging, tomography and full-field microscopy). This paper gives an overview of the current status of experimental stations on both branches and outlines planned developments.

  12. On Range of Skill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Dueholm; Miltersen, Peter Bro; Sørensen, Troels Bjerre

    2008-01-01

    size (and doubly exponential in its depth). We also provide techniques that yield concrete bounds for unbalanced game trees and apply these to estimate the Range of Skill of Tic-Tac-Toe and Heads-Up Limit Texas Hold'em Poker. In particular, we show that the Range of Skill of Tic-Tac-Toe is more than...

  13. Range Scheduling Aid (RSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, J. R.; Pulvermacher, M. K.

    1991-01-01

    Range Scheduling Aid (RSA) is presented in the form of the viewgraphs. The following subject areas are covered: satellite control network; current and new approaches to range scheduling; MITRE tasking; RSA features; RSA display; constraint based analytic capability; RSA architecture; and RSA benefits.

  14. Home range and travels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, L.F.; King, John A.

    1968-01-01

    The concept of home range was expressed by Seton (1909) in the term 'home region,' which Burr (1940, 1943) clarified with a definition of home range and exemplified in a definitive study of Peromyscus in the field. Burt pointed out the ever-changing characteristics of home-range area and the consequent absence of boundaries in the usual sense--a finding verified by investigators thereafter. In the studies summarized in this paper, sizes of home ranges of Peromyscus varied within two magnitudes, approximately from 0.1 acre to ten acres, in 34 studies conducted in a variety of habitats from the seaside dunes of Florida to the Alaskan forests. Variation in sizes of home ranges was correlated with both environmental and physiological factors; with habitat it was conspicuous, both in the same and different regions. Food supply also was related to size of home range, both seasonally and in relation to habitat. Home ranges generally were smallest in winter and largest in spring, at the onset of the breeding season. Activity and size also were affected by changes in weather. Activity was least when temperatures were low and nights were bright. Effects of rainfall were variable. Sizes varied according to sex and age; young mice remained in the parents' range until they approached maturity, when they began to travel more widely. Adult males commonly had larger home ranges than females, although there were a number of exceptions. An inverse relationship between population density and size of home range was shown in several studies and probably is the usual relationship. A basic need for activity and exploration also appeared to influence size of home range. Behavior within the home range was discussed in terms of travel patterns, travels in relation to home sites and refuges, territory, and stability of size of home range. Travels within the home range consisted of repeated use of well-worn trails to sites of food, shelter, and refuge, plus more random exploratory travels

  15. UK 2009-2010 repeat station report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J.G. Shanahan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The British Geological Survey is responsible for conducting the UK geomagnetic repeat station programme. Measurements made at the UK repeat station sites are used in conjunction with the three UK magnetic observatories: Hartland, Eskdalemuir and Lerwick, to produce a regional model of the local field each year. The UK network of repeat stations comprises 41 stations which are occupied at approximately 3-4 year intervals. Practices for conducting repeat station measurements continue to evolve as advances are made in survey instrumentation and as the usage of the data continues to change. Here, a summary of the 2009 and 2010 UK repeat station surveys is presented, highlighting the measurement process and techniques, density of network, reduction process and recent results.

  16. A simple 5-DOF walking robot for space station application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, H. Benjamin, Jr.; Friedman, Mark B.; Kanade, Takeo

    1991-01-01

    Robots on the NASA space station have a potential range of applications from assisting astronauts during EVA (extravehicular activity), to replacing astronauts in the performance of simple, dangerous, and tedious tasks; and to performing routine tasks such as inspections of structures and utilities. To provide a vehicle for demonstrating the pertinent technologies, a simple robot is being developed for locomotion and basic manipulation on the proposed space station. In addition to the robot, an experimental testbed was developed, including a 1/3 scale (1.67 meter modules) truss and a gravity compensation system to simulate a zero-gravity environment. The robot comprises two flexible links connected by a rotary joint, with a 2 degree of freedom wrist joints and grippers at each end. The grippers screw into threaded holes in the nodes of the space station truss, and enable it to walk by alternately shifting the base of support from one foot (gripper) to the other. Present efforts are focused on mechanical design, application of sensors, and development of control algorithms for lightweight, flexible structures. Long-range research will emphasize development of human interfaces to permit a range of control modes from teleoperated to semiautonomous, and coordination of robot/astronaut and multiple-robot teams.

  17. Sediment Quality Characterization Naval Station San Diego

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    silversides (Menidia beryllina), the bioluminescent dinoflagellate (Gonyaulax polyhedra), the bioluminescent bacteria (Photo- I bacterium phosphoreum ), and...also observed in the diatom at Stations NSB-2, NSB-4, and NSB-5. None of the station sediments produced an IC50 in the bacteria Photobacterium ... phosphoreum (Microtox), 42 while IC 0,,, were observed in the dinoflagellate Gonyaulax polyhedra (QwikSed) at all six stations. Figures 15 through 17 are

  18. Space Station end effector strategy study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzberg, Stephen J.; Jensen, Robert L.; Willshire, Kelli F.; Satterthwaite, Robert E.

    1987-01-01

    The results of a study are presented for terminology definition, identification of functional requirements, technolgy assessment, and proposed end effector development strategies for the Space Station Program. The study is composed of a survey of available or under-developed end effector technology, identification of requirements from baselined Space Station documents, a comparative assessment of the match between technology and requirements, and recommended strategies for end effector development for the Space Station Program.

  19. METALLOGRAPHIC SAMPLE PREPARATION STATION-CONSTRUCTIVE CONCEPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AVRAM Florin Timotei

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose to present the issues involved in the case of the constructive conception of a station for metallographic sample preparation. This station is destined for laboratory work. The metallographic station is composed of a robot ABB IRB1600, a metallographic microscope, a gripping device, a manipulator, a laboratory grinding and polishing machine. The robot will be used for manipulation of the sample preparation and the manipulator take the sample preparation for processing.

  20. Wetlab-2 - Quantitative PCR Tools for Spaceflight Studies of Gene Expression Aboard the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonfeld, Julie E.

    2015-01-01

    Wetlab-2 is a research platform for conducting real-time quantitative gene expression analysis aboard the International Space Station. The system enables spaceflight genomic studies involving a wide variety of biospecimen types in the unique microgravity environment of space. Currently, gene expression analyses of space flown biospecimens must be conducted post flight after living cultures or frozen or chemically fixed samples are returned to Earth from the space station. Post-flight analysis is limited for several reasons. First, changes in gene expression can be transient, changing over a timescale of minutes. The delay between sampling on Earth can range from days to months, and RNA may degrade during this period of time, even in fixed or frozen samples. Second, living organisms that return to Earth may quickly re-adapt to terrestrial conditions. Third, forces exerted on samples during reentry and return to Earth may affect results. Lastly, follow up experiments designed in response to post-flight results must wait for a new flight opportunity to be tested.